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Sample records for lasithi prefecture greece

  1. Factors that Facilitate and Barriers towards the Implementation of Health Educational Programmes in Primary Education Schools of the Prefecture of Achaia, Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cholevas, Nikolaos K.; Loucaides, Constantinos A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to explore the factors that facilitate and barriers towards the implementation of health education programmes in primary education schools of the prefecture of Achaia, Greece. Methods: The sample of the study included 141 educators from a total population of 218 educators who dealt with the implementation of…

  2. Threats to Mediterranean rangelands: a case study based on the views of citizens in the Viotia prefecture, Greece.

    PubMed

    Kyriazopoulos, Apostolos P; Arabatzis, Garyfallos; Abraham, Eleni M; Parissi, Zoi M

    2013-11-15

    Rangelands in Greece constitute a very important natural resource as they occupy 40% of the total surface. Not only is their forage production essential for the development of extensive livestock farming, but also they play a key role in outdoor recreational activities, protection from erosion, provision of water supplies and biodiversity conservation. However, land use changes, inappropriate management and wildfires threaten their existence. The research was conducted among the citizens of Viotia prefecture, an area close to Athens, Greece, using personal interviews with a structured questionnaire in 2008. The aim was to record citizens' opinions regarding the threats to rangelands. The results suggest that the main threats as perceived by the respondents, are land use changes especially for urban development, and wildfires. The application of cluster analysis highlighted the differentiation among the respondents in ranking these threats. The more ecologically aware citizens recognised that mismanagement, abandonment and agriculture also threaten rangelands. These threats can have a considerable impact on the lives of the local people. Policy makers and managers should take the opinions of local citizens into consideration, and engage them in decision making so that sustainable management policies could be applied. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The October 1988 Elia Prefecture Earthquake (SW Greece): Seismic Environment, Building Types and Damage Patterns.

    PubMed

    Pomonis, A

    1989-06-01

    Earthquake disasters occur frequently in Greece, causing serious building damage and considerable loss of life. The latest event, on 16 October 1988, though not one of the most destructive, caused considerable damage. Strong motion records have been obtained near to the damaged region and this provides the opportunity to assess the extent of damage to various building types, and compare it with damage caused during another recent earthquake. The common characteristics of each building type are given, along with the typical damage patterns. Comments are also made about the seismicity of Greece and earthquake damage during this century. The building type distribution in various parts of the country is also discussed, with a view to future earthquake disaster prevention and mitigation.

  4. Detection of Legionella spp. from Domestic Water in the Prefecture of Arta, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Dimitriadi, Dimitra; Velonakis, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was the isolation of Legionella spp. from domestic water supply networks in the Prefecture of Arta. A total of 100 water samples, from 25 houses, were collected. Half of the samples concerned the cold water and half the hot water supply. Purpose was to detect colonization of the water networks with Legionella spp. >500 cfu/L by using the method of filtration (ISO 11731). Out of 100 samples, 6 samples from 3 houses were positive for Legionella spp. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 2–14 was isolated in 5 of 6 samples, whereas in the sixth sample Legionella anisa was identified. Only three of the samples had residual chloride over 0.2 mg/L, rate which is necessary for potable water, according to the Greek hygienic practice. Concerning the temperature of hot water, the mean temperature of the negative for Legionella samples was higher compared to the mean temperature of the positive for Legionella samples (49.9°C versus 45.5°C). It is estimated that there is risk of infection through the use of showers. The low concentration of chloride and the temperature, which was found within the limits favorable to developing Legionella spp. (20–45°C), provide fertile ground for proliferation of the bacteria. PMID:24744922

  5. Site selection for drinking-water pumping boreholes using a fuzzy spatial decision support system in the Korinthia prefecture, SE Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonakos, Andreas K.; Voudouris, Konstantinos S.; Lambrakis, Nikolaos I.

    2014-12-01

    The implementation of a geographic information system (GIS)/fuzzy spatial decision support system in the selection of sites for drinking-water pumping boreholes is described. Groundwater is the main source of domestic supply and irrigation in Korinthia prefecture, south-eastern Greece. Water demand has increased considerably over the last 30 years and is mainly met by groundwater abstracted via numerous wells and boreholes. The definition of the most "suitable" site for the drilling of new boreholes is a major issue in this area. A method of allocating suitable locations has been developed based on multicriteria analysis and fuzzy logic. Twelve parameters were finally involved in the model, prearranged into three categories: borehole yield, groundwater quality, and economic and technical constraints. GIS was used to create a classification map of the research area, based on the suitability of each point for the placement of new borehole fields. The coastal part of the study area is completely unsuitable, whereas high values of suitability are recorded in the south-western part. The study demonstrated that the method of multicriteria analysis in combination with fuzzy logic is a useful tool for selecting the best sites for new borehole drilling on a regional scale. The results could be used by local authorities and decision-makers for integrated groundwater resources management.

  6. Greece.

    PubMed

    1985-04-01

    A brief description of the population characteristics, geographical features, history, current political situation, economy, energy supply, foreign relations of Greece is presented. Greece's population of 9.95 million is 98% Greek, and the official language is Greek. 97% of the population is Greek Orthodox, and 2% is Muslim. Schooling is compulsory for 9 years, and the literacy rate is 89% for women and 96% for men. The infant mortality rate is 13.8, and life expectancy is 72 years for males and 75 years for female. Greece is situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula and consists of the mainland, the Peleponnesos, and numerous islands including Crete. Most of the land mass is mountainous, large areas are dry, and only 28% of the land is arable. From the earliest time until recently, emigration from Greece to other countries was a common pattern. Since the 1960s, internal migration to urban areas was the dominant migration trend. Currently, 30% of the population lives in Athens. Despite the growing industrialization and urbanization of the population, the Greeks retain many traditional family and social values. Greece was part of the cradle of civilization, and its history is characterized by the rise of the Minoan culture on Crete, the rise and fall of the Myceneans on the Peleponnesos, the development of the city states of Athens and Sparta, the destruction of Athens during the Peloponnesian War, domination by the Macedonians, the creation of the Hellenistic cilivization, conquest by the Roman Empire, the establishment of the Byzantine Empire, and in 1459 conquest by the Ottoman Empire. In the 1820's Greece fought for and finally won its independence, In World War I Greece fought on the side of the Allies. In World War II, the Greeks successfully resisted an invasion from Italy. In 1941, the country was taken over by the Germans, but the Greek resistance movement continued to fight the Germans until liberation. Between 1944-49, there were 2 unsuccessful

  7. Greece

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... panels covering a region to the west of the top panels. Data from each of the four dates have been processed identically, and relative ... MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science Data Center in Hampton, VA. Image ... Maria Kanakidou and Nikos Mihalopoulos, Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece. Other formats ...

  8. Greece

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... across 800 kilometers from north to south and between Greece and western Turkey, are uniquely situated at the intersection of Europe, ... as well as part of mainland Turkey. Many sites important to ancient and modern history can be found here. The largest modern city in the ...

  9. Consumers' attitudes towards GM Free products in a European Region. The case of the Prefecture of Drama-Kavala-Xanthi in Greece.

    PubMed

    Tsourgiannis, L; Karasavvoglou, A; Florou, G

    2011-10-01

    This study aims to identify the factors that affect consumers purchasing behaviour towards food products that are free from Genetic Modified Organism (GM Free) in a European Region and more precisely in the Prefecture of Drama-Kavala-Xanthi. Field interviews conducted in a random selected sample consisted of 337 consumers in the cities of Drama, Kavala, Xanthi, in November and December of 2009. Principal components analysis (PCA) was conducted in order to identify the factors that affect people in preferring consuming products that are GM Free. The factors that influence people in the study area to buy GM Free products are: (a) products' certification as GM Free or organic products, (b) interest about the protection of the environment and nutrition value, (c) marketing issues, and (d) price and quality. Furthermore, cluster and discriminant analysis identified two groups of consumers: (a) those are influenced by the product price, quality and marketing aspects and (b) those are interested in product's certification and environmental protection. Non parametric statistical bivariate techniques were performed to profile the identified groups of consumers regarding their personal characteristics and some other factors affecting their buying behaviour.

  10. Psychometric Validation of the Youth Social Capital Scale in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutra, Kleio; Orfanos, Philippos; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Kritsotakis, George; Kokkevi, Anna; Philalithis, Anastasios

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This article describes the psychometric validation of the Youth Social Capital scale (YSCS) in 16- to 17-year-old students living in rural and urban areas in Crete, Greece. Methods: Sampling was performed among 27 secondary education units of Heraklion Prefecture. The self-reported questionnaire was answered by 692 participants…

  11. Metallic mineral resources of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsirambides, Ananias; Filippidis, Anestis

    2012-12-01

    Today Greece produces and exports raw bauxite and alumina, concentrates of galena and sphalerite and ferronickel. The indicated reserves of bauxite, located in the Mt Helikon-Mt Parnassus-Mt Giona-Mt Iti zone, are estimated at approximately 100 mt and those of aluminum 2.5 mt. The probable and indicated reserves of lead and zinc from Chalkidiki are approximately 3.125 mt. The total production of concentrates of galena and sphalerite is approximately 220,000 tpa. The proven reserves of nickel are approximately 1.392 mt and the production of ferronickel is approximately 18,500 tpa. Production of copper, silver and gold is pending in 2015. The probable and indicated reserves of copper from Skouries Chalkidiki are approximately 1.943 mt. In the Prefecture Units of Chalkidiki and Evros the probable and indicated reserves of gold are approximately 19.37 million ounces and those of silver 131.6 million ounces. Chromium, manganese and molybdenum present good prospects of exploitation. Calculated at current prices, the total gross value of the probable and indicated reserves of the metallic minerals of Greece is €79.4 billion.

  12. Local Directors of School Education in Greece: Their Role and Main Sources of Job Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lainas, Athanassios

    2010-01-01

    Directors of education in Greece operate at prefectural level and are the heads of the local directorates or bureaus of primary/secondary education. Because of the centralized character of the educational system, their role is restricted to facilitating the smooth operation of the local school system and implementing the national policy on school…

  13. Socioeconomic Indicators for Analyzing Convergence: The Case of Greece--1960-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liargovas, Panagiotis G.; Fotopoulos, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to use socioeconomic indicators for analyzing convergence within Greece at regional (NUTS II) and prefecture levels (NUTS III) since 1960. We use two alternative approaches. The first one is based on the coefficient of variation and the second one on quality of life rankings. We confirm the decline of regional…

  14. Local Directors of School Education in Greece: Their Role and Main Sources of Job Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lainas, Athanassios

    2010-01-01

    Directors of education in Greece operate at prefectural level and are the heads of the local directorates or bureaus of primary/secondary education. Because of the centralized character of the educational system, their role is restricted to facilitating the smooth operation of the local school system and implementing the national policy on school…

  15. A heuristic expert system for forest fire guidance in Greece.

    PubMed

    Iliadis, Lazaros S; Papastavrou, Anastasios K; Lefakis, Panagiotis D

    2002-07-01

    Forests and forestlands are common inheritance for all Greeks and a piece of the national wealth that must be handed over to the next generations in the best possible condition. After 1974, Greece faces a severe forest fire problem and forest fire forecasting is the process that will enable the Greek ministry of Agriculture to reduce the destruction. This paper describes the basic design principles of an Expert System that performs forest fire forecasting (for the following fire season) and classification of the prefectures of Greece into forest fire risk zones. The Expert system handles uncertainty and uses heuristics in order to produce scenarios based on the presence or absence of various qualitative factors. The initial research focused on the construction of a mathematical model which attempted to describe the annual number of forest fires and burnt area in Greece based on historical data. However this has proven to be impossible using regression analysis and time series. A closer analysis of the fire data revealed that two qualitative factors dramatically affect the number of forest fires and the hectares of burnt areas annually. The first is political stability and national elections and the other is drought cycles. Heuristics were constructed that use political stability and drought cycles, to provide forest fire guidance. Fuzzy logic was applied to produce a fuzzy expected interval for each prefecture of Greece. A fuzzy expected interval is a narrow interval of values that best describes the situation in the country or a part of the country for a certain time period. A successful classification of the prefectures of Greece in forest fire risk zones was done by the system, by comparing the fuzzy expected intervals to each other. The system was tested for the years 1994 and 1995. The testing has clearly shown that the system can predict accurately, the number of forest fires for each prefecture for the following year. The average accuracy was as high as 85

  16. Adult Education in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkos, Alexios

    2008-01-01

    The central aim of this article is to analyse the current situation of adult education in Greece. The article focuses on the following points: (a) the degree of participation in programmes of continuing professional training and general adult education courses, (b) the quality and the outcomes of the adult education provision in Greece, and (c)…

  17. Corinth Canal, Greece

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-15

    The Isthmus of Corinth has played a very important role in the history of Greece. It is the only land bridge between the country north Attica and south Peloponnese. This image was acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft.

  18. Suicide in Mie Prefecture, Japan, since 1990.

    PubMed

    Inoue, K; Tanii, H; Abe, S; Okazaki, Y; Nata, M; Fukunaga, T

    2008-01-01

    The number of suicides in Japan has increased to over 30,000 per year since 1998. Similarly, the number of suicides has been increasing in Mie Prefecture. In the present study, we examined the incidence and the circumstances of all suicidal cases that were reported to the Mie Prefectural Police Headquarters during the thirteen-year period 1990-2002. In Mie Prefecture, the number of suicides per year averaged 363.1. The largest numbers occurred in the spring and early summer months. For men, suicides were most common in the 50-59-year age group; for women, they were most common in the 70-79-year age group. As for the methods of suicide, hanging was the most frequent for both genders. The major causative factors of suicide were described as "suffering from physical illness", "psychiatric disorders" and "economic difficulties". Of these, "psychiatric disorders" was the most important causative factor for the younger groups of both genders. For the middle-aged group of men, the most important causative factor was "economic difficulties". "Suffering from physical illness" was the most serious causative factor for the elderly group of both genders. In order to prevent suicide, urgent strategies for effective medical treatment and social cooperation are required.

  19. Pathology in Greece.

    PubMed

    Sakellariou, S; Patsouris, E

    2015-11-01

    Pathology is the field of medicine that studies diseases. Ancient Greece hosted some of the earliest societies that laid the structural foundations of pathology. Initially, knowledge was based on observations but later on the key elements of pathology were established based on the dissection of animals and the autopsy of human cadavers. Christianized Greece under Ottoman rule (1453-1821) was not conducive to the development of pathology. After liberation, however, a series of events took place that paved the way for the establishment and further development of the specialty. The appointment in 1849 of two Professors of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens for didactical purposes proved to be the most important step in fostering the field of pathology in modern Greece. Presently in Greece there are seven university departments and 74 pathology laboratories in public hospitals, employing 415 specialized pathologists and 90 residents. The First Department of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens University is the oldest (1849) and largest in Greece, encompassing most pathology subspecialties.

  20. Estimation of Effective Dose from External Exposure in The Six Prefectures adjacent to Fukushima Prefecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyatake, Hirokazu; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Hirakawa, Sachiko; Murakami, Kana; Takizawa, Mari; Kawai, Masaki; Sato, Osamu; Takagi, Shunji; Suzuki, Gen

    2017-09-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident caused a release of radionuclides. Radionuclides were deposited on the ground not only in Fukushima prefecture but also in nearby prefectures. Since the accident, measurement of radiation in environment such as air dose rate and deposition density of radionuclides has been performed by many organizations and universities. In particular, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been performing observations of air dose rate using a car-borne survey system continuously and over wide areas. In our study, using the data measured by JAEA, we estimated effective dose from external exposure in the six prefectures adjacent to Fukushima prefecture. Since car-borne survey was started a few months later after the accident, measured air dose rate in this method is mainly contributed by 137Cs and 134Cs whose half-lives are relatively long. Therefore, based on air dose rate of 137Cs and 134Cs and the ratio of deposition density of short-half-life nuclides to that of 137Cs and 134Cs, we also estimated effective dose contributed from not only 137Cs and 134Cs but also other short-half-life nuclides. We compared the effective dose estimated by the method above with that of UNSCEAR and measured data using personal dosimeters in some areas.

  1. Greece Plus 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, James E.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    For the past 10 years all students have been enrolled in the industrial arts program for 13 weeks each year in the Greece Central School District, New York. The orientation phase in grades 7-8 concentrates on the construction, graphic communication, transportation, and manufacturing clusters. Grades 9 through 12 continue three levels of career and…

  2. Alternative Use in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEB Exchange, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Situating the University of Thessaly in Volos and Larissa, Greece, represents the idea that the university has a role to play in the community, and, therefore, its facilities are integrated within the city. Describes an old factory warehouse converted to create "a building within a building," while preserving style of the former factory…

  3. Counseling in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malikiosi-Loizos, Maria; Ivey, Allen E.

    2012-01-01

    There is rapid growth in Greece's professional and research activity in counseling, despite the lack of a clear professional identity for the field. It is hoped this will be overcome through the newly started graduate programs. Opportunities, objectives, and strategies for counseling's advancement should be directed toward close and essential…

  4. Greece. [CME Country Reports].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    There is no immigration problems in Greece today. On the contrary, the country's economic development makes it necessary for Greek workers who have emigrated temporarily to return and be integrated into the production system. The educational policy for emigrant workers' children involves: (1) ensuring that children who have settled abroad know…

  5. [Midwifes in ancient Greece].

    PubMed

    Arata, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the evidence about obstetrics and in particular midwifes in ancient Greece. The substantives which mean "obstetrician" in Greek are quite numerous, but the most attested and common is [see text]. This work examines all the tasks which were connected with this profession (e.g. in the legal field).

  6. [Suicide rates and mental health services in Greece].

    PubMed

    Giotakos, O; Tsouvelas, G; Kontaxakis, V

    2012-01-01

    Some studies have shown that access to mental health services can have an impact on mental health outcomes, including the suicide rates. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between regional and prefecture suicide rates (suicides per 100.000 residents) and both the number of primary and mental health-care service providers and the number of mental health infrastructures in Greece. Data were taken mainly from the Hellenic Statistical Authority (EL.STAT.) and the Ministry of Health for the period 2002-2009. Spearman correlations were used to examine the relationship between primary health-care, mental health providers and suicide rates per 100,000 residents at the prefecture, administrative region and geographical region levels. Men showed significantly higher suicide rates than women (U=-7.20, p<0.001). For the period 2002-2009, the highest suicide rate at the prefecture level were in Rethymno (6.99), Rodopi (5.62) and Zakynthos (5.28). For the same period, the highest suicide rates at the geographical level were in Peloponnisos (4.01), Ionian Islands (4.03) and Grete (3.65). Increase in suicide rates (2009 vs 2002-2009) was observed in the following geographical regions of Greece: Crete (4.76 vs 3.65), Thrace (4.45 vs 2.02) Central Greece (3.61 vs 1.39) Aegean Islands (3.03 vs 1.28). The highest correlations between suiciderutes and health services at the geographic regional level were found to be during the period 2007-2009, where suicide rates showed a significant negative correlation with privately practicing psychiatrists (rho=-0.71, p<0.05), privately practicing psychologists (rho=-0.56, p<0.05), pathologists (rho=-0.73, p<0.01), and the number of the official mental health services (psychiatric clinics, day centers, mobile mental health units etc.) (rho=-0.73, p<0.01). In conclusion it was found that at all regional levels, suicide rates were reversely related to the number of primary health-care and mental health service providers, as

  7. Imported malaria cases in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Higa, Futoshi; Tateyama, Masao; Tasato, Daisuke; Karimata, Yosuke; Nakamura, Hideta; Miyagi, Kazuya; Haranaga, Shusaku; Hirata, Tetsuo; Hokama, Akira; Cash, Haley L; Toma, Hiromu; Fujita, Jiro

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in global transportation, imported malaria has become a significant public health concern in Japan. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed all imported malaria cases in Okinawa Prefecture from 1988 to 2012. In that period, 23 patients with imported malaria were admitted to the University of the Ryukyus Hospital. Malaria types observed included Plasmodium falciparum (14 cases), P. vivax (7 cases), combined P. falciparum and P. ovale (1 case), and combined P. vivax and P. malariae (1 case). All cases were resolved by anti-malarial treatment. The clinical data from these patients highlights the importance of collecting patient travel history and ensuring an adequate supply of both diagnostic test and drug treatments in Okinawa.

  8. Magnus Hirschfeld in Greece.

    PubMed

    Vyras, P

    1997-01-01

    In 1932 Magnus Hirschfeld, the eminent German sexologist, visited Greece. It was after a long journey that took him round the world, lecturing about the new science he had created. In the Greek capital his unconventional theories concerning an intermediate "third sex" and his ideas about sexual reform became the object of an attack in the local press. Close examination of the debate which followed reveals some interesting points regarding Hirschfeld's approach to publicity and his attempts to foster an emancipation movement for homosexual issues.

  9. Greece and Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Summer is in full swing in this stunning true-color image of the southeastern European countries and Turkey captured by MODIS on June 29, 2002. Clockwise from left, the mountains of Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, and Turkey are swathed in brilliant greens and shades of golden brown; meanwhile (counterclockwise from left) the Ionian, Mediterranean, Aegean, and Black Seas are beautifully blue and green.Running diagonally across the image from the bottom middle to the top right is a gray streak that is caused by the angle of reflection of the sun on the water (called sun glint). The darker areas within this gray swath denote calmer water, and make visible currents that would not otherwise be noticeable.Surprisingly few fires were burning hot enough to be detectable by MODIS when this image was acquired during the height of the summer dry season. A single fire is visible burning in mainland Greece, six are visible in northwestern Turkey, and one burns on the western coast (marked with red outlines). Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  10. Detection of Leishmania Infantum in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Central Greece.

    PubMed

    Karayiannis, Stelios; Ntais, Pantelis; Messaritakis, Ippokratis; Tsirigotakis, Nikolaos; Dokianakis, Emmanouil; Antoniou, Maria

    2015-11-01

    This is the first record of Leishmania detection in foxes in Greece. Spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow and blood samples were collected from 47 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) found dead or captured, narcotized and freed after bleeding, from November 2009 to 2011, in Fthiotida prefecture, central Greece. This is an endemic for canine leishmaniasis area with several human visceral leishmaniasis cases. The samples were tested for Leishmania infantum and Leishmania tropica by molecular methods (polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism) and serology (indirect immunofluorescent antibody test; when blood samples were available). Leishmania infantum DNA was detected in 28 animals (59·5%). PCR positivity was related to animal age, sex, weight, characteristics of the area trapped, presence of leishmaniasis symptoms and presence of endo- and ecto-parasites. The results were related to dog seropositivity obtained earlier in the area. The findings support the hypothesis that this wild canid may serve as a reservoir for Leishmania in areas where the sandfly vectors are found. In the prefectures of Larisa and Magnisia, adjacent to Fthiotida, Phlebotomus perfiliewi and Phlebotomus tobbi (known vectors of L. infantum) have been reported.

  11. Lithium in the public water supply and suicide mortality in Greece.

    PubMed

    Giotakos, Orestis; Nisianakis, Paul; Tsouvelas, George; Giakalou, Vera-Varvara

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the association between lithium levels in the public water supply and prefecture-based suicide rates in Greece. Analyses were conducted with respect to lithium levels in 149 samples from 34 prefectures of Greece. The average lithium level was 11.10 μg/l (range 0.1 to 121 μg/l). The results indicate that there is a tendency for lower suicide rates in the prefectures with high levels of lithium in drinking water. Ecological studies explained by researchers Schrauzer and Shrestha have revealed the existence of statistically significant inverse associations between the lithium levels in drinking water and the incidence of suicides, homicides, rapes, possession of narcotic drugs, and in juveniles, the rates of runaway from home. Such a result of inverse relationship was not proven by Kabacs et al., most likely because the differences of the lithium levels in the selection of their case-control samples were not large enough. In addition, probably the selection of random regions in Japan and East England might have been biased. Thus, the addition of small amounts of lithium to the drinking water could provide an effective means to lower the incidence of these conditions in the general population. Furthermore, the nutritional importance of lithium in the form of the carbonate named lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) is currently still viewed primarily as a pharmacological agent. The study by Al-Chalabi et al. state that the therapeutic activity of lithium in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is worth investigating. Any drug that can be shown to slow the course of ALS in a clinically significant way and to be safe and well tolerated will be an important advance for patients with this disease.

  12. The Role of Toyama Prefectural Archives : Comprehensive Conservation and Use of Administrative Information in the Prefectural Government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Yasushi

    Toyama Prefectural Archives which was opened in April, 1987 is a facility to conserve and utilize record information concerning prefectural administration comprehensively. The chapter 2 describes request for its establishment, the plan, the construction and details to the opening. The chapter 3 explains functions of archives, that is information disclosing function in relation to Information Disclosure Act, organization methods such as classification to conserve and utilize historical archival records, the management system to conserve and utilize current archival records. The chapter 4 deals with record management system which supports the Archives. The chapter 5 is concerned with future subjects such as office automation for clerical works of record management.

  13. Fire in Southern Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The last major fire in southern Greece was brought under control this weekend, but not until over 469,000 acres of mostly forest and farmland were destroyed. An estimated 4000 people lost their homes, and over 60 deaths were reported. These were the worst fires ever to occur in Greece. In this Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image acquired September 4 over the western coast of the Peloponnesus Peninsula, burned areas appear in dark red, and unburned vegetation is green. The area includes the ancient site of Olympia, the site of the Olympic Games in classical times. The fires came within 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) of the archaeological site, but spared it.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 56.4 by

  14. Fire in Southern Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The last major fire in southern Greece was brought under control this weekend, but not until over 469,000 acres of mostly forest and farmland were destroyed. An estimated 4000 people lost their homes, and over 60 deaths were reported. These were the worst fires ever to occur in Greece. In this Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image acquired September 4 over the western coast of the Peloponnesus Peninsula, burned areas appear in dark red, and unburned vegetation is green. The area includes the ancient site of Olympia, the site of the Olympic Games in classical times. The fires came within 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) of the archaeological site, but spared it.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 56.4 by

  15. NATO, Greece and the 2004 Summer Olympics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    42 Tayfur, 55. 43 Kondonassis, Alexander J., “Greece and the European Common Market ,” Greece: Today...Athens News Agency, 14 September 2004 and “Greek, Albanian Foreign Ministers Said to ‘Continue’ Political Rapprochement,” Athens Elevtheros Tipos ...FBIS, 05 August 2004. Kondonassis, Alexander J., “Greece and the European Common Market ,” Greece: Today and Tomorrow, Essays on Issues and Problems

  16. Latrodectus Envenomation in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Garyfallia Nikolaos; Iliopoulos, Dimitrios; Kalkouni, Rania; Iliopoulou, Sofia; Rigakos, Giorgos; Baka, Agoritsa

    2014-01-01

    During the summer period 2011–2012, seven widow spider bites in Greece were reported to the Hellenic Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Widow spiders (in the genus Latrodectus) are found all over the world, including Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, and the US. Alpha-latrotoxin (main mammalian toxin) causes the toxic effects observed in humans. Victims should receive timely medical care to avoid suffering. Latrodectus bites are very rarely fatal. All the patients reported having an insect bite 30 minutes to 2 hours before they arrived at the Emergency Department of the local hospital. Severe muscle cramps, weakness, tremor, abdominal pain, and increased levels of creatinine phosphokinase were present in all patients. The Emergency Operation Center of the Hellenic Center for Disease Control and Prevention was informed immediately in all cases. Antivenin was administered to four patients upon the request of their physicians. All patients recovered fully. It is essential that health care workers recognize early the symptoms and signs of Latrodectus bites to provide the necessary care. The management of mild to moderate Latrodectus envenomations is primarily supportive. Hospitalization and possibly antivenin should be reserved for patients exhibiting serious systemic symptoms or inadequate pain control. The most important thing for all of these patients is early pain relief. PMID:25662533

  17. Tornadoes and waterspouts in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioutas, Michalis V.

    Tornadoes and waterspouts occur in various parts of Greece and may often reach the media as remarkable events, depending of their intensity and the level of damage. This paper is based on a research started from the beginning of 2000 for identifying and recording tornadoes and waterspouts in Greece and evaluating their intensity and other fundamental characteristics. Search of historical events for obtaining more comprehensive tornado climatology is in progress. In an almost 3-year period, January 2000-September 2002, tornadoes and waterspouts have been reported from various parts of Greece, including western Greece, the Ionian islands and western Peloponnese mainly during autumn and winter. Northern Greece is affected by tornadic activity mostly during summer and early autumn. The geographical distribution showed a preference for tornado occurrence mainly in coastal areas. Based on this almost 3-year data sample, a mean number of six tornadoes per year has resulted, corresponding to a density of 0.45 10 -4 km -2 year -1. Maximum intensity of tornadoes recorded was rated as T6 of the Tornado and Storm Research Organization (TORRO) scale (F3 of the Fujita scale). A basic synoptic typing scheme is presented, including four synoptic circulation patterns associated to tornado occurrence.

  18. School Building Organisation in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEB Exchange, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the past and current organizational structure of Greece's School Building Organisation, a body established to work with government agencies in the design and construction of new buildings and the provisioning of educational equipment. Future planning to incorporate culture and creativity, sports, and laboratory learning in modern school…

  19. Education and Modernization in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazamias, Andreas M.

    This history of Greek education traces the path of modernization from the emergence of Greece as an independent state in the early 1800's up to the present date. Educational philosophy and content are seen as pawns in the social and political struggles of those years. Detailed coverage of the historical events describes the structure of education…

  20. The Educational System of Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massialas, Byron G.

    Education in Greece is examined in this document. The first section describes the basic system. Reform legislation of 1976 and 1977 modernized Greek education. The new laws required that school instruction at all levels be given in demotic or spoken Greek rather than formal or purist Greek; that compulsory school attendance be extended from six to…

  1. [Toxoplasmosis in dogs in Greece].

    PubMed

    Chambouris, R; Stünzner, D; Sebek, Z; Sixl, W; Köck, M

    1989-01-01

    In Greece, not only raw meat feeding but also the possible faecal transmission of disease from the vast amount of strayed domestic cats play an important role in the incidence of toxoplasmosis among dogs. This must be concluded from the high contamination rate of 21.2% to 30.8% in all four presented investigations.

  2. Corinth Canal, Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The Isthmus of Corinth has played a very important role in the history of Greece. It is the only land bridge between the country's north (Attica) and south (Peloponnese). It is a 6 km wide tongue of land separating the Gulf of Corinth from the Saronic Sea. Populations, armies and commodities have got to move through it. In the 6th century BCE, the Greeks built the Diolkos, a 10 meter-wide stone roadway to pull ships across the Isthmus on wooden cylinders and wheeled vehicles. In 1882, a canal was started and completed 11 years later. It is 6343 meters long, 25 meters wide, and 8 meters deep.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 25.3 by 37.7 kilometers (15.7 by 23.4 miles) Location: 37.9 degrees North latitude, 23 degrees East longitude

  3. Ultrasonography survey and thyroid cancer in the Fukushima Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Peter; Kaiser, Jan Christian; Ulanovsky, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Thyroid cancer is one of the major health concerns after the accident in the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station (NPS). Currently, ultrasonography surveys are being performed for persons residing in the Fukushima Prefecture at the time of the accident with an age of up to 18 years. Here, the expected thyroid cancer prevalence in the Fukushima Prefecture is assessed based on an ultrasonography survey of Ukrainians, who were exposed at an age of up to 18 years to (131)I released during the Chernobyl NPS accident, and on differences in equipment and study protocol in the two surveys. Radiation risk of thyroid cancer incidence among survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and preliminary estimates of thyroid dose due to the Fukushima accident were used for the prediction of baseline and radiation-related thyroid cancer risks. We estimate a prevalence of thyroid cancer of 0.027 % (95 % CI 0.010 %; 0.050 %) for the first screening campaign in the Fukushima Prefecture. Compared with the incidence rate in Japan in 2007, the ultrasonography survey is predicted to increase baseline thyroid cancer incidence by a factor of 7.4 (95 % CI 0.95; 17.3). Under the condition of continued screening, thyroid cancer during the first fifty years after the accident is predicted to be detected for about 2 % of the screened population. The prediction of radiation-related thyroid cancer in the most exposed fraction (a few ten thousand persons) of the screened population of the Fukushima Prefecture has a large uncertainty with the best estimates of the average risk of 0.1-0.3 %, depending on average dose.

  4. Application of data mining techniques and data analysis methods to measure cancer morbidity and mortality data in a regional cancer registry: The case of the island of Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Varlamis, Iraklis; Apostolakis, Ioannis; Sifaki-Pistolla, Dimitra; Dey, Nilanjan; Georgoulias, Vassilios; Lionis, Christos

    2017-07-01

    Micro or macro-level mapping of cancer statistics is a challenging task that requires long-term planning, prospective studies and continuous monitoring of all cancer cases. The objective of the current study is to present how cancer registry data could be processed using data mining techniques in order to improve the statistical analysis outcomes. Data were collected from the Cancer Registry of Crete in Greece (counties of Rethymno and Lasithi) for the period 1998-2004. Data collection was performed on paper forms and manually transcribed to a single data file, thus introducing errors and noise (e.g. missing and erroneous values, duplicate entries etc.). Data were pre-processed and prepared for analysis using data mining tools and algorithms. Feature selection was applied to evaluate the contribution of each collected feature in predicting patients' survival. Several classifiers were trained and evaluated for their ability to predict survival of patients. Finally, statistical analysis of cancer morbidity and mortality rates in the two regions was performed in order to validate the initial findings. Several critical points in the process of data collection, preprocessing and analysis of cancer data were derived from the results, while a road-map for future population data studies was developed. In addition, increased morbidity rates were observed in the counties of Crete (Age Standardized Morbidity/Incidence Rates ASIR= 396.45 ± 2.89 and 274.77 ±2.48 for men and women, respectively) compared to European and world averages (ASIR= 281.6 and 207.3 for men and women in Europe and 203.8 and 165.1 in world level). Significant variation in cancer types between sexes and age groups (the ratio between deaths and reported cases for young patients, less than 34 years old, is at 0.055 when the respective ratio for patients over 75 years old is 0.366) was also observed. This study introduced a methodology for preprocessing and analyzing cancer data, using a

  5. History of leucotomies in Greece.

    PubMed

    Ploumpidis, D; Tsiamis, C; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E

    2015-03-01

    In order to present the social, scientific and institutional context which permitted the use of leucotomies in Greece, we have reviewed the Archives of the Medical Associations, the medical literature of the years 1946-56, a reader's dissertation and the memoirs of two psychiatrists. More than 250 leucotomies were done in the two public psychiatric hospitals in Athens from 1947 to 1954, as well as 40 leucotomies in the public psychiatric hospital in Thessaloniki. Although aware of the side effects, psychiatrists justified the use of the procedure. The performance of leucotomies in Greece declined because of reports of the dangers of the operation and its unpredictable outcome for the patients, but mainly because of the encouraging results with psychotropic drugs in the early 1950s. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. First fossil occurrence of a filefish (Tetraodontiformes; Monacanthidae) in Asia, from the Middle Miocene in Nagano Prefecture, central Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, Yusuke; Koike, Hakuichi; Matsuoka, Hiroshige

    2014-04-10

    A new fossil filefish, Aluterus shigensis sp. nov., with a close resemblance to the extant Aluterus scriptus (Osbeck), is described from the Middle Miocene Bessho Formation in Nagano Prefecture, central Japan. It is characterized by: 21 total vertebrae; very slender and long first dorsal spine with tiny anterior barbs; thin and lancet-shaped basal pterygiophore of the spiny dorsal fin, with its ventral margin separated from the skull; proximal tip of moderately slender first pterygiophore of the soft dorsal fin not reaching far ventrally; soft dorsal-fin base longer than anal-fin base; caudal peduncle having nearly equal depth and length; and tiny, fine scales with slender, straight spinules. The occurrence of this fossil filefish from the Bessho Formation is consistent with the influence of warm water currents suggested by other fossils, but it is inconsistent with the deep-water sedimentary environment of this Formation. This is the first fossil occurrence of a filefish in Asia; previously described fossil filefishes are known from the Pliocene and Pleistocene of Italy, the Pliocene of Greece, and the Miocene and Pliocene of North America. These fossil records suggest that the genus Aluterus had already been derived and was widely distributed during the Middle Miocene with taxa closely resembling Recent species.

  7. Factors associated with IgG positivity to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in the area with the highest seroprevalence in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna; Sidira, Persefoni; Kallia, Sotiria; Ntouska, Maria; Zotos, Nikolaos; Doumbali, Eleni; Maltezou, Helena C; Demiris, Nikos; Tsatsaris, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    In order to gain insight into the factors playing a role for the high seroprevalence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in the human population of Thesprotia prefecture, Greece, serum samples were collected from residents of the area together with a questionnaire about demographic and epidemiological factors. A 14.4% seroprevalence was detected, with increased age, agro-pastoral activities, slaughtering, and contact with animals (especially sheep) among the factors associated with seropositivity. The high seroprevalence with the absence of any clinical cases needs further investigation.

  8. [Radioactive contamination of foods marketed in saitama prefecture].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Terumitsu; Nagahama, Yoshiyuki; Takekuma, Mikiko; Miyake, Sadaaki; Nomoto, Kahoru; Takano, Mariko

    2013-01-01

    Up to October 31, 2012, a total of 170 food samples marketed in Saitama Prefecture were examined following the setting of provisional regulatory limits for radioactivity in drinking water and foodstuffs by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare on 1 April 2012. No sample exceeded the regulatory limits as determined by gamma ray spectrometry with a germanium semiconductor detector. However the radioactive cesium concentrations of food samples such as raw wood-shiitake and maccha (powdered green tea) produced in Saitama were nearly at the regulatory limits, being 74 Bq/kg and 84 Bq/kg, respectively.

  9. Survey on wild rodents for endoparasites in Iwate Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ito, Megumi; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2003-10-01

    Wild rodents (58 Apodemus speciosus, 29 A. argenteus and 7 Microtus montebelli) were surveyed for endoparasites in Iwate Prefecture, Japan, from October to December 1995 and from April to October 1996. Two trematodes (Echinostoma macrorchis, Plagiorchis muris), 4 or more cestodes (Hymenolepis diminuta, Raillietina coreensis, Cladothyridium spp., Cysticercus fasciolaris), 12 nematodes (Carolinensis minutus, Eucoleus sp., Heligmosomoides kurilensis, H. protobullosus, H. speciosus, Heterakis spumosa, Rhabditis (Pelodera) orbitalis, Rictularia cristata, Syphacia emileromani, S. frederici, S. montana, Trichuris sp.) and 3 protozoans (Giardia sp., Trichomonas sp., Trypanosoma sp.) were identified. The two species of Apodemus were similar to each other, but they were extremely different from M. montebelli in parasite fauna.

  10. The History of Adult Education in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucouvalas, Marcie

    Adult education in Greece dates back to the time of Homer. Poetry and Panhellenic festivals were the earliest forms of adult education in Greece. By classical times, however, an entire learning society of human and material resources had been developed. Greek society experienced periods of high levels of culture and learning only to be conquered…

  11. Education Policy in Greece: A Preliminary Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    The future of Greece's well-being will depend on improving educational performance to raise employment and social outcomes. The challenges are significant, as public education expenditure in Greece has declined in recent years and learning outcomes are weak. To help the Greek government address these challenges, this report proposes a set of…

  12. 222Rn concentrations in greenhouses in Aomori Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Iyogi, T; Hisamatsu, S; Inaba, J

    2006-02-01

    Greenhouses are possible places with high 222Rn concentrations, since soil, the source of 222Rn, is directly exposed inside them. To examine this point, 222Rn concentrations in 28 greenhouses at five locations in Aomori Prefecture were measured for approximately 1 year with passive Rn detectors. For 1 week, measurements of 222Rn concentration and working level were also carried out with active detectors to get equilibrium factors and the ratio of 222Rn concentration in working time to non-working time in selected greenhouses. The geometric mean of annual 222Rn concentrations in greenhouses was 13 Bq m-3, and the same as that in dwellings and lower than that in indoor workplaces in the prefecture. However, variation of the 222Rn concentrations was far larger than in other environments, and ranged from the lowest level in outdoor workplaces to the highest level in indoor workplaces. Significant seasonal variation was also observed in 222Rn concentrations. The mean effective dose from 222Rn and its progenies was estimated to be 0.047 mSv year-1 for a farmer working in a greenhouse.

  13. GREECE Mission Launching Into Aurora

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Caption: A NASA-funded sounding rocket launches into an aurora in the early morning of March 3, 2014, over Venetie, Alaska. The GREECE mission studies how certain structures – classic curls like swirls of cream in coffee -- form in the aurora. Credit: NASA/Christopher Perry More info: On March 3, 2014, at 6:09 a.m. EST, a NASA-funded sounding rocket launched straight into an aurora over Venetie, Alaska. The Ground-to-Rocket Electrodynamics – Electron Correlative Experiment, or GREECE, sounding rocket mission, which launched from Poker Flat Research Range in Poker Flat, Alaska, will study classic curls in the aurora in the night sky. The GREECE instruments travel on a sounding rocket that launches for a ten-minute ride right through the heart of the aurora reaching its zenith over the native village of Venetie, Alaska. To study the curl structures, GREECE consists of two parts: ground-based imagers located in Venetie to track the aurora from the ground and the rocket to take measurements from the middle of the aurora itself. At their simplest, auroras are caused when particles from the sun funnel over to Earth's night side, generate electric currents, and trigger a shower of particles that strike oxygen and nitrogen some 60 to 200 miles up in Earth's atmosphere, releasing a flash of light. But the details are always more complicated, of course. Researchers wish to understand the aurora, and movement of plasma in general, at much smaller scales including such things as how different structures are formed there. This is a piece of information, which in turn, helps paint a picture of the sun-Earth connection and how energy and particles from the sun interact with Earth's own magnetic system, the magnetosphere. GREECE is a collaborative effort between SWRI, which developed particle instruments and the ground-based imaging, and the University of California, Berkeley, measuring the electric and magnetic fields. The launch is supported by a sounding rocket team from

  14. Spatial analysis of electricity demand patterns in Greece: Application of a GIS-based methodological framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyralis, Hristos; Mamassis, Nikos; Photis, Yorgos N.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate various uses of electricity demand in Greece (agricultural, commercial, domestic, industrial use as well as use for public and municipal authorities and street lightning) and we examine their relation with variables such as population, total area, population density and the Gross Domestic Product. The analysis is performed on data which span from 2008 to 2012 and have annual temporal resolution and spatial resolution down to the level of prefecture. We both visualize the results of the analysis and we perform cluster and outlier analysis using the Anselin local Moran's I statistic as well as hot spot analysis using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic. The definition of the spatial patterns and relationships of the aforementioned variables in a GIS environment provides meaningful insight and better understanding of the regional development model in Greece and justifies the basis for an energy demand forecasting methodology. Acknowledgement: This research has been partly financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: ARISTEIA II: Reinforcement of the interdisciplinary and/ or inter-institutional research and innovation (CRESSENDO project; grant number 5145).

  15. Health technology assessment in Greece.

    PubMed

    Liaropoulos, L; Kaitelidou, D

    2000-01-01

    In 1983 a health reform aimed to assure universal coverage and equity in the distribution of services in Greece. The reform implied state responsibility for the financing and delivery of services and a reduction of the private sector. The model was a Bismarckian scheme for social insurance. However, healthcare delivery remains fragmented and uncoordinated and the private sector is getting stronger. The dominant payment system is fee-for-service for the private sector and administered prices and salaries for public hospitals and social insurance funds. The many insurers have their own eligibility requirements, validation procedures, etc. Coverage of services by social security funds, probably among the most comprehensive in Europe, is determined more on historical and political grounds than on efficiency or cost-effectiveness. The system is plagued by problems, including geographical inequalities, overcentralization, bureaucratic management, poor incentives in the public sector, open-ended financing, inefficient use of hospital beds, and lack of cost-effectiveness. There are no specific legal provisions for the control of health technology. Technologies are introduced without standards or formal consideration of needs. There are no current efforts to control health technology in Greece. However, health technology assessment (HTA) has gained increasing visibility. In 1997 a law provided for a new government agency responsible for quality control, economic evaluation of health services, and HTA. The hope is that the new law may introduce evaluation and assessment elements into health policy formulation and assure that cost effectiveness, quality, and appropriate use of health technology will receive more attention.

  16. Feasibility of the Pharmacy DOTS System in Nagasaki Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Yukari; Nakao, Rieko; Ohnishi, Mayumi

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the preparedness of pharmacies to provide DOTS in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan, and to analyze the feasibility of this system with a view toward providing a basis for future administrative studies to consider its adoption.Methods A self-administered mail questionnaire survey was conducted, involving the owners (mostly pharmacists) of 533 pharmacies belonging to designated medical institutions for tuberculosis treatment in Nagasaki Prefecture, seeking information on the following: 1) respondent attributes, 2) pharmacy-related information, 3) experience of participating in tuberculosis-related academic meetings, 4) recognition of DOTS and desire to cooperate with the pharmacy DOTS system and participate in related workshops, and 5) challenges and requirements of the provision of DOTS at pharmacies. Responses were analyzed using the chi-square test, focusing on factors related to the respondents' desire to cooperate with the pharmacy DOTS system and participate in related workshops. The significance level was set at P<0.05.Results On analyzing 212 valid responses (valid response rate: 39.8%), "participating in academic meetings or related workshops", "supporting patients with tuberculosis", "recognizing DOTS", "recognizing the pharmacy DOTS system", "calculating additional medical fees for standard dispensing", and "establishing community liaison systems" were significantly correlated with "wishing to cooperate with the pharmacy DOTS system". Furthermore, age under 50, in addition to "participating in academic meetings or related workshops", "supporting patients with tuberculosis", "recognizing DOTS", "recognizing the pharmacy DOTS system", "calculating additional medical fees for standard dispensing", and "establishing community liaison systems" were significantly correlated with "wishing to participate in related workshops". More than 60% and 50% of the respondents mentioned "tuberculosis-related knowledge and

  17. Design of prospective study of acute coronary syndrome hospitalization after smoking ban in public places in Hyogo prefecture: comparison with Gifu, a prefecture without a public smoking ban.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yukihito; Minatoguchi, Shinya; Nishigaki, Kazuhiko; Hirata, Ken-ichi; Masuyama, Tohru; Furukawa, Yutaka; Uematsu, Masaaki; Yoshikawa, Junichi; Otsuji, Satoru; Iida, Mami; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi

    2014-02-01

    Hyogo is the second prefecture, after Kanagawa, to enact a smoking ban in public places in Japan. The effect of this smoking ban on acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has not been evaluated. Changes in the annual number of ACS hospital cases in Hyogo Prefecture, before and after the enactment of the prefectural legislative ban on smoking in public places, are to be compared with those in Gifu Prefecture, where there is no smoking-ban legislation. Consecutive Hyogo residents with ACS, admitted to 33 major hospitals in the Hanshin-Awaji-Kobe district, which covers 56% of the population, during the 12 months before implementation of the legislation (April 2012 through March 2013) and during the same 24 months thereafter (April 2013 through March 2015) will be enrolled. Consecutive patients with ACS, who are Gifu residents, treated at the 20 major hospitals in Gifu Prefecture will be enrolled as geographical controls. The primary endpoint is the change in number of ACS admissions from April 2012 through March 2015, considering the periods before and after the smoking-ban legislation in Hyogo prefecture. Our study has certain strengths: (1) This is the first large Japanese study of ACS registry with smoking-ban legislation. (2) Major hospitals in the Hanshin-Awaji-Kobe district are included. (3) The data will cover 3 years including 1 year before legislation enactment. (4) The data will be compared with those of Gifu Prefecture, where smoking-ban legislation will not be enacted. (5) The very large database makes possible analysis of subgroups based on age and gender. Copyright © 2013 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Development of a tuberculosis information management system in Kanagawa Prefecture].

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Yoko

    2005-02-01

    This article describes the development of a Tuberculosis Informations Management in Kanagawa Prefecture. Although the informations management was very complicated and troublesome, it saves labor thanks to computerised management of data, and allows the preparation of various documents. This system uses tuberculosis surveillance informations developed by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. By using this system, it has become possible not only to improve the work efficiency, but we also to deliver timely and appropriate followup care to patients and their contacts. Moreover, access to necessary data and statistical informations, in the form of Excel spreadsheets, was possible in this system. Besides saving labor power, the system provides various informations needed for the evaluation of the tuberculosis situation in jurisdictional area. Thus, this system has become an essential informational tool in the planning of tuberculosis control strategy.

  19. Spatial analysis of the Chania prefecture: Crete triangulation network quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achilleos, Georgios

    2016-08-01

    The network of trigonometric points of a region is the basis upon which any form of cartographic work is attached to the national geodetic coordinate system (data collection, processing, output presentations) and not only. The products of the cartographic work (cartographic representations), provide the background which is used in cases of spatial planning and development strategy. This trigonometric network, except that, provides to a single cartographic work, the ability to exist within a unified official state geodetic reference system, simultaneously determines the quality of the result, since the trigonometric network data that are used, have their own quality. In this paper, we present the research of spatial quality of the trigonometric network of Chania Prefecture in Crete. This analysis examines the triangulation network points, both with respect to their spatial position (distribution in space), and in their accuracy (horizontally and vertically).

  20. Mortality among Japanese construction workers in Mie Prefecture

    PubMed Central

    Sun, J; Kubota, H; Hisanaga, N; Shibata, E; Kamijima, M; Nakamura, K

    2002-01-01

    Aims: A historical cohort mortality study was conducted among 17 668 members of the Construction Workers' Health Insurance Society of Mie Prefecture in Japan, in order to verify the relation between occupations and mortality status. Methods: The cohort was followed from 2 April 1973 to 1 April 1998. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated for all members and each job classification. Results: 98.7% of the members were traced successfully until the date when the follow up terminated. When all members were considered together, significant excess mortality was observed for "accidents and adverse effects". Significant excess mortalities were also observed for lung cancers among scaffold men and ironworkers, for cancer of the oesophagus among plumbers, and for "chronic liver disease and cirrhosis" among scaffold men and painters. Conclusion: Results suggest that more detailed investigations, which would include some minor job classifications should be undertaken. This is an updated cohort study which was partially completed in 1997. PMID:12151606

  1. [Oral health status of pregnant women in Kumamoto Prefecture].

    PubMed

    Chiga, Sakura; Ohba, Takashi; Miyoshi, Junya; Tanoue, Daisuke; Kawase, Hiromi; Katoh, Takahiko; Katabuchi, Hidetaka

    2015-01-01

    As part of Kumamoto RAINBOW Project, which is a multifaceted implementation for the prevention of premature labor, we investigated pregnant women's oral health status and assessed the effects of dental care and oral hygiene instruction. We examined the oral health status of pregnant women both in the first and the second half of pregnancy in Kumamoto Prefecture from 2012 to 2014. The Community Periodontal Index (CPI) was used to assess the periodontal condition, and women having periodontal pockets with a depth ≥4 mm were defined as suffering from periodontitis. This project covered the cost of dental checkups. Of the 20,702 pregnant women enrolled in this project, 9,527 (46.0%) received dental checkups during the first half of pregnancy. The response rate of dental examinations in Kumamoto City (63.3%), the capital city of Kumamoto Prefecture, was significantly higher than that of the other local areas (32.0%). In Kumamoto City, 4,890 women (83.4%) had dental examinations at the city office when they received a maternal handbook. Three thousand forty-five women (32.0%) had periodontitis. Among 1,605 women who received oral examinations twice at dental clinics, 698 received nonsurgical interventions. Dental interventions significantly decreased the prevalence of periodontitis in pregnant women (55.1% to 45.1%). Dental examinations without interventions also significantly decreased the prevalence of periodontitis (44.6% to 39.9%). Pregnant women living in Kumamoto City had higher rate of visits to dental clinics for checkups than those in other areas. Periodontitis was found in one-third of pregnant women. Not only dental interventions, but also dental examinations improve pregnant women's oral health status.

  2. Deinstitutionalization in Greece: Ethical problems.

    PubMed

    Ploumpidis, D; Garanis-Papadatos, T; Economou, M

    2008-10-01

    The following paper is based on a Concerted Action which focused on the "Ethical aspects of deistinstutionalisation in mental health care" in 2001. It investigates the development and the ethical dilemmas posed by deinstitutionalization in Greece. This movement has recently undergone a very active phase but the transition from the traditional model of psychiatric care to the community based system unavoidably creates many ethical problems related to the professionals' attitude towards individual liberties, dignity and other fundamental rights of mentally ill persons. These problems exist not only in the level of the therapist-patient relationship but in the level of policy making as well as its implementation. Moreover, the paper deals with specific ethical problems such as stigmatisation and isolation in the community context, as well as the role of the family.

  3. The zeolite deposits of Greece

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamatakis, M.G.; Hall, A.; Hein, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Zeolites are present in altered pyroclastic rocks at many localities in Greece, and large deposits of potential economic interest are present in three areas: (1) the Evros region of the province of Thrace in the north-eastern part of the Greek mainland; (2) the islands of Kimolos and Poliegos in the western Aegean; and (3) the island of Samos in the eastern Aegean Sea. The deposits in Thrace are of Eocene-Oligocene age and are rich in heulandite and/or clinoptilolite. Those of Kimolos and Poliegos are mainly Quaternary and are rich in mordenite. Those of Samos are Miocene, and are rich in clinoptilolite and/or analcime. The deposits in Thrace are believed to have formed in an open hydrological system by the action of meteoric water, and those of the western Aegean islands in a similar way but under conditions of high heat flow, whereas the deposits in Samos were formed in a saline-alkaline lake.

  4. Sentinel-1 Data for the Detection and Mapping of Landslides: A Case Study from Western Peloponnese, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyriou, Aggeliki S.; Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.

    2016-08-01

    Interferometry is one of the most modern techniques of acquisition earth surface height information and it has a wide range of applications such as surface monitoring, volcanic hazards, seismic events etc. This work focus on exploitation of Sentinel-1 data for the monitoring of an active landslide in a village of Ilia Prefecture, Greece. Sentinel-1 mission provides timely, with global coverage, operational and easily accessible data with satisfactory spatial resolution. These advantages make Sentinel-1 data the best solution for the observation of landslides. In particular, at an initial level of landslide's observation, interferometry contributed to Digital Surface Model (DSM) generation, utilizing the phase difference between the representations of the interferometric pairs. Thus two DSMs were created, one before the landslide and one after it, which were compared to each other in order to identify height differences and ground subsidence and map the landslide zone. The results are presented below.

  5. Epidemiology of Epidemic Ebola Virus Disease in Conakry and Surrounding Prefectures, Guinea, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Rico, Adriana; Brody, Debra; Coronado, Fátima; Rondy, Marc; Fiebig, Lena; Carcelen, Andrea; Deyde, Varough M; Mesfin, Samuel; Retzer, Kyla D; Bilivogui, Pepe; Keita, Sakoba; Dahl, Benjamin A

    2016-02-01

    In 2014, Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa was first reported during March in 3 southeastern prefectures in Guinea; from there, the disease rapidly spread across West Africa. We describe the epidemiology of EVD cases reported in Guinea's capital, Conakry, and 4 surrounding prefectures (Coyah, Dubreka, Forecariah, and Kindia), encompassing a full year of the epidemic. A total of 1,355 EVD cases, representing ≈40% of cases reported in Guinea, originated from these areas. Overall, Forecariah had the highest cumulative incidence (4× higher than that in Conakry). Case-fatality percentage ranged from 40% in Conakry to 60% in Kindia. Cumulative incidence was slightly higher among male than female residents, although incidences by prefecture and commune differed by sex. Over the course of the year, Conakry and neighboring prefectures became the EVD epicenter in Guinea.

  6. Start and initial results of the Fukushima Prefecture acute myocardial infarction registration survey.

    PubMed

    Nakazato, Kazuhiko; Yamaki, Takayoshi; Kijima, Mikihiro; Komatsu, Nobuo; Sugi, Masafumi; Seita, Hiroshi; Kanke, Michito; Saito, Tomiyoshi; Owada, Takayuki; Ono, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Masaharu; Abe, Yukihiko; Sato, Masahiko; Watanabe, Masayuki; Suzuki, Shigebumi; Tsuda, Akihiro; Chiba, Katsumi; Honda, Tsuneo; Tamagawa, Kazuaki; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Abe, Wataru; Maeyama, Tadami; Sagawa, Keiichi; Takahira, Hiroshi; Sodenaga, Yasumori; Ohara, Naoto; Kobayashi, Toshio; Hisa, Shinichi; Suzuki, Sakae; Saito, Yasutoshi; Shineha, Ryuzaburo; Suzuki, Fumio; Matsui, Junichiro; Tsuboi, Masao; Yui, Tokuo; Abe, Satoshi; Nagasawa, Shuichi; Takaya, Yuzou; Maehara, Kazuhira; Maruyama, Yukio; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2013-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains one of the most serious heart diseases and elucidation of its pathogenesis and advances in treatment strategies have been desired. In 2009, to understand the status of AMI in Fukushima Prefecture for improving treatment outcomes, a new AMI registration survey system was conducted throughout the prefecture. A total of 1,556 cases were registered in the initial 2 years from 2009 to 2010. The hospital-based overall incidence of AMI in Fukushima Prefecture was 37.9 people per population of 100,000 per year. Mortality from AMI within 30 days of onset was 10.2%. We report herein the actual situation of AMI onset and treatment in Fukushima Prefecture based on the initial results of the survey.

  7. Epidemiology of Epidemic Ebola Virus Disease in Conakry and Surrounding Prefectures, Guinea, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Debra; Coronado, Fátima; Rondy, Marc; Fiebig, Lena; Carcelen, Andrea; Deyde, Varough M.; Mesfin, Samuel; Retzer, Kyla D.; Bilivogui, Pepe; Keita, Sakoba; Dahl, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa was first reported during March in 3 southeastern prefectures in Guinea; from there, the disease rapidly spread across West Africa. We describe the epidemiology of EVD cases reported in Guinea’s capital, Conakry, and 4 surrounding prefectures (Coyah, Dubreka, Forecariah, and Kindia), encompassing a full year of the epidemic. A total of 1,355 EVD cases, representing ≈40% of cases reported in Guinea, originated from these areas. Overall, Forecariah had the highest cumulative incidence (4× higher than that in Conakry). Case-fatality percentage ranged from 40% in Conakry to 60% in Kindia. Cumulative incidence was slightly higher among male than female residents, although incidences by prefecture and commune differed by sex. Over the course of the year, Conakry and neighboring prefectures became the EVD epicenter in Guinea. PMID:26812047

  8. Anisotropy Studies in Central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaviris, G.; Papadimitriou, P.; Makropoulos, K.

    2007-12-01

    The Gulf of Corinth, located in Central Greece, is a tectonic graben characterized by high seismicity level. GPS measurements indicate extension of the Gulf in an approximately N-S direction, with a rate of 10 to 15 mm/year. The southern part of the Gulf is dominated by the presence of large active normal faults in an almost E-W direction, dipping north, resulting to the subsidence of the central part of the graben. Analysis of data recorded by the Cornet network, which is the permanent network of the University of Athens, revealed the existence of an anisotropic upper crust at the eastern part of the Gulf of Corinth. Anisotropy was also observed at the western part of Corinth Gulf, using data recorded by a temporary seismological network installed in the area. Furthermore, shear wave splitting analysis was performed in the region of Attica (to the NE of the Gulf) that hosts Athens, the capital of Greece, using aftershocks of the 1999 Athens earthquake (Mw=6.0) that caused 143 fatalities. The methods used for the determination of the splitting parameters are the polarization vector as a function of time (polarigram) and the hodogram. For each selected event the direction of polarization of the fast shear wave, the delay between the two split shear waves and the polarization of the source were measured. Concerning both parts of the Gulf of Corinth, the obtained mean values of anisotropy vary between N90° and N142°. In the region of Attica the mean values of the anisotropy direction of all stations vary between N95° and N100°, almost parallel to the azimuth of the Parnitha fault. The time delay between the split shear waves vary between 0.020s and 0.130s. The obtained anisotropy measurements are in agreement with the extensive dilatancy anisotropy (EDA) model, since the direction of anisotropy is independent from the event-station azimuth and perpendicular to the direction of extension. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The present study was co-funded by the European Social Fund

  9. Measuring the efficiency of the Greek rural primary health care using a restricted DEA model; the case of southern and western Greece.

    PubMed

    Oikonomou, Nikolaos; Tountas, Yannis; Mariolis, Argiris; Souliotis, Kyriakos; Athanasakis, Kostas; Kyriopoulos, John

    2016-12-01

    This is a study to measure the efficiency of the rural Health Centres (HCs) and their Regional Surgeries (RSs) of the 6th Health Prefecture (HP) of Greece, which covers Southern and Western Greece. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was applied under Constant and Variable Returns to Scale, using a weight-restricted, output-oriented model, to calculate pure technical efficiency (PΤΕ), scale efficiency (SE) and total technical efficiency (TE). The selection of inputs, outputs and their relative weights in the model was based on two consecutive consensus panels of experts on Primary Health Care (PHC). Medical personnel, nursing personnel and technological equipment were chosen as inputs and were attributed appropriate weight restrictions. Acute, chronic and preventive consultations where chosen as outputs; each output was constructed by smaller subcategories of different relative importance. Data were collected through a questionnaire sent to all HCs of the covered area. From the 42 HCs which provided complete data, the study identified 9 as technical efficient, 5 as scale efficient and 2 as total efficient. The mean TE, PTE and SE scores of the HCs of the 6th Health Prefecture were 0.57, 0.67 and 0.87, respectively. The results demonstrate noteworthy variation in efficiency in the productive process of the HCs of Southern and Western Greece. The dominant form of inefficiency was technical inefficiency. The HCs of the 6th HP can theoretically produce 33 % more output on average, using their current production factors. These results indicated potential for considerable efficiency improvement in most rural health care units. Emphasis on prevention and chronic disease management, as well as wider structural and organisational reforms, are discussed from the viewpoint of how to increase efficiency.

  10. Long-term effect of the home prefecture recruiting scheme of Jichi Medical University, Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Inoue, Kazuo; Kajii, Eiji

    2008-01-01

    Jichi Medical University (JMU) is an experimental medical school established in 1972 by the Japanese Ministry of Home Affairs and all 47 prefectures in Japan (equivalent to the states of Australia) with a special mission to produce rural doctors and distribute them nationwide. The JMU has adopted a contract-based 'home prefecture recruiting scheme' in which students recruited evenly from all the 47 prefectures of Japan are required to work in their home prefectures for 9 years (including 6 years of rural service) after graduation in exchange for having their 6 years of undergraduate medical education tuition fees waived. Although the JMU system is now being partially adopted by an increasing number of other medical schools in Japan, the effectiveness of this equal distribution scheme is largely unknown. A retrospective cohort study of 1255 graduates who had completed their contract by 2000 was conducted. Baseline data were collected at matriculation and graduation between 1972 and 1991. Workplace addresses were followed up in 2000, 2004, and 2006. Follow-up rates were 98.7% in 2000, 98.2% in 2004, and 98.0% in 2006. Data excerpted from the 2004 National Population Census including various demographic indicators (eg population, population density, and physicians/population ratio) for each of the 47 prefectures were merged, through prefectural identification codes, with the baseline and follow-up addresses of the subjects. Of all JMU graduates after contract, 69.8% settled in their home prefectures. The rates varied from 45.5% to 93.3% among the prefectures (p<0.001). The settlement rate tended to be higher in prefectures with a lower population density or physician : population ratio. Among prefectural demographics, the physician : population ratio and medical institution : population ratio were negatively correlated with settlement rate in the prefecture (correlation coefficient -0.34 [p=0.020]; and -0.35 [p=0.017], respectively). In short, prefectures with a

  11. Keys for the identification of the mosquitoes of Greece.

    PubMed

    Darsie, R F; Samanidou-Voyadjoglou, A

    1997-09-01

    Keys to the adult females and 4th instar larvae of the mosquitoes of Greece are presented. In all, 53 species in 7 genera are included. Also, Aedes albopictus is added because of the potential for its introduction into Greece.

  12. New country records for mosquito species in Greece.

    PubMed

    Samanidou-Voyadjoglou, A; Darsie, R F

    1993-12-01

    A study of the literature and mosquito collections in Greece has yielded 3 species that have not been recorded from Greece. They are Aedes annulipes, Aedes berlandi, and Culex pusillus. Notes on their recognition and geographic distribution are also given.

  13. [Tree pollen dispersion in Ito City, Shizuoka Prefecture].

    PubMed

    Fujii, Mayumi; Okazaki, Kenji; Makiyama, Kiyoshi; Hisamatsu, Kenichi

    2013-11-01

    The authors investigated the atmospheric tree pollen dispersion in Ito City, Shizuoka Prefecture for 12 years for the purpose of the prophylaxis and treatment of pollinosis. We set up a Durham sampler on the rooftop of the three-story building in Ito City, and counted atmospheric pollen grouping first, Taxodiaceae and Cupressaceae; second, Pinaceae and Podocarpaceae; third, Betulaceae and Ulmaceae; last, Fagaceae. The counts of atmospheric tree pollen on season and the weather from January to June were treated statistically and analyzed on the computer program Microsoft Excel. Each average and SD of total pollen count was, in order, 7079±6503 count/cm(2), 502±146 count/cm(2), 891±480 count/cm(2), 906±481 count/cm(2). The last summer weather correlates to the atmospheric pollen count of Taxodiaceae, Cupressaceae, Betulaceace and Ulmaceae. The atmospheric pollen count of Taxodiaceae and Cupressaceae in spring is influenced by the weather; their atmospheric pollen count is reduced by a heavy rain or a heavy snow out of season. The atmospheric pollen count of Pinaceae, Podocarpaceae and Fagaceae does not relate to the weather. As a result of having examined the relations between the count of the atmospheric pollen and the weather in Ito City, I recognized relations in Taxodiaceae, Cupressaceae, Pinaceae and Podocarpaceae, but there were not the relations of intentionality in Betulaceae, Ulmaceae and Fagaceae.

  14. Pleural calcification in northwest Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Bazas, T.; Oakes, D.; Gilson, J.C.; Bazas, B.; McDonald, J.C.

    1985-12-01

    Mass miniature radiography in 1969 detected a high prevalence of pleural calcification in three villages in northwest Greece. In 1980 a survey of a 15% sample of the population over the age of 10 was carried out with a 80% response rate. Full-size radiographs, ventilatory capacity measurements, and a detailed questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, type of work, and residence were used. Independent classification of the 408 films by two readers using the ILO/UC scheme showed very few small opacities but a very high prevalence of pleural calcification first evident in young adults and rising to 70% in the elderly. The overall prevalence was 34.7% in men and 21.5% in women. A comparison with the 1969 survey showed a progression rate of 5% per annum. In neither sex was there a significant relation of pleural calcification to smoking, ventilatory capacity, nor type of work, though those classified as field croppers had a slightly higher prevalence. There was no obvious evidence of increased lung cancer or mesothelioma in the village. The agent responsible for this apparently benign condition was not identified.

  15. GREECE Sounding Rocket Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samara, M.; Michell, R.; Grubbs, G. A., II; Bonnell, J. W.; Ogasawara, K.; Hampton, D. L.; Jahn, J. M.; Donovan, E.; Gustavsson, B.; Lanchester, B. S.; McHarg, M. G.; Spanswick, E.; Trondsen, T. S.; Valek, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    On 03 March 2014 at 11:09:50 UT the Ground-to-Rocket Electrodynamics-Electrons Correlative Experiment (GREECE) sounding rocket successfully launched from Poker Flat, Alaska . It reached an apogee of approximately 335 km over the native village of Venetie during a dynamic post-midnight auroral event. A wide range of precipitating electrons were measured with the Acute Precipitating Electron Spectrometer (APES) and Medium-energy Electron SPectrometer (MESP), cumulatively covering 300 ev to 200 keV in varying time resolutions. DC to low frequency electric and magnetic fields were measured at the same time and a langmuir probe was also employed. In addition to the on board instrumentation a suite of ground based imagers was deployed under apogee. We used several electron-multiplying charge-coupled devices (EMCCDs) with different filters and field of views imaging along magnetic zenith. This yielded multi-emission line information about the auroral brightness at the magnetic footprint of the rocket critical for our main goal of exploring the correlation of the sheer flows often observed in high resolution imagery during aurora and the in situ signatures of precipitating particles and waves. The instruments used will be discussed in further detail along with preliminary results of an event rich in particle and wave signatures.

  16. Porifera of Greece: an updated checklist

    PubMed Central

    Bailly, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The checklist of Porifera of Greece was created in the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS), an initiative of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) that has resumed efforts to compile a complete checklist of species recorded from Greece. An updated checklist of Porifera was created on the basis of a list of the Aegean Demospongiae and Homoscleromorpha published one decade ago. All records of species known to occur in Greek waters were taxonomically validated and cross-checked for possible inaccuracies and omissions. Then, all recent publications were reviewed and the species recorded from 2006 to date were added to the list. New information The updated checklist of Porifera of Greece comprises 215 species, classified to 111 genera, 65 families, 24 orders, and 4 classes. In total, 34 new additions were made to the previous species list (8 Calcarea, 17 Demospongiae, 1 Hexactinellida, and 6 Homoscleromorpha) with Calcarea being listed for the first time from the area. The demosponge orders Poecilosclerida, Dictyoceratida, Tetractinellida, Haplosclerida, and Suberitida have the highest number of species covering 62% of the known Greek sponge species richness. It is worth mentioning that 8 species have been first described from Greek waters, 7 of which are considered endemic to this area. Our bibliographic overview also revealed knowledge gaps with regard to specific habitats typically rich in sponge diversity, and marine sectors of Greece. PMID:27932903

  17. Cystic echinococcosis in Greece. Past and present.

    PubMed

    Sotiraki, S; Chaligiannis, I

    2010-09-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease with a wide geographical distribution, Greece included, and is considered to be a serious problem for the public health and the livestock economy. Although the disease was widespread in Greece since ancient times, cystic echinococcosis was identified as a serious problem around 1970, and since then national surveillance programmes are running, based on meat inspection and stray dogs management. Ever since, there are official records of the parasite's prevalence in humans and livestock which show a continuous decline. More precisely, human hydatidosis, according to the official records, declines from an annual incidence of 14.8 per 100,000 inhabitants during 1967-1971 to 0.3 in 2008. Late surveys reveal that in Greece the prevalence of echinococcosis was 23-39.2% for sheep, 7.6-14.7% for goats, 0% in cattle and 0.6% in pigs, while further molecular analyses in Southern Greece showed the existence of the genotypes G1 and G3 in sheep and G7 in goats in that area. All data presented demonstrate that the parasite is still present in Greece. Surveillance is nowadays being performed under EU regulations but it is highly important to improve and adopt corrective and preventive measures to avoid animal and human infection.

  18. Marine Bryozoa of Greece: an annotated checklist

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Until today, a complete checklist of Bryozoa of the Greek seas had never been published and species records were scattered in several taxonomic and ecological studies. The aim of this paper is to produce a first checklist of marine bryozoan species of Greece, in the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS) initiative of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI), by reviewing the existing literature and following the recent trends in the taxonomy of this group.  New information The marine bryozoan fauna of Greece comprises 237 species, classified in 127 genera, 66 families, 3 orders, and 2 classes. The vast majority belongs to the class Gymnolaemata (177 Cheilostomatida and 21 Ctenostomatida), while the remaining 39 species are Stenolaemata (all Cyclostomatida). Among these species, 12 are considered endemic to the eastern Mediterranean, while another 12 species are non-indigenous. PMID:27956854

  19. Marine Bryozoa of Greece: an annotated checklist.

    PubMed

    Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Rosso, Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    Until today, a complete checklist of Bryozoa of the Greek seas had never been published and species records were scattered in several taxonomic and ecological studies. The aim of this paper is to produce a first checklist of marine bryozoan species of Greece, in the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS) initiative of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI), by reviewing the existing literature and following the recent trends in the taxonomy of this group. . The marine bryozoan fauna of Greece comprises 237 species, classified in 127 genera, 66 families, 3 orders, and 2 classes. The vast majority belongs to the class Gymnolaemata (177 Cheilostomatida and 21 Ctenostomatida), while the remaining 39 species are Stenolaemata (all Cyclostomatida). Among these species, 12 are considered endemic to the eastern Mediterranean, while another 12 species are non-indigenous.

  20. Brachiopoda of Greece: an annotated checklist

    PubMed Central

    Bailly, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Until today, only scattered species records of Brachiopoda from Greece have been included in publications on the Mediterranean brachiopod fauna. These records were mostly based on material collected during marine expeditions in the eastern Mediterranean decades ago, while few recent additional records appear in ecological studies. The aim of this paper was to give the first checklist of brachiopod species of Greece, in the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS) initiative of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI), by reviewing the existing literature. New information Twelve brachiopod species have been found in Greek waters so far. The nomenclature, distribution, fossil records, ecology, and literature sources are discussed for each species. PMID:27932904

  1. Synoptic-mesoscale analysis and numerical modeling of a tornado event on 12 February 2010 in northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsangouras, I. T.; Nastos, P. T.; Pytharoulis, I.

    2011-07-01

    Tornadoes are furious convective weather phenomena, with the maximum frequency over Greece during the cold period (autumn, winter).This study analyzes the tornado event that occurred on 12 February 2010 near Vrastama village, at Chalkidiki's prefecture, a non urban area 45 km southeast of Thessaloniki in northern Greece. The tornado developed approximately between 17:10 and 17:35 UTC and was characterized as F2 (Fujita Scale). The tornado event caused several damages to an industrial building and at several olive-tree farms. A synoptic survey is presented along with satellite images, radar products and vertical profile of the atmosphere. Additionally, the nonhydrostatic WRF-ARW atmospheric numerical model (version 3.2.0) was utilized in analysis and forecast mode using very high horizontal resolution (1.333 km × 1.333 km) in order to represent the ambient atmospheric conditions. A comparison of statistical errors between WRF-ARW forecasts and ECMWF analysis is presented, accompanied with LGTS 12:00 UTC soundings (Thessaloniki Airport) and forecast soundings in order to verify the WRF-ARW model. Additionally, a comparison between WRF-ARW and ECMWF thermodynamic indices is also presented. The WRF-ARW high spatial resolution model appeared to simulate with significant accuracy a severe convective event with a lead period of 18 h.

  2. Harmonic analysis of the precipitation in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, P. T.; Zerefos, C. S.

    2009-04-01

    Greece is a country with a big variety of climates due to its geographical position, to the many mountain ranges and also to the multifarious and long coastline. The mountainous volumes are of such orientation that influences the distribution of the precipitation, having as a result, Western Greece to present great differentiations from Central and Eastern Greece. The application of harmonic analysis to the annual variability of precipitation is the goal of this study, so that the components, which compose the annual variability, be elicited. For this purpose, the mean monthly precipitation data from 30 meteorological stations of National Meteorological Service were used for the time period 1950-2000. The initial target is to reduce the number of variables and to detect structure in the relationships between variables. The most commonly used technique for this purpose is the application of Factor Analysis to a table having as columns the meteorological stations-variables and rows the monthly mean precipitation, so that 2 main factors were calculated, which explain the 98% of total variability of precipitation in Greece. Factor 1, representing the so-called uniform field and interpreting the most of the total variance, refers in fact to the Mediterranean depressions, affecting mainly the West of Greece and also the East Aegean and the Asia Minor coasts. In the process, the Fourier Analysis was applied to the factor scores extracted from the Factor Analysis, so that 2 harmonic components are resulted, which explain above the 98% of the total variability of each main factor, and are due to different synoptic and thermodynamic processes associated with Greece's precipitation construction. Finally, the calculation of the time of occurrence of the maximum precipitation, for each harmonic component of each one of the two main factors, gives the spatial distribution of appearance of the maximum precipitation in the Hellenic region.

  3. Pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement reforms in Greece.

    PubMed

    Yfantopoulos, John

    2008-02-01

    Pharmaceutical price regulation in Greece is centralized. The National Drug Organization (EOF) is the main regulatory authority functioning under the auspices of the Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity. In 2004, total pharmaceutical expenditure in Greece reached the level of 2.9 billion euro, of which 77.9% were public expenditure and the remaining 22.1% private. According to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) data the total per-capita expenditure on pharmaceutical care in Greece is among the lowest in Europe, representing 58% of the EU-12 average. In 1998, Greece introduced a reimbursement list, and the lowest reference pricing system among the 15 European Union member states with the purpose of controlling the growth of pharmaceutical expenditure. The measures proved to be ineffective since pharmaceutical expenditure, after a short-term reduction, continued to increase at similar rates to those before the introduction of price control mechanisms. The average annual increase of pharmaceutical expenditure in Greece over the period 1998-2003 was 7.9%, which is among the highest in the OECD countries (average 6.1%). New pharmaceutical legislation, no. 3457, was enacted on May 8th 2006, aiming at greater access to medicines, improvements to citizens' quality of life, effective and efficient utilization of health resources, transparency in public management, protecting public health, and maintaining long-term financial viability of the insurance system. The innovative aspect of the new legislation is the abolition of the positive list and the establishment of a rebate system granting the National Insurance Funds a rebate rate paid by the pharmaceutical companies. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First to assess the effectiveness of the positive list introduced in 1988 in Greece, using simple econometric models. Second to present the recent pharmaceutical reforms aimed at the introduction of a rebate system and establishing

  4. Economic crisis, austerity and unmet healthcare needs: the case of Greece.

    PubMed

    Zavras, Dimitris; Zavras, Athanasios I; Kyriopoulos, Ilias-Ioannis; Kyriopoulos, John

    2016-07-27

    The programme for fiscal consolidation in Greece has led to income decrease and several changes in health policy. In this context, this study aims to assess how economic crisis affected unmet healthcare needs in Greece. Time series analysis was performed for the years 2004 through 2011 using the EU-SILC database. The dependent variable was the percentage of people who had medical needs but did not use healthcare services. Median income, unemployment and time period were used as independent variables. We also compared self-reported unmet healthcare needs drawn from a national survey conducted in pre-crisis 2006 with a similar survey from 2011 (after the onset of the crisis). A common questionnaire was used in both years to assess unmet healthcare needs, including year of survey, gender, age, health status, chronic disease, educational level, income, employment, health insurance status, and prefecture. The outcome of interest was unmet healthcare needs due to financial reasons. Ordinary least squares, as well as logistic regression analysis were conducted to analyze the results. Unmet healthcare needs increased after the enactment of austerity measures, while the year of participation in the survey was significantly associated with unmet healthcare needs. Income, educational level, employment status, and having insurance, private or public, were also significant determinants of unmet healthcare needs due to financial reasons. The adverse economic environment has significantly affected unmet health needs. Therefore health policy actions and social policy measures are essential in order to mitigate the negative impact on access to healthcare services and health status.

  5. The national financial adjustment policy and the equalisation of health levels among prefectures

    PubMed Central

    Takano, T; Nakamura, K

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES—The objectives of this study were to examine (1) trends concerning financial assistance from the national government to local governments, (2) trends regarding death rates and life expectancies among prefectures, and (3) the effect of the national financial adjustment policy in equalising both the revenues of local governments and variations in the health levels among prefectures in terms of death rates and life expectancies.
DESIGN—The study analysed prefectural income, the amount of national taxes collected, financial assistance from the national government to local governments, and age adjusted death rates and life expectancies of all of the prefectures in Japan during the period from 1965 through 1995.
MAIN RESULTS—(1) Under the financial adjustment policy, financial assistance from the national government to the local governments, which consists of the sum of the local allocation tax and treasury disbursements, increased from 1831 billion yen in 1965 to 31 116 billion yen in 1995. (2) During the same period, the age adjusted death rate per 100 000 people decreased from 1168.9 (1965) to 545.3 (1995). The range of variation in the age adjusted death rate among prefectures diminished as the coefficient of variation of the death rate declined from 0.060 in 1965 to 0.043 in 1995. (3) There was a significant statistical correlation between higher prefectural incomes and lower mortality rates during from 1965 until 1975 (p < 0.05), whereas this correlation was indistinct in the 1980s and has not been observed since 1990. (4) The relative health level of Tokyo has declined in terms of its ranking among all the prefectures with regard to life expectancy, from being the best in 1965 to below average in 1995.
CONCLUSIONS—The national financial adjustment policy to balance the revenues of local governments has increased the health levels of rural prefectures. It is probable that the policy reduced the disparity in death

  6. Spreading of Thelazia callipaeda in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, E; Komnenou, A; Thomas, A; Ioannidou, E; Colella, V; Otranto, D

    2017-02-26

    Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae), the so-called oriental eyeworm, has been increasingly reported as an agent of infection in animals and humans from many European countries. Clinical signs range from subclinical to moderate or severe ocular disorders (e.g., epiphora, photophobia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, ulcers). The disease has been also diagnosed in animals from countries of the Balkan area (e.g., Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia), but only a single case of canine thelaziosis, presumably autochthonous, was reported in Northern Greece. In this study, we provide robust information of the occurrence of thelaziosis in Greece by reporting autochthonous cases of thelaziosis in dogs (n = 46), cats (n = 3) and in one rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) living in Northern and Central regions of Greece. The occurrence of a single haplotype of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene confirms that the same zoonotic haplotype of the parasite circulating in Europe is also spreading in Greece. The increased awareness of this parasitosis is crucial to limit the risk of further infections in both humans and animals in European countries.

  7. Higher Education in Greece Compared to Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miliotis, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares and contrasts higher education in Canada and Greece. An overview of the systems in place is followed by an analysis centred on the triad of funding, access and quality. Similarities and differences are highlighted, and the current challenges and issues faced by both nations will be examined, especially in terms of world…

  8. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Greece.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna; Sidira, Persefoni; Larichev, Victor; Gavrilova, Ludmila; Kuzmina, Ksenia; Mousavi-Jazi, Mehrdad; Mirazimi, Ali; Ströher, Ute; Nichol, Stuart

    2014-02-01

    Seroprevalence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is high in some regions of Greece, but only 1 case of disease has been reported. We used 4 methods to test 118 serum samples that were positive for CCHFV IgG by commercial ELISA and confirmed the positive results. A nonpathogenic or low-pathogenicity strain may be circulating.

  9. Reviews of National Policies for Education - Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This volume contains the Educational Policy Review of Greece undertaken in 1995-96 at the request of the Greek authorities. The book contains two parts with 13 chapters. Part 1 provides the full text of the Background Report, prepared by the Greek authorities for the purpose of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)…

  10. Cyanobacteria of Greece: an annotated checklist

    PubMed Central

    Ourailidis, Iordanis; Panou, Manthos; Pappas, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The checklist of Greek Cyanobacteria was created in the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS), an initiative of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) that has resumed efforts to compile a complete checklist of species reported from Greece. This list was created from exhaustive search of the scientific literature of the last 60 years. All records of taxa known to occur in Greece were taxonomically updated. New information The checklist of Greek Cyanobacteria comprises 543 species, classified in 130 genera, 41 families, and 8 orders. The orders Synechococcales and Oscillatoriales have the highest number of species (158 and 153 species, respectively), whereas these two orders along with Nostocales and Chroococcales cover 93% of the known Greek cyanobacteria species. It is worth mentioning that 18 species have been initially described from Greek habitats. The marine epilithic Ammatoidea aegea described from Saronikos Gulf is considered endemic to this area. Our bibliographic review shows that Greece hosts a high diversity of cyanobacteria, suggesting that the Mediterranean area is also a hot spot for microbes. PMID:27956851

  11. Prostate cancer screening in Greece: current facts.

    PubMed

    Stamatiou, Konstantinos; Lardas, Michael; Kostakos, Evagelos; Koutsonasios, Vasilios; Lepidas, Dimitrios

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current article is to summarize the existing literature focusing on the current status of prostate cancer screening behavior in Greece. We identified studies published from 2000 onwards by searching the MEDLINE database of the National Library of Medicine. Initial search terms were prostate-specific antigen screening, prostate cancer screening, and Greece. Bibliographic information of the selected publications was checked for relevant publications not included in the MEDLINE search. Currently in Greece, there is no official recommendation for prostate cancer screening, and thus, its practice depends on the social and educational status of the patient and where the patient lives in Greece. We conclude that patients should be thoroughly informed of the limitations of prostate cancer screening by prostate-specific antigen test, and in consultation with urological specialists, make their personal decision of whether to receive it. Therefore, a project to support shared decision-making and informed choice for men considering testing for prostate cancer should be undertaken.

  12. The Preparation of School Psychologists in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatzichristou, Chryse; Polychroni, Fotini

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes the preparation of school psychologists in Greece. It discusses the social and cultural contexts that have influenced the evolution of the discipline of psychology, the beginning of training programs in school psychology, and the current status of school psychological services. The structure of the Graduate Program of School…

  13. Women of Ancient Greece: Participating in Sport?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Brett D.

    Based on evidence obtained from Greek literature and artifacts, this paper examines the extent to which women in ancient Greece participated in physical activity, sports, and games. Homer's "Odyssey" describes women playing ball and driving chariots; vases dating back to 700-675 B.C. portray women driving light chariots in a procession;…

  14. The Demand for Higher Education in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiti, Anna; Prokopiadou, Georgia

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the reasons for enrolment demand in higher education in Greece through data collected from 400 students enrolled in the final year of post-secondary education in the Athens area. Results showed that Greek students choose to follow higher studies for a number of reasons but mainly because higher education offers high-level…

  15. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Sidira, Persefoni; Larichev, Victor; Gavrilova, Ludmila; Kuzmina, Ksenia; Mousavi-Jazi, Mehrdad; Mirazimi, Ali; Ströher, Ute; Nichol, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Seroprevalence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is high in some regions of Greece, but only 1 case of disease has been reported. We used 4 methods to test 118 serum samples that were positive for CCHFV IgG by commercial ELISA and confirmed the positive results. A nonpathogenic or low-pathogenicity strain may be circulating. PMID:24447877

  16. Epidemiology of hepatitis C in Greece.

    PubMed

    Triantos, Christos; Konstantakis, Christos; Tselekouni, Paraskeui; Kalafateli, Maria; Aggeletopoulou, Ioanna; Manolakopoulos, Spilios

    2016-09-28

    Hepatitis C is a global health issue and constitutes a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. In this article, a comprehensive literature search was conducted for the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Greece, since data on the HCV prevalence, viremia and genotypes are important for developing strategies to manage or eliminate HCV infection. In addition, the pattern of HCV infection was analyzed according to the geographic region and the risk factors. These differences reflect not only distinct epidemiological characteristics among populations, but also differences on the strategy of data acquisition and quantification. Although there are not enough data, the estimation of the current prevalence of Hepatitis C in Greece ranges from 0.5% to 2%. The most important risk factors for HCV infection include blood product transfusion, intravenous drug use, chronic hemodialysis, organ transplantation, occupational exposure, sexual transmission, and vertical transmission. Because of lack of vaccine or effective post-exposure prophylaxis for HCV, the main focus of prevention is to recognize and control these risk factors. HCV infection in Greece is closely associated with the development of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and primary hepatocellular carcinoma. As far as the genotype distribution is concerned genotype 1 estimated to be 45%-47% and it constitutes the prevalent genotype in Greece, followed by genotype 3.

  17. Classical Greece, Black Historians, and Martin Bernal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squeri, Lawrence

    1989-01-01

    Explores the work of Martin Bernal in tracing the roots of Greek civilization to Africa. Discusses the Ancient, Aryan, and Revised Ancient models for explaining Greek origins. Observes that Bernal's thesis comes at a time of increased interest in non-Western history. Suggests that views of ancient Greece will never be the same. (SG)

  18. Migration and HIV epidemic in Greece.

    PubMed

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Arvanitis, Michail; Masgala, Aikaterini; Paraskeva, Dimitra

    2005-06-01

    Over the last decade, Greece has experienced a massive influx of migrants from countries in South Eastern/Central Europe, the Middle East, Asia and Africa. This study aimed to estimate the percentage and the specific characteristics of HIV-positive migrants reported in Greece, and to describe the secular trend of migrants' proportion among HIV-infected individuals. Secondary analysis of data reported to the Hellenic Centre for Infectious Diseases Control (HCIDC) during the years 1989-2003. From 1989 to 2003, 6292 HIV-positive cases were reported to HCIDC. Data show that 749 people (439 males, 303 females) originated from countries other than Greece. Most HIV-positive migrants come from Sub-Saharan Africa (32.44%) and nearly 20% from Central and Eastern Europe. In the Greek population, men who have sex with men (MSM) constitute 50.47% of cases, while 16.15% are heterosexuals. The epidemic profile follows a different pattern among migrants (P<0.05). Heterosexual transmission accounts for 41.52% of HIV-positive reported migrants, while 19.09% are MSM. An 11% increase for each subsequent year in the rate of HIV-positive migrants reported in Greece has been estimated using a Poisson regression model fitted to the data (IR 1.11; 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.13). The results suggest an increasing trend of HIV-seropositive migrants in Greece during recent years. Group-based interventions, better access to health care and a comprehensive public approach should be applied to migrants.

  19. Water quality and benthic fauna biodiversity in a unique small wetland at Messinia, Greece.

    PubMed

    Gritzalis, Konstantinos C; Anastasopoulou, Evangelia; Georgiopoulos, Nikolaos A; Markogianni, Vasiliki V; Skoulikidis, Nikolaos Th

    2015-01-01

    The wetland of Aghios Floros is located in the Prefecture of Messinia (S. W. Peloponnese, Greece) and occupies a small area, covered permanentlywith water. Flooding of the surrounding area is defended by an artificial channel that discharge large quantity of water into Pamisos River in whose river basin the Aghios Floros station belongs. At the sampling site various physico-chemical and conventional pollution parameters as well as hydrochemical variables were measured during the wet and the dry period of 2011. The hydromorphological and multihabitat approach of RIVPACS method was applied in situ, which gives an overall image of the landscape. The site was classified as 'Good' according to the Greek River Nutrient Classification System (GR.NCS) and the benthic macroinvertebrate fauna assemblages that dominated the area pointed out a 'Good' biological status as well. The biotic and abiotic sample processing, carried out in compliance with the demands of the Water Framework Directive, in general revealed high ecological status of the station. Specifically, a rich diversity and abundance of some macroinvertebrate families was recorded and regarding the aquatic flora the area is dominated by the water lilies species of Nymphaea alba which are unique in the area of Peloponnese.

  20. Chemical parameters as natural tracers in hydrogeology: a case study of Louros karst system, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsanou, K.; Lambrakis, N.; D'Alessandro, W.; Siavalas, G.

    2017-03-01

    The Louros Basin hosts one of the most important karst systems of Epirus Prefecture (Greece) and plays a key role in supplying three counties with drinking water. Aiming to investigate the origin of groundwater and its flow patterns, a multi-tracer approach was used to describe and evaluate the hydrogeology of the system. Therefore, 271 surface water and groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physicochemical parameters, major ions, and trace and rare earth elements, as well as stable isotopes (δ18O and δ2H). These data provided meaningful tracing of the water origin, water-rock interaction processes, and relationships among the aquifers. In particular, the elaboration of the major ions supported by the distribution of rare earth elements indicated that there are three aquifers located at different levels hosted in the Senonian and Pantokrator limestone formations. These aquifers are hydraulically interconnected by a cascade and constitute the Louros karst system which is drained by the homonymous river. Hydrochemical and isotopic data revealed that the Louros karst system is isolated from the adjacent northern Ioannina Basin and it is being recharged by precipitation. Higher groundwater salinity, where present, is mainly associated with increased water-rock interaction due to longer and deeper hydrologic flow, favoring the dissolution of evaporitic, carbonate and phosphate minerals.

  1. Water quantity and hydrochemical quality monitoring of Laspias River, North Greece.

    PubMed

    Gikas, Georgios D

    2017-09-28

    The water quantity and quality of Laspias River, located in Xanthi Prefecture, Thrace, North Greece, are studied. A data collection program was designed at five stations along the main river course and its main tributary. Sampling frequency was about once every 10 days. Temperature (T), electrical conductivity (EC), pH, and dissolved oxygen were measured in situ simultaneously with discharge measurements. Moreover, water samples were collected and analyzed for the determination of nitrites, nitrates, ammonium, total phosphorus, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids and alkalinity, according to standard methods. Anions (i.e., SO4(-2) and Cl(-)) and cations (i.e., Li(+), Na(+), Mg(+2), and Ca(+2)) were determined using ion chromatography (Dionex ICS-3000 ion chromatograph). The results showed that there is an impact of point (e.g., wastewater treatment plant effluent and farms) and non-point (e.g., agricultural activities) sources of pollution on the EC values, and chloride, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in the river water. The trophic state of Laspias River, based on nutrient concentrations, was found eutrophic. Based on the Canadian Council of Ministers of Environment Water Quality Index, the river water quality ranged from "poor" to "marginal" category, indicating the need for management measures in order to improve it.

  2. Chemical parameters as natural tracers in hydrogeology: a case study of Louros karst system, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsanou, K.; Lambrakis, N.; D'Alessandro, W.; Siavalas, G.

    2016-11-01

    The Louros Basin hosts one of the most important karst systems of Epirus Prefecture (Greece) and plays a key role in supplying three counties with drinking water. Aiming to investigate the origin of groundwater and its flow patterns, a multi-tracer approach was used to describe and evaluate the hydrogeology of the system. Therefore, 271 surface water and groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physicochemical parameters, major ions, and trace and rare earth elements, as well as stable isotopes (δ18O and δ2H). These data provided meaningful tracing of the water origin, water-rock interaction processes, and relationships among the aquifers. In particular, the elaboration of the major ions supported by the distribution of rare earth elements indicated that there are three aquifers located at different levels hosted in the Senonian and Pantokrator limestone formations. These aquifers are hydraulically interconnected by a cascade and constitute the Louros karst system which is drained by the homonymous river. Hydrochemical and isotopic data revealed that the Louros karst system is isolated from the adjacent northern Ioannina Basin and it is being recharged by precipitation. Higher groundwater salinity, where present, is mainly associated with increased water-rock interaction due to longer and deeper hydrologic flow, favoring the dissolution of evaporitic, carbonate and phosphate minerals.

  3. Marginal sites in for biomass production - case study sites in northern Greece. Obstacles and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiourtsis, Fotios; Keramitzis, Dimitris; Papatheodorou, Ioannis; Tsoulakaki, Dimitra; Gontzaridou, Marina; Lampetsou, Eugenia; Fragkiskakis, Nikitas; Gerwin, Werner; Repmann, Frank; Baumgarten, Wibke

    2017-04-01

    In 2016, D.A.M.T, the Hellenic Forest Service for northern Greece (Macedonia and Thrace Regions), with the support of BTU Cottbus-Senftenberg Reseach Center Landscape Development and Mining Landscapes experts and following common standard protocols of the SEEMLA project, established three plots, in the northeastern part of Greece, in Rodopi prefecture (main forest species for biomass production: Pinus Nigra, Pinus Brutia and Robinia Pseudacacia). Nearby productive ecosystems (including forests etc.) or successional sites will be used as references for estimating the potentials of MagL. Further existing plantations of energy crops on similar MagL, will be used to assess potential crop yields. These plots represent different types of marginal lands, they were specifically selected for SEEMLA purposes (reliable and sustainable exploitation of biomass) and are entirely different from other inventories, used for typical forest operations in Greece. The main differences are:  an intensively studied core area,  Soil Quality Rating (SQR) method measurements,  Soil Classification Maps - parameters estimation (land capability classes and landforms),  tightly spaced plantations (1,5 m x 1,5 m),  cropping systems,  shorter rotations and  the need for special forest management study. The combination of these requirements with the soil conditions of the area has created significant issues on plots establishment and accurate recording of supply chain stages. Main expected SEEMLA impacts are: • provide a substantial amount of EU energy needs from marginal/degraded land, • avoidance of land use conflicts by strengthening the ability to use MagL for biomass production for energy, • reduction of EU-wide greenhouse gas, • mitigation of conflicts regarding sustainability and biodiversity for the utilization of MagL for biomass production, • growth of plantations of bioenergy carriers from MagL at competitive costs, • expansion of economic opportunities

  4. Coastal erosion and accretion rates in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foteinis, Spyros; Papadopoulos, Costas; Koutsogiannaki, Irini; Synolakis, Costas

    2010-05-01

    Erosion threatens many coastal regions of Greece. Anthropogenic changes of landforms such as coastal roads built on even narrow beaches, sand mining for construction, poor design of coastal structures that interfere with sediment, and dams without sediment bypasses have significantly reduced beach widths. We present erosion rates for different beaches, some of which are in sensitive ecosystems, otherwise "protected" by local and EU ordinances. By comparing inferences of beach widths in varying intervals from 1933 to 2006, we infer that the construction of dams in Acheloos river in western Greece, built in a faraonic attempt to partially divert its flows to eastern Greece, this is responsible for up to 20m/year erosion rates observed in certain locales in the Acheloos delta. More characteristic erosion rates in the region are ~ 2m/year. By contrast, there appears rapid accretion of up to 4m/year in the beaches around the Nestos delta in northern Greece (Papadopoulos, 2009). In beaches that are not near large river deltas, erosion rates range from 0.5m/year to 1m/year. While we have not done comprehensive comparisons among coastlines with different levels of coastal development, it does appear that rapid coastal development correlates well with erosion rates. The underlying problem is the complete lack of any semblance of coastal zone management in Greece and substandard design of coastal structures, which are often sited without any measurements of waves and currents offshore (Synolakis et al, 2008). Beach maintenance remains an exotic concept for most local authorities, who invariably prefer to build hard coastal structures to "protect" versus nourish, siting lack of experience with nourishment and "environmental" concerns. In certain cases, choices are dictated by costs, the larger the cost the easier the project gets approved by regulatory authorities, hence the preference for concrete or rubble structures. We conclude that, unless urgent salvage measures are

  5. Tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marios Karagiannis, Georgios; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    Greece is vulnerable to tsunamis, due to the length of the coastline, its islands and its geographical proximity to the Hellenic Arc, an active subduction zone. Historically, about 10% of all world tsunamis occur in the Mediterranean region. Here we review existing tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece. We analyze capabilities across the disaster management continuum, including prevention, preparedness, response and recovery. Specifically, we focus on issues like legal requirements, stakeholders, hazard mitigation practices, emergency operations plans, public awareness and education, community-based approaches and early-warning systems. Our research is based on a review of existing literature and official documentation, on previous projects, as well as on interviews with civil protection officials in Greece. In terms of tsunami disaster prevention and hazard mitigation, the lack of tsunami inundation maps, except for some areas in Crete, makes it quite difficult to get public support for hazard mitigation practices. Urban and spatial planning tools in Greece allow the planner to take into account hazards and establish buffer zones near hazard areas. However, the application of such ordinances at the local and regional levels is often difficult. Eminent domain is not supported by law and there are no regulatory provisions regarding tax abatement as a disaster prevention tool. Building codes require buildings and other structures to withstand lateral dynamic earthquake loads, but there are no provisions for resistance to impact loading from water born debris Public education about tsunamis has increased during the last half-decade but remains sporadic. In terms of disaster preparedness, Greece does have a National Tsunami Warning Center (NTWC) and is a Member of UNESCO's Tsunami Program for North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (NEAM) region. Several exercises have been organized in the framework of the NEAM Tsunami Warning

  6. Geographical structures and the cholera epidemic in modern Japan: Fukushima prefecture in 1882 and 1895

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chun-Lin; Fukui, Hiromichi

    2007-01-01

    Background Disease diffusion patterns can provide clues for understanding geographical change. Fukushima, a rural prefecture in northeast Japan, was chosen for a case study of the late nineteenth century cholera epidemic that occurred in that country. Two volumes of Cholera Ryu-ko Kiji (Cholera Epidemic Report), published by the prefectural government in 1882 and 1895, provide valuable records for analyzing and modelling diffusion. Text descriptions and numerical evidence culled from the reports were incorporated into a temporal-spatial study framework using geographic information system (GIS) and geo-statistical techniques. Results Changes in diffusion patterns between 1882 and 1895 reflect improvements in the Fukushima transportation system and growth in social-economic networks. The data reveal different diffusion systems in separate regions in which residents of Fukushima and neighboring prefectures interacted. Our model also shows that an area in the prefecture's northern interior was dominated by a mix of diffusion processes (contagious and hierarchical), that the southern coastal region was affected by a contagious process, and that other infected areas experienced relocation diffusion. Conclusion In addition to enhancing our understanding of epidemics, the spatial-temporal patterns of cholera diffusion offer opportunities for studying regional change in modern Japan. By highlighting the dynamics of regional reorganization, our findings can be used to better understand the formation of an urban hierarchy in late nineteenth century Japan. PMID:17603906

  7. Bayesian analysis of cross-prefectural production function with time varying structure in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyo, Koki; Noda, Hideo

    2006-11-01

    A cross-prefectural production function (CPPF) in Japan is constructed in a set of Bayesian models to examine the performance of Japan's post-war economy. The parameters in the model are estimated by using the procedure of a Monte Carlo filter together with the method of maximum likelihood. The estimated results are applied to regional and historical analysis of the Japanese economy.

  8. Retention of physicians in rural Japan: concerted efforts of the government, prefectures, municipalities and medical schools.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Inoue, Kazuo; Kajii, Eiji; Takeuchi, Keisuke

    2010-01-01

    In post-war Japan, a number of factors lead to a general shortage of physicians by the 1950s, which became acute in rural areas and has continued until recent times. Teamwork among national, prefectural, municipal governments and public medical schools has addressed this shortage of physicians. The national government doubled the number of medical schools in the 1960s and 1970s; each of the country's 47 prefectures, whether rural or not, has at least one medical school. In rural areas where private hospitals are not profitable, municipal governments have funded public hospitals and physician recruitment from their own budgets. A cooperative project among Japan's 47 prefectural governments and the national government established Jichi Medical University (JMU), which conducts a bound medical education program followed by obligatory rural service. As a result, the number of 'non-physician communities' (muichiku) nationwide has decreased by 73%; however, the gap between physician concentrations in urban and rural areas has not changed. Therefore, the government has recently implemented a JMU-like contractual program as a form of 'rural quota' at other medical schools in all 47 prefectures. If all the replicated programs work as successfully as JMU, the impact on the geographic distribution of physicians will be substantial. The Japanese public-sector-led rural physician securing system could also be effective in countries where rural healthcare provision is the responsibility of the public sector and close cooperation among levels of government is possible.

  9. Education For Sustainability - Experiences From Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baronos, Athena

    2016-11-01

    One of the main issues involved is changing people's attitudes, values, behavior and consumption patterns. University education in Greece aims to educate engineers so that besides acquiring theoretical knowledge, they also learn to show competences and are motivated to act accordingly. Educating for sustainable development also entails the development of critical capacities and the necessary skills to be able to identify and formulate problems. This paper outlines the way in which an approach to teaching sustainability has been embodied in the Industrial Design, West Macedonia Greece. More specifically, it describes a course to develop comprehensive case studies and support material in order to aid, Industrial Design students in understanding the sustainability concepts and how solutions can be developed

  10. [The evolution of pharmaceutical schools in Toyama Prefecture since the Meiji era.].

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Kiyonobu

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the author attempts to generalize the evolution of pharmaceutical schools in Toyama since the Meiji Era. The copy of a petition drafted by pill peddlers of Toyama in 1873 suggests that there were expectations that a "Semi (chemicals)" school was going to be established; however, this was not realized. In 1877, the Ishikawa Prefectural Government established a small-scale pharmaceutical school associated with the public hospitals of Kanazawa, Toyama and Kukui. In 1883, Toyama Prefecture became isolated from Ishikawa Prefecture, and the above-mentioned pharmaceutical school continued operations until 1887, when the government closed it due to financial problems. Persuaded through a lecture given by Dr. Keizo Tampa, a professor of Tokyo University, volunteers in Toyama Prefecture established an independent pharmaceutical school in 1894. However, student enrollment was too low to maintain operation, and the administration started planning to relocate the school to the city of Toyama. This was realized in 1897. In 1900, a massive fire burnt down much of the city, severely damaging the school building and much of the equipment inside. Restoration would be costly. As a solution to the problem, the administration of the school was transferred from Toyama City to Toyama Prefecture. With money from the prefecture, the school facilities were repaired and teaching staff recruited. In 1909, the school ranking was promoted to college status, and it became one of the first academic institutions to issue a pharmacist licence to graduates without requiring them to take the national examination (i.e., with the exception of medical colleges). Subsequently, in 1920, the administration of the college was transferred from the Toyama Prefectural Government to Japan's Central Government, at which time the facilities were improved and a wider range of education subjects were introduced.The college was again relocated to the city suburbs, where the facilities included the

  11. Albanian and Polish undocumented workers in Greece: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Lazaridis, G; Romaniszyn, K

    1998-01-01

    "This article deals with the migration of undocumented workers from Albania and Poland to Greece. Its underlying assumption is that migration from the former post-communist countries to Greece is not a homogeneous phenomenon, thus allowing for a distinction and comparison between the migration waves from Poland and Albania to Greece. The article shows that economic migration from Albania and Poland to Greece is primarily an economically triggered phenomenon which results from both individual rational choices and social, structural settings, and which verifies a general tendency of mass flows, characteristic of the era of disorganized capitalism." (EXCERPT)

  12. [A case of black dot ringworm caused by Trichophyton tonsurans in Chiba Prefecture].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoko; Sano, Ayako; Komori, Takashi; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Nishimura, Kazuko

    2005-01-01

    A 74-year-old woman visited a clinic in Kisarazu, Chiba Prefecture in December 2002 complaining of itching, scale and alopecia. She had been diagnosed as having tinea capitis by a direct microscopic examination of scales, and been treated with an antifungal cream and steroid lotion since 1999. The bald area spread from frontal to occipital in which multiple black dots and red papules were scattered. Abundant endothrix spores were observed in the hair shaft. A mycelial colony was isolated from the black dots. A giant colony on Sabouraud's agar was white, powdery and flattened with cottony elevation at the center in the obverse, and a reddish-brown pigmentation in the reverse. The isolate produced abundant microconidia that were round to club-and balloon-shaped with extreme swelling, while macroconidia and spiral bodies were few. Hair perforation test was negative and urease activity test was positive. ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA sequencing revealed 100% homology with T. tonsurans isolated from two old women in Niigata Prefecture. On the other hand, 3 bases were different from those of the outbreak isolates from judo and wrestling players infected through international matches. T. tonsurans has polymorphism and the present isolate might be an autochthonous genotype in Japan. This is the first time T. tonsurans was isolated in Chiba Prefecture. But this prefecture had been known as an endemic area of Trichophyton coccineum, which was very similar in morphological and physiological characteristics to those of T. tonsurans before World War II. These facts raise the question of whether T. tonsurans has existed in this prefecture before.

  13. Medical Informatics Education & Research in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Chouvarda, I.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives This paper aims to present an overview of the medical informatics landscape in Greece, to describe the Greek ehealth background and to highlight the main education and research axes in medical informatics, along with activities, achievements and pitfalls. Methods With respect to research and education, formal and informal sources were investigated and information was collected and presented in a qualitative manner, including also quantitative indicators when possible. Results Greece has adopted and applied medical informatics education in various ways, including undergraduate courses in health sciences schools as well as multidisciplinary postgraduate courses. There is a continuous research effort, and large participation in EU-wide initiatives, in all the spectrum of medical informatics research, with notable scientific contributions, although technology maturation is not without barriers. Wide-scale deployment of eHealth is anticipated in the healthcare system in the near future. While ePrescription deployment has been an important step, ICT for integrated care and telehealth have a lot of room for further deployment. Conclusions Greece is a valuable contributor in the European medical informatics arena, and has the potential to offer more as long as the barriers of research and innovation fragmentation are addressed and alleviated. PMID:26123910

  14. Medical Informatics Education & Research in Greece.

    PubMed

    Chouvarda, I; Maglaveras, N

    2015-08-13

    This paper aims to present an overview of the medical informatics landscape in Greece, to describe the Greek ehealth background and to highlight the main education and research axes in medical informatics, along with activities, achievements and pitfalls. With respect to research and education, formal and informal sources were investigated and information was collected and presented in a qualitative manner, including also quantitative indicators when possible. Greece has adopted and applied medical informatics education in various ways, including undergraduate courses in health sciences schools as well as multidisciplinary postgraduate courses. There is a continuous research effort, and large participation in EU-wide initiatives, in all the spectrum of medical informatics research, with notable scientific contributions, although technology maturation is not without barriers. Wide-scale deployment of eHealth is anticipated in the healthcare system in the near future. While ePrescription deployment has been an important step, ICT for integrated care and telehealth have a lot of room for further deployment. Greece is a valuable contributor in the European medical informatics arena, and has the potential to offer more as long as the barriers of research and innovation fragmentation are addressed and alleviated.

  15. Novel phleboviruses detected in ticks, Greece.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna; Kontana, Anastasia; Tsioka, Katerina; Chaligiannis, Ilias; Sotiraki, Smaragda

    2016-07-01

    Since 2009, when severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus and Heartland virus have been identified and associated with disease in humans, the interest on tick-borne phleboviruses is increasing rapidly. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of tick-borne phleboviruses in Greece and compare them with respective ones detected worldwide. Ticks collected from goats and sheep in 60 sites of 13 regional units of Greece were grouped in pools (1-3 ticks per pool) and tested for the presence of phleboviral RNA. Six of 210 pools were positive; they consisted of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected from sheep in 3 regional units of Greece: Pella (2/30, 6.7%), Imathia (2/21, 9.5%), and Ioannina (2/28, 7.1%). The overall tick minimum infection rate was 2.1%. The sequences of the Greek phlebovirus (provisionally named Antigone virus) form a distinct clade in the tick-borne phleboviruses, differing by >40% from the currently known phleboviruses. Any probable implication of these viruses to public health remains to be elucidated.

  16. Ship emissions and their externalities for Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzannatos, Ernestos

    2010-06-01

    The existing and emerging international and European policy framework for the reduction of ship exhaust emissions dictates the need to produce reliable national, regional and global inventories in order to monitor emission trends and consequently provide the necessary support for future policy making. Furthermore, the inventories of ship exhaust emissions constitute the basis upon which their external costs are estimated in an attempt to highlight the economic burden they impose upon the society and facilitate the cost-benefit analysis of the proposed emission abatement technologies, operational measures and market-based instruments prior to their implementation. The case of Greece is of particular interest mainly because the dense ship traffic within the Greek seas directly imposes the impact of its exhaust emission pollutants (NO x, SO 2 and PM) upon the highly populated, physically sensitive and culturally precious Greek coastline, as well as upon the land and seas of Greece in general, whereas the contribution of Greece in the global CO 2 inventory at a time of climatic change awareness cannot be ignored. In this context, this paper presents the contribution of Greece in ship exhaust emissions of CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM from domestic and international shipping over the last 25 years (1984-2008), utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) emission methodology. Furthermore, the ship exhaust emissions generated within the Greek seas and their externalities are estimated for the year 2008, through utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) approach for domestic shipping and the activity-based (ship traffic) approach for international shipping. On this basis, it was found that during the 1984 to 2008 period the fuel-based (fuel sales) ship emission inventory for Greece increased at an average annual rate of 2.85%. In 2008, the CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM emissions reached 12.9 million tons (of which 12.4 million tons of CO 2) and their externalities were found to be around 3

  17. Sediment quality in Rivers and their estuaries of an olive oil production area, Messinia, Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasopoulou, Evaggelia; Pavlidou, Alexandra; Skoulikidis, Nikos; Dassenakis, Manos; Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2014-05-01

    Sediment analysis at four major rivers (Pamisos, Aris, Velikas and Nedon) and their estuaries towards heavy metals took place in the Prefecture of Messinia, Greece, during two sampling campaigns in 2008 and 2011. The main industrial activity in the region is the operation of 250 olive oil industries and the main problem concerning pollution derives from the vast quantities of olive mill waste waters that are being generated annually most of which is currently discharged in nearby streams. Chemical parameters such as phenols, total organic carbon and certain heavy metals were found to be strongly correlated with the wastes from the olive oil industries. Major and minor elements (heavy metals) were measured in riverine and estuarine sediments. In parallel heavy metals were determined in the olive waste from a local industry, using atomic absorption spectrometry, in order to correlate the results with the sediment analysis. Major and Minor elements were recorded based upon the total percentage of the sediment samples and in order to eliminate the grain size effect, the concentrations were normalized towards Al. A pollution indice, the sediment enrichment factor, was also calculated, the high values of which towards Cr are of particular interest. Additionally organic carbon and total phenolic compounds were determined in rivers and their estuaries. High concentrations of Chromium were recorded in River Aris sediment, which seems to be the most polluted. Relatively high concentrations of zinc were encountered at rivers Aris and Pamisos while the chromium load seems to be higher near the estuaries of the rivers. The olive mill waste water analysis confirmed the existence of chromium in the waste and extremely elevated values were also found at a nearby station where these wastes tend to accumulate for decades. In contrast the results from the Nedon River indicated that it is not affected, since the low values found remained constant from the source of the river until its

  18. Lifelong Education in Greece: Recent Developments and Current Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karalis, Thanassis; Vergidis, Dimitris

    2004-01-01

    This article concerns recent developments and current trends in lifelong education in Greece, specifically those related with funding from European Social Fund (ESF). The analysis undertaken focuses mainly on (a) the expansion of continuing training activities in Greece during the past ten years and the development of new training organizations as…

  19. Intellectual Assessment of Children and Adolescents: The Case of Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bablekou, Zoe; Kazi, Smaragda

    2016-01-01

    The article reviews the history of intellectual assessment of children and adolescents in Greece, as well as procedures, current practices, and future directions. Although the history of special education is long in Greece, there has been very sporadic and incoherent legislation and decision making on the subject. Currently, intelligence tests are…

  20. Conducting Qualitative Research on Desertification in Western Lesvos, Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iosifides, Theodoros; Politidis, Theodoros

    2005-01-01

    The main aim of this article is to present some critical methodological strategies employed in a qualitative research study on local socioeconomic development and desertification in western Lesvos, Greece. Through in-depth qualitative interviews with local producers in western Lesvos, Greece, an effort was made to identify and analyze the links…

  1. Intellectual Assessment of Children and Adolescents: The Case of Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bablekou, Zoe; Kazi, Smaragda

    2016-01-01

    The article reviews the history of intellectual assessment of children and adolescents in Greece, as well as procedures, current practices, and future directions. Although the history of special education is long in Greece, there has been very sporadic and incoherent legislation and decision making on the subject. Currently, intelligence tests are…

  2. Educational Reform in Greece: Central Concepts and a Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gounari, Panayota; Grollios, George

    2012-01-01

    The case of Greece as the most recent neoliberal experiment can provide valuable insights not only about a generalized attack on the welfare state and the public good, but also about the radical changes in public education that are altering its public mission, vision, and goals. In this paper first we trace the educational landscape in Greece as…

  3. Educational Reform in Greece: Central Concepts and a Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gounari, Panayota; Grollios, George

    2012-01-01

    The case of Greece as the most recent neoliberal experiment can provide valuable insights not only about a generalized attack on the welfare state and the public good, but also about the radical changes in public education that are altering its public mission, vision, and goals. In this paper first we trace the educational landscape in Greece as…

  4. Academic Libraries in Greece: The Present Situation and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Dean H., Ed.

    The purpose of this collection of essays is to examine academic libraries in Greece at a time when the potential for changes and advance in librarianship is great. The 15 papers are as follows: "International Interlibrary Cooperation: Exchanging Goals, Values and Culture" (Don L. Tolliver); "Academic Libraries in Greece" (James…

  5. Conducting Qualitative Research on Desertification in Western Lesvos, Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iosifides, Theodoros; Politidis, Theodoros

    2005-01-01

    The main aim of this article is to present some critical methodological strategies employed in a qualitative research study on local socioeconomic development and desertification in western Lesvos, Greece. Through in-depth qualitative interviews with local producers in western Lesvos, Greece, an effort was made to identify and analyze the links…

  6. Characteristics of farm injuries in Greece.

    PubMed

    Alexe, D M; Petridou, E; Dessypris, N; Skenderis, N; Trichopoulos, D

    2003-08-01

    To assess the characteristics of occupational and leisure farm injuries in Greece. During a five-year period (1996-2000), 4,326 unintentional farm injuries have been recorded by the Emergency Department Injury Surveillance System in Greece. Data concerning demographic variables, accident conditions, and injury characteristics were collected by in person interviews. The data were analyzed by simple cross-tabulation and hierarchical cluster analysis. Injuries from falls on the same level are mainly lower-limb fractures and occur during the winter among older women. Falls from higher level concern migrant workers, who also tend to suffer severe multiple injuries, including concussions, particularly during autumn. Injuries resulting from cutting and piercing instruments, as well as from machinery, are generally open wounds in the upper-limbs, suffered by young migrant workers. Head injuries resulting from striking against an object are more generally spread across socio-demographic variables. Overexertion is the dominant mechanism for dislocations and sprains in the lower limbs. Snake and insect bites are common among younger migrant workers during summer, and they affect the upper limbs during manual work close to the ground. Non-traffic injuries from vehicles are frequently severe, involving head concussion of generally young individuals. In Greece, farm injuries are frequently serious and require hospitalization. These injuries show distinct patterns among older women (lower-limb fractures), young individuals (non-traffic vehicle-related injuries) and migrant workers (injuries from cutting and piercing instruments, falls from high level, and bites). Prevention strategies should give priority to these population groups. These prevention strategies should include guidance for poorly educated workers, including migrants, enforcement of safety regulations concerning farming machinery, and discouragement of risky farming activities among elderly individuals, particularly

  7. The high prevalence of hepatitis E virus infection in wild boars in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    MOTOYA, Takumi; NAGATA, Noriko; KOMORI, Harumi; DOI, Ikuko; KUROSAWA, Miho; KETA, Toshimasa; SASAKI, Nobuya; ISHII, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is known as a causative agent of zoonosis and food poisoning. Pigs and some species of wild animals, including wild boar, are known to be a reservoir of HEV. In this study, we investigated the situation regarding HEV infection in wild boars in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. Serum, liver and feces samples from 68 animals were collected, and the presence or absence of HEV genomic RNA and HEV antibodies were analyzed. The viral genome was detected in samples from 7 (10.3%) animals, with all HEVs classified as genotype 3, subtype 3b. HEV antibodies were detected in samples from 28 (41%) animals. This report demonstrates for the first time the high prevalence of HEV infection in wild boars in Ibaraki Prefecture. PMID:26234737

  8. A Coprological Survey of Intestinal Helminthes in Stray Dogs Captured in Osaka Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    KIMURA, Akio; MORISHIMA, Yasuyuki; NAGAHAMA, Shinya; HORIKOSHI, Takashi; EDAGAWA, Akiko; KAWABUCHI-KURATA, Takako; SUGIYAMA, Hiromu; YAMASAKI, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate intestinal helminth infection in stray dogs in Osaka Prefecture by surveying coprological samples from dogs captured from 2006–2011. Of 212 fecal samples collected, overall prevalence of infection was 39.2%. The most common species was Toxocara canis (25.0%), followed by Trichuris vulpis (8.0%), Spirometra erinaceieuropaei (3.3%), Taeniidae (2.4%), Ancylostoma caninum (1.9%) and Toxascaris leonine (0.5%). In the molecular analysis, all of the taeniid eggs were negative for Echinococcus multilocularis and were identified as other taeniid species (e.g., Taenia pisiformis). Our results suggest that stray dogs remain important infection reservoirs of zoonotic parasites in Osaka Prefecture. Therefore, control of stray dogs is crucial for reducing the risk of public health problems due to parasitic infections. PMID:23774027

  9. Vascular nursing in Greece: luxury or necessity?

    PubMed

    Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Bitza, Christina; Papanas, Nikolaos; Matsagkas, Miltiadis; Lazarides, Miltos K

    2013-09-01

    Although peripheral arterial disease is prevalent in the primary care setting, insufficient vascular education among nurses and physicians coupled with certain economic constraints undermines treatment efficacy. Moreover, the burden of advanced venous pathology such as posthrombotic syndrome, venous ulcers, and lymphedema remains suboptimally treated. This article advocates the development of a vascular nursing specialty as a means to improving vascular care especially nowadays, when health care providers dictate comprehensive and cost-effective nursing practice and patient management. It also presents the first attempt to organize a Vascular Nursing Educational Session in Greece.

  10. Archaeomagnetism in Macedonia, Greece: a progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, M. E.; Kontopoulou, D.

    A project has been initiated to gather archaeomagnetic data from the rich archaeological heritage of Macedonia. We report here results from the first five kilns studied, which range in age from Hellenistic to Byzantine (broadly speaking, from 500BC to 1500AD). With so few data, and such a long time interval, we are obviously far from defining the geomagnetic secular variation in northern Greece. Nevertheless, a useful first step has been taken, and the results obtained so far compare favourably with the much larger data set from nearby Bulgaria.

  11. Distributional effects of environmental policies in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekakis, Joseph N.

    1990-07-01

    Environmental protection policies generate an equity question concerning the fair allocation of environmental benefits and costs. This paper presents evidence from Greece during the 1980s. The findings reveal that Greek environmental policies, in the form of government self-regulatory programs, are mostly regressive in nature. At the regional level these programs combine all forms of vertical equity. Since the public sector finances the majority of related expenditures out of taxes, the regressive elements of environmental policies have been reinforced by discretionary fiscal measures and tax evasion, accompanied by inflation, which have distorted the country's progressive tax system.

  12. Seismic hazard in Greece. I. Magnitude recurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makropoulos, Kostas C.; Burton, Paul W.

    1985-08-01

    Two different methods are applied to the earthquake catalogue for Greece (Makropoulos and Burton, 1981), MB catalogue, to evaluate Greek seismic hazard in terms of magnitude: earthquake strain energy release and Gumbel's third asymptotic distribution of extreme values. It is found that there is a close relationship between results from the two methods. In places where the cumulative strain energy release graphs include at least one well defined cycle of periodicity of strain release, then the parameters of the third type asymptote are well defined with small uncertainties. In almost all cases the magnitude distribution shows a remarkably good third type asymptotic behaviour. The results are presented in the form of graphs and contour maps of annual and 80-year modes, and magnitudes with 70% probability of not being exceeded in the next 50 and 100 years. For six of the most heavily industrial and highly populated centres of Greece magnitude hazard parameters are also derived and examined in more detail, thereby illustrating the direct applicability of the methods in terms of zoning. The close agreement between observed and predicted extreme magnitudes shows that the sample period considered (1900-1978), is long enough to obtain statistically stable estimates. For Athens the upper bound magnitude is found to be 6.7 ± 0.3 (within 100 km) and 6.8 ± 0.4 (100 km) from the two methods respectively, whereas for Corinth an earthquake of magnitude 6.5 has a mean return period of 43 years. Greece as a whole has an upper bound magnitude 8.7 ± 0.6 and earthquakes of a size similar to the 1903 Kithira event ( M ≈ 8.0) have a mean return period of about 200 years. The significantly different maps contouring magnitudes of the annual and 80-year modes result from the fact that each place has its own distribution curvature for magnitude occurrence, and thus they are not a linear extrapolation of each other. However, as longer return periods are considered, these differences

  13. Oral ingestion of hexavalent chromium through drinking water and cancer mortality in an industrial area of Greece - An ecological study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hexavalent chromium is a known carcinogen when inhaled, but its carcinogenic potential when orally ingested remains controversial. Water contaminated with hexavalent chromium is a worldwide problem, making this a question of significant public health importance. Methods We conducted an ecological mortality study within the Oinofita region of Greece, where water has been contaminated with hexavalent chromium. We calculated gender, age, and period standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for all deaths, cancer deaths, and specific cancer types of Oinofita residents over an 11-year period (1999 - 2009), using the greater prefecture of Voiotia as the standard population. Results A total of 474 deaths were observed. The SMR for all cause mortality was 98 (95% CI 89-107) and for all cancer mortality 114 (95% CI 94-136). The SMR for primary liver cancer was 1104 (95% CI 405-2403, p-value < 0.001). Furthermore, statistically significantly higher SMRs were identified for lung cancer (SMR = 145, 95% CI 100-203, p-value = 0.047) and cancer of the kidney and other genitourinary organs among women (SMR = 368, 95% CI 119-858, p-value = 0.025). Elevated SMRs for several other cancers were also noted (lip, oral cavity and pharynx 344, stomach 121, female breast 134, prostate 128, and leukaemias 168), but these did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions Elevated cancer mortality in the Oinofita area of Greece supports the hypothesis of hexavalent chromium carcinogenicity via the oral ingestion pathway of exposure. Further studies are needed to determine whether this association is causal, and to establish preventive guidelines and public health recommendations. PMID:21609468

  14. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among schoolchildren in Greece: the role of sex, degree of urbanisation and seasonality.

    PubMed

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Hulshof, Toine; Bourhis, Anne-Sophie; Hull, George L J; Dowling, Kirsten G; Kiely, Mairead E; Cashman, Kevin D

    2017-10-02

    The current study was aiming to report the prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status among schoolchildren in Greece and investigate the role of sex, urbanisation and seasonality on vitamin D status. A sample of 2386 schoolchildren (9-13 years old) from four distinct prefectures was examined. The prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration <30 and <50 nmol/l (vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency respectively) was 5·2 and 52·5 %, respectively. Girls had a higher prevalence of 25(OH)D<30 (7·2 v. 3·2 %) and 50 nmol/l (57·0 v. 48·0 %) than boys (P<0·001). The highest prevalence rates of 25(OH)D<30 and 50 nmol/l (9·1 and 73·1 %, respectively) were observed during spring (April to June), whereas the lowest (1·5 and 31·9 %, respectively) during autumn (October to December). The prevalence of 25(OH)D<50 nmol/l was higher in urban/semi-urban than rural regions, particularly during spring months (74·6 v. 47·2 %; P<0·001). Female sex, urban/semi-urban region of residence and spring months were found to increase the likelihood of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency, with the highest OR observed for spring months (7·47; 95 % CI 3·23, 17·3 and 5·14; 95 % CI 3·84, 6·89 for 25(OH)D<30 and 50 nmol/l respectively). In conclusion, despite the southerly latitude, the prevalence of low vitamin D status among primary schoolchildren in Greece is comparable to or exceeds the prevalence reported among children and adolescents on a European level. Sub-populations at highest risk are girls in urban/semi-urban areas during spring months, thus indicating the need for effective initiatives to support adequate vitamin D status in these population groups.

  15. Population-based sexual behavior surveys in China: Liuzhou compared with other prefectural cities.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yingying; Abler, Laurie; Pan, Suiming; Henderson, Gail E; Wang, Xin; Yao, Xingliang; Parish, William L

    2014-02-01

    Sexual behaviors in China are rapidly changing; simultaneously, sexually transmitted infections (STI)/HIV prevalence is increasing in the general population. To investigate these major shifts, we examined sexual behaviors and self-reported STI in one prefectural city in southern China, Liuzhou, and compared it to other prefectural cities throughout China. We used adults age 18-39 from two sets of population-based surveys that paralleled each other in both content and method. The first set was the Liuzhou survey conducted in 2008 (n = 398). The second set consisted of two national surveys collected in 2006 and 2010 (n = 2,186). Liuzhou respondents reported more active social and sexual behaviors than their national counterparts, including more socializing, dancing, drinking excessively, sexual activity among never married men and women, purchasing commercial sex among men, one-night stands among men, multiple sexual partnerships and self-reported STI among both men and women. Women in Liuzhou reported greater sexual risk behavior than their national counterparts, although overall they reported less than their male counterparts; they were also more likely to have had an abortion than women in other prefectural cities. Our findings provide a comprehensive overview of the sexual context of Liuzhou among the general population, which may help explain the greater STI/HIV prevalence in Liuzhou.

  16. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on acute myocardial infarction in Fukushima prefecture.

    PubMed

    Yamaki, Takayoshi; Nakazato, Kazuhiko; Kijima, Mikihiro; Maruyama, Yukio; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2014-06-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) reportedly increases following a huge disaster. On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake hit a large area of eastern Japan. In Fukushima prefecture, many people suffered from the consequences of the earthquake, the subsequent tsunami, and especially the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. We assessed whether the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) increased after the earthquake. We enrolled AMI patients admitted to 36 hospitals in Fukushima prefecture between March 11, 2009, and March 10, 2013 (n = 3068). We compared the incidence of AMI after the earthquake for more than 3 months and 1 year with that in the control years. The incidence of Fukushima's annual AMI patients (per 100 000 persons) in 2011 was similar to that of previous years (n = 38.9 [2011] vs 37.2 [2009] and 38.5 [2010], P = .581). However, a significantly higher incidence of AMI was found in the Iwaki district after the disaster that corresponded to the 1-year period of observation (n = 38.7 [2011] vs 27.3 [2009] and 32.8 [2010], P = .045). The Great East Japan Earthquake affected the incidence of AMI only in limited areas of Fukushima prefecture.

  17. Genotypic diversity of Theileria orientalis detected from cattle grazing in Kumamoto and Okinawa prefectures of Japan.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Naoaki; Ueno, Akio; Mizuno, Daisuke; Kuboki, Noritaka; Khukhuu, Altangerel; Igarashi, Ikuo; Miyahara, Tokuji; Shiraishi, Takashi; Kudo, Ryuta; Oshiro, Mamoru; Zakimi, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2011-03-01

    Theileria orientalis is a benign protozoan species that is widely distributed in Japan, yet sometimes causes serious economic losses in the livestock industry. In this study, we conducted a molecular survey based on genes encoding the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) and p23 for T. orientalis detected in cattle grazing in southern areas of Japan, consisting of 2 farms in Kumamoto prefecture (Aso and Kuma districts) and 3 farms in Okinawa prefecture (Ishigaki, Iriomote, and Yonaguni Islands). High prevalence rates of T. orientalis infection were shown in all the cattle populations using the diagnostic MPSP- and p23-PCR assays. Phylogenetic analyses revealed 4 MPSP genotypes and 3 p23 genotypes. Furthermore, MPSP genotype-specific PCR methods were developed in this study and wide distributions of 5-district genotypes of T. orientalis were observed for the examined farms. Our results indicate that at least 5 types of T. orientalis exist in Kumamoto and Okinawa prefectures of Japan and that genotype-specific PCR assays are highly applicable for the quarantine of transported cattle and for epidemiological surveys of bovine theileriosis in Japan.

  18. Epidemiology of Echinococcosis among Schoolchildren in Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Huixia; Guan, Yayi; Ma, Xiao; Wang, Liying; Wang, Hu; Su, Guoming; Zhang, Xuefei; Han, Xiumin; Ma, Junying; Liu, Yu Fang; Li, Jun; Zhang, Jingxiao; Wang, Yongshun; Wang, Wei; Du, Rui; Lei, Wen; Wu, Weiping

    2017-01-01

    Echinococcosis is a serious zoonotic parasitic disease that is highly endemic in Qinghai Province. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of echinococcosis among schoolchildren in Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture to improve early diagnosis and treatment of patients and to provide information for echinococcosis prevention and control. A total of 11,260 schoolchildren from five counties (Maqin, Gander, Dari, Jiuzhi, and Banma) in Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai Province, were screened for echinococcosis. Screening involved ultrasound imaging combined with serologic examination as an auxiliary diagnostic test. The prevalence of echinococcosis in the schoolchildren was 2.1% (235/11,260), with a rate of 0.8% for cystic echinococcosis (CE; 89/11,260) and 1.3% for alveolar echinococcosis (AE; 146/11,260). Additionally, one child had a mixed infection. The prevalence ranged between 1.1% and 4.1% among the five investigated counties, and was highest in Dari County (4.1%). The prevalence of echinococcosis was higher in girls than in boys and gradually increased with age. In addition, children with CE mainly had type 1 (CE1) and type 3 (CE3) lesions, and children with AE mainly had small-diameter calcified lesions, suggesting that they were in the early asymptomatic stage of echinococcosis. In conclusion, children of Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture appear to exhibit the highest recorded prevalence of CE and AE globally. Ultrasound is useful for screening populations in regions where both CE and AE are endemic. PMID:28070013

  19. [Investigation on mosquitoes and mosquito-borne viruses in Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province, 2007 and 2010].

    PubMed

    Feng, Yun; Zhang, Hailin; Fu, Shihong; Yang, Weihong; Zhang, Yuzhen; Wang, Piyu; Yang, Jie; Liu, Yonghua; Dong, Chaoliang; Li, Shi; Zhang, Baosen; Yin, Zhengliu; Dong, Xingqi; Wang, Huanyu; Liang, Guodong

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the distribution patterns of mosquito and mosquito-borne viruses in Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province, China. Mosquito samples were collected using the mosquito traps from five counties of Dehong prefecture on July, 2007 and 2010. Mosquito were cell cultured for viral isolation, and positive isolates were identified using RT-PCR and sequence analysis. A total of 43 634 mosquito comprised of 29 species representing six genera were collected. Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Anopheles sinensis comprised 78.69% and 14.77% of the total. Six strains of viruses were isolated from the mosquito pools. RT-PCR and phylogenetic analysis revealed three strains from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, identified as genotype I Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). One strain was identified from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, as Getah virus (GETV). Two strains isolated from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Anopheles vagus were identified as Culex pipiens pallens Densovirus (CppDNV). Cx. tritaeniorhynchus had been the major species of mosquito and mainly transmitting vector of mosquito-borne viruses in Dehong prefecture. Genotype I JEV, GETV and CppDNV were the vectors causing transmission of mosquito-borne diseases in this area. Data from phylogenetic analysis showed that these newly discovered isolates seemed to have had close relationship with those viruses previously circulating in Yunnan and other provinces of China.

  20. Population-based sexual behavior surveys in China: Liuzhou compared with other prefectural cities

    PubMed Central

    Yingying, Huang; Abler, Laurie; Suiming, Pan; Henderson, Gail E.; Xin, Wang; Xingliang, Yao; Parish, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual behaviors in China are rapidly changing; simultaneously, STI/HIV prevalence is increasing in the general population. To investigate these major shifts, we examined sexual behaviors and self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STI) in one prefectural city in southern China, Liuzhou, and compared it to other prefectural cities throughout China. We used adults age 18-39 from two sets of population-based surveys that paralleled each other in both content and method. The first set was the Liuzhou survey conducted in 2008 (n=398). The second set consisted of two national surveys collected in 2006 and 2010 (n=2186). Liuzhou respondents reported more active social and sexual behaviors than their national counterparts, including more socializing, dancing, drinking excessively, sexual activity among never married men and women, purchasing commercial sex among men, one-night stands among men, multiple sexual partnerships and self-reported STI among both men and women. Women in Liuzhou reported greater sexual risk behavior than their national counterparts, although overall they reported less than their male counterparts; they were also more likely to have had an abortion than women in other prefectural cities. Our findings provide a comprehensive overview of the sexual context of Liuzhou among the general population, which may help explain the greater STI/HIV prevalence in Liuzhou. PMID:24174289

  1. Composition and production rate of medical waste from a small producer in Greece.

    PubMed

    Graikos, Anastasios; Voudrias, Evangelos; Papazachariou, Athanasios; Iosifidis, Nikolaos; Kalpakidou, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the composition and production rate of medical waste from the health care facility of social insurance institute, a small waste producer in Xanthi, Greece. Specifically, produced medical waste from the clinical pathology (medical microbiology) laboratory, the X-ray laboratory and the surgery and injection therapy departments of the health facility was monitored for six working weeks. A total of 240 kg medical solid waste was manually separated and weighed and 330 L of liquid medical waste was measured and classified. The hazardous waste fraction (%w/w) of the medical solid waste was 91.6% for the clinical pathology laboratory, 12.9% for the X-ray laboratory, 24.2% for the surgery departments and 17.6% for the injection therapy department. The infectious waste fraction (%w/w) of the hazardous medical solid waste was 75.6% for the clinical pathology laboratory, 0% for the X-ray laboratory, 100% for the surgery departments and 75.6% for the injection therapy department. The total hazardous medical solid waste production rate was 64+/-15 g/patient/d for the clinical pathology laboratory, 7.2+/-1.6 g/patient/d for the X-ray laboratory, 8.3+/-5.1 g/patient/d for the surgery departments and 24+/-9 g/patient/d for the injection therapy department. Liquid waste was produced by the clinical pathology laboratory (infectious-and-toxic) and the X-ray laboratory (toxic). The production rate for the clinical pathology laboratory was 0.03+/-0.003 L/patient/d and for the X-ray laboratory was 0.06+/-0.006 L/patient/d. Due to the small amount produced, it was suggested that the most suitable management scheme would be to transport the hazardous medical waste, after source-separation, to the Prefectural Hospital of Xanthi to be treated with the hospital waste. Assuming this data is representative of other small medical facilities, medical waste production can be estimated for such facilities distributed around Greece.

  2. Patients' perceptions of generic drugs in Greece.

    PubMed

    Skaltsas, Leonora N; Vasileiou, Konstantinos Z

    2015-11-01

    The use of generic drugs is growing increasingly around the world and in Greece, in particular, in order to reduce pharmaceutical expenditure. However, patients' perceptions and attitudes about generics have only partially been studied so far in Greece. This study aimed to examine the factors that influence the attitude of patients and consumers regarding generic drugs. A questionnaire survey of 364 patients visiting a pharmacy was conducted. The questionnaire consisted of 29 questions, including questions regarding their knowledge about generics, the reasons for using them, their previous experience, their willingness for generic substitution, and the factors behind these choices. Nearly half of the participants in the survey know the term 'generic' and that it has a lower price compared to the brand name drug. Their views on safety and efficacy vary significantly and the main source of information on generics is the media and the internet. The lack of knowledge is the main barrier for attitudes of doctors. Health professionals play the most influential role for the substitution of a branded drug by a generic, followed by the cost of the generic. Almost half of the patients know about generic drugs, with their lower price being the most popular feature which most patients are familiar with. It seems that primarily the doctor and, subsequently the pharmacist play the most important role in a patient's decision to replace his/her medicine with a generic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Epidemiology of aids defining conditions in Greece.

    PubMed

    Masgala, A; Nikolopoulos, G; Tsantes, A; Paraskeva, D

    2004-12-01

    To examine the secular trends of all AIDS opportunistic infections to occur first (OIs) in Greece, by year, by gender and by mode of transmission. The study included all AIDS defining conditions reported among Greek residents diagnosed with AIDS from 1981 to June 2003 and notified to the Hellenic Centre of Infectious Diseases Control. The analysis of trends in AIDS defining conditions in Greece has been performed only for the period 1993--2003. From 1981 to the first six months of 2003, 2,394 AIDS cases, 2,361 adults and 33 children, have been reported. HIV wasting syndrome was the most frequent OI to occur first followed by PCP pneumonia and Kaposi sarcoma. The frequency at which OIs occurred first varied by sex. Kaposi sarcoma was more frequent in males while tuberculosis and oesophageal candidiasis were more frequent in females. The frequency at which OIs occurred first varied also by exposure mode. Kaposi sarcoma was more frequent among men who have sex with men but that was not the case for the remaining transmission categories. From 1993 to the first six months of 2003 a downward trend was noticed only for chronic simplex disease. Since the introduction of HAART, an increasing trend was noticed for CMV disease, recurrent pneumonia, oesophageal candidiasis, Burkitt and immunoblastic lymphoma. Further epidemiological studies are needed to assess the OIs trends in coming years in order to plan prevention strategies and future medical care needs.

  4. Anciet marble quarries in Lesvos island Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mataragkas, M.; Mataragkas, D.

    2009-04-01

    ANCIENT MARBLE QUARRIES IN LESBOS ISLAND, GREECE Varti- Matarangas M.1 & Matarangas D. 1 Institute of Geological and Mining Exploration (IGME), Olympic Village, Entrance C, ACHARNAE 13677, GREECE myrsini@igme.gr , myrsini@otenet.g r A B S T R A C T Ten ancient marble quarries of Lesbos Island, most of them previously unknown, have been studied, in the frame of the research study on the ancient marble quarries in the Aegean Sea. In the present paper the geological, petrological and morphological features of the aforementioned quarries are examined. Concerning the six ancient quarries located in the areas of Tarti, Agia Paraskevi (Tsaf), Mageiras, Loutra, Latomi (Plomari) and Thermi, the authochthonous neopaleozoic unit constitutes their geological formation, while their hosting lithological formations are the included crystalline limestone lens like beds. In two ancient quarries in the areas Moria and Alyfanta, the geological formation is the authochthonous upper Triassic series and the hosting lithological formation the upper Triassic carbonate sequence, while in the areas of Akrasi-Abeliko and Karyni, the geological formation is the thrust Triassic unit and the lithological hosting formations are the included strongly deformed or not crystalline limestone lenticular beds. Furthermore, the petrographic features were also determined permitting the identification of the building stones that have been used.

  5. Survival rate of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Wakayama Prefecture, Japan, 1966 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Kihira, Tameko; Yoshida, Sohei; Okamoto, Kazusi; Kazimoto, Yoshinori; Ookawa, Masae; Hama, Kiwa; Miwa, Hideto; Kondo, Tomoyoshi

    2008-05-15

    To investigate longitudinal changes in the survival rate of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Wakayama Prefecture, Japan, we made a retrospective hospital-based study of 454 patients diagnosed with motor neuron disease (MND) at Wakayama Medical University (WMU) Hospital between 1966 and 2005. Of the 454 patients, 240 who were born and who lived in Wakayama Prefecture were diagnosed with definite or probable ALS during this period, according to the El Escorial criteria. The clinical data of the 240 patients, including sex, birth date, birthplace, address, age at onset, initial symptoms, date when respiratory support was applied (tracheostomy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation, or mandatory artificial ventilation), and date of death were reviewed retrospectively. The age at onset of patients who developed initial symptoms before 1990 was 53.4+/-10.6 (mean+/-S.D.) and that in 1990 or thereafter was 64.8+/-10.3, respectively, showing a significant difference (p<0.0001). Clinical duration was determined from onset to either date of death or initiation of respiratory support in this study. Survival rate was compared using the Kaplan-Meier method according to age at onset, sex, initial symptoms and year of onset. Mean age at onset shifted towards older age according to a later year of onset, due to the overwhelming senility rate in Wakayama Prefecture. Older onset patients had a significantly poorer survival rate than younger onset patients when it was compared based on 10-year age groups (log rank, p<0.0001). Male patients had a poorer survival rate than female patients (p<0.0001). ALS patients with bulbar palsy onset showed shorter clinical durations than those with lower leg onset (p<0.0071, Breslow-Gehan-Wilcoxon test). Patients over 70 years old more frequently showed bulbar palsy onset compared to those younger than 69 (p=0.003). In a comparison of year of onset before and after 1990, ALS patients after 1990 had characteristics of older age

  6. Mysida and Lophogastrida of Greece: a preliminary checklist

    PubMed Central

    Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Bailly, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The checklist of Mysida and Lophogastrida of Greece was created within the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS), which is one of the applications of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) resuming efforts to develop a complete checklist of species recorded and reported from Greek waters. The objectives of the present study were to update and cross-check taxonomically all records of Mysida and Lophogastrida species known to occur in Greek waters in order to search for inaccuracies and omissions. New information The up-to-date checklist of Mysida and Lophogastrida of Greece comprises 49 species, classified to 25 genera. PMID:27932912

  7. Soil erosion prediction using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) in a GIS framework, Chania, Northwestern Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouli, Maria; Soupios, Pantelis; Vallianatos, Filippos

    2009-04-01

    Soil erosion is a growing problem in southern Greece and particularly in the island of Crete, the biggest Greek island with great agricultural activity. Soil erosion not only decreases agricultural productivity, but also reduces the water availability. In the current study, an effort to predict potential annual soil loss has been conducted. For the prediction, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) has been adopted in a Geographical Information System framework. The RUSLE factors were calculated (in the form of raster layers) for the nine major watersheds which cover the northern part of the Chania Prefecture. The R-factor was calculated from monthly and annual precipitation data. The K-factor was estimated using soil maps available from the Soil Geographical Data Base of Europe at a scale of 1:1,000,000. The LS-factor was calculated from a 30-m digital elevation model. The C-factor was calculated using Remote Sensing techniques. The P-factor in absence of data was set to 1. The results show that an extended part of the area is undergoing severe erosion. The mean annual soil loss is predicted up to ˜200 (t/ha year-1) for some watersheds showing extended erosion and demanding the attention of local administrators.

  8. The Impact of Japan's 2004 Postgraduate Training Program on Intra-Prefectural Distribution of Pediatricians in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Rie; Wang, Wei; Yamaguchi, Norihiro; Tamura, Hiroshi; Goto, Rei; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Objective Inequity in physician distribution poses a challenge to many health systems. In Japan, a new postgraduate training program for all new medical graduates was introduced in 2004, and researchers have argued that this program has increased inequalities in physician distribution. We examined the trends in the geographic distribution of pediatricians as well as all physicians from 1996 to 2010 to identify the impact of the launch of the new training program. Methods The Gini coefficient was calculated using municipalities as the study unit within each prefecture to assess whether there were significant changes in the intra-prefectural distribution of all physicians and pediatricians before and after the launch of the new training program. The effect of the new program was quantified by estimating the difference in the slope in the time trend of the Gini coefficients before and after 2004 using a linear change-point regression design. We categorized 47 prefectures in Japan into two groups: 1) predominantly urban and 2) others by the definition from OECD to conduct stratified analyses by urban-rural status. Results The trends in physician distribution worsened after 2004 for all physicians (p value<.0001) and pediatricians (p value = 0.0057). For all physicians, the trends worsened after 2004 both in predominantly urban prefectures (p value = 0.0012) and others (p value<0.0001), whereas, for pediatricians, the distribution worsened in others (p value = 0.0343), but not in predominantly urban prefectures (p value = 0.0584). Conclusion The intra-prefectural distribution of physicians worsened after the launch of the new training program, which may reflect the impact of the new postgraduate program. In pediatrics, changes in the Gini trend differed significantly before and after the launch of the new training program in others, but not in predominantly urban prefectures. Further observation is needed to explore how this difference in trends affects

  9. Follow-up study of the regional quota system of Japanese medical schools and prefecture scholarship programmes: a study protocol.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Takeuchi, Keisuke; Tanaka, Junko; Tazuma, Susumu; Inoue, Kazuo; Owaki, Tetsuhiro; Iguchi, Seitaro; Maeda, Takahiro

    2016-04-15

    Given the shortage of physicians, particularly in rural areas, the Japanese government has rapidly expanded the number of medical school students by adding chiikiwaku (regional quotas) since 2008. Quota entrants now account for 17% of all medical school entrants. Quota entrants are usually local high school graduates who receive a scholarship from the prefecture government. In exchange, they temporarily practise in that prefecture, including its rural areas, after graduation. Many prefectures also have scholarship programmes for non-quota students in exchange for postgraduate in-prefecture practice. The objective of this cohort study, conducted by the Japanese Council for Community-based Medical Education, is to evaluate the outcomes of the quota admission system and prefecture scholarship programmes nationwide. There are 3 groups of study participants: quota without scholarship, quota with scholarship and non-quota with scholarship. Under the support of government ministries and the Association of Japan Medical Colleges, and participation of all prefectures and medical schools, passing rate of the National Physician License Examination, scholarship buy-out rate, geographic distribution and specialties distribution of each group are analysed. Participants who voluntarily participated are followed by linking their baseline information to data in the government's biennial Physician Census. Results to date have shown that, despite medical schools' concerns about academic quality, the passing rate of the National Physician License Examination in each group was higher than that of all medical school graduates. The Ethics Committee for Epidemiological Research of Hiroshima University and the Research Ethics Committee of Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences permitted this study. No individually identifiable results will be presented in conferences or published in journals. The aggregated results will be reported to concerned government ministries

  10. Follow-up study of the regional quota system of Japanese medical schools and prefecture scholarship programmes: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Takeuchi, Keisuke; Tanaka, Junko; Tazuma, Susumu; Inoue, Kazuo; Owaki, Tetsuhiro; Iguchi, Seitaro; Maeda, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Given the shortage of physicians, particularly in rural areas, the Japanese government has rapidly expanded the number of medical school students by adding chiikiwaku (regional quotas) since 2008. Quota entrants now account for 17% of all medical school entrants. Quota entrants are usually local high school graduates who receive a scholarship from the prefecture government. In exchange, they temporarily practise in that prefecture, including its rural areas, after graduation. Many prefectures also have scholarship programmes for non-quota students in exchange for postgraduate in-prefecture practice. The objective of this cohort study, conducted by the Japanese Council for Community-based Medical Education, is to evaluate the outcomes of the quota admission system and prefecture scholarship programmes nationwide. Methods and analysis There are 3 groups of study participants: quota without scholarship, quota with scholarship and non-quota with scholarship. Under the support of government ministries and the Association of Japan Medical Colleges, and participation of all prefectures and medical schools, passing rate of the National Physician License Examination, scholarship buy-out rate, geographic distribution and specialties distribution of each group are analysed. Participants who voluntarily participated are followed by linking their baseline information to data in the government's biennial Physician Census. Results to date have shown that, despite medical schools' concerns about academic quality, the passing rate of the National Physician License Examination in each group was higher than that of all medical school graduates. Ethics and dissemination The Ethics Committee for Epidemiological Research of Hiroshima University and the Research Ethics Committee of Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences permitted this study. No individually identifiable results will be presented in conferences or published in journals. The aggregated

  11. CRF07_BC Strain Dominates the HIV-1 Epidemic in Injection Drug Users in Liangshan Prefecture of Sichuan, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Wei, Daying; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Li, Tianyi; Gui, Tao; Wood, Charles; Liu, Yongjian; Li, Hanping; Bao, Zuoyi; Liu, Siyang; Wang, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Liangshan prefecture in Sichuan province is an area in China severely affected by the HIV epidemic, with intravenous drug use (IDU) as the main risk factor. No reports on HIV subtypes prevalent in IDUs in Liangshan prefecture could be found. In this study, we have characterized the genotypes of HIV-1 in the IDU population in Liangshan prefecture and further determined the phylogenetic relationship of the CRF07_BC strains to HIV-1 sequences from the other regions of China, including Xinjiang and Yunnan provinces, to explore the pattern and possible diffusion pathway of HIV-1 in these regions. HIV-1-seropositive drug-naive IDUs identified in Liangshan prefecture, Sichuan province were enrolled in 2009. Full-length gag and pol genes were amplified by reverse transcription and nested PCR and then sequenced. All of the sequences were subtyped. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using the neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods. Divergence times were estimated using a Bayesian molecular clock approach. CRF07_BC was found to be the predominant strain in IDUs in Liangshan prefecture (95.5%). The CRF07_BC strains from Liangshan prefecture were found to be intermixed with those from Yunnan province in phylogenetic trees. The CRF07_BC sequences from Xinjiang province can be grouped into several clusters, suggesting that the expansion of the CRF07_BC epidemic in Xinjiang province was the result of a local epidemic driven by multiple independent introductions in the late 1990s. Only low-level drug-resistant viruses were found in the IDU population. CRF07_BC strains from Liangshan prefecture were more similar to those from Yunnan province than those from Xinjiang province. This finding will contribute to our understanding of the distribution, the evolution, and the potential source of CRF07_BC founder strains, and will also provide useful information for the development of strategies to prevent transmission. PMID:25560398

  12. Vocational Education and Training in Greece: The European Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paleocrassas, Stamatis

    1992-01-01

    Gives a brief review of Greece's current vocational education/training system, compares it to European models, describes the European Community process of harmonization of vocational qualifications, and discusses new legislation establishing a national vocational education/training system. (SK)

  13. Suicide in Greece: 2001-2011.

    PubMed

    Kontaxakis, V; Papaslanis, Th; Havaki-Kontaxaki, B; Tsouvelas, G; Giotakos, O; Papadimitriou, G Ν

    2013-01-01

    Since 2008 several European countries have fallen into a financial crisis. This crisis has mainly affected the Greek population. The lower of income and the increase of unemployment as consequences of crisis lead to negative effects on people's mental health. Usually, in periods of economic crisis there is an increase of suicidality of population. The aim of this study is to examine the changes of suicide rates in Greece during the last decade (2001-2011) with particular consideration in the recent period of economic crisis (2008-2011). Data regarding the greek general population and the crude data on suicides were obtained from the Hellenic Statistical Authority (ELSTAT). We assessed the specific suicide rate, i.e. the number of suicide cases per 100.000 inhabitants (SSR) using population data on the 2001 and 2011 census. Yearly and mean total, age and sex-SSR were calculated in five years age groups. There were no suicide cases among children under the age of fifteen. We compared total and male, female SSR during the period before the crisis (2001-2007) and during the crisis (2008-2011). During the decade 2001-2011 a total number of 4133 suicide cases were recorded. There were 3423 (82.8%) male suicides and 710 (17.2%) female suicides. During the decade 2001-2011 total SSR increased by 38.4%. In males increased by 33.1% and in females by 69.6%. In the period before the crisis (2001-2007) total SSR decreased by 3.9%. In males decreased by 8.4% but in females increased by 22.3%. During the period of crisis (2008-2011) total SSR increased by 27.2%. In males increased by 26.9% and in females by 28.5%. There was a statistically significant increase in total SSR during the crisis regarding subjects 50-54 years old (t=3.43, p=0.007) and in total SSR of males (t=2.31, p=0.047) as well as of the males age groups 50-54 (t=3.56, p=0.006), 45-49 (t=2.87, p=0.02), 30-34 (t=2.96, p=0.02). There were no statistically significant differences both in total SSR and in SSR of all

  14. Greece's health crisis: from austerity to denialism.

    PubMed

    Kentikelenis, Alexander; Karanikolos, Marina; Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2014-02-22

    Greece's economic crisis has deepened since it was bailed out by the international community in 2010. The country underwent the sixth consecutive year of economic contraction in 2013, with its economy shrinking by 20% between 2008 and 2012, and anaemic or no growth projected for 2014. Unemployment has more than tripled, from 7·7% in 2008 to 24·3% in 2012, and long-term unemployment reached 14·4%. We review the background to the crisis, assess how austerity measures have affected the health of the Greek population and their access to public health services, and examine the political response to the mounting evidence of a Greek public health tragedy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Twins in Ancient Greece: a synopsis.

    PubMed

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2016-01-01

    This brief outline associates twins with several aspects of life in Ancient Greece. In Greek mythology twins caused ambivalent reactions and were believed to have ambivalent feelings for each other. Very often, they were viewed as the representatives of the dualistic nature of the universe. Heteropaternal superfecundation, which dominates in ancient myths, explains on one hand, the god-like qualities and, on the other hand, the mortal nature of many twins. An assumption is presented that legends referring to twins might reflect the territorial expansions of Ancient Greeks in Northern Mediterranean, around the Black Sea, in Asia Minor, as well as North East Africa. In conclusion, in Greek antiquity, twins have been used as transitional figures between myth and reality.

  16. Greece Financial Crisis and Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Mechili, Aggelos E; Kalokairinou, Athena; Kaitelidou, Dafni; Diomidous, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    The last six years the global community is facing an economic crisis that first appeared in USA. This crisis has a lot of impacts especially in health sector. Unemployment, job insecurity and the loss of disposable income have a significant impact in health too. The main objective of this research was to investigate the quality of life of the general population in Greece during the financial crisis. To collect the data it has been used the Greek version of Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36v2). In general, income, level of education, cohabitation and parenthood had a significant impact in quality of life. As a conclusion, unemployed participants' score was lower in the entire dimensions and in the two summary scales too.

  17. Preterm birth in ancient Greece: a synopsis.

    PubMed

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2017-01-01

    This report refers to preterm birth in Ancient Greece based on mythological, historical and archeological data. The two antique goddesses, patronesses of labor and birth, Artemis and Eileithyia, cared for full-term, as well as preterm infants, among them for the mythological preterms Dionysos and Eurystheus. The former was rapidly transported by Hermes and received special care by the nymphs Hyades in a mountain cave with "incubator" properties. Historical data are related to the nine months duration of a normal pregnancy, to the definition of "Elitomina" (preterms), the lower limit of viability, the causes for preterm birth, the existence of small for gestational age infants and relevant causes, the physical examination of neonates and postpartum care. Lastly, excavations in Athens and Astypalaia discovered burials - in wells or pots - of preterm infants with gestational age 24-37 weeks.

  18. Nowcasting extreme weather events over Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsafados, Petros; Nomikou, Vera; Mavromatidis, Elias; Papadopoulos, Anastasios; Lagouvardos, Konstantinos; Kotroni, Vassiliki

    2014-05-01

    Accurate and consistent very short-term prediction (nowcasting) of high-impact weather events can lead to significant improvement in warnings and advisories providing a direct impact on the risk management. To this end, an advanced mesoscale meteorological data assimilation tool, the Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS), has been implemented in order to serve as an early warning system. LAPS incorporates surface and upper air observations (METAR, SYNOP, satellite, soundings, radar, aircraft etc) into large-scale gridded data (as background fields) and produces high spatial and temporal resolution analysis fields and early forecasts. This study presents the performance of the LAPS system in describing two unusual events of hazardous weather conditions over Greece. The first case study is characterized by the passage of a cyclonic system accompanied with cold fronts over Southern Greece. Heavy downpour, lightning and flooding were the main characteristics of the storm that affected Athens metropolitan area on February 22nd 2013. In the second case study the passage of a cold front over SE Aegean Sea led in a destructive and deadly flash flooding that affected the Northern areas of Rhodes Island on November 22nd 2013. This second flash flood event was triggered by the extreme precipitation (almost 100 mm in 4 hours) and killed 4 people making it the deadliest ever for the area. For both case studies, the conventional numerical weather prediction models operating at various research institutes and universities provided a rather insufficient spatiotemporal estimation of the extreme precipitation. For these cases, the LAPS-based nowcasting procedure has been applied with and without the ingestion of high resolution remote sensed precipitation estimates. The LAPS outputs have been evaluated against independent observations obtained from a dense network of surface meteorological stations. Results indicate that LAPS outputs were better than those obtained from the

  19. The practice of electroconvulsive therapy in Greece.

    PubMed

    Kaliora, Styliani C; Braga, Raphael J; Petrides, Georgios; Chatzimanolis, John; Papadimitriou, George N; Zervas, Iannis M

    2013-09-01

    To describe the practice of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in Greece. A survey was conducted during the academic year 2008-2009. Electroconvulsive therapy use was investigated for 2007. All civilian institutions providing inpatient care were included. Centers that provided ECT completed a 57-item questionnaire. Centers that did not offer ECT completed a 13-item questionnaire. Fifty-five (82.1%) of 67 institutions responded. Electroconvulsive therapy was offered in 18 hospitals. Only 2 of 10 university hospitals offered ECT. Overall, 137 patients were treated with 1271 sessions in 2007. Only 1.47% discontinued treatment owing to adverse events. There were no deaths. Schizophrenia was the most common diagnosis (41.3%) among those receiving ECT, followed by major depression (28.9%), bipolar depression (9.1%), catatonia (4.1%), suicidal ideation (3.3%), and schizoaffective disorder (2.5%). Physicians considered major depression (93.8%), catatonia (86.5%), schizophrenia (56.3%), and mania (50%) the most appropriate indications. Written informed consent was required in 77.8% of the institutions, whereas the rest required verbal consent. Bilateral ECT was the preferred electrode placement (88.9%). Modified ECT was used exclusively. Propofol was the preferred anesthetic (44.4%), followed by thiopental (38.9%). Seven (38.9%) of 18 hospitals used a fixed stimulus dose at first treatment. Five (27.8%) of 18 hospitals used the half-age method. Continuation/maintenance ECT was used in 33.3% of the hospitals. Outpatient ECT was seldom used. Lack of training, difficult access to anesthesiology, billing issues, and stigma were cited as the main impediments to the practice of ECT. Electroconvulsive therapy is practiced in moderate numbers in Greece and almost exclusively on an inpatient basis. Lack of training and lack of availability of anesthesiologists were cited as the most common obstacles to providing ECT.

  20. Greece’s Debt Crisis: Overview, Policy Responses, and Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-07

    economic downturn (which requires expansionary fiscal policies ) – are at odds with each other. Some question, then, how long the government will be able to...countries, like Greece, have had higher levels of wage growth and more expansionary fiscal policies , leading to less competitive exports and lower...unified monetary policy and diverse fiscal policies . It has also come to light that complex financial instruments may have played a role in helping Greece

  1. Isolation of Legionella pneumophila from hotels of Greece.

    PubMed

    Alexiou, S D; Antoniadis, A; Papapaganagiotou, J; Stefanou, T

    1989-03-01

    Twenty water samples collected from 6 hotels situated in various areas of Greece were examined for the presence of Legionella pneumophila and Legionella-like organisms. Five of the six hotels included in this investigation were associated with cases of legionellosis. Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1 and 8 were isolated from four of six hotels, mainly from the hot water supply system. This is the first isolation and identification of L. pneumophila in Greece.

  2. PRESENT CONDITION AND MEASURES TO EXPAND OF VOLUNTARY AGREEMENT ON PLASTIC SHOPPING BAGS REDUCTION AT THE PREFECTURAL LEVEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Mayuka; Kanaya, Ken

    Purpose of this research is to clear present condition and measures to expand of voluntary agreement on plastic shopping bags reduction at the prefectural level. Methods of this research are questionnaire survey to prefectures implementing the agreement and survey by i town page to the number of stores of companies and the number of companies in the prefectures. Findings of this research are as follows: 1. The refusal rate of plastic shopping bags was 10-40% before the implementation of voluntary agreements. And the rate is approximately 70-90% after the implementation. Therefore, before and after the implementation of voluntary agreements, the refusal rate of plastic shopping bags is approximately 40-70% less. 2. It is suggested that the time and number of meetings from proposal to conclusion of the agreement are related in some way, to the ratio of stores participating. On the participation of administration, the ratio of stores participating in the case in which prefecture and cities participate is higher than in the case in which prefecture participates.

  3. Ascidiacea (Chordata: Tunicata) of Greece: an updated checklist.

    PubMed

    Antoniadou, Chryssanthi; Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Bailly, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The checklist of the ascidian fauna (Tunicata: Ascidiacea) of Greece was compiled within the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS), an application of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) aiming to produce a complete checklist of species recorded from Greece. This checklist was constructed by updating an existing one with the inclusion of recently published records. All the reported species from Greek waters were taxonomically revised and cross-checked with the Ascidiacea World Database. The updated checklist of the class Ascidiacea of Greece comprises 75 species, classified in 33 genera, 12 families, and 3 orders. In total, 8 species have been added to the previous species list (4 Aplousobranchia, 2 Phlebobranchia, and 2 Stolidobranchia). Aplousobranchia was the most speciose order, followed by Stolidobranchia. Most species belonged to the families Didemnidae, Polyclinidae, Pyuridae, Ascidiidae, and Styelidae; these 4 families comprise 76% of the Greek ascidian species richness. The present effort revealed the limited taxonomic research effort devoted to the ascidian fauna of Greece, which is attributed to the lack of experts and low sampling effort. Therefore, major knowledge gaps on the ascidian diversity of Greece occur and further research in this field is needed.

  4. Ascidiacea (Chordata: Tunicata) of Greece: an updated checklist

    PubMed Central

    Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Bailly, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The checklist of the ascidian fauna (Tunicata: Ascidiacea) of Greece was compiled within the framework of the Greek Taxon Information System (GTIS), an application of the LifeWatchGreece Research Infrastructure (ESFRI) aiming to produce a complete checklist of species recorded from Greece. This checklist was constructed by updating an existing one with the inclusion of recently published records. All the reported species from Greek waters were taxonomically revised and cross-checked with the Ascidiacea World Database. New information The updated checklist of the class Ascidiacea of Greece comprises 75 species, classified in 33 genera, 12 families, and 3 orders. In total, 8 species have been added to the previous species list (4 Aplousobranchia, 2 Phlebobranchia, and 2 Stolidobranchia). Aplousobranchia was the most speciose order, followed by Stolidobranchia. Most species belonged to the families Didemnidae, Polyclinidae, Pyuridae, Ascidiidae, and Styelidae; these 4 families comprise 76% of the Greek ascidian species richness. The present effort revealed the limited taxonomic research effort devoted to the ascidian fauna of Greece, which is attributed to the lack of experts and low sampling effort. Therefore, major knowledge gaps on the ascidian diversity of Greece occur and further research in this field is needed. PMID:27932910

  5. Inter-prefecture disparity in under-5 mortality: 115 year trend in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Chie; Moriichi, Akinori; Morisaki, Naho; Gai-Tobe, Ruoyan; Ishiguro, Akira; Mori, Rintaro

    2017-07-01

    Child poverty is a growing, serious issue in Japan, where various social disparities are increasing. Numerous reports have focused on the relationship between social inequity and health, but few studies have assessed how the overall magnitude of disparities in child health has changed in the course of drastic social and economic transitions from 1899 to more recent times. In this study, we assessed the trend of the under-5 mortality rate (U5MR) and its inter-prefecture disparity in Japan. This is a secondary analysis of Japan's vital statistics data from 1899 to 2014 (115 years), which covers a core period of modern Japan. We calculated the U5MR of each prefecture and its Theil index by year to assess the trend of inter-prefecture disparity in child health from 1899 to 2014. The U5MR monotonically decreased from 238 per 1,000 births in 1899 to 3 in 2014. The Theil index of the U5MR increased in the post-war period, peaked in 1962 (0.027) and gradually reduced to <0.01 in the 1970s. In the 2000s, however, even though U5MR continued to decrease, the Theil index started to increase, and in 2014 (0.013) it exceeded that in 1970 and was more similar to that before World War II. The disparities in child health appear to be widening, and may serve as a warning to today's society that increasing socioeconomic gradients may lead to rising health inequity among children. Further investigations into the causes, mechanisms, and possible interventions are needed. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  6. Assessing sediment connectivity to understand dynamics of contaminated sediment within coastal catchments of Fukushima Prefecture (Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartin, Caroline; Evrard, Olivier; Onda, Yuichi; Ottlé, Catherine; Brossoni, Camille; Lefèvre, Irène; Lepage, Hugo; Bonté, Philippe; Patin, Jeremy; Ayrault, Sophie

    2013-04-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident has led to the release of large radionuclide quantities (e.g., about 20 PBq of Cs-137 and 200 PBq of I-131) into the atmosphere. About 80% of the release was blown out and over the Pacific Ocean. The remaining 20% of emissions were deposited as wet and dry deposits on soils of Fukushima Prefecture, mainly between 15-16 March. As most radionuclides are strongly sorbed by fine particles, they are likely to be redistributed within the landscape in association with soil and sediment particles transported by runoff and erosion processes. A spatial analysis of Ag-110m:Cs-137 ratio in soils and river sediments provided a way to trace those transfers. This fingerprinting study showed that particles eroded from inland mountain ranges exposed to the highest initial radionuclide fallout were already dispersed along coastal rivers, most likely during summer typhoons and spring snowmelt. Those results suggest that hillslopes and rivers have become a perennial source of radioactive contaminants to the Pacific Ocean off Fukushima Prefecture. This study aims to specify the location and nature of the preferential sources supplying contaminated material to the main rivers draining the Fukushima contamination plume. To this end, important parameters controlling soil erosion and sediment transfers within catchments, i.e. landscape morphology and land use characteristics, were preliminary derived from DEM data and satellite images for the River Mano, Nitta and Ota catchments (ca. 525 km²) draining the most radioactive part of the contamination plume that formed across Fukushima Prefecture. Then, those data were used to compute indices assessing the potential sediment connectivity (i) between hillslopes and rivers and (ii) between hillslopes and catchment outlets. Finally, spatially-distributed values of connectivity indices were confronted to gamma-emitting radionuclide activities (Cs-134, Cs-137 and Ag-110m) measured in riverbed

  7. Multiple Origins and Admixture of Recently Expanding Japanese Wild Boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) Populations in Toyama Prefecture of Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yuji; Adachi, Fuminari; Sawamura, Akira

    2016-02-01

    Japanese wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) populations have expanded drastically throughout the Japanese Archipelago in recent decades. To elucidate the dispersal patterns of Japanese wild boar in Toyama Prefecture in central Japan, we used a multi-locus microsatellite DNA analysis to determine its population structure and the degree of admixture. The deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was detected in either total or separate regional wild boar samples from Toyama Prefecture. This result could be explained by the Wahlund effect resulting from the mixture of samples from different sources. Bayesian structure analysis, assignment test, and factorial correspondence analysis suggested that wild boars around Toyama Prefecture derive from at least two ancestral sources. The migration and possible mating of each individual may have occurred recently and continued in each geographically neighboring region. The present genetic results may be useful for prediction of future dispersal patterns of Japanese wild boar, as well as other animals in expansion.

  8. Supports for libraries'restoration from the Great East Japan Earthquake : Challenges we address at Miyagi Prefectural Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Shinichiro

    This article overviews the situations of damage and reconstruction of mainly public libraries in Miyagi Prefecture about 9 months after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Serious damage of library buildings was due not only to the tsunami or seismic sea wave but to violent shaking, the latter less reported by the media. We at the Miyagi Prefectural Library implemented reconstruction assistance for regional public libraries in both direct and indirect ways. Among them, we report in detail on the support we offered until the Minami-sanriku Town Library reopened its service. We highlight a prefectural library's role, acting between supporters and those supportees, to consider the necessity of middle organizations. We clarify what challenges we face and examine how best to provide assistance in case of large-scale disasters.

  9. Control of a measles outbreak by prohibiting non-vaccinated susceptible students from attending school in Akita Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Takimoto, Noriaki; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Ishiyama, Akira; Kishimoto, Kaoru; Iwama, Renji; Nakano, Megumi

    2011-01-01

    In 2007-2008, a measles outbreak occurred among children above the age of 10 years in Akita Prefecture, northeastern Japan (population, approximately 1,120,000 at the time). Our group controlled the outbreak by (i) implementing a publically financed urgent vaccination program and (ii) prohibiting non-vaccinated and non-infected students from attending school as per regulations of the school public health law. We encouraged high-risk students to undergo a vaccination program, which resulted in the successful containment of the outbreak without the development of any severe cases. After the outbreak, the Akita Prefectural Government began an annual"Akita measles elimination month" every April, and no measles case found in Akita Prefecture during 2009-2010 subsequently. Our outbreak response initiative can be applied nationally for the complete elimination of measles throughout Japan.

  10. The observation of ULF emissions at Nakatsugawa in possible association with the 2004 Mid Niigata Prefecture earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, K.; Watanabe, N.; Hayakawa, M.

    2005-11-01

    The observation of ULF/ELF electromagnetic emissions at Nakatsugawa, Gifu, has indicated that ULF emis-sions in the frequency below 0.1 Hz take place about two-three weeks before the 2004 Mid Niigata Prefecture earthquakes. The most important support to this is based on the goniometric direction finding for those ULF emissions in the period of October 2-6, which indicates their azimuth being very close to the epicenters of the earthquake. So, these ULF emissions on October 2-6 are likely to be associated with the 2004 Mid Niigata Prefecture earthquake.

  11. Incidence of pests and viral disease on pepino (Solanum muricatum Ait.) in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ok-Kyung; Yamada, Yoshihiro; Sato, Takuma; Shinohara, Hirosuke; Takahata, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The solanaceous fruit crop pepino (Solanum muricatum Ait.), originating in the Andes, is grown commercially in South American countries and New Zealand. In these areas, pests and diseases of pepino have been identified well; however, to date, these have seldom been investigated in detail in Japan. Herein, we attempt to reconstruct an agricultural production system for commercial pepino crops in Japan, and evaluate the incidence of pests and viral diseases on pepino. The findings of this study will facilitate in developing a better crop system for the commercial cultivation of healthy pepino fruits. New information A total of 11 species, comprising nine insects and two mites, were recognized as pests of pepino plants in our experimental fields in Kanagawa Prefecture, central Honshu, Japan. Of these pest species, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 and the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877, were remarkably abundant than the other pest species. Eventually, 13 species, including two previously recorded, are currently recognized as the pests of pepino in Japan. With regard to viruses, we tested two species Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), as well as three genera Carlavirus, Potexvirus, and Potyvirus. No virus was detected in symptomatic pepino leaves collected in our experimental fields. This is a first report on the identification of pests on pepino plants in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan and elucidates the relationship between currently occurring pests of pepino plants and potential viral pathogens that they can transmit. PMID:28947875

  12. The convenience of temporary housing complexes in Iwate Prefecture constructed after the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibutani, Risa; Endo, Noriaki

    2014-06-01

    This study compares the convenience of temporary housing complexes in the Iwate Prefecture following the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake. The study was targeted at three major cities in the southern coastal area of Iwate Prefecture, namely, Kamaishi, Ofunato, and Rikuzen- Takata, that were most heavily struck by the earthquake-triggered tsunami. We conducted a network analysis in geographical information system software using the coordinate data of several daily infrastructures. Temporary housing complexes within the defined service area of each infrastructure were assigned a score of 1.00. The main findings are summarized below: 1) The temporary housing complexes in Rikuzen-Takata City were less accessible to infrastructures (as evidenced by the low coverage area of 1.00 scores) than the other investigated cities. 2) The scores of Kamaishi City and Ofunato City were statistically similar, but complexes in Ofunato City were surrounded by slightly more infrastructures (greater coverage area of 1.00 scores) than Kamaishi City. 3) We identified more than the predicted number of blank areas in the targeted areas. Thus, we consider that support services for people living in such areas are urgently required, especially in the realms of daily shopping, banking, and healthcare.

  13. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on Regional Obstetrical Care in Miyagi Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Junichi; Hoshiai, Tetsuro; Sato, Kazuyo; Tokunaga, Hideki; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Arai, Takanari; Okamura, Kunihiro; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2016-06-01

    The authors report the results of surveys on the emergency transport or evacuation status of obstetric patients conducted in Miyagi prefecture, one of the major disaster areas of the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami. The surveys examined the damages to maternity institutions, evacuation status and transport of pregnant women, and prehospital childbirths and were conducted in 50 maternity institutions and 12 fire departments in Miyagi. Two coastal institutions were destroyed completely, and four institutions were destroyed partially by the tsunami, forcing them to stop medical services. In the two-month period after the disaster, 217 pregnant women received hospital transport or gave birth after evacuation. Satisfactory perinatal outcomes were maintained. Emergency obstetric transport increased to approximately 1.4 fold the number before the disaster. Twenty-three women had prehospital childbirths, indicating a marked increase to approximately three times the number of the previous year. In the acute phase of the tsunami disaster, maternity institutions were damaged severely and perinatal transport was not possible; as a result, pregnant women inevitably gave birth in unplanned institutions, and the number of prehospital births was increased extremely. To obtain satisfactory obstetric outcomes, it is necessary to construct a future disaster management system and to re-recognize pregnant women as people with special needs in disaster situations. Sugawara J , Hoshiai T , Sato K , Tokunaga H , Nishigori H , Arai T , Okamura K , Yaegashi N . Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on regional obstetrical care in Miyagi Prefecture. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(3):255- 258.

  14. Modelling Seasonal Brucellosis Epidemics in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang, China, 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Lou, Pengwei; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Xueliang; Xu, Jiabo; Wang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the severe public health problems; the cumulative number of new human brucellosis cases reached 211515 from 2010 to 2014 in China. Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture is situated in the southeast of Xinjiang, where brucellosis infection occurs every year. Based on the reported data of newly acute human brucellosis cases for each season in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, we proposed a susceptible, exposed, infected, and vaccinated (SEIV) model with periodic transmission rates to investigate the seasonal brucellosis transmission dynamics among sheep/cattle and from sheep/cattle to humans. Compared with the criteria of MAPE and RMSPE, the model simulations agree to the data on newly acute human brucellosis. We predict that the number of newly acute human brucellosis is increasing and will peak 15325 [95% CI: 11920-18242] around the summer of 2023. We also estimate the basic reproduction number R0 = 2.5524 [95% CI: 2.5129-2.6225] and perform some sensitivity analysis of the newly acute human brucellosis cases and the basic reproduction number R0 in terms of model parameters. Our study demonstrates that reducing the birth number of sheep/cattle, raising the slaughter rate of infected sheep/cattle, increasing the vaccination rate of susceptible sheep/cattle, and decreasing the loss rate of vaccination are effective strategies to control brucellosis epidemic.

  15. Assessing cost and effectiveness of radiation decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Naito, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Despite the enormous cost of radiation decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture, it is not clear what levels of reduction in external radiation exposure are possible in the Special Decontamination Area, the Intensive Contamination Survey Areas and the whole of Fukushima. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of radiation decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture in its entirety. Using a geographic information system, we calculated the costs of removal, storage containers, transport, and temporary and interim storage facilities as well as the reduction in air dose rate for a cumulative external exposure for 9000 1 km × 1 km mesh units incorporating 51 municipalities. The decontamination cost for the basic scenario, for which forested areas within 20 m of habitation areas were decontaminated, was JPY2.53-5.12 trillion; the resulting reduction in annual external dose was about 2500 person-Sv. The transport, storage, and administrative costs of decontamination waste and removed soil reached JPY1.55-2.12 trillion under this scenario. Although implementing decontamination of all forested areas provides some major reductions in the external radiation dose for the average inhabitant, decontamination costs could potentially exceed JPY16 trillion. These results indicate that technologies for reducing the volume of decontamination waste and removed soil should be considered to reduce storage costs and that further discussions about forest decontamination policies are needed.

  16. [Symbiotic efficiency and genetic diversity of the rhizobia isolated from Leucaena leucocephala in Liangshan Prefecture].

    PubMed

    Xu, Kaiwei; Zhang, Xiaoping; Chen, Yuanxue; Gu, Feiyue; Zhou, Dehai; Tang, Chengyi

    2014-05-04

    We analyzed the symbiotic efficiency and genetic diversity of rhizobia isolated from Leucaena leucocephala in Liangshan Prefecture of SichuanProvince. We studied genetic diversity of these isolates with 16S rRNA RFLP, BOX-PCR and AFLP fingerprinting, and constructed phylogenetic tree based on the concatenated sequences of the four housekeeping genes 16S rRNA, recA, atpD and glnII. The nodulation ability and the symbiotic efficiency of the isolates were tested by plant inoculation assay on their original host plant. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic tree indicate that 26 isolates were assigned as Sinorhizobium, 3 Bradyrhizobium, 3 Rhizobium and 1 Mesorhizobium. SCAU203 might represent a new Rhizobium group, SCAU211 might represent a new Bradyrhizobium group, the other three representative strains were located in three phylogenic branches and closely related to S. americanum, M. plurifarium and R. huautlense, respectively. In the nodulation and symbiotic efficiency assay, only 2 of the 20 isolates promoted the growth of L. leucocephala, but 3 isolates had a growth slowing effect on the host, while the other isolates (84%) were ineffective on symbiotic nitrogen fixation. The majority of rhizobia isolated from L. leucocephala in Liangshan Prefecture were ineffective on symbiotic nitrogen fixation.

  17. Modelling Seasonal Brucellosis Epidemics in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang, China, 2010–2014

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Pengwei; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Xueliang; Xu, Jiabo

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the severe public health problems; the cumulative number of new human brucellosis cases reached 211515 from 2010 to 2014 in China. Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture is situated in the southeast of Xinjiang, where brucellosis infection occurs every year. Based on the reported data of newly acute human brucellosis cases for each season in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, we proposed a susceptible, exposed, infected, and vaccinated (SEIV) model with periodic transmission rates to investigate the seasonal brucellosis transmission dynamics among sheep/cattle and from sheep/cattle to humans. Compared with the criteria of MAPE and RMSPE, the model simulations agree to the data on newly acute human brucellosis. We predict that the number of newly acute human brucellosis is increasing and will peak 15325 [95% CI: 11920–18242] around the summer of 2023. We also estimate the basic reproduction number R0 = 2.5524 [95% CI: 2.5129–2.6225] and perform some sensitivity analysis of the newly acute human brucellosis cases and the basic reproduction number R0 in terms of model parameters. Our study demonstrates that reducing the birth number of sheep/cattle, raising the slaughter rate of infected sheep/cattle, increasing the vaccination rate of susceptible sheep/cattle, and decreasing the loss rate of vaccination are effective strategies to control brucellosis epidemic. PMID:27872852

  18. Laron syndrome. First report from Greece.

    PubMed

    Galli-Tsinopoulou, Assimina; Nousia-Arvanitakis, Sanda; Tsinopoulos, Ioannis; Bechlivanides, Christos; Shevah, Orit; Laron, Zvi

    2003-01-01

    Laron-type dwarfism is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deletions or mutations of the growth hormone receptor gene. It is characterized by high circulating levels of growth hormone (GH) and low levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Patients are refractory to both endogenous and exogenous GH, and present severe growth retardation and obesity. Therapy with recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I (rhIGF-I) accelerates linear growth. We describe a 2-year old girl with Laron syndrome, who presented with postnatal growth failure and hypoglycaemic seizures. Her evaluation disclosed high GH values during a glucagon test (peak GH value 170 ng/ml) and very low IGF I value (0.1 ng/ml) with no rise following GH administration. The growth velocity improved considerably with the administration of IGF I. Molecular analysis showed a heterozygous mutation on exon 4 of the GH receptor gene, inherited from the mother, a rather puzzling finding considering the clinical findings in mother and infant. This case constitutes the first report of Laron syndrome from Greece.

  19. Space Radar Image of Athens, Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This space radar image of Athens, Greece, shows the sprawling, modern development of this ancient capital city. Densely populated urban areas appear in shades of pink and light green. The Acropolis the dark green triangular patch in the center of the image. Archaeological discoveries indicate Athens has been continuously occupied for at least the last 5,000 years. Numerous ships, shown as bright dots, are seen in the harbor areas in the upper left part of the image. The port city of Piraeus is at the left center. This image is 45 kilometers by 45 kilometers (28 miles by 28 miles) and is centered at 37.9 degrees north latitude, 23.7 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations are as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 2, 1994 onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  20. Burns during Easter festivities in Greece.

    PubMed

    Pallantzas, A; Kourakos, P; Stampolidis, N; Papagianni, E; Balagoura, A; Stathopoulos, A; Polizoi, A; Emvalomata, A; Evaggelopoulou, M; Castana, O

    2012-12-31

    Easter is the most important holiday for the Greek Church. It is rich in traditions and rituals but during the Greek Easter festivities, especially at midnight Mass on Easter Saturday night, it is customary to throw fireworks around. These fireworks are not part of the true Easter tradition and they are potentially fatal. Unfortunately, in the past few years, the custom has become more and more popular in Greece. There are some local variations, mainly in the Aegean islands, where homemade rockets are used to have a "rocket war". The rockets consist of wooden sticks loaded with an explosive mixture containing gunpowder and launched from special platforms. Many severe injuries involving loss of sight and limbs as well as major burns are also caused by the use of illegal fireworks at Easter. Every year numerous burn victims are hospitalized. The most affected areas are the face, the upper extremities, and the chest, often in association with slight or severe wounds and injuries. This study presents our department's experience with incidents due to the use of fireworks during Easter festivities.

  1. Monitoring Santorini volcano (Greece) breathing from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foumelis, Michael; Trasatti, Elisa; Papageorgiou, Elena; Stramondo, Salvatore; Parcharidis, Issaak

    2013-04-01

    Since its last eruption in 1950, Santorini volcano (Greece) remained in a dormant state. This is also evidenced for the period 1992-2010 by the gradual deflation signal over Nea Kameni as measured by satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) with low rates of about 5-6 mm yr-1 as well as by the absence of seismic activity within the caldera. However, at the beginning of 2011 the volcano showed signs of unrest with increased microseismic activity and significant ground uplift, reaching 14 cm within a year (2011 March-2012 March), according to InSAR time-series. ALOS PALSAR data indicate the onset of the phenomenon in early 2010 where an aseismic pre-unrest phase of increased subsidence (1-3 cm) preceded the uplift. Joint inversions of SAR and GPS velocities using spherical and spheroidal magmatic source types indicate their location offshore at about 1 km north of Nea Kameni and between 3.5 and 3.8 km depth. The estimated volume variation rate is 6 × 106 m3 yr-1 to 9 × 106 m3 yr-1. A gradual slowing in the rate of inflation within the first quarter of 2012 is apparent by ENVISAT data, while subsequent observations from RADARSAT-2 confirm the observed trend.

  2. Euthanasia in Greece: moral and ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Vidalis, A; Dardavessis, T; Kaprinis, G

    1998-04-01

    Euthanasia as a concept and a practice has led to enormous debate in Greece, as well as in other countries. In this study, we examined the views of the public and of professionals on the issue of euthanasia. A self-administered questionnaire of 28 items was completed by 417 subjects, and provided information about attitudes towards the moral and ethical problems of euthanasia. Psychiatric speculations which arose during the approach of this issue were seen in the majority of the responses (88.3%). Psychodynamic unconscious processes reinforced and violated mechanisms and motives in favour of, or against euthanasia. Of the respondents, 44.3% were against life extension with mechanical devices. Putative main risk factors for suicidal ideation and the desire for death were: pain 66.2%, despair 60.2%, depression 59.7%, and psychopathology 38.6%. This study thus revealed that apart from pain, psychosocial factors play a key role in leading people to ask for euthanasia. On the other hand, the knowledge of the public and professionals regarding this issue is not sufficient, and thus discussion of euthanasia by Medical Societies is needed and necessary.

  3. Burns during Easter festivities in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Pallantzas, A.; Kourakos, P.; Stampolidis, N.; Papagianni, E.; Balagoura, A.; Stathopoulos, A.; Polizoi, A.; Emvalomata, A.; Evaggelopoulou, M.; Castana, O.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Easter is the most important holiday for the Greek Church. It is rich in traditions and rituals but during the Greek Easter festivities, especially at midnight Mass on Easter Saturday night, it is customary to throw fireworks around. These fireworks are not part of the true Easter tradition and they are potentially fatal. Unfortunately, in the past few years, the custom has become more and more popular in Greece. There are some local variations, mainly in the Aegean islands, where homemade rockets are used to have a “rocket war”. The rockets consist of wooden sticks loaded with an explosive mixture containing gunpowder and launched from special platforms. Many severe injuries involving loss of sight and limbs as well as major burns are also caused by the use of illegal fireworks at Easter. Every year numerous burn victims are hospitalized. The most affected areas are the face, the upper extremities, and the chest, often in association with slight or severe wounds and injuries. This study presents our department’s experience with incidents due to the use of fireworks during Easter festivities. PMID:23766749

  4. Space Radar Image of Athens, Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This space radar image of Athens, Greece, shows the sprawling, modern development of this ancient capital city. Densely populated urban areas appear in shades of pink and light green. The Acropolis the dark green triangular patch in the center of the image. Archaeological discoveries indicate Athens has been continuously occupied for at least the last 5,000 years. Numerous ships, shown as bright dots, are seen in the harbor areas in the upper left part of the image. The port city of Piraeus is at the left center. This image is 45 kilometers by 45 kilometers (28 miles by 28 miles) and is centered at 37.9 degrees north latitude, 23.7 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations are as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 2, 1994 onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  5. Attenuation of coda waves in northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzidimitriou, P. M.

    1993-03-01

    The single scattering model has been applied for the estimation of coda Q values for local earthquakes that occurred in northern Greece during the period 1983 1989 and recorded by the telemetered network of the Geophysical Laboratory of the University of Thessaloniki. Coda Q estimations were made for four frequency bands centered at 1.5 Hz, 3.0 Hz, 6.0 Hz and 12.0 Hz and for the lapse time windows 10 20 sec, 15 30 sec, 20 45 sec, 30 60 sec and 50 100 sec. The coda Q values obtained show a clear frequency dependence of the form Q c =Q 0 f n , while Q 0 and n depend on the lapse time window. Q 0 was found equal to 33 and n equal to 1.01 for the time window of 10 to 20 sec, while for the other windows Q 0 increased from 60 to 129, with n being stable, close to 0.75. This lapse time dependence is interpreted as due to a depth dependent attenuation. The high attenuation and the strong frequency dependence found are characteristic of an area with high seismicity, in agreement with studies in other seismic regions.

  6. Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment In Greece Using Gis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papathoma, M.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Zong, Y.; Smith, D.

    A new methodology is described that uses GIS (Geographical Information System)to determine tsunami vulnerability at different spatial and temporal scales. The method- ology is based on the construction of a GIS database, which may be used by different end-users and under varying hazard scenarios. Primary data are collected for a range of parameters that relate to the natural environment, land use, the built environment, the local economy and services, as well as socio-economic parameters. The methodol- ogy permits interrogation of the primary datasets by several different end-user groups. For example, the GIS may be used: (1) by the emergency services in order to locate large numbers of casualties, to organise the immediate post-tsunami disaster response and to design evacuation routes; (2) by insurance companies in order to set the premi- ums of individual buildings and businesses and (3) by the municipal authorities as a tool for local planning (planning regulations, relocation of buildings). The results of two applications of the methodology in Greece are presented. The first application in Herakleio (Crete) relates to the impact that the 1650AD tsunami would have in the area under the current circumstances. The worse case scenario for the second application is based on the 1963 tsunami, which affected the coastal segment west of Aeghio in Peloponnese. The two case studies provide valuable information for civil protection, disaster management and planning.

  7. Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education: Education Policy Advice for Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The future of Greece's well-being will depend on improving educational performance to boost productivity and improve social outcomes. In the current economic context, with the need to get best value for spending, Greece must and can address inefficiencies in its education system. The challenges are significant. For example, Greece lags behind many…

  8. Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education: Education Policy Advice for Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The future of Greece's well-being will depend on improving educational performance to boost productivity and improve social outcomes. In the current economic context, with the need to get best value for spending, Greece must and can address inefficiencies in its education system. The challenges are significant. For example, Greece lags behind many…

  9. Educational Reform in Postwar Japan: A Case Study of the High School Entrance Examination in Chiba Prefecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, David M.

    In structure and in function, the Japanese high school entrance examination--as exemplified by data from Chiba prefecture in 1986--survives as a prewar hierarchical cultural pattern. Postwar American occupation reforms offered "democratic education" in the form of a single-track system with 9 years of compulsory schooling; such a system,…

  10. An epidemiological analysis of drunk driving accidents in Kagawa Prefecture - comparison of 1997-2000 and 2003-2006.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yoshitsugu; Inoue, Ken; Sakuta, Akira; Seki, Nobuhiko; Miyazawa, Teruomi; Eguchi, Kenji

    2008-10-01

    In this study, we examined the number of drunk driving accidents and drunk driving accident toll in 1997-2000 and 2003-2006 for Kagawa Prefecture, which had Japan's highest number of traffic accident fatalities per 100,000 population.

  11. Estimate of the Potential Amount of Low-Level Waste from the Fukushima Prefecture - 12370

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Carolyn; Olson, Eric A.J.; Elmer, John

    2012-07-01

    The amount of waste generated by the cleanup of the Fukushima Prefecture (Fukushima-ken) following the releases from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident (March 2011) is dependent on many factors, including: - Contamination amounts; - Cleanup levels determined for the radioisotopes contaminating the area; - Future land use expectations and human exposure scenarios; - Groundwater contamination considerations; - Costs and availability of storage areas, and eventually disposal areas for the waste; and - Decontamination and volume reduction techniques and technologies used. For the purposes of estimating these waste volumes, Fukushima-ken is segregated into zones of similar contamination level and expected future use. Techniques for selecting the appropriate cleanup methods for each area are shown in a decision tree format. This approach is broadly applied to the 20 km evacuation zone and the total amounts and types of waste are estimated; waste resulting from cleanup efforts outside of the evacuation zone is not considered. Some of the limits of future use and potential zones where residents must be excluded within the prefecture are also described. The size and design of the proposed intermediate storage facility is also discussed and the current situation, cleanup, waste handling, and waste storage issues in Japan are described. The method for estimating waste amounts outlined above illustrates the large amount of waste that could potentially be generated by remediation of the 20 km evacuation zone (619 km{sup 2} total) if the currently proposed cleanup goals are uniformly applied. The Japanese environment ministry estimated in early October that the 1 mSv/year exposure goal would make the government responsible for decontaminating about 8,000 km{sup 2} within Fukushima-ken and roughly 4,900 km{sup 2} in areas outside the prefecture. The described waste volume estimation method also does not give any consideration to areas with localized hot spots

  12. Increases in perinatal mortality in prefectures contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Scherb, Hagen Heinrich; Mori, Kuniyoshi; Hayashi, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Descriptive observational studies showed upward jumps in secular European perinatal mortality trends after Chernobyl. The question arises whether the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident entailed similar phenomena in Japan. For 47 prefectures representing 15.2 million births from 2001 to 2014, the Japanese government provides monthly statistics on 69,171 cases of perinatal death of the fetus or the newborn after 22 weeks of pregnancy to 7 days after birth. Employing change-point methodology for detecting alterations in longitudinal data, we analyzed time trends in perinatal mortality in the Japanese prefectures stratified by exposure to estimate and test potential increases in perinatal death proportions after Fukushima possibly associated with the earthquake, the tsunami, or the estimated radiation exposure. Areas with moderate to high levels of radiation were compared with less exposed and unaffected areas, as were highly contaminated areas hit versus untroubled by the earthquake and the tsunami. Ten months after the earthquake and tsunami and the subsequent nuclear accident, perinatal mortality in 6 severely contaminated prefectures jumped up from January 2012 onward: jump odds ratio 1.156; 95% confidence interval (1.061, 1.259), P-value 0.0009. There were slight increases in areas with moderate levels of contamination and no increases in the rest of Japan. In severely contaminated areas, the increases of perinatal mortality 10 months after Fukushima were essentially independent of the numbers of dead and missing due to the earthquake and the tsunami. Perinatal mortality in areas contaminated with radioactive substances started to increase 10 months after the nuclear accident relative to the prevailing and stable secular downward trend. These results are consistent with findings in Europe after Chernobyl. Since observational studies as the one presented here may suggest but cannot prove causality because of unknown and uncontrolled factors or

  13. Epidemiological Observations on Cryptosporidiosis in Diarrheic Goat Kids in Greece.

    PubMed

    Giadinis, Nektarios D; Papadopoulos, Elias; Lafi, Shawkat Q; Papanikolopoulou, Vasiliki; Karanikola, Sofia; Diakou, Anastasia; Vergidis, Vergos; Xiao, Lihua; Ioannidou, Evi; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in diarrheic goat kids in Greece and the risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis. Altogether, 292 diarrheic 4-15-day-old goat kids from 54 dairy goat herds of Northern Greece were examined. Oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 223 of 292 (76.4%) goat kids and the intensity of infection was scored as "high" in 142 samples, "moderate" in 45 samples, and "low" in 36 samples. Larger herds (>200 animals) had higher infection rates than smaller ones, although this difference was not statistically significant. Significantly higher infection rates were observed in herds during late kidding season (1 January to 30 April) compared to the early one (1 September to 31 December). These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis is very common in diarrheic goat kids in Greece, especially in large herds during the late parturition season.

  14. An annotated checklist of earthworms of Greece (Clitellata: Megadrili).

    PubMed

    Szederjesi, Tímea; Vavoulidou, Evangelia; Chalkia, Christina; Dányi, László; Csuzdi, Csaba

    2017-05-26

    The earthworm fauna of Greece is reviewed. According to the up-to-date checklist, the earthworm fauna of Greece consists of 67 species and subspecies, of which 59 taxa belong to the family Lumbricidae, three to Megascolecidae, two to Acanthodrilidae and to Ocnerodrilidae and one taxon to the family Criodrilidae. Three species are recorded for the first time from the country: Allolobophora kosowensis kosowensis Karaman, 1968, Amynthas gracilis (Kinberg, 1867) and Eukerria saltensis (Beddard, 1895). Eisenia spelaea var. athenica Černosvitov, 1938 is proposed to be a synonym of Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826). The earthworm fauna of Greece is characterized by a large number of strict endemic species belonging to the family Lumbricidae (9 taxa), together with the occurrence of another 10 Balkanic endemic species.

  15. Growth, distribution and rank stability of urban settlements in Greece.

    PubMed

    Petsimeris, P

    1986-01-01

    "This paper aims at analyzing the structure of the system in Greece of urban settlements, from 1870 to 1981. It is based on a study by the author concerning the process of urbanization and the problems of the 'residential subsystem' in countries of intermediate development with special reference to Greece. The analysis takes as sole indicator of the evolution of the urban centers network, the long term variation of population of urban settlements in Greece and as tools of analysis, the Rank-Size Rule (RSR) and Hoover's Index." Distinctions are drawn between the urban settlement patterns in the pre-capitalist and capitalist periods, the latter being marked by an unbalanced hierarchy dominated by Athens and without medium-sized cities, other than Thessaloniki. excerpt

  16. Immigration to Greece: a critical evaluation of Greek policy.

    PubMed

    Lazaridis, G

    1996-04-01

    "In the light of the EU's interest in the movement of labour within the Union, the first part of this article looks at the character of Greek migrant labour with the aim of providing an overview of changes in the flow of migrant labour into Greece and of the policies adopted in relation to immigrant labour. It discusses the failure of the Greek government to formulate strategic measures to combat illegal immigration...and the limited (if any) efforts being made to aid the integration of Albanians. The second part of the article concentrates on [the experiences of] Albanian migrant labourers in Greece....[It] also assesses the similarities and differences in the employment positions of Albanian men and women in Greece and the way in which mechanisms of marginalisation differently affect these two categories."

  17. A Trephined Late Bronze Age Skull From Peloponnesus, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mountrakis, C.; Georgaki, S.; Manolis, S. K.

    Cranial trepanation is one of the most ancient surgical operations. This kind of "operation" has been reported in prehistoric Greece with several specific case studies. In this paper, a significant case of trepanation, on a male skull, dated to the Late Bronze Age, is presented. Our interest was pointed firstly to the verification of the technique, secondly the description of the trepanation's shape and finally to the surgical procedure. A series of imaging techniques were implemented including X-ray diffraction and CT scan imaging. The observations of the skull support our statement as to the nature of the trepanation. This specimen represents one of the earlier confirmed cases of trepanation in Greece. We also discuss when and how this technique came to Greece.

  18. Environmental tobacco smoke in hospitality venues in Greece.

    PubMed

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Kondilis, Barbara; Travers, Mark J; Petsetaki, Elisabeth; Tountas, Yiannis; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2007-10-23

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a major threat to public health. Greece, having the highest smoking prevalence in the European Union is seriously affected by passive smoking. The purpose of this study was to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in the non smoking areas of hospitality venues and offices in Greece and to compare the levels of exposure to levels in the US, UK and Ireland before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Experimental measurements of particulate matter 2.5 microm (PM2.5), performed during a cross sectional study of 49 hospitality venues and offices in Athens and Crete, Greece during February - March 2006. Levels of ETS ranged from 19 microg/m3 to 612 microg/m3, differing according to the place of measurement. The average exposure in hospitality venues was 268 microg/m3 with ETS levels found to be highest in restaurants with a mean value of 298 microg/m3 followed by bars and cafes with 271 microg/m3. ETS levels were 76% lower in venues in which smoking was not observed compared to all other venues (p < 0.001). ETS levels in Greek designated non-smoking areas are similar to those found in the smoking sections of UK hospitality venues while levels in Ireland with a total smoking ban are 89% lower and smoke-free communities in the US are 91 - 96% lower than levels in Greece. Designated non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in Greece are significantly more polluted with ETS than outdoor air and similar venues in Europe and the United States. The implementation of a total indoor smoking ban in hospitality venues has been shown to have a positive effect on workers and patrons' health. The necessity of such legislation in Greece is thus warranted.

  19. Environmental tobacco smoke in hospitality venues in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Kondilis, Barbara; Travers, Mark J; Petsetaki, Elisabeth; Tountas, Yiannis; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2007-01-01

    Background Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a major threat to public health. Greece, having the highest smoking prevalence in the European Union is seriously affected by passive smoking. The purpose of this study was to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in the non smoking areas of hospitality venues and offices in Greece and to compare the levels of exposure to levels in the US, UK and Ireland before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Methods Experimental measurements of particulate matter 2.5 μm (PM2.5), performed during a cross sectional study of 49 hospitality venues and offices in Athens and Crete, Greece during February – March 2006. Results Levels of ETS ranged from 19 μg/m3 to 612 μg/m3, differing according to the place of measurement. The average exposure in hospitality venues was 268 μg/m3 with ETS levels found to be highest in restaurants with a mean value of 298 μg/m3 followed by bars and cafes with 271 μg/m3. ETS levels were 76% lower in venues in which smoking was not observed compared to all other venues (p < 0.001). ETS levels in Greek designated non-smoking areas are similar to those found in the smoking sections of UK hospitality venues while levels in Ireland with a total smoking ban are 89% lower and smoke-free communities in the US are 91 – 96% lower than levels in Greece. Conclusion Designated non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in Greece are significantly more polluted with ETS than outdoor air and similar venues in Europe and the United States. The implementation of a total indoor smoking ban in hospitality venues has been shown to have a positive effect on workers and patrons' health. The necessity of such legislation in Greece is thus warranted. PMID:17956612

  20. Transplant Procurement Management Model Training: Marked Improvement in the Mindset of In-Hospital Procurement Coordinators at Hyogo Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, M; Yoshinaga, K; Imamura, Y; Hayashi, T; Osako, T; Takahashi, K; Kaneko, M; Fujisawa, M; Kamidono, S

    2016-09-01

    The organ donation rate in Japan is much lower than that in other developed countries for several reasons. An advanced educational program for in-hospital procurement coordinators is a possible solution for this. We introduced a Transplant Procurement Management (TPM) educational program at Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. Ten healthcare professionals at Hyogo Prefecture participated in the Advanced International TPM course to educate themselves on TPM and held 2 TPM Model Organ Procurement Training Workshops at Hyogo Prefecture for in-hospital procurement coordinators. Furthermore, we held 2 workshops outside Hyogo Prefecture and at the same time undertook a pre-workshop questionnaire survey to evaluate the ability and motivation with respect to organ donation. To evaluate the effectiveness of the workshops, we conducted post-workshop and 3-months-after workshop questionnaire surveys. The results of the pre-workshop survey revealed that in-hospital procurement coordinators lacked the knowledge regarding the entire organ donation process, the current status of organ donation in Japan, and the definition of brain death. Moreover, they did not completely understand the meaning of "organ donation." The results of the post-workshop questionnaire survey showed that the educational program was effective to improve the knowledge and skills of organ donation and motivated behavioral changes among the participants. The survey results showed that our TPM model educational program offered sufficient knowledge and skills to increase organ donation at Hyogo Prefecture. We will continue this program and make an effort to further contribute to the Japanese organ donation activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Aquatic animal resources in Prehistoric Aegean, Greece.

    PubMed

    Mylona, Dimitra

    2014-12-01

    This paper explores the early stages in the history of fishing in the Aegean Sea in Greece, and highlights its formative phases and its specific characteristics in different points in time. This is testified by various physical remains, such as fish bones, fishing tools, and representations in art, which are gathered in the course of archaeological research. The aquatic resources in the Aegean Sea have been exploited and managed for millennia by communities that lived near the water and often made a living from it. The earliest evidence for a systematic, intensive exploitation of marine resources in the Aegean Sea dates to the Mesolithic, eleven millennia ago. In the Neolithic period, the adoption of a sedentary, agro-pastoral way of life led to a reduction in the intensity of fishing and shellfish gathering. Its importance as an economic resource remained high only in certain regions of rich, eutrophic waters. In the Bronze Age, an era of social complexity and centralized economy, the exploitation of aquatic, mostly marine, resources became a complex, multi-faceted activity which involved subsistence, industry and ideology. The range of preferred fish and invertebrate species, the fishing technology, and the processing of fish and shellfish in order to produce elaborate foods or prestige items are all traceable aspects of the complex relationship between humans and the aquatic resources throughout the prehistory of fishing and shellfish gathering in the Aegean area. The broadening of collaboration between archaeology and physical sciences offers new means to explore these issues in a more thorough and nuanced manner.

  2. Informal payments in public hospitals in Greece.

    PubMed

    Liaropoulos, Lycourgos; Siskou, Olga; Kaitelidou, Daphne; Theodorou, Mamas; Katostaras, Theofanis

    2008-07-01

    Informal payments are an ingrained social institution in Greece. In some cases, they are also part of corruption in the health area, which includes a variety of other forms. The objective of this paper is to measure and analyze the size and nature of informal payments in the Greek public hospitals, concentrating on payments made to health personnel to facilitate access to services and preferred providers. We used a randomized countrywide sample of 1616 households, amounting to 4738 individuals. The survey methodology was telephone interviews with a questionnaire supported by the software of Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing. Out of the total number of those reporting treatment in public hospitals (N=336), 36% reported at least one informal payment to a doctor. Of these, 42% reported it was given because of the fear of receiving sub-standard care (if they did not pay) and another 20% claimed that the doctor demanded such a payment. None of the socio-economic characteristics of the family were related to the size of extra (informal) payments. The probability of extra payments is 72% higher for patients aiming to "jump the queue", compared to those admitted through normal procedures. Also, surgical cases had a 137% higher probability for extra payments compared to non-surgical patients. A very high percentage of informal payments are made in order to gain access to public hospitals and to receive a higher quality of services. Despite near universal coverage of the population by public health insurance, informal payments are widespread and a major source of inequity and inefficiency in the Greek health care system.

  3. Dermatophytosis in northern Greece during the decade 1981-1990.

    PubMed

    Devliotou-Panagiotidou, D; Koussidou-Eremondi, T; Badillet, G

    1995-01-01

    Dermatophytic infections are very common in Greece. In the Mycological Laboratory of the Venereal and Skin Diseases Hospital in Thessaloniki, 6572 isolates of different dermatophytes were obtained from 17,120 patients examined. It is suggested that 5% of the people who present with skin problems in Greece suffer from dermatophyte infections. They are frequent causative agents of tinea pedis, tinea cruris, tinea corporis, tinea capitis and tinea unguium. In this paper, the species, the number and the prevalence of the dermatophytes were studied according to location and sex of the patients. The contribution of dermatophyte infections to the overall incidence of superficial fungal infection over 10 years was also studied.

  4. Validating Safecast data by comparisons to a U. S. Department of Energy Fukushima Prefecture aerial survey

    DOE PAGES

    Coletti, Mark; Hultquist, Carolynne; Kennedy, William G.; ...

    2017-05-01

    Safecast is a volunteered geographic information (VGI) project where the lay public collects radiation measurements via hand-held sensors that are uploaded to a central server and then made freely available. However, Safecast data fidelity is uncertain given that the these sensors are hand assembled with various levels of technical proficiency, and that the sensors may not be properly deployed. We validated Safecast data gathered in the Fukushima Prefecture shortly after the Daiichi nuclear power plant catastrophe by comparing it with authoritative data collected by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) during the same period.more » We found that the two data sets were highly correlated, though the DOE/NNSA observations were generally higher than the Safecast measurements. We concluded that this high correlation alone makes Safecast a viable data source for detecting and monitoring fallout during radiological emergencies.« less

  5. Pulse radiolysis system of OPU-LINAC in RIAST, Osaka Prefecture University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Takao; Taniguchi, Ryoichi; Furuta, Masakazu; Okuda, Shuichi; Hara, Masayuki; Fujita, Shin'ichi

    2004-09-01

    Micro- to milli-second pulse radiolysis apparatus using short electron pulse form 18 MeV linear accelerator (Linac) is in-service at the Research institute for advanced science and technology (RIAST), Osaka Prefecture University. This apparatus is an effective tool, not only for investigation of primary process on radiation chemistry, but also for research of electron transfer mechanism playing an important role in chemistry and bioscience. This apparatus is composed of an 18 MeV electron linear accelerator (electron pulse duration: about 4 μs) and a transient light absorption measurement system. We introduce the outline of this system, transient absorption spectrum of thiocyanate aqueous solution as an example of measured data and future plan.

  6. Mathematical Modeling of Radiocesium Migration and Air Dose Rate Changes in Eastern Fukushima Prefecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, A.; Sakuma, K.; Kurikami, H.; Malins, A.; Okumura, M.; Itakura, M.; Yamada, S.; Machida, M.

    2015-12-01

    Radioactive cesium that was deposited over Fukushima Prefecture after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant station is one of the major concerns regarding health physics today. Its migration is primarily by soil erosion and sediment transport within surface water during times of heavy rainfall and flooding. In order to predict the future distribution of radioactive cesium and resulting air dose rate at any location in Fukushima, we have integrated a number of mathematical models covering different time and spatial scales. In this presentation we report our overall scheme of prediction starting from sediment and radioactive cesium movement and resulting long term air dose rate changes. Specifically, we present simulation results of sediment movement and radioactive cesium migration using semi-empirical and physics based watershed models, and that of sediment and radioactive cesium behavior in a dam reservoir using one and two dimensional river simulation models. The model's results are compared with ongoing field monitoring.

  7. Detection of Histamine in Fish and Fishery Products in Osaka Prefecture (Fiscal 2015 Report).

    PubMed

    Awazu, Kaoru; Takatori, Satoshi; Kakimoto, Sachiko; Nomura, Chie; Masayama, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Mizuka; Kakimoto, You; Kajimura, Keiji

    2017-01-01

    Histamine food poisoning is caused by ingestion of spoiled fish containing high levels of histamine. This paper reports cases in which histamine was detected in Osaka prefecture in fiscal year 2015 in a survey of fish and fishery products on the market and the food poisoning. A suspected case of histamine food poisoning was also evaluated to investigate the cause and minimize further problems. Histamine in food was separated on SPE cartridge columns, and analyzed after derivatization with fluorescamine by means of HPLC-FL. Histamine was detected in some fishery products on the market and in food that had caused poisoning. The samples in which histamine was detected were semi-dried whole round herring (Urumeiwashi-maruboshi), mackerel (Saba) and sardine dumpling (Iwashi-tsumire). These foods were the main causes of histamine food poisoning according to the report of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Government of Japan.

  8. Relation of occupations to the regional differences of lung cancer motality in Fukuoka Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, T; Yamasaki, M

    1977-07-01

    Geographic pattern of lung cancer mortality in Fukuoka Prefecture showed elevated mortalities among males in the Chikuho district where many coal-mines had long been operated as one of the biggest coal-mining areas in Japan. The analysis in relations of occupations to lung cancer mortality revealed that consistently significant correlations exist between lung cancer mortality, and mining and quarrying occupations in every census year after World War II. No other occupations showed consistent relations to lung cancer though a few significant correlations were found only in the recent years. The results appear to suggest that elevated risk of lung cancer among coal-mining workers may exist and deserve further analytical study.

  9. High prevalence of hepatitis E virus in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yuka; Terada, Yutaka; Yonemitsu, Kenzo; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Keita; Suzuki, Kazuo; Maeda, Ken

    2014-04-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes a food- and water-borne disease in humans, and Japanese wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) meat is one of the most important sources of infection in Japan. We tested 113 serum samples from wild boar captured in Shimonoseki City, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan from 2010 to 2012. Serum samples were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using virus-like particles as antigen and nested reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected in 47 of the 113 wild boar serum samples (42%), and HEV RNA was detected in five samples (4%). Sequence analysis showed that the five HEV isolates belonged to genotype 4, forming a cluster with a previous isolate from a human hepatitis E case in this region in 2011. These results indicate that wild boar in this region are infected with potentially pathogenic HEV at a high prevalence.

  10. Validating Safecast data by comparisons to a U. S. Department of Energy Fukushima Prefecture aerial survey.

    PubMed

    Coletti, Mark; Hultquist, Carolynne; Kennedy, William G; Cervone, Guido

    2017-05-01

    Safecast is a volunteered geographic information (VGI) project where the lay public uses hand-held sensors to collect radiation measurements that are then made freely available under the Creative Commons CC0 license. However, Safecast data fidelity is uncertain given the sensor kits are hand assembled with various levels of technical proficiency, and the sensors may not be properly deployed. Our objective was to validate Safecast data by comparing Safecast data with authoritative data collected by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U. S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) gathered in the Fukushima Prefecture shortly after the Daiichi nuclear power plant catastrophe. We found that the two data sets were highly correlated, though the DOE/NNSA observations were generally higher than the Safecast measurements. We concluded that this high correlation alone makes Safecast a viable data source for detecting and monitoring radiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of Urban Comprehensive Carrying Capacity of the prefecture-level city in Gansu province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Ling, M. A.; Shaohu, Ma; Xingpeng, Chen

    2015-06-01

    Based on the theory of urban carrying capacity, this paper put forward twenty-two indexed applied to assess the problems of the prefecture-level city in Gansu province. The results show that resource carrying capacity is the most important factor that influences city development; the way of improving the urban comprehensive carrying capacity is the improvement of pressure-bearing index; the supply index does no tmatchdemand index; the urban comprehensive carrying capacity presents stair-step decline; the leadership of two biggest cities are weaker relatively. To solve these problems, some measures are put forward such as changing the speed and mode l of development, improving the pattern of the human behaviors, etc.

  12. [Bone development trend in the knee joint of Tibetan teenagers in Aba Prefecture of Sichuan Province].

    PubMed

    Ding, Shi-Rong; Ying, Chong-Liang; Wan, Lei; Wei, Hua; Wang, Ya-Hui; Zhu, Guang-You

    2013-08-01

    To discuss bone development trend in the knee joint of Tibetan teenagers in Sichuan province and to effectively update the database for estimating the living age of Tibetan teenagers in terms of bone age of the knee joint. Radiographs including epiphysis of distal femur, proximal tibia and proximal fibula were taken from 483 Tibetan male and female teenagers aged from 14 to 19 years old in Aba prefecture of Sichuan province in order to observe epiphyseal growth situation. The descriptive data of the epiphyseal closure ages of these teenagers' knee joints were statistically analyzed by SPSS 16.0 software. The distal femur epiphyseal closure occurred earliest, while the proximal fibula epiphyseal closure occurred latest. The epiphyseal growth of knee joints of females occurred about one year earlier than that of males. The forensic information and data related to Tibetan teenagers' bone age identification should be updated regularly. These results provide potential value for the practice of forensic medicine, anthropology and clinical medicine.

  13. The Ibaraki prefecture materials design diffractometer for J-PARC—Designing neutron guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harjo, Stefanus; Kamiyama, Takashi; Torii, Shuki; Ishigaki, Toru; Yonemura, Masao

    2006-11-01

    Ibaraki prefecture materials design diffractometer of J-PARC needs a neutron guide to increase beam intensity without sacrificing measurements of powder diffraction with good resolution, PDF analysis and small angle scattering. Non-parallel guides including elliptical ones have been compared with a linear-straight guide using the McStas simulation. The elliptical guide having the exit focal points away behind the sample position is available to increase the neutron flux at the sample but gives a slight lowering of the instrumental resolution. This elliptical guide gives also Garland peaks at short wavelengths that may give large ambiguities in powder diffraction measurements. Therefore, the linear-straight guide is considered as the best choice for this instrument to keep a good resolution and also a relatively high flux.

  14. Survey of Allergenic Substances in Foods in Chiba Prefecture (Fiscal Years 2004-2014).

    PubMed

    Harada, Rie; Hongo, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed the presence of allergenic substances such as egg, milk, wheat, buckwheat, peanut, shrimp and crab in foods produced or distributed in Chiba Prefecture during the fiscal years 2004-2014. Six hundred and ninety-five samples that did not display the target allergenic substances were screened by using ELISA. Three percent of the samples (21/695 samples) were found to be positive. Wheat had the highest positivity rate of 9.7% (10/103 samples). Among the samples tested, advisory labeling was displayed in the case of 109 samples. Among these samples, 77.1%(84/109 samples) contained less than 1.0 μg/g of the specified allergen. Out of the 21 samples that tested positive in the screening-test, 16 did not display the advisory labeling.

  15. Assessment of an alternative housing reconstruction policy after the 1995 Grevena-Kozani (N.Greece) earthquake: Construction of standardized units in private lots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousteraki, K.; Dandoulaki, M.; Symeonidis, S.

    2009-04-01

    In Greece, the reconstruction of earthquake damaged building stock is technically and financially supported by the state. Housing reconstruction typically comprises three subsequent phases that is emergency shelter, temporary housing and permanent housing in buildings after their reconstruction. The latter is based on financial support by the state to the owner for the repair or reconstruction of each individual building. A different approach was tried after the 1995 Kozani-Grevena (N.Greece) earthquake. The earthquake (M=6.6) affected mainly the countryside of the two prefectures and devastated a great number of small settlements with aged and decreasing population. The experience from the 1986 Kalamata earthquake had demonstrated that low income and elderly households had difficulties in using reconstruction loans and tented to remain longer in temporary housing. In an attempt to take in the Kalamata experience and the development features of the disaster area, certain categories of homeless households were offered the choice to select either the typical financial and technical support to reconstruct their damaged house under their own responsibility or a small standard house (50 to 60m2) constructed by the state in their lot. About 4,000 housing units were constructed in villages all over the disaster area. The paper focuses on this new housing policy. It presents the institutional framework, the procedures for the selection of eligible households, the geography of the constructed housing units, issues of project management and involved costs. It also attempts to highlight strong and weak points of the new approach and to make some comparisons with the long-established approach to recovery of damaged building stock. The overall conclusion is that despite huge complexities in project management and higher costs, this new policy contributed in retaining the population and enhancing development in the area.

  16. Thyroid ultrasound findings in children from three Japanese prefectures: Aomori, Yamanashi and Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Naomi; Imaizumi, Misa; Shimura, Hiroki; Okubo, Noriyuki; Asari, Yasushi; Nigawara, Takeshi; Midorikawa, Sanae; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Otsuru, Akira; Akamizu, Takashi; Kitaoka, Masafumi; Suzuki, Shinichi; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2013-01-01

    Due to the likelihood of physical and mental health impacts following the unprecedented accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, the Fukushima prefectural government decided to conduct the Fukushima Health Management Survey to assist in the long-term health management of residents. This included thyroid ultrasound examination for all children in Fukushima. For appropriate evaluation of ultrasound screening of the thyroid, it is important to understand its reference data of thyroid findings in children in general. In order to analyze the frequencies of specific thyroid findings, we conducted ultrasound screening of the thyroid by the same procedures as used in Fukushima in 4,365 children, aged 3 to 18 years, from three Japanese prefectures. Overall, thyroid cysts were identified in 56.88% and thyroid nodules in 1.65% of the participants. Thyroid cysts and nodules with a maximum diameter of more than 5 mm were identified in 4.58% and 1.01%, respectively, and age-adjusted prevalences were 3.82% and 0.99%, respectively. Although the prevalence of cysts and nodules varied among the examination areas, no significant differences were observed among the three examination areas in the prevalence of cysts and nodules with a maximum diameter of more than 5 mm. Also, the prevalence of thyroid cysts and nodules, especially those with a maximum diameter of more than 5 mm, significantly increased with age, and showed a female predominance. We also identified ectopic thymus (1.95%), diffuse goiter (1.40%), ultimobranchial body (0.73%), lymph node swelling (0.21%) and thyroid agenesis (0.05%). This is the first ultrasound description of the age-adjusted prevalence of thyroid cysts and nodules, or of the prevalence of abnormalities other than cysts and nodules, such as ectopic thymus, in relation to age, in the general Japanese child population. We contend that this can provide relevant information for the Fukushima Health Management Survey and future population

  17. Preventable trauma deaths after traffic accidents in Chiba Prefecture, Japan, 2011: problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Motomura, Tomokazu; Mashiko, Kunihiro; Matsumoto, Hisashi; Motomura, Ayumi; Iwase, Hirotaro; Oda, Shigeto; Shimamura, Fumihiko; Shoko, Tomohisa; Kitamura, Nobuya; Sakaida, Koji; Fukumoto, Yuichi; Kasuya, Miyuki; Koyama, Tsutomu; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of preventable trauma death in the current Japanese emergency medical system remains high. The present study aimed to determine rates of clearly preventable and possibly preventable trauma deaths due to traffic accidents in Chiba Prefecture, Japan, and to consider associated problems and solutions. During 2011, 175 victims died after traffic accidents in Chiba Prefecture. Of these, the deaths of 69 persons who had vital signs at the time of emergency medical service contact were classified as clearly preventable, possibly preventable, or not preventable through the peer review discussion. We also examined problems associated with deaths that were clearly preventable or possibly preventable. Of the 69 deaths, 9 (13%) were classified as clearly preventable, 11 (16%) as possibly preventable, and 49 (71%) as not preventable. Of the 20 clearly or possibly preventable deaths (each death potentially comprising multiple problems), 5 were related to selection of the hospital before hospital arrival, 4 to problems with regional emergency medical systems, and 15 to inappropriate hemodynamic management, including transfusion and delayed (or not attempted) hemostasis in the hospital. Problems of these 20 deaths showed that appropriate triage at the scene, centralization of patients with severe trauma, and trauma centers are necessary in Japan. Under-triage before arrival at the hospital was related to clearly and possibly preventable deaths. Upgrading the triage category for victims with torso injury must be considered. Not all emergency critical care centers in Japan are able to provide severe trauma care. Preventable trauma deaths occur even in some emergency critical care centers; therefore, we need centralization of severe trauma patients from wider area to reduce the incidence of preventable trauma death.

  18. Simulating sediment and Cs 137 transfer and deposition in dams of Fukushima prefecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Akihiro; Yamaguchi, Masaaki; Sato, Haruo; Yui, Mikazu

    2014-05-01

    Sediment and cesium 137 discharged into dams and reservoirs and accumulated onto dam and reservoir beds in eastern Fukushima prefecture after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident are simulated by a simple and fast simulation model which we developed by utilizing the universal soil loss equation and the geographical information system. Modeling of soil erosion, transport and deposition, and cesium 137 dispersion were implemented to simulate cesium 137 transport and its future distribution based on the 100m-size grid system. Raster based calculation protocols are formulated using ModelBuider function included in ArcEditor of version 10.0. We applied this model to various dams and reservoirs of eastern Fukushima prefecture and simulated results are compared with some of the measurement data that have been achieved thus far since the FDNPP accident. In the present calculations, we assumed the amount of water into a dam or reservoir is equivalent to the amount of water out from the dam or reservoir. Any operational controls that may have taken in each dam or reservoir are ignored. Annual soil loss from each dam basin, annual soil inflow into each dam, annual soil deposition in each dam, and annual soil discharge from each dam are simulated. Concentrations of radio-cesium 137 in the deposited sediments for the Ogaki dam and Ogi dam, for examples, were calculated and compared with rough estimates of the corresponding values based on the field survey results, and reasonable agreement was observed. Also, the annual soil deposition on the Ogi dam bed is simulated and again compared with rough estimate of the corresponding value based on the field survey, and the order of magnitude was matched. Furthermore, we simulated the effect of decontamination in Ogaki dam basin as an example and it was shown that an intensive decontamination for particular land use area could effectively decrease the discharged amount of radioactive cesium.

  19. Thyroid Ultrasound Findings in Children from Three Japanese Prefectures: Aomori, Yamanashi and Nagasaki

    PubMed Central

    Hayashida, Naomi; Imaizumi, Misa; Shimura, Hiroki; Okubo, Noriyuki; Asari, Yasushi; Nigawara, Takeshi; Midorikawa, Sanae; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Otsuru, Akira; Akamizu, Takashi; Kitaoka, Masafumi; Suzuki, Shinichi; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2013-01-01

    Due to the likelihood of physical and mental health impacts following the unprecedented accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, the Fukushima prefectural government decided to conduct the Fukushima Health Management Survey to assist in the long-term health management of residents. This included thyroid ultrasound examination for all children in Fukushima. For appropriate evaluation of ultrasound screening of the thyroid, it is important to understand its reference data of thyroid findings in children in general. In order to analyze the frequencies of specific thyroid findings, we conducted ultrasound screening of the thyroid by the same procedures as used in Fukushima in 4,365 children, aged 3 to 18 years, from three Japanese prefectures. Overall, thyroid cysts were identified in 56.88% and thyroid nodules in 1.65% of the participants. Thyroid cysts and nodules with a maximum diameter of more than 5 mm were identified in 4.58% and 1.01%, respectively, and age-adjusted prevalences were 3.82% and 0.99%, respectively. Although the prevalence of cysts and nodules varied among the examination areas, no significant differences were observed among the three examination areas in the prevalence of cysts and nodules with a maximum diameter of more than 5 mm. Also, the prevalence of thyroid cysts and nodules, especially those with a maximum diameter of more than 5 mm, significantly increased with age, and showed a female predominance. We also identified ectopic thymus (1.95%), diffuse goiter (1.40%), ultimobranchial body (0.73%), lymph node swelling (0.21%) and thyroid agenesis (0.05%). This is the first ultrasound description of the age-adjusted prevalence of thyroid cysts and nodules, or of the prevalence of abnormalities other than cysts and nodules, such as ectopic thymus, in relation to age, in the general Japanese child population. We contend that this can provide relevant information for the Fukushima Health Management Survey and future population

  20. Cancer deaths in a cohort of Japanese barbers in Aichi Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Shuji; Yagyu, Kiyoko; Obata, Yuki; Lin, Yingsong; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Ito, Hidemi; Matsuo, Keitarou; Tajima, Kazuo; Aoki, Kunio; Kikuchi, Shogo

    2009-01-01

    Barbers have frequent occasion to come in contact with hair and beauty products that contain many chemical substances, which could have harmful effects on health. Subjects were barbers belonging to the Barbers' Union of Aichi Prefecture who responded to a questionnaire in 1976. Deaths from all sites of cancers in the subjects were observed over 27 years. Mortalities of several cancers in the subjects were compared with individuals in the Japanese population, calculating standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) using the general Japanese population as a standard. Subjects included 8,360 people (4,674 men). There were a total of 551 deaths (469 men) during the follow-up period, and 277 deaths (211 men) from all cancers. The male and female SMRs (95% CI) were 0.62 (0.58-0.66) and 0.25 (0.16-0.34) for all deaths, 0.46 (0.39-0.53) and 0.41 (0.35-0.53) for all cancers combined, 0.49 (0.35-0.63) and 0.40 (0.12-0.68) for stomach, 0.40 (0.24-0.56) and 0.30 (0.10-0.70) for lung, 0.56 (0.39-0.73) and 0.26 (0.02-0.76) for liver, 0.38 (0.16-0.60) and 0.30 (0.07-0.67) for colon, and 0.48 (0.08-0.88) and 0.22 (0.04-0.79) for blood cancers, respectively, with significantly fewer deaths than in the general populace. The female SMRs were 0.90 (0.74-4.06) for breast and 0.55 (0.06-1.04) for ovarian, lacking significance. Thus, no excess mortality of any cancer sites was observed compared with the general population in both Japan and Aichi Prefecture.

  1. Trends in forensic autopsy in Chiba prefecture over the past decade.

    PubMed

    Inokuchi, Go; Ishihara, Kenji; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Yajima, Daisuke; Makino, Yohsuke; Motomura, Ayumi; Chiba, Fumiko; Torimitsu, Suguru; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2014-09-01

    The death investigation system in Japan is in the midst of a great transformation. As part of efforts to revise this system, in this study we analyzed the reasons the police refer unnatural death cases for forensic autopsy and, from an understanding of the trends of such referrals, we discuss the future direction of handling unnatural deaths in our country. For 1618 forensic autopsy cases handled by the First Investigation Division of Chiba Prefectural Police that were referred to our institution for forensic autopsy between 2003 and 2012, we tallied the number of autopsies by sex, age group, and reason for forensic autopsy for each year and investigated trends in the referrals over time. The results revealed that the number of autopsies increased annually from 2003 to 2012, with a marked increase from 2010. The number of autopsies increased particularly for cases of suspected criminal deaths, where it was unclear to the police before the forensic autopsy whether or not the death resulted from a criminal act. Our findings suggest that the number of forensic autopsies will continue to increase into the future in Chiba prefecture, and is a trend that is inevitable if we are to prevent criminal death cases from being overlooked. Although referrals for forensic autopsy in Japan are made only when criminal activity is suspected, the original purpose of death investigations is not only to avoid overlooking crimes, but also to flag public health issues. Therefore, together with the police, we need to review the original purpose and conduct more in-depth discussions about when referrals are necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. School-Based Fluoride Mouth-Rinse Program Dissemination Associated With Decreasing Dental Caries Inequalities Between Japanese Prefectures: An Ecological Study

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, Yusuke; Aida, Jun; Taura, Katsuhiko; Kimoto, Kazunari; Ando, Yuichi; Aoyama, Hitoshi; Morita, Manabu; Ito, Kanade; Koyama, Shihoko; Hase, Akihiro; Tsuboya, Toru; Osaka, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Background Dental caries inequalities still severely burden individuals’ and society’s health, even in countries where fluoride toothpastes are widely used and the incidence of dental caries has been decreasing. School-based fluoride mouth-rinse (S-FMR) programs, a population strategy for dental caries prevention, might decrease dental caries inequalities. This study investigated the association between S-FMR and decreasing dental caries prevalence and caries-related inequalities in 12-year-olds by Japanese prefecture. Methods We conducted an ecological study using multi-year prefecture-level aggregated data of children born between 1994 and 2000 in all 47 Japanese prefectures. Using two-level linear regression analyses (birth year nested within prefecture), the association between S-FMR utilization in each prefecture and 12-year-olds’ decayed, missing, or filled permanent teeth (DMFT), which indicates dental caries experience in their permanent teeth, were examined. Variables that could explain DMFT inequalities between prefectures, such as dental caries experience at age 3 years, dentist density, and prefectural socioeconomic circumstances, were also considered. Results High S-FMR utilization was significantly associated with low DMFT at age 12 (coefficient −0.011; 95% confidence interval, −0.018 to −0.005). S-FMR utilization explained 25.2% of the DMFT variance between prefectures after considering other variables. Interaction between S-FMR and dental caries experience at age 3 years showed that S-FMR was significantly more effective in prefectures where the 3-year-olds had high levels of dental caries experience. Conclusions S-FMR, administered to children of all socioeconomic statuses, was associated with lower DMFT. Utilization of S-FMR reduced dental caries inequalities via proportionate universalism. PMID:27108752

  3. School-Based Fluoride Mouth-Rinse Program Dissemination Associated With Decreasing Dental Caries Inequalities Between Japanese Prefectures: An Ecological Study.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Yusuke; Aida, Jun; Taura, Katsuhiko; Kimoto, Kazunari; Ando, Yuichi; Aoyama, Hitoshi; Morita, Manabu; Ito, Kanade; Koyama, Shihoko; Hase, Akihiro; Tsuboya, Toru; Osaka, Ken

    2016-11-05

    Dental caries inequalities still severely burden individuals' and society's health, even in countries where fluoride toothpastes are widely used and the incidence of dental caries has been decreasing. School-based fluoride mouth-rinse (S-FMR) programs, a population strategy for dental caries prevention, might decrease dental caries inequalities. This study investigated the association between S-FMR and decreasing dental caries prevalence and caries-related inequalities in 12-year-olds by Japanese prefecture. We conducted an ecological study using multi-year prefecture-level aggregated data of children born between 1994 and 2000 in all 47 Japanese prefectures. Using two-level linear regression analyses (birth year nested within prefecture), the association between S-FMR utilization in each prefecture and 12-year-olds' decayed, missing, or filled permanent teeth (DMFT), which indicates dental caries experience in their permanent teeth, were examined. Variables that could explain DMFT inequalities between prefectures, such as dental caries experience at age 3 years, dentist density, and prefectural socioeconomic circumstances, were also considered. High S-FMR utilization was significantly associated with low DMFT at age 12 (coefficient -0.011; 95% confidence interval, -0.018 to -0.005). S-FMR utilization explained 25.2% of the DMFT variance between prefectures after considering other variables. Interaction between S-FMR and dental caries experience at age 3 years showed that S-FMR was significantly more effective in prefectures where the 3-year-olds had high levels of dental caries experience. S-FMR, administered to children of all socioeconomic statuses, was associated with lower DMFT. Utilization of S-FMR reduced dental caries inequalities via proportionate universalism.

  4. Rarity of bacterial and viral meningitis in areas of Western Greece with fewer than 2,000 inhabitants.

    PubMed

    Giannakopoulos, Ioannis; Leotsinidis, Michael; Diamantopoulos, Stavros; Makrakis, Konstantinos; Ellina, Aikaterini; Giannakopoulos, Agelos; Papanastasiou, Dimitris A

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the incidence of childhood meningitis in regions with fewer than 2,000 inhabitants (rural regions) and regions with more than 2,000 inhabitants (urban regions) in the prefecture of Achaia in Western Greece during 1991-2005. Included were all 555 children hospitalized for meningitis. The criteria for bacterial meningitis were (i) positive blood/cerebralspinal fluid (CSF) culture, Gram stain, or latex agglutination and/or (ii) increased beta-glucuronidase in CSF. In case of suspected bacterial meningitis, the following findings were considered: compatible clinical and laboratory findings, and whether or not a cure was achieved with antibiotic treatment and finally resulted in negative cultures. In cases of suspected viral meningitis, compatible clinical and laboratory findings were considered, together with observation of a cure without antibiotic treatment. Only 28 of 555 meningitis patients were from rural regions. The incidence per 10,000 children in rural and urban regions, respectively, was as follows: meningitis, 1.13 and 8.99; bacterial meningitis, 0.16 and 2.40; suspected bacterial meningitis, 0.52 and 3.00; and viral meningitis, 0.44 and 3.58. The incidence ratio for bacterial, suspected bacterial, and viral meningitis in urban versus rural regions was 14.85, 5.72, and 8.10, respectively. Only 2 of the 79 cases with a confirmed causative pathogen came from rural regions. In conclusion, compared to those living in urban regions, children living in rural regions are relatively spared from bacterial and viral meningitis.

  5. Palaeogeographic evolution of Alykes lagoon, Pydna, Northern Greece during the Holocene, based on geomorphological and sedimentological data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsanakas, K.; Gaki-Papanastassiou, K.; Maroukian, H.; Cundy, A.; Papanastassiou, D.; Koskeridou, E.

    2012-04-01

    In this study an attempt is made in order to determine the palaeogeographic evolution of Alykes lagoon, located along the microtidal coast of Pieria Prefecture in northern Greece. For this purpose, sedimentological, micro and macropalaeontological and granulometric analyses have been carried out on sediments that have been collected from two drill cores. The total area of Alykes lagoon is 10.78 km2 while the length of the coastline is 11.4 km with a maximum width of 320 m, not exceeding an elevation of 1m. The lagoon in its present form does not seem to be filling up by terrestrial-fluvial action. The only human activity in the study area is the saltworks in the northern part of the lagoon. Two zones have been recognized according to their microfossil content corresponding to different palaeoenvironments of deposition.During the Holocene the sea invaded this lowland area and created a shallow open marine environment which at times was disturbed by multiple terrestrial inputs induced by fluvial discharge and longshore drift. The prevailing drift is from South to North and has contributed to the formation of a barrier spit which extended towards the NNE and finally confined the lagoon in the northwest. The spit has advanced to the east by forming three generations of ridge and swale topography having a slightly different orientation. Based on a radiocarbon date at -4.4 m below sea level obtained from the southern part of the lagoon, it is assumed that the coastline was already at that location by the end of the seventh millennium BP. Given that the drill core is only about twenty meters from the terrestrial outcrops (Neogene formations) we presume that this was the location of the oldest coastline during the Holocene. Therefore, the formation and evolution of the lagoon can be safely put around the sixth millennium BP.

  6. Long-term Benzodiazepine Treatment in Patients with Psychotic Disorders Attending a Mental Health Service in Rural Greece

    PubMed Central

    Peritogiannis, Vaios; Manthopoulou, Thiresia; Mavreas, Venetsanos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Long-term benzodiazepine (BZD) treatment in patients with mental disorders is widespread in clinical practice, and this is also the case of patients with schizophrenia, although the evidence is weak and BZD prescription is discouraged by guidelines and medical authorities. Data on BZD prescription are usually derived from national or regional databases whereas information on the use of BZD by patients with schizophrenia and related psychoses in general population-based samples is limited. Materials and Methods: Information for 77 patients with psychotic disorders who were regularly attending follow-up appointments with the multidisciplinary Mobile Mental Health Unit of the prefectures of Ioannina and Thesprotia, Northwest Greece, during 1-year period (2015) was obtained from our database. Results: From the total of 77 engaged patients, 30 (39%) were regularly prescribed BZDs in the long term, as part of their treatment regimen. Prescribed BZDs were mostly diazepam and lorazepam, in 43.3% of cases each. The mean daily dose of these compounds was 13 mg and 3.77 mg, respectively. Statistical analysis showed a correlation of long-term BZD use with the history of alcohol/substance abuse. Most patients were receiving BZD continuously for several years, and the mean dose was steady within this interval. Conclusions: A large proportion of patients with psychotic disorders were regularly prescribed BZD in long term. It appears that when BZDs are prescribed for some period in the course of a psychotic disorder, their use commonly exceeds the recommended interval and then becomes a regular part of the chronic treatment regimen. Future research should address the factors that may be related to the long-term BZD use by patients with psychotic disorders. Interventions for the reduction of regular BZD prescription should target the primary care setting and all those who treat first episode patients. PMID:28163499

  7. A Comparative Evaluation of Geography Schoolbooks of Greece and Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadimitriou, Fivos

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on geographical education in Greece and Cyprus (Southern Cyprus). The two countries have different sets of books for their educational systems, approved by the relevant Ministries of Education. Since the teaching of these officially approved sets of books is compulsory, the context of geographical education in these countries…

  8. Antibiotic resistance and irrational prescribing in paediatric clinics in Greece.

    PubMed

    Toska, Aikaterini; Geitona, Mary

    Greece is among the countries with the highest rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and simultaneous antibiotic consumption. The aim of this study was to assess the perceptions and knowledge of AMR and irrational antibiotic prescribing of nurses working in paediatric hospitals in Greece. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to nurses in paediatric hospitals and paediatric clinics in Greece. Descriptive and multivariate statistical analyses were performed. Levels of significance were two-tailed and statistical significance was p=0.05. A total of 87% of participants reported irrational prescribing to be an important cause of AMR. Diagnostic uncertainty was stated by 55.5% as the main cause of irrational antibiotic prescribing and 94% suggested the use of protocols and guidelines as the main measure to control overprescribing. Parental demand for antibiotics in hospitals has increased according to 51.8% of respondents. Strong correlation was observed between social-demographic characteristics and antibiotic resistance, as well as irrational prescribing. Assessing nurses' knowledge and perceptions of antimicrobial resistance and irrational prescribing is vital as nurses actively participate in the antibiotics administration process and antimicrobial management in Greece. Their involvement could contribute to educate patients and parents on the public-health implications of overprescribing and antimicrobial resistance.

  9. Mutual relationship between mathematics and astronomy in the ancient Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obradovic, S.

    2006-05-01

    In the paper we consider the foundations of mathematics in the ancient Greece as a deductive system, especially the Euclidean geometry. We investigate the concepts of continuum and discreteness in mathematics and nature. A special attention is given to the mathematics applied to the foundation of the Pythagorean concept of the universe and adoption of Aristotle's and Ptolemy's worldviews.

  10. Pedagogical Beliefs and Attitudes of Computer Science Teachers in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fessakis, Georgios; Karakiza, Tsampika

    2011-01-01

    Pedagogical beliefs and attitudes significantly determine the professional skills and practice of teachers. Many professional development programs for teachers aim to the elaboration of the pedagogical knowledge in order to improve teaching quality. This paper presents the study of pedagogical beliefs of computer science teachers in Greece. The…

  11. Huntington's disease in Greece: the experience of 14 years.

    PubMed

    Panas, M; Karadima, G; Vassos, E; Kalfakis, N; Kladi, A; Christodoulou, K; Vassilopoulos, D

    2011-12-01

    A large scale genetic and epidemiological study of Huntington's disease (HD) was carried out in Greece from January 1995 to December 2008. Diagnostic testing was carried out in 461 symptomatic individuals, while 256 were tested for presymptomatic purposes. The diagnosis of HD with a CAG expansion ≥ 36 was confirmed in 278 symptomatic individuals. The prevalence of HD in Greece was estimated at approximately 2.5 to 5.4:100,000, while the mean minimum incidence was estimated at 2.2 to 4.4 per million per year. The molecular diagnosis of HD was confirmed in the majority of patients (84.4%) sent for confirmation. The false-positive cases 15.6% were characterized by the absence of a family history of HD and the presence of an atypical clinical picture. The uptake of predictive testing for HD was 8.6%. A prenatal test was requested in six pregnancies. The findings of our study do not differ significantly from those of similar studies from other European countries despite the relative genetic isolation of Greece. Of interest is the identification of clusters of HD in Greece. The presence or absence of a family history of HD should be interpreted cautiously, during the diagnostic process.

  12. Vocational Training in the Textiles and Clothing Industries in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drimousis, I.; Zisimopoulos, A.

    This document examines the circumstances under which vocational training in Greece is provided for jobs in the textile and clothing industries. Its objective is to identify guidelines for vocational training for a skilled work force at regional and national levels and to contribute to job mobility between industries. Statistical data,…

  13. The History of Teaching Quantum Mechanics in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tampakis, Constantin; Skordoulis, Constantin

    2007-01-01

    In this work, our goal is to examine the attitude of the Greek scientific community towards Quantum Mechanics and establish the history of teaching of this theory in Greece. We have examined Physics textbooks written by professors of the University of Athens, as well as records of public speeches, university yearbooks from 1923 to 1970, articles…

  14. "Running the Gauntlet": The Bologna Process in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattheou, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    Greece has not been among the signatory countries that rushed enthusiastically into the implementation of the Bologna process; it has only gradually and grudgingly managed to adopt some of its provisions over the past decade. This paper sheds light on the forces and factors that have put obstacles in its way, including: (1) the epistemological…

  15. Outbreak of West Nile Virus Infection in Greece, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Papa, Anna; Theocharopoulos, George; Dougas, Georgios; Athanasiou, Maria; Detsis, Marios; Baka, Agoritsa; Lytras, Theodoros; Mellou, Kassiani; Bonovas, Stefanos; Panagiotopoulos, Takis

    2011-01-01

    During 2010, an outbreak of West Nile virus infection occurred in Greece. A total of 197 patients with neuroinvasive disease were reported, of whom 33 (17%) died. Advanced age and a history of heart disease were independently associated with death, emphasizing the need for prevention of this infection in persons with these risk factors. PMID:22000357

  16. Notions of "Rhetoric as Epistemic" in Ancient Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.

    The notion that rhetoric (and to a lesser extent, argument) is epistemic is an increasingly popular one today, although it can be traced to ancient Greece. The notion holds that rhetoric, or the art of persuasion, creates and shapes knowledge. Two ancient authors--Aristophanes and Plato--provide evidence that others had notions of rhetoric as…

  17. The History of Teaching Quantum Mechanics in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tampakis, Constantin; Skordoulis, Constantin

    2007-01-01

    In this work, our goal is to examine the attitude of the Greek scientific community towards Quantum Mechanics and establish the history of teaching of this theory in Greece. We have examined Physics textbooks written by professors of the University of Athens, as well as records of public speeches, university yearbooks from 1923 to 1970, articles…

  18. An Enlightened Use of Educational Monitoring for Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korilaki, Panayota

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to discuss the issues surrounding educational monitoring systems. Design/methodology/approach: This paper is a general review of the situation in Greece. Findings: This paper suggests that a superior educational monitoring system aiming to alleviate educational and social inequalities as well as discrepancies between…

  19. Academic Entrepreneurship, Innovation Policies and Politics in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arapostathis, Stathis

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the process of the emergence in Greece of the "Triple Helix", and the nature of the "Helix" in the context of the concurrent changes occurring in Greek socio-political affairs. The influence of politics and innovation policies on the relationships between academia and government and industry is considered.…

  20. Soviet Foreign Policy Towards Greece and Turkey: Contrast within Coherence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    may have been motivated on the Greek side by wariness of the apparent courtship of the Soviet Union being undertaken by Greece’s traditional rival...Ulam, Adam B., The Rivals, Penguin Books, 1971. 11. Couloumbis, T.A., Petropulos, J.A. Psomiades, H.J., Foreign Interference in Greek Politics, Pella

  1. Language Shift in Second Generation Albanian Immigrants in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogonas, Nikos

    2009-01-01

    Albanian immigration to Greece started in the beginning of the 1990s and the second generation of Albanian immigrants is a recent phenomenon. This paper presents the findings of research investigating language maintenance/shift among second generation Albanian immigrants in Athens using as main informants adolescents of Albanian origin.…

  2. Language Shift in Second Generation Albanian Immigrants in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogonas, Nikos

    2009-01-01

    Albanian immigration to Greece started in the beginning of the 1990s and the second generation of Albanian immigrants is a recent phenomenon. This paper presents the findings of research investigating language maintenance/shift among second generation Albanian immigrants in Athens using as main informants adolescents of Albanian origin.…

  3. Family Language Policies among Albanian Immigrants in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatzidaki, Aspassia; Maligkoudi, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of family language policies among 37 Albanian immigrant families in Northern Greece within the framework of Spolsky's language policy model. Data collection was based on semi-directed interviews with parents which were analysed using both content and discourse analysis. According to our findings, three…

  4. An Enlightened Use of Educational Monitoring for Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korilaki, Panayota

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to discuss the issues surrounding educational monitoring systems. Design/methodology/approach: This paper is a general review of the situation in Greece. Findings: This paper suggests that a superior educational monitoring system aiming to alleviate educational and social inequalities as well as discrepancies between…

  5. Lessons from Greece: A Body, Mind, Spirit Odyssey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Linda L.

    2006-01-01

    In Spring Semester 2005, the author was a visiting Fulbright professor at Aristotle University in Greece. The purpose of the Fulbright Program is to increase mutual understanding between the people of the United States and the people of the 150 or so countries that currently participate in the Fulbright Program. In this article, the author looks…

  6. Family Language Policies among Albanian Immigrants in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatzidaki, Aspassia; Maligkoudi, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of family language policies among 37 Albanian immigrant families in Northern Greece within the framework of Spolsky's language policy model. Data collection was based on semi-directed interviews with parents which were analysed using both content and discourse analysis. According to our findings, three…

  7. Let's Play Doctor: Medical Rounds in Ancient Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockler, Donald

    1998-01-01

    Biology students are exposed to historical theories of medicine by contrasting modern medicine and germ theory with the humoral theory of medicine in ancient Greece. After spending one day describing basic theories in humoral medicine, the teacher role-plays a Hippocratic physician treating ailing Greek patients in a Hippocratic medical workshop.…

  8. Health Needs: Policy Plan and School Practice in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soultatou, Pelagia; Duncan, Peter; Athanasiou, Kyriacos; Papadopoulos, Irena

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of health-related needs on a policy design and curriculum enactment basis in terms of the national school health education curriculum in Greek secondary education. Design/methodology/approach: A single case study, using an ethnographic approach, was conducted in Greece, seeking to…

  9. Gold and gold working in Late Bronze Age Northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Vavelidis, M; Andreou, S

    2008-04-01

    Numerous objects of gold displaying an impressive variety of types and manufacturing techniques are known from the Late Bronze Age (LBA) contexts of Mycenaean Greece, but very little is known about the origin and processing of gold during the second millennium B.C: . Ancient literature and recent research indicate that northern Greece is probably the richest gold-bearing region in Greece, and yet, very little evidence exists regarding the exploitation of its deposits and the production as well as use of gold in the area during prehistory. The unusual find of a group of small stone crucibles at the prehistoric settlement of Thessaloniki Toumba, one with visible traces of gold melting, proves local production and offers a rare opportunity to examine the process of on-site gold working. Furthermore, the comparison of the chemical composition of prehistoric artefacts from two settlements with those of gold deposits in their immediate areas supports the local extraction of gold and opens up the prospect for some of the Mycenaean gold to have originated in northern Greece. The scarcity of gold items in northern Greek LBA contexts may not represent the actual amount of gold produced and consumed, but could be a result of the local social attitudes towards the circulation and deposition of artefacts from precious metals.

  10. A Report on Educational Developments in 1975-1976. Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of National Education and Religion, Athens (Greece).

    Examining the educational system of Greece, this publication discusses the reorientation of policy, organization, and curriculum after overthrow of the military regime in July 1974. In accordance with the broader democratic principles set forth in the Greek Constitution of 1975, education is now compulsory for six years, free to everyone on all…

  11. Religious Education in Greece: A New Curriculum, an Old Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koukounaras Liagkis, Marios

    2015-01-01

    Religious Education (RE) in Greece is a compulsory school subject according the 2011 new framework for compulsory education, entitled "New School". This article focuses on two statutory documents for RE, "The Curriculum for RE" and the "The Teacher's Guide for RE", and the pilot scheme of the new curriculum running in…

  12. Literacy in Ancient Greece: The Evidence from History and Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollis, Karyn

    In examining the nature of literacy in ancient Athens, this paper reviews the work of key modern scholars and their positions in the debates concerning the development of literacy in Greece, the oral culture preceeding this, and the technology that enabled it to occur. Following an introduction surveying the viewpoints of Rhys Carpenter, L. H.…

  13. Implementing Innovation in Primary EFL: A Case Study in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karavas, Evdokia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight and discuss the strategies used to diffuse and manage a primary ELT innovation in Greece, strategies that proved essential for developing stakeholders' acceptance and ownership of the innovation, thereby facilitating its further development and sustainability. The PEAP Programme, launched in 2010,…

  14. Literacy in Ancient Greece: The Evidence from History and Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollis, Karyn

    In examining the nature of literacy in ancient Athens, this paper reviews the work of key modern scholars and their positions in the debates concerning the development of literacy in Greece, the oral culture preceeding this, and the technology that enabled it to occur. Following an introduction surveying the viewpoints of Rhys Carpenter, L. H.…

  15. Lessons from Greece: A Body, Mind, Spirit Odyssey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Linda L.

    2006-01-01

    In Spring Semester 2005, the author was a visiting Fulbright professor at Aristotle University in Greece. The purpose of the Fulbright Program is to increase mutual understanding between the people of the United States and the people of the 150 or so countries that currently participate in the Fulbright Program. In this article, the author looks…

  16. School Adjustment Difficulties of Immigrant Children in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palaiologou, Nektaria

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and main results of a longitudinal study in Greece that explored the learning and psychosocial difficulties of immigrant pupils, as compared with those of their Greek classmates. The "Teacher-Child Rating Scale" (T-CRS) and "Child Rating Scale" (CRS) were used as instruments to measure the…

  17. Inclusive Discourse in Greece: Strong Voices, Weak Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoniou-Sideri, Athina; Deropoulou-Derou, Eudoxia; Karagianni, Panagiota; Spandagou, Ilektra

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the inclusive discourse in Greece at a period characterized by change in policy and practice. The aim is to discuss critically the distance between the strong voices and weak practices that characterizes the Greek inclusive discourse. The first part focuses on disability and presents the ways that a "common sense"…

  18. Health Needs: Policy Plan and School Practice in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soultatou, Pelagia; Duncan, Peter; Athanasiou, Kyriacos; Papadopoulos, Irena

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of health-related needs on a policy design and curriculum enactment basis in terms of the national school health education curriculum in Greek secondary education. Design/methodology/approach: A single case study, using an ethnographic approach, was conducted in Greece, seeking to…

  19. Notions of "Rhetoric as Epistemic" in Ancient Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.

    The notion that rhetoric (and to a lesser extent, argument) is epistemic is an increasingly popular one today, although it can be traced to ancient Greece. The notion holds that rhetoric, or the art of persuasion, creates and shapes knowledge. Two ancient authors--Aristophanes and Plato--provide evidence that others had notions of rhetoric as…

  20. Plato and Play: Taking Education Seriously in Ancient Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Angour, Armand

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines Plato's notions of play in ancient Greek culture and shows how the philosopher's views on play can be best appreciated against the background of shifting meanings and evaluations of play in classical Greece. Play--in various forms such as word play, ritual, and music--proved central to the development of…

  1. Academic Entrepreneurship, Innovation Policies and Politics in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arapostathis, Stathis

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the process of the emergence in Greece of the "Triple Helix", and the nature of the "Helix" in the context of the concurrent changes occurring in Greek socio-political affairs. The influence of politics and innovation policies on the relationships between academia and government and industry is considered.…

  2. The Kosovo Conflict: Emerging Relationships and Implications for Greece

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    Monitor and Minority Group. Greece. Available on line, http://www.duth.gr/ maillist -archives/thrace/tl54/msg00025.html. 155 Philhellenic Perspective...and Minority Group [http://www.duth.gr/ maillist - archives/thrace/tl54/msg00025.html] Greek Ministry of Defence, Hellenic Peace Support Missions

  3. Gold and gold working in Late Bronze Age Northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavelidis, M.; Andreou, S.

    2008-04-01

    Numerous objects of gold displaying an impressive variety of types and manufacturing techniques are known from the Late Bronze Age (LBA) contexts of Mycenaean Greece, but very little is known about the origin and processing of gold during the second millennium b.c. Ancient literature and recent research indicate that northern Greece is probably the richest gold-bearing region in Greece, and yet, very little evidence exists regarding the exploitation of its deposits and the production as well as use of gold in the area during prehistory. The unusual find of a group of small stone crucibles at the prehistoric settlement of Thessaloniki Toumba, one with visible traces of gold melting, proves local production and offers a rare opportunity to examine the process of on-site gold working. Furthermore, the comparison of the chemical composition of prehistoric artefacts from two settlements with those of gold deposits in their immediate areas supports the local extraction of gold and opens up the prospect for some of the Mycenaean gold to have originated in northern Greece. The scarcity of gold items in northern Greek LBA contexts may not represent the actual amount of gold produced and consumed, but could be a result of the local social attitudes towards the circulation and deposition of artefacts from precious metals.

  4. On an American Campus in Greece, a Chorus of Critics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebel, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Mike Frank G. Epitropoulos moved to Greece in the summer of 2005 to become chairman of the business and applied-sociology departments on a small branch campus of the University of Indianapolis, in the shadow of the Acropolis. A former sociology professor at the University of Pittsburgh, he had long wanted to live with his wife and two sons in the…

  5. Religious Education in Greece: A New Curriculum, an Old Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koukounaras Liagkis, Marios

    2015-01-01

    Religious Education (RE) in Greece is a compulsory school subject according the 2011 new framework for compulsory education, entitled "New School". This article focuses on two statutory documents for RE, "The Curriculum for RE" and the "The Teacher's Guide for RE", and the pilot scheme of the new curriculum running in…

  6. Teaching about Ancient Greece: A Model Teaching Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouris, George

    1988-01-01

    Offers an instructional unit about city-states in Ancient Greece and provides an instructional design model that may be used in similar efforts. Appropriate for grades 6-12, this unit acquaints students with Greek city-states, their locations, main characteristics, social and political structures, origins, and evolution. (GEA)

  7. Let's Play Doctor: Medical Rounds in Ancient Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockler, Donald

    1998-01-01

    Biology students are exposed to historical theories of medicine by contrasting modern medicine and germ theory with the humoral theory of medicine in ancient Greece. After spending one day describing basic theories in humoral medicine, the teacher role-plays a Hippocratic physician treating ailing Greek patients in a Hippocratic medical workshop.…

  8. [Financial crisis and mental health in Greece].

    PubMed

    Giotakos, O; Karabelas, D; Kafkas, A

    2011-01-01

    Several studies indicate an association between economic crises and psychological burden. To investigate the possible impact of the current economic crisis on mental health in Greece, the association between two economic indicators (unemployment and average income) and mental health variables (psychiatric clinic admittance, visits to outpatients' departments and emergency units, suicides, homicides, mortality rates and divorces) was studied. The data were gathered by the Greek Statistical Service and some others were provided by the following hospitals: Eginition Hospital, Psychiatric Hospital of Attica, Athens General Hospital and Evaggelismos Hospital. Simple and multiple regression analyses were performed on the data. There was no significant correlation between the level of unemployment, as well as the average income, and admittance to the psychiatric clinics. A significant correlation was isolated between unemployment and visits to outpatients' department (R2 = 0.40, p = 0.001) and emergency unit (R2 = 0.49, p = 0.0002) of Eginition Hospital. The unemployment rate during the period 1981-2008 was positively associated with the number of homicides (R2 = 0.16, beta = 0.000049, p = 0.03), as well as the number of divorces (R2 = 0.20, beta = 0.005, p = 0.02) during the same period. The average income showed positive association with the visits to both outpatients' department (R2 = 0.55, p < 0.001) and emergency unit (R2 = 0,37, p = 0.004) of Eginition Hospital. However, the data from the 4 hospitals of the study revealed a negative correlation between average income and visits to outpatients' departments (R2 = 0.70, p = 0.02) and emergency units (R2 = 0.90, p < 0.001). Furthermore, a significant negative correlation between the average income and suicide rates (R2 = 0.37, p = 0.007), as well as a positive correlation between the average income and divorce rates (R2 = 0.73, p < 0.001) were found. The findings show several similarities with previous surveys in

  9. Information about Macedonian medicine in ancient Greece.

    PubMed

    Giannouli, Vaitsa; Syrmos, Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    Ancient Greek Macedonians were highly interested in the improvement of their physical and psychological health. At first, they worshiped the mythical god Asclepius and his daughter Hygieia. In at least 24 places in northern Greece, in Halkidiki, Thessaloniki, Kozani, Kavala, Thassos, Serres and other places, archaelogical findings were related to Asclepius. Macedonian kings were also interested in the development of medicine, for the sake of their fellow citizens and their soldiers. Characteristic examples are the close relations of Hippocrates with king Perdikas (5(th) century B.C.) and of Nicomachus (Aristotle's father being a physician) with king Amintas. Alexander the Great had as his personal physician, the famous physician Philippos of Acarnania. An incident between Alexander and Philippos of Acarnania shows the respect of Macedonian kings to their doctors: Alexander became ill after a bath in the frozen river Cydnus (near ancient Tarsus). At this time he received a letter from his general Parmenion for not to trust his physician. Alexander gave this letter to Philippos to read it and while Philippos was reading it and was rather frightened, he saw Alexander drinking the medicine he had given him. We may note that Alexander the Great as a student of Aristotle had a general education about medicine. Archaeological findings revealed two funerary monuments of physicians: a doctor from Thasos, who practiced in Pella as a public physician during the 3rd quarter of the 4(th) century B.C. and a physician named Alexander, who lived in the 1rst half of the 5(th) century A.D. The tomb of a third physician, probably a surgeon, excavated in Pydna, near mount Olympus (3(rd) century BC)also indicates the importance of physicians in Macedonia. Archaeological findings, like surgical knives, from the Hellinistic and Roman periods, found in the city of Veria, also showed the respect of Ancient Greeks to medicine and to their physicians. An example is the skeleton of a young

  10. Early detection and response for measles and rubella cases through the (Nursery) School Absenteeism Surveillance System in Ibaraki Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Miki; Kurita, Junko; Takagi, Takeshi; Nagata, Noriko; Nagasu, Natsuki; Sugawara, Tamie; Ohkusa, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In Ibaraki Prefecture, all (nursery) schools have joined the (Nursery) School Absenteeism Surveillance System (hereafter denoted as (N)SASSy), which is operated by the Japan School Health Association to monitor the prevalence of infectious diseases, the early detection and response for outbreaks, and prevention of large outbreaks. Prefectural government officers also utilize it as a control measure for infectious diseases. In particular, when cases of measles or rubella are registered, (N)SASSy sends e-mails automatically to prefectural government officers to activate control measures. This paper summarizes administrative responses by prefectural government officers for measles or rubella cases using (N)SASSy and discusses the future challenges.Methods We summarized registration, detection, and first response data for measles or rubella cases in (N)SASSy and compared the number of detected and reported cases enforced by the Infectious Diseases Control Law from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2014.Results The public health center questioned hospitals/clinics and (nursery) schools about all registered measles or rubella cases in (N)SASSy on the same day to check the entered information. In the past 2 years, there were 5 measles and 56 rubella cases in 2013 and 1 measles and 19 rubella cases in 2014 registered with (N)SASSy. All cases were checked and investigated by the public health center. Of all cases detected by (N)SASSy, 7 rubella cases in 2013 and 1 rubella case in 2014 were reported based on the law. No measles cases were reported in the 2 years. The results of investigations and laboratory tests were given as feedback to the (nursery) schools. If the case did not case definition determined by the law, we changed the status in (N)SASSy to suspected or discarded cases.Conclusion Since (N)SASSy assists prefectural government officers with earlier detection of and response for infectious diseases, it definitely contributes to infection control

  11. Analysis of synoptic conditions for tornadic days over western Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, P. T.; Matsangouras, I. T.

    2014-09-01

    Tornadoes have been reported in Greece during the last few decades and recent studies have given evidence that western Greece is an area vulnerable to tornadoes, waterspouts and funnel clouds In this study, the composite means and anomalies of synoptic conditions for tornadic events (tornadoes, waterspouts and funnel clouds) over western Greece are analyzed and discussed. The daily composite means of synoptic conditions were based on the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP-NCAR) reanalysis data sets, for the period 12 August 1953 to 31 December 2012. The daily composite anomalies were calculated with respect to 30 years of climatological study (1981-2010) of the synoptic conditions. The analysis was carried out in terms of seasonal and monthly variability of composite means and anomalies of synoptic conditions for specific isobaric levels of 500, 700, 850, 925 hPa and the sea level pressure (SLP). In addition, an analysis and discussion about the dynamic lifted index from NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data sets is presented. The daily composite mean analysis of 500 hPa revealed a trough line across the northern Adriatic Sea and central Italy, associated with a SW upper-air stream over western Greece. The maximum composite anomalies were depicted at the isobaric level of 500 hPa during autumn, spring and summer, against winter when the anomaly appeared at 925 hPa isobaric level. In addition, 48% of tornado events during the autumn season occurred in pre-frontal weather conditions (cold fronts) and 27% developed after the passage of the cold front. Furthermore, the main difference in synoptic patterns between tornado and waterspout days along western Greece during the autumn season is the maximum daily composite anomaly over the Gulf of Taranto.

  12. A process-based land use/land cover change assessment on a mountainous area of Greece during 1945-2009: Signs of socio-economic drivers.

    PubMed

    Xystrakis, Fotios; Psarras, Thomas; Koutsias, Nikos

    2017-06-01

    In the Mediterranean region, natural vegetation has been strongly affected by human activities for thousands of years. During the last decades, there has been a notable tendency for abandonment of marginal agricultural land that is further associated with a number of ecological consequences. In this study we recorded and mapped the temporal changes of land use/land cover (LULC) classes that were further aggregated into major process-based changes for the period 1945-2009 in Aetoloakarnania prefecture, Greece. LULC mapping was based on aerial photographs acquired in 1945, 1960, 1985-1986 and 2007-2009. Object-based image analysis allowed the classification of the region's LULC classes and, consecutively, the assessment of process-based LULC changes for each time period. The results indicated that agricultural land increased during the first post-war years while abandonment of agricultural land took place during more recent decades, especially after the period 1960-1985. The observed land abandonment is combined with a simultaneous densification of shrublands and forests. Radical socio-economic changes that took place in the 1960's include the migration of rural populations towards big cities and the beginning of the development of the tourist industry. We argue that these socio-economic changes play an important role in shaping the observed LULC changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ground Deformation Monitoring in Cultural Heritage Areas by TimeSeries SAR Interferometry: the Case of Ancient Olympia Site (Western Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parcharidis, Is.; Foumelis, M.; Pavlopoulos, K.; Kourkouli, P.

    2010-03-01

    Ancient Olympia is a unique archaeological site located in Ilia Prefecture (Western Greece), the broader area, characterized by various types of natural hazards, which could act as potential source of ground deformation. The archeological site was built on the flood plains of the Alpheios and Kladeos rivers. The hills around the site are made of Late Pliocene loose sediments of sands, silts, clays and conglomerates, where along their lower slopes numerous small landslides occur. The present study concerns the application of time series interferometric analysis, in order to detect ground deformation in the broader area Ancient Olympia and specifically its archeological site. Deformation monitoring was focused on buildings of special interest like the Temple of Zeus, the Prytaneion, the Leonideum and the Academy of Olympic Games. The observed subsidence for the majority of point targets in the vicinity of Olympia show rates between 1.0-1.5 mm/yr. Special efforts was given on the identification in the field of the detected point targets inside the archaeological site, taking into consideration the location and the geometry of the ruins.

  14. Effectiveness of cervical cancer screening based on a mathematical screening model using data from the Hiroshima Prefecture Cancer Registry.

    PubMed

    Ito, Katsura; Tsunematsu, Miwako; Satoh, Kenichi; Kakehashi, Masayuki; Nagata, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    Here we assessed the effectiveness of cervical cancer screening using data from the Hiroshima Prefecture Cancer Registry regarding patient age at the start of screening and differences in screening intervals. A screening model was created to calculate the health status in relation to prognosis following cervical cancer screening and its influence on life expectancy. Epidemiological data on the mortality rate of cervical cancer by age groups and mortality rates from the Hiroshima Prefecture Cancer Registry were used for the model projections. Our results showed that life expectancy when screening rate was 100% compared with 0% was extended by approximately 1 month. Furthermore, when the incidence of cervical cancer was 0% compared with the screening rate was 100%, life expectancy was extended by a maximum of 3 months. Moreover, among individuals affected by cervical cancer, a difference of 13 years in life expectancy was calculated between screened and unscreened groups.

  15. Detection of Rickettsia tamurae DNA in ticks and wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) skins in Shimane Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Motoi, Yuta; Asano, Makoto; Inokuma, Hisashi; Ando, Shuji; Kawabata, Hiroki; Takano, Ai; Suzuki, Masatsugu

    2013-01-01

    We used 24 wild boars trapped from December 2009 to January 2010 and a further 65 from July 2010 to August 2010 in Misato Town, Shimane Prefecture, Japan. We collected blood, spleens, skins and ticks from the wild boars, which were examined for rickettsial infections using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for the genes rickettsial 17-kDa antigen and citrate synthase (gltA). We amplified Rickettsia tamurae AT-1 DNA from the tick Amblyomma testudinarium and from wild boar skins where ticks attached. Antibodies against spotted fever group Rickettsia were detected in wild boar sera using immunofluorescence, whereas blood and spleen samples contained no rickettsial DNA. This study suggests that wild boars have a role as an amplifier and a transporter of A. testudinarium, which harbor R. tamurae. One case of R. tamurae infection in humans was reported in Shimane Prefecture. Therefore, R. tamurae infections in humans might increase, if wild boar populations and their habitats expand.

  16. [Experience of Collaborative Research through Department of Medical Instrumental Research and Technology in Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine].

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Kensuke

    2016-01-01

    Both of Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine which offers high, technical and safe medical treatment and Horiba, Ltd. which has small CBC analyzers in a core product established a joint research institute for development of advanced laboratory test analyzer from January 1, 2012 in Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine as the "advanced treatment hospital" where the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has got approved. Clinical needs about analyzer and reagent for a laboratory test are being investigated to the emergency medical care unit and the intensive care unit as well as the laboratory test part in the affiliated hospital and many medical departments of the pediatrics, the internal medicine and the surgery. Developing the new analyzer based on high technology, evaluating the performance of them and spreading them to a medical examination and treatment site is our main target.

  17. Multiscale Modeling of Radioisotope Transfers in Watersheds, Rivers, Reservoirs and Ponds of Fukushima Prefecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheleznyak, M.; Kivva, S.; Nanba, K.; Wakiyama, Y.; Konoplev, A.; Onda, Y.; Gallego, E.; Papush, L.; Maderych, V.

    2015-12-01

    The highest densities of the radioisotopes in fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP in March 2011 were measured at the north eastern part of Fukushima Prefecture. The post-accidental aquatic transfer of cesium -134/137 includes multiscale processes: wash-off from the watersheds in solute and with the eroded soil, long-range transport in the rivers, deposition and resuspension of contaminated sediments in reservoirs and floodplains. The models of EU decision support system RODOS are used for predicting dynamics of 137Cs in the Fukushima surface waters and for assessing efficiency of the remediation measures. The transfer of 137Cs through the watershed of Niida River was simulated by DHSVM -R model that includes the modified code of the distributed hydrological and sediment transport model DHSVM (Lettenmayer, Wigmosta et al.) and new module of radionuclide transport. DHSMV-R was tested by modelling the wash-off from the USLE experimental plots in Fukushima prefecture. The model helps to quantify the influence of the differentiators of Fukushima and Chernobyl watersheds, - intensity of extreme precipitation and steepness of watershed, on the much higher values of the ratio "particulated cesium /soluted cesium" in Fukushima rivers than in Chernobyl rivers. Two dimensional model COASTOX and three dimensional model THREETOX are used to simulate the fate of 137Cs in water and sediments of reservoirs in the Manogawa River, Otagawa River, Mizunashigawa River, which transport 137Cs from the heavy contaminated watersheds to the populated areas at the Pacific coast. The modeling of the extreme floods generated by typhoons shows the resuspension of the bottom sediments from the heavy contaminated areas in reservoirs at the mouths of inflowing rivers at the peaks of floods and then re-deposition of 137Cs downstream in the deeper areas. The forecasts of 137Cs dynamics in bottom sediments of the reservoirs were calculated for the set of the scenarios of the sequences of the high

  18. Pregnancy and birth survey after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Fukushima prefecture.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Keiya; Kyozuka, Hyo; Yasuda, Shun; Goto, Aya; Yasumura, Seiji; Ota, Misao; Ohtsuru, Akira; Nomura, Yasuhisa; Hata, Kenichi; Suzuki, Kouta; Nakai, Akihito; Sato, Mieko; Matsui, Shiro; Nakano, Kyoko; Abe, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    On 11 March 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake followed by a powerful tsunami hit the Pacific Coast of Northeast Japan and damaged Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, causing a radiation hazard in Fukushima Prefecture. The objective of this report is to describe some results of a questionnaire-based pregnancy and birth survey conducted by the Radiation Medical Science Center for the Fukushima Health Management Survey. Questionnaires were sent to women who received maternal and child health handbooks from municipal officers in Fukushima Prefecture between 1 August 2010 and 31 July 2011, with the aim of reaching those who were pregnant at the time of the disaster. Mailing began 18 January 2012. Data were analyzed separately for six geographic areas in Fukushima Prefecture. The total number of women meeting survey criteria was 15,972. The number of responses received to date is 9,298 (58.2%). Data from 8602 respondents were analyzed after excluding 634 invalid responses and 5 induced and 57 spontaneous abortions (less than 22 gestational weeks). The incidences of stillbirth (over 22 completed gestational weeks), preterm birth, low birth weight and congenital anomalies were 0.25%, 4.4%, 8.7% and 2.72%, respectively. These incidences are similar to recent averages elsewhere in Japan. Considering the pregnancy and birth survey data in aggregate, our disaster seemed to provoke no significant adverse outcomes over the whole of Fukushima prefecture. But post-disaster prenatal care and support intended for patients' safety and security should be coupled with ongoing surveillance and rigorous data analysis.

  19. Development of a Coastal Inventory in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karditsa, Aikaterini; Poulos, Serafim; Velegrakis, Adonis; Ghionis, George; Petrakis, Stelios; Alexandrakis, George; Andreadis, Olympos; Monioudi, Isavella

    2015-04-01

    Greek coastline that accounts more than 16.000 km hosts hundreds of beaches, which constitute a great touristic destination. However, no gathered information exists relative to its qualitative and quantitative characteristics (e.g. physicogeographical characteristics, artificial structures, nearby land use). Therefore, the development of a coastal database that would successfully concentrate all relative data, in the form of a National Inventory, could be a valuable tool for the management and the sustainable use and exploitation of beaches and the coastal zone. This work presents an example of the development of a beach inventory in the case of the beach zones of Heraklion and Lassithi counties in the Island of Crete, which is one of the most touristic areas in Greece. Data were initially abstracted from satellite images and combined with in situ observations carried out along 98 beaches with shoreline length >100 m. The collected data included geomorphological, topographic and bathymetric mapping, sediment sampling from the subaerial and underwater part and recording of artificial structures. The initial mapping showed that beaches represent only the 18%, with 74% of the total coastline to be rocky while 8% of the coastline host some kind of artificial intervention. The combination of satellite and in situ mapping led to the development of a coastal geomorphological map. Beach widths were found to be limited with the majority of beaches (59%) to have maximum widths less than 25 m, 35% to range between 25 and 50m and about 6% with maximum widths >50m. Concerning beach length, the threshold of 1000 m is overcome only by the 46% of the beaches. Beaches with very smooth slopes (<2.5) are infrequent (~6%), whilst beaches with low slopes (2.5-5%) are the majority (42%) along with beaches with moderate slopes (5-7.5%) that account approximately the 32%. Beaches with high slopes (7.5-10%) are about 11%, whereas very high slopes and extremely high slopes are much less

  20. [Medical myths and notions in Ancient Greece].

    PubMed

    Boulogne, J

    2001-01-01

    The article deals with the views on health and disease prevalent in Ancient Greece, the cradle of modern European medicine, focusing on the ever-present myths functioning in that realm despite attempts to rationally explain medical phenomena. On the basis of the works of Hippocrates and Galen, the author has distinguished five different epistemological attitudes towards those phenomena: the holistic, macrocosmological, monistic, anti-hypothetical and eclectic. The first was based on the idea of mechanical and logical causes. In medicine it is marked by determinism connected with climatic conditions. Hippocrates believed that health depended on the weather, in particular on the effects of winds, types of water and properties of soil. Myth emerged in this conception in the way matter - earth, water, air and fire - was conceived, particular in the properties ascribed to them: cold, humidity, aridity and warmth. The author charges that this conception was permeated with ethnocentrism and cites examples invoked by Hippocrates on the basis of his observations on the Scythians. The macrocosmological attitude involves subordinating medicine to cosmology. Man's body is a microcosm. The author cites the treatise 'On Diets', in which the greatest importance both in the universe and in processes taking place in the human body as ascribed to two factors - fire and water. Their combination was said to have played a crucial role in the typology of corporal and mental constitutions. Those features, together with the seasons of the year, mode of behaviour and food, constitute the four forces guiding vital processes. The author then presents the embryogenic conception contained in the cosmological treatise. It was based on such things as numerological speculations, hence - despite its rationalistic assumptions, consigns it to the mythic. The third attitude, the monistic approach, presents a treatise ascribed to Hippocrates 'On the Sacred Disease' and dealing with epilepsy. The

  1. Serological survey of leptospirosis in sows with premature birth and stillbirth in Chiba and Gunma prefectures of Japan.

    PubMed

    Kazami, Ayako; Watanabe, Hideki; Hayashi, Tetsu; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Yasuki; Yamamoto, Koshi; Adachi, Yoshikazu

    2002-08-01

    In 1996 and 1997, the seroprevalence against Leptospira in parturient sows with premature birth or stillbirth from two herds was investigated. In three out of four sow serum samples obtained in Gunma Prefecture, the antibody titers to Leptospira interrogans serovar copenhageni (M20) were higher than 10,000 (the reciprocal of the serum dilution). Furthermore, the antibody titers to L. interrogans serovar canicola (Hond Utrecht IV) were significantly high in the three sows and the titers ranged from 1,000 to 3,000. In sows obtained in Chiba Prefecture, significantly high antibody titers to serovar copenhageni (M20) were confirmed in eight out of 40 sows, and antibody titers greater than 10,000 in six of them. Significantly high antibody titers to L. interrogans serovar icterohaemorrhagiae (RGA) and L. canicola (Hond Utrecht IV) were confirmed in four and 18 out of the 40 sows, respectively, compared with the titers to the other serovars. These findings may indicate the prevalence of leptospirosis in pig herds in both Gunma and Chiba Prefectures.

  2. [Comparison of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Newport isolates from a patient and sewages in Fukui Prefecture].

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Fubito; Kyota, Yoshito; Mochizuki, Michio; Fuseda, Tetsuya; Omoya, Shigemori; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Watanabe, Haruo

    2005-04-01

    From May 2003 to March 2004, nine strains of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serovar Newport were isolated from 5 sewages of 3 sewage treatment plants located in 2 different regions of Fukui Prefecture. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing identified 2 different MDR patterns (type I and II). Type I strains were resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, sulfisoxazole, cefotaxime, cephalothin, ceftriaxone, and ceftrazidime and type II strains were additionally resistant to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and spectionomycin. Neither of kanamycin, fosfomycin, nalidixic acid, gentamycin, or ciprofloxacin resistance was observed. Type I and II strains were different in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and plasmid profiles, while they showed the same profiles with in each type. All the MDR strains in this study were proved to carry the blaCMY-2 gene by PCR and sequence analyses. Numbers of reports on MDR S. Newport with blaCMY-2 have been increasing in foreign countries such as the United States. The MDR patterns of the isolates in this study were similar to those of the United States. These properties of the type I strains were identical with that a strain isolated from a 7-year-old patient in Fukui Prefecture, in September 2003 which we previously reported. However, the patient lived in a region where no epidemiological associations with the sewage treatment plants were found. This suggests that the MDR strains might prevail in Fukui Prefecture. Domestic surveillance for MDR S. Newport would be need.

  3. Changes in air temperature and its relation to ambulance transports due to heat stroke in all 47 prefectures of Japan.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Shoko; Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Sakano, Noriko

    2012-09-01

    Changes in air temperature and its relation to ambulance transports due to heat stroke in all 47 prefectures, in Japan were evaluated. Data on air temperature were obtained from the Japanese Meteorological Agency. Data on ambulance transports due to heat stroke was directly obtained from the Fire and Disaster Management Agency, Japan. We also used the number of deaths due to heat stroke from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan, and population data from the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. Chronological changes in parameters of air temperature were analyzed. In addition, the relation between air temperature and ambulance transports due to heat stroke in August 2010 was also evaluated by using an ecological study. Positive and significant changes in the parameters of air temperature that is, the mean air temperature, mean of the highest air temperature, and mean of the lowest air temperature were noted in all 47 prefectures. In addition, changes in air temperature were accelerated when adjusted for observation years. Ambulance transports due to heat stroke was significantly correlated with air temperature in the ecological study. The highest air temperature was significantly linked to ambulance transports due to heat stroke, especially in elderly subjects. Global warming was demonstrated in all 47 prefectures in Japan. In addition, the higher air temperature was closely associated with higher ambulance transports due to heat stroke in Japan.

  4. The Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS) in Fukushima Prefecture-A progress report on the enrollment stage

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Koichi; Yasumura, Seiji; Fujimori, Keiya; Kyozuka, Hyo; Wakaki, Yu; Sato, Akiko; Hanzawa, Haruko; Yokoyama, Tadahiko; Sato, Testushi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Japan Environment and Children’s Study is an ongoing nationwide birth cohort study that is being conducted at 15 regional centers throughout Japan. The recruitment of subjects in the study area within Fukushima Prefecture, which includes Fukushima City, Minami Soma City and Futaba County, was begun on January 31, 2011 with the cooperation of the obstetrics and gynecology departments of local medical institutions. On March 11, soon after the start of recruitment, the Tohoku region was hit by an unprecedented disaster in the shape of the Great East Japan Earthquake, which was closely followed by the Tokyo Electric Power Company’s Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. As a result of the disaster, the study area in Fukushima Prefecture was expanded on October 1, 2012 to include 59 municipalities across Fukushima Prefecture. Three points are seen as particularly important: 1) Radiation risk communication, 2) The motto is “Be attentive. Be supportive.”, and 3) Establishing cooperating partnerships. With the cooperation of all concerned, the recruitment period ended on March 31, 2014. The tentative total number of the participants enrolled at the Fukushima Regional Center was 34,666 (13,134 pregnant mothers, 8,695 fathers and 12,837 children born before November 30, 2014 as of June 2016). PMID:28680007

  5. The Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS) in Fukushima Prefecture-A progress report on the enrollment stage.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Koichi; Yasumura, Seiji; Fujimori, Keiya; Kyozuka, Hyo; Wakaki, Yu; Sato, Akiko; Hanzawa, Haruko; Yokoyama, Tadahiko; Sato, Testushi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki

    2017-08-09

    The Japan Environment and Children's Study is an ongoing nationwide birth cohort study that is being conducted at 15 regional centers throughout Japan. The recruitment of subjects in the study area within Fukushima Prefecture, which includes Fukushima City, Minami Soma City and Futaba County, was begun on January 31, 2011 with the cooperation of the obstetrics and gynecology departments of local medical institutions. On March 11, soon after the start of recruitment, the Tohoku region was hit by an unprecedented disaster in the shape of the Great East Japan Earthquake, which was closely followed by the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. As a result of the disaster, the study area in Fukushima Prefecture was expanded on October 1, 2012 to include 59 municipalities across Fukushima Prefecture. Three points are seen as particularly important: 1) Radiation risk communication, 2) The motto is "Be attentive. Be supportive.", and 3) Establishing cooperating partnerships. With the cooperation of all concerned, the recruitment period ended on March 31, 2014. The tentative total number of the participants enrolled at the Fukushima Regional Center was 34,666 (13,134 pregnant mothers, 8,695 fathers and 12,837 children born before November 30, 2014 as of June 2016).

  6. [Nutritional factors influencing the incidence of new dialysis due to diabetes mellitus in each prefecture of Japan].

    PubMed

    Ogata, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    There are regional differences in the incidence of new dialysis in Japan. We investigated nutritional factors that might influence the incidence of new dialysis due to diabetes mellitus(DM)in each prefecture. We analyzed the data reported for 47 prefectures in the National Nutrition Survey 1995-1999 (n = 38,003), and the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy 2005-2007 (n = 45,033). Ecological regression was assessed using univariate regression analysis. Univariate analysis showed that body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.296, p = 0.022), intake of fish and shellfish (r = -0.254, p = 0.043), meat (r = 0.275, p=0.031), energy (r = -0.280, p = 0.028), carbohydrates (r = -0.283, p = 0.027), calcium (r = -0.278, p = 0.029), iron (r = -0.338, p = 0.010), salt (r = -0.288, p = 0.025), vitamin B2 (r = -0.279, p = 0.029), and vitamin C (r = -0.302, p = 0.020) were correlated with the incidence of new dialysis due to DM. The incidence of new dialysis due to DM in each prefecture may be influenced by environmental factors, including nutritional factors.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A REAL-TIME FORECASTING SYSTEM FOR ROAD FACILITIES IN YAMAGUCHI PREFECTURE AND ITS PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Satoru; Yoshimura, Takashi; Miyamoto, Ayaho

    Maintenance strategy for road facilities on the road network which is an essential lifeline supporting our life is becoming a major social concern in safety and securer civil societies for not only Yamaguchi prefecture but also other prefectures in recently. This paper describes a road facilities maintenance man-agement support system combined with the latest information and communication technologies, such as the information function at the position of the GPS cellular phone with web GIS, etc. By using the system, because information can be shared by using location information function, photograph function, e-mail functionality, and web GIS of the GPS cellular phone to its maximum, an efficient, effective maintenance management can be done. From the comparison of the results of applying the system to an actual road network in Yamaguchi prefecture area, the road administrator can in real time confirm the position and the situation of the facilities damage of the road from the Internet, and a quick mending can be done.

  8. Inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice from Fukushima Prefecture after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    PubMed Central

    Nihei, Naoto; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2015-01-01

    We summarize the inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice produced in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, for 3 years from the nuclear accident in 2011. In 2011, three types of verifications, preliminary survey, main inspection, and emergency survey, revealed that rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 500 Bq/kg (the provisional regulation level until March 2012 in Japan) was identified in the areas north and west of the Fukushima nuclear power plant. The internal exposure of an average adult eating rice grown in the area north of the nuclear plant was estimated as 0.05 mSv/year. In 2012, Fukushima Prefecture authorities decided to investigate the radiocesium concentration levels in all rice using custom-made belt conveyor testers. Notably, rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 100 Bq/kg (the new standard since April 2012 in Japan) were detected in only 71 and 28 bags out of the total 10,338,000 in 2012 and 11,001,000 in 2013, respectively. We considered that there were almost no rice exceeding 100 Bq/kg produced in Fukushima Prefecture after 3 years from the nuclear accident, and the safety of Fukushima's rice were ensured because of the investigation of all rice. PMID:25731663

  9. Modelling evolution of air dose rates in river basins in Fukushima Prefecture affected by sediment-sorbed radiocesium redistribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malins, A.; Sakuma, K.; Nakanishi, T.; Kurikami, H.; Machida, M.; Kitamura, A.; Yamada, S.

    2015-12-01

    The radioactive 134Cs and 137Cs isotopes deposited over Fukushima Prefecture by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster are the predominant radiological concern for the years following the accident. This is because the energetic gamma radiation they emit on decay constitutes the majority of the elevated air dose rates that now afflict the region. Therefore, we developed a tool for calculating air dose rates from arbitrary radiocesium spatial distributions across the land surface and depth profiles within the ground. As cesium is strongly absorbed by clay soils, its primary redistribution mechanism within Fukushima Prefecture is by soil erosion and water-borne sediment transport. Each year between 0.1~1% of the total radiocesium inventory in the river basins neighboring Fukushima Daiichi is eroded from the land surface and enters into water courses, predominantly during typhoon storms. Although this is a small amount in relative terms, in absolute terms it corresponds to terabecquerels of 134Cs and 137Cs redistribution each year and this can affect the air dose rate at locations of high erosion and sediment deposition. This study inputs the results of sediment redistribution simulations into the dose rate evaluation tool to calculate the locations and magnitude of air dose rate changes due to radiocesium redistribution. The dose rate calculations are supported by handheld survey instrument results taken within the Prefecture.

  10. Spatial and temporal variability of the Aridity Index in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, Panagiotis T.; Politi, Nadia; Kapsomenakis, John

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the spatial and temporal variability of the Aridity Index (AI) in Greece, per decade, during the 50-year period (1951-2000). Besides, the projected changes in ensemble mean AI between the period 1961-1990 (reference period) and the periods 2021-2050 (near future) and 2071-2100 (far future) along with the inter-model standard deviations were presented, based on the simulation results, derived from a number of Regional Climatic Models (RCMs), within the ENSEMBLE European Project. The projection of the future climate was done under SRES A1B. The climatic data used, concern monthly precipitation totals and air temperature from 28 meteorological stations (22 stations from the Hellenic National Meteorological Service and 6 stations from neighboring countries, taken from the Monthly Climatic Data for the World). The estimation of the AI was carried out based on the potential evapotranspiration (PET) defined by Thornthwaite (1948). The data processing was done by the application of the statistical package R-project and the Geographical Information Systems (GIS). The results of the analysis showed that, within the examined period (1951-2000), a progressive shift from the "humid" class, which characterized the wider area of Greece, towards the "sub-humid" and "semi-arid" classes appeared in the eastern Crete Island, the Cyclades complex, the Evia and Attica, that is mainly the eastern Greece. The most significant change appears during the period 1991-2000. The future projections at the end of twentieth century, using ensemble mean simulations from 8 RCMs, show that drier conditions are expected to establish in regions of Greece (Attica, eastern continental Greece, Cyclades, Dodecanese, eastern Crete Island and northern Aegean). The inter-model standard deviation over these regions ranges from 0.02 to 0.05 against high values (0.09-0.15) illustrated in western mountainous continental Greece, during 2021-2050. Higher values of inter

  11. Behavior of dissolved radiocesium in river water in a forested watershed in Fukushima Prefecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, H.; Nishikiori, T.; Yasutaka, T.; Watanabe, M.; Ito, S.; Hayashi, S.

    2016-10-01

    Dissolved radiocesium concentrations in river water in a high-dose-rate forest watershed in Fukushima Prefecture were investigated under base flow and storm flow conditions. Under base flow conditions, dissolved 137Cs concentrations in water (Bq/L) were relatively high in summer, and these levels were higher than particulate 137Cs concentrations (Bq/L). Under storm flow, particulate 137Cs concentration became dominant as the suspended solid concentration increased. Throughout the monitoring period, dissolved 137Cs concentrations in water (Bq/L) were higher under storm flow than base flow conditions and were positively correlated with runoff intensity. Factors influencing changes in dissolved 137Cs concentrations were investigated by measuring the 137Cs concentration of suspended solid (Bq/kg) and dissolved 137Cs of unsaturated soil water, throughfall, and rainfall, together with other main solute concentrations. The 137Cs concentration per unit weight of suspended solids in river water was not strongly correlated with runoff intensity. Additionally, dissolved 137Cs concentrations of soil water, groundwater, and rainfall were not detected, while higher dissolved 137Cs concentrations were detected in throughfall than river water. K+ concentrations were higher under storm flow than base flow, and dissolved organic carbon increased toward the peak flow rate. These findings suggested that one main factor influencing generation of dissolved 137Cs in the river water was leaching from organic material in flooded areas. However, further investigation is needed to clarify the dominant source of dissolved 137Cs in river water.

  12. [HIV subtype in newly reported HIV infected cases in Dehong prefecture of Yunnan province, 2015].

    PubMed

    Duan, X; Wang, K R; Wang, J B; Yang, T; Wang, Y K; Yang, J; Ye, R H; Yang, Y C; Yao, S T; Duan, S; He, N

    2017-08-10

    Objective: To explore the distribution of HIV subtype in newly detected people living with HIV from January to November, 2015 in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan province. Methods: DNA extraction, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for gag, env, and pol amplification and amplification product sequencing were conducted by using plasmas of newly detected HIV-infected persons. The subtypes were confirmed by analyzing the sequences of 3 genes. Results: A total of 963 HIV infection cases were reported during this period, the HIV subtype was confirmed in 499 cases. Unique recombinant form (URF) was the most common subtype (27.1%, 135/499), followed by C (26.7%, 133/499), CRF01_AE (19.2%, 96/499) and others. URF included 4 kinds of combination, of which combination of subtype B and C was most common. HIV subtype distribution differed between the Chinese HIV infection cases and the Burmese HIV infection cases, the proportion of B and C combination was higher in the Chinese cases. Transmission route was the only factor influencing HIV subtype distribution. Conclusions: HIV subtype distribution in Dehong was complex. URF was predominant. The HIV subtype distribution differed between Chinese and Burmese under different transmission route.

  13. High accelerations produced by the Western Nagano Prefecture, Japan, earthquake of 1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, Y.; Kuroiso, A.; Ito, K.; Muramatu, I.

    1987-10-01

    Many boulders were thrown out of their former sockets by the Western Nagano Prefecture, Japan, earthquake of 1984 ( M jma = 6.8 ). The anomalous high accelerations of 4-16 g were estimated from the displacement of thrown-out boulders, assuming that the seismic waves had a frequency range of 5-10 Hz. Almost all of the thrown-out boulders were found on the mountain-tops, ridges and saddles. The topographic amplifications of seismic waves were estimated using five aftershocks recorded on the mountain-top and at the foot. Average amplitude ratios (mountain-top: foot) of seismic waves are 2-7 in the frequency range concerned. The high acceleration area defined by the distribution of thrown-out boulders is very small (1× 3 km) compared with the length (12 km) of the assumed main fault. Many cracks were also found in this limited small area, which is characterized by extremely low activity of aftershocks and relatively large dislocation.

  14. Current status of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Beyla and Macenta Prefectures, Forest Guinea.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Mary; Koroma, Manso M; Baldé, Mamadou S; Turay, Hamid; Fofanah, Ibrahim; Divall, Mark J; Winkler, Mirko S; Zhang, Yaobi

    2011-11-01

    A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in children aged 9-14 years in Beyla and Macenta Prefectures, Forest Guinea. Stool samples were examined by Kato-Katz and urine samples were examined by the centrifugation method. The overall prevalence and intensity of infection was 66.2% and 462.4 eggs per gram of faeces (epg) for Schistosoma mansoni, 21.0% and 17.8 eggs per 10ml of urine for S. haematobium, 51.2% and 507.5 epg for hookworm, 8.1% and 89.1 epg for Ascaris lumbricoides and 2.4% and 16.7 epg for Trichuris trichiura. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis (S. mansoni and/or S. haematobium) was 70.7%. The prevalence of schistosomiasis was similar to those reported in the 1990s in the region; however, the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths has since fallen. These findings illustrate the need for schistosomiasis control in Guinea. Copyright © 2011 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum from two different Japanese prefectures, Okinawa and Hokkaido.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Aita, Junya; Masatani, Tatsunori; Suzuki, Moemi; Nitta, Yoshiki; Tamayose, Genta; Iso, Takehiro; Suganuma, Keisuke; Fujiwara, Takashi; Matsuyama, Keita; Niikura, Tadamasa; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Yamakawa, Kazuhiro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Itagaki, Tadashi; Zakimi, Satoshi; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2015-04-01

    Infectious diarrhea is the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal calves. Cryptosporidium parvum is one of the main pathogens associated with calf diarrhea. Although diarrhea is a symptom of infection with various pathogens, investigations to detect the types of pathogens have never been performed in Japan. This study investigated the prevalence of four major diarrhea-causing pathogens in calves: C. parvum, rotavirus, coronavirus, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli K99). Commercial immunochromatography testing of all four pathogens and molecular analysis of C. parvum with diarrhea in calves from southernmost Okinawa and northernmost Hokkaido, Japan, were conducted. The frequencies of C. parvum, rotavirus, coronavirus, and E. coli (K99) in Okinawa were 50%, 28%, 2.3%, and 4.7%, respectively. Watery fecal stools were significantly correlated with C. parvum (p<0.05). In oocyst calculations for C. parvum, no significant difference was observed between the single-infection cases and the mixed-infection cases with rotavirus. Interestingly, molecular analyses targeting small subunit ribosomal RNA as well as glycoprotein 60 (GP60) genes revealed that the C. parvum nucleotide sequences from the two prefectures were identical, indicating that C. parvum with a uniform characteristic is distributed throughout Japan. GP60 subtyping analysis identified C. parvum from Okinawa and Hokkaido as belonging to the IIaA15G2R1 subtype, a known zoonotic subtype. Hence, control of cryptosporidiosis is important not only for pre-weaned calves, but also for human health.

  16. Meteorological factors affecting scrub typhus occurrence: a retrospective study of Yamagata Prefecture, Japan, 1984-2014.

    PubMed

    Seto, J; Suzuki, Y; Nakao, R; Otani, K; Yahagi, K; Mizuta, K

    2017-02-01

    Climate change, by its influence on the ecology of vectors might affect the occurrence of vector-borne diseases. This study examines the effects of meteorological factors in Japan on the occurrence of scrub typhus, a mite-borne zoonosis caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. Using negative binomial regression, we analysed the relationships between meteorological factors (including temperature, rainfall, snowfall) and spring-early summer cases of scrub typhus in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan, during 1984-2014. The average temperature in July and August of the previous year, cumulative rainfall in September of the previous year, snowfall throughout the winter, and maximum depth of snow cover in January and February were positively correlated with the number of scrub typhus cases. By contrast, cumulative rainfall in July of the previous year showed a negative relationship to the number of cases. These associations can be explained by the life-cycle of Leptotrombidium pallidum, a predominant vector of spring-early summer cases of scrub typhus in northern Japan. Our findings show that several meteorological factors are useful to estimate the number of scrub typhus cases before the endemic period. They are applicable to establish an early warning system for scrub typhus in northern Japan.

  17. Radium geochemistry in Na-Cl type groundwater in Niigata Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Junpei; Satake, Hiroshi; Fukuyama, Taijiro; Sasaki, Keiichi; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    2010-03-01

    Radium isotopes in 23 Na-Cl type groundwater sampled mainly from deep wells in Niigata Prefecture, which is the site of the largest oil- and gas-fields in Japan, were measured along with U isotopes, chemical components and hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios to elucidate the distribution and behavior of Ra in a brackish environment underground. Also analyzed were U and Th isotopes in 38 rock samples collected from outcrops at 17 locations. Ra-226 concentrations (8.86-1637 mBq kg(-1)) of groundwater samples roughly correlated with total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations and other alkaline earth contents. Their (228)Ra/(226)Ra activity ratios (0.32-5.2) were similar to or higher than the (232)Th/(238)U activity ratios (0.6-1.7) in the rocks. The most likely transport mechanism of Ra isotopes into groundwater was due to their alpha-recoil from the solid phase, probably from the water-rock interface where Th isotopes had accumulated, and adsorption/desorption reaction based on the increase in (226)Ra contents with TDS.

  18. Investigation of reservoir animals of Leptospira in the northern part of Miyazaki Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Nobuo; Muto, Maki; Yamamoto, Seigo; Baba, Yoshitaka; Kudo, Momotoshi; Tamae, Yoshinobu; Shimomura, Koji; Takatori, Ichiro; Iwakiri, Akira; Ishikawa, Koji; Soma, Hirotoshi; Watanabe, Haruo

    2008-11-01

    We surveyed reservoir animals of leptospires in the northern part of Miyazaki Prefecture, where a cluster of human leptospirosis had occurred during the summer of 2006. Leptospira was isolated from 6 of 57 large Japanese field mice (Apodemus speciosus). The serogroups of the isolates were Autumnalis (5 strains) and Hebdomadis (1 strain) and the partial nucleotide sequences of their flaB genes suggested that the isolates belonged to L. interrogans. The human patient sera reacted specifically with the Leptospira strain isolated from the mice captured around the area where each patient occurred, suggesting that mice are the source of human infection. We also detected leptospiral DNAs by flaB-polymerase chain reaction in the kidneys of large feral animals; wild boars (positive ratio 10.3%; 4 of 39) and deer (19.2%; 10 of 52). The Leptospira spp. harbored by these animals were deduced to be L. interrogans (in 5 animals) and L. borgpetersenii (in 9 animals) by the nucleotide sequences of the amplicons. Anti-Leptospira antibodies were also detected among symptomatic hound dogs. These results suggest that these feral animals may cause leptospirosis and pose a potential risk to hunters and workers in the meat processing industry.

  19. Assessment of landslide distribution map reliability in Niigata prefecture - Japan using frequency ratio approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahardianto, Trias; Saputra, Aditya; Gomez, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    Research on landslide susceptibility has evolved rapidly over the few last decades thanks to the availability of large databases. Landslide research used to be focused on discreet events but the usage of large inventory dataset has become a central pillar of landslide susceptibility, hazard, and risk assessment. Indeed, extracting meaningful information from the large database is now at the forth of geoscientific research, following the big-data research trend. Indeed, the more comprehensive information of the past landslide available in a particular area is, the better the produced map will be, in order to support the effective decision making, planning, and engineering practice. The landslide inventory data which is freely accessible online gives an opportunity for many researchers and decision makers to prevent casualties and economic loss caused by future landslides. This data is advantageous especially for areas with poor landslide historical data. Since the construction criteria of landslide inventory map and its quality evaluation remain poorly defined, the assessment of open source landslide inventory map reliability is required. The present contribution aims to assess the reliability of open-source landslide inventory data based on the particular topographical setting of the observed area in Niigata prefecture, Japan. Geographic Information System (GIS) platform and statistical approach are applied to analyze the data. Frequency ratio method is utilized to model and assess the landslide map. The outcomes of the generated model showed unsatisfactory results with AUC value of 0.603 indicate the low prediction accuracy and unreliability of the model.

  20. Deposition in Chiba prefecture, Japan, of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant fallout.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Tagami, Keiko; Takata, Hyoe; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Kawaguchi, Isao; Watanabe, Yoshito; Uchida, Shigeo

    2013-02-01

    Radioactivity from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F-1NPP) accident in deposition samples has been monitored at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Chiba Prefecture, Japan, located about 220 km south-southwest of the F-1NPP. Sampling was carried out from 15 March 2011, two to three times a day for 10 d and then once a day until 22 April 2011. Gamma-ray spectrometry of fallout deposition samples revealed the presence of (131)I, (132)I, (132)Te, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs. The largest deposition was observed during 7:00-16:00 on 21 March. The estimated total deposition densities at NIRS were 1.40 × 10(5) Bq m(-2) for (131)I, 4.12 × 10(4) Bq m(-2) for (132)Te, 1.45 × 10(4) Bq m(-2) for (134)Cs, and 1.48 × 10(4) Bq m(-2) for (137)Cs (corrected to 11 March 2011). The obtained densities of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were also supported by the accumulated amount of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in soil near the deposition sampling site. For the vertical profile of those radionuclides in soil at NIRS, about 94% of the total deposition was distributed in the top 10 mm depth on 26 April 2011.

  1. The Fukushima Health Management Survey: estimation of external doses to residents in Fukushima Prefecture

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Yasumura, Seiji; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kobashi, Gen; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Makoto; Akahane, Keiichi; Yonai, Shunsuke; Ohtsuru, Akira; Sakai, Akira; Sakata, Ritsu; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima Health Management Survey (including the Basic Survey for external dose estimation and four detailed surveys) was launched after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The Basic Survey consists of a questionnaire that asks Fukushima Prefecture residents about their behavior in the first four months after the accident; and responses to the questionnaire have been returned from many residents. The individual external doses are estimated by using digitized behavior data and a computer program that included daily gamma ray dose rate maps drawn after the accident. The individual external doses of 421,394 residents for the first four months (excluding radiation workers) had a distribution as follows: 62.0%, <1 mSv; 94.0%, <2 mSv; 99.4%, <3 mSv. The arithmetic mean and maximum for the individual external doses were 0.8 and 25 mSv, respectively. While most dose estimation studies were based on typical scenarios of evacuation and time spent inside/outside, the Basic Survey estimated doses considering individually different personal behaviors. Thus, doses for some individuals who did not follow typical scenarios could be revealed. Even considering such extreme cases, the estimated external doses were generally low and no discernible increased incidence of radiation-related health effects is expected. PMID:26239643

  2. Hypothermia in victims of the great East Japan earthquake: a survey in Miyagi prefecture.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Hajime; Kudo, Daisuke; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Matsumura, Takashi; Abe, Yoshiko; Konishi, Ryota; Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Ishibashi, Satoru; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Narita, Norio; Washio, Toshikatsu; Arafune, Tatsuhiko; Tominaga, Teiji; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2014-10-01

    A survey was conducted to describe the characteristics of patients treated for hypothermia after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Written questionnaires were distributed to 72 emergency medical hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture. Data were requested regarding inpatients with a temperature less than 36ºC admitted within 72 hours after the earthquake. The availability of functional heating systems and the time required to restore heating after the earthquake were also documented. A total of 91 inpatients from 13 hospitals were identified. Tsunami victims comprised 73% of the patients with hypothermia. Within 24 hours of the earthquake, 66 patients were admitted. Most patients with a temperature of 32ºC or higher were treated with passive external rewarming with blankets. Discharge without sequelae was reported for 83.3% of patients admitted within 24 hours of the earthquake and 44.0% of those admitted from 24 to 72 hours after the earthquake. Heating systems were restored within 3 days of the earthquake at 43% of the hospitals. Hypothermia in patients hospitalized within 72 hours of the earthquake was primarily due to cold-water exposure during the tsunami. Many patients were successfully treated in spite of the post-earthquake disruption of regional social infrastructure.

  3. The Fukushima Health Management Survey: estimation of external doses to residents in Fukushima Prefecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Yasumura, Seiji; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kobashi, Gen; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Makoto; Akahane, Keiichi; Yonai, Shunsuke; Ohtsuru, Akira; Sakai, Akira; Sakata, Ritsu; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-08-01

    The Fukushima Health Management Survey (including the Basic Survey for external dose estimation and four detailed surveys) was launched after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The Basic Survey consists of a questionnaire that asks Fukushima Prefecture residents about their behavior in the first four months after the accident; and responses to the questionnaire have been returned from many residents. The individual external doses are estimated by using digitized behavior data and a computer program that included daily gamma ray dose rate maps drawn after the accident. The individual external doses of 421,394 residents for the first four months (excluding radiation workers) had a distribution as follows: 62.0%, <1 mSv 94.0%, <2 mSv 99.4%, <3 mSv. The arithmetic mean and maximum for the individual external doses were 0.8 and 25 mSv, respectively. While most dose estimation studies were based on typical scenarios of evacuation and time spent inside/outside, the Basic Survey estimated doses considering individually different personal behaviors. Thus, doses for some individuals who did not follow typical scenarios could be revealed. Even considering such extreme cases, the estimated external doses were generally low and no discernible increased incidence of radiation-related health effects is expected.

  4. Trend of homicide-suicide in Kanagawa Prefecture (Japan): Comparison with western countries.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Fumiko; Osawa, Motoki

    2016-10-03

    We examined 169 deceased persons and 76 homicide-suicide cases reported in Japan's Kanagawa Prefecture from 1999 to 2011. The relationships between homicide-suicide perpetrators and homicide victims; the numbers of victims; their age, sex, causes and places of death; motivation; and the presence or absence of a suicide note were extracted and examined. The relationship between homicide-suicide perpetrators and homicide victims was examined based on findings from the following: 24 married couples (31%), 22 parents and children aged ≥18 years (29%), 19 parents and children aged ≤17 years (25%), seven families (9%), two couples (3%) and two miscellaneous relationships (3%). The perpetrators comprised 39 men and 40 women, with a mean age of 51.6 years. The victims comprised 39 men and 51 women, with a mean age of 35.4 years. In our study, approximately half of the perpetrators were female, which differed greatly from the reports from Western countries, where most perpetrators were male. Homicide-suicides among married couples accounted for a higher proportion of overall homicide-suicide deaths in Western countries. In Japan, homicide-suicide occurred more frequently with parents and children. Cases in which a mother committed suicide after having killed her young children accounted for a high proportion of these deaths. Because these events occur so frequently in Japan, we recommend making particular efforts to reduce homicide-suicides among mothers and children.

  5. Runoff characteristics of nutrients in the forest streams in Hyogo Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Umemoto, S; Komai, Y; Inoue, T

    2001-01-01

    Nutrients and other pollutant runoffs from streams in artificial forest areas in central Hyogo Prefecture in southwest Japan have been investigated to estimate pollutant loads since 1995. The orthophosphate and ammonium nitrogen contents were usually low and constant during the investigation. When the flowrates of the streams were normal, the concentrations of suspended solids, COD(Mn), TOC and total phosphorus were very low, and did not change much. However, when stream flows were increased by rainstorms or other precipitation, higher concentrations of these parameters occurred. Otherwise, the average concentrations of nitrate nitrogen and total nitrogen were 0.26 mg/l and 0.31 mg/l, respectively, and they were often increased by precipitation events. They changed at the same time because the ratio of nitrate nitrogen per total nitrogen was high, about 80%. The fluctuation of concentrations of total phosphorus was similar to SS concentrations, which suggested that phosphorus was discharged in the types of suspended solids from forest areas. The specific loads of the nutrients and some other pollutants did not differ among the three watersheds investigated. However, the difference among them between fine days and rainy days was fairly large. It was presumed that pollutant runoff from forest areas is strongly dependent on precipitation events.

  6. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Transmission among Elderly Persons, Yamagata Prefecture, Japan, 2009–2015

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Takayuki; Suzuki, Yu; Ikeda, Tatsuya; Mizuta, Katsumi; Yamamoto, Taro; Ahiko, Tadayuki

    2017-01-01

    In many countries with low to moderate tuberculosis (TB) incidence, cases have shifted to elderly persons. It is unclear, however, whether these cases are associated with recent Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmissionor represent reactivation of past disease. During 2009–2015, we performed a population-based TB investigation in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan, using in-depth contact tracing and 24-loci variable-number tandem-repeat typing optimized for Beijing family M. tuberculosis strains. We analyzed 494 strains, of which 387 (78.3%) were derived from elderly patients. Recent transmission with an epidemiologic link was confirmed in 22 clusters (70 cases). In 17 (77.3%) clusters, the source patient was elderly; 11 (64.7%) of the 17 clusters occurred in a hospital or nursing home. In this setting, the increase in TB cases was associated with M. tuberculosis transmissions from elderly persons. Prevention of transmission in places where elderly persons gather will be an effective strategy for decreasing TB incidence among predominantly elderly populations. PMID:28221133

  7. Blood biochemical values in Japanese Black calves in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    OTOMARU, Konosuke; WATAYA, Kenta; UTO, Takehiko; KASAI, Kei

    2015-01-01

    To obtain blood biochemical basic data of Japanese Black calves in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan, blood samples were obtained from 582 clinically healthy calves on 27 farms. Calves were divided into three stages: the suckling stage (between 14 and 90 days of age, n=191), the early growing stage (between 91 and 180 days of age, n=200) and the late growing stage (between 181 and 270 days of age, n=191). The mean concentration of total cholesterol, triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acids, calcium and zinc, and the mean activities of γ-glutamyltransferase and alkaine phospatase in the suckling stage were significantly higher than those in the early and late growing stages (P<0.01). The mean concentration of total protein, albumin and globulin increased gradually with growing. The mean concentration of beta-hydroxybutyrate in the suckling stage was below 150 µmol/l, however, it elevated above 400 µmol/l in the early and late growing stages. The mean concentration of copper concentration was above 70 µg/dl in all stages. The mean concentration of zinc was between 90 and 110 µg/dl in all stages. These results suggest that the blood biochemical values of Japanese Black calves vary with growing stages, and the blood parameters obtained in this study are considered useful as indices for health management of Japanese Black calves. PMID:26346653

  8. Salmonella in Liquid Eggs and Other Foods in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Koichi; Noda, Tamie; Sera, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of Salmonella in retail and wholesale foods in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. A total of 2,021 samples collected between 1999 and 2010 were tested using a culture method. Samples consisted of liquid eggs (n = 30), meat (beef and pork) (n = 781), offal (n = 69), processed meats (n = 2), seafood (n = 232), processed seafood (dried fish) (n = 76), vegetables (n = 481), processed vegetables (n = 87), fruits (n = 167), and herbs (n = 96) from 574 outlets and wholesale agents in 15 areas (five samples were undocumented regarding outlets). Overall, liquid egg showed significantly (P < 0.001) higher frequencies of Salmonella contamination (13.3%) than beef (1/423, 0.2%) and pork (3/235, 1.3%). Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis, the most common serovar as a human pathogen, were isolated from two liquid egg samples. No Salmonella were isolated from seafood and vegetable-related samples including seed sprouts (n = 261). In conclusion, liquid egg is a significant Salmonella vehicle, showing a need to continue the vaccination of chickens to prevent S. Enteritidis contamination in Japanese eggs. Moreover, further study is needed to evaluate Salmonella contamination in seed sprouts with more sampling from retailers there. PMID:24288539

  9. Salmonella in liquid eggs and other foods in fukuoka prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Koichi; Noda, Tamie; Onozuka, Daisuke; Sera, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of Salmonella in retail and wholesale foods in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. A total of 2,021 samples collected between 1999 and 2010 were tested using a culture method. Samples consisted of liquid eggs (n = 30), meat (beef and pork) (n = 781), offal (n = 69), processed meats (n = 2), seafood (n = 232), processed seafood (dried fish) (n = 76), vegetables (n = 481), processed vegetables (n = 87), fruits (n = 167), and herbs (n = 96) from 574 outlets and wholesale agents in 15 areas (five samples were undocumented regarding outlets). Overall, liquid egg showed significantly (P < 0.001) higher frequencies of Salmonella contamination (13.3%) than beef (1/423, 0.2%) and pork (3/235, 1.3%). Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis, the most common serovar as a human pathogen, were isolated from two liquid egg samples. No Salmonella were isolated from seafood and vegetable-related samples including seed sprouts (n = 261). In conclusion, liquid egg is a significant Salmonella vehicle, showing a need to continue the vaccination of chickens to prevent S. Enteritidis contamination in Japanese eggs. Moreover, further study is needed to evaluate Salmonella contamination in seed sprouts with more sampling from retailers there.

  10. Statistical characterization of radiation doses from external exposures and relevant contributors in Fukushima prefecture.

    PubMed

    Takahara, Shogo; Abe, Tatsuya; Iijima, Masashi; Shimada, Kazumasa; Shiratori, Yoshitake

    2014-10-01

    In areas contaminated by radioactive materials, well designed dose assessment is necessary in order to protect people from radiation exposure and manage the exposure situation appropriately. Probabilistic dose assessment is a useful method for providing a more complete characterization of information on dose distributions in the population and requires statistically characterized data on pathway-relevant contributors. The objective of this paper is to determine statistical features of contributors to external exposures, as well as to identify causes of variabilities of individual doses to the populations living in areas contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. To achieve these objectives, measurements of individual doses and ambient dose rates, as well as surveys of behavioral patterns, were performed between February and April 2012. These were made with the cooperation of indoor workers, outdoor workers, and pensioners living in Fukushima prefecture. On the basis of these results, statistical analyses were performed in order to identify variabilities of contributors. In addition, a multi-regression analysis was done to explore a significant relationship between individual doses and relevant contributors. Results showed that the ambient dose equivalent rate also distributed with lognormal form, and it had variabilities attributable to the spatial distribution of deposited radionuclides. The distribution form of time spent outdoors depends on the characteristics of occupation, and the distributions for indoor workers and outdoor workers were lognormal and normal, respectively. Results of a multiple-regression analysis suggested that such variabilities of contributors give rise to significant differences in individual doses among the populations.

  11. [Occupational health of endoscope sterilization workers in medical institutions in Osaka Prefecture].

    PubMed

    Miyajima, Keiko; Tabuchi, Takeo; Kumagai, Shinji

    2006-09-01

    To clarify the actual condition of endoscope sterilization work and the adverse health effects of disinfectants on personnel, a questionnaire was sent to 173 medical institutions in Osaka Prefecture. Glutaraldehyde (GA), ortho-phtalaldehyde (OPA), and hyperacetic acid were used as disinfectants of endoscopes by 55.5%, 32.4%, and 8.7% of the medical institutions respectively. The kind of disinfectant used had been changed in 57.8% of these institutions during the past five years, and it was confirmed that the use of substitutes for GA, such as OPA and hyperacetic acid, has increased. Personnel in 35.8% of the institutions complained about symptoms during sterilization work. The kind of disinfectant being used when they complained was GA in many cases and OPA in others. A general ventilation system has now been installed in 72.3% of the institutions; local exhaust systems have been installed in fewer, only 23.4%. Protective gloves were used at about half of the institutions, but protective masks and glasses were seldom used. This study shows that the occupational health problems of endoscope sterilization work have not been resolved. Consequently, it is necessary to promote the installation of ventilation systems and the use of protective devices in all institutions. Health education in regard to the handling of disinfectants is also necessary. Because little information is available about the toxic effects of OPA and hyperacetic acid, epidemiological studies must be conducted to clarify the human health effect of these disinfectants.

  12. Thrust-faulting earthquake induced many normal-faulting aftershocks, in northeastern Chiba Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, S.; Kato, A.; Hirata, N.; Nakagawa, S.; Kasahara, K.; Sato, H.; Kurashimo, E.; Nanjo, K.; Panayotopoulos, Y.; Obara, K.; Aketagawa, T.; Kimura, H.

    2010-12-01

    A thrust faulting type earthquake of a local body wave magnitude (MJMA) of 4.9 occurred near the upper interface of the subducting Philippine Sea Plate (PHS) in northeastern Chiba Prefecture on July 22, 2010. We have been developing a dense seismic net work call the MeSO-net in the Tokyo Metropolitan area. So far, 249 stations are available for the study of a large felt earthquakes and small event as low as M=1.5. We also deployed a temporary seismic array 24 of which were used for the analysis of the aftershocks. We locate the July 22 earthquake(MJMA=4.9) and its 19 aftershocks (M>1.5) by the double difference location algorithm. We also determine focal mechanisms for the main- and after-shocks. The locations of the main shock and three aftershocks are closely distributed near the upper interface of PHS, which is consistent with the idea that the event occurred on the plate interface. However, most aftershocks whose focal mechanism is normal-fault type with a T-axis directing NE-SW are located off the upper interface indicating that intra-slab events are also generated by the event. Acknowledgement: The present study is supported by Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan.

  13. A survey of 165 sporotrichosis cases examined in Nagasaki prefecture from 1951 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Motoi; Yoshizaki, Asako; Utani, Atushi; Nishimoto, Katsutaro

    2014-05-01

    A total of 165 sporotrichosis cases occurring in Nagasaki prefecture, and examined at Nagasaki University Hospital, were evaluated. Both males and females were equally affected, with no significant differences in the affected body regions. Lesions were frequently seen on the face (49 cases, 29.5%) and upper limbs (101 cases, 60.9%). The localised cutaneous type of sporotrichosis (105 cases, 62.9%) was much more frequent than the lymphocutaneous type (62 cases, 37.1%). The infection rate in patients over 50 years of age was 73.1%. The most frequent occupation among the patients was farming (52 cases, 37.4%), and 34 patients had a history of injury. Regarding the geographical distribution of sporotrichosis, 48 cases occurred in the Shimabara peninsula (31.2%) and this is much higher than expected for the population size. Before 1994, almost all sporotrichosis cases (112 cases, 96.5%) were treated with potassium iodide (KI). After 1995, the number of patients treated with KI decreased (nine cases, 23.1%), and itraconazole (ITZ) was used in 21 cases (59.0%) and terbinafine in six cases (15.3%). The time between ITZ and KI treatment and cure was 13.8 weeks and 12.5 weeks, respectively. All 116 cases, for which the outcome was known, were cured or improved.

  14. ROAD SLOPE RISK-MANAGEMENT OF HIDA REGION IN GIFU PREFECTURE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Akiyoshi; Honjo, Yusuke; Kurauchi, Fumitaka; Asano, Norio; Hara, Takashi; Sawada, Kazuhide; Moriguchi, Shuji; Kitaura, Koji; Yashima, Atsushi

    Gifu University research group has studied on a comprehensive risk-management method for infrastructures. As a first step, this study presents a prototype of the risk-management system of rockfall countermeasures. In the prototype system, Hida area located in Gifu prefecture was selected as a target area. There are more than 3000 slopes in the target area. Value of the risk at each slope was estimated by multiplying the obtained probability and the economic loss. In the evaluation process of rockfall provability, a relative probability was calculated using results of a slope observation based on the logistic regression analysis. Then, the absolute probability of the rockfall was calculated using history data of rockfall occurrence. In a evaluation process of the economic loss, the physical loss, the human loss, the circumvention loss, the emergency medical service loss and the isolated colony loss were taken into consideration. It was confirmed the results obtained in this study are in good agreement with the reality. It is also found the obtained results are useful information to make decision of the rockfall risk-management.

  15. Incidence of Legionella and heterotrophic bacteria in household rainwater tanks in Azumino, Nagano prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Michiko; Oana, Kozue; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Many administrative agencies in Japan are encouraging installation of household rainwater-storage tanks for more effective use of natural rainwater. Water samples were collected periodically from 43 rainwater tanks from 40 households and tested for the presence of Legionella species and the extent of heterotrophic bacteria in Azumino city, Nagano prefecture, Japan. PCR assays indicated the presence of Legionella spp. in 12 (30%) of the 43 tank water samples. Attempts were made to identify correlations between PCR positive samples, topography, pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), atmospheric temperature and the numbers of heterotrophic bacteria. Between June and October, 2012, the numbers of heterotrophic bacteria in rainwater tanks and the values of COD positively correlated with the presence of Legionella species. In most of the Legionella-positive cases, heterotrophic bacterial cell counts were >10(4) CFU/mL. Moreover, Legionella species were less frequently detected when the COD value was >5 mg KMnO(4)/L. Therefore, at least in Azumino, Japan between June and October 2012, both heterotrophic bacterial counts and COD values may be considered index parameters for the presence of Legionella cells in rainwater tanks. Much more accumulation of such data is needed to verify the accuracy of these findings.

  16. GIS-based numerical simulations of the July 2014 Nagiso debris flow in Nagano Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunxiang; Fukuoka, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    A debris flow disaster took place in Nagiso, Nagano Prefecture of Japan in the later afternoon of 9 July 2014 triggered by 76 mm torrential rain associated with the typhoon Neoguri. This debris flow killed one resident and completely destroyed several houses. Although the source of the debris flows, especially the origin of their large boulders exceeding 5 m, are not clear, it seems that those debris flows initiated in the two upstream torrents and they joined Nashisawa torrent. Finally the debris flow ran and deposited in the Kiso River. The downstream residents are much aware of the many historical cases on similar debris flow disasters in the torrents in Nagiso and surrounding communities. Most of the residents could evacuate immediately after they felt the ground tremors induced by the running debris flow. Authors used LAHARZ (Schilling 1998) to simulate the Nagiso debris flow using 5-meter resolution Digital Elevation Model and several debris-flow volumes for the calibration. We also performed a numerical simulation to predicting the runout distance and to get insight into the behavior of the debris flow movement. A GIS-based depth-averaged 2D numerical model using a coupled viscous and Coulomb type law is used to simulate a debris flow from initiation to deposition. We compared the two simulation results and suggested the more appropriate coefficients of equations in LAHARZ for calculating the cross sectional area and planimetric area for application to the July 2014 Nagiso debris flows.

  17. Annual incidences of visual impairment during 10-year period in Mie prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ikesugi, Kengo; Ichio, Takako; Tsukitome, Hideyuki; Kondo, Mineo

    2017-07-01

    To determine the annual incidence of visual impairment in a Japanese population during a 10-year period. We examined the physical disability certificates issued yearly between 2004 and 2013 in Mie prefecture, Japan. During this period 2468 visually impaired people were registered under the newly defined Act on Welfare of the Physically Disabled Persons' criteria. The age, sex distribution, and causes of visual impairment were determined from the certificates. The major causes of visual impairment during the ten-year period were glaucoma (23.3%), diabetic retinopathy (17.3%), retinitis pigmentosa (12.2%), macular degeneration (9.0%), chorioretinal degeneration or high myopia (7.4%), optic atrophy (5.8%), stroke or brain tumor (5.4%) and cataracts (3.7%). The incidence of glaucoma was significantly higher throughout the period (2004-2013), and that of diabetic retinopathy was lower between 2007 and 2013. The incidence of retinitis pigmentosa did not change significantly during the 10-year period. The incidence of macular degeneration tended to increase between 2004 and 2007, but it decreased significantly between 2007 and 2013. The results indicate that in Japan, the rates of the major causes of visual impairment altered in the most recent 10-year period reflecting the recent changes in the social background and advances in ocular and systemic treatment.

  18. An overview of internal dose estimation using whole-body counters in Fukushima Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Makoto; Ohtsuru, Akira; Ishikawa, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    A large amount of radioactive cesium was released by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake. Due to the increasing concerns about internal exposure, more than 50 whole-body counters (WBCs) have been installed at various locations in Fukushima Prefecture. A study on around 10,000 subjects in the early stage after the accident revealed that very few received a committed effective dose of more than 0.3 mSv for subjects (age >13 years old). Another study on WBC results for one hospital showed that the ratio of cesium-positive was 1.0% among all the subjects. Assuming a constant daily intake, the detection limit of 300 Bq/body for a typical WBC corresponds to an effective dose of 21 μSv/y even for a subject of age up to 10. It was also seen out that the subjects with a significant amount of body cesium are likely to regularly eat wild products, which they harvested or caught themselves without testing for radioactive cesium. These study findings suggested that the internal exposure for most of the residents was controlled at a very low level. Future tasks regarding WBC measurements are how to personally explain the WBC results to each subject and how to disclose the statistically processed WBC data to the general public.

  19. Historical overview of spinal deformities in ancient Greece

    PubMed Central

    Vasiliadis, Elias S; Grivas, Theodoros B; Kaspiris, Angelos

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the history of spinal deformities in ancient Greece. The present study summarizes what we know today for diagnosis and management of spinal deformities in ancient Greece, mainly from the medical treatises of Hippocrates and Galen. Hippocrates, through accurate observation and logical reasoning was led to accurate conclusions firstly for the structure of the spine and secondly for its diseases. He introduced the terms kyphosis and scoliosis and wrote in depth about diagnosis and treatment of kyphosis and less about scoliosis. The innovation of the board, the application of axial traction and even the principle of trans-abdominal correction for correction of spinal deformities have their origin in Hippocrates. Galen, who lived nearly five centuries later impressively described scoliosis, lordosis and kyphosis, provided aetiologic implications and used the same principles with Hippocrates for their management, while his studies influenced medical practice on spinal deformities for more than 1500 years. PMID:19243609

  20. Factors determining migrant remittances: the case of Greece.

    PubMed

    Lianos, T P

    1997-01-01

    "In this study we review the literature regarding the theory and the empirical evidence regarding migrants' remittance behavior, and we examine the flow and determinants of remittances from Greek migrants for the period 1961 to 1991. The main body of data is for remittances to Greece from Germany, but for some years data are available for remittances from Belgium and Sweden as well. The objective of this study is to test the significance of certain factors in terms of their effects on remittances to Greece. These factors are the migrant's income, the migrant's family income, the rate of unemployment, the rate of interest, the exchange rate, and the rate of inflation. The study attempts to see if these factors have had any effect on the volume of remittances. It also attempts to see if there are any structural changes during this period that affect migrants' propensity to remit."

  1. Effective ultraviolet irradiance measurements from artificial tanning devices in Greece.

    PubMed

    Petri, Aspasia; Karabetsos, Efthymios

    2015-12-01

    Artificial tanning remains very popular worldwide, despite the International Agency for Research on Cancer classification of ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunbeds as 'carcinogenic to humans'. Greek Atomic Energy Commission has initiated a surveillance action of the artificial tanning devices in Greece in order to record the effective irradiance levels from the sunbeds and to inform and synchronise the domestic artificial tanning business sector with the requirements of the European Standard EN 60335-2-27:2010. In this direction, in situ measurements of UV emissions from sunbeds in solaria businesses all over Greece were performed from October 2013 until July 2014, with a radiometer and a portable single-monochromator spectrophotometer. Analysis of the measurements' results revealed that effective irradiance in ∼60 % of the measured sunbeds exceeded the 0.3 W m(-2) limit value set by EN 60335-2-27:2010 and only 20 % of the devices could be categorised as UV type 3.

  2. A clinical and educational telemedicine link between Bulgaria and Greece.

    PubMed

    Anogianakis, George; Ilonidis, George; Anogeianaki, Antonia; Milliaras, Spyros; Klisarova, Anelia; Temelkov, Temel; Vlachakis-Milliaras, Emmanuel

    2003-01-01

    During its transition to a market economy, Bulgaria benefited from foreign aid provided by Greece. One of the projects was the clinical and educational telemedicine link between the Medical University of Varna in Bulgaria and the Faculty of Medicine of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki in Greece. This began in 1997. In terms of the educational activities, the Bulgarian side of the network supports: an electronic classroom equipped with personal workstations, multimedia projectors and videoconference facilities; electronic design and publishing activities; Web hosting and mail server activities; and satellite communications. Communications are via ISDN. The main clinical experience has been remote consultations in immunology. This experience (admittedly limited) demonstrates that telemedicine can be used to provide assistance to remote colleagues. In addition, the use of telemedicine can greatly improve the quality of care available to travellers and migrant workers in cases where the patient cannot communicate with the attending physician because of a language barrier.

  3. Adoption and use of e-invoicing in Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Marinagi, C. E-mail: ptrivel@yahoo.com Trivellas, P. E-mail: ptrivel@yahoo.com Reklitis, Panagiotis E-mail: ptrivel@yahoo.com; Skourlas, C.

    2015-02-09

    This paper investigates the adoption and use of electronic invoices (e-invoices) in Greek organizations. The study attempts to evaluate current practices applied in implementing e-invoicing. A field research has been conducted, which is based on a structured questionnaire. The target sample consisted of 42 Greek enterprises. The main issues of the investigation include the existing invoice processing practices, the barriers that prevent the extended adoption and use of e-invoicing, the observed benefits from e-invoicing implementation, and the strategic drivers for transition to e-invoicing. Currently, the use of e-invoicing in Greece is low. However, the research results testify that the adoption of e-invoicing in Greece is promising. Even though, a number of enterprises state that benefits of e-invoicing are not clear yet, the majority of enterprises agree that there are crucial financial priorities that e-invoicing is expected to support.

  4. West Nile virus infections in Greece: an update.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna

    2012-07-01

    Approximately 2 years have passed since the detection of the first human case of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in Greece, which was the starting signal of a large outbreak in 2010, followed by a second one in 2011. More than 250 neuroinvasive disease cases with 15% fatality were observed during the two WNV seasons. WNV lineage 2 sequences were obtained from blood donors, Culex mosquitoes, wild birds and sentinel chickens. The Greek WNV strain shows high genetic relatedness to the goshawk-Hungary/04 WNV strain; an amino acid substitution in nonstructural protein 3 (H249P) is observed, which has been previously associated with increased virus transmission. This article provides an overview of the WNV outbreaks in Greece and discusses the knowledge gained from these events.

  5. Diurnal variation of wind-chill at Thessaloniki, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balafoutis, Ch. J.

    1989-12-01

    The diurnal variations of wind-chill at Thessaloniki, Greece, are considered using hourly data from January 1960 to December 1977. This is the first attempt in Greece to describe bioclimatic conditions using wind-chill data. The hourly values of wind-chill were calculated by Siple-Passel's formula which still appears to be most widely used. The values of wind-chill are discussed in terms of Terjung's scale. Thessaloniki does not experience “frost-bite” conditions during the coldest months but does experience “warm” conditions during the summer period. A comparison of hourly and daily mean values show that the means do not indicate the real range of wind-chill during the day.

  6. Molecular epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in Greece.

    PubMed

    Karampatakis, Theodoros; Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Iosifidis, Elias; Tsakris, Athanassios; Roilides, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    Hospital infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) constitute a worldwide problem associated with high rates of treatment failure and mortality. In Greece, CRKP have emerged in 2002 due to VIM carbapenemase production and later due to KPC, NDM and OXA-48-like carbapenemases that have become endemic. The molecular epidemiology of CRKP strains is dynamic, as antibiotic consumption and worldwide traveling are strongly associated with global spread of CRKP isolates. Lately, porin defects, such as disruption of OmpK35 and production of OmpK36 variant, have also contributed to carbapenem resistance. In the coming years, the high prevalence of CRKP will require intense infection control measures, while novel molecular patterns may appear. To our knowledge, this is the first review analyzing the molecular epidemiology of CRKP strains in Greece.

  7. Careers education and guidance in Greece a critical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmidou-Hardy, Chrysoula

    1990-09-01

    The paper begins with a clarification of the terms `effective' versus `successful' teacher and their implications. There follows a summary of the results of a study addressing the issues: a) which Careers Education and Guidance (CEG) aims in Greece are considered most important, and b) what constitutes a successful careers teacher. The study is based on the responses of careers coordinators in Greece and consultants at the Greek Pedagogical Institute. Issues concerning Information and Self-Awareness as Careers Education and Guidance aims are discussed, and an alternative approach to Information is suggested. The main emphasis is placed on the importance of the teacher as an indispensable factor for the implementation of CEG aims in particular, and educational aims in general.

  8. Online Communities: The Case of Immigrants in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panaretou, Ioannis; Karousos, Nikos; Kostopoulos, Ioannis; Foteinou, Georgia-Barbara; Pavlidis, Giorgos

    Immigrants in Greece are an increasing population, very often threatened by poverty and social exclusion. At the same time Greek government has no formal policy concerning their assimilation in Greek society and this situation generates multiple problems in both immigrants and native population. In this work we suggest that new technology can alleviate these effects and we present specific tools and methodologies adopted by ANCE, in order to support online communities and specifically immigrant communities in Greece. This approach has the potential to support immigrant communities' in terms of the organization of personal data, communication, and provision of a working space for dedicated use. The Information System's operational features are also presented, along with other characteristics and state-of-the-art features in order to propose a general direction to the design of online communities' mechanisms.

  9. Historical overview of spinal deformities in ancient Greece.

    PubMed

    Vasiliadis, Elias S; Grivas, Theodoros B; Kaspiris, Angelos

    2009-02-25

    Little is known about the history of spinal deformities in ancient Greece. The present study summarizes what we know today for diagnosis and management of spinal deformities in ancient Greece, mainly from the medical treatises of Hippocrates and Galen. Hippocrates, through accurate observation and logical reasoning was led to accurate conclusions firstly for the structure of the spine and secondly for its diseases. He introduced the terms kyphosis and scoliosis and wrote in depth about diagnosis and treatment of kyphosis and less about scoliosis. The innovation of the board, the application of axial traction and even the principle of trans-abdominal correction for correction of spinal deformities have their origin in Hippocrates. Galen, who lived nearly five centuries later impressively described scoliosis, lordosis and kyphosis, provided aetiologic implications and used the same principles with Hippocrates for their management, while his studies influenced medical practice on spinal deformities for more than 1500 years.

  10. Urban wastewater and stormwater technologies in ancient Greece.

    PubMed

    Angelakis, A N; Koutsoyiannis, D; Tchobanoglous, G

    2005-01-01

    The status of urban sewerage and stormwater drainage systems in ancient Greece is reviewed, based on the results of archaeological studies of the 20th century. Emphasis is given to the construction, operation, and management of sewerage and stormwater drainage systems during the Minoan period (2nd millennium B.C.). The achievements of this period in dealing with the hygienic and the functional requirements of palaces and cities, were so advanced that they can only be compared to modern urban water systems, developed in Europe and North America in the second half of the 19th century A.D. The advanced Minoan technologies were exported to all parts of Greece in later periods of the Greek civilization, i.e. in Mycenaean, Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic periods.

  11. National Intelligence Survey. Greece. Section 23, Weather and Climate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1961-01-01

    hurricanes and tornadoes is virtually unknown. However, a variety of spe- cial winds is noted. The most common special wind over Greece is called...observations are taken at 7 sta- tions, and 54 stations are agricultural and clima - tological stations. The University of Athens has 3 primarily... clima - tological stations under the supervision of Profes- sor E. G. Mariolopoulos. The University of Thes- saloniki Department of Meteorology has 6

  12. Natural radioactivity content of granite tiles used in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papaefthymiou, H

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations in commercial granite tiles imported in Greece were performed using gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K ranged from 1 to 434, 2 to 239 and 71 to 1576 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The calculated activity concentration index (I) values for all granite samples examined were found to be within the EC limit values for superficial and other materials with restricted use.

  13. West Nile virus infections in humans--focus on Greece.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna

    2013-10-01

    West Nile virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus causing to humans a variety of symptoms, from asymptomatic or mild infection, to severe, and often fatal, infection of the central nervous system. The present review aims to describe the main clinical characteristics of the disease, to provide the recent epidemiological data, including those from the recent outbreaks in Greece, and to discuss the environmental factors which might play a role in the virus emergence and its wider dispersal.

  14. Chewing lice from wild birds in northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Diakou, Anastasia; Pedroso Couto Soares, José Bernardo; Alivizatos, Haralambos; Panagiotopoulou, Maria; Kazantzidis, Savas; Literák, Ivan; Sychra, Oldřich

    2017-10-01

    Greece represents an important area for wild birds due to its geographical position and habitat diversity. Although the bird species in Greece are well recorded, the information about the chewing lice that infest them is practically non-existent. Thus, the aim of the present study was to record the species of lice infesting wild birds in northern Greece and furthermore, to associate the infestation prevalence with factors such as the age, sex, migration and social behaviour of the host as well as the time of the year. In total 729 birds, (belonging to 9 orders, 32 families and 68 species) were examined in 7 localities of northern Greece, during 9 ringing sessions from June 2013 until October 2015. Eighty (11%) of the birds were found to be infested with lice. In 31 different bird species, 560 specimens of lice, belonging to 33 species were recorded. Mixed infestations were recorded in 11 cases where birds were infested with 2-3 different lice species. Four new host-parasite associations were recorded i.e. Menacanthus curuccae from Acrocephalus melanopogon, Menacanthus agilis from Cettia cetti, Myrsidea sp. from Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, and Philopretus citrinellae from Spinus spinus. Moreover, Menacanthus sinuatus was detected on Poecile lugubris, rendering this report the first record of louse infestation in this bird species. The statistical analysis of the data collected showed no association between parasitological parameters (prevalence, mean and median intensity and mean abundance) in two different periods of the year (breeding vs post-breeding season). However, there was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of infestation between a) migrating and sedentary passerine birds (7.4% vs 13.2%), b) colonial and territorial birds (54.5% vs 9.6%), and c) female and male birds in breeding period (2.6% vs 15.6%). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Evaluating Renewable Groundwater Stress with GRACE data in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmi, V.; Gemitzi, A.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater is a resilient water source and its importance as a fundamental resource is even greater in times of drought where groundwater stress conditions are greatest for areas like Mediterranean and adverse climate change effects are expected. The present study evaluates Renewable Groundwater Stress (RGS) as the ratio of groundwater use to groundwater availability, quantifying use as the trend in GRACE-derived subsurface anomalies (ΔGWtrend) and renewable groundwater availability as mean annual recharge. Estimates for mean annual recharge were used from groundwater studies conducted for the various regions in Greece, mainly in the form of numerical models. Our results highlighted two RGS regimes in Greece out of the four characteristic stress regimes, i.e. Overstressed, Variable Stress, Human-Dominated Stress and Unstressed, defined as a function of the sign of use and the sign of groundwater availability (positive or negative). Variable Stress areas are found in central Greece (Thessaly region), where intense agricultural activities take place, with negative ΔGWtrend values combined with positive mean annual recharge rates. RGS values range from -0.05 - 0, indicating however a low impact area. Within this region, adverse effects of groundwater overexploitation are already evident, based on the negative GRACE anomalies, recharge however still remains positive, amending the adverse over pumping impacts. The rest of Greek aquifers fall within the unstressed category, with RGS values from 0.02 - 0.05, indicating that the rate of use is less than the natural recharge rate. The highest Unstressed RGS values are observed in Crete Island and in Northeastern Greece. However, the case of Crete is highly uncertain, as precipitation and recharge in this area demonstrate exceptionally high variability and the coarse resolution of GRACE results does not allow for reliable estimates.

  16. Analysis of synoptic conditions for tornadic days over Western Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, P. T.; Matsangouras, I. T.

    2014-03-01

    Tornadoes have been reported in Greece during the last decades and recent studies have given evidence that west Greece is a vulnerable area for tornadoes, waterspouts and funnel clouds to occur. In this study, the composite means and anomalies of synoptic conditions for tornadic events (tornadoes, waterspouts and funnel clouds) over west Greece are analyzed and discussed. The daily composite means of synoptic conditions were based on National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis datasets, for the period 12 August 1953 to 31 December 2012. The daily composite anomalies were calculated with respect to 30 years climatology (1981-2010) of the synoptic conditions. The analysis was carried out in terms of seasonal and monthly variability of composite means and anomalies of synoptic conditions for specific isobaric levels of 500, 700, 850, 925 hPa and the sea level pressure (SLP). In addition, an analysis and discussion about the dynamic Lifted Index from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis datasets is presented.

  17. Genetic characterisation of Taenia multiceps cysts from ruminants in Greece.

    PubMed

    Al-Riyami, Shumoos; Ioannidou, Evi; Koehler, Anson V; Hussain, Muhammad H; Al-Rawahi, Abdulmajeed H; Giadinis, Nektarios D; Lafi, Shawkat Q; Papadopoulos, Elias; Jabbar, Abdul

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to genetically characterise the larval stage (coenurus) of Taenia multiceps from ruminants in Greece, utilising DNA regions within the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (partial cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (pnad1) mitochondrial (mt) genes, respectively. A molecular-phylogenetic approach was used to analyse the pcox1 and pnad1 amplicons derived from genomic DNA samples from individual cysts (n=105) from cattle (n=3), goats (n=5) and sheep (n=97). Results revealed five and six distinct electrophoretic profiles for pcox1 and pnad1, respectively, using single-strand conformation polymorphism. Direct sequencing of selected amplicons representing each of these profiles defined five haplotypes each for pcox1 and pnad1, among all 105 isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of individual sequence data for each locus, including a range of well-defined reference sequences, inferred that all isolates of T. multiceps cysts from ruminants in Greece clustered with previously published sequences from different continents. The present study provides a foundation for future large-scale studies on the epidemiology of T. multiceps in ruminants as well as dogs in Greece.

  18. Geochemical correlation of surface and subsurface oils, western Greece

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palacas, J.G.; Monopolis, D.; Nicolaou, C.A.; Anders, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    Biodegraded seep oils, devoid of n-alkanes and most isoprenoid hydrocarbons, were successfully correlated with subsurface crude oils in western Greece primarily using carbon isotopes and the more microbially resistant tricyclic terpane and aromatic steroid hydrocarbon distributions. All the studied oils seem to fit into three major genetic groups which are consistent with the geologic, tectonic, and geographic settings and are presumably related to different source-rock facies. Group I oils are typical of the abundant oil shows in the Epirus province, northwest Greece. Minor but consistent biomarker differences necessitated subgrouping of the Epirus oils, implying derivation from slightly different sources. Group II oils are located in the Katakolon area, northwestern Peloponnese. Group III oils, which are clearly distinct from the other groups, are centered in Zakynthos Island. An oil seep at Trifos, west central Greece, and a subsurface oil from Paxi Island, because of uncertain correlations, are classed intermediate between Group I and II oils. An aromatic steroid hydrocarbon measurement, modified after Mackenzie et al. (1981), appears useful in determining the relative maturity of biodegraded and conventional oils and carbonate rock extracts. ?? 1986.

  19. A ten year Moment Tensor database for Western Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpetsidaki, Anna; Sokos, Efthimios; Tselentis, G.-Akis

    2016-10-01

    Moment Tensors (MTs) provide important information for seismotectonic, stress distribution and source studies. It is also important as a real time or near real time information in shakemaps, tsunami warning, and stress transfer. Therefore a reliable and rapid MT computation is a routine task for modern seismic networks with broadband sensors and real-time digital telemetry. In this paper we present the database of Moment Tensor solutions computed during the last ten years in Western Greece by the University of Patras, Seismological Laboratory (UPSL). The data from UPSL broad band network were used together with the ISOLA Moment Tensor inversion package for routine MT calculation. The procedures followed and the comparison of UPSL derived solutions with the ones provided by other agencies for Western Greece region are presented as well. The Moment Tensor database includes solutions for events in the magnitude range 2.8-6.8 and provides a unique insight into the faulting characteristics of Western Greece. Moreover it paves the way for detailed studies of stress tensor and stress transfer. The weak events' Moment Tensor included in UPSL's database are important for the comprehension of local seismotectonics and reveal the role of minor faults, which may be critical in seismic hazard estimation.

  20. Spatial Inequality in the Accessibility to Hospitals in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogirou, S.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to measure the spatial accessibility to public health care facilities in Greece. We look at population groups disaggregated by age and socioeconomic characteristics. The purpose of the analysis is to identify potential spatial inequalities in the accessibility to public hospitals among population groups or service areas. The data refer to the accessibility of all residents to public hospitals in Greece. The spatial datasets include the location of settlements (communities), the administrative boundaries of municipalities and the location of public hospitals. The methodology stems from spatial analysis theory (gravity models), economics theory (inequalities) and geocomputation practice (GIS and programming). Several accessibility measures have been calculated using the newly developed R package SpatialAcc, which is available in CRAN. The results are interesting and tend to show an urban-rural and social class divide: younger, working age population as well as people with the highest educational attainment have better accessibility to public hospitals compared to older or low educated residents. This finding has serious policy making implications and should be taken into account in the future spatial (re)organisation of hospitals in Greece.

  1. Rural primary care in Greece: working under limited resources.

    PubMed

    Oikonomidou, Eirini; Anastasiou, Foteini; Dervas, Dimitris; Patri, Fani; Karaklidis, Dionisis; Moustakas, Panagiotis; Andreadou, Niki; Mantzanas, Enagellos; Merkouris, Bodossakis

    2010-08-01

    Establishing sufficient primary health-care services in rural areas is of high interest in developing health systems. The objective of the present study was to describe the state of rural health services, in terms of personnel and equipment, in rural primary care settings in Greece. A questionnaire was sent to all Greek rural settings (RS) (practices) twice during 2007. The questionnaire included questions about the number of doctors in the practice, their specialty, presence of a nurse, population served and average distance from the regional Health Center and hospital. It also included questions about the average number of consultations per day, home visits, maintenance of medical records and medical equipment. Rural primary care settings in Greece. Doctors serving primary care needs during the second half of 2007. s) None. s) Data concerning staffing, function and available equipment of the RS have been collected. Five hundred eighty-two (40.9%) of the rural practitioners replied. Twenty-nine percent of the participants were general practitioners (GPs). Doctors reported average population of responsibility of 2263 citizens and a regular average of 26 consultations per day. A nurse was present in 174 RS (29.5%). Medical records of any form were kept in only 36% of the RS. GPs were more prone to maintain patients files compared with non-specialized doctors. Essential equipment proved to be limited in the majority of the RS. Rural practices in Greece report shortages of medical staff (GPs), nursing staff and equipment.

  2. Factors that motivate and hinder blood donation in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Marantidou, O; Loukopoulou, L; Zervou, E; Martinis, G; Egglezou, A; Fountouli, P; Dimoxenous, P; Parara, M; Gavalaki, M; Maniatis, A

    2007-01-01

    Donations in Greece are insufficient to cover the high transfusion needs arising from large numbers of thalassaemia and sickle cell anaemia patients and the implementation of new surgical techniques. Efforts to achieve self-sufficiency, and to render blood supplies safer and manageable must focus on recruiting and retaining more volunteer donors and on converting the large pool of replacement donors. The aim of the study was to gain insight into public perception regarding the risks of donation and transfusion and to identify the factors that would motivate more people in Greece to regularly donate blood. Questionnaires were distributed to 1600 donors at the blood bank and visitors to hospitals at 11 locations across the country. Data on demographics, donation behaviour, incentives, risk perception and attitudes towards donation and transfusion were analysed separately for volunteer and replacement donors and non-donors. The results showed that women and young people donate the least in Greece. Also, many donors do not donate because they are not reminded to. A small percentage of donors confessed to having concealed part of the truth to background questions. Overall, incentives to donate were considered important and included future availability of blood for self or family, paid leave from work and free blood tests. Recruitment and retention efforts should include better communication with current donors, and raising awareness among eligible donors. Staff should be educated in soliciting information from potential donors, and incentives should be better aligned to avoid conflict with ethical values and ensure honesty in the prescreening process. PMID:18067648

  3. Adolescence and abortion in Greece: women's profile and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Mavroforou, Anna; Koumantakis, Evgenios; Michalodimitrakis, Emmanuel

    2004-10-01

    To investigate the individual and social profile of the adolescents seeking abortion in Greece. Questionnaires were distributed from the obstetricians practicing in the capital and two major cities in Greece to adolescent pregnant women who were seeking for abortion and collected anonymously. From 150 consecutive pregnant adolescents, 38 refused to participate and from 112 who accepted to participate only 74 (66%) replied. Most of the respondents lived in a city (65%), were unmarried (73%), 62% had sex first time after the age of 15, and the educational status of their parents was rarely at higher degree (father: 20%, mother: 16%). Among them, 74% declared that they had received information on contraception (64% from friends, 47% from doctors, 36% from the media). Overall, withdrawal (49%) and male condom (28.5%) were the popular contraceptive precautions. Abortion was adolescents' decision in 65%, while the partner's influence in the case of a shared decision was as high as 73%. Most adolescents (91%) knew about the potential risks of abortion mainly by their doctor (87%) and socio-economical reasons (89%) were mostly claimed. Their parents were rarely aware about their pregnancy (28%) and decision for abortion (28%). In most cases it was the first abortion (78%) and adolescents declared that were aware about the Greek Church's opposition (89%) and the existence of an abortion law (86%). In Greece, the poor education on the issue of contraception still remains a major problem among teenagers contributing to the increased prevalence of undesired pregnancies and abortions.

  4. Generics market in Greece: the pharmaceutical industry's beliefs.

    PubMed

    Geitona, Mary; Zavras, Dimitrios; Hatzikou, Magda; Kyriopoulos, John

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the beliefs and perspectives of the pharmaceutical industry on generic medication in Greece. Questionnaires were mailed to all 58 members of the Hellenic Association of Pharmaceutical Companies from November 2002 to February 2003. The response rate was 52%, namely 30 questionnaires were completed and returned. The questionnaire requested information on companies' involvement in generics, their opinion on generics' characteristics and on public policies affecting the demand and supply of generic medication. A descriptive analysis of the outcomes, that is percentage comparison through binomial tests and Fisher tests, was performed. According to our findings, 43% of the respondents were involved in the production and distribution of generics and the mean period of their involvement was 12 years. The majority of the respondents were in favor of their companies' involvement in generics, despite the relatively small market share of generics in Greece; 9.7% of total pharmaceutical market in 2003. Bearing in mind that in Greece the promotion of generics is not encouraged, pharmaceutical companies believe that the mandatory introduction of bioequivalence studies is an indirect promotional strategy towards generics. Additionally, the majority declared that their main competitive advantages are their safety, efficacy and effectiveness as well as their economic benefit to the society. Finally, the respondents expressed their preference for the introduction of pharmacoeconomic submissions for drugs' reimbursement by social insurance funds.

  5. Regional differences in population-based cancer survival between six prefectures in Japan: application of relative survival models with funnel plots.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yuri; Ioka, Akiko; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Ajiki, Wakiko; Sugimoto, Tomoyuki; Rachet, Bernard; Coleman, Michel P

    2009-07-01

    We used new methods to examine differences in population-based cancer survival between six prefectures in Japan, after adjustment for age and stage at diagnosis. We applied regression models for relative survival to data from population-based cancer registries covering each prefecture for patients diagnosed with stomach, lung, or breast cancer during 1993-1996. Funnel plots were used to display the excess hazard ratio (EHR) for each prefecture, defined as the excess hazard of death from each cancer within 5 years of diagnosis relative to the mean excess hazard (in excess of national background mortality by age and sex) in all six prefectures combined. The contribution of age and stage to the EHR in each prefecture was assessed from differences in deviance-based R(2) between the various models. No significant differences were seen between prefectures in 5-year survival from breast cancer. For cancers of the stomach and lung, EHR in Osaka prefecture were above the upper 95% control limits. For stomach cancer, the age- and stage-adjusted EHR in Osaka were 1.29 for men and 1.43 for women, compared with Fukui and Yamagata. Differences in the stage at diagnosis of stomach cancer appeared to explain most of this excess hazard (61.3% for men, 56.8% for women), whereas differences in age at diagnosis explained very little (0.8%, 1.3%). This approach offers the potential to quantify the impact of differences in stage at diagnosis on time trends and regional differences in cancer survival. It underlines the utility of population-based cancer registries for improving cancer control.

  6. [Epidemic Status of Echinococcosis in Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Gansu Province during 2007-2011].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-hua; Shang, Wen-jie; Zhao, Chun-tao; Zhang, Shu-wen; Lu, Shou-long; Liu, Xiao-dong

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence of echinococcosis in Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Gansu Province since the implementation of the echinococcosis control project from Sepical Funds for Central Government Subsidies to Local Public Health (2007-2011). Eight counties of Hezuo, Lintan, Zhuoni, Luqu, Maqu, Xiahe, Zhouqu, and Diebu were selected as survey sites. The prevalence in the sampled population was investigated by B ultrasound examination. Hydatid infection in children below 12 years old was serologically investigated by ELISA. The fecal samples from dogs were determined for Echinococcus infection by double antibody sandwich ELISA method. Livestock were dissected through slaughterhouse for pathological examination. Data of echinococcosis cases of Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture from 2007 to 2011 were collected from the National Infectious Diseases Reporting System, and statistically analyzed by using SPSS 10.0 and Epi info software. A total of 257 823 people received type B ultrasound examination in the 5 years. Five hundred eighty-one echinococcosis cases were found with an overall prevalence of 0.2%, including 578 cases of echinococcosis granulosus and 3 cases of echinococcosis multilocularis. The annual prevalence in the population decreased year by year, from 0.4% (97/21 938) in 2007 to 0.1% (68/63 980) in 2011 (P <0.05). Three hundred and six cases were officially reported to the National Infectious Diseases Reporting System during the period. Among those, female patients accounted for 58.2% (178/306) and male patients 41.8% (128/ 306). By occupation, more infection were found in herdsmen (82.0%, 251/306), followed by farmers (7.8%; 24/306). The cases were mainly distributed in the 20-60 year-old age group, with the highest prevalence in the group of 30-39 years (23.5%, 72/306). The sero-positive rate in children was 4.7% (1 571/33 613), which was highest in 2008 (8.4%, 413/4907), and lowest in 2010 (3.2%, 223/7 021) (P < 0.05). The mean positive

  7. Helicobacter pylori infection and its related factors in junior high school students in Nagano Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yoshiko; Lin, Yingsong; Hongo, Minoru; Hidaka, Hiroya; Kikuchi, Shogo

    2017-04-01

    There have been few reports on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in asymptomatic Japanese children and adolescents. We hypothesized that the prevalence of H. pylori infection is very low among Japanese children and that clinical variables such as serum pepsinogen and iron levels are associated with H. pylori infection. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 454 junior high school students aged 12-15 years in four areas in Nagano Prefecture. A commercial ELISA kit (E-plate Eiken H. pylori antibody) was used to measure IgG antibody against H. pylori. Serum pepsinogen and iron levels were also measured using standard methods. A urea breath test was performed for seropositive students. The overall prevalence of H. pylori was 3.1% (14/454). There were no significant differences in H. pylori prevalence among mountain, rural, and urban areas. The mean level of both serum pepsinogen (PG I) and PG II was significantly increased in the seropositive subjects compared with the seronegative subjects. When the cutoff values for adults (PG I: 70 ng/mL and PG I/II ratio: 3) were used, 4 of 14 subjects had PG I ≤70 ng/mL and PG I/II ratio ≤3. The results of a logistic regression analysis showed that low serum iron levels were significantly associated with H. pylori infection (P=.02). The prevalence of H. pylori infection is as low as 3% among junior high school students aged 12-15 years in Japan. The disappearance of H. pylori is accelerating in Japanese children. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Do forests represent a long-term source of contaminated particulate matter in the Fukushima Prefecture?

    PubMed

    Laceby, J Patrick; Huon, Sylvain; Onda, Yuichi; Vaury, Veronique; Evrard, Olivier

    2016-12-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident resulted in radiocesium fallout contaminating coastal catchments of the Fukushima Prefecture. As the decontamination effort progresses, the potential downstream migration of radiocesium contaminated particulate matter from forests, which cover over 65% of the most contaminated region, requires investigation. Carbon and nitrogen elemental concentrations and stable isotope ratios are thus used to model the relative contributions of forest, cultivated and subsoil sources to deposited particulate matter in three contaminated coastal catchments. Samples were taken from the main identified sources: cultivated (n = 28), forest (n = 46), and subsoils (n = 25). Deposited particulate matter (n = 82) was sampled during four fieldwork campaigns from November 2012 to November 2014. A distribution modelling approach quantified relative source contributions with multiple combinations of element parameters (carbon only, nitrogen only, and four parameters) for two particle size fractions (<63 μm and <2 mm). Although there was significant particle size enrichment for the particulate matter parameters, these differences only resulted in a 6% (SD 3%) mean difference in relative source contributions. Further, the three different modelling approaches only resulted in a 4% (SD 3%) difference between relative source contributions. For each particulate matter sample, six models (i.e. <63 μm and <2 mm from the three modelling approaches) were used to incorporate a broader definition of potential uncertainty into model results. Forest sources were modelled to contribute 17% (SD 10%) of particulate matter indicating they present a long term potential source of radiocesium contaminated material in fallout impacted catchments. Subsoils contributed 45% (SD 26%) of particulate matter and cultivated sources contributed 38% (SD 19%). The reservoir of radiocesium in forested landscapes in the Fukushima region represents a

  9. Helicopter emergency medical services (doctor-helicopter) in Fukushima Prefecture: present state and problems.

    PubMed

    Tase, Choichiro; Ohno, Yuko; Hasegawa, Arifumi; Tsukada, Yasuhiro; Shimada, Jiro; Ikegami, Yukihiro

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the problems in operating an emergency medical service helicopter with an emergency medicine doctor on board (doctor-helicopter) in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, which covers wide regions and many rural areas. The study looked at the numbers of flights and patients during the 523 days since the start of the doctor-helicopter service at the Fukushima Medical University Hospital. The items investigated were: number of flights, number of helicopter dispatches per month, number of patients, the hospitals where patients were taken to, the fire department dispatch centers that requested the doctor-helicopter, and the number of times each doctor flew on the helicopter. There were 450 flights. When the service was started, there were a few flights, but they gradually increased. The majority of the flights were to emergency scenes (295), while 75 flights were interfacility transports of critically ill patients, 79 flights were cancelled after take-off, and one flight was for a disaster relief operation. The nature of requests differed greatly depending on the fire department dispatch center requesting the service. The majority of patients were trauma patients (62.2%). Stroke (8.5%) and acute coronary syndrome (5.2%) patients requiring emergency treatment were fewer than anticipated. The final destination hospitals were appropriate hospitals in the region. Because the number of flight doctors is small, the burden on individual doctors is large. A system for early on-site diagnosis and helicopter request by emergency rescue team is required to maintain a high quality of emergency care.

  10. [HIV-1 drug resistance transmission threshold survey in Dehong prefecture of Yunnan province, 2015].

    PubMed

    Chen, M; Wang, J B; Xing, H; Ma, Y L; Yang, J; Chen, H C; Yao, S T; Luo, H B; Duan, X; Wang, Y K; Duan, S; Jia, M H

    2017-07-10

    Objective: To study the HIV-1 drug resistance transmission level in HIV infected persons receiving no antiviral therapy in Dehong prefecture of Yunnan province in 2015. Methods: A total of 72 plasma samples were collected from recently reported HIV-infected persons aged 16-25 years in Dehong from January to July 2015 for drug resistance gene detection. Results: Forty eight samples were successfully sequenced and analyzed. Among them, 31.2% (15/48) were from Chinese, and 68.8% (33/48) were from Burmese. Based on pol sequences, HIV genotypes included URF (52.08%, 25/48), CRF01_AE (16.67%, 8/48), RF07_BC (10.42%, 5/48), subtype B (6.25%, 3/48), subtype C (6.25%, 3/48), CRF57_BC (6.25%, 3/48) and CRF08_BC (2.08%, 1/48). One drug resistant mutation site to non-nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) and two drug resistant mutation site to nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) were detected in four sequences. Based on the statistical method of HIV drug resistance threshold survey, the prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistant strain was 5%-15%. Conclusions: The proportion of Burmese among newly reported HIV-infected individuals aged 16-25 years in Dehong in 2015 was higher. HIV-1 genetic diversity was found in Dehong. The prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistant strain had reached a moderate level in Dehong.

  11. Field and Laboratory Studies of Radiocesium Transfers in Soil-Water Environment at Fukushima Prefecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanba, K.; Zheleznyak, M.; Konoplev, A.; Wakiyama, Y.; Golosov, V.; Wada, T.; Tsukada, H.

    2015-12-01

    The systematic monitoring studies of radiocesium concentrations in suspended sediments and water of the Abukuma River, the largest river of Fukushima prefecture, and its tributaries at the vicinity of Fukushima city have started in Fukushima University at the end of 2011. The scale of these field studies was extended after establishment in 2013 new Institute of Environmental Radioactivity at Fukushima University which posses the comprehensive laboratory base. The field measurements of hydrochemical water parameters and concentrations of radiocesium in water and sediments are provided in the rivers of northern coastal zone of Fukushima province with the most comprehensive program for Niida River basin. The radiocesium dynamics is studied in Sakashita Reservoir and heavily contaminated irrigation ponds of Okuma town in the vicinity of FDNPP, Takanokura Reservoir, Inawashiro Lake, Hibara Lake. Comparative analysis is provided for radiocaesium wash-off parameters and distribution coefficient in rivers and surface runoff on Fukushima and Chernobyl contaminated areas for the first years after the accidents. It is found that radiocaesium distribution coefficient in rivers of Fukushima is essentially higher (1-2 orders of magnitude) than correspondent values for rivers and surface runoff of the Chernobyl zone. Normalized dissolved wash-off coefficients for watersheds of Fukushima are at least 1 order of magnitude lower correspondent values for Chernobyl zone. Normalized particulate wash-off coefficients are comparable for Fukushima and Chernobyl. Presented are results of the investigation of radiocesium vertical distribution in soils of the close-in area of the FDNPP: Okuma town and Niida River basin. It is shown that radiocesium dispersion in undisturbed forest and grassland soils at Fukushima contaminated area is significantly faster as compared to the Chernobyl 30-km zone during the first three years after the accidents.

  12. Fish Communities in the Surf Zone of a Protected Sandy Beach at Doigahama, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suda, Y.; Inoue, T.; Uchida, H.

    2002-07-01

    Fish communities comprising postlarval to early adult stages were studied in the surf zone of a protected sandy beach, with runnels and a low tide terrace, at Doigahama, Yamaguchi Prefecture, western Japan. One elasmobranch and 100 teleost species, represented by a total of 17 608 individuals (1·85-785 mm in TL), were collected by fine and coarse meshed beach seines from May 1994 to April 1999. Species richness, abundance and biomass were greater during the evenings as well as in the warmer seasons (May to October). Larval and smaller juvenile ichthyofauna (collected mainly by fine-mesh seine) was relatively poor compared to larger juvenile ichthyofauna (coarse-mesh seine). Tidal effect was observed in the fine-mesh seine samples, whereas no tide-related trends were evident in the coarse-mesh seine samples. Effects of time of the day and tide on the species diversities were not so evident in both seines. Dominant species were classified according to the developmental stages occurring in the surf zone, as follows: Type-I: Postlarval (transformation) stage (Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis,Sardinops melanostictus , Enneapterygius etheostomus, Tripterygion bapturum, Luciogobius sp.). Type-II: Juvenile stage (Lateolabrax latus, Trachurus japonicus, Gerres oyena, Acanthopagrus schlegeli, Sparus sarba, Girella punctata, Mugil cephalus cephalus, Paralichthys olivaceus, Tarphops oligolepis, Heteromycteris japonica). Type-III: Postlarval and juvenile stages (Spratelloides gracilis, Engraulis japonicus, Gobiidae sp.1). Type-IV: Juvenile and early adult stages (Sillago japonica, Paraplagusia japonica). Type V: Postlarval to early adult stages (Takifugu niphobles). It is considered that the surf zone at Doigahama functions as a nursery area, particularly as a feeding place for larger juveniles than as a shelter for larvae and smaller juveniles.

  13. [Quality analysis of malaria blood smear preparations of febrile patients in Chenzhou Prefecture, 2014].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-qin; Zhu, Han-wu

    2015-10-01

    To standardize the malaria smear preparations of febrile patients in Chenzhou Prefecture, Hunan Province, so as to provide the technical support for malaria elimination. According to the Technical Solutions to Eliminate Malaria (2011 edition) , the blood smear preparations of febrile patients from each county, included more than 3% negatives and all positives, were reviewed monthly in 2014. The quality of blood smear manufacture, dyeing, cleanliness and results was reviewed by malaria microscopic examination experts. The data were analyzed with the descriptive epidemiological methods. Totally 231 blood smears were reviewed in 2014 with a reviewed rate of 6.91%. The blood smear production qualified rate was 80.52%, the dyeing pass rate was 84.42%, the cleanliness pass rate was 86.58%, and there were no false detections and no leak detections. The highest blood smear production qualified rate, dyeing pass rate and cleanliness pass rate were found in Guiyang County and Linwu County, with all the rates of 100% respectively. The lowest blood smear production qualified rate and cleanliness pass rate were found in Yizhang County, with the rates of 52.94 % and 70.59% respectively. The lowest blood smear dyeing pass rate was found in Yongxing County with the rate of 63.64%. There were statistically significant differences between Guiyang County and Yizhang County in the production qualified rates and cleanliness pass rates (χ2 = 18.60, 9.73, both P < 0.01). There was a statistically significant difference between Guiyang County and Yongxing County in the dyeing pass rates (χ2 = 11.43, P < 0.01). Through the review of blood smears, the problems will be timely discovered. Therefore, the blood smear quality should improve, which is helpful for achieving the goal of malaria elimination.

  14. Clinical features and treatment outcomes of isolated secondary central nervous system lymphomas in Miyazaki Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Noriaki; Ochiai, Hidenobu; Yoshida, Shuro; Yamashita, Kiyoshi; Shide, Kotaro; Shimoda, Haruko; Hidaka, Tomonori; Kubuki, Yoko; Katayose, Keiko; Toyama, Takanori; Kawano, Hiroshi; Matsuoka, Hitoshi; Ishizaki, Junzo; Maeda, Koichi; Satou, Seiichi; Yano, Tatsuhiko; Yamaguchi, Kenichiro; Takenaka, Katsuto; Shimao, Yoshiya; Oshima, Koichi; Ueda, Akira; Shimoda, Kazuya

    2012-08-01

    Secondary central nervous system lymphoma (SCNSL) without extra-central nervous system (CNS) involvement is characterized by isolated secondary CNS relapse in malignant lymphoma patients. SCNSL is a rare disease, and no standard treatment has yet been established. To elucidate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of SCNSL, we retrospectively analyzed 12 patients (median age 67 years) in Miyazaki prefecture for the last 5 years. The initial histological diagnoses of the patients were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), mantle-cell lymphoma, and adult T-cell lymphoma in 9, 2, and 1 patient, respectively. We focused on analysis of the 9 SCNSL cases originating from DLBCL. The locations of CNS relapse were the cerebral hemisphere, basal ganglia, and cerebellum in 7, 1, and 1 patient, respectively. Three patients were treated with high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) therapy; 4 with whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRTX); and 1 with both HD-MTX and WBRTX. The remaining patients were treated with rituximab. Partial remission was achieved in 6 out of 9 patients (67%); the other 3 patients (33%) did not respond to therapy. Median survival of the 9 patients with CNS relapse was 253 days; 6 of the 9 patients survived for more than 6 months. As of March 2011, 2 HD-MTX group patients but none of the WBRTX group patients were alive. In this retrospective study, 6 of 9 patients with SCNSL originating from DLBCL survived for more than 6 months. Both HD-MTX and WBRTX had clinical benefits in the treatment of SCNSL.

  15. Distribution of Aeromonas species in environmental water used in daily life in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Kazufumi; Hirai, Itaru; Sano, Kouichi

    2016-09-01

    The genus Aeromonas is known to causes diseases such as food poisoning, sepsis, and wound infection. However, the mode of Aeromonas transmission from environment to humans is not clearly understood. To evaluate the health risks of Aeromonas spp. in environmental freshwater, the number, proportion and putative virulence factors of Aeromonas species were investigated in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Environmental freshwater samples were collected from three dams, two springs and three private wells. Aeromonas strains were identified by the biochemical method and the viable count was calculated. The production of extracellular enzymes and the virulence genes were investigated for possessing putative virulence factors using representative isolates. At least seven species of already-known Aeromonas isolates as well as unidentified Aeromonas spp. with/without arginin dehydrolase (ADH) exist in water at these sites. Aeromonas spp. was found to exist at over 1000 CFU/100 ml in one spring and two wells. A. veronii biovar sobria and A. jandaei were the predominant species in dams, and A. hydrophila and/or A. eucrenophila were predominant in wells. Almost all the sampled Aeromonas species produced protease, gelatinase, lipase, esterase and DNase, but A. caviae, A. caviae-like bacteria, and A. eucrenophila had low hemolytic activity. Most sampled A. hydrophila strains possessed both aerolysin gene (aer) and hemolysin gene (hlyA), but A. caviae and A. eucrenophila strains did not possess either gene. Since these results indicated that several Aeromonas species having potential pathogenicity exist in environmental water in Okinawa, surveys are recommended as a public health measure.

  16. [Vaccination coverage of foreign children and their parents' views on immunization services in Gunma Prefecture, Japan].

    PubMed

    Tsukui, Satoshi; Negishi, Yoshio; Sato, Yumi; Kashiwase, Mariko; Kawashima, Saeko; Fukuda, Takahiro

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate vaccination coverage among foreign children living in an urban area of Gunma Prefecture, Japan and to examine their parents' views concerning the local immunization services. A total of 321 foreign children aged 6 to 18 years in five international schools participated in school health examinations and provided vaccination information. Among the parents, 304 completed a questionnaire on their views about the immunization services. Another questionnaire survey was conducted in nursery schools for parents of 4629 Japanese children aged 0 to 6 years. Of the total, 3811 (82.3%) responded, and 2911 questionnaires answered by the parents who had children aged 3 years and older were eligible for the analysis. The study found a vaccination coverage of 86.2% for diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis (DTP), 86.5% for poliovirus vaccine, and 87.7% for BCG among the foreign children. Of their parents, 84% were born in Brazil. One third of the foreign children vaccinated for DTP, poliovirus and/or BCG had received each vaccine in Japan, while the others children had been vaccinated in their home countries. Among 162 parents with children immunized in Japan, 77% received the necessary information about immunization services from the local municipal office, and 80% had no major problems. However, 15% felt the language barrier. Among the Japanese children, non-vaccination rates for DTP, poliovirus vaccine, and BCG were 18.5%, 9.9%, and 3.5%, respectively. Of the Japanese parents, 85% knew immunization schedules from the municipal office, and 51% asked for night-time and holiday vaccination sites. These results suggest that vaccination coverage for DTP, poliovirus vaccine or BCG is relatively high among foreign children living in Japan. To promote higher rates of vaccination for those residents, however, accessibility of the municipal consultation services in foreign languages should be im-proved.

  17. Prevalence of Legionella species isolated from shower water in public bath facilities in Toyama Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kanatani, Jun-Ichi; Isobe, Junko; Norimoto, Shiho; Kimata, Keiko; Mitsui, Chieko; Amemura-Maekawa, Junko; Kura, Fumiaki; Sata, Tetsutaro; Watahiki, Masanori

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the prevalence of Legionella spp. isolated from shower water in public bath facilities in Toyama Prefecture, Japan. In addition, we analyzed the genetic diversity among Legionella pneumophila isolates from shower water as well as the genetic relationship between isolates from shower water and from stock strains previously analyzed from sputum specimens. The isolates were characterized using serogrouping, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and sequence-based typing. Legionella spp. were isolated from 31/91 (34.1%) samples derived from 17/37 (45.9%) bath facilities. Isolates from shower water and bath water in each public bath facility were serologically or genetically different, indicating that we need to isolate several L. pneumophila colonies from both bath and shower water to identify public bath facilities as sources of legionellosis. The 61 L. pneumophila isolates from shower water were classified into 39 sequence types (STs) (index of discrimination = 0.974), including 19 new STs. Among the 39 STs, 12 STs match clinical isolates in the European Working Group for Legionella Infections database. Notably, ST505 L. pneumophila SG 1, a strain frequently isolated from patients with legionellosis and from bath water in this area, was isolated from shower water. Pathogenic L. pneumophila strains including ST505 strain were widely distributed in shower water in public bath facilities, with genetic diversity showing several different origins. This study highlights the need to isolate several L. pneumophila colonies from both bath water and shower water to identify public bath facilities as infection sources in legionellosis cases. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Increase in the incidence of cervical and trochanteric fractures of the proximal femur in Niigata Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Iga, T; Dohmae, Y; Endo, N; Takahashi, H E

    1999-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the incidence of cervical and trochanteric fractures of the proximal femur in 1994 in Niigata Prefecture, Japan, and to compare this incidence with those previously reported in Niigata in 1985, 1987, and 1989. We visited all hospitals within Niigata Prefecture having an orthopedic department and reviewed the medical records and radiographs of all patients who sustained such fractures in 1994. The population of Niigata Prefecture was determined in 1994 to be 2,483,879 (1,205,151 males and 1,278,728 females). The population over 65 years of age was 428,795 (172,788 males and 256,007 females), representing 17.3% of the total population. In 1994, there were 1,468 cervical or trochanteric fractures in 378 males and 1,090 females, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:2.9. The incidence of these fractures in persons over 65 years of age was 304 fractures per 100,000 population per year. Of 528 cervical and 940 trochanteric fractures, the latter accounted for 64% of the total number. The age-specific incidence of the fractures in Niigata exhibited an exponential increase with age, similar to those reported in Sweden and the United States. However, the incidence was lower than in those countries. When comparing the number of cervical and trochanteric fractures in 1994 with the numbers reported in 1985, 1987, and 1989, it is evident that the overall number and incidence of these fractures has been increasing over this period. Even if the difference of the age-specific population among these years is adjusted, the fractures have been increasing.

  19. A Review of the Library and Information Services In Greece: Current Developments that Shape LIS Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garoufallou, Emmanouel; Siatri, Rania; Hartley, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper sets the context for this special issue on LIS education in Greece by explaining the Greek higher education system both in organisational terms and in the approaches to teaching and learning. In addition it briefly outlines the current state of development in libraries in Greece. Taken together they provide the background to the…

  20. The Effect of Education on Economic Growth in Greece over the 1960-2000 Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsamadias, Constantinos; Prontzas, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of education on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000 by applying the model introduced by Mankiw, Romer, and Weil. The findings of the empirical analysis reveal that education had a positive and statistically significant effect on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000. The econometric…

  1. Historical and Contemporary Aspects of the Relationship between the State and Adult Education in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucouvalas, Marcie

    An outgrowth of earlier research on historical and contemporary adult education in Greece, this paper provides highlights of the relationship between the state and adult education in that country. The highlights are organized by the following historical periods: prehistory (c. 3000-1100 B.C.); early and archaic Greece (c. 1100-700 B.C.);…

  2. The Effect of Education on Economic Growth in Greece over the 1960-2000 Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsamadias, Constantinos; Prontzas, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of education on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000 by applying the model introduced by Mankiw, Romer, and Weil. The findings of the empirical analysis reveal that education had a positive and statistically significant effect on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000. The econometric…

  3. Working with Students with Special Educational Needs in Greece: Teachers' Stressors and Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antoniou, Alexander-Stamatios; Polychroni, Fotini; Kotroni, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Few studies explore the specific sources of stress, and the coping strategies applied by teachers of children with special educational needs, particularly in small countries such as Greece. The present study investigated the specific work-related stressors affecting special educational needs teachers in Greece and the coping strategies applied by…

  4. Illegal immigration and local labour markets: the case of northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Lianos, T P; Sarris, A H; Katseli, L T

    1996-01-01

    "The purpose of the present study is to enhance knowledge on the impact of illegal immigrants in Greece from both Eastern European and other developing countries. Our analysis is based on direct survey information from the four regions in Greece which employ considerable numbers of illegal aliens." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  5. Tracking the vector of Onchocerca lupi in a rural area of Greece.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Papadopoulos, Elias; Petrić, Dušan; Ćupina, Aleksandra Ignjatović; Bain, Odile

    2012-07-01

    During a hot Mediterranean summer, an expedition brought parasitologists from Brazil, France, Greece, Italy, and Serbia to a wooded area near Xanthi, Thrace, northeastern Greece, near the Turkish border, on the track of the vector of the little-known nematode Onchocerca lupi. The scientific purposes of the expedition blended then with stories of humans, animals, and parasites in this rural area.

  6. A Marvelous Journey: Calling from Greece to a U.S. Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Lana; Sucich, John

    2007-01-01

    A unit of study on Ancient Greece is a part of the fourth grade social studies curriculum at Belmont Day School. The students spend 10 weeks exploring Greek history and mythology. This article discusses a new project that the authors conducted, wherein one of them was going to Greece on a study tour, while the other one stays in Belmont Day…

  7. [Development and application of microbiology data monitoring system (Akita-ReNICS) for networking hospitals in Akita Prefecture].

    PubMed

    Takeda, Masahide; Ueki, Shigeharu; Takahashi, Tomoe; Tatsuko, Rumi; Kobayashi, Noriko; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Hirokawa, Makoto

    2013-12-01

    Networking among regional hospitals recently became required for infection control activities in Japan. In Akita prefecture, we developed a microbiology data warehouse for networking hospital laboratories in 2010. Designated users can easily obtain microbiology data and compare it with other participating hospitals using this system. For example, users are able to compare the MRSA/MSSA ratio in Staphylococcus aureus with other participating hospitals in Akita-ReNICS. The effectiveness and assignment of this system were shown by a questionnaire administrated in 2013. In this paper, we clarify the current state and assignment of Akita-ReNICS and consider its effective application for better infection control activities.

  8. A survey of β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in farm animals and raw retail meat in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hiroi, Midori; Harada, Tetsuya; Kawamori, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Naomi; Kanda, Takashi; Sugiyama, Kanji; Masuda, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Ohashi, Norio

    2011-01-01

    We surveyed β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli from farm animals (chickens, pigs, and cattle) and raw retail meat in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. In total 305 E. coli isolates, 15 isolates collected from broilers, beef cattle, chicken meat, and pork meat, were found to have β-lactamase genes encoding CTX-M-2, CTX-M-14, CMY-2, SHV-2, and/or TEM-1, whereas 7 possessed mutations in the ampC promoter region. The findings suggest that broilers are more important than other farm animals with regards to the surveillance of β-lactamase-producing E. coli in this region.

  9. Radioactive materials deposition in Iwate prefecture, northeast japan, due to the Fukushima dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Hideyuki

    2013-04-01

    A catastrophic earthquake occurred in March 11, 2011, and additional tsunami gave the big damage along the pacific coastline of the northeast Japan. Tsunami also caused the accident of Fukushima dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FNPP), released of massive amount of radioactive materials to all over the northeast to central Japan. Ministry of Education, cultural, sports, science and technology (MEXT), Japan, carried out the airborne monitoring survey on several times, however, it is impossible to know the deposition of low level radiation under 0.1μSv/h. On the other hand, radioactive material was detected in Iwate by farm and livestock products, and it was necessary to understand an accurate contamination status in Iwate prefecture. Behavior of radioactive material is very similar to the ashfall by the volcanic eruption. Therefore, it is possible to apply the knowledge of volcanology to evaluation of the natural radiation dose. The author carried out the detailed contamination mapping across the Iwate prefecture. To γ-ray measurement, using scintillation counter A2700 of the clearpulse, measured on 1m grass field above ground, for one minute. The total measurement point became more than 800 point whole in Iwate. Field survey were carried out from April to November, 2011, therefore, it is necessary to consider to the half - life of the radioactive element of the cesium 134 and 137. In this study, the author reconstructed a deposition of April, 2011, just after the accident. In addition, the author also carried out the revision of the natural radiation dose included in the granite and so on. From the result, Concentration of radioactive materials depend on the topography, it tend to high concentrate in the basin or along the valley. The feeble deposition 0.01-0.2μsv/h with the radioactive material was recognized in whole prefecture. High contamination area distributed over the E-W directions widely in the southern part of the prefecture, and it also existence of the

  10. Surveillance of diarrhea-causing pathogens in dairy and beef cows in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan from 2002 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Mawatari, Takahiro; Hirano, Kaori; Ikeda, Hidetoshi; Tsunemitsu, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Tohru

    2014-09-01

    The economic consequences of bovine diarrhea are serious. Few long-term epidemiological data are available concerning the causative pathogens of bovine diarrhea in Japan. From 2002 to 2011, surveillance of enteric pathogens was performed in cows of various breed and age from 302 farms in which diarrhea had occurred in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. Differences between dairy and beef cows in the number of cases of diarrhea and rates of infection by Salmonella spp. and Eimeria spp. were found. Clinical symptoms (duration of epidemic, hematochezia and complications) caused by bovine rotavirus infection were milder than those caused by bovine coronavirus infection.

  11. Mange caused by Sarcoptes scabiei (Acari: Sarcoptidae) in wild raccoon dogs, Nyctereutes procyonoides, in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, M; Nogami, S; Misumi, H; Maruyama, S; Shiibashi, T; Yamamoto, Y; Sakai, T

    2001-04-01

    Parasitological and histopathological examinations were performed in 25 raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) obtained in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, all of which were found to be heavily infected with Sarcoptes scabiei. The mites detected on these raccoon dogs were morphologically indistinguishable from the human species, and no Demodex mites were detected. Histopathological examinations showed prominent hyperkeratosis and acanthosis with eczema, and numerous burrows containing mites were observed in the epidermis. The enzootic dermatitis of wild raccoon dogs in recent years was clearly demonstrated to be caused by S. scabiei in the present study.

  12. Remediating Mass Movements, induced by Water, in Urban Environments - an example from Chalki Village, Peloponnese, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozos, D.; Loupasakis, C.; Koumantakis, J.; Tsangaratos, P.; Markantonis, K.

    2012-04-01

    The Village of Chalki, located in Korinthos Prefecture, Northern Peloponnese, Greece, is being affected by severe mass movements that have disrupted large portions of the urban settlement, since 1950. In the following years, these phenomena where occasionally reactivated either as a consequence of human interventions and activities or extreme natural events, such as heavy rainfall and seismic activity. In 2003, after a three years long period of heavy rainfall, a number of serious damages were recorded in the region. Specifically, the direct consequences that followed the reactivation of the mass movements were identified as damages recorded on existing buildings, fencing walls, water supply networks as well as on the road network. The observed mass movements caused serious problems in the region that surrounded the village of Chalki, impeding its development, and spreading insecurity among the residents. The severity of the damages forced the authorities to assign the study of these slope movements to our research team. The purpose of this study was to highlight the slope stability problems and systematically study the evolution of the mass movement. More specifically, a detailed geotechnical survey was conducted by (a) collecting and processing the available bibliographical data, (b) mapping and classifying the lithological structure of the research area, (c) executing several field and laboratory tests for the estimation of the physical and mechanical properties of each lithological unit, (d) installing and monitoring specific landslide monitoring systems and (e) conducting all necessary limit equilibrium stability analysis for the design of the proper remedial measures. The monitoring systems included (a) a number of inclinometers for measuring deep displacements, (b) a number of tell-tale crack meters, to measure the surface movements and (c) piezometers, to control the fluctuation of groundwater level. The recordings of the monitoring systems showed a

  13. Drought, flood and rainfall analysis under climate change in Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapoglou, Evdokia; Vozinaki, Anthi-Eirini; Tsanis, Ioannis; Nerantzaki, Sofia; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos

    2017-04-01

    In this study an analysis on the drought frequency and magnitude under climate change in Crete, Greece is performed. The analysis was performed for the time period from 1983-2100, divided into three sub-periods (1983-1999, 2000-2049 and 2050-2099) for inter-comparison. Two climate models were studied MPI-ESM-LR-r1-CSC-REMO and EC-EARTH-r12-SMHI-RCA4, following three possible representative concentration pathways (+2.6, +4.5 and +8.5 W/m2). In order to perform the analysis the results of a SWAT simulation which covered the entity of Crete using 352 subbasins, was used. Drought events are recognized by using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) to identify the meteorological drought events and Standardized Runoff Index (SRI) for hydrological droughts. SPI and SRI drought indices, were used in order to identify the number of drought events for each climate model and scenario. In all cases, an increase in both severity and number of drought events was calculated for the future periods, compared to the baseline period 1983-1999. This increase was smaller for the +2.6 W/m2 scenario and largest for the +8.5 W/m2. The magnitude of events with 10 and 100 years return period was calculated for the subbasins of Crete and the most vulnerable were identified, both in terms of severity and the change throughout the years in index magnitude. Next a flood frequency analysis was performed for the entity of Crete Island in order to calculate the magnitude of events with 10 and 100 years return period. In order to perform the flood frequency analysis, the results of the SWAT simulation in terms of runoff in each subbasin are used. By calculating the magnitude of flood events with 10 and 100 years return period and the change in the magnitude throughout the time periods the most vulnerable subbasins are identified. The same frequency analysis was performed for the precipitation at each subbasin, and the magnitude of extreme precipitation events with 10 and 100 years return

  14. Pharmacoeconomic analysis of paliperidone palmitate for treating schizophrenia in Greece

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients having chronic schizophrenia with frequent relapses and hospitalizations represent a great challenge, both clinically and financially. Risperidone long-acting injection (RIS-LAI) has been the main LAI atypical antipsychotic treatment in Greece. Paliperidone palmitate (PP-LAI) has recently been approved. It is dosed monthly, as opposed to biweekly for RIS-LAI, but such advantages have not yet been analysed in terms of economic evaluation. Purpose To compare costs and outcomes of PP-LAI versus RIS-LAI in Greece. Methods A cost-utility analysis was performed using a previously validated decision tree to model clinical pathways and costs over 1 year for stable patients started on either medication. Rates were taken from the literature. A local expert panel provided feedback on treatment patterns. All direct costs incurred by the national healthcare system were obtained from the literature and standard price lists; all were inflated to 2011 costs. Patient outcomes analyzed included average days with stable disease, numbers of hospitalizations, emergency room visits, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Results The total annual healthcare cost with PP-LAI was €3529; patients experienced 325 days in remission and 0.840 QALY; 28% were hospitalized and 15% received emergency room treatment. With RIS-LAI, the cost was €3695, patients experienced 318.6 days in remission and 0.815 QALY; 33% were hospitalized and 17% received emergency room treatment. Thus, PP-LAI dominated RIS-LAI. Results were generally robust in sensitivity analyses with PP-LAI dominating in 74.6% of simulations. Results were sensitive to the price of PP-LAI. Conclusions PP-LAI appears to be a cost-effective option for treating chronic schizophrenia in Greece compared with RIS-LAI since it results in savings to the health care system along with better patient outcomes. PMID:22747533

  15. Expanded newborn screening in Greece: 30 months of experience.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Yannis L; Soumelas, Georgios-Stefanos; Dotsikas, Yannis; Georgiou, Vassiliki; Molou, Elina; Thodi, Georgia; Boutsini, Maria; Biti, Sofia; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos

    2010-12-01

    In Greece, the National Newborn Screening Program was initiated in 1974 and is performed by the Institute of Child Health (ICH). However, there is a complete absence of conditions that have high rates of mortality and a relatively high prevalence listed in the Catalogue of Disorders screened by the ICH. Our laboratory has expanded the existing NBS program to include newborn screening for inborn errors of metabolism, screening for cystic fibrosis (the most common congenital disorder in the Greek population), congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and for biotinidase deficiency. From July 2007 to December 2009, 45,000 dried blood spots (DBS) were collected from infants born in Athens, Greece, and were analyzed. We present a report of our 30-month experience in the newborn screening area. The samples were tested for amino acidopathies, fatty acid oxidation disorders (FAOD), and organic acid metabolic disorders by applying flow injection analysis-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (FIA-ESI-MS/MS); for cystic fibrosis by immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) measurement (time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay); for congenital adrenal hyperplasia by fluoroimmunoassay to measure the 17 hydroxy-progesterone level; and for biotinidase deficiency using a colorimetric method and a semiquantitative fluoroimmunoassay to determine biotinidase activity. Sample analysis resulted in establishing cutoff values for the respective disease markers for the first time in the Greek population. Four infants were identified with cystic fibrosis, two with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, two with phenylketonuria (PKU), one with medium-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD), and one with biotinidase deficiency. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first article reporting the status of expanded newborn screening in Greece.

  16. Evaluating Renewable Groundwater Stress with GRACE Data in Greece.

    PubMed

    Gemitzi, Alexandra; Lakshmi, Venkat

    2017-09-22

    Groundwater is a resilient water source and its importance is even greater in periods of drought. Areas such as the Mediterranean where adverse climate change effects are expected are bell-weather locations for groundwater depletion and are of considerable interest. The present study evaluates renewable groundwater stress (RGS) as the ratio of groundwater use to groundwater availability, quantifying use as the trend in gravity recovery and climate experiment-derived (GRACE) subsurface anomalies (ΔGWtrend ) and renewable groundwater availability as mean annual recharge. Estimates for mean annual recharge for the various regions in Greece have been derived using numerical models. Our results highlight two RGS regimes in Greece (variable stress and unstressed) of the four characteristic stress regimes, that is, overstressed, variable stress, human-dominated stress, and unstressed, defined as a function of the sign of use and the sign of groundwater availability (positive or negative). Variable stress areas are found in Central Greece (Thessaly region), where intensive agriculture results in negative ΔGWtrend values combined with positive mean annual recharge rates. RGS values range from -0.05 to 0, indicating a low impact area. Within this region, adverse effects of groundwater overexploitation are already evident based on the negative GRACE anomalies; however, recharge is still positive, mitigating the effects of over-pumping. The rest of Greek aquifers fall within the unstressed category, with RGS values from 0.02 to 0.05, indicating that the rate of use is less than the natural recharge rate. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  17. Emerging Trichinella britovi infections in free ranging pigs of Greece.

    PubMed

    Boutsini, S; Papatsiros, V G; Stougiou, D; Marucci, G; Liandris, E; Athanasiou, L V; Papadoudis, A; Karagiozopoulos, E; Bisias, A; Pozio, E

    2014-01-31

    Trichinella infections in humans and pigs have been documented in Greece since 1945 and a high prevalence of infection in pigs occurred in the 1950s. Up to 1984 only sporadic infections in humans were documented, and this zoonosis was not considered as a public health problem until 2009 when a human outbreak caused by the consumption of pork from an organic pig farm occurred. In the present study, we describe the re-emergence of Trichinella spp. infections in free-ranging pigs from organic farms of 3 counties (Dramas, Evros and Kavala) in Northern-Eastern Greece during the period 2009-2012. Totally 37 out of 12,717 (0.29%) free-ranging pigs which were tested during the period in question, were positive for Trichinella spp. larvae. The etiological agent was identified as Trichinella britovi. The average larval burden was 13.7 in the masseter, 6.2 in the foreleg muscles and 7.5 in the diaphragm. The 37 positive animals originated from seven free range pig farms. The practice of organic pig production systems in Greece has grown in popularity over the last years due to the increasing interest of consumers for products considered as traditional. However, this type of pig production increases the risk for Trichinella spp. infections, since animals can acquire the infection by feeding on carcasses or the offal of hunted or dead wild animals. The awareness and education of hunters and farmers is extremely important to reduce the transmission among free ranging pigs and the risk for humans.

  18. Biochemical genetic variability in brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from Greece.

    PubMed

    Suchentrunk, Franz; Mamuris, Zissis; Sfougaris, Athanassios I; Stamatis, Costas

    2003-06-01

    Allozyme variability of 91 brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from seven regions in Greece was compared to existing data of Bulgarian populations to test the hypothesis of the occurrence ofspecific alleles in Greece, likely stemming from an isolated Late Pleistocene refugial population in the southern Balkans. This hypothesis is particularly suggested by some subfossil Late Pleistocene hare remains in Greece and the reported high mtDNA diversity in Greek hares. Allozymic diversity could be higher in Greek hares than in hares from neighboring regions as a result of the accumulation of variants in a long-lasting Pleistocene refugium. Conversely, Greek hares could exhibit reduced genetic diversity because of long-lasting low effective population sizes during the Late Glacial Maximum and a lower chance of postglacial gene flow from other populations into this rather marginal part in the southern Balkans. Horizontal starch gel electrophoresis of proteins from 35 loci revealed three alleles (Es-1(-162), Pep-2(114), Mpi(88)) at low frequencies, which were not found in Bulgarian or any other brown hare population. In contrast, some alleles from the populations from Bulgaria and other regions of Europe were absent in the Greek samples. Population genetic statistics indicated only a slight tendency of increased gene pool diversity in Greek hares, little substructuring in Greek and Bulgarian populations, respectively, as well as an only slightly lower level of gene flow between the two neighboring regions, as compared to the gene flow within each region. The results conform to the hypothesis of a Late Pleistocene refugial population in the southern Balkans, with some few specific nuclear gene pool characteristics, but little effect on the overall genetic differentiation between Greek and Bulgarian hares.

  19. Effect of the 2004 Mid Niigata Prefecture earthquake on glycemic control in type 1 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Kamoi, Kyuzi; Tanaka, Midori; Ikarashi, Tomoo; Miyakoshi, Masashi

    2006-11-01

    At 5:56 p.m. on October 23, 2004, a major earthquake of magnitude 6.8 on the Richter scale struck the Chuetsu district of Niigata Prefecture, Japan, a rural area with mountain villages. Strong aftershocks of grade 5-6 on the Japanese Intensity Scale continued for 2 months. We investigated changes in the HbA1c levels of 65 type 1 diabetic patients with insulin therapy before and throughout the 12 months of aftershocks that followed the earthquake. All patients received insulin therapy via pens with replaceable cartridges or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). Most patients needed four daily insulin injections with rapid- and long-acting insulins. Nineteen percent of patients had the CSII therapy using rapid-acting insulin. The mean HbA1c level in all patients increased significantly (P<0.01) from 6.7+/-0.9% to 7.0+/-1.0% in the third month, peaked at the fifth month, and decreased at 12 months. Sixty percent of the patients stayed in their own houses after the initial shock, while 40% of patients moved into other houses. Seventeen percent of the patients had severely destroyed houses. The median PTSD score was low in all patients. Within 1 month after the earthquake, the pens with replaceable cartridges were discontinued and disposable pens with prefilled insulin cartridges were used. The incidence of nephropathy increased by 7% by the third month and returned to the pre-earthquake level by the sixth month. Over the 12-month observation period, no other micro- or macro-vascular diseases were newly diagnosed. One patient had transient severe acute hyperglycemia and one needed hemodialysis. However, none of the patients had ketoacidosis, and no other clinical manifestations of disease were noted. In conclusion, it is essential that neighboring organizations respond quickly with sufficient medical support for diabetic patients with insulin therapy following an earthquake. In particular, treatment with rapid- and long-acting insulin injections via

  20. Change in climate and nature over Toyama prefecture due to global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsushika, H.; Kawasaki, K.; Oritani, T.; Kondo, T.; Mizoguchi, T.; Kido, M.; Tsuchihara, Y.; Wada, N.; Horikawa, K.

    2007-12-01

    Toyama prefecture is located in the center of the mainland of Japan and is surrounded by steep mountains called Tateyama at about 3,000m above sea level and by the deep Toyama bay at about 1,000m depth. In summer, since Pacific high covers mainland of Japan and East Asian summer monsoon brings a lot of rainfalls, climate in Toyama is suitable for cropping the highest qualified rice and vegetables. In winter, the dominant East Asian winter monsoon brings water from the Japan Sea by heavy snowfalls onto Tateyama. As the snow melts gradually from spring to early autumn, the abundant pure water is utilized for generating hydroelectric power and for a variety of other purposes, making it a vital resource for industries, agriculture, fishery, and human life as well as for wildlife on both sides of the plains and the mountains of Toyama. In recent, by the IPCC-AR4, influence of global warming is reported in many aspects of nature and human lives all over the world. However, we have yet to realize whether these signs are also appeared in Toyama. Therefore, we carried out statistical analyses to investigate change of nature, climate, and human lives in Toyama by global warming. Some of main results are as follows. Using the phenological data of a sample maple (Acer palmatum) tree growing at the garden in Toyama Local Meteorological Observatory, we analyzed that the leaf-color-change date is delayed ca. 20 days and the leaf-falling date is delayed ca. 10 days during recent 30 years. Using daily snowfall data between 1958 and 2007, we found that snow amounts and snowfall days are decreased significantly on the plains, while there is no trend on the mountain side. Using AMeDAS's hourly temperature data between 1978 and 2006, we detected increases in winter time minimum temperature, summer time maximum temperature, and "typical summer days" which is defined as total days that the daily maximum temperature exceeds 30 degree C. It can be inferred from these findings that the

  1. Transportation and Consumption Processes of Atmospheric Nitrate in Forested Watershed in Shiga Prefecture, Central Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugo, T.; Osaka, K.; Nakamura, T.; Nishida, K.; Nagafuchi, O.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify transportation and consumption processes of atmospheric nitrate deposited into forested ecosystems, and the influences on downstream aquatic ecosystem. We collected rainfall, throughfall, surface water, soilwater (10cm, 30cm), groundwater, spring water and streamwater at a forested watershed planted with Japanese cypress in Shiga prefecture, central Japan at about biweekly. Samples were analyzed for dissolved nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium, nitrite, and oxygen isotope of nitrate. Isotope analysis was conducted at ICRE in University of Yamanashi. We also collected soil at several month intervals, and measured nitrate, ammonium in soil and net mineralization and nitrification rate. Precipitation in winter (from December 2012 to April 2013) was 602mm. Atmospheric nitrate deposition by throughfall during this period was 4.13 kgN/ha. Atmospheric nitrate flux by surface flow and soil water leaching from 10cm and 30cm were 0.005, 0.58 and 0.99 kgN/ha, respectively. Nitrified nitrate flux in this period by surface flow and soil water leaching from 10cm and 30cm were 0.0005, 0.27 and 0.32 kgN/ha, respectively. On the other hand, precipitation in summer (from May 2013 to October) was 1199mm. Atmospheric nitrate deposition by throughfall during the period was 4.10 kg/ha. Atmospheric nitrate flux in surface flow and soil water leaching from 10cm and 30cm were 0.038, 0.51 and 0.99 kgN/ha, respectively at this period. Nitrified nitrate flux by surface flow and soil water leaching from 10cm and 30cm 0.020, 1.31, 1.57 kgN/ha, respectively at this period. These results suggested that the amount of atmospheric nitrate leaching in soil water was influenced by not the amount of precipitation but atmospheric nitrate deposition by throughfall. On the other hand, nitrified nitrate leaching by soil water had seasonality that it was larger in summer than winter.

  2. Bunnoite, a new hydrous manganese aluminosilicate from Kamo Mountain, Kochi prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio-Hamane, Daisuke; Momma, Koichi; Miyawaki, Ritsuro; Minakawa, Tetsuo

    2016-12-01

    A new mineral, bunnoite, originating from Kamo Mountain in Ino, Kochi Prefecture, Japan, has been identified. Bunnoite occurs as veins and lenses in hematite-rich ferromanganese ore, is dull green in color, and forms foliated subhedral crystals up to 0.5 mm in length. Its hardness is 5½ on the Mohs scale and its calculated density is 3.63 g cm-3. The mineral is optically biaxial (+), with α = 1.709(1), β = 1.713(1), γ = 1.727(1) (white light), 2 V meas = 54° and 2 V calc = 57°. The empirical formula of bunnoite is (Mn2+ 5.36Mg0.27Fe2+ 0.25Fe3+ 0.11)Σ6.00(Al0.60Fe3+ 0.40)Σ1.00(Si5.89Al0.11)Σ6.00O18(OH)3, and its simplified ideal formula is written as Mn2+ 6AlSi6O18(OH)3. The mineral is triclinic P overline{1} , and the unit cell parameters refined from powder X-ray diffraction data are a = 7.521(5) Å, b = 10.008(8) Å, c = 12.048(2) Å, α = 70.46(5)°, β = 84.05(6)°, γ = 68.31(6)° and V = 793.9(9) Å3. The crystal structure of bunnoite has been solved by the charge flipping method in conjunction with single-crystal X-ray diffraction data and refined to R1 = 3.3 %. Bunnoite was found to have a layered structure with alternating tetrahedral and octahedral sheets parallel to the ( overline{1} 11). The silicate tetrahedra form sorosilicate [Si6O18(OH)] clusters in the tetrahedral sheets, while the octahedra share edges to form continuous strips linked by [Mn2O8] dimers in the octahedral sheets. This mineral is classified as 9.BH according to the Nickel-Strunz system and has been named in honor of the Japanese mineralogist Michiaki Bunno (b. 1942).

  3. Sedimentary Environment Changes between Tsunami Events in the Central Fukushima Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumoto, S.; Goto, T.; Satake, K.; Sugai, T.; Yoneda, M.; Omori, T.; Ozaki, H.

    2016-12-01

    Many tsunami deposits were found in the Tohoku region, Japan from recent and past tsunamis. Study of tsunami deposits is particularly important in the central to southern Fukushima Prefecture, which is the southern limit of the distributions of tsunami deposits of the 869 Jogan, 1454 Kyotoku and 1611 Keicho-Sanriku earthquakes. Previous studies reported that there were at least five tsunami deposits (EV1-EV5) consisted of fine-middle sand and the sedimentary environment was inner-bay or lagoon for the past 2,600 years (Goto and Aoyama, 2005; JpGU, Oikawa et al., 2011; JpGU, Oota and Hoyanagi, 2014; GSJ, Kusumoto et al., 2016; JpGU). However, the sedimentary environment changes between or across historical tsunamis have not been examined. In this study, we try to estimate the sedimentary environment changes using Total Organic Carbon (TOC), Total Nitrogen (TN) concentrations and organic Carbon-to-Nitrogen (C/N) ratio. We took 13 geological core samples of length 2.0-2.5 m at 11 locations 0.6-2.7 km from the coast. The deposits consisted of silt and massive sand with graded beddings, laminas and rip-up clasts. For samples, we performed grain-size analysis, radiocarbon age measurement and CN elemental analysis. We found three interesting characteristics. First, grain size of ordinary deposits between EV4 and EV5 tend to fine upward slightly. It suggests that tidal current became gradually weak. Second, C/N ratio is about 5-10 at every depth, meaning that organic material source was phytoplankton or zooplankton (Müller, 1977; GCA). Finally, TOC and TN concentrations slowly increase between EV4 and EV5, and they rapidly decrease across EV3 and EV4. Their slow increases correspond to sedimentary environment change from anaerobic to aerobic, whereas rapid decreases correspond to sedimentary environment change from aerobic to anaerobic. These characteristics might indicate development of sand bar between tsunami events and sudden collapse of sand bar by historical

  4. Outbreak of cryptosporidiosis after contamination of the public water supply in Saitama Prefecture, Japan, in 1996.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, N; Urabe, K; Takaoka, M; Nakazawa, K; Gotoh, A; Haga, M; Fuchigami, H; Kimata, I; Iseki, M

    2000-06-01

    An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis occurred in Ogose Town, Saitama Prefecture. Japan, in June 1996. Of 12,345 respondents to a questionnaire sent to households in the town (population; 13,809), 8,812 (71.4%) reported an acute gastrointestinal illness some time between May and July. In addition, 274 traceable visitors at local inns, golf courses, and the like during this period and 54 employees from out of town were infected. Cases of cryptosporidiosis were estimated to 9,140. Of these, 2,856 subjects were treated at outpatient clinics and 24 subjects were hospitalized (some subjects counted twice). No deaths were attributed to the outbreak. Among the visitors to Ogose who were traced, 7 persons who stayed only one day during the outbreak and drank half a glass to 2 glasses (100 to 360 ml) of tap water had cryptosporidiosis confirmed by laboratory tests. The median incubation period for the 14 persons for whom this calculation was possible was 6.4 days (range, 5 to 8 days). Of 469 pupils reporting details of their fever and diarrhea, abdominal cramps, or these combined signs and symptoms, the median maximum body temperature was 37.8 degrees C (range, 36.7 to 40.3 degrees C). The duration of illness, reported by 608 of the pupils, was 5.2 days (range, 1 to 15 days), and that reported by 187 employees was 4.8 days (range, 1 to 18 days). The longest known time for discharge of oocysts after onset was 44 days. Blood was not found in the 609 stool specimens examined. The outbreak was caused by contamination of the town's potable water by Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. The town's water treatment plant treated river water by coagulation, sedimentation, sand filtration, and chlorination. Contamination arose because of various natural and artificial factors: one was that the monthly precipitation in May was much lower than average, causing the river water level to drop. Another factor was heavy rainfall one night in May that increased water turbidity. The amounts of the

  5. Historical extreme wave and landslide deposits on the Shirasuka coastal lowlands, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Ed; Riedesel, Svenja; Fujiwara, Osamu; Walstra, Jan; Deforce, Koen; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Schmidt, Sabine; Brill, Dominik; Roberts, Helen; Duller, Geoff; Brückner, Hulmut; De Batist, Marc; Heyvaert, Vanessa

    2017-04-01

    Future megathrust earthquakes and consequential tsunamis pose exceptional hazards to densely populated and highly industrialised coastlines facing the Nankai-Suruga Trough, south central Japan. Geological investigations of coastal sedimentary sequences play a key role in understanding megathrust behaviour and developing seismic and tsunami hazard assessments. In this study, we revisit a previously published palaeoseismic site at Shirasuka, located on the Enshu-nada coastline of Shizuoka Prefecture, seeking both to provide further information on past earthquakes and tsunamis and to explore the prospects and limitations of geological data with respect to assessing seismic and tsunami hazards. At Shirasuka, six closely-spaced vibrocores reveal four sand layers interbedded with organic muds. Photographs, X-ray CT scans and grain size analysis reveal a variety of sedimentary structures within these layers, including abrupt contacts, massive sands, rip-up clasts, internal mud drapes and cross bedding. Microfossil assemblages (diatoms, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs) and optically stimulated luminescence overdispersion values of single grain feldspars highlight varying sediment sources and transport mechanisms. We suggest that the uppermost sand layer records a landslide from the landward margin of the site, while the remaining three sand layers reflect at least four extreme wave events, some of which are overprinted. We refine the published chronology using AMS radiocarbon, radionuclide and infrared stimulated luminescence approaches. Our Bayesian age models suggest that the oldest two sand layers relate to historically documented tsunamis in AD 1361 and 1498. The second youngest sand layer provides ages consistent with tsunamis in AD 1605 and 1707 and potentially also storm surges in 1680 and/or 1699. The modelled age of the landslide sand layer is consistent with the AD 1944 earthquake. The presence of a fresh scarp in US military aerial photographs from 1947 and

  6. Satellite spectral data and archaeological reconnaissance in western Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Frederick A.; Bauer, M. E.; Cullen, Brenda C.

    1991-01-01

    A Macro-geographical reconnaissance of the Western Peloponnesos adopts spectral signatures taken by Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper as a new instrument of archaeological survey in Greece. Ancient records indicate that indigenous resources contributed to the prosperity of the region. Natural resources and Ancient, Medieval, and Pre-modern Folklife in the Western Peloponnesos describes the principal lines of research. For a supervised classification of attested ancient resources, a variety of biophysical surface features were pinpointed: stone quarries, coal mines, forests of oak and silver fir, terracotta-producing clay beds, crops, and various wild but exploited shrubs such as flax.

  7. Satellite spectral data and archaeological reconnaissance in western Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Frederick A.; Bauer, M. E.; Cullen, Brenda C.

    1991-01-01

    A Macro-geographical reconnaissance of the Western Peloponnesos adopts spectral signatures taken by Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper as a new instrument of archaeological survey in Greece. Ancient records indicate that indigenous resources contributed to the prosperity of the region. Natural resources and Ancient, Medieval, and Pre-modern Folklife in the Western Peloponnesos describes the principal lines of research. For a supervised classification of attested ancient resources, a variety of biophysical surface features were pinpointed: stone quarries, coal mines, forests of oak and silver fir, terracotta-producing clay beds, crops, and various wild but exploited shrubs such as flax.

  8. Nutrient dynamics in shallow lakes of Northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Petaloti, Christina; Voutsa, Dimitra; Samara, Constantini; Sofoniou, Mihalis; Stratis, Ioannis; Kouimtzis, Themistocles

    2004-01-01

    GOAL, SCOPE, BACKGROUND: Shallow lakes display a number of features that set them apart from the more frequently studied deeper systems. The majority of lakes in Northern Greece are small to moderate in size with a relatively low depth and are considered as sites of high value of the wetland habitat. However, the water quality of these lakes has only been evaluated segmentally and occasionally. The objectives of this study were to thoroughly investigate nitrogen and phosphorus speciation in lakes of a high ecological significance located in N. Greece, in order to evaluate their eutrophication status and possible nutrient limitation factors, and to investigate the main factors/sources that affect the water quality of these systems. An extensive survey was carried out during the period from 1998-1999. Water samples were collected on a monthly basis from lakes Koronia, Volvi, Doirani, Mikri Prespa and Megali Prespa located in N. Greece. Water quality parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and conductivity), organic indices (COD, BOD5), and N- and P-species (NO3(-), NO2(-), NH4(+), and PO4(3-), Kieldahl nitrogen and acid-hydrolysable phosphorus) were determined according to standard methods for surface water. Statistical treatment of the data was employed. The physicochemical parameters determined in the lakes studied revealed a high temporal variation. The trophic state of the lakes ranged from meso- to hypertrophic. The nutrient limiting factor varied among lakes suggesting either P-limitation conditions or mixed conditions changing from P- to N-limitation throughout the year. Urban/industrial activities and agricultural runoff are the major factors affecting all lakes, although with a varying contribution. This lake-specific research offers valuable information about water quality and nutrient dynamics in lakes of significant ecological value located in N. Greece that can be useful for an effective pollution control/management of these systems. Due to the

  9. Carriage of Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria lactamica in northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Kremastinou, Jenny; Tzanakaki, Georgina; Levidiotou, Stamatina; Markou, Fani; Themeli, Eleftheria; Voyiatzi, Aliki; Psoma, Eleni; Theodoridou, Maria; Blackwell, C Caroline

    2003-10-24

    In response to an increase in the number of cases of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in northern regions of Greece, a survey was carried out to determine if there was an increase in carriage of Neisseria meningitidis, particularly in areas where there have been increases in immigrant populations from neighbouring countries. The second objective was to determine if there was an increase in the serogroup C:2a:P1.5,2 a phenotype associated with recent outbreaks or changes in antibiotic sensitivities. As carriage of Neisseria lactamica is associated with development of natural immunity to IMD, the third objective was to determine the carriage rate of N. lactamica in this population. Among 3167 individuals tested, meningococci were isolated from 334 (10.5%). Compared with our previous studies, the proportion of meningococcal carriers was significantly increased among children in secondary education (11.3%) (chi2=9.67, P<0.005) and military recruits (37.4%) (chi2=21.11, P<0.000). Only 5/334 (1.5%) isolates expressed the phenotype associated with the increase in IMD in Greece. N. lactamica was isolated from 146/3167 (4.6%) participants. It was isolated from 71/987 (7.2%) children attending primary or nursery schools; however, the highest proportion of carriers (11.3%) was found in the boarding school for young Albanian men. In the 21-59-year age range, the majority of N. lactamica isolates (22/25, 88%) were from women, probably due to closer or more prolonged contact with children in the primary school age range. Smoking was significantly associated with isolation of meningococci from men but not from women. Penicillin-insensitive strains (25/334, 7.5%) were identified in all four regions examined; the majority (14/25, 56%) were obtained from military personnel. We conclude that there was a higher proportion of carriers in the population of northern Greece; however, the increase in carriage rate was not associated with the influx of immigrants from neighbouring

  10. Total Ozone Dynamics over Athens, Greece and Beijing China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzanis, C. G.; Christodoulakis, J.; Varotsos, P. K.

    2016-08-01

    We present the analysis of total ozone daily values, over Athens, Greece, and Beijing, China, for the period 2002-2012. The data for the analysis were derived from SCIAMACHY (ENVISAT) observations. The aim of the analysis is the identification of time scaling in the total ozone time series, by using a data analysis technique that would not be affected by the non-stationarity of the data. The appropriate technique satisfying this criterion is the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), which stems from random walk theory and permits the detection of intrinsic self-similarity in non-stationary time series.

  11. Cassini Scientist for a Day: an international contest in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomonidou, A.; Moussas, X.; Coustenis, A.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Bampasidis, G.; Kyriakopoulos, K.; Kouloumvakos, A.; Xystouris, G.; Sigala, E.; Patsou, I.

    2012-04-01

    The international contest 'Cassini Scientist for a Day', organized by the Cassini Outreach team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, provides school students all around the world with the opportunity to get involved in astronomy and astrophysics and planetary sciences in particular. It gives excellent opportunity for outreach and publicity for the Cassini mission and ESA and NASA activities in Greece. For the years 2010 and 2011, the Space Physics Group of the Astronomy, Astrophysics and Mechanics section of the University of Athens in association with external colleagues has been selected as the co-ordinator of NASA for the competition in Greece. This kind of school competition in Greece is particularly important since Astronomy and Astrophysics and Space Sciences, although very popular, are not included in the school curricula and thus students rarely have the opportunity to experience and participate actively in these subjects. Under the guidance of Cassini Outreach team, the members of the Space Physics Group have informed, explained and spread the rules of the competition at primary, secondary and high schools all over Greece. Our members kept open communication with students, teachers and parents throughout the holding of the competition for questions and guidance. In general, the students have the option to choose Cassini monitoring between three targets of the Saturnian system, which will bring the best scientific result. Their arguments should be summarized in an essay of 500 words more or less. They also have the option to do team work through groups of maximum three students. The participation in the contest for 2010 was unexpectedly high and thoroughly satisfied. The winners awarded through a ceremony which was held in the largest amphitheater at the central building of the University of Athens, that was fully packed. A large number of the participants of the 2010 contest are either participating in the new contest of 2011-2012 or -since some of them

  12. Lethrus (Lethrus) schneideri sp. n. (Coleoptera, Geotrupidae) from Greece

    PubMed Central

    Král, David; Hillert, Oliver; Drožová, Dana; Šípek, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Lethrus (Lethrus) schneideri Král & Hillert, sp. n. from Thrace, Greece, is described. The new species is morphologically most similar and probably closely related to Lethrus (Lethrus) apterus (Laxmann, 1770) and Lethrus (Lethrus) ares Král, Rejsek & Schneider, 2001. Diagnostic characters (shape of mandibles, ventral mandible processes, pronotum and parameres) are illustrated. Character matrix for separation of males of the Lethrus species closely related to Lethrus schneideri Král & Hillert, sp. n. and geographic ranges for all species studied are mapped. PMID:24146588

  13. Tot Graeci Tot Sententiae: Astronomical Perspective Multiplicity in Ancient Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, O.

    2011-06-01

    Ancient Greece was made of a multiplicity of thinking heads, in an atmosphere of (relative) freedom of opinions, in every field of knowledge. then we should not wonder if many astronomical and cosmological theories, survived until our 17th century, had already been formulated by different philosophers and in different regions, cities and periods of Greek history. Geocentric and heliocentric theories, as well as an atomistic theory of an infinite universe (with infinite worlds), could survive without crashing with one another. In the same time, religious opinions regarding the planets and Sun as a series of gods were present, however not on a scientific ground.

  14. Magnetic Prospecting On Ancient Towns In Turkey and Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smekalova, T.; Smekalov, S.

    Magnetic prospecting on ancient towns in Turkey and Greece. Tatyana Smekalova, Sergey Smekalov. Saint-Petersburg In 2001 archaeophysical group of Saint-Petersburg State University participated in archaeological investigation of ancient town Pisidian Antioch in Turkey (near mod- ern town Yalvach) and ancient town Kalydon in Greece (not far from modern town Mesolongy). Both sites have a big size (more than kilometer in perimeter) and com- plicated hilly relief (especially Kalydon). The mine idea of the magnetic survey on the sites was to try the method of magnetic prospecting in conditions of the sites, to estimate the possibilities and limitations of the method and to reveal ancient structures on several different parts of the site. Magnetic survey on the Pisidian Antioch carried out in four areas of the site showed that much could be recovered by this non-invasive technique. Most significantly, sur- vey of the area previously thought to contain a palestra shows instead the plan of a Christian basilica. Other areas included houses, streets, important elements in the water system and industrial establishments. The work was supported by Columbia University, USA On the Ancient Kalydon, the whole area of the site was investigated by method of Sfree searchT that is walking with magnetometers and measuring without a grid. Five ´ different areas have been chosen for detail investigation with regular grid. The most interesting result is in one of the the areas, where it seems to be an SindustrialT quar- & cedil;ter of the site. There are several workshops, revealed on this place. The work was supported by Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Denmark. During the work on both sites we used GPS equipment to put the survey areas on the maps. Simultaneously with magnetic survey archaeological teams made a usual topographical survey of the sites (team of Calgary University in Turkey, Canada and team of Greece topographers, working together with Danish archaeologist in Greece). Thanks to that

  15. Distinct distribution of Dicrocoelium dendriticum and D. chinensis in Iwate Prefecture, Japan, and a new final host record for D. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Ohtori, Maiko; Aoki, Mikiko; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2014-10-01

    This study dealt with the morphological and molecular identification of Dicrocoelium flukes obtained from Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon centralis) in the twelve districts of Iwate Prefecture, Japan. Dicrocoelium dendriticum and D. chinensis were exclusively detected in the western, and coastal and eastern areas of Iwate Prefecture, respectively. This geographically distinct occurrence of the two Dicrocoelium species would be associated with the distribution of the final hosts, sika deer for D. chinensis and Japanese serow for D. dendriticum. This study also reports that Capricornis crispus is a new final host of D. chinensis.

  16. The effect of fertilization on cesium concentration of rice grown in a paddy field in Fukushima Prefecture in 2011 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Ohmori, Yoshihiro; Kajikawa, Masataka; Nishida, Sho; Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Kobayashi, Natsuko I; Tanoi, Keitaro; Furukawa, Jun; Fujiwara, Toru

    2014-01-01

    After the accident of the Fukushima 1 nuclear power plant in March 2011, radioactive cesium was released and paddy field in a wide area of Fukushima Prefecture was contaminated. To reduce radioactive Cs uptake by rice, it is important to understand factors that affect Cs uptake in rice. Here we describe our study in 2011 and 2012 to investigate Cs concentration in two rice cultivars, Koshihikari and Hitomebore, the top two cultivars in Fukushima prefecture, grown under different fertilizer conditions in the contaminated paddy field. Our study demonstrated that high nitrogen and low potassium conditions increase Cs concentrations both in straw and brown rice.

  17. [Actual condition of involuntary admission by order of the prefectural governor: focus on the effects of the Medical Treatment and Supervision Act].

    PubMed

    Koike, Junko; Morita, Nobuaki; Harima, Hirohiko; Nakatani, Yoji

    2009-01-01

    A survey was conducted involving 664 individuals admitted to a public psychiatric hospital in Tokyo Prefecture between July 15, 2004 and July 14, 2007 as a result of involuntary admission by order of the prefectural governor (hereafter, involuntarily admitted patients). The characteristics of patients with a focus on the effects of the Medical Treatment and Supervision Act were investigated in 656 patients, excluding eight patients for whom information at the time of involuntary admission was unclear. The proportion of patients in the present survey who had been reported by prosecutors was markedly low compared to nationwide and previous surveys. This was thought to be a result of the fact that the proportion of patients reported by the police, which tend to include emergency cases, was high due to the characteristics of the present hospital as well as the regional characteristics of Tokyo Prefecture. The characteristics of involuntarily admitted patients tended to be similar to those observed in previous surveys on involuntarily admitted patients at the present and other hospitals in Tokyo Prefecture. Comparison of the characteristics of involuntarily admitted patients and problem behaviors that instigated admission before and after implementation of the Medical Treatment and Supervision Act showed no clear differences, indicating that the act had no marked effect on involuntary admission by order of the prefectural governor. In addition, only a small proportion of patients with problem behaviors corresponding to actions described in the Medical Treatment and Supervision Act were reported by prosecutors, suggesting that such patients were mostly reported by the police. In cases where patients faced involuntary admission by order of the prefectural governor after being reported by the police, the prosecutor may have either been unaware of the patient or, if aware, had not filed a petition. Issues may include clues for investigation in addition to the roles of

  18. SURFACE RUPTURE OF THE NORMAL SEISMIC FAULTS AND SLOPE FAILURES APPEARED IN APRIL 11th, 2011 FUKUSHIMA-PREFECTURE HAMADOORI EARTHQUAKE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazmi, Zaheer Abbas; Konagai, Kazuo; Kyokawa, Hiroyuki; Tetik, Cigdem

    On April 11th, 2011, Iwaki region of Fukushima prefecture was jolted by Fukushima-Prefecture Hamadoori Earthquake. Surface ruptures were observed along causative Idosawa and Yunotake normal faults. In addition to numerous small slope failures, a coherent landslide and building structures of Tabito Junior High School, bisected by Idosawa Fault, were found along the causative faults. A precise digital elevation model of the coherent landslide was obtained through the ground and air-born LiDAR surveys. The measurements of perimeters of the gymnasium building and the swimming pool of Tabito Junior High School have shown that ground undergoes a slow and steady/continual deformation.

  19. Distinct Distribution of Dicrocoelium dendriticum and D. chinensis in Iwate Prefecture, Japan, and a New Final Host Record for D. chinensis

    PubMed Central

    OHTORI, Maiko; AOKI, Mikiko; ITAGAKI, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study dealt with the morphological and molecular identification of Dicrocoelium flukes obtained from Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon centralis) in the twelve districts of Iwate Prefecture, Japan. Dicrocoelium dendriticum and D. chinensis were exclusively detected in the western, and coastal and eastern areas of Iwate Prefecture, respectively. This geographically distinct occurrence of the two Dicrocoelium species would be associated with the distribution of the final hosts, sika deer for D. chinensis and Japanese serow for D. dendriticum. This study also reports that Capricornis crispus is a new final host of D. chinensis. PMID:24998394

  20. Indices using external measurements for assessing fat deposition of adult feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takuya; Uno, Taiki; Fujioka, Yoshiyuki; Hayama, Shin-Ichi

    2012-02-01

    We examined the use of external measurements and relative fat deposition of adult feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) to develop relative indices of body fat deposition in post-growth feral raccoons. From March 2006 to March 2010, 288 adult raccoon carcasses (110 males, 178 females) collected in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, which were determined to be 24 months old, were subjected to external measurements of body weight (BW), girth measurement (GM), and body mass index (BMI). To assess relative body fat deposition, we visually classified abdominal subcutaneous fat into three grades (Visible Fat Index [VFI]: I-III). Significant differences in the means of BW (both sexes:P<0.01), GM (females: P<0.05, males: P<0.01), and BMI (both sexes: P<0.01) were detected between seasons. Notably, the means of BW, GM, and BMI (all, both sexes: P<0.01) differed significantly between VFI grades. However, by discriminant analysis with BW, GM, and BMI as independent variables, we obtained a significant discriminant function (both sexes: P<0.01) for distinguishing VFI I from higher VFI grades, but no significant equation was obtained for distinguishing between VFI II and VFI III. Based on the obtained structure matrix of discriminant analysis, BMI was the most valuable component for the discrimination of VFI grades. Thus, we conclude that BMI is a suitable complementary index for assessing relative body fat deposition of adult feral raccoons in Kanagawa Prefecture and may be generalizable to populations in other areas.

  1. Evaluation of ambient dose equivalent rates influenced by vertical and horizontal distribution of radioactive cesium in soil in Fukushima Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Malins, Alex; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Nakama, Shigeo; Saito, Tatsuo; Okumura, Masahiko; Machida, Masahiko; Kitamura, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    The air dose rate in an environment contaminated with (134)Cs and (137)Cs depends on the amount, depth profile and horizontal distribution of these contaminants within the ground. This paper introduces and verifies a tool that models these variables and calculates ambient dose equivalent rates at 1 m above the ground. Good correlation is found between predicted dose rates and dose rates measured with survey meters in Fukushima Prefecture in areas contaminated with radiocesium from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This finding is insensitive to the choice for modeling the activity depth distribution in the ground using activity measurements of collected soil layers, or by using exponential and hyperbolic secant fits to the measurement data. Better predictions are obtained by modeling the horizontal distribution of radioactive cesium across an area if multiple soil samples are available, as opposed to assuming a spatially homogeneous contamination distribution. Reductions seen in air dose rates above flat, undisturbed fields in Fukushima Prefecture are consistent with decrement by radioactive decay and downward migration of cesium into soil. Analysis of remediation strategies for farmland soils confirmed that topsoil removal and interchanging a topsoil layer with a subsoil layer result in similar reductions in the air dose rate. These two strategies are more effective than reverse tillage to invert and mix the topsoil.

  2. A fully automatic processing chain to produce Burn Scar Mapping products, using the full Landsat archive over Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontoes, Charalampos; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Herekakis, Themistoklis; Michail, Dimitrios; Ieronymidi, Emmanuela

    2013-04-01

    Remote sensing tools for the accurate, robust and timely assessment of the damages inflicted by forest wildfires provide information that is of paramount importance to public environmental agencies and related stakeholders before, during and after the crisis. The Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing of the National Observatory of Athens (IAASARS/NOA) has developed a fully automatic single and/or multi date processing chain that takes as input archived Landsat 4, 5 or 7 raw images and produces precise diachronic burnt area polygons and damage assessments over the Greek territory. The methodology consists of three fully automatic stages: 1) the pre-processing stage where the metadata of the raw images are extracted, followed by the application of the LEDAPS software platform for calibration and mask production and the Automated Precise Orthorectification Package, developed by NASA, for image geo-registration and orthorectification, 2) the core-BSM (Burn Scar Mapping) processing stage which incorporates a published classification algorithm based on a series of physical indexes, the application of two filters for noise removal using graph-based techniques and the grouping of pixels classified as burnt to form the appropriate pixels clusters before proceeding to conversion from raster to vector, and 3) the post-processing stage where the products are thematically refined and enriched using auxiliary GIS layers (underlying land cover/use, administrative boundaries, etc.) and human logic/evidence to suppress false alarms and omission errors. The established processing chain has been successfully applied to the entire archive of Landsat imagery over Greece spanning from 1984 to 2012, which has been collected and managed in IAASARS/NOA. The number of full Landsat frames that were subject of process in the framework of the study was 415. These burn scar mapping products are generated for the first time to such a temporal and spatial

  3. Constructing the health care system in Greece: responsibility and powerlessness.

    PubMed

    Lentza, Vassiliki; Montgomery, Anthony J; Georganta, Katerina; Panagopoulou, Efharis

    2014-02-01

    Based on health care professionals' (HPs) and patients' interviews about work demands and quality of care in hospitals, the study explores the way that patients and HPs constructed their identities to describe and construct the health care system in Greece. This is a qualitative study using a focus group (FG) design. Seven FGs discussions were conducted: three FGs discussions were conducted for the assessment of job stressors (1 for doctors, 1 for nurses and 1 for residents) and four FGs discussions for the assessment of quality of care (1 for doctors, 1 for nurses, 1 for residents and 1 for patients). The sample consisted of health care professionals working in a teaching hospital in the region of Thessaloniki, Greece, and patients who had at least one experience of any kind in the same hospital. Transcripts of the FGs discussions underwent discourse analysis. The results showed that both HPs and patients construct the health care system based on bipolar constructions of responsibility and powerlessness. In particular, participants use these constructions to allocate the responsibility to different levels of the health care system hierarchy or to the system per se constructing, at the same time, themselves as the 'viewers' of this system. The study allowed a deeper understanding of issues related to quality of care in hospitals providing context-specific information. Identity in health care organizations was inextricably linked to power and responsibility. The need to deconstruct this responsibility/powerlessness ideology is discussed. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Service quality perceptions in primary health care centres in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Papanikolaou, Vicky; Zygiaris, Sotiris

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Context  The paper refers to the increased competition between health care providers and the need for patient‐centred services in Greece. Using service quality methodology, this paper investigates service quality perceptions of patients in Greek public primary health centres. Objective  To test the internal consistency and applicability of SERVQUAL in primary health care centres in Greece. Strategy  SERVQUAL was used to examine whether patients have different expectations from health care providers and whether different groups of patients may consider some dimensions of care more important than others. Results  The analysis showed that there were gaps in all dimensions measured by SERVQUAL. The largest gap was detected in empathy. Further analysis showed that there were also differences depending on gender, age and education levels. A separate analysis of expectations and perceptions revealed that this gap was because of differences in patients’ perceptions rather than expectations. Discussion and conclusions  This paper raises a number of issues that concern the applicability of SERVQUAL in health care services and could enhance current discussions about SERVQUAL improvement. Quality of health care needs to be redefined by encompassing multiple dimensions. Beyond a simple expectations–perceptions gap, people may hold different understandings of health care that, in turn, influence their perception of the quality of services. PMID:22296402

  5. Guidelines for the recognition of cemetery remains in Greece.

    PubMed

    Eliopoulos, Constantine; Moraitis, Konstantinos; Reyes, Federico; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Manolis, Sotiris

    2011-06-01

    Forensic pathologists frequently consult anthropologists for the identification of skeletonized human remains. These remains may be the result of criminal activity or remains that were unearthed because of erosion, or during construction projects. In some cases, human remains that had been previously buried in a cemetery may be the subject of a forensic investigation. Early recognition of cemetery remains prevents unnecessary efforts and conserves precious resources. One of the key characteristics of cemetery remains is the presence of embalmed tissue. However, there are countries where embalming is not a common practice, and other clues must be sought for identifying previously buried remains. Current funerary customs in Greece and, in particular, the tradition of exhumations result in a large number of misplaced human remains. The present study presents examples of cemetery remains from Greece and offers guidelines for recognizing changes on skeletal remains that may be indicative of a cemetery origin. Location of discovery, condition of the remains, and the types of associated artifacts are all factors that aid forensic anthropologists in identifying cemetery remains.

  6. Stakeholder appraisal of policy options for tackling obesity in Greece.

    PubMed

    Codrington, C; Sarri, K; Kafatos, A

    2007-05-01

    The study aimed to map stakeholders' evaluations of policy options to counter the rising prevalence of obesity in Greece, where the case for action on obesity is only now being made. The multi-criteria mapping method was used to capture and compare stakeholders' appraisals and to provide a policy analysis. Efficacy and practical feasibility were the issues most frequently used by stakeholders to evaluate options and were weighted more highly than cost criteria, which were often defined in terms of governmental costs. There was a broad favourable appraisal for downstream measures offering individuals the skills, information and opportunities to make healthier choices, rather than options to modify the obesogenic environment. Consistently, high rankings were given to educational options, for improving communal facilities and for some information-related options (food labelling, advertising), with particular support for policies targeting the young. There was also significant advocacy by a few for the creation of a new government body charged with intersectoral policy co-ordination. The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project analyses thus point to support for a portfolio of measures to combat the problem of obesity in Greece as well as an appreciation that political will is an essential prerequisite.

  7. Organ transplantation in Greece: the need for mediation.

    PubMed

    Zanni, A

    2014-11-01

    Organ transplants are not regarded as an exclusively medical process, because they involve financial, religious, philosophic, and bioethical parameters. It becomes clear that if they are to achieve their purpose, which we believe extends well beyond the medical dimension, the creation of a comprehensive framework of communication between the involved parties is of paramount importance. The aim of this paper is to present an outline and a number of considerations regarding the communicational, bioethical, and legal issues that arise from a rather dramatic state of affairs in Greece today: In 2012 the rate of organ transplants stood at only 7 per 1 million of the population. The outdated legal framework and the lack of trust on the part of patients and the public have led to a highly inefficient system that is lagging behind in many respects. The proposition made in this paper is that there is a need for a new system of communication between doctors, patients, relatives of patients, and hospitals: bioethical mediation. This is a system that has played a vital role and has produced astounding results in other countries. There is also every indication that the introduction of such a system is crucial for Greece, especially as the symptoms of the acute financial crisis are become fully visible and tangible. Mediation aims to identify solutions that are oriented toward the interests and wishes of patients, are acknowledged and accepted by all parties involved, and are in tune with the values and the principles of medical practice.

  8. Shame and Anxiety Feelings of a Roma Population in Greece.

    PubMed

    Gouva, M; Mentis, M; Kotrotsiou, S; Paralikas, Th; Kotrotsiou, E

    2015-12-01

    Shame is a crucial issue for Roma. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the severity of shame and anxiety feelings in a Roma population living in Greece and assess the differentiation of these feelings between Roma men and women. A quota sample of 194 Roma adult men and women living in Southern Greece was retrieved. The Experiences of Shame Scale (ESS), the Other As Shamer Scale (OAS) and the Spielberg's State/Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaires were used. Women scored statistically significantly higher than men on ESS, whereas men scored higher on OAS scale (52.27 ± 16.91 vs 45.42 ± 9.98 and 35.93 ± 16.94 vs 30.87 ± 13.72 respectively). Women scored higher than men in both STAI subscales, however significant differences were observed only in State Anxiety scale (48.83 ± 9.26 vs 43.20 ± 9.81). OAS total score was inversely related to state anxiety, whereas ESS total score was positive related to trait anxiety, all correlations being significant at p < 0.05 level. Roma men and women exhibit high levels of shame and anxiety. Cultural, social and minority issues contribute to feelings of inferiority and anxiety experience.

  9. Energy Payback Time of a Rooftop Photovoltaic System in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachoutis, E.; Koubogiannis, D.

    2016-11-01

    Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is an important tool to quantitatively assess energy consumption and environmental impact of any product. Current research related to energy consumption in buildings moves towards Nearly Zero Energy Building (NZEB). In such a building, an important issue concerns the energy production by renewable sources, including on-site production. The most feasible way to achieve renewable energy utilization in a building level in Greece is by using rooftop Photovoltaic (PV) systems, also promoted in the last decade by the national legislation concerning energy conservation measures. Apart from cost-related issues and payback times, Embodied Energy (EE) and Embodied CO2 (ECO2) emissions have also to be considered against the anticipated corresponding savings. Using a particular PV system as a case study, its basic constitutive materials are determined and their masses are calculated. Embodied energy values are estimated by using embodied energy coefficients available in the international literature. Considering a specific geographic location in Greece for the building on which the PV is installed, the annual energy generated by the system is estimated based on its performance data and curves. The Energy and CO2 Payback Times (EPBT and CO2PBT) are estimated and assessed, as well as future work is suggested.

  10. A clinical and educational telemedicine link between Bulgaria and Greece.

    PubMed

    Anogianakis, George; Ilonidis, George; Anogeianaki, Antonia; Milliaras, Spyros; Klisarova, Anelia; Temelkov, Temel; Vlachakis-Milliaras, Emmanuel

    2004-01-01

    During its transition to a free economy, Bulgaria benefited from foreign aid provided by Greece. One of the projects was the clinical and educational telemedicine link between the Medical University of Varna in Bulgaria and the Faculty of Medicine of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki in Greece. This began in 1997. In terms of the educational activities, the Bulgarian side of the network supports (a) electronic design and publishing activities, (b) web hosting and mail server activities and (c) satellite communications. In addition it supports an electronic classroom equipped with personal workstations, multimedia projectors and videoconference facilities. Communications are via the ISDN network. In terms of its telemedicine activities, the network provides remote medical assistance to "language handicapped" travellers and to migrant workers in both countries. The main clinical experience is remote consultations in immunology. This admittedly limited experience demonstrates that telemedicine can be used to provide assistance to remote colleagues. In cases where the patient cannot communicate with the attending physician, the use of telemedicine can greatly improve the quality of care available to travellers and migrant workers.

  11. A 7-year survey of dermatophytoses in Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Maraki, Sofia; Nioti, Eleni; Mantadakis, Elpis; Tselentis, Yannis

    2007-11-01

    Dermatophytoses are of worldwide distribution. Epidemiological studies concerning dermatophyte infections have been performed in many countries and differences in the incidence and the aetiological agents have been reported in different geographical locations. This study was undertaken to investigate the prevailing species of dermatophytes in the island of Crete, Greece, and their pattern of infection during a 7-year period (1997-2003). A total of 5544 samples obtained from 3751 patients with clinically suspected dermatomycoses were examined mycologically in the laboratory of Clinical Microbiology at the University Hospital of Crete, Greece. Skin, hair and nail specimens were subjected to direct microscopy and culture. Dermatophytes were isolated from 520 patients (13.9%). Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated dermatophyte accounting for 48% of the infections, followed by Microsporum canis (17.9%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (14.2%) and Epidermophyton floccosum (6%). Tinea unguium, tinea pedis, tinea corporis, tinea capitis, tinea cruris, tinea manuum and tinea facei were the clinical types of dermatophytoses in decreasing order of frequency. Trichophyton rubrum is the predominant dermatophyte in our area. As the epidemiology of dermatophytoses is changing over time it is important to review periodically the incidence of dermatophytes and their distribution.

  12. Service quality perceptions in primary health care centres in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papanikolaou, Vicky; Zygiaris, Sotiris

    2014-04-01

    The paper refers to the increased competition between health care providers and the need for patient-centred services in Greece. Using service quality methodology, this paper investigates service quality perceptions of patients in Greek public primary health centres. To test the internal consistency and applicability of SERVQUAL in primary health care centres in Greece. SERVQUAL was used to examine whether patients have different expectations from health care providers and whether different groups of patients may consider some dimensions of care more important than others. The analysis showed that there were gaps in all dimensions measured by SERVQUAL. The largest gap was detected in empathy. Further analysis showed that there were also differences depending on gender, age and education levels. A separate analysis of expectations and perceptions revealed that this gap was because of differences in patients' perceptions rather than expectations. THIS paper raises a number of issues that concern the applicability of SERVQUAL in health care services and could enhance current discussions about SERVQUAL improvement. Quality of health care needs to be redefined by encompassing multiple dimensions. Beyond a simple expectations-perceptions gap, people may hold different understandings of health care that, in turn, influence their perception of the quality of services. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Groundwater quality of porous aquifers in Greece: a synoptic review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalaki, P.; Voudouris, K.

    2008-04-01

    Greece is dependent on groundwater resources for its water supply. The main aquifers are within carbonate rocks (karstic aquifers) and coarse grained Neogene and Quaternary deposits (porous aquifers). The use of groundwater resources has become particularly intensive in coastal areas during the last decades with the intense urbanization, tourist development and irrigated land expansion. Sources of groundwater pollution are the seawater intrusion due to over-exploitation of coastal aquifers, the fertilizers from agricultural activities and the disposal of untreated wastewater in torrents or in old pumping wells. In the last decades the total abstractions from coastal aquifers exceed the natural recharge; so the aquifer systems are not used safely. Over-exploitation causes a negative water balance, triggering seawater intrusion. Seawater intrusion phenomena are recorded in coastal aquifer systems. Nitrate pollution is the second major source of groundwater degradation in many areas in Greece. The high levels of nitrate are probably the result of over-fertilization and the lack of sewage systems in some urban areas.

  14. Medical training in Greece: A crisis in progress.

    PubMed

    Makris, Gregory C; Trigkidis, Kyriakos K; Apiranthiti, Katerina; Malietzis, George; Alexiou, Vangelis G; Falagas, Matthew E

    2015-08-01

    We sought to evaluate the opinions of medical students and graduates regarding the quality of medical education in Greece. Two online questionnaires concerning the undergraduate medical education and specialty training respectively were distributed. Regarding the quality of undergraduate medical education, 52.1% of participants replied favorably while clinical training was found satisfactory by 45.1. Dissatisfaction rates with research opportunities and support from tutors reached 88.4 and 83.3%, respectively. The majority (75.3%) supported the introduction of examinations for commencing specialty training. 52.3% of physicians were satisfied with the quality of specialty training. The most common complaint was the absence of a formal educational program. 67.2% of participants were dissatisfied with working conditions during their specialty training, with 70.1% working >60 h per week. Physicians practicing medical specialties were more satisfied with the quality of specialty training than those practicing surgical specialties (odds ratio: 1.43; 95% confidence limits: 1.09-1.87) and were less likely to work for >60 h per week (odds ratio: 0.66; 95% confidence limits: 0.48-0.9). Opinions expressed in this survey highlight the need for reforming medical education in Greece.

  15. Are operative delivery procedures in Greece socially conditioned?

    PubMed

    Skalkidis, Y; Petridou, E; Papathoma, E; Revinthi, K; Tong, D; Trichopoulos, D

    1996-04-01

    Caesarean section rates have increased in Greece by almost 50% during the last 13 years. We conducted a study in Athens, Greece, to assess the importance of a series of medical and socioeconomic factors in the use of Caesarean section or operative vaginal procedures, rather than a non-operative process, for the delivery of singleton, liveborn babies of primiparous mothers. We used a case control approach to compare 444 babies delivered through a Caesarean section and 130 delivered through operative vaginal delivery with 1235 normally delivered babies in a public and a private hospital. Data were analysed through multiple logistic regression. Caesarean section was more commonly performed in older, shorter or overweight mothers and for high and low birth-weight babies, as well as in response to several obstetric complications and following in-vitro fertilization. A similar pattern was noted with respect to operative vaginal delivery, except that this procedure was not unusually frequent among overweight women and was not encountered in this study among children born after in-vitro fertilization. Caesarean section was performed twice as often in the public teaching hospital as in a private maternity hospital, and operative vaginal delivery was several times more common in the former than in the latter, after controlling for biomedical risk factors. The unequal distribution of operative delivery procedures between the public and the private hospital raises questions about the justification of their performance in a substantial fraction of deliveries, and indicates that social factors condition their use.

  16. Tectonic field and deformation in Chalkidiki area, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alatza, Stavroula-Drosoula; Marinou, Aggeliki; Anastasiou, Demitris; Papanikolaou, Xanthos; Paradissis, Demitris

    2015-04-01

    Greece is situated on the convergence limits, between the Eurasian and the African lithospheric plate, and as a consequence, is considered as one of the most seismogenic areas on the world. Chalkidiki is part of the region of Central Macedonia in Northen Greece. The region of Chalkidiki is traversed by three faults and it is an area of great tectonic interest. On a daily basis, earthquakes occur in the seabed between the three peninsulas of Chalkidiki. Concerning the geomorphology of the area, it is covered by three types of rocks, the Serbomacedonian mass, the Perirodopiki zone and Peonia sub zone. The contact with the Serbomacedonian mass has a direct effect on tectonics of the region, since the area has a continuous tectonic activity. The neotectonic activity is characterized by normal faults, as well as horns and tectonic trenches. Velocity field and strain parameters for a deformation model are evaluated using GPS data from a geodetic network of thirty one points established in the broader area of Chalkidiki. Apart from these points, all the available observations of permanent stations in the area, were used to determine the final tectonic velocity field. All data were processed using Bernese GNSS Software v.5. The implementation of the reference system ITRF2005, was performed, using nine IGS stations, for the local network. Time series analysis for each point was used, in order to calculate the displacements and tectonic velocities. Finally, in order to investigate the strain patterns of the area, strain tensors were computed and discussed.

  17. Airborne laser altimetry in the Ionian Sea, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocard, M.; Geiger, A.; Kahle, H.-G.; Veis, G.

    2002-09-01

    Airborne laser techniques have evolved during the last years and have been tested in several pilot projects which cover a wide range of geodetic applications. In this project, airborne laser altimetry was used to determine the sea level in coastal areas of Greece, and to connect satellite radar altimetry results over the deep sea with tide gauge stations at the coast. Because airborne laser altimetry is capable to provide sea surface heights at the decimeter to centimeter level, it allows for an independent validation of spaceborne radar altimetry results. Airborne laser data acquired along densely spaced tracks of a total of 30-h flight time were used to determine instantaneous sea surface heights of the Ionian Sea, Greece. Differential GPS and inertial platform data were utilized as ancillary information for the purpose of ensuring a precise trajectography of the aircraft. Emphasis was put on the assessment of errors and the reduction of the raw data to mean sea level by crossover analysis and the incorporation of tidal predictions. The airborne laser data yield a high-resolution sea surface over the coastal areas of the Ionian Sea. The most prominent feature is a steep gradient of the sea surface amounting to 15 m over a distance of 150 km. This slope can be followed all along the bathymetric relief between the Hellenic Arc and Hellenic Trench.

  18. Cassini Scientist for a Day: an international contest in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomonidou, Anezina; Moussas, Xenophon; Xystouris, Georgios; Coustenis, Athena; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Katsavrias, Christos; Bampasidis, Georgios; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos; Kouloumvakos, Athanasios; Patsou, Ioanna

    2013-04-01

    The Cassini Outreach Team of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is being organizing a brilliant school contest in Astronomy focusing in the Saturnian system. This essay contest provides school students all around the worlds with the opportunity to get involved in astronomy and astrophysics and planetary sciences in particular. From 2010 the 'Cassini Scientist for a Day' contest has being one of the most successful as well as important outreach activities of ESA and NASA in Greece with hundreds of participants all over Greece. The number of participants is growing rapidly every year. This type of school competition in Greece is particularly important since Astronomy and Astrophysics and Space Sciences, although very popular, are not included in the school curricula and thus students rarely have the opportunity to experience and participate actively in these subjects. For the years 2010 and 2011, the Space Physics Group of the Astronomy, Astrophysics and Mechanics section of the University of Athens in association with external colleagues has been selected as the co-ordinator of NASA for the competition in Greece. Under the guidance of Cassini Outreach team, the members of the Space Physics Group have informed, explained and spread the rules of the competition at primary, secondary and high schools all over Greece. In general, the students have the option to choose Cassini monitoring between three targets of the Saturnian system, which the participants show that will bring the best scientific result. Their arguments should be summarized in an essay of 500 words more or less. They also have the option to do team work through groups of maximum three students. The participation in the contest for 2010 was unexpectedly high and thoroughly satisfied. The winners awarded through a ceremony which was held in the largest amphitheater at the central building of the University of Athens, that was fully packed. The following year 2011 the participation increased up to 300% while

  19. Overland flow connectivity in a forest plantation before and after tree thinning (Tochigi Prefecture, central Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Onda, Yuichi; Sun, Xinchao; Kato, Hiroaki; Gomi, Takashi; Hiraoka, Marino

    2016-04-01

    Overland flow connectivity is a key factor to understand the redistribution dynamics of sediments, nutrients, radiotracers, etc., in the different compartments at channel, hillslope and catchment scales. Human organization of landscape elements has a significant control on runoff and soil redistribution processes. Construction of trails, forest roads and firewalls influence runoff connectivity (RC) in forested catchments. In this study we simulated RC in two forested catchments, called K2 (19.3 ha) and K3 (13.6 ha), located on the Mount Karasawa, in the Tochigi Prefecture in central Japan. Forest plantation includes Japanese cypress and cedar and covers 59% of the total area. Native broad-leaved trees (28%) and mixed forest occupy the rest of the study area. We selected the Index of runoff and sediment Connectivity (IC) of Borselli et al. (2008) to simulate three temporal scenarios: i) Sc-2011, before tree thinning (TT); ii) Sc-2012 after TT in most part of the forest plantation in K2 (32% of the total area); and iii) Sc-2013 after TT in some areas of the K3 catchment, affecting 38% of the total area. The study areas were defined from the coalescence point (139⁰ 36' 04" E, 36⁰ 22' 03" N) of both catchments upslope. Elevation ranges from 75 to 287 m a.s.l. and the mean slope steepness is of 67 and 65% in K2 and K3. Three different high resolution DEM-LiDAR maps at 0.5 x 0.5 m of cell size were used to run the IC model in each scenario. The permanent streams in the study area have a total length of 2123 m. The mean C-RUSLE factor was of 0.0225 in Sc-2011 and 21% and 25% higher in Sc-2012 and Sc-2013. The total length of the landscape linear elements incremented from 2482 m in Sc-2011 to 3151 m in Sc-2012 and Sc-2013 due to the construction of new skid trails in K2. The mean RC in the study area was of -4.536 in Sc-2011 and increased 7.4% and 8.9% in the Sc-2012 and Sc-2013, respectively, due to the tree thinning operations and the construction of new skid trails

  20. The 2011 Great East Japan earthquake: a report of a regional hospital in Fukushima Prefecture coping with the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Irisawa, Atsushi

    2012-05-01

    A catastrophic undersea megathrust earthquake of magnitude 9.0 off the coast of Japan occurred at 14:46 JST on Friday, 11 March 2011. The earthquake triggered powerful tsunami waves, and the tsunami precipitated Fukushima nuclear accidents. After the terrible earthquake, many people fled from the nuclear accident and arrived at places far from the nuclear power plant. In this article, I present a story of one measure devised to deal with the problem of the Fukushima nuclear accident at a regional hospital of Fukushima prefecture, Aizu General Hospital, which is located far from the Fukushima nuclear plant. In addition, I briefly report the current situation of Fukushima prefecture after the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake. In our hospital, the countermeasure headquarters was established to supply medical care for those who had been injured by tsunami waves and the Fukushima nuclear accident. Especially, the screening for radioactive exposure using a dosimeter to take decontamination measures for cases of external exposure was extremely important task. Nevertheless, because the accurate knowledge related to radioactive contamination didn't provide, most medical staff fell into confusion. Fukushima prefecture has been 'shrinking' since the nuclear accident. However, today, although some hot spots remain in residential areas, the radioactive contamination is decreasing little by little. Many people in Fukushima Prefecture advance as one, facing forward. Recently, decontamination projects started. Efforts must be continued over a long period.

  1. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami on health, medical care and public health systems in Iwate Prefecture, Japan, 2011

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Problem The Great East Japan Earthquake was one of the largest earthquakes ever recorded in global history. The damage was spread over a wide area, with the worst-hit areas being Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures. In this paper we report on the damage and the impact of the damage to describe the health consequences among disaster victims in Iwate Prefecture. Context In Iwate Prefecture the tsunami claimed 4659 lives, with 1633 people missing. In addition to electricity, water and gas being cut off following the disaster, communication functions were paralysed and there was a lack of gasoline. Action Medical and public health teams from Iwate Prefecture and around the country, including many different specialists, engaged in a variety of public health activities mainly at evacuation centres, including medical and mental health care and activities to prevent infectious diseases. Outcome Given the many fatalities, there were relatively few patients who required medical treatment for major injuries. However, there were significant medical needs in the subacute and chronic phases of care in evacuation centres, with great demand for medical treatment and public health assistance, measures to counteract infection and mental health care. Discussion By referring to past experiences of national and international large-scale disasters, it was possible to respond effectively to the health-related challenges. However, there are still challenges concerning how to share information and coordinate overall activities among multiple public health response teams. Further examination will be required to ensure better preparedness in response to future disasters. PMID:23908898

  2. Peri-equatorial paleolatitudes for Jurassic radiolarian cherts of Greece

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiello, I.W.; Hagstrum, J.T.; Principi, G.

    2008-01-01

    Radiolarian-rich sediments dominated pelagic deposition over large portions of the Tethys Ocean during middle to late Jurassic time as shown by extensive bedded chert sequences found in both continental margin and ophiolite units of the Mediterranean region. Which paleoceanographic mechanisms and paleotectonic setting favored radiolarian deposition during the Jurassic, and the nature of a Tethys-wide change from biosiliceous to biocalcareous (mainly nannofossil) deposition at the beginning of Cretaceous time, have remained open questions. Previous paleomagnetic analyses of Jurassic red radiolarian cherts in the Italian Apennines indicate that radiolarian deposition occurred at low peri-equatorial latitudes, similar to modern day deposition of radiolarian-rich sediments within equatorial zones of high biologic productivity. To test this result for other sectors of the Mediterranean region, we undertook paleomagnetic study of Mesozoic (mostly middle to upper Jurassic) red radiolarian cherts within the Aegean region on the Peloponnesus and in continental Greece. Sampled units are from the Sub-Pelagonian Zone on the Argolis Peninsula, the Pindos-Olonos Zone on the Koroni Peninsula, near Karpenissi in central Greece, and the Ionian Zone in the Varathi area of northwestern Greece. Thermal demagnetization of samples from all sections removed low-temperature viscous and moderate-temperature overprint magnetizations that fail the available fold tests. At Argolis and Koroni, however, the cherts carry a third high-temperature magnetization that generally exhibits a polarity stratigraphy and passes the available fold tests. We interpret the high-temperature component to be the primary magnetization acquired during chert deposition and early diagenesis. At Kandhia and Koliaky (Argolis), the primary declinations and previous results indicate clockwise vertical-axis rotations of ??? 40?? relative to "stable" Europe. Due to ambiguities in hemispheric origin (N or S) and thus

  3. Frequency of amantadine-resistant influenza A virus isolated from 2001-02 to 2004-05 in Nara Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Kitahori, Yoshiteru; Nakano, Mamoru; Inoue, Yumiko

    2006-06-01

    We investigated the frequency of amantadine-resistant influenza A viruses in Nara Prefecture during four epidemic seasons from 2001-02 to 2004-05. Point mutations within the M2 gene were identified using RT-PCR and DNA sequencing analysis. Five viruses (3.4%) with point mutation were observed from 145 strains analyzed. Three viruses (2.0%) possessed a change at position 31 (AGT-->AAT, Ser to Asn), one virus (0.7%) showed a change at position 26 (CTT-->TTT, Leu to Phe), one virus (0.7%) showed a change at position 27 (GTT-->ATT, Val to Ile), and none showed a change at position 30. All of these changes were the transition type of mutation. These results indicated that the possible circulation of drug-resistant viruses to the community was not supported by the findings obtained during the 2004-05 season in Nara.

  4. Determinants of electricity consumption intensity in China: analysis of cities at subprovince and prefecture levels in 2009.

    PubMed

    Xia, X H; Hu, Yi

    2012-01-01

    China has experienced great social and economic vicissitudes that caused the vast complexity and uncertainty for electricity consumption. This paper attempts to identify the main determinants of the electricity consumption intensity by using the data from Chinese cities at subprovince and prefecture levels in 2009. The key category factors, including urban morphology, industrial structure, regulation context, urbanization degree, price, natural condition, and resource endowment, are abstracted and the influence of these determinants is evaluated by adopting the finite mixture models. The variation of each determinant across regions, the comparative weights of all the factors, and the detailed classifications of the cities are reported for facilitating the understanding of electricity consumption in China. The corresponding policies for electricity administration are addressed as well.

  5. [A Survey of School Lunch Provision for Elementary School Students with Food Allergy in Seven Cities of Osaka Prefecture].

    PubMed

    Kiyota, Kyohei; Takemoto, Akiko; Okajima, Saori; Morino, Shizuka; Kakoi, Satoru; Sakuma, Junko; Yoshimitsu, Masato; Akutsu, Kazuhiko; Kajimura, Keiji

    2015-01-01

    The number of students with food allergy is currently increasing. Moreover, the unintentional mixing or accidental ingestion of allergy-causing food materials in school lunches has attracted great attention. The aim of this study was to verify the current status of elementary school lunch provision for students with food allergy. We investigated the elementary school lunch services in seven cities in Osaka prefecture. The egg elimination diet was provided in five of the seven cities. In four of these five cities, we did not detect the presence of egg residue either on the surface of various cookware used to prepare the egg elimination diet or in the food itself. In this investigation, the egg elimination diet was provided properly, but we observed differences among the cities in the manual preparation of foods for food allergy diets. To step up these efforts, our results suggest the necessity of preparing a manual to consider individual conditions of school lunch services.

  6. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax) and wild sika deer (Cervus nippon) in Gunma Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Jun; Kako, Yune; Morita, Yukio; Kabeya, Hidenori; Sakano, Chieko; Nagai, Akira; Maruyama, Soichi; Nogami, Sadao

    2011-09-01

    The ingestion of undercooked meat from wild animals can be a source of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and other animals. In this study, we determined the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in 175 wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax) and 107 wild sika deer (Cervus nippon) hunted in 2004-2007 in Gunma Prefecture, Japan, by using a commercial latex agglutination test (LAT). Antibodies (LAT, 1:64 or higher) to T. gondii were found in 6.3% of wild boars and 1.9% of sika deer. This is the first record of T. gondii infection in wild deer in Japan, and deer and wild boar meat should be cooked well before human consumption. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Determinants of Electricity Consumption Intensity in China: Analysis of Cities at Subprovince and Prefecture Levels in 2009

    PubMed Central

    Xia, X. H.; Hu, Yi

    2012-01-01

    China has experienced great social and economic vicissitudes that caused the vast complexity and uncertainty for electricity consumption. This paper attempts to identify the main determinants of the electricity consumption intensity by using the data from Chinese cities at subprovince and prefecture levels in 2009. The key category factors, including urban morphology, industrial structure, regulation context, urbanization degree, price, natural condition, and resource endowment, are abstracted and the influence of these determinants is evaluated by adopting the finite mixture models. The variation of each determinant across regions, the comparative weights of all the factors, and the detailed classifications of the cities are reported for facilitating the understanding of electricity consumption in China. The corresponding policies for electricity administration are addressed as well. PMID:22927781

  8. Canine tumor development and crude incidence of tumors by breed based on domestic dogs in Gifu prefecture.

    PubMed

    Komazawa, Satoshi; Sakai, Hiroki; Itoh, Yusuke; Kawabe, Mifumi; Murakami, Mami; Mori, Takashi; Maruo, Kohji

    2016-09-01

    We analyzed the status of tumor development in dogs by breed based on tumor cases that presented to the Department of Veterinary Pathology of the Gifu University for diagnostic examinations over eight years (2005-2012). We also calculated the crude incidence of tumors in dogs by breed based on the results of a survey conducted in 2011 in Gifu Prefecture. The most common sites of tumor development included the skin, digestive organs and mammary glands. Smaller dogs showed a tendency to have a higher incidence of breast tumors. We thus identified dog breeds with a higher crude incidence of tumors (Bernese mountain dog, golden retriever, corgi, etc.) and those with a lower crude incidence of tumors (Pomeranian, poodle, Chihuahua, etc.). Unlike the current trends for domestic dogs in the US and Europe, Japan has a higher number of small dogs as pets; it is therefore necessary to develop a policy for canine cancer specific to Japan.

  9. [Evaluation of suicide risk factors based on a survey of suicides and suicidal attempts at psychiatric hospitals in Aichi Prefecture].

    PubMed

    Mori, Takao

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined cases of suicide, suicidal attempts, and risk factors in 41 psychiatric hospitals of Aichi Prefecture. As a result, some characteristics of psychiatric wards considered to be effective in suicide prevention were shown. In addition, as for measures to resolve risk factors and the state of the patients, there were many which were effective in the prevention of suicide attempts. Regarding measures to reduce risk factors for symptoms and treat patients, there were many techniques which were effective in the prevention of suicidal attempts, but, for cases which did not respond to treatment, suicide was frequent. In addition, a "suicide preventive manual in a psychiatric hospital" produced based on these results was distributed.

  10. [A fish-based biotic integrity index selection for rivers in Hechi Prefecture, Guangxi and their environmental quality assessment].

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Zhou, Wei; Li, Feng-Lian; Lan, Jia-Hu

    2010-10-01

    This study aims to develop a multi-metric, fish-based Index of Biological Integrity (IBI) for assessing the environmental quality of rivers in Hechi Prefecture, Guangxi Province, South China. Data on fish assemblage were collected via electrofishing We screened 21 candidate metrics representing attributes of fish assemblage. Among these, six metrics were finally selected for the IBI. It was shown that the fish-based biological integrity was good in Xiaohuanjiang River , fair in Hongshuihe, Longjiang and Dahuanjiang Rivers, but poor in Diaojiang River. The results of assessment were consistent with the actual situation of human disturbance. The assessment system constructed by this study could be used or used for reference in the area around Hechi. Biotic integrity assessment was an important means of water environment quality monitoring. To enable the biotic integrity assessment more scientific and more objective, much more research work is required to focus on the relationship between biotic integrity and environmental factors.

  11. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Japan: an epidemiological study done in a select prefecture between 1976 and 1986.

    PubMed

    Akai, J; Ishihara, O; Higuchi, S

    1989-01-01

    An epidemiological study was performed with respect to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a designated area in Japan. The subjects were observed in a small rural prefecture where the population generally remains within a limited radius throughout their lives. The patients' life-styles in each area were investigated in detail. Nine cases appeared in 11 years; 6 were definitive and 3 probable. They were all of the subacute type; there were no noteworthy sexual differences, age of onset, course and/or past histories. Three of the nine cases came from two families; the relationship between familial and isolated cases was examined. Revealed facts and time-space clustering were investigated statistically, but no indication of natural transmission was observable.

  12. Vertical distribution of radiation dose rates in the water of a brackish lake in Aomori Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Iyogi, Takashi; Ueda, Shinji; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2015-11-01

    Seasonal radiation dose rates were measured with glass dosemeters housed in watertight cases at various depths in the water of Lake Obuchi, a brackish lake in Aomori Prefecture, Japan, during fiscal years 2011-2013 to assess the background external radiation dose to aquatic biota in the lake. The mean radiation dose in the surface water of the lake was found to be 27 nGy h(-1), which is almost the same as the absorption dose rate due to cosmic ray reported in the literature. Radiation dose rates decreased exponentially with water depth down to a depth of 1 m above the bottom sediment. In the water near the sediment, the dose rate increased with depth owing to the emission of γ-rays from natural radionuclides in the sediment.

  13. Management Staffing and Training Development Policies in Selected Multinational Enterprises: The Case of Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xirotiri-Kufidu, Stella

    1993-01-01

    Evidence from foreign-owned companies in Greece suggests that cultural patterns and environmental influences cannot be ignored. However, such companies could influence human resource development in a developing country by following their home policies in training and staffing. (SK)

  14. Archaeological evidence for a destructive earthquake in Patras, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiros, S. C.; Pytharouli, S. I.

    2014-07-01

    Oriented collapse of columns, large-scale destruction debris and temporary abandonment of the area deduced from an archaeological excavation provide evidence for a major (intensity IX) earthquake in Patras, Greece. This, and possibly a cluster of other earthquakes, can be derived from archaeological data. These earthquakes are not included in the historical seismicity catalogues, but can be used to put constraints to the seismic risk of this city. Patras was affected by a cluster of poorly documented earthquakes between 1714 and 1806. The city seems to be exposed to risks of progressive reactivation of a major strike-slip fault. A magnitude 6.4 earthquake in 2008 has been related to it. This fault has also been associated with a total of four events in the last 20 years, a situation reminiscent of the seismic hazard at the western edge of the North Anatolian Fault.

  15. First results on video meteors from Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maravelias, G.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the first systematic video meteor observations from a, forthcoming permanent, station in Crete, Greece, operating as the first official node within the International Meteor Organization's Video Network. It consists of a Watec 902 H2 Ultimate camera equipped with a Panasonic WV-LA1208 (focal length 12mm, f/0.8) lens running MetRec. The system operated for 42 nights during 2011 (August 19-December 30, 2011) recording 1905 meteors. It is significantly more performant than a previous system used by the author during the Perseids 2010 (DMK camera 21AF04.AS by The Imaging Source, CCTV lens of focal length 2.8 mm, UFO Capture v2.22), which operated for 17 nights (August 4-22, 2010) recording 32 meteors. Differences - according to the author's experience - between the two softwares (MetRec, UFO Capture) are discussed along with a small guide to video meteor hardware.

  16. First report of Troglostrongylus brevior in a kitten in Greece.

    PubMed

    Diakou, Anastasia; Di Cesare, Angela; Aeriniotaki, Tania; Traversa, Donato

    2014-10-01

    The first case of a natural infestation with Troglostrongylus brevior in a kitten in Greece is described here. A ∼40-day-old stray cat was referred to a private veterinary clinic with signs of respiratory distress. First stage larvae of a metastrongyloid nematode were observed in the wet mount faecal preparation. Despite an anthelmintic treatment, the respiratory signs worsened and the kitten died 2 days later. The larvae in the faeces were identified morphologically and genetically as T. brevior. The present evidence suggests a vertical or direct infestation of the kitten and a severe pathogenic role of T. brevior in young cats. This report expands the recent published cases of troglostrongylosis in domestic cats to a wider geographical distribution and opens new questions on the apparent spreading of T. brevior from wild to domestic hosts.

  17. Karyomorphometric analysis of Fritillaria montana group in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Samaropoulou, Sofia; Bareka, Pepy; Kamari, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fritillaria Linnaeus, 1753 (Liliaceae) is a genus of geophytes, represented in Greece by 29 taxa. Most of the Greek species are endemic to the country and/or threatened. Although their classical cytotaxonomic studies have already been presented, no karyomorphometric analysis has ever been given. In the present study, the cytological results of Fritillaria montana Hoppe ex W.D.J. Koch, 1832 group, which includes Fritillaria epirotica Turrill ex Rix, 1975 and Fritillaria montana are statistically evaluated for the first time. Further indices about interchromosomal and intrachromosomal asymmetry are given. A new population of Fritillaria epirotica is also investigated, while for Fritillaria montana, a diploid individual was found in a known as triploid population. Paired t-tests and PCoA analysis have been applied to compare the two species. PMID:28123688

  18. A Fiducial Reference Stie for Satellite Altimetry in Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertikas, Stelios; Donlon, Craig; Mavrocordatos, Constantin; Bojkov, Bojan; Femenias, Pierre; Parrinello, Tommaso; Picot, Nicolas; Desjonqueres, Jean-Damien; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2016-08-01

    With the advent of diverse satellite altimeters and variant measuring techniques, it has become mature in the scientific community, that an absolute reference Cal/Val site is regularly maintained to define, monitor, control the responses of any altimetric system.This work sets the ground for the establishment of a Fiducial Reference Site for ESA satellite altimetry in Gavdos and West Crete, Greece. It will consistently and reliably determine (a) absolute altimeter biases and their drifts; (b) relative bias among diverse missions; but also (c) continuously and independently connect different missions, on a common and reliable reference and also to SI-traceable measurements. Results from this fiducial reference site will be based on historic Cal/Val site measurement records, and will be the yardstick for building up capacity for monitoring climate change. This will be achieved by defining and assessing any satellite altimeter measurements to known, controlled and absolute reference signals with different techniques, processes and instrumentation.

  19. Prevalence of Secondary Traumatic Stress Among Psychiatric Nurses in Greece.

    PubMed

    Mangoulia, Polyxeni; Koukia, Evmorfia; Alevizopoulos, George; Fildissis, George; Katostaras, Theofanis

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of secondary traumatic stress/compassion fatigue (STS/CF), burnout (BO) and compassion satisfaction (CS) in psychiatric nurses, and their risk factors. The Professional Quality of Life Scale (ProQOL R-IV) and a demographic and work related characteristics questionnaire were distributed to 174 psychiatric nurses in 12 public hospitals in Greece. The majority of participants were at the high risk category for STS/CF (44.8%) and BO (49.4%), while only 8.1% of nurses expressed high potential for CS. Awareness of the factors associated with STS may help nurses to prevent or offset the development of this condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reengineering NHS Hospitals in Greece: Redistribution Leads to Rational Mergers

    PubMed Central

    Nikolentzos, Athanasios; Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Polyzos, Nikolaos; Thireos, Eleftherios; Tountas, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to record and evaluate existing public hospital infrastructure of the National Health System (NHS), in terms of clinics and laboratories, as well as the healthcare workforce in each of these units and in every health region in Greece, in an attempt to optimize the allocation of these resources. An extensive analysis of raw data according to supply and performance indicators was performed to serve as a solid and objective scientific baseline for the proposed reengineering of the Greek public hospitals. Suggestions for “reshuffling” clinics and diagnostic laboratories, and their personnel, were made by using a best versus worst outcome indicator approach at a regional and national level. This study is expected to contribute to the academic debate about the gap between theory and evidence based decision-making in health policy. PMID:26156925

  1. Investigating the orientation of eleven mosques in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantazis, George; Lambrou, Evangelia

    2009-07-01

    This paper investigates the orientation of eleven mosques situated in several regions of Greece. The aim of this work is to verify whether and how accurately the monuments have been constructed according to the Muslim tradition. As geodetic and astrogeodetic methods are used, the geometric documentation of each monument is carried out and its astronomical orientation is determined. The qibla for each monument is calculated by using geodetic equations. The mosques' main axis azimuths are determined by a precision of some arc minutes. Also, their orientation, relative to the Canopus star (Alpha Carinae) - which the tradition has closely related to Kaabah in Mecca - is examined. All the mosques seem to follow the religious rule.

  2. Mental health care delivery system in Greece: a critical overview.

    PubMed

    Stefanis, C N; Madianos, M G

    1981-01-01

    The organizational profile of the mental health care delivery system in Greece is mainly characterized by centralization which is reflected in various functional parts of the system (uneven distribution of psychiatric beds and manpower, absence of psychiatric units in general hospitals serving a certain catchment area, lack of community-based psychiatric services, etc.) As a result of this centralized structure there is a centrifugal flow of the mentally ill patients toward Athens and Thessaloniki and consequently the existing possibilities for community-based care as an alternative to inpatient treatment are rather limited. Future immediate objectives of the national social policy planning should be based on decentralization and reorganization of the psychiatric services in order for the mental health delivery system to respond more effectively to the mental health needs of the Greek population.

  3. Trends in suicidality amid the economic crisis in Greece.

    PubMed

    Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Savopoulos, Christos; Siamouli, Melina; Zaggelidou, Eleni; Mageiria, Stamatia; Iacovides, Apostolos; Hatzitolios, Apostolos I

    2013-08-01

    For the decade 2000-2010, suicidal rates appear to be both low and stable in Greece and unrelated to the socioeconomic environment. It is highly possible that the recent crisis caused a significant increase in dysphoria, stress, depression and maybe suicidal ideation in the general population, but completed suicides do not seem to have increased so far. Measures are needed to make sure there will be no increase in completed suicides in the near future, since historically, periods of socioeconomic instability might be related to increased suicidality. Community interventions reduce stigma and enhance help-seeking. However, only those including the creation of social support networks are essential in the fight against suicidality.

  4. Headache during airplane travel ("airplane headache"): first case in Greece.

    PubMed

    Kararizou, Evangelia; Anagnostou, Evangelos; Paraskevas, George P; Vassilopoulou, Sofia D; Naoumis, Dimitrios; Kararizos, Grigoris; Spengos, Konstantinos

    2011-08-01

    Headache related to airplane flights is rare. We describe a 37-year-old female patient with multiple intense, jabbing headache episodes over the last 3 years that occur exclusively during airplane flights. The pain manifests during take-off and landing, and is located always in the left retro-orbital and frontotemporal area. It is occasionally accompanied by dizziness, but no additional symptoms occur. Pain intensity diminishes and disappears after 15-20 min. Apart from occasional dizziness, no other symptoms occur. The patient has a history of tension-type headache and polycystic ovaries. Blood tests and imaging revealed no abnormalities. Here, we present the first case in Greece. We review the current literature on this rare syndrome and discuss on possible pathophysiology and the investigation of possible co-factors such as anxiety and depression.

  5. [The succession of the Hippocratic corpus in modern Greece].

    PubMed

    Sugano, Yukiko; Honda, Katsuya

    2010-03-01

    This paper examines how the Hippocratic corpus was passed on during the Enlightenment of modern Greece, introducing part of the latest Greek research on the history of medicine. Although classical studies at large had stagnated at the time under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, with the movement toward independence in the second half of the 18th century the Greeks raised their consciousness of the fact that they were the successors to their ancestral great achievements. From that time classical studies, including the history of medicine, had been activated. From some medical dissertations and books written by Greek doctors or researchers of those days, we will recognize that they made efforts to deepen the substance of modern Greek medicine, seeking the principles of medical practice from the ancient heritage.

  6. Long survival in a 69,XXX triploid infant in Greece.

    PubMed

    Iliopoulos, Dimitrios; Vassiliou, Georgia; Sekerli, Eleni; Sidiropoulou, Vasiliki; Tsiga, Alexandra; Dimopoulou, Despina; Voyiatzis, Nikolaos

    2005-12-30

    The live birth of a triploidy infant is a very rare event and death usually occurs within the first hours of life. Triploid cases with a survival of more than two months are infrequent. We report on an infant with a 69,XXX chromosome constitution who survived 164 days. Chromosomal analysis demonstrated a 69,XXX karyotype with no evidence of mosaicism. This is the longest survival reported for this condition to date in Greece and the fourth longest worldwide. The infant was admitted to our clinic several times due to respiratory problems, and supplementary oxygen was required. The improved survival of our case was possibly due to better management of respiratory illness and prematurity, and these are essential factors that physicians should consider carefully with such rare cases.

  7. Groundwater quality assessment of the Limnos Island Volcanic Aquifers, Greece.

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, George; Panagiotaras, Dionisios; Giannoulopoulos, Panagiotis

    2013-05-01

    Limnos Island in Greece, which has been the subject of extensive hydrogeological research, contains confined volcanic aquifers that overlie impermeable flysch. Groundwater salinization is usually the effect of seawater intrusion, and results from a combination of factors such as low annual areal precipitation and exploitation of aquifers for civil, commercial, and agricultural purposes. Areas with intense agricultural activities have also increasingly observed these effects. A geochemical evaluation on the basis of multiple ion (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3-, Cl-, SO4(2-), NO3-) concentrations and physicochemical parameters distribution revealed that ion exchange is the dominant hydrogeochemical process. However, the enrichment of groundwater in potassium and magnesium results from rock and mineral weathering and dissolution.

  8. Cranial trauma in ancient Greece: from Homer to classical authors.

    PubMed

    Konsolaki, Eleni; Astyrakaki, Elisabeth; Stefanakis, George; Agouridakis, Panos; Askitopoulou, Helen

    2010-12-01

    This article presents literary evidence on traumatic cranio-cerebral injuries in ancient Greece from about 900 B.C. to 100 B.C. The main sources of information are epic and classic Greek texts of that period. Homer provides the first literary source of head trauma, which he portrayed in his epic poems The Iliad and The Odyssey. He describes 41 injuries of the head, face and cervical spine, of which all but two were fatal. Subsequently, other classical authors like Plato, Plutarch and others illustrate cases of cranial trauma that occurred mainly in the battlefields, during athletic games or in unusual accidents. They describe some interesting cases of head trauma in prominent men, such as the poet Aeschylos, the kings Pyrrhos and Kyros and Alexander the Great. Most of these descriptions show that the ancient Greeks possessed very good knowledge of the anatomy of the head and neck region and also of the pathophysiological consequences of trauma in the region.

  9. [Medicine in the pre-hippocratic civilization of ancient greece].

    PubMed

    Lips Castro, Walter; Urenda Arias, Catalina

    2014-12-01

    The beginnings of the magical-religious conception of disease would go back to before the development of writing (prehistory). During ancient times the world was conceived as a place where the supernatural was essential for mankind's survival, therefore, explanations of all phenomena, including disease, were based on supernatural causes. With the development of Greek civilization began the establishment of a rational approach to the nature of the world, which gradually included medicine. But the origin of the rational and naturalist perspective of medicine is due in part to the influence of ancient Egyptian civilization. Various terms were used to refer to healing agents at the pre-Hippocratic period of ancient Greece: iatromantis, phôlarcos, ouliads, and asclepiads. Later, in the ancient Greek civilization, healing through prophecy was gradually replaced, though not entirely displaced, by a new medicine, based on a rational theoretical framework about health and disease: téchnê iatrikê.

  10. [Analysis on HIV-1 genetics and threshold of drug resistance in Dehong prefecture of Yunnan province in 2013].

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanling; Wang, Jibao; Xing, Hui; Chen, Min; Yao, Shitang; Chen, Huichao; Yang, Jin; Li, Yanling; Duan, Song; Jia, Manhong

    2015-06-01

    To study the HIV-1 genotypes and transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in Dehong prefecture of Yunnan province in 2013. Referring to the guidelines for HIV drug resistance threshold survey (HIVDR-TS), 54 plasma samples of recently reported HIV-infected individuals, aged between 16 and 25 years, were collected in Dehong prefecture from January to August 2013. Genotyping of partial pol gene was performed by using reverse transcriptional PCR. HIV-1 genotype. Prevalent levels of HIV-1 drug resistance transmission were analyzed. Forty-eight plasma samples were successfully sequenced and analyzed. Among them, 45.8% were Chinese and the rest 54.2% were all Burmese. Based on pol sequences, identified HIV genotypes included subtype C (41.7%), URF (31.3%), CRF01_AE (12.5%), CRF07_BC (10.4%), CRF08_BC (2.1%) and subtype B (2.1%), C subtype appeared dominated in Chinese while URF was dominated in Burmese. One drug resistant mutation to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) was detected in one sequence from Burmese. Based on the statistical method of HIVDR-TS, the prevalence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance was adjusted as < 5%. Diverse HIV-1 genotypes were found in this study, and the current HIV-1 drug resistant strains transmission was catalogued as at low prevalence level, in Dehong. To prevent the increase of the prevalence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance, standard treatment and scientific management for people living with HIV/AIDS should be strictly followed. Meanwhile, relevant surveillance, including drug resistance surveillance should also be performed among cross-border migrant population.

  11. Geological field study for science education on Elementary and Junior high school student, in Shimane prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, I.

    2011-12-01

    The importance of learning at field has been increasing in the elementary and the junior high school in Japan. And, an environmental education is one of the important subjects even in the school education, too. It was important, as for science education, understanding with actual feeling and learning were specified as for the Teaching outlines (the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) of the new science textbook of the elementary and the junior high school as well. However, It is a little actual situation that there is in an opportunity for the field learning enforced in the school lesson by the investigation of JST (Japan Science and Tecnology Agency). This tendency is strong as much as school of the city and that circumference. I have this cause think that there are a few suitable places for learning to observe geological and biological field near school. In addition, below two is pointed out as a big problem to obstruct the execution of field learning. 1) A natural experience isn't being done sufficient as much as a teacher can teach to the student. 2) It doesn't have the confidence that a teacher teaches a student geology and biology at the field. I introduce the practical example of geological field learning at the public elementary school of the Shimane prefecture by this research. Though it is the place where nature is comparatively rich even in Japan, it can't be said that field learning is popular in Shimane prefecture. A school teacher has to learning experience at field, and he must settle confidence to guide a student at the field. A specialist in the university and the museum must support continuous learning for that to the school teacher.

  12. Research on the Natural Enemies of the Mulberry Scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni), in Tea Fields in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Akihito; Kubota, Sakae; Kaneko, Shuji; Ishigami, Shigeru

    The mulberry scale Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni) is one of the most important pests on tea trees in Japan; in particular, severe outbreaks have occurred in Shizuoka Prefecture in recent years. Natural enemies of the scale are considered to be one of important factors for controlling the scale population, and it is necessary to clarify the actual condition of the natural enemies of the scale in tea fields. We investigated the species and species composition of natural enemies of the scale in tea fields in Shizuoka Prefecture of Japan in 2002 and 2003 by identifying the parasitoids that emerged and dissecting the adult female scales. We identified 4 species of primary parasites, namely, Arrhenophagus albitibiae Girault, Pteroptrix orientalis (Silvestri), Thomsonisca indica? Hayat (this species was identified as T. amathus in Japan) and Epitetracnemus comis Noyes & Ren, and 2 species of hyperparasites, namely, Marietta carnesi (Howard) and Zaomma near lambinus (Walker). We also identified the following 3 species of coleopteran predators: Pseudoscymnus hareja Weise, Chilocorus kuwanae Silvestri, and Cybocephalus nipponicus Endrody-Younga. Further, 1 species of Cecidomyiidae (predatory gall midge), namely, Dentifibula sp. was confirmed. The primary dominant parasitoid and predatory beetle species were A. albitibiae and P. hareja, respectively. The species composition of the parasitoids that emerged changed with location and generation of the scale, and A. albitibiae was the major species in the overwintering generation of the scale. However, from the first to the second generation, the frequency of species other than A. albitibiae increased, i.e., species diversity increased. The percentage parasitism of all of the parasitoids increased with the alternation of scale generations, and there were tea fields in which the predatory Cecidomyiidae Dentifibula sp. became the primary dominant species at the second generation of the scale. Therefore, it was suggested that

  13. Infectivity of HBV DNA positive donations identified in look-back studies in Hyogo-Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Bouike, Y; Imoto, S; Mabuchi, O; Kokubunji, A; Kai, S; Okada, M; Taniguchi, R; Momose, S; Uchida, S; Nishio, H

    2011-04-01

    To clarify transfusion incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected blood negative for mini pool-nucleic acid amplification testing (MP-NAT). Japanese Red Cross (JRC) blood centres screen donated blood to avoid contamination with HBV. However, a low copy number of HBV may be overlooked. In Hyogo-Prefecture, JRC blood centres screened 787 695 donations for HBV from April 2005 to March 2009. Of these, 685 844 were donations from the repeat donors. To detect the donors with HBV, serological tests, MP-NAT and/or individual donation (ID)-NAT were performed. To detect the recipients with transfusion-transmitted HBV infection (TTHBI), serological analysis and/or ID-NAT were performed. In this study, 265 of the 685 844 repeat donations were serologically and/or MP-NAT positive for HBV. Their repository samples from the previous donation were examined in a look-back study; 13 of the 265 repository samples proved ID-NAT positive. Twelve recipients were transfused with HBV-infected blood components derived from 10 of the 13 HBV-infected donors. Only 1 of the 12 recipients was identified as TTHBI case. Seven of the 12 recipients escaped from our follow-up study and 4 recipients were negative for HBV during the observation period. On the basis of the look-back study among the repeat donors in Hyogo-Prefecture, Japan, donations with HBV-infected blood negative for MP-NAT occurred with a frequency of 13 in 685 844 donations (∼1/53 000 donations). However, more than half of the recipients transfused with HBV-infected blood negative for MP-NAT could not be followed up. It is necessary to establish a more cautious follow-up system. © 2010 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2010 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  14. Mental Health Distress and Related Factors Among Prefectural Public Servants Seven Months After the Great East Japan Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yuriko; Fukasawa, Maiko; Obara, Akiko; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Background To develop an empirically informed support measure for workers, we examined mental health distress and its risk factors among prefectural public servants who were affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake and faced a demanding workload in the midterm of the disaster. Methods We conducted a self-administered health survey of all public servants in the Miyagi prefectural government two and seven months after the Great East Japan Earthquake (3743 workers, 70.6% of all employees). We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for mental distress (defined as K6 score ≥10) in the domain of disaster-work-related stressors, work-related stressors, and disaster-related stressors. Results Among those with better levels of workplace communication, the only factor that increased the risk of mental distress was not taking a non-work day each week (adjusted OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.27–5.14). Among those with poorer levels of workplace communication, in addition to not taking a non-work day each week (adjusted OR 3.93, 95% CI 3.00–5.15), handling residents’ complaints (adjusted OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.00–2.42), having dead or missing family members (adjusted OR 2.87, 95% CI 1.53–5.38), and living in a shelter more than two months after the disaster (adjusted OR 2.80, 95% CI 1.32–5.95) increased the risk of mental distress. Conclusions All workers should be encouraged to take a non-work day each week. Among workers with poor workplace communication, special attention should be given to those who handle residents’ complaints, have lost a family member(s), and are living in a shelter for a prolonged period of time. PMID:24857952

  15. Misconceptions about Ebola seriously affect the prevention efforts: KAP related to Ebola prevention and treatment in Kouroussa Prefecture, Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Buli, Benti Geleta; Mayigane, Landry Ndriko; Oketta, Julius Facki; Soumouk, Aguide; Sandouno, Tamba Emile; Camara, Bole; Toure, Mory Saidou; Conde, Aissata

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Guinea is the third hardest hit country in the region with 2,806 cases and 1,814 deaths as of January 11, 2015 after Sierra Leone and Liberia respectively. This KAP study was conducted in three sub-prefectures of Kouroussa in the Kankan region of Guinea from 15 December 2014 to 15 January 2015. It was conducted with the general objective of examining the knowledge, attitude and practice related to Ebola prevention and care among the public of Kouroussa Prefecture. Methods A cross-sectional study design was employed to collect quantitative data to examine knowledge, attitude and practice related to Ebola. Structured questionnaire was administered by trained data collectors who were supervised by doctors and epidemiologists from WHO and Africa Union. Data were collected from 358 individuals (93% response rate) and analyzed in STATA 13 while tables and graphs are used to display results. Results Over 96% of the respondents have ever heard about Ebola while only 76.2% believed the disease existed in Kouroussa. Avoiding physical contacts including hand shaking and contacts with body fluids, and early treatment of persons sick from Ebola were the two important prevention methods frequently mentioned (96.8% and 93.9%). Only 35.7% of respondents were found to have comprehensive knowledge about Ebola (composite of correctly accepting three methods of prevention (85%) and rejecting misconceptions (55.7%)). Conclusion The high level of knowledge about modes of transmission and prevention methods has not positively affected the level of comprehensive knowledge about Ebola. In contrast, the prevailing high level of misconceptions surrounding Ebola was found to be responsible for a low comprehensive knowledge. PMID:26740839

  16. The significance of tectonism in the glaciations of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathrellos, George; Skilodimou, Hariklia; Maroukian, Habik

    2014-05-01

    In Greece, Middle to Late Pleistocene mountain glaciations appear to have been quite extensive, along the mountain range of Pindus, on Mt. Olympus and in the highlands of Peloponnesus. This study focuses on the Middle to Late Pleistocene glaciations based on the examination of cirque formations and their elevation changes due to vertical tectonism, in certain parts of Greece, namely Pindus, Mt. Olympus and Peloponnesus. An initial spatial database of these glacial forms was created including their location and mean elevation. Some of the glaciated sites have been taken from previous literature and others were recorded from topographic maps, air photos and field work. ArcGIS 10 software was used to process the glaciated sites. A map depicting the glaciated areas of Greek regions was compiled with over 230 cirques. A cirque's top, lip and margins of each location were mapped. So altitudes of apex and lip and mean altitude of each cirque ([apex+lip]/2), were calculated. A total number of 239 inactive cirques was recorded with limestone as the dominant lithology. As one moves to the south, in the case of Pindus range and its extension in the Peloponnesus, the number of cirques decreases. These glacial forms occur at altitudes varying from 2,770 to 1,600 m.a.s.l. Thus the preservation of ice for longer periods of time is more likely at altitudes higher than 1,600 m.a.s.l. Concerning the distribution of the mean elevations of cirques one should take into consideration the tectonic activity of the study area. Especially in the Pindus range, Mount Olympus, and Peloponnesus this process is in the form of uplift. This has increased the mean elevation of the cirques in every following ice age. So, in older times many cirques were a few hundred meters lower than the more recent glacial period.

  17. Occupational Dermatoses by Type of Work in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Zorba, Eleni; Karpouzis, Antony; Zorbas, Alexandros; Bazas, Theodore; Zorbas, Sam; Alexopoulos, Elias; Zorbas, Ilias; Kouskoukis, Konstantinos; Konstandinidis, Theodoros

    2013-01-01

    Background To elucidate the relationship between seven occupational dermatoses (ODs) and 20 types of work in Greece. Methods This was a prevalence epidemiologic study of certain ODs among 4,000 workers employed in 20 types of enterprise, in 104 companies, in 2006–2012, using data from company medical records, questionnaires, occupational medical, and special examinations. The χ2 test was applied to reveal statistically significant relationships between types of enterprises and occurrence of ODs. Results A high percentage (39.9%) of employees included in the study population suffered from ODs. The highest prevalence rates were noted among hairdressers (of contact dermatitis: 30%), cooks (of contact dermatitis: 29.5%), bitumen workers (of acne: 23.5%), car industry workers (of mechanical injury: 15%), construction workers (of contact urticaria: 29.5%), industrial cleaning workers (of chemical burns: 13%), and farmers (of malignant tumors: 5.5%). We observed several statistical significant correlations between ODs (acute and chronic contact dermatitis, urticaria, mechanical injury, acne, burns, skin cancer) and certain types of enterprises. There was no statistically significant correlation between gender and prevalence of ODs, except for dermatoses caused by mechanical injuries afflicting mainly men [χ2 (1) = 13.40, p < 0.001] and for chronic contact dermatitis [χ2 (1) = 5.53, p = 0.019] afflicting mainly women. Conclusion Prevalence of ODs is high in Greece, contrary to all official reports by the Greek National Institute of Health. There is a need to introduce a nationwide voluntary surveillance system for reporting ODs and to enhance skin protection measures at work. PMID:24106644

  18. Seismic Hazard Assessment in the Aspospirgos Area, Athens - Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voulgaris, N.; Drakatos, G.; Lekkas, E.; Karastathis, V.; Valadaki, A.; Plessas, S.

    2005-12-01

    The extensive damages and human life loss related to the September 7, 1999 earthquake in the Athens area (Greece) initiated an effort to re-evaluate seismic hazard in various regions around the capital. One of the target areas selected within the framework of the specially designed research project ESTIA was the industrial area of Aspropirgos, where the epicenter of the main shock was located. The multidisciplinary approach towards seismic hazard assessment included a microseismicity survey and detailed geological and tectonic studies in the area in order to delineate and define the recently activated seismic sources in the area. Initially a portable network, consisting of seventeen (17) digital seismographs was installed and operated for 2 months during the autumn of 2004. A total of five hundred forty five (545) earthquakes (M<3) have been recorded. The results of the geological survey in the region were summarised in two maps compiled at a scale of 1:5,000 and 1:25,000, respectively. These data sets were combined with all the available historical and instrumental seismological data and a revised seismic source zone model was defined for the broader area and subsequently used for hazard assessment calculations. The results were presented as maximum expected peak ground acceleration and velocity distribution maps for 475 and 949 years return period or 90% probability of NBE for the next 50 and 100 years respectively. Finally in order to facilitate the implementation of the above results according to the current Greek Aseismic Code the required distribution for the 3 different soil types was mapped using the results of the geological survey. By combining the above types of data the engineer is able to calculate specific design spectra for every site while combination with available vulnerability estimates could lead to more realistic seismic risk calculations. Acknowledgments We would like to thank the General Secretariat for Research and Technology of Greece for

  19. Integrated flash flood vulnerability assessment: Insights from East Attica, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Thaler, Thomas; Heiser, Micha; Hübl, Johannes; Fuchs, Sven

    2016-10-01

    In the framework of flood risk assessment, vulnerability is a key concept to assess the susceptibility of elements at risk. Besides the increasing amount of studies on flash floods available, in-depth information on vulnerability in Mediterranean countries was missing so far. Moreover, current approaches in vulnerability research are driven by a divide between social scientists who tend to view vulnerability as representing a set of socio-economic factors, and natural scientists who view vulnerability in terms of the degree of loss to an element at risk. Further, vulnerability studies in response to flash flood processes are rarely answered in the literature. In order to close this gap, this paper implemented an integrated vulnerability approach focusing on residential buildings exposed to flash floods in Greece. In general, both physical and social vulnerability was comparable low, which is interpreted as a result from (a) specific building regulations in Greece as well as general design principles leading to less structural susceptibility of elements at risk exposed, and (b) relatively low economic losses leading to less social vulnerability of citizens exposed. The population show high risk awareness and coping capacity to response to natural hazards event and in the same time the impact of the events are quite low, because of the already high use of local protection measures. The low vulnerability score for East Attica can be attributed especially to the low physical vulnerability and the moderate socio-economic well-being of the area. The consequence is to focus risk management strategies mainly in the reduction of the social vulnerability. By analysing both physical and social vulnerability an attempt was made to bridge the gap between scholars from sciences and humanities, and to integrate the results of the analysis into the broader vulnerability context.

  20. Spatio-temporal activity of lightnings over Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, P. T.; Matsangouras, I. T.; Chronis, T. G.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events are always associated with convective weather conditions driving to intense lightning activity: Cloud to Ground (CG), Ground to Cloud (GC) and Cloud to Cloud (CC). Thus, the study of lightnings, which typically occur during thunderstorms, gives evidence of the spatio-temporal variability of intense precipitation. Lightning is a natural phenomenon in the atmosphere, being a major cause of storm related with deaths and main trigger of forest fires during dry season. Lightning affects the many electrochemical systems of the body causing nerve damage, memory loss, personality change, and emotional problems. Besides, among the various nitrogen oxides sources, the contribution from lightning likely represents the largest uncertainty. An operational lightning detection network (LDN) has been established since 2007 by HNMS, consisting of eight time-of-arrival sensors (TOA), spatially distributed across Greek territory. In this study, the spatial and temporal variability of recorded lightnings (CG, GC and CC) are analyzed over Greece, during the period from January 14, 2008 to December 31, 2009, for the first time. The data for retrieving the location and time-of-occurrence of lightning were acquired from Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS). In addition to the analysis of spatio-temporal activity over Greece, the HNMS-LDN characteristics are also presented. The results of the performed analysis reveal the specific geographical sub-regions associated with lightnings incidence. Lightning activity occurs mainly during the autumn season, followed by summer and spring. Higher frequencies of flashes appear over Ionian and Aegean Sea than over land during winter period against continental mountainous regions during summer period.

  1. Health care practices in ancient Greece: The Hippocratic ideal

    PubMed Central

    Kleisiaris, Christos F.; Sfakianakis, Chrisanthos; Papathanasiou, Ioanna V.

    2014-01-01

    Asclepius and Hippocrates focused medical practice on the natural approach and treatment of diseases, highlighting the importance of understanding the patient’s health, independence of mind, and the need for harmony between the individual, social and natural environment, as reflected in the Hippocratic Oath. The aim of this study was to present the philosophy of care provision in ancient Greece and to highlight the influence of the Hippocratic ideal in modern health care practices. A literature review was carried out using browser methods in international databases. According to the literature, “healthy mind in a healthy body” was the main component of the Hippocratic philosophy. Three main categories were observed in the Hippocratic provision of care: health promotion, interventions on trauma care, and mental care and art therapy interventions. Health promotion included physical activity as an essential part of physical and mental health, and emphasized the importance of nutrition to improve performance in the Olympic Games. Interventions on trauma care included surgical practices developed by Hippocrates, mainly due to the frequent wars in ancient Greece. Mental care and art therapy interventions were in accordance with the first classification of mental disorders, which was proposed by Hippocrates. In this category music and drama were used as management tools in the treatment of illness and in the improvement of human behavior. The role of Asclepieion of Kos was highlighted which clearly indicates a holistic health care model in care provision. Finally, all practices regarded detailed recordings and evaluation of information within the guidelines. The Hippocratic philosophy on health care provision focused on the holistic health care model, applying standards and ethical rules that are still valid today. PMID:25512827

  2. Health care practices in ancient Greece: The Hippocratic ideal.

    PubMed

    Kleisiaris, Christos F; Sfakianakis, Chrisanthos; Papathanasiou, Ioanna V

    2014-01-01

    Asclepius and Hippocrates focused medical practice on the natural approach and treatment of diseases, highlighting the importance of understanding the patient's health, independence of mind, and the need for harmony between the individual, social and natural environment, as reflected in the Hippocratic Oath. The aim of this study was to present the philosophy of care provision in ancient Greece and to highlight the influence of the Hippocratic ideal in modern health care practices. A literature review was carried out using browser methods in international databases. According to the literature, "healthy mind in a healthy body" was the main component of the Hippocratic philosophy. Three main categories were observed in the Hippocratic provision of care: health promotion, interventions on trauma care, and mental care and art therapy interventions. Health promotion included physical activity as an essential part of physical and mental health, and emphasized the importance of nutrition to improve performance in the Olympic Games. Interventions on trauma care included surgical practices developed by Hippocrates, mainly due to the frequent wars in ancient Greece. Mental care and art therapy interventions were in accordance with the first classification of mental disorders, which was proposed by Hippocrates. In this category music and drama were used as management tools in the treatment of illness and in the improvement of human behavior. The role of Asclepieion of Kos was highlighted which clearly indicates a holistic health care model in care provision. Finally, all practices regarded detailed recordings and evaluation of information within the guidelines. The Hippocratic philosophy on health care provision focused on the holistic health care model, applying standards and ethical rules that are still valid today.

  3. Climate change induced lanslide hazard mapping over Greece- A case study in Pelion Mountain (SE Thessaly, Central Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelitsa, Varvara; Loupasakis, Constantinos; Anagnwstopoulou, Christina

    2015-04-01

    Landslides, as a major type of geological hazard, represent one of the natural events that occur most frequently worldwide after hydro-meteorological events. Landslides occur when the stability of a slope changes due to a number of factors, such as the steep terrain and prolonged precipitation. Identification of landslides and compilation of landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk maps are very important issues for the public authorities providing substantial information regarding, the strategic planning and management of the land-use. Although landslides cannot be predicted accurately, many attempts have been made to compile these maps. Important factors for the the compilation of reliable maps are the quality and the amount of available data and the selection of the best method for the analysis. Numerous studies and publications providing landslide susceptibility,hazard and risk maps, for different regions of Greece, have completed up to now. Their common characteristic is that they are static, taking into account parameters like geology, mean annual precipitaion, slope, aspect, distance from roads, faults and drainage network, soil capability, land use etc., without introducing the dimension of time. The current study focuses on the Pelion Mountain, which is located at the southeastern part of Thessaly in Central Greece; aiming to compile "dynamic" susceptibility and hazard maps depending on climate changes. For this purpose, past and future precipipation data from regional climate models (RCMs) datasets are introduced as input parameters for the compilation of "dynamic" landslide hazard maps. Moreover, land motion mapping data produced by Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) are used for the validation of the landslide occurrence during the period from June 1992 to December 2003 and as a result for the calibration of the mapping procedure. The PSI data can be applied at a regional scale as support for land motion mapping and at local scale for the

  4. Investigation of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever and Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in Greece

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-12

    nasal bleeding, hematuria and gross gastrointestinal bleeding. K-- F -6- Up todate 41 HFRS cases have been serologically diagnosed in Greece. The...CCHF in Greece up until April 1987, was discussed and the conclusions drawn are reported. 4 pA. : -3- B. HORAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROKE (HilS) B1...level. Two house rats (Rattus rattus) captured in a slaughter house in Thessaloniki were found to be seropositive (Table 2). _ _ I -9-. Todate

  5. Military Dictatorship in Greece (1967-1974): The Genesis of Greek Anti-Americanism.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    employment which had started before the coup, but their expansionary monetary and fiscal policies , especially in the non-produc- tive sectors of the...Greek military dictatorship (1967-1974), Greek junta (1967-1974) George Papadopoulos, U.S. foreign policy toward Greece (1967-1974), Greece, Greek...See ity Affairs Dean of Information and Policy Scrences *°. t3 ABSTRACT The years following the April 21, 1967 Greek coup d’etat have been marked by a

  6. Health, economic crisis, and austerity: A comparison of Greece, Finland and Iceland.

    PubMed

    Tapia Granados, José A; Rodriguez, Javier M

    2015-07-01

    Reports have attributed a public health tragedy in Greece to the Great Recession and the subsequent application of austerity programs. It is also claimed that the comparison of Greece with Iceland and Finland-where austerity policies were not applied-reveals the harmful effect of austerity on health and that by protecting spending in health and social budgets, governments can offset the harmful effects of economic crises on health. We use data on life expectancy, mortality rates, incidence of infectious diseases, rates of vaccination, self-reported health and other measures to examine the evolution of population health and health services performance in Greece, Finland and Iceland since 1990-2011 or 2012-the most recent years for which data are available. We find that in the three countries most indicators of population health continued improving after the Great Recession started. In terms of population health and performance of the health care system, in the period after 2007 for which data are available, Greece did as good as Iceland and Finland. The evidence does not support the claim that there is a health crisis in Greece. On the basis of the extant evidence, claims of a public health tragedy in Greece seem overly exaggerated.

  7. Radon concentration of waters in Greece and Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolopoulos, D.; Vogiannis, E.; Louizi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Radon (222Rn) is a radioactive gas generated by the decay of the naturally occurring 238U series. It is considered very important from radiological point of view, since it is the most significant natural source of human radiation exposure (approximately 50% from all natural sources). Radon is present in soil, rocks, building materials and waters. Through diffusion and convection, radon migrates and emanates to the atmosphere. Outdoors, radon concentrates at low levels (in the order of 10 Bq/m3). However indoors, radon accumulates significantly. It is trivial to observe indoor environments with high radon levels (in the order of 400 Bq/m3 or higher). Radon accumulation indoors, depends on the composition of the underlying soil and rock formation, on building materials, meteorological parameters, ventilation, heating and water use. Although soil and building materials are the most significant radon sources, there have been reported elevated radon concentrations in building structures due to entering water. It is the radon concentrations in the entering water, the volume and the way of water usage, separated or in combination, that result in large amounts of radon in indoor air. Moreover, radon is a factor of stomach radiation burden due to water consumption. This burden is estimated by measurements of radon concentrations in waters. Due to the health impact of radon exposure, the reporting team continuously measures radon. This work focused on the radon concentrations exposure due to water consumption and use in Greece and Cyprus. Various locations in Greece and Cyprus were accessed taking into consideration existing natural radioactivity data (mainly radon in water), however under the restriction of the capability of movement. Radon in water was measured by Alpha Guard (Genitron Ltd) via a special unit (Aqua Kit). This unit consists of a vessel used for forced degassing of radon diluted in water samples, a security vessel used for water drop deposition. Vessels and

  8. Public Perception of Climate Risk: The Case of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voskaki, Asimina; Tsermenidis, Konstantinos

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is generally considered as one of the greatest challenges our world is facing. In the case of Greece climatic change seems to be associated with sea level rise, increase in temperature, variation in precipitation patterns, and extreme weather events. As a result of climate pattern changes a series of consequences are expected in areas involving build environment, infrastructures, health and various sectors of the economy. Even though climate change is probably going to affect Greece in terms of human welfare and economic growth, public perception and attitude do not always identify it as the most important, amongst others, environmental area of concern, or compared to various socio-economic issues. Considering that topics related to climate change involve a certain degree of uncertainty public perception seems to be important when dealing with adaptation strategies to manage or prevent risks from climate change impact and therefore people's reaction to risks seem to be an issue of great importance in future policy planning and implementation. The key issue of this paper is to investigate and analyse public perception in Greece as regards to climate change risk. Through a questionnaire survey this research investigates people's understanding, specific knowledge, opinion, awareness, emotions, behavior with regards to climate change risks and their willingness to pay in order to minimize or prevent risk. In addition, it examines people's willingness to alter current lifestyle and adapt to a changing climate. The information derived from survey data concern the topics and the perceived importance of the causes of the climate change between certain groups of people; the analysis of the data is focused on the correlation between perceived risk and knowledge about the issues involved. Rather than applying a specific technique extensively, we choose to deploy a number of methodologies with which we are able to draw different aspects from the data. To this

  9. Geomorphologic Structures on the South Cretan Margin, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomikou, Paraskevi; Lykousis, Vasilis; Alexandri, Matina; Rousakis, Grigoris; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Lampridou, Danai; Alves, Tiago; Ballas, Dionysios

    2015-04-01

    Geomorphologic Structures on the South Cretan Margin, Greece Nomikou P.1, Lykousis V.2, Alexandri M.2, Rousakis G.2, Sakellariou D.2, Lampridou D.1 , Alves T.3, Ballas D.2 1University of Athens, Department of Geology and Geoenvironment, Panepistimioupoli Zografou, 15784 Athens, Greece. 2Inst. of Oceanography, Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, Anavyssos, Greece. 33D Seismic Laboratory, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Cardiff University, Main Building-Park Place, CF10 3AT Cardiff, UK. The swath bathymetric survey of the South Cretan Margin has been conducted during the HERMES-1 (May-June 2005) and HERMES-2 (September-October 2005) cruises onboard R/V "AEGAEO" using the 20 kHz, SEABEAM 2120 system. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry outlines in unprecedented detail the shape and the morphological features of the region. One of the most dominant geomorphological structures of the southwest Cretan slope is the submarine Samaria Canyon (Western Cretan Trough) which is characterized by high relief steep walls and V-shaped cross sections. Despite the fact that the trough trends predominantly northeastward, with a central axis oriented from east to west, the head displays a north-trending hook termination on the continental shelf. The minimum depth of its axis is 1400 m and the thalweg ranges from 1500 to 3500m. In addition, abrupt alternation in the axial trend of the canyon is observed, accompanied by sharp changes in axial gradient and in the geometry of the canyon profile ending in a flat area of 3600 m depth. From Paleochora up to Sindonia, numerous small canyons trending N-S crosscut the steep Cretan southern margin, that reaches the 2000 m isobath. These are transversal to the main direction E-W of the slope. Furthermore, the detailed bathymetric map reveals the morphology of several troughs bounded by steep flanks. Their flat bottom may reach up to 3000m water depth. The most characteristic one, Ptolemy trough (eastern South Cretan Trough), is located in

  10. Public health services knowledge and utilization among immigrants in Greece: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Galanis, Petros; Sourtzi, Panayiota; Bellali, Thalia; Theodorou, Mamas; Karamitri, Ioanna; Siskou, Olga; Charalambous, Giorgos; Kaitelidou, Daphne

    2013-09-13

    During the 90s, Greece has been transformed to a host country for immigrants mostly from the Balkans and Eastern European Countries, who currently constitute approximately 9% of the total population. Despite the increasing number of the immigrants, little is known about their health status and their accessibility to healthcare services. This study aimed to explore the perceived barriers to access and utilization of healthcare services by immigrants in Greece. A pilot cross-sectional study was conducted from January to April 2012 in Athens, Greece. The study population consisted of 191 immigrants who were living in Greece for less than 10 years. We developed a questionnaire that included information about sociodemographic characteristics, health status, public health services knowledge and utilization and difficulties in health services access. Statistical analysis included Pearson's ×2 test, ×2 test for trend, Student's t-test, analysis of variance and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Only 20.4% of the participants reported that they had a good/very good degree of knowledge about public health services in Greece. A considerable percentage (62.3%) of the participants needed at least once to use health services but they could not afford it, during the last year, while 49.7% used public health services in the last 12 months in Greece. Among the most important problems were long waiting times in hospitals, difficulties in communication with health professionals and high cost of health care. Increased ability to speak Greek was associated with increased health services knowledge (p<0.001). Increased family monthly income was also associated with less difficulties in accessing health services (p<0.001). The empowerment and facilitation of health care access for immigrants in Greece is necessary. Depending on the needs of the migrant population, simple measures such as comprehensive information regarding the available health services and the terms for accessibility is

  11. Drought variability over Thessaly plain, Greece. Present and future changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, Panagiotis T.; Kapsomenakis, John; Dalezios, Nicolas R.; Kotsopoulos, Spyridon; Poulos, Serafim

    2015-04-01

    The diachronic variability of precipitation is of major scientific concern, because it is linked to water availability or deficiency on regional scale. The latter, resulted from a prolonged period of abnormally low precipitation or permanent absence of precipitation, is associated with dryness, having on one hand, a substantial impact on agricultural production and thus the society itself, and on the other hand, the redistribution of flora and fauna. In some cases, dryness drive climate refugees, and this is a great challenge - threat - that must be faced - mitigated - by stake holders in international organizations and fora. The Aridity Index (AI) measures the degree of dryness of the climate at a given region, and according to the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) it is defined as the ratio of precipitation to the potential evapotranspiration. In this study, we investigate the climate change impacts on AI over Thessaly plain, Greece. Thessaly, the largest plain and granary of Greece, includes a total area of 14,036 km2, which represents almost 11% of the Greek territory. Regarding the geomorphology, the ground is 50% mountainous-hilly and 50% flat, irrigated by Peneus, the third largest river in the country, which flows through the axis east-west. The assessment of AI was conducted utilizing daily evapotranspiration losses, based on the modified FAO-56 Penman-Monteith formula, and daily precipitation totals from a number of Regional Climate Models (RCMs), within the ENSEMBLE European Project. Further, the projected changes of AI between the period 1961-1990 (reference period) and the periods 2021-2050 (near future) and 2071-2100 (far future) along with the inter-model standard deviations are presented, under SRES A1B. The findings of the analysis revealed significant spatiotemporal changes of AI over Thessaly plain, focusing on their societal aspects. Acknowlegdements. This work is supported by the project AGROCLIMA (11SYN_3_1913), which is funded by

  12. Statistical evaluation of the simulated convective activity over Central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartsios, Stergios; Kotsopoulos, Stylianos; Karacostas, Theodore S.; Tegoulias, Ioannis; Pytharoulis, Ioannis; Bampzelis, Dimitrios

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the project DAPHNE (www.daphne-meteo.gr), the non-hydrostatic Weather Research and Forecasting model with the Advanced Research dynamic solver (WRF-ARW, version 3.5.1) is used to produce very high spatiotemporal resolution simulations of the convective activity over Thessaly plain and hence, enhancing our knowledge on the impact of high resolution elevation and land use data in the moist convection. The expecting results act as a precursor for the potential applicability of a planned precipitation enhancement program. The three model domains, covering Europe, the Mediterranean Sea and northern Africa (d01), the wider area of Greece (d02) and Thessaly region-central Greece (d03), are used at horizontal grid-spacings of 15km, 5km and 1km respectively. ECMWF operational analyses at 6-hourly intervals (0.25ox0.25o lat.-long.) are imported as initial and boundary conditions of the coarse domain, while in the vertical, 39 sigma levels (up to 50 hPa) are used, with increased resolution in the boundary layer. Microphysical processes are represented by WSM6 scheme, sub-grid scale convection by Kain-Fritsch scheme, longwave and shortwave radiation by RRTMG scheme, surface layer by Monin-Obukhov (MM5), boundary layer by Yonsei University and soil physics by NOAH Unified model. Six representative days with different upper-air synoptic circulation types are selected, while high resolution (3'') elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM - version 4) are inserted in the innermost domain (d03), along with the Corine Land Cover 2000 raster data (3''x3''). The aforementioned data sets are used in different configurations, in order to evaluate the impact of each one on the simulated convective activity in the vicinity of Thessaly region, using a grid of available meteorological stations in the area. For each selected day, four (4) sensitivity simulations are performed, setting a total number of 24 runs. Finally, the best configuration provides

  13. The disease burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Kourlaba, Georgia; Hillas, Georgios; Vassilakopoulos, Theodoros; Maniadakis, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of the study was to estimate the self-reported prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Greece and to quantify its burden on patients’ daily activities, productivity, and psychological status. Methods A population-based, random digit-dialed telephone nationwide survey was conducted between July 10, 2015 and July 31, 2015 in order to recruit patients with COPD in Greece. Among the 11,471 persons contacted, 3,414 met the inclusion criterion of age ≥40 years and completed the screening questions regarding COPD. Of the 362 subjects who reported that they had been diagnosed with COPD, 351 completed the survey. Data on demographic and lifestyle characteristics, comorbidities, disease history, perceived disease severity, breathlessness severity, symptoms severity, limitations in daily activities, psychological distress, and productivity were collected. All data were collected through the telephone interview method using a structured questionnaire. Results The overall self-reported COPD prevalence was 10.6%. Among 351 participants, only 9% reported that they suffered from severe breathlessness. The mean COPD assessment test score was 19.0, with 84% of participants having a COPD assessment test score ≥10. As for the perceived severity of COPD, the majority of subjects considered that their respiratory condition was of moderate (34.2%) or mild severity (33.9%). Overall, the participants reported a significant impact of COPD on their daily life. For instance, 61.5% of them reported that their respiratory condition has affected their sports activities. Moreover, 73% of subjects considered that the health care system could do more for them than it actually does. Almost one-fourth of the participants reported that they had missed work during the past 12 months due to their respiratory symptoms, with the mean number of days lost being 10. Conclusion This survey provides insightful data regarding the impact of COPD on Greek

  14. Seeding Experiment of Liquid Carbon Dioxide for Enhancing Winter-time Precipitation in Saga Prefecture,Northern Kyushu,Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakimizu, K.; Nishiyama, K.; Tomine, K.; Maki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Morita, O.

    2012-12-01

    Many droughts (shortage of water) have broken out by extreme small amount rainfall in recent Japan. So far,in order to prevent these droughts,artificial rainfall methods with 'AgI' or 'dry ice' have been widely used in Japan. However,these methods have many problems,which a large amount of overcooling liquid in the cumulus cloud was not able to be converted into precipitation efficiently. So as to solve these problems,new artificial rainfall method using liquid carbon dioxide (LC) was proposed by Fukuta (1996). This new method consists of the generation of ice particles by homogeneous nucleation using LC and the subsequent more effective growth for ice particles without competition process. And, this method is called 'Low-Level Penetration Seeding of Homogeneous Ice Nucleant (LOLEPSHIN)' ; this induces a 'Roll-up Expansion of Twin Horizontal Ice-crystal Thermals (RETHIT)' and a subsequent 'Falling growth-Induced Lateral Air Spreading (FILAS)'. This LC method was applied to thin super-cooled cumulus clouds in Saga prefecture, Northern Kyushu, Japan on February 4,2006. The seeding airplane took off the Atugi Airport in Kanagawa Prefecture toward the Iki Island around 0830JST. Many cloud bands were cofirmed in the flight going to the experimental area and the cloud base temperature was approximately -9C (1200m). Scince some young developing thin cumuli were found over the Iki Island, LC seeding to these clouds was carried out two times from 0841JST until 0919JST penetrating the -9C (1200m) altitude. The first precipitation seeding ebded in failure. The second penetration seeding was done for 115 seconds around 0917JST. This penetration led to success of developing one artificial echo (Echo I) in the leeward side of the Iki Island. Eco I moved from NNW to SSW. The maximum area of Echo I were 48km2 (at 1033JST) and first comfirmed by the Kyushu University radar (KU radar) at 1006JST (46 min. after LC seeding) around Mt.Sefuri in Saga Prefecture. It can be inferred that

  15. The rise and fall of rabies in Japan: A quantitative history of rabies epidemics in Osaka Prefecture, 1914-1933.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Aiko; Tojinbara, Kageaki; Kadowaki, Hazumu; Hampson, Katie; Yamada, Akio; Makita, Kohei

    2017-03-01

    Japan has been free from rabies since the 1950s. However, during the early 1900s several large-scale epidemics spread throughout the country. Here we investigate the dynamics of these epidemics between 1914 and 1933 in Osaka Prefecture, using archival data including newspapers. The association between dog rabies cases and human population density was investigated using Mixed-effects models and epidemiological parameters such as the basic reproduction number (R0), the incubation and infectious period and the serial interval were estimated. A total of 4,632 animal rabies cases were reported, mainly in dogs (99.0%, 4,584 cases) during two epidemics from 1914 to 1921, and 1922 to 1933 respectively. The second epidemic was larger (3,705 cases) than the first (879 cases), but had a lower R0 (1.50 versus 2.42). The first epidemic was controlled through capture of stray dogs and tethering of pet dogs. Dog mass vaccination began in 1923, with campaigns to capture stray dogs. Rabies in Osaka Prefecture was finally eliminated in 1933. A total of 3,805 rabid dog-bite injuries, and 75 human deaths were reported. The relatively low incidence of human rabies, high ratio of post-exposure vaccines (PEP) and bite injuries by rabid dogs (minimum 6.2 to maximum 73.6, between 1924 and 1928), and a decline in the proportion of bite victims that developed hydrophobia over time (slope = -0.29, se = 3, p < 0.001), indicated that increased awareness and use of PEP might have prevented disease. Although significantly more dog rabies cases were detected at higher human population densities (slope = 0.66, se = 0.03, p < 0.01), there were fewer dog rabies cases detected per capita (slope = -0.34, se = 0.03, p < 0.01). We suggest that the combination of mass vaccination and restriction of dog movement enabled by strong legislation was key to eliminate rabies. Moreover, the prominent role of the media in both reporting rabies cases and efforts to control the disease likely contributed to

  16. Mothers' knowledge and practices related to sun protection in Greece.

    PubMed

    Kakourou, T; Bakoula, C; Kavadias, G; Gatos, A; Bilalis, L; Krikos, X; Matsaniotis, N

    1995-09-01

    We attempted to estimate the level of Greek mothers' knowledge relating to the harmful effects of sunlight and whether this knowledge led to protective measures for them and their children. Between September and November 1993, 315 mothers were randomly selected from the outpatient department of our hospital and interviewed by questionnaire about themselves and their children (56% boys, 44% girls, ages 1-12 yrs). Knowledge was estimated by an index score that for 28% of the mothers was considered poor, for 50% moderate, for 16% good, and for only 6% very good or excellent. The score was positively associated with parent education, urban residence, mother's job relevant to the cosmetics industry or the mass media, and history of sunburn in one or both parents. Scores were also established for sunlight-protective measures taken for themselves (28% poor, 45% moderate, 27% just good) and for their children (24% poor, 46% moderate, 30% just good). These scores were significantly associated only with mothers' knowledge of sun protection. Mothers who used sun protection for themselves also applied it to their children. This study shows that mothers in Greece should be encouraged both to increase their knowledge of sun protection and steadily incorporate it into their lifestyle.

  17. Forecasting magma-chamber rupture at Santorini volcano, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Browning, John; Drymoni, Kyriaki; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2015-01-01

    How much magma needs to be added to a shallow magma chamber to cause rupture, dyke injection, and a potential eruption? Models that yield reliable answers to this question are needed in order to facilitate eruption forecasting. Development of a long-lived shallow magma chamber requires periodic influx of magmas from a parental body at depth. This redistribution process does not necessarily cause an eruption but produces a net volume change that can be measured geodetically by inversion techniques. Using continuum-mechanics and fracture-mechanics principles, we calculate the amount of magma contained at shallow depth beneath Santorini volcano, Greece. We demonstrate through structural analysis of dykes exposed within the Santorini caldera, previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions, and geodetic measurements of the 2011–2012 unrest period, that the measured 0.02% increase in volume of Santorini’s shallow magma chamber was associated with magmatic excess pressure increase of around 1.1 MPa. This excess pressure was high enough to bring the chamber roof close to rupture and dyke injection. For volcanoes with known typical extrusion and intrusion (dyke) volumes, the new methodology presented here makes it possible to forecast the conditions for magma-chamber failure and dyke injection at any geodetically well-monitored volcano. PMID:26507183

  18. PM10 regional transport pathways in Thessaloniki, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katragkou, E.; Kazadzis, S.; Amiridis, V.; Papaioannou, V.; Karathanasis, S.; Melas, D.

    In this study, the most dominant regional transport pathways for the city of Thessaloniki, Greece were identified and linked to air quality issues with respect to particulate matter (PM). Using air mass trajectories, cluster analysis techniques and PM10 measurements of a background-urban station of the greater Thessaloniki area during 2001-2004, it was found that north-eastern and southern flows were the most frequent in appearance with high potential to influence the city of Thessaloniki, especially when coinciding with biomass burning or Saharan dust events correspondingly. These incidents appeared to occur mostly during summer adding to a PM10 monthly mean up to 10 μg m -3. High concentrations of surface PM10 related to north-eastern flows were in most cases accompanied with high aerosol columnar optical depths implying that particulate matter transport from the North-East was multi-layered. South-southwesterly flows originating from N. Africa, though less frequent, seemed to affect decisively Thessaloniki's aerosol budget especially during transition seasons. These flows were related with an increase of the monthly PM10 average up to 20-30 μg m -3 for the time period studied. Finally, northerly flows were found to transport rather clean air masses that did not seem to contribute to the air quality deterioration of the city.

  19. On the origin of SO2 above northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerefos, C.; Ganev, K.; Kourtidis, K.; Tzortziou, M.; Vasaras, A.; Syrakov, E.

    2000-02-01

    This paper describes the sources contributing to two seasonal peaks in columnar SO2 amounts measured with a Brewer spectrophotometer at Thessaloniki, Northern Greece since 1982. The SO2 Brewer measurements combined with those at ground level, meteorological analysis and numerical simulations provide estimates on the contribution of local and remote sources to the SO2 column. It is shown that more than 50% of the observed SO2 column can be attributed to lignite-burning sources in Bulgaria, Romania and former Yugoslavia, this percentage rising to 70% at periods with NE flow at 850 hPa. Winds from the NW-N-NE contribute around 60% to the observed mean SO2 column during winter and 75% during the summer. When including all wind directions at 850 hPa, the Greek sources, including the lignite-burning power plant complexes to the WSW of the city, contribute around 40% to the SO2 column. These results are in qualitative agreement with independent observations from inversion of GOME measurements.

  20. Breathing modes of Kolumbo submarine volcano (Santorini, Greece).

    PubMed

    Bakalis, Evangelos; Mertzimekis, Theo J; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Zerbetto, Francesco

    2017-04-13

    Submarine volcanoes, such as Kolumbo (Santorini, Greece) are natural laboratories for fostering multidisciplinary studies. Their investigation requires the most innovative marine technology together with advanced data analysis. Conductivity and temperature of seawater were recorded directly above Kolumbo's hydrothermal vent system. The respective time series have been analyzed in terms of non-equilibrium techniques. The energy dissipation of the volcanic activity is monitored by the temperature variations of seawater. The venting dynamics of chemical products is monitored by water conductivity. The analysis of the time series in terms of stochastic processes delivers scaling exponents with turning points between consecutive regimes for both conductivity and temperature. Changes of conductivity are shown to behave as a universal multifractal and their variance is subdiffusive as the scaling exponents indicate. Temperature is constant over volcanic rest periods and a universal multifractal behavior describes its changes in line with a subdiffusive character otherwise. The universal multifractal description illustrates the presence of non-conservative conductivity and temperature fields showing that the system never retains a real equilibrium state. The existence of a repeated pattern of the combined effect of both seawater and volcanic activity is predicted. The findings can shed light on the dynamics of chemical products emitted from the vents and point to the presence of underlying mechanisms that govern potentially hazardous, underwater volcanic environments.

  1. Instability indices and unstable atmospheric conditions over Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamperakis, Nikolaos; Matsangouras, Ioannis; Nastos, Panagiotis; Pytharoulis, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    Significant research has been carried out investigating the use of diagnostic variable sets or instability indices, as forecasting tools or parameters to identify favorable atmospheric conditions of severe convective weather. Indeed, the value of such variables is strongly associated with their capacity to summarize in a single number some characteristics of the severe storm environment, thus, operational forecasters use them to address the overall threat of severe weather associated with convective storms. In this paper a spatial and temporal analysis of specific instability indices over Greece during 2008-2014 period is presented. The energy helicity index (EHI), the bulk Richardson number (BRN) shear, the storm-relative environmental helicity (SRH), and the convective available potential energy (CAPE) were considered as principal diagnostic instability variables and employed in spatial and temporal analysis. The EHI, BRN, SRH and CAPE indices were calculated from ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset of European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. The lighting activity, recorded by the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS) Precision Lighting Network (PLN), is employed to highlight favorable atmospheric conditions of severe convective weather.

  2. Parental attitudes towards head lice infestation in Greece.

    PubMed

    Doulgeraki, Artemis; Valari, Manthoula

    2011-06-01

    Pediculosis capitis constitutes a growing problem worldwide and is usually considered as an inconvenience. Parents often handle this infestation on their own initiative. We conducted a survey in order to depict the parental attitudes towards head lice infestation in Greece. Parents of children aged 3-14 years, attending a dermatology outpatient clinic at a children's hospital, were given a questionnaire regarding head lice. Demographic data, management, and prevention strategies were included in the questionnaire. Three-hundred and seventy-two complete questionnaires were analyzed (response rate: 89%). Pediculosis capitis was more prevalent in the age groups 3-5 years and 6-8 years. The percentage of parents of infested children who sought advice on treatment from the pharmacist was 73%, and only 15% consulted their doctor. Chemical agents to treat head lice were used by 59% of them, products containing natural oils by 38%, and wet combing in parallel was employed by 79% of them. Preventive measures were employed by 66% of the respondents, and 54% applied botanical and synthetic products commercially available for this purpose. There is a trend towards the use of natural oils for either prevention or treatment. More needs to be done to promote public education and rational use of either pediculicides or non-pharmacological agents for pediculosis capitis infestation. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  3. Factors affecting breastfeeding duration in Greece: What is important?

    PubMed Central

    Tavoulari, Evangelia-Filothei; Benetou, Vassiliki; Vlastarakos, Petros V; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Chrousos, George; Kreatsas, George; Gryparis, Alexandros; Linos, Athena

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate factors associated with breastfeeding duration (BD) in a sample of mothers living in Greece. METHODS Four hundred and twenty-eight mothers (438 infants) were initially recruited in a tertiary University Hospital. Monthly telephone interviews (1665 in total) using a structured questionnaire (one for each infant) were conducted until the sixth postpartum month. Cox regression analysis was used to assess factors influencing any BD. RESULTS Any breastfeeding rates in the first, third, and sixth month of the infant’s life reached 87.5%, 57.0% and 38.75%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, maternal smoking in the lactation period [hazard-ratio (HR) = 4.20] and psychological status (HR = 1.72), and the introduction of a pacifier (HR = 2.08), were inversely associated, while higher maternal education (HRuniversity/college vs primary/high school = 0.53, HRmaster’s vs primary/high school = 0.20), and being an immigrant (HR = 0.35) were positively associated with BD. CONCLUSION Public health interventions should focus on campaigns against smoking during lactation, target women of lower educational status, and endorse the delayed introduction of pacifiers. PMID:27610353

  4. Environmental Impact of Eu Policies On Acheloos River Basin, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoulikidis, N.; Nikolaidis, N. P.; Oikonomopoulou, A.; Batzias, F.

    The environmental impact of EU policies aiming at protecting surface and ground wa- ters are being assessed in the Acheloos River Basin, Greece as part of a Joint Research Centre (JRC) / DG Environment (DG Env) funded project. The basin offers the possi- bility of studying the impact of EU policies on a multitude of aquatic ecosystems: four artificial and four natural lakes and a large estuary with important hydrotops (lagoons, coastal salt lacustrine and freshwater marshes, etc.) that belong to the NATURA 2000 sites or are protected by the RAMSAR Convention. A database has been developed that includes all available information on sources, fluxes, and concentration levels of nutrients and selected heavy metals from prior and current research programs at the Acheloos River Basin and coastal environment. This information has been used to identify the environmental pressures and develop nutrient budgets for each sub-basin of the watershed to assess the relative contributions of nutrients from various land uses. The mathematical model HSPF is being used to model the hydrology and nitro- gen fate and transport in the watershed. Management scenarios will be developed and modelling exercises will be carried out to assess the impacts of the scenarios. Eco- nomic analysis of the nutrient management scenarios will be conducted to evaluate the costs associated with management practices for reaching acceptable water quality status.

  5. [Art-chance and art-experience in classical Greece].

    PubMed

    Ban, Deokjin

    2011-06-30

    In Classical Greece, works defining the nature of art appeared in the various disciplines like medicine, rhetoric, dietetics, architecture and painting. Hippocratic authors tried to show that an art of medicine existed indeed. They contrasted the concept of art with that of chance, not experience that Plato and Aristotle distinguished from art. In fact there are similarities and discrepancies between Hippocratic epistemology and Platoic epistemology. Hippocratic authors maintained that the products of chance were not captured by art. They distinguished the domain of art charactered by explanatory knowledge and prediction from the domain of chance ruled by the unexplained and the unforeseeable. They minimized the role of luck and believed the role of art. Hippocratic authors thought that professional ability contained both knowledge and experience. In Hippocratic corpus, experience is a synonym of competence and usually has a positive meaning. But Plato gave empirical knowledge the disdainful sense and decided a ranking between two types of knowledge. Both Hippocratic authors and Plato held that a genuine art had connection with explanatory knowledge of the nature of its subject matter. A common theme that goes through arguments about art-chance and art-chance is the connection between art and nature. Hippocratic authors and Plato regarded art as a highly systematic process. Art provides us with general and explanatory knowledge of human nature. Art and nature is a mutual relationship. The systematic understanding of nature helps us gain the exactness of art and an exact art helps us understand nature well.

  6. Haoma-Soma in the world of ancient Greece.

    PubMed

    Wohlberg, J

    1990-01-01

    Evidence of the worship of (nonalcoholic) Haoma-Soma in Iran and India (identified by Wasson as Amanita muscaria) can be found in Greece and its neighboring lands. While Iranian and India peoples preserved their original worship in their final settlements, Indo-European tribes, including the Thracians, the Phrygians, and the Greeks, after settling in Europe and Asia Minor, abandoned their ancestral worship of Soma (Sabazios) and substituted the Semitic (alcoholic) Dionysos. However, they retained traces of the original Soma worship in Dionysiac rituals. This modified Dionysiac worship spread throughout the Western world. Six formal criteria are used to establish the identify of Soma with Dionysos (Sabazios): (1) both cults had the same aim (to cause ecstatic behavior); (2) both cults required the attainment of the same spiritual state (purity); (3) both cults had an idiosyncratic myth in common; (4) both cults showed the identical word root in the name of the worshipped god; (5) both cults had identical zoological and botanical associations with their god; and (6) the alcoholic god (Dionysos) was depicted as having the same physical effects on human beings as that of the ancient nonalcoholic god (Soma).

  7. Cesium-137 monitoring using lichens from W. Macedonia, N. Greece.

    PubMed

    Sawidis, Thomas; Tsigaridas, Konstantinos; Tsikritzis, Lazaros

    2010-10-01

    (137)Cs content in lichens and substrate (soil, bark) collected from W. Macedonia, Greece was measured 20 years after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Archive material from previous collections was also used for comparison and a diachronic estimation of the radio-contamination status. A gradual decrease was detected which depended on various factors such as the collected species, location, growth rate and substrate. Maximum accumulation capacity of (137)Cs was observed in epilithic lichens in comparison to epigeic or epiphytic ones. Furthermore, foliose or crustose lichens such as Parmelia sulcata, Xanthoria parietina, Xanthoria calcicola, Xanthoparmelia somloensis were more contaminated than filamentose at the same biotope. Among filamentose or fruticose species those with large surface area to biomass ratio e.g. Usnea sp. showed also greater accumulation capacity. Autoradiography revealed an amount of (137)Cs distributed more or less uniformly in lichen thalli. The high (137)Cs activities found in lichens 20 years after Chernobyl suggest that these primitive plants are effective, suitable and inexpensive biological detectors of the distribution and burden of fallout radionuclide fallout pattern.

  8. The Greek mirror: the Uranians and their use of Greece.

    PubMed

    Mader, D H

    2005-01-01

    The Uranians comprised a loosely knit group of British and American homosexual poets writing between approximately 1880 and 1930, sharing a number of basic cultural and literary assumptions derived on one hand from Walter Pater, and on the other from Walt Whitman. Although they used Oriental, Christian and other motifs, one of the major elements many shared was a use of various allusions and themes from ancient Greece, including paganism, male companionship or intimate friendship (which was not defined in terms of sameness), and democracy and a natural aristocracy of virtue, which they applied to the concerns of their own society and era. The model of male relationships which they advocated (and in at least some cases practiced) was almost uniformly asymmetrical, either by age or class, or both. In addition to their poetry, various theoretical writings by members of the group are also involved in the discussion, and this article argues that these historical/ literary allusions and themes should not be understood as means of evasion which allowed them to write of tabooed subjects safely, but as part of a consciously adopted artistic/cultural strategy for homosexual emancipation. It also suggests that their arguments should be reexamined as a corrective to the present egalitarian model of homosexuality.

  9. Forecasting magma-chamber rupture at Santorini volcano, Greece.

    PubMed

    Browning, John; Drymoni, Kyriaki; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2015-10-28

    How much magma needs to be added to a shallow magma chamber to cause rupture, dyke injection, and a potential eruption? Models that yield reliable answers to this question are needed in order to facilitate eruption forecasting. Development of a long-lived shallow magma chamber requires periodic influx of magmas from a parental body at depth. This redistribution process does not necessarily cause an eruption but produces a net volume change that can be measured geodetically by inversion techniques. Using continuum-mechanics and fracture-mechanics principles, we calculate the amount of magma contained at shallow depth beneath Santorini volcano, Greece. We demonstrate through structural analysis of dykes exposed within the Santorini caldera, previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions, and geodetic measurements of the 2011-2012 unrest period, that the measured 0.02% increase in volume of Santorini's shallow magma chamber was associated with magmatic excess pressure increase of around 1.1 MPa. This excess pressure was high enough to bring the chamber roof close to rupture and dyke injection. For volcanoes with known typical extrusion and intrusion (dyke) volumes, the new methodology presented here makes it possible to forecast the conditions for magma-chamber failure and dyke injection at any geodetically well-monitored volcano.

  10. Resistant Shigella strains in refugees, August-October 2015, Greece.

    PubMed

    Georgakopoulou, T; Mandilara, G; Mellou, K; Tryfinopoulou, K; Chrisostomou, A; Lillakou, H; Hadjichristodoulou, C; Vatopoulos, A

    2016-08-01

    Shigellosis is endemic in most developing countries and thus a known risk in refugees and internally displaced persons. In 2015, a massive influx of refugees into Greece, due to the political crisis in the Middle East, led to the development of appropriate conditions for outbreaks of communicable diseases as shigellosis. We present a cluster of 16 shigellosis cases in refugees, detected by the implementation of a syndromic notification system in one transit centre in Athens, between 20 August and 7 October 2015. Both Shigella flexneri (n = 8) and S. sonnei (n = 8) were identified, distributed in various serotypes. All tested isolates (n = 13) were multidrug resistant; seven were CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase producers. Our results indicate lack of a potential common source, although pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing results revealed small clusters in isolates of the same serotype indicating possible limited person-to-person transmission without identifying secondary community cases related to the refugees. To prevent the spread of shigellosis, empirical antibiotic treatment as well as environmental hygiene measures were implemented. The detection of multi-drug resistance is important for determining the appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment for the more severe cases, while at the same time real-time typing is useful for epidemiological investigation and control measures.

  11. Facing and managing natural disasters in the Sporades Islands, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karanikola, P.; Panagopoulos, T.; Tampakis, S.; Karantoni, M. I.; Tsantopoulos, G.

    2013-11-01

    The region of the Sporades Islands located in central Greece is at the mercy of many natural phenomena, such as earthquakes, due to the marine volcano "Psathoura", and the rift of Anatolia, forest fires, floods, landslides, storms, hail, snowfall and frost. The present work aims at studying the perceptions and attitudes of the residents regarding how they face and manage natural disasters. A positive public response during a hazard crisis depends not only upon the availability and good management of a civil defence plan but also on the knowledge and perception of the possible hazards by the local population. It is important for the stakeholders to know what the citizens expect from each of the separate stakeholders so that the necessary structures can be developed in the phase of preparation and organization. The residents were asked about their opinion about what they think should be done by the stakeholders after a catastrophic natural disaster, particularly the immediate response of stakeholders and their involvement and responsibilities at different, subsequent intervals of time following the disaster. The residents were also asked about the most common disasters that happen in their region and about the preparation activities of the stakeholders.

  12. Facing and managing natural disasters in the Sporades islands, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karanikola, P.; Panagopoulos, T.; Tampakis, S.; Karantoni, M. I.; Tsantopoulos, G.

    2014-04-01

    The region of the Sporades islands located in central Greece is at the mercy of many natural phenomena, such as earthquakes due to the marine volcano Psathoura and the rift of Anatolia, forest fires, floods, landslides, storms, hail, snowfall and frost. The present work aims at studying the perceptions and attitudes of the residents regarding how they face and manage natural disasters. A positive public response during a hazard crisis depends not only upon the availability and good management of a civil defense plan but also on the knowledge and perception of the possible hazards by the local population. It is important for the stakeholders to know what the citizens expect so that the necessary structures can be developed in the phase of preparation and organization. The residents were asked their opinion about what they think should be done by the stakeholders after a catastrophic natural disaster, particularly about the immediate response of stakeholders and their involvement and responsibilities at different, subsequent intervals of time following the disaster. The residents were also asked about the most common disasters that happen in their region and about the preparation activities of the stakeholders.

  13. Temporal and spatial variability of rainfall over Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markonis, Y.; Batelis, S. C.; Dimakos, Y.; Moschou, E.; Koutsoyiannis, D.

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies have showed that there is a significant decrease in rainfall over Greece during the last half of the pervious century, following an overall decrease of the precipitation at the eastern Mediterranean. However, during the last decade an increase in rainfall was observed in most regions of the country, contrary to the general circulation climate models forecasts. An updated high-resolution dataset of monthly sums and annual daily maxima records derived from 136 stations during the period 1940-2012 allowed us to present some new evidence for the observed change and its statistical significance. The statistical framework used to determine the significance of the slopes in annual rain was not limited to the time independency assumption (Mann-Kendall test), but we also investigated the effect of short- and long-term persistence through Monte Carlo simulation. Our findings show that (a) change occurs in different scales; most regions show a decline since 1950, an increase since 1980 and remain stable during the last 15 years; (b) the significance of the observed decline is highly dependent to the statistical assumptions used; there are indications that the Mann-Kendall test may be the least suitable method; and (c) change in time is strongly linked with the change in space; for scales below 40 years, relatively close regions may develop even opposite trends, while in larger scales change is more uniform.

  14. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake estimate in Greece.

    PubMed

    Bratakos, Sotirios M; Lazou, Andriana E; Bratakos, Michael S; Lazos, Evangelos S

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium content of foods, as well as dietary aluminium intake of the Greek adult population, was determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy after microwave sample digestion and food consumption data. Al content ranged from 0.02 to 741.2 mg kg⁻¹, with spices, high-spice foods, cereal products, vegetables and pulses found to be high in Al. Differences in aluminium content were found between different food classes from Greece and those from some other countries. Aluminium intake of Greeks is 3.7 mg/day based on DAFNE Food Availability Databank, which uses data from the Household Budget Surveys. On the other hand, according to the per capita food consumption data collected by both national and international organisations, Al intake is 6.4 mg day⁻¹. Greek adult population has an Al intake lower than the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake of 7 mg kg⁻¹ body weight established by EFSA. Cereals and vegetables are the main Al contributors, providing 72.4% of daily intake.

  15. Physical abuse in the era of financial crisis in Greece.

    PubMed

    Kontos, Michael; Moris, Demetrios; Davakis, Spyridon; Schizas, Dimitrios; Pikoulis, Emmanouil; Liakakos, Theodoros

    2017-04-01

    Greece is suffering an economic recession of enormous magnitude, but whether its health has deteriorated as a result, has not yet been well established. We aim to present and analyze differences in demographics and clinical distribution of patients victims of physical abuse examined at the surgical emergency room in an Academic institution in the era of financial crisis. A retrospective database analysis of all patients that were examined to surgical emergency room (ER), between January 1st 2008 and December 31st 2014, was conducted. We only analyzed and evaluated data for the years 2008 to 2014. The number of patients being examined in the ER in 2011 was higher compared with that of 2014 and to 2008 respectively (P<0.05). There was an increase of the total cases of physical abuse (P<0.05). The majority of cases examined for physical abuse were men, with a constant tendency of increasing number of women abused throughout the years of crisis. Financial crisis seems to have a multivariable effect on epidemiology and clinical diversity of the patients, victims of physical abuse, being examined in the ER.

  16. Haemoglobinopathies in Greece: prevention programme over the past 35 years.

    PubMed

    Loukopoulos, Dimitris

    2011-10-01

    At present, prevention of thalassaemia and sickle cell disease is the only realistic approach to control the birth of new patients in countries having high numbers of carriers. This is fully justified because avoiding the birth of an ever increasing number of patients may allow a more effective use of the available resources in improving the management of the patients surviving today and alleviate the already overloaded public health system from the inevitable tremendous and ever increasing cost. Moreover, prenatal diagnosis may help couples at risk to have non-thalassaemic children. Greece is one of the countries where the mean frequency of carriers is approximately 7.5 per cent (population 11 million) and has set up a nationwide programme for carrier identification in the early seventies; this is provided through a dozen of specific Units attached to the major Blood Transfusion Services of the country, on a voluntary basis and free of charge. Spread of information through mass media, the schools, and other groups has greatly contributed in creating the necessary sensitization; obstetricians and antenatal Clinics are also instrumental to this effect. Prenatal diagnosis is offered centrally (Athens) and covers satisfactorily the estimated needs (500-600 annually); the total number has already exceeded 35,000. According to information obtained from the major paediatric hospitals all over the country, the number of thalassaemia major or SCD admitted for treatment over the last ten years has been around 15 yearly (instead of an estimate of 120-130).

  17. Molecular identification of Echinococcus granulosus isolates from ruminants in Greece.

    PubMed

    Roinioti, Erifylli; Papathanassopoulou, Aegli; Theodoropoulou, Ioanna; Simsek, Sami; Theodoropoulos, Georgios

    2016-08-15

    Cystic echinococcosis is a parasitic disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus, a cestode with worldwide distribution. Data on the circulating Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Greek livestock is scant. The aim of the present study was to conduct a genetic analysis of 82 Echinococcus granulosus isolates from ruminants in Greece, including areas which until today have not been the subject of studies. The analysis relied on a PCR assay targeting cytochrome c oxidase, subunit 1 gene (CO1), followed by bidirectional sequence analysis of the amplification product. Eighty (n=80) of the 82 (97.6%) isolates were allocated to Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3) and were classified in 13 distinct haplotypes (9 common and 4 novel) with 12 polymorphic sites. The presence of the dominant haplotype EG1 as was documented in the European populations, was indicated in the country. Almost all regions shared the same common haplotype. In comparison to this predominant haplotype, the number of the nucleotide changes in all the other haplotypes ranged from 1 to 5. All nucleotide changes proved to be transitions (A↔G or C↔T). Two fertile hydatid cysts of sheep origin in different areas (Arkadia, Ilia) of the Peloponnese were identified as Echinococcus canadensis (G7 genotype). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cesium-137 monitoring using mosses from W. Macedonia, N. Greece.

    PubMed

    Sawidis, Thomas; Tsikritzis, Lazaros; Tsigaridas, Konstantinos

    2009-06-01

    (137)Cs activities in mosses and substrate (soil, bark) collected from W. Macedonia, Greece were measured 20 years after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Archive material from previous studies was also used for comparison and diachronic estimation of the radio-contamination status. A gradual decrease was detected which depended on various factors such as the collected species, location, growth rate and substrate. Maximum accumulation capacity of (137)Cs was observed in the epilithic mosses in comparison to the epiphytic ones. The (137)Cs content in the bark of the two broad-leaved species (oak and fagus) was higher than that of the conifer (pinus). Bark specimens of about 50 cm height were in general more contaminated than those of 200 cm. Autoradiography revealed an amount of (137)Cs distributed more or less uniformly in moss thalli. The high (137)Cs activities found in mosses 20 years after Chernobyl suggest that these primitive plants are effective, suitable and inexpensive biological detectors of the distribution and burden of radionuclide fallout pattern.

  19. Breathing modes of Kolumbo submarine volcano (Santorini, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakalis, Evangelos; Mertzimekis, Theo J.; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Zerbetto, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    Submarine volcanoes, such as Kolumbo (Santorini, Greece) are natural laboratories for fostering multidisciplinary studies. Their investigation requires the most innovative marine technology together with advanced data analysis. Conductivity and temperature of seawater were recorded directly above Kolumbo’s hydrothermal vent system. The respective time series have been analyzed in terms of non-equilibrium techniques. The energy dissipation of the volcanic activity is monitored by the temperature variations of seawater. The venting dynamics of chemical products is monitored by water conductivity. The analysis of the time series in terms of stochastic processes delivers scaling exponents with turning points between consecutive regimes for both conductivity and temperature. Changes of conductivity are shown to behave as a universal multifractal and their variance is subdiffusive as the scaling exponents indicate. Temperature is constant over volcanic rest periods and a universal multifractal behavior describes its changes in line with a subdiffusive character otherwise. The universal multifractal description illustrates the presence of non-conservative conductivity and temperature fields showing that the system never retains a real equilibrium state. The existence of a repeated pattern of the combined effect of both seawater and volcanic activity is predicted. The findings can shed light on the dynamics of chemical products emitted from the vents and point to the presence of underlying mechanisms that govern potentially hazardous, underwater volcanic environments.

  20. [Fertility and female employment in Greece: a microeconomic model].

    PubMed

    Symeonidou, H; Magdalinos, M

    1993-01-01

    The National Social Research Center of Greece applied November 1984-February 1985 data on 3193 women to a micro-economic model which achieves more efficacious estimation and test procedures and separates useful information from political decisions. The researchers compared the behavior of women from three areas: Athens, other urban regions, and rural areas. Specifically, they wanted to examine the relationship between fertility and women's employment in greater Athens. The model assumes that each woman maximizes her utility which is a function of three factors: family size, free time (leisure), and consumer goods. The test to detect specification errors indicated structural differences between urban and rural areas and heteroscedasticity in the supply equation for work and the demand equation for children. The final model with five structural and four variance equations confirmed that employment affects fertility directly and through women's sex-role attitudes. The mean number of live births, desired family size, and ideal family size were lower in Athens, greater in rural areas, and at an intermediary level in other urban regions. Fertility in Athens and women's employment were not significantly different than that in other urban area. The differences in women's employment were much greater between towns and rural areas, probably because many women in rural areas work without a salary in the family's business. The final model did not find fertility to have an overall significant direct effect on employment but did find it had a significant indirect effect in rural areas due to attitudes toward sexual roles.