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Sample records for lasker foundation clinical

  1. Lasker Award to heart valve pioneers.

    PubMed

    Lifton, Richard P

    2007-09-21

    This year, the Lasker Foundation recognizes Albert Starr and Alain Carpentier for their development of effective treatments for valvular heart disease. Their innovative work is a model of interdisciplinary basic and clinical research and has benefited millions of people.

  2. CCR’s Douglas Lowy and John Schiller receive the 2017 Lasker~DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Douglas Lowy, M.D., and John Schiller, Ph.D., of CCR’s Laboratory of Cellular Oncology have received the 2017 Lasker~DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award for their groundbreaking research leading to the development of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines. The Lasker Awards are widely regarded as the country’s most prestigious biomedical research prizes.

  3. Measuring revolutionary biomedical science 1992-2006 using Nobel prizes, Lasker (clinical medicine) awards and Gairdner awards (NLG metric).

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-01-01

    The Nobel prize for medicine or physiology, the Lasker award for clinical medicine, and the Gairdner international award are given to individuals for their role in developing theories, technologies and discoveries which have changed the direction of biomedical science. These distinctions have been used to develop an NLG metric to measure research performance and trends in 'revolutionary' biomedical science with the aim of identifying the premier revolutionary science research institutions and nations from 1992-2006. I have previously argued that the number of Nobel laureates in the biomedical field should be expanded to about nine per year and the NLG metric attempts to predict the possible results of such an expansion. One hundred and nineteen NLG prizes and awards were made during the past fifteen years (about eight per year) when overlapping awards had been removed. Eighty-five were won by the USA, revealing a massive domination in revolutionary biomedical science by this nation; the UK was second with sixteen awards; Canada had five, Australia four and Germany three. The USA had twelve elite centres of revolutionary biomedical science, with University of Washington at Seattle and MIT in first position with six awards and prizes each; Rockefeller University and Caltech were jointly second placed with five. Surprisingly, Harvard University--which many people rank as the premier world research centre--failed to reach the threshold of three prizes and awards, and was not included in the elite list. The University of Oxford, UK, was the only institution outside of the USA which featured as a significant centre of revolutionary biomedical science. Long-term success at the highest level of revolutionary biomedical science (and probably other sciences) probably requires a sufficiently large number of individually-successful large institutions in open competition with one another--as in the USA. If this model cannot be replicated within smaller nations, then it implies

  4. Clinical decision support foundations.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Malcolm; Liaw, Siaw Teng

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * The elements of a clinical decision; * The elements of decision making: prior probability, evidence (likelihood), posterior probability, actions, utility (value); * A framework for decision making, and support, encompassing validity, utility, importance and certainty; and * The required elements of a clinical decision support system. * The role of knowledge management in the construction and maintenance of clinical decision support.

  5. Foundations of clinical logagogy.

    PubMed

    Bühler, Karl-Ernst

    2003-01-01

    The meaning of the term "logagogy" is elucidated, and logagogic practices are outlined in the history of medicine. It is shown how the traditional medicine of India, Ayurveda, shows signs of logagogic practices (sattvavajaya), and that not only Ayurveda but also the famous Greek physician Galenus emphasize a philosophical approach to medicine. As Galenus's logagogic practices have their roots in the tradition of practical philosophy in Greek antiquity, the most important Greek schools of thought that are relevant to logagogic approaches are sketched. It is shown that the Stoics created a rationalistic system emphasizing the importance of the logos for human beings, and that Epicurus made advances in psychoeducation and cognitive reframing that are important for logagogic practices. These logagogic approaches of antiquity have been taken up by modern counseling in philosophical practices. The article closes with an outline of a clinical logagogy.

  6. 77 FR 35271 - Safety Zone; NOAA Vessel Rueben Lasker Launch, Marinette, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; NOAA Vessel Rueben Lasker Launch, Marinette... from a portion of Menominee River during the launching of the NOAA vessel, Rueben Lasker, on June 16... and Purpose The NOAA vessel, Rueben Lasker, will be launched from shore to water on June 16,...

  7. Educating for Social Justice: The Harry Lasker Library at Highlander.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveland, George

    1999-01-01

    Traces the history of the Harry Lasker Library at the Highlander Research and Education Center near Knoxville, Tennessee, from the first book donations in 1933 to its revitalization in the mid-1990s. Discusses the role of the library as a resource center supporting nonformal education for social activism and the contributions of librarians Hilda…

  8. Cardiac transplantation at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation.

    PubMed

    Hoercher, K; McCarthy, P; Young, J B

    1999-01-01

    The past 15 years has seen a significant evolution of heart transplant patient selection criteria, definition of suitable donors, immunosuppressive strategies, infection prophylaxis and treatment, and post-transplant patient surveillance. Primarily important has been broadening of the donor suitability definition and an evolution toward transplanting more ill and hemodynamically unstable patients. Despite "pushing the envelope" with both patient and donor selection and with transplanted patients generally being more ill, we believe our outcomes at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation are exemplary. The one- and 3-year survival rates for 265 heart transplants performed during 1996-1998 were 88% and 81%, respectively. Key to the success of our program has been close interdisciplinary working relationships and respect, broad and expert consultative support services, a desire to investigate clinical challenges, and dedication to excellence. Of additional importance is the realization that no matter how difficult we believe our difficulties are, we realize that those of our patients are vastly greater.

  9. Heart Pump Design for Cleveland Clinic Foundation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Through a Lewis CommTech Program project with the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, the NASA Lewis Research Center is playing a key role in the design and development of a permanently implantable, artificial heart pump assist device. Known as the Innovative Ventricular Assist System (IVAS), this device will take on the pumping role of the damaged left ventricle of the heart. The key part of the IVAS is a nonpulsatile (continuous flow) artificial heart pump with centrifugal impeller blades, driven by an electric motor. Lewis is part of an industry and academia team, led by the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI), that is working with the Cleveland Clinic Foundation to make IVAS a reality. This device has the potential to save tens of thousands of lives each year, since 80 percent of heart attack victims suffer irreversible damage to the left ventricle, the part of the heart that does most of the pumping. Impeller blade design codes and flow-modeling analytical codes will be used in the project. These codes were developed at Lewis for the aerospace industry but will be applicable to the IVAS design project. The analytical codes, which currently simulate the flow through the compressor and pump systems, will be used to simulate the flow within the blood pump in the artificial heart assist device. The Interdisciplinary Technology Office heads up Lewis' efforts in the IVAS project. With the aid of numerical modeling, the blood pump will address many design issues, including some fluid-dynamic design considerations that are unique to the properties of blood. Some of the issues that will be addressed in the design process include hemolysis, deposition, recirculation, pump efficiency, rotor thrust balance, and bearing lubrication. Optimum pumping system performance will be achieved by modeling all the interactions between the pump components. The interactions can be multidisciplinary and, therefore, are influenced not only by the fluid dynamics of adjacent components but also by

  10. Cultural humility: Essential foundation for clinical researchers

    PubMed Central

    Yeager, Katherine A.; Bauer-Wu, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Cultural humility is a process of self-reflection and discovery in order to build honest and trustworthy relationships. It offers promise for researchers to understand and eliminate health disparities, a continual and disturbing problem necessitating attention and action on many levels. This paper presents a discussion of the process of cultural humility and its important role in research to better understand the perspectives and context of the researcher and the research participant. We discern cultural humility from similar concepts, specifically cultural competence and reflexivity. We will also explore ways to cultivate cultural humility in the context of human subjects research. Mindfulness is one approach that can be helpful in enhancing awareness of self and others in this process. With a foundation in cultural humility, nurse researchers and other investigators can implement meaningful and ethical projects to better address health disparities. PMID:23938129

  11. 78 FR 35638 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the NOAA Research Vessel FSV-6 RUBEN LASKER, 9664988

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the NOAA Research Vessel FSV-6 RUBEN LASKER... Alternative Compliance was issued for the NOAA research vessel FSV-6 RUBEN LASKER as required by 33 U.S.C... 33 U.S.C. 1605(c) and 33 CFR 81.18, has been issued for the NOAA research vessel FSV-6 RUBEN...

  12. Conciliating cognition and consciousness: the perceptual foundations of clinical reasoning.

    PubMed

    Braude, Hillel D

    2012-10-01

    Clinical reasoning has been defined as a form of cognition applied to evaluating and managing a patient's medical problem. As a kind of cognition, a product of the human psyche, it is logical to expect that clinical reasoning should be best understood through methods derived from psychology, neuropsychology and the cognitive sciences. However, the application of scientific methods to evaluating clinical reasoning is unable to analyse clinical reasoning in terms of first-person experience and consciousness. By reducing clinical reasoning to its cognitive components the cognitivist approach tends to ignore the larger context in which clinical reasoning occurs. By reducing its conception of clinical reasoning to its cognitive components, the neuropsychological approach fails to acknowledge clinical reasoning as a form of intentionality, a gestalt, grounded in human perception. A full epistemology of clinical reasoning requires a phenomenological analysis that can make sense of the relation between pre-reflective consciousness and explicit forms of knowing. In this paper I conciliate cognition and consciousness in medicine through analysing the phenomenology of perception in clinical reasoning. I compare the application of phenomenology to clinical reasoning with the attempt to model clinical reasoning on Aristotelian practical wisdom or phronesis. Finally, I analyse empathy as a type of perception critical for effective clinical interaction and exemplary for reflecting on perception as the intersubjective foundation of clinical reasoning. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Cycloid psychoses -- from clinical concepts to biological foundations.

    PubMed

    Jabs, B E; Pfuhlmann, B; Bartsch, A J; Cetkovich-Bakmas, M G; Stöber, G

    2002-05-01

    The modern concept of cycloid psychoses is primarily based upon the clinical delineation of their phenotypes according to Leonhard. By settling the dilemma of Kraepelinean "atypical psychoses", their description may be considered one of the major achievements of clinical psychiatry in the last century. In particular, this had been facilitated by the work of Wernicke and Kleist. Albeit not yet generally recognized, cycloid psychoses have already stimulated great efforts of research yielding remarkable results. In this article, we elucidate the concept of cycloid psychoses and present recent findings pertaining to their putative biological foundations. Finally, future perspectives for the field of biological psychiatry are proposed fostering the heuristics of Leonhard's nosology.

  14. Foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harteveld, Casper

    A building will more likely collapse if it does not have any proper foundations. Similarly, the design philosophy of Triadic Game Design (TGD) needs to reside on solid building blocks, otherwise the concept will collapse as well. In this level I will elaborate on these building blocks. First I will explain what the general idea of TGD is. It is a design philosophy, for sure, but one which stresses that an “optimum” needs to be found in a design space constituted by three different worlds: Reality, Meaning, and Play. Additionally, these worlds need to be considered simultaneously and be treated equally. The latter requires balancing the worlds which may result in different tensions, within and between two or three of the worlds. I continue by discussing each of the worlds and showing their perspective on the field of games with a meaningful purpose. From this, we clearly see that it is feasible to think of each world and that the idea makes sense. I substantiate this further by relating the notion of player and similar approaches to this framework. This level is quite a tough pill to swallow yet essential for finishing the other levels. Do not cheat or simply skip this level, but just take a big cup of coffee or tea and start reading it.

  15. A logical foundation for representation of clinical data.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, K E; Das, A K; Musen, M A

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A general framework for representation of clinical data that provides a declarative semantics of terms and that allows developers to define explicitly the relationships among both terms and combinations of terms. DESIGN: Use of conceptual graphs as a standard representation of logic and of an existing standardized vocabulary, the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED International), for lexical elements. Concepts such as time, anatomy, and uncertainty must be modeled explicitly in a way that allows relation of these foundational concepts to surface-level clinical descriptions in a uniform manner. RESULTS: The proposed framework was used to model a simple radiology report, which included temporal references. CONCLUSION: Formal logic provides a framework for formalizing the representation of medical concepts. Actual implementations will be required to evaluate the practicality of this approach. PMID:7719805

  16. [Foundational questions in the beginning of clinical psychology].

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Glauco

    2013-01-01

    This work proposes an initial survey on the origins of American clinical psychology between the nineteenth and twentieth century, against a backdrop of historiographical interpretation that hypothesizes a "plurality of matrices" of clinical psychology, linked to different theoretical perspectives and different socio-cultural contexts. Particular attention is focused upon the main foundational issues of the discipline, drawing from some of the writings of Lightner Witmer, to whom we owe the founding of the first "clinical psychology" for subjects in childhood characterized by "retardation or physical defects interfering with school progress"; and of a lesser-known scholar, John E.W. Wallin. Both authors, indeed, worry themselves anxious to define clinical psychology, differentiating it from other medical and psychological branches; to establish which is the field of competence of the clinical psychologist; and to outline their training and specify the aims and contents of their intervention. Attention is then addressed to the relationship psychologists-psychiatrists at the time of its emergence, making specific reference to a document of the New York Psychiatrical Society--which represents one of the first attempts to exclude clinical psychologists from the field of mental health--and reporting also on the response to this position signed by Shepherd Franz. After an allusion to the Italian situation from the 1950s to today, the article concludes by emphasizing that at least some of the basic questions that clinical psychology had to deal with at its birth are still present, though filtered through the intense debate that has taken place over the years, and consequently supporting the importance of a historical component in the training of contemporary clinical psychologists.

  17. Clinical wisdom: the essential foundation of "good" nursing care.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, Lois A; Grace, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    Clinical wisdom, an essential foundation of nursing care that provides for the "good" of individual patients while taking into account the common good, is a concept that is difficult to define and comprehend. However, understanding what constitutes clinical wisdom is essential for the education of the types of nurses who are most likely to provide leadership that is consistent with the goals of nursing as outlined in the 2005 Code of Ethics for Nurses of the International Council of Nurses and the 2001 Code of Ethics for Nurses With Interpretive Statements of the American Nurses Association. The three key elements of wisdom, derived from the psychology and philosophy literature, are (1) balancing and providing for the good of another and the common good, (2) the use of intellect and affect in problem solving, and (3) the demonstration of experience-based tacit knowing in problematic situations. We conceptualized clinical wisdom as a more specific variant of general wisdom by examining how the core elements described can be linked to wisdom for nursing practice. In doing so, the nature of clinical wisdom is clarified and strategies are suggested to assist nurse educators in developing wise nurses.

  18. Chapter 12: the anatomical foundations of clinical neurology.

    PubMed

    Bentivoglio, Marina; Mazzarello, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The chapter provides an itinerary of knowledge on nervous system anatomy as one of the pillars of clinical neurology. The journey starts from the Renaissance explosion on the approach to the human body, its functions and its diseases, dealing with the seminal contributions of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The itinerary proceeds through the contributions of the 17th century, especially by Thomas Willis and the pioneering investigations of Marcello Malpighi and Antony van Leeuwenhoek, and onto the 18th century. The itinerary thus leads to the progress from gross anatomy to the microscopic investigation of the nervous system in the 19th century: the reticular theories, the revolution of the neural doctrine and their protagonists (Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramón y Cajal), which initiated the modern era of the neurosciences. The chapter also includes sections on the contributions of developmental neuroanatomy to neurology, on the history of tract tracing, and on the cytoarchitecture of the cerebral cortex. The never-ending story of the anatomical foundations of clinical neurology continues to evolve at the dawn of the 21st century, including knowledge that guides deep brain stimulation, and novel approaches to the anatomy of the living brain based on rapidly developing neuroimaging technology.

  19. The Ontology of Clinical Research (OCRe): An Informatics Foundation for the Science of Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Ida; Tu, Samson W.; Carini, Simona; Lehmann, Harold P.; Pollock, Brad H.; Peleg, Mor; Wittkowski, Knut M.

    2013-01-01

    To date, the scientific process for generating, interpreting, and applying knowledge has received less informatics attention than operational processes for conducting clinical studies. The activities of these scientific processes — the science of clinical research — are centered on the study protocol, which is the abstract representation of the scientific design of a clinical study. The Ontology of Clinical Research (OCRe) is an OWL 2 model of the entities and relationships of study design protocols for the purpose of computationally supporting the design and analysis of human studies. OCRe’s modeling is independent of any specific study design or clinical domain. It includes a study design typology and a specialized module called ERGO Annotation for capturing the meaning of eligibility criteria. In this paper, we describe the key informatics use cases of each phase of a study’s scientific lifecycle, present OCRe and the principles behind its modeling, and describe applications of OCRe and associated technologies to a range of clinical research use cases. OCRe captures the central semantics that underlies the scientific processes of clinical research and can serve as an informatics foundation for supporting the entire range of knowledge activities that constitute the science of clinical research. PMID:24239612

  20. [Clinical trials and patients' rights: the debate on the position of Veronesi Foundation].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials and patients’ rights: the debate on the position of Veronesi Foundation. The ethical committee of Veronesi Foundation released a document casting doubts on the liceity and ethicity of randomization as the control group in clinical trials would be exposed to potentially ineffective or less effective treatments and strumentally used to obtain an increased knowledge and not with the aim of cure. These positions raised a lively debate whose main points are reported in this contribution.

  1. Aquatic therapy: scientific foundations and clinical rehabilitation applications.

    PubMed

    Becker, Bruce E

    2009-09-01

    The aquatic environment has broad rehabilitative potential, extending from the treatment of acute injuries through health maintenance in the face of chronic diseases, yet it remains an underused modality. There is an extensive research base supporting aquatic therapy, both within the basic science literature and clinical literature. This article describes the many physiologic changes that occur during immersion as applied to a range of common rehabilitative issues and problems. Because of its wide margin of therapeutic safety and clinical adaptability, aquatic therapy is a very useful tool in the rehabilitative toolbox. Through a better understanding of the applied physiology, the practitioner may structure appropriate therapeutic programs for a diverse patient population.

  2. Foundations of Clinical Data Automation in Cooperative Programs

    PubMed Central

    Giere, Wolfgang

    1981-01-01

    BAIK (Befunddokumentation und Arztbriefschreibung in Krankenhäusern) is financed jointly by the federal government and the states. It is in the replication phase after 8 years of test and development. 12 model hospitals and some additional instituts use the centrally provided software and methodology. The software is portable and currently implemented in the most recent MUMPS version on 3 different computers (Philips, DEC, Tandem). It is the first available centrally supported public domain package for clinical applications and also the first design for distributed functions: the Doctor's Office Computer (DOC) in the hospitals; and the Information Analyzing Text Retrieval Oriented System (IATROS). DOC provides word processing as a means of controlled structured data acquisition. IATROS allows transformation and classification using a centrally maintained thesaurus and on-line retrieval. The system reflects the distinction between medical records and registries, communication and recognition, treatment and research orientation. It is based on an information model that describes the relationship between these elements.

  3. Clinical preventive medicine in business and industry: a rational foundation.

    PubMed

    Blake, G H; DeHart, R L

    1994-01-01

    The individual educational and intervention emphasis of clinical preventive medicine programs is successful in reducing an employee's risk for disease and injury. Although some studies note that decreased risk is found predominantly in those with low initial risk, a critical mass of healthful lifestyles may spread to non-participants in the organization, the halo effect. Thus, the more employees there are modeling a health lifestyle, the greater likelihood others will follow. Preventive medicine programs offer intangible advantages to the employer. Such programs demonstrate an attitude of caring for the employee which has an influence on the public. Happier employees tend to increase their level of socialization within a company. The ultimate effect is decreased employee risk, improved productivity, reduced absenteeism, and improved health at reduced cost.

  4. Which are the best nations and institutions for revolutionary science 1987-2006? Analysis using a combined metric of Nobel prizes, Fields medals, Lasker awards and Turing awards (NFLT metric).

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-01-01

    I have previously suggested that Nobel prizes can be used as a scientometric measurement of 'revolutionary science'; and that for this purpose it would be better if more Nobel prizes were awarded, especially in three new subjects of mathematics, medicine and computing science which have become major sciences over recent decades. In the following analysis of the last 20 years from 1987 to 2006, I use three prestigious prizes in mathematics (Fields medal), medicine (Lasker award for Clinical Medical Research) and computing science (A.M. Turing award) which are plausible surrogates for Nobel prizes. The combined Nobel-Fields-Lasker-Turing (NFLT) metric is strongly dominated by the USA. However the distribution implies that revolutionary science may be somewhat more broadly distributed than the pure Nobel metric suggests. The UK and France seem to be significant nations in some types of revolutionary science (although the UK has declined substantially as a centre of revolutionary science); and Germany, Switzerland, Japan, Russia, Denmark and Norway also feature. The top world institutions for revolutionary science according to NFLT are MIT, Stanford and Princeton - all in the USA - and the USA has 19 institutions with at least three prize-winners. Second is France, with three institutions having three or more winners; the UK and Norway have one each. The NFLT metric confirms previous observations that many public universities in the Western USA have now become a major focus of revolutionary science; and that Harvard has declined from its previous status as the top world centre of revolutionary science to about seventh-place. This analysis confirms the potential value of increasing the number of Nobel prizes as a means of identifying and monitoring centres of excellence in revolutionary science.

  5. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Clinical Scholars Program and emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Landman, Adam; Meisel, Zachary F

    2010-04-01

    Specialized research training for emergency physicians (EPs) may strengthen overall patient care through the development and improvement of clinical evidence in emergency care. One way an increasing number of emergency physicians have acquired these skills is through the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Clinical Scholars Program (CSP), a 2-year fellowship that trains physicians to be leaders in improving health care. In addition to providing training in health policy and health services research, the CSP emphasizes the translation of research into action through leadership training, program development, and community-based participatory research. This article provides an in-depth look at the CSP and its impact on emergency medicine (EM). To date, 41 EPs have trained through the program, with increasing numbers in recent years. Graduates have gone on to become leaders in academia, public health, private industry, and foundations. Past and present EM-trained Clinical Scholars are working to find creative solutions for the challenges posed by the U.S. health care system and improve the delivery of emergency care. Emergency physicians who wish to conduct research or work with communities, organizations, practitioners, and policy-makers to address issues essential to the health and well-being of all Americans should consider the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation CSP.

  6. Clinical implementation of x-ray phase-contrast imaging: theoretical foundations and design considerations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2003-08-01

    Theoretical foundation and design considerations of a clinical feasible x-ray phase contrast imaging technique were presented in this paper. Different from the analysis of imaging phase object with weak absorption in literature, we proposed a new formalism for in-line phase-contrast imaging to analyze the effects of four clinically important factors on the phase contrast. These are the body parts attenuation, the spatial coherence of spherical waves from a finite-size focal spot, and polychromatic x-ray and radiation doses to patients for clinical applications. The theory presented in this paper can be applied widely in diagnostic x-ray imaging procedures. As an example, computer simulations were conducted and optimal design parameters were derived for clinical mammography. The results of phantom experiments were also presented which validated the theoretical analysis and computer simulations.

  7. Foundational biomedical informatics research in the clinical and translational science era: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Payne, Philip R O; Embi, Peter J; Niland, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    Advances in clinical and translational science, along with related national-scale policy and funding mechanisms, have provided significant opportunities for the advancement of applied clinical research informatics (CRI) and translational bioinformatics (TBI). Such efforts are primarily oriented to application and infrastructure development and are critical to the conduct of clinical and translational research. However, they often come at the expense of the foundational CRI and TBI research needed to grow these important biomedical informatics subdisciplines and ensure future innovations. In light of this challenge, it is critical that a number of steps be taken, including the conduct of targeted advocacy campaigns, the development of community-accepted research agendas, and the continued creation of forums for collaboration and knowledge exchange. Such efforts are needed to ensure that the biomedical informatics community is able to advance CRI and TBI science in the context of the modern clinical and translational science era.

  8. Behavioral science foundations of the Rorschach test: research and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Acklin, M W

    1999-12-01

    Never without its critics, the Rorschach Test continues to be widely used in clinical settings. The test continues to be criticized vigorously. Rorschach critics appear to fall into two broad groups: those leveling valid methodological concerns about the test s behavioral science foundations and method critics who appear to deny the validity of the test on strictly a priori or theoretical considerations. Many critics do not appear to be acquainted with the extensive Rorschach research literature. The current paper provides an overview of several domains of applied and laboratory Rorschach behavioral science, including statistical power analysis, interobserver agreement and interrater reliability, Rorschach assessment of thought disorder, and emerging research linking Rorschach variables with diagnostic criteria from the DSM-IV, as a means of educating both adherents and detractors alike concerning the test s scientific track record and applicability to clinical assessment.

  9. Portfolio learning for foundation doctors: early feedback on its use in the clinical workplace.

    PubMed

    Hrisos, Susan; Illing, Janet C; Burford, Bryan C

    2008-02-01

    A learning portfolio was developed to support the development of trainee doctors piloting Foundation Programme prototypes across the Northern Deanery in 2004 and 2005. Trainee doctors and their educational supervisors were surveyed about their experiences of using the portfolio in the clinical workplace. The evaluation consisted of semi-structured interviews with trainee doctors and supervisors, followed by postal questionnaire surveys in 2004 and 2005. Quantitative and qualitative data were triangulated to identify core findings. Questionnaires were returned from 182/305 (60%) trainee doctors and 104 out of 179 (58%) educational supervisors. The portfolio was felt to be a 'good idea' by 55% supervisors and 48% trainees. Trainees' perceptions of the educational value of the portfolio remained consistently low over 2 surveys and they described a sense of 'burden', whereby they identified problems in workload and usability and in gaining feedback on performance. However, positive trainee attitudes towards the portfolio were significantly correlated with greater perceived educational benefits (r = 0.855, P < 0.001). Learning portfolios are now an integral part of Foundation Programme training but this evaluation suggests that many trainee doctors and educational supervisors are yet to be convinced of their educational value. Gaining multi-source feedback, a substantial component of trainee doctors' portfolios, impacts on the wider clinical team and presents a significant challenge to trainees. Educational supervisors continued to rely on feedback from clinical colleagues, rather than portfolio evidence, to monitor trainee doctors' development. Such factors may serve to disengage trainees with the portfolio process by overshadowing any perceived educational gains.

  10. Expanding role of the Madras Diabetes Research Foundation - Indian Diabetes Risk Score in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Viswanathan; Anbalagan, Viknesh Prabu

    2013-01-01

    The Indian Diabetes Risk Score was initially developed by the Madras Diabetes Research Foundation (MDRF-IDRS) to help detect undiagnosed Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in the community. Soon it was found that the MDRF-IDRS could also help to predict incident diabetes, metabolic syndrome, coronary artery disease (CAD), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease as well as sleep disorders in the community. It helps to differentiate T2DM from non-T2DM. Finally, it also helps to identify those with CAD, peripheral vascular disease and neuropathy among those with T2DM. Thus, the MDRF-IDRS is a simple, virtually 'no cost' tool which is useful in several clinical and epidemiological settings.

  11. Key findings of the US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation's clinical practice benchmarking project.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Michael P; Sabadosa, Kathryn A; Quinton, Hebe B; Marshall, Bruce C; Schechter, Michael S

    2014-04-01

    Benchmarking is the process of using outcome data to identify high-performing centres and determine practices associated with their outstanding performance. The US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (CFF) Patient Registry contains centre-specific outcomes data for all CFF-certified paediatric and adult cystic fibrosis (CF) care programmes in the USA. The CFF benchmarking project analysed these registry data, adjusting for differences in patient case mix known to influence outcomes, and identified the top-performing US paediatric and adult CF care programmes for pulmonary and nutritional outcomes. Separate multidisciplinary paediatric and adult benchmarking teams each visited 10 CF care programmes, five in the top quintile for pulmonary outcomes and five in the top quintile for nutritional outcomes. Key practice patterns and approaches present in both paediatric and adult programmes with outstanding clinical outcomes were identified and could be summarised as systems, attitudes, practices, patient/family empowerment and projects. These included: (1) the presence of strong leadership and a well-functioning care team working with a systematic approach to providing consistent care; (2) high expectations for outcomes among providers and families; (3) early and aggressive management of clinical declines, avoiding reliance on 'rescues'; and (4) patients/families that were engaged, empowered and well informed on disease management and its rationale. In summary, assessment of practice patterns at CF care centres with top-quintile pulmonary and nutritional outcomes provides insight into characteristic practices that may aid in optimising patient outcomes.

  12. Challenging the epistemological foundations of EBM: what kind of knowledge does clinical practice require?

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Katrina J; Rogers, Wendy A

    2012-10-01

    This paper raises questions about the epistemological foundations of evidence-based medicine (EBM). We argue that EBM is based upon reliabilist epistemological assumptions, and that this is appropriate - we should focus on identifying the most reliable processes for generating and collecting medical knowledge. However, we note that this should not be reduced to narrow questions about which research methodologies are the best for gathering evidence. Reliable processes for generating medical evidence might lie outside of formal research methods. We also question the notion of the knower that is assumed by EBM. We argue that EBM assumes an enlightenment conception of knowers as autonomous, substitutable individuals. This conception is troubled by the way that clinicians learn the role of anecdote in health care and the role of patient choice, all of which bring into play features of clinicians and patients as situated individuals with particular backgrounds and experiences. EBM's enlightenment conception of the knower is also troubled by aspects of the way evidence is produced. Given these limitations, we argue that EBM should retain its reliabilist bent, but should look beyond formal research methodologies in identifying processes that yield reliable evidence for clinical practice. We suggest looking to feminist epistemology, with its focus on the standpoints of individual situated knowers, and the role of social context in determining what counts as knowledge. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Foundation for Sarcoidosis Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Clinical Trial Our mission is to stop sarcoidosis — join us. The sarcoidosis community needs your help ... receive periodic emails from the Foundation. Foundation For Sarcoidosis Research 1820 W. Webster Ave., Ste 304 Chicago, ...

  14. Interpretation and use of FRAX in clinical practice - position paper of the International Osteoporosis Foundation and the International Society for Clinical Densitometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) and the International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) appointed a joint Task Force to develop resource documents in order to make recommendations on how to improve FRAX and better inform clinicians who use FRAX. The Task Force met in November...

  15. The American Society of Clinical Oncology Cancer Foundation Grants Program: a 25-year report and a look toward the future.

    PubMed

    King, Jennifer C; Lawrence, Theodore S; Murphy, Sharon B; Davidson, Nancy E; Mayer, Robert J

    2010-03-20

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Grants Program began in 1984 with a single $16,000 grant to a young investigator for start-up research funding. In 2009, the Grants Program, now administered by The ASCO Cancer Foundation, awarded more than $6.5 million to 70 different investigators. This article, celebrating the 25th anniversary of this initiative, describes the history and evolution of the Grants Program, attempts to measure the impact of the program on clinical cancer research through an analysis of the career paths of past recipients, and addresses challenges that the program will face as it enters its second 25 years.

  16. ETIB opens clinical trial for patients with HPV-16+ cancers | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Christian Hinrichs, Lasker Clinical Research Scholar in the Experimental Transplantation and Immunology Branch, is leading a study of a new therapy for cancers caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), which include cervical, throat, anal, and genital cancers. HPV-related cancer cells carry a protein called E7.  Learn more...

  17. A qualitative evaluation of foundation dentists' and training programme directors' perceptions of clinical audit in general dental practice.

    PubMed

    Thornley, P; Quinn, A; Elley, K

    2015-08-28

    This study reports on an investigation into clinical audit (CA) educational and service delivery outcomes in a dental foundation training (DFT) programme. The aim was to investigate CA teaching, learning and practice from the perspective of foundation dentists (FDs) and to record suggestions for improvement. A qualitative research methodology was used. Audio recordings of focus group interviews with FDs were triangulated by an interview with a group of training programme directors (TPDs). The interviews were transcribed and thematically analysed using a 'Framework' approach within Nvivo Data Analysis Software. FDs report considerable learning and behaviour change. However, TPDs have doubts about the long-term effects on service delivery. There can be substantial learning in the clinical, managerial, communication and professionalism domains, and in the development of time management, organisational and team-working skills. Information is provided about use of resources and interaction with teachers and colleagues. CA provides learning opportunities not produced by other educational activities including 'awkward conversations' with team-members in the context of change management and providing feedback. This is relevant when applying the recommendations of the Francis report. This paper should be useful to any dentist conducting audit or team training. Suggestions are made for improvements to resources and support including right touch intervention. Trainers should teach in the 'Goldilocks Zone'.

  18. Historical review of clinical vaccine studies at Oswaldo Cruz Institute and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation - technological development issues

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Reinaldo de Menezes; Possas, Cristina de Albuquerque; Homma, Akira

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents, from the perspective of technological development and production, the results of an investigation examining 61 clinical studies with vaccines conducted in Brazil between 1938-2013, with the participation of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute (IOC) and the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz). These studies have been identified and reviewed according to criteria, such as the kind of vaccine (viral, bacterial, parasitic), their rationale, design and methodological strategies. The results indicate that IOC and Fiocruz have accumulated along this time significant knowledge and experience for the performance of studies in all clinical phases and are prepared for the development of new vaccines products and processes. We recommend national policy strategies to overcome existing regulatory and financing constraints. PMID:25742271

  19. ASSESSMENT OF UPPER EXTREMITY IMPAIRMENT, FUNCTION, AND ACTIVITY FOLLOWING STROKE: FOUNDATIONS FOR CLINICAL DECISION MAKING

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Catherine E.; Bland, Marghuretta D.; Bailey, Ryan R.; Schaefer, Sydney Y.; Birkenmeier, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive approach for assessing the upper extremity (UE) after stroke. First, common upper extremity impairments and how to assess them are briefly discussed. While multiple UE impairments are typically present after stroke, the severity of one impairment, paresis, is the primary determinant of UE functional loss. Second, UE function is operationally defined and a number of clinical measures are discussed. It is important to consider how impairment and loss of function affect UE activity outside of the clinical environment. Thus, this review also identifies accelerometry as an objective method for assessing UE activity in daily life. Finally, the role that each of these levels of assessment should play in clinical decision making is discussed in order to optimize the provision of stroke rehabilitation services. PMID:22975740

  20. Observation of Couple Conflicts: Clinical Assessment Applications, Stubborn Truths, and Shaky Foundations

    PubMed Central

    Heyman, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a balanced examination of the published research involving the observation of couples, with special attention toward the use of observation for clinical assessment. All published articles that (a) used an observational coding system and (b) relate to the validity of the coding system are summarized in a table. The psychometric properties of observational systems and the use of observation in clinical practice are discussed. Although advances have been made in understanding couple conflict through the use of observation, the review concludes with an appeal to the field to develop constructs in a psychometrically and theoretically sound manner. PMID:11281039

  1. New clinical trial combines LMB-100 with nab-paclitaxel for metastatic or locally advanced pancreatic cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Christine Alewine, Lasker Scholar, in the Laboratory of Molecular Biology is conducting a clinical study for patients with pancreatic cancer using a new immunotoxin drug, called LMB-100. It is a targeted immunotherapy that delivers a toxin to cancer cells that make a protein called mesothelin that is made by most pancreatic cancers.

  2. Advancing the Scientific Foundation for Evidence-Based Practice in Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Michael C; Blossom, Jennifer B; Evans, Spencer C; Amaro, Christina M; Kanine, Rebecca M

    2016-05-24

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) has become a central focus in clinical child and adolescent psychology. As originally defined, EBP in psychology is the integration of the best available research evidence, patient characteristics, and clinical expertise. Although evidence-based perspectives have garnered widespread acceptance in recent years, there has also been some confusion and disagreement about the 3-part definition of EBP, particularly the role of research. In this article, we first provide a brief review of the development of EBP in clinical child and adolescent psychology. Next, we outline the following 4 points to help clarify the understanding of EBP: (a) knowledge should not be confused with epistemic processes, (b) research on clinician and client factors is needed for EBP, (c) research on assessment is needed for EBP, and (d) the 3-part conceptualization of EBP can serve as a useful framework to guide research. Based on these principles, we put forth a slightly revised conceptualization of EBP, in which the role of research is expanded and more clearly operationalized. Finally, based on our review of the literature, we offer illustrative examples of specific directions for future research to advance the evidence base for EBP in clinical child and adolescent psychology.

  3. Clinical manufacturing of CAR T cells: foundation of a promising therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuyan; Rivière, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of cancer patients with autologous T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is one of the most promising adoptive cellular therapy approaches. Reproducible manufacturing of high-quality, clinical-grade CAR-T cell products is a prerequisite for the wide application of this technology. Product quality needs to be built-in within every step of the manufacturing process. We summarize herein the requirements and logistics to be considered, as well as the state of the art manufacturing platforms available. CAR-T cell therapy may be on the verge of becoming standard of care for a few clinical indications. Yet, many challenges pertaining to manufacturing standardization and product characterization remain to be overcome in order to achieve broad usage and eventual commercialization of this therapeutic modality.

  4. Clinical manufacturing of CAR T cells: foundation of a promising therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiuyan; Rivière, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of cancer patients with autologous T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is one of the most promising adoptive cellular therapy approaches. Reproducible manufacturing of high-quality, clinical-grade CAR-T cell products is a prerequisite for the wide application of this technology. Product quality needs to be built-in within every step of the manufacturing process. We summarize herein the requirements and logistics to be considered, as well as the state of the art manufacturing platforms available. CAR-T cell therapy may be on the verge of becoming standard of care for a few clinical indications. Yet, many challenges pertaining to manufacturing standardization and product characterization remain to be overcome in order to achieve broad usage and eventual commercialization of this therapeutic modality. PMID:27347557

  5. The general surgery residency at Ochsner Clinic Foundation: training the 'surgeon's surgeon'.

    PubMed

    Bolton, John

    2008-09-01

    The general surgery residency at Ochsner is, to some extent, a hybrid, combining the amenities and resources of an excellent private hospital/clinic with the academic tone of a university program. Our primary mission is to educate and train outstanding young surgeons who are ready to either enter clinical practice or undertake advanced fellowship training. Although our mission is not primarily to train full-time academic surgeons, our alumni include a number of distinguished academic surgeons. The passage from medical student to accomplished surgeon is exciting, and the camaraderie that a surgical resident establishes with his/her peers and faculty lasts for a lifetime. As surgical educators, we are privileged to spend a major part of our lives with a talented, bright and passionate group of young physicians who have set their sights on entering what I believe to be the world's greatest profession: general surgery.

  6. Recent Clinical Trials in Osteoporosis: A Firm Foundation or Falling Short?

    PubMed Central

    Lakey, Wanda C.; Batch, Bryan C.; Chiswell, Karen; Tasneem, Asba; Green, Jennifer B.

    2016-01-01

    The global burden of osteoporotic fractures is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. We examined the ClinicalTrials.gov database to determine whether recently registered clinical trials addressed prevention and treatment in those at high risk for fracture. A dataset of 96,346 trials registered in ClinicalTrials.gov was downloaded on September 27, 2010. At the time of the dataset download, 40,970 interventional trials had been registered since October 1, 2007. The osteoporosis subset comprised 239 interventional trials (0.6%). Those trials evaluating orthopedic procedures were excluded. The primary purpose was treatment in 67.0%, prevention in 20.1%, supportive care in 5.8%, diagnostic in 2.2%, basic science in 3.1%, health services research in 0.9%, and screening in 0.9%. The majority of studies (61.1%) included drug-related interventions. Most trials (56.9%) enrolled only women, 38.9% of trials were open to both men and women, and 4.2% enrolled only men. Roughly one fifth (19.7%) of trials excluded research participants older than 65 years, and 33.5% of trials excluded those older than 75 years. The funding sources were industry in 51.0%, the National Institutes of Health in 6.3%, and other in 42.7%. We found that most osteoporosis-related trials registered from October 2007 through September 2010 examined the efficacy and safety of drug treatment, and fewer trials examined prevention and non-drug interventions. Trials of interventions that are not required to be registered in ClinicalTrials.gov may be underrepresented. Few trials are specifically studying osteoporosis in men and older adults. Recently registered osteoporosis trials may not sufficiently address fracture prevention. PMID:27191848

  7. The moral foundation of the clinical duties of care: needs, duties and human rights.

    PubMed

    Doyal, L

    2001-10-01

    It has become fashionable to question attempts to derive internationally agreed duties of clinical care from more general theories of human rights. For example, some argue that such attempts risk moral abstraction through their neglect for the importance of culture and community in shaping moral consciousness and thus often unhelpful in the resolution of concrete moral dilemmas within medicine. Others denounce the importance of general moral principles altogether in bioethics and attempt to articulate what are claimed to be more practical approaches to resolving moral conflict. This paper challenges such arguments. It does so through arguing that: i) all humans everywhere have the same basic human needs; ii) the satisfaction of these needs varies with culture; iii) the imputation of moral duties on others entails respect for their right to basic need satisfaction, including the right to choose between presumptions about the duties and rights of patients which follow from these more general principles and v) problems of moral indeterminancy that arise from putting these principles into practice can be resolved through associated procedural policies of rational negotiation and compromise. The moral importance and practicality of respect for individual human rights within the practice of medicine is thus defended. Indeed, the paper concludes by arguing that without belief in human rights linked to a theory of basic human needs, communitarian theories of morality are incoherent.

  8. National Kidney Foundation Council on Renal Nutrition survey: past-present clinical practices and future strategic planning.

    PubMed

    Moore, Harold; Reams, Susan M; Wiesen, Karen; Nolph, Karl D; Khanna, Ramesh; Laothong, Chonwit

    2003-07-01

    Early nutritional intervention is thought to play a major role in the preservation of renal function and the overall wellbeing in the renal patient. In preparation for renal replacement therapy (RRT), a consultation with the renal nutritionist to establish a diet consistent with the existing diagnosis may increase the likelihood of reducing cardiovascular risk factors, preventing malnutrition and anemia, and slowing the progression of renal disease, all of which can contribute to positive patient outcomes. In a 1999 United States Renal Data System survey of 3,468 new dialysis patients, 46% indicated that they had not consulted with a dietitian before the initiation of dialysis. To help with establishing education programs, determine staffing guidelines, and planning future endeavors, the National Kidney Foundation Council on Renal Nutrition conducted a survey of their 1,748 members. The survey was designed to assess the current demographic profile and clinical practice elements of practicing renal dietitians. Surveys were distributed as a section of the 1999-2000 winter issue of the CRN Quarterly Newsletter, with 353 of the members responding. Information collected pertained to patient care settings, number of facilities covered, patient age, patient treatment modalities, dietitian contact hours required to effectively educate pre-end-stage renal disease patients on a low-protein diet and to ensure optimal nutrition status for the chronic kidney disease patients. The dietitians of this cohort had practiced dietetics for 14.5 +/- 8.6 years and renal nutrition for 9.15 +/- 6.9 years. The survey data showed a discrepancy between what the clinical practices were in 1999 and what the current recommendations are, based on the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiatives (K/DOQI) Clinical Practice Guidelines.

  9. Considerations for the Conduct of Clinical Trials with Antiinflammatory Agents in Cystic Fibrosis. A Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Workshop Report.

    PubMed

    Torphy, Theodore J; Allen, Janet; Cantin, André M; Konstan, Michael W; Accurso, Frank J; Joseloff, Elizabeth; Ratjen, Felix A; Chmiel, James F

    2015-09-01

    Inflammation leads to lung destruction and loss of pulmonary function in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Drugs that modulate the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) have recently been approved. Although the impact of CFTR modulators on sweat chloride and lung function are exciting, they have not yet demonstrated an effect on inflammation. Therefore, CF antiinflammatory drug development must continue. Unfortunately, the lack of clarity with this process has left investigators and industry sponsors frustrated. The Cystic Fibrosis Foundation established a working group in early 2014 to address this issue. There are many inflammatory processes disrupted in CF, and, therefore, there are many potential targets amenable to antiinflammatory therapy. Regardless of a drug's specific mechanism of action, it must ultimately affect the neutrophil or its products to impact CF. The working group concluded that before bringing new antiinflammatory drugs to clinical trial, preclinical safety studies must be conducted in disease-relevant models to assuage safety concerns. Furthermore, although studies of antiinflammatory therapies must first establish safety in adults, subsequent studies must involve children, as they are most likely to reap the most benefit. The working group also recommended that pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic studies and early-phase safety studies be performed before proceeding to larger studies of longer duration. In addition, innovative study designs may improve the likelihood of adequately assessing treatment response and mitigating risk before conducting multiyear studies. Learning from past experiences and incorporating this knowledge into new drug development programs will be instrumental in bringing new antiinflammatory therapies to patients.

  10. Clinical Outcome Assessments: Conceptual Foundation-Report of the ISPOR Clinical Outcomes Assessment - Emerging Good Practices for Outcomes Research Task Force.

    PubMed

    Walton, Marc K; Powers, John H; Hobart, Jeremy; Patrick, Donald; Marquis, Patrick; Vamvakas, Spiros; Isaac, Maria; Molsen, Elizabeth; Cano, Stefan; Burke, Laurie B

    2015-09-01

    An outcome assessment, the patient assessment used in an endpoint, is the measuring instrument that provides a rating or score (categorical or continuous) that is intended to represent some aspect of the patient's health status. Outcome assessments are used to define efficacy endpoints when developing a therapy for a disease or condition. Most efficacy endpoints are based on specified clinical assessments of patients. When clinical assessments are used as clinical trial outcomes, they are called clinical outcome assessments (COAs). COAs include any assessment that may be influenced by human choices, judgment, or motivation. COAs must be well-defined and possess adequate measurement properties to demonstrate (directly or indirectly) the benefits of a treatment. In contrast, a biomarker assessment is one that is subject to little, if any, patient motivational or rater judgmental influence. This is the first of two reports by the ISPOR Clinical Outcomes Assessment - Emerging Good Practices for Outcomes Research Task Force. This report provides foundational definitions important for an understanding of COA measurement principles. The foundation provided in this report includes what it means to demonstrate a beneficial effect, how assessments of patients relate to the objective of showing a treatment's benefit, and how these assessments are used in clinical trial endpoints. In addition, this report describes intrinsic attributes of patient assessments and clinical trial factors that can affect the properties of the measurements. These factors should be considered when developing or refining assessments. These considerations will aid investigators designing trials in their choice of using an existing assessment or developing a new outcome assessment. Although the focus of this report is on the development of a new COA to define endpoints in a clinical trial, these principles may be applied more generally. A critical element in appraising or developing a COA is to

  11. Risk assessment of student performance in the International Foundations of Medicine Clinical Science Examination by the use of statistical modeling

    PubMed Central

    David, Michael C; Eley, Diann S; Schafer, Jennifer; Davies, Leo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The primary aim of this study was to assess the predictive validity of cumulative grade point average (GPA) for performance in the International Foundations of Medicine (IFOM) Clinical Science Examination (CSE). A secondary aim was to develop a strategy for identifying students at risk of performing poorly in the IFOM CSE as determined by the National Board of Medical Examiners’ International Standard of Competence. Methods Final year medical students from an Australian university medical school took the IFOM CSE as a formative assessment. Measures included overall IFOM CSE score as the dependent variable, cumulative GPA as the predictor, and the factors age, gender, year of enrollment, international or domestic status of student, and language spoken at home as covariates. Multivariable linear regression was used to measure predictor and covariate effects. Optimal thresholds of risk assessment were based on receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results Cumulative GPA (nonstandardized regression coefficient [B]: 81.83; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 68.13 to 95.53) and international status (B: −37.40; 95% CI: −57.85 to −16.96) from 427 students were found to be statistically associated with increased IFOM CSE performance. Cumulative GPAs of 5.30 (area under ROC [AROC]: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.72 to 0.82) and 4.90 (AROC: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.66 to 0.78) were identified as being thresholds of significant risk for domestic and international students, respectively. Conclusion Using cumulative GPA as a predictor of IFOM CSE performance and accommodating for differences in international status, it is possible to identify students who are at risk of failing to satisfy the National Board of Medical Examiners’ International Standard of Competence. PMID:27980449

  12. Risk assessment of student performance in the International Foundations of Medicine Clinical Science Examination by the use of statistical modeling.

    PubMed

    David, Michael C; Eley, Diann S; Schafer, Jennifer; Davies, Leo

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the predictive validity of cumulative grade point average (GPA) for performance in the International Foundations of Medicine (IFOM) Clinical Science Examination (CSE). A secondary aim was to develop a strategy for identifying students at risk of performing poorly in the IFOM CSE as determined by the National Board of Medical Examiners' International Standard of Competence. Final year medical students from an Australian university medical school took the IFOM CSE as a formative assessment. Measures included overall IFOM CSE score as the dependent variable, cumulative GPA as the predictor, and the factors age, gender, year of enrollment, international or domestic status of student, and language spoken at home as covariates. Multivariable linear regression was used to measure predictor and covariate effects. Optimal thresholds of risk assessment were based on receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Cumulative GPA (nonstandardized regression coefficient [B]: 81.83; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 68.13 to 95.53) and international status (B: -37.40; 95% CI: -57.85 to -16.96) from 427 students were found to be statistically associated with increased IFOM CSE performance. Cumulative GPAs of 5.30 (area under ROC [AROC]: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.72 to 0.82) and 4.90 (AROC: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.66 to 0.78) were identified as being thresholds of significant risk for domestic and international students, respectively. Using cumulative GPA as a predictor of IFOM CSE performance and accommodating for differences in international status, it is possible to identify students who are at risk of failing to satisfy the National Board of Medical Examiners' International Standard of Competence.

  13. HSC Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... with unique care challenges in the surrounding Washington, DC area: Health Services for Children with Special Needs, ... and young adults with disabilities in the Washington, DC area through a network of community partners. /foundation/ ...

  14. Marfan Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Click to see what's happening around the country! Marfan syndrome is a life-threatening genetic disorder, and an ...

  15. Vasculitis Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... you think. More serious than you know. Support. Awareness. Education. Become a member today! Our Mission The ... Foundation supports and empowers our community through education, awareness and research. Contact Us Click here to send ...

  16. Foundation Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connection: The Journal of the New England Board of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Nicholas C. Donohue is the new president and CEO of the Quincy, Massachusetts-based Nellie Mae Education Foundation, the largest philanthropy in New England devoted exclusively to education. Donohue has been a classroom teacher, a university trustee, and commissioner of education for the state of New Hampshire. Most recently, he served as special…

  17. Developing Outcomes Assessments as Endpoints for Registrational Clinical Trials of Antibacterial Drugs: 2015 Update From the Biomarkers Consortium of the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, George H.; Powers, John H.; Hoffmann, Steven C.

    2016-01-01

    One important component in determining the benefits and harms of medical interventions is the use of well-defined and reliable outcome assessments as endpoints in clinical trials. Improving endpoints can better define patient benefits, allowing more accurate assessment of drug efficacy and more informed benefit-vs-risk decisions; another potential plus is facilitating efficient trial design. Since our first report in 2012, 2 Foundation for the National Institutes of Health Biomarkers Consortium Project Teams have continued to develop outcome assessments for potential uses as endpoints in registrational clinical trials of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. In addition, the teams have initiated similar work in the indications of hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia. This report provides an update on progress to date in these 4 diseases. PMID:26668337

  18. World Endometriosis Research Foundation Endometriosis Phenome and biobanking harmonization project: II. Clinical and covariate phenotype data collection in endometriosis research

    PubMed Central

    Vitonis, Allison F.; Vincent, Katy; Rahmioglu, Nilufer; Fassbender, Amelie; Buck Louis, Germaine M.; Hummelshoj, Lone; Giudice, Linda C.; Stratton, Pamela; Adamson, G. David; Becker, Christian M.; Zondervan, Krina T.; Missmer, Stacey A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To harmonize the collection of nonsurgical clinical and epidemiologic data relevant to endometriosis research, allowing large-scale collaboration. Design An international collaboration involving 34 clinical/academic centers and three industry collaborators from 16 countries on five continents. Setting In 2013, two workshops followed by global consultation, bringing together 54 leaders in endometriosis research. Patients None. Intervention(s) Development of a self-administered endometriosis patient questionnaire (EPQ), based on [1] systematic comparison of questionnaires from eight centers that collect data from endometriosis cases (and controls/comparison women) on a medium to large scale (publication on >100 cases); [2] literature evidence; and [3] several global consultation rounds. Main Outcome Measure(s) Standard recommended and minimum required questionnaires to capture detailed clinical and covariate data. Result(s) The standard recommended (EPHect EPQ-S) and minimum required (EPHect EPQ-M) questionnaires contain questions on pelvic pain, subfertility and menstrual/reproductive history, hormone/medication use, medical history, and personal information. Conclusion(s) The EPQ captures the basic set of patient characteristics and exposures considered by the WERF EPHect Working Group to be most critical for the advancement of endometriosis research, but is also relevant to other female conditions with similar risk factors and/or symptomatology. The instruments will be reviewed based on feedback from investigators, and–after a first review after 1 year–triannually through systematic follow-up surveys. Updated versions will be made available through http://endometriosisfoundation.org/ephect. PMID:25256930

  19. GFR decline as an end point for clinical trials in CKD: a scientific workshop sponsored by the National Kidney Foundation and the US Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Levey, Andrew S; Inker, Lesley A; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Greene, Tom; Willis, Kerry; Lewis, Edmund; de Zeeuw, Dick; Cheung, Alfred K; Coresh, Josef

    2014-12-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration currently accepts halving of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), assessed as doubling of serum creatinine level, as a surrogate end point for the development of kidney failure in clinical trials of kidney disease progression. A doubling of serum creatinine level generally is a late event in chronic kidney disease (CKD); thus, there is great interest in considering alternative end points for clinical trials to shorten their duration, reduce sample size, and extend their conduct to patients with earlier stages of CKD. However, the relationship between lesser declines in GFR and the subsequent development of kidney failure has not been well characterized. The National Kidney Foundation and Food and Drug Administration sponsored a scientific workshop to critically examine available data to determine whether alternative GFR-based end points have sufficiently strong relationships with important clinical outcomes of CKD to be used in clinical trials. Based on a series of meta-analyses of cohorts and clinical trials and simulations of trial designs and analytic methods, the workshop concluded that a confirmed decline in estimated GFR of 30% over 2 to 3 years may be an acceptable surrogate end point in some circumstances, but the pattern of treatment effects on GFR must be examined, specifically acute effects on estimated GFR. An estimated GFR decline of 40% may be more broadly acceptable than a 30% decline across a wider range of baseline GFRs and patterns of treatment effects on GFR. However, there are other circumstances in which these end points could lead to a reduction in statistical power or erroneous conclusions regarding benefits or harms of interventions. We encourage careful consideration of these alternative end points in the design of future clinical trials.

  20. The (68)Ge phantom-based FDG-PET site qualification program for clinical trials adopted by FIL (Italian Foundation on Lymphoma).

    PubMed

    Chauvie, Stephane; Bergesio, Fabrizio; Fioroni, Federica; Brambilla, Marco; Biggi, Alberto; Versari, Annibale; Guerra, Luca; Storto, Giovanni; Musto, Pellegrino; Luminari, Stefano; Cabras, Maria G; Balzarotti, Monica; Rigacci, Luigi; Martelli, Maurizio; Vitolo, Umberto; Federico, Massimo; Gallamini, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    The quantitative assessment of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans using standardized uptake value and derived parameters proved to be superior to traditional qualitative assessment in several retrospective or mono-centric prospective reports. Since different scanners give different quantitative readings, a program for clinical trial qualification (CTQ) is mandatory to guarantee a reliable and reproducible use of quantitative PET in prospective multi-centre clinical trials and in every-day clinical life. We set up, under the auspices of Italian Foundation on Lymphoma (FIL), a CTQ program consisting of the PET/CT scan acquisition and analysis of (18)F and (68)Ge NEMA/IEC image quality phantoms for the reduction of inter-scanner variability. Variability was estimated on background activity concentration (BAC) and sphere to background ratio (SBR). The use of a (68)Ge phantom allowed reducing the inter-scanner variability among different scanners from 74.0% to 20.5% in BAC and from 63.3% to 17.4% in SBR compared to using the (18)F phantom. The CTQ criteria were fulfilled at first round in 100% and 28% of PET scanners with (68)Ge and (18)F respectively. The (68)Ge phantom proved a reliable tool for PET scanner qualification, able to significantly reduce the potential sources of error while increasing the reproducibility of PET derived quantitative parameter measurement. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Evaluation of the German Research Foundation's (GRF) »Clinical Trials Academy for Junior Researchers« - publications and funding profiles].

    PubMed

    Dahmen, Levka; Krummenauer, Frank

    2016-11-01

    Background | The »Clinical Trials Academy for Junior Researchers« is a strategic funding instrument of the German Research Foundation (GRF). In clinical research, this program responds to an increasing lack of qualified clinician scientists. Application for participation in the workshop is based on a self-proposed academy project; participants can furthermore apply for a GRF grant to implement this academy project. This evaluation should quantify publication and third-party-funding profiles after participation in one of the previous GRF junior researchers workshops on clinical trials. Methods | Participants of all four GRF workshops were addressed by a standardized questionnaire to consider the project related number of publications and the cumulative impact factor, as well as the cumulative project-related consequential third-party-funding. Results | 64 of 92 former participants took part in the survey. From 41 implemented projects, 32 were granted with initial financial support by the GRF. 27 publications with a cumulative impact factor of 130 impact factor points (IP) were published by 13 authors. Of the 21 persons who submitted a grant application for subsequent third-party-funding a cumulative total grant volume of 5 223 000 € was reported by 13 participants. Conclusion | Although only 13 out of 64 participants reported impact publications or third-party-funding, respectively, these junior researchers' output can be considered encouraging. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Challenging the foundations of the clinical model of foot function: further evidence that the root model assessments fail to appropriately classify foot function.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Hannah L; Nester, Christopher J; Bowden, Peter D; Jones, Richard K

    2017-01-01

    The Root model of normal and abnormal foot function remains the basis for clinical foot orthotic practice globally. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between foot deformities and kinematic compensations that are the foundations of the model. A convenience sample of 140 were screened and 100 symptom free participants aged 18-45 years were invited to participate. The static biomechanical assessment described by the Root model was used to identify five foot deformities. A 6 segment foot model was used to measure foot kinematics during gait. Statistical tests compared foot kinematics between feet with and without foot deformities and correlated the degree of deformity with any compensatory motions. None of the deformities proposed by the Root model were associated with distinct differences in foot kinematics during gait when compared to those without deformities or each other. Static and dynamic parameters were not correlated. Taken as part of a wider body of evidence, the results of this study have profound implications for clinical foot health practice. We believe that the assessment protocol advocated by the Root model is no longer a suitable basis for professional practice. We recommend that clinicians stop using sub-talar neutral position during clinical assessments and stop assessing the non-weight bearing range of ankle dorsiflexion, first ray position and forefoot alignments and movement as a means of defining the associated foot deformities. The results question the relevance of the Root assessments in the prescription of foot orthoses.

  3. Continuous Medication Monitoring (CoMM): A foundational model to support the clinical work of community pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Goedken, Amber M; Butler, Christine M; McDonough, Randal P; Deninger, Michael J; Doucette, William R

    2017-01-02

    Under the Continuous Medication Monitoring (CoMM) approach, community pharmacists prevent, identify, resolve, and document drug therapy problems during the dispensing process. To describe the patients receiving CoMM interventions and the pattern of delivery of CoMM interventions. Pharmacy dispensing and clinical records were reviewed for patients filling at least one prescription and receiving at least one continuous medication monitoring intervention at a community pharmacy from April 2014 through March 2015. The proportion of patients receiving an intervention type and the number of interventions per patient were computed. Nearly 2500 patients received 16,986 continuous medication monitoring interventions over the year. The average age of the patients receiving the interventions was 59.1 years, and they filled an average of 8.0 unique medications. An average of 6.8 interventions was delivered to each patient. About half (49.7%) of interventions addressed drug therapy problems. The pharmacists delivered 3.0 patient counseling and education and 3.4 drug therapy problem interventions per patient on average. There are many opportunities to improve patients' medication use that can be identified and addressed under a Continuous Medication Monitoring model. Movement to this model of practice is desirable, but changes are needed to facilitate the shift. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Global benchmarking of medical student learning outcomes? Implementation and pilot results of the International Foundations of Medicine Clinical Sciences Exam at The University of Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, David; Schafer, Jennifer; Hewett, David; Eley, Diann; Swanson, Dave

    2014-01-01

    To report pilot results for international benchmarking of learning outcomes among 426 final year medical students at the University of Queensland (UQ), Australia. Students took the International Foundations of Medicine (IFOM) Clinical Sciences Exam (CSE) developed by the National Board of Medical Examiners, USA, as a required formative assessment. IFOM CSE comprises 160 multiple-choice questions in medicine, surgery, obstetrics, paediatrics and mental health, taken over 4.5 hours. Significant implementation issues; IFOM scores and benchmarking with International Comparison Group (ICG) scores and United States Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE) Step 2 Clinical Knowledge (CK) scores; and correlation with UQ medical degree cumulative grade point average (GPA). Implementation as an online exam, under university-mandated conditions was successful. Mean IFOM score was 531.3 (maximum 779-minimum 200). The UQ cohort performed better (31% scored below 500) than the ICG (55% below 500). However 49% of the UQ cohort did not meet the USMLE Step 2 CK minimum score. Correlation between IFOM scores and UQ cumulative GPA was reasonable at 0.552 (p < 0.001). International benchmarking is feasible and provides a variety of useful benchmarking opportunities.

  5. Developing the continuum of dental education: including dental foundation trainers in the delivery of a community-based clinical teaching programme.

    PubMed

    Lynch, C D; Ash, P J; Chadwick, B L; Herbert, R A; Cowpe, J G

    2012-11-01

    Despite advances in evidence-based dental school educational programmes, the charge is sometimes made that dental students are 'no longer as good as they used to be'. Recent modifications have meant that dental education is now a 'life-long experience', of which dental school is the initial, albeit very important, component. Contemporary dental students will normally enter dental foundation (DF) training on completion of dental school. As such there may be value in including DF trainers in dental school teaching programmes. The aim of this paper is to report the experiences, feedback and opinions of these DF trainers following their first-hand experience of the community-based clinical teaching programme at Cardiff, and assess if their perspectives of contemporary dental student education changed following this. DF trainers were invited to attend the community-based clinical teaching programme at Cardiff on an observer basis. Twenty-four DF trainers attended, following which evaluation questionnaires were completed. Information sought included opinions and attitudes to the teaching programme, the physical environment in which the teaching programme took place, knowledge and attitudes towards community-based clinical teaching and modifications that DF trainers would make to the teaching programme to further improve the knowledge, skills and attributes of dental school graduates for DF training. Responses were received from 20 DF trainers (response rate = 83%). All 20 respondents felt that the teaching provided within the community-based clinical teaching programme was appropriate, with one respondent noting that it was like 'a day in the life of a dental practice', 'where anything could present'. Sixteen respondents were satisfied with the scope and content of the community-based clinical teaching programme, with a small number recommending inclusion of teaching in relation to inlays/onlays (n = 2), simple orthodontics (n = 1) and splinting (n = 1). Eighteen

  6. Alport Syndrome Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Groups Hear From the Experts Follow us on Facebook! Alport Syndrome Foundation of USA 3 days ago ... by Alport Syndrome Foundation on Flickr! View on Facebook · Share View on Facebook The Alport Syndrome Foundation ...

  7. Proteus Syndrome Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gift Stock Gift Sunshine Society Contact Privacy Policy Proteus Syndrome Foundation The Proteus Syndrome Foundation , a 501c3 ... 1 Trial with ARQ 092 in Proteus Syndrome Proteus Syndrome Patient Registry The Proteus Syndrome Foundation Contact ...

  8. Subtrochanteric fractures after long-term treatment with bisphosphonates: a European Society on Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis, and International Osteoporosis Foundation Working Group Report

    PubMed Central

    Åkesson, K.; Bouxsein, M.; Kanis, J. A.; Napoli, N.; Papapoulos, S.; Reginster, J.-Y.; Cooper, C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary This paper reviews the evidence for an association between atypical subtrochanteric fractures and long-term bisphosphonate use. Clinical case reports/reviews and case–control studies report this association, but retrospective phase III trial analyses show no increased risk. Bisphosphonate use may be associated with atypical subtrochanteric fractures, but the case is yet unproven. Introduction A Working Group of the European Society on Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis and the International Osteoporosis Foundation has reviewed the evidence for a causal association between subtrochanteric fractures and long-term treatment with bisphosphonates, with the aim of identifying areas for further research and providing recommendations for physicians. Methods A PubMed search of literature from 1994 to May 2010 was performed using key search terms, and articles pertinent to subtrochanteric fractures following bisphosphonate use were analysed. Results Several clinical case reports and case reviews report a possible association between atypical fractures at the subtrochanteric region of the femur in bisphosphonate-treated patients. Common features of these ‘atypical’ fractures include prodromal pain, occurrence with minimal/no trauma, a thickened diaphyseal cortex and transverse fracture pattern. Some small case–control studies report the same association, but a large register-based study and retrospective analyses of phase III trials of bisphosphonates do not show an increased risk of subtrochanteric fractures with bisphosphonate use. The number of atypical subtrochanteric fractures in association with bisphosphonates is an estimated one per 1,000 per year. It is recommended that physicians remain vigilant in assessing their patients treated with bisphosphonates for the treatment or prevention of osteoporosis and advise patients of the potential risks. Conclusions Bisphosphonate use may be associated with atypical subtrochanteric

  9. Treatment of patients with Waldenström macroglobulinaemia: clinical practice guidelines from the Myeloma Foundation of Australia Medical and Scientific Advisory Group.

    PubMed

    Talaulikar, Dipti; Tam, Constantine S; Joshua, Douglas; Ho, Joy Phoebe; Szer, Jeff; Quach, Hang; Spencer, Andrew; Harrison, Simon; Mollee, Peter; Roberts, Andrew W; Horvath, Noemi; Lee, Cindy; Zannettino, Andrew; Brown, Ross; Augustson, Bradley; Jaksic, Wilfrid; Gibson, John; Kalff, Anna; Johnston, Anna; Trotman, Judith; Kalro, Akash; Grigoriadis, George; Ward, Chris; Prince, H Miles

    2017-01-01

    Waldenström macroglobulinaemia (WM) is an indolent B-cell malignancy characterised by the presence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) paraprotein and bone marrow infiltration by clonal small B lymphocytes, plasmacytoid lymphocytes and plasma cells. The symptoms of WM are protean, often follow an asymptomatic phase and may include complications related to the paraneoplastic effects of IgM paraprotein. The revised 2016 World Health Organization classification includes the MYD88 L265P mutation, which is seen in >90% of cases, within the diagnostic criteria for WM. While treatment of WM has often been considered together with other indolent B cell lymphomas, there are unique aspects of WM management that require specific care. These include the unreliability of IgM and paraprotein measurements in monitoring patients prior to and after treatment, the lack of correlation between disease burden and symptoms and rituximab-induced IgM flare. Moreover, while bendamustine and rituximab has recently been approved for reimbursed frontline use in WM in Australia, other regimens, including ibrutinib- and bortezomib-based treatments, are not funded, requiring tailoring of treatment to the regional regulatory environment. The Medical and Scientific Advisory Group of the Myeloma Foundation Australia has therefore developed clinical practice guidelines with specific recommendations for the work-up and therapy of WM to assist Australian clinicians in the management of this disease. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  10. Images of the Foundations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Kathryn M., Ed.; O'Reilly, Patricia, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This theme issue of the serial "Educational Foundations" contains five articles devoted to the "Images of the Foundations." In "Through the Disarray of Social Foundations: Some Some Notes Toward a New Social Foundations" (Erwin V. Johanningmeier) traces developments in the field and challenges a move beyond the images…

  11. Official Positions for FRAX® clinical regarding international differences from Joint Official Positions Development Conference of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry and International Osteoporosis Foundation on FRAX®.

    PubMed

    Cauley, Jane A; El-Hajj Fuleihan, Ghada; Arabi, Asma; Fujiwara, Saeko; Ragi-Eis, Sergio; Calderon, Andrew; Chionh, Siok Bee; Chen, Zhao; Curtis, Jeffrey R; Danielson, Michelle E; Hanley, David A; Kroger, Heikki; Kung, Annie W C; Lesnyak, Olga; Nieves, Jeri; Pluskiewicz, Wojciech; El Rassi, Rola; Silverman, Stuart; Schott, Anne-Marie; Rizzoli, Rene; Luckey, Marjorie

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a serious worldwide epidemic. Increased risk of fractures is the hallmark of the disease and is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and economic burden. FRAX® is a web-based tool developed by the Sheffield WHO Collaborating Center team, that integrates clinical risk factors, femoral neck BMD, country specific mortality and fracture data and calculates the 10 year fracture probability in order to help health care professionals identify patients who need treatment. However, only 31 countries have a FRAX® calculator at the time paper was accepted for publication. In the absence of a FRAX® model for a particular country, it has been suggested to use a surrogate country for which the epidemiology of osteoporosis most closely approximates the index country. More specific recommendations for clinicians in these countries are not available. In North America, concerns have also been raised regarding the assumptions used to construct the US ethnic specific FRAX® calculators with respect to the correction factors applied to derive fracture probabilities in Blacks, Asians and Hispanics in comparison to Whites. In addition, questions were raised about calculating fracture risk in other ethnic groups e.g., Native Americans and First Canadians. In order to provide additional guidance to clinicians, a FRAX® International Task Force was formed to address specific questions raised by physicians in countries without FRAX® calculators and seeking to integrate FRAX® into their clinical practice. The main questions that the task force tried to answer were the following: The Task Force members conducted appropriate literature reviews and developed preliminary statements that were discussed and graded by a panel of experts at the ISCD-IOF joint conference. The statements approved by the panel of experts are discussed in the current paper.

  12. Mathematical foundations of biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Niederer, Peter F

    2010-01-01

    The aim of biomechanics is the analysis of the structure and function of humans, animals, and plants by means of the methods of mechanics. Its foundations are in particular embedded in mathematics, physics, and informatics. Due to the inherent multidisciplinary character deriving from its aim, biomechanics has numerous connections and overlapping areas with biology, biochemistry, physiology, and pathophysiology, along with clinical medicine, so its range is enormously wide. This treatise is mainly meant to serve as an introduction and overview for readers and students who intend to acquire a basic understanding of the mathematical principles and mechanics that constitute the foundation of biomechanics; accordingly, its contents are limited to basic theoretical principles of general validity and long-range significance. Selected examples are included that are representative for the problems treated in biomechanics. Although ultimate mathematical generality is not in the foreground, an attempt is made to derive the theory from basic principles. A concise and systematic formulation is thereby intended with the aim that the reader is provided with a working knowledge. It is assumed that he or she is familiar with the principles of calculus, vector analysis, and linear algebra.

  13. National Emphysema Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    National Emphysema Foundation (NEF) Skip to content Jump to main navigation and login Nav view search Navigation Search Javascript ... ru - free templates joomla Welcome to the National Emphysema Foundation (NEF) This site is for the benefit ...

  14. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Search How We Work Our Focus Areas About RWJF Search Menu How We Work Grants and Grant ... more For Grantees and Grantseekers The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funds a wide array of programs which ...

  15. Cooley's Anemia Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... role in their lives. Welcome to the Cooley's Anemia Foundation Website The Cooley's Anemia Foundation is dedicated to serving people afflicted with ... major form of this genetic blood disease, Cooley's anemia/thalassemia major. Our mission is advancing the treatment ...

  16. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Search How We Work Our Focus Areas About RWJF Search Menu How We Work Grants and Grant ... message For Grantees and Grantseekers The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funds a wide array of programs which ...

  17. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... you insights into your child's treatment. LEARN MORE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation Board Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  18. Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Better Bones Upcoming Events Online Store What is Osteogenesis Imperfecta? Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is a genetic bone disorder ... known as "brittle bone disease." Learn More The Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation The OI Foundation provides medically verified information ...

  19. The foundation of physicianship.

    PubMed

    Fuks, Abraham; Brawer, James; Boudreau, J Donald

    2012-01-01

    Although the practice of medicine continually changes in response to new biomedical understanding, novel technologies, and evolving cultural contexts, the ethical foundations of the clinical relationship between patient and physician paradoxically remain constant. There are fundamental characteristics with respect to character, behavior, and responsibilities that are descriptive of and necessary to the role of healer and that underpin the notion of physicianship. This article discusses the underlying characteristics or virtues that are necessary to the practice of medicine from the perspectives of three different philosophic traditions: the Aristotelian idea of phronesis as developed in the work of Edmund Pellegrino; the notion of alterity as framed by Emmanuel Levinas; and the attributes necessary to healing as laid out in the kabbala.

  20. The Future of Foundations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Lawrence

    1974-01-01

    On account of the Tax Reform Act of 1969 (taxing income of a foundation) foundations have developed more rationale grant-making philosophies, longer term grants, more evaluation of grantees, and greater responsibility on the part of the foundations for grantee survival. (Author/PG)

  1. The Future of Foundations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Lawrence

    1974-01-01

    On account of the Tax Reform Act of 1969 (taxing income of a foundation) foundations have developed more rationale grant-making philosophies, longer term grants, more evaluation of grantees, and greater responsibility on the part of the foundations for grantee survival. (Author/PG)

  2. New clinical trial will test immunotherapy for type of HPV infection | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Vulvar high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) is caused by chronic infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16. Patients with vulvar HSIL have an increased risk of developing cancer. Lesions are usually treated surgically. However, the vulvar lesions commonly recur because of persistent systemic infection with HPV. Christian Hinrichs, M.D., a Lasker Clinical Research Scholar in the Experimental Transplantation and Immunology Branch is leading a study of a systemic immunotherapy directed at killing the HPV infection causing vulvar HSIL. Read more...

  3. NCI collaborates with Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) announced a collaboration with the Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation (MMRF) to incorporate MMRF's wealth of genomic and clinical data on the disease into the NCI Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a publicly available datab

  4. Foundation Design Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Carmody, John; Mosiman, Garrett; Handeen, Daniel; Huelman, Patrick; Christian, Jeffery

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide information that will enable designers, builders, and homeowners to understand foundation design problems and solutions. The foundation of a house is a somewhat invisible and sometimes ignored component of the building. It is increasingly evident, however, that attention to good foundation design and construction has significant benefits to the homeowner and the builder, and can avoid some serious future problems. Good foundation design and construction practice means not only insulating to save energy, but also providing effective structural design as well as moisture, termite, and radon control techniques where appropriate.

  5. Seeking Foundation Grants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Barbara Stewart

    Institutions seeking supplementary funding should not be afraid of approaching foundations for grants but should be sure that they understand the grant-seeking process so they do not waste time and effort sending inadequate proposals to uninterested foundations. This booklet, a guide to grantsmanship intended primarily for Catholic educators,…

  6. Foundations for Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy; Chun, Marc; Daly, William T.; Harrington, Christine; Tobolowsky, Barbara F.

    2015-01-01

    "Foundations for Critical Thinking" explores the landscape of critical-thinking skill development and pedagogy through foundational chapters and institutional case studies involving a range of students in diverse settings. By establishing a link between active learning and improved critical thinking, this resource encourages all higher…

  7. National Science Foundation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Kent K.

    Established by Congressional Act in 1950, the National Science Foundation (NSF) is charged with a variety of responsibilities in the areas of education, research, applications of research, data gathering, and information dissemination. The foundation is governed by an appointed director and a national board and is primarily funded by the federal…

  8. Establishing a University Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemish, Donald L.

    A handbook on how to establish a university foundation is presented. It presupposes that a foundation will be used as the umbrella organization for receiving all private gifts, restricted and unrestricted, for the benefit of a public college or university; and hence it chiefly addresses readers from public colleges and universities. Information is…

  9. Establishing a University Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemish, Donald L.

    A handbook on how to establish a university foundation is presented. It presupposes that a foundation will be used as the umbrella organization for receiving all private gifts, restricted and unrestricted, for the benefit of a public college or university; and hence it chiefly addresses readers from public colleges and universities. Information is…

  10. Foundations for Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy; Chun, Marc; Daly, William T.; Harrington, Christine; Tobolowsky, Barbara F.

    2015-01-01

    "Foundations for Critical Thinking" explores the landscape of critical-thinking skill development and pedagogy through foundational chapters and institutional case studies involving a range of students in diverse settings. By establishing a link between active learning and improved critical thinking, this resource encourages all higher…

  11. Foundation Development Abstracts, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James M., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This series of brief two-page essays is published quarterly by the Network of California Community College Foundations to address topics related to development activities typically conducted by educational foundations. Volume 1 includes "Your Message is as Clear as Your Mission Statement," by Pat Rasmussen and James M. Anderson, which suggests…

  12. Dallas's Nonprofit Foundation Founders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Dan

    1979-01-01

    Describes the scandals that have destroyed the Foundation for Quality Education, the foundation the Dallas (Texas) school district created to raise money for the schools through real estate management and the marketing of school-system-developed curriculum materials. (Author/IRT)

  13. [The "Hersbruck Model". Application and integration of the DIN EN ISO 9001 quality norms with criteria of the European Foundation for Quality Management in a clinic].

    PubMed

    Fritze, B; Amon, U

    1999-11-01

    The german health system has dramatically changed and still continues to do so. Modified aspects concerning economy, customer orientation, competition, quality assurance and quality management seem to be increasingly important. Appropriate response to this challenge demands a relevant adjustment of a quality "philosophy" within a hospital. The "Hersbruck Model" has proven to be a suitable approach: on the basis of a quality management system--established and certified according to DIN EN ISO 9001--it implements all components of the model of the European Foundation for Quality Management. The modern quality tools as Total Quality Management and continuous quality improvement allow a permanent increase of customer/patient satisfaction.

  14. Builder's foundation handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Carmody, J. . Underground Space Center); Christian, J. ); Labs, K. )

    1991-05-01

    This handbook contains a worksheet for selecting insulation levels based on specific building construction, climate, HVAC equipment, insulation cost, and other economic considerations. The worksheet permits optimization of foundation insulation levels for new or retrofit applications. Construction details representing good practices for the design and installation of energy efficient basement, crawl space, and slab-n-grade foundations are the focal point of the handbook. The construction details are keyed to lists of critical design information useful for specifying structural integrity; thermal and vapor control; subsurface drainage; waterproofing; and mold, mildew, odor, decay, termite, and radon control strategies. Another useful feature are checklist chapter summaries covering major design considerations for each foundation type--basement, crawl space, and slab-on-grade. These checklist summaries are useful during design and construction inspection. The information in this handbook is drawn heavily from the first foundation handbook from the DOE/ORNL Building Envelope Systems and Materials Program, the Building Foundation Design Handbook (Labs et al., 1988), which is an extensive technical reference manual. This book presents what to do in foundation design'' in an inviting, concise format. This handbook is intended to serve the needs of active home builders; however, the information is pertinent to anyone involved in foundation design and construction decisions including homeowners, architects, and engineers. 17 refs., 49 figs., 18 tabs.

  15. The Foundation Programme in psychiatry: a qualitative study into the effects of a foundation placement

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Ann; Davies, Sophie; Dogra, Nisha; Perry, Jennifer; Fosker, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method There is a drive to increase the number of psychiatry foundation placements to ensure that training keeps up with the changing health and social care landscape. This qualitative study aimed to explore, by interview, the experiences of 17 doctors who have completed a foundation placement in psychiatry. Results The study highlights the benefits of foundation psychiatry placements and some of their positive and negative aspects. Clinical implications Those developing foundation placements will need to ensure they are of high quality. PMID:27752349

  16. National Ataxia Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... in San Antonio! Charity Navigator Awards NAF Four-Star Rating Charity Navigator, America’s premier charity evaluator, has ... Ataxia Foundation received a four out of four star rating. This is the fourth consecutive year NAF ...

  17. Foundation Fighting Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Campaign to End Blindness Other Ways to Fight Blindness Corporate Support Volunteer Take Action Honor a Loved ... taking place nationwide. Join Us We Are Ending Blindness The urgent mission of the Foundation Fighting Blindness ...

  18. Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Percentage Donations Tribute Wall Other Giving/Fundraising Opportunities Bitcoin Donation Form FAQs Mesothelioma Awareness Day: Find out ... Percentage Donations Tribute Wall Other Giving/Fundraising Opportunities Bitcoin Donation Form FAQs © 2017 Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation, ...

  19. National Psoriasis Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... 723-9166 | Submit a Question | Learn More National Psoriasis Foundation provides you with the help you need to best manage your psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis, while promoting research to find ...

  20. National Reye's Syndrome Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Packages - Free! Talking to Tweens and Teens About Aspirin and Other Medications Join the Effort to Eradicate ... Foundation's LinkedIn profile Spread Awareness with the Kids & Aspirin Don't Mix car magnet ribbon. Get News & ...

  1. National Osteonecrosis Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Foundation is made up of a group of patients, physicians and others who want to see the end ... NONF Brochure | Legg Perthes Disease Borchure | Membership Form | Patient Questionnaire | Physician Members Copyright © 2014, National Osteonecrosis Foundaton. All Rights ...

  2. Children's Cardiomyopathy Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Washington, D.C. and help cardiomyopathy related bills get passed into law and protect at-risk children from sudden cardiac death. TAKE ACTION TODAY Disclaimer & Privacy Policy © 2017 Children's Cardiomyopathy Foundation. All rights reserved.

  3. National Parkinson Foundation, Inc.

    MedlinePlus

    ... Amantadine (Gocovri™) for Treatment of Dyskinesia August 25, 2017 Statement from the Parkinson’s Foundation Medical Director, Michael ... Investment to Early Career Parkinson’s Scientists August 8, 2017 $1.2 Million Investment to Advance Careers, Support ...

  4. Skin Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Glossary Information on medications and procedures The 2017 Skin Cancer Foundation Journal The latest in skin cancer prevention, detection and treatment 2017 Champions for Change Gala Purchase tickets Research Grants ...

  5. Hepatitis B Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... worldwide 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working ... of people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 11 Other Languages . Resource Video See ...

  6. Lupus Foundation of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Testing New Treatments Learn More About the Lupus Foundation of America We are devoted to solving ... Spam Control Text: Please leave this field empty Lupus FAQ What is lupus? What are the common ...

  7. National Headache Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Headache Disorders New Perspectives on Caffeine and Headache War Veterans Health Resource Initiative National Headache Foundation Brochures ... Sign up for NHF Updates . CAQ in Headache Medicine In 2015, NHF will be offering a Certificate ...

  8. Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... to issue a television public service announcement (PSA). STARS PERFORM FOR SOLD-OUT AUDIENCE AT BROADWAY BELTS ... Patients The Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation has a four-star rating from Charity Navigator and is a Better ...

  9. Australian Mineral Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, D. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides details on the philosophy and operation of the Australian Mineral Foundation, established in 1970 to update professionals in the mining and petroleum industries. Services in continuing education courses and to secondary school teachers and students are described. (CS)

  10. Children's Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... CBTF Justin's Hope Fund Grant Recipients Grants Children’s Brain Tumor Foundation, A non-profit organization, was founded ... and the long term outlook for children with brain and spinal cord tumors through research, support, education, ...

  11. United Leukodystrophy Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... for his ... Read More 26 June 2017 5K & Volleyball The United Leukodystrophy Foundation sends out a great ... Nebraska, the Sinnott Sand Bar ran its annual volleyball tournament, ... Read More 22 June 2017 Michelle Fingeroot ...

  12. Building foundation design handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Labs, K.; Carmody, J.; Sterling, R.; Shen, L.; Huang, Yu Joe; Parker, D.

    1988-05-01

    This design handbook contains a concise set of typical residential foundation construction details and recommends cost-effective insulation levels for a variety of basements, crawl spaces, and slab-on-grade foundations for most US regions. The construction details are accompanied by the critical design information needed for specifying structural integrity; thermal and vapor controls; subsurface drainage; waterproofing; backfilling and compaction; and decay, termite, and radon control measures. 402 refs., 122 figs., 97 tabs.

  13. Case study and case-based research in emergency nursing and care: Theoretical foundations and practical application in paramedic pre-hospital clinical judgment and decision-making of patients with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Shaban, Ramon Z; Considine, Julie; Fry, Margaret; Curtis, Kate

    2017-02-01

    Generating knowledge through quality research is fundamental to the advancement of professional practice in emergency nursing and care. There are multiple paradigms, designs and methods available to researchers to respond to challenges in clinical practice. Systematic reviews, randomised control trials and other forms of experimental research are deemed the gold standard of evidence, but there are comparatively few such trials in emergency care. In some instances it is not possible or appropriate to undertake experimental research. When exploring new or emerging problems where there is limited evidence available, non-experimental methods are required and appropriate. This paper provides the theoretical foundations and an exemplar of the use of case study and case-based research to explore a new and emerging problem in the context of emergency care. It examines pre-hospital clinical judgement and decision-making of mental illness by paramedics. Using an exemplar the paper explores the theoretical foundations and conceptual frameworks of case study, it explains how cases are defined and the role researcher in this form of inquiry, it details important principles and the procedures for data gathering and analysis, and it demonstrates techniques to enhance trustworthiness and credibility of the research. Moreover, it provides theoretically and practical insights into using case study in emergency care.

  14. Official Positions for FRAX® Bone Mineral Density and FRAX® simplification from Joint Official Positions Development Conference of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry and International Osteoporosis Foundation on FRAX®.

    PubMed

    Lewiecki, E Michael; Compston, Juliet E; Miller, Paul D; Adachi, Jonathan D; Adams, Judith E; Leslie, William D; Kanis, John A; Moayyeri, Alireza; Adler, Robert A; Hans, Didier B; Kendler, David L; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Krieg, Marc-Antoine; Masri, Basel K; Lorenc, Roman R; Bauer, Douglas C; Blake, Glen M; Josse, Robert G; Clark, Patricia; Khan, Aliya A

    2011-01-01

    Tools to predict fracture risk are useful for selecting patients for pharmacological therapy in order to reduce fracture risk and redirect limited healthcare resources to those who are most likely to benefit. FRAX® is a World Health Organization fracture risk assessment algorithm for estimating the 10-year probability of hip fracture and major osteoporotic fracture. Effective application of FRAX® in clinical practice requires a thorough understanding of its limitations as well as its utility. For some patients, FRAX® may underestimate or overestimate fracture risk. In order to address some of the common issues encountered with the use of FRAX® for individual patients, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) and International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) assigned task forces to review the medical evidence and make recommendations for optimal use of FRAX® in clinical practice. Among the issues addressed were the use of bone mineral density (BMD) measurements at skeletal sites other than the femoral neck, the use of technologies other than dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, the use of FRAX® without BMD input, the use of FRAX® to monitor treatment, and the addition of the rate of bone loss as a clinical risk factor for FRAX®. The evidence and recommendations were presented to a panel of experts at the Joint ISCD-IOF FRAX® Position Development Conference, resulting in the development of Joint ISCD-IOF Official Positions addressing FRAX®-related issues. Copyright © 2011 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comprehensive Psychopathological Assessment Based on the Association for Methodology and Documentation in Psychiatry (AMDP) System: Development, Methodological Foundation, Application in Clinical Routine, and Research.

    PubMed

    Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter; Haug, Achim; Fähndrich, Erdmann; Rösler, Michael; Trabert, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    The documentation of psychopathology is core to the clinical practice of the psychiatrist and clinical psychologist. However, both in initial as well as further training and specialization in their fields, this particular aspect of their work receives scanty attention only. Yet, for the past 50 years, the Association for Methodology and Documentation in Psychiatry (AMDP) System has been in existence and available as a tool to serve precisely the purpose of offering a systematic introduction to the terminology and documentation of psychopathology. The motivation for its development was based on the need for an assessment procedure for the reliable documentation of the effectiveness of newly developed psychopharmacological substances. Subsequently, the AMDP-System began to be applied in the context of investigations into a number of methodological issues in psychiatry (e.g., the frequency and specificity of particular symptoms, the comparison of rating scales). The System then became increasingly important also in clinical practice and, today, represents the most used instrument for the documentation of psychopathology in the German-speaking countries of Europe. This paper intends to offer an overview of the AMDP-System, its origins, design, and functionality. After an initial account of the history and development of the AMDP-System, the discussion will in turn focus on the System's underlying methodological principles, the transfer of clinical skills and competencies in its practical application, and its use in research and clinical practice. Finally, potential future areas of development in relation to the AMDP-System are explored.

  16. Strength and Function Response to Clinical Interventions of Older Women Categorized by Weakness and Low Lean Mass Using Classifications From the Foundation for the National Institute of Health Sarcopenia Project

    PubMed Central

    Fragala, Maren S.; Dam, Thuy-Tien L.; Barber, Vanessa; Judge, James O.; Studenski, Stephanie A.; Cawthon, Peggy M.; McLean, Robert R.; Harris, Tamara B.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack M.; Kiel, Douglas P.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Shardell, Michelle D.; Vassileva, Maria T.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Foundation for the National Institutes of Health Sarcopenia Project developed data-driven cut-points for clinically meaningful weakness and low lean body mass. This analysis describes strength and function response to interventions based on these classifications. Methods. In data from four intervention studies, 378 postmenopausal women with baseline and 6-month data were evaluated for change in grip strength, appendicular lean mass corrected for body mass index, leg strength and power, and short physical performance battery (SPPB). Clinical interventions included hormones, exercise, and nutritional supplementation. Differences in outcomes were evaluated between (i) those with and without weakness and (ii) those with weakness and low lean mass or with one but not the other. We stratified analyses by slowness (walking speed ≤ 0.8 m/s) and by treatment assignment. Results. The women (72±7 years; body mass index of 26±5kg/m2) were weak (33%), had low lean mass (14%), or both (6%). Those with weakness increased grip strength, lost less leg power, and gained SPPB score (p < .05) compared with nonweak participants. Stratified analyses were similar for grip strength and SPPB. With lean mass in the analysis, individuals with weakness had larger gains in grip strength and SPPB scores regardless of low lean mass (p < .01). Conclusions. Older women with clinically meaningful muscle weakness increased grip strength and SPPB, regardless of the presence of low lean mass following treatment with interventions for frailty. Thus, results suggest that muscle weakness, as defined by the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health Sarcopenia Project, appears to be a treatable symptom. PMID:25135999

  17. Cases from the Cleveland Clinic Foundation: What's Knowledge Got to Do with It? Ethics, Epistemology, and Intractable Conflicts in the Medical Setting.

    PubMed

    Kibbe, Bryan; Ford, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    This article utilizes the case of Ms H. to examine the contrasting ways that surrogate decision makers move from simply hearing information about the patient to actually knowing and understanding the patient's medical condition. The focus of the case is on a family's request to actually see the patient's wounds instead of being told about the wounds, and the role of clinical ethicists in facilitating this request. We argue that clinical ethicists have an important role to play in the work of converting information into knowledge and that this can serve as a valuable way forward in the midst of seemingly intractable conflicts in the medical setting.

  18. Comprehensive Psychopathological Assessment Based on the Association for Methodology and Documentation in Psychiatry (AMDP) System: Development, Methodological Foundation, Application in Clinical Routine, and Research

    PubMed Central

    Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter; Haug, Achim; Fähndrich, Erdmann; Rösler, Michael; Trabert, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    The documentation of psychopathology is core to the clinical practice of the psychiatrist and clinical psychologist. However, both in initial as well as further training and specialization in their fields, this particular aspect of their work receives scanty attention only. Yet, for the past 50 years, the Association for Methodology and Documentation in Psychiatry (AMDP) System has been in existence and available as a tool to serve precisely the purpose of offering a systematic introduction to the terminology and documentation of psychopathology. The motivation for its development was based on the need for an assessment procedure for the reliable documentation of the effectiveness of newly developed psychopharmacological substances. Subsequently, the AMDP-System began to be applied in the context of investigations into a number of methodological issues in psychiatry (e.g., the frequency and specificity of particular symptoms, the comparison of rating scales). The System then became increasingly important also in clinical practice and, today, represents the most used instrument for the documentation of psychopathology in the German-speaking countries of Europe. This paper intends to offer an overview of the AMDP-System, its origins, design, and functionality. After an initial account of the history and development of the AMDP-System, the discussion will in turn focus on the System’s underlying methodological principles, the transfer of clinical skills and competencies in its practical application, and its use in research and clinical practice. Finally, potential future areas of development in relation to the AMDP-System are explored. PMID:28439242

  19. Cultivating Foundation Support for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Mary Kay, Ed.

    The process of acquiring financial support from private foundations is discussed in 26 essays, divided into five categories (Targeting the Foundation Market; Getting Started: Tools of the Trade; The Process of Foundation Fund Raising; The Grant Maker's Perspective; and Focused Programs and Foundation Support). A prologue, "Ethics and Foundation…

  20. Cultivating Foundation Support for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Mary Kay, Ed.

    The process of acquiring financial support from private foundations is discussed in 26 essays, divided into five categories (Targeting the Foundation Market; Getting Started: Tools of the Trade; The Process of Foundation Fund Raising; The Grant Maker's Perspective; and Focused Programs and Foundation Support). A prologue, "Ethics and Foundation…

  1. Foundation for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Directorate for Education and Human Resources.

    This document describes some of the many programs sponsored by the National Science Foundation in its efforts to continue to promote systemic science and mathematics education reform. Brief descriptions of the following programs are included: (1) Interactive Math Program Restructures 9-12 Math Education; (2) Algebra I Project Sparks Citywide…

  2. American Liver Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Foundation is included in CharityWatch’s 2016 list of Top-Rated Charities and is a Member of the World Hepatitis Alliance. ––––––––––––––––– Begin Code for Siteimprove Analytics –––––––––

  3. Supergravity:. Foundations and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceresole, Anna; Ferrara, Sergio

    2012-12-01

    We briefly discuss the foundations of Supergravity as a gauge theory of supersymmetry, its mathematical structure and the basic lagrangians for N-extended supersymmetry. As applications, we describe the basic elements of the supersymmetry breaking mechanism and various aspects of the physics of extremal black holes.

  4. Foundations of Biomolecular Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Jorgensen, William L.

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded to Martin Kaplus, Michael Levitt, and Arieh Warshel for “Development of Multiscale Models for Complex Chemical Systems”. The honored work from the 1970s has provided a foundation for the widespread activities today in modeling organic and biomolecular systems. PMID:24315087

  5. The Broad Foundations, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broad Foundation, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The mission of the Broad Foundations is to transform K-12 urban public education through better governance, management, labor relations and competition; make significant contributions to advance major scientific and medical research; foster public appreciation of contemporary art by increasing access for audiences worldwide; and lead and…

  6. The Broad Foundations, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broad Foundation, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This 2008 foundation report provides an opportunity to look back and ahead as the organization reviews what has been accomplished and identifies challenges to be tackled in the future in the areas of education, scientific and medical research, and the arts. Grant making from the perspective of grantees is presented in each area. [This document was…

  7. Kessler Foundation Research Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... format >> Map it with Google Maps Our other location 1199 Pleasant Valley Way West Orange, NJ 07052 973.324.3571 click to download directions in PDF format >> Map it with Google Maps email us @ info@kesslerfoundation.org Kessler Foundation 2015 © | accessibility statement | careers | privacy policy | press releases

  8. National Heart Foundation of Australia and Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand: Australian clinical guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes 2016.

    PubMed

    Chew, Derek P; Scott, Ian A; Cullen, Louise; French, John K; Briffa, Tom G; Tideman, Philip A; Woodruffe, Stephen; Kerr, Alistair; Branagan, Maree; Aylward, Philip Eg

    2016-08-01

    The modern care of suspected and confirmed acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is informed by an extensive and evolving evidence base. This clinical practice guideline focuses on key components of management associated with improved clinical outcomes for patients with chest pain or ACS. These are presented as recommendations that have been graded on both the strength of evidence and the likely absolute benefit versus harm. Additional considerations influencing the delivery of specific therapies and management strategies are presented as practice points. This guideline provides advice on the standardised assessment and management of patients with suspected ACS, including the implementation of clinical assessment pathways and subsequent functional and anatomical testing. It provides guidance on the: diagnosis and risk stratification of ACS; provision of acute reperfusion therapy and immediate post-fibrinolysis care for patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction; risk stratification informing the use of routine versus selective invasive management for patients with non-ST segment elevation ACS; administration of antithrombotic therapies in the acute setting and considerations affecting their long term use; and implementation of an individualised secondary prevention plan that includes both pharmacotherapies and cardiac rehabilitation. Changes in management as a result of the guideline: This guideline has been designed to facilitate the systematic integration of the recommendations into a standardised approach to ACS care, while also allowing for contextual adaptation of the recommendations in response to the individual's needs and preferences. The provision of ACS care should be subject to continuous monitoring, feedback and improvement of quality and patient outcomes.

  9. Patient-reported outcomes in clinical trials of CKD-related therapies: report of a symposium sponsored by the national kidney foundation and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Ronald D; Coons, Stephen Joel; Cavanaugh, Kerri; Finkelstein, Fred; Meyer, Klemens B

    2013-12-01

    The National Kidney Foundation and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) convened a symposium in September 2010, bringing together more than 70 experts, including representatives from the FDA, the National Institutes of Health, the Critical Path Institute, nephrologists, patients, and the pharmaceutical industry to discuss the feasibility and process of developing patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures to access how patients feel or function to be used in clinical trials for regulatory review of treatment benefit. Three disease areas were evaluated for development of end point models in which PRO measures may be useful: anemia secondary to chronic kidney disease, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), and nephrotic syndrome. The participants thought it valuable to use observational data to generate hypotheses regarding patient baseline characteristics that are likely to predict clinically important changes in PROs in response to anemia treatment and to design adequately powered blinded randomized controlled trials of anemia treatment using PROs as primary rather than secondary end points. Validated PRO instruments that reflect the patient experience in ADPKD and nephrotic syndrome are essential to incorporate into clinical trials of new therapeutic interventions because glomerular filtration rate decline may occur late in the disease course, at which point therapeutic benefit is less likely. Conference attendees addressed how PRO measures could be used to evaluate, monitor, provide care, and facilitate the introduction of treatments for patients with these challenging conditions.

  10. Foundations for engineering biology.

    PubMed

    Endy, Drew

    2005-11-24

    Engineered biological systems have been used to manipulate information, construct materials, process chemicals, produce energy, provide food, and help maintain or enhance human health and our environment. Unfortunately, our ability to quickly and reliably engineer biological systems that behave as expected remains quite limited. Foundational technologies that make routine the engineering of biology are needed. Vibrant, open research communities and strategic leadership are necessary to ensure that the development and application of biological technologies remains overwhelmingly constructive.

  11. CONVEYOR FOUNDATIONS CALCULATION

    SciTech Connect

    S. Romanos

    1995-03-10

    The purpose of these calculations is to design foundations for all conveyor supports for the surface conveyors that transport the muck resulting from the TBM operation, from the belt storage to the muck stockpile. These conveyors consist of: (1) Conveyor W-TO3, from the belt storage, at the starter tunnel, to the transfer tower. (2) Conveyor W-SO1, from the transfer tower to the material stacker, at the muck stockpile.

  12. Clinical forensic medicine and its main fields of activity from the foundation of the German Society of Legal Medicine until today.

    PubMed

    Pollak, S

    2004-09-10

    The fields mainly covered by clinical forensic medicine are subject to time-related changes which are described on the basis of the German literature of the 20th century. Some fields of forensic sexual medicine (diagnosis of virginity, proof of criminal abortion, potentia coeundi, potentia generandi, potentia concipiendi) have become less important in the daily work of medicolegal institutes, whereas victims of rape and sexual abuse continue to form a major part of the forensic examination material in the German-speaking countries. The evaluation of suspected physical child abuse has grown in importance since the 60s, and it is essentially the merit of Elisabeth Trube-Becker that this problem is now dealt with also in scientific medicine. More recently, medicolegal experts are increasingly confronted with further groups of persons: victims of domestic violence, abused/neglected seniors, refugees from countries where torture is used. A new special field, which established itself only in the 90s, is the estimation of age with regard to the criminal responsibility of suspects who have no identity papers or pretend to have none. A phenomenon frequently observed in the last two decades is the non-accidental self-infliction of injuries. Whereas in the first half of the 20th century the motive for self-mutilation was typically to evade military service, this category of injury was later mainly seen in the context of insurance fraud; more recently most forensically relevant self-inflicted injuries refer to simulated offenses (fictitious sexual offenses and robbery, attacks allegedly having a political background). One of the traditional fields of clinical forensic medicine continues to be the evaluation of victims and suspects following bodily harm and attempted homicides. In the field of civil law medicolegal experts are particularly often concerned with controversial consequences of traffic accidents (e.g. alleged whiplash injuries after rear-end collisions at low

  13. Effectiveness of continuous glucose monitoring in a clinical care environment: evidence from the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation continuous glucose monitoring (JDRF-CGM) trial.

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is effective in the management of type 1 diabetes when implemented in a manner that more closely approximates clinical practice. After completion of a 6-month randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating CGM in children, adolescents, and adults with type 1 diabetes, CGM was initiated in the trial's control group with less intensive training and follow-up than was included in the RCT. Subjects had an outpatient training session, two follow-up phone calls, and outpatient visits at 1, 4, 13, and 26 weeks. For subjects with baseline A1C > or =7.0%, the primary outcome was change in A1C at 6 months. CGM use decreased from a median of 7.0 days/week in the first month in the > or =25-year-old group, 6.3 days/week in the 15-24 year olds, and 6.8 days/week in the 8-14 year olds to 6.5, 3.3, and 3.7 days/week in the 6th month, respectively (P < 0.001 for each age-group). Among subjects with baseline A1C > or =7.0%, CGM use was associated with A1C reduction after 6 months (P = 0.02 adjusted for age-group). Severe hypoglycemia decreased from 27.7 events per 100 person-years in the 6-month control phase of the RCT to 15.0 events per 100 person-years in the 6-month follow-up CGM phase (P = 0.08). Frequent use of CGM in a clinical care setting may improve A1C and reduce episodes of hypoglycemia. However, sustained frequent use of CGM is less likely in children and adolescents than in adults.

  14. Wronski's Foundations of Mathematics.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Roi

    2016-09-01

    Argument This paper reconstructs Wronski's philosophical foundations of mathematics. It uses his critique of Lagrange's algebraic analysis as a vignette to introduce the problems that he raised, and argues that these problems have not been properly appreciated by his contemporaries and subsequent commentators. The paper goes on to reconstruct Wronski's mathematical law of creation and his notions of theory and techne, in order to put his objections to Lagrange in their philosophical context. Finally, Wronski's proof of his universal law (the expansion of a given function by any series of functions) is reviewed in terms of the above reconstruction. I argue that Wronski's philosophical approach poses an alternative to the views of his contemporary mainstream mathematicians, which brings up the contingency of their choices, and bridges the foundational concerns of early modernity with those of the twentieth-century foundations crisis. I also argue that Wronski's views may be useful to contemporary philosophy of mathematical practice, if they are read against their metaphysical grain.

  15. Foundation doctors' induction experiences.

    PubMed

    Miles, Susan; Kellett, Joanne; Leinster, Sam J

    2015-07-24

    It is well established that trainee doctors struggle with the transition from medical school to starting work and feel unprepared for many aspects of their new role. There is evidence that suitable induction experiences improve competence and confidence, but available data indicate that trainee doctors on the UK Foundation Programme are commonly not experiencing useful inductions. The aim of the reported research was to explore trainee doctors' experiences with induction during their first year of the Foundation Programme to identify the most useful characteristics. A questionnaire was designed to explore trainee doctors' experiences with induction at two points during their first Foundation year, during the first and third of three rotations, to enable all induction experiences on offer during the year to be surveyed. Data were collected using an anonymous questionnaire distributed during a teaching session, with an online version available for those trainees not present. Questions gathered information about characteristics of the inductions, usefulness of components of the inductions and what gaps exist. 192 Foundation trainee doctors completed the questionnaire during Rotation 1 and 165 during Rotation 3. The findings indicated that induction experiences at the beginning of the year, including the local Preparation for Professional Practice week, were more useful than those received for later rotations. Longer inductions were more useful than shorter. Departmental inductions were generally only moderately helpful and they missed many important characteristics. Gaps in their inductions identified by many trainees matched those aspects judged to be most useful by those trainees who had experienced these characteristics. Many Foundation trainee doctors are experiencing inadequate inductions, notably at the department level. Trainees are starting rotations in new departments without rudimentary knowledge about their role and responsibilities in that department

  16. The Role of the Foundation Board. Foundation Relations. Board Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simic, Curtis R.

    1998-01-01

    This booklet for trustees of institutions of higher education addresses the role of boards of related non-profit fund-raising foundations. The booklet begins with an explanation of four advantages of such foundations to host institutions, such as separating gift funds from public funds. Suggestions for making foundation boards more effective…

  17. Reviving the vascular surgeon-scientist: an interim assessment of the jointly sponsored Lifeline Foundation/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute William J. von Liebig Mentored Clinical Scientist Development (K08) Program.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Robert W; Schucker, Beth; Kent, K Craig; Clowes, Alexander W; Kraiss, Larry W; Mannick, John A; Yao, James S T

    2007-06-01

    The Lifeline Foundation/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute William J. von Liebig Mentored Clinical Scientist Development (K08) Award program was established as a unique partnership to support vascular surgeon-scientists. Between 1999 and 2005, 39 applications were submitted, and the overall funding rate was 49% (14 von Liebig K08s and 5 additional NHLBI K08s). Vascular surgeon K08 recipients (median age, 38 years) had held faculty appointments for 2.5 +/- 0.4 years, with 2.6 +/- 0.2 years of previous research experience and 28.4 +/- 6.2 publications. These individuals subsequently authored 5.1 +/- 0.8 peer-reviewed publications per recipient per year, of which 35% were research and 65% were clinical. Six of seven holding the K08 over 3 years had received academic promotion, and all five completing the 5-year award had achieved independent investigator status with National Institutes of Health support. The von Liebig K08 program has therefore been an effective vehicle to stimulate research career development in the field of vascular surgery.

  18. Foundations of isomathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muktibodh, A. S.

    2013-10-01

    Santilli's isomathematics has a strong foundation in the early literature of mathematics surveyed by R.H. Bruck in his land mark book `A Survey of Binary Systems' [1] dating back to 1958. This work aims at exploring the very basics of Isomathematics as suggested by Santilli [7] and [8]. The concept of `Isotopy' plays a vital role in the development of this new age mathematics. Starting with Isotopy of groupoids we develop the study of Isotopy of quasi groups and loops via Partial Planes, Projective planes, 3-nets and multiplicative 3-nets.

  19. Foundation fieldbus economics comparison

    PubMed

    Verhappen

    2000-01-01

    This paper will provide a life cycle cost comparison between installations of three different control system configurations. 1. Conventional analogue instruments. 2. HART protocol instruments with a parallel asset management system. 3. Foundation fieldbus installation. Engineering, procurement, construction, commissioning and ongoing maintenance costs will be included as part of the analysis. Data for the analysis includes equipment from multiple manufacturers so a range of expected expenses will also be provided to indicate the sensitivity of the economic calculations to supplier. All calculations will be based on the median equipment values.

  20. The Lighthouse Foundation.

    PubMed

    Crome, Sarah; Barton, Susan

    2003-04-01

    The Lighthouse Foundation is a not-for-profit organisation, dedicated to empowering young people to take responsibility for their own lives. Lighthouse provides long-term care and support within a family style environment, to young people aged between 15 and 22 years, who may otherwise be homeless. There are currently seven homes operating in Victoria. The Lighthouse model is unique in meeting many of the long-term needs of disadvantaged young people. Emphasis is placed on relationships and community, providing young people with an environment where they are trusted, challenged, and can thrive intellectually, physically, socially, spiritually and emotionally. A sense of being, and belonging, is encouraged.

  1. Students' Perceptions of Foundation Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ooms, A.; Burke, L. M.; Marks-Maran, D. J.; Webb, M.; Cooper, D.

    2012-01-01

    In 2008 there were 87,339 people enrolled on foundation degrees (FDs) in the UK (Foundation Degree Forward, 2009), and educational institutions in the UK offered 1700 different foundation degrees in over 25 subjects, with nearly 900 more in development (Action on Access, 2010). In addition, student views are seen to be of importance, as…

  2. Students' Perceptions of Foundation Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ooms, A.; Burke, L. M.; Marks-Maran, D. J.; Webb, M.; Cooper, D.

    2012-01-01

    In 2008 there were 87,339 people enrolled on foundation degrees (FDs) in the UK (Foundation Degree Forward, 2009), and educational institutions in the UK offered 1700 different foundation degrees in over 25 subjects, with nearly 900 more in development (Action on Access, 2010). In addition, student views are seen to be of importance, as…

  3. Farm Foundation Annual Report, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farm Foundation, Oak Brook, IL.

    The Farm Foundation was established in 1933 as a private agency to help coordinate the work of other public and private groups and agencies to improve agriculture and rural life without taking political positions or supporting specific legislation. An operating rather than a grant-making foundation, the foundation develops national and regional…

  4. International Rett Syndrome Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awareness Cards Tips for Families Research Our Research Strategy Scientific & Medical Advisory Boards Clinical Research Centers of Excellence Clinical Research & Trials Natural History Study Please Participate in the NHS Research Videos & Blogs ...

  5. Queensland Emergency Medicine Research Foundation: special report.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, Gerry; Codd, Catrina; Aitken, Peter; Sinnott, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Development of any new profession is dependent on the development of a special body of knowledge that is the domain of the profession. Key to this is research. Following sustained lobbying, the Queensland Government agreed to establish an emergency medicine research fund as part of an Enterprise Bargaining Agreement in 2006. That fund is managed by the Queensland Emergency Medicine Research Foundation. The present article describes the strategic approaches of the Foundation in its first 3 years, the application of research funds, and foreshadows an evaluative framework for determining the strategic value of this investment. The Foundation has developed a range of personnel and project support funding programmes, and competition for funding has increased. Ongoing evaluation will seek to determine the effectiveness of the current funding strategy on improving the effectiveness of research performance. It will also evaluate the clinical and organizational outcomes.

  6. European Lung Foundation: from local to global

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Pippa; Williams, Sîan

    2016-01-01

    Key points Although there are many patient organisations in Europe, this is not the case in all countries across the globe. Access to care is one of the main global issues highlighted by the European Lung Foundation International Patient Advisory Committee. The European Respiratory Society/European Lung Foundation Healthy Lungs for Life campaign can be used locally or globally to raise awareness of the risk factors for lung disease. Implementation science is a method that can be used to assess the feasibility of using research findings in routine healthcare in clinical settings in different parts of the world. Educational aims To show how patient- and public-focussed initiatives and activities can be adapted and modified to be effective in local, national and international settings, and to provide specific examples of these from the European Lung Foundation. PMID:28210296

  7. Changes in teaching delivery by foundation doctors.

    PubMed

    Farikullah, Jasmin; Mirza, Omar

    2015-02-01

    Contributing to the education of students as a junior doctor, with a busy rota, in an ever-evolving health care system can be challenging. A 4-month timetable was organised to fit in with both the commitments of 60 foundation doctors and 120 final-year medical students. Using the already established online undergraduate timetable system, foundation doctors created regular sign-up teaching sessions for students to attend. Foundation doctors had their teaching assessed by senior colleagues, enabling work-based assessments to be completed and mapped to their curriculum. Feedback from both students and foundation doctors was collected using free-text answers and scale ratings. A total of 49 foundation doctors and 70 medical students were involved in the pilot teaching scheme. Using thematic analysis from the feedback, 76 per cent of foundation doctors reported an increased confidence in delivering teaching. In relation to the students, 75 per cent attended regular teaching sessions, 80 per cent found the teaching sessions relevant to their learning and preparation for final examinations, and 97 per cent would recommend this scheme to the next cohort of students. Teaching hospitals should encourage regular undergraduate teaching led by foundation trainees. Incorporating a flexible timetable and ensuring teacher availability can allow the delivery of high-quality teaching that is not only beneficial for the student but also for junior doctors keen to enhance their teaching ability. By being involved in regular teaching, junior doctors are able to build the skills, attitudes and practices of being competent clinical teachers, thereby preparing them to become the educators and trainers of the future. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Foundations of Geomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Andy

    The study of the magnetic field of the Earth, or geomagnetism, is one of the oldest lines of scientific enquiry. Indeed, it has often been said that William Gilbert's De Magnete, published in 1600 and predating Isaac Newton's Principia by 87 years, can claim to be the first true scientific textbook; his study was essentially the first of academic rather than practical interest.What then, we may ask, has been accomplished in the nearly 400 intervening years up to the publication of Foundations of Geomagnetism? In short, a wealth of observational evidence, considerable physical understanding, and a great deal of mathematical apparatus have accrued, placing the subject on a much surer footing.The latter two categories are described in considerable detail, and with attendant rigor, in this book. The sphericity of the Earth means that a frequent theme in the book is the solution of the partial differential equations of electrodynamics in a spherical geometry.

  9. Fraction Sense: Foundational Understandings.

    PubMed

    Fennell, Francis Skip; Karp, Karen

    2016-08-09

    The intent of this commentary is to identify elements of fraction sense and note how the research studies provided in this special issue, in related but somewhat different ways, validate the importance of such understandings. Proficiency with fractions serves as a prerequisite for student success in higher level mathematics, as well as serving as a gateway to many occupations and varied contexts beyond the mathematics classroom. Fraction sense is developed through instructional opportunities involving fraction equivalence and magnitude, comparing and ordering fractions, using fraction benchmarks, and computational estimation. Such foundations are then extended to operations involving fractions and decimals and applications involving proportional reasoning. These components of fraction sense are all addressed in the studies provided in this issue, with particular consideration devoted to the significant importance of the use of the number line as a central representational tool for conceptually understanding fraction magnitude. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2016.

  10. Foundations of modern cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawley, John F.; Holcomb, Katherine A.

    2005-07-01

    Recent discoveries in astronomy, especially those made with data collected by satellites such as the Hubble Space Telescope and the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, have revolutionized the science of cosmology. These new observations offer the possibility that some long-standing mysteries in cosmology might be answered, including such fundamental questions as the ultimate fate of the universe. Foundations of modern cosmology provides an accessible, thorough and descriptive introduction to the physical basis for modern cosmological theory, from the big bang to a distant future dominated by dark energy. This second edition includes the latest observational results and provides the detailed background material necessary to understand their implications, with a focus on the specific model supported by these observations, the concordance model. Consistent with the book's title, emphasis is given to the scientific framework for cosmology, particularly the basics concepts of physics that underlie modern theories of relativity and cosmology; the importance of data and observations is stressed throughout. The book sketches the historical background of cosmology, and provides a review of the relevant basic physics and astronomy. After this introduction, both special and general relativity are treated, before proceeding to an in-depth discussion of the big bang theory and physics of the early universe. The book includes current research areas, including dark matter and structure formation, dark energy, the inflationary universe, and quantum cosmology. The authors' website (http://www.astro.virginia.edu/~jh8h/Foundations) offers a wealth of supplemental information, including questions and answers, references to other sources, and updates on the latest discoveries.

  11. The role of calcium supplementation in healthy musculoskeletal ageing : An expert consensus meeting of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases (ESCEO) and the International Foundation for Osteoporosis (IOF).

    PubMed

    Harvey, N C; Biver, E; Kaufman, J-M; Bauer, J; Branco, J; Brandi, M L; Bruyère, O; Coxam, V; Cruz-Jentoft, A; Czerwinski, E; Dimai, H; Fardellone, P; Landi, F; Reginster, J-Y; Dawson-Hughes, B; Kanis, J A; Rizzoli, R; Cooper, C

    2017-02-01

    The place of calcium supplementation, with or without concomitant vitamin D supplementation, has been much debated in terms of both efficacy and safety. There have been numerous trials and meta-analyses of supplementation for fracture reduction, and associations with risk of myocardial infarction have been suggested in recent years. In this report, the product of an expert consensus meeting of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases (ESCEO) and the International Foundation for Osteoporosis (IOF), we review the evidence for the value of calcium supplementation, with or without vitamin D supplementation, for healthy musculoskeletal ageing. We conclude that (1) calcium and vitamin D supplementation leads to a modest reduction in fracture risk, although population-level intervention has not been shown to be an effective public health strategy; (2) supplementation with calcium alone for fracture reduction is not supported by the literature; (3) side effects of calcium supplementation include renal stones and gastrointestinal symptoms; (4) vitamin D supplementation, rather than calcium supplementation, may reduce falls risk; and (5) assertions of increased cardiovascular risk consequent to calcium supplementation are not convincingly supported by current evidence. In conclusion, we recommend, on the basis of the current evidence, that calcium supplementation, with concomitant vitamin D supplementation, is supported for patients at high risk of calcium and vitamin D insufficiency, and in those who are receiving treatment for osteoporosis.

  12. The role of calcium supplementation in healthy musculoskeletal ageing: An Experts consensus meeting of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases (ESCEO) and the International Foundation for Osteoporosis (IOF)

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Nicholas C; Biver, Emmanuel; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Bauer, Jürgen; Branco, Jaime; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Bruyère, Olivier; Coxam, Veronique; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso; Czerwinski, Edward; Dimai, Hans; Fardellone, Patrice; Landi, Francesco; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Kanis, John A; Rizzoli, Rene; Cooper, Cyrus

    2017-01-01

    The place of calcium supplementation, with or without concomitant vitamin D supplementation, has been much debated in terms of both efficacy and safety. There have been numerous trials and meta-analyses of supplementation for fracture reduction, and associations with risk of myocardial infarction have been suggested in recent years. In this report, the product of an expert consensus meeting of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases (ESCEO) and the International Foundation for Osteoporosis (IOF), we review the evidence for the value of calcium supplementation, with or without vitamin D supplementation, for healthy musculoskeletal ageing. We conclude that: 1) calcium and vitamin D supplementation leads to a modest reduction in fracture risk, although population-level intervention has not been shown to be an effective public health strategy; 2) supplementation with calcium alone for fracture reduction is not supported by the literature; 3) side effects of calcium supplementation include renal stones and gastrointestinal symptoms; 4) vitamin D supplementation, rather than calcium supplementation, may reduce falls risk; and 5) assertions of increased cardiovascular risk consequent on calcium supplementation are not convincingly supported by current evidence. In conclusion, we recommend, on the basis of the current evidence, that calcium supplementation, with concomitant vitamin D supplementation, is supported for patients at high risk of calcium and vitamin D insufficiency, and in those who are receiving treatment for osteoporosis. PMID:27761590

  13. Mortality of people with chronic fatigue syndrome: a retrospective cohort study in England and Wales from the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust Biomedical Research Centre (SLaM BRC) Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) Register.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Emmert; Wessely, Simon; Chalder, Trudie; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Hotopf, Matthew

    2016-04-16

    Mortality associated with chronic fatigue syndrome is uncertain. We investigated mortality in individuals diagnosed with chronic fatigue syndrome in secondary and tertiary care using data from the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust Biomedical Research Centre (SLaM BRC) Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) register. We calculated standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for all-cause, suicide-specific, and cancer-specific mortality for a 7-year observation period using the number of deaths observed in SLaM records compared with age-specific and sex-specific mortality statistics for England and Wales. Study participants were included if they had had contact with the chronic fatigue service (referral, discharge, or case note entry) and received a diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome. We identified 2147 cases of chronic fatigue syndrome from CRIS and 17 deaths from Jan 1, 2007, to Dec 31, 2013. 1533 patients were women of whom 11 died, and 614 were men of whom six died. There was no significant difference in age-standardised and sex-standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for all-cause mortality (SMR 1·14, 95% CI 0·65-1·85; p=0·67) or cancer-specific mortality (1·39, 0·60-2·73; p=0·45) in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome when compared with the general population in England and Wales. This remained the case when deaths from suicide were removed from the analysis. There was a significant increase in suicide-specific mortality (SMR 6·85, 95% CI 2·22-15·98; p=0·002). We did not note increased all-cause mortality in people with chronic fatigue syndrome, but our findings show a substantial increase in mortality from suicide. This highlights the need for clinicians to be aware of the increased risk of completed suicide and to assess suicidality adequately in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre at South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust and King's College London

  14. The Rockefeller Foundation, the China Foundation, and the development of modern science in China.

    PubMed

    Schneider, L A

    1982-01-01

    Two powerful foundations, with interlocking directorates, were the most important media for transmitting American science to China and for making its development possible: In the 1920s and 1930s, the Rockefeller Foundation's China Medical Board and the China Foundation for the Promotion of Education and Culture recognized that transmission and development required much more than the transplantation of whole scientific institutions. This essay shows that, in their most mature form, the foundations' strategies were informed by a rational and coherent set of policies. Their premise was that the practice and development of advanced scientific medicine and bio-medical or natural scientific research all require an infrastructure of education, communication, physical plant, and equipment. This infrastructure did not exist before the foundations began to foster it in China. In this essay the foundations' China policies are outlined and detailed examples are given to show they built the science infrastructure amidst debate over the appropriateness of the dominant 'Johns Hopkins' institutional model and the norm of 'pure science'. In China, the 'Hopkins' model for medical training and practice featured a combination of clinical practice with sophisticated scientific laboratory research. This model and the 'pure science' norm were seriously challenged by the political and economic exigencies of the 1930s.

  15. International OCD Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help Therapists Support Groups Clinics & Programs Books and Multimedia Other Resources Search the Resource Directory Get Involved ... to offer online courses for professionals interested in learning more about treating OCD in both adults and ...

  16. American Porphyria Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... First-line Test Tests for Porphyria diagnosis Treatment Options Panhematin for Acute Porphyria Lumetine for EPP Finding a Doctor Clinical Studies Porphyria featured Television and Other Media AIP Access to Care Toolkit Get Involved ...

  17. Lymphoma Research Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... options and patient support topics. Read More LYMPHOMA RESEARCH Featured Researchers – 2017 LRF Scholars The LCRMP is ... and junior faculty who intend to focus their research and clinical careers in lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic ...

  18. National Alopecia Areata Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Products Clothing, Books & Music Wigs Hair & Skin Products Eyelashes & Brows Headwear Research Overview Our Research Clinical Trials ... Homepage Section Shop for products and accessories Find eyelashes, eyebrows, hairpieces, scarves and hats to help cover ...

  19. Foundations of resilience thinking.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Charles G; Parker, Jessica P

    2014-08-01

    Through 3 broad and interconnected streams of thought, resilience thinking has influenced the science of ecology and natural resource management by generating new multidisciplinary approaches to environmental problem solving. Resilience science, adaptive management (AM), and ecological policy design (EPD) contributed to an internationally unified paradigm built around the realization that change is inevitable and that science and management must approach the world with this assumption, rather than one of stability. Resilience thinking treats actions as experiments to be learned from, rather than intellectual propositions to be defended or mistakes to be ignored. It asks what is novel and innovative and strives to capture the overall behavior of a system, rather than seeking static, precise outcomes from discrete action steps. Understanding the foundations of resilience thinking is an important building block for developing more holistic and adaptive approaches to conservation. We conducted a comprehensive review of the history of resilience thinking because resilience thinking provides a working context upon which more effective, synergistic, and systems-based conservation action can be taken in light of rapid and unpredictable change. Together, resilience science, AM, and EPD bridge the gaps between systems analysis, ecology, and resource management to provide an interdisciplinary approach to solving wicked problems. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Ford Foundation Fellowships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Ford Foundation is sponsoring 40 three-year predoctoral fellowships and 10 one-year dissertation fellowships for minorities for 1987. The predoctoral fellowships include an annual stipend of $10,000 and an annual grant of $6000 to the fellow's institution in lieu of tuition and fees. Dissertation Fellows will receive a stipend of $18,000 and no institutional grant.The program is designed to increase the presence of under represented minorities in the nation's college and university faculties. The minority groups to be considered under this program are: American Indians, Alaskan Natives (Eskimo or Aleut), Black Americans, Mexican Americans/Chicanos, Native Pacific Islanders (Polynesians or Micronesians), and Puerto Ricans. The competition is open to any U.S. citizen who is a member of one of these groups, who is a beginning graduate student or is within 1 year of completing the dissertation, and who expects to work toward a Ph.D. or Sc.D. degree. Fellowships will be awarded in the behavioral and social sciences, humanities, engineering, mathematics, physical sciences, and biological sciences. The National Research Council, which is administering the fellowships, can provide more information on which fields of study are and are not eligible for this program.

  1. Creating a Successful Affiliated Foundation. Foundation Relations. Board Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedgepeth, Royster C.

    1999-01-01

    This booklet for trustees of institutions of higher education offers guidelines for the creation of effective affiliated foundations. An introductory section notes the increased use of such foundations by public colleges and universities for institutional fund-raising and management of property and endowments. The booklet finds that successful…

  2. Creating a Successful Affiliated Foundation. Foundation Relations. Board Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedgepeth, Royster C.

    1999-01-01

    This booklet for trustees of institutions of higher education offers guidelines for the creation of effective affiliated foundations. An introductory section notes the increased use of such foundations by public colleges and universities for institutional fund-raising and management of property and endowments. The booklet finds that successful…

  3. The Psychological Foundations of Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick

    1967-01-01

    This paper outlines problems which are central to the psychological foundations of mathematics. Discussed are the relations that exist between psychological and classical foundations of mathematics. It is shown how the inadequacies of current learning theories which account for complex mathematics learning may be made explicit for appropriate…

  4. Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H., Ed.; Land, Susan M., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    "Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments" describes the most contemporary psychological and pedagogical theories that are foundations for the conception and design of open-ended learning environments and new applications of educational technologies. In the past decade, the cognitive revolution of the 60s and 70s has been…

  5. Foundation Degrees: A Risky Business?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Foundation degrees, the new proposal for sub-degree vocational education in the UK, are characterised by innovation both in their design (curriculum, teaching, learning and assessment) and in the marketplace for which they are designed. This article argues that the development and delivery of foundation degrees carry a high level of risk,…

  6. Foundation Degrees: A Risky Business?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Foundation degrees, the new proposal for sub-degree vocational education in the UK, are characterised by innovation both in their design (curriculum, teaching, learning and assessment) and in the marketplace for which they are designed. This article argues that the development and delivery of foundation degrees carry a high level of risk,…

  7. Foundations of Child Psychiatry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Emanuel, Ed.; And Others

    Twenty-eight papers examine basic theories and clinical methods in child psychiatry. Theories and methods discussed concern child psychiatry and the World Health Organization, pediatrics, child disturbances, observation, the psychodiagnostic approach, longitudinal research in child development, the comparative approach to early child development,…

  8. Foundations for Gerontological Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Harold R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on: (1) components of a basic core of knowledge essential for all people working in the field of aging; (2) knowledge essential for professions related to biomedical science, human services, social and physical environment; and (3) knowledge essential for clinical psychology, nursing, nutrition, and social work. (Author)

  9. [Skills lab training in veterinary medicine. Effective preparation for clinical work at the small animal clinic of the University for Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation. Effektive Vorbereitung auf die klinische Tätigkeit am Beispiel der Kleintierklinik der Stiftung Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover].

    PubMed

    Engelskirchen, Simon; Ehlers, Jan; Kirk, Ansgar T; Tipold, Andrea; Dilly, Marc

    2017-09-20

    During five and a half years of studying veterinary medicine, students should in addition to theoretical knowledge acquire sufficient practical skills. Considering animal welfare and ethical aspects, opportunities for hands-on learning on living animals are limited because of the high annual number of students. The first German veterinary clinical-skills lab, established in 2013 at the University for Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation (TiHo), offers opportunities for all students to learn, train and repeat clinical skills on simulators and models as frequently as they would like, until they feel sufficiently confident to transfer these skills to living animals. This study describes the establishment of clinical-skills lab training within the students' practical education, using the example of the small-animal clinic of the TiHo. Two groups of students were compared: without skills lab training (control group K) and with skills lab training (intervention group I). At the end of both the training and a subsequent 10-week clinical rotation in different sections of the clinic, an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) was performed, testing the students' practical skills at 15 stations. An additional multiple-choice test was performed before and after the clinical rotation to evaluate the increased theoretical knowledge. Students of group I achieved significantly (p ≤ 0.05) better results in eight of the 15 tested skills. The multiple-choice test revealed a significant (p ≤ 0.05) gain of theoretical knowledge in both groups without any differences between the groups. Students displayed a high degree of acceptance of the skills lab training. Using simulators and models in veterinary education is an efficient teaching concept, and should be used continually and integrated in the curriculum.

  10. NEWS: Solid foundations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-07-01

    Among the initiatives to be found at UK universities is a vocational award with the title `University Foundation Degree' at Nottingham Trent University. This qualification will be offered in 14 different subjects including four in the Faculty of Science and Mathematics, in the areas of applied biology, applied sciences, chemistry and physics. The courses will be available on a two-year full-time, three-year sandwich or a part-time basis. Set at a higher standard and specification than the Higher National Diplomas which it replaces, the UFD has been devised in consultation with industry and will cover the technical and specialist areas demanded by employers to combat skills shortages. The UFD in applied sciences concentrates on practical applications through laboratory, IT and project work, supported by lectures and seminars. At the end students can enter the employment market or transfer onto the second year of a degree course. Science-based careers including research and development would be the aim of those taking the UFD in physics. The first year develops the fundamentals of modern physics supported by studies in mathematics, IT and computer programming, whilst year 2 is vocational in nature with industrial problem solving and work experience as well as an academic theme associated with environmental aspects of the subject. Those who complete the UFD will be allowed automatic progression to a specified honours degree course and would normally be expected to study for a further two years for this award. However, those demonstrating an outstanding academic performance can transfer to the linked degree programme at the end of the first year via fast-track modules. Back in May the UK's Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) announced new standard benchmarks for degrees. These will be introduced into higher education institutions from 2002 to outline the knowledge, understanding and skills a student should gain from a particular higher education course. These benchmark

  11. Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE) was established in Poland at the end of 1990. FEWE, as an independent and non-profit organization, has the following objectives: to strive towards an energy efficient national economy, and to show the way and methods by use of which energy efficiency can be increased. The activity of the Foundation covers the entire territory of Poland through three regional centers: in Warsaw, Katowice and Cracow. FEWE employs well-known and experienced specialists within thermal and power engineering, civil engineering, economy and applied sciences. The organizer of the Foundation has been Battelle Memorial Institute - Pacific Northwest Laboratories from the USA.

  12. American Foundation for the Blind

    MedlinePlus

    ... worth twice as much It's National Disability Employment Awareness Month! Every year in October, we celebrate the ... and talents. Learn more about National Disability Employment Awareness Month Foundations of Education, Third Edition This highly ...

  13. A behaviorological thanatology: Foundations and implications

    PubMed Central

    Fraley, Lawrence E.

    1998-01-01

    Foundation principles supporting a behaviorological thanatology are reviewed, including concepts of life, person, death, value, right, ethic, and body/person distinctions. These natural science foundations are contrasted with traditional foundations, and their respective implications are speculatively explored. PMID:22478293

  14. Foundation + Collaboration + Inspiration. The Joyce Foundation 2009 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce Foundation, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Among the great strengths of a policy-oriented foundation like Joyce is the willingness to take a long view, to be patient investors in ideas that take time to have impact, and to take chances on projects that may not work out. But in times of crisis, Joyce team and partners also have an obligation to be responsive to immediate challenges in their…

  15. Disk Evolution: Testing The Foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armitage, Phil

    2016-07-01

    Models for planet formation and observable large-scale structure in protoplanetary disks are built on a foundation of gas-phase physics. In the simplest telling, it is assumed that the disk evolves due to turbulence, and that photoevaporation is the dominant driver of mass loss. How secure is this foundation to our understanding? I will review recent results from magnetohydrodynamic simulations of protoplanetary disks, which suggest a modified picture in which MHD winds and fossil magnetic flux play a critical role. I will discuss what these theoretical results may imply for observations of disks.

  16. But…What about My Epistemological Foundations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curin, Raquel Isabel Barrera

    2015-01-01

    At one time or another, all researchers in mathematics education must face the rather complex question of their epistemological foundations. Discussing epistemological foundations naturally leads to a conversation about theories. Theories and epistemological foundations work in a circular fashion: theories can have epistemological foundations and…

  17. Raising Money Through an Institutionally Related Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilley, Timothy A., Ed.

    The creation of foundations for fund raising at public colleges and new ideas and techniques for established foundations are discussed in 13 chapters. The relationship of the foundation and the institution is described from the viewpoint of the institution and also that of the foundation. Article titles and authors include: "How the…

  18. Foundations and the Advancement of Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Libby V.

    2017-01-01

    The author examined the websites of two large foundations, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Lumina Foundation. Each has developed projects and networks, coupled with substantive grants, to improve postsecondary education. These and other foundations have deep and ongoing commitments, not just philosophical but resource-based, to…

  19. Raising Money Through an Institutionally Related Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilley, Timothy A., Ed.

    The creation of foundations for fund raising at public colleges and new ideas and techniques for established foundations are discussed in 13 chapters. The relationship of the foundation and the institution is described from the viewpoint of the institution and also that of the foundation. Article titles and authors include: "How the…

  20. National Niemann-Pick Disease Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Foundation NewsLine , Type A , Type B , Type C March 2017 Newsletter Posted by jbeirl in Foundation NewsLine , ... Foundation NewsLine , Type A , Type B , Type C March 2017 Newsletter Posted by jbeirl in Foundation NewsLine , ...

  1. Teaching fellowships for UK foundation doctors.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Shaun

    2015-01-01

    Teaching Fellowships for junior doctors in their second post-graduate (FY2) year should be considered by medical students and junior doctors in UK. FY2 Teaching Fellowships are available in many foundation schools as part of the UK Academic Foundation Programme. Although programme structures differ between schools, they are designed to allow junior trainees to take time out from clinical practice to develop their teaching skills and gain insights into medication education careers. The advantages of an FY2 teaching fellowship include valuable experience of teaching and formal feedback not available to other trainees; the opportunity to further develop your portfolio; further development of the trainee's own knowledge and skills; the stimulation of working with students. Potential drawbacks to be considered are reduced direct clinical contact; reduced salary; difficulty carrying out education research in the allocated time frame; occasional difficulties establishing the teacher-student relationship while the trainee is at a relatively junior level. Experience of medical education as an FY2 trainee provides a helpful stepping stone whether or not the trainee further pursues education as a career, because the teaching skills are transferable to any specialty, and the unique experience enhances the trainee's confidence as a role model for junior colleagues.

  2. Principles for Foundations of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britt, John

    The significance of the foundations of education approach to teaching is apparent in the ideas of John Henry Newman, Karl Jaspers, Jose Ortega y Gasset, and Mortimer Adler. Newman maintained that there is a circle of knowledge and once this unity is ignored the result is distortion in the learners and in the knowledge. To retain the whole, the…

  3. Epistemological Foundations of School Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izquierdo-Aymerich, Merce; Aduriz-Bravo, Agustin

    2003-01-01

    Presents a theoretical framework that provides foundations for school science and defines some research problems. Begins with what is already known about students' models and cognition in order to construct proposals of didactical intervention. Proposes an analogous model for school science in which experimentation and language play the key roles.…

  4. Building Trades. Block II. Foundations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    Twelve informational lessons and eleven manipulative lessons are provided on foundations as applied to the building trades. Informational lessons cover land measurements; blueprint reading; level instruments; building and site planning; building site preparation; laying out building lines; soil preparation and special evacuation; concrete forms;…

  5. Soils and Foundations: A Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Melvin J.

    The teaching guide and course outline for a 12-week course in soils and foundations is designed to help student technicians in a two-year associate degree civil engineering technology program to obtain entry level employment as highway engineering aides, soil testing technicians, soil mappers, or construction inspectors. The seven teaching units…

  6. Foundations of Distinctive Feature Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltaxe, Christiane A. M.

    This treatise on the theoretical and historical foundations of distinctive feature theory traces the evolution of the distinctive features concept in the context of related notions current in linguistic theory, discusses the evolution of individual distinctive features, and criticizes certain acoustic and perceptual correlates attributed to these…

  7. Foundation Level Training. Trainer's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Human Services, Oklahoma City. Developmental Disabilities Services Div.

    This trainer's manual was developed to provide a consistent knowledge and skill base (i.e., a "foundation") for all individuals employed in programs funded by Oklahoma's Developmental Disabilities Services Division. They include van drivers, recreation workers, residential staff, administrators, case managers, secretarial/clerical staff,…

  8. Foundations of Distinctive Feature Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltaxe, Christiane A. M.

    This treatise on the theoretical and historical foundations of distinctive feature theory traces the evolution of the distinctive features concept in the context of related notions current in linguistic theory, discusses the evolution of individual distinctive features, and criticizes certain acoustic and perceptual correlates attributed to these…

  9. Sociolinguistic Foundations of Language Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein-Galicia, Jacob L.

    An answer to the question of what sociolinguistics has to offer to the art of language assessment is sought in exploration of the following topics: (1) a history of the development of sociolinguistics and an outline of the research on dialectology; (2) a review of basic sociolinguistic foundations and theories about language, society, domains of…

  10. Principles for Foundations of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britt, John

    The significance of the foundations of education approach to teaching is apparent in the ideas of John Henry Newman, Karl Jaspers, Jose Ortega y Gasset, and Mortimer Adler. Newman maintained that there is a circle of knowledge and once this unity is ignored the result is distortion in the learners and in the knowledge. To retain the whole, the…

  11. Obtaining corporate information from NHS foundation trusts.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Valerie; Endacott, Ruth; Sheaff, Rod; Jones, Ray

    Foundation trusts have boards of directors that are responsible for the day-to-day running of the organisation, planning services and developing strategy. Unlike non-foundation trusts and primary care trusts (PCTs), foundation trusts are not obliged to hold directors' board meetings in public. This article describes the online availability and accessibility of the minutes of such meetings in a number of foundation trusts, non-foundation trusts and PCTs. The implications for transparency in the NHS are also discussed.

  12. Electrodynamics and Spacetime Geometry: Foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, Francisco; Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2016-11-01

    We explore the intimate connection between spacetime geometry and electrodynamics. This link is already implicit in the constitutive relations between the field strengths and excitations, which are an essential part of the axiomatic structure of electromagnetism, clearly formulated via integration theory and differential forms. We review the foundations of classical electromagnetism based on charge and magnetic flux conservation, the Lorentz force and the constitutive relations. These relations introduce the conformal part of the metric and allow the study of electrodynamics for specific spacetime geometries. At the foundational level, we discuss the possibility of generalizing the vacuum constitutive relations, by relaxing the fixed conditions of homogeneity and isotropy, and by assuming that the symmetry properties of the electro-vacuum follow the spacetime isometries. The implications of this extension are briefly discussed in the context of the intimate connection between electromagnetism and the geometry (and causal structure) of spacetime.

  13. Electrodynamics and Spacetime Geometry: Foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, Francisco; Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2017-02-01

    We explore the intimate connection between spacetime geometry and electrodynamics. This link is already implicit in the constitutive relations between the field strengths and excitations, which are an essential part of the axiomatic structure of electromagnetism, clearly formulated via integration theory and differential forms. We review the foundations of classical electromagnetism based on charge and magnetic flux conservation, the Lorentz force and the constitutive relations. These relations introduce the conformal part of the metric and allow the study of electrodynamics for specific spacetime geometries. At the foundational level, we discuss the possibility of generalizing the vacuum constitutive relations, by relaxing the fixed conditions of homogeneity and isotropy, and by assuming that the symmetry properties of the electro-vacuum follow the spacetime isometries. The implications of this extension are briefly discussed in the context of the intimate connection between electromagnetism and the geometry (and causal structure) of spacetime.

  14. [Ethical foundations of institutional psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Cano, N

    2006-01-01

    The idea behind this work is to have an ethical examination of the institutional psychotherapy movement which has long influenced French public psychiatry and which has progressively, since the 80s, been subject to growing doubts. In the first part, institutional psychotherapy is presented. It is a model for theoretical development and practice in psychiatric care. It came into being just following the end of the Second World War at the same time as modern medical ethics. Its principles come on the one hand, from recognition of asylums' pathogenic effects--which led to the crushing of the patient's being--and on the other, through recognition of the uniqueness of each person and the subjectivity of mental suffering. These elements gave rise to creativity within the world of medicine and, in the sector, generated the science of psychiatry which advocated for continuity in care (both inpatient and outpatient) and preventive work directed at the population. This movement called for the use of the institution in its dynamic aspect which promotes exchanges and allows patients to situate or resituate themselves in historic and symbolic dimensions. It privileges a high level of transversality, maximum communication, favouring speaking out loud and responsibility. It requires a permanent analysis of the institutional counter transference (emotional reactions of the caregivers involved, their interrelations and the social and material organization of the institution) which determines the therapeutic action itself. THEORICAL BASIS: In a second part, its theoretical foundations and its practice shall be investigated in light of the guiding concepts of medical ethics (justice, autonomy, beneficence, non-malfeasance). Institutional psychotherapy responds to the need for justice by considering the patient as a whole and by conceiving each patient as being like oneself despite the differences (associated with the mode of hospitalization, the social or diagnostic category). The

  15. Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical Overview of MG Emergency Management Scientific Session International Symposium Medical/Scientific Advisory Board Nurses Advisory Board Educational Materials Research Current Research Agenda Latest news Clinical Trials Clinical results ...

  16. Cognitive Foundations for Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Noonan, Christine F.; Franklin, Lyndsey

    2011-02-25

    In this report, we provide an overview of scientific/technical literature on information visualization and VA. Topics discussed include an update and overview of the extensive literature search conducted for this study, the nature and purpose of the field, major research thrusts, and scientific foundations. We review methodologies for evaluating and measuring the impact of VA technologies as well as taxonomies that have been proposed for various purposes to support the VA community. A cognitive science perspective underlies each of these discussions.

  17. Design of Foundations in Permafrost.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    conventional consolidometer test methods to develop plots of pressure versus void ratio or pressure versus settlement strain to determine the stress...most widely used method of maintaining the thermal regime of the permafrost is by use of a ventilated foundation. The circulation of cold winter air...11c. b and a are then computed from the slope, and I/st at time I hour. m The above method is a rational approach that could be used, out ,enerally is

  18. Anatomists provide the foundation for learning pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    McBride, Jennifer M; Bierer, S Beth

    2012-01-01

    The need for interdisciplinary graduate training programs which prepare students to conceptualize the application of their research in clinical settings continues to grow. Though several programs have been cultivated to address this need, demand still outweighs supply. The following describes a curriculum developed with the intent of incorporating medical knowledge into a PhD graduate training program. Development of this Molecular Medicine program by the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine in collaboration with Case Western Reserve University was funded by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute "Med into Grad" initiative. The core curriculum of this program begins with a foundation in Human Physiology and Disease course in which anatomy faculty introduce students to a basic overview of gross anatomy structure and function. This course is followed by five fundamental basic science courses, a composite course focusing on principles of clinical and translation research, a course on laboratory techniques and three, 12-week research rotations. In the second year of the program, students begin their dissertation research, complete their qualifying examination, and partake in an individually tailored Clinical Experience course. Interdisciplinary graduate programs like this provide another venue for faculty in anatomical sciences to help aspiring translational scientists relate basic science knowledge to human pathophysiology and health. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Anatomists.

  19. Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Foundation parameter study

    SciTech Connect

    Lodde, P.F.

    1980-07-01

    The dynamic failure criterion governing the dimensions of prototype Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Foundations is treated as a variable parameter. The resulting change in foundation dimensions and costs is examined.

  20. Practitioner Perspectives on Foundational Capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Leider, Jonathon P.; Juliano, Chrissie; Castrucci, Brian C.; Beitsch, Leslie M.; Dilley, Abby; Nelson, Rachel; Kaiman, Sherry; Sprague, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Context: National efforts are underway to classify a minimum set of public health services that all jurisdictions throughout the United States should provide regardless of location. Such a set of basic programs would be supported by crosscutting services, known as the “foundational capabilities” (FCs). These FCs are assessment services, preparedness and disaster response, policy development, communications, community partnership, and organizational support activities. Objective: To ascertain familiarity with the term and concept of FCs and gather related perspectives from state and local public health practitioners. Design: In fall 2013, we interviewed 50 leaders from state and local health departments. We asked about familiarity with the term “foundational capabilities,” as well as the broader concept of FCs. We attempted to triangulate the utility of the FC concept by asking respondents about priority programs and services, about perceived unique contributions made by public health, and about prevalence and funding for the FCs. Setting: Telephone-based interviews. Participants: Fifty leaders of state and local health departments. Main Outcome Measures: Practitioner familiarity with and perspectives on the FCs, information about current funding streams for public health, and the likelihood of creating nationwide FCs that would be recognized and accepted by all jurisdictions. Results: Slightly more than half of the leaders interviewed said that they were familiar with the concept of FCs. In most cases, health departments had all of the capabilities to some degree, although operationalization varied. Few indicated that current funding levels were sufficient to support implementing a minimum level of FCs nationally. Conclusions: Respondents were not able to articulate the current or optimal levels of services for the various capabilities, nor the costs associated with them. Further research is needed to understand the role of FCs as part of the foundational

  1. Practitioner perspectives on foundational capabilities.

    PubMed

    Leider, Jonathon P; Juliano, Chrissie; Castrucci, Brian C; Beitsch, Leslie M; Dilley, Abby; Nelson, Rachel; Kaiman, Sherry; Sprague, James B

    2015-01-01

    National efforts are underway to classify a minimum set of public health services that all jurisdictions throughout the United States should provide regardless of location. Such a set of basic programs would be supported by crosscutting services, known as the "foundational capabilities" (FCs). These FCs are assessment services, preparedness and disaster response, policy development, communications, community partnership, and organizational support activities. To ascertain familiarity with the term and concept of FCs and gather related perspectives from state and local public health practitioners. In fall 2013, we interviewed 50 leaders from state and local health departments. We asked about familiarity with the term "foundational capabilities," as well as the broader concept of FCs. We attempted to triangulate the utility of the FC concept by asking respondents about priority programs and services, about perceived unique contributions made by public health, and about prevalence and funding for the FCs. Telephone-based interviews. Fifty leaders of state and local health departments. Practitioner familiarity with and perspectives on the FCs, information about current funding streams for public health, and the likelihood of creating nationwide FCs that would be recognized and accepted by all jurisdictions. Slightly more than half of the leaders interviewed said that they were familiar with the concept of FCs. In most cases, health departments had all of the capabilities to some degree, although operationalization varied. Few indicated that current funding levels were sufficient to support implementing a minimum level of FCs nationally. Respondents were not able to articulate the current or optimal levels of services for the various capabilities, nor the costs associated with them. Further research is needed to understand the role of FCs as part of the foundational public health services.

  2. Foundational issues in evolution education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Mike U.; Siegel, Harvey; McInerney, Joseph D.

    1995-01-01

    There is a great need for effective evolution education. This paper reviews some of the evidence that demonstrates that need and analyzes some of the foundational semantic, epistemological, and philosophical issues involved. This analysis is used to provide a functional understanding of the distinction between science and non-science. Special emphasis is placed the scientific meaning of the terms theory, hypothesis, fact, proof, evidence, and truth, focusing on the difference between religious belief and acceptance of a scientific theory. Science is viewed as theologically neutral and as not mutually exclusive from religion. Finally, a number of practical recommendations to the classroom biology teacher are presented.

  3. EVOLUTIONARY FOUNDATIONS FOR MOLECULAR MEDICINE

    PubMed Central

    Nesse, Randolph M.; Ganten, Detlev; Gregory, T. Ryan; Omenn, Gilbert S.

    2015-01-01

    Evolution has long provided a foundation for population genetics, but many major advances in evolutionary biology from the 20th century are only now being applied in molecular medicine. They include the distinction between proximate and evolutionary explanations, kin selection, evolutionary models for cooperation, and new strategies for tracing phylogenies and identifying signals of selection. Recent advances in genomics are further transforming evolutionary biology and creating yet more opportunities for progress at the interface of evolution with genetics, medicine, and public health. This article reviews 15 evolutionary principles and their applications in molecular medicine in hopes that readers will use them and others to speed the development of evolutionary molecular medicine. PMID:22544168

  4. Deontological foundations for medical ethics?

    PubMed

    Gillon, R

    1985-05-04

    Gillon outlines the principles of the deontological, or duty-based, group of moral theories in one of a series of British Medical Journal articles on the philosophical foundations of medical ethics. He differentiates between monistic theories, such as Immanuel Kant's, which rely on a single moral principle, and pluralistic theories, such as that of W.D. Ross, which rely on several principles that potentially could conflict. He summarizes the contributions of Kant and Ross to the development of deontological thought, then concludes his essay with brief paragraphs on other deontological approaches to the resolution of conflicting moral principles.

  5. Epistemological Foundations of School Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izquierdo-Aymerich, Mercè; Adúriz-Bravo, Agustín

    Based on a synthesis of contributions from different authors, we present a theoretical framework that provides some foundations for school science, and we define some research problems. We start from what is already known about students' models and cognition in order to construct proposals of didactical intervention. The cognitive model of science, developed in the philosophy of science through studying scientists' activity, has allowed us to propose an analogous model for school science in which experimentation and language play the key roles. We emphasise the relative independence of school science and scientists' science.

  6. The shifting foundations of nursing.

    PubMed

    Law, Kate; Aranda, Kay

    2010-08-01

    In this paper we argue that the concerns generated by the development of Foundation Degrees and the Assistant and Associate Practitioner roles have rekindled some of the unresolved debates regarding the status and identity of nursing and nurses. Through the application of the sociological theories of professionalisation and nostalgia we have identified the shifting and unresolved nature of nursing. We argue that these theories continue to have resonance in the current climate of change and 'upskilling' of the health care workforce and argue, that the shifts illuminated are perhaps so significant as to demonstrate that we have entered a post-nursing era. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Community College Foundation Manual & Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James M., Comp.; Snyder, Tom, Comp.

    This collection of resources and information about community college foundations includes brief articles, selected data, materials from foundations, sample mission statements and articles of incorporation, sample forms and correspondence, relevant educational legislation, and other related materials from specific active foundations at two-year…

  8. Report on Illinois Public Community College Foundations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

    At the request of the Illinois Community College Board's (ICCB's) Committee on Foundations, the ICCB surveyed the state's public community college district to determine the purposes, resources, and activities of the colleges' foundations. The study found that all of the community college districts, except one, have foundations to assist them in…

  9. Beyond Dependency: Strategies for Saving Foundations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutz, Aaron; Butin, Dan

    2013-01-01

    The foundations field cannot sustain itself in its present condition. A range of complex forces have combined to marginalize foundations over the past few decades. The decline of this field as a separate discipline in schools of education has been abetted by the fact that foundations is generally a "service provider" to other programs.…

  10. Philanthropy and Private Foundations: Expanding Revenue Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummer, Carlee; Marshburn, Roxann

    2014-01-01

    As community colleges seek new revenue streams, philanthropic organizations, including college foundations and private funders, have already begun to influence both revenues and college programming. This chapter discusses the current role of philanthropy, especially private foundations such as the Lumina Foundation for Education and the Bill and…

  11. A Foundation Manual for California Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James M., Ed.; And Others

    Designed to aid the development and organization of effective college foundations in California, this reference guide reviews the purposes of foundations and the steps in their organization, providing sample documents from existing foundations. The manual is divided into 11 sections, the first of which discusses reasons for establishing…

  12. Philanthropy and Private Foundations: Expanding Revenue Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummer, Carlee; Marshburn, Roxann

    2014-01-01

    As community colleges seek new revenue streams, philanthropic organizations, including college foundations and private funders, have already begun to influence both revenues and college programming. This chapter discusses the current role of philanthropy, especially private foundations such as the Lumina Foundation for Education and the Bill and…

  13. Bernard van Leer Foundation Annual Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard Van Leer Foundation, The Hague (Netherlands).

    This annual report details the activities and financial status for 1999 of the Bernard van Leer Foundation, a private institution created in 1949 for broad humanitarian purposes. Following the introduction by the chairman of the Foundation's board of trustees, the report of the executive director details activities during the Foundation's fiftieth…

  14. Foundations for offshore wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Byrne, B W; Houlsby, G T

    2003-12-15

    An important engineering challenge of today, and a vital one for the future, is to develop and harvest alternative sources of energy. This is a firm priority in the UK, with the government setting a target of 10% of electricity from renewable sources by 2010. A component central to this commitment will be to harvest electrical power from the vast energy reserves offshore, through wind turbines or current or wave power generators. The most mature of these technologies is that of wind, as much technology transfer can be gained from onshore experience. Onshore wind farms, although supplying 'green energy', tend to provoke some objections on aesthetic grounds. These objections can be countered by locating the turbines offshore, where it will also be possible to install larger capacity turbines, thus maximizing the potential of each wind farm location. This paper explores some civil-engineering problems encountered for offshore wind turbines. A critical component is the connection of the structure to the ground, and in particular how the load applied to the structure is transferred safely to the surrounding soil. We review previous work on the design of offshore foundations, and then present some simple design calculations for sizing foundations and structures appropriate to the wind-turbine problem. We examine the deficiencies in the current design approaches, and the research currently under way to overcome these deficiencies. Designs must be improved so that these alternative energy sources can compete economically with traditional energy suppliers.

  15. Design of foundations in permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankle, K. R.

    The relatively recent growth in military and scientific facilities in polar regions and the industrial exploitation of Alaska and northern Canada, has necessitated a better understanding of the physical environment of cold regions. With this increased activity and occupation of cold regions also comes the need for better engineered structures. Foundations on permafrost, or perennially frozen ground, present special problems and demands in design and construction. Design of foundations in areas of seasonal frost where the material below the frost line remains unfrozen present certain problems. However, by taking structural loads to depths below the frost line, potential problems from heave and lateral thrust are generally removed. Permafrost itself is actually a fairly good material with high compressive strength. However, it does tend to creep under load, and cyclical freezing and thawing are of particular concern. Freezing and thawing have dramatic effects on the soil properties upon which the stability or a structure depends. The magnitude of these effects depend not only on the type of soil and its water content, but also on environmental factors such as weather, ground cover, snow, and the thermal properties of subsurface materials.

  16. Inherited Retinal Degenerative Disease Clinical Trials Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Network PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Patricia Zilliox., Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Foundation Fighting Blindness Clinical Research...fightblindness.org 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Foundation Fighting Blindness Clinical Research Institute

  17. The foundation of kinship: households.

    PubMed

    Leonetti, Donna L; Chabot-Hanowell, Benjamin

    2011-07-01

    Men's hunting has dominated the discourse on energy capture and flow in the past decade or so. We turn to women's roles as critical to household formation, pair-bonding, and intergenerational bonds. Their pivotal contributions in food processing and distribution likely promoted kinship, both genetic and affinal, and appear to be the foundation from which households evolved. With conscious recognition of household social units, variable cultural constructions of human kinship systems that were sensitive to environmental and technological conditions could emerge. Kinship dramatically altered the organization of resource access for our species, creating what we term "kinship ecologies." We present simple mathematical models to show how hunting leads to dependence on women's contributions, bonds men to women, and bonds generations together. Kinship, as it organized transfers of food and labor energy centered on women, also became integrated with the biological evolution of human reproduction and life history.

  18. Emotional foundations of cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Inzlicht, Michael; Bartholow, Bruce D; Hirsh, Jacob B

    2015-03-01

    Often seen as the paragon of higher cognition, here we suggest that cognitive control is dependent on emotion. Rather than asking whether control is influenced by emotion, we ask whether control itself can be understood as an emotional process. Reviewing converging evidence from cybernetics, animal research, cognitive neuroscience, and social and personality psychology, we suggest that cognitive control is initiated when goal conflicts evoke phasic changes to emotional primitives that both focus attention on the presence of goal conflicts and energize conflict resolution to support goal-directed behavior. Critically, we propose that emotion is not an inert byproduct of conflict but is instrumental in recruiting control. Appreciating the emotional foundations of control leads to testable predictions that can spur future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The foundation of kinship: Households

    PubMed Central

    Leonetti, Donna L.; Chabot-Hanowell, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Men’s hunting has dominated the discourse on energy capture and flow in the past decade or so. We turn to women’s roles as critical to household formation, pair bonding and intergenerational bonds. Their pivotal contributions in food processing and distribution likely promoted kinship, both genetic and affinal, and appear to be the foundation from which households evolved. With conscious recognition of household social units, variable cultural constructions of human kinship systems could emerge that were sensitive to environmental and technological conditions. Kinship dramatically altered the organization of resource access for our species creating what we term “kinship ecologies.” We present simple mathematical models to show how hunting leads to dependence on women’s contributions, bonds men to women and generations together. Kinship, as it organized transfers of food and labor energy centered on women, also became integrated with the biological evolution of human reproduction and life history. PMID:21799658

  20. Emotional foundations of cognitive control

    PubMed Central

    Inzlicht, Michael; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Hirsh, Jacob B.

    2015-01-01

    Often seen as the paragon of higher cognition, here we suggest that cognitive control is dependent on emotion. Rather than asking whether control is influenced by emotion, we ask whether control itself can be understood as an emotional process. Reviewing converging evidence from cybernetics, animal research, cognitive neuroscience, and social and personality psychology, we suggest that cognitive control is initiated when goal conflicts evoke phasic changes to emotional primitives that both focus attention on the presence of goal conflicts and energize conflict resolution to support goal-directed behavior. Critically, we propose that emotion is not an inert byproduct of conflict but is instrumental in recruiting control. Appreciating the emotional foundations of control leads to testable predictions that can spur future research. PMID:25659515

  1. Textural break foundation wall construction modules

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Steven J.

    1990-01-01

    Below-grade, textural-break foundation wall structures are provided for inhibiting diffusion and advection of liquids and gases into and out from a surrounding hydrogeologic environment. The foundation wall structure includes a foundation wall having an interior and exterior surface and a porous medium disposed around a portion of the exterior surface. The structure further includes a modular barrier disposed around a portion of the porous medium. The modular barrier is substantially removable from the hydrogeologic environment.

  2. The Community College Foundation Today: A. History, Characteristics, and Assets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Dan; Gares, Dale

    1989-01-01

    Offers a historical perspective on the community college foundation, reviews 1987 research findings concerning foundation assets, lists 10 steps to establishing a foundation, and identifies key factors in organizational success. Describes the revitalization of the Citrus College Foundation. (DMM)

  3. The Community College Foundation Today: A. History, Characteristics, and Assets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Dan; Gares, Dale

    1989-01-01

    Offers a historical perspective on the community college foundation, reviews 1987 research findings concerning foundation assets, lists 10 steps to establishing a foundation, and identifies key factors in organizational success. Describes the revitalization of the Citrus College Foundation. (DMM)

  4. Diagnosis of stable ischemic heart disease: summary of a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians/American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association/American Association for Thoracic Surgery/Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association/Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Qaseem, Amir; Fihn, Stephan D; Williams, Sankey; Dallas, Paul; Owens, Douglas K; Shekelle, Paul

    2012-11-20

    The American College of Physicians (ACP) developed this guideline in collaboration with the American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF), American Heart Association (AHA), American Association for Thoracic Surgery, Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons to help clinicians diagnose known or suspected stable ischemic heart disease. Literature on this topic published before November 2011 was identified by using MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, PsychINFO, AMED, and SCOPUS. Searches were limited to human studies published in English. This guideline grades the evidence and recommendations according to a translation of the ACCF/AHA grading system into ACP's clinical practice guidelines grading system. This guideline includes 28 recommendations that address the following issues: the initial diagnosis of the patient who might have stable ischemic heart disease, cardiac stress testing to assess the risk for death or myocardial infarction in patients diagnosed with stable ischemic heart disease, and coronary angiography for risk assessment.

  5. Influence of foundation design on environmental vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, James T.; Blazier, Warren E., Jr.

    1992-02-01

    Building foundation design is important for controlling structural environmental vibration caused by external transportation and stationary sources, and by internal sources such as mechanical systems. The dynamic response of grade slabs, footings, and pilings are reviewed. A lumped parameter model presented in the literature is described and used to estimate the response of a massive foundation on an elastic half-space with some representative examples. The effect of vibration radiation losses, and foundation bearing area are discussed. Finally, some informal test results are discussed for deep friction piles. These results indicate that pile foundations can be effective in reducing environmental vibration.

  6. The Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Anthony F.

    1987-01-01

    The Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario is a non-profit volunteer-driven organization that is active in supporting research and education programs with the ultimate goal of reducing death and disability from heart disease and stroke. The Foundation has over 65 chapters across the province, a full-time staff of 130, and over 70,000 volunteers involved in various programs and fund-raising activities. Several of the Foundation's programs offer direct assistance to family physicians and their patients. This review summarizes the major programs of the Foundation and specifies how they relate to the physicians of Ontario. PMID:21263913

  7. National Foundation for Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Foodborne Disease Sexually Transmitted Diseases Vaccine Information Resources 2017 NFID Annual News Conference William Schaffner, MD, Patricia ... vaccines View NFID Public Service Announcements CONFERENCES & COURSES 2017 Fall Clinical Vaccinology Course November 3-4, 2017 ...

  8. Evolutionary foundations for cancer biology

    PubMed Central

    Aktipis, C Athena; Nesse, Randolph M

    2013-01-01

    New applications of evolutionary biology are transforming our understanding of cancer. The articles in this special issue provide many specific examples, such as microorganisms inducing cancers, the significance of within-tumor heterogeneity, and the possibility that lower dose chemotherapy may sometimes promote longer survival. Underlying these specific advances is a large-scale transformation, as cancer research incorporates evolutionary methods into its toolkit, and asks new evolutionary questions about why we are vulnerable to cancer. Evolution explains why cancer exists at all, how neoplasms grow, why cancer is remarkably rare, and why it occurs despite powerful cancer suppression mechanisms. Cancer exists because of somatic selection; mutations in somatic cells result in some dividing faster than others, in some cases generating neoplasms. Neoplasms grow, or do not, in complex cellular ecosystems. Cancer is relatively rare because of natural selection; our genomes were derived disproportionally from individuals with effective mechanisms for suppressing cancer. Cancer occurs nonetheless for the same six evolutionary reasons that explain why we remain vulnerable to other diseases. These four principles—cancers evolve by somatic selection, neoplasms grow in complex ecosystems, natural selection has shaped powerful cancer defenses, and the limitations of those defenses have evolutionary explanations—provide a foundation for understanding, preventing, and treating cancer. PMID:23396885

  9. Neurobehavioral foundation of environmental reactivity.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sarah R; Depue, Richard A

    2016-02-01

    Sensitivity to environmental context has been of interest for many years, but the nature of individual differences in environmental sensitivity has become of particular focus over the past 2 decades. What is particularly uncertain are the neural variables and processes that mediate the effects of environment on developmental outcomes. Accordingly, we provide a neurobehavioral foundation of reactivity to the environment in several steps. First, the different patterns of environmental sensitivity are defined to identify the significant factors involved in the manifestation of these patterns. Second, we focus on neurobiological reactivity as the construct underlying variation in sensitivity to the environment by (a) providing an organizing threshold model of elicitation of neurobiology by environmental context; and (b) integrating the literature on 2 sets of neuromodulators in terms of each modulator's (a) contribution to neural and behavioral reactivity to stimulation, and (b) relation to emotional-motivational systems (dopamine, opiates and oxytocin, corticotropin-releasing hormone) or the general modulation of those systems (serotonin, norepinephrine, and GABA). Discussion concludes with (a) a comprehensive neurobehavioral framework of environmental reactivity based on a combinatorial model of a supertrait, (b) methodological implications of the model, and (c) a developmental perspective on environmental reactivity. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Philosophical foundations of artificial consciousness.

    PubMed

    Chrisley, Ron

    2008-10-01

    Consciousness is often thought to be that aspect of mind that is least amenable to being understood or replicated by artificial intelligence (AI). The first-personal, subjective, what-it-is-like-to-be-something nature of consciousness is thought to be untouchable by the computations, algorithms, processing and functions of AI method. Since AI is the most promising avenue toward artificial consciousness (AC), the conclusion many draw is that AC is even more doomed than AI supposedly is. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the soundness of this inference. The results are achieved by means of conceptual analysis and argumentation. It is shown that pessimism concerning the theoretical possibility of artificial consciousness is unfounded, based as it is on misunderstandings of AI, and a lack of awareness of the possible roles AI might play in accounting for or reproducing consciousness. This is done by making some foundational distinctions relevant to AC, and using them to show that some common reasons given for AC scepticism do not touch some of the (usually neglected) possibilities for AC, such as prosthetic, discriminative, practically necessary, and lagom (necessary-but-not-sufficient) AC. Along the way three strands of the author's work in AC--interactive empiricism, synthetic phenomenology, and ontologically conservative heterophenomenology--are used to illustrate and motivate the distinctions and the defences of AC they make possible.

  11. Evolutionary foundations for cancer biology.

    PubMed

    Aktipis, C Athena; Nesse, Randolph M

    2013-01-01

    New applications of evolutionary biology are transforming our understanding of cancer. The articles in this special issue provide many specific examples, such as microorganisms inducing cancers, the significance of within-tumor heterogeneity, and the possibility that lower dose chemotherapy may sometimes promote longer survival. Underlying these specific advances is a large-scale transformation, as cancer research incorporates evolutionary methods into its toolkit, and asks new evolutionary questions about why we are vulnerable to cancer. Evolution explains why cancer exists at all, how neoplasms grow, why cancer is remarkably rare, and why it occurs despite powerful cancer suppression mechanisms. Cancer exists because of somatic selection; mutations in somatic cells result in some dividing faster than others, in some cases generating neoplasms. Neoplasms grow, or do not, in complex cellular ecosystems. Cancer is relatively rare because of natural selection; our genomes were derived disproportionally from individuals with effective mechanisms for suppressing cancer. Cancer occurs nonetheless for the same six evolutionary reasons that explain why we remain vulnerable to other diseases. These four principles-cancers evolve by somatic selection, neoplasms grow in complex ecosystems, natural selection has shaped powerful cancer defenses, and the limitations of those defenses have evolutionary explanations-provide a foundation for understanding, preventing, and treating cancer.

  12. Foundations of support constraint machines.

    PubMed

    Gnecco, Giorgio; Gori, Marco; Melacci, Stefano; Sanguineti, Marcello

    2015-02-01

    The mathematical foundations of a new theory for the design of intelligent agents are presented. The proposed learning paradigm is centered around the concept of constraint, representing the interactions with the environment, and the parsimony principle. The classical regularization framework of kernel machines is naturally extended to the case in which the agents interact with a richer environment, where abstract granules of knowledge, compactly described by different linguistic formalisms, can be translated into the unified notion of constraint for defining the hypothesis set. Constrained variational calculus is exploited to derive general representation theorems that provide a description of the optimal body of the agent (i.e., the functional structure of the optimal solution to the learning problem), which is the basis for devising new learning algorithms. We show that regardless of the kind of constraints, the optimal body of the agent is a support constraint machine (SCM) based on representer theorems that extend classical results for kernel machines and provide new representations. In a sense, the expressiveness of constraints yields a semantic-based regularization theory, which strongly restricts the hypothesis set of classical regularization. Some guidelines to unify continuous and discrete computational mechanisms are given so as to accommodate in the same framework various kinds of stimuli, for example, supervised examples and logic predicates. The proposed view of learning from constraints incorporates classical learning from examples and extends naturally to the case in which the examples are subsets of the input space, which is related to learning propositional logic clauses.

  13. Foundations Invest In Environmental Health.

    PubMed

    Sessions, Kathryn; Fortunato, Karla; Johnson, Philip R S; Panek, Amy

    2016-11-01

    Nearly one in four deaths globally are due to environmental hazards such as air and water pollution, according to the World Health Organization. However, knowledge about how the environment affects health and health equity outcomes has not been well integrated into decisions that shape the conditions in which people live, work, and play. To address this challenge, US foundations have invested millions of dollars to make it easier to incorporate environmental health information into decisions ranging from family purchases and governmental policy making to business, medical, and other professional practices. This article summarizes grant making aimed at improving environmental conditions to improve health and health equity outcomes. We provide examples of environmental health grants that focus on tools that the public, policy makers, and professionals can use in making decisions. We found that the investment in and attention to environmental factors, including in work addressing social determinants of health, have been insufficient to realize the potential for reducing negative environmental impacts on health and health disparities. We argue that the grant making highlighted here has increased knowledge that could enable more widespread consideration of environmental health in many decisions, with positive effects on health and health equity.

  14. Density functional theory: Foundations reviewed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryachko, Eugene S.; Ludeña, Eduardo V.

    2014-11-01

    Guided by the above motto (quotation), we review a broad range of issues lying at the foundations of Density Functional Theory, DFT, a theory which is currently omnipresent in our everyday computational study of atoms and molecules, solids and nano-materials, and which lies at the heart of modern many-body computational technologies. The key goal is to demonstrate that there are definitely the ways to improve DFT. We start by considering DFT in the larger context provided by reduced density matrix theory (RDMT) and natural orbital functional theory (NOFT), and examine the implications that N-representability conditions on the second-order reduced density matrix (2-RDM) have not only on RDMT and NOFT but, also, by extension, on the functionals of DFT. This examination is timely in view of the fact that necessary and sufficient N-representability conditions on the 2-RDM have recently been attained. In the second place, we review some problems appearing in the original formulation of the first Hohenberg-Kohn theorem which is still a subject of some controversy. In this vein we recall Lieb's comment on this proof and the extension to this proof given by Pino et al. (2009), and in this context examine the conditions that must be met in order that the one-to-one correspondence between ground-state densities and external potentials remains valid for finite subspaces (namely, the subspaces where all Kohn-Sham solutions are obtained in practical applications). We also consider the issue of whether the Kohn-Sham equations can be derived from basic principles or whether they are postulated. We examine this problem in relation to ab initio DFT. The possibility of postulating arbitrary Kohn-Sham-type equations, where the effective potential is by definition some arbitrary mixture of local and non-local terms, is discussed. We also deal with the issue of whether there exists a universal functional, or whether one should advocate instead the construction of problem

  15. Education Interface Guide to Precollege Foundation Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broderick, Barbara, Ed.

    Private philanthropic foundations that fund precollege programs are described in this guidebook that is designed to help the prospective grant applicant. The introduction provides information on the following: how to identify good prospects; five steps in identifying the right foundation; five matchmaking steps; strategies for fund-raising…

  16. Kellogg Foundation Still Investing in People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Alim, Jamaal

    2011-01-01

    When the W.K. Kellogg Foundation first approached a group of tribal college presidents in 1994 with a $23 million grant for a handful of their institutions, the tribal college leaders did not exactly trip over themselves to get the money. They wanted it to be split among all of them, and the foundation honored the tribal college leaders' wish.…

  17. Kellogg Foundation Still Investing in People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Alim, Jamaal

    2011-01-01

    When the W.K. Kellogg Foundation first approached a group of tribal college presidents in 1994 with a $23 million grant for a handful of their institutions, the tribal college leaders did not exactly trip over themselves to get the money. They wanted it to be split among all of them, and the foundation honored the tribal college leaders' wish.…

  18. New River Community College Educational Foundation, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Florine R.

    In September 1981, the Educational Foundation, Inc., at New River Community College (NRCC) initiated a charter member fund drive. By October 1982, the Foundation received $100,000 in gifts and pledges, $130,000 in liquid assets, and $300,000 in gifts other than cash. Among the reasons for the success of the drive was the training received by the…

  19. Foundation Schools and Admissions: The Local Dimension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Christine; Anderson, Lesley; Bush, Tony

    2001-01-01

    In 1988, the Labour Government abolished Grant Maintained schools and introduced three new categories of school: community, voluntary, and foundation. Reports findings of a study that gathered the perceptions of heads, governors, and senior staff about admission issues in 11 foundation schools after their first full term. (26 references)…

  20. Study on foundation's stability of theodolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong-yan, Feng; Yun-guo, Gao

    The foundation's stability of theodolite is very important complication of working precision. Bring forwarda new model of vibration isolation. Through analysis and comparison of several control methods, choose the absolute velocity feedback control method. The results of MATLAB simulation and experiment results indicated that the method can advance the effect of vibration isolation and strengthen the foundation's stability of theodolite.

  1. Creating a stand-alone fundraising foundation.

    PubMed

    Dillingham, Walter J; Weiss, Leigh H; Lawson, John M

    2012-10-01

    When considering a stand-alone fundraising foundation, healthcare organizations should: Review the costs and benefits of starting a separate stand-alone foundation. Perform a competitive analysis to see which hospitals use them. Work with a team of legal, development, and investment advisory experts who can help map out a plan. Review governance requirements. Develop an investment policy statement.

  2. Bernard van Leer Foundation Annual Report, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard Van Leer Foundation, The Hague (Netherlands).

    This annual report for 2000 describes the year's activities, achievements, and financial status of the Bernard van Leer Foundation, a private foundation based in The Netherlands that operates internationally to improve opportunities for young children from birth to age 7 living in circumstances of social and economic disadvantage. Following an…

  3. Bernard van Leer Foundation Annual Report, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard Van Leer Foundation, The Hague (Netherlands).

    This annual report for 2002 describes the year's activities, achievements, and financial status of the Bernard van Leer Foundation, a private foundation based in The Netherlands operating internationally to improve opportunities for young children from birth to age 7 living in circumstances of social and economic disadvantage. Following the…

  4. Foundations and Higher Education: Whose Agenda?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Grant programs that had been relatively open-ended were now tightly drawn, grounded in the foundations' own carefully articulated take on issues and receptive only to proposals that responded appropriately. Initiative and creativity had shifted heavily from prospective grantee to grantor. As foundations embraced this funding-by-agenda, it burdened…

  5. Inter-American Foundation Annual Report 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter-American Foundation, Rosslyn, VA.

    This annual report from the Inter-American Foundation (IAF), a federal development agency, includes letters from foundation officials describing the IAF-funded work in poverty areas of Latin America and the Caribbean. The report describes IAF's In-Country Support System (ICS), staffed by local professionals who assist grantees and report their…

  6. Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Report for 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, New York, NY.

    This Sloan Foundation report for 1976 discusses foundation activities in the three facets of the General Program--(1) Education for the Public Service, (2) Economics and Management, and (3) Science and Technology--as well as in three Particular Programs--(1) Minority Engineering Education, (2) Technology in Education, and (3) Neuroscience. The…

  7. Corporation and Foundation Giving to Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, G. Jeremiah

    Designed to encourage and inform community college efforts to obtain financial support from corporations and foundations, this report assesses the current status of corporate and foundation giving to two-year colleges and identifies organizations that accept funding proposals from community colleges. After stressing the need to diversify financial…

  8. Liberating Foundations of Art and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Fern

    2012-01-01

    Research concerning the basic course known as Foundations of Art and Design strengthens the pedagogical approach for K-16 art and design education. The version of Foundations introduced to America by Josef Albers, although hardly changed, is shown to have continued, timeless relevance. Next, a sequential, implicit logic is revealed in linking the…

  9. Foundations Invest Cautiously in Public Education Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewington, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Like many grant-making philanthropies in Canada, the Winnipeg Foundation for years had no history of giving directly to schools, fearing that could let governments off the hook for public education. In 2003, the Winnipeg Foundation invested $3 million over five years in one of the city's most impoverished neighbourhoods, with a local school as the…

  10. Foundation Skills for Scientists: An Evolving Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Teresa; Fedko, Sarah; Johnston, Nancy; Khoo, Elaine; King, Sarah; Mall, Saira; Olaveson, Mary; Patterson, Janice; Persaud, Kamini; Sardone, Frances; Shahbazi, Zohreh; Skene, Allyson; Young, Martha; Hasenkampf, Clare A.

    2010-01-01

    We have undertaken an integrated and collaborative approach to developing foundational skills of students in a first year, Introductory Biology course. The course is a large lecture and laboratory course with enrollments ranging from 800-1000 per year. Teaching and Learning experts were brought into the course as weekly "Foundation Skills for…

  11. Portfolios: Conceptual Foundations and Functional Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luescher, Andreas; Sinn, John W.

    2003-01-01

    In this article the authors address several important areas that combine to illuminate the portfolio as performance, index, and design. They provide an in-depth look at the conceptual foundation and selected functional implications of portfolios. Accordingly, the foundations laid here may serve as a basis for further development and application to…

  12. On the Need to Live Educational Foundations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, William H.

    2013-01-01

    William H. Schubert, retired faculty member at the University of Illinois, Chicago, reflects on his teaching career and the loss of "educational foundations." Schubert states that "Foundations of Education" are being pushed toward the precipice of extinction. He describes a loss of "back-to-basics" education with a…

  13. Liberating Foundations of Art and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Fern

    2012-01-01

    Research concerning the basic course known as Foundations of Art and Design strengthens the pedagogical approach for K-16 art and design education. The version of Foundations introduced to America by Josef Albers, although hardly changed, is shown to have continued, timeless relevance. Next, a sequential, implicit logic is revealed in linking the…

  14. The Foundation-Institution Partnership: The Role of Institutionally Related Foundations in Public Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, David

    2010-01-01

    Institutionally related foundations have played a vital role in raising and managing private resources in support of public institutions of higher education. Unlike private grant-making foundations, college and university foundations are typically incorporated as public charities under section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code. Although they…

  15. The Foundation-Institution Partnership: The Role of Institutionally Related Foundations in Public Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, David

    2010-01-01

    Institutionally related foundations have played a vital role in raising and managing private resources in support of public institutions of higher education. Unlike private grant-making foundations, college and university foundations are typically incorporated as public charities under section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code. Although they…

  16. Forward the Foundation: Local Education Foundations Offer an Alternative Source for School Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks-Young, Susan

    2007-01-01

    February's column "Going Corporate" discussed ideas for approaching private foundations for funding. Some districts take this idea several steps further by partnering with the community and local businesses to establish a not-for-profit foundation, or local education foundation (LEF). It probably comes as no surprise that the idea of forming a LEF…

  17. The National Pancreas Foundation fellows symposium program 2006 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Gelrud, Andres; Whitcomb, David C

    2010-04-01

    Clinical and translational research is critical for the development of improvement in care of pancreatic diseases. Major concerns are the lack of dedicated trainees in pancreatic research and the difficulty for the remaining trainees to develop independent research careers to be included into the pancreas research community. This article describes the efforts of Solvay Pharmaceuticals and American academic leaders working through the National Pancreas Foundation to facilitate the development and expansion of a new generation of pancreas-related clinical and translational researchers through a 3-year fellows symposium.

  18. Development and validation of the AO pediatric comprehensive classification of long bone fractures by the Pediatric Expert Group of the AO Foundation in collaboration with AO Clinical Investigation and Documentation and the International Association for Pediatric Traumatology.

    PubMed

    Slongo, Theddy; Audigé, Laurent; Schlickewei, Wolfgang; Clavert, Jean-Michel; Hunter, James

    2006-01-01

    A series of four agreement studies (classification sessions) were conducted to support the development and validation of a comprehensive pediatric long bone fracture classification system. This system follows the principle of the Müller-AO classification for long bones in adults and integrates most relevant existing pediatric classification systems. The diagnosis includes the distinction between epiphyseal (E), metaphyseal (M), or diaphyseal (D) fractures, as well as identification of child-specific features. This article describes the proposed system in some detail. Digital standard preoperative anteroposterior and lateral radiographs from 267 consecutive pediatric patients (<16 years old and open physis) with single fractures of the distal humerus, radius, or tibia were collected at a single university children's hospital. Fractures were classified independently by five experienced pediatric surgeons. The classification process was assessed for reliability using the kappa coefficient and accuracy using latent class modeling separately for each bone for bone type, and separately for each bone type for child codes. At the last classification session, kappa values for E-M-D and child code classifications were mostly above 0.90, and accuracy estimates were between 75% and 100% for different surgeons, types, and bones. Disagreement and misclassification of fractures were overall very low; hence, experienced and trained surgeons can classify pediatric long bone fractures using the proposed system with high accuracy based on standard radiographic views. The authors encourage wide consultation and further evaluation of this proposed pediatric long bone classification system with a larger number of future users with different training before being used for documentation and clinical studies.

  19. Seismic isolation of two dimensional periodic foundations

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Y.; Mo, Y. L.; Laskar, A.; Cheng, Z.; Shi, Z.; Menq, F.; Tang, Y.

    2014-07-28

    Phononic crystal is now used to control acoustic waves. When the crystal goes to a larger scale, it is called periodic structure. The band gaps of the periodic structure can be reduced to range from 0.5 Hz to 50 Hz. Therefore, the periodic structure has potential applications in seismic wave reflection. In civil engineering, the periodic structure can be served as the foundation of upper structure. This type of foundation consisting of periodic structure is called periodic foundation. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the periodic foundation, the seismic wave can be blocked. Field experiments of a scaled two dimensional (2D) periodic foundation with an upper structure were conducted to verify the band gap effects. Test results showed the 2D periodic foundation can effectively reduce the response of the upper structure for excitations with frequencies within the frequency band gaps. When the experimental and the finite element analysis results are compared, they agree well with each other, indicating that 2D periodic foundation is a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations.

  20. Test Report: Cost Effective Foundation Insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey M. Lacy; T. E. Rahl; G. A. Twitchell; R. G. Kobbe

    2003-06-01

    A field experiment was conducted to demonstrate and quantify the thermal effectiveness of rigid insulation board when installed on the exterior of a buried concrete foundation wall. A heated, insulated box was constructed along one wall of an existing, unheated building to simulate the living space of a home. The crawl space beneath the living space was divided into two sections. One featured external foundation insulation, while the other side had none. 36 temperature and heat flux sensors were installed at predetermined locations to measure the temperature profile and heat flow out of the living space. The temperature profile through the foundation was then used to calculate the total heat flow out of the foundation for both cases. This experiment showed that a significant energy savings is available with exterior foundation insulation. Over the course of 3 months, the heat-loss differential between the insulated and non-insulated foundations was 4.95 kilowatt-hours per lineal foot of foundation wall, for a ratio of 3:1. For a 2200 sq. ft home with a foundation perimeter 200 ft. long, this would amount to a savings of 990 kW-hrs in just 3 months, or 330 kW-hrs per month. Extrapolating to an 8-month heating year, we would expect to save over 2640 kW-hrs per year for such a home. The savings for a basement foundation, rather than a crawlspace, would be approach twice that amount, nearing 5280 kW-hr per year. Because these data were not collected during the coldest months of the year, they are conservative, and greater savings may be expected during colder periods.

  1. Research on simulation of soft foundation treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Zhao, Yan

    2017-06-01

    Engineering field is in a closed area, big surcharge ratio of precipitation preloading method is the first time be proposed to apply to soft foundation treatment, and successfully applied in the artificial island foundation treatment, its advantages of efficient and fast were fully played in practice. This paper discusses process of the overload preloading method to apply to soft foundation treatment, include all key technologies of designing, monitoring and evaluated the reinforcement effect. this project can provide reference for future similar engineering construction or modification of the value of limited of specification.

  2. Foundations for a theory of gravitation theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, K. S.; Lee, D. L.; Lightman, A. P.

    1972-01-01

    A foundation is laid for future analyses of gravitation theories. This foundation is applicable to any theory formulated in terms of geometric objects defined on a 4-dimensional spacetime manifold. The foundation consists of (1) a glossary of fundamental concepts; (2) a theorem that delineates the overlap between Lagrangian-based theories and metric theories; (3) a conjecture (due to Schiff) that the Weak Equivalence Principle implies the Einstein Equivalence Principle; and (4) a plausibility argument supporting this conjecture for the special case of relativistic, Lagrangian-based theories.

  3. Relativistic Navigation: A Theoretical Foundation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turyshev, Slava G.

    1996-01-01

    We present a theoretical foundation for relativistic astronomical measurements in curved space-time. In particular, we discuss a new iterative approach for describing the dynamics of an isolated astronomical N-body system in metric theories of gravity. To do this, we generalize the Fock-Chandrasekhar method of the weak-field and slow-motion approximation (WFSMA) and develop a theory of relativistic reference frames (RF's) for a gravitationally bounded many-extended-body problem. In any proper RF constructed in the immediate vicinity of an arbitrary body, the N-body solutions of the gravitational field equations are formally presented as a sum of the Riemann-flat inertial space-time, the gravitational field generated by the body itself, the unperturbed solutions for each body in the system transformed to the coordinates of this proper RF, and the gravitational interaction term. We develop the basic concept of a general WFSMA theory of the celestial RF's applicable to a wide class of metric theories of gravity and an arbitrary model of matter distribution. We apply the proposed method to general relativity. Celestial bodies are described using a perfect fluid model; as such, they possess any number of internal mass and current multipole moments that explicitly characterize their internal structures. The obtained relativistic corrections to the geodetic equations of motion arise because of a coupling of the bodies' multiple moments to the surrounding gravitational field. The resulting relativistic transformations between the different RF's extend the Poincare group to the motion of deformable self-gravitating bodies. Within the present accuracy of astronomical measurements we discuss the properties of the Fermi-normal-like proper RF that is defined in the immediate vicinity of the extended compact bodies. We further generalize the proposed approximation method and include two Eddington parameters (gamma, Beta). This generalized approach was used to derive the

  4. Clinical research: up from 'clinical epidemiology'.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, Olli S; Bachmann, Lucas M; Steurer, Johann

    2009-12-01

    Clinical research must be understood to be the foundation of scientific medicine of the clinical type. But the essence of scientific clinical medicine remains a matter of profound confusion, even in clinical academia, and so does the essence of clinical research. The confusion now revolves, principally, around 'clinical epidemiology'. We address clinical research in the meaning of quintessentially 'applied' clinical research, which we take to be the foundation of the scientific knowledge base of clinical medicine, of gnosis (dia-, etio-, pro-) in it. More specifically, we address the essence, priorities, and status quo of this research - and argue that the requisite theory of this is not a matter of 'clinical epidemiology' but of theory of clinical research endogenous to clinical (rather than epidemiological) academia.

  5. Sartre: A Possible Foundation for Educational Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstow, Bonnie

    1983-01-01

    The claim by Khemais Benhamida and others that Jean-Paul Sartre's philosophy is too hostile and restrictive to serve as the foundation of progressive educational theory is based on an incomplete understanding of the philosopher's work. (IS)

  6. Sudden Arrhythmia Death Syndromes (SADS) Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family Seminar 04/29/17 Update on Inherited Arrhythmias: Recent Advancements in Therapies and Diagnosis--From 8: ... Legal Notice Privacy Policy COPYRIGHT ©2011-2016 Sudden Arrhythmia Death Syndromes Foundation 4527 South 2300 East, Suite ...

  7. Foundations for Effective School Library Media Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Ken, Ed.

    This collection of 38 articles, reprinted from "Emergency Librarian," addresses critical elements of school library media program development and implementation, organized by seven areas: foundations; the school context; role clarification; information literacy; collaborative program planning and teaching; program development; and…

  8. Foundations of Education: Toward A Generative Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernier, Normand R.; McClelland, Averile E.

    1982-01-01

    Three historical and developmental dimensions of teacher education foundations of education are discussed: (1) academic dimension; (2) professional dimension; and (3) client dimension. A fourth dimension, research, is also described. (CJ)

  9. Foundation for Ichthyosis & Related Skin Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... Who is FIRST? Discover all the benefits of connecting with the Foundation for Ichthyosis and Related Skin Types (FIRST). Listen to what affected families, individual patients, and the medical community have to ...

  10. Values-based medicine and modest foundationalism.

    PubMed

    Little, Miles; Lipworth, Wendy; Gordon, Jill; Markham, Pippa; Kerridge, Ian

    2012-10-01

    Philosophically, values refer to the basic commitments that justify judgements, beliefs and practices, both at the community and personal levels. The study of these kinds of values is axiology. We suggest that all people subscribe to three foundational values - survival, security and flourishing - and that these foundational values are expressed by way of concepts, systems, principles and practices that may differ substantially from culture to culture. Values can stand on their own as foundational justifications for health care and medicine. Many ethical quandaries can be better understood, even though they may remain unsolved, by reference to the foundational values that people can agree upon. This version of values-based health care has strong claims to prior logical status as a justification for the whole enterprise of health care, and values-based medicine is a part of this larger domain. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Funding announcements from federal government, Gates Foundation.

    PubMed

    Garmaise, David

    2007-05-01

    In two separate announcements, in December 2006 and February 2007, the federal government allocated new funding for HIV/AIDS. The latter announcement was accompanied by a pledge from the Gates Foundation.

  12. Sartre: A Possible Foundation for Educational Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstow, Bonnie

    1983-01-01

    The claim by Khemais Benhamida and others that Jean-Paul Sartre's philosophy is too hostile and restrictive to serve as the foundation of progressive educational theory is based on an incomplete understanding of the philosopher's work. (IS)

  13. Foundation of a Communicator Style Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Robert W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the foundation of a communicator style construct which is stipulated to include communication variables which reflect the "way one verbally and paraverbally interacts to signal how literal meaning should be taken, interpreted, filtered, or understood." (MH)

  14. Foundations for Effective School Library Media Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Ken, Ed.

    This collection of 38 articles, reprinted from "Emergency Librarian," addresses critical elements of school library media program development and implementation, organized by seven areas: foundations; the school context; role clarification; information literacy; collaborative program planning and teaching; program development; and…

  15. Telesonography: foundations and future directions.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, James E; Sutphin, Dean; Redican, Kerry; Rawlins, Fredric

    2011-04-01

    The practice of telesonography has yielded promising results in several domestic and international projects aimed at providing basic sonography services. Common themes that recur within telesonography-based research include the quality of transmitted images, clinical applications, and technical and nontechnical barriers to implementation. The research base continues to grow in concert with expanding telecommunications capabilities and refinement of small portable sonographic devices. Persistent barriers to the deployment of telesonography systems include a lack of telecommunications access, a lack of standard training and operational protocols, and a paucity of research regarding the long-term health impact of telesonography within target communities. Telesonography may be used directly to improve the standard of care within a given community; however, limited resources and interest may prevent sustained operations. Future projects may use telesonography to supplement the training of health care providers in remote locations in an effort to establish permanent sonography services for their respective communities.

  16. Veatch's new foundation for medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Kultgen, J

    1985-11-01

    Robert M. Veatch proposes a "triple contract theory" as a new foundation for medical ethics. His criticisms of unilateral "physician ethics" are sound, but uncertainty as to whether he is proposing merely imaginary or real contracts vitiates his constructive arguments. If the former, he is recommending a minor heuristic device for thinking about ethics, not a foundation. If the latter, his proposal is utterly impractical and a medical covenant will have to be developed another way.

  17. Birth of the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation.

    PubMed

    Beck, Ivan T

    2004-01-01

    The Canadian Digestive Disease Foundation, renamed the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation--Fondation canadienne pour la promotion de la santé digestive--in December 2001, is the culmination of ongoing efforts by the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology to establish an independent charitable organization. In February 2001, it was officially endorsed as the Foundation for the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology. The initial efforts to establish this Foundation, led by Dr Richard McKenna in 1963, were unsuccessful. In 1991, Glaxo Canada (now GlaxoSmithKline) became a founding donor, and with the four founding physicians--Drs Ivan T Beck, Richard H Hunt, Suzanne E Lemire and Alan BR Thomson--the expenses to establish the Foundation were met. A charitable number was obtained in 1995 (0997427-11). The second founding donor was Janssen Canada (now Janssen-Ortho), and public education support came from Astra Canada (now AstraZeneca Canada). The Foundation initially relied on corporate donors, but now approaches physicians, patients and the general public. The objectives of the Foundation are to advance the science of gastroenterology and to provide knowledge of digestive diseases and nutrition to the general public, to enhance the quality of life of persons who are afflicted with these disorders. The major achievements of the Foundation are the provision of one-year operating grants to new investigators, which have allowed them to accumulate early data and subsequently obtain support from other major granting organizations. It also provides Fellowships and studentship support grants, in conjunction with the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the pharmaceutical industry. The education committee found that there was little research support in this field, considering the large economic burden of digestive disease and the amount of outstanding work done by Canadian researchers. A bilingual Web site, a web-based specialist's discussion program and bilingual

  18. The moral foundations of illusory correlation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ferreiro, Javier; Barberia, Itxaso

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has studied the relationship between political ideology and cognitive biases, such as the tendency of conservatives to form stronger illusory correlations between negative infrequent behaviors and minority groups. We further explored these findings by studying the relation between illusory correlation and moral values. According to the moral foundations theory, liberals and conservatives differ in the relevance they concede to different moral dimensions: Care, Fairness, Loyalty, Authority, and Purity. Whereas liberals consistently endorse the Care and Fairness foundations more than the Loyalty, Authority and Purity foundations, conservatives tend to adhere to the five foundations alike. In the present study, a group of participants took part in a standard illusory correlation task in which they were presented with randomly ordered descriptions of either desirable or undesirable behaviors attributed to individuals belonging to numerically different majority and minority groups. Although the proportion of desirable and undesirable behaviors was the same in the two groups, participants attributed a higher frequency of undesirable behaviors to the minority group, thus showing the expected illusory correlation effect. Moreover, this effect was specifically associated to our participants' scores in the Loyalty subscale of the Moral Foundations Questionnaire. These results emphasize the role of the Loyalty moral foundation in the formation of attitudes towards minorities among conservatives. Our study points out the moral system as a useful fine-grained framework to explore the complex interaction between basic cognitive processes and ideology.

  19. The foundation of self-esteem.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Joseph A.

    2003-01-01

    Self-esteem is a simplistic term for varied and complex mental states pertaining to how one views oneself. It takes but little research in the voluminous literature to see the vagueness and inconsistencies in its various definitions. Even more problematic is the uncertainty concerning its foundational components. The importance of having a solid definition and specific ideas about the foundational components of self-esteem is that both pave the way to recognizing its causes; to predicting effects from those causes; and to organizing the trouble-shooting process for locating those philosophical flaws or psychological scars which lead to low self-esteem. The purpose of this paper is to offer a common ground for thinking about self-esteem at its most basic level. In order to distinguish the "basic level" from the rest of the components of self-esteem, let us liken it to a skyscraper building. Here, the focus is on the building's "underground foundation" and the base upon which that foundation rests. The base is a definition that allows for the assessment of the foundation. The underground foundation itself consists of the mental building blocks called self-meaning, self-identity, self-image, and self-concepts. To help illustrate their interactions, a few of the "masks" and "faces" of self-esteem will be mentioned. What is not being addressed is the "above ground structure"--those theories and manifestations dealt with by most mental health specialists. PMID:12793795

  20. Health legacy foundations: a new census.

    PubMed

    Niggel, Sabrina Jones; Brandon, William P

    2014-01-01

    Health care merger and acquisition activity has increased since enactment of the Affordable Care Act in 2010. Proceeds from transactions involving nonprofit hospitals, health systems, and health plans will endow philanthropic foundations, collectively known as health legacy foundations. Building on work by Grantmakers In Health, we undertook a systematic search for these foundations and generated a newly updated, comprehensive database. We found 306 organizations in forty-three states that have been endowed with proceeds from the sale, merger, lease, joint venture, or other restructuring of nonprofit health care assets. These health legacy foundations had $26.2 billion in assets in 2010. Concentrated in the southern United States, foundations originating from hospitals and specialty care facilities (86.6 percent) held mean assets of $64.7 million per funder and typically restricted grants to local communities. Foundations formed from health plans (13.4 percent) held higher mean assets ($222 million), usually served larger areas, and were more likely to engage in health care advocacy. Recent transactions involving smaller and stand-alone nonprofit hospitals will infuse many more communities with unprecedented charitable wealth.

  1. The foundation of self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Joseph A

    2003-05-01

    Self-esteem is a simplistic term for varied and complex mental states pertaining to how one views oneself. It takes but little research in the voluminous literature to see the vagueness and inconsistencies in its various definitions. Even more problematic is the uncertainty concerning its foundational components. The importance of having a solid definition and specific ideas about the foundational components of self-esteem is that both pave the way to recognizing its causes; to predicting effects from those causes; and to organizing the trouble-shooting process for locating those philosophical flaws or psychological scars which lead to low self-esteem. The purpose of this paper is to offer a common ground for thinking about self-esteem at its most basic level. In order to distinguish the "basic level" from the rest of the components of self-esteem, let us liken it to a skyscraper building. Here, the focus is on the building's "underground foundation" and the base upon which that foundation rests. The base is a definition that allows for the assessment of the foundation. The underground foundation itself consists of the mental building blocks called self-meaning, self-identity, self-image, and self-concepts. To help illustrate their interactions, a few of the "masks" and "faces" of self-esteem will be mentioned. What is not being addressed is the "above ground structure"--those theories and manifestations dealt with by most mental health specialists.

  2. 75 FR 45600 - African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, August 17, 2010, 8:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Place: African Development Foundation, Conference Room, 1400...

  3. 75 FR 14418 - African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, April 13, 2010, 9:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Place: African Development Foundation, Conference Room, 1400 I...

  4. 75 FR 2844 - African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, January 26, 2010, 8:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Place: African Development Foundation, Conference Room, 1400 I...

  5. The interosseous muscles: the foundation of hand function.

    PubMed

    Liss, Frederic E

    2012-02-01

    The interosseous muscles of the hand can be thought of as the cornerstone of hand function, as they provide a "foundation" for all intrinsic and extrinsic hand movements. Innervated by the ulnar nerve and organized in dorsal and palmar layers, these pivotal muscles have small excursion yet great impact on finger balance, grip, and pinch function, particularly when impaired by denervation and/or contracture. This article gives an overview of the functional anatomy and pathologic dysfunction of the interosseous muscles within the context of this Hand Clinics issue on the intrinsic muscular function of the hand. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Teaching the foundational principles of rehabilitation psychology.

    PubMed

    Stiers, William

    2016-02-01

    Wright (1983) described 20 "value-laden beliefs and principles" that form the foundational principles of rehabilitation psychology, and the education and training of rehabilitation psychologists necessitates that they acquire the specialty-specific knowledge and attitudes/values related to these principles. This article addresses 2 questions about how these principles can be taught in rehabilitation psychology training: (a) What are the core theories and evidence supporting these foundational principles, and what should be the content of a "core curriculum" for teaching these?; and (b) What is known about the most effective methods for teaching these foundational principles, including questions of how to teach values? The foundational principles were grouped into 3 categories: individual psychological processes, social psychological processes, and values related to social integration. A literature review was conducted in these 3 categories, and the results are summarized and discussed. A core curriculum is discussed for teaching about disability-specific individual psychological processes, social psychological processes, and values related to social integration, including methods to reduce group prejudice and promote values relevant to the foundational principles. Specific suggestions for training program content and methods are provided. It is hoped that effective teaching of Wright's (1983) value-laden beliefs and principles will help rehabilitation psychology trainers and trainees focus on the key knowledge and attitude-value competencies that are to be acquired in training. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Crack Monitoring of Operational Wind Turbine Foundations.

    PubMed

    Perry, Marcus; McAlorum, Jack; Fusiek, Grzegorz; Niewczas, Pawel; McKeeman, Iain; Rubert, Tim

    2017-08-21

    The degradation of onshore, reinforced-concrete wind turbine foundations is usually assessed via above-ground inspections, or through lengthy excavation campaigns that suspend wind power generation. Foundation cracks can and do occur below ground level, and while sustained measurements of crack behaviour could be used to quantify the risk of water ingress and reinforcement corrosion, these cracks have not yet been monitored during turbine operation. Here, we outline the design, fabrication and field installation of subterranean fibre-optic sensors for monitoring the opening and lateral displacements of foundation cracks during wind turbine operation. We detail methods for in situ sensor characterisation, verify sensor responses against theoretical tower strains derived from wind speed data, and then show that measured crack displacements correlate with monitored tower strains. Our results show that foundation crack opening displacements respond linearly to tower strain and do not change by more than ±5 μ m. Lateral crack displacements were found to be negligible. We anticipate that the work outlined here will provide a starting point for real-time, long-term and dynamic analyses of crack displacements in future. Our findings could furthermore inform the development of cost-effective monitoring systems for ageing wind turbine foundations.

  8. Orthopaedic research and education foundation and industry.

    PubMed

    Wurth, Gene R; Sherr, Judy H; Coffman, Thomas M

    2003-07-01

    Members of orthopaedic industry commit a significant amount of funds each year to support research and education programs that are directly related to their product(s). In addition, industry supports organizations such as the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation. The relationship between the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation and industry began in the early 1980s. The support to the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation from industry primarily has come in the form of unrestricted grants. These grants best can be looked at as an investment rather than a contribution. This form of giving, once called corporate philanthropy is more accurately referred to as strategic philanthropy. Members of industry make these investments to enhance their reputations, build brand awareness, market their products and services, improve employee morale, increase customer loyalty, and establish strategic alliances. The specialty of orthopaedics is among the leaders in medicine in the amount of funding raised within the specialty for research and education programs. This is because of the amount of support from members of industry and the surgeons. During the past 15 years, 40% of the annual support to the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation has come from industry and the balance has come from surgeons and members of lay public. Future industry support of the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation and other organizations within the specialty of orthopaedics will be dependent on the continued demonstration of tangible returns in areas described.

  9. Crack Monitoring of Operational Wind Turbine Foundations

    PubMed Central

    McAlorum, Jack; Fusiek, Grzegorz; Niewczas, Pawel; McKeeman, Iain; Rubert, Tim

    2017-01-01

    The degradation of onshore, reinforced-concrete wind turbine foundations is usually assessed via above-ground inspections, or through lengthy excavation campaigns that suspend wind power generation. Foundation cracks can and do occur below ground level, and while sustained measurements of crack behaviour could be used to quantify the risk of water ingress and reinforcement corrosion, these cracks have not yet been monitored during turbine operation. Here, we outline the design, fabrication and field installation of subterranean fibre-optic sensors for monitoring the opening and lateral displacements of foundation cracks during wind turbine operation. We detail methods for in situ sensor characterisation, verify sensor responses against theoretical tower strains derived from wind speed data, and then show that measured crack displacements correlate with monitored tower strains. Our results show that foundation crack opening displacements respond linearly to tower strain and do not change by more than ±5 μm. Lateral crack displacements were found to be negligible. We anticipate that the work outlined here will provide a starting point for real-time, long-term and dynamic analyses of crack displacements in future. Our findings could furthermore inform the development of cost-effective monitoring systems for ageing wind turbine foundations. PMID:28825687

  10. Expert Meeting Report. Foundations Research Results

    SciTech Connect

    Ojczyk, C.; Huelman, P.; Carmody, J.

    2013-05-01

    The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership held an expert meeting on Foundations–Research Results on November 15, 2011, in Minneapolis, MN. Audience participation was actively encouraged during each presentation to uncover needs and promote dialog among researchers and industry professionals. Key results were: greater understanding of the role of moisture transport through foundation and insulation materials and its potential impact on building durability; greater understanding of the role of foundation type in the process of selecting an insulation system for energy performance and building durability; need for research to quantify the risks associated with insulation processes to better enable users to weigh costs and benefits against the existing conditions of a home; need for improved performance modeling capabilities that address variations in foundation types and soil conditions.

  11. Foundations for the Future: The Fundraising Role of Foundation Boards at Public Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worth, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In the face of rising costs and a prolonged economic downturn, public colleges and universities are being challenged to increase their sources of private support and philanthropy. Drawing on the findings of a recent AGB survey of public college- and university-affiliated foundation board chairs and chief executive officers, Foundations for the…

  12. Asset Management for Public Institution Foundations. Foundation Relations. Board Basics Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahlmann, David W.

    1999-01-01

    This guide is intended to assist directors and board members of foundations affiliated with public institutions as they manage investments and assets of their institution. Introductory information notes duties of foundation directors and legal criteria for prudent investing under the Uniform Prudent Investor Act. Suggestions for developing…

  13. Foundations for the Future: The Fundraising Role of Foundation Boards at Public Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worth, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In the face of rising costs and a prolonged economic downturn, public colleges and universities are being challenged to increase their sources of private support and philanthropy. Drawing on the findings of a recent AGB survey of public college- and university-affiliated foundation board chairs and chief executive officers, Foundations for the…

  14. Asset Management for Public Institution Foundations. Foundation Relations. Board Basics Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahlmann, David W.

    1999-01-01

    This guide is intended to assist directors and board members of foundations affiliated with public institutions as they manage investments and assets of their institution. Introductory information notes duties of foundation directors and legal criteria for prudent investing under the Uniform Prudent Investor Act. Suggestions for developing…

  15. Peace Education: Exploring Some Philosophical Foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, James S.

    2004-01-01

    Peace education has been recognized as an important aspect of social education for the past three decades. The critical literature as well as official documents, however, have given little attention to its philosophical foundations. This essay explores these foundations in the ethics of (1) virtue, (2) consequentialism, (3) aesthetics, (4) conservative politics and (5) care. Each of these alone composes a significant element of peace education, although ultimately its solid basis can only be established through an integrative approach encouraging a culture of peace. The more complete development and articulation of the philosophical rationale of peace education is yet to be accomplished and remains a task for the future.

  16. A Foundational Proof Framework for Cryptography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    A Foundational Proof Framework for Cryptography A P T S E A S D P C S H U C , M M 2015 Distribution A: Public Release ©2014 – A P . T U S A F I A... Cryptography A I present a state-of-the-art mechanized framework for developing and checking proofs of secu- rity for cryptographic schemes in the computational...model. This system, called the Foundational Cryptography Framework (FCF) is based on the Coq proof assistant, and it provides a sophisticated

  17. Spatial foundation structures over no tension soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratta, A.; Corbi, I.

    2005-12-01

    The problem of the stress distribution induced in the soil by a single circular foundation structure is approached in a three-dimensional analysis. Since the soil is typically made by not-cohesive materials, its behaviour is modelled by means of the not resisting tension (NRT) hypothesis, thus assuming that its very low resistance to tensile stresses can be completely neglected and that it keeps linearly elastic under pure compression. After developing the problem from a theoretical point of view on the basis of an energetic approach, a numerical application - which is able to reproduce the stress distribution induced by a circular foundation on the soil - is performed. Copyright

  18. Spillway and foundation erosion: Predicting erosion threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Annandale, G.W.; Wittler, R.J.; Mefford, B.W.

    1995-12-31

    This paper summarizes the method that will be used by the Bureau of Reclamation to investigate scour of spillways and dam foundations, and to develop a numerical model to compute the same. In what follows the basis of a unique relationship between the erosive power of water and the ability of earth materials to resist erosion, known as the Erodibility Index Method, is presented. The paper also provides a description of the approach that will be used by the numerical model to calculate the erosive power of plunging, aerated jets. The complimentary paper, Wittler (1995), describes the approach that will be used to investigate the extent of scour of spillways and dam foundations.

  19. Vibration Based Wind Turbine Tower Foundation Design Utilizing Soil-Foundation-Structure Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Satari, P. E. Mohamed; Hussain, S. E. Saif

    2008-07-01

    Wind turbines have been used to generate electricity as an alternative energy source to conventional fossil fuels. This case study is for multiple wind towers located at different villages in Alaska where severe arctic weather conditions exist. The towers are supported by two different types of foundations; large mat or deep piles foundations. Initially, a Reinforced Concrete (RC) mat foundation was utilized to provide the system with vertical and lateral support. Where soil conditions required it, a pile foundation solution was devised utilizing a 30″ thick RC mat containing an embedded steel grillage of W18 beams supported by 20″-24″ grouted or un-grouted piles. The mixing and casting of concrete in-situ has become the major source of cost and difficulty of construction at these remote Alaska sites. An all-steel foundation was proposed for faster installation and lower cost, but was found to impact the natural frequencies of the structural system by significantly softening the foundation system. The tower-foundation support structure thus became near-resonant with the operational frequencies of the wind turbine leading to a likelihood of structural instability or even collapse. A detailed 3D Finite-Element model of the original tower-foundation-pile system with RC foundation was created using SAP2000. Soil springs were included in the model based on soil properties obtained from the geotechnical consultant. The natural frequency from the model was verified against the tower manufacturer analytical and the experimental values. Where piles were used, numerous iterations were carried out to eliminate the need for the RC and optimize the design. An optimized design was achieved with enough separation between the natural and operational frequencies to prevent damage to the structural system eliminating the need for any RC encasement to the steel foundation or grouting to the piles.

  20. 49 CFR 230.77 - Foundation brake gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Foundation brake gear. 230.77 Section 230.77... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.77 Foundation brake gear. (a) Maintenance. Foundation brake gear...) Distance above the rails. No part of the foundation brake gear of the steam locomotive or tender shall...

  1. 49 CFR 230.77 - Foundation brake gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Foundation brake gear. 230.77 Section 230.77... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.77 Foundation brake gear. (a) Maintenance. Foundation brake gear...) Distance above the rails. No part of the foundation brake gear of the steam locomotive or tender shall...

  2. 49 CFR 230.77 - Foundation brake gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Foundation brake gear. 230.77 Section 230.77... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.77 Foundation brake gear. (a) Maintenance. Foundation brake gear...) Distance above the rails. No part of the foundation brake gear of the steam locomotive or tender shall...

  3. 22 CFR 1502.3 - Access to Foundation records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Access to Foundation records. 1502.3 Section 1502.3 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS § 1502.3 Access to Foundation records. Any person desiring to have access to Foundation records may call or apply in person...

  4. The Philosophy and Foundations of Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MSS Information Corp., New York, NY.

    The introductory volume in a new series on vocational education, the book surveys recent literature on the philosophy and foundations of this relatively new field. Opening papers deal with the objectives of vocational education departments in high schools, current standards of technological and industrial education, and models for comprehensive…

  5. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Field Study

    SciTech Connect

    Schirber, T.; Mosiman, G.; Ojczyk, C.

    2014-09-01

    Building science research supports installing exterior (soil side) foundation insulation as the optimal method to enhance the hygrothermal performance of new homes. With exterior foundation insulation, water management strategies are maximized while insulating the basement space and ensuring a more even temperature at the foundation wall. However, such an approach can be very costly and disruptive when applied to an existing home, requiring deep excavation around the entire house. The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team implemented an innovative, minimally invasive foundation insulation upgrade technique on an existing home. The approach consisted of using hydrovac excavation technology combined with liquid insulating foam. The team was able to excavate a continuous 4 inches wide by 4 feet to 5 feet deep trench around the entire house, 128 linear feet, except for one small part under the stoop that was obstructed with concrete debris. The combination pressure washer and vacuum extraction technology also enabled the elimination of large trenches and soil stockpiles normally produced by backhoe excavation. The resulting trench was filled with liquid insulating foam, which also served as a water-control layer of the assembly. The insulation was brought above grade using a liquid foam/rigid foam hybrid system and terminated at the top of the rim joist. Cost savings over the traditional excavation process ranged from 23% to 50%. The excavationless process could result in even greater savings since replacement of building structures, exterior features, utility meters, and landscaping would be minimal or non-existent in an excavationless process.

  6. Routines Are the Foundation of Classroom Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Robin Rawlings; Allanson, Patricia Bolton; Notar, Charles E.

    2017-01-01

    Classroom management is the key to learning. Routines are the foundation of classroom management. Students require structure in their lives. Routines provide that in all of their life from the time they awake until the time they go to bed. Routines in a school and in the classroom provide the environment for learning to take place. The paper is…

  7. Theoretical Foundations for Website Design Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Kristin

    2002-01-01

    Considers how theoretical foundations in website design courses can facilitate students learning the genres of Internet communication. Proposes ways that theories can be integrated into website design courses. Focuses on two students' website portfolios and ways they utilize genre theory and activity theory discussed in class to produce websites…

  8. National Science Foundation - Annual Report 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkbeiner, Ann

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) provides grants through its program divisions, which represent the various disciplines and fields of science and engineering. This report provides a synopsis of NSF grant awards and activities for 1986. The first two sections of the document highlight some of the current areas of NSF sponsored research and…

  9. Cassin Educational Initiative Foundation Funds Model Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thielman, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    Describes an educational foundation that offers financial support to those wishing to institute a San Miguel/Nativity or Cristo Rey model school. Reports that these schools must strive to reduce dropout rates, increase number of students prepared for college, and increase number of students receiving Catholic education. (NB)

  10. Foundations for Policy in Guidance and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herr, Edwin L., Ed.; Pinson, Nancy M., Ed.

    This book provides educators, counselors, policy makers, and community members with information about the state of the art of federal and state policy in guidance and counseling. The two chapters in part 1, Overview, are: "Foundations for Policy in Guidance and Counseling: An Introduction", by Edwin L. Herr and Nancy M. Pinson; and "A Counselor…

  11. The Joyce Foundation 2011 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Mary

    2012-01-01

    In a period such as this, marked by extreme political partisanship and apparent gridlock at the federal level, it would be tempting to throw up one's hands in frustration. But this is just the time that a foundation like Joyce can add the most value--because the Joyce team members are non-partisan, not subject to the pressures of political and…

  12. Foundations of Laic Moral Education in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Juan Manuel Fernandez

    2008-01-01

    This article studies the foundations of laic moral education in Spain. Some aspects of laic moral education can also be found in other nations, including the emergence of the laic man or the need for an educating State; other aspects of laic moral education, however, are peculiar to the Spanish case, such as the influence of Krausoinstitutionism…

  13. The Barnes Foundation: A Place for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, Rika

    2007-01-01

    This article tells the story of the author's invitation to teach at the Barnes Foundation, and her transformative experience as a teacher in this extraordinary place. The author comes to realize that the Barnes is the physical realization of a philosophical dream, and progresses to an understanding of how Albert C. Barnes collected and assembled…

  14. Corner Office Interview: Gates Foundation's Deborah Jacobs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    U.S. libraries gave the world a top talent when Deborah Jacobs left her transformational role as City Librarian of Seattle in 2008 to head the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation's Global Libraries program, the international sibling to the U.S. Libraries program. The initiative fosters national-scale projects with grantees in transitioning countries…

  15. Silence as the Foundation of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caranfa, Angelo

    2004-01-01

    Past and present discussions on education all too frequently neglect the role that silence plays in learning. In this article I set out to demonstrate that silence is the very foundation of learning. My claim is that we must find ways of freeing silence in our pedagogical practices so that our discourse does not denigrate into mere empty words,…

  16. Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David, Ed.; Land, Susan, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments" provides students, faculty, and instructional designers with a clear, concise introduction to the major pedagogical and psychological theories and their implications for the design of new learning environments for schools, universities, or corporations. Leading experts describe the most…

  17. Inter-American Foundation Annual Report 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter-American Foundation, Rosslyn, VA.

    The Inter-American Foundation (IAF), an independent agency created by Congress, funds local private organizations that support the self-help efforts of the poor in Latin America and the Caribbean. In fiscal year 1988, IAF approved 208 new grants, 173 grant supplements, and other program activities totaling nearly $25 million. The average grant…

  18. The Emotional Foundations of Social Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Heather K.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.

    2008-01-01

    The infant and toddler years are a watershed of development in the emotional domain. These skills lay the foundation for positive social interactions, and ultimately, academic and life success. This article describes the development of three skills that are central in creating successful relationships: expressing emotion, understanding emotion,…

  19. Siemens Foundation and the STEM Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper-Taylor, Jeniffer

    2010-01-01

    For more than 12 years, the Siemens Foundation has found unique ways to partner with organizations to support educational initiatives in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in the United States. Its focus is clear--to educate the next generation of innovators by supporting math and science education from grade school to grad…

  20. Who Teaches Foundations in an Integrated Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Bach, Carole Ann

    1979-01-01

    Positive and negative aspects of assigning faculty in nursing specialties to teach foundations or basic nursing skills courses are discussed. Students' reactions to nursing specialists' instruction are also examined. Recommendations are made for duplicating the positive outcomes of a multidisciplinary faculty mix. (MF)

  1. National Science Foundation Annual Report 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    The report begins with a statement from the National Science Foundation (NSF) director, followed by a series of research notes summarizing research findings and results during the year 1989. Chapter 1, "Research Collaborations," describes some examples of the collaborations between universities, industry, and government in astronomy,…

  2. The Menzies Foundation: An Unconventional Memorial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Sandra K.

    2005-01-01

    Australia does not have a conventional prime ministerial library to honour its longest serving prime minister, Sir Robert Menzies. This paper outlines the alternative memorials established by the Menzies Foundation including the creation of the Menzies Virtual Museum website. (Contains 8 notes.)

  3. Social Skills: Laying the Foundation for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Sharon A.; Simpson, Cynthia G.

    2010-01-01

    Well-informed teachers of young children recognize the importance of children's social development. The development of social skills lays a critical foundation for later academic achievement as well as work-related skills. Social development is such a key issue with young children that a number of methods to address social skills have been…

  4. Western European Art Foundations and Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lindsay M.; Clement, Russell T.

    2011-01-01

    Western European art foundations create invaluable opportunities for research and exhibition by artists, curators, and scholars. These activities are often documented and disseminated via high-quality publications. This article highlights an important but under-recognized collecting resource for academic and museum libraries by profiling several…

  5. Foundation for the Future: Turning Points.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA. Directorate for Education and Human Resources.

    This booklet, the third publication in the Foundation for the Future series, illustrates how involvement in the Directorate for Education and Human Resources' (EHR's) projects has been a watershed for many people. The personal profiles contained within describe how EHR programs are: changing people's lives, opening people's minds to new…

  6. The National Science Foundation: A Brief History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    On May 10, 1950, President Truman signed the bill creating the National Science Foundation (NSF). The act provided for a National Science Board to be created and the law directed the agency to encourage and develop a national policy for the promotion of basic research and education in the mathematical, physical, medical, biological, engineering,…

  7. Readiness, Behavior, and Foundational Mathematics Course Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Kevin; Zelenka, Richard; Buonaguidi, Larry; Beckman, Robert; Casillas, Alex; Crouse, Jill; Allen, Jeff; Hanson, Mary Ann; Acton, Tara; Robbins, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effects of math readiness and student course behavior (e.g., attendance, participation, homework completion) on knowledge gain and course success using two samples of students enrolled in foundational skills (noncredit-bearing) mathematics courses. As hypothesized, entering student mathematics readiness and course behavior…

  8. Philosophical Foundations of Adult Education. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, John L.; Merriam, Sharan B.

    This book examines the philosophical foundations of adult education (AE). The following topics are discussed: philosophy of AE (philosophy and action in theory and practice and philosophy for adult educators); liberal AE (historical development, liberal education and the educated person, broad scope, process, liberal education of adults, Great…

  9. Foundational Academic Development: Building Collegiality across Divides?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Catherine; Reid, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    There is limited research into the effectiveness of non-accredited foundational courses for new academic staff. An ongoing issue is that of attention and anxiety overload in the critical first period of employment when the challenges of establishing oneself in a new collegial environment are most acute. Approaches to addressing this issue may be…

  10. Online Assessment and Measurement: Foundations and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hricko, Mary; Howell, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Online learning is one of the most important topics in distance learning, but practitioners and researchers have experienced difficulty in defining the process. "Online Assessment and Measurement: Foundations and Challenges" approaches the topic by finding a common ground to properly analyze online assessment and measurement. "Online Assessment…

  11. Flexible sleeved pile foundations for aseismic design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, J. M.

    1982-03-01

    The feasibility of constructing buildings on horizontally flexible foundations to mitigate the effects of earthquakes is investigated. The flexibility is achieved by inserting a soft spring between the building superstructure and the soil foundation. The use of slender piles enclosed in sleeves is found to permit flexural distortion. The piles are designed by a simple procedure using smoothed response spectra. The performance of building-foundation systems so designed are then studied using histories of actual ground motions. It is shown that the simple design procedure is adequate and that the concept achieves the desired result of greatly reducing seismic forces. The maximum seismic forces on the building may be reduced to a level which is so low that the forces probably do not affect the design of the superstructure. The economic feasibility of the concept is analyzed and it is shown that the additional foundation cost can be justified on the basis of savings in initial superstructure cost and in probable future damage costs.

  12. Theoretical Foundations for Website Design Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Kristin

    2002-01-01

    Considers how theoretical foundations in website design courses can facilitate students learning the genres of Internet communication. Proposes ways that theories can be integrated into website design courses. Focuses on two students' website portfolios and ways they utilize genre theory and activity theory discussed in class to produce websites…

  13. The Philosophy and Foundations of Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MSS Information Corp., New York, NY.

    The introductory volume in a new series on vocational education, the book surveys recent literature on the philosophy and foundations of this relatively new field. Opening papers deal with the objectives of vocational education departments in high schools, current standards of technological and industrial education, and models for comprehensive…

  14. Online Assessment and Measurement: Foundations and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hricko, Mary; Howell, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Online learning is one of the most important topics in distance learning, but practitioners and researchers have experienced difficulty in defining the process. "Online Assessment and Measurement: Foundations and Challenges" approaches the topic by finding a common ground to properly analyze online assessment and measurement. "Online Assessment…

  15. Western European Art Foundations and Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lindsay M.; Clement, Russell T.

    2011-01-01

    Western European art foundations create invaluable opportunities for research and exhibition by artists, curators, and scholars. These activities are often documented and disseminated via high-quality publications. This article highlights an important but under-recognized collecting resource for academic and museum libraries by profiling several…

  16. The Barnes Foundation: A Place for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, Rika

    2007-01-01

    This article tells the story of the author's invitation to teach at the Barnes Foundation, and her transformative experience as a teacher in this extraordinary place. The author comes to realize that the Barnes is the physical realization of a philosophical dream, and progresses to an understanding of how Albert C. Barnes collected and assembled…

  17. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Field Study

    SciTech Connect

    Schirber, T.; Mosiman, G.; Ojczyk, C.

    2014-10-01

    Building science research supports installing exterior (soil side) foundation insulation as the optimal method to enhance the hygrothermal performance of new homes. With exterior foundation insulation, water management strategies are maximized while insulating the basement space and ensuring a more even temperature at the foundation wall. However, such an approach can be very costly and disruptive when applied to an existing home, requiring deep excavation around the entire house. The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team implemented an innovative, minimally invasive foundation insulation upgrade technique on an existing home. The approach consisted of using hydrovac excavation technology combined with a liquid insulating foam. The team was able to excavate a continuous 4" wide by 4' to 5' deep trench around the entire house, 128 linear feet, except for one small part under the stoop that was obstructed with concrete debris. The combination pressure washer and vacuum extraction technology also enabled the elimination of large trenches and soil stockpiles normally produced by backhoe excavation. The resulting trench was filled with liquid insulating foam, which also served as a water-control layer of the assembly. The insulation was brought above grade using a liquid foam/rigid foam hybrid system and terminated at the top of the rim joist. Cost savings over the traditional excavation process ranged from 23% to 50%. The excavationless process could result in even greater savings since replacement of building structures, exterior features, utility meters, and landscaping would be minimal or non-existent in an excavationless process.

  18. Corner Office Interview: Gates Foundation's Deborah Jacobs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    U.S. libraries gave the world a top talent when Deborah Jacobs left her transformational role as City Librarian of Seattle in 2008 to head the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation's Global Libraries program, the international sibling to the U.S. Libraries program. The initiative fosters national-scale projects with grantees in transitioning countries…

  19. The Philosophical Foundations of Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michopoulos, Aristotle

    The current lifelong learning movement, the new force toward global education, owes much to the League of Nations and the United Nations that sponsored an expanded multiracial "polis." Its philosophical foundations go back, however, to ancient China, India, and especially Greece, where philosophers and scientists got their creative…

  20. Foundations of Laic Moral Education in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Juan Manuel Fernandez

    2008-01-01

    This article studies the foundations of laic moral education in Spain. Some aspects of laic moral education can also be found in other nations, including the emergence of the laic man or the need for an educating State; other aspects of laic moral education, however, are peculiar to the Spanish case, such as the influence of Krausoinstitutionism…

  1. Inter-American Foundation Annual Report 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter-American Foundation, Rosslyn, VA.

    The Inter-American Foundation (IAF), an independent agency created by Congress, funds local private organizations that support the self-help efforts of the poor in 25 Latin American and Caribbean countries. In fiscal year 1989, IAF approved 208 new grants, 175 grant supplements, and other program activities totaling over $25 million. The average…

  2. Pavlov and the foundation of behavior therapy.

    PubMed

    Plaud, Joseph J

    2003-11-01

    The foundation, achievements, and proliferation of behavior therapy have largely been fueled by the movement's foundation in behavioral principles and theories. Although behavioral accounts of the genesis and treatment of psychopathology differ in the extent to which they emphasize classical or operant conditioning, the mediation of cognitive factors, and the role of biological variables, Pavlov's discovery of conditioning principles was essential to the founding of behavior therapy in the 1950s, and continues to be central to modern behavior therapy. Pavlov's reliance on a physiological model of the nervous system, sensible in the context of an early science of neurology, has had an implication for behavior therapists interested in the study of personality types. However, Pavlov's major legacy to behavior therapy was his discovery of "experimental neuroses," shown by his students Eroféeva and Shenger-Krestovnikova, to be produced and eliminated through the principles of conditioning and counter-conditioning. This discovery laid the foundation for the first empirically-validated behavior therapy procedure, systematic desensitization, pioneered by Wolpe. The Pavlovian origins of behavior therapy are analyzed in this paper, and the relevance of conditioning principles to modern behavior therapy is demonstrated. It is shown that Pavlovian conditioning represents far more than a systematic basic learning paradigm. It is also an essential theoretical foundation for the theory and practice of behavior therapy.

  3. The Promises of Moral Foundations Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musschenga, Bert

    2013-01-01

    In this article I examine whether Moral Foundations Theory can fulfil the promises that Haidt claims for the theory: that it will help in developing new approaches to moral education and to the moral conflicts that divide our diverse society. I argue that, first, the model that Haidt suggests for understanding the plurality of moralities--a shared…

  4. National Science Foundation Annual Report 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This document provides highlights of research efforts supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) in the areas of mathematics, physical sciences, and engineering; astronomical, atmospheric, earth, and ocean sciences; science education; research applied to national needs; and scientific, technological, and international affairs for fiscal…

  5. National Science Foundation Annual Report 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    Presented are highlights of research efforts supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) in the areas of mathematical and physical sciences; astronomical, atmospheric, earth, and ocean sciences; biological, behavioral, and social sciences; science education; engineering and applied science; and scientific, technological, and international…

  6. Foundation: Transforming data bases into knowledge bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, R. B.; Carnes, James R.; Cutts, Dannie E.

    1987-01-01

    One approach to transforming information stored in relational data bases into knowledge based representations and back again is described. This system, called Foundation, allows knowledge bases to take advantage of vast amounts of pre-existing data. A benefit of this approach is inspection, and even population, of data bases through an intelligent knowledge-based front-end.

  7. Philosophical Foundations of Adult Education. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, John L.; Merriam, Sharan B.

    This book examines the philosophical foundations of adult education (AE). The following topics are discussed: philosophy of AE (philosophy and action in theory and practice and philosophy for adult educators); liberal AE (historical development, liberal education and the educated person, broad scope, process, liberal education of adults, Great…

  8. Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David, Ed.; Land, Susan, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments" provides students, faculty, and instructional designers with a clear, concise introduction to the major pedagogical and psychological theories and their implications for the design of new learning environments for schools, universities, or corporations. Leading experts describe the most…

  9. Aboriginal Healing Foundation Annual Report, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aboriginal Healing Foundation, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The Aboriginal Healing Foundation (AHF) is a nonprofit organization established in 1998 with funding from the Canadian Government. Its mission is to support Aboriginal people in building sustainable healing processes that address the legacy of physical and sexual abuse in the residential school system, including intergenerational impacts. AHF…

  10. Social Skills: Laying the Foundation for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Sharon A.; Simpson, Cynthia G.

    2010-01-01

    Well-informed teachers of young children recognize the importance of children's social development. The development of social skills lays a critical foundation for later academic achievement as well as work-related skills. Social development is such a key issue with young children that a number of methods to address social skills have been…

  11. Cassin Educational Initiative Foundation Funds Model Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thielman, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    Describes an educational foundation that offers financial support to those wishing to institute a San Miguel/Nativity or Cristo Rey model school. Reports that these schools must strive to reduce dropout rates, increase number of students prepared for college, and increase number of students receiving Catholic education. (NB)

  12. The 21st Annual Prostate Cancer Foundation Scientific Retreat report.

    PubMed

    Miyahira, Andrea K; Simons, Jonathan W; Soule, Howard R

    2015-08-01

    The 21st Annual Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) Scientific Retreat was held from October 23-25, 2014, in Carlsbad, CA. This event is the world's foremost scientific meeting focusing on prostate cancer and brings together leading basic, translational and clinical researchers in prostate cancer and other diverse disciplines to discuss the newest findings most likely to advance the understanding of prostate cancer and the clinical care of prostate cancer patients. This year's meeting highlighted themes including: (i) research integrity and standards for scientific reproducibility; (ii) prostate cancer disparities; (iii) mechanisms and models of prostate cancer progression and dormancy; (iv) mechanisms of therapeutic resistance; and (v) advancements in precision medicine treatments, treatment models, and predictive and prognostic biomarkers.

  13. SUSTAINABLE CONCRETE FOR WIND TURBINE FOUNDATIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    BERNDT,M.L.

    2004-06-01

    The use of wind power to generate electricity continues to grow, especially given commitments by various countries throughout the world to ensure that a significant percentage of energy comes from renewable sources. In order to meet such objectives, increasingly larger turbines with higher capacity are being developed. The engineering aspects of larger turbine development tend to focus on design and materials for blades and towers. However, foundations are also a critical component of large wind turbines and represent a significant cost of wind energy projects. Ongoing wind research at BNL is examining two areas: (a) structural response analysis of wind turbine-tower-foundation systems and (b) materials engineering of foundations. This work is investigating the dynamic interactions in wind turbine systems, which in turn assists the wind industry in achieving improved reliability and more cost efficient foundation designs. The results reported herein cover initial studies of concrete mix designs for large wind turbine foundations and how these may be tailored to reduce cost and incorporate sustainability and life cycle concepts. The approach taken was to investigate material substitutions so that the environmental, energy and CO{sub 2}-impact of concrete could be reduced. The use of high volumes of ''waste'' materials in concrete was examined. These materials included fly ash, blast furnace slag and recycled concrete aggregate. In addition, the use of steel fiber reinforcement as a means to improve mechanical properties and potentially reduce the amount of bar reinforcement in concrete foundations was studied. Four basic mixes were considered. These were: (1) conventional mix with no material substitutions, (2) 50% replacement of cement with fly ash, (3) 50% replacement of cement with blast furnace slag and (4) 25% replacement of cement with fly ash and 25% replacement with blast furnace slag. Variations on these mixes included the addition of 1% by volume steel

  14. Clinical Education in Athletic Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edler, Jessica R.; Eberman, Lindsey E.; Walker, Stacy

    2017-01-01

    Context: Clinical education is a foundational component of healthcare education by which students acquire, practice, and demonstrate competency in clinical proficiencies through classroom, laboratory, and clinical experiences. Currently, the most common practice of clinical education in athletic training is clinical integration. Objective: The…

  15. Can Innate, modular "foundations" explain morality? Challenges for Haidt's Moral Foundations Theory.

    PubMed

    Suhler, Christopher L; Churchland, Patricia

    2011-09-01

    Jonathan Haidt's Moral Foundations Theory is an influential scientific account of morality incorporating psychological, developmental, and evolutionary perspectives. The theory proposes that morality is built upon five innate "foundations," each of which is believed to have been selected for during human evolution and, subsequently, tuned-up by learning during development. We argue here that although some general elements of Haidt's theory are plausible, many other important aspects of his account are seriously flawed. First, innateness and modularity figure centrally in Haidt's account, but terminological and conceptual problems foster confusion and ambiguities. Second, both the theory's proposed number of moral foundations and its taxonomy of the moral domain appear contrived, ignoring equally good candidate foundations and the possibility of substantial intergroup differences in the foundations' contents. Third, the mechanisms (viz., modules) and categorical distinctions (viz., between foundations) proposed by the theory are not consilient with discoveries in contemporary neuroscience concerning the organization, functioning, and development of the brain. In light of these difficulties, we suggest that Haidt's theory is inadequate as a scientific account of morality. Nevertheless, the theory's weaknesses are instructive, and hence, criticism may be useful to psychologists, neuroscientists, and philosophers attempting to advance theories of morality, as well as to researchers wishing to invoke concepts such as innateness and modularity more generally.

  16. On the Foundations of Superstring Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    't Hooft, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Superstring theory is an extension of conventional quantum field theory that allows for stringlike and branelike material objects besides pointlike particles. The basic foundations on which the theory is built are amazingly shaky, and, equally amazingly, it seems to be this lack of solid foundations to which the theory owes its strength. We emphasize that such a situation is legitimate only in the development phases of a new doctrine. Eventually, a more solidly founded structure must be sought. Although it is advertised as a "candidate theory of quantum gravity", we claim that string theory may not be exactly that. Rather, just like quantum field theory itself, it is a general mathematical framework for a class of theories. Its major flaw could be that it still embraces a Copenhagen view on the relation between quantum mechanics and reality, while any "theory of everything", that is, a theory for the entire cosmos, should do better than that.

  17. European Foundation Designs for Seasonally Frozen Ground

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    after an im-...... X I Concrete Slab mm---------------- - pervious floor covering has been placed on the S Rodw---- - .-.--- - - -- J slab. Rockwool It...inside of theo - foundation wall, consisted of 50 mm of Rockwool o3 wallo -"o 0 ° (a mineral wool). This insulation guides heat from the house down...board is sometimes used as a combined basement wall drainage and thermal insulation. This board can consist of rockwool (a mineral wool) of 100-kg/ m 3

  18. Profile of successful AORN Foundation Scholarship applicant.

    PubMed

    Chappy, Sharon L; Gaberson, Kathleen B; Stein, Patricia S

    2004-03-01

    Each year, the AORN Scholarship Committee selects recipients of AORN Foundation scholarships to support educational advancement. Competition for scholarships increases as more AORN members return to school. Successful applicants are attentive to detail in following application guidelines, clearly articulate their appeal for a scholarship, include documentation of academic records and the school or program accreditation status, and convey their passion for caring through service to the community and to others.

  19. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Exploratory Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mosiman, G.; Wagner, R.; Schirber, T.

    2013-02-01

    The key objective of this exploratory study was to investigate the feasibility of the development or adoption of technologies that would enable a large percentage of existing homes in cold climates to apply a combination 'excavationless' soil removal process with appropriate insulation and water management on the exterior of existing foundations at a low cost. Our approach was to explore existing excavation and material technologies and systems to discover whether potential successful combinations existed.

  20. Colwell tapped for National Scince Foundation post

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    President Clinton has announced his intent to nominate Rita Colwell as deputy director of the National Science Foundation.Colwell, president of the University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute and a professor of microbiology at the university, has been active in national and international research and teaching in the areas of marine biotechnology and the molecular genetics of marine and estuarine bacteria, including the microbiology of the Chesapeake Bay.

  1. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Exploratory Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mosimann, Garrett; Wagner, Rachel; Schirber, Tom

    2013-02-01

    The key objective of this exploratory study was to investigate the feasibility of the development or adoption of technologies that would enable a large percentage of existing homes in cold climates to apply a combination 'excavationless' soil removal process with appropriate insulation and water management on the exterior of existing foundations at a low cost. Our approach was to explore existing excavation and material technologies and systems to discover whether potential successful combinations existed.

  2. Color match of machinable lithium disilicate ceramics: effects of foundation restoration.

    PubMed

    Niu, Eva; Agustin, Marcus; Douglas, R Duane

    2013-12-01

    Metal or white opaque foundation restorations may negatively affect the color of machinable lithium disilicate (MLD) ceramic restorations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ceramic thickness and foundation restoration materials on the color of MLD restorations. Forty-five ceramic slices in 3 thicknesses (1.0 mm, 1.5 mm, 2.0 mm; 15 slices in each group) were made from low-translucency (LT) shade A1 IPS e.max CAD blocks. Resin cement (Multilink yellow) of 100-μm cement thickness was bonded to 3 different foundation restoration materials: silver-palladium (Ag-Pd) (Albacast) alloy, Type III gold (Midas), and white opaque foundation resin (Paracore white) to make the cement-foundation blocks. After optically connecting each ceramic specimen to the cement-foundation block, the color of each laminated combination was measured with a portable spectrophotometer (Vita EasyShade Compact). The color differences (ΔE) between the specimen assemblies and a control target block (a 12×14×14-mm crystalized shade A1 LT e.max CAD block) were calculated. Two-way ANOVA and general linear model were used to assess the effects of ceramic thickness, foundation materials, and their interactions to the resultant ΔE (α=.05). Clinical significance was determined by comparing color differences to perceptibility and acceptability thresholds by using the t test (α=.05). Both ceramic thickness and foundation materials significantly affected the mean values of color difference (ΔE) of MLD restorations (P<.001). The mean value of ΔE decreased as the ceramic thickness increased. At a ceramic thickness of 1 mm, the color difference was above the clinically perceptible level (ΔE>2.6) with the 3 tested foundation materials (P<.001). As for the foundation materials, the ΔE was the lowest for Type III gold alloy, followed by Ag-Pd, then white opaque foundation resin. The color differences for Type III gold and a ceramic thickness of 1.5 or 2.0 mm were below the clinically

  3. Building a safer foundation: the Lessons Learnt patient safety training programme.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Maria; Arora, Sonal; Tiew, Stephenie; Hayden, Jacky; Sevdalis, Nick; Vincent, Charles; Baker, Paul

    2014-01-01

    To develop, implement and evaluate a novel patient safety training programme for junior doctors across a Foundation School-'Lessons Learnt: Building a Safer Foundation'. Prospective preintervention /postintervention study across 16 Foundation Programmes in North West England, UK. 1169 participants including all Foundation Programme Directors, Administrators, Foundation trainees and senior faculty. Half-day stakeholder engagement event and faculty development through recruitment and training of local senior doctors. Foundation trainee-led monthly 60-min sessions integrated into compulsory Foundation teaching from January to July 2011 comprising case-based discussion and analysis of patient safety incidents encountered in practice, facilitated by trained faculty. Participants' satisfaction and Foundation trainees' patient safety knowledge, skills, attitudes and behavioural change. Participants reported high levels of satisfaction with 'Lessons Learnt'. There was a significant improvement in trainees' objective patient safety knowledge scores (Meanpreintervention=51.1%, SD=17.3%; Meanpostintervention=57.6%, SD=20.1%, p<0.001); subjective knowledge ratings and patient safety skills. Trainees' perceived control and behavioural intentions regarding safety improved significantly postintervention. Feelings and personal beliefs about safety did not shift significantly. Trainees reported significantly more patient safety incidents in the 6 months following introduction of 'Lessons Learnt' (Meanpreintervention=0.67, SD=1.11; Meanpostintervention=1.18, SD=1.46, p<0.001). 32 quality improvement projects were initiated by trainees, spanning the development of novel clinical protocols; implementation of user-informed teaching and improved rota design Patient safety training can be implemented and sustained to deliver significant improvements in patient safety knowledge, skills and behaviours of junior doctors-with potential for wider positive organisational impact. Medical

  4. The TRY Foundation: A Case Study in Private Community Development Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Paul T.

    This is a case study of the TRY Foundation, a privately funded non-profit corporation devoting its resources to "community and human development in disadvantaged areas." Activities sponsored by its primate unit, the Willowbrook Chapter of Watts, Los Angeles, include: thrift shop, preventive dentistry clinic, Operation Vegetable…

  5. Undergraduate and foundation training in trauma and orthopaedics: junior doctors have their say.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Yaser; Thakrar, Raj R; Palmer, Jon; Konan, Sujith; Donaldson, James; Olivier, Andre; Gikas, Panos; Briggs, Tim

    2015-07-01

    Undergraduate education in musculoskeletal health is currently insufficient in most medical schools worldwide, in both basic sciences and clinical training. A national survey was carried out to obtain views of current doctors from various specialties about undergraduate and foundation training in trauma and orthopaedics.

  6. Authenticity as a foundational principle of medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Welie, J V

    1994-01-01

    Increasingly, contemporary medical ethicists have become aware of the need to explicate a foundation for their various models of applied ethics. Many of these theories are inspired by the apparent incompatibility of patient autonomy and provider beneficence. The principle of patient autonomy derives its current primacy to a large extent from its legal origins. However, this principle seems at odds with the clinical reality. In the bioethical literature, the notion of authenticity has been proposed as an alternative foundational principle to autonomy. This article examines this proposal in reference to various existentialist philosophers (Heidegger, Sartre, Camus and Marcel). It is concluded that the principle of autonomy fails to do what it is commonly supposed to do: provide a criterion of distinction that can be invoked to settle moral controversies between patients and providers. The existentialist concept of authenticity is more promising in at least one crucial respect: It acknowledges that the essence of human life disappears from sight if life's temporal character is reduced to a series of present decisions and actions. This also implies that the very quest for a criterion that allows physicians to distinguish between sudden, unexpected decisions of their patients to be or not to be respected, without recourse to the patient's past or future, is erroneous.

  7. Flexure of a Beam Supported on an Elastic Foundation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    irregular and where the beam or foundation is nonhomogeneous. The beam and foundation are represented by elements that have displacement functions that vary as the third-degree of Y and the fifth-degree of X. (Author)

  8. The 23rd Annual Prostate Cancer Foundation Scientific Retreat report.

    PubMed

    Miyahira, Andrea K; Soule, Howard R

    2017-07-01

    The 23rd Annual Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) Scientific Retreat was convened October 27-29, 2016, in Carlsbad, CA. This event focuses on the latest advances in basic, translational, and clinical prostate cancer research with the greatest promise for advancing our understanding of prostate cancer biology and improving patient outcomes and quality of life. Themes highlighted at this year's meeting included: i) targeting DNA repair deficiency in prostate cancer; ii) optimizing the use of Radium-223 and bone-targeting agents; iii) advances in cancer immunotherapeutic approaches; iv) targeting developmental pathways in prostate cancer; v) advances in circulating tumor DNA technology and applications; vi) precision survivorship; and vii) novel treatments and treatment strategies in prostate cancer. This article reviews the key advances discussed at the Retreat for the purpose of disseminating this knowledge to accelerate the development of new treatments and improved outcomes for men suffering with prostate cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The spinal cord research foundation: two decades of progress.

    PubMed

    Kelley, M S

    2001-04-01

    Over the course of the past 24 years, the Paralyzed Veterans of America's Spinal Cord Research Foundation (SCRF) has provided support for more than 400 research grants in a wide range of areas, from improved wheelchair design to axon pathfinding in Drosophila. The Founders of SCRF, as well as its current trustees, believe that it is imperative to target a broad range of research areas to maximize the quality of life for people, both veterans and nonveterans, with paralysis. This approach has involved the support of basic science and clinical research directed towards repair of the spinal cord, as well as research into improved treatments for complications of spinal cord dysfunction and other projects, including engineering grants and conferences, that may enhance the quality of life for people with paralysis within the immediate future.

  10. The foundations and the development of modern medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, A

    1995-09-01

    Modern bioethics is based on a pluralistic and multidisciplinary approach, deriving its sources from medicine, biology, philosophy, law, theology, social and behavioral sciences, and history. The moral foundation of modern biomedical ethics is based upon four prima facie principles: respect of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice. This approach, however, has been seriously criticized and challenged. A wide range of issues is discussed and debated in biomedical ethics. Several causes have intensified the recent flourishing of medical ethics: The enormous advancements in scientific and technological knowledge; the intense and widespread interest in bioethics by professionals as well as by the public at large; and the wide sociocultural and economic changes in western society, and in the conduct of medicine. The objectives of clinical medical ethics is outlined in the article.

  11. Measure Guideline. Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for designs and variations for retrofit hybrid assemblies in improving interior foundation insulation and water management of basements. Variations include closed cell spray foam (ccSPF) with membrane waterproofing or air gap membrane drainage layers, rigid board foam insulation at flat walls (cast concrete or CMU block), a “partial drainage” detail making use of the bulk water drainage that occurs through the field of a rubble stone wall, and non-drained spray foam assemblies (including slab insulation).

  12. Measure Guideline: Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for designs and variations for retrofit hybrid assemblies in improving interior foundation insulation and water management of basements. Variations include closed cell spray foam (ccSPF) with membrane waterproofing or air gap membrane drainage layers, rigid board foam insulation at flat walls (cast concrete or CMU block), a 'partial drainage' detail making use of the bulk water drainage that occurs through the field of a rubble stone wall, and non-drained spray foam assemblies (including slab insulation).

  13. Complex Networks/Foundations of Information Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-06

    Information Systems 6 March 2013 Robert J. Bonneau, Ph.D. Division Chief AFOSR/RTC Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 06 MAR 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00...2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Complex Networks/Foundations of Information Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  14. Foundation Design against Frost Action in Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    the inside of the foundation wall and consisted of 50mm of ’ Rockwool ’ (a mineral wool). This insulation guides heat from the house down toward the...drainage and thermal insulation. This board can consist of ’ rockwool ’ (a 0, . mineral wool), of 100 Kg/m 3 density, or polystyrene with an open...e.g. ’ Rockwool ’) can be expensive and there is a tendency of this material to absorb moisture with consequent reduction in its insulating effect. Under

  15. MacArthur Foundation Prize Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Four of the 19 persons selected as prize fellows by the John D. and Catherine MacArthur Foundation specialize in the earth, ocean, or space sciences. The four are John P. Holdren, Robert W. Kates, Paul G. Richards, and Joseph H. Taylor.The awards, ranging from $24,000 to $60,000 annually for 5 years, are unrestricted; the recipients may pursue any field of endeavor and are not required to publish a paper or to meet similar requirements. The exact amount of the award is dependent on the recipient's age; older prize fellows receive larger awards than do younger ones.

  16. Solid modeling: foundation for manufacturing automation

    SciTech Connect

    Kalibjian, J.R.

    1985-09-01

    We describe the concept of solid modeling and its applications for Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) processes. A solid modeler uses a complete, unambiguous mathematical description to present the shape of a physical part. A mathematically complete part data base is thus established. This date base can then be used by such CAM application programs as process planners and numerical control (NC) tool-path generators to help produce the modeled part. Without an unambiguous mathematical description, the application programs would not be able to operate without substantial human intervention. The solid modeler, then, provides the foundation upon which fully automated part design and manufacture will rest.

  17. Adolescent self-esteem: a foundational disposition.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J A; Olnhausen, K S

    1999-01-01

    Based on results of a concept synthesis and concept derivation, an argument is made that self-esteem is a human foundational disposition within the self-care deficit theory of nursing and, as such, is a component of an individual's self-care agency. Guided by research literature, the basic conditioning factors of age, gender, developmental state, family systems, sociocultural orientation, health state, and environmental factors are discussed in regard to their influence on the adolescent's developing self-esteem and emerging self-care agency.

  18. Review These Essential Steps before Starting a Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Executive Educator, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Outlines the legal status of nonprofit foundations as fund-raising entities for public schools (including information on tax deductions), offers four steps for planning such foundations, presents possible objections to foundation funding, and gives the addresses of three organizations to write for further information. (JBM)

  19. "We Are Family": Maori Success in Foundation Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurchy-Pilkington, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the question: What constitutes an optimal learning environment for Maori learners in foundation programmes? Using Kaupapa Maori methodology, nearly 100 adult Maori (Indigenous) students in Aotearoa/New Zealand were interviewed from a range of tertiary providers of foundation programmes. State-funded foundation programmes that…

  20. 45 CFR 650.2 - National Science Foundation patent policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false National Science Foundation patent policy. 650.2 Section 650.2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.2 National Science Foundation patent policy. As authorized by the National...

  1. 45 CFR 650.2 - National Science Foundation patent policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National Science Foundation patent policy. 650.2 Section 650.2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.2 National Science Foundation patent policy. As authorized by the National...

  2. 45 CFR 650.2 - National Science Foundation patent policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false National Science Foundation patent policy. 650.2 Section 650.2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.2 National Science Foundation patent policy. As authorized by the National...

  3. Boot Camp for Education CEOs: The Broad Foundation Superintendents Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jehlen, Alain

    2012-01-01

    The Broad Foundation Superintendents Academy is the most prominent and most controversial training institute for school chiefs. The Academy is the flagship program of the Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation, the smallest of a triumvirate of corporate foundations that are at the heart of the billionaire campaign to remake public education in the image…

  4. 45 CFR 650.2 - National Science Foundation patent policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false National Science Foundation patent policy. 650.2 Section 650.2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.2 National Science Foundation patent policy. As authorized by the National...

  5. "We Are Family": Maori Success in Foundation Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurchy-Pilkington, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the question: What constitutes an optimal learning environment for Maori learners in foundation programmes? Using Kaupapa Maori methodology, nearly 100 adult Maori (Indigenous) students in Aotearoa/New Zealand were interviewed from a range of tertiary providers of foundation programmes. State-funded foundation programmes that…

  6. 45 CFR 650.2 - National Science Foundation patent policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false National Science Foundation patent policy. 650.2... FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.2 National Science Foundation patent policy. As authorized by the National Science... adopted the following statement of NSF patent policy. (a) In accordance with the Bayh-Dole Act and...

  7. Newspaper Association of America Foundation: Report for 1991-92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Newspaper Publishers Association Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This document contains the 1991-92 annual report of the Newspaper Association of America (NAA) Foundation. The group previously was known as the American Newspaper Publishers Association (ANPA) Foundation. Throughout the report, the foundation is referred to as ANPA when referring to past activities, and NAA when referring to the present and…

  8. 22 CFR 1502.5 - Records available at the Foundation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Records available at the Foundation. 1502.5 Section 1502.5 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS § 1502.5 Records available at the Foundation. The Administration and Finance Division will make available for public...

  9. Boot Camp for Education CEOs: The Broad Foundation Superintendents Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jehlen, Alain

    2012-01-01

    The Broad Foundation Superintendents Academy is the most prominent and most controversial training institute for school chiefs. The Academy is the flagship program of the Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation, the smallest of a triumvirate of corporate foundations that are at the heart of the billionaire campaign to remake public education in the image…

  10. 30 CFR 56.4401 - Storage tank foundations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage tank foundations. 56.4401 Section 56... Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 56.4401 Storage tank foundations. Fixed, unburied, flammable or combustible liquid storage tanks shall be securely mounted on firm foundations. Piping shall...

  11. Developing a Framework of Work-Based Foundation Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park. Inst. for the Study of Adult Literacy.

    The Framework of Work Based Foundation Skills Project was undertaken to facilitate development of Pennsylvania's new workforce investment system Team PA CareerLink by identifying and developing common definitions of the foundation skills all workers need to function effectively in any workplace. A framework of 19 work-based foundation skills and…

  12. The chapter breeding program of the American Chestnut Foundation

    Treesearch

    Sara Fitzsimmons; Kendra Gurney; William White; Katy McCune

    2012-01-01

    A unique feature of the American Chestnut Foundation breeding program is the use of volunteers to conduct most of the regional breeding that will help increase genetic diversity and preserve local adaptation in the products of our program. This effort is coordinated by the four authors of this abstract, who are employees of the Foundation. The Foundation has...

  13. Auditory midbrain implant: research and development towards a second clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hubert H; Lenarz, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The cochlear implant is considered one of the most successful neural prostheses to date, which was made possible by visionaries who continued to develop the cochlear implant through multiple technological and clinical challenges. However, patients without a functional auditory nerve or implantable cochlea cannot benefit from a cochlear implant. The focus of the paper is to review the development and translation of a new type of central auditory prosthesis for this group of patients that is known as the auditory midbrain implant (AMI) and is designed for electrical stimulation within the inferior colliculus. The rationale and results for the first AMI clinical study using a multi-site single-shank array will be presented initially. Although the AMI has achieved encouraging results in terms of safety and improvements in lip-reading capabilities and environmental awareness, it has not yet provided sufficient speech perception. Animal and human data will then be presented to show that a two-shank AMI array can potentially improve hearing performance by targeting specific neurons of the inferior colliculus. A new two-shank array, stimulation strategy, and surgical approach are planned for the AMI that are expected to improve hearing performance in the patients who will be implanted in an upcoming clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health. Positive outcomes from this clinical trial will motivate new efforts and developments toward improving central auditory prostheses for those who cannot sufficiently benefit from cochlear implants. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled <Lasker Award>. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Is Rorty's neopragmatism the "real" foundation of medical ethics: a search for foundational principles.

    PubMed

    Branch, William T

    2006-01-01

    Principlism, the predominate approach to bioethics, has no foundational principles. This absence of foundations reflects the general intellectual climate of postmodern relativism. Even America's foremost public philosopher, Richard Rorty, whose pragmatism might suggest a philosophy of commonsense, seems to be swimming in the postmodern swamp. Alternatively, principlism's architects, Beauchamp and Childress, suggest a constantly evolving reflective equilibrium with some basis in common morality as a workable framework for twenty-first century bioethics. The flaw in their approach is failure to conform to real doctors' and patients' experiences. Real doctors adopt a scientific paradigm that assumes an objective reality. Patients experience real suffering and seek effective cures, treatments, palliation and solace. The foundation of medical ethics should be that doctors altruistically respond to their patients' suffering using scientifically acceptable modalities. Compassion, caring, and respect for human dignity are needed as guides in addition to justice, beneficence, nonmaleficence and respect for autonomy.

  15. Foundations for Measuring Volume Rendering Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Peter L.; Uselton, Samuel P.; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide a foundation for objectively comparing volume rendered images. The key elements of the foundation are: (1) a rigorous specification of all the parameters that need to be specified to define the conditions under which a volume rendered image is generated; (2) a methodology for difference classification, including a suite of functions or metrics to quantify and classify the difference between two volume rendered images that will support an analysis of the relative importance of particular differences. The results of this method can be used to study the changes caused by modifying particular parameter values, to compare and quantify changes between images of similar data sets rendered in the same way, and even to detect errors in the design, implementation or modification of a volume rendering system. If one has a benchmark image, for example one created by a high accuracy volume rendering system, the method can be used to evaluate the accuracy of a given image.

  16. Seven Foundational Principles of Population Health Policy.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Dru; Bhatt, Jay

    2017-02-13

    In 2016, Keyes and Galea issued 9 foundational principles of population health science and invited further deliberations by specialists to advance the field. This article presents 7 foundational principles of population health policy whose intersection with health care, public health, preventive medicine, and now population health, presents unique challenges. These principles are in response to a number of overarching questions that have arisen in over a decade of the authors' collective practice in the public and private sectors, and having taught policy within programs of medicine, law, nursing, and public health at the graduate and executive levels. The principles address an audience of practitioners and policy makers, mindful of the pressing health care challenges of our time, including: rising health-related expenditures, an aging population, workforce shortages, health disparities, and a backdrop of inequities rooted in social determinants that have not been adequately translated into formal policies or practices among the key stakeholders in population health. These principles are meant to empower stakeholders-whether it is the planner or the practitioner, the decision maker or the dedicated caregiver-and inform the development of practical tools, research, and education.

  17. Teachers and the foundations of intercultural interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günay, Oya

    2016-08-01

    With the effects of globalisation, the number of people exposed to intercultural interaction has increased significantly. One of the most affected sectors is education. In parallel to the increase in numbers of students going abroad for tertiary education, primary and secondary education classes have also become culturally and religiously more diverse, mainly due to the effects of migration. With the increase in cultural diversity among their students, teachers find themselves facing new challenges. In order to be able to effectively encourage cultural exchange and intercultural dialogue, teachers need to cultivate their own intercultural competence. However, instead of directly jumping to the end result, this paper focuses on the very foundations of any intercultural interaction, namely self-awareness - of one's own normative settings -, acceptance of the equality of different cultural approaches, and strategies for how these can be transformed into personal attributes. The author highlights the importance of the internalisation of a belief in order to be able to reflect it in one's behaviour and convey to others the sense that they are genuinely accepted as they are. Self-Determination Theory (SDT) provides important insights into how and under which conditions internalisation can take place. Combining the insights gained from SDT with questioning techniques used by coaching experts, the author drafts a set of self-assessment questions which aim to help teachers reflect on the foundations of their intercultural interactions, gauge their level of internalisation and define the areas they have to focus on in order to cultivate their intercultural competence.

  18. Public health and nutrition after the Spanish Civil War. An intervention by the Rockefeller Foundation.

    PubMed

    Del Cura, Isabel; Huertas, Rafael

    2009-10-01

    We describe a nutritional intervention by the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Division in Spain after the Spanish Civil War, delineating the relationships between the technicians sent by the Rockefeller Foundation and the Spanish health authorities. We analyze reports of the nutritional situation in Spain in the early 1940s and the design and outcomes of a nutrition survey conducted in a district of Madrid by American and Spanish nutritionists. This nutritional survey, which was based on food intake interviews and was complemented with anthropometric measurements, clinical examinations, and blood tests, found several symptoms and signs of malnutrition. The Rockefeller Foundation's nutritional research was an important historical precedent for later studies made in emergency situations or armed conflicts. Similar surveys have been carried out in the last several decades by distinguished academic departments of public health and epidemiology and by humanitarian aid agencies.

  19. Public Health and Nutrition After the SPANISH CIVIL WAR An Intervention by the Rockefeller Foundation

    PubMed Central

    del Cura, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    We describe a nutritional intervention by the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Division in Spain after the Spanish Civil War, delineating the relationships between the technicians sent by the Rockefeller Foundation and the Spanish health authorities. We analyze reports of the nutritional situation in Spain in the early 1940s and the design and outcomes of a nutrition survey conducted in a district of Madrid by American and Spanish nutritionists. This nutritional survey, which was based on food intake interviews and was complemented with anthropometric measurements, clinical examinations, and blood tests, found several symptoms and signs of malnutrition. The Rockefeller Foundation's nutritional research was an important historical precedent for later studies made in emergency situations or armed conflicts. Similar surveys have been carried out in the last several decades by distinguished academic departments of public health and epidemiology and by humanitarian aid agencies. PMID:19696398

  20. Failed venture: Gordon Murray and the W. P. Caven Memorial Research Foundation, 1949-74.

    PubMed

    McKellar, S

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the founding and operation of the W. P. Caven Memorial Research Foundation, a private Toronto laboratory, which existed from 1949 to 1974. The Caven Foundation's Research Director was celebrated Toronto surgeon Gordon Murray (1894-1976), who, in 1949, accepted this position amidst personal and public expectations of great medical discoveries and innovations to come. For 25 years Murray carried on his research at the Caven Foundation, generating more controversy and disappointment than medical cures, before the laboratory was closed for financial reasons. What might have been a successful alternative to the University-based medical research structure in Canada resulted in a failed venture. The Foundation did not become a viable research centre largely because of its Research Director and his inability to adapt to the many changes occurring in the conduct and funding of clinical research. The history of the Caven Foundation is explored here within the context of increasingly specialized research techniques and methodology, the rising predominance of the interdisciplinary research team, and the new system of grantsmanship.

  1. Beyond Wittgensteins's Remarks on the Foundation of Mathematics: Explication of Piaget's Suggestion of a Biological Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmesin, Hans-Otto

    1992-01-01

    Investigates the question of how a set of examples for adding natural numbers can be extended in a unique manner ad infinitum using the framework of a neural network model. Discusses Wittgenstein's remarks on the foundations of mathematics. (Contains 11 references.) (MDH)

  2. Moral foundations vignettes: a standardized stimulus database of scenarios based on moral foundations theory.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Scott; Iyengar, Vijeth; Cabeza, Roberto; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter

    2015-12-01

    Research on the emotional, cognitive, and social determinants of moral judgment has surged in recent years. The development of moral foundations theory (MFT) has played an important role, demonstrating the breadth of morality. Moral psychology has responded by investigating how different domains of moral judgment are shaped by a variety of psychological factors. Yet, the discipline lacks a validated set of moral violations that span the moral domain, creating a barrier to investigating influences on judgment and how their neural bases might vary across the moral domain. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap by developing and validating a large set of moral foundations vignettes (MFVs). Each vignette depicts a behavior violating a particular moral foundation and not others. The vignettes are controlled on many dimensions including syntactic structure and complexity making them suitable for neuroimaging research. We demonstrate the validity of our vignettes by examining respondents' classifications of moral violations, conducting exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and demonstrating the correspondence between the extracted factors and existing measures of the moral foundations. We expect that the MFVs will be beneficial for a wide variety of behavioral and neuroimaging investigations of moral cognition.

  3. Evaluation Policy in a Nonprofit Foundation: A Case Study Exploration of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillman, Lisa M.; Christie, Christina A.

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between evaluation policies and evaluation practice. Through document analysis, interviews, and a multiple case study, the research examined the explicit and implicit policies overarching the evaluation work commissioned by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) and explored how these policies are…

  4. Moral foundations vignettes: a standardized stimulus database of scenarios based on moral foundations theory

    PubMed Central

    Iyengar, Vijeth; Cabeza, Roberto; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Research on the emotional, cognitive, and social determinants of moral judgment has surged in recent years. The development of moral foundations theory (MFT) has played an important role, demonstrating the breadth of morality. Moral psychology has responded by investigating how different domains of moral judgment are shaped by a variety of psychological factors. Yet, the discipline lacks a validated set of moral violations that span the moral domain, creating a barrier to investigating influences on judgment and how their neural bases might vary across the moral domain. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap by developing and validating a large set of moral foundations vignettes (MFVs). Each vignette depicts a behavior violating a particular moral foundation and not others. The vignettes are controlled on many dimensions including syntactic structure and complexity making them suitable for neuroimaging research. We demonstrate the validity of our vignettes by examining respondents’ classifications of moral violations, conducting exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and demonstrating the correspondence between the extracted factors and existing measures of the moral foundations. We expect that the MFVs will be beneficial for a wide variety of behavioral and neuroimaging investigations of moral cognition. PMID:25582811

  5. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Special Report Number One. The Foundation's Minority Medical Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Marion Ein; And Others

    Trends in minority representation in health professions and efforts to expand opportunity are discussed, and information on minority medical training programs of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation is provided. During the mid-1960s to mid-1970s, public and private sector programs promoted minority recruitment, admissions, and retention policies for…

  6. Evaluation Policy in a Nonprofit Foundation: A Case Study Exploration of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillman, Lisa M.; Christie, Christina A.

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between evaluation policies and evaluation practice. Through document analysis, interviews, and a multiple case study, the research examined the explicit and implicit policies overarching the evaluation work commissioned by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) and explored how these policies are…

  7. Expert Meeting Report: Foundations Research Results

    SciTech Connect

    Ojczyk, C.; Huelman, P.; Carmody, J.

    2013-05-01

    In the Expert Meeting Plan, the NorthernSTAR Team proposed to host two Expert Meetings in calendar year 2011. Invitees to the meetings would include experts in the current field of study, other BA team members, and representatives from DOE and NREL. They will invite leading industry experts to present at these meetings. The Expert Meetings will focus on key systems areas that will be required to meet the Building America performance goals and shall be sufficiently narrow in scope that specific conclusions, action items, and delegation of future tasks can be identified and completed. The two expert meeting topics are 'Foundations' and 'Window Retrofit.' The first session is designed as a webinar only and the second will be a live meeting.

  8. Foundation on Economic Trends v. Bowen.

    PubMed

    1989-10-04

    The National Enviromental Policy Act requires that government agencies make a detailed enviromental impact statement (EIS) for all research significantly affecting the environment. These statements must be supplemented if the project substantially changes or if new information is obtained. The Foundation on Economic Trends argued that three developments in recombinant DNA research will significantly alter the enviromental impact, thereby mandating a new EIS by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). These developments are cloning oncogenic viruses, engineering the human immunodeficiency virus into cells not normally susceptible to it, and introducing AIDS genetic codes into mice. The U.S. District Court, District of Columbia, held that the first two projects do not pose a greater risk and that the enviromental assessment being prepared by NIH on the third satisfies the requirements of the National Enviromental Policy Act.

  9. Foundations of Intervention Research in Instrumental Practice

    PubMed Central

    Hatfield, Johannes L.; Lemyre, Pierre-Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The goals of the present study are to evaluate, implement, and adapt psychological skills used in the realm of sports into music performance. This research project also aims to build foundations on how to implement future interventions to guide music students on how to optimize practice toward performance. A 2-month psychological skills intervention was provided to two students from the national music academy's bachelor program in music performance to better understand how to adapt and construct psychological skills training programs for performing music students. The program evaluated multiple intervention tools including the use of questionnaires, performance profiling, iPads, electronic practice logs, recording the perceived value of individual and combined work, as well as the effectiveness of different communication forms. Perceived effects of the intervention were collected through semi-structured interviews, observations, and logs. PMID:26834660

  10. Statistical foundations of liquid-crystal theory

    PubMed Central

    Seguin, Brian; Fried, Eliot

    2013-01-01

    We develop a mechanical theory for systems of rod-like particles. Central to our approach is the assumption that the external power expenditure for any subsystem of rods is independent of the underlying frame of reference. This assumption is used to derive the basic balance laws for forces and torques. By considering inertial forces on par with other forces, these laws hold relative to any frame of reference, inertial or noninertial. Finally, we introduce a simple set of constitutive relations to govern the interactions between rods and find restrictions necessary and sufficient for these laws to be consistent with thermodynamics. Our framework provides a foundation for a statistical mechanical derivation of the macroscopic balance laws governing liquid crystals. PMID:23772091

  11. Tracking controlled chaos: Theoretical foundations and applications.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Ira B.; Carr, Thomas W.; Triandaf, Ioana

    1997-12-01

    Tracking controlled states over a large range of accessible parameters is a process which allows for the experimental continuation of unstable states in both chaotic and non-chaotic parameter regions of interest. In algorithmic form, tracking allows experimentalists to examine many of the unstable states responsible for much of the observed nonlinear dynamic phenomena. Here we present a theoretical foundation for tracking controlled states from both dynamical systems as well as control theoretic viewpoints. The theory is constructive and shows explicitly how to track a curve of unstable states as a parameter is changed. Applications of the theory to various forms of control currently used in dynamical system experiments are discussed. Examples from both numerical and physical experiments are given to illustrate the wide range of tracking applications. (c) 1997 American Institute of Physics.

  12. Towards a Constructive Foundation of Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smilga, Walter

    2016-11-01

    I describe a constructive foundation for quantum mechanics, based on the discreteness of the degrees of freedom of quantum objects and on the Principle of Relativity. Taking Einstein's historical construction of Special Relativity as a model, the construction is carried out in close contact with a simple quantum mechanical Gedanken experiment. This leads to the standard axioms of quantum mechanics. The quantum mechanical description is identified as a mathematical tool that allows describing objects, whose degree of freedom in space-time has a discrete spectrum, relative to classical observers in space-time. This description is covariant with respect to (continuous) coordinate transformations and meets the requirement that the spectrum is the same in every inertial system. The construction gives detailed answers to controversial questions, such as the measurement problem, the informational content of the wave function, and the completeness of quantum mechanics.

  13. Foundations for a natural science of philosophy

    PubMed Central

    Fraley, Lawrence E.

    1999-01-01

    The functional relations among philosophy, science, technology, and intuition are examined. Those domains are each defined as behaviors, and each of them is then classified either as verbal, nonverbal, or both. Finally, those classes of behavior are organized into one integral behavioral system. The concept of a science of philosophy is introduced. A science and technology of philosophy are not only possible but necessary. Such an approach to the discipline of philosophy could lead to a new disciplinary structure for philosophy. Philosophy could be taught in academic departments as a verbal behavioral science. The discipline of behaviorology provides the foundations necessary to capacitate the traditional discipline of philosophy as a science and technology of verbal behavior commensurate with its potential cultural mission. PMID:22477161

  14. Foundational issues concerning taxa and taxon names.

    PubMed

    Ereshefsky, Marc

    2007-04-01

    In a series of articles, Rieppel (2005, Biol. Philos. 20:465-487; 2006a, Cladistics 22:186-197; 2006b, Systematist 26:5-9), Keller et al. (2003, Bot. Rev. 69:93-110), and Nixon and Carpenter (2000, Cladistics 16:298-318) criticize the philosophical foundations of the PhyloCode. They argue that species and higher taxa are not individuals, and they reject the view that taxon names are rigid designators. Furthermore, they charge supporters of the individuality thesis and rigid designator theory with assuming essentialism, committing logical inconsistencies, and offering proposals that render taxonomy untestable. These charges are unsound. Such charges turn on confusions over rigid designator theory and the distinction between kinds and individuals. In addition, Rieppel's, Keller et al.'s, and Nixon and Carpenter's proposed alternatives are no better and have their own problems. The individuality thesis and rigid designator theory should not be quickly abandoned.

  15. Towards a Constructive Foundation of Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smilga, Walter

    2017-01-01

    I describe a constructive foundation for quantum mechanics, based on the discreteness of the degrees of freedom of quantum objects and on the Principle of Relativity. Taking Einstein's historical construction of Special Relativity as a model, the construction is carried out in close contact with a simple quantum mechanical Gedanken experiment. This leads to the standard axioms of quantum mechanics. The quantum mechanical description is identified as a mathematical tool that allows describing objects, whose degree of freedom in space-time has a discrete spectrum, relative to classical observers in space-time. This description is covariant with respect to (continuous) coordinate transformations and meets the requirement that the spectrum is the same in every inertial system. The construction gives detailed answers to controversial questions, such as the measurement problem, the informational content of the wave function, and the completeness of quantum mechanics.

  16. Information architecture. Volume 1, The foundations

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The Information Management Planning and Architecture Coordinating Team was formed to establish an information architecture framework to meet DOE`s current and future information needs. This department- wide activity was initiated in accordance with the DOE Information Management Strategic Plan; it also supports the Departmental Strategic Plan. It recognizes recent changes in emphasis as reflected in OMB Circular A-130 and the Information Resources Management Planning Process Improvement Team recommendations. Sections of this document provides the foundation for establishing DOE`s Information Architecture: Background, Business Case (reduced duplication of effort, increased integration of activities, improved operational capabilities), Baseline (technology baseline currently in place within DOE), Vision (guiding principles for future DOE Information Architecture), Standards Process, Policy and Process Integration (describes relations between information architecture and business processes), and Next Steps. Following each section is a scenario. A glossary of terms is provided.

  17. Colloquium: Quantum fluctuation relations: Foundations and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campisi, Michele; Hänggi, Peter; Talkner, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Two fundamental ingredients play a decisive role in the foundation of fluctuation relations: the principle of microreversibility and the fact that thermal equilibrium is described by the Gibbs canonical ensemble. Building on these two pillars the reader is guided through a self-contained exposition of the theory and applications of quantum fluctuation relations. These are exact results that constitute the fulcrum of the recent development of nonequilibrium thermodynamics beyond the linear response regime. The material is organized in a way that emphasizes the historical connection between quantum fluctuation relations and (non)linear response theory. A number of fundamental issues are clarified which were not completely settled in the prior literature. The main focus is on (i) work fluctuation relations for transiently driven closed or open quantum systems, and (ii) on fluctuation relations for heat and matter exchange in quantum transport settings. Recently performed and proposed experimental applications are presented and discussed.

  18. New phase II trial of avelumab, a PD-L1 inhibitor, in recurrent respiratory papillomatosis | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Christian Hinrichs, Investigator and Lasker Clinical Research Scholar in the Experimental Transplantation and Immunology Branch (ETIB), is leading a trial of avelumab in patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). Learn more...

  19. Colony Foundation in an Oceanic Seabird

    PubMed Central

    Munilla, Ignacio; Genovart, Meritxell; Paiva, Vitor H.; Velando, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Seabirds are colonial vertebrates that despite their great potential for long-range dispersal and colonization are reluctant to establish in novel locations, often recruiting close to their natal colony. The foundation of colonies is therefore a rare event in most seabird species and little is known about the colonization process in this group. The Cory’s shearwater (Calonectris diomedea) is a pelagic seabird that has recently established three new colonies in Galicia (NE Atlantic) thus expanding its distribution range 500 km northwards. This study aimed to describe the establishment and early progress of the new Galician populations and to determine the genetic and morphometric characteristics of the individuals participating in these foundation events. Using 10 microsatellite loci, we tested the predictions supported by different seabird colonization models. Possibly three groups of non-breeders, adding up to around 200 birds, started visiting the Galician colonies in the mid 2000’s and some of them eventually laid eggs and reproduced, thus establishing new breeding colonies. The Galician populations showed a high genetic diversity and a frequency of private alleles similar to or even higher than some of the large historical populations. Most individuals were assigned to several Atlantic populations and a few (if any) to Mediterranean colonies. Our study suggests that a large and admixed population is settling in Galicia, in agreement with predictions from island metapopulation models of colonization. Multiple source colonies imply that some birds colonizing Galicia were dispersing from very distant colonies (> 1500 km). Long-distance colonizations undertaken by relatively large and admixed groups of colonizers can help to explain the low levels of genetic structure over vast areas that are characteristic of most oceanic seabird species. PMID:26909694

  20. Foundational Forces & Hidden Variables in Technology Commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Brandon

    2011-03-01

    The science of physics seems vastly different from the process of technology commercialization. Physics strives to understand our world through the experimental deduction of immutable laws and dependent variables and the resulting macro-scale phenomenon. In comparison, the~goal of business is to make a profit by addressing the needs, preferences, and whims of individuals in a market. It may seem that this environment is too dynamic to identify all the hidden variables and deduct the foundational forces that impact a business's ability to commercialize innovative technologies. One example of a business ``force'' is found in the semiconductor industry. In 1965, Intel co-founder Gordon Moore predicted that the number of transistors incorporated in a chip will approximately double every 24 months. Known as Moore's Law, this prediction has become the guiding principle for the semiconductor industry for the last 40 years. Of course, Moore's Law is not really a law of nature; rather it is the result of efforts by Intel and the entire semiconductor industry. A closer examination suggests that there are foundational principles of business that underlie the macro-scale phenomenon of Moore's Law. Principles of profitability, incentive, and strategic alignment have resulted in a coordinated influx of resources that has driven technologies to market, increasing the profitability of the semiconductor industry and optimizing the fitness of its participants. New innovations in technology are subject to these same principles. So, in addition to traditional market forces, these often unrecognized forces and variables create challenges for new technology commercialization. In this talk, I will draw from ethnographic research, complex adaptive theory, and industry data to suggest a framework with which to think about new technology commercialization. Intel's bio-silicon initiative provides a case study.

  1. ELECTRONIC SCHOLARLY PUBLISHING: FOUNDATIONS OF GENETICS

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Robbins

    2002-11-10

    As the Human Genome Project (HGP) moves toward its successful completion, more and more people have become interested in understanding this project and its results. Since the HGP has significant ethical, legal, and social implications for all citizens, the number of individuals who do, or should wish to become familiar with the project is high. In addition to its importance in the training of professional geneticists, the HGP is of special relevance for undergraduate training in basic biology, and even for high-school and other K-12 education. Understanding the results of HGP research requires a familiarity with the notions of basic genetics. Unlike other disciplines that evolved over centuries, modern genetics began abruptly with the rediscovery of Gregor Mendel's work in 1900. Within a few years, fundamental concepts were elaborated and the foundations of genetics established. Because genetics developed so rapidly in just a few decades after 1900, the literature of that period constitutes a valuable resource even now. It may be read profitably by students and scientists wishing to understand the foundations of their field, as well as by laymen or historians of science. Unfortunately, the early literature is rapidly becoming almost inaccessible. Newer libraries do not hold older journals and even established libraries are moving their materials from that era into hard-to-reach (and impossible to browse) long-term storage in remote warehouses. To be sure, key studies from the early work are discussed in nearly all textbooks, but a comparison of these presentations with the actual literature shows that most textbook treatments have essentially mythologized the early work so that real understanding is lost. There have been several collections of classic works developed over the years (although none lately), but these suffer from the effects of the necessary, but nonetheless pernicious, highly selective sampling that accompanies these projects. Such selectivity

  2. Improving Access to Foundational Energy Performance Data

    SciTech Connect

    Studer, D.; Livingood, W.; Torcellini, P.

    2014-08-01

    Access to foundational energy performance data is key to improving the efficiency of the built environment. However, stakeholders often lack access to what they perceive as credible energy performance data. Therefore, even if a stakeholder determines that a product would increase efficiency, they often have difficulty convincing their management to move forward. Even when credible data do exist, such data are not always sufficient to support detailed energy performance analyses, or the development of robust business cases. One reason for this is that the data parameters that are provided are generally based on the respective industry norms. Thus, for mature industries with extensive testing standards, the data made available are often quite detailed. But for emerging technologies, or for industries with less well-developed testing standards, available data are generally insufficient to support robust analysis. However, even for mature technologies, there is no guarantee that the data being supplied are the same data needed to accurately evaluate a product?s energy performance. To address these challenges, the U.S. Department of Energy funded development of a free, publically accessible Web-based portal, the Technology Performance Exchange(TM), to facilitate the transparent identification, storage, and sharing of foundational energy performance data. The Technology Performance Exchange identifies the intrinsic, technology-specific parameters necessary for a user to perform a credible energy analysis and includes a robust database to store these data. End users can leverage stored data to evaluate the site-specific performance of various technologies, support financial analyses with greater confidence, and make better informed procurement decisions.

  3. The 20th Annual Prostate Cancer Foundation Scientific Retreat report.

    PubMed

    Miyahira, Andrea K; Simons, Jonathan W; Soule, Howard R

    2014-06-01

    The 20th Annual Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) Scientific Retreat was held from October 24 to 26, 2013, in National Harbor, Maryland. This event is held annually for the purpose of convening a diverse group of leading experimental and clinical researchers from academia, industry, and government to present and discuss critical and emerging topics relevant to prostate cancer (PCa) biology, and the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of PCa patients, with a focus on results that will lend to treatments for the most life-threatening stages of this disease. The themes that were highlighted at this year's event included: (i) mechanisms of PCa initiation and progression: cellular origins, neurons and neuroendocrine PCa, long non-coding RNAs, epigenetics, tumor cell metabolism, tumor-immune interactions, and novel molecular mechanisms; (ii) advancements in precision medicine strategies and predictive biomarkers of progression, survival, and drug sensitivities, including the analysis of circulating tumor cells and cell-free tumor DNA-new methods for liquid biopsies; (iii) new treatments including epigenomic therapy and immunotherapy, discovery of new treatment targets, and defining and targeting mechanisms of resistance to androgen-axis therapeutics; and (iv) new experimental and clinical epidemiology methods and techniques, including PCa population studies using patho-epidemiology.

  4. [Establishment of an economic foundation for neurologists in Japan].

    PubMed

    Takayanagi, Tetsuya; Tamura, Ryuji

    2010-11-01

    Establishment of an economic foundation for clinical neurologists is essential for the advancement of neurology in Japan. However, this concept sometimes seems to slip easily from the minds of neurologists in academia. This has been true in the history of the Japanese Society of Neurology for half a century. Japan has a system of public health insurance for all people, but there are many problems related to medical pay that need to be discussed, especially for doctors seeing patients. Almost all Japanese doctors have been worried about the low medical pay in the Japanese health insurance system. We have made various approaches to the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare to solve these economic problems, but our hard work for the improvement of our economic situation has often been unsuccessful. The Japanese Society of Neurotherapeutics took a step toward dealing with this problem with a symposium to discuss medical payments in 2002, and it has contributed to progress in the economic and financial systems for health insurance from the standpoint of clinical neurology. We Japanese neurologists need to make greater efforts to improve our poor economic situation, following the success of Japanese surgeons in their diligent work with the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare to improve critical conditions in the field of surgery.

  5. Analysis of flexible layered shallow shells on elastic foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stupishin, L.; Kolesnikov, A.; Tolmacheva, T.

    2017-05-01

    This paper contains numerical analysis of a layered geometric nonlinear flexible shallow shell based on an elastic foundation. Rise of arch in the center of the shell, width, length and type of support are given. The design variable is taken to be the thickness of the shallow shell, the form of the middle surface forming and the characteristic of elastic foundations. Critical force coefficient and stress of shells are calculated by Bubnov-Galerkin. Stress, characteristic of elastic foundations - thickness dependence are presented.

  6. 75 FR 18240 - Comment Request: National Science Foundation-Applicant Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Comment Request: National Science Foundation--Applicant Survey AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The National Science Foundation (NSF) is announcing plans to request renewed clearance...

  7. Success stories showing the diversity of kidney foundations: Turkish Kidney Foundation.

    PubMed

    Erk, Timur

    Founded in 1985, the Turkish Kidney Foundation serves the society with 3 dialysis centers and a 113-bed general hospital. Interacting with public authorities and advocating end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients' rights are essential services of this non-governmental organization (NGO). Over the last 30 years, keeping with the trend of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the country, the foundation raised awareness in the population for this condition and prepared an activity road map by using statistical facts and data. Goals were set keeping in mind the local culture and traditions, debating on them with colleagues, PR agencies, and other experts in this field. The best strategy embrace the society, and all activities are made as cost-effective as possible in keeping with a tight budget. Various communication channels, especially social media, are used to communicate the message to the public, always keeping in mind that such messages are to be succinct and precise. Every effort is taken to make our foundation reliable and trustworthy in the eyes of the public at large. Reliability, credibility, and trust are the key success corner stones of our NGO. Every opportunity is taken to capitalize on participation of celebrities and real stories of people. Testimonies of real ESRD patients are always interesting and can touch the hearts of the rest of the population.

  8. Assessing the Relevancy of "Citation Classics" in Neurosurgery. Part II: Foundational Papers in Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Bohl, Michael A; Turner, Jay D; Little, Andrew S; Nakaji, Peter; Ponce, Francisco A

    2017-08-01

    The second part of this study reanalyzes Ponce and Lozano's (2010) list of classics to create a new list of "foundational" articles in neurosurgery. Ponce and Lozano (2010) previously published a list of 106 neurosurgery classics, as defined by Garfield and his 400 citation criterion. We used the Web of Science citation reports to create graphs for each study showing the total citations it received as a function of time. Each graph was subjectively analyzed independently and scored as "foundational" or "classic only," based on whether the trend of citations received per year was uptrending, neutral, or downtrending. Of the 101 evaluated classics, 53 qualified as foundational. Over half of these studies were published in Journal of Neurosurgery (13), New England Journal of Medicine (12), or Lancet (5). Grading systems, randomized trials, and prospective studies were most likely to achieve foundational status. Only 30% of functional and 17% of endovascular classics qualified as foundational (compared with 100% of spine classics), suggesting that these fields are rapidly changing or less mature subspecialties still developing a foundational literature base. By assessing citation counts as a function of time, we are able to differentiate classic neurosurgical studies that are critical to modern-day practice from those that are primarily of historic interest. Given the exponential growth of literature in our field, analyses such as these will become increasingly important to both trainees and senior neurosurgeons who strive to educate themselves on the data that drive modern-day clinical decision making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Progeria Research Foundation Diagnostic Testing Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... Interview with John Tacket Find the Other 150 Medical Research NEW! Lonafarnib Pre-clinical Drug Supply Program What's ... Scientific Publications Grand Rounds Workshop 2010 Videos Home » Medical Research » Diagnostic Testing The PRF Diagnostic Testing Program The ...

  10. Foundations and Public Information: Sunshine or Shadow? Preliminary Findings from a Study of the Public Information Accountability of the Country's Largest Foundations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Ellen; And Others

    The types of written information that the largest foundations in the United States voluntarily make available to the public were studied. Of the 208 foundations contacted, 150 were the largest grant-making foundations, 30 were the largest community foundations, and 28 were the largest corporate foundations. The response rate to written and…

  11. Foundations and Public Information: Sunshine or Shadow? Preliminary Findings from a Study of the Public Information Accountability of the Country's Largest Foundations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Ellen; And Others

    The types of written information that the largest foundations in the United States voluntarily make available to the public were studied. Of the 208 foundations contacted, 150 were the largest grant-making foundations, 30 were the largest community foundations, and 28 were the largest corporate foundations. The response rate to written and…

  12. Forensic bitemark identification: weak foundations, exaggerated claims.

    PubMed

    Saks, Michael J; Albright, Thomas; Bohan, Thomas L; Bierer, Barbara E; Bowers, C Michael; Bush, Mary A; Bush, Peter J; Casadevall, Arturo; Cole, Simon A; Denton, M Bonner; Diamond, Shari Seidman; Dioso-Villa, Rachel; Epstein, Jules; Faigman, David; Faigman, Lisa; Fienberg, Stephen E; Garrett, Brandon L; Giannelli, Paul C; Greely, Henry T; Imwinkelried, Edward; Jamieson, Allan; Kafadar, Karen; Kassirer, Jerome P; Koehler, Jonathan 'Jay'; Korn, David; Mnookin, Jennifer; Morrison, Alan B; Murphy, Erin; Peerwani, Nizam; Peterson, Joseph L; Risinger, D Michael; Sensabaugh, George F; Spiegelman, Clifford; Stern, Hal; Thompson, William C; Wayman, James L; Zabell, Sandy; Zumwalt, Ross E

    2016-12-01

    Several forensic sciences, especially of the pattern-matching kind, are increasingly seen to lack the scientific foundation needed to justify continuing admission as trial evidence. Indeed, several have been abolished in the recent past. A likely next candidate for elimination is bitemark identification. A number of DNA exonerations have occurred in recent years for individuals convicted based on erroneous bitemark identifications. Intense scientific and legal scrutiny has resulted. An important National Academies review found little scientific support for the field. The Texas Forensic Science Commission recently recommended a moratorium on the admission of bitemark expert testimony. The California Supreme Court has a case before it that could start a national dismantling of forensic odontology. This article describes the (legal) basis for the rise of bitemark identification and the (scientific) basis for its impending fall. The article explains the general logic of forensic identification, the claims of bitemark identification, and reviews relevant empirical research on bitemark identification-highlighting both the lack of research and the lack of support provided by what research does exist. The rise and possible fall of bitemark identification evidence has broader implications-highlighting the weak scientific culture of forensic science and the law's difficulty in evaluating and responding to unreliable and unscientific evidence.

  13. Foundations of the Bandera Abstraction Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatcliff, John; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Robby

    2003-01-01

    Current research is demonstrating that model-checking and other forms of automated finite-state verification can be effective for checking properties of software systems. Due to the exponential costs associated with model-checking, multiple forms of abstraction are often necessary to obtain system models that are tractable for automated checking. The Bandera Tool Set provides multiple forms of automated support for compiling concurrent Java software systems to models that can be supplied to several different model-checking tools. In this paper, we describe the foundations of Bandera's data abstraction mechanism which is used to reduce the cardinality (and the program's state-space) of data domains in software to be model-checked. From a technical standpoint, the form of data abstraction used in Bandera is simple, and it is based on classical presentations of abstract interpretation. We describe the mechanisms that Bandera provides for declaring abstractions, for attaching abstractions to programs, and for generating abstracted programs and properties. The contributions of this work are the design and implementation of various forms of tool support required for effective application of data abstraction to software components written in a programming language like Java which has a rich set of linguistic features.

  14. Mathematical foundations of the GraphBLAS

    DOE PAGES

    Kepner, Jeremy; Aaltonen, Peter; Bader, David; ...

    2016-12-01

    The GraphBLAS standard (GraphBlas.org) is being developed to bring the potential of matrix-based graph algorithms to the broadest possible audience. Mathematically, the GraphBLAS defines a core set of matrix-based graph operations that can be used to implement a wide class of graph algorithms in a wide range of programming environments. This study provides an introduction to the mathematics of the GraphBLAS. Graphs represent connections between vertices with edges. Matrices can represent a wide range of graphs using adjacency matrices or incidence matrices. Adjacency matrices are often easier to analyze while incidence matrices are often better for representing data. Fortunately, themore » two are easily connected by matrix multiplication. A key feature of matrix mathematics is that a very small number of matrix operations can be used to manipulate a very wide range of graphs. This composability of a small number of operations is the foundation of the GraphBLAS. A standard such as the GraphBLAS can only be effective if it has low performance overhead. Finally, performance measurements of prototype GraphBLAS implementations indicate that the overhead is low.« less

  15. Finite Volume Methods: Foundation and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy; Ohlberger, Mario

    2003-01-01

    Finite volume methods are a class of discretization schemes that have proven highly successful in approximating the solution of a wide variety of conservation law systems. They are extensively used in fluid mechanics, porous media flow, meteorology, electromagnetics, models of biological processes, semi-conductor device simulation and many other engineering areas governed by conservative systems that can be written in integral control volume form. This article reviews elements of the foundation and analysis of modern finite volume methods. The primary advantages of these methods are numerical robustness through the obtention of discrete maximum (minimum) principles, applicability on very general unstructured meshes, and the intrinsic local conservation properties of the resulting schemes. Throughout this article, specific attention is given to scalar nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws and the development of high order accurate schemes for discretizing them. A key tool in the design and analysis of finite volume schemes suitable for non-oscillatory discontinuity capturing is discrete maximum principle analysis. A number of building blocks used in the development of numerical schemes possessing local discrete maximum principles are reviewed in one and several space dimensions, e.g. monotone fluxes, E-fluxes, TVD discretization, non-oscillatory reconstruction, slope limiters, positive coefficient schemes, etc. When available, theoretical results concerning a priori and a posteriori error estimates are given. Further advanced topics are then considered such as high order time integration, discretization of diffusion terms and the extension to systems of nonlinear conservation laws.

  16. Bioethics critically reconsidered: living after foundations.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, H Tristram

    2012-02-01

    Given intractable moral pluralism, what ought one to make of the bioethics that arose in the early 1970s, grounded as it was in the false assumption that there is a common secular morality that secular bioethics ought to apply? It is as if bioethics developed without recognition of the crisis at the heart of secular morality itself. Secular moral rationality cannot of itself provide the foundations to identify a particular morality and its bioethics as canonical. One is not just confronted with intractable moral and bioethical pluralism, but with the absence of a secular ground that can show why one should act morally rather than self-interestedly. The result is not merely the deflation of much of traditional Western morality to life-style and death-style choices, but the threat of deflating to political slogans the now-dominant secular morality, including its affirmation of human autonomy, equality, social justice, and human dignity. All of this invites one critically to reconsider the meaning and force of secular bioethics.

  17. The scientific foundation of anti-psychiatry.

    PubMed

    van Praag, H M

    1978-08-01

    Anti-psychiatry has exerted a substantial influence on the thoughts of workers in the field of mental hygiene; on those of the psychiatrically trained, but even much more on those without psychiatric training. Consequently it seemed important to me to investigate the strength of the foundation of this school of thought. This has been the objective of this study. The point of crystallization of anti-psychiatry is the labelling theory on the origin of deviant behaviour. The scientific status of anti-psychiatry stands or falls with that of the labelling theory. Since this theory has not been formulated in verifiable hypotheses, I ventured to formulate "theses", and then tested these against empirical obtained data. The results of this study were largely negative. The empirical material does not support the labelling theory, and in many cases even contradicts it. Consequently anti-psychiatry--as a model to explain the development of psychological disorders--has not a leg to stand on. The labelling theory has had great merits as a "sensitizing theory". It has given momentum to innovative tendencies in psychiatry. Now that it has proved to be untenable on its principal points, however, it should be abandoned. It has become a rubber check, which has no scientific buying-power.

  18. Conceptual foundations of schizophrenia: I. Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Barrett, R J

    1998-10-01

    This is the first of two papers that aim to identify some of the institutional processes of 19th century European psychiatry, and some prevailing cultural themes of that era that played a role in shaping the development of schizophrenia as a disease concept. Three areas of psychiatric history are examined: the first is concerned with the key figures who coined the concept of dementia praecox; the second with the rise of the asylum; and the third is to do with the ideology of 19th century psychiatric science and its relationship to a broader intellectual milieu. These three literatures are examined for common themes. The theme of degeneration is evident in all three literatures, and denotes both a biological process (neuro-degeneration) and a moral state (degeneracy). The idea of degeneration, a pervasive cultural theme of the 19th century, dominated psychiatric thinking long before schizophrenia was developed as a diagnostic category. It contributed to the ideational form-work that gave foundation, structure and shape to the concept of schizophrenia.

  19. Formal Foundations for Hierarchical Safety Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Pai, Ganesh; Whiteside, Iain

    2015-01-01

    Safety cases are increasingly being required in many safety-critical domains to assure, using structured argumentation and evidence, that a system is acceptably safe. However, comprehensive system-wide safety arguments present appreciable challenges to develop, understand, evaluate, and manage, partly due to the volume of information that they aggregate, such as the results of hazard analysis, requirements analysis, testing, formal verification, and other engineering activities. Previously, we have proposed hierarchical safety cases, hicases, to aid the comprehension of safety case argument structures. In this paper, we build on a formal notion of safety case to formalise the use of hierarchy as a structuring technique, and show that hicases satisfy several desirable properties. Our aim is to provide a formal, theoretical foundation for safety cases. In particular, we believe that tools for high assurance systems should be granted similar assurance to the systems to which they are applied. To this end, we formally specify and prove the correctness of key operations for constructing and managing hicases, which gives the specification for implementing hicases in AdvoCATE, our toolset for safety case automation. We motivate and explain the theory with the help of a simple running example, extracted from a real safety case and developed using AdvoCATE.

  20. Forensic bitemark identification: weak foundations, exaggerated claims

    PubMed Central

    Saks, Michael J.; Albright, Thomas; Bohan, Thomas L.; Bierer, Barbara E.; Bowers, C. Michael; Bush, Mary A.; Bush, Peter J.; Casadevall, Arturo; Cole, Simon A.; Denton, M. Bonner; Diamond, Shari Seidman; Dioso-Villa, Rachel; Epstein, Jules; Faigman, David; Faigman, Lisa; Fienberg, Stephen E.; Garrett, Brandon L.; Giannelli, Paul C.; Greely, Henry T.; Imwinkelried, Edward; Jamieson, Allan; Kafadar, Karen; Kassirer, Jerome P.; Koehler, Jonathan ‘Jay’; Korn, David; Mnookin, Jennifer; Morrison, Alan B.; Murphy, Erin; Peerwani, Nizam; Peterson, Joseph L.; Risinger, D. Michael; Sensabaugh, George F.; Spiegelman, Clifford; Stern, Hal; Thompson, William C.; Wayman, James L.; Zabell, Sandy; Zumwalt, Ross E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several forensic sciences, especially of the pattern-matching kind, are increasingly seen to lack the scientific foundation needed to justify continuing admission as trial evidence. Indeed, several have been abolished in the recent past. A likely next candidate for elimination is bitemark identification. A number of DNA exonerations have occurred in recent years for individuals convicted based on erroneous bitemark identifications. Intense scientific and legal scrutiny has resulted. An important National Academies review found little scientific support for the field. The Texas Forensic Science Commission recently recommended a moratorium on the admission of bitemark expert testimony. The California Supreme Court has a case before it that could start a national dismantling of forensic odontology. This article describes the (legal) basis for the rise of bitemark identification and the (scientific) basis for its impending fall. The article explains the general logic of forensic identification, the claims of bitemark identification, and reviews relevant empirical research on bitemark identification—highlighting both the lack of research and the lack of support provided by what research does exist. The rise and possible fall of bitemark identification evidence has broader implications—highlighting the weak scientific culture of forensic science and the law's difficulty in evaluating and responding to unreliable and unscientific evidence. PMID:28852538

  1. Water Environment Research Foundation research program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noss, Charles I.

    2002-02-01

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) is a not- for-profit organization established in 1989 to advance the science and technology of a broad spectrum of environmental and human health concerns to the wastewater industry and the public. It is a unique public/private partnership between utilities, academia, government, and industry, committed to funding research by leveraging resources and expertise to develop and disseminate sound scientific and technological information. Funded by subscribers, grants and contributions, WERF manages a broad array of research projects aimed at protecting human health and the environment. While WERF funds and manages projects, the actual research is carried out by individual organizations or teams composed of utilities, consultants, universities, and industrial or commercial firms. Examples of WERF's current research program include the investigation of on- line monitoring techniques for microbial and chemical contaminants in water and wastewater, optimization of processes for pathogen removal and inactivation, improved treatment of toxic compounds, and assessing the potential risks to public health from exposure to these microbial and chemical contaminants. This paper will provide an overview of the program, research funded to date, and technology needs for the future.

  2. Neural Foundations of Creativity: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Mullen Raymond, Stephanie

    When considering the importance of the human cognitive function of creativity, we often overlook the fact that it is due to human creativity and to the constant search for new sensory stimuli that our world has, throughout the years, been one of innovation in every aspect of our existence -in the sciences, the humanities, and the arts. Almost everything that surrounds us is the result of human creativity, therefore it is not difficult to understand that although neuroscientific research has led to valuable perceptions into the probable underpinnings of this multifaceted ability, the precise neurological substrates that underlie creativity are yet to be determined. Despite the establishment of a strong link between creativity and divergent thinking, other brain networks have been implicated in this mental process. The following review underlines recent studies on the neural foundations of creativity. A comprehensive analysis of the upmost important facts will be presented, with emphasis on concepts, tests, and methods that have been used to study creativity, and how they have outlined a pathway to the key understanding of this unique human ability. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. On the Dynamical Foundations of α Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbus, Steven A.; Papaloizou, John C. B.

    1999-08-01

    The dynamical foundations of α disk models are described. At the heart of the viscous formalism of accretion disk models are correlations in the fluctuating components of the disk velocity, magnetic field, and gravitational potential. We relate these correlations to the large-scale mean flow dynamics used in phenomenological viscous disk models. MHD turbulence readily lends itself to the α formalism, but transport by self-gravity does not. Nonlocal transport is an intrinsic property of turbulent self-gravitating disks, which in general cannot be captured by an α model. Local energy dissipation and α-like behavior can be reestablished if the pattern speeds associated with the amplitudes of an azimuthal Fourier decomposition of the turbulence are everywhere close to the local rotation frequency. In this situation, global wave transport must be absent. Shearing box simulations, which employ boundary conditions forcing local behavior, are probably not an adequate tool for modeling the behavior of self-gravitating disks. As a matter of principle, it is possible that disks that hover near the edge of gravitational stability may behave in accord with a local α model, but global simulations performed to date suggest matters are not this simple.

  4. An Observer-Based Foundation of Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahreyni, Newshaw; Knuth, Kevin H.

    2012-02-01

    The fact that some events influence other events enables one to define a partially ordered set (poset) of events, often referred to as a causal set. A chain of events, called observer chain, can be quantified by labeling its events numerically. Other events in a poset may be quantified with respect to an observer chain/chains by projecting them onto the chain, resulting in a pair of numbers. Similarly, pairs of events, called intervals, can be quantified with four numbers. Under certain conditions, this leads to the Minkowski metric, Lorentz transformations and the mathematics of special relativity (Bahreyni & Knuth, APS March Meeting 2011). We exploit the same techniques to demonstrate that geometric concepts can be derived from order-theoretic concepts. We show how chains in a poset can be used to define points and line segments. Subsequent quantification results in the Pythagorean Theorem and the inner product as well as other geometric concepts and measures. Thus the geometry of space, which is assumed to be fundamental, emerges as a result of quantifying a partially ordered set. More importantly, this proposed foundation of geometry is entirely observer-based, which may provide a natural way toward integration with quantum mechanics.

  5. Bihemispheric foundations for human speech comprehension.

    PubMed

    Bozic, Mirjana; Tyler, Lorraine K; Ives, David T; Randall, Billi; Marslen-Wilson, William D

    2010-10-05

    Emerging evidence from neuroimaging and neuropsychology suggests that human speech comprehension engages two types of neurocognitive processes: a distributed bilateral system underpinning general perceptual and cognitive processing, viewed as neurobiologically primary, and a more specialized left hemisphere system supporting key grammatical language functions, likely to be specific to humans. To test these hypotheses directly we covaried increases in the nonlinguistic complexity of spoken words [presence or absence of an embedded stem, e.g., claim (clay)] with variations in their linguistic complexity (presence of inflectional affixes, e.g., play+ed). Nonlinguistic complexity, generated by the on-line competition between the full word and its onset-embedded stem, was found to activate both right and left fronto-temporal brain regions, including bilateral BA45 and -47. Linguistic complexity activated left-lateralized inferior frontal areas only, primarily in BA45. This contrast reflects a differentiation between the functional roles of a bilateral system, which supports the basic mapping from sound to lexical meaning, and a language-specific left-lateralized system that supports core decompositional and combinatorial processes invoked by linguistically complex inputs. These differences can be related to the neurobiological foundations of human language and underline the importance of bihemispheric systems in supporting the dynamic processing and interpretation of spoken inputs.

  6. Legal and Institutional Foundations of Adaptive Environmental ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Legal and institutional structures fundamentally shape opportunities for adaptive governance of environmental resources at multiple ecological and societal scales. Properties of adaptive governance are widely studied. However, these studies have not resulted in consolidated frameworks for legal and institutional design, limiting our ability to promote adaptation and social-ecological resilience. We develop an overarching framework that describes the current and potential role of law in enabling adaptation. We apply this framework to different social-ecological settings, centers of activity, and scales, illustrating the multidimensional and polycentric nature of water governance. Adaptation typically emerges organically among multiple centers of agency and authority in society as a relatively self-organized or autonomous process marked by innovation, social learning, and political deliberation. This self-directed and emergent process is difficult to create in an exogenous, top-down fashion. However, traditional centers of authority may establish enabling conditions for adaptation using a suite of legal, economic, and democratic tools to legitimize and facilitate self-organization, coordination, and collaboration across scales. The principles outlined here provide preliminary legal and institutional foundations for adaptive environmental governance, which may inform institutional design and guide future scholarship. Adaptation typically emerges organically among m

  7. Strengthening the foundations of proliferation assessment tools.

    SciTech Connect

    Rexroth, Paul E.; Saltiel, David H.; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Cleary, Virginia D.; Ng, Selena; Greneche, Dominique; Giannangeli, Don; Charlton, William S.; Ford, David

    2007-09-01

    Robust and reliable quantitative proliferation assessment tools have the potential to contribute significantly to a strengthened nonproliferation regime and to the future deployment of nuclear fuel cycle technologies. Efforts to quantify proliferation resistance have thus far met with limited success due to the inherent subjectivity of the problem and interdependencies between attributes that lead to proliferation resistance. We suggest that these limitations flow substantially from weaknesses in the foundations of existing methodologies--the initial data inputs. In most existing methodologies, little consideration has been given to the utilization of varying types of inputs--particularly the mixing of subjective and objective data--or to identifying, understanding, and untangling relationships and dependencies between inputs. To address these concerns, a model set of inputs is suggested that could potentially be employed in multiple approaches. We present an input classification scheme and the initial results of testing for relationships between these inputs. We will discuss how classifying and testing the relationship between these inputs can help strengthen tools to assess the proliferation risk of nuclear fuel cycle processes, systems, and facilities.

  8. Mathematical foundations of the GraphBLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Kepner, Jeremy; Aaltonen, Peter; Bader, David; Buluc, Aydin; Franchetti, Franz; Gilbert, John; Hutchison, Dylan; Kumar, Manoj; Lumsdaine, Andrew; Meyerhenke, Henning; McMillan, Scott; Yang, Carl; Owens, John D.; Zalewski, Marcin; Mattson, Timothy; Moreira, Jose

    2016-12-01

    The GraphBLAS standard (GraphBlas.org) is being developed to bring the potential of matrix-based graph algorithms to the broadest possible audience. Mathematically, the GraphBLAS defines a core set of matrix-based graph operations that can be used to implement a wide class of graph algorithms in a wide range of programming environments. This study provides an introduction to the mathematics of the GraphBLAS. Graphs represent connections between vertices with edges. Matrices can represent a wide range of graphs using adjacency matrices or incidence matrices. Adjacency matrices are often easier to analyze while incidence matrices are often better for representing data. Fortunately, the two are easily connected by matrix multiplication. A key feature of matrix mathematics is that a very small number of matrix operations can be used to manipulate a very wide range of graphs. This composability of a small number of operations is the foundation of the GraphBLAS. A standard such as the GraphBLAS can only be effective if it has low performance overhead. Finally, performance measurements of prototype GraphBLAS implementations indicate that the overhead is low.

  9. The Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation Pledge

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Shu Wen; Slining, Meghan M.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2014-01-01

    Corporate voluntary pledges to improve the health of Americans have not been held to either explicit measurable outcomes or a framework for independent evaluation. The Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation (HWCF), whose members include 16 of the nation’s leading consumer packaged goods (CPG) food and beverage manufacturers, voluntarily pledged to collectively sell 1 trillion fewer calories in the U.S. marketplace by 2012 (against a 2007 baseline), and sell 1.5 trillion fewer calories by 2015. This paper presents the findings of an independent evaluation of the 2012 HWCF marketplace pledge, conducted in 2013. The 16 HWCF companies collectively sold approximately 6.4 trillion fewer calories (−10.6%) in 2012 than in the baseline year of 2007. Taking into account population changes over the 5-year period of 2007–2012, CPG caloric sales from brands included in the HWCF pledge declined by an average of 78 kcals/capita/day. CPG caloric sales from non-HWCF national brands during the same period declined by 11 kcals/capita/day, but there was little change in calories from private label products. Thus, the total reduction in CPG caloric sales between 2007 and 2012 was 87 kcals/capita/day. This independent evaluation is the first to evaluate food industry compliance with its calorie reduction pledges and to assess how sales from the CPG food and beverage sector are changing. An accompanying paper investigates the extent to which the HWCF pledge affected household-level changes in CPG calories purchased, controlling for important economic and sociodemographic factors affecting household food purchases over this period. PMID:25240967

  10. Leibniz on the metaphysical foundation of physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temple, Daniel R.

    This thesis examines how and why Leibniz felt that physics must be grounded in metaphysics. I argue that one of the strongest motivation Leibniz had for attempting to ground physics in metaphysics was his concern over the problem of induction. Even in his early writings, Leibniz was well aware of the problem of induction and how this problem threatened the very possibility of physics. Both his early and later theories of truth are geared towards solving this deep problem in the philosophy of science. In his early theory of truth, all truths are ultimately grounded in (but not necessarily reducible to) an identity. Hence, all truths are ultimately based in logic. Consequently, the problem of induction is seemingly solved since everything that happens, happens with the force of logical necessity. Unfortunately, this theory is incompatible with Leibniz's theory of possible worlds and hence, jeopardizes the liberty of God. In Leibniz's later theory of truth, Leibniz tries to overcome this weakness by acknowledging truths that are grounded in the free but moral necessity of God's actions. Since God's benevolence is responsible for the actualization of this world, then this world must possess rational laws. Furthermore, since God's rationality ensures that everything obeys the principle of sufficient reason, then we can use this principle to determine the fundamental laws of the universe. Leibniz himself attempts to derive these laws using this principle. Kant attempted to continue this work of securing the possibility of science, and the problems he encountered helped to shape his critical philosophy. So I conclude by a comparative analysis of Leibniz and Kant on the foundations of physics.

  11. Considerations and foundations for Botnet simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2009-04-01

    "Botnets", or "bot armies", are large groups of remotely controlled malicious software. Bot armies pose one of the most serious security threats to all networks. Botnets, remotely controlled and operated by botmasters or botherders, can launch massive denial of service attacks, multiple penetration attacks, or any other malicious network activity on a massive scale. While bot army activity has, in the past, been limited to fraud, blackmail, and other forms of criminal activity, their potential for causing large-scale damage to the entire internet; for launching large-scale, coordinated attacks on government computers and networks; and for large-scale, coordinated data gathering from thousands of users and computers on any network has been underestimated. This paper will not discuss how to build bots but the threats they pose. In a "botnet" or "bot army", computers can be used to spread spam, launch denial-of-service attacks against Web sites, conduct fraudulent activities, and prevent authorized network traffic from traversing the network. In this paper, we examine the need for botnet defense training within existing simulation environments and present our suggestions for the capabilities needed for training systems for botnet activities. In this paper we discuss botnet technology and review the technologies that underlie this threat to network, information, and computer security. The second section contains background information about bot armies and key foundational bot technologies. The third section presents a discussion of the types of attacks that botnets can conduct, defenses against them and our suggestions for simulating botnet activities, including suggested message formats for distributing bot simulation commands and for distributing information needed to simulate both the effects of bot attacks and defensive responses to bot attacks. The fourth section contains a summary and suggestions for future research.

  12. Worlddem - a Novel Global Foundation Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riegler, G.; Hennig, S. D.; Weber, M.

    2015-03-01

    Airbus Defence and Space's WorldDEM™ provides a global Digital Elevation Model of unprecedented quality, accuracy, and coverage. The product will feature a vertical accuracy of 2m (relative) and better than 6m (absolute) in a 12m x 12m raster. The accuracy will surpass that of any global satellite-based elevation model available. WorldDEM is a game-changing disruptive technology and will define a new standard in global elevation models. The German radar satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X form a high-precision radar interferometer in space and acquire the data basis for the WorldDEM. This mission is performed jointly with the German Aerospace Center (DLR). Airbus DS refines the Digital Surface Model (e.g. editing of acquisition, processing artefacts and water surfaces) or generates a Digital Terrain Model. Three product levels are offered: WorldDEMcore (output of the processing, no editing is applied), WorldDEM™ (guarantees a void-free terrain description and hydrological consistency) and WorldDEM DTM (represents bare Earth elevation). Precise elevation data is the initial foundation of any accurate geospatial product, particularly when the integration of multi-source imagery and data is performed based upon it. Fused data provides for improved reliability, increased confidence and reduced ambiguity. This paper will present the current status of product development activities including methodologies and tool to generate these, like terrain and water bodies editing and DTM generation. In addition, the studies on verification & validation of the WorldDEM products will be presented.

  13. Gpr Surveys for Building Foundation Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Termini, D.; Campo, D.; de Domenico, D.; Teramo, A.

    2010-12-01

    GPR surveys in the field of structural non destructive diagnostics represent a geophysical technique, widely used for high-resolution imaging of structural elements and subsoil. The quickness and reliability of data acquisition, in very different geological or structural settings, make it an investigative tool of significant interest, for a properly planning of invasive testing. The main results of GPR surveys carried out in order to characterize the geometry and the depth of foundations of a reinforced concrete buildings of a school built in the 1960s and located in a city classified as a seismic zone in the 1980s are proposed, within studies aimed at the evaluation of the seismic vulnerability level. Using a GPR system with a central frequency of 250 MHz, several scans were performed outside the buildings, close one of their sides, both in reflection mode and with the WARR method; the latter allowed the one-dimensional velocity-depth-distribution to be calculated. The analysis of the processed data, also with reference to the main identified environmental noise elements, allowed the identification of the actual geometry and the depth of the building plinths, reducing the invasive survey number, however, necessary to validate the GPR surveys, whose employment was of relevant interest for the characterization of the structural elements of all 12 buildings of the school located over an area several hectares wide. Moreover, it is important to underline, according to design codes, the relationship between non invasive and destructive surveys, necessary to obtain level of structure knowledge foreseen by specific rules and regulations.

  14. Moral Learning: Conceptual foundations and normative relevance.

    PubMed

    Railton, Peter

    2017-10-01

    What is distinctive about a bringing a learning perspective to moral psychology? Part of the answer lies in the remarkable transformations that have taken place in learning theory over the past two decades, which have revealed how powerful experience-based learning can be in the acquisition of abstract causal and evaluative representations, including generative models capable of attuning perception, cognition, affect, and action to the physical and social environment. When conjoined with developments in neuroscience, these advances in learning theory permit a rethinking of fundamental questions about the acquisition of moral understanding and its role in the guidance of behavior. For example, recent research indicates that spatial learning and navigation involve the formation of non-perspectival as well as ego-centric models of the physical environment, and that spatial representations are combined with learned information about risk and reward to guide choice and potentiate further learning. Research on infants provides evidence that they form non-perspectival expected-value representations of agents and actions as well, which help them to navigate the human environment. Such representations can be formed by highly-general mental processes such as causal and empathic simulation, and thus afford a foundation for spontaneous moral learning and action that requires no innate moral faculty and can exhibit substantial autonomy with respect to community norms. If moral learning is indeed integral with the acquisition and updating of casual and evaluative models, this affords a new way of understanding well-known but seemingly puzzling patterns in intuitive moral judgment-including the notorious "trolley problems." Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation Pledge

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M.

    2014-01-01

    Context An independent evaluation of the Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation (HWCF) marketplace pledge found that the participating companies met and exceeded their interim 2012 sales reduction pledge. Evidence acquisition This follow-up study conducted in 2013 used purchase data from 2000–2012 among U.S. households with children and compared trends in calorie purchases of HWCF, non-HWCF name brands, and private label (PL) products in the pre-pledge period (2000–2007) and the post-pledge period (2008–2012); controlled for potential effects of concurrent changes in demographic and economic factors, including the Great Recession and food prices; and assessed whether the HWCF marketplace pledge was associated with reductions in consumer packaged goods (CPG) calorie purchases by households with children. Evidence synthesis There has been a significant per capita decline in average daily CPG caloric purchases between 2000 and 2012 among households with children from all brand categories. Based on pre-pledge trends, declines in CPG caloric purchases were already occurring. However, post-pledge reductions in calories purchased from HWCF brands were less than expected, and reductions in calories purchased from non-HWCF name brands and PLs were greater than expected after economic, sociodemographic, and secular factors were accounted for. Conclusions If the 16 HWCF companies had been able to maintain their pre-pledge trajectory, there should have been an additional 42 kcals/capita/day reduction in calories purchased from HWCF products in 2012 among households with children. A lack of change in total CPG calories purchased between 2011 and 2012 calls into question the sustainability of the decline and a need for continued monitoring. PMID:25240968

  16. Justice foundations for the Comprehensive Law Movement.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, Dale

    2010-01-01

    Authors examining the developing dispute resolution alternatives to the adversarial system have identified nine converging "vectors" or alternatives in what has been termed the Comprehensive Law Movement. These authors have sought to understand how the developing vectors can remain separate and vibrant movements while sharing common ground. Some analyze these developments as being within law and legal practice, others see them as alternative approaches to law, and still others take a combined approach. It will be impossible to understand how these vectors have meaningful differences from law and legal practice if the search is limited to looking within law and legal practice. It will be impossible to understand how these vectors have meaningful commonalities with law and legal practice if the search is limited to looking external to law and legal practice. Instead of comparing the vectors with the adversarial system, higher order criteria are required. What is needed is a comprehensive and internally consistent super-system of norms; one that can be used to evaluate the adversarial system and the evolving vectors on an equal footing. An Aristotelian natural law virtue theory of justice can: (a) provide a functional guiding definition of justice; (b) serve as a comprehensive and internally consistent super-system of norms; and (c) provide the theoretical and evaluative foundation required to clarify the relationships among the adversarial system and the developing vectors. Finally, it will become clear why the Comprehensive Law Movement might be more appropriately conceptualized as the Comprehensive Justice Movement. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Alzheimer Center Reina Sofia Foundation: fighting the disease and providing overall solutions.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martín, Pablo; Avila, Jesús

    2010-01-01

    As the impact of Alzheimer's disease (AD) on society expands, the reaction aimed at neutralizing its effects also increases. In Spain, an initiative arisen from the highest institution of the State has launched a crusade for fighting the disease from a multidisciplinary stance. In 2002, the "Alzheimer Project" of the Reina Sofia Foundation was announced and in 2007, the Alzheimer Center Reina Sofia Foundation was inaugurated. This resource includes a long-term inpatient care facility, a day-care center, premises for education and training, and a research unit. This way, patients and investigators share the space in a clear expression of "translational research". The Research Unit is managed by the CIEN Foundation, Carlos III Institute of Health, an entity depending on the Ministry of Science and Innovation, and financed in part by the Reina Sofia Foundation. It includes clinical and social research, laboratory, neuroimaging (MRI 3T), and biobank facilities. The connection of the Unit with other research centers and laboratories (both in Spain and outside), universities, and associations of AD patients' relatives is tight and facilitates a dynamic collaboration. The involvement of all social strata in the Alzheimer Project makes evident the unitary effort that Spain is carrying out in the fight against neurodegenerative diseases and, particularly, AD.

  18. Twentieth anniversary of American Vascular Association/Lifeline Foundation: a celebration.

    PubMed

    Pearce, William H; Mannick, John A; Clowes, Alexander W; Yao, James S T

    2008-06-01

    The American Vascular Association/Lifeline Foundation is celebrating its 20th anniversary this year. This remarkable two-decade journey represents a cumulative effort by the leaders and members of the Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS). For the historical record, we would like to chart the sequence of events leading to various programs. In 1986, the Executive Council of SVS approved the formation of an Education/Research Foundation, from which the Lifeline Foundation evolved, with the mission to support the career development of young research-oriented vascular surgeons. Since that time, Lifeline has awarded 141 Student Fellowships, 21 Wylie Traveling Fellowships, 17 Mentored Clinical Scientist Development (K08) Awards, and three Mentored Patient-Oriented Research Career Development (K23) Awards. In 2001, the American Vascular Association (AVA) was established under the aegis of American Association for Vascular Surgery (formerly International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery-North American Chapter). In 2004, with the merger of the SVS and the American Association of Vascular Surgery into a single entity (SVS), Lifeline and the AVA merged into a single foundation, the AVA. As AVA/Lifeline is poised to launch a campaign for an endowment fund, we hope this report will let the members of the SVS know what has been accomplished, what we plan to do, and, most importantly, what we need to do in the future.

  19. Evolutionary idealism: a philosophical foundation for holistic nursing theory.

    PubMed

    Sarter, B

    1987-01-01

    The philosophical tradition of evolutionary idealism is explored as an appropriate metaphysical foundation for holistic nursing science. Some implications of this tradition for theory development, testing, and practice are identified. It is suggested that evolutionary idealism can form an appropriate philosophical foundation for nursing theory development.

  20. Sierra Health Foundation's Positive Youth Justice Initiative. Briefing Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra Health Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In December 2011, the Sierra Health Foundation board of directors approved a framework for a new youth development initiative. The framework built upon the foundation's recently concluded REACH Youth Development Program and incorporated findings and recommendations from the highly regarded "Healthy Youth/Healthy Regions" and…

  1. The Irving Harris Foundation's Investment in the Professional Development Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glink, Phyllis

    2012-01-01

    Phyllis Glink, the executive director of the Irving Harris Foundation, describes the Foundation's strategic approach to grantmaking in the infant and early childhood field. The Harris Professional Development Network evolved out of Irving Harris's growing appreciation for the importance of supporting very young children's mental health and…

  2. Weaving the Foundation into the Culture of a Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsen, Charles J.

    2003-01-01

    This chapter explores the role of the president as enabler and leader in promoting a foundation that is engaged with the community and responsive to the college mission. It uses as its foundation a case study of Johnson County Community College (JCCC), where the president's involvement in the community educates the community about the college,…

  3. 49 CFR 229.57 - Foundation brake gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Foundation brake gear. 229.57 Section 229.57 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Foundation brake gear. A lever, rod, brake beam, hanger, or pin may not be worn through more than 30...

  4. 49 CFR 229.57 - Foundation brake gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Foundation brake gear. 229.57 Section 229.57 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Foundation brake gear. A lever, rod, brake beam, hanger, or pin may not be worn through more than 30...

  5. 49 CFR 229.57 - Foundation brake gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foundation brake gear. 229.57 Section 229.57 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Foundation brake gear. A lever, rod, brake beam, hanger, or pin may not be worn through more than 30...

  6. 49 CFR 229.57 - Foundation brake gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Foundation brake gear. 229.57 Section 229.57 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Foundation brake gear. A lever, rod, brake beam, hanger, or pin may not be worn through more than 30...

  7. 49 CFR 229.57 - Foundation brake gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Foundation brake gear. 229.57 Section 229.57 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Foundation brake gear. A lever, rod, brake beam, hanger, or pin may not be worn through more than 30...

  8. Out of School Time Matters: What Community Foundations Can Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornbeck, Becky

    This publication presents a tool for community foundations interested in developing out-of-school-time programs in their communities. It explores what is being learned about efforts to build quality systems and to challenge community foundations to help their communities sustain them. The accounts it presents were gathered through a survey of over…

  9. Foundation Degree Learning: An Educational Journey of Personal Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Helena; Brown, David; Portlock, Jane

    2015-01-01

    The foundation degree is an intermediate-level qualification designed to widen participation in higher education while providing work-related skills and knowledge. It has a vocational focus and a pedagogic approach that integrates academic and work-based learning. Research into opportunities and the process of learning within foundation degrees is…

  10. Faith in Welfare: The Origins of the Open Home Foundation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troughton, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses the origins of the Open Home Foundation (OHF), a Christian social service provider that commenced in New Zealand in 1977. It interprets the Foundation's appeal, paying particular attention to the role of religious values and spirituality within the organisation. The article argues that OHF emerged and flourished from the late…

  11. Thomas B. Fordham Foundation Sponsorship Accountability Report, 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Foundation, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Thomas B. Fordham Foundation believes that all children deserve a high-quality K-12 education at the school of their choice. Nationally and in its home state of Ohio, the Foundation strives to close America's vexing achievement gaps by raising standards, strengthening accountability, and expanding education options for students and families.…

  12. Foundation Degree Learning: An Educational Journey of Personal Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Helena; Brown, David; Portlock, Jane

    2015-01-01

    The foundation degree is an intermediate-level qualification designed to widen participation in higher education while providing work-related skills and knowledge. It has a vocational focus and a pedagogic approach that integrates academic and work-based learning. Research into opportunities and the process of learning within foundation degrees is…

  13. Special Issue: The Work of the Beth Johnson Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education and Ageing, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Education and Training for an Ageing Society" (Glendenning); "The Beth Johnson Foundation (BJF) and Beth Johnson Housing Association" (Flynn); "The BJF: A Quarter of a Century of Research with, for and about Older People" (Bernard); "The Foundation as a Learning Organisation" (Granville); and…

  14. Faith in Welfare: The Origins of the Open Home Foundation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troughton, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses the origins of the Open Home Foundation (OHF), a Christian social service provider that commenced in New Zealand in 1977. It interprets the Foundation's appeal, paying particular attention to the role of religious values and spirituality within the organisation. The article argues that OHF emerged and flourished from the late…

  15. The National Science Foundation: Funding Opportunities for Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaskyte, Kristina

    2005-01-01

    This article introduces the National Science Foundation as a potential funding source for social work researchers and describes the experience of one faculty member in seeking funding from this source. The author provides an overview of the foundation, discusses its programmatic structure, proposal preparation, selection criteria, and review…

  16. Foundations that Provide Support for Human Services: A Selected List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bertha, Comp.

    Lists of foundations can aid the user in securing funding sources for projects in the areas of health, education, community development and/or social services. The user is cautioned that grantsmanship is a competitive process; grants application procedures vary from one foundation to another. In the absence of any specific guidelines, important…

  17. Conceptual Foundations for Gifted Education: "Stock-Taking"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, LeoNora M.

    2006-01-01

    Conceptual Foundations are the theoretical, conceptual, philosophical, and historical aspects; perspectives from outside the field; trends, issues, and future directions; and social, political, and economic facets that underlie our field. This paper attempted to capture these foundational aspects, taking stock of accomplishments and suggesting…

  18. Foundation for Child Development (FCD) Annual Report, 1996/1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation for Child Development, New York, NY.

    This annual report details the 1996-97 activities of the Foundation for Child Development. Included in the report is a discussion of the history and mission of the foundation and its funding priorities. The members of the Council, Board of Directors, Officers, and staff are listed. The report of the chair, Barbara Paul Robinson, describes the…

  19. Foundation for Child Development Annual Report, 1997/1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation for Child Development, New York, NY.

    This annual report details the activities of the Foundation for Child Development (FCD) for 1997-98. Included in the report is a discussion of the history and mission of the foundation and its funding priorities. The members of the Council, Board of Directors, Officers, and staff are listed. The report of the chair, Barbara Paul Robinson,…

  20. The Empirical and Moral Foundations of the ISLLC Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to unpack the foundations for the national standards for school leaders in the USA. The author examines some of the background of the Standards from 1996 to 2015. The author explores the two foundations on which the ISLLC Standards rest, academic press and supportive community. Design/methodology/approach:…

  1. Ford Foundation Plans Big Increase in Grants to Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desruisseaux, Paul; McMillen, Liz

    1988-01-01

    The Ford Foundation's increase, by almost one-fourth, of support to higher education is intended to reinvigorate college teaching, especially in the social sciences, and to improve opportunities for minority group faculty. Other new foundation efforts include support of a program to assist victims of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).…

  2. The Empirical and Moral Foundations of the ISLLC Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to unpack the foundations for the national standards for school leaders in the USA. The author examines some of the background of the Standards from 1996 to 2015. The author explores the two foundations on which the ISLLC Standards rest, academic press and supportive community. Design/methodology/approach:…

  3. Increasing the Value of Evaluation to Philanthropic Foundations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwald, Howard P.

    2013-01-01

    This article synthesizes interview data from evaluation directors and top executives of philanthropic foundations on how evaluation might better advance their missions. In key informant interviews, respondents commented on the purposes of evaluation from the foundation's perspective, challenges to effective evaluation, and the means by which…

  4. Public health. Gates Foundation on big funding spree.

    PubMed

    Hagmann, M

    2000-08-11

    The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation dished up $200 million in grants for scientists in various fields late last month, including research into malaria and tuberculosis. The foundation kicked off its spending spree in mid-July at the XIII International AIDS Conference in Durban, South Africa, by announcing several AIDS/HIV-related grants totaling $90 million.

  5. The National Science Foundation: Funding Opportunities for Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaskyte, Kristina

    2005-01-01

    This article introduces the National Science Foundation as a potential funding source for social work researchers and describes the experience of one faculty member in seeking funding from this source. The author provides an overview of the foundation, discusses its programmatic structure, proposal preparation, selection criteria, and review…

  6. Report Carding: A Model for Foundation Portfolio Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Connie C.; Schillo, Barbara A.

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews changes in the accountability landscape that have occurred for foundations in recent years and several precedents for foundation performance assessment. The authors then present a model of portfolio assessment that is used for organizational accountability and learning. This model, which was piloted in 2002 and 2003 for the…

  7. Foundation products have a measureable impact on moisturization.

    PubMed

    Daley-Bowles, Tricia; Liguori, Jillian; Razuri, Farrah; Hubschmitt, Amber; Litchauer, Jill; Aucar, Betty; De Mul, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Multifunctional products are becoming more prevalent in the color cosmetics market. We evaluated four foundation products for in vivo moisturizing benefits using the mini-regression test method. We found that statistically significant long-lasting moisturization was provided by the foundations tested, but only if hygroscopic moisturizing ingredients were present.

  8. Chapter 3: Crossing Boundaries--Foundation Degrees in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhurst, Derek

    2010-01-01

    This chapter traces the history, purposes, and distinctive features of the foundation degree, a short-cycle higher education qualification introduced in England in 2000-2001 and offered by both universities and further education colleges. The key characteristics of the foundation degree are discussed: employer involvement in curriculum development…

  9. Our Education Foundation Raised $40,000 in 16 Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Mark

    1983-01-01

    Details procedures involved in setting up the Shaker Schools Foundation, a nonprofit organization serving the Shaker Heights Public Schools, Ohio. The author's seven guidelines on how money for such a foundation should be collected, administered, and distributed include encouraging unrestricted donations but making provisions for donations…

  10. Teaching the Foundations of Education: A Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Francis J.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the teacher preparation program at LaSalle University, recently restructured around principles of human growth and development. Suggests that foundation courses stress developmental principles in relation to educational practice, the image of the child, educational theory, and educational language. Argues foundation courses suffer from…

  11. FAST, Foundational Approaches in Science Teaching. Instructional Guide. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Donald B.; Pottenger, Francis M., III

    The Foundational Approaches in Science Teaching (FAST) project, which began under the sponsorship of the Hawaii Science Curriculum Council, contains a series of interdisciplinary science courses that emphasize the foundational concepts and methods of the physical, biological, and earth sciences. By directly involving students in investigating…

  12. An Argument for Re-Positioning the Social Foundations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watras, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    With the rise of teacher testing, foundations scholars need to work together to ensure their courses remain a part of initial teacher credentialing. Many foundations people distrust teacher qualifying exams and accrediting organizations. Some scholars complain that the teacher tests discriminate against members of minority groups. Other professors…

  13. Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation. Report for 1971-1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation, Princeton, NJ.

    This document presents the annual report for the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation for 1971-72. Included in the report are a listing of the Board of Trustees; a listing of the officers and staff of the Foundation; descriptions of the First Year Fellowship Program, the Dissertation Fellowships, the Internship Programs, the Martin Luther…

  14. Investment Policy for Community College Foundations: Are Commodity Futures Prudent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Robert O.; Helweg, Otto J.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews several basic risk-reward techniques to assist community college fund managers in reassessing sources of private funding for nongovernmental, not-for-profit foundations. Describes several tools for formulating an investment strategy. Indicates that administrators of foundation funds should consider the tradeoff between more risky…

  15. Foundations for Young Children to the Indiana Academic Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.

    Noting that young children need early childhood settings supporting the development of the full range of capacities that will serve as a foundation for future school learning, and that adults have an opportunity and an obligation to assist children in becoming active participants in the learning process, this document details foundations to…

  16. The Irving Harris Foundation's Investment in the Professional Development Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glink, Phyllis

    2012-01-01

    Phyllis Glink, the executive director of the Irving Harris Foundation, describes the Foundation's strategic approach to grantmaking in the infant and early childhood field. The Harris Professional Development Network evolved out of Irving Harris's growing appreciation for the importance of supporting very young children's mental health and…

  17. 30 CFR 57.4401 - Storage tank foundations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage tank foundations. 57.4401 Section 57... and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4401 Storage tank foundations. Fixed, unburied, flammable or combustible liquid storage tanks shall be securely mounted on firm...

  18. The Response of the Private Sector: Foundations and Entrepreneurs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Mary

    1992-01-01

    Discusses efforts by charitable foundations to improve educational quality for at-risk youth. Most grants for at-risk youth are for direct services, though research/evaluation and advocacy receive considerable funding. Some foundations provide technical assistance and brokering. Recently, entrepreneurs have entered the field of educational…

  19. Report Carding: A Model for Foundation Portfolio Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Connie C.; Schillo, Barbara A.

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews changes in the accountability landscape that have occurred for foundations in recent years and several precedents for foundation performance assessment. The authors then present a model of portfolio assessment that is used for organizational accountability and learning. This model, which was piloted in 2002 and 2003 for the…

  20. Paying the Piper: Foundation Evaluation Capacity Calls the Tune

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Teresa R.; Kelly, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    An overview is presented of forces that have shaped how public and private funders approach evaluation, including the challenges that funders, and particularly foundations, face in effectively using evaluation within an organizational learning framework. Even with internal organizational challenges to learning, foundations are increasingly…