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Sample records for laser-based projection lithography

  1. Ion projection lithography for IC manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrmann, Albrecht; Kaesmaier, Rainer; Loeschner, Hans

    1999-04-01

    Since 1997, a MEDEA project funded by European governments has started which aims to proof the feasibility of ion projection lithography for IC production. An ion 4x reduction stepper is built within the project. The system consists of a multicusp ion source producing He ions, electrostatic lens electrodes, the mask unit, an in-situ beam adjustment unit, an off-axis wafer alignment system and a wafer stage. Before the tool is built, results about ion source capabilities and stochastic space charge have to be obtained. In parallel, a stencil mask technology fulfilling the requirements for the use in the ion projection tool is development.

  2. Deep-UV microsphere projection lithography.

    PubMed

    Bonakdar, Alireza; Rezaei, Mohsen; Brown, Robert L; Fathipour, Vala; Dexheimer, Eric; Jang, Sung Jun; Mohseni, Hooman

    2015-06-01

    In this Letter, we present a single-exposure deep-UV projection lithography at 254-nm wavelength that produces nanopatterns in a scalable area with a feature size of 80 nm. In this method, a macroscopic lens projects a pixelated optical mask on a monolayer of hexagonally arranged microspheres that reside on the Fourier plane and image the mask's pattern into a photoresist film. Our macroscopic lens shrinks the size of the mask by providing an imaging magnification of ∼1.86×10(4), while enhancing the exposure power. On the other hand, microsphere lens produces a sub-diffraction limit focal point-a so-called photonic nanojet-based on the near-surface focusing effect, which ensures an excellent patterning accuracy against the presence of surface roughness. Ray-optics simulation is utilized to design the bulk optics part of the lithography system, while a wave-optics simulation is implemented to simulate the optical properties of the exposed regions beneath the microspheres. We characterize the lithography performance in terms of the proximity effect, lens aberration, and interference effect due to refractive index mismatch between photoresist and substrate.

  3. Plasma formed ion beam projection lithography system

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lee, Yung-Hee Yvette; Ngo, Vinh; Zahir, Nastaran

    2002-01-01

    A plasma-formed ion-beam projection lithography (IPL) system eliminates the acceleration stage between the ion source and stencil mask of a conventional IPL system. Instead a much thicker mask is used as a beam forming or extraction electrode, positioned next to the plasma in the ion source. Thus the entire beam forming electrode or mask is illuminated uniformly with the source plasma. The extracted beam passes through an acceleration and reduction stage onto the resist coated wafer. Low energy ions, about 30 eV, pass through the mask, minimizing heating, scattering, and sputtering.

  4. Considerations for a free-electron laser-based extreme-ultraviolet lithography program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosler, Erik R.; Wood, Obert R.; Barletta, William A.; Mangat, Pawitter J. S.; Preil, Moshe E.

    2015-03-01

    Recent years have seen great strides in the development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) laser-produced plasma sources. Field deployed EUV exposure tools are now capable of facilitating advanced technology node development. Nevertheless, as the required manufacturing exposure dose scales, EUV sources must follow suit and provide 500- 1000 W to maintain production throughputs. A free-electron laser (FEL) offers a cost effective, single-source alternative for powering an entire EUV lithography program. FEL integration into semiconductor fab architecture will require both unique facility considerations as well as a paradigm shift in lithography operations. Critical accelerator configurations relating to energy recovery, multi-turn acceleration, and operational mode are discussed from engineering/scientific, cost-minimization, and safety perspectives. Furthermore, the individual components of a FEL (electron injector, RF systems, undulator, etc.) are examined with respect to both design and cost, considering existing technology as well as prospective innovations. Finally, FEL development and deployment roadmaps are presented, focusing on manufacturer deployment for the 5 nm or 3 nm technology nodes.[1-3

  5. High numerical aperture projection system for extreme ultraviolet projection lithography

    DOEpatents

    Hudyma, Russell M.

    2000-01-01

    An optical system is described that is compatible with extreme ultraviolet radiation and comprises five reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The five optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as concave, convex, concave, convex, and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for ring field, step and scan lithography methods. The invention uses aspheric mirrors to minimize static distortion and balance the static distortion across the ring field width which effectively minimizes dynamic distortion. The present invention allows for higher device density because the optical system has improved resolution that results from the high numerical aperture, which is at least 0.14.

  6. Ion projection lithography: progress in mask and tool technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrmann, Albrecht; Kaesmaier, Rainer; Struck, Thomas

    2000-02-01

    Ion Projection Lithography is one of the major competitors for sub 100 nm-lithography. Within the MEDEA ion projection lithography project and other activities related to it, new results in mask and tool technology have been obtained. The exposure tool is in process of being assembled, so that information of the components as the multi-cusp ion source can be given. Results from the field-composable lens electrode manufacturing and of the off-axis alignment system are to be presented. Mask process technology has been improved by introduction of a multi-step trench etch technique. A stencil mask based on a 200 mm wafer has been produced. In addition, the repeatability values of placement and CD measurements have been decreased. Defect inspection with optical KLA tool results give information on the current limits for stencil mask applications.

  7. Atomic Image Projection Electron Beam Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki-Bum

    2006-03-01

    While we are approaching to the nanotechnology era, as was proposed by Richard Feynman in 1959, our main concern still lies in how one can controllably manufacture and utilize nanometer scale features. The top-down approaches, most notably, lithography based techniques still have the problem of throughput although it has been successfully demonstrate to make features with the size less than 10 nm. The bottom-up approaches, either utilizing chemical vapor deposition process to make carbon nanotube or wet-chemical process to make size controllable quantum dots and rods, still have the limitation of extending it to many different types of materials and also delivering them on a wafer size substrate to make nanodevices. In this talk, we will propose a novel electron beam lithography technique to make nanometer scale features. The novelty of this process lies in the fact that one can utilize the crystalline lattice image commonly observed by the high resolution transmission electron microscopy as an ultimate mask to generate nanometer scale patterns. Using this technique, we demonstrate that down to 45 nm pitch size can be resolved on hydrogen silsesquioxine (HSQ) e-beam resist material. The patterns are formed on Si substarte with the dot size of about 30 nm and the line size of about 25 nm. This technique can be extend to define less than 10 nm size features only if the suitable resist is developed.

  8. Multilayer infrared metamaterial fabrication using membrane projection lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Burckel, D.; Wendt, Joel R.; Samora, Sally; Sinclair, Michael B.; Brener, Igal; Ginn, James C.

    2011-11-01

    Membrane projection lithography is extended from a single layer fabrication technique to a multilayer process, adding polymeric backfill and planarization after each layer is completed. Unaligned contact lithography is used as a rapid prototyping tool to aid in process development, patterning resist membranes in seconds without requiring long e-beam write times. The fabricated multilayer structures show good resistance to solvent attack from subsequent process steps and demonstrate in-plane and out of plane multilayer metallic inclusions in a dielectric host, which is a critical step in the path to develop bulklike metamaterials at optical frequencies.

  9. Patterning of membrane masks for projection e-beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetter, Linus A.; Biddick, Christopher J.; Blakey, Myrtle I.; Liddle, James A.; Peabody, Milton L., Jr.; Novembre, Anthony E.; Tennant, Donald M.

    1996-12-01

    A process for high-resolution patterning of the membrane- type masks used in the SCALPEL (SCattering with Angular Limitation in Projection Electron-beam Lithography) lithography system is described. SCALPEL is a 4X projection electron beam lithography tool with the potential to extend commercial lithographic capability well into the deep sub-micron range: the recently-completed SCALPEL proof- of-concept (SPOC) system has printed 0.08 micrometers lines in thick resist on Si. The details of the patterning process we currently employ and metrology results from the first series of masks are presented here. The SPOC mask blank consists of a segmented W-coated SiN (Si-rich) membrane, fabricated on a 4' Si wafer. The blank is patterned with 45 different test chips using a vector-scanned e-beam lithography tool. Metrology is performed on completed masks, and results from measurements of line-edge roughness, CD linearity, and pattern uniformity are presented. We examine the need for proximity effect correction of the pattern data, and compare the effect of correction on pattern data file size for a variety of mask technologies.

  10. Fabrication of Nonperiodic Metasurfaces by Microlens Projection Lithography.

    PubMed

    Gonidec, Mathieu; Hamedi, Mahiar M; Nemiroski, Alex; Rubio, Luis M; Torres, Cesar; Whitesides, George M

    2016-07-13

    This paper describes a strategy that uses template-directed self-assembly of micrometer-scale microspheres to fabricate arrays of microlenses for projection photolithography of periodic, quasiperiodic, and aperiodic infrared metasurfaces. This method of "template-encoded microlens projection lithography" (TEMPL) enables rapid prototyping of planar, multiscale patterns of similarly shaped structures with critical dimensions down to ∼400 nm. Each of these structures is defined by local projection lithography with a single microsphere acting as a lens. This paper explores the use of TEMPL for the fabrication of a broad range of two-dimensional lattices with varying types of nonperiodic spatial distribution. The matching optical spectra of the fabricated and simulated metasurfaces confirm that TEMPL can produce structures that conform to expected optical behavior.

  11. REVIEW: Projection x-ray lithography implemented using point sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artyukov, I. A.; Balakireva, L. L.; Bijkerk, F.; Vinogradov, Aleksandr V.; Zorev, N. N.; Kozhevnikov, I. V.; Kondratenko, V. V.; Ogurtsov, O. F.; Ponomarenko, A. G.; Fedorenko, A. I.

    1992-02-01

    An analysis is made of the state of the art of x-ray lithography and x-ray optics. The principles of design and configurations of projection x-ray lithographic systems are considered. An analysis is made of the main trends of research on these topics proceeding in the laboratories in the Soviet Union, USA, Japan, and Great Britain. The problems encountered in the development of multilayer normal-incidence x-ray mirrors are described.

  12. A Feasibility Study of 50 nm Resolution with Low Energy Electron Beam Proximity Projection Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizawa, Masaki; Savas, T. A.

    2002-01-01

    Patterns of 50 nm lines and spaces were demonstrated by low energy electron beam proximity lithography using 47-nm-thick poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) and stencil masks fabricated by achromatic interference lithography (AIL). The result indicates the validity of the resolution analysis previously reported and the resolution capabilities of low energy electron beam proximity projection lithography (LEEPL) as a 50 nm node technology.

  13. Recent developments in nanofabrication using ion projection lithography.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ampere A

    2005-06-01

    Ion projection lithography (IPL) is an emerging technology and a major candidate for the next-generation lithography (NGL) designed to complement and supplement current optical lithographic techniques for future chip manufacturing. In this Review, the recent developments of IPL technology are examined with an emphasis on its ability to fabricate a wide variety of nanostructures for the semiconductor industry. Following an introduction of the uniqueness and strength of the technology, the basics of ion-source development and ion-target interactions with and without chemical enhancement are presented. The developments in equipment systems, masks, and resists are subsequently studied. The resolution of printed nanostructures and the corresponding throughput of the current system are assessed for NGL. Finally, concluding remarks are presented to summarize the strengths and weaknesses of the current technology and to suggest the scope for future improvement.

  14. Holographic illuminator for synchrotron-based projection lithography systems

    DOEpatents

    Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2005-08-09

    The effective coherence of a synchrotron beam line can be tailored to projection lithography requirements by employing a moving holographic diffuser and a stationary low-cost spherical mirror. The invention is particularly suited for use in an illuminator device for an optical image processing system requiring partially coherent illumination. The illuminator includes: (1) a synchrotron source of coherent or partially coherent radiation which has an intrinsic coherence that is higher than the desired coherence, (2) a holographic diffuser having a surface that receives incident radiation from said source, (3) means for translating the surface of the holographic diffuser in two dimensions along a plane that is parallel to the surface of the holographic diffuser wherein the rate of the motion is fast relative to integration time of said image processing system; and (4) a condenser optic that re-images the surface of the holographic diffuser to the entrance plane of said image processing system.

  15. Development of CMOS-compatible membrane projection lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burckel, D. Bruce; Samora, Sally; Wiwi, Mike; Wendt, Joel R.

    2013-09-01

    Recently we have demonstrated membrane projection lithography (MPL) as a fabrication approach capable of creating 3D structures with sub-micron metallic inclusions for use in metamaterial and plasmonic applications using polymer material systems. While polymers provide several advantages in processing, they are soft and subject to stress-induced buckling. Furthermore, in next generation active photonic structures, integration of photonic components with CMOS electronics is desirable. While the MPL process flow is conceptually simple, it requires matrix, membrane and backfill materials with orthogonal processing deposition/removal chemistries. By transitioning the MPL process flow into an entirely inorganic material set based around silicon and standard CMOS-compatible materials, several elements of silicon microelectronics can be integrated into photonic devices at the unit-cell scale. This paper will present detailed fabrication and characterization data of these materials, emphasizing the processing trade space as well as optical characterization of the resulting structures.

  16. W-CMOS blanking device for projection multibeam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurisch, Michael; Irmscher, Mathias; Letzkus, Florian; Eder-Kapl, Stefan; Klein, Christof; Loeschner, Hans; Piller, Walter; Platzgummer, Elmar

    2010-05-01

    As the designs of future mask nodes become more and more complex the corresponding pattern writing times will rise significantly when using single beam writing tools. Projection multi-beam lithography [1] is one promising technology to enhance the throughput compared to state of the art VSB pattern generators. One key component of the projection multi-beam tool is an Aperture Plate System (APS) to form and switch thousands of individual beamlets. In our present setup a highly parallel beam is divided into 43,008 individual beamlets by a Siaperture- plate. These micrometer sized beams pass through larger openings in a blanking-plate and are individually switched on and off by applying a voltage to blanking-electrodes which are placed around the blanking-plate openings. A charged particle 200x reduction optics demagnifies the beamlet array to the substrate. The switched off beams are filtered out in the projection optics so that only the beams which are unaffected by the blanking-plate are projected to the substrate with 200x reduction. The blanking-plate is basically a CMOS device for handling the writing data. In our work the blanking-electrodes are fabricated using CMOS compatible add on processes like SiO2-etching or metal deposition and structuring. A new approach is the implementation of buried tungsten electrodes for beam blanking.

  17. Maskless lithography and nanopatterning with electron and ion multibeam projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platzgummer, Elmar

    2010-03-01

    Multi-beam writing becomes mandatory in order to stay within reasonable realization times for the fabrication of leading-edge complex masks and templates. IMS Nanofabrication has developed multi-beam projection techniques implementing a programmable aperture plate system (APS) and charged-particle projection optics with 200x reduction. Proof-of-concept of multi-beam writing was demonstrated in 2009 with 10 keV ion multi-beams and 50 keV electron multi-beams using 43-thousand and 2.5-thousand, respectively, programmable 12.5nm sized beams. In Q4 2009 the development of a 50 keV electron multi-beam Mask Exposure Tool (eMET) was started with the aim to realize 256-thousand programmable 20 nm and 10 nm sized beams. The eMET column realization will provide important synergies for the development of projection mask-less lithography (PML2) for direct write on wafers. In order to enhance throughput a Multi-Axis-PML2 scheme is put forward with potential throughput of 5 WPH for the 16 nm hp technology node and below. Clustering such maskless tools a throughput of 50-100 WPH within a scanner floor space is envisioned. Ion multi-beam techniques may be applied for 2.5D / 3D template fabrication and resistless nanopatterning.

  18. Fast character projection electron beam lithography for diffractive optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harzendorf, Torsten; Fuchs, Frank; Banasch, Michael; Zeitner, Uwe D.

    2014-05-01

    Electron beam lithography becomes attractive also for the fabrication of large scale diffractive optical elements by the use of the character projection (CP) technique. Even in the comparable fast variable shaped beam (VSB) exposure approach for conventional electron beam writers optical nanostructures may require very long writing times exceeding 24 hours per wafer because of the high density of features, as required by e.g. sub-wavelength nanostructures. Using character projection, the writing time can be reduced by more than one order of magnitude, due to the simultaneous exposure of multiple features. The benefit of character projection increases with increasing complexity of the features and decreasing period. In this contribution we demonstrate the CP technique for a grating of hexagonal symmetry at 350nm period. The pattern is designed to provide antireflective (AR) properties, which can be adapted in their spectral and angular domain for applications from VIS to NIR by changing the feature size and the etching depth of the nanostructure. This AR nanostructure can be used on the backside of optical elements e.g. gratings, when an AR coating stack could not be applied for the reason of climatic conditions or wave front accuracy.

  19. Fabrication of planar photonic crystals in chalcogenide glass film by maskless projection lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peiqing; Zhang, Qian; Zeng, Jianghui; Han, Jintao; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Wei; Jiao, Qing; Wu, Yuehao; Dai, Shixun

    2016-09-01

    Ge20Sb15Se65 chalcogenide glass films were deposited and patterned using maskless projection lithography to create photonic crystal structures. This lithography technology, which is based on a digital micro-mirror device, is demonstrated as a powerful and low-cost tool to produce arbitrary intensity distributions to fabricate photonic devices. Direct photolithography in resist-free chalcogenide films was first studied, and results indicate that the quality of the products is insufficient. High-quality photonic crystals with sub-micrometer size were finally obtained in chalcogenide films with photoresist by maskless projection lithography and inductively coupled plasma technology.

  20. Four-mirror extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography projection system

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Simon J; Jeong, Hwan J; Shafer, David R

    2000-01-01

    The invention is directed to a four-mirror catoptric projection system for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography to transfer a pattern from a reflective reticle to a wafer substrate. In order along the light path followed by light from the reticle to the wafer substrate, the system includes a dominantly hyperbolic convex mirror, a dominantly elliptical concave mirror, spherical convex mirror, and spherical concave mirror. The reticle and wafer substrate are positioned along the system's optical axis on opposite sides of the mirrors. The hyperbolic and elliptical mirrors are positioned on the same side of the system's optical axis as the reticle, and are relatively large in diameter as they are positioned on the high magnification side of the system. The hyperbolic and elliptical mirrors are relatively far off the optical axis and hence they have significant aspherical components in their curvatures. The convex spherical mirror is positioned on the optical axis, and has a substantially or perfectly spherical shape. The spherical concave mirror is positioned substantially on the opposite side of the optical axis from the hyperbolic and elliptical mirrors. Because it is positioned off-axis to a degree, the spherical concave mirror has some asphericity to counter aberrations. The spherical concave mirror forms a relatively large, uniform field on the wafer substrate. The mirrors can be tilted or decentered slightly to achieve further increase in the field size.

  1. Compact multi-bounce projection system for extreme ultraviolet projection lithography

    DOEpatents

    Hudyma, Russell M.

    2002-01-01

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four optical elements providing five reflective surfaces for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The five optical surfaces are characterized in order from object to image as concave, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The second and fourth reflective surfaces are part of the same optical element. The optical system is particularly suited for ring field step and scan lithography methods. The invention uses aspheric mirrors to minimize static distortion and balance the static distortion across the ring field width, which effectively minimizes dynamic distortion.

  2. In-situ Mueller matrix polarimetry of projection lenses for 193-nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Hiroshi; Higashikawa, Iwao

    2010-04-01

    For immersion lithography with aggressive polarization illumination settings, it is important to newly construct two systems for diagnosing lithography tools; Stokes polarimetry of illumination and Mueller matrix polarimetry of projection lenses. At the SPIE conference on Optical Microlithography XXI in 2008, the authors had already reported on the former Stokes polarimetry. True polarization states of several illumination settings emerged. On the other hand, the latter Mueller matrix polarimetry is thought more complicated than the Stokes polarimetry. Therefore, the Mueller matrix polarimetry is reported separating into two papers. A theoretical approach to realizing the polarimetry has reported at the SPIE conference on Lithography Asia 2009. The test mask for the Mueller matrix polarimetry also comprises thin-plate polarizers and wide-view-angle quarter-waveplates, both which are developed by collaboration with Kogakugiken Corporation in Japan. Mueller matrices of the sample projecting optics are reconstructed by sixteen measurements of Stokes parameters of a light ray that reaches the wafer plane though the test mask and the projecting optics. The Stokes parameters are measured with a polarization measurement system already equipped on a side stage lying at the wafer plane. It took about seven hours to capture all the images at five image heights within the static exposure field. Stokes parameters are automatically calculated from the images and outputted from the lithography tools as a text file, and Mueller matrices are calculated by homebuilt software in a short time. All the images were captured under the identical illumination condition that the tool manufacturer calls "un-polarization".

  3. Multi-Repeated Projection Lithography for High-Precision Linear Scale Based on Average Homogenization Effect

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Dongxu; Zhao, Huiying; Zhang, Chupeng; Yuan, Daocheng; Xi, Jianpu; Zhu, Xueliang; Ban, Xinxing; Dong, Longchao; Gu, Yawen; Jiang, Chunye

    2016-01-01

    A multi-repeated photolithography method for manufacturing an incremental linear scale using projection lithography is presented. The method is based on the average homogenization effect that periodically superposes the light intensity of different locations of pitches in the mask to make a consistent energy distribution at a specific wavelength, from which the accuracy of a linear scale can be improved precisely using the average pitch with different step distances. The method’s theoretical error is within 0.01 µm for a periodic mask with a 2-µm sine-wave error. The intensity error models in the focal plane include the rectangular grating error on the mask, static positioning error, and lithography lens focal plane alignment error, which affect pitch uniformity less than in the common linear scale projection lithography splicing process. It was analyzed and confirmed that increasing the repeat exposure number of a single stripe could improve accuracy, as could adjusting the exposure spacing to achieve a set proportion of black and white stripes. According to the experimental results, the effectiveness of the multi-repeated photolithography method is confirmed to easily realize a pitch accuracy of 43 nm in any 10 locations of 1 m, and the whole length accuracy of the linear scale is less than 1 µm/m. PMID:27089348

  4. Multi-Repeated Projection Lithography for High-Precision Linear Scale Based on Average Homogenization Effect.

    PubMed

    Ren, Dongxu; Zhao, Huiying; Zhang, Chupeng; Yuan, Daocheng; Xi, Jianpu; Zhu, Xueliang; Ban, Xinxing; Dong, Longchao; Gu, Yawen; Jiang, Chunye

    2016-04-14

    A multi-repeated photolithography method for manufacturing an incremental linear scale using projection lithography is presented. The method is based on the average homogenization effect that periodically superposes the light intensity of different locations of pitches in the mask to make a consistent energy distribution at a specific wavelength, from which the accuracy of a linear scale can be improved precisely using the average pitch with different step distances. The method's theoretical error is within 0.01 µm for a periodic mask with a 2-µm sine-wave error. The intensity error models in the focal plane include the rectangular grating error on the mask, static positioning error, and lithography lens focal plane alignment error, which affect pitch uniformity less than in the common linear scale projection lithography splicing process. It was analyzed and confirmed that increasing the repeat exposure number of a single stripe could improve accuracy, as could adjusting the exposure spacing to achieve a set proportion of black and white stripes. According to the experimental results, the effectiveness of the multi-repeated photolithography method is confirmed to easily realize a pitch accuracy of 43 nm in any 10 locations of 1 m, and the whole length accuracy of the linear scale is less than 1 µm/m.

  5. New metrology stage for ion projection lithography made of glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risse, Stefan; Peschel, Thomas; Damm, Christoph; Kirschstein, Ulf Carsten

    1999-09-01

    In the next few years a new chip-generation with structure sizes well below 100 nm and high complexity will require novel, so-called 'future lithography' processes. One of these new technologies is the Ion Projection Lithography. Within the framework of a large European project lead by SIEMENS, the necessary technologies are developed and the first pilot system will be built. In this system, one of the most important units is a high precision wafer stage. The heart of the stage system is the so-called metrology - plate with integrated electrostatic wafer chuck and handling unit. The design of this novel stage system is described in this contribution. Extensive FEM-simulations from the basis of the present design. All major components are made from glass-ceramics to guarantee the highest possible thermal and mechanical stability. Not only in the field of lithography many modern precision mechanical systems require position tolerances in the sub-micrometer and seconds of arc range. Strong systems solutions can be developed by the effort of glass-ceramics and new and traditional manufacturing processes.

  6. REBL: design progress toward 16 nm half-pitch maskless projection electron beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCord, Mark A.; Petric, Paul; Ummethala, Upendra; Carroll, Allen; Kojima, Shinichi; Grella, Luca; Shriyan, Sameet; Rettner, Charles T.; Bevis, Chris F.

    2012-03-01

    REBL (Reflective Electron Beam Lithography) is a novel concept for high speed maskless projection electron beam lithography. Originally targeting 45 nm HP (half pitch) under a DARPA funded contract, we are now working on optimizing the optics and architecture for the commercial silicon integrated circuit fabrication market at the equivalent of 16 nm HP. The shift to smaller features requires innovation in most major subsystems of the tool, including optics, stage, and metrology. We also require better simulation and understanding of the exposure process. In order to meet blur requirements for 16 nm lithography, we are both shrinking the pixel size and reducing the beam current. Throughput will be maintained by increasing the number of columns as well as other design optimizations. In consequence, the maximum stage speed required to meet wafer throughput targets at 16 nm will be much less than originally planned for at 45 nm. As a result, we are changing the stage architecture from a rotary design to a linear design that can still meet the throughput requirements but with more conventional technology that entails less technical risk. The linear concept also allows for simplifications in the datapath, primarily from being able to reuse pattern data across dies and columns. Finally, we are now able to demonstrate working dynamic pattern generator (DPG) chips, CMOS chips with microfabricated lenslets on top to prevent crosstalk between pixels.

  7. Condenser optics, partial coherence, and imaging for soft-x-ray projection lithography.

    PubMed

    Sommargren, G E; Seppala, L G

    1993-12-01

    A condenser system couples the radiation source to an imaging system, controlling the uniformity and partial coherence at the object, which ultimately affects the characteristics of the aerial image. A soft-x-ray projection lithography system based on a ring-field imaging system and a laser-produced plasma x-ray source places considerable constraints on the design of a condenser system. Two designs are proposed, critical illumination and Köhler illumination, each of which requires three mirrors and scanning for covering the entire ring field with the required uniformity and partial coherence. Images based on Hopkins' formulation of partially coherent imaging are simulated.

  8. High-throughput realization of an infrared selective absorber/emitter by DUV microsphere projection lithography.

    PubMed

    Bonakdar, Alireza; Rezaei, Mohsen; Dexheimer, Eric; Mohseni, Hooman

    2016-01-22

    In this paper, we present a low-cost and high-throughput nanofabrication method to realize metasurfaces that have selective absorption/emission in the mid-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. We have developed DUV projection lithography to produce arbitrary patterns with sub-80 nm feature sizes. As examples of practical applications, we experimentally demonstrate structures with single and double spectral absorption/emission features, and in close agreement with numerical simulation. The fundamental mechanism of perfect absorption is discussed as well. Selective infrared absorbers/emitters are critical elements in realizing efficient thermophotovoltaic cells and high-performance biosensors.

  9. Cell projection use in maskless lithography for 45nm and 32nm logic nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manakli, S.; Komami, H.; Takizawa, M.; Mitsuhashi, T.; Pain, L.

    2009-03-01

    Due to the ever-increasing cost of equipment and mask complexity, the use of optical lithography for integrated circuit manufacturing is increasingly more complex and expensive. Recent workshops and conferences in semiconductor lithography underlined that one alternative to support sub-32nm technologies is mask-less lithography option using electron beam technology. However, this direct write approach based on variable shaped beam principle (VSB) is not sufficient in terms of throughput, i.e. of productivity. New direct write techniques like multibeam systems are under development, but these solutions will not be mature before 2012. The use of character/cell projection (CP) on industrial VSB tools is the first step to deal with the throughput concerns. This paper presents the status of the CP technology and evaluates its possible use for the 45nm and 32nm logic nodes. It will present standard cell and SRAM structures that are printed as single characters using the CP technique. All experiments are done using the Advantest tool (F3000) which can project up to 100 different cells per layer. Cell extractions and design have been performed with the design and software solution developed by D2S. In this paper, we first evaluate the performance gain that can be obtained with the CP approach compared to the standard VSB approach. This paper also details the patterning capability obtained by using the CP concept. An evaluation of the CD uniformity and process stability is also presented. Finally this paper discusses about the improvements of this technique to address high resolution and to improve the throughput concerns.

  10. A novel condenser for EUV lithography ring-field projection optics

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, H; Nugent, K A

    1999-07-15

    A condenser for a ring-field extreme ultra-violet (EUV) projection lithography camera is presented. The condenser consists of a gently undulating mirror, that we refer to as a ripple plate, and which is illuminated by a collimated beam at grazing incidence. The light is incident along the ripples rather than across them, so that the incident beam is reflected onto a cone and subsequently focused on to the arc of the ring field. A quasistationary illumination is achieved, since any one field point receives light from points on the ripples, which are distributed throughout the condenser pupil. The design concept can easily be applied to illuminate projection cameras with various ring-field and numerical aperture specifications. Ray-tracing results are presented of a condenser for a 0.25 NA EUV projection camera.

  11. Ion projection lithography: November 2000 status and sub-70-nm prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaesmaier, Rainer; Wolter, Andreas; Loeschner, Hans; Schunck, Stefan

    2000-10-01

    Among all next generation lithography (NGL) options Ion Projection Lithography (IPL) offers the smallest (particle) wavelength of 5x10- 5nm (l00keV Helium ions). Thus, 4x reduction ion-optics has diffraction limits <3nm even when using a numerical aperture as low as NAequals10-5. As part of the European MEDEA IPL project headed by Infineon Technologies wide field ion-optics have been designed by IMS- Vienna with predicted resolution of 50nm within a 12.5mm exposure field. The ion-optics part of the PDT tool (PDT-IOS) has been realized and assembled. In parallel to the PDT-IOS effort, at Leica Jena a test bench for a vertical vacuum 300mm-wafer stage has been realized. Operation of magnetic bearing supported stage movement has already been demonstrated. As ASML vacuum compatible optical wafer alignment system, with 3nm(3(sigma) ) precision demonstrated in air, has been integrated to this wafer test bench system recently. Parallel to the IPL tool development, Infineon Technologies Mask House and the Institute for Microelectronics Stuttgart are intensively working on the development of IPL stencil masks with success in producing 150mm and 200mm stencil masks as reported elsewhere. This paper is focused on information about the status of the PDT-IOS tool.

  12. LENS (lithography enhancement toward nano scale): a European project to support double exposure and double patterning technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantu, Pietro; Baldi, Livio; Piacentini, Paolo; Sytsma, Joost; Le Gratiet, Bertrand; Gaugiran, Stéphanie; Wong, Patrick; Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Atzei, Luisa R.; Buch, Xavier; Verkleij, Dick; Toublan, Olivier; Perez-Murano, Francesco; Mecerreyes, David

    2010-04-01

    In 2009 a new European initiative on Double Patterning and Double Exposure lithography process development was started in the framework of the ENIAC Joint Undertaking. The project, named LENS (Lithography Enhancement Towards Nano Scale), involves twelve companies from five different European Countries (Italy, Netherlands, France, Belgium Spain; includes: IC makers (Numonyx and STMicroelectronics), a group of equipment and materials companies (ASML, Lam Research srl, JSR, FEI), a mask maker (Dai Nippon Photomask Europe), an EDA company (Mentor Graphics) and four research and development institutes (CEA-Leti, IMEC, Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica, CIDETEC). The LENS project aims to develop and integrate the overall infrastructure required to reach patterning resolutions required by 32nm and 22nm technology nodes through the double patterning and pitch doubling technologies on existing conventional immersion exposure tools, with the purpose to allow the timely development of 32nm and 22nm technology nodes for memories and logic devices, providing a safe alternative to EUV, Higher Refraction Index Fluids Immersion Lithography and maskless lithography, which appear to be still far from maturity. The project will cover the whole lithography supply chain including design, masks, materials, exposure tools, process integration, metrology and its final objective is the demonstration of 22nm node patterning on available 1.35 NA immersion tools on high complexity mask set.

  13. Multilayer coatings of 10x projection for extreme-ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Folta, J A; Montcalm, C; Spiller, E; Wedowski, M

    1999-03-09

    Two new sets of projections optics for the prototype 10X reduction EUV lithography system were coated with Mo/Si multilayers. The coating thickness was graded across the optics by using shadow masks to ensure maximum throughput at all incidence angles in the camera. The overall deviation of the (normalized) wavelength response across the clear aperture of each mirror is below 0.01% RMS. However, the wavelength mismatch between two optics coated in different runs is up to 0.07 nm. Nevertheless, this is still within the allowed tolerances, and the predicted optical throughput loss in the camera due to such wavelength mismatch is about 4%. EUV reflectances of 63-65% were measured around 13.40 nm for the secondary optics, which is in good agreement with the expected reflectance based on the substrate finish as measured with AFM.

  14. Grouping design method of catadioptric projection objective for deep ultraviolet lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhen; Li, Yanqiu; Mao, Shanshan

    2017-02-01

    Choosing an adequate initial design for optimization plays an important role in obtaining high-quality deep ultraviolet (DUV) lithographic objectives. In this paper, the grouping design method is extended to acquire initial configurations of catadioptric projection objective for DUV lithography. In this method, an objective system is first divided into several lens groups. The initial configuration of each lens group is then determined by adjusting and optimizing existing lens design according to respective design requirements. Finally, the lens groups are connected into a feasible initial objective system. Grouping design allocates the complexity of designing a whole system to each of the lens groups, which significantly simplifies the design process. A two-mirror design form serves as an example for illustrating the grouping design principles to this type of system. In addition, it is demonstrated that different initial designs can be generated by changing the design form of each individual lens group.

  15. Demonstrators: a vital step forward for projection mask-less lithography (PML2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandstaetter, Christoph; Haugeneder, Ernst; Doering, Hans-Joachim; Elster, Thomas; Heinitz, Joachim; Fortagne, Olaf; Eder-Kapl, Stefan; Lammer, Gertraud; Jochl, Peter; Loeschner, Hans; Reimer, Klaus; Saniter, Juergen; Talmi, Maati; Eberhardt, Ramona; Kroenert, Klaus

    2005-06-01

    Electron beam based Projection Mask-Less Lithography (PML2) is one of the promising candidates for fast chip devel-opment and prototyping as well as for small and medium volume device production for the 45nm technology node and beyond. The concept of the PML2 proof-of-concept tool comprises a single electron optical column, a multi beam blank-ing device (programmable "Aperture Plate System") including high speed optical data path and a scanning 300mm wa-fer stage. More than 290.000 beams will be projected onto the wafer used for a highly redundant scanning stripe expo-sure process. The PML2 proof-of-concept tool will be built as part of the European MEDEA+ project T409 and the joint project "Ab-bildungsmethodiken fur nanoelektronische Bauelemente-ABBILD" in Germany. To show the feasibility of PML2 key modules in an early stage several demonstrators and test stands have been developed. In this paper demonstration setups and first results of the electron optics modeling, gun prototype, Aperture Plate System and the Optical Data Path are pre-sented.

  16. Proof-of-concept tool development for projection mask-less lithography (PML2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doering, Hans-Joachim; Elster, Thomas; Heinitz, Joachim; Fortagne, Olaf; Brandstaetter, Christoph; Haugeneder, Ernst; Eder-Kapl, Stefan; Lammer, Gertraud; Loeschner, Hans; Reimer, Klaus; Eichholz, Joerg; Saniter, Juergen

    2005-05-01

    Electron beam based Projection Mask-Less Lithography (PML2) is one of the promising candidates for small and medium volume device production for the 45nm technology node and beyond. The concept of the PML2 proof-of-concept tool, to be realized as part of the European MEDEA+ project T409, comprises a single electron optical column, a multi beam blanking device (programmable "Aperture Plate System") including high speed optical data path and a scanning 300mm wafer stage. More than 250.000 beams will be projected onto the wafer used for a highly redundant scanning stripe exposure process. A demonstrator chip of the Aperture Plate System is being manufactured with > 1000 apertures of 5μm x 5μm size using standard MST processes. Results as achieved with this demonstrator chip using a specifically designed e-beam test bench are shown. Furthermore, the realtime data transmission concept is discussed, showing that with the selected technology the required data rates for the PML2 proof-of-concept tool can be delivered, with extendibility beyond. Viability of the optical data pattern transfer to the Aperture Plate System is shown using a test setup of the parallel high-speed transmission lines.

  17. Optimized design for the scattering with angular limitation in projection electron-beam lithography based electron projection system

    SciTech Connect

    Xiu, K.; Gibson, J. M.

    2000-05-01

    We investigate the design for a scattering with angular limitation in projection electron-beam lithography (SCALPEL) based electron projection system with a demagnification of -4. By a ''field-flip'' process we can construct a doublet in which the magnetic field has a flat feature in most of the optic column but opposite sign at two sides connected by a sharp transition region. Such a theoretical model can give a near zero chromatic aberration of rotation and much smaller field curvature and astigmatism. Compared with the conventional doublet, the total image blur caused by aberrations at 1/(sq root)(2) mm off-axis distance and 1.5 mrad semiangle aperture at the mask side is about only 24 nm for a column length of 400 mm. A shorter column, less than the current 400 mm, is also favored for further reducing the total aberration. These guarantee that we can choose a much larger aperture angle (compared with present 0.5 mrad) and beam current density in such a SCALPEL projection system to achieve higher throughput while still maintaining current resolution. A practical issue for possible magnetic lens design is also discussed. (c) 2000 American Vacuum Society.

  18. Overview of the ion projection lithography European MEDEA and international program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaesmaier, Rainer; Loeschner, Hans

    2000-07-01

    Ion Projection Lithography (IPL) follows the same principle as optical wafer steppers when using hydrogen or helium ions for the reduction printing of stencil mask patterns to wafer substrates: (1) DUV resists can be used with ion beam exposure; (2) well established optical wafer alignment techniques are used; (3) the mask is stable during exposure. IPL is the only NGL technique where the mask is not scanned during exposure. Because of the very small particle wavelength (5 * 10-5 nm for 100 keV He+ ions there is the possibility of using electrostatic ion-optics with very small numerical aperture (NA approximately equals 10-5). The ion-optics is based on aluminum lens electrode and standard insulator materials. Mechanical tolerances on lens electrode manufacturing and adjustment are in the micrometer range because of in-situ electronic column fine adjustment possibilities. Wafer stage movements with micrometer precision is sufficient through feedback from precise laser interferometer stage position measurements to electronic image placement of the ion image projected to the wafer with on-line 'pattern lock' control. As part of the MEDEA project an IPL process development tool (PDT) is being integrated by IMS with the target to achieve 50 nm resolution within a 12.5 mm exposure field. The IPL production stepper will be based on a similar but more compact ion-optical column, exposing large (e.g. 25 mm) chip fields by stitching of 12.5 mm fields. A 300 mm wafer throughput of 30 WPH is feasible also for the 50 nm node. IPL has the potential of achieving the lowest NGL cost of ownership with the longest multi-generational life time. The practical resolution limit of the IPL technique is below 35 nm.

  19. Prediction of the lens lifetime by monitoring lens degradation on laser-based microlithography tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaeli, Albert; Rosner, Eylon; Root, Yehuda; Duenias, Hagay; Rubin, Shai

    2005-05-01

    The bulk stability of the lens material in Deep-UV lithography (Fused Silica and Calcium Fluoride), as well as the susceptibility of the lens anti-reflection coating to a thin layer of chemical contamination during laser irradiation over long period of time, are the keys for advanced lithography systems lifetime. Lens degradation impacts laser-based exposure systems" performance and therefore affects the product quality. There is a need for careful monitoring and prediction of lens lifetimes. This paper describes a method to calculate the degradation rate of optics and the lifetime prediction of these systems, along with some possible mechanisms for imaging degradation and factors that accelerate the degradation process. Currently, 'Pulse count' methods are used for such calculation; here we describe a new 'Energy based' method equal to 'Cumulative energy' through the projection lens. The paper compares the two methods using actual cases and shows the benefits of using the proposed method. We also suggest some new ways to deal with the problem. In addition, we report the learning from a project which entails developing a software application for automatic continuous tracking of degradation rates as well as the lens lifetime prediction across all Intel's laser based lithography tools.

  20. VUV lithography

    DOEpatents

    George, Edward V.; Oster, Yale; Mundinger, David C.

    1990-01-01

    Deep UV projection lithography can be performed using an e-beam pumped solid excimer UV source, a mask, and a UV reduction camera. The UV source produces deep UV radiation in the range 1700-1300A using xenon, krypton or argon; shorter wavelengths of 850-650A can be obtained using neon or helium. A thin solid layer of the gas is formed on a cryogenically cooled plate and bombarded with an e-beam to cause fluorescence. The UV reduction camera utilizes multilayer mirrors having high reflectivity at the UV wavelength and images the mask onto a resist coated substrate at a preselected demagnification. The mask can be formed integrally with the source as an emitting mask.

  1. VUV lithography

    DOEpatents

    George, E.V.; Oster, Y.; Mundinger, D.C.

    1990-12-25

    Deep UV projection lithography can be performed using an e-beam pumped solid excimer UV source, a mask, and a UV reduction camera. The UV source produces deep UV radiation in the range 1,700--1,300A using xenon, krypton or argon; shorter wavelengths of 850--650A can be obtained using neon or helium. A thin solid layer of the gas is formed on a cryogenically cooled plate and bombarded with an e-beam to cause fluorescence. The UV reduction camera utilizes multilayer mirrors having high reflectivity at the UV wavelength and images the mask onto a resist coated substrate at a preselected demagnification. The mask can be formed integrally with the source as an emitting mask. 6 figs.

  2. Physical Limitations in Lithography for Microelectronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, P. G.

    1981-01-01

    Describes techniques being used in the production of microelectronics kits which have replaced traditional optical lithography, including contact and optical projection printing, and X-ray and electron beam lithography. Also includes limitations of each technique described. (SK)

  3. Physical Limitations in Lithography for Microelectronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, P. G.

    1981-01-01

    Describes techniques being used in the production of microelectronics kits which have replaced traditional optical lithography, including contact and optical projection printing, and X-ray and electron beam lithography. Also includes limitations of each technique described. (SK)

  4. Electron-beam lithography with character projection exposure for throughput enhancement with line-edge quality optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeno, Rimon; Maruyama, Satoshi; Mita, Yoshio; Ikeda, Makoto; Asada, Kunihiro

    2016-03-01

    Among various electron-beam lithography (EBL) techniques, variable-shaped beam (VSB) and character projection (CP) methods have attracted many EBL users for their high-throughput feature, but they are considered to be more suited to small-featured VLSI fabrication with regularly-arranged layouts like standard-cell logics and memory arrays. On the other hand, non-VLSI applications like photonics, MEMS, MOEMS, and so on, have not been fully utilized the benefit of CP method due to their wide variety of layout patterns. In addition, the stepwise edge shapes by VSB method often causes intolerable edge roughness to degrade device characteristics from its intended performance with smooth edges. We proposed an overall EBL methodology applicable to wade-variety of EBL applications utilizing VSB and CP methods. Its key idea is in our layout data conversion algorithm that decomposes curved or oblique edges of arbitrary layout patterns into CP shots. We expect significant reduction in EB shot count with a CP-bordered exposure data compared to the corresponding VSB-alone conversion result. Several CP conversion parameters are used to optimize EB exposure throughput, edge quality, and resultant device characteristics. We demonstrated out methodology using the leading-edge VSB/CP EBL tool, ADVANTEST F7000S-VD02, with high resolution Hydrogen Silsesquioxane (HSQ) resist. Through our experiments of curved and oblique edge lithography under various data conversion conditions, we learned correspondence of the conversion parameters to the resultant edge roughness and other conditions. They will be utilized as the fundamental data for further enhancement of our EBL strategy for optimized EB exposure.

  5. Multilayer and grazing incidence X-ray/EUV optics for astronomy and projection lithography; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 19-22, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B. (Editor); Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The present volume on multilayer and grazing incidence X-ray/EUV optics for astronomy and projection lithography discusses AXAF grazing incidence mirrors, the theory and high throughput optics of grazing incidence optics, multilayer mirror fabrication and characterization, and multilayer optics for X-ray projection lithography. Attention is given to the VETA-I X-ray detection system, a motion detection system for AXAF X-ray ground testing, image analysis of the AXAF VETA-I X-ray mirror, and optical constants from mirror reflectivities measured at synchrotrons. Topics discussed include the application of aberration theory to calculate encircled energy of Wolter I-II telescopes, W/C multilayers deposited on plastic films, nonspecular X-ray scattering from Si/Mo multilayers, and multilayer thin-film design as FUV polarizers. Also discussed are thin-film filter lifetesting results in the EUV, chromospheric and coronal observations with multilayer optics, present and future requirements of soft X-ray projection lithography, and the imaging Schwarzschild multilayer X-ray microscope.

  6. Enhanced defect detection capability using learning system for extreme ultraviolet lithography mask inspection tool with projection electron microscope optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Ryoichi; Hatakeyama, Masahiro; Terao, Kenji; Watanabe, Hidehiro

    2016-04-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) patterned mask defect detection is a major issue that must be addressed to realize EUVL-based device fabrication. We have designed projection electron microscope (PEM) optics for integration into a mask inspection system, and the resulting PEM system performs well in half-pitch (hp) 16-nm-node EUVL patterned mask inspection applications. A learning system has been used in this PEM patterned mask inspection tool. The PEM identifies defects using the "defectivity" parameter that is derived from the acquired image characteristics. The learning system has been developed to reduce the labor and the costs associated with adjustment of the PEM's detection capabilities to cope with newly defined mask defects. The concepts behind this learning system and the parameter optimization flow are presented here. The learning system for the PEM is based on a library of registered defects. The learning system then optimizes the detection capability by reconciling previously registered defects with newly registered defects. Functional verification of the learning system is also described, and the system's detection capability is demonstrated by applying it to the inspection of hp 11-nm EUV masks. We can thus provide a user-friendly mask inspection system with reduced cost of ownership.

  7. Initial development of efficient, low-debris laser targets for the Sandia soft x-ray projection lithography effort

    SciTech Connect

    Rockett, P.D.; Hunter, J.A.; Kubiak, G.D.

    1997-03-01

    During the fiscal years 92-94 a joint group from Sandia/New Mexico and Sandia/California studied the development of new laser-plasma targets for projection x-ray or EUV (extreme ultraviolet) lithography. Our experimental and theoretical analyses incorporated target design as an integral part of the lithographic optical system. Targets studied included thick solid targets, thin-foil metal-coated targets, and cryogenic targets. Our complete measurement suite consisted of x-ray conversion efficiency measurements, source size imaging, source x-ray angular distribution measurements, debris collection, and source EUV spectrum. Target evaluation also included the variation of laser characteristics, such as, laser intensity, spot size, wavelength, pulselength, and pulseshape. Over the course of these experiments we examined targets using KrF (248nm), XeCl (308nm), and CO{sub 2} (10.6 {mu}m) lasers. While debris issues now dominate research in this area, final details were concluded on our understanding of material spectra and radiation transport of 13 run light in laser-plasmas. Additionally, conclusive results were obtained with 308 rim light, showing the pulselength threshold below which plumes no longer limited the transmission of (and thus the conversion efficiency to) 13 nm radiation.

  8. Shot number analysis on character projection e-beam lithography for random logic device fabrication at 70-nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomo, Yoichi; Shimizu, Isao; Kojima, Yoshinori; Yoshida, Akira; Takenaka, Hiroshi; Yamabe, Masaki

    2001-08-01

    A reduction efficiency of shot numbers in character projection (CP) electron-beam (EB) lithography with memory device application depends on a design rule (cell size) and a pattern complexity within a memory cell. Many researchers reported that it was approximately 1/10 to 1/100 compared with conventional variable-shaped beam (VSB) method. The reduction of shot numbers in memory devices mainly comes from allowance to place multiple cells in one CP-cell area and simplicity of the cell's placement (regular pitch with adjacent allocation). On the other hand, there are few reports concerning reduction efficiency of shot numbers with logic specific application in CP EB lithography due to the complexity of logic cell's allocation to CP-cell area. To analyze this, logic device layout data in 70nm node was prepared by shringking actual functional device data of 350 nm node in the ratio of 1/5 and extracting random logic region. The size of this region was 1,094 x 283 micrometers . The height of logic cell was 2.64micrometers and it was smaller than typical one CP-cell size in second aperture (5 x 5micrometers ). The pattern data in GDS-II stream format was converted into EB exposure data: divided figures (rectangles). By this procedure, numbers of figures and cells were obtained. The total number of referred logic cell was 26,812. Among 26,812 cells, only 111 common (unique) logic cells were used for the logic region. The sum of figures in gate layer was 412,251 and this value was assumed to be equal to a total number of shots in conventional VSB method. Among the 111 common cells, only 6 cells in the gate layer showed width more than 5micrometers (maximum CP-cell size). Most frequently referred cell was an inverter and the number of reference was 5,395. The referred frequency of each cell exponentially decreased when the cells were arranged in descending order of reference. Among the total figures, top cell showed 66,120 accumulated number of figures (referred number=2

  9. Visualization of plasma-induced processes by a projection system with a Cu-laser-based brightness amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, A. P.; Buzhinskij, R. O.; Gubskii, K. L.; Savjolov, A. S.; Sarantsev, S. A.; Terekhin, A. N.

    2010-05-15

    A novel method for visualization of the process of interaction of high-power energy fluxes with various surfaces is proposed. The possibility of the dynamic visualization of a surface covered with a {approx}3-cm-thick plasma layer with a linear density of {approx}10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} is demonstrated experimentally. A scheme of intracavity shadowgraphy of phase objects with the use of a laser projection microscope is developed. Shadow images illustrating the development of the plasma torch of an erosion capillary discharge in air are presented.

  10. Coaxial Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozel, Tuncay

    The optical and electrical properties of heterogeneous nanowires are profoundly related to their composition and nanoscale architecture. However, the intrinsic constraints of conventional synthetic and lithographic techniques have limited the types of multi-compositional nanowires that can be realized and studied in the laboratory. This thesis focuses on bridging templated electrochemical synthesis and lithography for expanding current synthetic capabilities with respect to materials generality and the ability to tailor two-dimensional growth in the formation of core-shell structures for the rational design and preparation of nanowires with very complex architectures that cannot be made by any other techniques. Chapter 1 introduces plasmonics, templated electrochemical synthesis, and on-wire lithography concepts and their significances within chemistry and materials science. Chapter 2 details a powerful technique for the deposition of metals and semiconductors with nanometer resolution in segment and gap lengths using on-wire lithography, which serves as a new platform to explore plasmon-exciton interactions in the form of long-range optical nanoscale rulers. Chapter 3 highlights an approach for the electrochemical synthesis of solution dispersible core-shell polymeric and inorganic semiconductor nanowires with metallic leads. A photodetector based on a single core-shell semiconductor nanowire is presented to demonstrate the functionality of the nanowires produced using this approach. Chapter 4 describes a new materials general technique, termed coaxial lithography (COAL), bridging templated electrochemical synthesis and lithography for generating coaxial nanowires in a parallel fashion with sub-10 nanometer resolution in both axial and radial dimensions. Combinations of coaxial nanowires composed of metals, metal oxides, metal chalcogenides, conjugated polymers, and a core/shell semiconductor nanowire with an embedded plasmonic nanoring are presented to

  11. Electron Scattering and Related Phenomena in Scattering with Angular Limitation Projection Electron Lithography (SCALPEL\\footnote{SCALPEL is a trademark of Lucent Technologies.})

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkrtchyan, Masis M.

    2000-12-01

    Scattering with angular limitation projection electron lithography (SCALPEL) is a unique charged-particle projection imaging technique that employs a scattering mask with the pattern segmented between supporting struts. An aperture installed in the back-focal plane of the projection lens filters out the electrons scattered at large angles in the patterned area of the mask producing a high contrast aerial image. Various scattering phenomena involved with the energetic (100 keV) electrons carrying the mask pattern information to the wafer through the projection optics are responsible for the aerial image formation in SCALPEL@. These phenomena can be grouped into three major categories: (i) electron elastic scattering in the mask responsible for the aerial image intensity and contrast; (ii) electron inelastic scattering in the mask-membrane that might have negative effects, such as membrane charging, beam chromatic blur generation, mask heating, etc.; (iii) Coulomb interactions of electrons in the beam (space charge effect) generating a beam blur that links the system throughput and resolution. Analytical models developed to describe and quantitatively evaluate these phenomena are briefly reviewed. The implication of these models to the design and optimization of the electron projection lithography systems are discussed.

  12. High numerical aperture ring field projection system for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOEpatents

    Hudyma, Russell; Shafer, David

    2001-01-01

    An all-reflective optical system for a projection photolithography camera has a source of EUV radiation, a wafer and a mask to be imaged on the wafer. The optical system includes a first convex mirror, a second mirror, a third convex mirror, a fourth concave mirror, a fifth convex mirror and a sixth concave mirror. The system is configured such that five of the six mirrors receives a chief ray at an incidence angle of less than substantially 9.degree., and each of the six mirrors receives a chief ray at an incidence angle of less than substantially 14.degree.. Four of the six reflecting surfaces have an aspheric departure of less than substantially 12 .mu.m. Five of the six reflecting surfaces have an aspheric departure of less than substantially 12 .mu.m. Each of the six reflecting surfaces has an aspheric departure of less than substantially 16 .mu.m.

  13. High numerical aperture ring field projection system for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOEpatents

    Hudyma, Russell; Shafer, David R.

    2001-01-01

    An all-reflective optical system for a projection photolithography camera has a source of EUV radiation, a wafer and a mask to be imaged on the wafer. The optical system includes a first convex mirror, a second mirror, a third convex mirror, a fourth concave mirror, a fifth convex mirror and a sixth concave mirror. The system is configured such that five of the six mirrors receive a chief ray at an incidence angle of less than substantially 9.degree., and each of the six mirrors receives a chief ray at an incidence angle of less than substantially 14.degree.. Four of the six reflecting surfaces have an aspheric departure of less than substantially 12 .mu.m. Five of the six reflecting surfaces have an aspheric departure of less than substantially 12 .mu.m. Each of the six reflecting surfaces has an aspheric departure of less than substantially 16 .mu.m.

  14. High numerical aperture ring field projection system for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOEpatents

    Hudyma, Russell

    2001-01-01

    An all-reflective optical system for a projection photolithography camera has a source of EUV radiation, a wafer and a mask to be imaged on the wafer. The optical system includes a first concave mirror, a second mirror, a third convex mirror, a fourth concave mirror, a fifth convex mirror and a sixth concave mirror. The system is configured such that five of the six mirrors receives a chief ray at an incidence angle of less than substantially 12.degree., and each of the six mirrors receives a chief ray at an incidence angle of less than substantially 15.degree.. Four of the six reflecting surfaces have an aspheric departure of less than substantially 7 .mu.m. Five of the six reflecting surfaces have an aspheric departure of less than substantially 14 .mu.m. Each of the six reflecting surfaces has an aspheric departure of less than 16.0 .mu.m.

  15. High numerical aperture ring field projection system for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOEpatents

    Hudyma, Russell

    2000-01-01

    An all-refelctive optical system for a projection photolithography camera has a source of EUV radiation, a wafer and a mask to be imaged on the wafer. The optical system includes a first concave mirror, a second mirror, a third convex mirror, a fourth concave mirror, a fifth convex mirror and a sixth concave mirror. The system is configured such that five of the six mirrors receives a chief ray at an incidence angle less than substantially 12.degree., and each of the six mirrors receives a chief ray at an incidence angle of less than substantially 15.degree.. Four of the six reflecting surfaces have an aspheric departure of less than substantially 7 .mu.m. Five of the six reflecting surfaces have an aspheric departure of less than substantially 14 .mu.m. Each of the six refelecting surfaces has an aspheric departure of less than 16.0 .mu.m.

  16. High numerical aperture ring field projection system for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOEpatents

    Hudyma, Russell

    2001-01-01

    An all-reflective optical system for a projection photolithography camera has a source of EUV radiation, a wafer and a mask to be imaged on the wafer. The optical system includes a first concave mirror, a second mirror, a third convex mirror, a fourth concave mirror, a fifth convex mirror and a sixth concave mirror. The system is configured such that five of the six mirrors receives a chief ray at an incidence angle of less than substantially 12.degree., and each of the six mirrors receives a chief ray at an incidence angle of less than substantially 15.degree.. Four of the six reflecting surfaces have an aspheric departure of less than substantially 7 .mu.m. Five of the six reflecting surfaces have an aspheric departure of less than substantially 14 .mu.m. Each of the six reflecting surfaces has an aspheric departure of less than 16.0 .mu.m.

  17. A computational technique to optimally design in-situ diffractive elements: applications to projection lithography at the resist resolution limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feijóo, Gonzalo R.; Tirapu-Azpiroz, Jaione; Rosenbluth, Alan E.; Oberai, Assad A.; Jagalur Mohan, Jayanth; Tian, Kehan; Melville, David; Gil, Dario; Lai, Kafai

    2009-03-01

    Near-field interference lithography is a promising variant of multiple patterning in semiconductor device fabrication that can potentially extend lithographic resolution beyond the current materials-based restrictions on the Rayleigh resolution of projection systems. With H2O as the immersion medium, non-evanescent propagation and optical design margins limit achievable pitch to approximately 0.53λ/nH2O = 0.37λ. Non-evanescent images are constrained only by the comparatively large resist indices (typically1.7) to a pitch resolution of 0.5/nresist (typically 0.29). Near-field patterning can potentially exploit evanescent waves and thus achieve higher spatial resolutions. Customized near-field images can be achieved through the modulation of an incoming wavefront by what is essentially an in-situ hologram that has been formed in an upper layer during an initial patterned exposure. Contrast Enhancement Layer (CEL) techniques and Talbot near-field interferometry can be considered special cases of this approach. Since the technique relies on near-field interference effects to produce the required pattern on the resist, the shape of the grating and the design of the film stack play a significant role on the outcome. As a result, it is necessary to resort to full diffraction computations to properly simulate and optimize this process. The next logical advance for this technology is to systematically design the hologram and the incident wavefront which is generated from a reduction mask. This task is naturally posed as an optimization problem, where the goal is to find the set of geometric and incident wavefront parameters that yields the closest fit to a desired pattern in the resist. As the pattern becomes more complex, the number of design parameters grows, and the computational problem becomes intractable (particularly in three-dimensions) without the use of advanced numerical techniques. To treat this problem effectively, specialized numerical methods have been

  18. Membrane projection lithography

    DOEpatents

    Burckel, David Bruce; Davids, Paul S; Resnick, Paul J; Draper, Bruce L

    2015-03-17

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a three dimensional manufacturing technique for application with semiconductor technologies. A membrane layer can be formed over a cavity. An opening can be formed in the membrane such that the membrane can act as a mask layer to the underlying wall surfaces and bottom surface of the cavity. A beam to facilitate an operation comprising any of implantation, etching or deposition can be directed through the opening onto the underlying surface, with the opening acting as a mask to control the area of the underlying surfaces on which any of implantation occurs, material is removed, and/or material is deposited. The membrane can be removed, a new membrane placed over the cavity and a new opening formed to facilitate another implantation, etching, or deposition operation. By changing the direction of the beam different wall/bottom surfaces can be utilized to form a plurality of structures.

  19. Coaxial lithography.

    PubMed

    Ozel, Tuncay; Bourret, Gilles R; Mirkin, Chad A

    2015-04-01

    The optical and electrical properties of heterogeneous nanowires are profoundly related to their composition and nanoscale architecture. However, the intrinsic constraints of conventional synthetic and lithographic techniques have limited the types of multi-compositional nanowire that can be created and studied in the laboratory. Here, we report a high-throughput technique that can be used to prepare coaxial nanowires with sub-10 nm control over the architectural parameters in both axial and radial dimensions. The method, termed coaxial lithography (COAL), relies on templated electrochemical synthesis and can create coaxial nanowires composed of combinations of metals, metal oxides, metal chalcogenides and conjugated polymers. To illustrate the possibilities of the technique, a core/shell semiconductor nanowire with an embedded plasmonic nanoring was synthesized--a structure that cannot be prepared by any previously known method--and its plasmon-excitation-dependent optoelectronic properties were characterized.

  20. Maskless lithography

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Stulen, Richard H.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for maskless lithography. A plurality of individually addressable and rotatable micromirrors together comprise a two-dimensional array of micromirrors. Each micromirror in the two-dimensional array can be envisioned as an individually addressable element in the picture that comprises the circuit pattern desired. As each micromirror is addressed it rotates so as to reflect light from a light source onto a portion of the photoresist coated wafer thereby forming a pixel within the circuit pattern. By electronically addressing a two-dimensional array of these micromirrors in the proper sequence a circuit pattern that is comprised of these individual pixels can be constructed on a microchip. The reflecting surface of the micromirror is configured in such a way as to overcome coherence and diffraction effects in order to produce circuit elements having straight sides.

  1. Maskless lithography

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, W.C.; Stulen, R.H.

    1999-02-09

    The present invention provides a method for maskless lithography. A plurality of individually addressable and rotatable micromirrors together comprise a two-dimensional array of micromirrors. Each micromirror in the two-dimensional array can be envisioned as an individually addressable element in the picture that comprises the circuit pattern desired. As each micromirror is addressed it rotates so as to reflect light from a light source onto a portion of the photoresist coated wafer thereby forming a pixel within the circuit pattern. By electronically addressing a two-dimensional array of these micromirrors in the proper sequence a circuit pattern that is comprised of these individual pixels can be constructed on a microchip. The reflecting surface of the micromirror is configured in such a way as to overcome coherence and diffraction effects in order to produce circuit elements having straight sides. 12 figs.

  2. EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Kevin; Wurm, Stefan

    2006-10-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) technology and infrastructure development has made excellent progress over the past several years, and tool suppliers are delivering alpha tools to customers. However, requirements in source, mask, optics, and resist are very challenging, and significant development efforts are still needed to support beta and production-level performance. Some of the important advances in the past few years include increased source output power, tool and optics system development and integration, and mask blank defect reduction. For example, source power has increased to levels approaching specification, but reliable source operation at these power levels has yet to be fully demonstrated. Significant efforts are also needed to achieve the resolution, line width roughness, and photospeed requirements for EUV photoresists. Cost of ownership and extendibility to future nodes are key factors in determining the outlook for the manufacturing insertion of EUVL. Since wafer throughput is a critical cost factor, source power, resist sensitivity, and system design all need to be carefully considered. However, if the technical and business challenges can be met, then EUVL will be the likely technology of choice for semiconductor manufacturing at the 32, 22, 16 and 11 nm half-pitch nodes. To cite this article: K. Kemp, S. Wurm, C. R. Physique 7 (2006).

  3. Metrology for Grayscale Lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Murali, Raghunath

    2007-09-26

    Three dimensional microstructures find applications in diffractive optical elements, photonic elements, etc. and can be efficiently fabricated by grayscale lithography. Good process control is important for achieving the desired structures. Metrology methods for grayscale lithography are discussed. Process optimization for grayscale e-beam lithography is explored and various process parameters that affect the grayscale process are discussed.

  4. Maskless, reticle-free, lithography

    DOEpatents

    Ceglio, N.M.; Markle, D.A.

    1997-11-25

    A lithography system in which the mask or reticle, which usually carries the pattern to be printed onto a substrate, is replaced by a programmable array of binary (i.e. on/off) light valves or switches which can be programmed to replicate a portion of the pattern each time an illuminating light source is flashed. The pattern of light produced by the programmable array is imaged onto a lithographic substrate which is mounted on a scanning stage as is common in optical lithography. The stage motion and the pattern of light displayed by the programmable array are precisely synchronized with the flashing illumination system so that each flash accurately positions the image of the pattern on the substrate. This is achieved by advancing the pattern held in the programmable array by an amount which corresponds to the travel of the substrate stage each time the light source flashes. In this manner the image is built up of multiple flashes and an isolated defect in the array will only have a small effect on the printed pattern. The method includes projection lithographies using radiation other than optical or ultraviolet light. The programmable array of binary switches would be used to control extreme ultraviolet (EUV), x-ray, or electron, illumination systems, obviating the need for stable, defect free masks for projection EUV, x-ray, or electron, lithographies. 7 figs.

  5. Maskless, reticle-free, lithography

    DOEpatents

    Ceglio, Natale M.; Markle, David A.

    1997-11-25

    A lithography system in which the mask or reticle, which usually carries the pattern to be printed onto a substrate, is replaced by a programmable array of binary (i.e. on/off) light valves or switches which can be programmed to replicate a portion of the pattern each time an illuminating light source is flashed. The pattern of light produced by the programmable array is imaged onto a lithographic substrate which is mounted on a scanning stage as is common in optical lithography. The stage motion and the pattern of light displayed by the programmable array are precisely synchronized with the flashing illumination system so that each flash accurately positions the image of the pattern on the substrate. This is achieved by advancing the pattern held in the programmable array by an amount which corresponds to the travel of the substrate stage each time the light source flashes. In this manner the image is built up of multiple flashes and an isolated defect in the array will only have a small effect on the printed pattern. The method includes projection lithographies using radiation other than optical or ultraviolet light. The programmable array of binary switches would be used to control extreme ultraviolet (EUV), x-ray, or electron, illumination systems, obviating the need for stable, defect free masks for projection EUV, x-ray, or electron, lithographies.

  6. Multi-shaped beam proof of lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slodowski, Matthias; Doering, Hans-Joachim; Dorl, Wolfgang; Stolberg, Ines A.

    2010-03-01

    In this paper a full package high throughput multi electron-beam approach, called Multi Shaped Beam (MSB), for applications in mask making as well as direct write will be presented including complex proof-of-lithography results. The basic concept enables a significant exposure shot count reduction for advanced patterns compared to standard Variable Shaped Beam (VSB) systems and allows full pattern flexibility by concurrently using MSB, VSB and Cell Projection (CP). Proof of lithography results will be presented, which have been performed using a fully operational electron-beam lithography system including data path and substrate scanning by x/y-stage movement.

  7. Extreme ultraviolet lithography machine

    DOEpatents

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Haney, Steven J.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    2000-01-01

    An extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) machine or system for producing integrated circuit (IC) components, such as transistors, formed on a substrate. The EUVL machine utilizes a laser plasma point source directed via an optical arrangement onto a mask or reticle which is reflected by a multiple mirror system onto the substrate or target. The EUVL machine operates in the 10-14 nm wavelength soft x-ray photon. Basically the EUV machine includes an evacuated source chamber, an evacuated main or project chamber interconnected by a transport tube arrangement, wherein a laser beam is directed into a plasma generator which produces an illumination beam which is directed by optics from the source chamber through the connecting tube, into the projection chamber, and onto the reticle or mask, from which a patterned beam is reflected by optics in a projection optics (PO) box mounted in the main or projection chamber onto the substrate. In one embodiment of a EUVL machine, nine optical components are utilized, with four of the optical components located in the PO box. The main or projection chamber includes vibration isolators for the PO box and a vibration isolator mounting for the substrate, with the main or projection chamber being mounted on a support structure and being isolated.

  8. Built-in lens mask lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Naoki; Sasago, Masaru; Misaka, Akio; Kikuta, Hisao; Kawata, Hiroaki; Hirai, Yoshihiko

    2014-03-01

    Cost effective micro lithography tool is demanded for fine micro devices. However, resolution of a conventional proximity exposure system is not sufficient below several micron feature size for deep focus depth. On the other hand, a reduction projection system is sufficient to resolve it but the cost of the tool is too much high compared to proximity exposure systems. To enhance the resolution of photolithography, there has been proposed a number of novel methods beside shorting of wave length. Some of them are utilized in current advanced lithography systems, for example, the immersion lithography1 enhances effective NA and the phase shift mask2 improves optical transmittance function. However, those advanced technology is mainly focused on improvement for advanced projection exposure systems for ultra-fine lithography. On the other hand, coherence holography pattering is recently proposed and expected for 3-dimentional pattering3-5. Also, Talbot lithography6-8 is studied for periodical micro and nano pattering. Those novels pattering are based on wave propagation due to optical diffraction without using expensive optical lens systems. In this paper we newly propose novel optical lithography using built-in lens mask to enhance resolution and focus depth in conventional proximity exposure system for micro lithographic application without lens systems. The performance is confirmed by simulation and experimental works.

  9. X-ray/EUV optics for astronomy, microscopy, polarimetry, and projection lithography; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 9-13, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B. (Editor); Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Topics discussed in this issue include the fabrication of multilayer X-ray/EUV coatings; the design, characterization, and test of multilayer X-ray/EUV coatings; multilayer X-ray/EUV monochromators and imaging microscopes; X-ray/EUV telescopes; the test and calibration performance of X-ray/EUV instruments; XUV/soft X-ray projection lithography; X-ray/EUV space observatories and missions; X-ray/EUV telescopes for solar research; X-ray/EUV polarimetry; X-ray/EUV spectrographs; and X-ray/EUV filters and gratings. Papers are presented on the deposition-controlled uniformity of multilayer mirrors, interfaces in Mo/Si multilayers, the design and analysis of an aspherical multilayer imaging X-ray microscope, recent developments in the production of thin X-ray reflecting foils, and the ultraprecise scanning technology. Consideration is also given to an active sun telescope array, the fabrication and performance at 1.33 nm of a 0.24-micron-period multilayer grating, a cylindrical proportional counter for X-ray polarimetry, and the design and analysis of the reflection grating arrays for the X-Ray Multi-Mirror Mission.

  10. Process optimization using lithography simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, Andreas

    2004-05-01

    Lithography simulation has become an indispensable tool for understanding and optimization of lithographic processes and for the development of new processes. Aerial image simulations are used to evaluate the imaging of designed photomasks by projection steppers or scanners and to explore the impact of optical parameters such as numerical aperture, spatial coherence, defocus, and wave aberrations on the imaging performance. Other simulation approaches are used to describe the impact of the photoresist thickness, of the post exposure (PEB) temperature, and of the development characteristics of the photoresist on the total process performance. This article reviews the most important modeling approaches which are used in lithography simulation. Several examples demonstrate the application of modern simulation tools for the optimization of lithographic mask and illumination geometries. This includes the application of genetic algorithms for global parameter optimization and the rigorous electromagnetic modeling of light diffraction from advanced lithographic masks.

  11. [Laser-based radiometric calibration].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-gang; Zheng, Yu-quan

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly higher demands are put forward to spectral radiometric calibration accuracy and the development of new tunable laser based spectral radiometric calibration technology is promoted, along with the development of studies of terrestrial remote sensing, aeronautical and astronautical remote sensing, plasma physics, quantitative spectroscopy, etc. Internationally a number of national metrology scientific research institutes have built tunable laser based spectral radiometric calibration facilities in succession, which are traceable to cryogenic radiometers and have low uncertainties for spectral responsivity calibration and characterization of detectors and remote sensing instruments in the UK, the USA, Germany, etc. Among them, the facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations using uniform sources (SIRCCUS) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the USA and the Tunable Lasers in Photometry (TULIP) facility at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany have more representatives. Compared with lamp-monochromator systems, laser based spectral radiometric calibrations have many advantages, such as narrow spectral bandwidth, high wavelength accuracy, low calibration uncertainty and so on for radiometric calibration applications. In this paper, the development of laser-based spectral radiometric calibration and structures and performances of laser-based radiometric calibration facilities represented by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in the UK, NIST and PTB are presented, technical advantages of laser-based spectral radiometric calibration are analyzed, and applications of this technology are further discussed. Laser-based spectral radiometric calibration facilities can be widely used in important system-level radiometric calibration measurements with high accuracy, including radiance temperature, radiance and irradiance calibrations for space remote sensing instruments, and promote the

  12. X ray lithography in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemens, James T.; Hill, Robert W.; Cerrina, Franco; Fuller, Gene E.; Pease, R. F.

    1991-10-01

    Integrated circuits (semiconductors) are the key components of modern computers, communication systems, consumer electronics, and the new generations of smart machines and instruments. Japan's strong position and growing influence in the manufacture of semiconductors and systems based on them is well known and well documented. Microlithography is one the most critical elements of the semiconductor manufacturing process because it determines the minimum feature size and the functional capabilities of the semiconductor. Because it is used many times in the manufacturing sequence, the quality of the microlithography process (i.e., number of defects, control for feature size, etc.) is critical in determining the yield and cost of semiconductors and hence the competitiveness of the electronics industry. At present all volume semiconductor manufacturing is done with optical UV (ultraviolet) projection lithography, twenty-year-old photographic technology which has been and is still evolving. There are many issues that limit the technical capability and cost-effectiveness of UV lithography, and thus, alternate lithographic techniques are continuously being researched and developed. X-ray lithography, which was invented in the early 1970's, holds the promise of providing higher yields in manufacturing semiconductors by virtue of enhanced process latitude, process robustness, and resolution.

  13. Controlled Scanning Probe Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruskell, Todd G.; Sarid, Dror; Workman, Richard K.; Pyle, Jason L.

    1997-03-01

    A method for real-time monitoring of the quality and quantity of silicon oxide grown on silicon using conducting-tip scanning probe lithography has been developed. The sub-picoampere tip-sample currents measured during lithography in ambient conditions are shown to be proportional to the amount of silicon oxide being grown. In addition, we have demonstrated the ability to control the composition of the grown material by altering the lithographic environment. Silicon nitride growth is shown to result from lithography on silicon samples in an environment of annhydrous ammonia.

  14. Nanomachining by colloidal lithography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung-Man; Jang, Se Gyu; Choi, Dae-Geun; Kim, Sarah; Yu, Hyung Kyun

    2006-04-01

    Colloidal lithography is a recently emerging field; the evolution of this simple technique is still in progress. Recent advances in this area have developed a variety of practical routes of colloidal lithography, which have great potential to replace, at least partially, complex and high-cost advanced lithographic techniques. This Review presents the state of the art of colloidal lithography and consists of three main parts, beginning with synthetic routes to monodisperse colloids and their self-assembly with low defect concentrations, which are used as lithographic masks. Then, we will introduce the modification of the colloidal masks using reactive ion etching (RIE), which produces a variety of nanoscopic features and multifaceted particles. Finally, a few prospective applications of colloidal lithography will be discussed.

  15. Maskless, resistless ion beam lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Qing

    2003-01-01

    As the dimensions of semiconductor devices are scaled down, in order to achieve higher levels of integration, optical lithography will no longer be sufficient for the needs of the semiconductor industry. Alternative next-generation lithography (NGL) approaches, such as extreme ultra-violet (EUV), X-ray, electron-beam, and ion projection lithography face some challenging issues with complicated mask technology and low throughput. Among the four major alternative NGL approaches, ion beam lithography is the only one that can provide both maskless and resistless patterning. As such, it can potentially make nano-fabrication much simpler. This thesis investigates a focused ion beam system for maskless, resistless patterning that can be made practical for high-volume production. In order to achieve maskless, resistless patterning, the ion source must be able to produce a variety of ion species. The compact FIB system being developed uses a multicusp plasma ion source, which can generate ion beams of various elements, such as O2+, BF2+, P+ etc., for surface modification and doping applications. With optimized source condition, around 85% of BF2+, over 90% of O2+ and P+ have been achieved. The brightness of the multicusp-plasma ion source is a key issue for its application to maskless ion beam lithography. It can be substantially improved by optimizing the source configuration and extractor geometry. Measured brightness of 2 keV He+ beam is as high as 440 A/cm2 • Sr, which represents a 30x improvement over prior work. Direct patterning of Si thin film using a focused O2+ ion beam has been investigated. A thin surface oxide film can be selectively formed using 3 keV O2+ ions with the dose of 1015 cm-2. The oxide can then serve as a hard mask for patterning of the Si film. The

  16. Optimization of X-ray sources from a high-average-power ND:Glass laser-produced plasma for proximity lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Celliers, P.; Da Silva, L.B.; Dane, C.B.

    1996-06-01

    The concept of a laser-based proximity lithography system for electronic microcircuit production has advanced to the point where a detailed design of a prototype system capable of exposing wafers at 40 wafer levels per hr is technically feasible with high-average-power laser technology. In proximity x-ray lithography, a photoresist composed of polymethyl- methacrylate (PMMA) or similar material is exposed to x rays transmitted through a mask placed near the photoresist, a procedure which is similar to making a photographic contact print. The mask contains a pattern of opaque metal features, with line widths as small as 0.12 {mu}m, placed on a thin (1-{mu}m thick) Si membrane. During the exposure, the shadow of the mask projected onto the resist produces in the physical and chemical properties of the resist a pattern of variation with the same size and shape as the features contained in the metal mask. This pattern can be further processed to produce microscopic structures in the Si substrate. The main application envisioned for this technology is the production of electronic microcircuits with spatial features significantly smaller than currently achievable with conventional optical lithographic techniques (0.12 {micro}m vs 0.25 {micro}m). This article describes work on optimizing a laser-produced plasma x-ray source intended for microcircuit production by proximity lithography.

  17. OSA Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography Held in Monterey, California on 10-12 April 1991. Volume 12

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-22

    Carbide because of its high thermal the mirror on its backside or edge. Shott Zerodur conductivity. Edge cooling causes a larger exceeded the limit by about...Characterization Angstrom-level noncontact profiling of mirrors for soft x-ray lithography............ 134 Paul Glenn Nonspecular Scattering from X-Ray...structed by patterning a Mo/Si Tropel Division of GCA Corporation. multilayer coated silicon wafer. The mirrors were coated at AT&T Bell The multilayer

  18. Optical force stamping lithography

    PubMed Central

    Nedev, Spas; Urban, Alexander S.; Lutich, Andrey A.; Feldmann, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Here we introduce a new paradigm of far-field optical lithography, optical force stamping lithography. The approach employs optical forces exerted by a spatially modulated light field on colloidal nanoparticles to rapidly stamp large arbitrary patterns comprised of single nanoparticles onto a substrate with a single-nanoparticle positioning accuracy well beyond the diffraction limit. Because the process is all-optical, the stamping pattern can be changed almost instantly and there is no constraint on the type of nanoparticle or substrates used. PMID:21992538

  19. Ion beam lithography system

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2005-08-02

    A maskless plasma-formed ion beam lithography tool provides for patterning of sub-50 nm features on large area flat or curved substrate surfaces. The system is very compact and does not require an accelerator column and electrostatic beam scanning components. The patterns are formed by switching beamlets on or off from a two electrode blanking system with the substrate being scanned mechanically in one dimension. This arrangement can provide a maskless nano-beam lithography tool for economic and high throughput processing.

  20. Mask requirements for advanced lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trybula, Walter J.; Engelstad, Roxann L.

    1998-06-01

    Within the n ext 10 years, sub-100 nm features will be required for state-of-the-industry devices. The tolerances for errors at 100 nm or less are substantially smaller than can be achieved today. A critical element of the error budget is the mask. For the 100 nm generation, the 4x mask image placement requirement is 20 nm with CD requirements as low as 9 nm. The challenge would be significant if the only improvement were to develop superior optical masks. There are multiple advanced technologies that are vying to be the successor to optical lithography. Each of these has a unique mask requirement. The leading contenders for the next generation are 1x x-ray, projection e-beam, ion beam, EUV and cell projection e-beam. The x-ray design is a proximity system that employs a 1x membrane mask. Projection e-beam uses a membrane mask with stabilizing struts. Ion beam lithography employs a stencil membrane mask with a carbon coating. EUV employs a 13 nm radiation source that requires a reflective mask. Cell projection e-beam has 25x or greater image masks that are stitched on the wafer. All the technologies indicated above. Once a total error budget for the mask is known, it is necessary to divide the total into the constituent parts. The major sources of distortion can be categorized into eight areas: mask blank processing, e- beam writing, pattern transfer, pellicle effects, mounting, thermal loadings, dynamic effects during exposure and radiation damage. The distortions introduced by each of these depend upon the type of mask; so, individual mask calculations must be made. The purpose of this paper is to review the modeling requirements of each of the categories and to highlight some results from each of the mask configurations.

  1. Workshop on compact storage ring technology: applications to lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-30

    Project planning in the area of x-ray lithography is discussed. Three technologies that are emphasized are the light source, the lithographic technology, and masking technology. The needs of the semiconductor industry in the lithography area during the next decade are discussed, particularly as regards large scale production of high density dynamic random access memory devices. Storage ring parameters and an overall exposure tool for x-ray lithography are addressed. Competition in this area of technology from Germany and Japan is discussed briefly. The design of a storage ring is considered, including lattice design, magnets, and beam injection systems. (LEW)

  2. Thirty years of lithography simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, Chris A.

    2005-05-01

    Thirty years ago Rick Dill and his team at IBM published the first account of lithography simulation - the accurate description of semiconductor optical lithography by mathematical equations. Since then, lithography simulation has grown dramatically in importance in four important areas: as a research tool, as a development tool, as a manufacturing tool, and as a learning tool. In this paper, the history of lithography simulations is traced from its roots to today"s indispensable tools for lithographic technology development. Along the way, an attempt will be made to define the true value of lithography simulation to the semiconductor industry.

  3. An ice lithography instrument.

    PubMed

    Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J A

    2011-06-01

    We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines.

  4. An ice lithography instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J. A.

    2011-06-15

    We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines.

  5. Beam pen lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Fengwei; Zheng, Gengfeng; Liao, Xing; Giam, Louise R.; Chai, Jinan; Chen, Xiaodong; Shim, Wooyoung; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2010-09-01

    Lithography techniques are currently being developed to fabricate nanoscale components for integrated circuits, medical diagnostics and optoelectronics. In conventional far-field optical lithography, lateral feature resolution is diffraction-limited. Approaches that overcome the diffraction limit have been developed, but these are difficult to implement or they preclude arbitrary pattern formation. Techniques based on near-field scanning optical microscopy can overcome the diffraction limit, but they suffer from inherently low throughput and restricted scan areas. Highly parallel two-dimensional, silicon-based, near-field scanning optical microscopy aperture arrays have been fabricated, but aligning a non-deformable aperture array to a large-area substrate with near-field proximity remains challenging. However, recent advances in lithographies based on scanning probe microscopy have made use of transparent two-dimensional arrays of pyramid-shaped elastomeric tips (or `pens') for large-area, high-throughput patterning of ink molecules. Here, we report a massively parallel scanning probe microscopy-based approach that can generate arbitrary patterns by passing 400-nm light through nanoscopic apertures at each tip in the array. The technique, termed beam pen lithography, can toggle between near- and far-field distances, allowing both sub-diffraction limit (100 nm) and larger features to be generated.

  6. Fiber laser based hydrophone systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, Asrul Izam; Leung, Ian; Chen, Xiaobao; Zhou, Shaoling; Zhu, Qing; Gao, Kan; Childs, Paul; Peng, Gangding

    2011-09-01

    We report our recent work on distributed feedback fiber laser based hydrophones. Some issues related to sensitivity, such as fiber laser phase condition, demodulation, and packaging, are also discussed. With the development of appropriate digital signal processing (DSP) techniques and packaging designs, an interferometric-type distributed feedback (DFB) fiber laser hydrophone system with acoustic sensitivity of 58.0 dB·re·μPa·Hz-0.5 at 1 kHz or a minimum detectable acoustic pressure below 800 μPa during field test is attained. We have also investigated an intensity-type DFB fiber laser hydrophone system and its performance.

  7. Neutral particle lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craver, Barry Paul

    Neutral particle lithography (NPL) is a high resolution, proximity exposure technique where a broad beam of energetic neutral particles floods a stencil mask and transmitted beamlets transfer the mask pattern to resist on a substrate, such that each feature is printed in parallel, rather than in the serial manner of electron beam lithography. It preserves the advantages of ion beam lithography (IBL), including extremely large depth-of-field, sub-5 nm resist scattering, and the near absence of diffraction, yet is intrinsically immune to charge-related artifacts including line-edge roughness and pattern placement errors due to charge accumulation on the mask and substrate. In our experiments, a neutral particle beam is formed by passing an ion beam (e.g., 30 keV He+) through a high pressure helium gas cell (e.g., 100 mTorr) to convert the ions to energetic neutrals through charge transfer scattering. The resolution of NPL is generally superior to that of IBL for applications involving insulating substrates, large proximity gaps, and ultra-small features. High accuracy stepped exposures with energetic neutral particles, where magnetic or electrostatic deflection is impossible, have been obtained by clamping the mask to the wafer, setting the proximity gap with a suitable spacer, and mechanically inclining the mask/wafer stack relative to the beam. This approach is remarkably insensitive to vibration and thermal drift; nanometer scale image offsets have been obtained with +/-2 nm placement accuracy for experiments lasting over one hour. Using this nanostepping technique, linewidth versus dose curves were obtained, from which the NPL lithographic blur was determined as 4.4+/-1.4 nm (1sigma), which is 2-3 times smaller than the blur of electron beam lithography. Neutral particle lithography has the potential to form high density, periodic patterns with sub-10 nm resolution.

  8. Method for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOEpatents

    Felter, T. E.; Kubiak, G. D.

    2000-01-01

    A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces extreme ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods.

  9. Method for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOEpatents

    Felter, T. E.; Kubiak, Glenn D.

    1999-01-01

    A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces extreme ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods.

  10. Immersion lithography bevel solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedeschi, Len; Tamada, Osamu; Sanada, Masakazu; Yasuda, Shuichi; Asai, Masaya

    2008-03-01

    The introduction of Immersion lithography, combined with the desire to maximize the number of potential yielding devices per wafer, has brought wafer edge engineering to the forefront for advanced semiconductor manufactures. Bevel cleanliness, the position accuracy of the lithography films, and quality of the EBR cut has become more critical. In this paper, the effectiveness of wafer track based solutions to enable state-of-art bevel schemes is explored. This includes an integrated bevel cleaner and new bevel rinse nozzles. The bevel rinse nozzles are used in the coating process to ensure a precise, clean film edge on or near the bevel. The bevel cleaner is used immediately before the wafer is loaded into the scanner after the coating process. The bevel cleaner shows promise in driving down defectivity levels, specifically printing particles, while not damaging films on the bevel.

  11. Stencil mask technology for ion beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrmann, Albrecht; Huber, Sabine; Kaesmaier, Rainer; Oelmann, Andreas B.; Struck, Thomas; Springer, Reinhard; Butschke, Joerg; Letzkus, Florian; Kragler, Karl; Loeschner, Hans; Rangelow, Ivo W.

    1998-12-01

    Ion beam lithography is one of the most promising future lithography technologies. A helium or hydrogen ion beam illuminates a stencil membrane mask and projects the image with 4X reduction to the wafer. The development of stencil masks is considered to be critical for the success of the new technology. Since 1997, within the European Ion Projection Lithography MEDEA (Microelectronic Devices for European Applications) project silicon stencil masks based on a wafer- flow process are developed. They are produced in a conventional wafer line. Six inch SOI (silicon-on-insulator) wafers are patterned with an e-beam wafer writing tool, then trenches are etched by plasma etching. Afterwards, the membrane is etched by wet etch using the SOI-oxide layer as an etch stop. The last step is to add a coating layer, which is sputtered onto the membrane. It protects the mask against ion irradiation damage. For metrology and inspection, methods used for conventional chromium masks as well as new techniques are investigated. Results from placement measurements on the Leica LMS IPRO tool will be presented. Finally, methods for CD measurement, defect inspection, repair and in-situ-cleaning in the stepper will be discussed, including experimental information of first tests.

  12. Extreme ultraviolet Talbot interference lithography.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Marconi, Mario C

    2015-10-05

    Periodic nanopatterns can be generated using lithography based on the Talbot effect or optical interference. However, these techniques have restrictions that limit their performance. High resolution Talbot lithography is limited by the very small depth of focus and the demanding requirements in the fabrication of the master mask. Interference lithography, with large DOF and high resolution, is limited to simple periodic patterns. This paper describes a hybrid extreme ultraviolet lithography approach that combines Talbot lithography and interference lithography to render an interference pattern with a lattice determined by a Talbot image. As a result, the method enables filling the arbitrary shaped cells produced by the Talbot image with interference patterns. Detailed modeling, system design and experimental results using a tabletop EUV laser are presented.

  13. Simulations of immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Min; Lei, Junjiang; Zhang, Lin; Shiely, James P.

    2005-05-01

    Immersion lithography has been regarded as the most viable contender to extend the resolution capability of optical lithography using 193nm wavelength. In parallel with the tremendous effort of overcoming the engineering challenges in immersion, support from modeling and simulations is strongly needed. Although immersion simulation has become available through a number of simulation tools, we need to investigate the model generation and its compatibility within the context of full-chip optical proximity correction (OPC). In this paper, we will describe the physics of a full vector model that is necessary for the high NA optical modeling under immersion. In this full vector model, we consider not only the plane wave decomposition as light travels from the mask to wafer plane, but also the refraction, transmission and reflection of light through a thin film stack on the wafer. We integrated this comprehensive vector model into Synopsys OPC modeling tool ProGen. Through ProGen simulation results, we will discuss several important merits of immersion lithography, as well as the full portability of immersion models into OPC process flow.

  14. Microfluidic Applications of Soft Lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K A; Krulevitch, P; Hamilton, J

    2001-04-10

    The soft lithography fabrication technique was applied to three microfluidic devices. The method was used to create an original micropump design and retrofit to existing designs for a DNA manipulation device and a counter biological warfare sample preparation device. Each device presented unique and original challenges to the soft lithography application. AI1 design constraints of the retrofit devices were satisfied using PDMS devices created through variation of soft lithography methods. The micropump utilized the versatility of PDMS, creating design options not available with other materials. In all cases, the rapid processing of soft lithography reduced the fabrication time, creating faster turnaround for design modifications.

  15. Self-Collapse Lithography.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chuanzhen; Xu, Xiaobin; Yang, Qing; Man, Tianxing; Jonas, Steven J; Schwartz, Jeffrey J; Andrews, Anne M; Weiss, Paul S

    2017-08-09

    We report a facile, high-throughput soft lithography process that utilizes nanoscale channels formed naturally at the edges of microscale relief features on soft, elastomeric stamps. Upon contact with self-assembled monolayer (SAM) functionalized substrates, the roof of the stamp collapses, resulting in the selective removal of SAM molecules via a chemical lift-off process. With this technique, which we call self-collapse lithography (SCL), sub-30 nm patterns were achieved readily using masters with microscale features prepared by conventional photolithography. The feature sizes of the chemical patterns can be varied continuously from ∼2 μm to below 30 nm by decreasing stamp relief heights from 1 μm to 50 nm. Likewise, for fixed relief heights, reducing the stamp Young's modulus from ∼2.0 to ∼0.8 MPa resulted in shrinking the features of resulting patterns from ∼400 to ∼100 nm. The self-collapse mechanism was studied using finite element simulation methods to model the competition between adhesion and restoring stresses during patterning. These results correlate well with the experimental data and reveal the relationship between the line widths, channel heights, and Young's moduli of the stamps. In addition, SCL was applied to pattern two-dimensional arrays of circles and squares. These chemical patterns served as resists during etching processes to transfer patterns to the underlying materials (e.g., gold nanostructures). This work provides new insights into the natural propensity of elastomeric stamps to self-collapse and demonstrates a means of exploiting this behavior to achieve patterning via nanoscale chemical lift-off lithography.

  16. Laser-based communication link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenersen, Knut; Landroe, Stig; Christensen, Oeyvind

    1993-04-01

    A prototype of a laser based communication link for point to point transmission of data through the atmosphere is described. The link has a laser transmitter and a receiver at each end, which allows full duplex communication. The link has a EUROCOM B interface and can be used for transmission of 512 kbit/s data between two switches in the Norwegian military tactical communication system TADKOM. The data are transmitted through the air as FSK (Frequency Shift Keying) modulated laser light. The laser transmitter is an eyesafe 10 mW diode laser with 1.55 micrometer wavelength. The transmitter and receiver lobes have an angular divergence of about 1.5 mrad, and the system requires an alignment accuracy of better than 0.5 mrad for good performance. The maximum range of the link is slightly larger than the optical visibility for optical visibilities below 2 km. For 10 km visibility the maximum range is about 5 km. Based on available visibility statistics, it was calculated that a 1 km link should be in operation 97 to 99% of the time (average over one year) for typical locations in Norway. The link was tested with TADKOM equipment in laboratory.

  17. Colloidal pen lithography.

    PubMed

    Xue, Mianqi; Cai, Xiaojing; Chen, Ghenfu

    2015-02-04

    Colloidal pen lithography, a low-cost, high-throughput scanning probe contact printing method, has been developed, which is based on self-assembled colloidal arrays embedded in a soft elastomeric stamp. Patterned protein arrays are demonstrated using this method, with a feature size ranging from 100 nm to several micrometers. A brief study into the specificity reorganization of protein gives evidence for the feasibility of this method for writing protein chips. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Lithography, metrology and nanomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Liddle, J Alexander; Gallatin, Gregg M

    2011-07-01

    Semiconductor chip manufacturing is by far the predominant nanomanufacturing technology in the world today. Top-down lithography techniques are used for fabrication of logic and memory chips since, in order to function, these chips must essentially be perfect. Assuring perfection requires expensive metrology. Top of the line logic sells for several hundred thousand dollars per square metre and, even though the required metrology is expensive, it is a small percentage of the overall manufacturing cost. The level of stability and control afforded by current lithography tools means that much of this metrology can be online and statistical. In contrast, many of the novel types of nanomanufacturing currently being developed will produce products worth only a few dollars per square metre. To be cost effective, the required metrology must cost proportionately less. Fortunately many of these nanofabrication techniques, such as block copolymer self-assembly, colloidal self-assembly, DNA origami, roll-2-roll nano-imprint, etc., will not require the same level of perfection to meet specification. Given the variability of these self-assembly processes, in order to maintain process control, these techniques will require some level of real time online metrology. Hence we are led to the conclusion that future nanomanufacturing may well necessitate "cheap" nanometre scale metrology which functions real time and on-line, e.g. at GHz rates, in the production stream. In this paper we review top-down and bottom-up nanofabrication techniques and compare and contrast the various metrology requirements.

  19. Lithography, metrology and nanomanufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddle, J. Alexander; Gallatin, Gregg M.

    2011-07-01

    Semiconductor chip manufacturing is by far the predominant nanomanufacturing technology in the world today. Top-down lithography techniques are used for fabrication of logic and memory chips since, in order to function, these chips must essentially be perfect. Assuring perfection requires expensive metrology. Top of the line logic sells for several hundred thousand dollars per square metre and, even though the required metrology is expensive, it is a small percentage of the overall manufacturing cost. The level of stability and control afforded by current lithography tools means that much of this metrology can be online and statistical. In contrast, many of the novel types of nanomanufacturing currently being developed will produce products worth only a few dollars per square metre. To be cost effective, the required metrology must cost proportionately less. Fortunately many of these nanofabrication techniques, such as block copolymer self-assembly, colloidal self-assembly, DNA origami, roll-2-roll nano-imprint, etc., will not require the same level of perfection to meet specification. Given the variability of these self-assembly processes, in order to maintain process control, these techniques will require some level of real time online metrology. Hence we are led to the conclusion that future nanomanufacturing may well necessitate ``cheap'' nanometre scale metrology which functions real time and on-line, e.g. at GHz rates, in the production stream. In this paper we review top-down and bottom-up nanofabrication techniques and compare and contrast the various metrology requirements.

  20. Bubble-Pen Lithography.

    PubMed

    Lin, Linhan; Peng, Xiaolei; Mao, Zhangming; Li, Wei; Yogeesh, Maruthi N; Rajeeva, Bharath Bangalore; Perillo, Evan P; Dunn, Andrew K; Akinwande, Deji; Zheng, Yuebing

    2016-01-13

    Current lithography techniques, which employ photon, electron, or ion beams to induce chemical or physical reactions for micro/nano-fabrication, have remained challenging in patterning chemically synthesized colloidal particles, which are emerging as building blocks for functional devices. Herein, we develop a new technique - bubble-pen lithography (BPL) - to pattern colloidal particles on substrates using optically controlled microbubbles. Briefly, a single laser beam generates a microbubble at the interface of colloidal suspension and a plasmonic substrate via plasmon-enhanced photothermal effects. The microbubble captures and immobilizes the colloidal particles on the substrate through coordinated actions of Marangoni convection, surface tension, gas pressure, and substrate adhesion. Through directing the laser beam to move the microbubble, we create arbitrary single-particle patterns and particle assemblies with different resolutions and architectures. Furthermore, we have applied BPL to pattern CdSe/ZnS quantum dots on plasmonic substrates and polystyrene (PS) microparticles on two-dimensional (2D) atomic-layer materials. With the low-power operation, arbitrary patterning and applicability to general colloidal particles, BPL will find a wide range of applications in microelectronics, nanophotonics, and nanomedicine.

  1. Extending lithography with advanced materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, Douglas J.

    2014-03-01

    Material evolution has been a key enabler of lithography nodes in the last 30 years. This paper explores the evolution of anti-reflective coatings and their transformation from materials that provide only reflection control to advanced multifunctional layers. It is expected that complementary processes that do not require a change in wavelength will continue to dominate the development of new devices and technology nodes. New device architecture, immersion lithography, negative-tone development, multiple patterning, and directed self-assembly have demonstrated the capabilities of extending lithography nodes beyond what anyone thought would be possible. New material advancements for future technology nodes are proposed.

  2. Off-axis illumination of lithography tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Han; Lin, Li; Bin, Ma

    2013-12-01

    Lithography tool is a necessary part for LSI and VLSI. The illumination system design is an important part in the lithography optical system design. Off-axis illumination technology is an effective way to reducing resolution of lithography. The paper introduction the basic components of lithography tool, the principle of off-axis illumination reducing the resolution of lithography and focus on the two implementations of OAI technology, finally point out advantages and disadvantage of the two implementations.

  3. Programmable imprint lithography template

    DOEpatents

    Cardinale, Gregory F.; Talin, Albert A.

    2006-10-31

    A template for imprint lithography (IL) that reduces significantly template production costs by allowing the same template to be re-used for several technology generations. The template is composed of an array of spaced-apart moveable and individually addressable rods or plungers. Thus, the template can be configured to provide a desired pattern by programming the array of plungers such that certain of the plungers are in an "up" or actuated configuration. This arrangement of "up" and "down" plungers forms a pattern composed of protruding and recessed features which can then be impressed onto a polymer film coated substrate by applying a pressure to the template impressing the programmed configuration into the polymer film. The pattern impressed into the polymer film will be reproduced on the substrate by subsequent processing.

  4. Advances in Nanoimprint Lithography.

    PubMed

    Traub, Matthew C; Longsine, Whitney; Truskett, Van N

    2016-06-07

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL), a molding process, can replicate features <10 nm over large areas with long-range order. We describe the early development and fundamental principles underlying the two most commonly used types of NIL, thermal and UV, and contrast them with conventional photolithography methods used in the semiconductor industry. We then describe current advances toward full commercial industrialization of UV-curable NIL (UV-NIL) technology for integrated circuit production. We conclude with brief overviews of some emerging areas of research, from photonics to biotechnology, in which the ability of NIL to fabricate structures of arbitrary geometry is providing new paths for development. As with previous innovations, the increasing availability of tools and techniques from the semiconductor industry is poised to provide a path to bring these innovations from the lab to everyday life.

  5. Method for maskless lithography

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Stulen, Richard H.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for maskless lithography. A plurality of individually addressable and rotatable micromirrors together comprise a two-dimensional array of micromirrors. Each micromirror in the two-dimensional array can be envisioned as an individually addressable element in the picture that comprises the circuit pattern desired. As each micromirror is addressed it rotates so as to reflect light from a light source onto a portion of the photoresist coated wafer thereby forming a pixel within the circuit pattern. By electronically addressing a two-dimensional array of these micromirrors in the proper sequence a circuit pattern that is comprised of these individual pixels can be constructed on a microchip. The reflecting surface of the micromirror is configured in such a way as to overcome coherence and diffraction effects in order to produce circuit elements having straight sides.

  6. Solvent immersion imprint lithography.

    PubMed

    Vasdekis, A E; Wilkins, M J; Grate, J W; Kelly, R T; Konopka, A E; Xantheas, S S; Chang, T-M

    2014-06-21

    We present Solvent Immersion Imprint Lithography (SIIL), a technique for polymer functionalization and microsystem prototyping. SIIL is based on polymer immersion in commonly available solvents. This was experimentally and computationally analyzed, uniquely enabling two practical aspects. The first is imprinting and bonding deep features that span the 1 to 100 μm range, which are unattainable with existing solvent-based methods. The second is a functionalization scheme characterized by a well-controlled, 3D distribution of chemical moieties. SIIL is validated by developing microfluidics with embedded 3D oxygen sensors and microbioreactors for quantitative metabolic studies of a thermophile anaerobe microbial culture. Polystyrene (PS) was employed in the aforementioned applications; however all soluble polymers - including inorganic ones - can be employed with SIIL under no instrumentation requirements and typical processing times of less than two minutes.

  7. Array imaging system for lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirner, Raoul; Mueller, Kevin; Malaurie, Pauline; Vogler, Uwe; Noell, Wilfried; Scharf, Toralf; Voelkel, Reinhard

    2016-09-01

    We present an integrated array imaging system based on a stack of microlens arrays. The microlens arrays are manufactured by melting resist and reactive ion etching (RIE) technology on 8'' wafers (fused silica) and mounted by wafer-level packaging (WLP)1. The array imaging system is configured for 1X projection (magnification m = +1) of a mask pattern onto a planar wafer. The optical system is based on two symmetric telescopes, thus anti-symmetric wavefront aberrations like coma, distortion, lateral color are minimal. Spherical aberrations are reduced by using microlenses with aspherical lens profiles. In our system design approach, sub-images of individual imaging channels do not overlap to avoid interference. Image superposition is achieved by moving the array imaging system during the exposure time. A tandem Koehler integrator illumination system (MO Exposure Optics) is used for illumination. The angular spectrum of the illumination light underfills the pupils of the imaging channels to avoid crosstalk. We present and discuss results from simulation, mounting and testing of a first prototype of the investigated array imaging system for lithography.

  8. Extreme-UV lithography condenser

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Sweeney, Donald W.; Shafer, David; McGuire, James

    2001-01-01

    Condenser system for use with a ringfield camera in projection lithography where the condenser includes a series of segments of a parent aspheric mirror having one foci at a quasi-point source of radiation and the other foci at the radius of a ringfield have all but one or all of their beams translated and rotated by sets of mirrors such that all of the beams pass through the real entrance pupil of a ringfield camera about one of the beams and fall onto the ringfield radius as a coincident image as an arc of the ringfield. The condenser has a set of correcting mirrors with one of the correcting mirrors of each set, or a mirror that is common to said sets of mirrors, from which the radiation emanates, is a concave mirror that is positioned to shape a beam segment having a chord angle of about 25 to 85 degrees into a second beam segment having a chord angle of about 0 to 60 degrees.

  9. Nanoimprint lithography for nanodevice fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcelo, Steven; Li, Zhiyong

    2016-09-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a compelling technique for low cost nanoscale device fabrication. The precise and repeatable replication of nanoscale patterns from a single high resolution patterning step makes the NIL technique much more versatile than other expensive techniques such as e-beam or even helium ion beam lithography. Furthermore, the use of mechanical deformation during the NIL process enables grayscale lithography with only a single patterning step, not achievable with any other conventional lithography techniques. These strengths enable the fabrication of unique nanoscale devices by NIL for a variety of applications including optics, plasmonics and even biotechnology. Recent advances in throughput and yield in NIL processes demonstrate the potential of being adopted for mainstream semiconductor device fabrication as well.

  10. Nanoimprint lithography for nanodevice fabrication.

    PubMed

    Barcelo, Steven; Li, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a compelling technique for low cost nanoscale device fabrication. The precise and repeatable replication of nanoscale patterns from a single high resolution patterning step makes the NIL technique much more versatile than other expensive techniques such as e-beam or even helium ion beam lithography. Furthermore, the use of mechanical deformation during the NIL process enables grayscale lithography with only a single patterning step, not achievable with any other conventional lithography techniques. These strengths enable the fabrication of unique nanoscale devices by NIL for a variety of applications including optics, plasmonics and even biotechnology. Recent advances in throughput and yield in NIL processes demonstrate the potential of being adopted for mainstream semiconductor device fabrication as well.

  11. Directly patterned inorganic hardmask for EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stowers, Jason K.; Telecky, Alan; Kocsis, Michael; Clark, Benjamin L.; Keszler, Douglas A.; Grenville, Andrew; Anderson, Chris N.; Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes a metal oxide patternable hardmask designed for EUV lithography. The material has imaged 15-nm half-pitch by projection EUV exposure on the SEMATECH Berkeley MET, and 12-nm half-pitch by electron beam exposure. The platform is highly absorbing (16 μm-1) and etch resistant (>100:1 for silicon). These properties enable resist film thickness to be reduced to 20nm, thereby reducing aspect ratio and susceptibility to pattern collapse. New materials and processes show a path to improved photospeed. This paper also presents data for on coating uniformity, metal-impurity content, outgassing, pattern transfer, and resist strip.

  12. Innovative metrology for wafer edge defectivity in immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollentier, I.; Iwamoto, F.; Kocsis, M.; Somanchi, A.; Burkeen, F.; Vedula, S.

    2007-03-01

    In semiconductor manufacturing, the control of defects at the edge of the wafer is a key factor to keep the number of yielding die on a wafer as high as possible. Using dry lithography, this control is typically done by an edge bead removal (EBR) process, which is understood well. Immersion lithography however changes this situation significantly. During this exposure, the wafer edge is locally in contact with water from the immersion hood, and particles can then be transported back and forth from the wafer edge area to the scanner wafer stage. Materiel in the EBR region can also potentially be damaged by the dynamic force of the immersion hood movement. In this paper, we have investigated the impact of immersion lithography on wafer edge defectivity. In the past, such work has been limited to the inspection of the flat top part of the wafer edge, due to the inspection challenges at the curved wafer edge and lack of a comprehensive defect inspection solution. This study utilized KLA-Tencor's VisEdge, a new automated edge inspection system, that provides full wafer edge imaging (top, side, bottom) using laser-based optics and multi-sensor detection, and where defects of interest can be classified with Automated Defect Classification (ADC) software. Using the VisEdge technology, the impact from the immersion lithography towards wafer edge defectivity is investigated. The work revealed several key challenges to keep the wafer edge related defectivity under control : choice of resist, optimization of EBR recipes, scanner pollution and related memory effects, wafer handling, device processing, etc... Contributing to the understanding of the mechanisms of wafer edge related immersion defects and to the optimization the die yield level, this technology is believed to be important when the immersion processes are introduced in semiconductor manufacturing.

  13. Porphyrin-Based Photocatalytic Lithography

    PubMed Central

    Bearinger, Jane P.; Stone, Gary; Christian, Allen T.; Dugan, Lawrence; Hiddessen, Amy L.; Wu, Kuang Jen J.; Wu, Ligang; Hamilton, Julie; Stockton, Cheryl; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Photocatalytic lithography couples light with photoreactive coated mask materials to pattern surface chemistry. We excite porphyrins to create radical species that photocatalytically oxidize, and thereby pattern, chemistries in the local vicinity. The technique advantageously is suited for use with a wide variety of substrates. It is fast and robust, and the wavelength of light does not limit the resolution of patterned features. We have patterned proteins and cells to demonstrate the utility of photocatalytic lithography in life science applications. PMID:18380510

  14. Condenser for extreme-UV lithography with discharge source

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Kubiak, Glenn D.

    2001-01-01

    Condenser system, for use with a ringfield camera in projection lithography, employs quasi grazing-incidence collector mirrors that are coated with a suitable reflective metal such as ruthenium to collect radiation from a discharge source to minimize the effect of contaminant accumulation on the collecting mirrors.

  15. Diffractive element in extreme-UV lithography condenser

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit

    2001-01-01

    Condensers having a mirror with a diffraction grating in projection lithography using extreme ultra-violet significantly enhances critical dimension control. The diffraction grating has the effect of smoothing the illumination at the camera's entrance pupil with minimum light loss. Modeling suggests that critical dimension control for 100 nm features can be improved from 3 nm to less than about 0.5 nm.

  16. Diffractive element in extreme-UV lithography condenser

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Ray-Chaudhurl, Avijit K.

    2000-01-01

    Condensers having a mirror with a diffraction grating in projection lithography using extreme ultra-violet significantly enhances critical dimension control. The diffraction grating has the effect of smoothing the illumination at the camera's entrance pupil with minimum light loss. Modeling suggests that critical dimension control for 100 nm features can be improved from 3 nm to less than about 0.5 nm.

  17. High power fiber laser driver for efficient EUV lithography source with tin-doped water droplet targets.

    PubMed

    Hou, Kai-Chung; George, Simi; Mordovanakis, Aghapi G; Takenoshita, Kazutoshi; Nees, John; Lafontaine, Bruno; Richardson, Martin; Galvanauskas, Almantas

    2008-01-21

    In this paper we report the development of nanosecond-pulsed fiber laser technology for the next generation EUV lithography sources. The demonstrated fiber laser system incorporates large core fibers and arbitrary optical waveform generation, which enables achieving optimum intensities and other critical beam characteristics on a laser-plasma target. Experiment demonstrates efficient EUV generation with conversion efficiency of up to 2.07% for in-band 13.5-nm radiation using mass-limited Sn-doped droplet targets. This result opens a new technological path towards fiber laser based high power EUV sources for high-throughput lithography steppers.

  18. Quantum lithography beyond the diffraction limit via Rabi-oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Zeyang; Al-Amri, Mohammad; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2011-03-01

    We propose a quantum optical method to do the sub-wavelength lithography. Our method is similar to the traditional lithography but adding a critical step before dissociating the chemical bound of the photoresist. The subwavelength pattern is achieved by inducing the multi-Rabi-oscillation between the two atomic levels. The proposed method does not require multiphoton absorption and the entanglement of photons. This method is expected to be realizable using current technology. This work is supported by a grant from the Qatar National Research Fund (QNRF) under the NPRP project and a grant from the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST).

  19. Decal transfer lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childs, William Robert

    A new soft-lithographic method for micropatterning polymeric resists, Decal Transfer Lithography (DTL), is described. This technique is based on the adhesive transfer of elastomeric decal patterns via the engineered adhesion and release properties of a compliant poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) patterning tool. This procedure is capable of transferring micron to sub-micron-sized features with high fidelity over large substrate areas in both open and closed forms, negative and positive image contrasts. Methods are introduced to promote adhesion of PDMS to noble metals using either of two methods: self-assembling monolayers (SAMs) or silicon dioxide capping layers. A novel UV/Ozone (UVO) mask was developed, which allows the photopatterning of UVO modifications of polymer surfaces. This modification in turn enables the direct photoinitiated patterning of resist patterns transferred by the soft-lithographic DTL method Photodefined-Cohesive Mechanical Failure (P-CMF), which fuses the design rules of the contact based adhesive transfer of PDMS in DTL with those of photolithography. The second, so-called Spartacus method, transfers the design rules of photolithography directly onto PDMS surfaces, enabling a photodefined adhesive transfer of PDMS films onto silicon oxide surfaces. The most significant advance embodied in the DTL method, however, is that is offers useful new capabilities for the design and fabrication of patterns of non-planar surfaces, 3D microfluidic assemblies, and microreactors.

  20. Lithography overlay controller formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bode, Christopher A.; Toprac, Anthony J.; Edwards, Richard D.; Edgar, Thomas F.

    2000-08-01

    Lithography overlay refers to the measurement of the alignment of successive patterns within the manufacture of semiconductor devices. Control of overlay has become of great importance in semiconductor manufacturing, as the tolerance for overlay error is continually shrinking in order to manufacture next-generation semiconductor products. Run-to-run control has become an attractive solution to many control problems within the industry, including overlay. The term run-to-run control refers to any automated procedure whereby recipe settings are updated between successive process runs in order to keep the process under control. The following discussion will present the formulation of such a controller by examining control of overlay. A brief introduction of overlay will be given, highlighting the control challenge overlay presents. A data management methodology that groups like processes together in order to improve controllability, referred to as control threads, will then be presented. Finally, a discussion of linear model predictive control will show its utility in feedback run-to-run control.

  1. Laser-based displays: a review.

    PubMed

    Chellappan, Kishore V; Erden, Erdem; Urey, Hakan

    2010-09-01

    After the invention of lasers, in the past 50 years progress made in laser-based display technology has been very promising, with commercial products awaiting release to the mass market. Compact laser systems, such as edge-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and optically pumped semiconductor lasers, are suitable candidates for laser-based displays. Laser speckle is an important concern, as it degrades image quality. Typically, one or multiple speckle reduction techniques are employed in laser displays to reduce speckle contrast. Likewise, laser safety issues need to be carefully evaluated in designing laser displays under different usage scenarios. Laser beam shaping using refractive and diffractive components is an integral part of laser displays, and the requirements depend on the source specifications, modulation technique, and the scanning method being employed in the display. A variety of laser-based displays have been reported, and many products such as pico projectors and laser televisions are commercially available already.

  2. Photoinhibition superresolution lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forman, Darren Lawrence

    While the prospect of nanoscale manufacturing has generated tremendous excitement, arbitrary patterning at nanometer length scales cannot be brought about with current photolithography---the technology that for decades has driven electronics miniaturization and enabled mass production of digital logic, memory, MEMS and flat-panel displays. This is due to the relatively long wavelength of light and diffraction, which imposes a physical not technological limit on the resolution of a far-field optical pattern. Photoinhibited superresolution (PInSR) lithography is a new scheme designed to beat the diffraction limit through two-color confinement of photopolymerization and, via efficient single-photon absorption kinetics, also be high-throughput capable. This thesis describes development of an integrated optical and materials system for investigating spatiotemporal dynamics of photoinhibited superresolution lithography, with a demonstrated 3x superresolution beyond the diffraction limit. The two-color response, arising from orthogonal photogeneration of species that participate in competing reactions, is shown to be highly complex. This is both a direct and indirect consequence of mobility. Interesting trade-offs arise: thin-film resins (necessitated by single-photon absorption kinetics) require high viscosity for film stability, but the photoinhibition effect is suppressed in viscous resins. Despite this apparent suppression, which can be overcome with high excitation of the photoinhibition system, the low mobility afforded by viscous materials is beneficial for confinement of active species. Diffusion-induced blurring of patterned photoinhibition is problematic in a resin with viscosity = 1,000 cP, and overcome in a resin with viscosity eta = 500,000 cP. Superresolution of factor 3x beyond the diffraction limit is demonstrated at 0.2 NA, with additional results indicating superresolution ability at 1.2 NA. Investigating the effect of diminished photoinhibition efficacy

  3. Preliminary microfluidic simulations for immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Alexander C.; Nellis, Greg F.; Abdo, Amr Y.; Engelstad, Roxann L.; Chen, Cheng-Fu; Switkes, Michael; Rothschild, Mordechai

    2003-06-01

    The premise behind immersion lithography is to improve the resolution for optical lithography technology by increasing the index of refraction in the space between the final projection lens of an exposure system and the device wafer. This is accomplished through the insertion of a high index liquid in place of the low index air that currently fills the gap. The fluid management system must reliably fill the lens-wafer gap with liquid, maintain the fill under the lens throughout the entire wafer exposure process, and ensure that no bubbles are entrained during filling or scanning. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the fluid flow characteristics of a liquid between the lens and the wafer in immersion lithography. The objective of this feasibility study was to identify liquid candidates that meet both optical and specific fluid mechanical requirements. The mechanics of the filling process was analyzed to simplify the problem and identify those fluid properties and system parameters that affect the process. Two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of the fluid between the lens and the wafer were developed for simulating the process. The CFD simulations were used to investigate two methods of liquid deposition. In the first, a liquid is dispensed onto the wafer as a "puddle" and then the wafer and liquid move under the lens. This is referred to as passive filling. The second method involves the use of liquid jets in close proximity to the edge of the lens and is referred to as active filling. Numerical simulations of passive filling included a parametric study of the key dimensionless group influencing the filling process and an investigation of the effects of the fluid/wafer and fluid/lens contact angles and wafer direction. The model results are compared with experimental measurements. For active filling, preliminary simulation results characterized the influence of the jets on fluid flow.

  4. Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography. Organization of the Photonics Science Topical Meetings Held in Monterey, California on May 10-12, 1993

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-10

    00 pm MA3 Two aspheric mirror system design development MB2 Condenser optics for SXPL, Steve Vernon. Vernon Ap- for SXPL, T. E Jewell. Optical Design...Consultant A generalized plied Physics, Gary Sommargren. Lynn Seppala. David Gaines, procedure for an optical design of a two aspheric mirror system...necessary to develop high-rollectance, tionat Laboratories: J. E, B3jorkhotm. R. R. Freeman, M. 0. Himet, normaltýincidence x-ray mirrors tar projection

  5. Laser- based Insect Tracker (LIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesquita, Leonardo; Sinha, Shiva; van Steveninck, Rob De Ruyter

    2011-03-01

    Insects are excellent model systems for studying learning and behavior, and the potential for genetic manipulation makes the fruitfly especially attractive. Many aspects of fruitfly behavior have been studied through video based tracking methods. However, to our knowledge no current system incorporates signals for behavioral conditioning in freely moving flies. We introduce a non-video based method that enables tracking of single insects over large volumes (> 8000cm3 at high spatial (<1mm) and temporal (<1ms) resolution for extended periods (>1 hour). The system uses a set of moveable mirrors that steer a tracking laser beam. Tracking is based on feedback from a four-quadrant sensor, sampling the beam after it bounces back from a retro reflector. Through the same mirrors we couple a high speed camera for flight dynamics analysis and an IR laser for aversive heat conditioning. Such heat shocks, combined with visual stimuli projected on a screen surrounding the flight arena, enable studies of learning and memory. By sampling the long term statistics of behavior, the system augments quantitative studies of behavioral phenotypes. Preliminary results of such studies will be presented.

  6. Polymer nanofibers by soft lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisignano, Dario; Maruccio, Giuseppe; Mele, Elisa; Persano, Luana; Di Benedetto, Francesca; Cingolani, Roberto

    2005-09-01

    The fabrication of polymeric fibers by soft lithography is demonstrated. Polyurethane, patterned by capillarity-induced molding with high-resolution elastomeric templates, forms mm-long fibers with a diameter below 0.3μm. The Young's modulus of the fabricated structures, evaluated by force-distance scanning probe spectroscopy, has a value of 0.8MPa. This is an excellent example of nanostructures feasible by the combination of soft nanopatterning and high-resolution fabrication approaches for master templates, and particularly electron-beam lithography.

  7. Porphyrin-Based Photocatalytic Lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Bearinger, J; Stone, G; Christian, A; Dugan, L; Hiddessen, A; Wu, K J; Wu, L; Hamilton, J; Stockton, C; Hubbell, J

    2007-10-15

    Photocatalytic lithography is an emerging technique that couples light with coated mask materials in order to pattern surface chemistry. We excite porphyrins to create radical species that photocatalytically oxidize, and thereby pattern, chemistries in the local vicinity. The technique advantageously does not necessitate mass transport or specified substrates, it is fast and robust and the wavelength of light does not limit the resolution of patterned features. We have patterned proteins and cells in order to demonstrate the utility of photocatalytic lithography in life science applications.

  8. Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography Topical Meeting Held in Monterey, California on April 6 - 8, 1992. Technical Digest, Volume 8

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-08

    paperback) / G6A Masker Nw 560 (paperback)I VoL.13 Quantum Electronmics and Lanar Sciesie Anaheim, CA (may 10-15) Positconference edition:c ISBN 1...optics, Georgy Gutman, Kevin Parker, James L. Wood, 10.50 am Ovonic Synthetic Materials Co., Inc.; Richard Watts, National TuAS lx reflective x-ray...am (Invited) WA3 Soft x-ray projection imaging using a 1:1 ring- field op- 4:10 pm-5:20 pm tic, A. A. MacDowell, A T& T Bell Laboratories; J. E

  9. Microfabrication using soft lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiao-Mei

    Soft Lithography is a group of non-photolithographic techniques currently being explored in our group. Four such techniques-microcontact printing (μCP), replica molding (REM), micromolding in capillaries (MIMIC), and microtransfer molding (μTM)-have been demonstrated for fabricating micro- and nanostructures of a variety of materials with dimension >=30 nm. Part I (Chapters 1-5) reviews several aspects of the three molding techniques REM, MIMIC, and μTM. Chapters 1-3 describe μTM and MIMIC, and the use of these techniques in the fabrication of functional devices. μTM is capable of generating μm-scale structures over large areas, on both planar and contoured surfaces, and is able to make 3-dimensional structures layer by layer. The capability of μTM and MIMIC has been demonstrated in the fabrication of single-mode waveguides, waveguide couplers and interferometers. The coupling between waveguides can be tailored by waveguide spacing or the differential in curing time between the waveguides and the cladding. Chapters 4-5 demonstrate the combination of REM and shrinkable polystyrene (PS) films to reduce the feature size of microstructures and to generate microstructures with high aspect ratios on both planar and curved surfaces. A shrinkable PS film is patterned with relief structures, and then heated and shrinks. Thermal shrinkage results in a 100-fold increase in the aspect ratio of the patterned microstructures in the PS film. The microstructures in the shrunken PS films can be transferred to many other materials by REM. Part II (Chapters 6-7) focuses on two issues in the microfabrication using self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) as ultrathin resists. Chapter 6 describes a selective etching solution for transferring patterns of SAMs of alkanethiolates into the underlying layers (e.g., gold, silver, and copper). This etching solution uses thiosulfate as the ligand that coordinates to the metal ions, and ferricyanide as the oxidant. It has been demonstrated to be

  10. Mask and lithography techniques for FPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandstrom, T.; Wahlsten, M.; Sundelin, E.; Hansson, G.; Svensson, A.

    2015-09-01

    Large-field projection lithography for FPDs has developed gradually since the 90s. The LCD screen technology has remained largely unchanged and incremental development has given us better image quality, larger screen sizes, and above all lower cost per area. Recently new types of mobile devices with very high pixel density and/or OLED displays have given rise to dramatically higher requirem ents on photomask technology. Devices with 600 ppi or m ore need lithography with higher optical resolution and better linewidth control. OLED di splays pose new challenges with high sensitivity to transistor parameters and to capacitive cross-talk. New mask requirements leads to new maskwriter requirements and Mycronic has developed a new generation of large -area mask writers with significantly improved properties. This paper discusses and shows data for the improved writers. Mask production to high er quality stan dards also need metrology to verify the quality and Mycronic has introduced a 2D metrology tool with accuracy adequate for current and future masks. New printing or additive methods of producing disp lays on plastic or metal foil will make low-cost disp lays available. This inexpensive type of disp lays will exist side by side with the photographic quality displays of TVs and mobile devices, which will continue to be a challenge in terms of mask and production quality.

  11. Dynamic maskless holographic lithography and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAdams, Daniel R.

    The purpose of this research is to improve the resolution of dynamic maskless holographic lithography (DMHL) by using two-photon absorption, to provide a more thorough characterization of the process, and to expand the functionality of the process by adding previously undemonstrated patterning modes. Two-photon DMHL will be performed in both 2D and 3D configurations with specific characterization relating to process resolution and repeatability. The physical limits of DMHL will be discussed and ways to circumvent them will be proposed and tested. DMHL eliminates the need for a separate mask for every different pattern exposure and allows for real-time shaping of the exposure pattern. It uses an electrically addressable spatial light modulator (SLM) to create an arbitrary intensity pattern at the specimen plane. The SLM is a phase mask that displays a hologram. An algorithm is used to find an appropriate phase hologram for each desired intensity pattern. Each pixel of the SLM shapes the wavefront of the incoming laser light so that the natural Fourier transforming property of a lens causes the desired image to appear in the specimen plane. The process enables one-off projects to be done without the cost of fabricating a mask, and makes it possible to perform lithography with fewer (or even no) moving parts.

  12. Photomask displacement technology for continuous profile generation by mask aligner lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weichelt, Tina; Kinder, Robert; Zeitner, Uwe D.

    2016-12-01

    Mask aligner lithography is one of the most widely used technologies for micro-optical elements fabrication. It offers a high throughput with high-yield processing. With different resolution enhancement technologies shadow printing is a mature alternative to the more expensive projection or electron-beam lithography. We are presenting a novel mask aligner tool that allows shifting the photomask with high accuracy between sequential exposure shots. It offers possibilities such as double patterning or gray tone lithography by applying different light doses at different locations. Within this publication, we show the first results for high resolution blazed grating structures generated in photoresist by multiple exposures using a conventional binary photomask.

  13. Graphic Arts/Offset Lithography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoisington, James; Metcalf, Joseph

    This revised curriculum for graphic arts is designed to provide secondary and postsecondary students with entry-level skills and an understanding of current printing technology. It contains lesson plans based on entry-level competencies for offset lithography as identified by educators and industry representatives. The guide is divided into 15…

  14. Biomolecular Patterning via Photocatalytic Lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Bearinger, J P; Hiddessen, A L; Wu, K J; Christian, A T; Dugan, L C; Stone, G; Camarero, J; Hinz, A K; Hubbell, J A

    2005-02-18

    We have developed a novel method for patterning surface chemistry: Photocatalytic Lithography. This technique relies on inexpensive stamp materials and light; it does not necessitate mass transport or specified substrates, and the wavelength of light should not limit feature resolution. We have demonstrated the utility of this technique through the patterning of proteins, single cells and bacteria.

  15. Graphic Arts/Offset Lithography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoisington, James; Metcalf, Joseph

    This revised curriculum for graphic arts is designed to provide secondary and postsecondary students with entry-level skills and an understanding of current printing technology. It contains lesson plans based on entry-level competencies for offset lithography as identified by educators and industry representatives. The guide is divided into 15…

  16. Advanced oxidation scanning probe lithography.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Yu K; Garcia, Ricardo

    2017-04-07

    Force microscopy enables a variety of approaches to manipulate and/or modify surfaces. Few of those methods have evolved into advanced probe-based lithographies. Oxidation scanning probe lithography (o-SPL) is the only lithography that enables the direct and resist-less nanoscale patterning of a large variety of materials, from metals to semiconductors; from self-assembled monolayers to biomolecules. Oxidation SPL has also been applied to develop sophisticated electronic and nanomechanical devices such as quantum dots, quantum point contacts, nanowire transistors or mechanical resonators. Here, we review the principles, instrumentation aspects and some device applications of o-SPL. Our focus is to provide a balanced view of the method that introduces the key steps in its evolution, provides some detailed explanations on its fundamentals and presents current trends and applications. To illustrate the capabilities and potential of o-SPL as an alternative lithography we have favored the most recent and updated contributions in nanopatterning and device fabrication.

  17. Advanced oxidation scanning probe lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Yu K.; Garcia, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    Force microscopy enables a variety of approaches to manipulate and/or modify surfaces. Few of those methods have evolved into advanced probe-based lithographies. Oxidation scanning probe lithography (o-SPL) is the only lithography that enables the direct and resist-less nanoscale patterning of a large variety of materials, from metals to semiconductors; from self-assembled monolayers to biomolecules. Oxidation SPL has also been applied to develop sophisticated electronic and nanomechanical devices such as quantum dots, quantum point contacts, nanowire transistors or mechanical resonators. Here, we review the principles, instrumentation aspects and some device applications of o-SPL. Our focus is to provide a balanced view of the method that introduces the key steps in its evolution, provides some detailed explanations on its fundamentals and presents current trends and applications. To illustrate the capabilities and potential of o-SPL as an alternative lithography we have favored the most recent and updated contributions in nanopatterning and device fabrication.

  18. Plasmonic films based on colloidal lithography.

    PubMed

    Ai, Bin; Yu, Ye; Möhwald, Helmuth; Zhang, Gang; Yang, Bai

    2014-04-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in the field of plasmonic films fabricated by colloidal lithography. Compared with conventional lithography techniques such as electron beam lithography and focused ion beam lithography, the unconventional colloidal lithography technique with advantages of low-cost and high-throughput has made the fabrication process more efficient, and moreover brought out novel films that show remarkable surface plasmon features. These plasmonic films include those with nanohole arrays, nanovoid arrays and nanoshell arrays with precisely controlled shapes, sizes, and spacing. Based on these novel nanostructures, optical and sensing performances can be greatly enhanced. The introduction of colloidal lithography provides not only efficient fabrication processes but also plasmonic films with unique nanostructures, which are difficult to be fabricated by conventional lithography techniques. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Coherent EUV lithography with table-top laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanski, Lukasz

    This dissertation describes alternative techniques of optical lithography in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The pursuit of the Moore's law forces the semiconductor industry to transfer to shorter wavelengths of illumination in projection lithography. The EUV light is perhaps the most viable candidate for the next generation integrated circuits printing. However, the EUV lithography encounters many challenges associated with the very nature of the light it is using. Many novel techniques and materials are being applied at the same time in the lithography process. As such the process itself is far from being reliable. Thus the solutions are being sought among the alternative methods of printing in the nano-scale that would aid to temporarily overpass the resolution gap. This thesis contains a description of several alternative techniques of nanofabrication with the EUV light. For each method the analytical description is provided that is further corroborated with numerical model simulations. Furthermore every technique presented here is verified experimentally. The proposed techniques are discussed in terms of their applicability as a self consistent nanofabrication process. The illumination source for all the techniques presented is the capillary discharge laser (CDL) that was engineered at Colorado State University; it is characterized in the chapter 2 of this dissertation. The CDL is an unbeatable table-top source of high average power illumination with the degree of coherence that is sufficient for coherent nano-scale printing. A separate chapter is dedicated to the description of the fabrication protocol of a diffractive optical element (the mask) used in the EUV nanopatterning techniques. This particular chapter is intended to serve as a potential reference manual for the EUV masks fabrication. The coherent EUV nanofabrication techniques described in the chapters 4-6 are: the holographic projection lithography, generalized

  20. Laser Based 3D Volumetric Display System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    Literature, Costa Mesa, CA July 1983. 3. "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar 3D Display System", Rodney Don Williams, Felix Garcia, Jr., Texas...8217 .- NUMBERS LASER BASED 3D VOLUMETRIC DISPLAY SYSTEM PR: CD13 0. AUTHOR(S) PE: N/AWIU: DN303151 P. Soltan, J. Trias, W. Robinson, W. Dahlke 7...laser generated 3D volumetric images on a rotating double helix, (where the 3D displays are computer controlled for group viewing with the naked eye

  1. Aerodynamic measurement techniques. [laser based diagnostic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, W. W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Laser characteristics of intensity, monochromatic, spatial coherence, and temporal coherence were developed to advance laser based diagnostic techniques for aerodynamic related research. Two broad categories of visualization and optical measurements were considered, and three techniques received significant attention. These are holography, laser velocimetry, and Raman scattering. Examples of the quantitative laser velocimeter and Raman scattering measurements of velocity, temperature, and density indicated the potential of these nonintrusive techniques.

  2. Lithography yield estimation model to predict layout pattern distortions with a reduced set of lithography simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Sergio; Moll, Francesc; Mauricio, Juan

    2014-03-01

    A yield estimation model to evaluate the lithography distortion in a printed layout is presented. The yield model relates the probability of non-failure of a lithography hotspot with the manufacturing yield loss. We define a lithography hotspot as a pattern construct with excessive variation under lithography printing using lithography simulations. Thereby, we propose a pattern construct classifier to reduce the set of lithography simulations necessary to estimate the litho-degradation. The application of the yield model is demonstrated for different layout configurations showing that a certain degree of layout regularity improves the manufacturing yield and increases the number of good dies per wafer.

  3. Photonic integrated circuits: new challenges for lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolten, Jens; Wahlbrink, Thorsten; Prinzen, Andreas; Porschatis, Caroline; Lerch, Holger; Giesecke, Anna Lena

    2016-10-01

    In this work routes towards the fabrication of photonic integrated circuits (PICs) and the challenges their fabrication poses on lithography, such as large differences in feature dimension of adjacent device features, non-Manhattan-type features, high aspect ratios and significant topographic steps as well as tight lithographic requirements with respect to critical dimension control, line edge roughness and other key figures of merit not only for very small but also for relatively large features, are highlighted. Several ways those challenges are faced in today's low-volume fabrication of PICs, including the concept multi project wafer runs and mix and match approaches, are presented and possible paths towards a real market uptake of PICs are discussed.

  4. Photoresist composition for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Felter, T.E.; Kubiak, G.D.

    1999-11-23

    A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4--0.05 {mu}m using projection lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is disclosed. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces extreme ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods. A photoresist composition for extreme ultraviolet radiation of boron carbide polymers, hydrochlorocarbons and mixtures thereof.

  5. Photoresist composition for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOEpatents

    Felter, T. E.; Kubiak, G. D.

    1999-01-01

    A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces extreme ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods. A photoresist composition for extreme ultraviolet radiation of boron carbide polymers, hydrochlorocarbons and mixtures thereof.

  6. Metrology of 13-nm optics for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Beckwith, J.F.; Patterson, S.R.; Thompson, D.C.; Badami, V.; Smith, S.

    1997-02-03

    This report documents activities carried in support of the design and construction of an ultra-high precision measuring machine intended for the support of Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography development (for semiconductor fabrication). At the outset, this project was aimed at the overall fabrication of such a measuring machine. Shortly after initiation, however, the scope of activities was reduced and effort was concentrated on the key technical advances necessary to support such machine development: high accuracy surface sensing and highly linear distance interferometry.

  7. Maskless micro-ion-beam reduction lithography system

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Barletta, William A.; Patterson, David O.; Gough, Richard A.

    2005-05-03

    A maskless micro-ion-beam reduction lithography system is a system for projecting patterns onto a resist layer on a wafer with feature size down to below 100 nm. The MMRL system operates without a stencil mask. The patterns are generated by switching beamlets on and off from a two electrode blanking system or pattern generator. The pattern generator controllably extracts the beamlet pattern from an ion source and is followed by a beam reduction and acceleration column.

  8. Overlay control for nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuhara, Kazuya; Suzuki, Masato; Mitsuyasu, Masaki; Kono, Takuya; Nakasugi, Tetsuro; Lim, Yonghyun; Jung, Wooyung

    2017-04-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a promising technique for fine-patterning with a lower cost than other lithography techniques such as EUV or immersion with multi-patterning. NIL has the potential of "single" patterning for both line patterns and hole patterns with a half-pitch of less than 20nm. NIL tools for semiconductor manufacturing employ die-by-die alignment system with moiré fringe detection which gives alignment measurement accuracy of below 1nm. In this paper we describe the evaluation results of NIL the overlay performance using an up-to-date NIL tool for 300mm wafer. We show the progress of both "NIL-to-NIL" and "NIL-to-optical tool" distortion matching techniques. From these analyses based on actual NIL overlay data, we discuss the possibility of NIL overlay evolution to realize an on-product overlay accuracy to 3nm and beyond.

  9. X-ray lithography source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, Melvin A.; Boyers, David G.; Pincus, Cary

    1991-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and elminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an exellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography.

  10. EUV Lithography: New Metrology Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Obert

    2007-09-26

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography is one of the most promising printing techniques for high volume semiconductor manufacturing at the 22 nm half-pitch device node and beyond. Because its imaging wavelength is approximately twenty times shorter than those currently in use (13.5 nm versus 193-248 nm) and because EUV optics and masks must be provided with highly-precise reflective multilayer coatings, EUV lithography presents a number of new and difficult metrology challenges. In this paper, the current status of the metrology tools being used to characterize the figure and finish of EUV mirror surfaces, the defectivity and flatness of EUV mask blanks and the outgassing rates of EUV resist materials are discussed.

  11. X-ray lithography source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.

    1991-12-31

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits is disclosed. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and eliminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an excellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography. 26 figures.

  12. Low Cost Lithography Tool for High Brightness LED Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Hawryluk; Emily True

    2012-06-30

    The objective of this activity was to address the need for improved manufacturing tools for LEDs. Improvements include lower cost (both capital equipment cost reductions and cost-ofownership reductions), better automation and better yields. To meet the DOE objective of $1- 2/kilolumen, it will be necessary to develop these highly automated manufacturing tools. Lithography is used extensively in the fabrication of high-brightness LEDs, but the tools used to date are not scalable to high-volume manufacturing. This activity addressed the LED lithography process. During R&D and low volume manufacturing, most LED companies use contact-printers. However, several industries have shown that these printers are incompatible with high volume manufacturing and the LED industry needs to evolve to projection steppers. The need for projection lithography tools for LED manufacturing is identified in the Solid State Lighting Manufacturing Roadmap Draft, June 2009. The Roadmap states that Projection tools are needed by 2011. This work will modify a stepper, originally designed for semiconductor manufacturing, for use in LED manufacturing. This work addresses improvements to yield, material handling, automation and throughput for LED manufacturing while reducing the capital equipment cost.

  13. Protein assay structured on paper by using lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, E.; Nargang, T. M.; Al Bitar, W.; Waterkotte, B.; Rapp, B. E.

    2015-03-01

    There are two main challenges in producing a robust, paper-based analytical device. The first one is to create a hydrophobic barrier which unlike the commonly used wax barriers does not break if the paper is bent. The second one is the creation of the (bio-)specific sensing layer. For this proteins have to be immobilized without diminishing their activity. We solve both problems using light-based fabrication methods that enable fast, efficient manufacturing of paper-based analytical devices. The first technique relies on silanization by which we create a flexible hydrophobic barrier made of dimethoxydimethylsilane. The second technique demonstrated within this paper uses photobleaching to immobilize proteins by means of maskless projection lithography. Both techniques have been tested on a classical lithography setup using printed toner masks and on a lithography system for maskless lithography. Using these setups we could demonstrate that the proposed manufacturing techniques can be carried out at low costs. The resolution of the paper-based analytical devices obtained with static masks was lower due to the lower mask resolution. Better results were obtained using advanced lithography equipment. By doing so we demonstrated, that our technique enables fabrication of effective hydrophobic boundary layers with a thickness of only 342 μm. Furthermore we showed that flourescine-5-biotin can be immobilized on the non-structured paper and be employed for the detection of streptavidinalkaline phosphatase. By carrying out this assay on a paper-based analytical device which had been structured using the silanization technique we proofed biological compatibility of the suggested patterning technique.

  14. Nanoimprint lithography for microfluidics manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreindl, Gerald; Matthias, Thorsten

    2013-12-01

    The history of imprint technology as lithography method for pattern replication can be traced back to 1970's but the most significant progress has been made by the research group of S. Chou in the 1990's. Since then, it has become a popular technique with a rapidly growing interest from both research and industrial sides and a variety of new approaches have been proposed along the mainstream scientific advances. Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a novel method for the fabrication of micro/nanometer scale patterns with low cost, high throughput and high resolution. Unlike traditional optical lithographic approaches, which create pattern through the use of photons or electrons to modify the chemical and physical properties of the resist, NIL relies on direct mechanical deformation of the resist and can therefore achieve resolutions beyond the limitations set by light diffraction or beam scattering that are encountered in conventional lithographic techniques. The ability to fabricate structures from the micro- to the nanoscale with high precision in a wide variety of materials is of crucial importance to the advancement of micro- and nanotechnology and the biotech- sciences as a whole and will be discussed in this paper. Nanoimprinting can not only create resist patterns, as in lithography, but can also imprint functional device structures in various polymers, which can lead to a wide range of applications in electronics, photonics, data storage, and biotechnology.

  15. Commercialization plan laser-based decoating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Freiwald, J.; Freiwald, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    F2 Associates Inc. (F2) is a small, high-technology firm focused on developing and commercializing environmentally friendly laser ablation systems for industrial-rate removal of surface coatings from metals, concrete, and delicate substrates such as composites. F2 has a contract with the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) to develop and test a laser-based technology for removing contaminated paint and other contaminants from concrete and metal surfaces. Task 4.1 in Phase 2 of the Statement of Work for this DOE contract requires that F2 ``document its plans for commercializing and marketing the stationary laser ablation system. This document shall include a discussion of prospects for commercial customers and partners and may require periodic update to reflect changing strategy. This document shall be submitted to the DOE for review.`` This report is being prepared and submitted in fulfillment of that requirement. This report describes the laser-based technology for cleaning and coatings removal, the types of laser-based systems that have been developed by F2 based on this technology, and the various markets that are emerging for this technology. F2`s commercialization and marketing plans are described, including how F2`s organization is structured to meet the needs of technology commercialization, F2`s strategy and marketing approach, and the necessary steps to receive certification for removing paint from aircraft and DOE certification for D and D applications. The future use of the equipment built for the DOE contract is also discussed.

  16. Multicusp sources for ion beam projection lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.; Gough, R. A.; Kunkel, W. B.; Leung, K. N.; Vujic, J.; Williams, M. D.; Wutte, D.; Zahir, N.

    1998-02-01

    Multicusp ion sources are capable of producing positive and negative ions with good beam quality and low energy spread. The ion energy spread of multicusp sources has been measured by three different techniques. The axial ion energy spread has been reduced by introducing a magnetic filter inside the multicusp source chamber which adjusts the plasma potential distribution. The axial energy spread is further reduced by optimizing the source configuration. Values as low as 0.8 eV have been achieved.

  17. Laser based accelerator for ultracold atoms.

    PubMed

    Rakonjac, A; Deb, A B; Hoinka, S; Hudson, D; Sawyer, B J; Kjærgaard, N

    2012-03-15

    We present our first results on our implementation of a laser based accelerator for ultracold atoms. Atoms cooled to a temperature of 420 nK are confined and accelerated by means of laser tweezer beams, and the atomic scattering is directly observed in laser absorption imaging. The optical collider has been characterized using 87Rb atoms in the |F=2, m(F)=2] state, but the scheme is not restricted to atoms in any particular magnetic substates and can readily be extended to other atomic species as well.

  18. Charting CEBL's role in mainstream semiconductor lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, David K.

    2013-09-01

    historically kept it out of mainstream fabs. Thanks to continuing EBDW advances combined with the industry's move to unidirectional (1D) gridded layout style, EBDW promises to cost-efficiently complement 193nm ArF immersion (193i) optical lithography in high volume manufacturing (HVM). Patterning conventional 2D design layouts with 193i is a major roadblock in device scaling: the resolution limitations of optical lithography equipment have led to higher mask cost and increased lithography complexity. To overcome the challenge, IC designers have used 1D layouts with "lines and cuts" in critical layers.1 Leading logic and memory chipmakers have been producing advanced designs with lines-and-cuts in HVM for several technology nodes in recent years. However, cut masks in multiple optical patterning are getting extremely costly. Borodovsky proposes Complementary Lithography in which another lithography technology is used to pattern line-cuts in critical layers to complement optical lithography.2 Complementary E-Beam Lithography (CEBL) is a candidate to pattern the Cuts of optically printed Lines. The concept of CEBL is gaining acceptance. However, challenges in throughput, scaling, and data preparation rate are threatening to deny CEBL's role in solving industry's lithography problem. This paper will examine the following issues: The challenges of massively parallel pixel writing The solutions of multiple mini-column design/architecture in: Boosting CEBL throughput Resolving issues of CD control, CDU, LER, data rate, higher resolution, and 450mm wafers The role of CEBL in next-generation solution of semiconductor lithography

  19. Laser-based detection of chemical contraband

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemmer, Robert G.; Kelly, James F.; Martin, Steven W.; Mong, Gary M.; Sharpe, Steven W.

    1997-02-01

    The goal of our work is tow fold; 1) develop a portable and rapid laser based air sampler for detection of specific chemical contraband and 2) compile a spectral data base in both the near- and mid-IR of sufficiently high quality to be useful for gas phase spectroscopic identification of chemical contraband. During the synthesis or 'cooking' of many illicit chemical substances, relatively high concentrations of volatile solvents, chemical precursors and byproducts are unavoidably released to the atmosphere. In some instances, the final product may have sufficient vapor pressure to be detectable in the surrounding air. The detection of a single high-value effluent or the simultaneous detection of two or more low-value effluents can be used as reliable indicators of a nearby clandestine cooking operation. The designation of high- versus low-value effluent reflects both the commercial availability and legitimate usage of a specific chemical. This paper will describe PNNL's progress and efforts towards the development of a portable laser based air sampling system for the detection of clandestine manufacturing of methamphetamine. Although our current efforts ar focused on methamphetamine, we see no fundamental limitations on detection of other forms of chemical contraband manufacturing. This also includes the synthesis of certain classes of chemical weapons that have recently been deployed by terrorist groups.

  20. Subjective speckle suppression in laser-based stereo photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Andreas Walter; Wong, Eugene; Weigel, Daniel; Babovsky, Holger; Schott, Thomas; Kowarschik, Richard

    2016-12-01

    The use of objective speckles as patterns is of high interest for the ongoing development of stereo photogrammetry. The depth of focus of the projected speckle patterns, which can be found to be several meters, can hardly be matched by other projection principles. On the downside, the use of coherent light leads to subjective speckles generated by the rough surface of the object under test. This effect decreases the accuracy under which objects can be reconstructed. We show how laser-based stereo photogrammetry can be adjusted to increase the measurement accuracy of three-dimensional (3-D)-surface measurements while preserving the advantages of speckles projection. Therefore, we present a method to decrease the contrast of subjective speckles in the images by pixel-wise shifting the cameras orthogonally to their viewing direction and back shifting the taken images numerically, accordingly. This leads to an increase in 3-D-reconstruction quality, as seen in a decrease in standard deviation, peak-to-valley value and in an increase in the number of reconstructed points for measured test objects.

  1. Discharge produced plasma source for EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, V.; Eltzov, A.; Ivanov, A.; Khristoforov, O.; Kirykhin, Yu.; Vinokhodov, A.; Vodchits, V.; Mishhenko, V.; Prokofiev, A.

    2007-04-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is seen as the most promising candidate for the next generation of lithography and semiconductor chip manufacturing for the 32 nm node and below. The paper describes experimental results obtained with discharge produced plasma (DPP) sources based on pinch effect in a Xe and Sn vapour as potential tool for the EUV lithography. Problems of DPP source development are discussed.

  2. High-Throughput Contact Flow Lithography.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, Gaelle C; Lee, Jiseok; Gupta, Ankur; Hill, William Adam; Doyle, Patrick S

    2015-10-01

    High-throughput fabrication of graphically encoded hydrogel microparticles is achieved by combining flow contact lithography in a multichannel microfluidic device and a high capacity 25 mm LED UV source. Production rates of chemically homogeneous particles are improved by two orders of magnitude. Additionally, the custom-built contact lithography instrument provides an affordable solution for patterning complex microstructures on surfaces.

  3. Three dimensional polymer waveguide using hybrid lithography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huanran; Liu, Yu; Jiang, Minghui; Chen, Changming; Wang, Xibin; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Daming; Yi, Yunji

    2015-10-01

    A three dimensional polymer waveguide with taper structure was demonstrated and fabricated by a reliable and effective hybrid lithography. The hybrid lithography consists of lithography to fabricate a polymer waveguide and gray scale lithography to fabricate a polymer taper structure. Laser ablation and shadow aluminum evaporation were designed for gray scale lithography. The length of the gray scale region ranging from 20 to 400 μm could be controlled by the laser power, the ablation speed, and the aluminum thickness. The slope angle was determined by the length of the gray scale region and the thickness of the photoresist. The waveguide taper structure could be transferred to the lower layer by the etching method. The taper structure can be used for integration of the waveguide with different dimensions.

  4. Moiré Nanosphere Lithography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Rajeeva, Bharath Bangalore; Wu, Zilong; Rukavina, Michael; Dao, Thang Duy; Ishii, Satoshi; Aono, Masakazu; Nagao, Tadaaki; Zheng, Yuebing

    2015-06-23

    We have developed moiré nanosphere lithography (M-NSL), which incorporates in-plane rotation between neighboring monolayers, to extend the patterning capability of conventional nanosphere lithography (NSL). NSL, which uses self-assembled layers of monodisperse micro/nanospheres as masks, is a low-cost, scalable nanofabrication technique and has been widely employed to fabricate various nanoparticle arrays. Combination with dry etching and/or angled deposition has greatly enriched the family of nanoparticles NSL can yield. In this work, we introduce a variant of this technique, which uses sequential stacking of polystyrene nanosphere monolayers to form a bilayer crystal instead of conventional spontaneous self-assembly. Sequential stacking leads to the formation of moiré patterns other than the usually observed thermodynamically stable configurations. Subsequent O2 plasma etching results in a variety of complex nanostructures. Using the etched moiré patterns as masks, we have fabricated complementary gold nanostructures and studied their optical properties. We believe this facile technique provides a strategy to fabricate complex nanostructures or metasurfaces.

  5. Scanning Probe Photonic Nanojet Lithography.

    PubMed

    Jacassi, Andrea; Tantussi, Francesco; Dipalo, Michele; Biagini, Claudio; Maccaferri, Nicolò; Bozzola, Angelo; De Angelis, Francesco

    2017-09-08

    The use of nano/microspheres or beads for optical nanolithography is a consolidated technique for achieving subwavelength structures using a cost-effective approach; this method exploits the capability of the beads to focus electromagnetic waves into subwavelength beams called photonic nanojets, which are used to expose the photoresist on which the beads are placed. However, this technique has only been used to produce regular patterns based on the spatial arrangement of the beads on the substrate, thus considerably limiting the pool of applications. Here, we present a novel microsphere-based optical lithography technique that offers high subwavelength resolution and the possibility of generating any arbitrary pattern. The presented method consists of a single microsphere embedded in an AFM cantilever, which can be controlled using the AFM motors to write arbitrary patterns with subwavelength resolution (down to 290 nm with a 405 nm laser). The performance of the proposed technique can compete with those of commercial high-resolution standard instruments, with the advantage of a one-order-of-magnitude reduction in costs. This approach paves the way for direct integration of cost-effective, high-resolution optical lithography capabilities into several existing AFM systems.

  6. Mask lithography for display manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandstrom, T.; Ekberg, P.

    2010-05-01

    The last ten years have seen flat displays conquer our briefcases, desktops, and living rooms. There has been an enormous development in production technology, not least in lithography and photomasks. Current masks for large displays are more than 2 m2 and make 4-6 1X prints on glass substrates that are 9 m2. One of the most challenging aspects of photomasks for displays is the so called mura, stripes or blemishes which cause visible defects in the finished display. For the future new and even tighter maskwriter specifications are driven by faster transistors and more complex pixel layouts made necessary by the market's wish for still better image quality, multi-touch panels, 3D TVs, and the next wave of e-book readers. Large OLED screens will pose new challenges. Many new types of displays will be lowcost and use simple lithography, but anything which can show video and high quality photographic images needs a transistor backplane and sophisticated masks for its production.

  7. Scanning probe block copolymer lithography

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jinan; Huo, Fengwei; Zheng, Zijian; Giam, Louise R.; Shim, Wooyoung; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2010-01-01

    Integration of individual nanoparticles into desired spatial arrangements over large areas is a prerequisite for exploiting their unique electrical, optical, and chemical properties. However, positioning single sub-10-nm nanoparticles in a specific location individually on a substrate remains challenging. Herein we have developed a unique approach, termed scanning probe block copolymer lithography, which enables one to control the growth and position of individual nanoparticles in situ. This technique relies on either dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) or polymer pen lithography (PPL) to transfer phase-separating block copolymer inks in the form of 100 or more nanometer features on an underlying substrate. Reduction of the metal ions via plasma results in the high-yield formation of single crystal nanoparticles per block copolymer feature. Because the size of each feature controls the number of metal atoms within it, the DPN or PPL step can be used to control precisely the size of each nanocrystal down to 4.8 ± 0.2 nm. PMID:21059942

  8. EUV lithography development in Europe: present status and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccotti, Tiberio

    2004-01-01

    According to the ISMT roadmap, Extreme Ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is the most promising technology to reach the 45-nm node for industrial production and to satisfy the famous law of Moore beyond 2007. Already in 1998 the first European EUVL project (EUCLIDES) has been launched under the leadership of ASM Lithography. Shortly after that in 1999, the national R&D program PREUVE started in France to improve EUVL related technologies and to build the first experimental lithography bench (BEL) in Europe. Finally, in 2001, the main European industrial companies as well as academic and national laboratories have federated within the important MEDEA+ effort to overcome the main technological challenges and to industrialize EUVL in time. Indeed, one of the most important challenges of EUVL concerns the achievement of very powerful, clean and reliable sources. The present paper will give the current state of European EUVL source technology and an overview of the different approaches. Main results are reviewed and the remaining challenges are discussed.

  9. PSM design for inverse lithography with partially coherent illumination.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xu; Arce, Gonzalo R

    2008-11-24

    Phase-shifting masks (PSM) are resolution enhancement techniques (RET) used extensively in the semiconductor industry to improve the resolution and pattern fidelity of optical lithography. Recently, a set of gradient-based PSM optimization methods have been developed to solve for the inverse lithography problem under coherent illumination. Most practical lithography systems, however, use partially coherent illumination due to non-zero width and off-axis light sources, which introduce partial coherence factors that must be accounted for in the optimization of PSMs. This paper thus focuses on developing a framework for gradient-based PSM optimization methods which account for the inherent nonlinearities of partially coherent illumination. In particular, the singular value decomposition (SVD) is used to expand the partially coherent imaging equation by eigenfunctions into a sum of coherent systems (SOCS). The first order coherent approximation corresponding to the largest eigenvalue is used in the PSM optimization. In order to influence the solution patterns to have more desirable manufacturability properties and higher fidelity, a post-processing of the mask pattern based on the 2D discrete cosine transformation (DCT) is introduced. Furthermore, a photoresist tone reversing technique is exploited in the design of PSMs to project extremely sparse patterns.

  10. MAGIC: a European program to push the insertion of maskless lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pain, L.; Icard, B.; Tedesco, S.; Kampherbeek, B.; Gross, G.; Klein, C.; Loeschner, H.; Platzgummer, E.; Morgan, R.; Manakli, S.; Kretz, J.; Holhe, C.; Choi, K.-H.; Thrum, F.; Kassel, E.; Pilz, W.; Keil, K.; Butschke, J.; Irmscher, M.; Letzkus, F.; Hudek, P.; Paraskevopoulos, A.; Ramm, P.; Weber, J.

    2008-03-01

    With the willingness of the semiconductor industry to push manufacturing costs down, the mask less lithography solution represents a promising option to deal with the cost and complexity concerns about the optical lithography solution. Though a real interest, the development of multi beam tools still remains in laboratory environment. In the frame of the seventh European Framework Program (FP7), a new project, MAGIC, started January 1st 2008 with the objective to strengthen the development of the mask less technology. The aim of the program is to develop multi beam systems from MAPPER and IMS nanofabrication technologies and the associated infrastructure for the future tool usage. This paper draws the present status of multi beam lithography and details the content and the objectives of the MAGIC project.

  11. Particle Lithography Enables Fabrication of Multicomponent Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-feng; Swartz, Logan A.; Li, Jie-Ren; Liu, Yang; Liu, Gang-yu

    2014-01-01

    Multicomponent nanostructures with individual geometries have attracted much attention because of their potential to carry out multiple functions synergistically. The current work reports a simple method using particle lithography to fabricate multicomponent nanostructures of metals, proteins, and organosiloxane molecules, each with its own geometry. Particle lithography is well-known for its capability to produce arrays of triangular-shaped nanostructures with novel optical properties. This paper extends the capability of particle lithography by combining a particle template in conjunction with surface chemistry to produce multicomponent nanostructures. The advantages and limitations of this approach will also be addressed. PMID:24707328

  12. Maskless Electron-Beam Lithography for Trusted Microchip Production

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-31

    lithography has soared and continues to rise unabated. Multibeam has developed maskless electron-beam lithography ( EBL ) for producing advanced Rad-Hard...and other DoD microchips at lower cost. In addition to significant cost savings in mask and lithography equipment, Multibeam’s maskless EBL technology...maskless electron-beam lithography ( EBL ); e-beam direct write (EBDW); complementary e-beam lithography (CEBL); multiple patterning; cycle time

  13. Defect tolerant transmission lithography mask

    DOEpatents

    Vernon, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    A transmission lithography mask that utilizes a transparent substrate or a partially transparent membrane as the active region of the mask. A reflective single layer or multilayer coating is deposited on the membrane surface facing the illumination system. The coating is selectively patterned (removed) to form transmissive (bright) regions. Structural imperfections and defects in the coating have negligible effect on the aerial image of the mask master pattern since the coating is used to reflect radiation out of the entrance pupil of the imaging system. Similarly, structural imperfections in the clear regions of the membrane have little influence on the amplitude or phase of the transmitted electromagnetic fields. Since the mask "discards," rather than absorbs, unwanted radiation, it has reduced optical absorption and reduced thermal loading as compared to conventional designs. For EUV applications, the mask circumvents the phase defect problem, and is independent of the thermal load during exposure.

  14. Speckle disturbance limit in laser-based cinema projection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschaffelt, Guy; Roelandt, Stijn; Meuret, Youri; van den Broeck, Wendy; Kilpi, Katriina; Lievens, Bram; Jacobs, An; Janssens, Peter; Thienpont, Hugo

    2015-09-01

    In a multi-disciplinary effort, we investigate the level of speckle that can be tolerated in a laser cinema projector based on a quality of experience experiment with movie clips shown to a test audience in a real-life movie theatre setting. We identify a speckle disturbance threshold by statistically analyzing the observers’ responses for different values of the amount of speckle, which was monitored using a well-defined speckle measurement method. The analysis shows that the speckle perception of a human observer is not only dependent on the objectively measured amount of speckle, but it is also strongly influenced by the image content. The speckle disturbance limit for movies turns out to be substantially larger than that for still images, and hence is easier to attain.

  15. Speckle disturbance limit in laser-based cinema projection systems

    PubMed Central

    Verschaffelt, Guy; Roelandt, Stijn; Meuret, Youri; Van den Broeck, Wendy; Kilpi, Katriina; Lievens, Bram; Jacobs, An; Janssens, Peter; Thienpont, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    In a multi-disciplinary effort, we investigate the level of speckle that can be tolerated in a laser cinema projector based on a quality of experience experiment with movie clips shown to a test audience in a real-life movie theatre setting. We identify a speckle disturbance threshold by statistically analyzing the observers’ responses for different values of the amount of speckle, which was monitored using a well-defined speckle measurement method. The analysis shows that the speckle perception of a human observer is not only dependent on the objectively measured amount of speckle, but it is also strongly influenced by the image content. The speckle disturbance limit for movies turns out to be substantially larger than that for still images, and hence is easier to attain. PMID:26370531

  16. Challenges of anamorphic high-NA lithography and mask making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Stephen D.; Liu, Jingjing

    2017-06-01

    Chip makers are actively working on the adoption of 0.33 numerical aperture (NA) EUV scanners for the 7-nm and 5-nm nodes (B. Turko, S. L. Carson, A. Lio, T. Liang, M. Phillips, et al., in `Proc. SPIE9776, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VII', vol. 977602 (2016) doi: 10.1117/12.2225014; A. Lio, in `Proc. SPIE9776, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VII', vol. 97760V (2016) doi: 10.1117/12.2225017). In the meantime, leading foundries and integrated device manufacturers are starting to investigate patterning options beyond the 5-nm node (O. Wood, S. Raghunathan, P. Mangat, V. Philipsen, V. Luong, et al., in `Proc. SPIE. 9422, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VI', vol. 94220I (2015) doi: 10.1117/12.2085022). To minimize the cost and process complexity of multiple patterning beyond the 5-nm node, EUV high-NA single-exposure patterning is a preferred method over EUV double patterning (O. Wood, S. Raghunathan, P. Mangat, V. Philipsen, V. Luong, et al., in `Proc. SPIE. 9422, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VI', vol. 94220I (2015) doi: 10.1117/12.2085022; J. van Schoot, K. van Ingen Schenau, G. Bottiglieri, K. Troost, J. Zimmerman, et al., `Proc. SPIE. 9776, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VII', vol. 97761I (2016) doi: 10.1117/12.2220150). The EUV high-NA scanner equipped with a projection lens of 0.55 NA is designed to support resolutions below 10 nm. The high-NA system is beneficial for enhancing resolution, minimizing mask proximity correction bias, improving normalized image log slope (NILS), and controlling CD uniformity (CDU). However, increasing NA from 0.33 to 0.55 reduces the depth of focus (DOF) significantly. Therefore, the source mask optimization (SMO) with sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs) are needed to increase DOF to meet the demanding full chip process control requirements (S. Hsu, R. Howell, J. Jia, H.-Y. Liu, K. Gronlund, et al., EUV `Proc. SPIE9048, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VI', (2015) doi: 10

  17. X-ray lithography using holographic images

    DOEpatents

    Howells, Malcolm R.; Jacobsen, Chris

    1995-01-01

    A non-contact X-ray projection lithography method for producing a desired X-ray image on a selected surface of an X-ray-sensitive material, such as photoresist material on a wafer, the desired X-ray image having image minimum linewidths as small as 0.063 .mu.m, or even smaller. A hologram and its position are determined that will produce the desired image on the selected surface when the hologram is irradiated with X-rays from a suitably monochromatic X-ray source of a selected wavelength .lambda.. On-axis X-ray transmission through, or off-axis X-ray reflection from, a hologram may be used here, with very different requirements for monochromaticity, flux and brightness of the X-ray source. For reasonable penetration of photoresist materials by X-rays produced by the X-ray source, the wavelength X, is preferably chosen to be no more than 13.5 nm in one embodiment and more preferably is chosen in the range 1-5 nm in the other embodiment. A lower limit on linewidth is set by the linewidth of available microstructure writing devices, such as an electron beam.

  18. Gradient-based inverse extreme ultraviolet lithography.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xu; Wang, Jie; Chen, Xuanbo; Li, Yanqiu; Arce, Gonzalo R

    2015-08-20

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is the most promising successor of current deep ultraviolet (DUV) lithography. The very short wavelength, reflective optics, and nontelecentric structure of EUV lithography systems bring in different imaging phenomena into the lithographic image synthesis problem. This paper develops a gradient-based inverse algorithm for EUV lithography systems to effectively improve the image fidelity by comprehensively compensating the optical proximity effect, flare, photoresist, and mask shadowing effects. A block-based method is applied to iteratively optimize the main features and subresolution assist features (SRAFs) of mask patterns, while simultaneously preserving the mask manufacturability. The mask shadowing effect may be compensated by a retargeting method based on a calibrated shadowing model. Illustrative simulations at 22 and 16 nm technology nodes are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  19. Secrets of subwavelength imaging and lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmer, Philip R.

    2011-08-01

    To understand the limits and tradeoffs of nearly all existing subwavelength imaging techniques it sufficient to understand magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its generalizations. In many cases, subwavelength optical lithography can be viewed as the inverse problem to imaging and so the same principles apply. A simple review of MRI is given which shows how the most popular subwavelength imaging and lithography techniques naturally arise as special cases.

  20. Ways. 1--Interdisciplinary Printmaking; 2--Print with Cove Cuts; 3--Lithography: Quick and Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Claire M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    An interdisciplinary social studies/art project involving elementary students in studying the local architecture of Woodbury, Connecticut, and sharing their experiences through murals and bulletin boards is described. How baseboard covering can be used as a block printing material is discussed. A lithography printing technique for use in secondary…

  1. Beam shaping for laser-based adaptive optics in astronomy.

    PubMed

    Béchet, Clémentine; Guesalaga, Andrés; Neichel, Benoit; Fesquet, Vincent; González-Núñez, Héctor; Zúñiga, Sebastián; Escarate, Pedro; Guzman, Dani

    2014-06-02

    The availability and performance of laser-based adaptive optics (AO) systems are strongly dependent on the power and quality of the laser beam before being projected to the sky. Frequent and time-consuming alignment procedures are usually required in the laser systems with free-space optics to optimize the beam. Despite these procedures, significant distortions of the laser beam have been observed during the first two years of operation of the Gemini South multi-conjugate adaptive optics system (GeMS). A beam shaping concept with two deformable mirrors is investigated in order to provide automated optimization of the laser quality for astronomical AO. This study aims at demonstrating the correction of quasi-static aberrations of the laser, in both amplitude and phase, testing a prototype of this two-deformable mirror concept on GeMS. The paper presents the results of the preparatory study before the experimental phase. An algorithm to control amplitude and phase correction, based on phase retrieval techniques, is presented with a novel unwrapping method. Its performance is assessed via numerical simulations, using aberrations measured at GeMS as reference. The results predict effective amplitude and phase correction of the laser distortions with about 120 actuators per mirror and a separation of 1.4 m between the mirrors. The spot size is estimated to be reduced by up to 15% thanks to the correction. In terms of AO noise level, this has the same benefit as increasing the photon flux by 40%.

  2. 3D resolution gray-tone lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumbravescu, Niculae

    2000-04-01

    With the conventional micro machining technologies: isotropic and anisotropic, dry and wet etching, a few shapes can be done. To overcome this limitation, both binary multi- tasking technique or direct EB writing were used, but an inexpensive one-step UV-lithographic method, using a so- called 'gray-tone reticle', seems to be the best choice to produce local intensity modulation during exposure process. Although, by using this method and common technologies in standard IC fabrication it is easy to obtain an arbitrarily 3D shaping of positive thick resists, there are some limitations, too. The maximum number of gray-levels, on projection reticle, achieved by e-beam writing, are only 200. Also, for very thick resists, the limited focus depth of the projection objective gives a poor lateral resolution. These are the reasons why the author prose da new approach to enhance the 3D resolution of gray-tone lithography applied for thick resist. By a high resolution, both for vertical direction, as well as for horizontal direction. Particular emphasis was put on the design, manufacturing and use of halftone transmission masks, required for UV- lithographic step in the fabrication process of mechanical, optical or electronics components. The original design and fabrication method for the gray-tone test reticle were supported by experiments showing the main advantage of this new technology: the 3D structuring of thick resist in a single exposure step and also a very promising aspect ratio obtained of over 9:1. Preliminary experimental results are presented for positive thick resists in SEM micrographs. A future optimization of the lithographic process opens interesting perspectives for application of this high 3D resolution structuring method in the fabrication process of different products, with imposed complex smooth profiles, such as: x-ray LiGA-masks, refractive optics and surface- relief DOEs.

  3. Laser based combustion laboratory at NTH/SINTEF applied thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tichy, F.; Bjoerge, T.

    1993-12-01

    During the SPUNG-program, a laser based laboratory has been built up at NTH/SINTEF Applied Thermodynamics by the funding from that program. The laser based laboratory consists of a Nd:YAG laser and an image intensifier electronic camera system. There are numerous different laser based techniques that can be used, using the laser based laboratory, but we have concentrated on laser induced fluorescence (LIF). By shaping the laser beam into a flat plane, 2D imaging of combustion radicals (OH, CH) and emission species (NO) are possible. This can give valuable information about flame structure, flame stabilization, turbulence scales and so on, but at the time being not quantitative concentrations.

  4. Direct write lithography: the global solution for R&D and manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pain, Laurent; Tedesco, Serge; Constancias, Christophe

    2006-10-01

    The electron beam lithography is a well known and mature solution, widely installed in research laboratories and Universities, to provide advanced patterning for research and development programs for a large field of applications. However, limited by its low throughput capabilities, the direct write solution never appeared as a credible option for manufacturing purposes. Nevertheless, semiconductor business starts to be affected by the increasing cost of the optical lithography requesting more and more complex masks and projection systems. This trend opens opportunities for high throughput mask less equipments to address ASIC manufacturing. A review of the Maskless Lithography (ML2) technology is presented in this article, including process integration capability, application fields and perspective for high throughput ML2 solution. To cite this article: L. Pain et al., C. R. Physique 7 (2006).

  5. Inverted hemispherical mask colloidal lithography.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haixia; Rao, Wenyuan; Meng, Jun; Shen, Yang; Jin, Chongjun; Wang, Xuehua

    2009-11-18

    This paper presents a cost-effective nanofabrication method for forming large area and high coverage two-dimensional metal nanostructures on flat and curved surfaces. This method starts with a periodic array of hemispherical dimples on polystyrene (PS) film prepared by colloidal lithography with a sacrificial layer of polyacrylic acid (PAA) underneath. After the removal of PAA in water solution, the PS layer is turned over and attached to the substrate to be patterned. An inverted hemispherical mask is formed after oxygen plasma etching. As the holes at the bottom are much larger than those on the surface, the mask is especially suitable for a standard lift-off process. Based on this mask, metal nano-disk and pair-disk arrays, as well as two-dimensional nanostructures on a curved surface, have been fabricated. Optical measurement shows that a surface plasmon resonance exists in a periodic disk array. This method is valuable for the fabrication of a magnifying metamaterial hyperlens in order to eliminate the limitation of optical diffraction.

  6. Proximity lithography membrane mask aeroelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huston, Dryver; Burns, Dylan; Boerger, Brent; Selzer, Robert

    2006-03-01

    Proximity lithography places a thin membrane mask into close proximity (5-100 micron) to a wafer for exposure to radiation and pattern placement. Efficient production practices require that the wafer be positioned relative to the mask as quickly as possible. The positioning maneuvers involve both a lateral motion and a closing of the mask-to-wafer gap. Gap closing requires forcing the exposure chamber gas (usually air or helium, possibly at a mild vacuum) between the mask and wafer out through the edges of the gap in a squeeze film process that can substantially deflect and damage the membrane mask. Moving laterally, i.e. stepping, would be more efficient if it were performed at the close proximity gap. The buildup of hydrodynamic pressures while stepping at gap can deform and possibly damage the mask. This paper discusses methods to model, measure and control aeroelastic effects due to gap closing and lateral stepping at gap. The analysis considers an aeroelastic model based on coupling Reynolds' hydrodynamic lubrication theory with membrane mechanics. A principal result of the analysis is the prediction that it is possible to step at gap and produce minimal aeroelastic out-of-plane deflections, if the wedge angle is zero, and both the membrane and mask have a flat profile. The aeroelastic models are confirmed with experiments that measure out-of-plane stepping of a membrane versus wedge angle, gap and speed. Non-flat mask profiles, such as buttes and mesas raise additional aeroelastic issues are also examined.

  7. Negative printing by soft lithography.

    PubMed

    Ong, Jason Kee Yang; Moore, David; Kane, Jennifer; Saraf, Ravi F

    2014-08-27

    In inkless microcontact printing (IμCP) by soft lithography, the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamp transfers uncured polymer to a substrate corresponding to its pattern. The spontaneous diffusion of PDMS oligomers to the surface of the stamp that gives rise to this deleterious side effect has been leveraged to fabricate a variety of devices, such as organic thin film transistors, single-electron devices, and biomolecular chips. Here we report an anomalous observation on a partially cured PDMS stamp where the transfer of oligomers onto Au occurred on regions that were not in contact with the stamp, while the surface in contact with the stamp was pristine with no polymer. On the SiO2 surface of the same chip, as expected, the transfer of PDMS occurred exclusively on regions in contact with the stamp. The printing on Au was quantified by a novel method where the submonolayer of PDMS transfer was measured by probing the local electrochemical passivation of the Au. The local transfer of polymer on SiO2 (and also Au) was measured by selective deposition of Au nanoparticle necklaces that exclusively deposited on PDMS at submonolayer sensitivity. It was discovered that the selectivity and sharpness of PDMS deposition on Au for inkless printing (i.e., negative) is significantly better than the traditional (positive) microcontact printing where the stamp is "inked" with low molecular weight PDMS.

  8. Semiconductor foundry, lithography, and partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Burn J.

    2002-07-01

    The semiconductor foundry took off in 1990 with an annual capacity of less than 0.1M 8-inch-equivalent wafers at the 2-mm node. In 2000, the annual capacity rose to more than 10M. Initially, the technology practiced at foundries was 1 to 2 generations behind that at integrated device manufacturers (IDMs). Presently, the progress in 0.13-mm manufacturing goes hand-in-hand with any of the IDMs. There is a two-order of magnitude rise in output and the progress of technology development outpaces IDMs. What are the reasons of the success? Is it possible to sustain the pace? This paper shows the quick rise of foundries in capacity, sales, and market share. It discusses the their uniqueness which gives rise to advantages in conjunction with challenges. It also shows the role foundries take with their customer partners and supplier partners, their mutual dependencies, as well as expectations. What role then does lithography play in the foundries? What are the lithographic challenges to sustain the pace of technology? The experience of technology development and transfer, at one of the major foundries, is used to illustrate the difficulties and progresses made. Looking into the future, as semiconductor manufacturing will become even more expensive and capital investment more prohibitive, we will make an attempt to suggest possible solutions.

  9. Laser-Based Measurement Of Torsional Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastwood, P. G.; Halliwell, N. A.

    1986-07-01

    Investigations of the torsional vibration characteristics of shaft systems which transmit pulsating torques are an important part of a machinery designer's responsibility. Satisfactory operation of such systems depends to a large extent on successful treatment of this vibration problem, since incorrectly or insufficiently controlled torsional oscillations can lead to fatigue failure, rapid bearing wear, gear hammer etc. The problem is particularly severe in engine crankshaft design where numerous failures have been traced to abnormal vibration at "critical" speeds. Traditionally, the monitoring of torsional oscillation has been performed using strain gauges, slip rings and a variety of mechanical and electrical "torsiographs". More recently systems employing slotted discs or toothed wheels together with proximity transducers have been preferred, but a disadvantage arises from all these methods in that they require contact with the rotating component which necessitates "downtime" for transducer attachment. Moreover, physical access to the rotating surface is often restricted thus making the use of such methods impractical. The "cross-beam" laser velocimeter provides a means of measuring torsional vibration by a non-contact method, thus effectively overcoming the disadvantages of previous measurement systems. This well established laser-based instrument provides a time-resolved voltage analogue of shaft tangential surface velocity and laboratory and field tests have shown it to be both accurate and reliable. The versatility of this instrument, however, is restricted by the need for accurate positioning, since the velocimeter must be arranged so that the rotating surface always traverses the beam intersection region, which is typically only a fraction of a millimetre in length. As a consequence use is restricted to components of circular cross section. This paper compares and contrasts the "cross-beam" system with a new laser instrument, the laser torsional vibrometer

  10. Lithography aware overlay metrology target design method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Myungjun; Smith, Mark D.; Lee, Joonseuk; Jung, Mirim; Lee, Honggoo; Kim, Youngsik; Han, Sangjun; Adel, Michael E.; Lee, Kangsan; Lee, Dohwa; Choi, Dongsub; Liu, Zephyr; Itzkovich, Tal; Levinski, Vladimir; Levy, Ady

    2016-03-01

    We present a metrology target design (MTD) framework based on co-optimizing lithography and metrology performance. The overlay metrology performance is strongly related to the target design and optimizing the target under different process variations in a high NA optical lithography tool and measurement conditions in a metrology tool becomes critical for sub-20nm nodes. The lithography performance can be quantified by device matching and printability metrics, while accuracy and precision metrics are used to quantify the metrology performance. Based on using these metrics, we demonstrate how the optimized target can improve target printability while maintaining the good metrology performance for rotated dipole illumination used for printing a sub-100nm diagonal feature in a memory active layer. The remaining challenges and the existing tradeoff between metrology and lithography performance are explored with the metrology target designer's perspective. The proposed target design framework is completely general and can be used to optimize targets for different lithography conditions. The results from our analysis are both physically sensible and in good agreement with experimental results.

  11. Cost of ownership for future lithography technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazelton, Andrew J.; Wüest, Andrea; Hughes, Greg; Litt, Lloyd C.; Goodwin, Frank

    2008-11-01

    The cost of ownership (COO) of candidate technologies for 32 nm and 22 nm half-pitch lithography is calculated. To more accurately compare technologies with different numbers of process steps, a model that includes deposition, etching, metrology, and other costs is created. Results show lithography COO for leading edge layers will increase by roughly 50% from the 45 nm to the 32 nm half-pitch nodes. Double patterning and extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) technologies have roughly the same COO under certain conditions. For 22 nm half-pitch nodes, EUVL has a significant cost advantage over other technologies under certain mask cost assumptions. Double patterning, however, may be competitive under worst case EUVL mask cost assumptions. Sensitivity studies of EUVL COO to throughput and uptime show EUVL may be cost-competitive at lower uptime and throughput conditions. In spite of these higher costs, total lithography costs for 32 nm and 22 nm half-pitches remain within reach of the Moore's Law trend. Finally, the COO of 450 mm lithography is calculated and shows the expected cost reduction is between 0% and 15%.

  12. Performance of laser based optical imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Dhrupesh S.; Banerjee, Arup; Vora, Anup; Biswas, Amiya; Patel, Naimesh; Kurulkar, Amit; Dutt, Ashutosh

    2016-05-01

    night imaging and higher frame rate (more than 100fps). Taking advantage of these, laser based camera system configuration was worked out and presented in this paper using scientific grade CMOS sensor and NIR Laser. Camera can image target range from 4km to 5km with resolution of 5cm. Camera can have instantaneous coverage of 100mx100m (at 5km). Scientific grade CMOS sensor could also be used for clear sky day time imaging conditions with Laser off condition. To reduce the laser energy requirement, FPA required to be operated in multi-integration mode where multiple low energy pulses could be thrown within given integration time and detector and its associated electronics will collect and accumulate only those photons which are reflected back from the target of interest using appropriate gating control mechanism. Paper will bring out system engineering aspects for finalization of imaging spectrum, optical parameters in terms of aperture & focal length, required laser energy, highlighting advantage of pulse mode operation of laser compared to continuous mode operation in terms of laser energy & back-scattered light, silicon based optical detector performance results and post processing aspects for target detection. Paper will also discuss achieved performance of proto-model camera.

  13. High-n immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sewell, Harry; Mulkens, Jan; Graeupner, Paul; McCafferty, Diane; Markoya, Louis; Donders, Sjoerd; Cortie, Rogier; Meijers, Ralph; Evangelista, Fabrizio; Samarakone, Nandarisi

    2008-03-01

    A two-year study on the feasibility of High-n Immersion Lithography shows very promising results. This paper reports the findings of the study. The evaluation shows the tremendous progress made in the development of second-generation immersion fluid technology. Candidate fluids from several suppliers have been evaluated. All the commercial fluids evaluated are viable, so there are a number of options. Life tests have been conducted on bench top fluid-handling systems and the results referenced to full-scale systems. Parameters such as Dose per Laser Pulse, Pulse Rate, Fluid Flow Rate, and Fluid Absorbency at 193nm, and Oxygen/Air Contamination Levels were explored. A detailed evaluation of phenomena such as Last Lens Element (LLE) contamination has been conducted. Lens cleaning has been evaluated. A comparison of High-n fluid-based technology and water-based immersion technology shows interesting advantages of High-n fluid in the areas of Defect and Resist Interaction. Droplet Drying tests, Resist Staining evaluations, and Resist Contrast impact studies have all been run. Defect-generating mechanisms have been identified and are being eliminated. The lower evaporation rate of the High-n fluids compared with water shows the advantages of High-n Immersion. The core issue for the technology, the availability of High-n optical material for use as the final lens element, is updated. Samples of LuAG material have been received from development partners and have been evaluated. The latest status of optical materials and the technology timelines are reported. The potential impact of the availability of the technology is discussed. Synergy with technologies such as Double Patterning is discussed. The prospects for <22nm (hp) are evaluated.

  14. Quantum state control interference lithography and trim double patterning for 32-16-nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, Robert D.; Smith, Bruce W.; Estroff, Andrew

    2007-03-01

    Double patterning has been proposed as a method to extend DUV lithography to 32nm and below. Here, a new form of double, or higher, multiple exposure technique is proposed. This new form of lithography uses a combination of Quantum State Control (QuSC) chemistry, Amplitude Modulation Optical Lithography (AMOL), and multiple micro-stepped exposures, without development between exposures. Further it is proposed to use this form of lithography (called QuSC-litho), to pattern a perfect grating grid, and to trim this grid with an earlier generation lithography tool. QuSC lithography uses short optical pulses to modulate a photochemical pathway while an intermediate is still in a defined vibrational excited state. This is a variation of Stimulated Emission Depletion Microscopy (STED) developed for fluorescence microscopy. With this approach immersion tools that produce 90 nm pitch and 45 nm features should be able to pattern levels with 22 nm features with a 1:1 line-space ratio. This approach is much less sensitive to misalignment than present double patterning approaches. Key to successful deployment of QuSC lithography is defining a resist photochemistry consistent with the QuSC process. There are several approaches to Photo Acid Generator (PAG) - matrix interaction that may be consistent with this approach.

  15. Lithography and design in partnership: a new roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahng, Andrew B.

    2008-10-01

    We discuss the notion of a 'shared technology roadmap' between lithography and design from several perspectives. First, we examine cultural gaps and other intrinsic barriers to a shared roadmap. Second, we discuss how lithography technology can change the design technology roadmap. Third, we discuss how design technology can change the lithography technology roadmap. We conclude with an example of the 'flavor' of technology roadmapping activity that can truly bridge lithography and design.

  16. Force-controlled inorganic crystallization lithography.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chao-Min; LeDuc, Philip R

    2006-09-20

    Lithography plays a key role in integrated circuits, optics, information technology, biomedical applications, catalysis, and separation technologies. However, inorganic lithography techniques remain of limited utility for applications outside of the typical foci of integrated circuit manufacturing. In this communication, we have developed a novel stamping method that applies pressure on the upper surface of the stamp to regulate the dewetting process of the inorganic buffer and the evaporation rate of the solvent in this buffer between the substrate and the surface of the stamp. We focused on generating inorganic microstructures with specific locations and also on enabling the ability to pattern gradients during the crystallization of the inorganic salts. This approach utilized a combination of lithography with bottom-up growth and assembly of inorganic crystals. This work has potential applications in a variety of fields, including studying inorganic material patterning and small-scale fabrication technology.

  17. Data sharing system for lithography APC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Eiichi; Teranishi, Yoshiharu; Shimabara, Masanori

    2007-03-01

    We have developed a simple and cost-effective data sharing system between fabs for lithography advanced process control (APC). Lithography APC requires process flow, inter-layer information, history information, mask information and so on. So, inter-APC data sharing system has become necessary when lots are to be processed in multiple fabs (usually two fabs). The development cost and maintenance cost also have to be taken into account. The system handles minimum information necessary to make trend prediction for the lots. Three types of data have to be shared for precise trend prediction. First one is device information of the lots, e.g., process flow of the device and inter-layer information. Second one is mask information from mask suppliers, e.g., pattern characteristics and pattern widths. Last one is history data of the lots. Device information is electronic file and easy to handle. The electronic file is common between APCs and uploaded into the database. As for mask information sharing, mask information described in common format is obtained via Wide Area Network (WAN) from mask-vender will be stored in the mask-information data server. This information is periodically transferred to one specific lithography-APC server and compiled into the database. This lithography-APC server periodically delivers the mask-information to every other lithography-APC server. Process-history data sharing system mainly consists of function of delivering process-history data. In shipping production lots to another fab, the product-related process-history data is delivered by the lithography-APC server from the shipping site. We have confirmed the function and effectiveness of data sharing systems.

  18. Soft x-ray reduction camera for submicron lithography

    DOEpatents

    Hawryluk, A.M.; Seppala, L.G.

    1991-03-26

    Soft x-ray projection lithography can be performed using x-ray optical components and spherical imaging lenses (mirrors), which form an x-ray reduction camera. The x-ray reduction is capable of projecting a 5x demagnified image of a mask onto a resist coated wafer using 4.5 nm radiation. The diffraction limited resolution of this design is about 135 nm with a depth of field of about 2.8 microns and a field of view of 0.2 cm[sup 2]. X-ray reflecting masks (patterned x-ray multilayer mirrors) which are fabricated on thick substrates and can be made relatively distortion free are used, with a laser produced plasma for the source. Higher resolution and/or larger areas are possible by varying the optic figures of the components and source characteristics. 9 figures.

  19. Soft x-ray reduction camera for submicron lithography

    DOEpatents

    Hawryluk, Andrew M.; Seppala, Lynn G.

    1991-01-01

    Soft x-ray projection lithography can be performed using x-ray optical components and spherical imaging lenses (mirrors), which form an x-ray reduction camera. The x-ray reduction is capable of projecting a 5x demagnified image of a mask onto a resist coated wafer using 4.5 nm radiation. The diffraction limited resolution of this design is about 135 nm with a depth of field of about 2.8 microns and a field of view of 0.2 cm.sup.2. X-ray reflecting masks (patterned x-ray multilayer mirrors) which are fabricated on thick substrates and can be made relatively distortion free are used, with a laser produced plasma for the source. Higher resolution and/or larger areas are possible by varying the optic figures of the components and source characteristics.

  20. Spatial-phase locking with shaped-beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, John G.; Groves, Timothy R.; Smith, Henry I.; Mondol, Mark K.; Goodberlet, James G.; Schattenburg, Mark L.; Ferrera, Juan; Bernshteyn, Alexandr

    2003-03-01

    Spatial-phase-locked electron-beam lithography is a method of precisely locating pattern elements on a substrate by providing real-time feedback of the beam's location by means of a fiducial grid located on the substrate surface. Previously, this technique has been demonstrated in Gaussian-beam systems, in one and two dimensions. In this note we propose a method of extending the spatial-phase-locking concept to a vector shaped-beam architecture. In the proposed method, an image of a screen grid is superimposed on the projected shape, and this grid image is dithered in X and Y to provide a periodic signal whose phase can be interpreted to determine the position of the projected shape relative to the fiducial grid.

  1. Application specific ratings for lithography process filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, Toru; Tsuzuki, Shuichi

    2013-03-01

    The typical performance index of microelectronics-grade filter products is based upon mechanical sieving. However, adsorption also plays a critical role for reducing certain defects. To provide a more accurate metric, a complementary adsorption performance index is introduced for lithography process filters. In this study, heptylamine-substituted palladium nanoparticles were used to simulate the adsorptive characteristics of microbridge defect precursors. Adsorption kinetic parameters were calculated for Nylon 6,6 and HDPE filters that were challenged with the simulation particles. Nylon 6,6 media quantitatively demonstrated superior adsorptive retention characteristics. The new index is expected to guide both filter product development and filter recommendation for next generation lithography processes.

  2. System considerations for maskless lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnowski, Thomas; Joy, David; Allard, Larry; Clonts, Lloyd

    2004-05-01

    Lithographic processes for printing device structures on integrated circuits (ICs) are the fundamental technology behind Moore's law. Next-generation techniques like maskless lithography or ML2 have the advantage that the long, tedious and expensive process of fabricating a unique mask for the manufactured chip is not necessary. However, there are some rather daunting prblems with establishing ML2 as a viable commercial technology. The data rate necessary for ML2 to be competitive in manufacturing is not feasible with technology in the near future. There is also doubt that the competing technologies for the writing mechanisms and corresponding photoresist (or analogous medium) will be able to accurately produce the desired patterns necessary to produce multi-layer semiconductor devices. In this work, we model the maskless printing system from a signal processing point of view, utilizing image processing algorithms and concepts to study the effects of various real-world constraints and their implications for a ML2 system. The ML2 elements are discrete devices, and it is doubtful that their motion can be controlled to the level where a one-for-one element to exposed pixel relationship is allowable. Some level of sub-element resolution can be achieved with gray scale levels, but with the highly integrated manufacturing practices required to achieve massive parallelism, the most effective elements will be simple on-ofrf switches that fire a fixed level of energy at the target medium. Consequently gray-scale level devidces are likely not an option. Another problem with highly integrated manufacturing methods is device uniformity. Consequently, we analyze the redundant scanning array concept (RSA) conceived by Berglund et al. which can defeat many of these problems. We determine some basic equations governing its application and we focus on applying the technique to an array of low-energy electron emitters. Using the results of Monte Carlo simulations on electron beam

  3. SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONS FOR MASKLESS LITHOGRAPHY

    SciTech Connect

    Karnowski, Thomas Paul; Joy, David; Allard Jr, Lawrence Frederick; Clonts, Lloyd G

    2004-01-01

    Lithographic processes for printing device structures on integrated circuits (ICs) are the fundamental technology behind Moore's law. Next-generation techniques like maskless lithography or ML2 have the advantage that the long, tedious and expensive process of fabricating a unique mask for the manufactured chip is not necessary. However, there are some rather daunting problems with establishing ML2 as a viable commercial technology. The data rate necessary for ML2 to be competitive in manufacturing is not feasible with technology in the near future. There is also doubt that the competing technologies for the writing mechanisms and corresponding photoresist (or analogous medium) will be able to accurately produce the desired patterns necessary to produce multi-layer semiconductor devices. In this work, we model the maskless printing system from a signal processing point of view, utilizing image processing algorithms and concepts to study the effects of various real-world constraints and their implications for a ML2 system. The ML2 elements are discrete devices, and it is doubtful that their motion can be controlled to the level where a one-for-one element to exposed pixel relationship is allowable. Some level of sub-element resolution can be achieved with gray scale levels, but with the highly integrated manufacturing practices required to achieve massive parallelism, the most effective elements will be simple on-off switches that fire a fixed level of energy at the target medium. Consequently gray-scale level devices are likely not an option. Another problem with highly integrated manufacturing methods is device uniformity. Consequently, we analyze the redundant scanning array concept (RSA) conceived by Berglund et al. which can defeat many of these problems. We determine some basic equations governing its application and we focus on applying the technique to an array of low-energy electron emitters. Using the results of Monte Carlo simulations on electron beam

  4. Rapid structuring of proteins on filter paper using lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nargang, Tobias M.; Kotz, Frederik; Keller, Nico; Helmer, Dorothea; Rapp, Bastian E.

    2017-02-01

    Microfluidic paper based analytical devices (μPADs) are simple and cost efficient and can be used everywhere without the need for a high standard laboratory for obtaining a readout. These devices are thus especially suited for the developing world or crisis regions. To fabricate a bioanalytical test, certain biomolecules like proteins or antibodies have to be attached to paper strips. Common immobilization methods often rely on non-covalent, unoriented attachment which leads to reduced bioactivity of the immobilized species. Specific Immobilization of biomolecules on surfaces still poses a great challenge to biochemical research and applications. We propose a method for the specific immobilization of biomolecules on functionalized filter paper using a maskless projection lithography setup. The paper was functionalized either by applying an adhesive protein coating or by covalent attachment of methacrylate groups. Fluorescently labelled biomolecules were attached by exploiting the formation of radical species upon bleaching of the fluorophore. A custom made maskless photo-lithography setup and a low cost approach were used to produce microscale biomolecule greyscale patterns. Protein patterns were visualized by fluorescence, enzyme patterns were tested for bioactivity by substrate conversion with colorimetric readout. This method enables the creation of complex, highly specific bioactive protein patterns and greatly facilitates the production of μPADs.

  5. Femtosecond Fiber Lasers Based on Dissipative Processes for Nonlinear Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wise, Frank W

    2012-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of femtosecond-pulse fiber lasers with parameters appropriate for nonlinear microscopy is reviewed. Pulse-shaping in lasers with only normal-dispersion components is briefly described, and the performance of the resulting lasers is summarized. Fiber lasers based on the formation of dissipative solitons now offer performance competitive with that of solid-state lasers, but with the benefits of the fiber medium. Lasers based on self-similar pulse evolution in the gain section of a laser also offer a combination of short pulse duration and high pulse energy that will be attractive for applications in nonlinear bioimaging.

  6. Femtosecond Fiber Lasers Based on Dissipative Processes for Nonlinear Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Frank W.

    2012-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of femtosecond-pulse fiber lasers with parameters appropriate for nonlinear microscopy is reviewed. Pulse-shaping in lasers with only normal-dispersion components is briefly described, and the performance of the resulting lasers is summarized. Fiber lasers based on the formation of dissipative solitons now offer performance competitive with that of solid-state lasers, but with the benefits of the fiber medium. Lasers based on self-similar pulse evolution in the gain section of a laser also offer a combination of short pulse duration and high pulse energy that will be attractive for applications in nonlinear bioimaging. PMID:23869163

  7. Interference Lithography for Optical Devices and Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    fabricate self- healing coatings that use water from the environment to catalyze polymerization. Polymerization induced phase separation was used to... catalyzed by moisture in air; if the indices of the two polymers are matched, the coatings turn transparent after healing. Interference lithography...self- healing coatings that use water from the environment to catalyze polymerization. Polymerization induced phase separation was used to sequester

  8. Athermal Azobenzene-Based Nanoimprint Lithography.

    PubMed

    Probst, Christian; Meichner, Christoph; Kreger, Klaus; Kador, Lothar; Neuber, Christian; Schmidt, Hans-Werner

    2016-04-06

    A novel nanoimprint lithography technique based on the photofluidization effect of azobenzene materials is presented. The tunable process allows for imprinting under ambient conditions without crosslinking reactions, so that shrinkage of the resist is avoided. Patterning of surfaces in the regime from micrometers down to 100 nm is demonstrated. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Liquid-Phase Beam Pen Lithography.

    PubMed

    He, Shu; Xie, Zhuang; Park, Daniel J; Liao, Xing; Brown, Keith A; Chen, Peng-Cheng; Zhou, Yu; Schatz, George C; Mirkin, Chad A

    2016-02-24

    Beam pen lithography (BPL) in the liquid phase is evaluated. The effect of tip-substrate gap and aperture size on patterning performance is systematically investigated. As a proof-of-concept experiment, nanoarrays of nucleotides are synthesized using BPL in an organic medium, pointing toward the potential of using liquid phase BPL to perform localized photochemical reactions that require a liquid medium.

  10. In quest of predictive lithography simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalus, Christian K.; Buß, Hinderk M.; Brooker, Peter D.

    2006-03-01

    In its chapter "Modeling," the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductor 2005 edition stipulates the need for "Multi-generation lithography system models." Most lithographers would share this opinion that even if the equipment needs constant refurbishing, the software should survive at least a couple of technology generations. Fortunately, the table in which the statement appeared in the ITRS roadmap was accurately entitled "difficult challenges." This article will shed some light on the process of progressive modeling while making clear that, in all likelihood, formidable challenges will remain. The very core of simulation is a physical / chemical model of the real world. Lithographers need a sound model for the next technology node, not a short-sighted one, despite the fact that this is very difficult to achieve. This paper will use the parable of the ichthyologist as a starting point for the problem. It will translate the parable into the "deep waters" of lithography, showcasing lithography simulation as it has evolved over the years. Finally, it will present a small, yet decisive, recent step toward predictive lithography simulation. This example will include an improvement in the model for the post-exposure bake of chemically amplified resists, as well as a non-comprehensive list of foreseeable challenges.

  11. Laser based micro forming and assembly.

    SciTech Connect

    MacCallum, Danny O'Neill; Wong, Chung-Nin Channy; Knorovsky, Gerald Albert; Steyskal, Michele D.; Lehecka, Tom; Scherzinger, William Mark; Palmer, Jeremy Andrew

    2006-11-01

    It has been shown that thermal energy imparted to a metallic substrate by laser heating induces a transient temperature gradient through the thickness of the sample. In favorable conditions of laser fluence and absorptivity, the resulting inhomogeneous thermal strain leads to a measurable permanent deflection. This project established parameters for laser micro forming of thin materials that are relevant to MESA generation weapon system components and confirmed methods for producing micrometer displacements with repeatable bend direction and magnitude. Precise micro forming vectors were realized through computational finite element analysis (FEA) of laser-induced transient heating that indicated the optimal combination of laser heat input relative to the material being heated and its thermal mass. Precise laser micro forming was demonstrated in two practical manufacturing operations of importance to the DOE complex: micrometer gap adjustments of precious metal alloy contacts and forming of meso scale cones.

  12. Process window simulation study with immersion lithography for 45-nm technology node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Oseo; Gutmann, Alois; Neumueller, Walter; Back, David

    2004-05-01

    As the potentials of experimental studies are still limited, a predictive resist image simulation of Immersion lithography is very important for a better understanding of the technology. One of the most critical issues in Immersion lithography is the description of the influence of immersion which is the presence of a uniform liquid layer between the last objective lens and the photo resist, on optical lithography. It enables the real part of the index of refraction in the image space, and the numerical aperture of the projection lens, to be greater than unity. Therefore, it is virtually involves Maxwell vector solution approach, including polarization effects and arbitrary thin film multi-layers. This paper discusses the improvement in process window afforded by immersion under a variety of conditions, including 193nm and 157nm, Off-axis illumination, Attenuated Phase Shift Mask for 65nm and 45nm technology node. Comparisons with dry and liquid lithography simulations are used to evaluate the availability and the performance of the proposed approach. The implemented resist simulation approach is examined the impact to the process window of variations in liquid refractive index as well.

  13. Laser-based direct-write techniques for cell printing

    PubMed Central

    Schiele, Nathan R; Corr, David T; Huang, Yong; Raof, Nurazhani Abdul; Xie, Yubing; Chrisey, Douglas B

    2016-01-01

    Fabrication of cellular constructs with spatial control of cell location (±5 μm) is essential to the advancement of a wide range of applications including tissue engineering, stem cell and cancer research. Precise cell placement, especially of multiple cell types in co- or multi-cultures and in three dimensions, can enable research possibilities otherwise impossible, such as the cell-by-cell assembly of complex cellular constructs. Laser-based direct writing, a printing technique first utilized in electronics applications, has been adapted to transfer living cells and other biological materials (e.g., enzymes, proteins and bioceramics). Many different cell types have been printed using laser-based direct writing, and this technique offers significant improvements when compared to conventional cell patterning techniques. The predominance of work to date has not been in application of the technique, but rather focused on demonstrating the ability of direct writing to pattern living cells, in a spatially precise manner, while maintaining cellular viability. This paper reviews laser-based additive direct-write techniques for cell printing, and the various cell types successfully laser direct-written that have applications in tissue engineering, stem cell and cancer research are highlighted. A particular focus is paid to process dynamics modeling and process-induced cell injury during laser-based cell direct writing. PMID:20814088

  14. Laser-based direct-write techniques for cell printing.

    PubMed

    Schiele, Nathan R; Corr, David T; Huang, Yong; Raof, Nurazhani Abdul; Xie, Yubing; Chrisey, Douglas B

    2010-09-01

    Fabrication of cellular constructs with spatial control of cell location (+/-5 microm) is essential to the advancement of a wide range of applications including tissue engineering, stem cell and cancer research. Precise cell placement, especially of multiple cell types in co- or multi-cultures and in three dimensions, can enable research possibilities otherwise impossible, such as the cell-by-cell assembly of complex cellular constructs. Laser-based direct writing, a printing technique first utilized in electronics applications, has been adapted to transfer living cells and other biological materials (e.g., enzymes, proteins and bioceramics). Many different cell types have been printed using laser-based direct writing, and this technique offers significant improvements when compared to conventional cell patterning techniques. The predominance of work to date has not been in application of the technique, but rather focused on demonstrating the ability of direct writing to pattern living cells, in a spatially precise manner, while maintaining cellular viability. This paper reviews laser-based additive direct-write techniques for cell printing, and the various cell types successfully laser direct-written that have applications in tissue engineering, stem cell and cancer research are highlighted. A particular focus is paid to process dynamics modeling and process-induced cell injury during laser-based cell direct writing.

  15. Fabrication of a Polymer Micro Needle Array by Mask-Dragging X-Ray Lithography and Alignment X-Ray Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi-Gui; Yang, Chun-Sheng; Liu, Jing-Quan; Sugiyama, Susumu

    2011-03-01

    Polymer materials such as transparent thermoplastic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) have been of great interest in the research and development of integrated circuits and micro-electromechanical systems due to their relatively low cost and easy process. We fabricated PMMA-based polymer hollow microneedle arrays by mask-dragging and aligning x-ray lithography. Techniques for 3D micromachining by direct lithography using x-rays are developed. These techniques are based on using image projection in which the x-ray is used to illuminate an appropriate gold pattern on a polyimide film mask. The mask is imaged onto the PMMA sample. A pattern with an area of up to 100 × 100mm2 can be fabricated with sub-micron resolution and a highly accurate order of a few microns by using a dragging mask. The fabrication technology has several advantages, such as forming complex 3D micro structures, high throughput and low cost.

  16. Rethinking ASIC design with next generation lithography and process integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidyanathan, Kaushik; Liu, Renzhi; Liebmann, Lars; Lai, Kafai; Strojwas, Andrzej; Pileggi, Larry

    2013-03-01

    Given the deployment delays for EUV, several next generation lithography (NGL) options are being actively researched. Several cost-effective NGL solutions, such as self-aligned double patterning through sidewall image transfer (SIT) and directed self-assembly (DSA), in conjunction with process integration challenges, mandate grating-like pattern design. As part of the GRATEdd project, we have evaluated the design cost of grating-based design for ASICs (application specific ICs). Based on our observations we have engineered fundamental changes to the primary ASIC design components to make scaling affordable and useful in deeply scaled sub-20 nm technologies: unidirectional-M1 based standard cells, application-specific smart SRAM synthesis, and statistical and self-healing analog design.

  17. Polysilyne resists for 193 nm excimer laser lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, Roderick R.; Bianconi, Patricia A.; Horn, Mark W.; Paladugu, R. R.; Shaver, David C.; Smith, David A. M.; Freed, Charles A.

    1991-06-01

    Polyalkylsilynes have been used as resists for 193-nm projection lithography. These resists can be either wet developed using toluene or dry developed using HBr reactive ion etching (RIE). Wet development relies on crosslinking via intermolecular Si-O-Si bond formation to reduce solubility (negative tone) whereas the dry development relies on photo-oxidation to induce etch selectivity (also negative tone). The sensitivity in either case ranges from 20 to 200 mJ/cm2 and depends on the resist formulation. The best resist compositions are those that contain predominantly small (n-butyl) aliphatic pendant groups rather than large (cyclohexyl, phenyl) pendant groups. Using a 0.33 NA catadioptric lens with a phase mask, equal line-and-space features as small as 0.15 micrometers have been printed and transferred through 1.0 micrometers of planarizing layer (aspect ratio > 6) using oxygen RIE.

  18. Critical illumination condenser for x-ray lithography

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, S.J.; Seppala, L.G.

    1998-04-07

    A critical illumination condenser system is disclosed, particularly adapted for use in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) projection lithography based on a ring field imaging system and a laser produced plasma source. The system uses three spherical mirrors and is capable of illuminating the extent of the mask plane by scanning either the primary mirror or the laser plasma source. The angles of radiation incident upon each mirror of the critical illumination condenser vary by less than eight (8) degrees. For example, the imaging system in which the critical illumination condenser is utilized has a 200 {micro}m source and requires a magnification of 26. The three spherical mirror system constitutes a two mirror inverse Cassegrain, or Schwarzschild configuration, with a 25% area obstruction (50% linear obstruction). The third mirror provides the final pupil and image relay. The mirrors include a multilayer reflective coating which is reflective over a narrow bandwidth. 6 figs.

  19. Critical illumination condenser for x-ray lithography

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Simon J.; Seppala, Lynn G.

    1998-01-01

    A critical illumination condenser system, particularly adapted for use in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) projection lithography based on a ring field imaging system and a laser produced plasma source. The system uses three spherical mirrors and is capable of illuminating the extent of the mask plane by scanning either the primary mirror or the laser plasma source. The angles of radiation incident upon each mirror of the critical illumination condenser vary by less than eight (8) degrees. For example, the imaging system in which the critical illumination condenser is utilized has a 200 .mu.m source and requires a magnification of 26.times.. The three spherical mirror system constitutes a two mirror inverse Cassegrain, or Schwarzschild configuration, with a 25% area obstruction (50% linear obstruction). The third mirror provides the final pupil and image relay. The mirrors include a multilayer reflective coating which is reflective over a narrow bandwidth.

  20. Soft molding lithography of conjugated polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisignano, Dario; Persano, Luana; Cingolani, Roberto; Gigli, Giuseppe; Babudri, Francesco; Farinola, Gianluca M.; Naso, Francesco

    2004-02-01

    We report on the nanopatterning of conjugated polymers by soft molding, and exploit the glass transition of the organic compound in conformal contact with an elastomeric element. We succeeded in printing different compounds with resolution down to 300 nm at temperatures up to 300 °C in vacuum. No significant variation of the photoluminescence (PL) spectra nor heavy degradation of the PL quantum yield was observed after the lithography process. Based on the high resolution achieved and on the well-retained luminescence properties of the patterned compounds, we conclude that high-temperature soft lithography is a valid, flexible and straightforward technique for one-step realization of organic-based devices.

  1. Soft lithography for micro- and nanoscale patterning.

    PubMed

    Qin, Dong; Xia, Younan; Whitesides, George M

    2010-03-01

    This protocol provides an introduction to soft lithography--a collection of techniques based on printing, molding and embossing with an elastomeric stamp. Soft lithography provides access to three-dimensional and curved structures, tolerates a wide variety of materials, generates well-defined and controllable surface chemistries, and is generally compatible with biological applications. It is also low in cost, experimentally convenient and has emerged as a technology useful for a number of applications that include cell biology, microfluidics, lab-on-a-chip, microelectromechanical systems and flexible electronics/photonics. As examples, here we focus on three of the commonly used soft lithographic techniques: (i) microcontact printing of alkanethiols and proteins on gold-coated and glass substrates; (ii) replica molding for fabrication of microfluidic devices in poly(dimethyl siloxane), and of nanostructures in polyurethane or epoxy; and (iii) solvent-assisted micromolding of nanostructures in poly(methyl methacrylate).

  2. Photoresists in extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Simone, Danilo; Vesters, Yannick; Vandenberghe, Geert

    2017-06-01

    The evolutionary advances in photosensitive material technology, together with the shortening of the exposure wavelength in the photolithography process, have enabled and driven the transistor scaling dictated by Moore's law for the last 50 years. Today, the shortening wavelength trend continues to improve the chips' performance over time by feature size miniaturization. The next-generation lithography technology for high-volume manufacturing (HVM) is extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), using a light source with a wavelength of 13.5 nm. Here, we provide a brief introduction to EUVL and patterning requirements for sub-0-nm feature sizes from a photomaterial standpoint, discussing traditional and novel photoresists. Emphasis will be put on the novel class of metal-containing resists (MCRs) as well as their challenges from a manufacturing prospective.

  3. Patterning colloidal films via evaporative lithography.

    PubMed

    Harris, Daniel J; Hu, Hua; Conrad, Jacinta C; Lewis, Jennifer A

    2007-04-06

    We investigate evaporative lithography as a route for patterning colloidal films. Films are dried beneath a mask that induces periodic variations between regions of free and hindered evaporation. Direct imaging reveals that particles segregate laterally within the film, as fluid and entrained particles migrate towards regions of higher evaporative flux. The films exhibit remarkable pattern formation that can be regulated by tuning the initial suspension composition, separation distance between the mask and underlying film, and mask geometry.

  4. Implementation of assist features in EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Fan; Burkhardt, Martin; Raghunathan, Ananthan; Torres, Andres; Gupta, Rachit; Word, James

    2015-03-01

    The introduction of EUV lithography will happen at a critical feature pitch which corresponds to a k1 factor of roughly 0.45. While this number seems not very aggressive compared to recent ArF lithography nodes, the number is sufficiently low that the introduction of assist features has to be considered. While the small NA makes the k1 factor larger, the depth of focus still needs to be scaled down with wavelength. However the exposure tool's focus control is not greatly improved over the ArF tools, so other solutions to improve the depth of focus, e.g. SRAFs, are needed. On the other hand, sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs) require very small mask dimensions, which make masks more costly to write and inspect. Another disadvantage of SRAFs is the fact that they may cause pattern-dependent best focus shift due to thick mask effects. Those effects can be predicted, but the shift of best focus and the associated tilt of Bossung curves make the process more difficult to control. We investigate the impact of SRAFs on printing in EUV lithography and evaluate advantages and disadvantages. By using image quality parameters such as best focus (BF), and depth of focus (DOF), respectively with and without SRAFs, we will answer the question if we can gain a net benefit for 1D and 2D patterns by adding SRAFs. SRAFs will only be introduced if any net improvement in process variation (PV) outweighs the additional expense of assist patterning on the mask. In this paper, we investigate the difference in printing behavior of symmetric and asymmetric SRAF placement and whether through slit effect needs to be considered in SRAF placement for EUV lithography.

  5. Progress In Developing Laser Based Post Irradiation Examination Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, James A.; Scott, Clark L.; Benefiel, Brad C.

    2016-09-01

    To be able to understand the performance of reactor fuels and materials, irradiated materials must be characterized effectively and efficiently in a high rad environment. The characterization work must be performed remotely and in an environment hostile to instrumentation. Laser based characterization techniques provide the ability to be remote and robust in a hot-cell environment. Laser based instrumentation also can provide high spatial resolution suitable for scanning and imaging large areas. The INL is currently developing three laser based Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) stations for the Hot Fuel Examination Facility at the INL. These laser based systems will characterize irradiated materials and fuels. The characterization systems are the following: Laser Shock Laser based ultrasonic C-scan system Gas Assay, Sample, and Recharge system (GASR, up-grade to an existing system). The laser shock technique will characterize material properties and failure loads/mechanisms in various materials such as LWR fuel, plate fuel, and next generation fuel forms, for PIE in high radiation areas. The laser shock-technique induces large amplitude shock waves to mechanically characterize interfaces such as the fuel-clad bond. The shock wave travels as a compression wave through the material to the free (unconfined) back surface and reflects back through the material under test as a rarefaction (tensile) wave. This rarefaction wave is the physical mechanism that produces internal de-lamination failure. As part of the laser shock system, a laser-based ultrasonic C-scan system will be used to detect and characterize debonding caused by the laser shock technique. The laser ultrasonic system will be fully capable of performing classical non-destructive evaluation testing and imaging functions such as microstructure characterization, flaw detection and dimensional metrology in complex components. The purpose of the GASR is to measure the pressure/volume of the plenum of an

  6. Defectivity reduction by optimization of 193-nm immersion lithography using an interfaced exposure-track system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carcasi, Michael; Hatakeyama, Shinichi; Nafus, Kathleen; Moerman, Richard; van Dommelen, Youri; Huisman, Peter; Hooge, Joshua; Scheer, Steven; Foubert, Philippe

    2006-03-01

    As the integration of semiconductor devices continues, pattern sizes required in lithography get smaller and smaller. To achieve even more scaling down of these patterns without changing the basic infrastructure technology of current cutting-edge 193-nm lithography, 193-nm immersion lithography is being viewed as a powerful technique that can accommodate next-generation mass productions needs. Therefore this technology has been seriously considered and after proof of concept it is currently entering the stage of practical application. In the case of 193-nm immersion lithography, however, because liquid fills the area between the projection optics and the silicon wafer, several causes of concern have been raised - namely, diffusion of moisture into the resist film due to direct resist-water interaction during exposure, dissolution of internal components of the resist into the de-ionized water, and the influence of residual moisture generated during exposure on post-exposure processing. To prevent these unwanted effects, optimization of the three main components of the lithography system: materials, track and scanner, is required. For the materials, 193nm resist formulation improvements specifically for immersion processing have reduced the leaching and the sensitivity to water related defects, further benefits can be seen by the application of protective top coat materials. For the track component, optimization of the processing conditions and immersion specific modules are proven to advance the progress made by the material suppliers. Finally, by optimizing conditions on the 3 rd generation immersion scanner with the latest hardware configuration, defectivity levels comparable to dry processing can be achieved. In this evaluation, we detail the improvements that can be realized with new immersion specific track rinse modules and formulate a hypothesis for the improvements seen with the rinsing process. Additionally, we show the current status of water induced

  7. Metallic resist for phase-change lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Bi Jian; Huang, Jun Zhu; Ni, Ri Wen; Yu, Nian Nian; Wei, Wei; Hu, Yang Zhi; Li, Zhen; Miao, Xiang Shui

    2014-06-01

    Currently, the most widely used photoresists in optical lithography are organic-based resists. The major limitations of such resists include the photon accumulation severely affects the quality of photolithography patterns and the size of the pattern is constrained by the diffraction limit. Phase-change lithography, which uses semiconductor-based resists such as chalcogenide Ge2Sb2Te5 films, was developed to overcome these limitations. Here, instead of chalcogenide, we propose a metallic resist composed of Mg58Cu29Y13 alloy films, which exhibits a considerable difference in etching rate between amorphous and crystalline states. Furthermore, the heat distribution in Mg58Cu29Y13 thin film is better and can be more easily controlled than that in Ge2Sb2Te5 during exposure. We succeeded in fabricating both continuous and discrete patterns on Mg58Cu29Y13 thin films via laser irradiation and wet etching. Our results demonstrate that a metallic resist of Mg58Cu29Y13 is suitable for phase change lithography, and this type of resist has potential due to its outstanding characteristics.

  8. Ion Implant Enabled 2x Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Patrick M.; Godet, Ludovic; Cheung, Andrew; de Cock, Gael; Hatem, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Ion implantation has many applications in microelectronics beyond doping. The broad range of species available combined with the ability to precisely control dose, angle, and energy offers compelling advantages for use in precision material modification. The application to lithography has been reported elsewhere. Integrating ion implantation into the lithography process enables scaling the feature size requirements beyond the 15 nm node with a simplified double patterning sequence. In addition, ion implant may be used to remove line edge roughness, providing tremendous advantages to meet extreme lithography imaging requirements and provide additional device stability. We examine several species (e.g. Si, Ar, etc.) and the effect of energy and impact angle on several commercially available 193 nm immersion photoresists using a Varian VIISta® single wafer high current ion implanter. The treated photoresist will be evaluated for stability in an integrated double patterning application with ion implant used to freeze the primary image. We report on critical dimension impact, pattern integrity, optical property modification, and adhesion. We analyze the impact of line edge roughness improvement beyond the work of C. Struck including the power spectral distribution. TGA and FTIR Spectroscopy results for the implanted photoresist materials will also be included.

  9. Metallic resist for phase-change lithography

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Bi Jian; Huang, Jun Zhu; Ni, Ri Wen; Yu, Nian Nian; Wei, Wei; Hu, Yang Zhi; Li, Zhen; Miao, Xiang Shui

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the most widely used photoresists in optical lithography are organic-based resists. The major limitations of such resists include the photon accumulation severely affects the quality of photolithography patterns and the size of the pattern is constrained by the diffraction limit. Phase-change lithography, which uses semiconductor-based resists such as chalcogenide Ge2Sb2Te5 films, was developed to overcome these limitations. Here, instead of chalcogenide, we propose a metallic resist composed of Mg58Cu29Y13 alloy films, which exhibits a considerable difference in etching rate between amorphous and crystalline states. Furthermore, the heat distribution in Mg58Cu29Y13 thin film is better and can be more easily controlled than that in Ge2Sb2Te5 during exposure. We succeeded in fabricating both continuous and discrete patterns on Mg58Cu29Y13 thin films via laser irradiation and wet etching. Our results demonstrate that a metallic resist of Mg58Cu29Y13 is suitable for phase change lithography, and this type of resist has potential due to its outstanding characteristics. PMID:24931505

  10. Formation of Magnetic Anisotropy by Lithography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Si Nyeon; Nam, Yoon Jae; Kim, Yang Doo; Choi, Jun Woo; Lee, Heon; Lim, Sang Ho

    2016-05-24

    Artificial interface anisotropy is demonstrated in alternating Co/Pt and Co/Pd stripe patterns, providing a means of forming magnetic anisotropy using lithography. In-plane hysteresis loops measured along two principal directions are explained in depth by two competing shape and interface anisotropies, thus confirming the formation of interface anisotropy at the Co/Pt and Co/Pd interfaces of the stripe patterns. The measured interface anisotropy energies, which are in the range of 0.2-0.3 erg/cm(2) for both stripes, are smaller than those observed in conventional multilayers, indicating a decrease in smoothness of the interfaces when formed by lithography. The demonstration of interface anisotropy in the Co/Pt and Co/Pd stripe patterns is of significant practical importance, because this setup makes it possible to form anisotropy using lithography and to modulate its strength by controlling the pattern width. Furthermore, this makes it possible to form more complex interface anisotropy by fabricating two-dimensional patterns. These artificial anisotropies are expected to open up new device applications such as multilevel bits using in-plane magnetoresistive thin-film structures.

  11. Stereomask lithography for multi-protein patterning.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Siwei; Chen, Arnold; Revzin, Alexander; Pan, Tingrui

    2014-01-01

    The advances of biologically-friendly micropatterning technologies have benefited many areas of biological and medical research, including quantitative biochemical assay, point-of-care devices, biosensing and regenerative medicine. Conventional micropatterning techniques, for example, photolithography and soft lithography, have seen encouraging adaptation to creating biological micropatterns in the last decades. However, they still have not completely addressed the major needs of constructing multi-object biological microarrays with single-cell resolution without requiring cleanroom access. In this chapter, we present a novel versatile biological lithography technique to achieve integrated multi-object patterning with high feature resolution and high adaptability to various biomaterials, referred to as stereomask lithography (SML). A novel three-dimensional stereomask has been developed for successive patterning of multiple objects. The stereomask consists of both patterned through holes, which layout new micropatterns and non-through recesses, which protect pre-existing features on the substrate. Furthermore, high-precision reversible alignment among multiple bio-objects is achieved by adopting a peg-in-hole design between the substrate and stereomasks. As demonstration, we have successfully used the SML technique to construct complex biological microenvironment with various bio-functional components at single-cell resolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Formation of Magnetic Anisotropy by Lithography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Si Nyeon; Nam, Yoon Jae; Kim, Yang Doo; Choi, Jun Woo; Lee, Heon; Lim, Sang Ho

    2016-01-01

    Artificial interface anisotropy is demonstrated in alternating Co/Pt and Co/Pd stripe patterns, providing a means of forming magnetic anisotropy using lithography. In-plane hysteresis loops measured along two principal directions are explained in depth by two competing shape and interface anisotropies, thus confirming the formation of interface anisotropy at the Co/Pt and Co/Pd interfaces of the stripe patterns. The measured interface anisotropy energies, which are in the range of 0.2–0.3 erg/cm2 for both stripes, are smaller than those observed in conventional multilayers, indicating a decrease in smoothness of the interfaces when formed by lithography. The demonstration of interface anisotropy in the Co/Pt and Co/Pd stripe patterns is of significant practical importance, because this setup makes it possible to form anisotropy using lithography and to modulate its strength by controlling the pattern width. Furthermore, this makes it possible to form more complex interface anisotropy by fabricating two-dimensional patterns. These artificial anisotropies are expected to open up new device applications such as multilevel bits using in-plane magnetoresistive thin-film structures. PMID:27216420

  13. Formation of Magnetic Anisotropy by Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Si Nyeon; Nam, Yoon Jae; Kim, Yang Doo; Choi, Jun Woo; Lee, Heon; Lim, Sang Ho

    2016-05-01

    Artificial interface anisotropy is demonstrated in alternating Co/Pt and Co/Pd stripe patterns, providing a means of forming magnetic anisotropy using lithography. In-plane hysteresis loops measured along two principal directions are explained in depth by two competing shape and interface anisotropies, thus confirming the formation of interface anisotropy at the Co/Pt and Co/Pd interfaces of the stripe patterns. The measured interface anisotropy energies, which are in the range of 0.2-0.3 erg/cm2 for both stripes, are smaller than those observed in conventional multilayers, indicating a decrease in smoothness of the interfaces when formed by lithography. The demonstration of interface anisotropy in the Co/Pt and Co/Pd stripe patterns is of significant practical importance, because this setup makes it possible to form anisotropy using lithography and to modulate its strength by controlling the pattern width. Furthermore, this makes it possible to form more complex interface anisotropy by fabricating two-dimensional patterns. These artificial anisotropies are expected to open up new device applications such as multilevel bits using in-plane magnetoresistive thin-film structures.

  14. Production aspects of 45nm immersion lithography defect monitoring using laser DUV inspection methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsch, Remo; Martin, Antje; Okoroanyanwu, Uzodinma; Grundke, Wolfram; Vogler, Ute; Beyer, Mirko; Valfer, Eran; Weiher-Tellford, Susan; Perlovitch, Renana; Racah, Nurit; Vanoppen, Peter; Moerman, Richard

    2008-03-01

    Immersion lithography addresses the limits of optical lithography by providing higher NA's (NA > 1), which enable imaging of smaller features and hence it enables production of 45nm logic devices. One of the key challenges of this advanced technology, however, is controlling the defectivity level produced specifically by the Lithography immersion stepper and track systems. To control and monitor the immersion processes in production, consideration has been given to identifying an alternative to the traditional sensitivity approaches, using Darkfield (DF) and Brightfield (BF) wafer inspection methodologies. This unique method should provide for stable, reliable and sensitive inspection results which are capable of supporting a technology node introduction (product ramp) as well as monitoring the base line performance (in other words, capture excursions). The following study was done to explore laser DUV Brightfield inspection, utilizing the Applied Materials UVision TM, which has the ability to detect defects as small as 20-40nm size. Additionally a joint project between AMD, ASML and AMAT developed an appropriate inspection strategy that combines, lithographic defect printing simulations and sensitive inspection routines to identify defect problems effectively, drive defect reduction efforts and result in stable production monitoring. We investigated the use of traditional Photo Test Monitor (PTM) as a valid technique to monitor the introduction of the immersion lithography at 45nm. In addition, we explored the correlation between these PTM wafers and the actual production wafers for new types of defects. It was found that the amount of small protrusion defects (~20-40nm size) increased on immersion PTM wafers compared to dry processed PTM wafers. Based on process experiments at AMD and immersion defect simulations provided by ASML we were able to isolate immersion specific defect problems from general lithography related defects also seen in Dry lithography. The

  15. Overlay distortions in wafer-scale integration lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flack, Warren W.

    1993-08-01

    Wafer scale integration (WSI) lithography is the technique used to fabricate ultra large scale integration (ULSI) integrated circuits significantly greater in size than current products. Applications for WSI lithography include large solid state detector arrays, large area liquid crystal displays, high speed mainframe supercomputers, and large random access memories. The lithography technology required to manufacture these devices is particularly challenging, requiring stringent control of both submicron critical dimensions and accurate alignment of level to level device patterns over large chip areas.

  16. Polymeric waveguide Bragg grating filter using soft lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocabas, Askin; Aydinli, Atilla

    2006-10-01

    We use the soft lithography technique to fabricate a polymeric waveguide Bragg grating filter. Master grating structure is patterned by e-beam lithography. Using an elastomeric stamp and capillary action, uniform grating structures with very thin residual layers are transferred to the UV curable polymer without the use of an imprint machine. The waveguide layer based on BCB optical polymer is fabricated by conventional optical lithography. This approach provides processing simplicity to fabricate Bragg grating filters.

  17. 75 FR 44015 - Certain Semiconductor Products Made by Advanced Lithography Techniques and Products Containing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... COMMISSION Certain Semiconductor Products Made by Advanced Lithography Techniques and Products Containing... importation of certain semiconductor products made by advanced lithography techniques and products containing... certain semiconductor products made by advanced lithography techniques or products containing same...

  18. Infrared laser-based sensing in medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigrist, Markus W.; Bartlome, Richard; Gianella, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Laser-spectroscopic applications in medicine increase in importance. We present two medical applications of laser-based analyses of trace gases. The analysis of exhaled breath concerns the determination of the D/H isotope ratio after intake of a small amount of heavy water. The D/H isotope ratio can be used to deduce the total body water weight and lays the foundation for many other laser-based clinical applications. An elevated D/H ratio could be monitored in breath samples up to 30 days after ingestion of only 5 ml of D2O. A second example concerns the analysis of surgical smoke produced in minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery with electroknives. The quantitative determination of harmless and hazardous compounds down to the ppm level is demonstrated. A specific example is the presence of sevoflurane at concentrations of 80 to 300 ppm, an anesthetic, which to our knowledge is measured for the first time in an abdominal cavity.

  19. Laser-Based Lighting: Experimental Analysis and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Trivellin, Nicola; Yushchenko, Maksym; Buffolo, Matteo; De Santi, Carlo; Meneghini, Matteo; Meneghesso, Gaudenzio; Zanoni, Enrico

    2017-10-11

    This paper presents an extensive analysis of the operating principles, theoretical background, advantages and limitations of laser-based lighting systems. In the first part of the paper we discuss the main advantages and issues of laser-based lighting, and present a comparison with conventional LED-lighting technology. In the second part of the paper, we present original experimental data on the stability and reliability of phosphor layers for laser lighting, based on high light-intensity and high-temperature degradation tests. In the third part of the paper (for the first time) we present a detailed comparison between three different solutions for laser lighting, based on (i) transmissive phosphor layers; (ii) a reflective/angled phosphor layer; and (iii) a parabolic reflector, by discussing the advantages and drawbacks of each approach. The results presented within this paper can be used as a guideline for the development of advanced lighting systems based on laser diodes.

  20. Mode-locked fiber lasers based on doped fiber arrays.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Song, Yanrong

    2014-05-10

    We designed a new kind of mode-locked fiber laser based on fiber arrays, where the central core is doped. A theoretical model is given for an all-fiber self-starting mode-locked laser based on this kind of doped fiber array. Two different kinds of fiber lasers with negative dispersion and positive dispersion are simulated and discussed. The stable mode-locked pulses are generated from initial noise conditions by the realistic parameters. The process of self-starting mode-locking multipulse transition and the relationship between the energy of the central core and the propagation distance of the pulses are discussed. Finally, we analyze the difference between the averaged mode-locked laser and the discrete mode-locked laser.

  1. Nanosphere lithography from template-directed colloidal sphere assemblies.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qingfeng; Chen, Ao; Chua, Soo Jin; Zhao, X S

    2006-06-01

    Conventional nanosphere lithography holds the drawbacks of lacking precise control over the shape and architecture of the resultant nanostructures. In this work, nanoimprinting lithography was used to construct various desired patterns on a polymer film coated on a silicon substrate. The patterns were then used as templates to direct the self-assembly of silica colloidal spheres, forming colloidal assemblies with well-controlled sizes, shapes, and structures. Subsequent nanosphere lithography using template-directed colloidal sphere assemblies resulted in complex nanostructures that can not be obtained using the conventional nanosphere lithography method.

  2. Polarization manipulation in single refractive prism based holography lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Wenjie; Xu, Yi; Xiao, Yujian; Lv, Xiaoxu; Wu, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    We propose theoretically and demonstrate experimentally a simple but effective strategy for polarization manipulation in single refractive prism based holographic lithography. By tuning the polarization of a single laser beam, we can obtain the pill shape interference pattern with a high-contrast where a complex optical setup and multiple polarizers are needed in the conventional holography lithography. Fabrication of pill shape two-dimensional polymer photonic crystals using one beam and one shoot holography lithography is shown as an example to support our theoretical results. This integrated polarization manipulation technique can release the crucial stability restrictions imposed on the multiple beams holography lithography.

  3. Expected innovations of optical lithography in the next 10 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owa, Soichi; Hirayanagi, Noriyuki

    2016-03-01

    In the past 10 years, immersion lithography has been the most effective high volume manufacturing method for the critical layers of semiconductor devices. Thinking of the next 10 years, we can expect continuous improvement on existing 300 mm wafer scanners with better accuracy and throughput to enhance the total output value per input cost. This value productivity, however, can be upgraded also by larger innovations which might happen in optical lithography. In this paper, we will discuss the possibilities and the impossibilities of potential innovation ideas of optical lithography, which are 450 mm wafer, optical maskless, multicolor lithography, and metamaterial.

  4. Resource Letter: LBOT-1: Laser-based optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Lang, Matthew J; Block, Steven M

    2003-03-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on optical tweezers, also known as laser-based, gradient-force optical traps. Journal articles and books are cited for the following main topics: general papers on optical tweezers, trapping instrument design, optical detection methods, optical trapping theory, mechanical measurements, single molecule studies, and sections on biological motors, cellular measurements and additional applications of optical tweezers.

  5. Laser-Based Alkene Sensors for Shock Tube Kinetics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-28

    during pyrolysis and oxidation should be feasible. These state-of-the-art sensors will also be used in the training and education of the next generation...other existing laser-based species sensors, a substantially complete picture of the intermediate decomposition products that form during pyrolysis and...spectra of these species overlap, producing blended spectra during pyrolysis of real fuels. Our approach to dealing with this problem has been to

  6. Resource Letter: LBOT-1: Laser-based optical tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Matthew J.; Block, Steven M.

    2006-01-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on optical tweezers, also known as laser-based, gradient-force optical traps. Journal articles and books are cited for the following main topics: general papers on optical tweezers, trapping instrument design, optical detection methods, optical trapping theory, mechanical measurements, single molecule studies, and sections on biological motors, cellular measurements and additional applications of optical tweezers. PMID:16971965

  7. Laser-based ultraviolet absorption detection in capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Y.; Yeung, E.S. )

    1994-04-01

    Laser-based UV absorption in capillary electrophoresis is demonstrated. The use of vacuum photodiodes and an all-electronic noise canceller provides adequate baseline stability despite the large inherent intensity noise in UV lasers. A 4-fold improvement in the detection limit is achieved in comparison to that of commercial instruments. The main advantage here is the better optical coupling with small capillary tubes, maximizing the available optical pathlength for absorption.

  8. Recent development status of rinse material for EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Kazuma; Ishii, Maki; Yashima, Tomoyasu; Nagahara, Tatsuro

    2017-04-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography is one of the promising high volume manufacturing processes for devices below 7 nm node and beyond. However, resist pattern collapse is one of the hurdles in achieving a comfortable process margin/window for resist patterning. To suppress this resist pattern collapse and to improve manufacturing process margin, undoubtedly it is a well-known fact that the rinse materials can mitigate a pattern collapse at development process. In this study, we focus on the relationship between resist swelling and pattern collapse, based on the assumption of resist pattern softening induced by resist swelling and further resist pattern bending or deformation which could be classified as pattern collapse. To verify this model, two samples of Rinse-A and Rinse-B which showed similar capillary force but different resist swelling behavior expected, respectively, were prepared. And the hardness of the resist films treated using those rinse materials together with de-ionized water as reference rinse, were measured using nano-indentation measurement technique. From the result, it was found that Rinse-A had the resist film hardness reduced by 7.9 % as compared to that on de-ionized water. On the other hand, Rinse-B which was designed to suppress the penetration of additives into the resist film, exhibited comparable hardness property to that on reference rinse, de-ionized water. Finally, the evaluation of lithographic performance of the photoresist in different rinse process conditions using Rinse-A and Rinse-B was carried out, and Rinse- B achieved 12.7 nm minimum pattern size of resist feature at 16 nm half pitch printing by interference projection system on Extreme Ultraviolet lithography, whereas Rinse-A showed 16.5 nm.

  9. Fast resist-activation dosimetry for extreme ultra-violet lithography.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jinseok; Xu, Man; Maas, Diederik

    2017-03-06

    Due to the rather broad band emission spectrum of the extremely hot plasma in its extreme ultra-violet (EUV) source, an EUV lithography scanner also projects out-of-band vacuum- and deep-UV (OoB V/DUV) light on the photoresist on a wafer. As this type of uncontrolled and undesirable light can activate resist chemistry, it will impair the critical dimension uniformity of the patterns, especially across the borders of the fields. Hence, OoB V/DUV quantification technology is required in the pre-production phase. For this reason, the systematic characterization of the EUV-source emission spectrum and the spatial profile of the light as projected on the wafer is indispensable to sustain stable integrated circuit production with EUV lithography. This paper introduces an in-band EUV and OoB V/DUV dosimetry method that is based on enhanced energy sensitivity by resist contrast (EESRC). This dosimetry method is applied in an EUV lithography tool to quantitatively analyze the spatial distribution the resist activation by in-band EUV and OoB V/DUV light, under several exposure conditions. This pragmatic approach can replace the current best-practice of measuring the full spectrum of an EUV light source.

  10. Custom-modified three-dimensional periodic microstructures by pattern-integrated interference lithography.

    PubMed

    Leibovici, Matthieu C R; Gaylord, Thomas K

    2014-07-01

    By combining interference lithography and projection photolithography concurrently, pattern-integrated interference lithography (PIIL) enables the wafer-scale, rapid, and single-exposure fabrication of multidimensional periodic microstructures that integrate arbitrary functional elements. To date, two-dimensional PIIL has been simulated and experimentally demonstrated. In this paper, we report new simulated results of PIIL exposures for various custom-modified three-dimensional (3D) periodic structures. These results were generated using custom PIIL comprehensive vector modeling. Simulations include mask-integrated and mask-shaped 3D periodic arrangements as well as microcavities on top of or fully embedded within 3D periodic structures. These results indicate PIIL is a viable method for making versatile 3D periodic microstructures.

  11. Fast fabrication of curved microlens array using DMD-based lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhimin; Gao, Yiqing; Luo, Ningning; Zhong, Kejun

    2016-01-01

    Curved microlens array is the core element of the biologically inspired artificial compound eye. Many existing fabrication processes remain expensive and complicated, which limits a broad range of application of the artificial compound eye. In this paper, we report a fast fabrication method for curved microlens array by using DMD-based maskless lithography. When a three-dimensional (3D) target curved profile is projected into a two-dimensional (2D) mask, arbitrary curved microlens array can be flexibly and efficiently obtained by utilizing DMD-based lithography. In order to verify the feasibility of this method, a curved PDMS microlens array with 90 micro lenslets has been fabricated. The physical and optical characteristics of the fabricated microlens array suggest that this method is potentially suitable for applications in artificial compound eye.

  12. Fabrication of metallic nanowires and nanoribbons using laser interference lithography and shadow lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Joong- Mok; Nalwa, Kanwar Singh; Leung, Wai; Constant, Kristen; Chaudhary, Sumit; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2010-04-30

    Ordered and free-standing metallic nanowires were fabricated by e-beam deposition on patterned polymer templates made by interference lithography. The dimensions of the nanowires can be controlled through adjustment of deposition conditions and polymer templates. Grain size, polarized optical transmission and electrical resistivity were measured with ordered and free-standing nanowires.

  13. EUV lithography imaging using novel pellicle membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollentier, Ivan; Vanpaemel, Johannes; Lee, Jae Uk; Adelmann, Christoph; Zahedmanesh, Houman; Huyghebaert, Cedric; Gallagher, Emily E.

    2016-03-01

    EUV mask protection against defects during use remains a challenge for EUV lithography. A stand-off protective membrane - a pellicle - is targeted to prevent yield losses in high volume manufacturing during handling and exposure, just as it is for 193nm lithography. The pellicle is thin enough to transmit EUV exposure light, yet strong enough to remain intact and hold any particles out of focus during exposure. The development of pellicles for EUV is much more challenging than for 193nm lithography for multiple reasons including: high absorption of most materials at EUV wavelength, pump-down sequences in the EUV vacuum system, and exposure to high intensity EUV light. To solve the problems of transmission and film durability, various options have been explored. In most cases a thin core film is considered, since the deposition process for this is well established and because it is the simplest option. The transmission specification typically dictates that membranes are very thin (~50nm or less), which makes both fabrication and film mechanical integrity difficult. As an alternative, low density films (e.g. including porosity) will allow thicker membranes for a given transmission specification, which is likely to improve film durability. The risk is that the porosity could influence the imaging. At imec, two cases of pellicle concepts based on reducing density have been assessed : (1) 3D-patterned SiN by directed self-assembly (DSA), and (2) carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon nanosheets (CNS). The first case is based on SiN membranes that are 3D-patterned by Directed Self Assembly (DSA). The materials are tested relative to the primary specifications: EUV transmission and film durability. A risk assessment of printing performance is provided based on simulations of scattered energy. General conclusions on the efficacy of various approaches will provided.

  14. Internal state manipulation for neutral atom lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thywissen, Joseph Hermann

    2000-11-01

    We examine how the manipulation of the internal states of atoms can be used for atom lithography. Metastable argon atoms pattern a substrate by activating the growth of a carbonaceous material on the surface. We develop resist/etch systems that support 20 nm feature sizes, 2:1 aspect ratios, and 103 feature height amplification. Gold, silver, silicon, silicon dioxide, and silicon nitride substrates are patterned. Standing wave quenching (SWQ) light masks are used to create 65nm- wide features spaced 401 nm apart. One application of SWQ is to create a length reference artifact. We present a detailed error budget for the pattern periodicity, and find that an accuracy of better than one part in 106 is possible. We demonstrate atom resonance lithography (ARL), the first use of frequency encoding of spatial information for atom lithography. ARL has the potential to create patterns in two dimensions whose feature size is smaller than 20 nm and whose spacing is not limited by the wavelength of the patterning light. We form features in silicon that are 2.2 μm wide and spaced 20 μm apart. Using multiple probe frequencies, we demonstrate that multiple features can be created over the area covered by a monotonic gradient. The appendices include original contributions to the theory of manipulating atoms using micro- electromagnets. We propose several ways to create a magnetic waveguide using microfabricated wire patterns on a surface. We also discuss several implications of tight confinement: single mode atom guides, elongated traps with quasi-one-dimensional energetics, and constrictions whose conductance is quantized.

  15. Manipulation of heat-diffusion channel in laser thermal lithography.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jingsong; Wang, Yang; Wu, Yiqun

    2014-12-29

    Laser thermal lithography is a good alternative method for forming small pattern feature size by taking advantage of the structural-change threshold effect of thermal lithography materials. In this work, the heat-diffusion channels of laser thermal lithography are first analyzed, and then we propose to manipulate the heat-diffusion channels by inserting thermal conduction layers in between channels. Heat-flow direction can be changed from the in-plane to the out-of-plane of the thermal lithography layer, which causes the size of the structural-change threshold region to become much smaller than the focused laser spot itself; thus, nanoscale marks can be obtained. Samples designated as "glass substrate/thermal conduction layer/thermal lithography layer (100 nm)/thermal conduction layer" are designed and prepared. Chalcogenide phase-change materials are used as thermal lithography layer, and Si is used as thermal conduction layer to manipulate heat-diffusion channels. Laser thermal lithography experiments are conducted on a home-made high-speed rotation direct laser writing setup with 488 nm laser wavelength and 0.90 numerical aperture of converging lens. The writing marks with 50-60 nm size are successfully obtained. The mark size is only about 1/13 of the focused laser spot, which is far smaller than that of the light diffraction limit spot of the direct laser writing setup. This work is useful for nanoscale fabrication and lithography by exploiting the far-field focusing light system.

  16. Lithography-Free Microchannel Fabrication in PDMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankaran, Jeyantt S.; Kahsai, Wintana T.; Pham, Uyen H. T.; Iqbal, Samir M.

    2011-03-01

    We report a novel method for the fabrication of microchannels that could potentially be used for pervaporation experiments, cell adhesion and cell movement studies and detection of selective protein bio-markers. PDMS can sustain high temperatures, has a high young's modulus and it is biologically inert. Hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions at gel point of PDMS form the basis of the presented technique. The repulsion of hydrophilic particles by the hydrophobic polymer matrix, stemming from the reduction of entropy and free energy variations during polymerization, provides an elegant lithography-independent approach for the fabrication of self-aligned microchannels. This work was supported by National Science Foundation CAREER Grant (ECCS 0845669).

  17. Film stacking architecture for immersion lithography process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Tomohiro; Sanada, Masakazu; Miyagi, Tadashi; Shigemori, Kazuhito; Kanaoka, Masashi; Yasuda, Shuichi; Tamada, Osamu; Asai, Masaya

    2008-03-01

    In immersion lithography process, film stacking architecture will be necessary due to film peeling. However, the architecture will restrict lithographic area within a wafer due to top side EBR accuracy In this paper, we report an effective film stacking architecture that also allows maximum lithographic area. This study used a new bevel rinse system on RF3 for all materials to make suitable film stacking on the top side bevel. This evaluation showed that the new bevel rinse system allows the maximum lithographic area and a clean wafer edge. Patterning defects were improved with suitable film stacking.

  18. Metallic nanowires by full wafer stencil lithography.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Mena, O; Villanueva, G; Savu, V; Sidler, K; van den Boogaart, M A F; Brugger, J

    2008-11-01

    Aluminum and gold nanowires were fabricated using 100 mm stencil wafers containing nanoslits fabricated with a focused ion beam. The stencils were aligned and the nanowires deposited on a substrate with predefined electrical pads. The morphology and resistivity of the wires were studied. Nanowires down to 70 nm wide and 5 mum long have been achieved showing a resistivity of 10 microOmegacm for Al and 5 microOmegacm for Au and maximum current density of approximately 10(8) A/cm(2). This proves the capability of stencil lithography for the fabrication of metallic nanowires on a full wafer scale.

  19. Wave and Particle in Molecular Interference Lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Juffmann, Thomas; Truppe, Stefan; Geyer, Philipp; Major, Andras G.; Arndt, Markus; Deachapunya, Sarayut; Ulbricht, Hendrik

    2009-12-31

    The wave-particle duality of massive objects is a cornerstone of quantum physics and a key property of many modern tools such as electron microscopy, neutron diffraction or atom interferometry. Here we report on the first experimental demonstration of quantum interference lithography with complex molecules. Molecular matter-wave interference patterns are deposited onto a reconstructed Si(111) 7x7 surface and imaged using scanning tunneling microscopy. Thereby both the particle and the quantum wave character of the molecules can be visualized in one and the same image. This new approach to nanolithography therefore also represents a sensitive new detection scheme for quantum interference experiments.

  20. Highly absorbing ARC for DUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavelchek, Edward K.; Meador, James D.; Guerrero, Douglas J.; Lamb, James E., III; Kache, Ajit; doCanto, Manuel; Adams, Timothy G.; Stark, David R.; Miller, Daniel A.

    1996-06-01

    The properties of a new anti-reflective coating for 248 nm lithography are described. It is formed by thermally cross-linking a spin-on organic coating, and has an absorbance greater than 12/micrometers. It is compatible with UVIIHS and APEX-E photoresists. Thin films (less than 600 angstrom over silicon substrates) are found to completely suppress standing waves, to reduce EO swing curves to less than 3%, and to offer good CD control over typical field oxide topography. The etch rate was found to be comparable to that of the APEX-E photoresist.

  1. Antiadhesion considerations for UV nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houle, F. A.; Rettner, C. T.; Miller, D. C.; Sooriyakumaran, R.

    2007-05-01

    Low surface energy fluorosilane layers are widely used as release coatings for quartz templates in UV nanoimprint lithography, yet they are generally found to degrade with use. It is found that these layers are chemically attacked when used with UV cured methacrylate and vinyl ether resists, as found previously for acrylate resists, leading to the conclusion that low reactivity and not low surface energy is of importance for effective release layers. It is shown that an ion-beam deposited diamondlike carbon release coating is a useful alternative, having both stability in a reactive environment and lower adhesion despite its higher surface energy.

  2. EUV lithography: progress, challenges, and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurm, S.

    2014-10-01

    Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) has been in the making for more than a quarter century. The first EUVL production tools have been delivered over the past year and chip manufacturers and suppliers are maturing the technology in pilot line mode to prepare for high volume manufacturing (HVM). While excellent progress has been made in many technical and business areas to prepare EUVL for HVM introduction, there are still critical technical and business challenges to be addressed before the industry will be able to use EUVL in HVM.

  3. Focused ion beam lithography and anodization combined nanopore patterning.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kathy; Zhao, Jingzhong

    2010-10-01

    In this study, focused ion beam lithography and anodization are combined to create different nanopore patterns. Uniform-, alternating-, and gradient-sized shallow nanopore arrays are first made on high purity aluminum by focused ion beam lithography. These shallow pore arrays are then used as pore initiation sites during anodization by different electrolytes. Depending on the nature of the anodization electrolyte, the nanopore patterns by focused ion beam lithography play different roles in further pore development during anodization. The pore-to-pore distance by focused ion beam lithography should match with that by anodization for guided pore development to be effective. Ordered and heterogeneous nanopore arrays are obtained by the focused ion beam lithography and anodization combined approach.

  4. A review of roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography.

    PubMed

    Kooy, Nazrin; Mohamed, Khairudin; Pin, Lee Tze; Guan, Ooi Su

    2014-01-01

    Since its introduction in 1995, nanoimprint lithography has been demonstrated in many researches as a simple, low-cost, and high-throughput process for replicating micro- and nanoscale patterns. Due to its advantages, the nanoimprint lithography method has been rapidly developed over the years as a promising alternative to conventional nanolithography processes to fulfill the demands generated from the recent developments in the semiconductor and flexible electronics industries, which results in variations of the process. Roll-to-roll (R2R) nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is the most demanded technique due to its high-throughput fulfilling industrial-scale application. In the present work, a general literature review on the various types of nanoimprint lithography processes especially R2R NIL and the methods commonly adapted to fabricate imprint molds are presented to provide a clear view and understanding on the nanoimprint lithography technique as well as its recent developments. 81.16.Nd.

  5. Prospects and challenges of ArF excimer laser lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasago, Masaru

    1997-07-01

    ArF excimer laser lithography which is extension of the next generation optical lithography is a nearer candidate realizing Giga devices with 0.18 micrometer design-rule and beyond. However, it is the present situation compared with KrF excimer laser lithography introducing to mass-production that infrastructure preparation of ArF is too late. To accelerate ArF excimer laser lithography, 3 pole that is Japanese ASET, SEMATECH of USA, Esprit of EU, consortiums have been established in 1995. The broad development system of industry/government/university was regulated by these consortium in semiconductor industry. A time limit of neither consortiums gets the base infrastructure ready by 1998. The target feature-size is same as 0.13 micrometer from 0.18 micrometer. In this paper, technology issues and the final goal specification of ArF excimer laser lithography and the present development situation with ASET is described.

  6. A review of roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Since its introduction in 1995, nanoimprint lithography has been demonstrated in many researches as a simple, low-cost, and high-throughput process for replicating micro- and nanoscale patterns. Due to its advantages, the nanoimprint lithography method has been rapidly developed over the years as a promising alternative to conventional nanolithography processes to fulfill the demands generated from the recent developments in the semiconductor and flexible electronics industries, which results in variations of the process. Roll-to-roll (R2R) nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is the most demanded technique due to its high-throughput fulfilling industrial-scale application. In the present work, a general literature review on the various types of nanoimprint lithography processes especially R2R NIL and the methods commonly adapted to fabricate imprint molds are presented to provide a clear view and understanding on the nanoimprint lithography technique as well as its recent developments. PACS 81.16.Nd PMID:25024682

  7. A laser-based ice shape profilometer for use in icing wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovenac, Edward A.; Vargas, Mario

    1995-01-01

    A laser-based profilometer was developed to measure the thickness and shape of ice accretions on the leading edge of airfoils and other models in icing wind tunnels. The instrument is a hand held device that is connected to a desk top computer with a 10 meter cable. It projects a laser line onto an ice shape and used solid state cameras to detect the light scattered by the ice. The instrument corrects the image for camera angle distortions, displays an outline of the ice shape on the computer screen, saves the data on a disk, and can print a full scale drawing of the ice shape. The profilometer has undergone extensive testing in the laboratory and in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel. Results of the tests show very good agreement between profilometer measurements and known simulated ice shapes and fair agreement between profilometer measurements and hand tracing techniques.

  8. Final Report - ADVANCED LASER-BASED SENSORS FOR INDUSTRIAL PROCESS CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Manish; Baer, Douglas

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this work is to capture the potential of real-time monitoring and overcome the challenges of harsh industrial environments, Los Gatos Research (LGR) is fabricating, deploying, and commercializing advanced laser-based gas sensors for process control monitoring in industrial furnaces (e.g. electric arc furnaces). These sensors can achieve improvements in process control, leading to enhanced productivity, improved product quality, and reduced energy consumption and emissions. The first sensor will utilize both mid-infrared and near-infrared lasers to make rapid in-situ measurements of industrial gases and associated temperatures in the furnace off-gas. The second sensor will make extractive measurements of process gases. During the course of this DOE project, Los Gatos Research (LGR) fabricated, tested, and deployed both in-situ tunable diode laser absorption spectrometry (TDLAS) analyzers and extractive Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (Off-Axis ICOS) analyzers.

  9. A laser based reusable microjet injector for transdermal drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tae-hee; Yoh, Jack J.

    2010-05-01

    A laser based needle-free liquid drug injection device has been developed. A laser beam is focused inside the liquid contained in the rubber chamber of microscale. The focused laser beam causes explosive bubble growth, and the sudden volume increase in a sealed chamber drives a microjet of liquid drug through the micronozzle. The exit diameter of a nozzle is 125 μm and the injected microjet reaches an average velocity of 264 m/s. This device adds the time-varying feature of microjet to the current state of liquid injection for drug delivery.

  10. Laser-Based Diagnostic Measurements of Low Emissions Combustor Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Yolanda R.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation provides a summary of primarily laser-based measurement techniques we use at NASA Glenn Research Center to characterize fuel injection, fuel/air mixing, and combustion. The report highlights using Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence, Particle Image Velocimetry, and Phase Doppler Interferometry to obtain fuel injector patternation, fuel and air velocities, and fuel drop sizes and turbulence intensities during combustion. We also present a brief comparison between combustors burning standard JP-8 Jet fuel and an alternative fuels. For this comparison, we used flame chemiluminescence and high speed imaging.

  11. Comparison of laser-based rapid prototyping techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, Hugh; Wimpenny, David

    2002-04-01

    A diverse range of Rapid Prototyping, or layer manufacturing techniques have evolved since the introduction of the first process in the late 1980s. Many, although not all, rapid prototyping processes rely on lasers to provide a localised and controllable source of light for curing a liquid photopolymer or heat to fuse thermoplastic powders to form objects. This paper will provide an overview of laser based rapid prototyping methods and discuss the future direction of this technology in light of the threats posed by low cost 3D printing techniques and the opportunity for the direct manufacture of metal components.

  12. Pattern transfer processes for 157-nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, Seiro; Furukawa, Takamitsu; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Irie, Shigeo; Itani, Toshiro

    2002-07-01

    We describe and evaluate three kinds of pattern transfer processes that are suitable for 157-nm lithography. These transfer processes are 1) a hard mask (HM) process using SiO as a HM material, 2) a HM process using an organic bottom anti-reflecting coating (BARC)/SiN structure, and 3) a bi- layer process using a silicon-containing resist and an organic film as the bottom layer. In all of these processes, the underlayer fo the resist acts as an anti-reflecting layer. For the HM processes, we patterned a newly developed fluorine-containing resist using a 157-nm microstepper, and transferred the resist patterns to the hard mask by reactive ion etching (RIE) with minimal critical dimension shift. Using the HM pattern, we then fabricated a 65nm Wsi/poly-Si gate pattern using a high-NA microstepper (NA=0.85). With the bi-layer process, we transferred a 60nm 1:1 lines and spaces pattern of a newly developed silicon-containing resist to a 300nm-thick organic film by RIE. The fabrication of a 65nm 1:1 gate pattern and 60nm 1:1 organic film patten clearly demonstrated that 157-nm lithography is the best candidate for fabricating sub-70nm node devices.

  13. Hard Transparent Arrays for Polymer Pen Lithography.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, James L; Brown, Keith A; Kluender, Edward J; Cabezas, Maria D; Chen, Peng-Cheng; Mirkin, Chad A

    2016-03-22

    Patterning nanoscale features across macroscopic areas is challenging due to the vast range of length scales that must be addressed. With polymer pen lithography, arrays of thousands of elastomeric pyramidal pens can be used to write features across centimeter-scales, but deformation of the soft pens limits resolution and minimum feature pitch, especially with polymeric inks. Here, we show that by coating polymer pen arrays with a ∼175 nm silica layer, the resulting hard transparent arrays exhibit a force-independent contact area that improves their patterning capability by reducing the minimum feature size (∼40 nm), minimum feature pitch (<200 nm for polymers), and pen to pen variation. With these new arrays, patterns with as many as 5.9 billion features in a 14.5 cm(2) area were written using a four hundred thousand pyramid pen array. Furthermore, a new method is demonstrated for patterning macroscopic feature size gradients that vary in feature diameter by a factor of 4. Ultimately, this form of polymer pen lithography allows for patterning with the resolution of dip-pen nanolithography across centimeter scales using simple and inexpensive pen arrays. The high resolution and density afforded by this technique position it as a broad-based discovery tool for the field of nanocombinatorics.

  14. Benchtop Micromolding of Polystyrene by Soft Lithography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuli; Balowski, Joseph; Phillips, Colleen; Phillips, Ryan; Sims, Christopher E.; Allbritton, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    Polystyrene (PS), a standard material for cell culture consumable labware, was molded into microstructures with high fidelity of replication by an elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold. The process was a simple, benchtop method based on soft lithography using readily available materials. The key to successful replica molding by this simple procedure relies on the use of a solvent, for example, gamma-butyrolactone, which dissolves PS without swelling the PDMS mold. PS solution was added to the PDMS mold, and evaporation of solvent was accomplished by baking the mold on a hotplate. Microstructures with feature sizes as small as 3 µm and aspect ratios as large as 7 were readily molded. Prototypes of microfluidic chips made from PS were prepared by thermal bonding of a microchannel molded in PS with a flat PS substrate. The PS microfluidic chip displayed much lower adsorption and absorption of hydrophobic molecules (e.g. rhodamine B) compared to a comparable chip created from PDMS. The molded PS surface exhibited stable surface properties after plasma oxidation as assessed by contact angle measurement. The molded, oxidized PS surface remained an excellent surface for cell culture based on cell adhesion and proliferation. The micromolded PS possessed properties that were ideal for biological and bioanalytical needs, thus making it an alternative material to PDMS and suitable for building lab-on-a-chip devices by soft lithography methods. PMID:21811715

  15. Formation Factors of Watermark for Immersion Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niiyama, Takayoshi; Kawai, Akira

    2006-06-01

    In immersion lithography, some defects such as watermarks and nanoscale bubbles have been focused on as serious problems to be solved. To clarify the formation mechanism of the watermarks, the in-situ observations of the drying behaviors of water drops containing with particles and without particles, are conducted on Si substrates. In static watermark formation on a flat substrate, we can classify the watermark formation processes on the basis of the watermark shapes. From a surface energy balance analysis, particles dispersed in deionized (DI) water adhere on a Si substrate. In addition, owing to the Laplace force balance, the particles adhered on the Si substrate will attract surrounding particles. Hence, we can confirm the formation mechanism of the static watermark condensed in a ring shape. On the other hand, in dynamic watermark formation, we can observe clearly that a condensed watermark is formed on a Si substrate and particles move to a lower region in an inclined drop. In an actual immersion lithography system, the particles are more likely to remain in the immersion liquid under the lens system.

  16. Economic consequences of high throughput maskless lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, John G.; Govindaraju, Lakshmi

    2005-11-01

    Many people in the semiconductor industry bemoan the high costs of masks and view mask cost as one of the significant barriers to bringing new chip designs to market. All that is needed is a viable maskless technology and the problem will go away. Numerous sites around the world are working on maskless lithography but inevitably, the question asked is "Wouldn't a one wafer per hour maskless tool make a really good mask writer?" Of course, the answer is yes, the hesitation you hear in the answer isn't based on technology concerns, it's financial. The industry needs maskless lithography because mask costs are too high. Mask costs are too high because mask pattern generators (PG's) are slow and expensive. If mask PG's become much faster, mask costs go down, the maskless market goes away and the PG supplier is faced with an even smaller tool demand from the mask shops. Technical success becomes financial suicide - or does it? In this paper we will present the results of a model that examines some of the consequences of introducing high throughput maskless pattern generation. Specific features in the model include tool throughput for masks and wafers, market segmentation by node for masks and wafers and mask cost as an entry barrier to new chip designs. How does the availability of low cost masks and maskless tools affect the industries tool makeup and what is the ultimate potential market for high throughput maskless pattern generators?

  17. Inverse lithography technique for advanced CMOS nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villaret, Alexandre; Tritchkov, Alexander; Entradas, Jorge; Yesilada, Emek

    2013-04-01

    Resolution Enhancement Techniques have continuously improved over the last decade, driven by the ever growing constraints of lithography process. Despite the large number of RET applied, some hotspot configurations remain challenging for advanced nodes due to aggressive design rules. Inverse Lithography Technique (ILT) is evaluated here as a substitute to the dense OPC baseline. Indeed ILT has been known for several years for its near-to-ideal mask quality, while also being potentially more time consuming in terms of OPC run and mask processing. We chose to evaluate Mentor Graphics' ILT engine "pxOPCTM" on both lines and via hotspot configurations. These hotspots were extracted from real 28nm test cases where the dense OPC solution is not satisfactory. For both layer types, the reference OPC consists of a dense OPC engine coupled to rule-based and/or model-based assist generation method. The same CM1 model is used for the reference and the ILT OPC. ILT quality improvement is presented through Optical Rule Check (ORC) results with various adequate detectors. Several mask manufacturing rule constraints (MRC) are considered for the ILT solution and their impact on process ability is checked after mask processing. A hybrid OPC approach allowing localized ILT usage is presented in order to optimize both quality and runtime. A real mask is prepared and fabricated with this method. Finally, results analyzed on silicon are presented to compare localized ILT to reference dense OPC.

  18. Mask cost of ownership for advanced lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzio, Edward G.; Seidel, Philip K.

    2000-07-01

    As technology advances, becoming more difficult and more expensive, the cost of ownership (CoO) metric becomes increasingly important in evaluating technical strategies. The International SEMATECH CoC analysis has steadily gained visibility over the past year, as it attempts to level the playing field between technology choices, and create a fair relative comparison. In order to predict mask cots for advanced lithography, mask process flows are modeled using bets-known processing strategies, equipment cost, and yields. Using a newly revised yield mode, and updated mask manufacture flows, representative mask flows can be built. These flows are then used to calculate mask costs for advanced lithography down to the 50 nm node. It is never the goal of this type of work to provide absolute cost estimates for business planning purposes. However, the combination of a quantifiable yield model with a clearly defined set of mask processing flows and a cost model based upon them serves as an excellent starting point for cost driver analysis and process flow discussion.

  19. Design strategies for future lithography technologies (or: OPC will never die)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellenberg, Franklin M.

    2003-06-01

    Resolution Enhancement Technologies (RETs) have extended the life of optical lithography well into the regimes of k1=0.3. Although there are a number of RTEs widely in use now, all involve some degree of optical and process correction (OPC). This puts additional strain on the data handling and management capabilities for process calibration and mask preparation. Alternative lithogrpahic technologies, such as Extreme UV (EUV), electron projection lithography (EPL), direct-write maskless lithography (MLL), and even nanoimprint techniques have been proposed and are under rapid development. All these alternatives create patterns usinga wavelength (or the dimension of the writing tool itself) smaller than the desired feature. Since these should confortably increase k1 back to the values enjoyed many years ago, it is generally assumed that the issues associated with OPC and the data management for RETs will go away. This is not true. Although these will no longer have "optical proximity" effects to compensate, each of these processes introduces its own signature of distortions, which in turn will require compensation and the associated data management. In this paper, we will inventory the state of development for each of these technologies, and outline the expected compensations and requirements palced on data management that are associated with the adoption of the technology. These effects include electron proximity effects and pattern stitching for EPL, Flare induced proximity effects for EUV, gray scale mapping for various maskless techniques, and even local process biasing for various nanoimprint approaches.

  20. Fabrication of a curved microlens array using double gray-scale digital maskless lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ningning; Zhang, Zhimin

    2017-03-01

    Digital maskless lithography is considered to be a high-efficiency and low-cost approach for the fabrication of microstructures, but is limited by the gray scale capability of spatial light modulators. In this work, a novel method of double gray-scale digital maskless lithography is presented for forming a curved microlens array. The target exposure dose profile of the curved microlens array is first split into two individual 3D energy profiles, and then each 3D energy profile can be respectively realized by a single gray-scale digital lithography. Two gray-scale digital masks obtained by projection calculation are superposed on the substrate so as to realize the exposure dose profile of the curved microlens array. Thus, the effective steps that are achieved through the photoresist response to the modulated UV exposure are doubled, so a smoother profile with a steep gradient can be formed by the precise modulation of double gray-scale masks. As a result of the double gray-scale method, a curved microlens array with 183 micro lenslets on a 1024 µm  ×  768 µm spherical surface has been successfully fabricated.

  1. Scanner performance predictor and optimizer in further low-k1 lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Hajime; Nakashima, Toshiharu; Ogata, Taro; Kudo, Shintaro; Kita, Naonori; Ikeda, Junji; Matsui, Ryota; Yamamoto, Hajime; Sukegawa, Ayako; Makino, Katsushi; Murayama, Masayuki; Masaki, Kazuo; Matsuyama, Tomoyuki

    2014-03-01

    Due to the importance of errors in lithography scanners, masks, and computational lithography in low-k1 lithography, application software is used to simultaneously reduce them. We have developed "Masters" application software, which is all-inclusive term of critical dimension uniformity (CDU), optical proximity effect (OPE), overlay (OVL), lens control (LNS), tool maintenance (MNT) and source optimization for wide process window (SO), for compensation of the issues on imaging and overlay. In this paper, we describe the more accurate and comprehensive solution of OPE-Master, LNS-Master and SO-Master with functions of analysis, prediction and optimization. Since OPE-Master employed a rigorous simulation, a root cause of error in OPE matching was found out. From the analysis, we had developed an additional knob and evaluated a proof-of- concept for the improvement. Influence of thermal issues on projection optics is evaluated with a heating prediction, and an optimization with scanner knobs on an optimized source taken into account mask 3D effect for obtaining usable process window. Furthermore, we discuss a possibility of correction for reticle expansion by heating comparing calculation and measurement.

  2. Laser-based fast-neutron spectroscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomerantz, Ishay; Kishon, Itay; Kleinschmidt, Annika; Schanz, Victor A.; Tebartz, Alexandra; Fernández, Juan Carlos; Gautier, Donald C.; Johnson, Randall Philip; Shimada, Tsutomu; Wurden, Glen Anthony; Roth, Markus

    2017-05-01

    Great progress has been made in recent years in realizing compact, laser-based neutron generators. These devices, however, are inapplicable for conducting energy-resolved fast-neutron radiography because of the electromagnetic noise produced by the interaction of a strong laser field with matter. To overcome this limitation, we developed a novel neutron time-of-flight detector, largely immune to electromagnetic noise. The detector is based on plastic scintillator, only a few mm in size, which is coupled to a silicon photo-multiplier by a long optical fiber. I will present results we obtained at the Trident Laser Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory during the summer of 2016. Using this detector, we recorded high resolution, low-background fast neutron spectra generated by the interaction of laser accelerated deuterons with Beryllium. The quality of these spectra was sufficient to resolve the unique neutron absorption spectra of different elements and thus it is the first demonstration of laser-based fast neutron spectroscopy. I will discuss how this achievement paves the way to realizing compact neutron radiography systems for research, security, and commercial applications.

  3. Simple laser-based pipeline corrosion assessment system

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, W.A.; Yapp, D.; Barborak, D.M.; Fingerhut, M.P.; Kania, R.

    1997-03-01

    The article focuses on development and use of a simpler laser-based system for accurately and efficiently measuring and assessing corrosion damage on the external surface of an exposed pipeline. The system uses a laser-based range sensor, which relies on optical spray, sensor movement, and the principal of triangulation to construct a three-dimensional measurement. Baseline subtraction, where a polynomial curve-fit is used to approximate the ideal pipe profile above the corroded area, is used. Future profiles are subtracted from the ideal profile, and when differences are significant, corrosion depth measurements are made by constructing normal vectors at points along the ideal profile. The use of such a system for accurately mapping corrosion damage allows more accurate assessments, thereby reducing the number of unnecessary repairs and cut outs, and reduces the risk of non-conservative assessments. The use of this system also results in reduced labor costs associated with mapping corrosion damage and allows the assessment process to be carried out over a much shorter period of time. The system can also be used to develop an accurate correlation between inline inspection (ILI) results and corrosion geometry during the first few excavations following ILI, resulting in the need to excavate fewer areas.

  4. Laser -Based Joining of Metallic and Non-metallic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmanabham, G.; Shanmugarajan, B.

    Laser as a high intensity heat source can be effectively used for joining of materials by fusion welding and brazing in autogenous or in hybrid modes. In autogenous mode, welding is done in conduction , deep penetration , and keyhole mode. However, due to inherently high energy density available from a laser source, autogenous keyhole welding is the most popular laser welding mode. But, it has certain limitations like need for extremely good joint fit-up, formation of very hard welds in steel , keyhole instability, loss of alloying elements, etc. To overcome these limitations, innovative variants such as laser-arc hybrid welding , induction-assisted welding , dual beam welding , etc., have been developed. Using laser heat, brazing can be performed by melting a filler to fill the joints, without melting the base materials. Accomplishing laser-based joining as mentioned above requires appropriate choice of laser source, beam delivery system, processing head with appropriate optics and accessories. Basic principles of various laser-based joining processes, laser system technology, process parameters, metallurgical effects on different base materials, joint performance, and applications are explained in this chapter.

  5. Medical diagnostics by laser-based analysis of exhaled breath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giubileo, Gianfranco

    2002-08-01

    IMany trace gases can be found in the exhaled breath, some of them giving the possibility of a non invasive diagnosis of related diseases or allowing the monitoring of the disease in the course of its therapy. In the present lecture the principle of medical diagnosis based on the breath analysis will be introduced and the detection of trace gases in exhaled breath by high- resolution molecular spectroscopy in the IR spectral region will be discussed. A number of substrates and the optical systems for their laser detection will be reported. The following laser based experimental systems has been realised in the Molecular Spectroscopy Laboratory in ENEA in Frascati for the analysis of specific substances in the exhaled breath. A tuneable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) appartus for the measurement of 13C/12C isotopic ratio in carbon dioxide, a TDLAS apparatus for the detection of CH4 and a CO2 laser based photoacoustic system to detect trace ethylene at atmospheric pressure. The experimental set-up for each one of the a.m. optical systems will be shown and the related medical applications will be illustrated. The concluding remarks will be focuses on chemical species that are of major interest for medical people today and their diagnostic ability.

  6. Step and flash imprint lithography for semiconductor high volume manufacturing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloy, M.; Litt, L. C.

    2010-03-01

    Step and Flash Imprint Lithography (SFIL), a form of ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL), is recognized for its resolution and patterning abilities. It is one of the few next generation lithography techniques capable of meeting the resolution requirements of future semiconductor devices. However, many integration issues such as defectivity, throughput, and overlay must be resolved before SFIL can be used for semiconductor high volume manufacturing (HVM). This paper discusses the current status of SFIL, including the process and templates, and shows where more industry collaboration is needed to solve the most critical issues.

  7. Hybrid hotspot detection using regression model and lithography simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Taiki; Matsunawa, Tetsuaki; Nojima, Shigeki; Pan, David Z.

    2016-03-01

    As minimum feature sizes shrink, unexpected hotspots appear on wafers. Therefore, it is important to detect and fix these hotspots at design stage to reduce development time and manufacturing cost. Currently, as the most accurate approach, lithography simulation is widely used to detect such hotspots. However, it is known to be time-consuming. This paper proposes a novel aerial image synthesizing method using regression and minimum lithography simulation for only hotspot detection. Experimental results show hotspot detection on the proposed method is equivalent compared with the results on the conventional hotspot detection method which uses only lithography simulation with much less computational cost.

  8. Nanoimprint lithography using disposable biomass template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanabata, Makoto; Takei, Satoshi; Sugahara, Kigen; Nakajima, Shinya; Sugino, Naoto; Kameda, Takao; Fukushima, Jiro; Matsumoto, Yoko; Sekiguchi, Atsushi

    2016-04-01

    A novel nanoimprint lithography process using disposable biomass template having gas permeability was investigated. It was found that a disposable biomass template derived from cellulose materials shows an excellent gas permeability and decreases transcriptional defects in conventional templates such as quartz, PMDS, DLC that have no gas permeability. We believe that outgasses from imprinted materials are easily removed through the template. The approach to use a cellulose for template material is suitable as the next generation of clean separation technology. It is expected to be one of the defect-less thermal nanoimprint lithographic technologies. It is also expected that volatile materials and solvent including materials become available that often create defects and peelings in conventional temples that have no gas permeability.

  9. Sequential infiltration synthesis for advanced lithography

    DOEpatents

    Darling, Seth B.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Tseng, Yu-Chih; Peng, Qing

    2015-03-17

    A plasma etch resist material modified by an inorganic protective component via sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) and methods of preparing the modified resist material. The modified resist material is characterized by an improved resistance to a plasma etching or related process relative to the unmodified resist material, thereby allowing formation of patterned features into a substrate material, which may be high-aspect ratio features. The SIS process forms the protective component within the bulk resist material through a plurality of alternating exposures to gas phase precursors which infiltrate the resist material. The plasma etch resist material may be initially patterned using photolithography, electron-beam lithography or a block copolymer self-assembly process.

  10. DNA Nanostructures-Mediated Molecular Imprinting Lithography.

    PubMed

    Tian, Cheng; Kim, Hyojeong; Sun, Wei; Kim, Yunah; Yin, Peng; Liu, Haitao

    2017-01-24

    This paper describes the fabrication of polymer stamps using DNA nanostructure templates. This process creates stamps having diverse nanoscale features with dimensions ranging from several tens of nanometers to micrometers. DNA nanostructures including DNA nanotubes, stretched λ-DNA, two-dimensional (2D) DNA brick crystals with three-dimensional (3D) features, hexagonal DNA 2D arrays, and triangular DNA origami were used as master templates to transfer patterns to poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(l-lactic acid) with high fidelity. The resulting polymer stamps were used as molds to transfer the pattern to acryloxy perfluoropolyether polymer. This work establishes an approach to using self-assembled DNA templates for applications in soft lithography.

  11. Microfluidic Lithography of Bioinspired Helical Micromotors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yunru; Shang, Luoran; Gao, Wei; Zhao, Ze; Wang, Huan; Zhao, Yuanjin

    2017-07-29

    Considerable efforts have been devoted to developing artificial micro/nanomotors that can convert energy into movement. A flow lithography integrated microfluidic spinning and spiraling system is developed for the continuous generation of bioinspired helical micromotors. Because the generation processes could be precisely tuned by adjusting the flow rates and the illuminating frequency, the length, diameter, and pitch of the helical micromotors were highly controllable. Benefiting from the fast online gelation and polymerization, the resultant helical micromotors could be imparted with Janus, triplex, and core-shell cross-sectional structures that have never been achieved by other methods. Owing to the spatially controlled encapsulation of functional nanoparticles in the microstructures, the helical micromotors can perform locomotion not only by magnetically actuated rotation or corkscrew motion but also through chemically powered catalytic reaction. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Nanoscale plasmonic stamp lithography on silicon.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fenglin; Luber, Erik J; Huck, Lawrence A; Olsen, Brian C; Buriak, Jillian M

    2015-02-24

    Nanoscale lithography on silicon is of interest for applications ranging from computer chip design to tissue interfacing. Block copolymer-based self-assembly, also called directed self-assembly (DSA) within the semiconductor industry, can produce a variety of complex nanopatterns on silicon, but these polymeric films typically require transformation into functional materials. Here we demonstrate how gold nanopatterns, produced via block copolymer self-assembly, can be incorporated into an optically transparent flexible PDMS stamp, termed a plasmonic stamp, and used to directly functionalize silicon surfaces on a sub-100 nm scale. We propose that the high intensity electric fields that result from the localized surface plasmons of the gold nanoparticles in the plasmonic stamps upon illumination with low intensity green light, lead to generation of electron-hole pairs in the silicon that drive spatially localized hydrosilylation. This approach demonstrates how localized surface plasmons can be used to enable functionalization of technologically relevant surfaces with nanoscale control.

  13. Patterning proteins and cells using soft lithography.

    PubMed

    Kane, R S; Takayama, S; Ostuni, E; Ingber, D E; Whitesides, G M

    1999-12-01

    This review describes the pattering of proteins and cells using a non-photolithographic microfabrication technology, which we call 'soft lithography' because it consists of a set of related techniques, each of which uses stamps or channels fabricated in an elastomeric ('soft') material for pattern transfer. The review covers three soft lithographic techniques: microcontact printing, patterning using microfluidic channels, and laminar flow patterning. These soft lithographic techniques are inexpensive, are procedurally simple, and can be used to pattern a variety of planar and non-planar substrates. Their successful application does not require stringent regulation of the laboratory environment, and they can be used to pattern surfaces with delicate ligands. They provide control over both the surface chemistry and the cellular environment. We discuss both the procedures for patterning based on these soft lithographic techniques, and their applications in biosensor technology, in tissue engineering, and for fundamental studies in cell biology.

  14. New antireflective coatings for 193-nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gu; Guerrero, Douglas J.; Dobson, Norman

    1998-06-01

    New bottom antireflective coatings (BARCs) for 193 nm lithography have been recently developed by Brewer Science Inc. Copolymers of benzyl methacrylate (or benzyl acrylate) and hydroxypropyl methacrylate have been synthesized and used as a main component in 193 nm BARCs. The acrylic copolymers have strong absorbance at 193 nm UV light wavelength. The 193 nm BARCs were formulated in safe solvents such as ethyl lactate and formed by spin-on coating process. Thermosetting of the 193 nm BARCs limited their intermixing with photoresists. These 193 nm BARCs had optical density of about 10 micrometers -1, k equals 0.35, and n equals 1.81. Preliminary oxygen plasma etch rates were > 1.5 times DUV resists. Good profiles at small feature sizes (< 0.20 micrometers ) were achieved with tested photoresists.

  15. Progress in EUV lithography toward manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong-Sue; Chalykh, Roman; Kim, Hoyeon; Lee, Seungkoo; Park, Changmin; Hwang, Myungsoo; Park, Joo-On; Park, Jinhong; Kim, Hocheol; Jeon, Jinho; Kim, Insung; Lee, Donggun; Na, Jihoon; Kim, Jungyeop; Lee, Siyong; Kim, Hyunwoo; Nam, Seok-Woo

    2017-03-01

    In this article the recent progress in the elements of EUV lithography is presented. Source power around 205W was demonstrated and further scaling up is going on, which is expected to be implemented in the field within 2017. Source availability keeps improving especially due to the introduction of new droplet generator but collector lifetime needs to be verified at each power level. Mask blank defect satisfied the HVM goal. Resist meets the requirements of development purposes and dose needs to be reduced further to satisfy the productivity demand. Pellicle, where both the high transmittance and long lifetime are demanded, needs improvements especially in pellicle membrane. Potential issues in high-NA EUV are discussed including resist, small DOF, stitching, mask infrastructure, whose solutions need to be prepared timely in addition to high-NA exposure tool to enable this technology.

  16. Direct optical lithography of functional inorganic nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Fedin, Igor; Zhang, Hao; Talapin, Dmitri V.

    2017-07-01

    Photolithography is an important manufacturing process that relies on using photoresists, typically polymer formulations, that change solubility when illuminated with ultraviolet light. Here, we introduce a general chemical approach for photoresist-free, direct optical lithography of functional inorganic nanomaterials. The patterned materials can be metals, semiconductors, oxides, magnetic, or rare earth compositions. No organic impurities are present in the patterned layers, which helps achieve good electronic and optical properties. The conductivity, carrier mobility, dielectric, and luminescence properties of optically patterned layers are on par with the properties of state-of-the-art solution-processed materials. The ability to directly pattern all-inorganic layers by using a light exposure dose comparable with that of organic photoresists provides an alternate route for thin-film device manufacturing.

  17. Inverse lithography using sparse mask representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, Radu C.; Hurley, Paul; Apostol, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    We present a novel optimisation algorithm for inverse lithography, based on optimization of the mask derivative, a domain inherently sparse, and for rectilinear polygons, invertible. The method is first developed assuming a point light source, and then extended to general incoherent sources. What results is a fast algorithm, producing manufacturable masks (the search space is constrained to rectilinear polygons), and flexible (specific constraints such as minimal line widths can be imposed). One inherent trick is to treat polygons as continuous entities, thus making aerial image calculation extremely fast and accurate. Requirements for mask manufacturability can be integrated in the optimization without too much added complexity. We also explain how to extend the scheme for phase-changing mask optimization.

  18. Femtolitre chemistry assisted by microfluidic pen lithography.

    PubMed

    Carbonell, Carlos; Stylianou, Kyriakos C; Hernando, Jordi; Evangelio, Emi; Barnett, Sarah A; Nettikadan, Saju; Imaz, Inhar; Maspoch, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Chemical reactions at ultrasmall volumes are becoming increasingly necessary to study biological processes, to synthesize homogenous nanostructures and to perform high-throughput assays and combinatorial screening. Here we show that a femtolitre reaction can be realized on a surface by handling and mixing femtolitre volumes of reagents using a microfluidic stylus. This method, named microfluidic pen lithography, allows mixing reagents in isolated femtolitre droplets that can be used as reactors to conduct independent reactions and crystallization processes. This strategy overcomes the high-throughput limitations of vesicles and micelles and obviates the usually costly step of fabricating microdevices and wells. We anticipate that this process enables performing distinct reactions (acid-base, enzymatic recognition and metal-organic framework synthesis), creating multiplexed nanoscale metal-organic framework arrays, and screening combinatorial reactions to evaluate the crystallization of novel peptide-based materials.

  19. Femtolitre chemistry assisted by microfluidic pen lithography

    PubMed Central

    Carbonell, Carlos; Stylianou, Kyriakos C.; Hernando, Jordi; Evangelio, Emi; Barnett, Sarah A.; Nettikadan, Saju; Imaz, Inhar; Maspoch, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Chemical reactions at ultrasmall volumes are becoming increasingly necessary to study biological processes, to synthesize homogenous nanostructures and to perform high-throughput assays and combinatorial screening. Here we show that a femtolitre reaction can be realized on a surface by handling and mixing femtolitre volumes of reagents using a microfluidic stylus. This method, named microfluidic pen lithography, allows mixing reagents in isolated femtolitre droplets that can be used as reactors to conduct independent reactions and crystallization processes. This strategy overcomes the high-throughput limitations of vesicles and micelles and obviates the usually costly step of fabricating microdevices and wells. We anticipate that this process enables performing distinct reactions (acid-base, enzymatic recognition and metal-organic framework synthesis), creating multiplexed nanoscale metal-organic framework arrays, and screening combinatorial reactions to evaluate the crystallization of novel peptide-based materials. PMID:23863998

  20. Integrating nanosphere lithography in device fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurvick, Tod V.; Coutu, Ronald A.; Lake, Robert A.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses the integration of nanosphere lithography (NSL) with other fabrication techniques, allowing for nano-scaled features to be realized within larger microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based devices. Nanosphere self-patterning methods have been researched for over three decades, but typically not for use as a lithography process. Only recently has progress been made towards integrating many of the best practices from these publications and determining a process that yields large areas of coverage, with repeatability and enabled a process for precise placement of nanospheres relative to other features. Discussed are two of the more common self-patterning methods used in NSL (i.e. spin-coating and dip coating) as well as a more recently conceived variation of dip coating. Recent work has suggested the repeatability of any method depends on a number of variables, so to better understand how these variables affect the process a series of test vessels were developed and fabricated. Commercially available 3-D printing technology was used to incrementally alter the test vessels allowing for each variable to be investigated individually. With these deposition vessels, NSL can now be used in conjunction with other fabrication steps to integrate features otherwise unattainable through current methods, within the overall fabrication process of larger MEMS devices. Patterned regions in 1800 series photoresist with a thickness of ~700nm are used to capture regions of self-assembled nanospheres. These regions are roughly 2-5 microns in width, and are able to control the placement of 500nm polystyrene spheres by controlling where monolayer self-assembly occurs. The resulting combination of photoresist and nanospheres can then be used with traditional deposition or etch methods to utilize these fine scale features in the overall design.

  1. Benchtop micromolding of polystyrene by soft lithography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuli; Balowski, Joseph; Phillips, Colleen; Phillips, Ryan; Sims, Christopher E; Allbritton, Nancy L

    2011-09-21

    Polystyrene (PS), a standard material for cell culture consumable labware, was molded into microstructures with high fidelity of replication by an elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold. The process was a simple, benchtop method based on soft lithography using readily available materials. The key to successful replica molding by this simple procedure relies on the use of a solvent, for example, gamma-butyrolactone, which dissolves PS without swelling the PDMS mold. PS solution was added to the PDMS mold, and evaporation of the solvent was accomplished by baking the mold on a hotplate. Microstructures with feature sizes as small as 3 μm and aspect ratios as large as 7 were readily molded. Prototypes of microfluidic chips made from PS were prepared by thermal bonding of a microchannel molded in PS with a flat PS substrate. The PS microfluidic chip displayed much lower adsorption and absorption of hydrophobic molecules (e.g. rhodamine B) compared to a comparable chip created from PDMS. The molded PS surface exhibited stable surface properties after plasma oxidation as assessed by contact angle measurement. The molded, oxidized PS surface remained an excellent surface for cell culture based on cell adhesion and proliferation. To demonstrate the application of this process for cell biology research, PS was micromolded into two different microarray formats, microwells and microposts, for segregation and tracking of non-adherent and adherent cells, respectively. The micromolded PS possessed properties that were ideal for biological and bioanalytical needs, thus making it an alternative material to PDMS and suitable for building lab-on-a-chip devices by soft lithography methods. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  2. Reflective electron beam lithography: lithography results using CMOS controlled digital pattern generator chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubiotti, Thomas; Sun, Jeff Fuge; Freed, Regina; Kidwingira, Francoise; Yang, Jason; Bevis, Chris; Carroll, Allen; Brodie, Alan; Tong, William M.; Lin, Shy-Jay; Wang, Wen-Chuan; Haspeslagh, Luc; Vereecke, Bart

    2013-03-01

    Maskless electron beam lithography can potentially extend semiconductor manufacturing to the 10 nm logic (16 nm half pitch) technology node and beyond. KLA-Tencor is developing Reflective Electron Beam Lithography (REBL) technology targeting high-volume 10 nm logic node performance. REBL uses a novel multi-column wafer writing system combined with an advanced stage architecture to enable the throughput and resolution required for a NGL system. Using a CMOS Digital Pattern Generator (DPG) chip with over one million microlenses, the system is capable of maskless printing of arbitrary patterns with pixel redundancy and pixel-by-pixel grayscaling at the wafer. Electrons are generated in a flood beam via a thermionic cathode at 50-100 keV and decelerated to illuminate the DPG chip. The DPG-modulated electron beam is then reaccelerated and demagnified 80-100x onto the wafer to be printed. Previously, KLA-Tencor reported on the development progress of the REBL tool for maskless lithography at and below the 10 nm logic technology node. Since that time, the REBL team has made good progress towards developing the REBL system and DPG for direct write lithography. REBL has been successful in manufacturing a CMOS controlled DPG chip with a stable charge drain coating and with all segments functioning. This DPG chip consists of an array of over one million electrostatic lenslets that can be switched on or off via CMOS voltages to pattern the flood electron beam. Testing has proven the validity of the design with regards to lenslet performance, contrast, lifetime, and pattern scrolling. This chip has been used in the REBL demonstration platform system for lithography on a moving stage in both PMMA and chemically amplified resist. Direct imaging of the aerial image has also been performed by magnifying the pattern at the wafer plane via a mag stack onto a YAG imaging screen. This paper will discuss the chip design improvements and new charge drain coating that have resulted in a

  3. High-index immersion lithography: preventing lens photocontamination and identifying optical behavior of LuAG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberman, V.; Rothschild, M.; Palmacci, S. T.; Bristol, R.; Byers, J.; Turro, N. J.; Lei, X.; O'Connor, N.; Zimmerman, P. A.

    2008-03-01

    A potential extension of water-based 193-nm immersion lithography involves transition to a higher refractive index organic immersion fluid coupled with a higher index last lens element. While considerable progress has been made in improving the photo-durability of the immersion fluid itself, photo-induced contamination of the last lens element caused by laser exposure in the presence of such organic fluids remains a major concern. In this work, we study remediation strategies for such contamination, which would be compatible with conventional lithographic production environments. In general, surface photocontamination layers were found to be highly graphitic in nature, where the first monolayer is strongly bound to the substrate. We have attempted to develop a surface passivation treatment for altering the monolayer chemistry and preventing large-scale contamination, but found such treatments to be unstable under laser irradiation. On the other hand, using hydrogen peroxide as a in-situ cleaning solution has been shown to be extremely effective. We also present first laser-based durability results of LuAG, which is a leading candidate material for high index last element to be used with high index fluids.

  4. Fundamentals of embossing nanoimprint lithography in polymer substrates.

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Blake Alexander; King, William P.

    2011-02-01

    The convergence of micro-/nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) and biomedical industries is creating a need for innovation and discovery around materials, particularly in miniaturized systems that use polymers as the primary substrate. Polymers are ubiquitous in the microelectronics industry and are used as sensing materials, lithography tools, replication molds, microfluidics, nanofluidics, and biomedical devices. This diverse set of operational requirements dictates that the materials employed must possess different properties in order to reduce the cost of production, decrease the scale of devices to the appropriate degree, and generate engineered devices with new functional properties at cost-competitive levels of production. Nanoscale control of polymer deformation at a massive scale would enable breakthroughs in all of the aforementioned applications, but is currently beyond the current capabilities of mass manufacturing. This project was focused on developing a fundamental understanding of how polymers behave under different loads and environments at the nanoscale in terms of performance and fidelity in order to fill the most critical gaps in our current knowledgebase on this topic.

  5. Cost analysis on the next-generation lithography technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomei, Yoshio

    1999-06-01

    A cost of ownership (CoO) model is used to analyze the cost of the next generation lithography (NGL) technology which includes proximity x-ray, ion beam projection (IPL), EUV and SCALPEL. The model takes into account the equipment cost, throughput, resist/process cost and mask cost. The purpose of this paper is to propose a baseline to discuss on the NGL CoO issue. General conclusion is that x-ray appears to be most cost-effective. This is the case when plural steppers are installed to a storage ring. IPL has to use a certain extent of complementary mask mode which may increase the IPL total cost. EUV appears to require higher throughput to be cost-competitive to other technologies because of expected higher machine and mask costs. SCALPEL may have difficulty to attain competent throughput. The key feature in this case is the electron beam current and the width of a unit exposure field covered by electron beam scanning.

  6. Maskless lithography using point array technique for fine patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Fumitaka; Ohta, Eiji; Nakagawa, Takashi; Tachikawa, Masahiro; Takeda, Nobuo; Nishimoto, Nirou

    2015-07-01

    We made a steady progress in designing a maskless exposure system using the point array technique. An epoch-making high-resolution maskless lithography system with resolution of less than 1 micron half-pitch has been developed. Exposure results indicated that patterns were resolved up to 0.8 microns half-pitch. Smooth edges of the photoresist for various directions were also confirmed. It is distinctive characteristics of the point array technique. Another merit is coexistence of high resolution and high throughput. 4 inches wafers used in this evaluation were exposed within 30 minutes. Therefore, we consider that tact time of manufacturing a photomask can be shortened drastically. Finally we have challenged to apply an annular stop to our new projection optics system in order to achieve further improvement of optical performance. However, we confirmed that a sidelobe of optical spots, which became stronger by using the annular stop, exerted an undesirable influence upon imaging for fine patterns. Consequently, it became clear that suppressing the sidelobe as well as narrowing the mainlobe of optical spots is important for microlithography using the point array technique.

  7. Projection lithography with distortion compensation using reticle chuck contouring

    DOEpatents

    Tichenor, Daniel A.

    2001-01-01

    A chuck for holding a reflective reticle where the chuck has an insulator block with a non-planer surface contoured to cause distortion correction of EUV radiation is provided. Upon being placed on the chuck, a thin, pliable reflective reticle will conform to the contour of the chuck's non-planer surface. When employed in a scanning photolithography system, distortion in the scanned direction is corrected.

  8. Diode laser based water vapor DIAL using modulated pulse technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Phong Le Hoai; Abo, Makoto

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a diode laser based differential absorption lidar (DIAL) for measuring lower-tropospheric water vapor profile using the modulated pulse technique. The transmitter is based on single-mode diode laser and tapered semiconductor optical amplifier with a peak power of 10W around 800nm absorption band, and the receiver telescope diameter is 35cm. The selected wavelengths are compared to referenced wavelengths in terms of random error and systematic errors. The key component of modulated pulse technique, a macropulse, is generated with a repetition rate of 10 kHz, and the modulation within the macropulse is coded according to a pseudorandom sequence with 100ns chip width. As a result, we evaluate both single pulse modulation and pseudorandom coded pulse modulation technique. The water vapor profiles conducted from these modulation techniques are compared to the real observation data in summer in Japan.

  9. A laser-based vision system for weld quality inspection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2011-01-01

    Welding is a very complex process in which the final weld quality can be affected by many process parameters. In order to inspect the weld quality and detect the presence of various weld defects, different methods and systems are studied and developed. In this paper, a laser-based vision system is developed for non-destructive weld quality inspection. The vision sensor is designed based on the principle of laser triangulation. By processing the images acquired from the vision sensor, the geometrical features of the weld can be obtained. Through the visual analysis of the acquired 3D profiles of the weld, the presences as well as the positions and sizes of the weld defects can be accurately identified and therefore, the non-destructive weld quality inspection can be achieved.

  10. Pulsed diode laser-based monitor for singlet molecular oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seonkyung; Zhu, Leyun; Minhaj, Ahmed M.; Hinds, Michael F.; Vu, Danthu H.; Rosen, David I.; Davis, Steven J.; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2010-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising cancer treatment. PDT uses the affinity of photosensitizers to be selectively retained in malignant tumors. When tumors, pretreated with the photosensitizer, are irradiated with visible light, a photochemical reaction occurs and tumor cells are destroyed. Oxygen molecules in the metastable singlet delta state O2(1Δ) are believed to be the species that destroys cancerous cells during PDT. Monitoring singlet oxygen produced by PDT may lead to more precise and effective PDT treatments. Our approach uses a pulsed diode laser-based monitor with optical fibers and a fast data acquisition system to monitor singlet oxygen during PDT. We present results of in vitro singlet oxygen detection in solutions and in a rat prostate cancer cell line as well as PDT mechanism modeling. PMID:18601555

  11. Axion search by laser-based experiment OSQAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulc, M.; Pugnat, P.; Ballou, R.; Deferne, G.; Duvillaret, L.; Flekova, L.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Hosek, J.; Husek, T.; Jost, R.; Kral, M.; Kunc, S.; Macuchova, K.; Meissner, K. A.; Morville, J.; Romanini, D.; Schott, M.; Siemko, A.; Slunecka, M.; Vitrant, G.; Zicha, J.

    2013-08-01

    Laser-based experiment OSQAR in CERN is aimed to the search of the axions by two methods. The photon regeneration experiment is using two LHC dipole magnets of the length 14.3 m and magnetic field 9.5 T equipped with an optical barrier at the end of the first magnet. It looks as light shining through the wall. No excess of events above the background was detected at this arrangement. Nevertheless, this result extends the exclusion region for the axion mass. The second method wants to measure the ultra-fine vacuum magnetic birefringence for the first time. An optical scheme with electro-optical modulator has been proposed, validated and subsequently improved. Cotton-Mouton constant for air was determined in this experiment setup.

  12. Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xia; Tong, Zhengrong; Zhao, Junfa; Cao, Ye; Li, Lan

    2014-07-10

    A multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser based on graphene oxide (GO) has been proposed, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time, to generate an output of stable wavelengths. The structure mainly comprises a few layers of GO between two single-mode fibers incorporated into a capillary device and a Lyot comb filter. GO can show a good nonlinear optical effect, which is beneficial to suppress the mode competition caused by the EDF and stabilize the multiwavelength output. With assistance from the GO device, 11 stable simultaneous lasing signals with a power nonuniformity of about 1.5 dB are obtained. Wavelength spacing is about 0.42 nm and the linewidth of each wavelength is less than 0.07 nm.

  13. A Laser-Based Vision System for Weld Quality Inspection

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2011-01-01

    Welding is a very complex process in which the final weld quality can be affected by many process parameters. In order to inspect the weld quality and detect the presence of various weld defects, different methods and systems are studied and developed. In this paper, a laser-based vision system is developed for non-destructive weld quality inspection. The vision sensor is designed based on the principle of laser triangulation. By processing the images acquired from the vision sensor, the geometrical features of the weld can be obtained. Through the visual analysis of the acquired 3D profiles of the weld, the presences as well as the positions and sizes of the weld defects can be accurately identified and therefore, the non-destructive weld quality inspection can be achieved. PMID:22344308

  14. Laser-based instrumentation for the detection of chemical agents

    SciTech Connect

    Hartford, A. Jr.; Sander, R.K.; Quigley, G.P.; Radziemski, L.J.; Cremers, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    Several laser-based techniques are being evaluated for the remote, point, and surface detection of chemical agents. Among the methods under investigation are optoacoustic spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence (SDLIF). Optoacoustic detection has already been shown to be capable of extremely sensitive point detection. Its application to remote sensing of chemical agents is currently being evaluated. Atomic emission from the region of a laser-generated plasma has been used to identify the characteristic elements contained in nerve (P and F) and blister (S and Cl) agents. Employing this LIBS approach, detection of chemical agent simulants dispersed in air and adsorbed on a variety of surfaces has been achieved. Synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence provides an attractive alternative to conventional LIF, in that an artificial narrowing of the fluorescence emission is obtained. The application of this technique to chemical agent simulants has been successfully demonstrated. 19 figures.

  15. Development of motorized plasma lithography for cell patterning.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Shinji; Nagasawa, Yohei; Saito, Akira C; Matsui, Tsubasa S; Yokoyama, Sho; Sato, Masaaki

    2014-03-01

    The micropatterning of cells, which restricts the adhesive regions on the substrate and thus controls cell geometry, is used to study mechanobiology-related cell functions. Plasma lithography is a means of providing such patterns and uses a spatially-selective plasma treatment. Conventional plasma lithography employs a positionally-fixed mask with which the geometry of the patterns is determined and thus is not suited for producing on-demand geometries of patterns. To overcome this, we have manufactured a new device with a motorized mask mounted in a vacuum chamber of a plasma generator, which we designate motorized plasma lithography. Our pilot tests indicate that various pattern geometries can be obtained with the control of a shielding mask during plasma treatment. Our approach can thus omit the laborious process of preparing photolithographically microfabricated masks required for the conventional plasma lithography.

  16. Image-Reversal Soft Lithography: Fabrication of Ultrasensitive Biomolecular Detectors.

    PubMed

    Safaei, Tina Saberi; Das, Jagotamoy; Mahshid, Sahar Sadat; Aldridge, Peter M; Sargent, Edward H; Kelley, Shana O

    2016-04-20

    Image-reversal soft lithography enables the straightforward fabrication of high-performance biosensors without requiringhigh-resolution photolitography. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Nanoscale 2.5-dimensional surface patterning with plasmonic lithography.

    PubMed

    Jung, Howon; Park, Changhoon; Oh, Seonghyeon; Hahn, Jae W

    2017-08-29

    We report an extension of plasmonic lithography to nanoscale 2.5-dimensional (2.5D) surface patterning. To obtain the impulse response of a plasmonic lithography system, we described the field distribution of a point dipole source generated by a metallic ridge aperture with a theoretical model using the concepts of quasi-spherical waves and surface plasmon-polaritons. We performed deconvolution to construct an exposure map of a target shape for patterning. For practical applications, we fabricated several nanoscale and microscale structures, such as a cone, microlens array, nanoneedle, and a multiscale structure using the plasmonic lithography system. We verified the possibility of applying plasmonic lithography to multiscale structuring from a few tens of nanometres to a few micrometres in the lateral dimension. We obtained a root-mean-square error of 4.7 nm between the target shape and the patterned shape, and a surface roughness of 11.5 nm.

  18. Sub-10 nm patterning using EUV interference lithography.

    PubMed

    Päivänranta, Birgit; Langner, Andreas; Kirk, Eugenie; David, Christian; Ekinci, Yasin

    2011-09-16

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is currently considered as the leading technology for high-volume manufacturing below sub-20 nm feature sizes. In parallel, EUV interference lithography based on interference transmission gratings has emerged as a powerful tool for industrial and academic research. In this paper, we demonstrate nanopatterning with sub-10 nm resolution using this technique. Highly efficient and optimized molybdenum gratings result in resolved line/space patterns down to 8 nm half-pitch and show modulation down to 6 nm half-pitch. These results show the performance of optical nanopatterning in the sub-10 nm range and currently mark the record for photon-based lithography. Moreover, an efficient phase mask completely suppressing the zeroth-order diffraction and providing 50 nm line/space patterns over large areas is evaluated. Such efficient phase masks pave the way towards table-top EUV interference lithography systems.

  19. Intel takes a stake in ultraviolet-lithography firm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Ned

    2012-08-01

    The world's biggest computer-chip maker, Intel Corporation, has signed a major agreement with Dutch lithography firm ASML Holding to collaborate on developing the next generation of technology for manufacturing semiconductor chips.

  20. Diffraction spectral filter for use in extreme-UV lithography condenser

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Tichenor, Daniel A.; Bernardez, Luis J.

    2002-01-01

    A condenser system for generating a beam of radiation includes a source of radiation light that generates a continuous spectrum of radiation light; a condenser comprising one or more first optical elements for collecting radiation from the source of radiation light and for generating a beam of radiation; and a diffractive spectral filter for separating first radiation light having a particular wavelength from the continuous spectrum of radiation light. Cooling devices can be employed to remove heat generated. The condenser system can be used with a ringfield camera in projection lithography.

  1. In-situ resist colloidal lithography for affordable plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochenkov, Vladimir E.

    2017-09-01

    A recently developed extension of Sparse Colloidal Lithography, an In-situ Resist Colloidal Lithography method is presented. The technique is based on in-situ deposition of structured resist layer having low adhesion to target material to form nanoparticles of desired shape. A high potential of the method is demonstrated by the examples of fabricated plasmonic nanostructures with different shapes, including concentric and non-concentric rings, disks and chiral comma-like particles.

  2. Evolution in the concentration of activities in lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, Harry J.

    2016-03-01

    From a perusal of the proceedings of the SPIE Advanced Lithography Symposium, the progression of new concepts in lithographic technology can be seen. A new idea first appears in a few papers, and over time, there is an increase in the number of papers on the same topic. Eventually the method becomes commonplace, and the number of papers on the topic declines, as the idea becomes part of our industry's working knowledge. For example, one or two papers on resolution enhancement techniques (RETs) appeared in the proceedings of the Optical Microlithography Conference in 1989 and 1990. By 1994, the total number of papers had increased to 35. Early lithographers focused on practical issues, such as adhesion promotion and resist edge bead. The introduction of simulation software brought on the next era of lithography. This was followed by a period of time in which RETs were developed and brought to maturity. The introduction of optical proximity corrections (OPC) initiated the next major era of lithography. The traditional path for scaling by using shorter wavelengths, decreasing k1 and increasing numerical aperture has given way to the current era of optical multiple patterning and lithography-design co-optimization. There has been sufficient activity in EUV lithography R and D to justify a separate EUV Lithography Conference as part of the annual Advanced Lithography Symposium. Each era builds on the cumulative knowledge gained previously. Over time, there have been parallel developments in optics, exposure tools, resist, metrology and mask technology, many of which were associated with changes in the wavelength of light used for leading-edge lithography.

  3. 32nm node technology development using interference immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sewell, Harry; McCafferty, Diane; Markoya, Louis; Hendrickx, Eric; Hermans, Jan; Ronse, Kurt

    2005-05-01

    The 38nm and 32nm lithography nodes are the next major targets for optical lithography on the Semiconductor Industry Roadmap. The recently developed water-based immersion lithography using ArF illumination will be able to provide an optical solution for lithography at the 45nm node, but it will not be able to achieve the 38nm or the 32nm nodes as currently defined. To achieve these next lithographic nodes will require new, very high refractive index fluids to replace the water used in current immersion systems. This paper describes tests and experiments using an interference immersion lithography test jig to develop key technology for the 32nm node. Interference imaging printers have been available for years, and with the advent of Immersion Lithography, they have a new use. Interference immersion image printing offers users a rapid, cost-effective way to develop immersion lithography, particularly at extremely high resolutions. Although it can never replace classical lens-based lithography systems for semiconductor device production, it does offer a way to develop resist and fluid technology at a relatively low cost. Its simple image-forming format offers easy access to the basic physics of advanced imaging. Issues such as: Polarization of the image forming light rays; Fluid/resist interaction during exposure; Topcoat film performance; and the Line Edge Roughness (LER) of resists at extremely high resolutions can all be readily studied. Experiments are described and results are provided for work on: 32nm imaging tests; high refractive index fluid testing using 193nm wavelength at resolutions well beyond current lens-based system capabilities; and polarization configuration testing on 45nm, 38nm, and 32nm L/S features. Results on the performance of resists and topcoats are reported for 32nm L/S features.

  4. Displacement Talbot lithography: an alternative technique to fabricate nanostructured metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Boulbar, E. D.; Chausse, P. J. P.; Lis, S.; Shields, P. A.

    2017-06-01

    Nanostructured materials are essential for many recent electronic, magnetic and optical devices. Lithography is the most common step used to fabricate organized and well calibrated nanostructures. However, feature sizes less than 200 nm usually require access to deep ultraviolet photolithography, e-beam lithography or soft lithography (nanoimprinting), which are either expensive, have low-throughput or are sensitive to defects. Low-cost, high-throughput and low-defect-density techniques are therefore of interest for the fabrication of nanostructures. In this study, we investigate the potential of displacement Talbot lithography for the fabrication of specific structures of interest within plasmonic and metamaterial research fields. We demonstrate that nanodash arrays and `fishnet'-like structures can be fabricated by using a double exposure of two different linear grating phase masks. Feature sizes can be tuned by varying the exposure doses. Such lithography has been used to fabricate metallic `fishnet'-like structures using a lift-off technique. This proof of principle paves the way to a low-cost, high-throughput, defect-free and large-scale technique for the fabrication of structures that could be useful for metamaterial and plasmonic metasurfaces. With the development of deep ultraviolet displacement Talbot lithography, the feature dimensions could be pushed lower and used for the fabrication of optical metamaterials in the visible range.

  5. Application of optical CD metrology for alternative lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Masafumi; Kawamoto, Akiko; Matsuki, Kazuto; Godny, Stephane; Lin, Tingsheng; Wakamoto, Koichi

    2013-04-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) and nanoimprint lithography (NIL) have been widely developed for low-cost nanoscale patterning. Although they are currently regarded as "alternative lithography," some papers show their potential to be candidates for next-generation lithography (NGL). To actualize the potential, the contribution of metrology engineers is necessary. Since the characteristics of the lithography techniques are different from those of conventional lithography, new metrology schemes correlated with each characteristic are required. In DSA of block copolymer (BCP), a guide is needed to control the direction and position of BCP. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the relationship between the guide and the BCP pattern. Since the depth of guide or the coating thickness variation of BCP over guide influences the behavior of phase separation of BCP, 3D metrology becomes increasingly important. In NIL, residual resist thickness (RLT) underneath the pattern should be measured because its variation affects the CD variation of transferred pattern. 3D metrology is also important in NIL. Optical critical dimension (OCD) metrology will be a powerful tool for 3D metrology. In this work, some applications of OCD for alternative lithography have been studied. For DSA, we have tried to simultaneously monitor the guide and BCP pattern in a DSA-based contact hole shrinking process. Sufficient measurement accuracy for CD and shapes for guide and BCP patterns was achievable. For NIL, sufficient sensitivity to RLT measurement was obtained.

  6. Software-based data path for raster-scanned multi-beam mask lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopalan, Archana; Agarwal, Ankita; Buck, Peter; Geller, Paul; Hamaker, H. Christopher; Rao, Nagswara

    2016-10-01

    According to the 2013 SEMATECH Mask Industry Survey,i roughly half of all photomasks are produced using laser mask pattern generator ("LMPG") lithography. LMPG lithography can be used for all layers at mature technology nodes, and for many non-critical and semi-critical masks at advanced nodes. The extensive use of multi-patterning at the 14-nm node significantly increases the number of critical mask layers, and the transition in wafer lithography from positive tone resist to negative tone resist at the 14-nm design node enables the switch from advanced binary masks back to attenuated phase shifting masks that require second level writes to remove unwanted chrome. LMPG lithography is typically used for second level writes due to its high productivity, absence of charging effects, and versatile non-actinic alignment capability. As multi-patterning use expands from double to triple patterning and beyond, the number of LMPG second level writes increases correspondingly. The desire to reserve the limited capacity of advanced electron beam writers for use when essential is another factor driving the demand for LMPG capacity. The increasing demand for cost-effective productivity has kept most of the laser mask writers ever manufactured running in production, sometimes long past their projected lifespan, and new writers continue to be built based on hardware developed some years ago.ii The data path is a case in point. While state-ofthe- art when first introduced, hardware-based data path systems are difficult to modify or add new features to meet the changing requirements of the market. As data volumes increase, design styles change, and new uses are found for laser writers, it is useful to consider a replacement for this critical subsystem. The availability of low-cost, high-performance, distributed computer systems combined with highly scalable EDA software lends itself well to creating an advanced data path system. EDA software, in routine production today, scales

  7. Successful demonstration of a comprehensive lithography defect monitoring strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Ingrid B.; Breaux, Louis H.; Cross, Andrew; von den Hoff, Michael

    2003-07-01

    This paper describes the validation of the methodology, the model and the impact of an optimized Lithography Defect Monitoring Strategy at two different semiconductor manufacturing factories. The lithography defect inspection optimization was implemented for the Gate Module at both factories running 0.13-0.15μm technologies on 200mm wafers, one running microprocessor and the other memory devices. As minimum dimensions and process windows decrease in the lithography area, new technologies and technological advances with resists and resist systems are being implemented to meet the demands. Along with these new technological advances in the lithography area comes potentially unforeseen defect issues. The latest lithography processes involve new resists in extremely thin, uniform films, exposing the films under conditions of highly optimized focus and illumination, and finally removing the resist completely and cleanly. The lithography cell is defined as the cluster of process equipment that accomplishes the coating process (surface prep, resist spin, edge-bead removal and soft bake), the alignment and exposure, and the developing process (post-exposure bake, develop, rinse) of the resist. Often the resist spinning process involves multiple materials such as BARC (bottom ARC) and / or TARC (top ARC) materials in addition to the resist itself. The introduction of these new materials with the multiple materials interfaces and the tightness of the process windows leads to an increased variety of defect mechanisms in the lithography area. Defect management in the lithography area has become critical to successful product introduction and yield ramp. The semiconductor process itself contributes the largest number and variety of defects, and a significant portion of the total defects originate within the lithography cell. From a defect management perspective, the lithography cell has some unique characteristics. First, defects in the lithography process module have the

  8. Lithographic resolution enhancement of a maskless lithography system based on a wobulation technique for flow lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kibeom; Han, Sangkwon; Yoon, Jinsik; Kwon, Sunghoon; Park, Hun-Kuk; Park, Wook

    2016-12-01

    We present a method for improving the lithographic resolution of digital micromirror devices for flow-lithography using a wobulation technique. While maintaining the area of UV exposure, the lithographic resolution was improved using a wobulation technique, which is a large screen display technique that enhances resolution via overlapping pixels by half a pixel. The edges of a diagonal pattern in a microstructure were smoothly generated with additional sub-patterns compared to conventional single pattern-exposure. In addition, the surface roughness of the microstructure was improved because the gaps between pixels were filled by the overlapping patterns.

  9. Smartphone Sensors for Stone Lithography Authentication

    PubMed Central

    Schirripa Spagnolo, Giuseppe; Cozzella, Lorenzo; Papalillo, Donato

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays mobile phones include quality photo and video cameras, access to wireless networks and the internet, GPS assistance and other innovative systems. These facilities open them to innovative uses, other than the classical telephonic communication one. Smartphones are a more sophisticated version of classic mobile phones, which have advanced computing power, memory and connectivity. Because fake lithographs are flooding the art market, in this work, we propose a smartphone as simple, robust and efficient sensor for lithograph authentication. When we buy an artwork object, the seller issues a certificate of authenticity, which contains specific details about the artwork itself. Unscrupulous sellers can duplicate the classic certificates of authenticity, and then use them to “authenticate” non-genuine works of art. In this way, the buyer will have a copy of an original certificate to attest that the “not original artwork” is an original one. A solution for this problem would be to insert a system that links together the certificate and the related specific artwork. To do this it is necessary, for a single artwork, to find unique, unrepeatable, and unchangeable characteristics. In this article we propose an innovative method for the authentication of stone lithographs. We use the color spots distribution captured by means of a smartphone camera as a non-cloneable texture of the specific artworks and an information management system for verifying it in mobility stone lithography. PMID:24811077

  10. Reflective masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Khanh Bao

    1994-05-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithographic masks are made by patterning multilayer reflective coatings with high normal incidence reflectivity. Masks can be patterned by depositing a patterned absorber layer above the coating or by etching the pattern directly into the coating itself. Electromagnetic simulations showed that absorber-overlayer masks have superior imaging characteristics over etched masks (less sensitive to incident angles and pattern profiles). In an EUVL absorber overlayer mask, defects can occur in the mask substrate, reflective coating, and absorber pattern. Electromagnetic simulations showed that substrate defects cause the most severe image degradation. A printability study of substrate defects for absorber overlayer masks showed that printability of 25 nm high substrate defects are comparable to defects in optical lithography. Simulations also indicated that the manner in which the defects are covered by multilayer reflective coatings can affect printability. Coverage profiles that result in large lateral spreading of defect geometries amplify the printability of the defects by increasing their effective sizes. Coverage profiles of Mo/Si coatings deposited above defects were studied by atomic force microscopy and TEM. Results showed that lateral spread of defect geometry is proportional to height. Undercut at defect also increases the lateral spread. Reductions in defect heights were observed for 0.15 μm wide defect lines. A long-term study of Mo/Si coating reflectivity revealed that Mo/Si coatings with Mo as the top layer suffer significant reductions in reflectivity over time due to oxidation.

  11. Metal hierarchical patterning by direct nanoimprint lithography

    PubMed Central

    Radha, Boya; Lim, Su Hui; Saifullah, Mohammad S. M.; Kulkarni, Giridhar U.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional hierarchical patterning of metals is of paramount importance in diverse fields involving photonics, controlling surface wettability and wearable electronics. Conventionally, this type of structuring is tedious and usually involves layer-by-layer lithographic patterning. Here, we describe a simple process of direct nanoimprint lithography using palladium benzylthiolate, a versatile metal-organic ink, which not only leads to the formation of hierarchical patterns but also is amenable to layer-by-layer stacking of the metal over large areas. The key to achieving such multi-faceted patterning is hysteretic melting of ink, enabling its shaping. It undergoes transformation to metallic palladium under gentle thermal conditions without affecting the integrity of the hierarchical patterns on micro- as well as nanoscale. A metallic rice leaf structure showing anisotropic wetting behavior and woodpile-like structures were thus fabricated. Furthermore, this method is extendable for transferring imprinted structures to a flexible substrate to make them robust enough to sustain numerous bending cycles. PMID:23446801

  12. Materials for future lithography (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Seung Wook; Yang, Da; Dai, Junyan; Felix, Nelson; Bratton, Daniel; Tsuchiya, Kousuke; Kwark, Young-Je; Bravo-Vasquez, Juan-Pablo; Ober, Christopher K.; Cao, Heidi B.; Deng, Hai

    2005-05-01

    The demands for high resolution and issues of line edge roughness require a reconsideration of current resist design strategies. In particular, EUV lithography will provide an opportunity to examine new resist concepts including new elemental compositions and low molar mass resists or molecular resists. In the former case, resist compositions incorporating elements such as silicon and boron have been explored for EUV resists and will be described. In an example of the latter case, molecular glass resists have been designed using synthetic architectures in globular and core-arm forms ranging from one to multiple arms. Moreover, our studies include a series of ring and irregularly shaped small molecules modified to give imaging performance. These materials have been explored to improve line edge roughness (LER) compared to common polymer resists. Several examples of polymeric and molecular glass resists will be described. Several compositions showed high glass transition temperatures (Tg) of ~ 120°C and possessed no crystallinity as seen from XRD studies. Negative-tone molecular glass resists with a T-shaped phenolic core structure, 4-[4-[1,1-Bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl

  13. Coherence management in lithography printing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernasconi, Johana; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans Peter; Voelkel, Reinhard; Bramati, Arianna

    2016-03-01

    In proximity lithography, interference and diffraction effects arise when printing small features because of the proximity gap. Different techniques are used in order to control and take advantage of these effects. In this paper, the focus is set on the MO Exposure Optics developed to shape the angular spectrum of the exposure light. The MO Exposure Optics contains several elements including microlens arrays that have certain symmetry and sampling. The MO Exposure Optics allows to set the angle of illumination and can be used to define spatial coherence. We study here in detail the influence of different illumination settings on optical proximity correction (OPC) structures. We apply this concept for the first time to a LED illumination. The propagation of light after an optical proximity correction structure is measured by recording aerial images over a distance of up to 60 μm behind the mask with a high resolution microscope setup.1 As an example structure, we investigate here an optical proximity correction structure that is intended to make the edge of a line sharper. Using illumination filter plates that limit the angle of illumination and increase the coherence lead to pronounced interference effects in aerial images as expected. But special settings of the illumination allow to achieve comparable results with much larger illumination angles and higher throughput. We will show examples and analyze the results

  14. Analysis of the blurring in stencil lithography.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Mena, O; Villanueva, L G; Savu, V; Sidler, K; Langlet, P; Brugger, J

    2009-10-14

    A quantitative analysis of blurring and its dependence on the stencil-substrate gap and the deposition parameters in stencil lithography, a high resolution shadow mask technique, is presented. The blurring is manifested in two ways: first, the structure directly deposited on the substrate is larger than the stencil aperture due to geometrical factors, and second, a halo of material is formed surrounding the deposited structure, presumably due to surface diffusion. The blurring is studied as a function of the gap using dedicated stencils that allow a controlled variation of the gap. Our results show a linear relationship between the gap and the blurring of the directly deposited structure. In our configuration, with a material source of approximately 5 mm and a source-substrate distance of 1 m, we find that a gap size of approximately 10 microm enlarges the directly deposited structures by approximately 50 nm. The measured halo varies from 0.2 to 3 microm in width depending on the gap, the stencil aperture size and other deposition parameters. We also show that the blurring can be reduced by decreasing the nominal deposition thickness, the deposition rate and the substrate temperature.

  15. Weak interfaces for UV cure nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houle, Frances; Fornof, Ann; Simonyi, Eva; Miller, Dolores; Truong, Hoa

    2008-03-01

    Nanoimprint lithography using a photocurable organic resist provides a means of patterning substrates with a spatial resolution in the few nm range. The usefulness of the technique is limited by defect generation during template removal, which involves fracture at the interface between the template and the newly cured polymer. Although it is critical to have the lowest possible interfacial fracture toughness (Gc less than 0.1 Jm-2) to avoid cohesive failure in the polymer, there is little understanding on how to achieve this using reacting low viscosity resist fluids. Studies of debonding of a series of free-radical cured polyhedral silsesquioxane crosslinker formulations containing selected reactive diluents from fluorosilane-coated quartz template materials will be described. At constant diluent fraction the storage modulus of cured resists follows trends in initial reaction rate, not diluent Tg. Adhesion is uncorrelated with both Tg and storage modulus. XPS studies of near-interface compositions indicate that component segregation within the resist fluid on contact with the template, prior to cure, plays a significant role in controlling the fracture process.

  16. Pattern collapse mitigation strategies for EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfarb, Dario L.; Bruce, Robert L.; Bucchignano, James J.; Klaus, David P.; Guillorn, Michael A.; Wu, Chunghsi J.

    2012-03-01

    In this study, a comprehensive approach towards assessing pattern collapse challenges and solutions for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUV) resists beyond the 14nm node is undertaken. The fundamental forces that drive pattern deformation are reassessed in order to propose a generalized design criterion for EUV photoresists and aqueous surfactanated rinses. Furthermore, ultimate pattern collapse solutions such as solvent drying utilizing pressurized fluids (supercritical CO2) are exemplified for sub-60nm pitch EUV patterning. In parallel, alternative EUV integration schemes that use a metal-based hardmask (MHM) are studied using a specifically tailored self-assembled monolayer (SAM) to prevent delamination-driven pattern collapse due to resist-hardmask interfacial adhesion failure. Finally, the marginal image transfer of 40nm pitched L/S of ultrathin EUV resist into a SiARC-underlayer stack appears to be gated by the EUV resist resolution limit and the reduced film thickness budget. An alternative method for achieving improved postetch line width roughness (LWR) with an ultrathin MHM-based integration scheme is herein demonstrated.

  17. Evaporative Lithography in Open Microfluidic Channel Networks.

    PubMed

    Lone, Saifullah; Zhang, Jia Ming; Vakarelski, Ivan U; Li, Er Qiang; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2017-03-13

    We demonstrate a direct capillary-driven method based on wetting and evaporation of various suspensions to fabricate regular two-dimensional wires in an open microfluidic channel through continuous deposition of micro- or nanoparticles under evaporative lithography, akin to the coffee-ring effect. The suspension is gently placed in a loading reservoir connected to the main open microchannel groove on a PDMS substrate. Hydrophilic conditions ensure rapid spreading of the suspension from the loading reservoir to fill the entire channel length. Evaporation during the spreading and after the channel is full increases the particle concentration toward the end of the channel. This evaporation-induced convective transport brings particles from the loading reservoir toward the channel end where this flow deposits a continuous multilayered particle structure. The particle deposition front propagates backward over the entire channel length. The final dry deposit of the particles is thereby much thicker than the initial volume fraction of the suspension. The deposition depth is characterized using a 3D imaging profiler, whereas the deposition topography is revealed using a scanning electron microscope. The patterning technology described here is robust and passive and hence operates without an external field. This work may well become a launching pad to construct low-cost and large-scale thin optoelectronic films with variable thicknesses and interspacing distances.

  18. Fabrication of subwavelength holes using nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, A.; Besser, J.; Baum, M.; Saupe, R.; Otto, T.; Gessner, T.

    2013-03-01

    Driven by the demand of miniaturized and highly integrated functionalities in the area of photonics and photonic circuits, the metal or plasmon optics has become a promising method for manipulating light at the nanometer scale. Especially the application of periodic sub wavelength hole structures within an opaque metal film on a dielectric substrate holds many advantages for the realization of optical filters, since the variation of the hole diameter and the periodicity allows a selective filter response. This paper is concerned with the modeling, fabrication and characterization of a sub wavelength hole array for surface plasmon enhanced transmission of light [1]. The theoretical backgrounds as well as the basics of the simulation by Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) are described for the target structure with a hole diameter of 180 nm and a periodicity of 400 nm. By using a double-molding technology via nanoimprint lithography the fabrication of this sub wavelength hole array with a peak wavelength of 470 nm and full width at half maximum of 50 nm from a silicon nanopillar master is demonstrated. In order to ensure the dimensional stability of the molded structures, characterization was consequently done by means of a self made non-contact mode atomic force microscope.

  19. Maskless plasmonic lithography at 22 nm resolution.

    PubMed

    Pan, Liang; Park, Yongshik; Xiong, Yi; Ulin-Avila, Erick; Wang, Yuan; Zeng, Li; Xiong, Shaomin; Rho, Junsuk; Sun, Cheng; Bogy, David B; Zhang, Xiang

    2011-01-01

    Optical imaging and photolithography promise broad applications in nano-electronics, metrologies, and single-molecule biology. Light diffraction however sets a fundamental limit on optical resolution, and it poses a critical challenge to the down-scaling of nano-scale manufacturing. Surface plasmons have been used to circumvent the diffraction limit as they have shorter wavelengths. However, this approach has a trade-off between resolution and energy efficiency that arises from the substantial momentum mismatch. Here we report a novel multi-stage scheme that is capable of efficiently compressing the optical energy at deep sub-wavelength scales through the progressive coupling of propagating surface plasmons (PSPs) and localized surface plasmons (LSPs). Combining this with airbearing surface technology, we demonstrate a plasmonic lithography with 22 nm half-pitch resolution at scanning speeds up to 10 m/s. This low-cost scheme has the potential of higher throughput than current photolithography, and it opens a new approach towards the next generation semiconductor manufacturing.

  20. Resist profile simulation with fast lithography model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yan-Ying; Chou, Chih-Shiang; Tang, Yu-Po; Huang, Wen-Chun; Liu, Ru-Gun; Gau, Tsai-Sheng

    2014-03-01

    A traditional approach to construct a fast lithographic model is to match wafer top-down SEM images, contours and/or gauge CDs with a TCC model plus some simple resist representation. This modeling method has been proven and is extensively used for OPC modeling. As the technology moves forward, this traditional approach has become insufficient in regard to lithography weak point detection, etching bias prediction, etc. The drawback of this approach is from metrology and simulation. First, top-down SEM is only good for acquiring planar CD information. Some 3D metrology such as cross-section SEM or AFM is necessary to obtain the true resist profile. Second, the TCC modeling approach is only suitable for planar image simulation. In order to model the resist profile, full 3D image simulation is needed. Even though there are many rigorous simulators capable of catching the resist profile very well, none of them is feasible for full-chip application due to the tremendous consumption of computational resource. The authors have proposed a quasi-3D image simulation method in the previous study [1], which is suitable for full-chip simulation with the consideration of sidewall angles, to improve the model accuracy of planar models. In this paper, the quasi-3D image simulation is extended to directly model the resist profile with AFM and/or cross-section SEM data. Resist weak points detected by the model generated with this 3D approach are verified on the wafer.

  1. Scatterometry control for multiple electron beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blancquaert, Yoann; Figueiro, Nivea; Labbaye, Thibault; Sanchez, Francisco; Heraud, Stephane; Koret, Roy; Sendelbach, Matthew; Michel, Ralf; Wolfling, Shay; Rey, Stephane; Pain, Laurent

    2017-03-01

    The evaluation of scatterometry for monitoring intended variations in innovative scatterometry targets that mimic nonuniformities potentially caused by multibeam Maskless Lithography (MEB-ML2) is presented. Specialized scatterometry targets consisting of lines and spaces were produced that have portions exposed using the nominal, or POR (Process of Record), dose, and portions exposed with a slightly different dose. These exposure plans created targets with different line CDs (critical dimensions). Multiple target designs were implement, each with a different combination of magnitude of CD shift and size of the region containing lines with a shifted CD. The scatterometry, or OCD (Optical Critical Dimension), spectra show clear shifts caused by the regions with shifted CD, and trends of the scatterometry results match well with trends of the estimated CD as well as the trends produced by measurements using a critical dimension scanning electron microscope (CD-SEM) system. Finally, the OCD results are correlated to the CD-SEM measurements. Taking into account resist morphology variations across the wafer, correlations between OCD and CD-SEM of the weighted average CD across the various targets are shown to be very good. Correlations are done using the rigorous TMU analysis methodology. Due to the different targeted CD values within each scatterometry structure, a new methodology for estimating the error of the CD-SEM measurements for nominally non-uniform targets is presented.

  2. Smartphone sensors for stone lithography authentication.

    PubMed

    Spagnolo, Giuseppe Schirripa; Cozzella, Lorenzo; Papalillo, Donato

    2014-05-07

    Nowadays mobile phones include quality photo and video cameras, access to wireless networks and the internet, GPS assistance and other innovative systems. These facilities open them to innovative uses, other than the classical telephonic communication one. Smartphones are a more sophisticated version of classic mobile phones, which have advanced computing power, memory and connectivity. Because fake lithographs are flooding the art market, in this work, we propose a smartphone as simple, robust and efficient sensor for lithograph authentication. When we buy an artwork object, the seller issues a certificate of authenticity, which contains specific details about the artwork itself. Unscrupulous sellers can duplicate the classic certificates of authenticity, and then use them to "authenticate" non-genuine works of art. In this way, the buyer will have a copy of an original certificate to attest that the "not original artwork" is an original one. A solution for this problem would be to insert a system that links together the certificate and the related specific artwork. To do this it is necessary, for a single artwork, to find unique, unrepeatable, and unchangeable characteristics. In this article we propose an innovative method for the authentication of stone lithographs. We use the color spots distribution captured by means of a smartphone camera as a non-cloneable texture of the specific artworks and an information management system for verifying it in mobility stone lithography.

  3. Inverse pupil wavefront optimization for immersion lithography.

    PubMed

    Han, Chunying; Li, Yanqiu; Dong, Lisong; Ma, Xu; Guo, Xuejia

    2014-10-10

    As the critical dimension of integrated circuits is continuously shrunk, thick mask induced aberration (TMIA) cannot be ignored in the lithography image process. Recently, a set of pupil wavefront optimization (PWO) approaches has been proposed to compensate for TMIA, based on a wavefront manipulator in modern scanners. However, these prior PWO methods have two intrinsic drawbacks. First, the traditional methods fell short in building up the analytical relationship between the pupil wavefront and the cost function, and used time-consuming algorithms to solve for the PWO problem. Second, in traditional methods, only the spherical aberrations were optimized to compensate for the focus exposure matrix tilt and best focus shift induced by TMIA. Thus, the degrees of freedom were limited during the optimization procedure. To overcome these restrictions, we build the analytical relationship between the pupil wavefront and the cost function based on Abbe vector imaging theory. With this analytical model and the Fletcher-Reeves conjugate-gradient algorithm, an inverse PWO method is innovated to balance the TMIA including 37 Zernike terms. Simulation results illustrate that our approach significantly improves image fidelity within a larger process window. This demonstrates that TMIA is effectively compensated by our inverse PWO approach.

  4. Lithography strategy for 65-nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodovsky, Yan A.; Schenker, Richard E.; Allen, Gary A.; Tejnil, Edita; Hwang, David H.; Lo, Fu-Chang; Singh, Vivek K.; Gleason, Robert E.; Brandenburg, Joseph E.; Bigwood, Robert M.

    2002-07-01

    Intel will start high volume manufacturing (HVM) of the 65nm node in 2005. Microprocessor density and performance trends will continue to follow Moore's law and cost-effective patterning solutions capable of supporting it have to be found, demonstrated and developed during 2002-2004. Given the uncertainty regarding the readiness and respective capabilities of 157nm and 193nm lithography to support 65nm technology requirements, Intel is developing both lithographic options and corresponding infrastructure with the intent to use both options in manufacturing. Development and use of dual lithographic options for a given technology node in manufacturing is not a new paradigm for Intel: whenever introduction of a new exposure wavelength presented excessive risk to the manufacturing schedule, Intel developed parallel patterning approaches in time for the manufacturing ramp. Both I-line and 248nm patterning solutions were developed and successfully used in manufacturing of the 350nm node at Intel. Similarly, 248nm and 193nm patterning solutions were fully developed for 130nm node high volume manufacturing.

  5. Proximity correction for electron beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrian, Christie R.; Chang, Steven; Peckerar, Martin C.

    1996-09-01

    As the critical dimensions required in mask making and direct write by electron beam lithography become ever smaller, correction for proximity effects becomes increasingly important. Furthermore, the problem is beset by the fact that only a positive energy dose can be applied with an electron beam. We discuss techniques such as chopping and dose shifting, which have been proposed to meet the positivity requirement. An alternative approach is to treat proximity correction as an optimization problem. Two such methods, local area dose correction and optimization using a regularizer proportional to the informational entropy of the solution, are compared. A notable feature of the regularized proximity correction is the ability to correct for forward scattering by the generation of a 'firewall' set back from the edge of a feature. As the forward scattering width increases, the firewall is set back farther from the feature edge. The regularized optimization algorithm is computationally time consuming using conventional techniques. However, the algorithm lends itself to a microelectronics integrated circuit coprocessor implementation, which could perform the optimization faster than even the fastest work stations. Scaling the circuit to larger number of pixels is best approached with a hybrid serial/parallel digital architecture that would correct for proximity effects over 108 pixels in about 1 h. This time can be reduced by simply adding additional coprocessors.

  6. Residual stress determination from a laser-based curvature measurement

    SciTech Connect

    W. D. Swank; R. A. Gavalya; J. K. Wright; R. N. Wright

    2000-05-08

    Thermally sprayed coating characteristics and mechanical properties are in part a result of the residual stress developed during the fabrication process. The total stress state in a coating/substrate is comprised of the quench stress and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch stress. The quench stress is developed when molten particles impact the substrate and rapidly cool and solidify. The CTE mismatch stress results from a large difference in the thermal expansion coefficients of the coating and substrate material. It comes into effect when the substrate/coating combination cools from the equilibrated deposit temperature to room temperature. This paper describes a laser-based technique for measuring the curvature of a coated substrate and the analysis required to determine residual stress from curvature measurements. Quench stresses were determined by heating the specimen back to the deposit temperature thus removing the CTE mismatch stress. By subtracting the quench stress from the total residual stress at room temperature, the CTE mismatch stress was estimated. Residual stress measurements for thick (>1mm) spinel coatings with a Ni-Al bond coat on 304 stainless steel substrates were made. It was determined that a significant portion of the residual stress results from the quenching stress of the bond coat and that the spinel coating produces a larger CTE mismatch stress than quench stress.

  7. Residual Stress Determination from a Laser-Based Curvature Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Swank, William David; Gavalya, Rick Allen; Wright, Julie Knibloe; Wright, Richard Neil

    2000-05-01

    Thermally sprayed coating characteristics and mechanical properties are in part a result of the residual stress developed during the fabrication process. The total stress state in a coating/substrate is comprised of the quench stress and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch stress. The quench stress is developed when molten particles impact the substrate and rapidly cool and solidify. The CTE mismatch stress results from a large difference in the thermal expansion coefficients of the coating and substrate material. It comes into effect when the substrate/coating combination cools from the equilibrated deposit temperature to room temperature. This paper describes a laser-based technique for measuring the curvature of a coated substrate and the analysis required to determine residual stress from curvature measurements. Quench stresses were determined by heating the specimen back to the deposit temperature thus removing the CTE mismatch stress. By subtracting the quench stress from the total residual stress at room temperature, the CTE mismatch stress was estimated. Residual stress measurements for thick (>1mm) spinel coatings with a Ni-Al bond coat on 304 stainless steel substrates were made. It was determined that a significant portion of the residual stress results from the quenching stress of the bond coat and that the spinel coating produces a larger CTE mismatch stress than quench stress.

  8. Diode-Laser-Based Spectrometer for Sensing Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, Joel A.

    2005-01-01

    A diode-laser-based spectrometer has been developed for measuring concentrations of gases and is intended particularly for use in analyzing and monitoring combustion processes under microgravitational conditions in a drop tower or a spacecraft. This instrument is also well suited for use on Earth in combustion experiments and for such related purposes as fire-safety monitoring and monitoring toxic and flammable gases in industrial settings. Of the gas-sensing spectrometers available prior to the development of this instrument, those that were sensitive enough for measuring the combustion gases of interest were too large, required critical optical alignments, used far too much electrical power, and were insufficiently rugged for use under the severe conditions of spacecraft launch and space flight. In contrast, the present instrument is compact, consumes relatively little power, and is rugged enough to withstand launch vibrations and space flight. In addition, this instrument is characterized by long-term stability, accuracy, and reliability. The diode laser in this spectrometer is operated in a wavelength-modulation mode. Different gases to be measured can be selected by changing modular laser units. The operation of the laser is controlled by customized, low-power electronic circuitry built around a digital signal-processor board. This customized circuitry also performs acquisition and analysis of data, controls communications, and manages errors.

  9. Femtosecond fiber-laser-based, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Huan; Yang, Lih-Mei; Liu, Jian

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports the LIBS studies on elemental composition detection and identification by employing a femtosecond (fs) fiber laser. High quality LIBS spectra were obtained in air using near-infrared fs fiber laser coupled with a broadband high sensitivity spectrometer without gating control. Specific ion and neutral emission lines of different materials have been characterized by line scanning, including metals, glasses and even explosive materials. Different laser parameters including pulse energy, repetition rate, scanning speed and integration times have been investigated to optimize the sensitivity. Results show that faster scanning speed and higher pulse energies can greatly enhance the signal level and reduce the integration time. The LIBS spectra are highly reproducible at different repetition rates up to 1 MHz. Furthermore, detection of explosive materials was also achieved and both the constituent elemental emission and the CN and C2 molecules emission were collected. Compared with conventional LIBS, fs fiber laser based LIBS system have advantages of less sample heating and damage, better spatial resolution and signal to background ratio, compact, reliable and cost-effective. This shows a potential portable LIBS system for versatile and rapid analysis of chemical and special explosive materials.

  10. Detecting Molecular Properties by Various Laser-Based Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hsin, Tse-Ming

    2007-01-01

    Four different laser-based techniques were applied to study physical and chemical characteristics of biomolecules and dye molecules. These techniques are liole burning spectroscopy, single molecule spectroscopy, time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and laser-induced fluorescence microscopy. Results from hole burning and single molecule spectroscopy suggested that two antenna states (C708 & C714) of photosystem I from cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 are connected by effective energy transfer and the corresponding energy transfer time is ~6 ps. In addition, results from hole burning spectroscopy indicated that the chlorophyll dimer of the C714 state has a large distribution of the dimer geometry. Direct observation of vibrational peaks and evolution of coumarin 153 in the electronic excited state was demonstrated by using the fs/ps CARS, a variation of time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy. In three different solvents, methanol, acetonitrile, and butanol, a vibration peak related to the stretch of the carbonyl group exhibits different relaxation dynamics. Laser-induced fluorescence microscopy, along with the biomimetic containers-liposomes, allows the measurement of the enzymatic activity of individual alkaline phosphatase from bovine intestinal mucosa without potential interferences from glass surfaces. The result showed a wide distribution of the enzyme reactivity. Protein structural variation is one of the major reasons that are responsible for this highly heterogeneous behavior.

  11. Versatile optofluidic ring resonator lasers based on microdroplets.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wonsuk; Luo, Yunhan; Zhu, Qiran; Fan, Xudong

    2011-09-26

    We develop a novel nL-sized microdroplet laser based on the capillary optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR). The microdroplet is generated in a microfluidic channel using two immiscible fluids and is subsequently delivered to the capillary OFRR downstream. Despite the presence of the high refractive index (RI) carrier fluid, the lasing emission can still be achieved for the droplet formed by low RI solution. The lasing threshold of 1.54 µJ/mm(2) is achieved, >6 times lower than the state-of-the-art, thanks to the high Q-factor of the OFRR. Furthermore, the lasing emission can be conveniently coupled into an optical fiber. Finally, tuning of the lasing wavelength is achieved via highly efficient fluorescence resonance energy transfer processes by merging two different dye droplets in the microfluidic channel. Versatility combined with improved lasing characteristics makes our OFRR droplet laser an attractive platform for high performance optofluidic lasers and bio/chemical sensing with small sample volumes. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  12. Dental hard tissue characterization using laser-based ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodgett, David W.; Massey, Ward L.

    2003-07-01

    Dental health care and research workers require a means of imaging the structures within teeth in vivo. One critical need is the detection of tooth decay in its early stages. If decay can be detected early enough, the process can be monitored and interventional procedures, such as fluoride washes and controlled diet, can be initiated to help re-mineralize the tooth. Currently employed x-ray imaging is limited in its ability to visualize interfaces and incapable of detecting decay at a stage early enough to avoid invasive cavity preparation followed by a restoration. To this end, non-destructive and non-contact in vitro measurements on extracted human molars using laser-based ultrasonics are presented. Broadband ultrasonic waves are excited in the extracted sections by using a pulsed carbon-dioxide (CO2) laser operating in a region of high optical absorption in the dental hard tissues. Optical interferometric detection of the ultrasonic wave surface displacements in accomplished with a path-stabilized Michelson-type interferometer. Results for bulk and surface in-vitro characterization of caries are presented on extracted molars with pre-existing caries.

  13. Stochastic resonance-enhanced laser-based particle detector.

    PubMed

    Dutta, A; Werner, C

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a Laser-based particle detector whose response was enhanced by modulating the Laser diode with a white-noise generator. A Laser sheet was generated to cast a shadow of the object on a 200 dots per inch, 512 x 1 pixels linear sensor array. The Laser diode was modulated with a white-noise generator to achieve stochastic resonance. The white-noise generator essentially amplified the wide-bandwidth (several hundred MHz) noise produced by a reverse-biased zener diode operating in junction-breakdown mode. The gain in the amplifier in the white-noise generator was set such that the Receiver Operating Characteristics plot provided the best discriminability. A monofiber 40 AWG (approximately 80 microm) wire was detected with approximately 88% True Positive rate and approximately 19% False Positive rate in presence of white-noise modulation and with approximately 71% True Positive rate and approximately 15% False Positive rate in absence of white-noise modulation.

  14. Ceramic Coating Inspection Using Laser-Based Ultrasonics and Nanoindentation

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, T. L.; Murray, T. W.; Basu, S. N.; Sarin, V. K.

    2007-03-21

    A combination of laser-based ultrasonic (LBU) inspection and nanoindentation testing is used to evaluate the thickness uniformity and through-thickness mechanical property distributions in 5-20 {mu}m thick CVD environmental barrier coatings. Mullite (3Al2O3{center_dot}2SiO2) coatings grown on silicon carbide substrates are studied in order to provide feedback on the growth process under a range of operating conditions. Nanoindentation tests are performed on polished coating cross sections, and the depth dependence of the elastic modulus of each coating is found. In the LBU experiments, a modulated continuous wave (CW) source is used for surface wave generation. The source is held at a fixed temporal frequency as it is scanned over the surface of the coating. At each temporal frequency of interest, the spatial frequencies of the acoustic modes are found, allowing for phase velocities to be determined. The mean values of elastic moduli found using the LBU approach compare well with the nanoindentation results.

  15. Damage detection technique by measuring laser-based mechanical impedance

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyeonseok; Sohn, Hoon

    2014-02-18

    This study proposes a method for measurement of mechanical impedance using noncontact laser ultrasound. The measurement of mechanical impedance has been of great interest in nondestructive testing (NDT) or structural health monitoring (SHM) since mechanical impedance is sensitive even to small-sized structural defects. Conventional impedance measurements, however, have been based on electromechanical impedance (EMI) using contact-type piezoelectric transducers, which show deteriorated performances induced by the effects of a) Curie temperature limitations, b) electromagnetic interference (EMI), c) bonding layers and etc. This study aims to tackle the limitations of conventional EMI measurement by utilizing laser-based mechanical impedance (LMI) measurement. The LMI response, which is equivalent to a steady-state ultrasound response, is generated by shooting the pulse laser beam to the target structure, and is acquired by measuring the out-of-plane velocity using a laser vibrometer. The formation of the LMI response is observed through the thermo-mechanical finite element analysis. The feasibility of applying the LMI technique for damage detection is experimentally verified using a pipe specimen under high temperature environment.

  16. Synthesis of fluorinated materials for 193-nm immersion lithography and 157-nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Yoshida, T.; Hayamai, T.; Araki, Takayuki; Aoyama, H.; Hagiwara, T.; Itani, Toshiro; Fujii, Kiyoshi

    2005-05-01

    Various fluorinated polymers were synthesized for application in 193-nm immersion lithography with the goal of improving 157-nm photoresist performance. Their fundamental properties were characterized, such as transparency at 193-nm and 157-nm (wavelength) and solubility in water and a standard alkaline developer. High transparency, i.e., absorbance better than 0.3 μm-1 at 193-nm wavelength, was achieved. The dissolution behaviors of them were studied by using the Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) method. We find that the dissolution rate of Poly(norbornene-2-fluoro-2-hexafluoroalchol) (PNB1FVIP) in 0.065N tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) was >200 times (nm/s) faster than that of the copolymer of tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) and norbornene-2-fluoro-2-hexafluoroalchol (TFE/NB1FVIP). A resist based on TFE/NB1FVIP was able to delineate 75 nm dense lines by exposure at 193-nm (wavelength) with an alternating phase shift mask using a 0.75 NA ArF scanner. The dissolution rates of the fluoropolymers in water and a 0.262N and 0.065 TMAH can be controlled by optimizing counter monomers containing hexafluoroisopropanol (HFA) unit, carboxylic acid unit and so on. In addition, we have collect water contact angle data. This data shows that fluoropolymers can be used as resist cover materials for 193-nm immersion lithography.

  17. Plasmonic nanostructures fabricated using nanosphere-lithography, soft-lithography and plasma etching

    PubMed Central

    Makaryan, Taron; Enderle, Fabian; Wiedemann, Stefan; Plettl, Alfred; Marti, Othmar; Ziemann, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Summary We present two routes for the fabrication of plasmonic structures based on nanosphere lithography templates. One route makes use of soft-lithography to obtain arrays of epoxy resin hemispheres, which, in a second step, can be coated by metal films. The second uses the hexagonal array of triangular structures, obtained by evaporation of a metal film on top of colloidal crystals, as a mask for reactive ion etching (RIE) of the substrate. In this way, the triangular patterns of the mask are transferred to the substrate through etched triangular pillars. Making an epoxy resin cast of the pillars, coated with metal films, allows us to invert the structure and obtain arrays of triangular holes within the metal. Both fabrication methods illustrate the preparation of large arrays of nanocavities within metal films at low cost. Gold films of different thicknesses were evaporated on top of hemispherical structures of epoxy resin with different radii, and the reflectance and transmittance were measured for optical wavelengths. Experimental results show that the reflectivity of coated hemispheres is lower than that of coated polystyrene spheres of the same size, for certain wavelength bands. The spectral position of these bands correlates with the size of the hemispheres. In contrast, etched structures on quartz coated with gold films exhibit low reflectance and transmittance values for all wavelengths measured. Low transmittance and reflectance indicate high absorbance, which can be utilized in experiments requiring light confinement. PMID:22003451

  18. Plasmonic nanostructures fabricated using nanosphere-lithography, soft-lithography and plasma etching.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Manuel R; Makaryan, Taron; Enderle, Fabian; Wiedemann, Stefan; Plettl, Alfred; Marti, Othmar; Ziemann, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We present two routes for the fabrication of plasmonic structures based on nanosphere lithography templates. One route makes use of soft-lithography to obtain arrays of epoxy resin hemispheres, which, in a second step, can be coated by metal films. The second uses the hexagonal array of triangular structures, obtained by evaporation of a metal film on top of colloidal crystals, as a mask for reactive ion etching (RIE) of the substrate. In this way, the triangular patterns of the mask are transferred to the substrate through etched triangular pillars. Making an epoxy resin cast of the pillars, coated with metal films, allows us to invert the structure and obtain arrays of triangular holes within the metal. Both fabrication methods illustrate the preparation of large arrays of nanocavities within metal films at low cost.Gold films of different thicknesses were evaporated on top of hemispherical structures of epoxy resin with different radii, and the reflectance and transmittance were measured for optical wavelengths. Experimental results show that the reflectivity of coated hemispheres is lower than that of coated polystyrene spheres of the same size, for certain wavelength bands. The spectral position of these bands correlates with the size of the hemispheres. In contrast, etched structures on quartz coated with gold films exhibit low reflectance and transmittance values for all wavelengths measured. Low transmittance and reflectance indicate high absorbance, which can be utilized in experiments requiring light confinement.

  19. Micro-optics: enabling technology for illumination shaping in optical lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelkel, Reinhard

    2014-03-01

    Optical lithography has been the engine that has empowered semiconductor industry to continually reduce the half-pitch for over 50 years. In early mask aligners a simple movie lamp was enough to illuminate the photomask. Illumination started to play a more decisive role when proximity mask aligners appeared in the mid-1970s. Off-axis illumination was introduced to reduce diffraction effects. For early projection lithography systems (wafer steppers), the only challenge was to collect the light efficiently to ensure short exposure time. When projection optics reached highest level of perfection, further improvement was achieved by optimizing illumination. Shaping the illumination light, also referred as pupil shaping, allows the optical path from reticle to wafer to be optimized and thus has a major impact on aberrations and diffraction effects. Highly-efficient micro-optical components are perfectly suited for this task. Micro-optics for illumination evolved from simple flat-top (fly's-eye) to annular, dipole, quadrupole, multipole and freeform illumination. Today, programmable micro-mirror arrays allow illumination to be changed on the fly. The impact of refractive, diffractive and reflective microoptics for photolithography will be discussed.

  20. Interference and nanoimprint lithography for the patterning of large areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucher, Nico; Hauser, Hubert; Höhn, Oliver; Kübler, Volker; Wellens, Christine; Müller, Claas; Bläsi, Benedikt

    2017-02-01

    Micro- and nanostructures can be used for reflectance reduction or light guidance in applications like photovoltaic solar cells, LEDs or display technology. The combination of interference lithography and nanoimprint lithography enables the fabrication and replication of high resolution structures on large areas. The origination of master structures, seamlessly patterned on areas as large as 1.2 × 1.2 m2 was shown using interference lithography. Within this work we demonstrate our current results on the up-scaling of the replication process chain based on nanoimprint lithography with in-line capable tools. Application examples in the fields of photovoltaics are demonstrated, e.g. the micron-scale patterning of multicrystalline silicon substrates to increase the solar cell efficiency. Furthermore, the lifetime of soft PDMS stamps is investigated. AFM force-distance measurements are introduced as suitable method to quantify the PDMS hardness as a parameter indicating stamp degradation. This technique is subsequently applied to evaluate two different resist materials. Applying the epoxy material (SU-8) with its more complex molecular structure results in a strongly increased stamp lifetime compared to the acrylate resist (Laromer LR 8996). This is a highly valuable result for further developments towards an up-scaled realization of nanoimprint lithography.

  1. Non-polydimethylsiloxane devices for oxygen-free flow lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bong, Ki Wan; Xu, Jingjing; Kim, Jong-Ho; Chapin, Stephen C.; Strano, Michael S.; Gleason, Karen K.; Doyle, Patrick S.

    2012-05-01

    Flow lithography has become a powerful particle synthesis technique. Currently, flow lithography relies on the use of polydimethylsiloxane microchannels, because the process requires local inhibition of polymerization, near channel interfaces, via oxygen permeation. The dependence on polydimethylsiloxane devices greatly limits the range of precursor materials that can be processed in flow lithography. Here we present oxygen-free flow lithography via inert fluid-lubrication layers for the synthesis of new classes of complex microparticles. We use an initiated chemical vapour deposition nano-adhesive bonding technique to create non-polydimethylsiloxane-based devices. We successfully synthesize microparticles with a sub-second residence time and demonstrate on-the-fly alteration of particle height. This technique greatly expands the synthesis capabilities of flow lithography, enabling particle synthesis, using water-insoluble monomers, organic solvents, and hydrophobic functional entities such as quantum dots and single-walled carbon nanotubes. As one demonstrative application, we created near-infrared barcoded particles for real-time, label-free detection of target analytes.

  2. Intelligent control system based on ARM for lithography tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Changlong; Tang, Xiaoping; Hu, Song; Wang, Nan

    2014-08-01

    The control system of traditional lithography tool is based on PC and MCU. The PC handles the complex algorithm, human-computer interaction, and communicates with MCU via serial port; The MCU controls motors and electromagnetic valves, etc. This mode has shortcomings like big volume, high power consumption, and wasting of PC resource. In this paper, an embedded intelligent control system of lithography tool, based on ARM, is provided. The control system used S5PV210 as processor, completing the functions of PC in traditional lithography tool, and provided a good human-computer interaction by using LCD and capacitive touch screen. Using Android4.0.3 as operating system, the equipment provided a cool and easy UI which made the control more user-friendly, and implemented remote control and debug, pushing video information of product by network programming. As a result, it's convenient for equipment vendor to provide technical support for users. Finally, compared with traditional lithography tool, this design reduced the PC part, making the hardware resources efficiently used and reducing the cost and volume. Introducing embedded OS and the concepts in "The Internet of things" into the design of lithography tool can be a development trend.

  3. Non-polydimethylsiloxane devices for oxygen-free flow lithography.

    PubMed

    Bong, Ki Wan; Xu, Jingjing; Kim, Jong-Ho; Chapin, Stephen C; Strano, Michael S; Gleason, Karen K; Doyle, Patrick S

    2012-05-01

    Flow lithography has become a powerful particle synthesis technique. Currently, flow lithography relies on the use of polydimethylsiloxane microchannels, because the process requires local inhibition of polymerization, near channel interfaces, via oxygen permeation. The dependence on polydimethylsiloxane devices greatly limits the range of precursor materials that can be processed in flow lithography. Here we present oxygen-free flow lithography via inert fluid-lubrication layers for the synthesis of new classes of complex microparticles. We use an initiated chemical vapour deposition nano-adhesive bonding technique to create non-polydimethylsiloxane-based devices. We successfully synthesize microparticles with a sub-second residence time and demonstrate on-the-fly alteration of particle height. This technique greatly expands the synthesis capabilities of flow lithography, enabling particle synthesis, using water-insoluble monomers, organic solvents, and hydrophobic functional entities such as quantum dots and single-walled carbon nanotubes. As one demonstrative application, we created near-infrared barcoded particles for real-time, label-free detection of target analytes.

  4. Fabrication of multiplex quasi-three-dimensional grids of one-dimensional nanostructures via stepwise colloidal lithography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gang; Wang, Dayang; Möhwald, Helmuth

    2007-11-01

    By using O2-plasma etched monolayers of hexagonally close-packed latex spheres as masks for metal vapor deposition, we successfully demonstrate a stepwise colloidal lithography to stepwise grow highly ordered multiplex quasi-three-dimensional grids of metallic one-dimensional nanostructures, e.g., nanowires and nanorods. The success of the present approach is centered at manipulation of the incidence angle of metal vapor beams with respect to the normal direction of colloidal masks and particularly the azimuth angle phi of the projection of the vapor beam incidence on the masks with respect to the vector from one sphere to the nearest neighbors. Stepwise deposition of different metals by regularly varying phi allows consecutively stacking of 1D nanostructures into multiplex quasi-3D grids. This stepwise angle-resolved colloidal lithography should provide a significant nanochemical complement of conventional lithographic techniques, enabling us to easily fabricate sophisticated 3D nanostructures with defined vertical and lateral heterogeneity.

  5. Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography - Reflective Mask Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, C.C.; Kearney, P.A.; Mirkarimi, P.B.; Bowers, J.M.; Cerjan, C.; Warrick, A.L.; Wilhelmsen, K.; Fought, E.; Moore, C.; Larson, C.; Baker, S.; Burkhart, S.C.; Hector, S.D.

    2000-05-09

    EUVL mask blanks consist of a distributed Bragg reflector made of 6.7nm-pitch bi-layers of MO and Si deposited upon a precision Si or glass substrate. The layer deposition process has been optimized for low defects, by application of a vendor-supplied but highly modified ion-beam sputter deposition system. This system is fully automated using SMIF technology to obtain the lowest possible environmental- and handling-added defect levels. Originally designed to coat 150mm substrates, it was upgraded in July, 1999 to 200 mm and has coated runs of over 50 substrates at a time with median added defects >100nm below 0.05/cm{sup 2}. These improvements have resulted from a number of ion-beam sputter deposition system modifications, upgrades, and operational changes, which will be discussed. Success in defect reduction is highly dependent upon defect detection, characterization, and cross-platform positional registration. We have made significant progress in adapting and extending commercial tools to this purpose, and have identified the surface scanner detection limits for different defect classes, and the signatures of false counts and non-printable scattering anomalies on the mask blank. We will present key results and how they have helped reduce added defects. The physics of defect reduction and mitigation is being investigated by a program on multilayer growth over deliberately placed perturbations (defects) of varying size. This program includes modeling of multilayer growth and modeling of defect printability. We developed a technique for depositing uniformly sized gold spheres on EUVL substrates, and have studied the suppression of the perturbations during multilayer growth under varying conditions. This work is key to determining the lower limit of critical defect size for EUV Lithography. We present key aspects of this work. We will summarize progress in all aspects of EUVL mask blank development, and present detailed results on defect reduction and mask blank

  6. Neutral atom lithography with metastable helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allred, Claire Shean

    In this dissertation we describe our performance of resist assisted neutral atom lithography using a bright beam of metastable 23S1 Helium (He*). Metastable Helium atoms have 20 eV of internal energy making them easy to detect and able to destroy a resist. The He* is produced by a reverse flow DC discharge source and then collimated with the bichromatic force, followed by three optical molasses velocity compression stages. The atoms in the resulting beam have a mean longitudinal velocity of 1125 m/s and a divergence of 1.1 mrad. The typical beam flux is 2 x 109 atoms/mm2s through a 0.1mm diameter aperture 70 cm away from the source. The internal energy of the atoms damages the molecules of a self assembled monolayer (SAM) of nonanethiol. The undisturbed SAM protects a 200 A layer of gold that has been evaporated onto a prepared Silicon wafer from a wet chemical etch. Two methods are used to pattern the He* atoms before they destroy the SAM. First, a Nickel micro mesh was used to protect the SAM. These experiments established an appropriate dosage and etch time for patterning. The samples were analyzed with an atomic force microscope and found to have an edge resolution of 63 nm. Then, patterning was accomplished using the dipole force the atoms experience while traversing a standing wave of lambda = 1083nm light tuned 500MHz below the 23S 1 → 23P2 transition. Depending on the intensity of the light, the He* atoms are focused or channeled into lines separated by lambda/2. The lines cover the entire exposed length of the substrate, about 3 mm. They are about 3 mm long, corresponding to about twice the beam waist of the laser standing wave. Thus there are 6 x 10 3 lines of length 5500lambda. These results agree with our numerical simulations of the experiment.

  7. Nanostencil lithography with scanning optical fiber tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Raquel; Janeiro, Ricardo; Pereira, Dionisio A.; Viegas, Jaime

    2017-02-01

    In this work, nanolithographic patterning by means of a nanostencil inscribed on an optical fiber tip is presented. Oneshot registration of multiple-sized features within a 4 μm diameter patterning circle has been experimentally tested on photoresist AZ5214E coated silicon substrate, with features as small as 160 nm beign obtained, replicating the original stencil with excellent agreement. The nanostencil was created by focused ion beam (FIB) milling, although other techniques such as femtosecond laser ablation or pattern transfer to fiber tip can also be employed. Stencils can be arbitrary or based on optical elementary designs such as line patterns, photonic crystals, Fresnel zone plates or photon sieve. Exact transfer of the inscribed pattern is obtained while in contact lithography, while proximity exposure enables complex modulation of the optical near-field by the phase and/or amplitude stencil mask. This allows for optical interference to occur, in full 3D space, rendering sub-wavelength spot focusing, annular pattern formation, as well as the formation of 3D complex shapes. Experimentally, a 405 nm laser beam with 17 mW power was launched into the core of UV-Visible single mode fiber (S405-XP) on which end a photon sieve was previously inscribed by FIB. This tip was scanned over the photoresist. Patterning consisted of 1Dscans, for which a minimum line width of 350 nm was obtained.Additionally, step-and-repeat patterning of the photon sieve fiber tip stencil was performed with, all features down to 160 nm being clearly resolved.

  8. Metamaterial fishnet structure formed from nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Graham J.; Yuce, Murat; Hu, Xiaolon; Sinworapun, Mantana; Khokhar, Ali Z.; Johnson, Nigel P.

    2013-05-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterisation of fishnet structures of various dimensions on a polymer layer. The fabrication process causes metal-dielectric-metal rectangular pillars to be compressed to the bottom of fishnet structures. The metamaterial structures are fabricated using nanoimprint lithography, allowing large areas to be patterned quickly and good reproducibility through multiple use of the nanoimprint stamp. A tri-layer comprising of silver (Ag) and magnesium fluoride (MgF2) was deposited on a thick polymer layer, in this instance PMMA, before being directly imprinted by a stamp. When the metal-dielectric layered pillars are imprinted to a sufficient depth in the PMMA below the fishnet, distinct resonance peaks can be measured at both visible and near-infrared frequencies. The precise wavelength of the resonant peak at near-infrared and its Q-factor can be changed by altering the physical dimensions and number of metal and dielectric layers of the fishnet respectively. The response viewed at visible frequencies is due to the pillars that sit in the PMMA, below the fishnet. Silver and magnesium fluoride layers that comprise the suppressed pillars are crushed during the imprinting process but still allow for light to be transmitted. Despite imprinting directly into multiple metal and dielectric layers, high quality structures are observed with a minimum feature size as low as 200 nm. Resonance peaks are measured experimentally in reflectance using an FTIR spectrometer with a calcium fluoride (CaF2) beam-splitter and a visible wavelength range spectrometer with a silicon (Si) detector.

  9. Antireflective surface patterned by rolling mask lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, Oliver; Geddes, Joseph B.; Aryal, Mukti; Perez, Joseph; Wassei, Jonathan; McMackin, Ian; Kobrin, Boris

    2014-03-01

    A growing number of commercial products such as displays, solar panels, light emitting diodes (LEDs and OLEDs), automotive and architectural glass are driving demand for glass with high performance surfaces that offer anti-reflective, self-cleaning, and other advanced functions. State-of-the-art coatings do not meet the desired performance characteristics or cannot be applied over large areas in a cost-effective manner. "Rolling Mask Lithography" (RML™) enables highresolution lithographic nano-patterning over large-areas at low-cost and high-throughput. RML is a photolithographic process performed using ultraviolet (UV) illumination transmitted through a soft cylindrical mask as it rolls across a substrate. Subsequent transfer of photoresist patterns into the substrate is achieved using an etching process, which creates a nanostructured surface. The current generation exposure tool is capable of patterning one-meter long substrates with a width of 300 mm. High-throughput and low-cost are achieved using continuous exposure of the resist by the cylindrical photomask. Here, we report on significant improvements in the application of RML™ to fabricate anti-reflective surfaces. Briefly, an optical surface can be made antireflective by "texturing" it with a nano-scale pattern to reduce the discontinuity in the index of refraction between the air and the bulk optical material. An array of cones, similar to the structure of a moth's eye, performs this way. Substrates are patterned using RML™ and etched to produce an array of cones with an aspect ratio of 3:1, which decreases the reflectivity below 0.1%.

  10. Review of computational lithography modeling: focusing on extending optical lithography and design-technology co-optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Kafai

    2012-09-01

    Advances in computational lithography over the last 10 years have been instrumental to the continued scaling of semiconductor devices. Competitive scaling requires two types of complementary models: fast predictive empirical models that can be used for pattern correction and verification; rigorous physical models that can be used to identify key physical effects that must be considered to ensure pattern fidelity, but are too resource intensive to use for full chip applications. Today, all computational lithography efforts such as the optical proximity correction (OPC) and the optical rules check (ORC) depend on the ability to predictively model the lithography and metrology processes. We discuss some of the current modeling practices in optics, mask, resist and etching, leading to the "Holy Grail" of predictively modeling entire patterning process which we call "virtual fab". Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) modeling is discussed due to its potential to extend optical lithography scaling for future nodes. Modeling of novel technologies such as Diblock Copolymer patterning is also discussed to demonstrate new opportunities for continued scaling. Complexity of the "virtual fab" approach is extremely high as there are multiple dimensions in this approach. The need to overcome this complexity, by reducing the number of dimensions of the problem, is evident. Lastly, the ability to leverage lithography modeling in design co-optimization is an important element of semiconductor device scaling.

  11. Laser-based gluing of diamond-tipped saw blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennigs, Christian; Lahdo, Rabi; Springer, André; Kaierle, Stefan; Hustedt, Michael; Brand, Helmut; Wloka, Richard; Zobel, Frank; Dültgen, Peter

    2016-03-01

    To process natural stone such as marble or granite, saw blades equipped with wear-resistant diamond grinding segments are used, typically joined to the blade by brazing. In case of damage or wear, they must be exchanged. Due to the large energy input during thermal loosening and subsequent brazing, the repair causes extended heat-affected zones with serious microstructure changes, resulting in shape distortions and disadvantageous stress distributions. Consequently, axial run-out deviations and cutting losses increase. In this work, a new near-infrared laser-based process chain is presented to overcome the deficits of conventional brazing-based repair of diamond-tipped steel saw blades. Thus, additional tensioning and straightening steps can be avoided. The process chain starts with thermal debonding of the worn grinding segments, using a continuous-wave laser to heat the segments gently and to exceed the adhesive's decomposition temperature. Afterwards, short-pulsed laser radiation removes remaining adhesive from the blade in order to achieve clean joining surfaces. The third step is roughening and activation of the joining surfaces, again using short-pulsed laser radiation. Finally, the grinding segments are glued onto the blade with a defined adhesive layer, using continuous-wave laser radiation. Here, the adhesive is heated to its curing temperature by irradiating the respective grinding segment, ensuring minimal thermal influence on the blade. For demonstration, a prototype unit was constructed to perform the different steps of the process chain on-site at the saw-blade user's facilities. This unit was used to re-equip a saw blade with a complete set of grinding segments. This saw blade was used successfully to cut different materials, amongst others granite.

  12. Laser-based techniques for living cell pattern formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, Béla; Smausz, Tomi; Papdi, Bence; Bor, Zsolt; Szabó, András; Kolozsvári, Lajos; Fotakis, Costas; Nógrádi, Antal

    2008-10-01

    In the production of biosensors or artificial tissues a basic step is the immobilization of living cells along the required pattern. In this paper the ability of some promising laser-based methods to influence the interaction between cells and various surfaces is presented. In the first set of experiments laser-induced patterned photochemical modification of polymer foils was used to achieve guided adherence and growth of cells to the modified areas: (a) Polytetrafluoroethylene was irradiated with ArF excimer laser ( λ=193 nm, FWHM=20 ns, F=9 mJ/cm2) in presence of triethylene tetramine liquid photoreagent; (b) a thin carbon layer was produced by KrF excimer laser ( λ=248 nm, FWHM=30 ns, F=35 mJ/cm2) irradiation on polyimide surface to influence the cell adherence. It was found that the incorporation of amine groups in the PTFE polymer chain instead of the fluorine atoms can both promote and prevent the adherence of living cells (depending on the applied cell types) on the treated surfaces, while the laser generated carbon layer on polyimide surface did not effectively improve adherence. Our attempts to influence the cell adherence by morphological modifications created by ArF laser irradiation onto polyethylene terephtalate surface showed a surface roughness dependence. This method was effective only when the Ra roughness parameter of the developed structure did not exceed the 0.1 micrometer value. Pulsed laser deposition with femtosecond KrF excimer lasers ( F=2.2 J/cm2) was effectively used to deposit structured thin films from biomaterials (endothelial cell growth supplement and collagen embedded in starch matrix) to promote the adherence and growth of cells. These results present evidence that some surface can be successfully altered to induce guided cell growth.

  13. Diode laser based photoacoustic gas detection instruments for environmental monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozóki, Z.; Pogány, A.; Varga, A.; Mohácsi, Á.; Szabó, G.

    2009-04-01

    We have developed several diode laser based photoacoustic instruments for environmental applications. Both laboratory tests and field measurement campaigns show that these instruments are capable of highly reliable, fully automatic operation over several years, even under harsh conditions. One instrument (WaSul-Hygro) is mounted on-board of a commercial aircraft and measures water vapour and total water concentration in the 1-30,000 ppm concentration range, within the CARIBIC project. Another instrument (WaSul-Flux) measures ammonia concentration in the lower ppb concentration range, simultaneously in up to three channels. Field intercomparison campaigns with several other instruments show that it is a reliable instrument for environmental ammonia monitoring. The third instrument (WaSul-MuWaPas) is a multi-wavelength instrument for quantitative and qualitative aerosol measurements. It measures the optical absorption of aerosols in a particularly broad wavelength range from the UV to the NIR, and consequently it is ideal for differentiation between various aerosol types. The instrument was calibrated with well defined aerosols in the laboratory, and tested under field conditions as well.

  14. Reducing DfM to practice: the lithography manufacturability assessor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebmann, Lars; Mansfield, Scott; Han, Geng; Culp, James; Hibbeler, Jason; Tsai, Roger

    2006-03-01

    The need for accurate quantification of all aspects of design for manufacturability using a mutually compatible set of quality-metrics and units-of-measure, is reiterated and experimentally verified. A methodology to quantify the lithography component of manufacturability is proposed and its feasibility demonstrated. Three stages of lithography manufacturability assessment are described: process window analysis on realistic integrated circuits following layout manipulations for resolution enhancement and the application of optical proximity correction, failure sensitivity analysis on simulated achievable dimensional bounds (a.k.a. variability bands), and yield risk analysis on iso-probability bands. The importance and feasibility of this technique is demonstrated by quantifying the lithography manufacturability impact of redundant contact insertion and Critical Area optimization in units that can be used to drive an overall layout optimization. The need for extensive experimental calibration and improved simulation accuracy is also highlighted.

  15. Graphene nanoribbon superlattices fabricated via He ion lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Archanjo, Braulio S.; Fragneaud, Benjamin; Gustavo Cançado, Luiz; Winston, Donald; Miao, Feng; Alberto Achete, Carlos; Medeiros-Ribeiro, Gilberto

    2014-05-12

    Single-step nano-lithography was performed on graphene sheets using a helium ion microscope. Parallel “defect” lines of ∼1 μm length and ≈5 nm width were written to form nanoribbon gratings down to 20 nm pitch. Polarized Raman spectroscopy shows that crystallographic orientation of the nanoribbons was partially maintained at their lateral edges, indicating a high-fidelity lithography process. Furthermore, Raman analysis of large exposure areas with different ion doses reveals that He ions produce point defects with radii ∼ 2× smaller than do Ga ions, demonstrating that scanning-He{sup +}-beam lithography can texture graphene with less damage.

  16. UV LED lithography with digitally tunable exposure dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yapici, Murat Kaya; Farhat, Ilyas

    2014-10-01

    This paper reports the development of a low-cost, portable, light-emitting diode (LED)-based ultraviolet (UV) exposure system. The major system components include UV-LEDs, a microcontroller, a digital-to-analog converter, and LED control circuitry. Through its front panel with a liquid crystal display and keypad, the UV-LED lithography system is able to receive user-defined values for exposure time and power, which allows the exposure dose to be tunable on demand. Compared to standard mask aligners, the UV-LED lithography system is a fraction of the cost, is simpler to construct using off-the shelf components, and does not require a complex infrastructure to operate. Such a reduction in system cost and complexity renders UV-LED lithography a perfect candidate for microlithography with large process windows typically suitable for MEMS, microfluidics applications.

  17. Scalable Fourier transform system for instantly structured illumination in lithography.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yan; Xu, Fengchuan; Wei, Guojun; Xu, Yishen; Pu, Donglin; Chen, Linsen; Huang, Zhiwei

    2017-05-15

    We report the development of a unique scalable Fourier transform 4-f system for instantly structured illumination in lithography. In the 4-f system, coupled with a 1-D grating and a phase retarder, the ±1st order of diffracted light from the grating serve as coherent incident sources for creating interference patterns on the image plane. By adjusting the grating and the phase retarder, the interference fringes with consecutive frequencies, as well as their orientations and phase shifts, can be generated instantly within a constant interference area. We demonstrate that by adapting this scalable Fourier transform system into lithography, the pixelated nano-fringe arrays with arbitrary frequencies and orientations can be dynamically produced in the photoresist with high variation resolution, suggesting its promising application for large-area functional materials based on space-variant nanostructures in lithography.

  18. Recent developments of x-ray lithography in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaker, Mohamed; Boily, Stephane; Ginovker, A.; Jean, Alain; Kieffer, Jean-Claude; Mercier, P. P.; Pepin, Henri; Leung, Pak; Currie, John F.; Lafontaine, Hugues

    1991-08-01

    An overview of current activities in Canada is reported, including x-ray lithography studies based on laser plasma sources and x-ray mask development. In particular, the application of laser plasma sources for x-ray lithography is discussed, taking into account the industrial requirement and the present state of laser technology. The authors describe the development of silicon carbide membranes for x-ray lithography application. SiC films were prepared using either a 100 kHz plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system or a laser ablation technique. These membranes have a relatively large diameter (> 1 in.) and a high optical transparency (> 50%). Experimental studies on stresses in tungsten films deposited with triode sputtering are reported.

  19. Multi-silicon ridge nanofabrication by repeated edge lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yiping; Berenschot, Erwin; Jansen, Henri; Tas, Niels; Huskens, Jurriaan; Elwenspoek, Miko

    2009-08-01

    We present a multi-Si nanoridge fabrication scheme and its application in nanoimprint lithography (NIL). Triple Si nanoridges approximately 120 nm high and 40 nm wide separated by 40 nm spacing are fabricated and successfully applied as a stamp in nanoimprint lithography. The fabrication scheme, using a full-wet etching procedure in combination with repeated edge lithography, consists of hot H3PO4 acid SiNx retraction etching, 20% KOH Si etching, 50% HF SiNx retraction etching and LOCal Oxidation of Silicon (LOCOS). Si nanoridges with smooth vertical sidewalls are fabricated by using Si lang110rang substrates and KOH etching. The presented technology utilizes a conventional photolithography technique, and the fabrication of multi-Si nanoridges on a full wafer scale has been demonstrated.

  20. Sequence-Specific Molecular Lithography on Single DNA Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keren, Kinneret; Krueger, Michael; Gilad, Rachel; Ben-Yoseph, Gdalyahu; Sivan, Uri; Braun, Erez

    2002-07-01

    Recent advances in the realization of individual molecular-scale electronic devices emphasize the need for novel tools and concepts capable of assembling such devices into large-scale functional circuits. We demonstrated sequence-specific molecular lithography on substrate DNA molecules by harnessing homologous recombination by RecA protein. In a sequence-specific manner, we patterned the coating of DNA with metal, localized labeled molecular objects and grew metal islands on specific sites along the DNA substrate, and generated molecularly accurate stable DNA junctions for patterning the DNA substrate connectivity. In our molecular lithography, the information encoded in the DNA molecules replaces the masks used in conventional microelectronics, and the RecA protein serves as the resist. The molecular lithography works with high resolution over a broad range of length scales from nanometers to many micrometers.

  1. Thickness optimization for lithography process on silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xiaojing; Su, Yajuan; Liu, Yansong; Chen, Fong; Liu, Zhimin; Zhang, Wei; Li, Bifeng; Gao, Tao; Wei, Yayi

    2015-03-01

    With the development of the lithography, the demand for critical dimension (CD) and CD uniformity (CDU) has reached a new level, which is harder and harder to achieve. There exists reflection at the interface between photo-resist and substrate during lithography exposure. This reflection has negative impact on CD and CDU control. It is possible to optimize the litho stack and film stack thickness on different lithography conditions. With the optimized stack, the total reflectivity for all incident angles at the interface can be controlled less than 0.5%, ideally 0.1%, which enhances process window (PW) most of the time. The theoretical results are verified by the experiment results from foundry, which helps the foundry achieve the mass production finally.

  2. Deconstructing contact hole CD printing variability in EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civay, D.; Wallow, T.; Doganaksoy, N.; Verduijn, E.; Schmid, G.; Mangat, P.

    2014-04-01

    Lithographic CD printing variability can be easily captured with a CDU measurement, however delineating the most significant sources causing the variability is challenging. In EUV lithography, the resist, reticle, metrology methodology, and stochastics are examples of factors that influence printing variability. Determining the most significant sources of variability in contact hole and via patterning is particularly interesting because the variability can be measured as a function of two tethered dimensions. Contact hole (CH) variability has a direct impact on device performance while via variability affects metal area scaling and design. By studying sources of variability opportunities for improving device performance and scaling can be identified. In this paper, we will examine sources of contact patterning variability in EUV lithography comprehensively using various EUV exposure tools as well as simulation methods. We will present a benchmark of current state of the art materials and patterning methods with the goal of assessing contact hole printability at the limit of 0.33 NA EUV lithography.

  3. Pattern-integrated interference lithography: prospects for nano- and microelectronics.

    PubMed

    Leibovici, Matthieu C R; Burrow, Guy M; Gaylord, Thomas K

    2012-10-08

    In recent years, limitations in optical lithography have challenged the cost-effective manufacture of nano- and microelectronic chips. Spatially regular designs have been introduced to improve manufacturability. However, regular designed layouts typically require an interference step followed by a trim step. These multiple steps increase cost and reduce yield. In the present work, Pattern-Integrated Interference Lithography (PIIL) is introduced to address this problem. PIIL is the integration of interference lithography and superposed pattern mask imaging, combining the interference and the trim into a single-exposure step. Example PIIL implementations and experimental demonstrations are presented. The degrees of freedom associated with the source, pattern mask, and Fourier filter designs are described.

  4. ILT for double exposure lithography with conventional and novel materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poonawala, Amyn; Borodovsky, Yan; Milanfar, Peyman

    2007-03-01

    Multiple paths exists to provide lithography solutions pursuant to Moore's Law for next 3-5 generations of technology, yet each of those paths inevitably leads to solutions eventually requiring patterning at k I < 0.30 and below. In this article, we explore double exposure single development lithography for k I >= 0.25 (using conventional resist) and k1 < 0.25 (using new out-of-sight out-of-mind materials). For the case of k I >= 0.25, we propose a novel double exposure inverse lithography technique (ILT) to split the pattern. Our algorithm is based on our earlier proposed single exposure ILT framework, and works by decomposing the aerial image (instead of the target pattern) into two parts. It also resolves the phase conflicts automatically as part of the decomposition, and the combined aerial image obtained using the estimated masks has a superior contrast. For the case of k I < 0.25, we focus on analyzing the use of various dual patterning techniques enabled by the use of hypothetic materials with properties that allow for the violation of the linear superposition of intensities from the two exposures. We investigate the possible use of two materials: contrast enhancement layer (CEL) and two-photon absorption resists. We propose a mathematical model for CEL, define its characteristic properties, and derive fundamental bounds on the improvement in image log-slope. Simulation results demonstrate that double exposure single development lithography using CEL enables printing 80nm gratings using dry lithography. We also combine ILT, CEL, and DEL to synthesize 2-D patterns with k I = 0.185. Finally, we discuss the viability of two-photon absorption resists for double exposure lithography.

  5. Lithography for enabling advances in integrated circuits and devices.

    PubMed

    Garner, C Michael

    2012-08-28

    Because the transistor was fabricated in volume, lithography has enabled the increase in density of devices and integrated circuits. With the invention of the integrated circuit, lithography enabled the integration of higher densities of field-effect transistors through evolutionary applications of optical lithography. In 1994, the semiconductor industry determined that continuing the increase in density transistors was increasingly difficult and required coordinated development of lithography and process capabilities. It established the US National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors and this was expanded in 1999 to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors to align multiple industries to provide the complex capabilities to continue increasing the density of integrated circuits to nanometre scales. Since the 1960s, lithography has become increasingly complex with the evolution from contact printers, to steppers, pattern reduction technology at i-line, 248 nm and 193 nm wavelengths, which required dramatic improvements of mask-making technology, photolithography printing and alignment capabilities and photoresist capabilities. At the same time, pattern transfer has evolved from wet etching of features, to plasma etch and more complex etching capabilities to fabricate features that are currently 32 nm in high-volume production. To continue increasing the density of devices and interconnects, new pattern transfer technologies will be needed with options for the future including extreme ultraviolet lithography, imprint technology and directed self-assembly. While complementary metal oxide semiconductors will continue to be extended for many years, these advanced pattern transfer technologies may enable development of novel memory and logic technologies based on different physical phenomena in the future to enhance and extend information processing.

  6. The Introduction and Early Use of Lithography in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhill, Georgia B.

    This paper discusses the use of lithography in the United States in the early 1800s. Highlights include: the development of lithography in Germany between 1796 and 1798; early expectations for lithography; competition against the existing technology for the production of images--relief prints and copper-plate engravings; examples of 18th-century…

  7. High-fidelity replication of Dammann gratings using soft lithography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Changhe; Jia, Wei

    2008-04-01

    We report the experimental results of using the soft lithography method for replication of Dammann gratings. By using an elastomeric stamp, uniform grating structures were transferred to the UV-curable polymer. To evaluate the quality of the replication, diffraction images and light intensity were measured. Compared with the master devices, the replicas of Dammann gratings show a slight deviation in both surface relief profile and optical performance. Experimental results demonstrated that high-fidelity replication of Dammann gratings is realized by using soft lithography with low cost and high throughput.

  8. Soft lithography replication of polymeric microring optical resonators.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanyi; Paloczi, George; Scheuer, Jacob; Yariv, Amnon

    2003-10-06

    We have developed a soft lithography method to replicate polymeric integrated optical devices. In this method, the master device and the molded replica are made of the same materials, allowing direct comparison. To evaluate the quality of the replication, microring optical resonators are chosen as test devices because of their sensitivity to small fabrication errors. The master devices are precisely fabricated using direct electron beam lithography. The replicas are produced by the molding technique and subsequent ultraviolet curing. Compared with the master devices, the molded devices show minimal change in both physical shape and optical performance. This correspondence indicates the merits of soft lithographic methods for fabrication of precision integrated optical devices.

  9. Microphotonic parabolic light directors fabricated by two-photon lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Atwater, J. H.; Spinelli, P.; Kosten, E.; Parsons, J.; Van Lare, C.; Van de Groep, J.; Garcia de Abajo, J.; Polman, A.; Atwater, H. A.

    2011-10-10

    We have fabricated microphotonic parabolic light directors using two-photon lithography, thin-film processing, and aperture formation by focused ion beam lithography. Optical transmission measurements through upright parabolic directors 22 μm high and 10 μm in diameter exhibit strong beam directivity with a beam divergence of 5.6°, in reasonable agreement with ray-tracing and full-field electromagnetic simulations. The results indicate the suitability of microphotonic parabolic light directors for producing collimated beams for applications in advanced solar cell and light-emitting diode designs.

  10. Boron nitride stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprinting lithography fabricated by focused ion beam lithography.

    PubMed

    Altun, Ali Ozhan; Jeong, Jun-Ho; Rha, Jong-Joo; Kim, Ki-Don; Lee, Eung-Sug

    2007-11-21

    Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) is one of the hardest known materials (second after diamond). It has a high level of chemical resistance and high UV transmittance. In this study, a stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) was fabricated using a bi-layered BN film deposited on a quartz substrate. Deposition of the BN was done using RF magnetron sputtering. A hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) layer was deposited for 30 min before c-BN was deposited for 30 min. The thickness of the film was measured as 160 nm. The phase of the c-BN layer was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and it was found that the c-BN layer has a 40% cubic phase. The deposited film was patterned using focused ion beam (FIB) lithography for use as a UV-NIL stamp. Line patterns were fabricated with the line width and line distance set at 150 and 150 nm, respectively. The patterning process was performed by applying different currents to observe the effect of the current value on the pattern profile. The fabricated patterns were investigated using AFM, and it was found that the pattern fabricated by applying a current value of 50 picoamperes (pA) has a better profile with a 65 nm line depth. The UV transmittance of the 160 nm thick film was measured to be 70-86%. The hardness and modulus of the BN was measured to be 12 and 150 GPa, respectively. The water contact angle of the stamp surface was measured at 75°. The stamp was applied to UV-NIL without coating with an anti-adhesion layer. Successful imprinting was proved via scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the imprinted resin.

  11. Electrochemical nanoimprint lithography: when nanoimprint lithography meets metal assisted chemical etching.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Lin; Han, Lianhuan; Tian, Zhao-Wu; Tian, Zhong-Qun; Zhan, Dongping

    2017-06-08

    The functional three dimensional micro-nanostructures (3D-MNS) play crucial roles in integrated and miniaturized systems because of the excellent physical, mechanical, electric and optical properties. Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) has been versatile in the fabrication of 3D-MNS by pressing thermoplastic and photocuring resists into the imprint mold. However, direct nanoimprint on the semiconductor wafer still remains a great challenge. On the other hand, considered as a competitive fabrication method for erect high-aspect 3D-MNS, metal assisted chemical etching (MacEtch) can remove the semiconductor by spontaneous corrosion reaction at the metal/semiconductor/electrolyte 3-phase interface. Moreover, it was difficult for MacEtch to fabricate multilevel or continuously curved 3D-MNS. The question of the consequences of NIL meeting the MacEtch is yet to be answered. By employing a platinum (Pt) metalized imprint mode, we demonstrated that using electrochemical nanoimprint lithography (ECNL) it was possible to fabricate not only erect 3D-MNS, but also complex 3D-MNS with multilevel stages with continuously curved surface profiles on a gallium arsenide (GaAs) wafer. A concave microlens array with an average diameter of 58.4 μm and height of 1.5 μm was obtained on a ∼1 cm(2)-area GaAs wafer. An 8-phase microlens array was fabricated with a minimum stage of 57 nm and machining accuracy of 2 nm, presenting an excellent optical diffraction property. Inheriting all the advantages of both NIL and MacEtch, ECNL has prospective applications in the micro/nano-fabrications of semiconductors.

  12. The study of chromeless phase lithography (CPL) for 45nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Soon Yoeng; Lin, Qunying; Tay, Cho Jui; Quan, Chenggen

    2006-10-01

    Chromeless Phase Lithography (CPL) has been used to achieve high resolution by using phase edge interference in addition with high NA and off-axis illuminations such as annular and quasar for sub-wavelength lithography. There are two types of CPL. One is the totally chromeless pure phase type and the other is the zebra chrome pattern type for critical line dimensions. Both types of CPL masks require adding in chrome pads in some structures such as circuit line junction region to improve the resolution. Zebra type CPL mask making has reached the limitation due to small chrome peeling issue during mask cleaning and small space writing resolution issue for sub-45nm technology. In this paper, two types of CPL masks are studied. The investigation shows the differences on mask making and wafer performance. For mask making, process limitation studies such as writing, etching and cleaning will be evaluated. Data on mask CD (Critical Dimension) performance, registration, overlay, phase and transmission are collected and analyzed. For wafer performance, process window comparison, CD through pitch, MEEF (Mask Error Enhancement Factor) and linearity will be characterized for these two CPL mask types. Minimum resolution of less than 160nm pitch with reasonable good process window has been achieved with both mask types. Chromeless pure phase type has advantages on mask making while zebra type has the advantages on wafer performance. Furthermore, SRAF (Sub-Resolution Assist Feature) are added to improve wafer printing process windows. Detailed characterization work done on assist features are presented. Assist feature can improve process window by improving the contrast of isolated lines.

  13. Boron nitride stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprinting lithography fabricated by focused ion beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozhan Altun, Ali; Jeong, Jun-Ho; Rha, Jong-Joo; Kim, Ki-Don; Lee, Eung-Sug

    2007-11-01

    Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) is one of the hardest known materials (second after diamond). It has a high level of chemical resistance and high UV transmittance. In this study, a stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) was fabricated using a bi-layered BN film deposited on a quartz substrate. Deposition of the BN was done using RF magnetron sputtering. A hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) layer was deposited for 30 min before c-BN was deposited for 30 min. The thickness of the film was measured as 160 nm. The phase of the c-BN layer was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and it was found that the c-BN layer has a 40% cubic phase. The deposited film was patterned using focused ion beam (FIB) lithography for use as a UV-NIL stamp. Line patterns were fabricated with the line width and line distance set at 150 and 150 nm, respectively. The patterning process was performed by applying different currents to observe the effect of the current value on the pattern profile. The fabricated patterns were investigated using AFM, and it was found that the pattern fabricated by applying a current value of 50 picoamperes (pA) has a better profile with a 65 nm line depth. The UV transmittance of the 160 nm thick film was measured to be 70 86%. The hardness and modulus of the BN was measured to be 12 and 150 GPa, respectively. The water contact angle of the stamp surface was measured at 75°. The stamp was applied to UV-NIL without coating with an anti-adhesion layer. Successful imprinting was proved via scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the imprinted resin.

  14. Novel remote phosphor design for laser-based white lighting application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tsung-Xian; Chou, Ching-Chia; Chang, Shuo-Chieh

    2016-09-01

    Recently, there is an interest in the laser-based white light source for illumination and display applications. The laser-based white lights inherently have much higher luminance than the corresponding LEDs. Moreover, laser diodes are often more efficient when operating at higher current densities and are with smaller form factors, which may outperform LEDs in the future. Based on this, in this paper, we combine the design of the light guide and reflective type remote phosphor structures in order to improve the overall performance of the laser-based white light source. In addition, these well-designed white light sources will provide the more flexible architecture for designing the subsequent lighting system. With the introduction of the innovative design for the laser-based illumination system, multiple applications incorporating laser and remote phosphor elements for improving lighting efficiency and quality were obtained.

  15. Capillary Force Lithography for Cardiac Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Macadangdang, Jesse; Lee, Hyun Jung; Carson, Daniel; Jiao, Alex; Fugate, James; Pabon, Lil; Regnier, Michael; Murry, Charles; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide1. Cardiac tissue engineering holds much promise to deliver groundbreaking medical discoveries with the aims of developing functional tissues for cardiac regeneration as well as in vitro screening assays. However, the ability to create high-fidelity models of heart tissue has proven difficult. The heart’s extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex structure consisting of both biochemical and biomechanical signals ranging from the micro- to the nanometer scale2. Local mechanical loading conditions and cell-ECM interactions have recently been recognized as vital components in cardiac tissue engineering3-5. A large portion of the cardiac ECM is composed of aligned collagen fibers with nano-scale diameters that significantly influences tissue architecture and electromechanical coupling2. Unfortunately, few methods have been able to mimic the organization of ECM fibers down to the nanometer scale. Recent advancements in nanofabrication techniques, however, have enabled the design and fabrication of scalable scaffolds that mimic the in vivo structural and substrate stiffness cues of the ECM in the heart6-9. Here we present the development of two reproducible, cost-effective, and scalable nanopatterning processes for the functional alignment of cardiac cells using the biocompatible polymer poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)8 and a polyurethane (PU) based polymer. These anisotropically nanofabricated substrata (ANFS) mimic the underlying ECM of well-organized, aligned tissues and can be used to investigate the role of nanotopography on cell morphology and function10-14. Using a nanopatterned (NP) silicon master as a template, a polyurethane acrylate (PUA) mold is fabricated. This PUA mold is then used to pattern the PU or PLGA hydrogel via UV-assisted or solvent-mediated capillary force lithography (CFL), respectively15,16. Briefly, PU or PLGA pre-polymer is drop dispensed onto a glass coverslip and the PUA

  16. Nanoimprint lithography for functional polymer patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Dehu

    2011-07-01

    Organic semiconductors have generated huge interested in recent years for low-cost and flexible electronics. Current and future device applications for semiconducting polymers include light-emitting diodes, thin-film transistors, photovoltaic cells, photodetectors, lasers, and memories. The performance of conjugated polymer devices depends on two major factors: the chain conformation in polymer film and the device architecture. Highly ordered chain structure usually leads to much improved performance by enhancing interchain interaction to facilitate carrier transport. The goal of this research is to improve the performance of organic devices with the nanoimprint lithography. The work begins with the controlling of polymer chain orientation in patterned nanostructures through nanoimprint mold design and process parameter manipulation, and studying the effect of chain ordering on material properties. Then, step-and-repeat thermal nanoimprint technique for large-scale continuous manufacturing of conjugated polymer nanostructures is developed. After that, Systematic investigation of polymer chain configuration by Raman spectroscopy is carried out to understand how nanoimprint process parameters, such as mold pattern size, temperature, and polymer molecular weight, affects polymer chain configuration. The results indicate that chain orientation in nanoimprinted polymer micro- and nanostructures is highly related to the nanoimprint temperature and the dimensions of the mold structures. The ability to create nanoscale polymer micro- and nanostructures and manipulate their internal chain conformation establishes an original experimental platform that enables studying the properties of functional polymers at the micro- and nanoscale and understanding their fundamental structure-property relationships. In addition to the impact on basic research, the techniques developed in this work are important in applied research and development. Large-area conjugated polymer micro- and

  17. Cavity soliton laser based on a VCSEL with saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tissoni, Giovanna; Aghdami, Keivan M.; Prati, Franco; Brambilla, Massimo; Lugiato, Luigi A.

    In this Chapter we intend to make a review on our work on cavity solitons in semiconductor lasers with saturable absorbers, with a special attention to the most recent results.We study theoretically a broad-area vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) with a saturable absorber, and show numerically the existence of cavity solitons in the system: they exist as solitary structures superposed on a background with zero intensity. Therefore, this system can work as a cavity soliton laser, ensuring maximum contrast and compactness of the device, in comparison with other systems supporting cavity solitons. In particular, in absence of a holding beam, these solitons do not rely on a proper phase of the addressing pulses to be either created or deleted.We also show that the properties of the system are deeply influenced by the radiative recombination of carriers. Taking into account this process, the existence of solitons is shown numerically for a choice of parameters suitable to describe real devices, where the same material is used for the active and the passive parts. Furthermore, we compare three different switching techniques for the control of cavity solitons in a VCSEL based cavity soliton laser, one incoherent and the other two semicoherent with different injection frequencies. We show that the switching dynamics and energies can be very different depending on the type of injection. Finally, we show that in a cavity soliton laser based on a VCSEL with a saturable absorber the solitons can spontaneously move if the ratio of the carrier lifetimes in the amplifier and in the absorber takes appropriate values. The direction of the motion is arbitrary, while its velocity is determined by the parameters of the system. In devices with a finite cross section the CS describes different trajectories depending on the shape of the boundary of the pumped region. For a circular pump the CS moves on circular trajectories along the boundary. This dynamical regime can be

  18. Development and testing of a laser-based decontamination system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthofer, A.; Lippmann, W.; Hurtado, A.

    2013-06-01

    Decontamination of radioactive concrete surfaces may be necessary during operation or decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Usually only the upper layers of the concrete structure are contaminated and are removed using labor-intensive mechanical milling processes. Production of a large amount of dust, which can lead to secondary contamination, is inherent to these processes. Improvements in high-energy laser technology have now made it possible for laser radiation to be used in decontamination technologies for the removal of concrete layers. A decontamination unit comprising a diode laser with a beam power of 10 kW in continuous wave (CW) mode in combination with an autonomous manipulator was developed for use in nuclear plants. The laser beam melts the concrete surface to a depth of approximately 5 mm. Compressed air jets then detach the molten layer from the concrete surface and convey it to a suction system, with which it is transported to a collection container. Most of the radionuclides are trapped in the solidifying melt particles, which form an extremely stable effluent well suited to long-term storage. A relatively small amount of dust is generated in the process. Because there is no backlash during energy transfer, the laser device carrier can be designed to be lightweight and flexible. A specially developed manipulator that can move freely along walls and ceilings by means of suction plates is used for the carrier unit. This results in short setup times for preparing for use of the device and minimal personnel exposure to the radiation. Experiments were conducted on a concrete wall to demonstrate the functionality of the overall system in realistic conditions. An optimal ablation rate of 2.16 m²/h at an ablation depth of 1-5 mm was achieved. Today's commercially available diode lasers with powers higher than 50 kW enable ablation rates of >10 m²/h to be achieved and hence make these laser-based systems competitive alternatives to mechanical systems.

  19. Electrically tunable laser based on heliconical cholesteric (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Jie; Varanytsia, Andrii; Minkowski, Fred; Paterson, Daniel A.; Imrie, Corrie T.; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.; Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    2016-09-01

    STUDENT CONTRIBUTION: Cholesteric liquid crystals (CLC) self-assemble into a periodic supramolecular helical structure with properties of a one-dimensional photonic crystal. The CLCs doped with a fluorescent dye and optical pump enable a distributed feedback cavity and lasing [1]. Although lasing was observed in range of wavelength from near UV to near IR, a practical method of tuning of emission wavelength from a dye-doped CLC without structural destruction of a helix is not demonstrated yet. In this work, we demonstrate an electrically tunable dye-doped CLC laser based on the so-called oblique helicoidal, or heliconical, CLC state [2,3]. In this state, the molecules twist around the helicoidal axis, making an angle smaller than 90 degrees with the axis. Molecular tilt makes the heliconical structure different from the regular CLC (in which the molecules are perpendicular to the axis) and enable electric tunability [2,3]. An electric field applied parallel to the heliconical axis changes the pitch but does not realign the axis. When the field increases, the pitch decreases. As a result, the selective reflection band and a lasing wavelength move towards shorter wavelength. Using heliconical CLC and two laser dyes DCM and LD688, we demonstrate effective tuning of the laser emission wavelength from 574 nm to 722 nm. With appropriate laser dyes, the spectrum can be extended from near UV to near IR. Efficient electric tuning in the broad spectral range and small size of the heliconical cholesteric lasers makes them potentially useful for optical and biomedical applications. [1] P. Palffy-Muhoay, W.Y. Cao, M. Moreira, B. Taheri, A. Munoz, Photonics and lasing in liquid crystal [2] J. Xiang, S.V. Shiyanovskii, C.T. Imrie, O.D. Lavrentovich, Electrooptic Response of Chiral Nematic Liquid Crystals with Oblique Helicoidal Director, Phys Rev Lett, 112 (2014) 217801. [3] J. Xiang, Y.N. Li, Q. Li, D.A. Paterson, J.M.D. Storey, C.T. Imrie, O.D. Lavrentovich, Electrically

  20. High-throughput NGL electron-beam direct-write lithography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, N. William; Brodie, Alan D.; McCoy, John H.

    2000-07-01

    Electron beam lithography systems have historically had low throughput. The only practical solution to this limitation is an approach using many beams writing simultaneously. For single-column multi-beam systems, including projection optics (SCALPELR and PREVAIL) and blanked aperture arrays, throughput and resolution are limited by space-charge effects. Multibeam micro-column (one beam per column) systems are limited by the need for low voltage operation, electrical connection density and fabrication complexities. In this paper, we discuss a new multi-beam concept employing multiple columns each with multiple beams to generate a very large total number of parallel writing beams. This overcomes the limitations of space-charge interactions and low voltage operation. We also discuss a rationale leading to the optimum number of columns and beams per column. Using this approach we show how production throughputs >= 60 wafers per hour can be achieved at CDs lithography are significant especially for small-volume semiconductor fabrication, for example ASICs, SOCs and MPUs.

  1. X-ray lithography for micro- and nano-fabrication at ELETTRA for interdisciplinary applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Fabrizio, E.; Fillipo, R.; Cabrini, S.; Kumar, R.; Perennes, F.; Altissimo, M.; Businaro, L.; Cojac, D.; Vaccari, L.; Prasciolu, M.; Candeloro, P.

    2004-08-01

    ELETTRA (http://www.elettra.trieste.it/index.html) is a third generation synchrotron radiation source facility operating at Trieste, Italy, and hosts a wide range of research activities in advanced materials analysis and processing, biology and nano-science at several various beam lines. The energy spectrum of ELETTRA allows x-ray nano-lithography using soft (1.5 keV) and hard x-ray (10 keV) wavelengths. The Laboratory for Interdisciplinary Lithography (LIILIT) was established in 1998 as part of an Italian national initiative on micro- and nano-technology project of INFM and is funded and supported by the Italian National Research Council (CNR), INFM and ELETTRA. LILIT had developed two dedicated lithographic beam lines for soft (1.5 keV) and hard x-ray (10 keV) for micro- and nano-fabrication activities for their applications in engineering, science and bio-medical applications. In this paper, we present a summary of our research activities in micro- and nano-fabrication involving x-ray nanolithography at LILIT's soft and hard x-ray beam lines.

  2. An approach to increase efficiency of DOE based pupil shaping technique for off-axis illumination in optical lithography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Zhu, Jing; Yue, Weirui; Wang, Jian; Song, Qiang; Situ, Guohai; Wyrowski, Frank; Huang, Huijie

    2015-02-23

    Off axis illumination (OAI) is one of the key resolution enhancement technologies in projection lithography system. Recently, phase type diffractive optical elements (DOEs) are adopted by most of the lithography machine manufactures to realize OAI. In general, the efficiency of the OAI unit is the main consideration compared with uniformity. However, the main goal of the traditional constraint of iterative Fourier transformation algorithm (IFTA) is used to optimize the SNR, while diffraction efficiency is the secondary consideration. Therefore a constraint for IFTA is well designed to increase the efficiency of DOE in this paper. This constraint can guarantee the pole balance at the same time. The main idea of this constraint is to apply amplitude and phase freedoms in the signal window and to control the total energy of each pole. Based on the proposed constraint several DOEs are designed for high NA lithography illumination system. And remarkable improvement in the efficiency is observed compared with the traditional constraint. Furthermore, the efficiency and uniformity could be weighted by adjusting the parameter with extending this constraint to general case. To demonstrate the proposed constraints, experiments are carried out where a spatial light modulator is utilized to represent DOEs.

  3. Three-Dimensional Nano-Lithography for Emerging Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-27

    SUBJECT TERMS Grayscale lithography, micro - and nano -fabrication, 3D micro ...meso-optics for optical system integration, and the burgeoning field of micro -electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), provide drive in the micro - and nano ...scientific literature, and presentations at conferences devoted to micro - and nano -fabrication and micro - optics. More importantly, we developed technology

  4. Defectivity reduction studies for ArF immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Kentaro; Kondoh, Takehiro; Kato, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Yuuji; Hayasaki, Kei; Ito, Shinichi; Yoshida, Akira; Shimura, Satoru; Kawasaki, Tetsu; Kyoda, Hideharu

    2007-03-01

    Immersion lithography is widely expected to meet the manufacturing requirements of future device nodes. A critical development in immersion lithography has been the construction of a defect-free process. Two years ago, the authors evaluated the impact of water droplets made experimentally on exposed resist films and /or topcoat. (1) The results showed that the marks of drying water droplet called watermarks became pattern defects with T-top profile. In the case that water droplets were removed by drying them, formation of the defects was prevented. Post-exposure rinse process to remove water droplets also prevented formation of the defects. In the present work, the authors evaluated the effect of pre- and post-exposure rinse processes on hp 55nm line and space pattern with Spin Rinse Process Station (SRS) and Post Immersion Rinse Process Station (PIR) modules on an inline lithography cluster with the Tokyo Electron Ltd. CLEAN TRACK TM LITHIUS TM i+ and ASML TWINSCAN XT:1700Fi , 193nm immersion scanner. It was found that total defectivity is decreased by pre- and post-exposure rinse. In particular, bridge defects and large bridge defects were decreased by pre- and post-exposure rinse. Pre- and post-exposure rinse processes are very effective to reduce the bridge and large bridge defects of immersion lithography.

  5. Mix-and-match lithography in a manufacturing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flack, Warren W.; Dameron, David H.; Alameda, Valerie J.; Malek, Ghassan C.

    1992-07-01

    Fabrication of integrated circuits at subhalf micron geometries is currently feasible only using advanced lithography technologies such as direct write e-beam and x-ray systems. These systems are extremely expensive and have low effective throughputs for a production environment. A mix-and-match approach using optical steppers for noncritical levels can dramatically increase productivity and control total lithography costs. A major impact for mix- and-match lithography is the total root mean squared alignment errors between systems. Implementation of a larger overlay budget to accommodate mix-and-match errors adversely impacts design rules for submicron technologies. However, a maskless lithography tool such as direct write e-beam offers the potential to compensate for systematic errors during wafer patterning and dramatically reduce the overlay budget for those layers. At TRW, a mix-and- match scheme has been developed between a Hitachi HL-700D e-beam direct write system and a Ultratech 1500 wide field 1X stepper. A previous analysis using only the linear distortion terms between these systems was found to be inadequate to fully explain the observed overlay. In this study, both linear and higher order distortion components are extracted using a large number of distributed measurement sites in the stepper field. These distortion terms are then analyzed to determine their source. Compensation techniques including both system hardware adjustments and e-beam software are investigated to enhance registration capabilities.

  6. Colloidal lithography--the art of nanochemical patterning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gang; Wang, Dayang

    2009-02-02

    Nanochemical printmaking: Colloidal lithography paves a powerful nanochemical way for patterning on planar substrates and microparticles. The feature size can easily be scaled down to 100 nm by reducing the diameter of the microspheres and the feature shape diversified by the crystalline structure of a colloidal crystal mask, the mask etching time, the incidence angle of the vapor beam, and the mask registry (the azimuth angle of the vapor beam). Colloidal lithography relies on using colloidal crystals as masks for etching and deposition, and allows fabrication of various nanostructures on planar and non-planar substrates with low-cost, high-throughput-processing, large fabrication area, and a broad choice of materials. The feature size can easily shrink by decreasing the microsphere diameter in the colloidal mask. The feature shape can be diversified by varying the crystal structure of the colloidal mask, etching the mask, altering the incidence angle of the vapor beam, and stepwise manipulation of the mask registry. This nanochemical patterning strategy paves a complementary way to conventional top-down lithography. This focus review provides an overview of the principle of colloidal lithography, and surveys the recent developments as well as outlining the future challenges.

  7. Deep x-ray lithography based processing for micromechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Christenson, T.R.

    1995-10-01

    Deep x-ray lithography based fabrication provides a means to fabricate microactuators with useful output forces. High energy x-ray exposure provides a tool for fabrication of the next generation of precision engineered components. Device characterization, materials science, an metrology continue to pose challenges at this scale.

  8. Patterning strategy for low-K1 lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, David H.; Cheng, Wen-Hao

    2004-08-01

    Moore's law has been guiding the semiconductor industry for four decades. Lithography is the key enabler to keep the industry on the technology treadmill. Lithographers have been facing unprecedented challenges during last five years to keep the technology on the technology treadmill by developing various kinds of resolution enhancement techniques (RETs). In low K1 regime, co-optimization of design, layout mask, OPC, lithography and etching is the primary strategy to deliver a production-worthy patterning solution. Optical shrink is not a trivial task anymore. Intel always pursues parallel patterning techniques based on the dual exposure wavelength patterning strategy. While EUVL is the preferred patterning solution for 32nm node, 193nm immersion lithography with super high NA illumination is one of the parallel patterning strategies. The effects of polarization at super high NA illumination on mask technology, such as lens reduction ratio, blank absorber thickness and image imbalance correction, and restriction on design layout are addressed in this paper. Contact patterning is extremely challenging at low K1. Contact shape factor (circularity) which impacts the design rule will be discussed in this paper. Explosion of data file size and mask write time, stringent mask CD control and mask defect disposition are direct consequences of low-K1/high-MEEF (Mask Error Enhancement Factor) lithography. Mask makers alone cannot resolve the challenges in a cost effective manner. A seamless integration solution is a must.

  9. Instrumentation for Microfabrication with Deep X-ray Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantenburg, F. J.

    2007-01-01

    Deep X-ray lithography for microfabrication is performed at least at ten synchrotron radiation centers worldwide. The characteristic energies of these sources range from 1.4 keV up to 8 keV, covering mask making capabilities, deep X-ray lithography up to ultra deep x-ray lithography of several millimeters resist thickness. Limitations in deep X-ray lithography arise from hard X-rays in the SR-spectrum leading to adhesion losses of resist lines after the developing process, as well as heat load due to very high fluxes leading to thermal expansion of mask and resist during exposure and therefore to microstructure distortion. Considering the installations at ANKA as an example, the advantages of mirrors and central beam stops for DXRL are presented. Future research work will concentrate on feature sizes much below 1 μm, while the commercialization of DXRL goes in the direction of massive automation, including parallel exposures of several samples in a very wide SR-fan, developing and inspection.

  10. Multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Montcalm, C., LLNL

    1998-03-10

    Multilayer mirror coatings which reflect extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation are a key enabling technology for EUV lithography. Mo/Si multilayers with reflectances of 67.5% at 13.4 nm are now routinely achieved and reflectances of 70 2% at 11.4 nm were obtained with MO/Be multilayers. High reflectance is achieved with careful control of substrate quality, layer thicknesses, multilayer materials, interface quality, and surface termination. Reflectance and film stress were found to be stable relative to the requirements for application to EUV lithography. The run-to-run reproducibility of the reflectance peak position was characterized to be better than 0.2%, providing the required wavelength matching among the seven multilayer-coated mirrors used in the present lithography system design. Uniformity of coating was improved to better than 0.5% across 150 mm diameter substrates. These improvements in EUV multilayer mirror technology will enable us to meet the stringent specifications for coating the large optical substrates for our next-generation EUV lithography system.

  11. Beyond EUV lithography: a comparative study of efficient photoresists' performance.

    PubMed

    Mojarad, Nassir; Gobrecht, Jens; Ekinci, Yasin

    2015-03-18

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography at 13.5 nm is the main candidate for patterning integrated circuits and reaching sub-10-nm resolution within the next decade. Should photon-based lithography still be used for patterning smaller feature sizes, beyond EUV (BEUV) lithography at 6.x nm wavelength is an option that could potentially meet the rigid demands of the semiconductor industry. We demonstrate simultaneous characterization of the resolution, line-edge roughness, and sensitivity of distinct photoresists at BEUV and compare their properties when exposed to EUV under the same conditions. By using interference lithography at these wavelengths, we show the possibility for patterning beyond 22 nm resolution and characterize the impact of using higher energy photons on the line-edge roughness and exposure latitude. We observe high sensitivity of the photoresist performance on its chemical content and compare their overall performance using the Z-parameter criterion. Interestingly, inorganic photoresists have much better performance at BEUV, while organic chemically-amplified photoresists would need serious adaptations for being used at such wavelength. Our results have immediate implications for deeper understanding of the radiation chemistry of novel photoresists at the EUV and soft X-ray spectra.

  12. Beyond EUV lithography: a comparative study of efficient photoresists' performance

    PubMed Central

    Mojarad, Nassir; Gobrecht, Jens; Ekinci, Yasin

    2015-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography at 13.5 nm is the main candidate for patterning integrated circuits and reaching sub-10-nm resolution within the next decade. Should photon-based lithography still be used for patterning smaller feature sizes, beyond EUV (BEUV) lithography at 6.x nm wavelength is an option that could potentially meet the rigid demands of the semiconductor industry. We demonstrate simultaneous characterization of the resolution, line-edge roughness, and sensitivity of distinct photoresists at BEUV and compare their properties when exposed to EUV under the same conditions. By using interference lithography at these wavelengths, we show the possibility for patterning beyond 22 nm resolution and characterize the impact of using higher energy photons on the line-edge roughness and exposure latitude. We observe high sensitivity of the photoresist performance on its chemical content and compare their overall performance using the Z-parameter criterion. Interestingly, inorganic photoresists have much better performance at BEUV, while organic chemically-amplified photoresists would need serious adaptations for being used at such wavelength. Our results have immediate implications for deeper understanding of the radiation chemistry of novel photoresists at the EUV and soft X-ray spectra. PMID:25783209

  13. Innovative Technologies for Maskless Lithography and Non-Conventional Patterning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    the purpose of directly maskless lithography, and at developing functional materials for direct printing of semiconductors , dielectrics, and...printable nanomaterial semiconductors , dielectrics, and insulators were developed, and used to realize a range of directly printed active components for...configurations were investigated. The first, the electron bombardment source (EBS), features a thin semiconductor (single crystal diamond) membrane with a

  14. Shadow overlap ion-beam lithography for nanoarchitectures.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yeonho; Hong, Soongweon; Lee, Luke P

    2009-11-01

    Precisely constructed nanoscale devices and nanoarchitectures with high spatial resolution are critically needed for applications in high-speed electronics, high-density memory, efficient solar cells, optoelectronics, plasmonics, optical antennas, chemical sensors, biological sensors, and nanospectroscopic imaging. Current methods of classical optical lithography are limited by the diffraction effect of light for nanolithography, and the state of art of e-beam or focused ion beam lithography limit the throughput and further reduction less than few nanometers for large-area batch fabrication. However, these limits can be surpassed surprisingly by utilizing the overlap of two shadow images. Here we present shadow overlap of ion-beam lithography (SOIL), which can combine the advantages of parallel processing, tunable capability of geometries, cost-effective method, and high spatial resolution nanofabrication technique. The SOIL method relies on the overlap of shadows created by the directional metal deposition and etching angles on prepatterned structures. Consequently, highly tunable patterns can be obtained. As examples, unprecedented nanoarchitectures for optical antennas are demonstrated by SOIL. We expect that SOIL can have a significant impact not only on nanoscale devices, but also large-scale (i.e., micro and macro) three-dimensional innovative lithography.

  15. Predicting lithography costs: guidance for <= 32 nm patterning solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazelton, Andrew J.; Wüest, Andrea; Hughes, Greg; Lercel, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Extending lithography to 32 nm and 22 nm half pitch requires the introduction of new lithography technologies, such as EUVL or high-index immersion, or new techniques, such as double patterning. All of these techniques introduce large changes into the single exposure immersion lithography process as used for the 45 nm half pitch node. Therefore, cost per wafer is a concern. In this paper, total patterning costs are estimated for the 32 nm and 22 nm half pitch nodes through the application of cost-of-ownership models based on the tool, mask, and process costs. For all cases, the cost of patterning at 32 nm half pitch for critical layers will be more expensive than in prior generations. Mask costs are observed to be a significant component of lithography costs even up to a mask usage of 10,000 wafers/mask in most cases. The more simple structure of EUVL masks reduces the mask cost component and results in EUVL being the most cost-effective patterning solution under the assumptions of high throughput and good mask blank defect density.

  16. Hybrid source mask optimization for robust immersion lithography.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xu; Han, Chunying; Li, Yanqiu; Wu, Bingliang; Song, Zhiyang; Dong, Lisong; Arce, Gonzalo R

    2013-06-20

    To keep pace with the shrinkage of critical dimension, source and mask optimization (SMO) has emerged as a promising resolution enhancement technique to push the resolution of 193 nm argon fluoride immersion lithography systems. However, most current pixelated SMO approaches relied on scalar imaging models that are no longer accurate for immersion lithography systems with hyper-NA (NA>1). This paper develops a robust hybrid SMO (HSMO) algorithm based on a vector imaging model capable of effectively improving the robustness of immersion lithography systems to defocus and dose variations. The proposed HSMO algorithm includes two steps. First, the individual source optimization approach is carried out to rapidly reduce the cost function. Subsequently, the simultaneous SMO approach is applied to further improve the process robustness by exploiting the synergy in the joint optimization of source and mask patterns. The conjugate gradient method is used to update the source and mask pixels. In addition, a source regularization approach and source postprocessing are both used to improve the manufacturability of the optimized source patterns. Compared to the mask optimization method, the HSMO algorithm achieves larger process windows, i.e., extends the depth of focus and exposure latitude, thus more effectively improving the process robustness of 45 nm immersion lithography systems.

  17. Novel ultra-high sensitive 'metal resist' for EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimori, Toru; Tsuchihashi, Toru; Minegishi, Shinya; Kamizono, Takashi; Itani, Toshiro

    2016-03-01

    This study describes the use of a novel ultra-high sensitive `metal resist' for use in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. Herein, the development of a metal resist has been studied for improving the sensitivity when using metal-containing non-chemically amplified resist materials; such materials are metal-containing organic-inorganic hybrid compounds and are referred to as EUVL Infrastructure Development Center, Inc. (EIDEC) standard metal EUV resist (ESMR). The novel metal resist's ultra-high sensitivity has previously been investigated for use with electron beam (EB) lithography. The first demonstration of ESMR performance was presented in SPIE2015, where it was shown to achieve 17-nm lines with 1.5 mJ/cm2: equivalent in EUV lithography tool. The sensitivity of ESMR using EUV open-flame exposure was also observed to have the same high sensitivity as that when using EB lithography tool. Therefore, ESMR has been confirmed to have the potential of being used as an ultra-high sensitive EUV resist material. The metal-containing organic-inorganic hybrid compounds and the resist formulations were investigated by measuring their sensitivity and line-width roughness (LWR) improvement. Furthermore, new processing conditions, such as new development and rinse procedures, are an extremely effective way of improving lithographic performance. In addition, the optimal dry-etching selective conditions between the metal resist and spin-on carbon (SOC) were obtained. The etched SOC pattern was successfully constructed from a stacked film of metal resist and SOC.

  18. Nanoscale molecular-switch devices fabricated by imprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yong; Ohlberg, Douglas A. A.; Li, Xuema; Stewart, Duncan R.; Stanley Williams, R.; Jeppesen, Jan O.; Nielsen, Kent A.; Stoddart, J. Fraser; Olynick, Deirdre L.; Anderson, Erik

    2003-03-01

    Nanoscale molecular-electronic devices comprising a single molecular monolayer of bistable [2]rotaxanes sandwiched between two 40-nm metal electrodes were fabricated using imprint lithography. Bistable current-voltage characteristics with high on-off ratios and reversible switching properties were observed. Such devices may function as basic elements for future ultradense electronic circuitry.

  19. Biologically inspired omniphobic surfaces by reverse imprint lithography.

    PubMed

    Hensel, René; Finn, Andreas; Helbig, Ralf; Braun, Hans-Georg; Neinhuis, Christoph; Fischer, Wolf-Joachim; Werner, Carsten

    2014-04-02

    Springtail skin morphology is translated into robust omniphobic polymer membranes by reverse imprint lithography. The combination of overhanging cross-sections and their arrangement in a self-supporting comblike pattern are crucial for mechanically stable coatings that can be even applied to curved surfaces.

  20. Verification of optical proximity effect in immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suganaga, Toshifumi; Maejima, Shinroku; Hanawa, Tetsuro; Ishibashi, Takeo; Nakao, Shuji; Shirai, Seiichiro; Narimatsu, Koichiro; Suko, Kazuyuki; Shiraishi, Kenichi; Ishii, Yuki; Ando, Tomoyuki; Ohmori, Katsumi

    2006-03-01

    193 nm lithography is one of the most promising technologies for next-generation lithography and is being actively evaluated for making it practicable (1,2). First, we evaluated an immersion lithography tool (engineering evaluation tool (EET)) (3) and a dry lithography tool (S307E) with the same numerical aperture (NA = 0.85), manufactured by Nikon Corporation. As a result, an increase in the depth of focus (DOF) of the EET to 200 nm in comparison with the DOF (110 nm) of the dry exposure tool was confirmed in a 90 nm isolated space pattern. Next, the optical proximity effect (OPE) in this pattern was evaluated. Generally, when an immersion lithography tool is compared with a dry one with the same NA or both the tools, only an increase in the DOF is found. However, we confirmed that the OPE (The OPE of the 90 nm isolated space pattern is defined as the difference in the space width between a dense space and an isolated space.) of the dry exposure tool for the 90 nm isolated space pattern reduced from 33.1 nm to 14.1 nm by immersion lithography. As the effect of the reduction of 19 nm, the OPE reduced to 15.2 nm by the effect of the top coatings (TCs) and to 3.8 nm by the optical characteristics. An impact of about 5 nm on the OPE was confirmed by the process parameters-film thickness and the pre-bake temperature of the TC. In the case that the solvent was replaced with a high boiling point solvent, the impact changed from 5 to 20 nm further, the replacement of the solvent had a considerable impact on the OPE. However, this influence differs considerably according to the kind of resists; further, it was shown that the addition of acid materials and a change in the polymer base resulted in a high impact on the OPE for a certain resist. Thus, it was demonstrated that the selection of TC is very important for the OPE in immersion lithography.

  1. Multi-shaped-beam (MSB): an evolutionary approach for high throughput e-beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slodowski, Matthias; Döring, Hans-Joachim; Stolberg, Ines A.; Dorl, Wolfgang

    2010-09-01

    The development of next-generation lithography (NGL) such as EUV, NIL and maskless lithography (ML2) are driven by the half pitch reduction and increasing integration density of integrated circuits down to the 22nm node and beyond. For electron beam direct write (EBDW) several revolutionary pixel based concepts have been under development since several years. By contrast an evolutionary and full package high throughput multi electron-beam approach called Multi Shaped Beam (MSB), which is based on proven Variable Shaped Beam (VSB) technology, will be presented in this paper. In the recent decade VSB has already been applied in EBDW for device learning, early prototyping and low volume fabrication in production environments for both silicon and compound semiconductor applications. Above all the high resolution and the high flexibility due to the avoidance of expensive masks for critical layers made it an attractive solution for advanced technology nodes down to 32nm half pitch. The limitation in throughput of VSB has been mitigated in a major extension of VSB by the qualification of the cell projection (CP) technology concurrently used with VSB. With CP more pixels in complex shapes can be projected in one shot, enabling a remarkable shot count reduction for repetitive pattern. The most advanced step to extend the mature VSB technology for higher throughput is its parallelization in one column applying MEMS based multi deflection arrays. With this Vistec MSB technology, multiple shaped beamlets are generated simultaneously, each controllable individually in shape size and beam on time. Compared to pixel based ML2 approaches the MSB technology enables the maskless, variable and parallel projection of a large number of pixels per beamlet times the number of beamlets. Basic concepts, exposure examples and performance results of each of the described throughput enhancement steps will be presented.

  2. Advances in mask fabrication and alignment for masked ion-beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumbo, David P.; Damm, George A.; Engler, D. W.; Fong, F. O.; Sen, S.; Wolfe, John C.; Randall, John N.; Mauger, Phillip E.; Shimkunas, Alex R.; Loeschne, Hans

    1990-05-01

    This paper describes recent developments in three areas ofmasked ion beam lithography (MIBL). These are 1) fabrication oflarge area, low distortion, silicon stencilmasks for demagnifying ion projection lithography, 2) fabrication ofstencil masks with nanometer scale resolution for 1:1 proximity printing, and 3) development of a direct method of alignment using the ion beam induced fluorescence of Si02. These topics are discussed below. Demagnifying ion projection masks: We describe the fabrication of stencil masks in large area, low stress (10 MPa), n-type silicon membranes. The projection masks have a silicon foil area 95 mm in diameter, thicknesses between 1.5-5 and resolution of0.6um. Measured distortion (3a) in the IPL masks ranges between 0.23gm and 0.65,um, with an experimental error of 0.20 1um. Proximity printing masks: A process is described for fabricating stencil masks with 50 nm resolution in low stress, n-type silicon membranes. Membranes less than 0.5 ,ttm thick are shown to be free of the sidewall taper that limits resolution in thicker masks. These thin membranes show a slightly flared profile due to the imperfectly collimated etching ions. Alignment: A direct method of alignment is being developed which uses the ion beam induced fluorescence of Si02 marks. Fluorescence yield is characterized as a function of ion energy and resist coating thickness. The yield for Si02 is in the range between 0.1-1.0 photons/proton, while the yields for Si, Al, and photoresist are negligibly small. Thus, a simple alignment technique can be implemented where registration of a grating in the mask with a corresponding oxide pattern is detected as a fluorescence maximum. A simple model predicts that 50 nm alignment can be accomplished, following a 1 im prealignment, in 2 seconds.

  3. Design of a monolithic tunable laser based on equivalent-chirp grating reflectors.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yitang; Xu, Kun; Wu, Jian; Li, Yan; Hong, Xiaobin; Guo, Hongxiang; Lin, Jintong

    2010-12-01

    A Vernier-tuned distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) semiconductor laser is an effective monolithic approach for wide wavelength tunability, at the expense, however, of costly electron-beam lithography during fabrication. In this Letter, a tunable laser design with equivalent-chirp based, flat-top envelope grating reflectors is proposed that can be implemented easily by conventional two-beam interference lithography. The principle is described, and a detailed design shows uniform output power (0.08 dB variation) and excellent side-mode suppression ratio (47 dB minimum) within a wide tuning range (>32 nm) through numerical simulation.

  4. Carbon dioxide sequestration monitoring and verification via laser based detection system in the 2 mum band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphries, Seth David

    Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is a known contributor to the green house gas effect. Emissions of CO2 are rising as the global demand for inexpensive energy is placated through the consumption and combustion of fossil fuels. Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) may provide a method to prevent CO2 from being exhausted to the atmosphere. The carbon may be captured after fossil fuel combustion in a power plant and then stored in a long term facility such as a deep geologic feature. The ability to verify the integrity of carbon storage at a location is key to the success of all CCS projects. A laser-based instrument has been built and tested at Montana State University (MSU) to measure CO2 concentrations above a carbon storage location. The CO2 Detection by Differential Absorption (CODDA) Instrument uses a temperature-tunable distributed feedback (DFB) laser diode that is capable of accessing a spectral region, 2.0027 to 2.0042 mum, that contains three CO2 absorption lines and a water vapor absorption line. This instrument laser is aimed over an open-air, two-way path of about 100 m, allowing measurements of CO2 concentrations to be made directly above a carbon dioxide release test site. The performance of the instrument for carbon sequestration site monitoring is studied using a newly developed CO2 controlled release facility. The field and CO2 releases are managed by the Zero Emissions Research Technology (ZERT) group at MSU. Two test injections were carried out through vertical wells simulating seepage up well paths. Three test injections were done as CO2 escaped up through a slotted horizontal pipe simulating seepage up through geologic fault zones. The results from these 5 separate controlled release experiments over the course of three summers show that the CODDA Instrument is clearly capable of verifying the integrity of full-scale CO2 storage operations.

  5. Analysis of feature stability for laser-based determination of tissue thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, Floris; Schweikard, Achim; Stüber, Patrick; Bruder, Ralf; Wagner, Benjamin; Wissel, Tobias

    2015-03-01

    Localisation of the cranium is necessary for accurate stereotactic radiotherapy of malign lesions in the brain. This is achieved by immobilizing the patient's head (typically by using thermoplastic masks, bite blocks or combinations thereof) and x-ray imaging to determine the actual position of the patient with respect to the treatment device. In previous work we have developed a novel method for marker-less and non-invasive tracking of the skull using a combination of laser-based surface triangulation and the analysis of backscattered feature patterns of a tightly collimated NIR laser beam scanned over the patient's forehead. An HDR camera is coupled into the beam path of the laser scanning system to acquire one image per projected laser point. We have demonstrated that this setup is capable of accurately determining the tissue thickness for each triangulation point and consequently allows detecting the surface of the cranial bone with sub-millimetre accuracy. Typical clinical settings (treatment times of 15-90 min) require feature stability over time, since the determination of tissue thickness is achieved by machine learning methods trained on initial feature scans. We have collected initial scans of the forehead as well as long-term backscatter data (20 images per seconds over 30 min) from five subjects and extracted the relevant tissue features from the image streams. Based on the knowledge of the relationship between the tissue feature values and the tissue thickness, the analysis of the long-term data showed that the noise level is low enough to allow robust discrimination of tissue thicknesses of 0.5 mm.

  6. Fabricating Blazed Diffraction Gratings by X-Ray Lithography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis; Hartley, Frank; Wilson, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Gray-scale x-ray lithography is undergoing development as a technique for fabricating blazed diffraction gratings. As such, gray-scale x-ray lithography now complements such other grating-fabrication techniques as mechanical ruling, holography, ion etching, laser ablation, laser writing, and electron-beam lithography. Each of these techniques offers advantages and disadvantages for implementing specific grating designs; no single one of these techniques can satisfy the design requirements for all applications. Gray-scale x-ray lithography is expected to be advantageous for making gratings on steeper substrates than those that can be made by electron-beam lithography. This technique is not limited to sawtooth groove profiles and flat substrates: various groove profiles can be generated on arbitrarily shaped (including highly curved) substrates with the same ease as sawtooth profiles can be generated on flat substrates. Moreover, the gratings fabricated by this technique can be made free of ghosts (spurious diffraction components attributable to small spurious periodicities in the locations of grooves). The first step in gray-scale x-ray lithography is to conformally coat a substrate with a suitable photoresist. An x-ray mask (see Figure 1) is generated, placed between the substrate and a source of collimated x-rays, and scanned over the substrate so as to create a spatial modulation in the exposure of the photoresist. Development of the exposed photoresist results in a surface corrugation that corresponds to the spatial modulation and that defines the grating surface. The grating pattern is generated by scanning an appropriately shaped x-ray area mask along the substrate. The mask example of Figure 1 would generate a blazed grating profile when scanned in the perpendicular direction at constant speed, assuming the photoresist responds linearly to incident radiation. If the resist response is nonlinear, then the mask shape can be modified to account for the

  7. Pattern-integrated interference lithography: single-exposure fabrication of photonic-crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Burrow, Guy M; Leibovici, Matthieu C R; Gaylord, Thomas K

    2012-06-20

    Multibeam interference represents an approach for producing one-, two-, and three-dimensional periodic optical-intensity distributions with submicrometer features and periodicities. Accordingly, interference lithography (IL) has been used in a wide variety of applications, typically requiring additional lithographic steps to modify the periodic interference pattern and create integrated functional elements. In the present work, pattern-integrated interference lithography (PIIL) is introduced. PIIL is the integration of superposed pattern imaging with IL. Then a pattern-integrated interference exposure system (PIIES) is presented that implements PIIL by incorporating a projection imaging capability in a novel three-beam interference configuration. The purpose of this system is to fabricate, in a single-exposure step, a two-dimensional periodic photonic-crystal lattice with nonperiodic functional elements integrated into the periodic pattern. The design of the basic system is presented along with a model that simulates the resulting optical-intensity distribution at the system sample plane where the three beams simultaneously interfere and integrate a superposed image of the projected mask pattern. Appropriate performance metrics are defined in order to quantify the characteristics of the resulting photonic-crystal structure. These intensity and lattice-vector metrics differ markedly from the metrics used to evaluate traditional photolithographic imaging systems. Simulation and experimental results are presented that demonstrate the fabrication of example photonic-crystal structures in a single-exposure step. Example well-defined photonic-crystal structures exhibiting favorable intensity and lattice-vector metrics demonstrate the potential of PIIL for fabricating dense integrated optical circuits.

  8. IR LASER BASED CHEMICAL SENSOR FOR THE COOPERATIVE MONITORING PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Edward A Whitaker

    2005-08-08

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the device properties of the quantum cascade laser (QCL), a type of laser invented at Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies in the device physics research lab of Dr. Federico Capasso and more specifically to determine the remote sensing capability of this device. The PI and Stevens Institute of Technology collaborated with Dr. Capasso and Bell Laboratories to carry out this research project. The QCL is a unique laser source capable of generating laser radiation in the middle-infrared spectral region that overlaps the most important molecular absorption bands. With appropriate modulation techniques it is possible to use the laser to measure the concentration of many molecules of interest to the remote sensing community. In addition, the mid-IR emission wavelength is well suited to atmospheric transmission as mid-IR experiences much less scattering due to dust and fog. At the onset of this project little was known about several key device performance parameters of this family of lasers and the NNSA supported research enabled them to determine values of several of these characteristics.

  9. Exchange Bias Realignment Using a Laser-based Direct-write Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthold, I.; Löschner, U.; Schille, J.; Ebert, R.; Exner, H.

    We report on selective realignment of the exchange biased magnetization direction in spintronic layer stacks using rapidly deflected focused laser radiation in a direct-write technique. Laser-based magnetic field cooling by applying either pulsed or continuous wave laser radiation was investigated. The magnetic properties of laser-based field cooled layer stacks were investigated by using magneto optical Kerr effect (MOKE) measurements. The dependencies of the processing parameters peak intensity and external magnetic field strength on the resulting exchange bias field strength were evaluated. In addition, temperature field simulations gain deeper insights into the mechanisms of laser-based field cooling. Our results show significant influence of the laser processing regime. Field cooling induced by continuous laser radiation caused higher exchange bias field strengths, compared to pulsed laser radiation. Moreover, the external magnetic field strength affected the resulting exchange bias field strength only by irradiating low-intensity laser beams.

  10. Source development for extreme ultraviolet lithography and water window imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, G.; Dunne, P.; Kilbane, D.; Liu, L.; Lokasani, R.; Long, E.; Li, B. W.; McCormack, T.; O'Reilly, F.; Shiel, J.; Sokell, E.; Suzuki, C.; Wu, T.; Higashiguchi, T.

    2017-03-01

    Sources based on laser produced plasmas of tin (Sn) are currently being developed for extreme ultraviolet lithography for semiconductor fabrication. Since they operate at short wavelength (13.5 nm) they are capable of producing features with critical dimensions in the 10 nm range. Already next generation lithography sources operating at an even lower wavelength of around 6.7-6.8 nm have been proposed and research is ongoing on their feasibility for both large scale manufacturing and `at wavelength' metrology. The high resolution afforded by such short wavelengths is also of use for applications such as surface patterning and microscopy and the results of recent experiments to identify sources for operation in the `water window' (2.34-4.2 nm), where carbon absorbs strongly but water does not are summarized.

  11. Development of a colloidal lithography method for patterning nonplanar surfaces.

    PubMed

    Bhawalkar, Sarang P; Qian, Jun; Heiber, Michael C; Jia, Li

    2010-11-16

    A colloidal lithography method has been developed for patterning nonplanar surfaces. Hexagonal noncontiguously packed (HNCP) colloidal particles 127 nm-2.7 μm in diameter were first formed at the air-water interface and then adsorbed onto a substrate coated with a layer of polymer adhesive ∼17 nm thick. The adhesive layer plays the critical role of securing the order of the particles against the destructive lateral capillary force generated by a thin film of water after the initial transfer of the particles from the air-water interface. The soft lithography method is robust and very simple to carry out. It is applicable to a variety of surface curvatures and for both inorganic and organic colloidal particles.

  12. Optimized antireflective silicon nanostructure arrays using nanosphere lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dohaeng; Bae, Jiwoong; Hong, Soonwook; Yang, Hwichul; Kim, Young-Beom

    2016-05-01

    Broadband optical antireflective arrays of sub-wavelength structures were fabricated on silicon substrates using colloidal nanosphere lithography in conjunction with reactive ion etching. The morphology of the nanostructures, including the shape, base diameter and height, was precisely controlled by modifying the conventional process of nanosphere lithography. We investigated their effects on the optical characteristics based on experimentally measured reflectance performance. The Si nanostructure arrays demonstrated optical antireflection performance with an average reflectance of about 1% across the spectral range from 300 to 800 nm, i.e. near-ultraviolet to visible wavelengths. This fabrication method can be used to create a large surface area and offers a promising approach for antireflective applications.

  13. Optimized antireflective silicon nanostructure arrays using nanosphere lithography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dohaeng; Bae, Jiwoong; Hong, Soonwook; Yang, Hwichul; Kim, Young-Beom

    2016-05-27

    Broadband optical antireflective arrays of sub-wavelength structures were fabricated on silicon substrates using colloidal nanosphere lithography in conjunction with reactive ion etching. The morphology of the nanostructures, including the shape, base diameter and height, was precisely controlled by modifying the conventional process of nanosphere lithography. We investigated their effects on the optical characteristics based on experimentally measured reflectance performance. The Si nanostructure arrays demonstrated optical antireflection performance with an average reflectance of about 1% across the spectral range from 300 to 800 nm, i.e. near-ultraviolet to visible wavelengths. This fabrication method can be used to create a large surface area and offers a promising approach for antireflective applications.

  14. Bioimprinting strategies: from soft lithography to biomimetic sensors and beyond.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Adnan; Iqbal, Naseer; Afzal, Adeel

    2013-12-01

    Imprinting is a straightforward, yet a reliable technique to develop dynamic artificial recognition materials-so called as synthetic antibodies. Surface imprinting strategies such as soft lithography allow biological stereotyping of polymers and sol-gel phases to prepare extremely selective receptor layers, which can be combined with suitable transducer systems to develop high performance biomimetic sensors. This article presents an overview of the remarkable technical advancements in the field of surface bioimprinting with particular emphasis on surface imprinted bioanalyte detection systems and their applications in rapid bioanalysis and biotechnology. Herein, we discuss a variety of surface imprinting strategies including soft lithography, template immobilization, grafting, emulsion polymerization, and others along with their biomimetic sensor applications, merits and demerits. The pioneering research works on surface patterned biosensors are described with selected examples of detecting biological agents ranging from small biomolecules and proteins to living cells and microorganisms.

  15. Conductive Polymer Nanowire Gas Sensor Fabricated by Nanoscale Soft Lithography.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ning; Jiang, Yang; Qu, Hemi; Duan, Xuexin

    2017-10-02

    Resistive devices composed of one dimensional nanostructures are promising candidate for next generation gas sensors. However, the large-scale fabrication of nanowires is still a challenge, restricting the commercialization of such type of devices. Here, we reported a highly efficient and facile approach to fabricate poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) nanowire chemiresistive type of gas sensor by nanoscale soft lithography. Well-defined sub-100 nm nanowires are fabricated on silicon substrate which facilitates the device integration. The nanowire chemiresistive gas sensor is demonstrated for NH3 and NO2 detection at room-temperature and shows a limit of detection at ppb level which is compatible with nanoscale PEDOT:PSS gas sensors fabricated with conventional lithography technique. In comparison with PEDOT:PSS thin film gas sensor, the nanowire gas sensor exhibits a higher sensitivity and much faster response to gas molecules. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  16. Metallic nanodot arrays by stencil lithography for plasmonic biosensing applications.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Mena, Oscar; Sannomiya, Takumi; Villanueva, Luis G; Voros, Janos; Brugger, Juergen

    2011-02-22

    The fabrication of gold nanodots by stencil lithography and its application for optical biosensing based on localized surface plasmon resonance are presented. Arrays of 50-200 nm wide nanodots with different spacing of 50-300 nm are fabricated without any resist, etching, or lift-off process. The dimensions and morphology of the nanodots were characterized by scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. The fabricated nanodots showed localized surface plasmon resonance in their extinction spectra in the visible range. The resonance wavelength depends on the periodicity and dimensions of the nanodots. Bulk refractive index measurements and model biosensing of streptavidin were successfully performed based on the plasmon resonance shift induced by local refractive index change when biomolecules are adsorbed on the nanodots. These results demonstrate the potential of stencil lithography for the realization of plasmon-based biosensing devices.

  17. Enhancement of height resolution in direct laser lithography.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Hyug-Gyo; Lee, Yun-Woo

    2012-01-02

    To address the requirements of multi-level semiconductors, we propose a new technique for overcoming the height limitation of direct laser lithography. In the proposed system, an original source beam is fed into an interference generator that divides the input beam by 50: 50 into two output beams. After going through an imaging lens, these two beams make two focusing spots, which are slightly separated in the axial direction. In the overlapped region, these two spots generate a small interferogram that shortens the depth of focus. By using this phenomenon, we are able to overcome the height limitation of direct laser lithography. The governing equations are also derived in this manuscript by using the Gaussian beam model.

  18. Materials for and performance of multilayer lithography schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weimer, Marc; Wang, Yubao; Neef, Charles J.; Claypool, James; Edwards, Kevin; Zu, Zhimin

    2007-03-01

    The 45-nm node will require the use of thinner photoresists, which necessitates the use of multilayer pattern transfer schemes. One common multilayer approach is the use of a silicon-rich anti-reflective hardmask (Si BARC) with a carbon-rich pattern transfer underlayer (spin-on carbon, or SOC). The combination of the two layers provides a highly planar platform for a thin resist, and provides a route to etch substrates due to the alternating plasma etch selectivities of the organic resist, inorganic Si BARC, and organic SOC. Yet such schemes will need to be optimized both for pattern transfer and optics. Optimizing optics under hyper-NA immersion conditions is more complicated than with standard (that is, NA<1) lithography. A rigorous calculation technique is used to evaluate and compare standard lithography to a hyper-NA case using a multilayer stack. An example of such a stack is shown to have reasonable lithographic performance.

  19. Combined capillary force and step and flash lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mele, Elisa; Di Benedetto, Francesca; Persano, Luana; Pisignano, Dario; Cingolani, Roberto

    2005-04-01

    The combination of a key element of soft lithography, namely the elastomeric stamp, with the operation principle of step and flash imprint lithography results in a moulding procedure allowing high throughput and remarkable operational simplicity. 100 nm scale dense features can be fabricated via in situ polymerization of a polyurethane fluid, simultaneous to the capillary penetration into the recessed regions of high-resolution elastomeric elements. Excellent pattern definition has been obtained for features down to 200 nm, with aspect ratio of around unity over areas of the order of cm2. The physical principles of the fluidic motion within the sub-µm channels are also discussed, to estimate the maximum aspect ratio achievable before the complete curing of the employed photopolymer.

  20. Particulate templates and ordered liquid bridge networks in evaporative lithography.

    PubMed

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Kwek, Jin W; Tang, Xiaosong; O'Shea, Sean J; Chan, Derek Y C

    2009-12-01

    We investigate the properties of latex particle templates required to optimize the development of ordered liquid bridge networks in evaporative lithography. These networks are key precursors in the assembly of solutions of conducting nanoparticles into large, optically transparent, and conducting microwire networks on substrates (Vakarelski, I. U.; Chan, D. Y. C.; Nonoguchi, T.; Shinto, H.; Higashitani, K. Phys. Rev. Lett., 2009, 102, 058303). An appropriate combination of heat treatment and oxygen plasma etching of a close-packed latex particle monolayer is shown to create open-spaced particle templates which facilitates the formation of ordered fully connected liquid bridge networks that are critical to the formation of ordered microwire networks. Similar results can also be achieved if non-close-packed latex particle templates with square or honeycomb geometries are used. The present results have important implications for the development of the particulate templates to control the morphology of functional microwire networks by evaporative lithography.

  1. 4-Nitrobenzene Grafted in Porous Silicon: Application to Optical Lithography.

    PubMed

    Tiddia, Mariavitalia; Mula, Guido; Sechi, Elisa; Vacca, Annalisa; Cara, Eleonora; De Leo, Natascia; Fretto, Matteo; Boarino, Luca

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we report a method to process porous silicon to improve its chemical resistance to alkaline solution attacks based on the functionalization of the pore surface by the electrochemical reduction of 4-nitrobenzendiazonium salt. This method provides porous silicon with strong resistance to the etching solutions used in optical lithography and allows the fabrication of tailored metallic contacts on its surface. The samples were studied by chemical, electrochemical, and morphological methods. We demonstrate that the grafted samples show a resistance to harsh alkaline solution more than three orders of magnitude larger than that of pristine porous silicon, being mostly unmodified after about 40 min. The samples maintained open pores after the grafting, making them suitable for further treatments like filling by polymers. Optical lithography was performed on the functionalized samples, and electrochemical characterization results are shown.

  2. DNA Origami Mask for Sub-Ten-Nanometer Lithography.

    PubMed

    Diagne, Cheikh Tidiane; Brun, Christophe; Gasparutto, Didier; Baillin, Xavier; Tiron, Raluca

    2016-07-26

    DNA nanotechnology is currently widely explored and especially shows promises for advanced lithography due to its ability to define nanometer scale features. We demonstrate a 9 × 14 nm(2) hole pattern transfer from DNA origami into an SiO2 layer with a sub-10-nm resolution using anhydrous HF vapor in a semiconductor etching machine. We show that the resulting SiO2 pattern inherits its shape from the DNA structure within a process time ranging from 30 to 60 s at an etching rate of 0.2 nm/s. At 600 s of etching, the SiO2 pattern meets corrosion and the overall etching reaction is blocked. These results, in addition to the entire surface coverage by magnesium occurring on the substrate at a density of 1.1 × 10(15) atom/cm(2), define a process window, fabrication rules, and limits for DNA-based lithography.

  3. Plastic masters-rigid templates for soft lithography.

    PubMed

    Desai, Salil P; Freeman, Dennis M; Voldman, Joel

    2009-06-07

    We demonstrate a simple process for the fabrication of rigid plastic master molds for soft lithography directly from (poly)dimethysiloxane devices. Plastics masters (PMs) provide a cost-effective alternative to silicon-based masters and can be easily replicated without the need for cleanroom facilities. We have successfully demonstrated the use of plastics micromolding to generate both single and dual-layer plastic structures, and have characterized the fidelity of the molding process. Using the PM fabrication technique, world-to-chip connections can be integrated directly into the master enabling devices with robust, well-aligned fluidic ports directly after molding. PMs provide an easy technique for the fabrication of microfluidic devices and a simple route for the scaling-up of fabrication of robust masters for soft lithography.

  4. Maskless, parallel patterning with zone-plate array lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, D. J. D.; Gil, Dario; Menon, Rajesh; Mondol, Mark K.; Smith, Henry I.; Anderson, Erik H.

    1999-11-01

    Zone-plate array lithography (ZPAL) is a maskless lithography scheme that uses an array of shuttered zone plates to print arbitrary patterns on a substrate. An experimental ultraviolet ZPAL system has been constructed and used to simultaneously expose nine different patterns with a 3x3 array of zone plates in a quasidot-matrix fashion. We present exposed patterns, describe the system design and construction, and discuss issues essential to a functional ZPAL system. We also discuss another ZPAL system which operates with 4.5 nm x radiation from a point source. We present simulations which show that, with our existing x-ray zone plates and this system, we should be able to achieve 55 nm resolution. (c) 1999 American Vacuum Society.

  5. Nanostructure patterning on flexible substrates using electron beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraj, K. S.; Sangeeth, K.; Hegde, G. M.

    2014-06-01

    Patterning nanostructures on flexible substrates plays a key role in the emerging flexible electronics technology. The flexible electronic devices are inexpensive and can be conformed to any shape. The potential applications for such devices are sensors, displays, solar cells, RFID, high-density biochips, optoelectronics etc. E-beam lithography is established as a powerful tool for nanoscale fabrication, but its applicability on insulating flexible substrates is often limited because of surface charging effects. This paper presents the fabrication of nanostructures on insulating flexible substrates using low energy E-beam lithography along with metallic layers for charge dissipation. Nano Structures are patterned on different substrates of materials such as acetate and PET foils. The fabrication process parameters such as the proximity gap of exposure, the exposure dosage and developing conditions have been optimized for each substrate.

  6. High-index resist for 193-nm immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Kazuya; Costner, Elizabeth; Nishimura, Isao; Ueda, Mitsuru; Willson, C. Grant

    2008-03-01

    ArF immersion lithography using water as a fluid medium enables production of 45 nm features. Extending immersion lithography to 32 nm or below requires increases in the refractive indices of the lens material, the immersion fluid, and the resist material. However, a material with a high refractive index generally also has high absorbance. In attempt to design a resist with high refractive index and low absorbance, we studied several types of sulfur-containing polymers and determined which sulfur groups increase the refractive index without increasing the absorbance at 193 nm. We describe new thioester and sulfone structures that enable high index with low absorbance. This chemistry has been exploited to produce polymers with a refractive index of 1.8 at 193 nm and an absorbance less than 1.4 μm-1. The compatibility of the sulfur functionality with chemically amplified imaging chemistry was demonstrated by printing at 193 nm.

  7. Rapid prototyping of microstructures by soft lithography for biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Daniel B; Qin, Dong; Whitesides, George M

    2010-01-01

    This chapter describes the methods and specific procedures used to fabricate microstructures by soft lithography. These techniques are useful for the prototyping of devices useful for applications in biotechnology. Fabrication by soft lithography does not require specialized or expensive equipment; the materials and facilities necessary are found commonly in biological and chemical laboratories in both academia and industry. The combination of the fact that the materials are low-cost and that the time from design to prototype device can be short (< 24 h) makes it possible to use and to screen rapidly devices that also can be disposable. Here we describe the procedures for fabricating microstructures with lateral dimensions as small as 1 mum. These types of microstructures are useful for microfluidic devices, cell-based assays, and bioengineered surfaces.

  8. Image tone optimization in advanced mask making for DUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-doo; Do, Mun-hoe; Jeong, Seong-ho; Kim, Jea-hee; Kim, Keeho

    2007-03-01

    Deep-UV (DUV) lithography has been developed to define minimum feature sizes of sub-100 nm dimensions of devices semiconductor. In response to this trend, DUV mask technology has been proposed as an effective technique for considering the reduction of mask making cost, especially, in low volume designs. However, the requirement of tight CD control of the mask features in advanced devices is resulted in increasing of mask cost. In this research, we discussed two different typed image tones comparison, positive and negative tone, in DUV lithography. The choice of final mask tone needs to be selected as function of pattern density and shape. The evaluation items to judge if the mask is good are the OPC model accuracy, resolution and mask throughput. Both mask process and manufacturing throughput are affected by image tone type of positive and negative. This paper will show the procedures and results of experiment.

  9. Nodal line-scanning method for maskless optical lithography.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kenneth C

    2014-12-01

    Maskless optical lithography can improve the economics and performance of multi-patterning by eliminating photomasks and by simplifying the lithography exposure technology. It could also potentially eliminate the need for multi-patterning by enabling dual-wavelength, nonlinear optical recording methods. High-resolution, maskless patterning can be achieved with a scanned-spot-array system in which modulated, diffraction-limited focus spots write the exposure pattern. Each spot has a central zero-intensity interference null along a line parallel to the scan direction for printing sub-resolution line patterns. High throughput can be achieved at the comparatively low repetition rate of excimer lasers (e.g., 6 kHz). The low repetition rate simplifies the optical modulation technology, enabling the use of supplemental modulation controls including dynamic gray-level and beam-centration controls for resolution enhancement.

  10. Phase-conjugate holographic lithography based on micromirror array recording.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yongjun; Hahn, Joonku; Lee, Byoungho

    2011-12-01

    We present phase-conjugate holographic lithography with a hologram recorded by a digital micromirror device (DMD) and a telecentric lens. In our lithography system, a phase-conjugate hologram is applied instead of conventional masks or reticles to form patterns. This method has the advantage of increasing focus range, and it is applicable to the formation of patterns on fairly uneven surfaces. The hologram pattern is dynamically generated by the DMD, and its resolution is mainly determined by the demagnification of the telecentric lens. We experimentally demonstrate that our holographic lithographic system has a large focus range, and it is feasible to make a large-area hologram by stitching each pattern generated by the DMD without a falling off in resolution.

  11. Standard cell pin access and physical design in advanced lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoqing; Cline, Brian; Yeric, Greg; Pan, David Z.

    2016-03-01

    Standard cell pin access has become one of the most challenging issues for the back-end physical design in sub-14nm technology nodes due to increased pin density, limited number of routing tracks, and complex DFM rules/constraints from multiple patterning lithography. The standard cell I/O pin access problem is very difficult also because the access points of each pin are limited and they interfere with each other. There have been several studies across various standard cell and physical design stages, including standard cell pin access optimization, placement mitigation and routing planning, to achieve overall pin access optimization. In this paper, we will introduce a holistic approach across different design stages to deal with the pin access issue while accommodating the complex DFM constraints in advanced lithography.

  12. Highly sensitive resist material for deep x-ray lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrfeld, Wolfgang; Hessel, Volker; Lehr, Heinz; Loewe, Holger; Schmidt, Martin; Schenk, Rainer

    1997-07-01

    The present paper describes the first chemically amplified negative-tone resist for deep x-ray lithography (DXRL). The choice of the resist material for this new resist has been oriented on the experience of the photo, electron beam and x- ray lithography (XRL) for microelectronic applications. In this work a negative tone resist containing a novolak, a crosslinker and an acid generator was developed by varying the different components. It was found that only few components, which proved to be good in thin films, were suitable for DXRL. The new resist fulfills all technological requirements and shows an increased sensitivity by a factor 15 as compared to the standard resist material, poly(methyl methacrylate). This tremendous increase in sensitivity leads to a huge cost reduction of the DXRL process. Furthermore, an excellent adhesion of this new resist to metallic substrates has been achieved which allows us to fabricate free standing columns with an aspect ratio of 80.

  13. Coupling-aware mixed dummy metal insertion for lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Liang; Wong, Martin D. F.; Chao, Kai-Yuan; Xiang, Hua

    2007-03-01

    As integrated circuits manufacturing technology is advancing into 65nm and 45nm nodes, extensive resolution enhancement techniques (RET) are needed to correctly manufacture a chip design. The widely used RET called offaxis illumination (OAI) introduces forbidden pitches which lead to very complex design rules. It has been observed that imposing uniformity on layout designs can substantially improve printability under OAI. In this paper, two types of assist features for the metal layer are proposed to improve the uniformity, printable assist feature and segmented printable assist feature. They bring different costs on performance and manufacturing. Coupling and lithography costs from these assist features are discussed. Optimal insertion algorithm is proposed to use both types of dummy metals, considering trade-offs between coupling and lithography costs.

  14. Optics-free lithography on colloidal nanocrystal assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Santosh; Miller, Kyle J.; Colaux, Julien L.; Cademartiri, Ludovico

    2016-03-01

    We describe a lithographic approach - Nanocrystal Plasma Polymerization (NPP)-based lithography (Figure 1) - where colloidal nanocrystal assemblies (CNAs) are used as the resist and, potentially, the active material. The patterning process is based on a change in the dispersibility of the CNAs in solvents as a result of the exposure to plasmas. Plasmas can etch the capping ligands from the exposed area. During the development step, the unexposed area of CNAs are redispersed leaving behind the patterned area.

  15. Influence of salt on colloidal lithography of albumin.

    PubMed

    Geng, D L; Miao, Y H; Helseth, L E

    2007-07-31

    We investigate the influence of salt on colloidal lithography of biomolecular patterns. Albumin labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was adsorbed on polyelectrolyte-coated glass substrates covered by negatively charged colloids using fluorescence microscopy. After removing the colloids, a well-defined albumin pattern remains, and we study how the pattern changes upon adding salt to the protein solution. The proposed method is simple and cheap and can be used to create stable one- and two-dimensional biomolecular arrays.

  16. Fabrication of Plasmonic Nanodiscs by Photonic Nanojet Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jooyoung; Cho, Kyuman; Kim, Inho; Kim, Won Mok; Lee, Taek Sung; Lee, Kyeong-Seok

    2012-02-01

    In this study, we present and demonstrate a new route to the fabrication of plasmonic nanostructures with a controlled size and shape using photonic nanojet lithography. Through the approach of dual-layer lift-off, the achievable size was remarkably reduced to a sub-100 nm scale and the introduction of an engineered diffuser was proved to give a facile and precise way of controlling the anisotropy in shape without a process burden even when the spherical focusing beads are used.

  17. Etched-multilayer phase shifting masks for EUV lithography

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, Henry N.; Taylor, John S.

    2005-04-05

    A method is disclosed for the implementation of phase shifting masks for EUV lithography. The method involves directly etching material away from the multilayer coating of the mask, to cause a refractive phase shift in the mask. By etching into the multilayer (for example, by reactive ion etching), rather than depositing extra material on the top of the multilayer, there will be minimal absorption loss associated with the phase shift.

  18. 3D nanostructures fabricated by advanced stencil lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesilkoy, F.; Flauraud, V.; Rüegg, M.; Kim, B. J.; Brugger, J.

    2016-02-01

    This letter reports on a novel fabrication method for 3D metal nanostructures using high-throughput nanostencil lithography. Aperture clogging, which occurs on the stencil membranes during physical vapor deposition, is leveraged to create complex topographies on the nanoscale. The precision of the 3D nanofabrication method is studied in terms of geometric parameters and material types. The versatility of the technique is demonstrated by various symmetric and chiral patterns made of Al and Au.

  19. 3D nanostructures fabricated by advanced stencil lithography.

    PubMed

    Yesilkoy, F; Flauraud, V; Rüegg, M; Kim, B J; Brugger, J

    2016-03-07

    This letter reports on a novel fabrication method for 3D metal nanostructures using high-throughput nanostencil lithography. Aperture clogging, which occurs on the stencil membranes during physical vapor deposition, is leveraged to create complex topographies on the nanoscale. The precision of the 3D nanofabrication method is studied in terms of geometric parameters and material types. The versatility of the technique is demonstrated by various symmetric and chiral patterns made of Al and Au.

  20. Design and fabrication of diverse metamaterial structures by holographic lithography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Li, Qiuze; Wang, Guo Ping

    2008-07-21

    We demonstrate a holographic lithography for the fabrication of diverse metamaterial structures by using an optical prism. Cylindrical nanoshells, U-shaped resonator arrays, and double-split ring arrays are obtained experimentally by real time modulating the phase relation of the interference beams. This easy-to-use method may provide a roadway for the design and fabrication of future metamaterials requiring diverse structures for effectively manipulating electromagnetic properties at optical frequencies.

  1. 450mm wafer patterning with jet and flash imprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Ecron; Hellebrekers, Paul; Hofemann, Paul; LaBrake, Dwayne L.; Resnick, Douglas J.; Sreenivasan, S. V.

    2013-09-01

    The next step in the evolution of wafer size is 450mm. Any transition in sizing is an enormous task that must account for fabrication space, environmental health and safety concerns, wafer standards, metrology capability, individual process module development and device integration. For 450mm, an aggressive goal of 2018 has been set, with pilot line operation as early as 2016. To address these goals, consortiums have been formed to establish the infrastructure necessary to the transition, with a focus on the development of both process and metrology tools. Central to any process module development, which includes deposition, etch and chemical mechanical polishing is the lithography tool. In order to address the need for early learning and advance process module development, Molecular Imprints Inc. has provided the industry with the first advanced lithography platform, the Imprio® 450, capable of patterning a full 450mm wafer. The Imprio 450 was accepted by Intel at the end of 2012 and is now being used to support the 450mm wafer process development demands as part of a multi-year wafer services contract to facilitate the semiconductor industry's transition to lower cost 450mm wafer production. The Imprio 450 uses a Jet and Flash Imprint Lithography (J-FILTM) process that employs drop dispensing of UV curable resists to assist high resolution patterning for subsequent dry etch pattern transfer. The technology is actively being used to develop solutions for markets including NAND Flash memory, patterned media for hard disk drives and displays. This paper reviews the recent performance of the J-FIL technology (including overlay, throughput and defectivity), mask development improvements provided by Dai Nippon Printing, and the application of the technology to a 450mm lithography platform.

  2. Solid state microcavity dye lasers fabricated by nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, D.; Nielsen, T.; Kristensen, A.

    2004-11-01

    We present a solid state polymer microcavity dye laser, fabricated by thermal nanoimprint lithography (NIL) in a dye-doped thermoplast. The thermoplast poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA) is used due to its high transparency in the visible range and its robustness to laser radiation. The laser dye is Rhodamine 6G ClO4. This dye is shown to withstand temperatures up to 240 °C without bleaching, which makes it compatible with the thermal nanoimprint lithography process. The 1.55 μm thick dye-doped PMMA devices are fabricated on a SiO2 substrate, yielding planar waveguiding in the dye-doped PMMA with two propagating TE-TM modes. The laser cavity has the lateral shape of a trapezoid, supporting lasing modes by reflection on the vertical cavity walls. The solid polymer dye lasers emit laterally through one of the vertical cavity walls, when pumped optically through the top surface by means of a frequency doubled, pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Lasing in the wavelength region from 560 to 570 nm is observed from a laser with a side-length of 50 μm. In this proof of concept, the lasers are multimode with a mode wavelength separation of approximately 1.6 nm, as determined by the waveguide propagation constant(s) and cavity dimensions. The stamps used in this work were fabricated by UV-lithography, limiting the lateral dimensional control of the devices. The resolution of NIL is ultimately limited by the quality of the stamps. Using electron beam lithography for stamp fabrication, the NIL process presented here offers the possibility for adding mode-selecting elements, e.g., diffractive- or sub-wavelength optical elements.

  3. Multiphoton laser lithography for the fabrication of plasmonic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passinger, Sven; Koch, Jürgen; Kiyan, Roman; Reinhardt, Carsten; Chichkov, Boris N.

    2006-08-01

    In this contribution, we demonstrate multi-photon femtosecond laser lithography for the fabrication and rapid prototyping of plasmonic components. Using this technology different dielectric and metallic SPP-structures can be fabricated in a low-cost and time-efficient way. Resolution limits of this technology will be discussed. Investigations of the optical properties of the fabricated SPP-structures by far-field leakage radiation microscopy will be reported.

  4. Preparation of ring resonator based on PDMS using laser lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandura, D.; Pudis, D.; Gaso, P.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we present preparation process of ring resonator in racetrack configuration based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). 3D laser lithography in combination with imprinting technique was used to pattern photoresist layer as a master for imprinting process. In the next step, PDMS ring resonator was imprinted and filled with core PDMS. Finally, morphological properties of prepared device were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and confocal microscope and transmission spectrum measurements were performed.

  5. Refractive microlenses for ultraflat photolithographic projection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelkel, Reinhard; Eisner, Martin; Ossmann, Christian; Weible, Kenneth J.

    2000-08-01

    We report on the fabrication of high quality microlens arrays on 4', 6' and 8'-fused silica wafers. Refractive, plano-convex microlenses are fabricated by using photolithography; a reflow or melting resist technique and reactive ion etching. A diffraction-limited optical performance (p-v wave aberrations of < (lambda) /8, Strehl ratio GTR 0.97) is achieved. Aspherical lens profiles are obtained by varying the etch parameters during the reactive ion etching transfer. The microlens arrays are used for Microlens Projection Lithography (MPL) and within UV-light illumination systems. Microlens Projection Lithography is an innovative technique using KARL SUSS Mask Aligners equipped with an ultra-flat microlens-based projection system. The projection system consists of 500.000 identical micro-objectives side- by-side. Each micro-objective consists of 3 to 4 microlenses. A fully symmetrical optical design eliminates coma, distortion and lateral color. The lens system is frontal- and backside telecentric to provide a unit magnification (+1) over the whole depth of focus. Each micro- objective images a small part of the photomask pattern onto the wafer. The partial images from different channels overlap consistently and form a complete aerial image of the photomask. Microlens Projection Lithography provides an increased depth of focus (GTR 50 microns) at a larger working distance ($GTR 1 mm)than standard proximity printing. Microlens Projection Lithography allows photolithography on curved on non-planar substrates, in V-grooves, holes, etc. using a KARL SUSS Mask Aligner.

  6. Nanoimprint, DSA, and multi-beam lithography: patterning technologies with new integration challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landis, S.; Teyssedre, H.; Claveau, G.; Servin, I.; Delachat, F.; Pourteau, M. L.; Gharbi, A.; Pimenta Barros, P.; Tiron, R.; Nouri, L.; Possemé, N.; May, M.; Brianceau, P.; Barnola, S.; Blancquaert, Y.; Pradelles, J.; Essomba, P.; Bernadac, A.; Dal'zotto, B.; Bos, S.; Argoud, M.; Chamiot-Maitral, G.; Sarrazin, A.; Tallaron, C.; Lapeyre, C.; Pain, L.

    2017-04-01

    In the lithography landscape, EUV technology recovered some credibility recently. However, its large adoption remains uncertain. Meanwhile, 193nm immersion lithography, with multiple-patterning strategies, supports the industry preference for advanced-node developments. In this landscape, lithography alternatives maintain promise for continued R&D. Massively parallel electron-beam and nano-imprint lithography techniques remain highly attractive, as they can provide noteworthy cost-of-ownership benefits. Directed self-assembly lithography shows promising resolution capabilities and appears to be an option to reduce multi-patterning strategies. Even if large amount of efforts are dedicated to overcome the lithography side issues, these solutions introduce also new challenges and opportunities for the integration schemes.

  7. Stochastic simulation studies of line-edge roughness in block copolymer lithography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Kon

    2014-08-01

    Because photoresist has the uncertain triangle relation among the higher resolution, the lower line-edge-roughness (LER) (or line-with-roughness (LWR)), and the improved sensitivity, for below 20-nm pattern formation, this relation makes hard to use the optical lithography. Directed self-assembly (DSA) has been considered as a potential candidate to extend the resolution limit of the optical lithography. The effects of DSA processing and DSA molecular geometry on LER should be well understood in order to meet the ITRS lithographic specifications. In this paper, for the optical lithography and the block copolymer (BCP) lithography such as graphoepitaxy, LER behavior is modeled by the stochastic methods such as the Monte Carlo method and the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method. Simulation results explain that the LER of the BCP lithography is smaller than that of the optical lithography because of a self-healing capability of block copolymers.

  8. Advances in Diode-Laser-Based Water Vapor Differential Absorption Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spuler, Scott; Repasky, Kevin; Morley, Bruce; Moen, Drew; Weckwerth, Tammy; Hayman, Matt; Nehrir, Amin

    2016-06-01

    An advanced diode-laser-based water vapor differential absorption lidar (WV-DIAL) has been developed. The next generation design was built on the success of previous diode-laser-based prototypes and enables accurate measurement of water vapor closer to the ground surface, in rapidly changing atmospheric conditions, and in daytime cloudy conditions up to cloud base. The lidar provides up to 1 min resolution, 150 m range resolved measurements of water vapor in a broad range of atmospheric conditions. A description of the instrument and results from its initial field test in 2014 are discussed.

  9. Welding technology transfer task/laser based weld joint tracking system for compressor girth welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Looney, Alan

    1991-01-01

    Sensors to control and monitor welding operations are currently being developed at Marshall Space Flight Center. The laser based weld bead profiler/torch rotation sensor was modified to provide a weld joint tracking system for compressor girth welds. The tracking system features a precision laser based vision sensor, automated two-axis machine motion, and an industrial PC controller. The system benefits are elimination of weld repairs caused by joint tracking errors which reduces manufacturing costs and increases production output, simplification of tooling, and free costly manufacturing floor space.

  10. Infrared laser-based monitoring of the silane dissociation during deposition of silicon thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlome, R.; Feltrin, A.; Ballif, C.

    2009-05-01

    The silane dissociation efficiency, or depletion fraction, is an important plasma parameter by means of which the film growth rate and the amorphous-to-microcrystalline silicon transition regime can be monitored in situ. In this letter we implement a homebuilt quantum cascade laser-based absorption spectrometer to measure the silane dissociation efficiency in an industrial plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. This infrared laser-based diagnostic technique is compact, sensitive, and nonintrusive. Its resolution is good enough to resolve Doppler-broadened rotovibrational absorption lines of silane. The latter feature various absorption strengths, thereby enabling depletion measurements over a wide range of process conditions.

  11. Efficient Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering substrates from femtosecond laser based fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmar, Vinod; Kanaujia, Pawan K.; Bommali, Ravi Kumar; Vijaya Prakash, G.

    2017-10-01

    A fast and simple femtosecond laser based methodology for efficient Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) substrate fabrication has been proposed. Both nano scaffold silicon (black silicon) and gold nanoparticles (Au-NP) are fabricated by femtosecond laser based technique for mass production. Nano rough silicon scaffold enables large electromagnetic fields for the localized surface plasmons from decorated metallic nanoparticles. Thus giant enhancement (approximately in the order of 104) of Raman signal arises from the mixed effects of electron-photon-phonon coupling, even at nanomolar concentrations of test organic species (Rhodamine 6G). Proposed process demonstrates the low-cost and label-less application ability from these large-area SERS substrates.

  12. Advanced lithography parameters extraction by using scatterometry system: part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wenzhan; Hsieh, Michael; Koh, Huipeng; Zhou, Meisheng

    2008-03-01

    As the advanced IC device process shrinks to below sub-micron dimensions (65nm, 45 nm and beyond), the overall CD error budget becomes more and more challenging. The impact of lithography process parameters other than exposure energy and defocus on final CD results cannot be ignored any more. In this paper we continue the development of the advanced lithography parameters model which we presented last year. This year we achieved to decouple 4 lithography parameters: exposure, focus, PEB temperature and laser bandwidth (or z-blur). To improve the accuracy and precision of the model, new scatterometry marks are designed to reduce the pitch dependent accuracy impact of sidewall angle and photoresist height for scatterometry metrology. The concept of this kind of scatterometry mark design is from T.A. Brunner's paper "Process Monitor Gating" [SPIE Vol. 6518, 2007]. With this concept, new scatterometry marks are designed to increase the accuracy of scatterometry measurement without sacrificing the process sensitivity and thus improve the model prediction accuracy.

  13. Advantages of Using Soft Materials in Scanning Probe Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Keith A.; Eichelsdoerfer, Daniel J.; Wang, Mary X.; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2014-03-01

    Scanning probes based upon soft materials provide new capabilities and insights into the science of scanning probe lithography. Specifically, we have explored a cantilever-free architecture that consists of an array of sharp probes on an elastomeric film on a glass slide. This architecture allows every probe in an array to be in simultaneous, gentle contact with a surface, allowing one to perform lithography with millions of probes in parallel. Here, we describe three recent developments in cantilever-free scanning probe lithography that were enabled by the elastomeric material. 1) As the mechanical properties of elastomers can be readily tuned, it is possible to tailor the spring constant of the probes.1 2) The high coefficient of thermal expansion of elastomers means that local heating can be used to physically actuate individual probes allowing for arbitrary patterning.2 3) Solvents retained in the elastomer can mediate molecular printing and allow a user to pattern hydrophilic and hydrophobic materials in totally dry environments. 1D. J. Eichelsdoerfer, et al., Nano Lett. 13, 664 (2013). 2K. A. Brown, et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 12921 (2013).

  14. Oblique Colloidal Lithography for the Fabrication of Nonconcentric Features.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi; Cao, Yang; Cai, Yangjun; Yang, Jian; He, Ximin; Nordlander, Peter; Cremer, Paul S

    2017-07-25

    Herein, we describe the development of oblique colloidal lithography (OCL) and establish a systematic patterning strategy for creating libraries of nanosized nonconcentric plasmonic structures. This strategy combines OCL, capillary force lithography, and several wet and ion etching steps. Hexagonal arrays of nonconcentric gold features were created on glass substrates with highly controllable geometric parameters. The size, geometry, and eccentricity of the gold features could be independently tuned by controlling the experimental conditions. Gaps within surface elements could be shrunk to as small as 30 nm, while the total patterned area was about l cm(2). The goal was to devise a method that offers a high degree of control over the resolution and morphology of asymmetric structures without the need to resort to electron beam lithography. This technique also enabled the development of numerous surface patterns through the stepwise fabrication of separate elements. Complex features, including dots-surrounded nonconcentric targets, nonconcentric hexagram-disks, and nonconcentric annular aperture arrays, were demonstrated, and their optical properties were characterized. Indeed, spectroscopic studies and FDTD simulations demonstrated that Fano resonances could readily be generated by the nonconcentric gold features. Consequently, our patterning strategy should enable the high-throughput investigation of plasmonic coupling and Fano resonances as a function of the physical parameters of the elements within the nanopattern array.

  15. Pixelated source and mask optimization for immersion lithography.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xu; Han, Chunying; Li, Yanqiu; Dong, Lisong; Arce, Gonzalo R

    2013-01-01

    Immersion lithography systems with hyper-numerical aperture (hyper-NA) (NA>1) have become indispensable in nanolithography for technology nodes of 45 nm and beyond. Source and mask optimization (SMO) has emerged as a key technique used to further improve the imaging performance of immersion lithography. Recently, a set of pixelated gradient-based SMO approaches were proposed under the scalar imaging models, which are inaccurate for hyper-NA settings. This paper focuses on developing pixelated gradient-based SMO algorithms based on a vector imaging model that is accurate for current immersion lithography. To achieve this goal, an integrative and analytic vector imaging model is first used to formulate the simultaneous SMO (SISMO) and sequential SMO (SESMO) frameworks. A gradient-based algorithm is then exploited to jointly optimize the source and mask. Subsequently, this paper studies and compares the performance of individual source optimization (SO), individual mask optimization (MO), SISMO, and SESMO. Finally, a hybrid SMO (HSMO) approach is proposed to take full advantage of SO, SISMO, and MO, consequently achieving superior performance.

  16. How much further can lithography process windows be improved?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockey, Mary Ann; Lin, Qin; Calderas, Eric

    2012-03-01

    Utilizing thin photoresist layers for successful pattern transfer has gained acceptance as the lithography process of record, primarily due to the incorporation of silicon-containing hardmask (HM) layers for added etching resistance. Our work includes understanding the impact of HfO2 and ZrO2 nanocrystal additives incorporated into spin-on HM materials. The goal is to quantify both etch selectivity and the improvements in the lithography process windows with the addition of HfO2 nanocrystals into various types of polymers. Conventional 193-nm photoresists and spin-on carbon materials were selected as references for etch selectivity calculations. Results indicate there are process window advantages with improvements in the depth of focus (DOF) and overall pattern collapse margins. In addition, the ability to quantify line width roughness (LWR) as a function of resolution has been accomplished for these HM materials, and results show low levels of LWR are achievable. Overall lithography process margins are positive for DOF, exposure latitude (EL), LWR, and pattern collapse with the incorporation of HfO2-enhanced HM coatings for etch protection.

  17. Inverse Tomo-Lithography for Making Microscopic 3D Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Victor; Wiberg, Dean

    2003-01-01

    According to a proposal, basic x-ray lithography would be extended to incorporate a technique, called inverse tomography, that would enable the fabrication of microscopic three-dimensional (3D) objects. The proposed inverse tomo-lithographic process would make it possible to produce complex shaped, submillimeter-sized parts that would be difficult or impossible to make in any other way. Examples of such shapes or parts include tapered helices, paraboloids with axes of different lengths, and even Archimedean screws that could serve as rotors in microturbines. The proposed inverse tomo-lithographic process would be based partly on a prior microfabrication process known by the German acronym LIGA (lithographie, galvanoformung, abformung, which means lithography, electroforming, molding). In LIGA, one generates a precise, high-aspect ratio pattern by exposing a thick, x-ray-sensitive resist material to an x-ray beam through a mask that contains the pattern. One can electrodeposit metal into the developed resist pattern to form a precise metal part, then dissolve the resist to free the metal. Aspect ratios of 100:1 and patterns into resist thicknesses of several millimeters are possible.

  18. Nanopatterning of ultrananocrystalline diamond thin films via block copolymer lithography.

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, M.; Darling, S. B.; Sumant, A. V.; Auciello, O.

    2010-07-01

    Nanopatterning of diamond surfaces is critical for the development of diamond-based microelectromechanical system/nanoelectromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS), such as resonators or switches. Micro-/nanopatterning of diamond materials is typically done using photolithography or electron beam lithography combined with reactive ion etching (RIE). In this work, we demonstrate a simple process, block copolymer (BCP) lithography, for nanopatterning of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films to produce nanostructures suitable for the fabrication of NEMS based on UNCD. In BCP lithography, nanoscale self-assembled polymeric domains serve as an etch mask for pattern transfer. The authors used thin films of a cylinder-forming organic-inorganic BCP, poly(styrene-block-ferrocenyldimethylsilane), PS-b-PFS, as an etch mask on the surface of UNCD films. Orientational control of the etch masking cylindrical PFS blocks is achieved by manipulating the polymer film thickness in concert with the annealing treatment. We have observed that the surface roughness of UNCD layers plays an important role in transferring the pattern. Oxygen RIE was used to etch the exposed areas of the UNCD film underneath the BCP. Arrays of both UNCD posts and wirelike structures have been created using the same starting polymeric materials as the etch mask.

  19. Large-Area Zone Plate Fabrication with Optical Lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Denbeaux, G.

    2011-09-09

    Zone plates as condenser optics for x-ray microscopes offer simple optical designs for both illumination and spectral resolution when used as a linear monochromator. However, due to the long write times for electron beam lithography, both the availability and the size of zone plates for condensers have been limited. Since the resolution provided by the linear monochromator scales almost linearly with the diameter of the zone plate, the full potential for zone plate monochromators as illumination systems for x-ray microscopes has not been achieved. For example, the 10-mm-diameter zone plate has demonstrated a spectral resolution of E/{Delta}E = 700[1], but with a 26-mm-diameter zone plate, the calculated spectral resolution is higher than E/{Delta}E = 3000. These large-area zone plates are possible to fabricate with the leading edge semiconductor lithography tools such as those available at the College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering at the University at Albany. One of the lithography tools available is the ASML TWINSCAN XT: 1950i with 37-nm resolution [2]. A single 300-mm wafer can contain more than 60 fields, each with a large area condenser, and the throughput of the tool can be more than one wafer every minute.

  20. Extension of practical k1 limit in EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sarohan; Lee, Inwhan; Koo, Sunyoung; Lee, Junghyung; Lim, Chang-Moon

    2016-03-01

    Sub 0.3k1 regime has been widely adopted for high volume manufacturing (HVM) of optical lithography due to various resolution enhancement technologies (RETs). It is not certain when such low k1 is feasible in EUV, though most technologies are available in EUV also. In this paper, experimental results on patterning performance of line space (L/S) and contact hole (C/H) in EUV lithography will be presented. First, practical k1 value with 0.33NA EUV lithography was investigated through experiment using NXE3300 EUV tool. Patterning limit, as defined by local critical dimension uniformity (LCDU) for C/H array pattern were measured with respect to various design rules. It was evaluated that the effect of off axis illumination (OAI) mode with various illumination conditions to improve the patterning performance and to reduce k1 limit. Then the experimental results of LCDU were compared with normalized image log slope (NILS) values from simulation. EUV source mask optimization (SMO) technologies to increase NILS with FlexPupil option of EUV scanner were evaluated and possibility of further improvement was also discussed.

  1. Fabrication of 70nm split ring resonators by nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Graham J.; Khokhar, Ali Z.; Johnson, Nigel P.

    2012-05-01

    We report on the fabrication of 70 nm wide, high resolution rectangular U-shaped split ring resonators (SRRs) using nanoimprint lithography (NIL). The fabrication method for the nanoimprint stamp does not require dry etching. The stamp is used to pattern SRRs in a thin PMMA layer followed by metal deposition and lift-off. Nanoimprinting in this way allows high resolution patterns with a minimum feature size of 20 nm. This fabrication technique yields a much higher throughput than conventional e-beam lithography and each stamp can be used numerous times to imprint patterns. Reflectance measurements of fabricated aluminium SRRs on silicon substrates show a so-called an LC resonance peak in the visible spectrum under transverse electric polarisation. Fabricating the SRRs by NIL rather than electron beam lithography allows them to be scaled to smaller dimensions without any significant loss in resolution, partly because pattern expansion caused by backscattered electrons and the proximity effect are not present with NIL. This in turn helps to shift the magnetic response to short wavelengths while still retaining a distinct LC peak.

  2. High-index nanocomposite photoresist for 193-nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Woo Jin; Trikeriotis, Makros; Rodriguez, Robert; Zettel, Michael F.; Piscani, Emil; Ober, Christopher K.; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.; Zimmerman, Paul

    2009-03-01

    In immersion lithography, high index fluids are used to increase the numerical aperture (NA) of the imaging system and decrease the minimum printable feature size. Water has been used in first generation immersion lithography at 193 nm to reach the 45 nm node, but to reach the 38 and 32 nm nodes, fluids and resists with a higher index than water are needed. A critical issue hindering the implementation of 193i at the 32 nm node is the availability of high refractive index (n > 1.8) and low optical absorption fluids and resists. It is critical to note that high index resists are necessary only when a high refractive index fluid is in use. High index resist improves the depth of focus (DOF) even without high index fluids. In this study, high refractive index nanoparticles have been synthesized and introduced into a resist matrix to increase the overall refractive index. The strategy followed is to synthesize PGMEA-soluble nanoparticles and then disperse them into a 193 nm resist. High index nanoparticles 1-2 nm in diameter were synthesized by a combination of hydrolysis and sol-gel methods. A ligand exchange method was used, allowing the surface of the nanoparticles to be modified with photoresist-friendly moieties to help them disperse uniformly in the resist matrix. The refractive index and ultraviolet absorbance were measured to evaluate the quality of next generation immersion lithography resist materials.

  3. Cost of ownership for x-ray proximity lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Early, Kathleen; Arnold, William H.

    1994-05-01

    We present an analysis of the cost of ownership for a synchrotron-based x-ray proximity printing system. We consider the total number of lithography tools that would be needed for a 0.25-micron manufacturing plant with 5000 200-mm wafer starts per week. We compare the cost of x ray with that of deep ultraviolet lithography for patterning critical levels. For reference, we calculate costs for the noncritical levels as well. We examine x ray costs as functions of synchrotron under-utilization, of reticle cost and usage, and of throughput. Our analysis indicates that, under the assumptions of identical process yield and throughput, x-ray system costs with a fully utilized synchrotron are competitive with deep ultraviolet costs if the manufacturing product has high volume. For low or moderate volume products deep ultraviolet lithography is cheaper, predominantly because of lower reticle costs. The lack of a strong economic driver for x ray suggests that it is unlikely to be introduced into manufacturing until it is clear that no optical technology can adequately meet production needs.

  4. Considerations for cost of ownership in EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keen, Anthony; Bailey, Christopher; Donders, Jos; Condon, Neil

    2011-04-01

    The cost of ownership of semiconductor manufacturing equipment is typically addressed in terms of raw utility consumption. Focusing on energy, the average consumption of a typical semiconductor fabrication plant has doubled over a recent 10 year period, with approximately 30% of this energy currently attributed to vacuum equipment. Compared to conventional optical lithography, extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) requires the adoption of a vacuum subsystem to enable the technology, bringing an additional vacuum requirement to semiconductor fabs. With this trend it is increasingly important to focus on more efficient ways of operating semiconductor manufacturing tools and their supporting equipment. Clever operation through employment of 'GREEN' modes can provide significant utility savings. However, in semiconductor lithography, tool uptime is a critical parameter to be considered in any cost of ownership model, and the facility vacuum equipment plays an intimate role here, so including redundancy in pumping equipment can be a key enabler to maintaining tool uptime. Consequently optimizing the design of the vacuum subsystem will help to reduce the overall footprint, utility consumption and energy costs associated with this process.

  5. Integration issues in step and repeat UV nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpin-Nicolle, C.; Irmscher, M.; Pritschow, M.; Vratzov, B.; van Vossen, H.; Chiaroni, J.; Massin, J.; Gubbini, P.

    2008-03-01

    Nanoimprint Lithography appears to be a competitive candidate for Next Generation Lithography in semiconductor industry due to its advantages concerning resolution and cost effectiveness. Moreover, UV-Nanoimprint Lithography (UV-NIL) should enable to reach good overlay values, which is also a major criterion for integration. In this paper, we present first integration results which were obtained on lines and contact holes. A specific template was designed for this purpose in collaboration with CEA-LETI, IMS and Molecular Imprints. This template was characterized by using various techniques (optical and SEM techniques) and showed quite a good quality of the template; in particular, 50 nm holes were defined. Molecular Imprints process was then tested by using Imprio55® at MESA+ Research Institute, University of Twente, Netherlands). In these experiments, 37 4.8 cm2 fields were imprinted on Double Side Polished wafers. For each field, 52 droplets were dispensed with various volumes. Resolution and non-uniformity were evaluated after imprinting. Then etching tests were performed.

  6. ESH assessment of advanced lithography materials and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worth, Walter F.; Mallela, Ram

    2004-05-01

    The ESH Technology group at International SEMATECH is conducting environment, safety, and health (ESH) assessments in collaboration with the lithography technologists evaluating the performance of an increasing number of new materials and technologies being considered for advanced lithography such as 157nm photresist and extreme ultraviolet (EUV). By performing data searches for 75 critical data types, emissions characterizations, and industrial hygiene (IH) monitoring during the use of the resist candidates, it has been shown that the best performing resist formulations, so far, appear to be free of potential ESH concerns. The ESH assessment of the EUV lithography tool that is being developed for SEMATECH has identified several features of the tool that are of ESH concern: high energy consumption, poor energy conversion efficiency, tool complexity, potential ergonomic and safety interlock issues, use of high powered laser(s), generation of ionizing radiation (soft X-rays), need for adequate shielding, and characterization of the debris formed by the extreme temperature of the plasma. By bringing these ESH challenges to the attention of the technologists and tool designers, it is hoped that the processes and tools can be made more ESH friendly.

  7. Nanoimprint Lithography Combined with Ultrasonic Vibration on Polycarbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekaru, Harutaka; Noguchi, Toshihiko; Goto, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Masaharu

    2007-09-01

    We have succeeded in transferring nanopatterns to the surface of a polycarbonate sheet by combining thermal nanoimprint lithography with ultrasonic vibration at a low temperature. The mold pattern was a cross-mark for alignment consisting of lines and spaces or a dot pattern with widths of 500 and 750 nm. The mold was fabricated by dry etching a Si substrate using micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) fabrication technology. The experiment was executed using an original system that was used to build a 19 kHz ultrasonic vibration unit with a maximum magnitude of 1.8 μm for a thermal nanoimprint lithography device. Typically, the optimal heating temperature in thermal nanoimprint lithography using polycarbonate is 180 °C, but when ultrasonic vibration is applied, it becomes possible to mold nanopatterns at a lower temperature (160 °C). As a result, the process time of a thermal cycle could be cut in half, thus improving the throughput greatly.

  8. Microfield exposure tool enables advances in EUV lithography development

    SciTech Connect

    Naulleau, Patrick

    2009-09-07

    , with EUV not expected in production before the 22-nm half pitch node even finer resolution capabilities are now required from development tools. The SEMATECH Berkeley MET's custom-coherence illuminator allows it to be used with aggressive modified illumination enabling kJ factors as low as 0.25. Noting that the lithographic resolution of an exposure tool is defined as k{sub 1}{lambda}/NA, yielding an ultimate resolution limit of 11 nm. To achieve sub-20-nm aerial-image resolution while avoiding forbidden pitches on Manhattan-geometry features with the centrally-obscured MET optic, a 45-degree oriented dipole pupil fill is used. Figure 1 shows the computed aerial-image contrast as a function of half pitch for a dipole pupil fill optimized to print down to the 19-nm half pitch level. This is achieved with relatively uniform performance at larger dimensions. Using this illumination, printing down to the 20-nm half pitch level has been demonstrated in chemically amplified resists as shown in Fig. 2. The SEMATECH Berkeley MET tool plays a crucial role in the advancement of EUV resists. The unique programmable coherence properties of this tool enable it to achieve higher resolution than other EUV projection tools. As presented here, over the past year the tool has been used to demonstrate resist resolutions of 20 half pitch. Although not discussed here, because the Berkeley MET tool is a true projection lithography tool, it also plays a crucial role in advanced EUV mask research. Examples of the work done in this area include defect printability, mask architecture, and phase shift masks.

  9. Speckle perception and disturbance limit in laser based projectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschaffelt, Guy; Roelandt, Stijn; Meuret, Youri; Van den Broeck, Wendy; Kilpi, Katriina; Lievens, Bram; Jacobs, An; Janssens, Peter; Thienpont, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the level of speckle that can be tolerated in a laser cinema projector. For this purpose, we equipped a movie theatre room with a prototype laser projector. A group of 186 participants was gathered to evaluate the speckle perception of several, short movie trailers in a subjective `Quality of Experience' experiment. This study is important as the introduction of lasers in projection systems has been hampered by the presence of speckle in projected images. We identify a speckle disturbance threshold by statistically analyzing the observers' responses for different values of the amount of speckle, which was monitored using a well-defined speckle measurement method. The analysis shows that the speckle perception of a human observer is not only dependent on the objectively measured amount of speckle, but it is also strongly influenced by the image content. As is also discussed in [Verschaffelt et al., Scientific Reports 5, art. nr. 14105, 2015] we find that, for moving images, the speckle becomes disturbing if the speckle contrast becomes larger than 6.9% for the red, 6.0% for the green, and 4.8% for the blue primary colors of the projector, whereas for still images the speckle detection threshold is about 3%. As we could not independently tune the speckle contrast of each of the primary colors, this speckle disturbance limit seems to be determined by the 6.9% speckle contrast of the red color as this primary color contains the largest amount of speckle. The speckle disturbance limit for movies thus turns out to be substantially larger than that for still images, and hence is easier to attain.

  10. Double exposure technology for KrF lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler, S.; Bauer, J.; Haak, U.; Stolarek, D.; Schulz, K.; Wolf, H.; Meier, W.; Trojahn, M.; Matthus, E.; Beyer, H.; Old, G.; Marschmeyer, St.; Kuck, B.

    2008-04-01

    The application of Double Exposure Lithography (DEL) would enlarge the capability of 248 nm exposure technique to smaller pitch. We will use the DEL for the integration of critical layers for dedicated applications requiring resolution enhancement into 0.13 μm BiCMOS technology. In this paper we present the overlay precision and the focus difference of 1st and 2nd exposure as critical parameters of the DEL for k I <= 0.3 lithography (100 nm half pitch) with binary masks (BIM). The realization of excellent overlay (OVL) accuracy is a main key of double exposure and double patterning techniques. We show the DEL requires primarily a good mask registration, when the wafer stays in the scanner for both exposures without alignment between 1st and 2nd exposure. The exposure tool overlay error is more a practical limit for double patterning lithography (DPL). Hence we prefer the DEL for the resolution enhancement, especially if we use the KrF high NA lithography tool for 130 nm generation. Experimental and simulated results show that the critical dimension uniformity (CDU) depends strongly on the overlay precision. The DEL results show CDU is not only affected by the OVL but also by an optical proximity effect of 1st and 2nd exposure and the mask registration. The CD uniformity of DEL demands a low focus difference between 1st and 2nd exposure and therefore requires a good focus repeatability of the exposure tool. The Depth of Focus (DOF) of 490 nm at stable CD of lines was achieved for DEL. If we change the focus of one of the exposures the CD-focus performance of spaces was reduced with simultaneous line position changing. CDU vs. focus difference between 1st and 2nd exposure demands a focus repeatability <100 nm for the exposure tool. Summary, the results show DEL has the potential to be a practical lithography enhancement method for device fabrication using high NA KrF tool generation.

  11. Lithography alternatives meet design style reality: How do they "line" up?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smayling, Michael C.

    2016-03-01

    Optical lithography resolution scaling has stalled, giving innovative alternatives a window of opportunity. One important factor that impacts these lithographic approaches is the transition in design style from 2D to 1D for advanced CMOS logic. Just as the transition from 3D circuits to 2D fabrication 50 years ago created an opportunity for a new breed of electronics companies, the transition today presents exciting and challenging time for lithographers. Today, we are looking at a range of non-optical lithography processes. Those considered here can be broadly categorized: self-aligned lithography, self-assembled lithography, deposition lithography, nano-imprint lithography, pixelated e-beam lithography, shot-based e-beam lithography .Do any of these alternatives benefit from or take advantage of 1D layout? Yes, for example SAPD + CL (Self Aligned Pitch Division combined with Complementary Lithography). This is a widely adopted process for CMOS nodes at 22nm and below. Can there be additional design / process co-optimization? In spite of the simple-looking nature of 1D layout, the placement of "cut" in the lines and "holes" for interlayer connections can be tuned for a given process capability. Examples of such optimization have been presented at this conference, typically showing a reduction of at least one in the number of cut or hole patterns needed.[1,2] Can any of the alternatives complement each other or optical lithography? Yes.[3] For example, DSA (Directed Self Assembly) combines optical lithography with self-assembly. CEBL (Complementary e-Beam Lithography) combines optical lithography with SAPD for lines with shot-based e-beam lithography for cuts and holes. Does one (shrinking) size fit all? No, that's why we have many alternatives. For example NIL (Nano-imprint Lithography) has been introduced for NAND Flash patterning where the (trending lower) defectivity is acceptable for the product. Deposition lithography has been introduced in 3D NAND Flash to

  12. Accurate lithography hotspot detection based on PCA-SVM classifier with hierarchical data clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jhih-Rong; Yu, Bei; Pan, David Z.

    2014-03-01

    As technology nodes continues shrinking, layout patterns become more sensitive to lithography processes, resulting in lithography hotspots that need to be identified and eliminated during physical verification. In this paper, we propose an accurate hotspot detection approach based on PCA (principle component analysis)-SVM (sup- port vector machine) classifier. Several techniques, including hierarchical data clustering, data balancing, and multi-level training, are provided to enhance performance of the proposed approach. Our approach is accurate and more efficient than conventional time-consuming lithography simulation; in the meanwhile, provides high flexibility to adapt to new lithography processes and rules.

  13. Design of soft x-ray varied-line-spacing grating based on electron beam lithography-near field lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Dakui; Chen, Huoyao; Kroker, Stefanie; Käsebier, Thomas; Liu, Zhengkun; Qiu, Keqiang; Liu, Ying; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Xu, Xiangdong; Hong, Yilin; Fu, Shaojun

    2016-10-01

    Soft x-ray varied line spacing grating (VLSG), which is a vital optical element for laser plasma diagnosis and spectrometry analysis, is conventionally fabricated by holographic lithography or mechanical ruling. In order to overcome the issues of the above fabrication methods, a method based on electron beam lithography-near field lithography (EBL-NFH) is proposed to make good use of the flexibility of EBL and the high throughput of NFH. In this paper, we showed a newly designed soft x-ray VLSG with a central groove density of 3600 lines/mm, which is to be realized based on EBL-NFH. First, the optimization of the spatial distribution of line density and groove profile of the VLSG was shown. As an important element in NFH, a fused silica mask plays a key role during NFH in order to obtain a required line density of VLSG. Therefore, second, the transfer relationship of spatial distribution of line densities between fused silica mask and resist grating was investigated in different exposure modes during NFH. We proposed a formulation about the transfer of line density to design of the groove density distribution of a fused silica grating mask. Finally, the spatial distribution of line densities between the fused silica mask, which is to be fabrication by using EBL, was demonstrated.

  14. Laser-based instrumentation for detection of chemical-warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Quigley, G.P.; Radziemski, L.J.; Sander, R.K.; Hartford, A. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Several laser-based techniques are being developed for remote, point, and surface contamination detection of chemical warfare agents. These techniques include optoacoustic spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, and synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence. Detection limits in the part-per-million to part-per-billion regime have been demonstrated.

  15. Speckle reduction methods in laser-based picture projectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akram, M. Nadeem; Chen, Xuyuan

    2016-02-01

    Laser sources have been promised for many years to be better light sources as compared to traditional lamps or light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for projectors, which enable projectors having wide colour gamut for vivid image, super brightness and high contrast for the best picture quality, long lifetime for maintain free operation, mercury free, and low power consumption for green environment. A major technology obstacle in using lasers for projection has been the speckle noise caused by to the coherent nature of the lasers. For speckle reduction, current state of the art solutions apply moving parts with large physical space demand. Solutions beyond the state of the art need to be developed such as integrated optical components, hybrid MOEMS devices, and active phase modulators for compact speckle reduction. In this article, major methods reported in the literature for the speckle reduction in laser projectors are presented and explained. With the advancement in semiconductor lasers with largely reduced cost for the red, green and the blue primary colours, and the developed methods for their speckle reduction, it is hoped that the lasers will be widely utilized in different projector applications in the near future.

  16. Step and flash imprint lithography: A low-pressure, room-temperature nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colburn, Matthew Earl

    Lithography process has been proven to be a high-resolution technique capable of patterning a wide variety of substrate at room temperature under low applied pressure in a fashion consistent with high volume manufacturing requirements.

  17. 76 FR 81518 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Laser-Based Multi-Function Office Machines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ...-Based Multi-Function Office Machines AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... laser-based multi-function office machines. Based upon the facts presented, CBP has concluded in the... of the laser-based multi-function office machine, and it is at their assembly and programming where...

  18. 77 FR 13367 - General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment, LLC, Proposed Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... COMMISSION General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment, LLC, Proposed Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment...- Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment, LLC (GLE) Uranium Enrichment Facility. On June 26, 2009, GLE submitted a license application that proposes the construction, operation, and decommissioning of a laser-based...

  19. Passively Q-switched dual-wavelength Yb:LSO laser based on tungsten disulphide saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing-Hui, Liu; Jin-Rong, Tian; He-Yang, Guoyu; Run-Qin, Xu; Ke-Xuan, Li; Yan-Rong, Song; Xin-Ping, Zhang; Liang-Bi, Su; Jun, Xu

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate a passively Q-switched Yb:LSO laser based on tungsten disulphide (WS2) saturable absorber operating at 1034 nm and 1056 nm simultaneously. The saturable absorbers were fabricated by spin coating method. With low speed, the WS2 nanoplatelets embedded in polyvinyl alcohol could be coated on a BK7 glass substrate coated with high-refractive-index thin polymer. The shortest pulse width of 1.6 μs with a repetition rate of 76.9 kHz is obtained. As the pump power increases to 9 W, the maximum output power is measured to be 250 mW, corresponding to a single pulse energy of 3.25 μJ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to obtain dual-wavelength Q-switched solid-state laser using few-layer WS2 nanoplatelets. Project supported by the National Scientific Research Project of China (Grant No. 61177047), Beijing Municipal Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant No. 1102005), and the Basic Research Foundation of Beijing University of Technology, China (Grant No. X3006111201501).

  20. X-ray lithography using holographic images

    DOEpatents

    Howells, M.S.; Jacobsen, C.

    1997-03-18

    Methods for forming X-ray images having 0.25 {micro}m minimum line widths on X-ray sensitive material are presented. A holographic image of a desired circuit pattern is projected onto a wafer or other image-receiving substrate to allow recording of the desired image in photoresist material. In one embodiment, the method uses on-axis transmission and provides a high flux X-ray source having modest monochromaticity and coherence requirements. A layer of light-sensitive photoresist material on a wafer with a selected surface is provided to receive the image(s). The hologram has variable optical thickness and variable associated optical phase angle and amplitude attenuation for transmission of the X-rays. A second embodiment uses off-axis holography. The wafer receives the holographic image by grazing incidence reflection from a hologram printed on a flat metal or other highly reflecting surface or substrate. In this second embodiment, an X-ray beam with a high degree of monochromaticity and spatial coherence is required. 15 figs.