Jovanovic, Milos; Radovanovic, Sandro; Vukicevic, Milan; Van Poucke, Sven; Delibasic, Boris
2016-09-01
Quantification and early identification of unplanned readmission risk have the potential to improve the quality of care during hospitalization and after discharge. However, high dimensionality, sparsity, and class imbalance of electronic health data and the complexity of risk quantification, challenge the development of accurate predictive models. Predictive models require a certain level of interpretability in order to be applicable in real settings and create actionable insights. This paper aims to develop accurate and interpretable predictive models for readmission in a general pediatric patient population, by integrating a data-driven model (sparse logistic regression) and domain knowledge based on the international classification of diseases 9th-revision clinical modification (ICD-9-CM) hierarchy of diseases. Additionally, we propose a way to quantify the interpretability of a model and inspect the stability of alternative solutions. The analysis was conducted on >66,000 pediatric hospital discharge records from California, State Inpatient Databases, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project between 2009 and 2011. We incorporated domain knowledge based on the ICD-9-CM hierarchy in a data driven, Tree-Lasso regularized logistic regression model, providing the framework for model interpretation. This approach was compared with traditional Lasso logistic regression resulting in models that are easier to interpret by fewer high-level diagnoses, with comparable prediction accuracy. The results revealed that the use of a Tree-Lasso model was as competitive in terms of accuracy (measured by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve-AUC) as the traditional Lasso logistic regression, but integration with the ICD-9-CM hierarchy of diseases provided more interpretable models in terms of high-level diagnoses. Additionally, interpretations of models are in accordance with existing medical understanding of pediatric readmission. Best performing models have
Statistical downscaling modeling with quantile regression using lasso to estimate extreme rainfall
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santri, Dewi; Wigena, Aji Hamim; Djuraidah, Anik
2016-02-01
Rainfall is one of the climatic elements with high diversity and has many negative impacts especially extreme rainfall. Therefore, there are several methods that required to minimize the damage that may occur. So far, Global circulation models (GCM) are the best method to forecast global climate changes include extreme rainfall. Statistical downscaling (SD) is a technique to develop the relationship between GCM output as a global-scale independent variables and rainfall as a local- scale response variable. Using GCM method will have many difficulties when assessed against observations because GCM has high dimension and multicollinearity between the variables. The common method that used to handle this problem is principal components analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression. The new method that can be used is lasso. Lasso has advantages in simultaneuosly controlling the variance of the fitted coefficients and performing automatic variable selection. Quantile regression is a method that can be used to detect extreme rainfall in dry and wet extreme. Objective of this study is modeling SD using quantile regression with lasso to predict extreme rainfall in Indramayu. The results showed that the estimation of extreme rainfall (extreme wet in January, February and December) in Indramayu could be predicted properly by the model at quantile 90th.
Large unbalanced credit scoring using Lasso-logistic regression ensemble.
Wang, Hong; Xu, Qingsong; Zhou, Lifeng
2015-01-01
Recently, various ensemble learning methods with different base classifiers have been proposed for credit scoring problems. However, for various reasons, there has been little research using logistic regression as the base classifier. In this paper, given large unbalanced data, we consider the plausibility of ensemble learning using regularized logistic regression as the base classifier to deal with credit scoring problems. In this research, the data is first balanced and diversified by clustering and bagging algorithms. Then we apply a Lasso-logistic regression learning ensemble to evaluate the credit risks. We show that the proposed algorithm outperforms popular credit scoring models such as decision tree, Lasso-logistic regression and random forests in terms of AUC and F-measure. We also provide two importance measures for the proposed model to identify important variables in the data.
Large Unbalanced Credit Scoring Using Lasso-Logistic Regression Ensemble
Wang, Hong; Xu, Qingsong; Zhou, Lifeng
2015-01-01
Recently, various ensemble learning methods with different base classifiers have been proposed for credit scoring problems. However, for various reasons, there has been little research using logistic regression as the base classifier. In this paper, given large unbalanced data, we consider the plausibility of ensemble learning using regularized logistic regression as the base classifier to deal with credit scoring problems. In this research, the data is first balanced and diversified by clustering and bagging algorithms. Then we apply a Lasso-logistic regression learning ensemble to evaluate the credit risks. We show that the proposed algorithm outperforms popular credit scoring models such as decision tree, Lasso-logistic regression and random forests in terms of AUC and F-measure. We also provide two importance measures for the proposed model to identify important variables in the data. PMID:25706988
Avalos, Marta; Adroher, Nuria Duran; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Thiessard, Frantz; Grandvalet, Yves; Contrand, Benjamin; Orriols, Ludivine
2012-09-01
Large data sets with many variables provide particular challenges when constructing analytic models. Lasso-related methods provide a useful tool, although one that remains unfamiliar to most epidemiologists. We illustrate the application of lasso methods in an analysis of the impact of prescribed drugs on the risk of a road traffic crash, using a large French nationwide database (PLoS Med 2010;7:e1000366). In the original case-control study, the authors analyzed each exposure separately. We use the lasso method, which can simultaneously perform estimation and variable selection in a single model. We compare point estimates and confidence intervals using (1) a separate logistic regression model for each drug with a Bonferroni correction and (2) lasso shrinkage logistic regression analysis. Shrinkage regression had little effect on (bias corrected) point estimates, but led to less conservative results, noticeably for drugs with moderate levels of exposure. Carbamates, carboxamide derivative and fatty acid derivative antiepileptics, drugs used in opioid dependence, and mineral supplements of potassium showed stronger associations. Lasso is a relevant method in the analysis of databases with large number of exposures and can be recommended as an alternative to conventional strategies.
Bayesian Adaptive Lasso for Ordinal Regression with Latent Variables
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Feng, Xiang-Nan; Wu, Hao-Tian; Song, Xin-Yuan
2017-01-01
We consider an ordinal regression model with latent variables to investigate the effects of observable and latent explanatory variables on the ordinal responses of interest. Each latent variable is characterized by correlated observed variables through a confirmatory factor analysis model. We develop a Bayesian adaptive lasso procedure to conduct…
Efficient Smoothed Concomitant Lasso Estimation for High Dimensional Regression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ndiaye, Eugene; Fercoq, Olivier; Gramfort, Alexandre; Leclère, Vincent; Salmon, Joseph
2017-10-01
In high dimensional settings, sparse structures are crucial for efficiency, both in term of memory, computation and performance. It is customary to consider ℓ 1 penalty to enforce sparsity in such scenarios. Sparsity enforcing methods, the Lasso being a canonical example, are popular candidates to address high dimension. For efficiency, they rely on tuning a parameter trading data fitting versus sparsity. For the Lasso theory to hold this tuning parameter should be proportional to the noise level, yet the latter is often unknown in practice. A possible remedy is to jointly optimize over the regression parameter as well as over the noise level. This has been considered under several names in the literature: Scaled-Lasso, Square-root Lasso, Concomitant Lasso estimation for instance, and could be of interest for uncertainty quantification. In this work, after illustrating numerical difficulties for the Concomitant Lasso formulation, we propose a modification we coined Smoothed Concomitant Lasso, aimed at increasing numerical stability. We propose an efficient and accurate solver leading to a computational cost no more expensive than the one for the Lasso. We leverage on standard ingredients behind the success of fast Lasso solvers: a coordinate descent algorithm, combined with safe screening rules to achieve speed efficiency, by eliminating early irrelevant features.
Non-Asymptotic Oracle Inequalities for the High-Dimensional Cox Regression via Lasso.
Kong, Shengchun; Nan, Bin
2014-01-01
We consider finite sample properties of the regularized high-dimensional Cox regression via lasso. Existing literature focuses on linear models or generalized linear models with Lipschitz loss functions, where the empirical risk functions are the summations of independent and identically distributed (iid) losses. The summands in the negative log partial likelihood function for censored survival data, however, are neither iid nor Lipschitz.We first approximate the negative log partial likelihood function by a sum of iid non-Lipschitz terms, then derive the non-asymptotic oracle inequalities for the lasso penalized Cox regression using pointwise arguments to tackle the difficulties caused by lacking iid Lipschitz losses.
Non-Asymptotic Oracle Inequalities for the High-Dimensional Cox Regression via Lasso
Kong, Shengchun; Nan, Bin
2013-01-01
We consider finite sample properties of the regularized high-dimensional Cox regression via lasso. Existing literature focuses on linear models or generalized linear models with Lipschitz loss functions, where the empirical risk functions are the summations of independent and identically distributed (iid) losses. The summands in the negative log partial likelihood function for censored survival data, however, are neither iid nor Lipschitz.We first approximate the negative log partial likelihood function by a sum of iid non-Lipschitz terms, then derive the non-asymptotic oracle inequalities for the lasso penalized Cox regression using pointwise arguments to tackle the difficulties caused by lacking iid Lipschitz losses. PMID:24516328
Variable Selection with Prior Information for Generalized Linear Models via the Prior LASSO Method.
Jiang, Yuan; He, Yunxiao; Zhang, Heping
LASSO is a popular statistical tool often used in conjunction with generalized linear models that can simultaneously select variables and estimate parameters. When there are many variables of interest, as in current biological and biomedical studies, the power of LASSO can be limited. Fortunately, so much biological and biomedical data have been collected and they may contain useful information about the importance of certain variables. This paper proposes an extension of LASSO, namely, prior LASSO (pLASSO), to incorporate that prior information into penalized generalized linear models. The goal is achieved by adding in the LASSO criterion function an additional measure of the discrepancy between the prior information and the model. For linear regression, the whole solution path of the pLASSO estimator can be found with a procedure similar to the Least Angle Regression (LARS). Asymptotic theories and simulation results show that pLASSO provides significant improvement over LASSO when the prior information is relatively accurate. When the prior information is less reliable, pLASSO shows great robustness to the misspecification. We illustrate the application of pLASSO using a real data set from a genome-wide association study.
Application of Multi-task Lasso Regression in the Stellar Parametrization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, L. N.; Zhang, P. A.
2015-01-01
The multi-task learning approaches have attracted the increasing attention in the fields of machine learning, computer vision, and artificial intelligence. By utilizing the correlations in tasks, learning multiple related tasks simultaneously is better than learning each task independently. An efficient multi-task Lasso (Least Absolute Shrinkage Selection and Operator) regression algorithm is proposed in this paper to estimate the physical parameters of stellar spectra. It not only makes different physical parameters share the common features, but also can effectively preserve their own peculiar features. Experiments were done based on the ELODIE data simulated with the stellar atmospheric simulation model, and on the SDSS data released by the American large survey Sloan. The precision of the model is better than those of the methods in the related literature, especially for the acceleration of gravity (lg g) and the chemical abundance ([Fe/H]). In the experiments, we changed the resolution of the spectrum, and applied the noises with different signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to the spectrum, so as to illustrate the stability of the model. The results show that the model is influenced by both the resolution and the noise. But the influence of the noise is larger than that of the resolution. In general, the multi-task Lasso regression algorithm is easy to operate, has a strong stability, and also can improve the overall accuracy of the model.
Xu, Chao; Fang, Jian; Shen, Hui; Wang, Yu-Ping; Deng, Hong-Wen
2018-01-25
Extreme phenotype sampling (EPS) is a broadly-used design to identify candidate genetic factors contributing to the variation of quantitative traits. By enriching the signals in extreme phenotypic samples, EPS can boost the association power compared to random sampling. Most existing statistical methods for EPS examine the genetic factors individually, despite many quantitative traits have multiple genetic factors underlying their variation. It is desirable to model the joint effects of genetic factors, which may increase the power and identify novel quantitative trait loci under EPS. The joint analysis of genetic data in high-dimensional situations requires specialized techniques, e.g., the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO). Although there are extensive research and application related to LASSO, the statistical inference and testing for the sparse model under EPS remain unknown. We propose a novel sparse model (EPS-LASSO) with hypothesis test for high-dimensional regression under EPS based on a decorrelated score function. The comprehensive simulation shows EPS-LASSO outperforms existing methods with stable type I error and FDR control. EPS-LASSO can provide a consistent power for both low- and high-dimensional situations compared with the other methods dealing with high-dimensional situations. The power of EPS-LASSO is close to other low-dimensional methods when the causal effect sizes are small and is superior when the effects are large. Applying EPS-LASSO to a transcriptome-wide gene expression study for obesity reveals 10 significant body mass index associated genes. Our results indicate that EPS-LASSO is an effective method for EPS data analysis, which can account for correlated predictors. The source code is available at https://github.com/xu1912/EPSLASSO. hdeng2@tulane.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2018). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please
Ternès, Nils; Rotolo, Federico; Michiels, Stefan
2016-07-10
Correct selection of prognostic biomarkers among multiple candidates is becoming increasingly challenging as the dimensionality of biological data becomes higher. Therefore, minimizing the false discovery rate (FDR) is of primary importance, while a low false negative rate (FNR) is a complementary measure. The lasso is a popular selection method in Cox regression, but its results depend heavily on the penalty parameter λ. Usually, λ is chosen using maximum cross-validated log-likelihood (max-cvl). However, this method has often a very high FDR. We review methods for a more conservative choice of λ. We propose an empirical extension of the cvl by adding a penalization term, which trades off between the goodness-of-fit and the parsimony of the model, leading to the selection of fewer biomarkers and, as we show, to the reduction of the FDR without large increase in FNR. We conducted a simulation study considering null and moderately sparse alternative scenarios and compared our approach with the standard lasso and 10 other competitors: Akaike information criterion (AIC), corrected AIC, Bayesian information criterion (BIC), extended BIC, Hannan and Quinn information criterion (HQIC), risk information criterion (RIC), one-standard-error rule, adaptive lasso, stability selection, and percentile lasso. Our extension achieved the best compromise across all the scenarios between a reduction of the FDR and a limited raise of the FNR, followed by the AIC, the RIC, and the adaptive lasso, which performed well in some settings. We illustrate the methods using gene expression data of 523 breast cancer patients. In conclusion, we propose to apply our extension to the lasso whenever a stringent FDR with a limited FNR is targeted. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Jang, Dae -Heung; Anderson-Cook, Christine Michaela
2016-11-22
With many predictors in regression, fitting the full model can induce multicollinearity problems. Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operation (LASSO) is useful when the effects of many explanatory variables are sparse in a high-dimensional dataset. Influential points can have a disproportionate impact on the estimated values of model parameters. Here, this paper describes a new influence plot that can be used to increase understanding of the contributions of individual observations and the robustness of results. This can serve as a complement to other regression diagnostics techniques in the LASSO regression setting. Using this influence plot, we can find influential pointsmore » and their impact on shrinkage of model parameters and model selection. Lastly, we provide two examples to illustrate the methods.« less
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Jang, Dae -Heung; Anderson-Cook, Christine Michaela
With many predictors in regression, fitting the full model can induce multicollinearity problems. Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operation (LASSO) is useful when the effects of many explanatory variables are sparse in a high-dimensional dataset. Influential points can have a disproportionate impact on the estimated values of model parameters. Here, this paper describes a new influence plot that can be used to increase understanding of the contributions of individual observations and the robustness of results. This can serve as a complement to other regression diagnostics techniques in the LASSO regression setting. Using this influence plot, we can find influential pointsmore » and their impact on shrinkage of model parameters and model selection. Lastly, we provide two examples to illustrate the methods.« less
Application of Multi-task Lasso Regression in the Parametrization of Stellar Spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Li-Na; Zhang, Pei-Ai
2015-07-01
The multi-task learning approaches have attracted the increasing attention in the fields of machine learning, computer vision, and artificial intelligence. By utilizing the correlations in tasks, learning multiple related tasks simultaneously is better than learning each task independently. An efficient multi-task Lasso (Least Absolute Shrinkage Selection and Operator) regression algorithm is proposed in this paper to estimate the physical parameters of stellar spectra. It not only can obtain the information about the common features of the different physical parameters, but also can preserve effectively their own peculiar features. Experiments were done based on the ELODIE synthetic spectral data simulated with the stellar atmospheric model, and on the SDSS data released by the American large-scale survey Sloan. The estimation precision of our model is better than those of the methods in the related literature, especially for the estimates of the gravitational acceleration (lg g) and the chemical abundance ([Fe/H]). In the experiments we changed the spectral resolution, and applied the noises with different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) to the spectral data, so as to illustrate the stability of the model. The results show that the model is influenced by both the resolution and the noise. But the influence of the noise is larger than that of the resolution. In general, the multi-task Lasso regression algorithm is easy to operate, it has a strong stability, and can also improve the overall prediction accuracy of the model.
Haem, Elham; Harling, Kajsa; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi; Zare, Najaf; Karlsson, Mats O
2017-02-01
One important aim in population pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics is identification and quantification of the relationships between the parameters and covariates. Lasso has been suggested as a technique for simultaneous estimation and covariate selection. In linear regression, it has been shown that Lasso possesses no oracle properties, which means it asymptotically performs as though the true underlying model was given in advance. Adaptive Lasso (ALasso) with appropriate initial weights is claimed to possess oracle properties; however, it can lead to poor predictive performance when there is multicollinearity between covariates. This simulation study implemented a new version of ALasso, called adjusted ALasso (AALasso), to take into account the ratio of the standard error of the maximum likelihood (ML) estimator to the ML coefficient as the initial weight in ALasso to deal with multicollinearity in non-linear mixed-effect models. The performance of AALasso was compared with that of ALasso and Lasso. PK data was simulated in four set-ups from a one-compartment bolus input model. Covariates were created by sampling from a multivariate standard normal distribution with no, low (0.2), moderate (0.5) or high (0.7) correlation. The true covariates influenced only clearance at different magnitudes. AALasso, ALasso and Lasso were compared in terms of mean absolute prediction error and error of the estimated covariate coefficient. The results show that AALasso performed better in small data sets, even in those in which a high correlation existed between covariates. This makes AALasso a promising method for covariate selection in nonlinear mixed-effect models.
Ting, Hui-Min; Chang, Liyun; Huang, Yu-Jie; Wu, Jia-Ming; Wang, Hung-Yu; Horng, Mong-Fong; Chang, Chun-Ming; Lan, Jen-Hong; Huang, Ya-Yu; Fang, Fu-Min; Leung, Stephen Wan
2014-01-01
Purpose The aim of this study was to develop a multivariate logistic regression model with least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) to make valid predictions about the incidence of moderate-to-severe patient-rated xerostomia among head and neck cancer (HNC) patients treated with IMRT. Methods and Materials Quality of life questionnaire datasets from 206 patients with HNC were analyzed. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-H&N35 and QLQ-C30 questionnaires were used as the endpoint evaluation. The primary endpoint (grade 3+ xerostomia) was defined as moderate-to-severe xerostomia at 3 (XER3m) and 12 months (XER12m) after the completion of IMRT. Normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models were developed. The optimal and suboptimal numbers of prognostic factors for a multivariate logistic regression model were determined using the LASSO with bootstrapping technique. Statistical analysis was performed using the scaled Brier score, Nagelkerke R2, chi-squared test, Omnibus, Hosmer-Lemeshow test, and the AUC. Results Eight prognostic factors were selected by LASSO for the 3-month time point: Dmean-c, Dmean-i, age, financial status, T stage, AJCC stage, smoking, and education. Nine prognostic factors were selected for the 12-month time point: Dmean-i, education, Dmean-c, smoking, T stage, baseline xerostomia, alcohol abuse, family history, and node classification. In the selection of the suboptimal number of prognostic factors by LASSO, three suboptimal prognostic factors were fine-tuned by Hosmer-Lemeshow test and AUC, i.e., Dmean-c, Dmean-i, and age for the 3-month time point. Five suboptimal prognostic factors were also selected for the 12-month time point, i.e., Dmean-i, education, Dmean-c, smoking, and T stage. The overall performance for both time points of the NTCP model in terms of scaled Brier score, Omnibus, and Nagelkerke R2 was satisfactory and corresponded well with the expected values. Conclusions
Lee, Tsair-Fwu; Chao, Pei-Ju; Ting, Hui-Min; Chang, Liyun; Huang, Yu-Jie; Wu, Jia-Ming; Wang, Hung-Yu; Horng, Mong-Fong; Chang, Chun-Ming; Lan, Jen-Hong; Huang, Ya-Yu; Fang, Fu-Min; Leung, Stephen Wan
2014-01-01
The aim of this study was to develop a multivariate logistic regression model with least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) to make valid predictions about the incidence of moderate-to-severe patient-rated xerostomia among head and neck cancer (HNC) patients treated with IMRT. Quality of life questionnaire datasets from 206 patients with HNC were analyzed. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-H&N35 and QLQ-C30 questionnaires were used as the endpoint evaluation. The primary endpoint (grade 3(+) xerostomia) was defined as moderate-to-severe xerostomia at 3 (XER3m) and 12 months (XER12m) after the completion of IMRT. Normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models were developed. The optimal and suboptimal numbers of prognostic factors for a multivariate logistic regression model were determined using the LASSO with bootstrapping technique. Statistical analysis was performed using the scaled Brier score, Nagelkerke R(2), chi-squared test, Omnibus, Hosmer-Lemeshow test, and the AUC. Eight prognostic factors were selected by LASSO for the 3-month time point: Dmean-c, Dmean-i, age, financial status, T stage, AJCC stage, smoking, and education. Nine prognostic factors were selected for the 12-month time point: Dmean-i, education, Dmean-c, smoking, T stage, baseline xerostomia, alcohol abuse, family history, and node classification. In the selection of the suboptimal number of prognostic factors by LASSO, three suboptimal prognostic factors were fine-tuned by Hosmer-Lemeshow test and AUC, i.e., Dmean-c, Dmean-i, and age for the 3-month time point. Five suboptimal prognostic factors were also selected for the 12-month time point, i.e., Dmean-i, education, Dmean-c, smoking, and T stage. The overall performance for both time points of the NTCP model in terms of scaled Brier score, Omnibus, and Nagelkerke R(2) was satisfactory and corresponded well with the expected values. Multivariate NTCP models with LASSO can be used to
Kim, Sun Mi; Kim, Yongdai; Jeong, Kuhwan; Jeong, Heeyeong; Kim, Jiyoung
2018-01-01
The aim of this study was to compare the performance of image analysis for predicting breast cancer using two distinct regression models and to evaluate the usefulness of incorporating clinical and demographic data (CDD) into the image analysis in order to improve the diagnosis of breast cancer. This study included 139 solid masses from 139 patients who underwent a ultrasonography-guided core biopsy and had available CDD between June 2009 and April 2010. Three breast radiologists retrospectively reviewed 139 breast masses and described each lesion using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon. We applied and compared two regression methods-stepwise logistic (SL) regression and logistic least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression-in which the BI-RADS descriptors and CDD were used as covariates. We investigated the performances of these regression methods and the agreement of radiologists in terms of test misclassification error and the area under the curve (AUC) of the tests. Logistic LASSO regression was superior (P<0.05) to SL regression, regardless of whether CDD was included in the covariates, in terms of test misclassification errors (0.234 vs. 0.253, without CDD; 0.196 vs. 0.258, with CDD) and AUC (0.785 vs. 0.759, without CDD; 0.873 vs. 0.735, with CDD). However, it was inferior (P<0.05) to the agreement of three radiologists in terms of test misclassification errors (0.234 vs. 0.168, without CDD; 0.196 vs. 0.088, with CDD) and the AUC without CDD (0.785 vs. 0.844, P<0.001), but was comparable to the AUC with CDD (0.873 vs. 0.880, P=0.141). Logistic LASSO regression based on BI-RADS descriptors and CDD showed better performance than SL in predicting the presence of breast cancer. The use of CDD as a supplement to the BI-RADS descriptors significantly improved the prediction of breast cancer using logistic LASSO regression.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dyar, M. D.; Carmosino, M. L.; Breves, E. A.; Ozanne, M. V.; Clegg, S. M.; Wiens, R. C.
2012-04-01
response variables as possible while avoiding multicollinearity between principal components. When the selected number of principal components is projected back into the original feature space of the spectra, 6144 correlation coefficients are generated, a small fraction of which are mathematically significant to the regression. In contrast, the lasso models require only a small number (< 24) of non-zero correlation coefficients (β values) to determine the concentration of each of the ten major elements. Causality between the positively-correlated emission lines chosen by the lasso and the elemental concentration was examined. In general, the higher the lasso coefficient (β), the greater the likelihood that the selected line results from an emission of that element. Emission lines with negative β values should arise from elements that are anti-correlated with the element being predicted. For elements except Fe, Al, Ti, and P, the lasso-selected wavelength with the highest β value corresponds to the element being predicted, e.g. 559.8 nm for neutral Ca. However, the specific lines chosen by the lasso with positive β values are not always those from the element being predicted. Other wavelengths and the elements that most strongly correlate with them to predict concentration are obviously related to known geochemical correlations or close overlap of emission lines, while others must result from matrix effects. Use of the lasso technique thus directly informs our understanding of the underlying physical processes that give rise to LIBS emissions by determining which lines can best represent concentration, and which lines from other elements are causing matrix effects.
A SIGNIFICANCE TEST FOR THE LASSO1
Lockhart, Richard; Taylor, Jonathan; Tibshirani, Ryan J.; Tibshirani, Robert
2014-01-01
In the sparse linear regression setting, we consider testing the significance of the predictor variable that enters the current lasso model, in the sequence of models visited along the lasso solution path. We propose a simple test statistic based on lasso fitted values, called the covariance test statistic, and show that when the true model is linear, this statistic has an Exp(1) asymptotic distribution under the null hypothesis (the null being that all truly active variables are contained in the current lasso model). Our proof of this result for the special case of the first predictor to enter the model (i.e., testing for a single significant predictor variable against the global null) requires only weak assumptions on the predictor matrix X. On the other hand, our proof for a general step in the lasso path places further technical assumptions on X and the generative model, but still allows for the important high-dimensional case p > n, and does not necessarily require that the current lasso model achieves perfect recovery of the truly active variables. Of course, for testing the significance of an additional variable between two nested linear models, one typically uses the chi-squared test, comparing the drop in residual sum of squares (RSS) to a χ12 distribution. But when this additional variable is not fixed, and has been chosen adaptively or greedily, this test is no longer appropriate: adaptivity makes the drop in RSS stochastically much larger than χ12 under the null hypothesis. Our analysis explicitly accounts for adaptivity, as it must, since the lasso builds an adaptive sequence of linear models as the tuning parameter λ decreases. In this analysis, shrinkage plays a key role: though additional variables are chosen adaptively, the coefficients of lasso active variables are shrunken due to the l1 penalty. Therefore, the test statistic (which is based on lasso fitted values) is in a sense balanced by these two opposing properties—adaptivity and
Jiang, Xiaoyu; Fuchs, Mathias
2017-01-01
As modern biotechnologies advance, it has become increasingly frequent that different modalities of high-dimensional molecular data (termed “omics” data in this paper), such as gene expression, methylation, and copy number, are collected from the same patient cohort to predict the clinical outcome. While prediction based on omics data has been widely studied in the last fifteen years, little has been done in the statistical literature on the integration of multiple omics modalities to select a subset of variables for prediction, which is a critical task in personalized medicine. In this paper, we propose a simple penalized regression method to address this problem by assigning different penalty factors to different data modalities for feature selection and prediction. The penalty factors can be chosen in a fully data-driven fashion by cross-validation or by taking practical considerations into account. In simulation studies, we compare the prediction performance of our approach, called IPF-LASSO (Integrative LASSO with Penalty Factors) and implemented in the R package ipflasso, with the standard LASSO and sparse group LASSO. The use of IPF-LASSO is also illustrated through applications to two real-life cancer datasets. All data and codes are available on the companion website to ensure reproducibility. PMID:28546826
The Bayesian group lasso for confounded spatial data
Hefley, Trevor J.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Hanks, Ephraim M.; Russell, Robin E.; Walsh, Daniel P.
2017-01-01
Generalized linear mixed models for spatial processes are widely used in applied statistics. In many applications of the spatial generalized linear mixed model (SGLMM), the goal is to obtain inference about regression coefficients while achieving optimal predictive ability. When implementing the SGLMM, multicollinearity among covariates and the spatial random effects can make computation challenging and influence inference. We present a Bayesian group lasso prior with a single tuning parameter that can be chosen to optimize predictive ability of the SGLMM and jointly regularize the regression coefficients and spatial random effect. We implement the group lasso SGLMM using efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms and demonstrate how multicollinearity among covariates and the spatial random effect can be monitored as a derived quantity. To test our method, we compared several parameterizations of the SGLMM using simulated data and two examples from plant ecology and disease ecology. In all examples, problematic levels multicollinearity occurred and influenced sampling efficiency and inference. We found that the group lasso prior resulted in roughly twice the effective sample size for MCMC samples of regression coefficients and can have higher and less variable predictive accuracy based on out-of-sample data when compared to the standard SGLMM.
Bayesian LASSO, scale space and decision making in association genetics.
Pasanen, Leena; Holmström, Lasse; Sillanpää, Mikko J
2015-01-01
LASSO is a penalized regression method that facilitates model fitting in situations where there are as many, or even more explanatory variables than observations, and only a few variables are relevant in explaining the data. We focus on the Bayesian version of LASSO and consider four problems that need special attention: (i) controlling false positives, (ii) multiple comparisons, (iii) collinearity among explanatory variables, and (iv) the choice of the tuning parameter that controls the amount of shrinkage and the sparsity of the estimates. The particular application considered is association genetics, where LASSO regression can be used to find links between chromosome locations and phenotypic traits in a biological organism. However, the proposed techniques are relevant also in other contexts where LASSO is used for variable selection. We separate the true associations from false positives using the posterior distribution of the effects (regression coefficients) provided by Bayesian LASSO. We propose to solve the multiple comparisons problem by using simultaneous inference based on the joint posterior distribution of the effects. Bayesian LASSO also tends to distribute an effect among collinear variables, making detection of an association difficult. We propose to solve this problem by considering not only individual effects but also their functionals (i.e. sums and differences). Finally, whereas in Bayesian LASSO the tuning parameter is often regarded as a random variable, we adopt a scale space view and consider a whole range of fixed tuning parameters, instead. The effect estimates and the associated inference are considered for all tuning parameters in the selected range and the results are visualized with color maps that provide useful insights into data and the association problem considered. The methods are illustrated using two sets of artificial data and one real data set, all representing typical settings in association genetics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Setiyorini, Anis; Suprijadi, Jadi; Handoko, Budhi
2017-03-01
Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) is a regression model that takes into account the spatial heterogeneity effect. In the application of the GWR, inference on regression coefficients is often of interest, as is estimation and prediction of the response variable. Empirical research and studies have demonstrated that local correlation between explanatory variables can lead to estimated regression coefficients in GWR that are strongly correlated, a condition named multicollinearity. It later results on a large standard error on estimated regression coefficients, and, hence, problematic for inference on relationships between variables. Geographically Weighted Lasso (GWL) is a method which capable to deal with spatial heterogeneity and local multicollinearity in spatial data sets. GWL is a further development of GWR method, which adds a LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator) constraint in parameter estimation. In this study, GWL will be applied by using fixed exponential kernel weights matrix to establish a poverty modeling of Java Island, Indonesia. The results of applying the GWL to poverty datasets show that this method stabilizes regression coefficients in the presence of multicollinearity and produces lower prediction and estimation error of the response variable than GWR does.
High dimensional linear regression models under long memory dependence and measurement error
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaul, Abhishek
This dissertation consists of three chapters. The first chapter introduces the models under consideration and motivates problems of interest. A brief literature review is also provided in this chapter. The second chapter investigates the properties of Lasso under long range dependent model errors. Lasso is a computationally efficient approach to model selection and estimation, and its properties are well studied when the regression errors are independent and identically distributed. We study the case, where the regression errors form a long memory moving average process. We establish a finite sample oracle inequality for the Lasso solution. We then show the asymptotic sign consistency in this setup. These results are established in the high dimensional setup (p> n) where p can be increasing exponentially with n. Finally, we show the consistency, n½ --d-consistency of Lasso, along with the oracle property of adaptive Lasso, in the case where p is fixed. Here d is the memory parameter of the stationary error sequence. The performance of Lasso is also analysed in the present setup with a simulation study. The third chapter proposes and investigates the properties of a penalized quantile based estimator for measurement error models. Standard formulations of prediction problems in high dimension regression models assume the availability of fully observed covariates and sub-Gaussian and homogeneous model errors. This makes these methods inapplicable to measurement errors models where covariates are unobservable and observations are possibly non sub-Gaussian and heterogeneous. We propose weighted penalized corrected quantile estimators for the regression parameter vector in linear regression models with additive measurement errors, where unobservable covariates are nonrandom. The proposed estimators forgo the need for the above mentioned model assumptions. We study these estimators in both the fixed dimension and high dimensional sparse setups, in the latter setup, the
Ridge, Lasso and Bayesian additive-dominance genomic models.
Azevedo, Camila Ferreira; de Resende, Marcos Deon Vilela; E Silva, Fabyano Fonseca; Viana, José Marcelo Soriano; Valente, Magno Sávio Ferreira; Resende, Márcio Fernando Ribeiro; Muñoz, Patricio
2015-08-25
A complete approach for genome-wide selection (GWS) involves reliable statistical genetics models and methods. Reports on this topic are common for additive genetic models but not for additive-dominance models. The objective of this paper was (i) to compare the performance of 10 additive-dominance predictive models (including current models and proposed modifications), fitted using Bayesian, Lasso and Ridge regression approaches; and (ii) to decompose genomic heritability and accuracy in terms of three quantitative genetic information sources, namely, linkage disequilibrium (LD), co-segregation (CS) and pedigree relationships or family structure (PR). The simulation study considered two broad sense heritability levels (0.30 and 0.50, associated with narrow sense heritabilities of 0.20 and 0.35, respectively) and two genetic architectures for traits (the first consisting of small gene effects and the second consisting of a mixed inheritance model with five major genes). G-REML/G-BLUP and a modified Bayesian/Lasso (called BayesA*B* or t-BLASSO) method performed best in the prediction of genomic breeding as well as the total genotypic values of individuals in all four scenarios (two heritabilities x two genetic architectures). The BayesA*B*-type method showed a better ability to recover the dominance variance/additive variance ratio. Decomposition of genomic heritability and accuracy revealed the following descending importance order of information: LD, CS and PR not captured by markers, the last two being very close. Amongst the 10 models/methods evaluated, the G-BLUP, BAYESA*B* (-2,8) and BAYESA*B* (4,6) methods presented the best results and were found to be adequate for accurately predicting genomic breeding and total genotypic values as well as for estimating additive and dominance in additive-dominance genomic models.
Detection of Differential Item Functioning Using the Lasso Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Magis, David; Tuerlinckx, Francis; De Boeck, Paul
2015-01-01
This article proposes a novel approach to detect differential item functioning (DIF) among dichotomously scored items. Unlike standard DIF methods that perform an item-by-item analysis, we propose the "LR lasso DIF method": logistic regression (LR) model is formulated for all item responses. The model contains item-specific intercepts,…
Pérez-Rodríguez, Paulino; Gianola, Daniel; González-Camacho, Juan Manuel; Crossa, José; Manès, Yann; Dreisigacker, Susanne
2012-01-01
In genome-enabled prediction, parametric, semi-parametric, and non-parametric regression models have been used. This study assessed the predictive ability of linear and non-linear models using dense molecular markers. The linear models were linear on marker effects and included the Bayesian LASSO, Bayesian ridge regression, Bayes A, and Bayes B. The non-linear models (this refers to non-linearity on markers) were reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) regression, Bayesian regularized neural networks (BRNN), and radial basis function neural networks (RBFNN). These statistical models were compared using 306 elite wheat lines from CIMMYT genotyped with 1717 diversity array technology (DArT) markers and two traits, days to heading (DTH) and grain yield (GY), measured in each of 12 environments. It was found that the three non-linear models had better overall prediction accuracy than the linear regression specification. Results showed a consistent superiority of RKHS and RBFNN over the Bayesian LASSO, Bayesian ridge regression, Bayes A, and Bayes B models. PMID:23275882
Pérez-Rodríguez, Paulino; Gianola, Daniel; González-Camacho, Juan Manuel; Crossa, José; Manès, Yann; Dreisigacker, Susanne
2012-12-01
In genome-enabled prediction, parametric, semi-parametric, and non-parametric regression models have been used. This study assessed the predictive ability of linear and non-linear models using dense molecular markers. The linear models were linear on marker effects and included the Bayesian LASSO, Bayesian ridge regression, Bayes A, and Bayes B. The non-linear models (this refers to non-linearity on markers) were reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) regression, Bayesian regularized neural networks (BRNN), and radial basis function neural networks (RBFNN). These statistical models were compared using 306 elite wheat lines from CIMMYT genotyped with 1717 diversity array technology (DArT) markers and two traits, days to heading (DTH) and grain yield (GY), measured in each of 12 environments. It was found that the three non-linear models had better overall prediction accuracy than the linear regression specification. Results showed a consistent superiority of RKHS and RBFNN over the Bayesian LASSO, Bayesian ridge regression, Bayes A, and Bayes B models.
Description of the LASSO Alpha 1 Release
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Gustafson, William I.; Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Cheng, Xiaoping
The Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility began a pilot project in May 2015 to design a routine, high-resolution modeling capability to complement ARM’s extensive suite of measurements. This modeling capability has been named the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) project. The availability of LES simulations with concurrent observations will serve many purposes. LES helps bridge the scale gap between DOE ARM observations and models, and the use of routine LES adds value to observations. It provides a self-consistent representation of the atmosphere and a dynamical context for the observations. Further,more » it elucidates unobservable processes and properties. LASSO will generate a simulation library for researchers that enables statistical approaches beyond a single-case mentality. It will also provide tools necessary for modelers to reproduce the LES and conduct their own sensitivity experiments. Many different uses are envisioned for the combined LASSO LES and observational library. For an observationalist, LASSO can help inform instrument remote-sensing retrievals, conduct Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs), and test implications of radar scan strategies or flight paths. For a theoretician, LASSO will help calculate estimates of fluxes and co-variability of values, and test relationships without having to run the model yourself. For a modeler, LASSO will help one know ahead of time which days have good forcing, have co-registered observations at high-resolution scales, and have simulation inputs and corresponding outputs to test parameterizations. Further details on the overall LASSO project are available at http://www.arm. gov/science/themes/lasso.« less
Prediction of siRNA potency using sparse logistic regression.
Hu, Wei; Hu, John
2014-06-01
RNA interference (RNAi) can modulate gene expression at post-transcriptional as well as transcriptional levels. Short interfering RNA (siRNA) serves as a trigger for the RNAi gene inhibition mechanism, and therefore is a crucial intermediate step in RNAi. There have been extensive studies to identify the sequence characteristics of potent siRNAs. One such study built a linear model using LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator) to measure the contribution of each siRNA sequence feature. This model is simple and interpretable, but it requires a large number of nonzero weights. We have introduced a novel technique, sparse logistic regression, to build a linear model using single-position specific nucleotide compositions which has the same prediction accuracy of the linear model based on LASSO. The weights in our new model share the same general trend as those in the previous model, but have only 25 nonzero weights out of a total 84 weights, a 54% reduction compared to the previous model. Contrary to the linear model based on LASSO, our model suggests that only a few positions are influential on the efficacy of the siRNA, which are the 5' and 3' ends and the seed region of siRNA sequences. We also employed sparse logistic regression to build a linear model using dual-position specific nucleotide compositions, a task LASSO is not able to accomplish well due to its high dimensional nature. Our results demonstrate the superiority of sparse logistic regression as a technique for both feature selection and regression over LASSO in the context of siRNA design.
Statistically Modeling I-V Characteristics of CNT-FET with LASSO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Dongsheng; Ye, Zuochang; Wang, Yan
2017-08-01
With the advent of internet of things (IOT), the need for studying new material and devices for various applications is increasing. Traditionally we build compact models for transistors on the basis of physics. But physical models are expensive and need a very long time to adjust for non-ideal effects. As the vision for the application of many novel devices is not certain or the manufacture process is not mature, deriving generalized accurate physical models for such devices is very strenuous, whereas statistical modeling is becoming a potential method because of its data oriented property and fast implementation. In this paper, one classical statistical regression method, LASSO, is used to model the I-V characteristics of CNT-FET and a pseudo-PMOS inverter simulation based on the trained model is implemented in Cadence. The normalized relative mean square prediction error of the trained model versus experiment sample data and the simulation results show that the model is acceptable for digital circuit static simulation. And such modeling methodology can extend to general devices.
Recommendations for the Implementation of the LASSO Workflow
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Gustafson, William I; Vogelmann, Andrew M; Cheng, Xiaoping
The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Research Fa-cility began a pilot project in May 2015 to design a routine, high-resolution modeling capability to complement ARM’s extensive suite of measurements. This modeling capability, envisioned in the ARM Decadal Vision (U.S. Department of Energy 2014), subsequently has been named the Large-Eddy Simu-lation (LES) ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) project, and it has an initial focus of shallow convection at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) atmospheric observatory. This report documents the recommendations resulting from the pilot project to be considered by ARM for imple-mentation into routinemore » operations. During the pilot phase, LASSO has evolved from the initial vision outlined in the pilot project white paper (Gustafson and Vogelmann 2015) to what is recommended in this report. Further details on the overall LASSO project are available at https://www.arm.gov/capabilities/modeling/lasso. Feedback regarding LASSO and the recommendations in this report can be directed to William Gustafson, the project principal investigator (PI), and Andrew Vogelmann, the co-principal investigator (Co-PI), via lasso@arm.gov.« less
A LEAST ABSOLUTE SHRINKAGE AND SELECTION OPERATOR (LASSO) FOR NONLINEAR SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kukreja, Sunil L.; Lofberg, Johan; Brenner, Martin J.
2006-01-01
Identification of parametric nonlinear models involves estimating unknown parameters and detecting its underlying structure. Structure computation is concerned with selecting a subset of parameters to give a parsimonious description of the system which may afford greater insight into the functionality of the system or a simpler controller design. In this study, a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) technique is investigated for computing efficient model descriptions of nonlinear systems. The LASSO minimises the residual sum of squares by the addition of a 1 penalty term on the parameter vector of the traditional 2 minimisation problem. Its use for structure detection is a natural extension of this constrained minimisation approach to pseudolinear regression problems which produces some model parameters that are exactly zero and, therefore, yields a parsimonious system description. The performance of this LASSO structure detection method was evaluated by using it to estimate the structure of a nonlinear polynomial model. Applicability of the method to more complex systems such as those encountered in aerospace applications was shown by identifying a parsimonious system description of the F/A-18 Active Aeroelastic Wing using flight test data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pandremmenou, K.; Tziortziotis, N.; Paluri, S.; Zhang, W.; Blekas, K.; Kondi, L. P.; Kumar, S.
2015-03-01
We propose the use of the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) regression method in order to predict the Cumulative Mean Squared Error (CMSE), incurred by the loss of individual slices in video transmission. We extract a number of quality-relevant features from the H.264/AVC video sequences, which are given as input to the LASSO. This method has the benefit of not only keeping a subset of the features that have the strongest effects towards video quality, but also produces accurate CMSE predictions. Particularly, we study the LASSO regression through two different architectures; the Global LASSO (G.LASSO) and Local LASSO (L.LASSO). In G.LASSO, a single regression model is trained for all slice types together, while in L.LASSO, motivated by the fact that the values for some features are closely dependent on the considered slice type, each slice type has its own regression model, in an e ort to improve LASSO's prediction capability. Based on the predicted CMSE values, we group the video slices into four priority classes. Additionally, we consider a video transmission scenario over a noisy channel, where Unequal Error Protection (UEP) is applied to all prioritized slices. The provided results demonstrate the efficiency of LASSO in estimating CMSE with high accuracy, using only a few features. les that typically contain high-entropy data, producing a footprint that is far less conspicuous than existing methods. The system uses a local web server to provide a le system, user interface and applications through an web architecture.
Gustafson, William Jr; Vogelmann, Andrew; Endo, Satoshi; Toto, Tami; Xiao, Heng; Li, Zhijin; Cheng, Xiaoping; Kim, Jinwon; Krishna, Bhargavi
2015-08-31
The Alpha 2 release is the second release from the LASSO Pilot Phase that builds upon the Alpha 1 release. Alpha 2 contains additional diagnostics in the data bundles and focuses on cases from spring-summer 2016. A data bundle is a unified package consisting of LASSO LES input and output, observations, evaluation diagnostics, and model skill scores. LES input include model configuration information and forcing data. LES output includes profile statistics and full domain fields of cloud and environmental variables. Model evaluation data consists of LES output and ARM observations co-registered on the same grid and sampling frequency. Model performance is quantified by skill scores and diagnostics in terms of cloud and environmental variables.
Goo, Yeung-Ja James; Chi, Der-Jang; Shen, Zong-De
2016-01-01
The purpose of this study is to establish rigorous and reliable going concern doubt (GCD) prediction models. This study first uses the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) to select variables and then applies data mining techniques to establish prediction models, such as neural network (NN), classification and regression tree (CART), and support vector machine (SVM). The samples of this study include 48 GCD listed companies and 124 NGCD (non-GCD) listed companies from 2002 to 2013 in the TEJ database. We conduct fivefold cross validation in order to identify the prediction accuracy. According to the empirical results, the prediction accuracy of the LASSO-NN model is 88.96 % (Type I error rate is 12.22 %; Type II error rate is 7.50 %), the prediction accuracy of the LASSO-CART model is 88.75 % (Type I error rate is 13.61 %; Type II error rate is 14.17 %), and the prediction accuracy of the LASSO-SVM model is 89.79 % (Type I error rate is 10.00 %; Type II error rate is 15.83 %).
Multi-omics facilitated variable selection in Cox-regression model for cancer prognosis prediction.
Liu, Cong; Wang, Xujun; Genchev, Georgi Z; Lu, Hui
2017-07-15
New developments in high-throughput genomic technologies have enabled the measurement of diverse types of omics biomarkers in a cost-efficient and clinically-feasible manner. Developing computational methods and tools for analysis and translation of such genomic data into clinically-relevant information is an ongoing and active area of investigation. For example, several studies have utilized an unsupervised learning framework to cluster patients by integrating omics data. Despite such recent advances, predicting cancer prognosis using integrated omics biomarkers remains a challenge. There is also a shortage of computational tools for predicting cancer prognosis by using supervised learning methods. The current standard approach is to fit a Cox regression model by concatenating the different types of omics data in a linear manner, while penalty could be added for feature selection. A more powerful approach, however, would be to incorporate data by considering relationships among omics datatypes. Here we developed two methods: a SKI-Cox method and a wLASSO-Cox method to incorporate the association among different types of omics data. Both methods fit the Cox proportional hazards model and predict a risk score based on mRNA expression profiles. SKI-Cox borrows the information generated by these additional types of omics data to guide variable selection, while wLASSO-Cox incorporates this information as a penalty factor during model fitting. We show that SKI-Cox and wLASSO-Cox models select more true variables than a LASSO-Cox model in simulation studies. We assess the performance of SKI-Cox and wLASSO-Cox using TCGA glioblastoma multiforme and lung adenocarcinoma data. In each case, mRNA expression, methylation, and copy number variation data are integrated to predict the overall survival time of cancer patients. Our methods achieve better performance in predicting patients' survival in glioblastoma and lung adenocarcinoma. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier
Lee, Tsair-Fwu; Liou, Ming-Hsiang; Huang, Yu-Jie; Chao, Pei-Ju; Ting, Hui-Min; Lee, Hsiao-Yi
2014-01-01
To predict the incidence of moderate-to-severe patient-reported xerostomia among head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Multivariable normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models were developed by using quality of life questionnaire datasets from 152 patients with HNSCC and 84 patients with NPC. The primary endpoint was defined as moderate-to-severe xerostomia after IMRT. The numbers of predictive factors for a multivariable logistic regression model were determined using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) with bootstrapping technique. Four predictive models were achieved by LASSO with the smallest number of factors while preserving predictive value with higher AUC performance. For all models, the dosimetric factors for the mean dose given to the contralateral and ipsilateral parotid gland were selected as the most significant predictors. Followed by the different clinical and socio-economic factors being selected, namely age, financial status, T stage, and education for different models were chosen. The predicted incidence of xerostomia for HNSCC and NPC patients can be improved by using multivariable logistic regression models with LASSO technique. The predictive model developed in HNSCC cannot be generalized to NPC cohort treated with IMRT without validation and vice versa. PMID:25163814
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takayama, T.; Iwasaki, A.
2016-06-01
Above-ground biomass prediction of tropical rain forest using remote sensing data is of paramount importance to continuous large-area forest monitoring. Hyperspectral data can provide rich spectral information for the biomass prediction; however, the prediction accuracy is affected by a small-sample-size problem, which widely exists as overfitting in using high dimensional data where the number of training samples is smaller than the dimensionality of the samples due to limitation of require time, cost, and human resources for field surveys. A common approach to addressing this problem is reducing the dimensionality of dataset. Also, acquired hyperspectral data usually have low signal-to-noise ratio due to a narrow bandwidth and local or global shifts of peaks due to instrumental instability or small differences in considering practical measurement conditions. In this work, we propose a methodology based on fused lasso regression that select optimal bands for the biomass prediction model with encouraging sparsity and grouping, which solves the small-sample-size problem by the dimensionality reduction from the sparsity and the noise and peak shift problem by the grouping. The prediction model provided higher accuracy with root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 66.16 t/ha in the cross-validation than other methods; multiple linear analysis, partial least squares regression, and lasso regression. Furthermore, fusion of spectral and spatial information derived from texture index increased the prediction accuracy with RMSE of 62.62 t/ha. This analysis proves efficiency of fused lasso and image texture in biomass estimation of tropical forests.
Efficient methods for overlapping group lasso.
Yuan, Lei; Liu, Jun; Ye, Jieping
2013-09-01
The group Lasso is an extension of the Lasso for feature selection on (predefined) nonoverlapping groups of features. The nonoverlapping group structure limits its applicability in practice. There have been several recent attempts to study a more general formulation where groups of features are given, potentially with overlaps between the groups. The resulting optimization is, however, much more challenging to solve due to the group overlaps. In this paper, we consider the efficient optimization of the overlapping group Lasso penalized problem. We reveal several key properties of the proximal operator associated with the overlapping group Lasso, and compute the proximal operator by solving the smooth and convex dual problem, which allows the use of the gradient descent type of algorithms for the optimization. Our methods and theoretical results are then generalized to tackle the general overlapping group Lasso formulation based on the l(q) norm. We further extend our algorithm to solve a nonconvex overlapping group Lasso formulation based on the capped norm regularization, which reduces the estimation bias introduced by the convex penalty. We have performed empirical evaluations using both a synthetic and the breast cancer gene expression dataset, which consists of 8,141 genes organized into (overlapping) gene sets. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is more efficient than existing state-of-the-art algorithms. Results also demonstrate the effectiveness of the nonconvex formulation for overlapping group Lasso.
Mehrtak, Mohammad; Yusefzadeh, Hasan; Jaafaripooyan, Ebrahim
2014-01-01
Background: Performance measurement is essential to the management of health care organizations to which efficiency is per se a vital indicator. Present study accordingly aims to measure the efficiency of hospitals employing two distinct methods. Methods: Data Envelopment Analysis and Pabon Lasso Model were jointly applied to calculate the efficiency of all general hospitals located in Iranian Eastern Azerbijan Province. Data was collected using hospitals’ monthly performance forms and analyzed and displayed by MS Visio and DEAP software. Results: In accord with Pabon Lasso model, 44.5% of the hospitals were entirely efficient, whilst DEA revealed 61% to be efficient. As such, 39% of the hospitals, by the Pabon Lasso, were wholly inefficient; based on DEA though; the relevant figure was only 22.2%. Finally, 16.5% of hospitals as calculated by Pabon Lasso and 16.7% by DEA were relatively efficient. DEA appeared to show more hospitals as efficient as opposed to the Pabon Lasso model. Conclusion: Simultaneous use of two models rendered complementary and corroborative results as both evidently reveal efficient hospitals. However, their results should be compared with prudence. Whilst the Pabon Lasso inefficient zone is fully clear, DEA does not provide such a crystal clear limit for inefficiency. PMID:24999147
Frank, Laurence E; Heiser, Willem J
2008-05-01
A set of features is the basis for the network representation of proximity data achieved by feature network models (FNMs). Features are binary variables that characterize the objects in an experiment, with some measure of proximity as response variable. Sometimes features are provided by theory and play an important role in the construction of the experimental conditions. In some research settings, the features are not known a priori. This paper shows how to generate features in this situation and how to select an adequate subset of features that takes into account a good compromise between model fit and model complexity, using a new version of least angle regression that restricts coefficients to be non-negative, called the Positive Lasso. It will be shown that features can be generated efficiently with Gray codes that are naturally linked to the FNMs. The model selection strategy makes use of the fact that FNM can be considered as univariate multiple regression model. A simulation study shows that the proposed strategy leads to satisfactory results if the number of objects is less than or equal to 22. If the number of objects is larger than 22, the number of features selected by our method exceeds the true number of features in some conditions.
Complex lasso: new entangled motifs in proteins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niemyska, Wanda; Dabrowski-Tumanski, Pawel; Kadlof, Michal; Haglund, Ellinor; Sułkowski, Piotr; Sulkowska, Joanna I.
2016-11-01
We identify new entangled motifs in proteins that we call complex lassos. Lassos arise in proteins with disulfide bridges (or in proteins with amide linkages), when termini of a protein backbone pierce through an auxiliary surface of minimal area, spanned on a covalent loop. We find that as much as 18% of all proteins with disulfide bridges in a non-redundant subset of PDB form complex lassos, and classify them into six distinct geometric classes, one of which resembles supercoiling known from DNA. Based on biological classification of proteins we find that lassos are much more common in viruses, plants and fungi than in other kingdoms of life. We also discuss how changes in the oxidation/reduction potential may affect the function of proteins with lassos. Lassos and associated surfaces of minimal area provide new, interesting and possessing many potential applications geometric characteristics not only of proteins, but also of other biomolecules.
LES ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) Implementation Strategy
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Gustafson Jr., WI; Vogelmann, AM
2015-09-01
This document illustrates the design of the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) workflow to provide a routine, high-resolution modeling capability to augment the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s high-density observations. LASSO will create a powerful new capability for furthering ARM’s mission to advance understanding of cloud, radiation, aerosol, and land-surface processes. The combined observational and modeling elements will enable a new level of scientific inquiry by connecting processes and context to observations and providing needed statistics for details that cannot be measured. The result will be improved process understandingmore » that facilitates concomitant improvements in climate model parameterizations. The initial LASSO implementation will be for ARM’s Southern Great Plains site in Oklahoma and will focus on shallow convection, which is poorly simulated by climate models due in part to clouds’ typically small spatial scale compared to model grid spacing, and because the convection involves complicated interactions of microphysical and boundary layer processes.« less
Genetic risk prediction using a spatial autoregressive model with adaptive lasso.
Wen, Yalu; Shen, Xiaoxi; Lu, Qing
2018-05-31
With rapidly evolving high-throughput technologies, studies are being initiated to accelerate the process toward precision medicine. The collection of the vast amounts of sequencing data provides us with great opportunities to systematically study the role of a deep catalog of sequencing variants in risk prediction. Nevertheless, the massive amount of noise signals and low frequencies of rare variants in sequencing data pose great analytical challenges on risk prediction modeling. Motivated by the development in spatial statistics, we propose a spatial autoregressive model with adaptive lasso (SARAL) for risk prediction modeling using high-dimensional sequencing data. The SARAL is a set-based approach, and thus, it reduces the data dimension and accumulates genetic effects within a single-nucleotide variant (SNV) set. Moreover, it allows different SNV sets having various magnitudes and directions of effect sizes, which reflects the nature of complex diseases. With the adaptive lasso implemented, SARAL can shrink the effects of noise SNV sets to be zero and, thus, further improve prediction accuracy. Through simulation studies, we demonstrate that, overall, SARAL is comparable to, if not better than, the genomic best linear unbiased prediction method. The method is further illustrated by an application to the sequencing data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Paz-Linares, Deirel; Vega-Hernández, Mayrim; Rojas-López, Pedro A.; Valdés-Hernández, Pedro A.; Martínez-Montes, Eduardo; Valdés-Sosa, Pedro A.
2017-01-01
The estimation of EEG generating sources constitutes an Inverse Problem (IP) in Neuroscience. This is an ill-posed problem due to the non-uniqueness of the solution and regularization or prior information is needed to undertake Electrophysiology Source Imaging. Structured Sparsity priors can be attained through combinations of (L1 norm-based) and (L2 norm-based) constraints such as the Elastic Net (ENET) and Elitist Lasso (ELASSO) models. The former model is used to find solutions with a small number of smooth nonzero patches, while the latter imposes different degrees of sparsity simultaneously along different dimensions of the spatio-temporal matrix solutions. Both models have been addressed within the penalized regression approach, where the regularization parameters are selected heuristically, leading usually to non-optimal and computationally expensive solutions. The existing Bayesian formulation of ENET allows hyperparameter learning, but using the computationally intensive Monte Carlo/Expectation Maximization methods, which makes impractical its application to the EEG IP. While the ELASSO have not been considered before into the Bayesian context. In this work, we attempt to solve the EEG IP using a Bayesian framework for ENET and ELASSO models. We propose a Structured Sparse Bayesian Learning algorithm based on combining the Empirical Bayes and the iterative coordinate descent procedures to estimate both the parameters and hyperparameters. Using realistic simulations and avoiding the inverse crime we illustrate that our methods are able to recover complicated source setups more accurately and with a more robust estimation of the hyperparameters and behavior under different sparsity scenarios than classical LORETA, ENET and LASSO Fusion solutions. We also solve the EEG IP using data from a visual attention experiment, finding more interpretable neurophysiological patterns with our methods. The Matlab codes used in this work, including Simulations, Methods
Paz-Linares, Deirel; Vega-Hernández, Mayrim; Rojas-López, Pedro A; Valdés-Hernández, Pedro A; Martínez-Montes, Eduardo; Valdés-Sosa, Pedro A
2017-01-01
The estimation of EEG generating sources constitutes an Inverse Problem (IP) in Neuroscience. This is an ill-posed problem due to the non-uniqueness of the solution and regularization or prior information is needed to undertake Electrophysiology Source Imaging. Structured Sparsity priors can be attained through combinations of (L1 norm-based) and (L2 norm-based) constraints such as the Elastic Net (ENET) and Elitist Lasso (ELASSO) models. The former model is used to find solutions with a small number of smooth nonzero patches, while the latter imposes different degrees of sparsity simultaneously along different dimensions of the spatio-temporal matrix solutions. Both models have been addressed within the penalized regression approach, where the regularization parameters are selected heuristically, leading usually to non-optimal and computationally expensive solutions. The existing Bayesian formulation of ENET allows hyperparameter learning, but using the computationally intensive Monte Carlo/Expectation Maximization methods, which makes impractical its application to the EEG IP. While the ELASSO have not been considered before into the Bayesian context. In this work, we attempt to solve the EEG IP using a Bayesian framework for ENET and ELASSO models. We propose a Structured Sparse Bayesian Learning algorithm based on combining the Empirical Bayes and the iterative coordinate descent procedures to estimate both the parameters and hyperparameters. Using realistic simulations and avoiding the inverse crime we illustrate that our methods are able to recover complicated source setups more accurately and with a more robust estimation of the hyperparameters and behavior under different sparsity scenarios than classical LORETA, ENET and LASSO Fusion solutions. We also solve the EEG IP using data from a visual attention experiment, finding more interpretable neurophysiological patterns with our methods. The Matlab codes used in this work, including Simulations, Methods
Predicting Quantitative Traits With Regression Models for Dense Molecular Markers and Pedigree
de los Campos, Gustavo; Naya, Hugo; Gianola, Daniel; Crossa, José; Legarra, Andrés; Manfredi, Eduardo; Weigel, Kent; Cotes, José Miguel
2009-01-01
The availability of genomewide dense markers brings opportunities and challenges to breeding programs. An important question concerns the ways in which dense markers and pedigrees, together with phenotypic records, should be used to arrive at predictions of genetic values for complex traits. If a large number of markers are included in a regression model, marker-specific shrinkage of regression coefficients may be needed. For this reason, the Bayesian least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) (BL) appears to be an interesting approach for fitting marker effects in a regression model. This article adapts the BL to arrive at a regression model where markers, pedigrees, and covariates other than markers are considered jointly. Connections between BL and other marker-based regression models are discussed, and the sensitivity of BL with respect to the choice of prior distributions assigned to key parameters is evaluated using simulation. The proposed model was fitted to two data sets from wheat and mouse populations, and evaluated using cross-validation methods. Results indicate that inclusion of markers in the regression further improved the predictive ability of models. An R program that implements the proposed model is freely available. PMID:19293140
Comparison of LASSO and GPS time transfers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lewandowski, W.; Petit, G.; Baumont, F.; Fridelance, P.; Gaignebet, J.; Grudler, P.; Veillet, C.; Wiant, J.; Klepczynski, W. J.
1994-01-01
The LASSO is a technique which should allow the comparison of remote atomic clocks with sub-nanosecond precision and accuracy. The first successful time transfer using LASSO has been carried out between the Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur in France and the McDonald Observatory in Texas, United States. This paper presents a preliminary comparison of LASSO time transfer with GPS common-view time transfer.
mLASSO-Hum: A LASSO-based interpretable human-protein subcellular localization predictor.
Wan, Shibiao; Mak, Man-Wai; Kung, Sun-Yuan
2015-10-07
Knowing the subcellular compartments of human proteins is essential to shed light on the mechanisms of a broad range of human diseases. In computational methods for protein subcellular localization, knowledge-based methods (especially gene ontology (GO) based methods) are known to perform better than sequence-based methods. However, existing GO-based predictors often lack interpretability and suffer from overfitting due to the high dimensionality of feature vectors. To address these problems, this paper proposes an interpretable multi-label predictor, namely mLASSO-Hum, which can yield sparse and interpretable solutions for large-scale prediction of human protein subcellular localization. By using the one-vs-rest LASSO-based classifiers, 87 out of more than 8000 GO terms are found to play more significant roles in determining the subcellular localization. Based on these 87 essential GO terms, we can decide not only where a protein resides within a cell, but also why it is located there. To further exploit information from the remaining GO terms, a method based on the GO hierarchical information derived from the depth distance of GO terms is proposed. Experimental results show that mLASSO-Hum performs significantly better than state-of-the-art predictors. We also found that in addition to the GO terms from the cellular component category, GO terms from the other two categories also play important roles in the final classification decisions. For readers' convenience, the mLASSO-Hum server is available online at http://bioinfo.eie.polyu.edu.hk/mLASSOHumServer/. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
LASSO experiment: Intercalibrations of the LASSO ranging stations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gaignebet, J.; Hatat, J.-L.; Mangin, J. F.; Torre, J. M.; Klepczynski, William J.; Mccubin, L.; Wiant, J.; Rickefs, R.
1994-01-01
Presented are equations for time synchronization of laser ranging stations. The system consists of a satellite fitted with laser retroreflectors associated to a light detector and an event timer and two laser ranging stations with their own event timers. Methods of determining the Lasso intercalibration constant are given.
Erdem, Cemal; Nagle, Alison M.; Casa, Angelo J.; Litzenburger, Beate C.; Wang, Yu-fen; Taylor, D. Lansing; Lee, Adrian V.; Lezon, Timothy R.
2016-01-01
Insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF1) influence cancer risk and progression through poorly understood mechanisms. To better understand the roles of insulin and IGF1 signaling in breast cancer, we combined proteomic screening with computational network inference to uncover differences in IGF1 and insulin induced signaling. Using reverse phase protein array, we measured the levels of 134 proteins in 21 breast cancer cell lines stimulated with IGF1 or insulin for up to 48 h. We then constructed directed protein expression networks using three separate methods: (i) lasso regression, (ii) conventional matrix inversion, and (iii) entropy maximization. These networks, named here as the time translation models, were analyzed and the inferred interactions were ranked by differential magnitude to identify pathway differences. The two top candidates, chosen for experimental validation, were shown to regulate IGF1/insulin induced phosphorylation events. First, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) knock-down was shown to increase the level of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. Second, stable knock-down of E-Cadherin increased the phospho-Akt protein levels. Both of the knock-down perturbations incurred phosphorylation responses stronger in IGF1 stimulated cells compared with insulin. Overall, the time-translation modeling coupled to wet-lab experiments has proven to be powerful in inferring differential interactions downstream of IGF1 and insulin signaling, in vitro. PMID:27364358
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arumsari, Nurvita; Sutidjo, S. U.; Brodjol; Soedjono, Eddy S.
2014-03-01
Diarrhea has been one main cause of morbidity and mortality to children around the world, especially in the developing countries According to available data that was mentioned. It showed that sanitary and healthy lifestyle implementation by the inhabitants was not good yet. Inadequacy of environmental influence and the availability of health services were suspected factors which influenced diarrhea cases happened followed by heightened percentage of the diarrheic. This research is aimed at modelling the diarrheic by using Geographically Weighted Lasso method. With the existence of spatial heterogeneity was tested by Breusch Pagan, it was showed that diarrheic modeling with weighted regression, especially GWR and GWL, can explain the variation in each location. But, the absence of multi-collinearity cases on predictor variables, which were affecting the diarrheic, resulted in GWR and GWL modelling to be not different or identical. It is shown from the resulting MSE value. While from R2 value which usually higher on GWL model showed a significant variable predictor based on more parametric shrinkage value.
A new genome-mining tool redefines the lasso peptide biosynthetic landscape
Tietz, Jonathan I.; Schwalen, Christopher J.; Patel, Parth S.; Maxson, Tucker; Blair, Patricia M.; Tai, Hua-Chia; Zakai, Uzma I.; Mitchell, Douglas A.
2016-01-01
Ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptide (RiPP) natural products are attractive for genome-driven discovery and re-engineering, but limitations in bioinformatic methods and exponentially increasing genomic data make large-scale mining difficult. We report RODEO (Rapid ORF Description and Evaluation Online), which combines hidden Markov model-based analysis, heuristic scoring, and machine learning to identify biosynthetic gene clusters and predict RiPP precursor peptides. We initially focused on lasso peptides, which display intriguing physiochemical properties and bioactivities, but their hypervariability renders them challenging prospects for automated mining. Our approach yielded the most comprehensive mapping of lasso peptide space, revealing >1,300 compounds. We characterized the structures and bioactivities of six lasso peptides, prioritized based on predicted structural novelty, including an unprecedented handcuff-like topology and another with a citrulline modification exceptionally rare among bacteria. These combined insights significantly expand the knowledge of lasso peptides, and more broadly, provide a framework for future genome-mining efforts. PMID:28244986
Probability genotype imputation method and integrated weighted lasso for QTL identification.
Demetrashvili, Nino; Van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Wit, Ernst C
2013-12-30
Many QTL studies have two common features: (1) often there is missing marker information, (2) among many markers involved in the biological process only a few are causal. In statistics, the second issue falls under the headings "sparsity" and "causal inference". The goal of this work is to develop a two-step statistical methodology for QTL mapping for markers with binary genotypes. The first step introduces a novel imputation method for missing genotypes. Outcomes of the proposed imputation method are probabilities which serve as weights to the second step, namely in weighted lasso. The sparse phenotype inference is employed to select a set of predictive markers for the trait of interest. Simulation studies validate the proposed methodology under a wide range of realistic settings. Furthermore, the methodology outperforms alternative imputation and variable selection methods in such studies. The methodology was applied to an Arabidopsis experiment, containing 69 markers for 165 recombinant inbred lines of a F8 generation. The results confirm previously identified regions, however several new markers are also found. On the basis of the inferred ROC behavior these markers show good potential for being real, especially for the germination trait Gmax. Our imputation method shows higher accuracy in terms of sensitivity and specificity compared to alternative imputation method. Also, the proposed weighted lasso outperforms commonly practiced multiple regression as well as the traditional lasso and adaptive lasso with three weighting schemes. This means that under realistic missing data settings this methodology can be used for QTL identification.
Erdem, Cemal; Nagle, Alison M; Casa, Angelo J; Litzenburger, Beate C; Wang, Yu-Fen; Taylor, D Lansing; Lee, Adrian V; Lezon, Timothy R
2016-09-01
Insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF1) influence cancer risk and progression through poorly understood mechanisms. To better understand the roles of insulin and IGF1 signaling in breast cancer, we combined proteomic screening with computational network inference to uncover differences in IGF1 and insulin induced signaling. Using reverse phase protein array, we measured the levels of 134 proteins in 21 breast cancer cell lines stimulated with IGF1 or insulin for up to 48 h. We then constructed directed protein expression networks using three separate methods: (i) lasso regression, (ii) conventional matrix inversion, and (iii) entropy maximization. These networks, named here as the time translation models, were analyzed and the inferred interactions were ranked by differential magnitude to identify pathway differences. The two top candidates, chosen for experimental validation, were shown to regulate IGF1/insulin induced phosphorylation events. First, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) knock-down was shown to increase the level of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. Second, stable knock-down of E-Cadherin increased the phospho-Akt protein levels. Both of the knock-down perturbations incurred phosphorylation responses stronger in IGF1 stimulated cells compared with insulin. Overall, the time-translation modeling coupled to wet-lab experiments has proven to be powerful in inferring differential interactions downstream of IGF1 and insulin signaling, in vitro. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Progress of the LASSO experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Serene, B. E. H.
1981-01-01
The LASSO (Later Synchronisation from Stationary Orbit) experiment, designed to demonstrate the feasibility of achieving time synchronization between remote atomic clocks with an accuracy of one nanosecond or better by using laser techniques for the first time is described. The experiment uses groundbased laser stations and the SIRIO-2 geostationary satellite to be launched towards the end of 1981. The qualification of the LASSO on-board equipment is discussed with a brief description of the electrical and optical test equipment used. The progress of the operational organization is included.
Zhou, Hua; Li, Lexin
2014-01-01
Summary Modern technologies are producing a wealth of data with complex structures. For instance, in two-dimensional digital imaging, flow cytometry and electroencephalography, matrix-type covariates frequently arise when measurements are obtained for each combination of two underlying variables. To address scientific questions arising from those data, new regression methods that take matrices as covariates are needed, and sparsity or other forms of regularization are crucial owing to the ultrahigh dimensionality and complex structure of the matrix data. The popular lasso and related regularization methods hinge on the sparsity of the true signal in terms of the number of its non-zero coefficients. However, for the matrix data, the true signal is often of, or can be well approximated by, a low rank structure. As such, the sparsity is frequently in the form of low rank of the matrix parameters, which may seriously violate the assumption of the classical lasso. We propose a class of regularized matrix regression methods based on spectral regularization. A highly efficient and scalable estimation algorithm is developed, and a degrees-of-freedom formula is derived to facilitate model selection along the regularization path. Superior performance of the method proposed is demonstrated on both synthetic and real examples. PMID:24648830
Assessment of Weighted Quantile Sum Regression for Modeling Chemical Mixtures and Cancer Risk
Czarnota, Jenna; Gennings, Chris; Wheeler, David C
2015-01-01
In evaluation of cancer risk related to environmental chemical exposures, the effect of many chemicals on disease is ultimately of interest. However, because of potentially strong correlations among chemicals that occur together, traditional regression methods suffer from collinearity effects, including regression coefficient sign reversal and variance inflation. In addition, penalized regression methods designed to remediate collinearity may have limitations in selecting the truly bad actors among many correlated components. The recently proposed method of weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression attempts to overcome these problems by estimating a body burden index, which identifies important chemicals in a mixture of correlated environmental chemicals. Our focus was on assessing through simulation studies the accuracy of WQS regression in detecting subsets of chemicals associated with health outcomes (binary and continuous) in site-specific analyses and in non-site-specific analyses. We also evaluated the performance of the penalized regression methods of lasso, adaptive lasso, and elastic net in correctly classifying chemicals as bad actors or unrelated to the outcome. We based the simulation study on data from the National Cancer Institute Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Program (NCI-SEER) case–control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) to achieve realistic exposure situations. Our results showed that WQS regression had good sensitivity and specificity across a variety of conditions considered in this study. The shrinkage methods had a tendency to incorrectly identify a large number of components, especially in the case of strong association with the outcome. PMID:26005323
Assessment of weighted quantile sum regression for modeling chemical mixtures and cancer risk.
Czarnota, Jenna; Gennings, Chris; Wheeler, David C
2015-01-01
In evaluation of cancer risk related to environmental chemical exposures, the effect of many chemicals on disease is ultimately of interest. However, because of potentially strong correlations among chemicals that occur together, traditional regression methods suffer from collinearity effects, including regression coefficient sign reversal and variance inflation. In addition, penalized regression methods designed to remediate collinearity may have limitations in selecting the truly bad actors among many correlated components. The recently proposed method of weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression attempts to overcome these problems by estimating a body burden index, which identifies important chemicals in a mixture of correlated environmental chemicals. Our focus was on assessing through simulation studies the accuracy of WQS regression in detecting subsets of chemicals associated with health outcomes (binary and continuous) in site-specific analyses and in non-site-specific analyses. We also evaluated the performance of the penalized regression methods of lasso, adaptive lasso, and elastic net in correctly classifying chemicals as bad actors or unrelated to the outcome. We based the simulation study on data from the National Cancer Institute Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Program (NCI-SEER) case-control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) to achieve realistic exposure situations. Our results showed that WQS regression had good sensitivity and specificity across a variety of conditions considered in this study. The shrinkage methods had a tendency to incorrectly identify a large number of components, especially in the case of strong association with the outcome.
Alpha1 LASSO data bundles Lamont, OK
Gustafson, William Jr; Vogelmann, Andrew; Endo, Satoshi; Toto, Tami; Xiao, Heng; Li, Zhijin; Cheng, Xiaoping; Krishna, Bhargavi (ORCID:000000018828528X)
2016-08-03
A data bundle is a unified package consisting of LASSO LES input and output, observations, evaluation diagnostics, and model skill scores. LES input includes model configuration information and forcing data. LES output includes profile statistics and full domain fields of cloud and environmental variables. Model evaluation data consists of LES output and ARM observations co-registered on the same grid and sampling frequency. Model performance is quantified by skill scores and diagnostics in terms of cloud and environmental variables.
VARIABLE SELECTION FOR REGRESSION MODELS WITH MISSING DATA
Garcia, Ramon I.; Ibrahim, Joseph G.; Zhu, Hongtu
2009-01-01
We consider the variable selection problem for a class of statistical models with missing data, including missing covariate and/or response data. We investigate the smoothly clipped absolute deviation penalty (SCAD) and adaptive LASSO and propose a unified model selection and estimation procedure for use in the presence of missing data. We develop a computationally attractive algorithm for simultaneously optimizing the penalized likelihood function and estimating the penalty parameters. Particularly, we propose to use a model selection criterion, called the ICQ statistic, for selecting the penalty parameters. We show that the variable selection procedure based on ICQ automatically and consistently selects the important covariates and leads to efficient estimates with oracle properties. The methodology is very general and can be applied to numerous situations involving missing data, from covariates missing at random in arbitrary regression models to nonignorably missing longitudinal responses and/or covariates. Simulations are given to demonstrate the methodology and examine the finite sample performance of the variable selection procedures. Melanoma data from a cancer clinical trial is presented to illustrate the proposed methodology. PMID:20336190
Zhang, Zhongheng; Hong, Yucai
2017-07-25
There are several disease severity scores being used for the prediction of mortality in critically ill patients. However, none of them was developed and validated specifically for patients with severe sepsis. The present study aimed to develop a novel prediction score for severe sepsis. A total of 3206 patients with severe sepsis were enrolled, including 1054 non-survivors and 2152 survivors. The LASSO score showed the best discrimination (area under curve: 0.772; 95% confidence interval: 0.735-0.810) in the validation cohort as compared with other scores such as simplified acute physiology score II, acute physiological score III, Logistic organ dysfunction system, sequential organ failure assessment score, and Oxford Acute Severity of Illness Score. The calibration slope was 0.889 and Brier value was 0.173. The study employed a single center database called Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care-III) MIMIC-III for analysis. Severe sepsis was defined as infection and acute organ dysfunction. Clinical and laboratory variables used in clinical routines were included for screening. Subjects without missing values were included, and the whole dataset was split into training and validation cohorts. The score was coined LASSO score because variable selection was performed using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) technique. Finally, the LASSO score was evaluated for its discrimination and calibration in the validation cohort. The study developed the LASSO score for mortality prediction in patients with severe sepsis. Although the score had good discrimination and calibration in a randomly selected subsample, external validations are still required.
Model-assisted survey regression estimation with the lasso
Kelly S. McConville; F. Jay Breidt; Thomas C. M. Lee; Gretchen G. Moisen
2017-01-01
In the U.S. Forest Serviceâs Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program, as in other natural resource surveys, many auxiliary variables are available for use in model-assisted inference about finite population parameters. Some of this auxiliary information may be extraneous, and therefore model selection is appropriate to improve the efficiency of the survey...
Supervised group Lasso with applications to microarray data analysis
Ma, Shuangge; Song, Xiao; Huang, Jian
2007-01-01
Background A tremendous amount of efforts have been devoted to identifying genes for diagnosis and prognosis of diseases using microarray gene expression data. It has been demonstrated that gene expression data have cluster structure, where the clusters consist of co-regulated genes which tend to have coordinated functions. However, most available statistical methods for gene selection do not take into consideration the cluster structure. Results We propose a supervised group Lasso approach that takes into account the cluster structure in gene expression data for gene selection and predictive model building. For gene expression data without biological cluster information, we first divide genes into clusters using the K-means approach and determine the optimal number of clusters using the Gap method. The supervised group Lasso consists of two steps. In the first step, we identify important genes within each cluster using the Lasso method. In the second step, we select important clusters using the group Lasso. Tuning parameters are determined using V-fold cross validation at both steps to allow for further flexibility. Prediction performance is evaluated using leave-one-out cross validation. We apply the proposed method to disease classification and survival analysis with microarray data. Conclusion We analyze four microarray data sets using the proposed approach: two cancer data sets with binary cancer occurrence as outcomes and two lymphoma data sets with survival outcomes. The results show that the proposed approach is capable of identifying a small number of influential gene clusters and important genes within those clusters, and has better prediction performance than existing methods. PMID:17316436
MRM-Lasso: A Sparse Multiview Feature Selection Method via Low-Rank Analysis.
Yang, Wanqi; Gao, Yang; Shi, Yinghuan; Cao, Longbing
2015-11-01
Learning about multiview data involves many applications, such as video understanding, image classification, and social media. However, when the data dimension increases dramatically, it is important but very challenging to remove redundant features in multiview feature selection. In this paper, we propose a novel feature selection algorithm, multiview rank minimization-based Lasso (MRM-Lasso), which jointly utilizes Lasso for sparse feature selection and rank minimization for learning relevant patterns across views. Instead of simply integrating multiple Lasso from view level, we focus on the performance of sample-level (sample significance) and introduce pattern-specific weights into MRM-Lasso. The weights are utilized to measure the contribution of each sample to the labels in the current view. In addition, the latent correlation across different views is successfully captured by learning a low-rank matrix consisting of pattern-specific weights. The alternating direction method of multipliers is applied to optimize the proposed MRM-Lasso. Experiments on four real-life data sets show that features selected by MRM-Lasso have better multiview classification performance than the baselines. Moreover, pattern-specific weights are demonstrated to be significant for learning about multiview data, compared with view-specific weights.
RRegrs: an R package for computer-aided model selection with multiple regression models.
Tsiliki, Georgia; Munteanu, Cristian R; Seoane, Jose A; Fernandez-Lozano, Carlos; Sarimveis, Haralambos; Willighagen, Egon L
2015-01-01
Predictive regression models can be created with many different modelling approaches. Choices need to be made for data set splitting, cross-validation methods, specific regression parameters and best model criteria, as they all affect the accuracy and efficiency of the produced predictive models, and therefore, raising model reproducibility and comparison issues. Cheminformatics and bioinformatics are extensively using predictive modelling and exhibit a need for standardization of these methodologies in order to assist model selection and speed up the process of predictive model development. A tool accessible to all users, irrespectively of their statistical knowledge, would be valuable if it tests several simple and complex regression models and validation schemes, produce unified reports, and offer the option to be integrated into more extensive studies. Additionally, such methodology should be implemented as a free programming package, in order to be continuously adapted and redistributed by others. We propose an integrated framework for creating multiple regression models, called RRegrs. The tool offers the option of ten simple and complex regression methods combined with repeated 10-fold and leave-one-out cross-validation. Methods include Multiple Linear regression, Generalized Linear Model with Stepwise Feature Selection, Partial Least Squares regression, Lasso regression, and Support Vector Machines Recursive Feature Elimination. The new framework is an automated fully validated procedure which produces standardized reports to quickly oversee the impact of choices in modelling algorithms and assess the model and cross-validation results. The methodology was implemented as an open source R package, available at https://www.github.com/enanomapper/RRegrs, by reusing and extending on the caret package. The universality of the new methodology is demonstrated using five standard data sets from different scientific fields. Its efficiency in cheminformatics and QSAR
Discovering graphical Granger causality using the truncating lasso penalty
Shojaie, Ali; Michailidis, George
2010-01-01
Motivation: Components of biological systems interact with each other in order to carry out vital cell functions. Such information can be used to improve estimation and inference, and to obtain better insights into the underlying cellular mechanisms. Discovering regulatory interactions among genes is therefore an important problem in systems biology. Whole-genome expression data over time provides an opportunity to determine how the expression levels of genes are affected by changes in transcription levels of other genes, and can therefore be used to discover regulatory interactions among genes. Results: In this article, we propose a novel penalization method, called truncating lasso, for estimation of causal relationships from time-course gene expression data. The proposed penalty can correctly determine the order of the underlying time series, and improves the performance of the lasso-type estimators. Moreover, the resulting estimate provides information on the time lag between activation of transcription factors and their effects on regulated genes. We provide an efficient algorithm for estimation of model parameters, and show that the proposed method can consistently discover causal relationships in the large p, small n setting. The performance of the proposed model is evaluated favorably in simulated, as well as real, data examples. Availability: The proposed truncating lasso method is implemented in the R-package ‘grangerTlasso’ and is freely available at http://www.stat.lsa.umich.edu/∼shojaie/ Contact: shojaie@umich.edu PMID:20823316
MORADI, Ghobad; PIROOZI, Bakhtiar; SAFARI, Hossein; ESMAIL NASAB, Nader; MOHAMADI BOLBANABAD, Amjad; YARI, Arezoo
2017-01-01
Background: Pabon Lasso model was applied to assess the relative performance of hospitals affiliated to Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences (KUMS) before and after the implementation of Health Sector Evolution Plan (HSEP) in Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in 11 public hospitals affiliated to KUMS in 2015. Twelve months before and after the implementation of the first phase of HSEP, a checklist was used to collect data from computerized databases within the hospitals’ admission and discharge units. Pabon Lasso model includes three indices: bed turnover, bed occupancy ratio, and average length of stay. Results: Analysis of hospital performance showed an increase in mean of bed occupancy and turnover ratio, which changed from 65.40% and 86.22 times/year during 12 months before to 69.97% and 90.98 times/year during 12 months after HSEP, respectively. In line with Pabon Lasso model, before the implementation of HSEP, 27.27% and 36.36% of the hospitals were entirely efficient and inefficient, respectively, whilst after the implementation of HSEP, their condition changed to 18.18% and 27.27%, in order. Conclusion: Indicators of bed occupancy and turnover ratio had a 4% increase in the studied hospitals after the implementation of HSEP. Number of the hospitals in the efficient zone reduced because of the relative measurement of efficiency by Pabon Lasso model. Since more than 50% of the hospitals in the studied province have not yet reached their optimal bed occupancy ratio (more than 70%), short-term and suitable strategy for improving the efficiency is to stop further expansion of hospitals as well as developing the number of hospital beds. PMID:28435825
Mevaere, Jimmy; Goulard, Christophe; Schneider, Olha; Sekurova, Olga N; Ma, Haiyan; Zirah, Séverine; Afonso, Carlos; Rebuffat, Sylvie; Zotchev, Sergey B; Li, Yanyan
2018-05-29
Lasso peptides are ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides produced by bacteria. They are characterized by an unusual lariat-knot structure. Targeted genome scanning revealed a wide diversity of lasso peptides encoded in actinobacterial genomes, but cloning and heterologous expression of these clusters turned out to be problematic. To circumvent this, we developed an orthogonal expression system for heterologous production of actinobacterial lasso peptides in Streptomyces hosts based on a newly-identified regulatory circuit from Actinoalloteichus fjordicus. Six lasso peptide gene clusters, mainly originating from marine Actinobacteria, were chosen for proof-of-concept studies. By varying the Streptomyces expression hosts and a small set of culture conditions, three new lasso peptides were successfully produced and characterized by tandem MS. The newly developed expression system thus sets the stage to uncover and bioengineer the chemo-diversity of actinobacterial lasso peptides. Moreover, our data provide some considerations for future bioprospecting efforts for such peptides.
Zheng, Qi; Peng, Limin
2016-01-01
Quantile regression provides a flexible platform for evaluating covariate effects on different segments of the conditional distribution of response. As the effects of covariates may change with quantile level, contemporaneously examining a spectrum of quantiles is expected to have a better capacity to identify variables with either partial or full effects on the response distribution, as compared to focusing on a single quantile. Under this motivation, we study a general adaptively weighted LASSO penalization strategy in the quantile regression setting, where a continuum of quantile index is considered and coefficients are allowed to vary with quantile index. We establish the oracle properties of the resulting estimator of coefficient function. Furthermore, we formally investigate a BIC-type uniform tuning parameter selector and show that it can ensure consistent model selection. Our numerical studies confirm the theoretical findings and illustrate an application of the new variable selection procedure. PMID:28008212
Son, Yeongkwon; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro R; O'Neill, Marie S; Hystad, Perry; Texcalac-Sangrador, José L; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Meng, Qingyu; Schwander, Stephan
2018-05-17
The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is one of the largest and most populated urban environments in the world and experiences high air pollution levels. To develop models that estimate pollutant concentrations at fine spatiotemporal scales and provide improved air pollution exposure assessments for health studies in Mexico City. We developed finer spatiotemporal land use regression (LUR) models for PM 2.5 , PM 10 , O 3 , NO 2 , CO and SO 2 using mixed effect models with the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO). Hourly traffic density was included as a temporal variable besides meteorological and holiday variables. Models of hourly, daily, monthly, 6-monthly and annual averages were developed and evaluated using traditional and novel indices. The developed spatiotemporal LUR models yielded predicted concentrations with good spatial and temporal agreements with measured pollutant levels except for the hourly PM 2.5 , PM 10 and SO 2 . Most of the LUR models met performance goals based on the standardized indices. LUR models with temporal scales greater than one hour were successfully developed using mixed effect models with LASSO and showed superior model performance compared to earlier LUR models, especially for time scales of a day or longer. The newly developed LUR models will be further refined with ongoing Mexico City air pollution sampling campaigns to improve personal exposure assessments. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Klimovskaia, Anna; Ganscha, Stefan; Claassen, Manfred
2016-12-01
Stochastic chemical reaction networks constitute a model class to quantitatively describe dynamics and cell-to-cell variability in biological systems. The topology of these networks typically is only partially characterized due to experimental limitations. Current approaches for refining network topology are based on the explicit enumeration of alternative topologies and are therefore restricted to small problem instances with almost complete knowledge. We propose the reactionet lasso, a computational procedure that derives a stepwise sparse regression approach on the basis of the Chemical Master Equation, enabling large-scale structure learning for reaction networks by implicitly accounting for billions of topology variants. We have assessed the structure learning capabilities of the reactionet lasso on synthetic data for the complete TRAIL induced apoptosis signaling cascade comprising 70 reactions. We find that the reactionet lasso is able to efficiently recover the structure of these reaction systems, ab initio, with high sensitivity and specificity. With only < 1% false discoveries, the reactionet lasso is able to recover 45% of all true reactions ab initio among > 6000 possible reactions and over 102000 network topologies. In conjunction with information rich single cell technologies such as single cell RNA sequencing or mass cytometry, the reactionet lasso will enable large-scale structure learning, particularly in areas with partial network structure knowledge, such as cancer biology, and thereby enable the detection of pathological alterations of reaction networks. We provide software to allow for wide applicability of the reactionet lasso.
Validating the LASSO algorithm by unmixing spectral signatures in multicolor phantoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samarov, Daniel V.; Clarke, Matthew; Lee, Ji Yoon; Allen, David; Litorja, Maritoni; Hwang, Jeeseong
2012-03-01
As hyperspectral imaging (HSI) sees increased implementation into the biological and medical elds it becomes increasingly important that the algorithms being used to analyze the corresponding output be validated. While certainly important under any circumstance, as this technology begins to see a transition from benchtop to bedside ensuring that the measurements being given to medical professionals are accurate and reproducible is critical. In order to address these issues work has been done in generating a collection of datasets which could act as a test bed for algorithms validation. Using a microarray spot printer a collection of three food color dyes, acid red 1 (AR), brilliant blue R (BBR) and erioglaucine (EG) are mixed together at dierent concentrations in varying proportions at dierent locations on a microarray chip. With the concentration and mixture proportions known at each location, using HSI an algorithm should in principle, based on estimates of abundances, be able to determine the concentrations and proportions of each dye at each location on the chip. These types of data are particularly important in the context of medical measurements as the resulting estimated abundances will be used to make critical decisions which can have a serious impact on an individual's health. In this paper we present a novel algorithm for processing and analyzing HSI data based on the LASSO algorithm (similar to "basis pursuit"). The LASSO is a statistical method for simultaneously performing model estimation and variable selection. In the context of estimating abundances in an HSI scene these so called "sparse" representations provided by the LASSO are appropriate as not every pixel will be expected to contain every endmember. The algorithm we present takes the general framework of the LASSO algorithm a step further and incorporates the rich spatial information which is available in HSI to further improve the estimates of abundance. We show our algorithm's improvement
Modeling Alzheimer's disease cognitive scores using multi-task sparse group lasso.
Liu, Xiaoli; Goncalves, André R; Cao, Peng; Zhao, Dazhe; Banerjee, Arindam
2018-06-01
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of memory and reduction in cognitive functions due to progressive degeneration of neurons and their connections, eventually leading to death. In this paper, we consider the problem of simultaneously predicting several different cognitive scores associated with categorizing subjects as normal, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a multi-task learning framework using features extracted from brain images obtained from ADNI (Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative). To solve the problem, we present a multi-task sparse group lasso (MT-SGL) framework, which estimates sparse features coupled across tasks, and can work with loss functions associated with any Generalized Linear Models. Through comparisons with a variety of baseline models using multiple evaluation metrics, we illustrate the promising predictive performance of MT-SGL on ADNI along with its ability to identify brain regions more likely to help the characterization Alzheimer's disease progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Spike-and-Slab Lasso Generalized Linear Models for Prediction and Associated Genes Detection.
Tang, Zaixiang; Shen, Yueping; Zhang, Xinyan; Yi, Nengjun
2017-01-01
Large-scale "omics" data have been increasingly used as an important resource for prognostic prediction of diseases and detection of associated genes. However, there are considerable challenges in analyzing high-dimensional molecular data, including the large number of potential molecular predictors, limited number of samples, and small effect of each predictor. We propose new Bayesian hierarchical generalized linear models, called spike-and-slab lasso GLMs, for prognostic prediction and detection of associated genes using large-scale molecular data. The proposed model employs a spike-and-slab mixture double-exponential prior for coefficients that can induce weak shrinkage on large coefficients, and strong shrinkage on irrelevant coefficients. We have developed a fast and stable algorithm to fit large-scale hierarchal GLMs by incorporating expectation-maximization (EM) steps into the fast cyclic coordinate descent algorithm. The proposed approach integrates nice features of two popular methods, i.e., penalized lasso and Bayesian spike-and-slab variable selection. The performance of the proposed method is assessed via extensive simulation studies. The results show that the proposed approach can provide not only more accurate estimates of the parameters, but also better prediction. We demonstrate the proposed procedure on two cancer data sets: a well-known breast cancer data set consisting of 295 tumors, and expression data of 4919 genes; and the ovarian cancer data set from TCGA with 362 tumors, and expression data of 5336 genes. Our analyses show that the proposed procedure can generate powerful models for predicting outcomes and detecting associated genes. The methods have been implemented in a freely available R package BhGLM (http://www.ssg.uab.edu/bhglm/). Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.
Sparse regressions for predicting and interpreting subcellular localization of multi-label proteins.
Wan, Shibiao; Mak, Man-Wai; Kung, Sun-Yuan
2016-02-24
Predicting protein subcellular localization is indispensable for inferring protein functions. Recent studies have been focusing on predicting not only single-location proteins, but also multi-location proteins. Almost all of the high performing predictors proposed recently use gene ontology (GO) terms to construct feature vectors for classification. Despite their high performance, their prediction decisions are difficult to interpret because of the large number of GO terms involved. This paper proposes using sparse regressions to exploit GO information for both predicting and interpreting subcellular localization of single- and multi-location proteins. Specifically, we compared two multi-label sparse regression algorithms, namely multi-label LASSO (mLASSO) and multi-label elastic net (mEN), for large-scale predictions of protein subcellular localization. Both algorithms can yield sparse and interpretable solutions. By using the one-vs-rest strategy, mLASSO and mEN identified 87 and 429 out of more than 8,000 GO terms, respectively, which play essential roles in determining subcellular localization. More interestingly, many of the GO terms selected by mEN are from the biological process and molecular function categories, suggesting that the GO terms of these categories also play vital roles in the prediction. With these essential GO terms, not only where a protein locates can be decided, but also why it resides there can be revealed. Experimental results show that the output of both mEN and mLASSO are interpretable and they perform significantly better than existing state-of-the-art predictors. Moreover, mEN selects more features and performs better than mLASSO on a stringent human benchmark dataset. For readers' convenience, an online server called SpaPredictor for both mLASSO and mEN is available at http://bioinfo.eie.polyu.edu.hk/SpaPredictorServer/.
Sparse EEG/MEG source estimation via a group lasso
Lim, Michael; Ales, Justin M.; Cottereau, Benoit R.; Hastie, Trevor
2017-01-01
Non-invasive recordings of human brain activity through electroencephalography (EEG) or magnetoencelphalography (MEG) are of value for both basic science and clinical applications in sensory, cognitive, and affective neuroscience. Here we introduce a new approach to estimating the intra-cranial sources of EEG/MEG activity measured from extra-cranial sensors. The approach is based on the group lasso, a sparse-prior inverse that has been adapted to take advantage of functionally-defined regions of interest for the definition of physiologically meaningful groups within a functionally-based common space. Detailed simulations using realistic source-geometries and data from a human Visual Evoked Potential experiment demonstrate that the group-lasso method has improved performance over traditional ℓ2 minimum-norm methods. In addition, we show that pooling source estimates across subjects over functionally defined regions of interest results in improvements in the accuracy of source estimates for both the group-lasso and minimum-norm approaches. PMID:28604790
Penalized regression procedures for variable selection in the potential outcomes framework
Ghosh, Debashis; Zhu, Yeying; Coffman, Donna L.
2015-01-01
A recent topic of much interest in causal inference is model selection. In this article, we describe a framework in which to consider penalized regression approaches to variable selection for causal effects. The framework leads to a simple ‘impute, then select’ class of procedures that is agnostic to the type of imputation algorithm as well as penalized regression used. It also clarifies how model selection involves a multivariate regression model for causal inference problems, and that these methods can be applied for identifying subgroups in which treatment effects are homogeneous. Analogies and links with the literature on machine learning methods, missing data and imputation are drawn. A difference LASSO algorithm is defined, along with its multiple imputation analogues. The procedures are illustrated using a well-known right heart catheterization dataset. PMID:25628185
Bratosin, S; Laub, O; Tal, J; Aloni, Y
1979-09-01
During an electron-microscopic survey with the aim of identifying the parvovirus MVM transcription template, we observed previously unidentified structures of MVM DNA in lysates of virus-infected cells. These included double-stranded "lasso"-like structures and relaxed circles. Both structures were of unit length MVM DNA, indicating that they were not intermediates formed during replication; they each represented about 5% of the total nuclear MVM DNA. The proportion of these structures was unchanged after digestion with sodium dodecyl sulfate/Pronase and RNase and after mild denaturation treatment. Cleavage of the "lasso" structures with EcoRI restriction endonuclease indicated that the "noose" part of the "lasso" structure is located on the 5' side of the genomic single-stranded MVM DNA. A model is presented for the molecular nature of the circularization process of MVM DNA in which the "lasso" structures are identified as intermediates during circle formation. This model proposes a mechanism for circularization of linear DNAs.
Silver, Matt; Montana, Giovanni
2012-01-01
Where causal SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) tend to accumulate within biological pathways, the incorporation of prior pathways information into a statistical model is expected to increase the power to detect true associations in a genetic association study. Most existing pathways-based methods rely on marginal SNP statistics and do not fully exploit the dependence patterns among SNPs within pathways. We use a sparse regression model, with SNPs grouped into pathways, to identify causal pathways associated with a quantitative trait. Notable features of our “pathways group lasso with adaptive weights” (P-GLAW) algorithm include the incorporation of all pathways in a single regression model, an adaptive pathway weighting procedure that accounts for factors biasing pathway selection, and the use of a bootstrap sampling procedure for the ranking of important pathways. P-GLAW takes account of the presence of overlapping pathways and uses a novel combination of techniques to optimise model estimation, making it fast to run, even on whole genome datasets. In a comparison study with an alternative pathways method based on univariate SNP statistics, our method demonstrates high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of important pathways, showing the greatest relative gains in performance where marginal SNP effect sizes are small. PMID:22499682
Inferring metabolic networks using the Bayesian adaptive graphical lasso with informative priors.
Peterson, Christine; Vannucci, Marina; Karakas, Cemal; Choi, William; Ma, Lihua; Maletić-Savatić, Mirjana
2013-10-01
Metabolic processes are essential for cellular function and survival. We are interested in inferring a metabolic network in activated microglia, a major neuroimmune cell in the brain responsible for the neuroinflammation associated with neurological diseases, based on a set of quantified metabolites. To achieve this, we apply the Bayesian adaptive graphical lasso with informative priors that incorporate known relationships between covariates. To encourage sparsity, the Bayesian graphical lasso places double exponential priors on the off-diagonal entries of the precision matrix. The Bayesian adaptive graphical lasso allows each double exponential prior to have a unique shrinkage parameter. These shrinkage parameters share a common gamma hyperprior. We extend this model to create an informative prior structure by formulating tailored hyperpriors on the shrinkage parameters. By choosing parameter values for each hyperprior that shift probability mass toward zero for nodes that are close together in a reference network, we encourage edges between covariates with known relationships. This approach can improve the reliability of network inference when the sample size is small relative to the number of parameters to be estimated. When applied to the data on activated microglia, the inferred network includes both known relationships and associations of potential interest for further investigation.
Inferring metabolic networks using the Bayesian adaptive graphical lasso with informative priors
PETERSON, CHRISTINE; VANNUCCI, MARINA; KARAKAS, CEMAL; CHOI, WILLIAM; MA, LIHUA; MALETIĆ-SAVATIĆ, MIRJANA
2014-01-01
Metabolic processes are essential for cellular function and survival. We are interested in inferring a metabolic network in activated microglia, a major neuroimmune cell in the brain responsible for the neuroinflammation associated with neurological diseases, based on a set of quantified metabolites. To achieve this, we apply the Bayesian adaptive graphical lasso with informative priors that incorporate known relationships between covariates. To encourage sparsity, the Bayesian graphical lasso places double exponential priors on the off-diagonal entries of the precision matrix. The Bayesian adaptive graphical lasso allows each double exponential prior to have a unique shrinkage parameter. These shrinkage parameters share a common gamma hyperprior. We extend this model to create an informative prior structure by formulating tailored hyperpriors on the shrinkage parameters. By choosing parameter values for each hyperprior that shift probability mass toward zero for nodes that are close together in a reference network, we encourage edges between covariates with known relationships. This approach can improve the reliability of network inference when the sample size is small relative to the number of parameters to be estimated. When applied to the data on activated microglia, the inferred network includes both known relationships and associations of potential interest for further investigation. PMID:24533172
Kim, Dongchul; Kang, Mingon; Biswas, Ashis; Liu, Chunyu; Gao, Jean
2016-08-10
Inferring gene regulatory networks is one of the most interesting research areas in the systems biology. Many inference methods have been developed by using a variety of computational models and approaches. However, there are two issues to solve. First, depending on the structural or computational model of inference method, the results tend to be inconsistent due to innately different advantages and limitations of the methods. Therefore the combination of dissimilar approaches is demanded as an alternative way in order to overcome the limitations of standalone methods through complementary integration. Second, sparse linear regression that is penalized by the regularization parameter (lasso) and bootstrapping-based sparse linear regression methods were suggested in state of the art methods for network inference but they are not effective for a small sample size data and also a true regulator could be missed if the target gene is strongly affected by an indirect regulator with high correlation or another true regulator. We present two novel network inference methods based on the integration of three different criteria, (i) z-score to measure the variation of gene expression from knockout data, (ii) mutual information for the dependency between two genes, and (iii) linear regression-based feature selection. Based on these criterion, we propose a lasso-based random feature selection algorithm (LARF) to achieve better performance overcoming the limitations of bootstrapping as mentioned above. In this work, there are three main contributions. First, our z score-based method to measure gene expression variations from knockout data is more effective than similar criteria of related works. Second, we confirmed that the true regulator selection can be effectively improved by LARF. Lastly, we verified that an integrative approach can clearly outperform a single method when two different methods are effectively jointed. In the experiments, our methods were validated by
Human action recognition with group lasso regularized-support vector machine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Huiwu; Lu, Huanzhang; Wu, Yabei; Zhao, Fei
2016-05-01
The bag-of-visual-words (BOVW) and Fisher kernel are two popular models in human action recognition, and support vector machine (SVM) is the most commonly used classifier for the two models. We show two kinds of group structures in the feature representation constructed by BOVW and Fisher kernel, respectively, since the structural information of feature representation can be seen as a prior for the classifier and can improve the performance of the classifier, which has been verified in several areas. However, the standard SVM employs L2-norm regularization in its learning procedure, which penalizes each variable individually and cannot express the structural information of feature representation. We replace the L2-norm regularization with group lasso regularization in standard SVM, and a group lasso regularized-support vector machine (GLRSVM) is proposed. Then, we embed the group structural information of feature representation into GLRSVM. Finally, we introduce an algorithm to solve the optimization problem of GLRSVM by alternating directions method of multipliers. The experiments evaluated on KTH, YouTube, and Hollywood2 datasets show that our method achieves promising results and improves the state-of-the-art methods on KTH and YouTube datasets.
Guo, Pi; Zeng, Fangfang; Hu, Xiaomin; Zhang, Dingmei; Zhu, Shuming; Deng, Yu; Hao, Yuantao
2015-01-01
Objectives In epidemiological studies, it is important to identify independent associations between collective exposures and a health outcome. The current stepwise selection technique ignores stochastic errors and suffers from a lack of stability. The alternative LASSO-penalized regression model can be applied to detect significant predictors from a pool of candidate variables. However, this technique is prone to false positives and tends to create excessive biases. It remains challenging to develop robust variable selection methods and enhance predictability. Material and methods Two improved algorithms denoted the two-stage hybrid and bootstrap ranking procedures, both using a LASSO-type penalty, were developed for epidemiological association analysis. The performance of the proposed procedures and other methods including conventional LASSO, Bolasso, stepwise and stability selection models were evaluated using intensive simulation. In addition, methods were compared by using an empirical analysis based on large-scale survey data of hepatitis B infection-relevant factors among Guangdong residents. Results The proposed procedures produced comparable or less biased selection results when compared to conventional variable selection models. In total, the two newly proposed procedures were stable with respect to various scenarios of simulation, demonstrating a higher power and a lower false positive rate during variable selection than the compared methods. In empirical analysis, the proposed procedures yielding a sparse set of hepatitis B infection-relevant factors gave the best predictive performance and showed that the procedures were able to select a more stringent set of factors. The individual history of hepatitis B vaccination, family and individual history of hepatitis B infection were associated with hepatitis B infection in the studied residents according to the proposed procedures. Conclusions The newly proposed procedures improve the identification of
The B1 Protein Guides the Biosynthesis of a Lasso Peptide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Shaozhou; Fage, Christopher D.; Hegemann, Julian D.; Mielcarek, Andreas; Yan, Dushan; Linne, Uwe; Marahiel, Mohamed A.
2016-10-01
Lasso peptides are a class of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) with a unique lariat knot-like fold that endows them with extraordinary stability and biologically relevant activity. However, the biosynthetic mechanism of these fascinating molecules remains largely speculative. Generally, two enzymes (B for processing and C for cyclization) are required to assemble the unusual knot-like structure. Several subsets of lasso peptide gene clusters feature a “split” B protein on separate open reading frames (B1 and B2), suggesting distinct functions for the B protein in lasso peptide biosynthesis. Herein, we provide new insights into the role of the RiPP recognition element (RRE) PadeB1, characterizing its capacity to bind the paeninodin leader peptide and deliver its peptide substrate to PadeB2 for processing.
A Permutation Approach for Selecting the Penalty Parameter in Penalized Model Selection
Sabourin, Jeremy A; Valdar, William; Nobel, Andrew B
2015-01-01
Summary We describe a simple, computationally effcient, permutation-based procedure for selecting the penalty parameter in LASSO penalized regression. The procedure, permutation selection, is intended for applications where variable selection is the primary focus, and can be applied in a variety of structural settings, including that of generalized linear models. We briefly discuss connections between permutation selection and existing theory for the LASSO. In addition, we present a simulation study and an analysis of real biomedical data sets in which permutation selection is compared with selection based on the following: cross-validation (CV), the Bayesian information criterion (BIC), Scaled Sparse Linear Regression, and a selection method based on recently developed testing procedures for the LASSO. PMID:26243050
Dit Fouque, Kevin Jeanne; Moreno, Javier; Hegemann, Julian D; Zirah, Séverine; Rebuffat, Sylvie; Fernandez-Lima, Francisco
2018-04-17
Lasso peptides are a fascinating class of bioactive ribosomal natural products characterized by a mechanically interlocked topology. In contrast to their branched-cyclic forms, lasso peptides have higher stability and have become a scaffold for drug development. However, the identification and separation of lasso peptides from their unthreaded topoisomers (branched-cyclic peptides) is analytically challenging since the higher stability is based solely on differences in their tertiary structures. In the present work, a fast and effective workflow is proposed for the separation and identification of lasso from branched cyclic peptides based on differences in their mobility space under native nanoelectrospray ionization-trapped ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (nESI-TIMS-MS). The high mobility resolving power ( R) of TIMS resulted in the separation of lasso and branched-cyclic topoisomers ( R up to 250, 150 needed on average). The advantages of alkali metalation reagents (e.g., Na, K, and Cs salts) as a way to increase the analytical power of TIMS is demonstrated for topoisomers with similar mobilities as protonated species, efficiently turning the metal ion adduction into additional separation dimensions.
Mallick, Himel; Tiwari, Hemant K
2016-01-01
Count data are increasingly ubiquitous in genetic association studies, where it is possible to observe excess zero counts as compared to what is expected based on standard assumptions. For instance, in rheumatology, data are usually collected in multiple joints within a person or multiple sub-regions of a joint, and it is not uncommon that the phenotypes contain enormous number of zeroes due to the presence of excessive zero counts in majority of patients. Most existing statistical methods assume that the count phenotypes follow one of these four distributions with appropriate dispersion-handling mechanisms: Poisson, Zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP), Negative Binomial, and Zero-inflated Negative Binomial (ZINB). However, little is known about their implications in genetic association studies. Also, there is a relative paucity of literature on their usefulness with respect to model misspecification and variable selection. In this article, we have investigated the performance of several state-of-the-art approaches for handling zero-inflated count data along with a novel penalized regression approach with an adaptive LASSO penalty, by simulating data under a variety of disease models and linkage disequilibrium patterns. By taking into account data-adaptive weights in the estimation procedure, the proposed method provides greater flexibility in multi-SNP modeling of zero-inflated count phenotypes. A fast coordinate descent algorithm nested within an EM (expectation-maximization) algorithm is implemented for estimating the model parameters and conducting variable selection simultaneously. Results show that the proposed method has optimal performance in the presence of multicollinearity, as measured by both prediction accuracy and empirical power, which is especially apparent as the sample size increases. Moreover, the Type I error rates become more or less uncontrollable for the competing methods when a model is misspecified, a phenomenon routinely encountered in practice.
Wang, Maggie Haitian; Chong, Ka Chun; Storer, Malina; Pickering, John W; Endre, Zoltan H; Lau, Steven Yf; Kwok, Chloe; Lai, Maria; Chung, Hau Yin; Ying Zee, Benny Chung
2016-09-28
Selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) provides rapid, non-invasive measurements of a full-mass scan of volatile compounds in exhaled breath. Although various studies have suggested that breath metabolites may be indicators of human disease status, many of these studies have included few breath samples and large numbers of compounds, limiting their power to detect significant metabolites. This study employed a least absolute shrinkage and selective operator (LASSO) approach to SIFT-MS data of breath samples to preliminarily evaluate the ability of exhaled breath findings to monitor the efficacy of dialysis in hemodialysis patients. A process of model building and validation showed that blood creatinine and urea concentrations could be accurately predicted by LASSO-selected masses. Using various precursors, the LASSO models were able to predict creatinine and urea concentrations with high adjusted R-square (>80%) values. The correlation between actual concentrations and concentrations predicted by the LASSO model (using precursor H 3 O + ) was high (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.96). Moreover, use of full mass scan data provided a better prediction than compounds from selected ion mode. These findings warrant further investigations in larger patient cohorts. By employing a more powerful statistical approach to predict disease outcomes, breath analysis using SIFT-MS technology could be applicable in future to daily medical diagnoses.
Developing deterioration models for Wyoming bridges.
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2016-05-01
Deterioration models for the Wyoming Bridge Inventory were developed using both stochastic and deterministic models. : The selection of explanatory variables is investigated and a new method using LASSO regression to eliminate human bias : in explana...
Jackman, Patrick; Sun, Da-Wen; Elmasry, Gamal
2012-08-01
A new algorithm for the conversion of device dependent RGB colour data into device independent L*a*b* colour data without introducing noticeable error has been developed. By combining a linear colour space transform and advanced multiple regression methodologies it was possible to predict L*a*b* colour data with less than 2.2 colour units of error (CIE 1976). By transforming the red, green and blue colour components into new variables that better reflect the structure of the L*a*b* colour space, a low colour calibration error was immediately achieved (ΔE(CAL) = 14.1). Application of a range of regression models on the data further reduced the colour calibration error substantially (multilinear regression ΔE(CAL) = 5.4; response surface ΔE(CAL) = 2.9; PLSR ΔE(CAL) = 2.6; LASSO regression ΔE(CAL) = 2.1). Only the PLSR models deteriorated substantially under cross validation. The algorithm is adaptable and can be easily recalibrated to any working computer vision system. The algorithm was tested on a typical working laboratory computer vision system and delivered only a very marginal loss of colour information ΔE(CAL) = 2.35. Colour features derived on this system were able to safely discriminate between three classes of ham with 100% correct classification whereas colour features measured on a conventional colourimeter were not. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tian, Xinyu; Wang, Xuefeng; Chen, Jun
2014-01-01
Classic multinomial logit model, commonly used in multiclass regression problem, is restricted to few predictors and does not take into account the relationship among variables. It has limited use for genomic data, where the number of genomic features far exceeds the sample size. Genomic features such as gene expressions are usually related by an underlying biological network. Efficient use of the network information is important to improve classification performance as well as the biological interpretability. We proposed a multinomial logit model that is capable of addressing both the high dimensionality of predictors and the underlying network information. Group lasso was used to induce model sparsity, and a network-constraint was imposed to induce the smoothness of the coefficients with respect to the underlying network structure. To deal with the non-smoothness of the objective function in optimization, we developed a proximal gradient algorithm for efficient computation. The proposed model was compared to models with no prior structure information in both simulations and a problem of cancer subtype prediction with real TCGA (the cancer genome atlas) gene expression data. The network-constrained mode outperformed the traditional ones in both cases.
Compound Identification Using Penalized Linear Regression on Metabolomics
Liu, Ruiqi; Wu, Dongfeng; Zhang, Xiang; Kim, Seongho
2014-01-01
Compound identification is often achieved by matching the experimental mass spectra to the mass spectra stored in a reference library based on mass spectral similarity. Because the number of compounds in the reference library is much larger than the range of mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) values so that the data become high dimensional data suffering from singularity. For this reason, penalized linear regressions such as ridge regression and the lasso are used instead of the ordinary least squares regression. Furthermore, two-step approaches using the dot product and Pearson’s correlation along with the penalized linear regression are proposed in this study. PMID:27212894
LASSO observations at McDonald and OCA/CERGA: A preliminary analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Veillet, CH.; Fridelance, P.; Feraudy, D.; Boudon, Y.; Shelus, P. J.; Ricklefs, R. L.; Wiant, J. R.
1993-01-01
The Laser Synchronization from Synchronous Orbit (LASSO) observations between USA and Europe were made possible with the move of Meteosat 3/P2 toward 50 deg W. Two Lunar Laser Ranging stations participated into the observations: the MLRS at McDonald Observatory (Texas, USA) and OCA/CERGA (Grasse, France). Common sessions were performed since 30 Apr. 1992, and will be continued up to the next Meteosat 3/P2 move further West (planned for January 1993). The preliminary analysis made with the data already collected by the end of Nov. 1992 shows that the precision which can be obtained from LASSO is better than 100 ps, the accuracy depending on how well the stations maintain their time metrology, as well as on the quality of the calibration (still to be made.) For extracting such a precision from the data, the processing has been drastically changed compared to the initial LASSO data analysis. It takes into account all the measurements made, timings on board, and echoes at each station. This complete use of the data increased dramatically the confidence into the synchronization results.
Covariate selection with group lasso and doubly robust estimation of causal effects
Koch, Brandon; Vock, David M.; Wolfson, Julian
2017-01-01
Summary The efficiency of doubly robust estimators of the average causal effect (ACE) of a treatment can be improved by including in the treatment and outcome models only those covariates which are related to both treatment and outcome (i.e., confounders) or related only to the outcome. However, it is often challenging to identify such covariates among the large number that may be measured in a given study. In this paper, we propose GLiDeR (Group Lasso and Doubly Robust Estimation), a novel variable selection technique for identifying confounders and predictors of outcome using an adaptive group lasso approach that simultaneously performs coefficient selection, regularization, and estimation across the treatment and outcome models. The selected variables and corresponding coefficient estimates are used in a standard doubly robust ACE estimator. We provide asymptotic results showing that, for a broad class of data generating mechanisms, GLiDeR yields a consistent estimator of the ACE when either the outcome or treatment model is correctly specified. A comprehensive simulation study shows that GLiDeR is more efficient than doubly robust methods using standard variable selection techniques and has substantial computational advantages over a recently proposed doubly robust Bayesian model averaging method. We illustrate our method by estimating the causal treatment effect of bilateral versus single-lung transplant on forced expiratory volume in one year after transplant using an observational registry. PMID:28636276
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vogelmann, A. M.; Gustafson, W. I., Jr.; Toto, T.; Endo, S.; Cheng, X.; Li, Z.; Xiao, H.
2015-12-01
The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facilities' Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) Workflow is currently being designed to provide output from routine LES to complement its extensive observations. The modeling portion of the LASSO workflow is presented by Gustafson et al., which will initially focus on shallow convection over the ARM megasite in Oklahoma, USA. This presentation describes how the LES output will be combined with observations to construct multi-dimensional and dynamically consistent "data cubes", aimed at providing the best description of the atmospheric state for use in analyses by the community. The megasite observations are used to constrain large-eddy simulations that provide a complete spatial and temporal coverage of observables and, further, the simulations also provide information on processes that cannot be observed. Statistical comparisons of model output with their observables are used to assess the quality of a given simulated realization and its associated uncertainties. A data cube is a model-observation package that provides: (1) metrics of model-observation statistical summaries to assess the simulations and the ensemble spread; (2) statistical summaries of additional model property output that cannot be or are very difficult to observe; and (3) snapshots of the 4-D simulated fields from the integration period. Searchable metrics are provided that characterize the general atmospheric state to assist users in finding cases of interest, such as categorization of daily weather conditions and their specific attributes. The data cubes will be accompanied by tools designed for easy access to cube contents from within the ARM archive and externally, the ability to compare multiple data streams within an event as well as across events, and the ability to use common grids and time sampling, where appropriate.
Regularization Paths for Conditional Logistic Regression: The clogitL1 Package.
Reid, Stephen; Tibshirani, Rob
2014-07-01
We apply the cyclic coordinate descent algorithm of Friedman, Hastie, and Tibshirani (2010) to the fitting of a conditional logistic regression model with lasso [Formula: see text] and elastic net penalties. The sequential strong rules of Tibshirani, Bien, Hastie, Friedman, Taylor, Simon, and Tibshirani (2012) are also used in the algorithm and it is shown that these offer a considerable speed up over the standard coordinate descent algorithm with warm starts. Once implemented, the algorithm is used in simulation studies to compare the variable selection and prediction performance of the conditional logistic regression model against that of its unconditional (standard) counterpart. We find that the conditional model performs admirably on datasets drawn from a suitable conditional distribution, outperforming its unconditional counterpart at variable selection. The conditional model is also fit to a small real world dataset, demonstrating how we obtain regularization paths for the parameters of the model and how we apply cross validation for this method where natural unconditional prediction rules are hard to come by.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Wei; Li, Xiang-ru
2017-07-01
The multi-task learning takes the multiple tasks together to make analysis and calculation, so as to dig out the correlations among them, and therefore to improve the accuracy of the analyzed results. This kind of methods have been widely applied to the machine learning, pattern recognition, computer vision, and other related fields. This paper investigates the application of multi-task learning in estimating the stellar atmospheric parameters, including the surface temperature (Teff), surface gravitational acceleration (lg g), and chemical abundance ([Fe/H]). Firstly, the spectral features of the three stellar atmospheric parameters are extracted by using the multi-task sparse group Lasso algorithm, then the support vector machine is used to estimate the atmospheric physical parameters. The proposed scheme is evaluated on both the Sloan stellar spectra and the theoretical spectra computed from the Kurucz's New Opacity Distribution Function (NEWODF) model. The mean absolute errors (MAEs) on the Sloan spectra are: 0.0064 for lg (Teff /K), 0.1622 for lg (g/(cm · s-2)), and 0.1221 dex for [Fe/H]; the MAEs on the synthetic spectra are 0.0006 for lg (Teff /K), 0.0098 for lg (g/(cm · s-2)), and 0.0082 dex for [Fe/H]. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme has a rather high accuracy for the estimation of stellar atmospheric parameters.
Bricklemyer, Ross S; Brown, David J; Turk, Philip J; Clegg, Sam M
2013-10-01
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) provides a potential method for rapid, in situ soil C measurement. In previous research on the application of LIBS to intact soil cores, we hypothesized that ultraviolet (UV) spectrum LIBS (200-300 nm) might not provide sufficient elemental information to reliably discriminate between soil organic C (SOC) and inorganic C (IC). In this study, using a custom complete spectrum (245-925 nm) core-scanning LIBS instrument, we analyzed 60 intact soil cores from six wheat fields. Predictive multi-response partial least squares (PLS2) models using full and reduced spectrum LIBS were compared for directly determining soil total C (TC), IC, and SOC. Two regression shrinkage and variable selection approaches, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) and sparse multivariate regression with covariance estimation (MRCE), were tested for soil C predictions and the identification of wavelengths important for soil C prediction. Using complete spectrum LIBS for PLS2 modeling reduced the calibration standard error of prediction (SEP) 15 and 19% for TC and IC, respectively, compared to UV spectrum LIBS. The LASSO and MRCE approaches provided significantly improved calibration accuracy and reduced SEP 32-55% over UV spectrum PLS2 models. We conclude that (1) complete spectrum LIBS is superior to UV spectrum LIBS for predicting soil C for intact soil cores without pretreatment; (2) LASSO and MRCE approaches provide improved calibration prediction accuracy over PLS2 but require additional testing with increased soil and target analyte diversity; and (3) measurement errors associated with analyzing intact cores (e.g., sample density and surface roughness) require further study and quantification.
Covariate selection with group lasso and doubly robust estimation of causal effects.
Koch, Brandon; Vock, David M; Wolfson, Julian
2018-03-01
The efficiency of doubly robust estimators of the average causal effect (ACE) of a treatment can be improved by including in the treatment and outcome models only those covariates which are related to both treatment and outcome (i.e., confounders) or related only to the outcome. However, it is often challenging to identify such covariates among the large number that may be measured in a given study. In this article, we propose GLiDeR (Group Lasso and Doubly Robust Estimation), a novel variable selection technique for identifying confounders and predictors of outcome using an adaptive group lasso approach that simultaneously performs coefficient selection, regularization, and estimation across the treatment and outcome models. The selected variables and corresponding coefficient estimates are used in a standard doubly robust ACE estimator. We provide asymptotic results showing that, for a broad class of data generating mechanisms, GLiDeR yields a consistent estimator of the ACE when either the outcome or treatment model is correctly specified. A comprehensive simulation study shows that GLiDeR is more efficient than doubly robust methods using standard variable selection techniques and has substantial computational advantages over a recently proposed doubly robust Bayesian model averaging method. We illustrate our method by estimating the causal treatment effect of bilateral versus single-lung transplant on forced expiratory volume in one year after transplant using an observational registry. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.
LASSO, two-way, and GPS time comparisons: A (very) preliminary status report
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Veillet, Christian J. L.; Feraudy, D.; Torre, J. M.; Mangin, J. F.; Grudler, P.; Baumont, Francoise S.; Gaignebet, Jean C.; Hatat, J. L.; Hanson, Wayne; Clements, A.
1990-01-01
The first results are presented on the time transfer experiments between TUG (Graz, Austria) and OCA (Grasse, France) using common view Global Positioning System (GPS) and two-way stations at both sites. The present data, providing arms of the clock offsets of 2 to 3 nanoseconds for a three month period, have to be further analyzed before any conclusions on the respective precision and accuracy of these techniques can be drawn. Two years after its start, the Laser Synchronization from Stationary Orbit (LASSO) experiment is finally giving its first results at TUG and OCA. The first analysis of three common sessions permitted researchers to conclude that the LASSO package on board Meteosat P2 is working satisfactorily, and that time transfer using this method should provide clock offsets at better than 1 nanosecond precision, and clock rates at better than 10(exp -12) s/s in a 5 to 10 minutes session. A new method for extracting this information from the raw data sent by LASSO should enhance the performances of this experiment, exploiting the stability of the on-board oscillator.
Zhang, Jinming; Cavallari, Jennifer M; Fang, Shona C; Weisskopf, Marc G; Lin, Xihong; Mittleman, Murray A; Christiani, David C
2017-01-01
Background Environmental and occupational exposure to metals is ubiquitous worldwide, and understanding the hazardous metal components in this complex mixture is essential for environmental and occupational regulations. Objective To identify hazardous components from metal mixtures that are associated with alterations in cardiac autonomic responses. Methods Urinary concentrations of 16 types of metals were examined and ‘acceleration capacity’ (AC) and ‘deceleration capacity’ (DC), indicators of cardiac autonomic effects, were quantified from ECG recordings among 54 welders. We fitted linear mixed-effects models with least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) to identify metal components that are associated with AC and DC. The Bayesian Information Criterion was used as the criterion for model selection procedures. Results Mercury and chromium were selected for DC analysis, whereas mercury, chromium and manganese were selected for AC analysis through the LASSO approach. When we fitted the linear mixed-effects models with ‘selected’ metal components only, the effect of mercury remained significant. Every 1 µg/L increase in urinary mercury was associated with −0.58 ms (−1.03, –0.13) changes in DC and 0.67 ms (0.25, 1.10) changes in AC. Conclusion Our study suggests that exposure to several metals is associated with impaired cardiac autonomic functions. Our findings should be replicated in future studies with larger sample sizes. PMID:28663305
A prediction scheme of tropical cyclone frequency based on lasso and random forest
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Jinkai; Liu, Hexiang; Li, Mengya; Wang, Jun
2017-07-01
This study aims to propose a novel prediction scheme of tropical cyclone frequency (TCF) over the Western North Pacific (WNP). We concerned the large-scale meteorological factors inclusive of the sea surface temperature, sea level pressure, the Niño-3.4 index, the wind shear, the vorticity, the subtropical high, and the sea ice cover, since the chronic change of these factors in the context of climate change would cause a gradual variation of the annual TCF. Specifically, we focus on the correlation between the year-to-year increment of these factors and TCF. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) method was used for variable selection and dimension reduction from 11 initial predictors. Then, a prediction model based on random forest (RF) was established by using the training samples (1978-2011) for calibration and the testing samples (2012-2016) for validation. The RF model presents a major variation and trend of TCF in the period of calibration, and also fitted well with the observed TCF in the period of validation though there were some deviations. The leave-one-out cross validation of the model exhibited most of the predicted TCF are in consistence with the observed TCF with a high correlation coefficient. A comparison between results of the RF model and the multiple linear regression (MLR) model suggested the RF is more practical and capable of giving reliable results of TCF prediction over the WNP.
Shrinkage Estimation of Varying Covariate Effects Based On Quantile Regression
Peng, Limin; Xu, Jinfeng; Kutner, Nancy
2013-01-01
Varying covariate effects often manifest meaningful heterogeneity in covariate-response associations. In this paper, we adopt a quantile regression model that assumes linearity at a continuous range of quantile levels as a tool to explore such data dynamics. The consideration of potential non-constancy of covariate effects necessitates a new perspective for variable selection, which, under the assumed quantile regression model, is to retain variables that have effects on all quantiles of interest as well as those that influence only part of quantiles considered. Current work on l1-penalized quantile regression either does not concern varying covariate effects or may not produce consistent variable selection in the presence of covariates with partial effects, a practical scenario of interest. In this work, we propose a shrinkage approach by adopting a novel uniform adaptive LASSO penalty. The new approach enjoys easy implementation without requiring smoothing. Moreover, it can consistently identify the true model (uniformly across quantiles) and achieve the oracle estimation efficiency. We further extend the proposed shrinkage method to the case where responses are subject to random right censoring. Numerical studies confirm the theoretical results and support the utility of our proposals. PMID:25332515
Modified Regression Correlation Coefficient for Poisson Regression Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaengthong, Nattacha; Domthong, Uthumporn
2017-09-01
This study gives attention to indicators in predictive power of the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) which are widely used; however, often having some restrictions. We are interested in regression correlation coefficient for a Poisson regression model. This is a measure of predictive power, and defined by the relationship between the dependent variable (Y) and the expected value of the dependent variable given the independent variables [E(Y|X)] for the Poisson regression model. The dependent variable is distributed as Poisson. The purpose of this research was modifying regression correlation coefficient for Poisson regression model. We also compare the proposed modified regression correlation coefficient with the traditional regression correlation coefficient in the case of two or more independent variables, and having multicollinearity in independent variables. The result shows that the proposed regression correlation coefficient is better than the traditional regression correlation coefficient based on Bias and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE).
Parametric regression model for survival data: Weibull regression model as an example
2016-01-01
Weibull regression model is one of the most popular forms of parametric regression model that it provides estimate of baseline hazard function, as well as coefficients for covariates. Because of technical difficulties, Weibull regression model is seldom used in medical literature as compared to the semi-parametric proportional hazard model. To make clinical investigators familiar with Weibull regression model, this article introduces some basic knowledge on Weibull regression model and then illustrates how to fit the model with R software. The SurvRegCensCov package is useful in converting estimated coefficients to clinical relevant statistics such as hazard ratio (HR) and event time ratio (ETR). Model adequacy can be assessed by inspecting Kaplan-Meier curves stratified by categorical variable. The eha package provides an alternative method to model Weibull regression model. The check.dist() function helps to assess goodness-of-fit of the model. Variable selection is based on the importance of a covariate, which can be tested using anova() function. Alternatively, backward elimination starting from a full model is an efficient way for model development. Visualization of Weibull regression model after model development is interesting that it provides another way to report your findings. PMID:28149846
Regularization Paths for Conditional Logistic Regression: The clogitL1 Package
Reid, Stephen; Tibshirani, Rob
2014-01-01
We apply the cyclic coordinate descent algorithm of Friedman, Hastie, and Tibshirani (2010) to the fitting of a conditional logistic regression model with lasso (ℓ1) and elastic net penalties. The sequential strong rules of Tibshirani, Bien, Hastie, Friedman, Taylor, Simon, and Tibshirani (2012) are also used in the algorithm and it is shown that these offer a considerable speed up over the standard coordinate descent algorithm with warm starts. Once implemented, the algorithm is used in simulation studies to compare the variable selection and prediction performance of the conditional logistic regression model against that of its unconditional (standard) counterpart. We find that the conditional model performs admirably on datasets drawn from a suitable conditional distribution, outperforming its unconditional counterpart at variable selection. The conditional model is also fit to a small real world dataset, demonstrating how we obtain regularization paths for the parameters of the model and how we apply cross validation for this method where natural unconditional prediction rules are hard to come by. PMID:26257587
Arribas-Gil, Ana; De la Cruz, Rolando; Lebarbier, Emilie; Meza, Cristian
2015-06-01
We propose a classification method for longitudinal data. The Bayes classifier is classically used to determine a classification rule where the underlying density in each class needs to be well modeled and estimated. This work is motivated by a real dataset of hormone levels measured at the early stages of pregnancy that can be used to predict normal versus abnormal pregnancy outcomes. The proposed model, which is a semiparametric linear mixed-effects model (SLMM), is a particular case of the semiparametric nonlinear mixed-effects class of models (SNMM) in which finite dimensional (fixed effects and variance components) and infinite dimensional (an unknown function) parameters have to be estimated. In SNMM's maximum likelihood estimation is performed iteratively alternating parametric and nonparametric procedures. However, if one can make the assumption that the random effects and the unknown function interact in a linear way, more efficient estimation methods can be used. Our contribution is the proposal of a unified estimation procedure based on a penalized EM-type algorithm. The Expectation and Maximization steps are explicit. In this latter step, the unknown function is estimated in a nonparametric fashion using a lasso-type procedure. A simulation study and an application on real data are performed. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.
Sungsanpin, a lasso peptide from a deep-sea streptomycete.
Um, Soohyun; Kim, Young-Joo; Kwon, Hyuknam; Wen, He; Kim, Seong-Hwan; Kwon, Hak Cheol; Park, Sunghyouk; Shin, Jongheon; Oh, Dong-Chan
2013-05-24
Sungsanpin (1), a new 15-amino-acid peptide, was discovered from a Streptomyces species isolated from deep-sea sediment collected off Jeju Island, Korea. The planar structure of 1 was determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and UV spectroscopy. The absolute configurations of the stereocenters in this compound were assigned by derivatizations of the hydrolysate of 1 with Marfey's reagents and 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl isothiocyanate, followed by LC-MS analysis. Careful analysis of the ROESY NMR spectrum and three-dimensional structure calculations revealed that sungsanpin possesses the features of a lasso peptide: eight amino acids (-Gly(1)-Phe-Gly-Ser-Lys-Pro-Ile-Asp(8)-) that form a cyclic peptide and seven amino acids (-Ser(9)-Phe-Gly-Leu-Ser-Trp-Leu(15)) that form a tail that loops through the ring. Sungsanpin is thus the first example of a lasso peptide isolated from a marine-derived microorganism. Sungsanpin displayed inhibitory activity in a cell invasion assay with the human lung cancer cell line A549.
Tracking of time-varying genomic regulatory networks with a LASSO-Kalman smoother
2014-01-01
It is widely accepted that cellular requirements and environmental conditions dictate the architecture of genetic regulatory networks. Nonetheless, the status quo in regulatory network modeling and analysis assumes an invariant network topology over time. In this paper, we refocus on a dynamic perspective of genetic networks, one that can uncover substantial topological changes in network structure during biological processes such as developmental growth. We propose a novel outlook on the inference of time-varying genetic networks, from a limited number of noisy observations, by formulating the network estimation as a target tracking problem. We overcome the limited number of observations (small n large p problem) by performing tracking in a compressed domain. Assuming linear dynamics, we derive the LASSO-Kalman smoother, which recursively computes the minimum mean-square sparse estimate of the network connectivity at each time point. The LASSO operator, motivated by the sparsity of the genetic regulatory networks, allows simultaneous signal recovery and compression, thereby reducing the amount of required observations. The smoothing improves the estimation by incorporating all observations. We track the time-varying networks during the life cycle of the Drosophila melanogaster. The recovered networks show that few genes are permanent, whereas most are transient, acting only during specific developmental phases of the organism. PMID:24517200
ORACLE INEQUALITIES FOR THE LASSO IN THE COX MODEL
Huang, Jian; Sun, Tingni; Ying, Zhiliang; Yu, Yi; Zhang, Cun-Hui
2013-01-01
We study the absolute penalized maximum partial likelihood estimator in sparse, high-dimensional Cox proportional hazards regression models where the number of time-dependent covariates can be larger than the sample size. We establish oracle inequalities based on natural extensions of the compatibility and cone invertibility factors of the Hessian matrix at the true regression coefficients. Similar results based on an extension of the restricted eigenvalue can be also proved by our method. However, the presented oracle inequalities are sharper since the compatibility and cone invertibility factors are always greater than the corresponding restricted eigenvalue. In the Cox regression model, the Hessian matrix is based on time-dependent covariates in censored risk sets, so that the compatibility and cone invertibility factors, and the restricted eigenvalue as well, are random variables even when they are evaluated for the Hessian at the true regression coefficients. Under mild conditions, we prove that these quantities are bounded from below by positive constants for time-dependent covariates, including cases where the number of covariates is of greater order than the sample size. Consequently, the compatibility and cone invertibility factors can be treated as positive constants in our oracle inequalities. PMID:24086091
ORACLE INEQUALITIES FOR THE LASSO IN THE COX MODEL.
Huang, Jian; Sun, Tingni; Ying, Zhiliang; Yu, Yi; Zhang, Cun-Hui
2013-06-01
We study the absolute penalized maximum partial likelihood estimator in sparse, high-dimensional Cox proportional hazards regression models where the number of time-dependent covariates can be larger than the sample size. We establish oracle inequalities based on natural extensions of the compatibility and cone invertibility factors of the Hessian matrix at the true regression coefficients. Similar results based on an extension of the restricted eigenvalue can be also proved by our method. However, the presented oracle inequalities are sharper since the compatibility and cone invertibility factors are always greater than the corresponding restricted eigenvalue. In the Cox regression model, the Hessian matrix is based on time-dependent covariates in censored risk sets, so that the compatibility and cone invertibility factors, and the restricted eigenvalue as well, are random variables even when they are evaluated for the Hessian at the true regression coefficients. Under mild conditions, we prove that these quantities are bounded from below by positive constants for time-dependent covariates, including cases where the number of covariates is of greater order than the sample size. Consequently, the compatibility and cone invertibility factors can be treated as positive constants in our oracle inequalities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vogelmann, A. M.; Zhang, D.; Kollias, P.; Endo, S.; Lamer, K.; Gustafson, W. I., Jr.; Romps, D. M.
2017-12-01
Continental boundary layer clouds are important to simulations of weather and climate because of their impact on surface budgets and vertical transports of energy and moisture; however, model-parameterized boundary layer clouds do not agree well with observations in part because small-scale turbulence and convection are not properly represented. To advance parameterization development and evaluation, observational constraints are needed on critical parameters such as cloud-base mass flux and its relationship to cloud cover and the sub-cloud boundary layer structure including vertical velocity variance and skewness. In this study, these constraints are derived from Doppler lidar observations and ensemble large-eddy simulations (LES) from the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Facility Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in Oklahoma. The Doppler lidar analysis will extend the single-site, long-term analysis of Lamer and Kollias [2015] and augment this information with the short-term but unique 1-2 year period since five Doppler lidars began operation at the SGP, providing critical information on regional variability. These observations will be compared to the statistics obtained from ensemble, routine LES conducted by the LES ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) project (https://www.arm.gov/capabilities/modeling/lasso). An Observation System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) will be presented that uses the LASSO LES fields to determine criteria for which relationships from Doppler lidar observations are adequately sampled to yield convergence. Any systematic differences between the observed and simulated relationships will be examined to understand factors contributing to the differences. Lamer, K., and P. Kollias (2015), Observations of fair-weather cumuli over land: Dynamical factors controlling cloud size and cover, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 8693-8701, doi:10.1002/2015GL064534
ELASTIC NET FOR COX'S PROPORTIONAL HAZARDS MODEL WITH A SOLUTION PATH ALGORITHM.
Wu, Yichao
2012-01-01
For least squares regression, Efron et al. (2004) proposed an efficient solution path algorithm, the least angle regression (LAR). They showed that a slight modification of the LAR leads to the whole LASSO solution path. Both the LAR and LASSO solution paths are piecewise linear. Recently Wu (2011) extended the LAR to generalized linear models and the quasi-likelihood method. In this work we extend the LAR further to handle Cox's proportional hazards model. The goal is to develop a solution path algorithm for the elastic net penalty (Zou and Hastie (2005)) in Cox's proportional hazards model. This goal is achieved in two steps. First we extend the LAR to optimizing the log partial likelihood plus a fixed small ridge term. Then we define a path modification, which leads to the solution path of the elastic net regularized log partial likelihood. Our solution path is exact and piecewise determined by ordinary differential equation systems.
Sabourin, Jeremy; Nobel, Andrew B.; Valdar, William
2014-01-01
Genomewide association studies sometimes identify loci at which both the number and identities of the underlying causal variants are ambiguous. In such cases, statistical methods that model effects of multiple SNPs simultaneously can help disentangle the observed patterns of association and provide information about how those SNPs could be prioritized for follow-up studies. Current multi-SNP methods, however, tend to assume that SNP effects are well captured by additive genetics; yet when genetic dominance is present, this assumption translates to reduced power and faulty prioritizations. We describe a statistical procedure for prioritizing SNPs at GWAS loci that efficiently models both additive and dominance effects. Our method, LLARRMA-dawg, combines a group LASSO procedure for sparse modeling of multiple SNP effects with a resampling procedure based on fractional observation weights; it estimates for each SNP the robustness of association with the phenotype both to sampling variation and to competing explanations from other SNPs. In producing a SNP prioritization that best identifies underlying true signals, we show that: our method easily outperforms a single marker analysis; when additive-only signals are present, our joint model for additive and dominance is equivalent to or only slightly less powerful than modeling additive-only effects; and, when dominance signals are present, even in combination with substantial additive effects, our joint model is unequivocally more powerful than a model assuming additivity. We also describe how performance can be improved through calibrated randomized penalization, and discuss how dominance in ungenotyped SNPs can be incorporated through either heterozygote dosage or multiple imputation. PMID:25417853
Similarity regularized sparse group lasso for cup to disc ratio computation.
Cheng, Jun; Zhang, Zhuo; Tao, Dacheng; Wong, Damon Wing Kee; Liu, Jiang; Baskaran, Mani; Aung, Tin; Wong, Tien Yin
2017-08-01
Automatic cup to disc ratio (CDR) computation from color fundus images has shown to be promising for glaucoma detection. Over the past decade, many algorithms have been proposed. In this paper, we first review the recent work in the area and then present a novel similarity-regularized sparse group lasso method for automated CDR estimation. The proposed method reconstructs the testing disc image based on a set of reference disc images by integrating the similarity between testing and the reference disc images with the sparse group lasso constraints. The reconstruction coefficients are then used to estimate the CDR of the testing image. The proposed method has been validated using 650 images with manually annotated CDRs. Experimental results show an average CDR error of 0.0616 and a correlation coefficient of 0.7, outperforming other methods. The areas under curve in the diagnostic test reach 0.843 and 0.837 when manual and automatically segmented discs are used respectively, better than other methods as well.
ELASTIC NET FOR COX’S PROPORTIONAL HAZARDS MODEL WITH A SOLUTION PATH ALGORITHM
Wu, Yichao
2012-01-01
For least squares regression, Efron et al. (2004) proposed an efficient solution path algorithm, the least angle regression (LAR). They showed that a slight modification of the LAR leads to the whole LASSO solution path. Both the LAR and LASSO solution paths are piecewise linear. Recently Wu (2011) extended the LAR to generalized linear models and the quasi-likelihood method. In this work we extend the LAR further to handle Cox’s proportional hazards model. The goal is to develop a solution path algorithm for the elastic net penalty (Zou and Hastie (2005)) in Cox’s proportional hazards model. This goal is achieved in two steps. First we extend the LAR to optimizing the log partial likelihood plus a fixed small ridge term. Then we define a path modification, which leads to the solution path of the elastic net regularized log partial likelihood. Our solution path is exact and piecewise determined by ordinary differential equation systems. PMID:23226932
Huang, Jian; Zhang, Cun-Hui
2013-01-01
The ℓ1-penalized method, or the Lasso, has emerged as an important tool for the analysis of large data sets. Many important results have been obtained for the Lasso in linear regression which have led to a deeper understanding of high-dimensional statistical problems. In this article, we consider a class of weighted ℓ1-penalized estimators for convex loss functions of a general form, including the generalized linear models. We study the estimation, prediction, selection and sparsity properties of the weighted ℓ1-penalized estimator in sparse, high-dimensional settings where the number of predictors p can be much larger than the sample size n. Adaptive Lasso is considered as a special case. A multistage method is developed to approximate concave regularized estimation by applying an adaptive Lasso recursively. We provide prediction and estimation oracle inequalities for single- and multi-stage estimators, a general selection consistency theorem, and an upper bound for the dimension of the Lasso estimator. Important models including the linear regression, logistic regression and log-linear models are used throughout to illustrate the applications of the general results. PMID:24348100
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boucher, Thomas F.; Ozanne, Marie V.; Carmosino, Marco L.; Dyar, M. Darby; Mahadevan, Sridhar; Breves, Elly A.; Lepore, Kate H.; Clegg, Samuel M.
2015-05-01
The ChemCam instrument on the Mars Curiosity rover is generating thousands of LIBS spectra and bringing interest in this technique to public attention. The key to interpreting Mars or any other types of LIBS data are calibrations that relate laboratory standards to unknowns examined in other settings and enable predictions of chemical composition. Here, LIBS spectral data are analyzed using linear regression methods including partial least squares (PLS-1 and PLS-2), principal component regression (PCR), least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (lasso), elastic net, and linear support vector regression (SVR-Lin). These were compared against results from nonlinear regression methods including kernel principal component regression (K-PCR), polynomial kernel support vector regression (SVR-Py) and k-nearest neighbor (kNN) regression to discern the most effective models for interpreting chemical abundances from LIBS spectra of geological samples. The results were evaluated for 100 samples analyzed with 50 laser pulses at each of five locations averaged together. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were employed to evaluate the statistical significance of differences among the nine models using their predicted residual sum of squares (PRESS) to make comparisons. For MgO, SiO2, Fe2O3, CaO, and MnO, the sparse models outperform all the others except for linear SVR, while for Na2O, K2O, TiO2, and P2O5, the sparse methods produce inferior results, likely because their emission lines in this energy range have lower transition probabilities. The strong performance of the sparse methods in this study suggests that use of dimensionality-reduction techniques as a preprocessing step may improve the performance of the linear models. Nonlinear methods tend to overfit the data and predict less accurately, while the linear methods proved to be more generalizable with better predictive performance. These results are attributed to the high dimensionality of the data (6144 channels
Wu, Kai; Liu, Jing; Wang, Shuai
2016-01-01
Evolutionary games (EG) model a common type of interactions in various complex, networked, natural and social systems. Given such a system with only profit sequences being available, reconstructing the interacting structure of EG networks is fundamental to understand and control its collective dynamics. Existing approaches used to handle this problem, such as the lasso, a convex optimization method, need a user-defined constant to control the tradeoff between the natural sparsity of networks and measurement error (the difference between observed data and simulated data). However, a shortcoming of these approaches is that it is not easy to determine these key parameters which can maximize the performance. In contrast to these approaches, we first model the EG network reconstruction problem as a multiobjective optimization problem (MOP), and then develop a framework which involves multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA), followed by solution selection based on knee regions, termed as MOEANet, to solve this MOP. We also design an effective initialization operator based on the lasso for MOEA. We apply the proposed method to reconstruct various types of synthetic and real-world networks, and the results show that our approach is effective to avoid the above parameter selecting problem and can reconstruct EG networks with high accuracy. PMID:27886244
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Kai; Liu, Jing; Wang, Shuai
2016-11-01
Evolutionary games (EG) model a common type of interactions in various complex, networked, natural and social systems. Given such a system with only profit sequences being available, reconstructing the interacting structure of EG networks is fundamental to understand and control its collective dynamics. Existing approaches used to handle this problem, such as the lasso, a convex optimization method, need a user-defined constant to control the tradeoff between the natural sparsity of networks and measurement error (the difference between observed data and simulated data). However, a shortcoming of these approaches is that it is not easy to determine these key parameters which can maximize the performance. In contrast to these approaches, we first model the EG network reconstruction problem as a multiobjective optimization problem (MOP), and then develop a framework which involves multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA), followed by solution selection based on knee regions, termed as MOEANet, to solve this MOP. We also design an effective initialization operator based on the lasso for MOEA. We apply the proposed method to reconstruct various types of synthetic and real-world networks, and the results show that our approach is effective to avoid the above parameter selecting problem and can reconstruct EG networks with high accuracy.
Jang, In Sock; Dienstmann, Rodrigo; Margolin, Adam A; Guinney, Justin
2015-01-01
Complex mechanisms involving genomic aberrations in numerous proteins and pathways are believed to be a key cause of many diseases such as cancer. With recent advances in genomics, elucidating the molecular basis of cancer at a patient level is now feasible, and has led to personalized treatment strategies whereby a patient is treated according to his or her genomic profile. However, there is growing recognition that existing treatment modalities are overly simplistic, and do not fully account for the deep genomic complexity associated with sensitivity or resistance to cancer therapies. To overcome these limitations, large-scale pharmacogenomic screens of cancer cell lines--in conjunction with modern statistical learning approaches--have been used to explore the genetic underpinnings of drug response. While these analyses have demonstrated the ability to infer genetic predictors of compound sensitivity, to date most modeling approaches have been data-driven, i.e. they do not explicitly incorporate domain-specific knowledge (priors) in the process of learning a model. While a purely data-driven approach offers an unbiased perspective of the data--and may yield unexpected or novel insights--this strategy introduces challenges for both model interpretability and accuracy. In this study, we propose a novel prior-incorporated sparse regression model in which the choice of informative predictor sets is carried out by knowledge-driven priors (gene sets) in a stepwise fashion. Under regularization in a linear regression model, our algorithm is able to incorporate prior biological knowledge across the predictive variables thereby improving the interpretability of the final model with no loss--and often an improvement--in predictive performance. We evaluate the performance of our algorithm compared to well-known regularization methods such as LASSO, Ridge and Elastic net regression in the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) and Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer (Sanger
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fouque, Kevin Jeanne Dit; Lavanant, Hélène; Zirah, Séverine; Hegemann, Julian D.; Zimmermann, Marcel; Marahiel, Mohamed A.; Rebuffat, Sylvie; Afonso, Carlos
2017-02-01
Lasso peptides are characterized by a mechanically interlocked structure, where the C-terminal tail of the peptide is threaded and trapped within an N-terminal macrolactam ring. Their compact and stable structures have a significant impact on their biological and physical properties and make them highly interesting for drug development. Ion mobility - mass spectrometry (IM-MS) has shown to be effective to discriminate the lasso topology from their corresponding branched-cyclic topoisomers in which the C-terminal tail is unthreaded. In fact, previous comparison of the IM-MS data of the two topologies has yielded three trends that allow differentiation of the lasso fold from the branched-cyclic structure: (1) the low abundance of highly charged ions, (2) the low change in collision cross sections (CCS) with increasing charge state and (3) a narrow ion mobility peak width. In this study, a three-dimensional plot was generated using three indicators based on these three trends: (1) mean charge divided by mass (ζ), (2) relative range of CCS covered by all protonated molecules (ΔΩ/Ω) and (3) mean ion mobility peak width (δΩ). The data were first collected on a set of twenty one lasso peptides and eight branched-cyclic peptides. The indicators were obtained also for eight variants of the well-known lasso peptide MccJ25 obtained by site-directed mutagenesis and further extended to five linear peptides, two macrocyclic peptides and one disulfide constrained peptide. In all cases, a clear clustering was observed between constrained and unconstrained structures, thus providing a new strategy to discriminate mechanically interlocked topologies.
Source sparsity control of sound field reproduction using the elastic-net and the lasso minimizers.
Gauthier, P-A; Lecomte, P; Berry, A
2017-04-01
Sound field reproduction is aimed at the reconstruction of a sound pressure field in an extended area using dense loudspeaker arrays. In some circumstances, sound field reproduction is targeted at the reproduction of a sound field captured using microphone arrays. Although methods and algorithms already exist to convert microphone array recordings to loudspeaker array signals, one remaining research question is how to control the spatial sparsity in the resulting loudspeaker array signals and what would be the resulting practical advantages. Sparsity is an interesting feature for spatial audio since it can drastically reduce the number of concurrently active reproduction sources and, therefore, increase the spatial contrast of the solution at the expense of a difference between the target and reproduced sound fields. In this paper, the application of the elastic-net cost function to sound field reproduction is compared to the lasso cost function. It is shown that the elastic-net can induce solution sparsity and overcomes limitations of the lasso: The elastic-net solves the non-uniqueness of the lasso solution, induces source clustering in the sparse solution, and provides a smoother solution within the activated source clusters.
Evaluating differential effects using regression interactions and regression mixture models
Van Horn, M. Lee; Jaki, Thomas; Masyn, Katherine; Howe, George; Feaster, Daniel J.; Lamont, Andrea E.; George, Melissa R. W.; Kim, Minjung
2015-01-01
Research increasingly emphasizes understanding differential effects. This paper focuses on understanding regression mixture models, a relatively new statistical methods for assessing differential effects by comparing results to using an interactive term in linear regression. The research questions which each model answers, their formulation, and their assumptions are compared using Monte Carlo simulations and real data analysis. The capabilities of regression mixture models are described and specific issues to be addressed when conducting regression mixtures are proposed. The paper aims to clarify the role that regression mixtures can take in the estimation of differential effects and increase awareness of the benefits and potential pitfalls of this approach. Regression mixture models are shown to be a potentially effective exploratory method for finding differential effects when these effects can be defined by a small number of classes of respondents who share a typical relationship between a predictor and an outcome. It is also shown that the comparison between regression mixture models and interactions becomes substantially more complex as the number of classes increases. It is argued that regression interactions are well suited for direct tests of specific hypotheses about differential effects and regression mixtures provide a useful approach for exploring effect heterogeneity given adequate samples and study design. PMID:26556903
Unitary Response Regression Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lipovetsky, S.
2007-01-01
The dependent variable in a regular linear regression is a numerical variable, and in a logistic regression it is a binary or categorical variable. In these models the dependent variable has varying values. However, there are problems yielding an identity output of a constant value which can also be modelled in a linear or logistic regression with…
Network Inference via the Time-Varying Graphical Lasso
Hallac, David; Park, Youngsuk; Boyd, Stephen; Leskovec, Jure
2018-01-01
Many important problems can be modeled as a system of interconnected entities, where each entity is recording time-dependent observations or measurements. In order to spot trends, detect anomalies, and interpret the temporal dynamics of such data, it is essential to understand the relationships between the different entities and how these relationships evolve over time. In this paper, we introduce the time-varying graphical lasso (TVGL), a method of inferring time-varying networks from raw time series data. We cast the problem in terms of estimating a sparse time-varying inverse covariance matrix, which reveals a dynamic network of interdependencies between the entities. Since dynamic network inference is a computationally expensive task, we derive a scalable message-passing algorithm based on the Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM) to solve this problem in an efficient way. We also discuss several extensions, including a streaming algorithm to update the model and incorporate new observations in real time. Finally, we evaluate our TVGL algorithm on both real and synthetic datasets, obtaining interpretable results and outperforming state-of-the-art baselines in terms of both accuracy and scalability. PMID:29770256
Empirical Performance of Cross-Validation With Oracle Methods in a Genomics Context
Martinez, Josue G.; Carroll, Raymond J.; Müller, Samuel; Sampson, Joshua N.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan
2012-01-01
When employing model selection methods with oracle properties such as the smoothly clipped absolute deviation (SCAD) and the Adaptive Lasso, it is typical to estimate the smoothing parameter by m-fold cross-validation, for example, m = 10. In problems where the true regression function is sparse and the signals large, such cross-validation typically works well. However, in regression modeling of genomic studies involving Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP), the true regression functions, while thought to be sparse, do not have large signals. We demonstrate empirically that in such problems, the number of selected variables using SCAD and the Adaptive Lasso, with 10-fold cross-validation, is a random variable that has considerable and surprising variation. Similar remarks apply to non-oracle methods such as the Lasso. Our study strongly questions the suitability of performing only a single run of m-fold cross-validation with any oracle method, and not just the SCAD and Adaptive Lasso. PMID:22347720
Empirical Performance of Cross-Validation With Oracle Methods in a Genomics Context.
Martinez, Josue G; Carroll, Raymond J; Müller, Samuel; Sampson, Joshua N; Chatterjee, Nilanjan
2011-11-01
When employing model selection methods with oracle properties such as the smoothly clipped absolute deviation (SCAD) and the Adaptive Lasso, it is typical to estimate the smoothing parameter by m-fold cross-validation, for example, m = 10. In problems where the true regression function is sparse and the signals large, such cross-validation typically works well. However, in regression modeling of genomic studies involving Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP), the true regression functions, while thought to be sparse, do not have large signals. We demonstrate empirically that in such problems, the number of selected variables using SCAD and the Adaptive Lasso, with 10-fold cross-validation, is a random variable that has considerable and surprising variation. Similar remarks apply to non-oracle methods such as the Lasso. Our study strongly questions the suitability of performing only a single run of m-fold cross-validation with any oracle method, and not just the SCAD and Adaptive Lasso.
Liu, Li-Zhi; Wu, Fang-Xiang; Zhang, Wen-Jun
2014-01-01
As an abstract mapping of the gene regulations in the cell, gene regulatory network is important to both biological research study and practical applications. The reverse engineering of gene regulatory networks from microarray gene expression data is a challenging research problem in systems biology. With the development of biological technologies, multiple time-course gene expression datasets might be collected for a specific gene network under different circumstances. The inference of a gene regulatory network can be improved by integrating these multiple datasets. It is also known that gene expression data may be contaminated with large errors or outliers, which may affect the inference results. A novel method, Huber group LASSO, is proposed to infer the same underlying network topology from multiple time-course gene expression datasets as well as to take the robustness to large error or outliers into account. To solve the optimization problem involved in the proposed method, an efficient algorithm which combines the ideas of auxiliary function minimization and block descent is developed. A stability selection method is adapted to our method to find a network topology consisting of edges with scores. The proposed method is applied to both simulation datasets and real experimental datasets. It shows that Huber group LASSO outperforms the group LASSO in terms of both areas under receiver operating characteristic curves and areas under the precision-recall curves. The convergence analysis of the algorithm theoretically shows that the sequence generated from the algorithm converges to the optimal solution of the problem. The simulation and real data examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the Huber group LASSO in integrating multiple time-course gene expression datasets and improving the resistance to large errors or outliers.
Cui, Zaixu; Gong, Gaolang
2018-06-02
Individualized behavioral/cognitive prediction using machine learning (ML) regression approaches is becoming increasingly applied. The specific ML regression algorithm and sample size are two key factors that non-trivially influence prediction accuracies. However, the effects of the ML regression algorithm and sample size on individualized behavioral/cognitive prediction performance have not been comprehensively assessed. To address this issue, the present study included six commonly used ML regression algorithms: ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression, ridge regression, elastic-net regression, linear support vector regression (LSVR), and relevance vector regression (RVR), to perform specific behavioral/cognitive predictions based on different sample sizes. Specifically, the publicly available resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) dataset from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) was used, and whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) or rsFC strength (rsFCS) were extracted as prediction features. Twenty-five sample sizes (ranged from 20 to 700) were studied by sub-sampling from the entire HCP cohort. The analyses showed that rsFC-based LASSO regression performed remarkably worse than the other algorithms, and rsFCS-based OLS regression performed markedly worse than the other algorithms. Regardless of the algorithm and feature type, both the prediction accuracy and its stability exponentially increased with increasing sample size. The specific patterns of the observed algorithm and sample size effects were well replicated in the prediction using re-testing fMRI data, data processed by different imaging preprocessing schemes, and different behavioral/cognitive scores, thus indicating excellent robustness/generalization of the effects. The current findings provide critical insight into how the selected ML regression algorithm and sample size influence individualized predictions of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gustafson, W. I., Jr.; Vogelmann, A. M.; Li, Z.; Cheng, X.; Endo, S.; Krishna, B.; Toto, T.; Xiao, H.
2017-12-01
Large-eddy simulation (LES) is a powerful tool for understanding atmospheric turbulence and cloud development. However, the results are sensitive to the choice of forcing data sets used to drive the LES model, and the most realistic forcing data is difficult to identify a priori. Knowing the sensitivity of boundary layer and cloud processes to forcing data selection is critical when using LES to understand atmospheric processes and when developing associated parameterizations. The U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) User Facility has been developing the capability to routinely generate ensembles of LES based on a selection of plausible input forcing data sets. The LES ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) project is initially generating simulations for shallow convection days at the ARM Southern Great Plains site in Oklahoma. This talk will examine 13 days with shallow convection selected from the period May-August 2016, with multiple forcing sources and spatial scales used to generate an LES ensemble for each of the days, resulting in hundreds of LES runs with coincident observations from ARM's extensive suite of in situ and retrieval-based products. This talk will focus particularly on the sensitivity of the cloud development and its relation to forcing data. Variability of the PBL characteristics, lifting condensation level, cloud base height, cloud fraction, and liquid water path will be examined. More information about the LASSO project can be found at https://www.arm.gov/capabilities/modeling/lasso.
Belilovsky, Eugene; Gkirtzou, Katerina; Misyrlis, Michail; Konova, Anna B; Honorio, Jean; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Goldstein, Rita Z; Samaras, Dimitris; Blaschko, Matthew B
2015-12-01
We explore various sparse regularization techniques for analyzing fMRI data, such as the ℓ1 norm (often called LASSO in the context of a squared loss function), elastic net, and the recently introduced k-support norm. Employing sparsity regularization allows us to handle the curse of dimensionality, a problem commonly found in fMRI analysis. In this work we consider sparse regularization in both the regression and classification settings. We perform experiments on fMRI scans from cocaine-addicted as well as healthy control subjects. We show that in many cases, use of the k-support norm leads to better predictive performance, solution stability, and interpretability as compared to other standard approaches. We additionally analyze the advantages of using the absolute loss function versus the standard squared loss which leads to significantly better predictive performance for the regularization methods tested in almost all cases. Our results support the use of the k-support norm for fMRI analysis and on the clinical side, the generalizability of the I-RISA model of cocaine addiction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pandremmenou, K.; Shahid, M.; Kondi, L. P.; Lövström, B.
2015-03-01
In this work, we propose a No-Reference (NR) bitstream-based model for predicting the quality of H.264/AVC video sequences, affected by both compression artifacts and transmission impairments. The proposed model is based on a feature extraction procedure, where a large number of features are calculated from the packet-loss impaired bitstream. Many of the features are firstly proposed in this work, and the specific set of the features as a whole is applied for the first time for making NR video quality predictions. All feature observations are taken as input to the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) regression method. LASSO indicates the most important features, and using only them, it is possible to estimate the Mean Opinion Score (MOS) with high accuracy. Indicatively, we point out that only 13 features are able to produce a Pearson Correlation Coefficient of 0.92 with the MOS. Interestingly, the performance statistics we computed in order to assess our method for predicting the Structural Similarity Index and the Video Quality Metric are equally good. Thus, the obtained experimental results verified the suitability of the features selected by LASSO as well as the ability of LASSO in making accurate predictions through sparse modeling.
Regression modeling of ground-water flow
Cooley, R.L.; Naff, R.L.
1985-01-01
Nonlinear multiple regression methods are developed to model and analyze groundwater flow systems. Complete descriptions of regression methodology as applied to groundwater flow models allow scientists and engineers engaged in flow modeling to apply the methods to a wide range of problems. Organization of the text proceeds from an introduction that discusses the general topic of groundwater flow modeling, to a review of basic statistics necessary to properly apply regression techniques, and then to the main topic: exposition and use of linear and nonlinear regression to model groundwater flow. Statistical procedures are given to analyze and use the regression models. A number of exercises and answers are included to exercise the student on nearly all the methods that are presented for modeling and statistical analysis. Three computer programs implement the more complex methods. These three are a general two-dimensional, steady-state regression model for flow in an anisotropic, heterogeneous porous medium, a program to calculate a measure of model nonlinearity with respect to the regression parameters, and a program to analyze model errors in computed dependent variables such as hydraulic head. (USGS)
Primon, Juliana F.
2017-01-01
Tapeworms of the genus Anindobothrium Marques, Brooks & Lasso, 2001 are found in both marine and Neotropical freshwater stingrays of the family Potamotrygonidae. The patterns of host association within the genus support the most recent hypothesis about the history of diversification of potamotrygonids, which suggests that the ancestor of freshwater lineages of the Potamotrygonidae colonized South American river systems through marine incursion events. Despite the relevance of the genus Anindobothrium to understand the history of colonization and diversification of potamotrygonids, no additional efforts were done to better investigate the phylogenetic relationship of this taxon with other lineages of cestodes since its erection. This study is a result of recent collecting efforts to sample members of the genus in marine and freshwater potamotrygonids that enabled the most extensive documentation of the fauna of Anindobothrium parasitizing species of Styracura de Carvalho, Loboda & da Silva, Potamotrygon schroederi Fernández-Yépez, P. orbignyi (Castelnau) and P. yepezi Castex & Castello from six different countries, representing the eastern Pacific Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and river basins in South America (Rio Negro, Orinoco, and Maracaibo). The newly collected material provided additional specimens for morphological studies and molecular samples for subsequent phylogenetic analyses that allowed us to address the phylogenetic position of Anindobothrium and provide molecular and morphological evidence to recognize two additional species for the genus. The taxonomic actions that followed our analyses included the proposition of a new family, Anindobothriidae fam. n., to accommodate the genus Anindobothrium in the order Rhinebothriidea Healy, Caira, Jensen, Webster & Littlewood, 2009 and the description of two new species—one from the eastern Pacific Ocean, A. carrioni sp. n., and the other from the Caribbean Sea, A. inexpectatum sp. n. In addition, we also present a
Evaluating Differential Effects Using Regression Interactions and Regression Mixture Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Van Horn, M. Lee; Jaki, Thomas; Masyn, Katherine; Howe, George; Feaster, Daniel J.; Lamont, Andrea E.; George, Melissa R. W.; Kim, Minjung
2015-01-01
Research increasingly emphasizes understanding differential effects. This article focuses on understanding regression mixture models, which are relatively new statistical methods for assessing differential effects by comparing results to using an interactive term in linear regression. The research questions which each model answers, their…
Gene regulatory network inference using fused LASSO on multiple data sets
Omranian, Nooshin; Eloundou-Mbebi, Jeanne M. O.; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Nikoloski, Zoran
2016-01-01
Devising computational methods to accurately reconstruct gene regulatory networks given gene expression data is key to systems biology applications. Here we propose a method for reconstructing gene regulatory networks by simultaneous consideration of data sets from different perturbation experiments and corresponding controls. The method imposes three biologically meaningful constraints: (1) expression levels of each gene should be explained by the expression levels of a small number of transcription factor coding genes, (2) networks inferred from different data sets should be similar with respect to the type and number of regulatory interactions, and (3) relationships between genes which exhibit similar differential behavior over the considered perturbations should be favored. We demonstrate that these constraints can be transformed in a fused LASSO formulation for the proposed method. The comparative analysis on transcriptomics time-series data from prokaryotic species, Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as well as a eukaryotic species, mouse, demonstrated that the proposed method has the advantages of the most recent approaches for regulatory network inference, while obtaining better performance and assigning higher scores to the true regulatory links. The study indicates that the combination of sparse regression techniques with other biologically meaningful constraints is a promising framework for gene regulatory network reconstructions. PMID:26864687
Wan, Jian; Chen, Yi-Chieh; Morris, A Julian; Thennadil, Suresh N
2017-07-01
Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is being widely used in various fields ranging from pharmaceutics to the food industry for analyzing chemical and physical properties of the substances concerned. Its advantages over other analytical techniques include available physical interpretation of spectral data, nondestructive nature and high speed of measurements, and little or no need for sample preparation. The successful application of NIR spectroscopy relies on three main aspects: pre-processing of spectral data to eliminate nonlinear variations due to temperature, light scattering effects and many others, selection of those wavelengths that contribute useful information, and identification of suitable calibration models using linear/nonlinear regression . Several methods have been developed for each of these three aspects and many comparative studies of different methods exist for an individual aspect or some combinations. However, there is still a lack of comparative studies for the interactions among these three aspects, which can shed light on what role each aspect plays in the calibration and how to combine various methods of each aspect together to obtain the best calibration model. This paper aims to provide such a comparative study based on four benchmark data sets using three typical pre-processing methods, namely, orthogonal signal correction (OSC), extended multiplicative signal correction (EMSC) and optical path-length estimation and correction (OPLEC); two existing wavelength selection methods, namely, stepwise forward selection (SFS) and genetic algorithm optimization combined with partial least squares regression for spectral data (GAPLSSP); four popular regression methods, namely, partial least squares (PLS), least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM), and Gaussian process regression (GPR). The comparative study indicates that, in general, pre-processing of spectral data can play a significant
Survival Data and Regression Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grégoire, G.
2014-12-01
We start this chapter by introducing some basic elements for the analysis of censored survival data. Then we focus on right censored data and develop two types of regression models. The first one concerns the so-called accelerated failure time models (AFT), which are parametric models where a function of a parameter depends linearly on the covariables. The second one is a semiparametric model, where the covariables enter in a multiplicative form in the expression of the hazard rate function. The main statistical tool for analysing these regression models is the maximum likelihood methodology and, in spite we recall some essential results about the ML theory, we refer to the chapter "Logistic Regression" for a more detailed presentation.
Lien, Tonje G; Borgan, Ørnulf; Reppe, Sjur; Gautvik, Kaare; Glad, Ingrid Kristine
2018-03-07
Using high-dimensional penalized regression we studied genome-wide DNA-methylation in bone biopsies of 80 postmenopausal women in relation to their bone mineral density (BMD). The women showed BMD varying from severely osteoporotic to normal. Global gene expression data from the same individuals was available, and since DNA-methylation often affects gene expression, the overall aim of this paper was to include both of these omics data sets into an integrated analysis. The classical penalized regression uses one penalty, but we incorporated individual penalties for each of the DNA-methylation sites. These individual penalties were guided by the strength of association between DNA-methylations and gene transcript levels. DNA-methylations that were highly associated to one or more transcripts got lower penalties and were therefore favored compared to DNA-methylations showing less association to expression. Because of the complex pathways and interactions among genes, we investigated both the association between DNA-methylations and their corresponding cis gene, as well as the association between DNA-methylations and trans-located genes. Two integrating penalized methods were used: first, an adaptive group-regularized ridge regression, and secondly, variable selection was performed through a modified version of the weighted lasso. When information from gene expressions was integrated, predictive performance was considerably improved, in terms of predictive mean square error, compared to classical penalized regression without data integration. We found a 14.7% improvement in the ridge regression case and a 17% improvement for the lasso case. Our version of the weighted lasso with data integration found a list of 22 interesting methylation sites. Several corresponded to genes that are known to be important in bone formation. Using BMD as response and these 22 methylation sites as covariates, least square regression analyses resulted in R 2 =0.726, comparable to an
Inferring epidemiological parameters from phylogenies using regression-ABC: A comparative study
Gascuel, Olivier
2017-01-01
Inferring epidemiological parameters such as the R0 from time-scaled phylogenies is a timely challenge. Most current approaches rely on likelihood functions, which raise specific issues that range from computing these functions to finding their maxima numerically. Here, we present a new regression-based Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) approach, which we base on a large variety of summary statistics intended to capture the information contained in the phylogeny and its corresponding lineage-through-time plot. The regression step involves the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) method, which is a robust machine learning technique. It allows us to readily deal with the large number of summary statistics, while avoiding resorting to Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques. To compare our approach to existing ones, we simulated target trees under a variety of epidemiological models and settings, and inferred parameters of interest using the same priors. We found that, for large phylogenies, the accuracy of our regression-ABC is comparable to that of likelihood-based approaches involving birth-death processes implemented in BEAST2. Our approach even outperformed these when inferring the host population size with a Susceptible-Infected-Removed epidemiological model. It also clearly outperformed a recent kernel-ABC approach when assuming a Susceptible-Infected epidemiological model with two host types. Lastly, by re-analyzing data from the early stages of the recent Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone, we showed that regression-ABC provides more realistic estimates for the duration parameters (latency and infectiousness) than the likelihood-based method. Overall, ABC based on a large variety of summary statistics and a regression method able to perform variable selection and avoid overfitting is a promising approach to analyze large phylogenies. PMID:28263987
Perceptual quality estimation of H.264/AVC videos using reduced-reference and no-reference models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahid, Muhammad; Pandremmenou, Katerina; Kondi, Lisimachos P.; Rossholm, Andreas; Lövström, Benny
2016-09-01
Reduced-reference (RR) and no-reference (NR) models for video quality estimation, using features that account for the impact of coding artifacts, spatio-temporal complexity, and packet losses, are proposed. The purpose of this study is to analyze a number of potentially quality-relevant features in order to select the most suitable set of features for building the desired models. The proposed sets of features have not been used in the literature and some of the features are used for the first time in this study. The features are employed by the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), which selects only the most influential of them toward perceptual quality. For comparison, we apply feature selection in the complete feature sets and ridge regression on the reduced sets. The models are validated using a database of H.264/AVC encoded videos that were subjectively assessed for quality in an ITU-T compliant laboratory. We infer that just two features selected by RR LASSO and two bitstream-based features selected by NR LASSO are able to estimate perceptual quality with high accuracy, higher than that of ridge, which uses more features. The comparisons with competing works and two full-reference metrics also verify the superiority of our models.
Interpretation of commonly used statistical regression models.
Kasza, Jessica; Wolfe, Rory
2014-01-01
A review of some regression models commonly used in respiratory health applications is provided in this article. Simple linear regression, multiple linear regression, logistic regression and ordinal logistic regression are considered. The focus of this article is on the interpretation of the regression coefficients of each model, which are illustrated through the application of these models to a respiratory health research study. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.
Integrative eQTL analysis of tumor and host omics data in individuals with bladder cancer.
Pineda, Silvia; Van Steen, Kristel; Malats, Núria
2017-09-01
Integrative analyses of several omics data are emerging. The data are usually generated from the same source material (i.e., tumor sample) representing one level of regulation. However, integrating different regulatory levels (i.e., blood) with those from tumor may also reveal important knowledge about the human genetic architecture. To model this multilevel structure, an integrative-expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis applying two-stage regression (2SR) was proposed. This approach first regressed tumor gene expression levels with tumor markers and the adjusted residuals from the previous model were then regressed with the germline genotypes measured in blood. Previously, we demonstrated that penalized regression methods in combination with a permutation-based MaxT method (Global-LASSO) is a promising tool to fix some of the challenges that high-throughput omics data analysis imposes. Here, we assessed whether Global-LASSO can also be applied when tumor and blood omics data are integrated. We further compared our strategy with two 2SR-approaches, one using multiple linear regression (2SR-MLR) and other using LASSO (2SR-LASSO). We applied the three models to integrate genomic, epigenomic, and transcriptomic data from tumor tissue with blood germline genotypes from 181 individuals with bladder cancer included in the TCGA Consortium. Global-LASSO provided a larger list of eQTLs than the 2SR methods, identified a previously reported eQTLs in prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), and provided further clues on the complexity of APBEC3B loci, with a minimal false-positive rate not achieved by 2SR-MLR. It also represents an important contribution for omics integrative analysis because it is easy to apply and adaptable to any type of data. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.
Yang, Guanxue; Wang, Lin; Wang, Xiaofan
2017-06-07
Reconstruction of networks underlying complex systems is one of the most crucial problems in many areas of engineering and science. In this paper, rather than identifying parameters of complex systems governed by pre-defined models or taking some polynomial and rational functions as a prior information for subsequent model selection, we put forward a general framework for nonlinear causal network reconstruction from time-series with limited observations. With obtaining multi-source datasets based on the data-fusion strategy, we propose a novel method to handle nonlinearity and directionality of complex networked systems, namely group lasso nonlinear conditional granger causality. Specially, our method can exploit different sets of radial basis functions to approximate the nonlinear interactions between each pair of nodes and integrate sparsity into grouped variables selection. The performance characteristic of our approach is firstly assessed with two types of simulated datasets from nonlinear vector autoregressive model and nonlinear dynamic models, and then verified based on the benchmark datasets from DREAM3 Challenge4. Effects of data size and noise intensity are also discussed. All of the results demonstrate that the proposed method performs better in terms of higher area under precision-recall curve.
Poisson Mixture Regression Models for Heart Disease Prediction.
Mufudza, Chipo; Erol, Hamza
2016-01-01
Early heart disease control can be achieved by high disease prediction and diagnosis efficiency. This paper focuses on the use of model based clustering techniques to predict and diagnose heart disease via Poisson mixture regression models. Analysis and application of Poisson mixture regression models is here addressed under two different classes: standard and concomitant variable mixture regression models. Results show that a two-component concomitant variable Poisson mixture regression model predicts heart disease better than both the standard Poisson mixture regression model and the ordinary general linear Poisson regression model due to its low Bayesian Information Criteria value. Furthermore, a Zero Inflated Poisson Mixture Regression model turned out to be the best model for heart prediction over all models as it both clusters individuals into high or low risk category and predicts rate to heart disease componentwise given clusters available. It is deduced that heart disease prediction can be effectively done by identifying the major risks componentwise using Poisson mixture regression model.
Poisson Mixture Regression Models for Heart Disease Prediction
Erol, Hamza
2016-01-01
Early heart disease control can be achieved by high disease prediction and diagnosis efficiency. This paper focuses on the use of model based clustering techniques to predict and diagnose heart disease via Poisson mixture regression models. Analysis and application of Poisson mixture regression models is here addressed under two different classes: standard and concomitant variable mixture regression models. Results show that a two-component concomitant variable Poisson mixture regression model predicts heart disease better than both the standard Poisson mixture regression model and the ordinary general linear Poisson regression model due to its low Bayesian Information Criteria value. Furthermore, a Zero Inflated Poisson Mixture Regression model turned out to be the best model for heart prediction over all models as it both clusters individuals into high or low risk category and predicts rate to heart disease componentwise given clusters available. It is deduced that heart disease prediction can be effectively done by identifying the major risks componentwise using Poisson mixture regression model. PMID:27999611
A Selective Review of Group Selection in High-Dimensional Models
Huang, Jian; Breheny, Patrick; Ma, Shuangge
2013-01-01
Grouping structures arise naturally in many statistical modeling problems. Several methods have been proposed for variable selection that respect grouping structure in variables. Examples include the group LASSO and several concave group selection methods. In this article, we give a selective review of group selection concerning methodological developments, theoretical properties and computational algorithms. We pay particular attention to group selection methods involving concave penalties. We address both group selection and bi-level selection methods. We describe several applications of these methods in nonparametric additive models, semiparametric regression, seemingly unrelated regressions, genomic data analysis and genome wide association studies. We also highlight some issues that require further study. PMID:24174707
REGULARIZATION FOR COX'S PROPORTIONAL HAZARDS MODEL WITH NP-DIMENSIONALITY.
Bradic, Jelena; Fan, Jianqing; Jiang, Jiancheng
2011-01-01
High throughput genetic sequencing arrays with thousands of measurements per sample and a great amount of related censored clinical data have increased demanding need for better measurement specific model selection. In this paper we establish strong oracle properties of non-concave penalized methods for non-polynomial (NP) dimensional data with censoring in the framework of Cox's proportional hazards model. A class of folded-concave penalties are employed and both LASSO and SCAD are discussed specifically. We unveil the question under which dimensionality and correlation restrictions can an oracle estimator be constructed and grasped. It is demonstrated that non-concave penalties lead to significant reduction of the "irrepresentable condition" needed for LASSO model selection consistency. The large deviation result for martingales, bearing interests of its own, is developed for characterizing the strong oracle property. Moreover, the non-concave regularized estimator, is shown to achieve asymptotically the information bound of the oracle estimator. A coordinate-wise algorithm is developed for finding the grid of solution paths for penalized hazard regression problems, and its performance is evaluated on simulated and gene association study examples.
[From clinical judgment to linear regression model.
Palacios-Cruz, Lino; Pérez, Marcela; Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo; Talavera, Juan O
2013-01-01
When we think about mathematical models, such as linear regression model, we think that these terms are only used by those engaged in research, a notion that is far from the truth. Legendre described the first mathematical model in 1805, and Galton introduced the formal term in 1886. Linear regression is one of the most commonly used regression models in clinical practice. It is useful to predict or show the relationship between two or more variables as long as the dependent variable is quantitative and has normal distribution. Stated in another way, the regression is used to predict a measure based on the knowledge of at least one other variable. Linear regression has as it's first objective to determine the slope or inclination of the regression line: Y = a + bx, where "a" is the intercept or regression constant and it is equivalent to "Y" value when "X" equals 0 and "b" (also called slope) indicates the increase or decrease that occurs when the variable "x" increases or decreases in one unit. In the regression line, "b" is called regression coefficient. The coefficient of determination (R 2 ) indicates the importance of independent variables in the outcome.
VARIABLE SELECTION IN NONPARAMETRIC ADDITIVE MODELS
Huang, Jian; Horowitz, Joel L.; Wei, Fengrong
2010-01-01
We consider a nonparametric additive model of a conditional mean function in which the number of variables and additive components may be larger than the sample size but the number of nonzero additive components is “small” relative to the sample size. The statistical problem is to determine which additive components are nonzero. The additive components are approximated by truncated series expansions with B-spline bases. With this approximation, the problem of component selection becomes that of selecting the groups of coefficients in the expansion. We apply the adaptive group Lasso to select nonzero components, using the group Lasso to obtain an initial estimator and reduce the dimension of the problem. We give conditions under which the group Lasso selects a model whose number of components is comparable with the underlying model, and the adaptive group Lasso selects the nonzero components correctly with probability approaching one as the sample size increases and achieves the optimal rate of convergence. The results of Monte Carlo experiments show that the adaptive group Lasso procedure works well with samples of moderate size. A data example is used to illustrate the application of the proposed method. PMID:21127739
Sparse Logistic Regression for Diagnosis of Liver Fibrosis in Rat by Using SCAD-Penalized Likelihood
Yan, Fang-Rong; Lin, Jin-Guan; Liu, Yu
2011-01-01
The objective of the present study is to find out the quantitative relationship between progression of liver fibrosis and the levels of certain serum markers using mathematic model. We provide the sparse logistic regression by using smoothly clipped absolute deviation (SCAD) penalized function to diagnose the liver fibrosis in rats. Not only does it give a sparse solution with high accuracy, it also provides the users with the precise probabilities of classification with the class information. In the simulative case and the experiment case, the proposed method is comparable to the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) and the sparse logistic regression with least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) penalty, by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) with bayesian bootstrap estimating area under the curve (AUC) diagnostic sensitivity for selected variable. Results show that the new approach provides a good correlation between the serum marker levels and the liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA) in rats. Meanwhile, this approach might also be used in predicting the development of liver cirrhosis. PMID:21716672
Liquid electrolyte informatics using an exhaustive search with linear regression.
Sodeyama, Keitaro; Igarashi, Yasuhiko; Nakayama, Tomofumi; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Okada, Masato
2018-06-14
Exploring new liquid electrolyte materials is a fundamental target for developing new high-performance lithium-ion batteries. In contrast to solid materials, disordered liquid solution properties have been less studied by data-driven information techniques. Here, we examined the estimation accuracy and efficiency of three information techniques, multiple linear regression (MLR), least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), and exhaustive search with linear regression (ES-LiR), by using coordination energy and melting point as test liquid properties. We then confirmed that ES-LiR gives the most accurate estimation among the techniques. We also found that ES-LiR can provide the relationship between the "prediction accuracy" and "calculation cost" of the properties via a weight diagram of descriptors. This technique makes it possible to choose the balance of the "accuracy" and "cost" when the search of a huge amount of new materials was carried out.
Content Coding of Psychotherapy Transcripts Using Labeled Topic Models.
Gaut, Garren; Steyvers, Mark; Imel, Zac E; Atkins, David C; Smyth, Padhraic
2017-03-01
Psychotherapy represents a broad class of medical interventions received by millions of patients each year. Unlike most medical treatments, its primary mechanisms are linguistic; i.e., the treatment relies directly on a conversation between a patient and provider. However, the evaluation of patient-provider conversation suffers from critical shortcomings, including intensive labor requirements, coder error, nonstandardized coding systems, and inability to scale up to larger data sets. To overcome these shortcomings, psychotherapy analysis needs a reliable and scalable method for summarizing the content of treatment encounters. We used a publicly available psychotherapy corpus from Alexander Street press comprising a large collection of transcripts of patient-provider conversations to compare coding performance for two machine learning methods. We used the labeled latent Dirichlet allocation (L-LDA) model to learn associations between text and codes, to predict codes in psychotherapy sessions, and to localize specific passages of within-session text representative of a session code. We compared the L-LDA model to a baseline lasso regression model using predictive accuracy and model generalizability (measured by calculating the area under the curve (AUC) from the receiver operating characteristic curve). The L-LDA model outperforms the lasso logistic regression model at predicting session-level codes with average AUC scores of 0.79, and 0.70, respectively. For fine-grained level coding, L-LDA and logistic regression are able to identify specific talk-turns representative of symptom codes. However, model performance for talk-turn identification is not yet as reliable as human coders. We conclude that the L-LDA model has the potential to be an objective, scalable method for accurate automated coding of psychotherapy sessions that perform better than comparable discriminative methods at session-level coding and can also predict fine-grained codes.
Content Coding of Psychotherapy Transcripts Using Labeled Topic Models
Gaut, Garren; Steyvers, Mark; Imel, Zac E; Atkins, David C; Smyth, Padhraic
2016-01-01
Psychotherapy represents a broad class of medical interventions received by millions of patients each year. Unlike most medical treatments, its primary mechanisms are linguistic; i.e., the treatment relies directly on a conversation between a patient and provider. However, the evaluation of patient-provider conversation suffers from critical shortcomings, including intensive labor requirements, coder error, non-standardized coding systems, and inability to scale up to larger data sets. To overcome these shortcomings, psychotherapy analysis needs a reliable and scalable method for summarizing the content of treatment encounters. We used a publicly-available psychotherapy corpus from Alexander Street press comprising a large collection of transcripts of patient-provider conversations to compare coding performance for two machine learning methods. We used the Labeled Latent Dirichlet Allocation (L-LDA) model to learn associations between text and codes, to predict codes in psychotherapy sessions, and to localize specific passages of within-session text representative of a session code. We compared the L-LDA model to a baseline lasso regression model using predictive accuracy and model generalizability (measured by calculating the area under the curve (AUC) from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve). The L-LDA model outperforms the lasso logistic regression model at predicting session-level codes with average AUC scores of .79, and .70, respectively. For fine-grained level coding, L-LDA and logistic regression are able to identify specific talk-turns representative of symptom codes. However, model performance for talk-turn identification is not yet as reliable as human coders. We conclude that the L-LDA model has the potential to be an objective, scaleable method for accurate automated coding of psychotherapy sessions that performs better than comparable discriminative methods at session-level coding and can also predict fine-grained codes. PMID:26625437
Categorical regression dose-response modeling
The goal of this training is to provide participants with training on the use of the U.S. EPA’s Categorical Regression soft¬ware (CatReg) and its application to risk assessment. Categorical regression fits mathematical models to toxicity data that have been assigned ord...
Moderation analysis using a two-level regression model.
Yuan, Ke-Hai; Cheng, Ying; Maxwell, Scott
2014-10-01
Moderation analysis is widely used in social and behavioral research. The most commonly used model for moderation analysis is moderated multiple regression (MMR) in which the explanatory variables of the regression model include product terms, and the model is typically estimated by least squares (LS). This paper argues for a two-level regression model in which the regression coefficients of a criterion variable on predictors are further regressed on moderator variables. An algorithm for estimating the parameters of the two-level model by normal-distribution-based maximum likelihood (NML) is developed. Formulas for the standard errors (SEs) of the parameter estimates are provided and studied. Results indicate that, when heteroscedasticity exists, NML with the two-level model gives more efficient and more accurate parameter estimates than the LS analysis of the MMR model. When error variances are homoscedastic, NML with the two-level model leads to essentially the same results as LS with the MMR model. Most importantly, the two-level regression model permits estimating the percentage of variance of each regression coefficient that is due to moderator variables. When applied to data from General Social Surveys 1991, NML with the two-level model identified a significant moderation effect of race on the regression of job prestige on years of education while LS with the MMR model did not. An R package is also developed and documented to facilitate the application of the two-level model.
Variable selection and model choice in geoadditive regression models.
Kneib, Thomas; Hothorn, Torsten; Tutz, Gerhard
2009-06-01
Model choice and variable selection are issues of major concern in practical regression analyses, arising in many biometric applications such as habitat suitability analyses, where the aim is to identify the influence of potentially many environmental conditions on certain species. We describe regression models for breeding bird communities that facilitate both model choice and variable selection, by a boosting algorithm that works within a class of geoadditive regression models comprising spatial effects, nonparametric effects of continuous covariates, interaction surfaces, and varying coefficients. The major modeling components are penalized splines and their bivariate tensor product extensions. All smooth model terms are represented as the sum of a parametric component and a smooth component with one degree of freedom to obtain a fair comparison between the model terms. A generic representation of the geoadditive model allows us to devise a general boosting algorithm that automatically performs model choice and variable selection.
Chaibub Neto, Elias; Bare, J. Christopher; Margolin, Adam A.
2014-01-01
New algorithms are continuously proposed in computational biology. Performance evaluation of novel methods is important in practice. Nonetheless, the field experiences a lack of rigorous methodology aimed to systematically and objectively evaluate competing approaches. Simulation studies are frequently used to show that a particular method outperforms another. Often times, however, simulation studies are not well designed, and it is hard to characterize the particular conditions under which different methods perform better. In this paper we propose the adoption of well established techniques in the design of computer and physical experiments for developing effective simulation studies. By following best practices in planning of experiments we are better able to understand the strengths and weaknesses of competing algorithms leading to more informed decisions about which method to use for a particular task. We illustrate the application of our proposed simulation framework with a detailed comparison of the ridge-regression, lasso and elastic-net algorithms in a large scale study investigating the effects on predictive performance of sample size, number of features, true model sparsity, signal-to-noise ratio, and feature correlation, in situations where the number of covariates is usually much larger than sample size. Analysis of data sets containing tens of thousands of features but only a few hundred samples is nowadays routine in computational biology, where “omics” features such as gene expression, copy number variation and sequence data are frequently used in the predictive modeling of complex phenotypes such as anticancer drug response. The penalized regression approaches investigated in this study are popular choices in this setting and our simulations corroborate well established results concerning the conditions under which each one of these methods is expected to perform best while providing several novel insights. PMID:25289666
Interaction Models for Functional Regression.
Usset, Joseph; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Maity, Arnab
2016-02-01
A functional regression model with a scalar response and multiple functional predictors is proposed that accommodates two-way interactions in addition to their main effects. The proposed estimation procedure models the main effects using penalized regression splines, and the interaction effect by a tensor product basis. Extensions to generalized linear models and data observed on sparse grids or with measurement error are presented. A hypothesis testing procedure for the functional interaction effect is described. The proposed method can be easily implemented through existing software. Numerical studies show that fitting an additive model in the presence of interaction leads to both poor estimation performance and lost prediction power, while fitting an interaction model where there is in fact no interaction leads to negligible losses. The methodology is illustrated on the AneuRisk65 study data.
A data-driven approach to modeling physical fatigue in the workplace using wearable sensors.
Sedighi Maman, Zahra; Alamdar Yazdi, Mohammad Ali; Cavuoto, Lora A; Megahed, Fadel M
2017-11-01
Wearable sensors are currently being used to manage fatigue in professional athletics, transportation and mining industries. In manufacturing, physical fatigue is a challenging ergonomic/safety "issue" since it lowers productivity and increases the incidence of accidents. Therefore, physical fatigue must be managed. There are two main goals for this study. First, we examine the use of wearable sensors to detect physical fatigue occurrence in simulated manufacturing tasks. The second goal is to estimate the physical fatigue level over time. In order to achieve these goals, sensory data were recorded for eight healthy participants. Penalized logistic and multiple linear regression models were used for physical fatigue detection and level estimation, respectively. Important features from the five sensors locations were selected using Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO), a popular variable selection methodology. The results show that the LASSO model performed well for both physical fatigue detection and modeling. The modeling approach is not participant and/or workload regime specific and thus can be adopted for other applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Jing-Jing; Wu, Hai-Feng; Sun, Tao; Li, Xia; Wang, Wei; Tao, Li-Xin; Huo, Da; Lv, Ping-Xin; He, Wen; Guo, Xiu-Hua
2013-01-01
Lung cancer, one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths, usually appears as solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) which are hard to diagnose using the naked eye. In this paper, curvelet-based textural features and clinical parameters are used with three prediction models [a multilevel model, a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression method, and a support vector machine (SVM)] to improve the diagnosis of benign and malignant SPNs. Dimensionality reduction of the original curvelet-based textural features was achieved using principal component analysis. In addition, non-conditional logistical regression was used to find clinical predictors among demographic parameters and morphological features. The results showed that, combined with 11 clinical predictors, the accuracy rates using 12 principal components were higher than those using the original curvelet-based textural features. To evaluate the models, 10-fold cross validation and back substitution were applied. The results obtained, respectively, were 0.8549 and 0.9221 for the LASSO method, 0.9443 and 0.9831 for SVM, and 0.8722 and 0.9722 for the multilevel model. All in all, it was found that using curvelet-based textural features after dimensionality reduction and using clinical predictors, the highest accuracy rate was achieved with SVM. The method may be used as an auxiliary tool to differentiate between benign and malignant SPNs in CT images.
Introduction to the use of regression models in epidemiology.
Bender, Ralf
2009-01-01
Regression modeling is one of the most important statistical techniques used in analytical epidemiology. By means of regression models the effect of one or several explanatory variables (e.g., exposures, subject characteristics, risk factors) on a response variable such as mortality or cancer can be investigated. From multiple regression models, adjusted effect estimates can be obtained that take the effect of potential confounders into account. Regression methods can be applied in all epidemiologic study designs so that they represent a universal tool for data analysis in epidemiology. Different kinds of regression models have been developed in dependence on the measurement scale of the response variable and the study design. The most important methods are linear regression for continuous outcomes, logistic regression for binary outcomes, Cox regression for time-to-event data, and Poisson regression for frequencies and rates. This chapter provides a nontechnical introduction to these regression models with illustrating examples from cancer research.
Model selection for logistic regression models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duller, Christine
2012-09-01
Model selection for logistic regression models decides which of some given potential regressors have an effect and hence should be included in the final model. The second interesting question is whether a certain factor is heterogeneous among some subsets, i.e. whether the model should include a random intercept or not. In this paper these questions will be answered with classical as well as with Bayesian methods. The application show some results of recent research projects in medicine and business administration.
Real estate value prediction using multivariate regression models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manjula, R.; Jain, Shubham; Srivastava, Sharad; Rajiv Kher, Pranav
2017-11-01
The real estate market is one of the most competitive in terms of pricing and the same tends to vary significantly based on a lot of factors, hence it becomes one of the prime fields to apply the concepts of machine learning to optimize and predict the prices with high accuracy. Therefore in this paper, we present various important features to use while predicting housing prices with good accuracy. We have described regression models, using various features to have lower Residual Sum of Squares error. While using features in a regression model some feature engineering is required for better prediction. Often a set of features (multiple regressions) or polynomial regression (applying a various set of powers in the features) is used for making better model fit. For these models are expected to be susceptible towards over fitting ridge regression is used to reduce it. This paper thus directs to the best application of regression models in addition to other techniques to optimize the result.
Allegrini, Franco; Braga, Jez W B; Moreira, Alessandro C O; Olivieri, Alejandro C
2018-06-29
A new multivariate regression model, named Error Covariance Penalized Regression (ECPR) is presented. Following a penalized regression strategy, the proposed model incorporates information about the measurement error structure of the system, using the error covariance matrix (ECM) as a penalization term. Results are reported from both simulations and experimental data based on replicate mid and near infrared (MIR and NIR) spectral measurements. The results for ECPR are better under non-iid conditions when compared with traditional first-order multivariate methods such as ridge regression (RR), principal component regression (PCR) and partial least-squares regression (PLS). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ridge Regression for Interactive Models.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tate, Richard L.
1988-01-01
An exploratory study of the value of ridge regression for interactive models is reported. Assuming that the linear terms in a simple interactive model are centered to eliminate non-essential multicollinearity, a variety of common models, representing both ordinal and disordinal interactions, are shown to have "orientations" that are…
The ring residue proline 8 is crucial for the thermal stability of the lasso peptide caulosegnin II.
Hegemann, Julian D; Fage, Christopher D; Zhu, Shaozhou; Harms, Klaus; Di Leva, Francesco Saverio; Novellino, Ettore; Marinelli, Luciana; Marahiel, Mohamed A
2016-04-01
Lasso peptides are fascinating natural products with a unique structural fold that can exhibit tremendous thermal stability. Here, we investigate factors responsible for the thermal stability of caulosegnin II. By employing X-ray crystallography, mutational analysis and molecular dynamics simulations, the ring residue proline 8 was proven to be crucial for thermal stability.
Interquantile Shrinkage in Regression Models
Jiang, Liewen; Wang, Huixia Judy; Bondell, Howard D.
2012-01-01
Conventional analysis using quantile regression typically focuses on fitting the regression model at different quantiles separately. However, in situations where the quantile coefficients share some common feature, joint modeling of multiple quantiles to accommodate the commonality often leads to more efficient estimation. One example of common features is that a predictor may have a constant effect over one region of quantile levels but varying effects in other regions. To automatically perform estimation and detection of the interquantile commonality, we develop two penalization methods. When the quantile slope coefficients indeed do not change across quantile levels, the proposed methods will shrink the slopes towards constant and thus improve the estimation efficiency. We establish the oracle properties of the two proposed penalization methods. Through numerical investigations, we demonstrate that the proposed methods lead to estimations with competitive or higher efficiency than the standard quantile regression estimation in finite samples. Supplemental materials for the article are available online. PMID:24363546
Rank-preserving regression: a more robust rank regression model against outliers.
Chen, Tian; Kowalski, Jeanne; Chen, Rui; Wu, Pan; Zhang, Hui; Feng, Changyong; Tu, Xin M
2016-08-30
Mean-based semi-parametric regression models such as the popular generalized estimating equations are widely used to improve robustness of inference over parametric models. Unfortunately, such models are quite sensitive to outlying observations. The Wilcoxon-score-based rank regression (RR) provides more robust estimates over generalized estimating equations against outliers. However, the RR and its extensions do not sufficiently address missing data arising in longitudinal studies. In this paper, we propose a new approach to address outliers under a different framework based on the functional response models. This functional-response-model-based alternative not only addresses limitations of the RR and its extensions for longitudinal data, but, with its rank-preserving property, even provides more robust estimates than these alternatives. The proposed approach is illustrated with both real and simulated data. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Vaeth, Michael; Skovlund, Eva
2004-06-15
For a given regression problem it is possible to identify a suitably defined equivalent two-sample problem such that the power or sample size obtained for the two-sample problem also applies to the regression problem. For a standard linear regression model the equivalent two-sample problem is easily identified, but for generalized linear models and for Cox regression models the situation is more complicated. An approximately equivalent two-sample problem may, however, also be identified here. In particular, we show that for logistic regression and Cox regression models the equivalent two-sample problem is obtained by selecting two equally sized samples for which the parameters differ by a value equal to the slope times twice the standard deviation of the independent variable and further requiring that the overall expected number of events is unchanged. In a simulation study we examine the validity of this approach to power calculations in logistic regression and Cox regression models. Several different covariate distributions are considered for selected values of the overall response probability and a range of alternatives. For the Cox regression model we consider both constant and non-constant hazard rates. The results show that in general the approach is remarkably accurate even in relatively small samples. Some discrepancies are, however, found in small samples with few events and a highly skewed covariate distribution. Comparison with results based on alternative methods for logistic regression models with a single continuous covariate indicates that the proposed method is at least as good as its competitors. The method is easy to implement and therefore provides a simple way to extend the range of problems that can be covered by the usual formulas for power and sample size determination. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
REGULARIZATION FOR COX’S PROPORTIONAL HAZARDS MODEL WITH NP-DIMENSIONALITY*
Fan, Jianqing; Jiang, Jiancheng
2011-01-01
High throughput genetic sequencing arrays with thousands of measurements per sample and a great amount of related censored clinical data have increased demanding need for better measurement specific model selection. In this paper we establish strong oracle properties of non-concave penalized methods for non-polynomial (NP) dimensional data with censoring in the framework of Cox’s proportional hazards model. A class of folded-concave penalties are employed and both LASSO and SCAD are discussed specifically. We unveil the question under which dimensionality and correlation restrictions can an oracle estimator be constructed and grasped. It is demonstrated that non-concave penalties lead to significant reduction of the “irrepresentable condition” needed for LASSO model selection consistency. The large deviation result for martingales, bearing interests of its own, is developed for characterizing the strong oracle property. Moreover, the non-concave regularized estimator, is shown to achieve asymptotically the information bound of the oracle estimator. A coordinate-wise algorithm is developed for finding the grid of solution paths for penalized hazard regression problems, and its performance is evaluated on simulated and gene association study examples. PMID:23066171
Aeroelastic Model Structure Computation for Envelope Expansion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kukreja, Sunil L.
2007-01-01
Structure detection is a procedure for selecting a subset of candidate terms, from a full model description, that best describes the observed output. This is a necessary procedure to compute an efficient system description which may afford greater insight into the functionality of the system or a simpler controller design. Structure computation as a tool for black-box modelling may be of critical importance in the development of robust, parsimonious models for the flight-test community. Moreover, this approach may lead to efficient strategies for rapid envelope expansion which may save significant development time and costs. In this study, a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) technique is investigated for computing efficient model descriptions of nonlinear aeroelastic systems. The LASSO minimises the residual sum of squares by the addition of an l(sub 1) penalty term on the parameter vector of the traditional 2 minimisation problem. Its use for structure detection is a natural extension of this constrained minimisation approach to pseudolinear regression problems which produces some model parameters that are exactly zero and, therefore, yields a parsimonious system description. Applicability of this technique for model structure computation for the F/A-18 Active Aeroelastic Wing using flight test data is shown for several flight conditions (Mach numbers) by identifying a parsimonious system description with a high percent fit for cross-validated data.
Equivalence of MAXENT and Poisson point process models for species distribution modeling in ecology.
Renner, Ian W; Warton, David I
2013-03-01
Modeling the spatial distribution of a species is a fundamental problem in ecology. A number of modeling methods have been developed, an extremely popular one being MAXENT, a maximum entropy modeling approach. In this article, we show that MAXENT is equivalent to a Poisson regression model and hence is related to a Poisson point process model, differing only in the intercept term, which is scale-dependent in MAXENT. We illustrate a number of improvements to MAXENT that follow from these relations. In particular, a point process model approach facilitates methods for choosing the appropriate spatial resolution, assessing model adequacy, and choosing the LASSO penalty parameter, all currently unavailable to MAXENT. The equivalence result represents a significant step in the unification of the species distribution modeling literature. Copyright © 2013, The International Biometric Society.
Regression Models For Multivariate Count Data.
Zhang, Yiwen; Zhou, Hua; Zhou, Jin; Sun, Wei
2017-01-01
Data with multivariate count responses frequently occur in modern applications. The commonly used multinomial-logit model is limiting due to its restrictive mean-variance structure. For instance, analyzing count data from the recent RNA-seq technology by the multinomial-logit model leads to serious errors in hypothesis testing. The ubiquity of over-dispersion and complicated correlation structures among multivariate counts calls for more flexible regression models. In this article, we study some generalized linear models that incorporate various correlation structures among the counts. Current literature lacks a treatment of these models, partly due to the fact that they do not belong to the natural exponential family. We study the estimation, testing, and variable selection for these models in a unifying framework. The regression models are compared on both synthetic and real RNA-seq data.
Detection of Alzheimer's disease using group lasso SVM-based region selection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Zhuo; Fan, Yong; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; van de Giessen, Martijn
2015-03-01
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most frequent forms of dementia and an increasing challenging public health problem. In the last two decades, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has shown potential in distinguishing patients with Alzheimer's disease and elderly controls (CN). To obtain AD-specific biomarkers, previous research used either statistical testing to find statistically significant different regions between the two clinical groups, or l1 sparse learning to select isolated features in the image domain. In this paper, we propose a new framework that uses structural MRI to simultaneously distinguish the two clinical groups and find the bio-markers of AD, using a group lasso support vector machine (SVM). The group lasso term (mixed l1- l2 norm) introduces anatomical information from the image domain into the feature domain, such that the resulting set of selected voxels are more meaningful than the l1 sparse SVM. Because of large inter-structure size variation, we introduce a group specific normalization factor to deal with the structure size bias. Experiments have been performed on a well-designed AD vs. CN dataset1 to validate our method. Comparing to the l1 sparse SVM approach, our method achieved better classification performance and a more meaningful biomarker selection. When we vary the training set, the selected regions by our method were more stable than the l1 sparse SVM. Classification experiments showed that our group normalization lead to higher classification accuracy with fewer selected regions than the non-normalized method. Comparing to the state-of-art AD vs. CN classification methods, our approach not only obtains a high accuracy with the same dataset, but more importantly, we simultaneously find the brain anatomies that are closely related to the disease.
Prediction-Oriented Marker Selection (PROMISE): With Application to High-Dimensional Regression.
Kim, Soyeon; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran; Lee, J Jack
2017-06-01
In personalized medicine, biomarkers are used to select therapies with the highest likelihood of success based on an individual patient's biomarker/genomic profile. Two goals are to choose important biomarkers that accurately predict treatment outcomes and to cull unimportant biomarkers to reduce the cost of biological and clinical verifications. These goals are challenging due to the high dimensionality of genomic data. Variable selection methods based on penalized regression (e.g., the lasso and elastic net) have yielded promising results. However, selecting the right amount of penalization is critical to simultaneously achieving these two goals. Standard approaches based on cross-validation (CV) typically provide high prediction accuracy with high true positive rates but at the cost of too many false positives. Alternatively, stability selection (SS) controls the number of false positives, but at the cost of yielding too few true positives. To circumvent these issues, we propose prediction-oriented marker selection (PROMISE), which combines SS with CV to conflate the advantages of both methods. Our application of PROMISE with the lasso and elastic net in data analysis shows that, compared to CV, PROMISE produces sparse solutions, few false positives, and small type I + type II error, and maintains good prediction accuracy, with a marginal decrease in the true positive rates. Compared to SS, PROMISE offers better prediction accuracy and true positive rates. In summary, PROMISE can be applied in many fields to select regularization parameters when the goals are to minimize false positives and maximize prediction accuracy.
Regression Models For Multivariate Count Data
Zhang, Yiwen; Zhou, Hua; Zhou, Jin; Sun, Wei
2016-01-01
Data with multivariate count responses frequently occur in modern applications. The commonly used multinomial-logit model is limiting due to its restrictive mean-variance structure. For instance, analyzing count data from the recent RNA-seq technology by the multinomial-logit model leads to serious errors in hypothesis testing. The ubiquity of over-dispersion and complicated correlation structures among multivariate counts calls for more flexible regression models. In this article, we study some generalized linear models that incorporate various correlation structures among the counts. Current literature lacks a treatment of these models, partly due to the fact that they do not belong to the natural exponential family. We study the estimation, testing, and variable selection for these models in a unifying framework. The regression models are compared on both synthetic and real RNA-seq data. PMID:28348500
Building Regression Models: The Importance of Graphics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dunn, Richard
1989-01-01
Points out reasons for using graphical methods to teach simple and multiple regression analysis. Argues that a graphically oriented approach has considerable pedagogic advantages in the exposition of simple and multiple regression. Shows that graphical methods may play a central role in the process of building regression models. (Author/LS)
Gaussian Process Regression Model in Spatial Logistic Regression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sofro, A.; Oktaviarina, A.
2018-01-01
Spatial analysis has developed very quickly in the last decade. One of the favorite approaches is based on the neighbourhood of the region. Unfortunately, there are some limitations such as difficulty in prediction. Therefore, we offer Gaussian process regression (GPR) to accommodate the issue. In this paper, we will focus on spatial modeling with GPR for binomial data with logit link function. The performance of the model will be investigated. We will discuss the inference of how to estimate the parameters and hyper-parameters and to predict as well. Furthermore, simulation studies will be explained in the last section.
Quantile regression models of animal habitat relationships
Cade, Brian S.
2003-01-01
Typically, all factors that limit an organism are not measured and included in statistical models used to investigate relationships with their environment. If important unmeasured variables interact multiplicatively with the measured variables, the statistical models often will have heterogeneous response distributions with unequal variances. Quantile regression is an approach for estimating the conditional quantiles of a response variable distribution in the linear model, providing a more complete view of possible causal relationships between variables in ecological processes. Chapter 1 introduces quantile regression and discusses the ordering characteristics, interval nature, sampling variation, weighting, and interpretation of estimates for homogeneous and heterogeneous regression models. Chapter 2 evaluates performance of quantile rankscore tests used for hypothesis testing and constructing confidence intervals for linear quantile regression estimates (0 ≤ τ ≤ 1). A permutation F test maintained better Type I errors than the Chi-square T test for models with smaller n, greater number of parameters p, and more extreme quantiles τ. Both versions of the test required weighting to maintain correct Type I errors when there was heterogeneity under the alternative model. An example application related trout densities to stream channel width:depth. Chapter 3 evaluates a drop in dispersion, F-ratio like permutation test for hypothesis testing and constructing confidence intervals for linear quantile regression estimates (0 ≤ τ ≤ 1). Chapter 4 simulates from a large (N = 10,000) finite population representing grid areas on a landscape to demonstrate various forms of hidden bias that might occur when the effect of a measured habitat variable on some animal was confounded with the effect of another unmeasured variable (spatially and not spatially structured). Depending on whether interactions of the measured habitat and unmeasured variable were negative
Robust mislabel logistic regression without modeling mislabel probabilities.
Hung, Hung; Jou, Zhi-Yu; Huang, Su-Yun
2018-03-01
Logistic regression is among the most widely used statistical methods for linear discriminant analysis. In many applications, we only observe possibly mislabeled responses. Fitting a conventional logistic regression can then lead to biased estimation. One common resolution is to fit a mislabel logistic regression model, which takes into consideration of mislabeled responses. Another common method is to adopt a robust M-estimation by down-weighting suspected instances. In this work, we propose a new robust mislabel logistic regression based on γ-divergence. Our proposal possesses two advantageous features: (1) It does not need to model the mislabel probabilities. (2) The minimum γ-divergence estimation leads to a weighted estimating equation without the need to include any bias correction term, that is, it is automatically bias-corrected. These features make the proposed γ-logistic regression more robust in model fitting and more intuitive for model interpretation through a simple weighting scheme. Our method is also easy to implement, and two types of algorithms are included. Simulation studies and the Pima data application are presented to demonstrate the performance of γ-logistic regression. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.
A computational model for biosonar echoes from foliage
Gupta, Anupam Kumar; Lu, Ruijin; Zhu, Hongxiao
2017-01-01
Since many bat species thrive in densely vegetated habitats, echoes from foliage are likely to be of prime importance to the animals’ sensory ecology, be it as clutter that masks prey echoes or as sources of information about the environment. To better understand the characteristics of foliage echoes, a new model for the process that generates these signals has been developed. This model takes leaf size and orientation into account by representing the leaves as circular disks of varying diameter. The two added leaf parameters are of potential importance to the sensory ecology of bats, e.g., with respect to landmark recognition and flight guidance along vegetation contours. The full model is specified by a total of three parameters: leaf density, average leaf size, and average leaf orientation. It assumes that all leaf parameters are independently and identically distributed. Leaf positions were drawn from a uniform probability density function, sizes and orientations each from a Gaussian probability function. The model was found to reproduce the first-order amplitude statistics of measured example echoes and showed time-variant echo properties that depended on foliage parameters. Parameter estimation experiments using lasso regression have demonstrated that a single foliage parameter can be estimated with high accuracy if the other two parameters are known a priori. If only one parameter is known a priori, the other two can still be estimated, but with a reduced accuracy. Lasso regression did not support simultaneous estimation of all three parameters. Nevertheless, these results demonstrate that foliage echoes contain accessible information on foliage type and orientation that could play a role in supporting sensory tasks such as landmark identification and contour following in echolocating bats. PMID:28817631
A computational model for biosonar echoes from foliage.
Ming, Chen; Gupta, Anupam Kumar; Lu, Ruijin; Zhu, Hongxiao; Müller, Rolf
2017-01-01
Since many bat species thrive in densely vegetated habitats, echoes from foliage are likely to be of prime importance to the animals' sensory ecology, be it as clutter that masks prey echoes or as sources of information about the environment. To better understand the characteristics of foliage echoes, a new model for the process that generates these signals has been developed. This model takes leaf size and orientation into account by representing the leaves as circular disks of varying diameter. The two added leaf parameters are of potential importance to the sensory ecology of bats, e.g., with respect to landmark recognition and flight guidance along vegetation contours. The full model is specified by a total of three parameters: leaf density, average leaf size, and average leaf orientation. It assumes that all leaf parameters are independently and identically distributed. Leaf positions were drawn from a uniform probability density function, sizes and orientations each from a Gaussian probability function. The model was found to reproduce the first-order amplitude statistics of measured example echoes and showed time-variant echo properties that depended on foliage parameters. Parameter estimation experiments using lasso regression have demonstrated that a single foliage parameter can be estimated with high accuracy if the other two parameters are known a priori. If only one parameter is known a priori, the other two can still be estimated, but with a reduced accuracy. Lasso regression did not support simultaneous estimation of all three parameters. Nevertheless, these results demonstrate that foliage echoes contain accessible information on foliage type and orientation that could play a role in supporting sensory tasks such as landmark identification and contour following in echolocating bats.
Liang, Zhaohui; Liu, Jun; Huang, Jimmy X; Zeng, Xing
2018-01-01
The genetic polymorphism of Cytochrome P450 (CYP 450) is considered as one of the main causes for adverse drug reactions (ADRs). In order to explore the latent correlations between ADRs and potentially corresponding single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in CYP450, three algorithms based on information theory are used as the main method to predict the possible relation. The study uses a retrospective case-control study to explore the potential relation of ADRs to specific genomic locations and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). The genomic data collected from 53 healthy volunteers are applied for the analysis, another group of genomic data collected from 30 healthy volunteers excluded from the study are used as the control group. The SNPs respective on five loci of CYP2D6*2,*10,*14 and CYP1A2*1C, *1F are detected by the Applied Biosystem 3130xl. The raw data is processed by ChromasPro to detect the specific alleles on the above loci from each sample. The secondary data are reorganized and processed by R combined with the reports of ADRs from clinical reports. Three information theory based algorithms are implemented for the screening task: JMI, CMIM, and mRMR. If a SNP is selected by more than two algorithms, we are confident to conclude that it is related to the corresponding ADR. The selection results are compared with the control decision tree + LASSO regression model. In the study group where ADRs occur, 10 SNPs are considered relevant to the occurrence of a specific ADR by the combined information theory model. In comparison, only 5 SNPs are considered relevant to a specific ADR by the decision tree + LASSO regression model. In addition, the new method detects more relevant pairs of SNP and ADR which are affected by both SNP and dosage. This implies that the new information theory based model is effective to discover correlations of ADRs and CYP 450 SNPs and is helpful in predicting the potential vulnerable genotype for some ADRs. The newly proposed
Impact of multicollinearity on small sample hydrologic regression models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kroll, Charles N.; Song, Peter
2013-06-01
Often hydrologic regression models are developed with ordinary least squares (OLS) procedures. The use of OLS with highly correlated explanatory variables produces multicollinearity, which creates highly sensitive parameter estimators with inflated variances and improper model selection. It is not clear how to best address multicollinearity in hydrologic regression models. Here a Monte Carlo simulation is developed to compare four techniques to address multicollinearity: OLS, OLS with variance inflation factor screening (VIF), principal component regression (PCR), and partial least squares regression (PLS). The performance of these four techniques was observed for varying sample sizes, correlation coefficients between the explanatory variables, and model error variances consistent with hydrologic regional regression models. The negative effects of multicollinearity are magnified at smaller sample sizes, higher correlations between the variables, and larger model error variances (smaller R2). The Monte Carlo simulation indicates that if the true model is known, multicollinearity is present, and the estimation and statistical testing of regression parameters are of interest, then PCR or PLS should be employed. If the model is unknown, or if the interest is solely on model predictions, is it recommended that OLS be employed since using more complicated techniques did not produce any improvement in model performance. A leave-one-out cross-validation case study was also performed using low-streamflow data sets from the eastern United States. Results indicate that OLS with stepwise selection generally produces models across study regions with varying levels of multicollinearity that are as good as biased regression techniques such as PCR and PLS.
Xu, Cheng-Jian; van der Schaaf, Arjen; Schilstra, Cornelis; Langendijk, Johannes A; van't Veld, Aart A
2012-03-15
To study the impact of different statistical learning methods on the prediction performance of multivariate normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models. In this study, three learning methods, stepwise selection, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), and Bayesian model averaging (BMA), were used to build NTCP models of xerostomia following radiotherapy treatment for head and neck cancer. Performance of each learning method was evaluated by a repeated cross-validation scheme in order to obtain a fair comparison among methods. It was found that the LASSO and BMA methods produced models with significantly better predictive power than that of the stepwise selection method. Furthermore, the LASSO method yields an easily interpretable model as the stepwise method does, in contrast to the less intuitive BMA method. The commonly used stepwise selection method, which is simple to execute, may be insufficient for NTCP modeling. The LASSO method is recommended. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Testing homogeneity in Weibull-regression models.
Bolfarine, Heleno; Valença, Dione M
2005-10-01
In survival studies with families or geographical units it may be of interest testing whether such groups are homogeneous for given explanatory variables. In this paper we consider score type tests for group homogeneity based on a mixing model in which the group effect is modelled as a random variable. As opposed to hazard-based frailty models, this model presents survival times that conditioned on the random effect, has an accelerated failure time representation. The test statistics requires only estimation of the conventional regression model without the random effect and does not require specifying the distribution of the random effect. The tests are derived for a Weibull regression model and in the uncensored situation, a closed form is obtained for the test statistic. A simulation study is used for comparing the power of the tests. The proposed tests are applied to real data sets with censored data.
Detection of epistatic effects with logic regression and a classical linear regression model.
Malina, Magdalena; Ickstadt, Katja; Schwender, Holger; Posch, Martin; Bogdan, Małgorzata
2014-02-01
To locate multiple interacting quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing a trait of interest within experimental populations, usually methods as the Cockerham's model are applied. Within this framework, interactions are understood as the part of the joined effect of several genes which cannot be explained as the sum of their additive effects. However, if a change in the phenotype (as disease) is caused by Boolean combinations of genotypes of several QTLs, this Cockerham's approach is often not capable to identify them properly. To detect such interactions more efficiently, we propose a logic regression framework. Even though with the logic regression approach a larger number of models has to be considered (requiring more stringent multiple testing correction) the efficient representation of higher order logic interactions in logic regression models leads to a significant increase of power to detect such interactions as compared to a Cockerham's approach. The increase in power is demonstrated analytically for a simple two-way interaction model and illustrated in more complex settings with simulation study and real data analysis.
Statistical validation of normal tissue complication probability models.
Xu, Cheng-Jian; van der Schaaf, Arjen; Van't Veld, Aart A; Langendijk, Johannes A; Schilstra, Cornelis
2012-09-01
To investigate the applicability and value of double cross-validation and permutation tests as established statistical approaches in the validation of normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models. A penalized regression method, LASSO (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator), was used to build NTCP models for xerostomia after radiation therapy treatment of head-and-neck cancer. Model assessment was based on the likelihood function and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Repeated double cross-validation showed the uncertainty and instability of the NTCP models and indicated that the statistical significance of model performance can be obtained by permutation testing. Repeated double cross-validation and permutation tests are recommended to validate NTCP models before clinical use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Parameters Estimation of Geographically Weighted Ordinal Logistic Regression (GWOLR) Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zuhdi, Shaifudin; Retno Sari Saputro, Dewi; Widyaningsih, Purnami
2017-06-01
A regression model is the representation of relationship between independent variable and dependent variable. The dependent variable has categories used in the logistic regression model to calculate odds on. The logistic regression model for dependent variable has levels in the logistics regression model is ordinal. GWOLR model is an ordinal logistic regression model influenced the geographical location of the observation site. Parameters estimation in the model needed to determine the value of a population based on sample. The purpose of this research is to parameters estimation of GWOLR model using R software. Parameter estimation uses the data amount of dengue fever patients in Semarang City. Observation units used are 144 villages in Semarang City. The results of research get GWOLR model locally for each village and to know probability of number dengue fever patient categories.
Recognition of predictors for mid-long term runoff prediction based on lasso
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, S.; Huang, Y.
2017-12-01
Reliable and accuracy mid-long term runoff prediction is of great importance in integrated management of reservoir. And many methods are proposed to model runoff time series. Almost all forecast lead times (LT) of these models are 1 month, and the predictors are previous runoff with different time lags. However, runoff prediction with increased LT, which is more beneficial, is not popular in current researches. It is because the connection between previous runoff and current runoff will be weakened with the increase of LT. So 74 atmospheric circulation factors (ACFs) together with pre-runoff are used as alternative predictors for mid-long term runoff prediction of Longyangxia reservoir in this study. Because pre-runoff and 74 ACFs with different time lags are so many and most of these factors are useless, lasso, which means `least absolutely shrinkage and selection operator', is used to recognize predictors. And the result demonstrates that 74 ACFs are beneficial for runoff prediction in both validation and test sets when LT is greater than 6. And there are 6 factors other than pre-runoff, most of which are with big time lag, are selected as predictors frequently. In order to verify the effect of 74 ACFs, 74 stochastic time series generated from normalized 74 ACFs are used as input of model. The result shows that these 74 stochastic time series are useless, which confirm the effect of 74 ACFs on mid-long term runoff prediction.
Aeroelastic Model Structure Computation for Envelope Expansion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kukreja, Sunil L.
2007-01-01
Structure detection is a procedure for selecting a subset of candidate terms, from a full model description, that best describes the observed output. This is a necessary procedure to compute an efficient system description which may afford greater insight into the functionality of the system or a simpler controller design. Structure computation as a tool for black-box modeling may be of critical importance in the development of robust, parsimonious models for the flight-test community. Moreover, this approach may lead to efficient strategies for rapid envelope expansion that may save significant development time and costs. In this study, a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) technique is investigated for computing efficient model descriptions of non-linear aeroelastic systems. The LASSO minimises the residual sum of squares with the addition of an l(Sub 1) penalty term on the parameter vector of the traditional l(sub 2) minimisation problem. Its use for structure detection is a natural extension of this constrained minimisation approach to pseudo-linear regression problems which produces some model parameters that are exactly zero and, therefore, yields a parsimonious system description. Applicability of this technique for model structure computation for the F/A-18 (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) Active Aeroelastic Wing project using flight test data is shown for several flight conditions (Mach numbers) by identifying a parsimonious system description with a high percent fit for cross-validated data.
Shi, Yuan; Liu, Xu; Kok, Suet-Yheng; Rajarethinam, Jayanthi; Liang, Shaohong; Yap, Grace; Chong, Chee-Seng; Lee, Kim-Sung; Tan, Sharon S Y; Chin, Christopher Kuan Yew; Lo, Andrew; Kong, Waiming; Ng, Lee Ching; Cook, Alex R
2016-09-01
With its tropical rainforest climate, rapid urbanization, and changing demography and ecology, Singapore experiences endemic dengue; the last large outbreak in 2013 culminated in 22,170 cases. In the absence of a vaccine on the market, vector control is the key approach for prevention. We sought to forecast the evolution of dengue epidemics in Singapore to provide early warning of outbreaks and to facilitate the public health response to moderate an impending outbreak. We developed a set of statistical models using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) methods to forecast the weekly incidence of dengue notifications over a 3-month time horizon. This forecasting tool used a variety of data streams and was updated weekly, including recent case data, meteorological data, vector surveillance data, and population-based national statistics. The forecasting methodology was compared with alternative approaches that have been proposed to model dengue case data (seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average and step-down linear regression) by fielding them on the 2013 dengue epidemic, the largest on record in Singapore. Operationally useful forecasts were obtained at a 3-month lag using the LASSO-derived models. Based on the mean average percentage error, the LASSO approach provided more accurate forecasts than the other methods we assessed. We demonstrate its utility in Singapore's dengue control program by providing a forecast of the 2013 outbreak for advance preparation of outbreak response. Statistical models built using machine learning methods such as LASSO have the potential to markedly improve forecasting techniques for recurrent infectious disease outbreaks such as dengue. Shi Y, Liu X, Kok SY, Rajarethinam J, Liang S, Yap G, Chong CS, Lee KS, Tan SS, Chin CK, Lo A, Kong W, Ng LC, Cook AR. 2016. Three-month real-time dengue forecast models: an early warning system for outbreak alerts and policy decision support in Singapore. Environ Health
Shi, Yuan; Liu, Xu; Kok, Suet-Yheng; Rajarethinam, Jayanthi; Liang, Shaohong; Yap, Grace; Chong, Chee-Seng; Lee, Kim-Sung; Tan, Sharon S.Y.; Chin, Christopher Kuan Yew; Lo, Andrew; Kong, Waiming; Ng, Lee Ching; Cook, Alex R.
2015-01-01
Background: With its tropical rainforest climate, rapid urbanization, and changing demography and ecology, Singapore experiences endemic dengue; the last large outbreak in 2013 culminated in 22,170 cases. In the absence of a vaccine on the market, vector control is the key approach for prevention. Objectives: We sought to forecast the evolution of dengue epidemics in Singapore to provide early warning of outbreaks and to facilitate the public health response to moderate an impending outbreak. Methods: We developed a set of statistical models using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) methods to forecast the weekly incidence of dengue notifications over a 3-month time horizon. This forecasting tool used a variety of data streams and was updated weekly, including recent case data, meteorological data, vector surveillance data, and population-based national statistics. The forecasting methodology was compared with alternative approaches that have been proposed to model dengue case data (seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average and step-down linear regression) by fielding them on the 2013 dengue epidemic, the largest on record in Singapore. Results: Operationally useful forecasts were obtained at a 3-month lag using the LASSO-derived models. Based on the mean average percentage error, the LASSO approach provided more accurate forecasts than the other methods we assessed. We demonstrate its utility in Singapore’s dengue control program by providing a forecast of the 2013 outbreak for advance preparation of outbreak response. Conclusions: Statistical models built using machine learning methods such as LASSO have the potential to markedly improve forecasting techniques for recurrent infectious disease outbreaks such as dengue. Citation: Shi Y, Liu X, Kok SY, Rajarethinam J, Liang S, Yap G, Chong CS, Lee KS, Tan SS, Chin CK, Lo A, Kong W, Ng LC, Cook AR. 2016. Three-month real-time dengue forecast models: an early warning system for outbreak
Building Your Own Regression Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Horton, Robert, M.; Phillips, Vicki; Kenelly, John
2004-01-01
Spreadsheets to explore regression with an algebra 2 class in a medium-sized rural high school are presented. The use of spreadsheets can help students develop sophisticated understanding of mathematical models and use them to describe real-world phenomena.
Covariate Selection for Multilevel Models with Missing Data
Marino, Miguel; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Li, Yi
2017-01-01
Missing covariate data hampers variable selection in multilevel regression settings. Current variable selection techniques for multiply-imputed data commonly address missingness in the predictors through list-wise deletion and stepwise-selection methods which are problematic. Moreover, most variable selection methods are developed for independent linear regression models and do not accommodate multilevel mixed effects regression models with incomplete covariate data. We develop a novel methodology that is able to perform covariate selection across multiply-imputed data for multilevel random effects models when missing data is present. Specifically, we propose to stack the multiply-imputed data sets from a multiple imputation procedure and to apply a group variable selection procedure through group lasso regularization to assess the overall impact of each predictor on the outcome across the imputed data sets. Simulations confirm the advantageous performance of the proposed method compared with the competing methods. We applied the method to reanalyze the Healthy Directions-Small Business cancer prevention study, which evaluated a behavioral intervention program targeting multiple risk-related behaviors in a working-class, multi-ethnic population. PMID:28239457
Spatial Assessment of Model Errors from Four Regression Techniques
Lianjun Zhang; Jeffrey H. Gove; Jeffrey H. Gove
2005-01-01
Fomst modelers have attempted to account for the spatial autocorrelations among trees in growth and yield models by applying alternative regression techniques such as linear mixed models (LMM), generalized additive models (GAM), and geographicalIy weighted regression (GWR). However, the model errors are commonly assessed using average errors across the entire study...
The microcomputer scientific software series 2: general linear model--regression.
Harold M. Rauscher
1983-01-01
The general linear model regression (GLMR) program provides the microcomputer user with a sophisticated regression analysis capability. The output provides a regression ANOVA table, estimators of the regression model coefficients, their confidence intervals, confidence intervals around the predicted Y-values, residuals for plotting, a check for multicollinearity, a...
Penalized spline estimation for functional coefficient regression models.
Cao, Yanrong; Lin, Haiqun; Wu, Tracy Z; Yu, Yan
2010-04-01
The functional coefficient regression models assume that the regression coefficients vary with some "threshold" variable, providing appreciable flexibility in capturing the underlying dynamics in data and avoiding the so-called "curse of dimensionality" in multivariate nonparametric estimation. We first investigate the estimation, inference, and forecasting for the functional coefficient regression models with dependent observations via penalized splines. The P-spline approach, as a direct ridge regression shrinkage type global smoothing method, is computationally efficient and stable. With established fixed-knot asymptotics, inference is readily available. Exact inference can be obtained for fixed smoothing parameter λ, which is most appealing for finite samples. Our penalized spline approach gives an explicit model expression, which also enables multi-step-ahead forecasting via simulations. Furthermore, we examine different methods of choosing the important smoothing parameter λ: modified multi-fold cross-validation (MCV), generalized cross-validation (GCV), and an extension of empirical bias bandwidth selection (EBBS) to P-splines. In addition, we implement smoothing parameter selection using mixed model framework through restricted maximum likelihood (REML) for P-spline functional coefficient regression models with independent observations. The P-spline approach also easily allows different smoothness for different functional coefficients, which is enabled by assigning different penalty λ accordingly. We demonstrate the proposed approach by both simulation examples and a real data application.
Liu, Hongcheng; Yao, Tao; Li, Runze; Ye, Yinyu
2017-11-01
This paper concerns the folded concave penalized sparse linear regression (FCPSLR), a class of popular sparse recovery methods. Although FCPSLR yields desirable recovery performance when solved globally, computing a global solution is NP-complete. Despite some existing statistical performance analyses on local minimizers or on specific FCPSLR-based learning algorithms, it still remains open questions whether local solutions that are known to admit fully polynomial-time approximation schemes (FPTAS) may already be sufficient to ensure the statistical performance, and whether that statistical performance can be non-contingent on the specific designs of computing procedures. To address the questions, this paper presents the following threefold results: (i) Any local solution (stationary point) is a sparse estimator, under some conditions on the parameters of the folded concave penalties. (ii) Perhaps more importantly, any local solution satisfying a significant subspace second-order necessary condition (S 3 ONC), which is weaker than the second-order KKT condition, yields a bounded error in approximating the true parameter with high probability. In addition, if the minimal signal strength is sufficient, the S 3 ONC solution likely recovers the oracle solution. This result also explicates that the goal of improving the statistical performance is consistent with the optimization criteria of minimizing the suboptimality gap in solving the non-convex programming formulation of FCPSLR. (iii) We apply (ii) to the special case of FCPSLR with minimax concave penalty (MCP) and show that under the restricted eigenvalue condition, any S 3 ONC solution with a better objective value than the Lasso solution entails the strong oracle property. In addition, such a solution generates a model error (ME) comparable to the optimal but exponential-time sparse estimator given a sufficient sample size, while the worst-case ME is comparable to the Lasso in general. Furthermore, to guarantee
Wavelet regression model in forecasting crude oil price
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamid, Mohd Helmie; Shabri, Ani
2017-05-01
This study presents the performance of wavelet multiple linear regression (WMLR) technique in daily crude oil forecasting. WMLR model was developed by integrating the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and multiple linear regression (MLR) model. The original time series was decomposed to sub-time series with different scales by wavelet theory. Correlation analysis was conducted to assist in the selection of optimal decomposed components as inputs for the WMLR model. The daily WTI crude oil price series has been used in this study to test the prediction capability of the proposed model. The forecasting performance of WMLR model were also compared with regular multiple linear regression (MLR), Autoregressive Moving Average (ARIMA) and Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) using root mean square errors (RMSE) and mean absolute errors (MAE). Based on the experimental results, it appears that the WMLR model performs better than the other forecasting technique tested in this study.
Testing Different Model Building Procedures Using Multiple Regression.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thayer, Jerome D.
The stepwise regression method of selecting predictors for computer assisted multiple regression analysis was compared with forward, backward, and best subsets regression, using 16 data sets. The results indicated the stepwise method was preferred because of its practical nature, when the models chosen by different selection methods were similar…
Regression Model Optimization for the Analysis of Experimental Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ulbrich, N.
2009-01-01
A candidate math model search algorithm was developed at Ames Research Center that determines a recommended math model for the multivariate regression analysis of experimental data. The search algorithm is applicable to classical regression analysis problems as well as wind tunnel strain gage balance calibration analysis applications. The algorithm compares the predictive capability of different regression models using the standard deviation of the PRESS residuals of the responses as a search metric. This search metric is minimized during the search. Singular value decomposition is used during the search to reject math models that lead to a singular solution of the regression analysis problem. Two threshold dependent constraints are also applied. The first constraint rejects math models with insignificant terms. The second constraint rejects math models with near-linear dependencies between terms. The math term hierarchy rule may also be applied as an optional constraint during or after the candidate math model search. The final term selection of the recommended math model depends on the regressor and response values of the data set, the user s function class combination choice, the user s constraint selections, and the result of the search metric minimization. A frequently used regression analysis example from the literature is used to illustrate the application of the search algorithm to experimental data.
Zhang, Xiaoshuai; Xue, Fuzhong; Liu, Hong; Zhu, Dianwen; Peng, Bin; Wiemels, Joseph L; Yang, Xiaowei
2014-12-10
Genome-wide Association Studies (GWAS) are typically designed to identify phenotype-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) individually using univariate analysis methods. Though providing valuable insights into genetic risks of common diseases, the genetic variants identified by GWAS generally account for only a small proportion of the total heritability for complex diseases. To solve this "missing heritability" problem, we implemented a strategy called integrative Bayesian Variable Selection (iBVS), which is based on a hierarchical model that incorporates an informative prior by considering the gene interrelationship as a network. It was applied here to both simulated and real data sets. Simulation studies indicated that the iBVS method was advantageous in its performance with highest AUC in both variable selection and outcome prediction, when compared to Stepwise and LASSO based strategies. In an analysis of a leprosy case-control study, iBVS selected 94 SNPs as predictors, while LASSO selected 100 SNPs. The Stepwise regression yielded a more parsimonious model with only 3 SNPs. The prediction results demonstrated that the iBVS method had comparable performance with that of LASSO, but better than Stepwise strategies. The proposed iBVS strategy is a novel and valid method for Genome-wide Association Studies, with the additional advantage in that it produces more interpretable posterior probabilities for each variable unlike LASSO and other penalized regression methods.
Logistic models--an odd(s) kind of regression.
Jupiter, Daniel C
2013-01-01
The logistic regression model bears some similarity to the multivariable linear regression with which we are familiar. However, the differences are great enough to warrant a discussion of the need for and interpretation of logistic regression. Copyright © 2013 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Graph Lasso-Based Test for Evaluating Functional Brain Connectivity in Sickle Cell Disease.
Coloigner, Julie; Phlypo, Ronald; Coates, Thomas D; Lepore, Natasha; Wood, John C
2017-09-01
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a vascular disorder that is often associated with recurrent ischemia-reperfusion injury, anemia, vasculopathy, and strokes. These cerebral injuries are associated with neurological dysfunction, limiting the full developing potential of the patient. However, recent large studies of SCD have demonstrated that cognitive impairment occurs even in the absence of brain abnormalities on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These observations support an emerging consensus that brain injury in SCD is diffuse and that conventional neuroimaging often underestimates the extent of injury. In this article, we postulated that alterations in the cerebral connectivity may constitute a sensitive biomarker of SCD severity. Using functional MRI, a connectivity study analyzing the SCD patients individually was performed. First, a robust learning scheme based on graphical lasso model and Fréchet mean was used for estimating a consistent descriptor of healthy brain connectivity. Then, we tested a statistical method that provides an individual index of similarity between this healthy connectivity model and each SCD patient's connectivity matrix. Our results demonstrated that the reference connectivity model was not appropriate to model connectivity for only 4 out of 27 patients. After controlling for the gender, two separate predictors of this individual similarity index were the anemia (p = 0.02) and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) (silent stroke) (p = 0.03), so that patients with low hemoglobin level or with WMH have the least similarity to the reference connectivity model. Further studies are required to determine whether the resting-state connectivity changes reflect pathological changes or compensatory responses to chronic anemia.
Stochastic Approximation Methods for Latent Regression Item Response Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
von Davier, Matthias; Sinharay, Sandip
2010-01-01
This article presents an application of a stochastic approximation expectation maximization (EM) algorithm using a Metropolis-Hastings (MH) sampler to estimate the parameters of an item response latent regression model. Latent regression item response models are extensions of item response theory (IRT) to a latent variable model with covariates…
Reasoning about Independence in Probabilistic Models of Relational Data (Author’s Manuscript)
2014-01-06
for relational variables from A’s perspective, and this result is also applicable to one-to-many data.) To illustrate this fact more concretely ...separators. Technical Report R-254, UCLA Computer Science Department, February 1998. Robert Tibshirani. Regression shrinkage and selection via the lasso
Simple linear and multivariate regression models.
Rodríguez del Águila, M M; Benítez-Parejo, N
2011-01-01
In biomedical research it is common to find problems in which we wish to relate a response variable to one or more variables capable of describing the behaviour of the former variable by means of mathematical models. Regression techniques are used to this effect, in which an equation is determined relating the two variables. While such equations can have different forms, linear equations are the most widely used form and are easy to interpret. The present article describes simple and multiple linear regression models, how they are calculated, and how their applicability assumptions are checked. Illustrative examples are provided, based on the use of the freely accessible R program. Copyright © 2011 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Geographically weighted regression model on poverty indicator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slamet, I.; Nugroho, N. F. T. A.; Muslich
2017-12-01
In this research, we applied geographically weighted regression (GWR) for analyzing the poverty in Central Java. We consider Gaussian Kernel as weighted function. The GWR uses the diagonal matrix resulted from calculating kernel Gaussian function as a weighted function in the regression model. The kernel weights is used to handle spatial effects on the data so that a model can be obtained for each location. The purpose of this paper is to model of poverty percentage data in Central Java province using GWR with Gaussian kernel weighted function and to determine the influencing factors in each regency/city in Central Java province. Based on the research, we obtained geographically weighted regression model with Gaussian kernel weighted function on poverty percentage data in Central Java province. We found that percentage of population working as farmers, population growth rate, percentage of households with regular sanitation, and BPJS beneficiaries are the variables that affect the percentage of poverty in Central Java province. In this research, we found the determination coefficient R2 are 68.64%. There are two categories of district which are influenced by different of significance factors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Jie; Liu, Rong; Zhang, Yue-Li; Liu, Mou-Ze; Hu, Yong-Fang; Shao, Ming-Jie; Zhu, Li-Jun; Xin, Hua-Wen; Feng, Gui-Wen; Shang, Wen-Jun; Meng, Xiang-Guang; Zhang, Li-Rong; Ming, Ying-Zi; Zhang, Wei
2017-02-01
Tacrolimus has a narrow therapeutic window and considerable variability in clinical use. Our goal was to compare the performance of multiple linear regression (MLR) and eight machine learning techniques in pharmacogenetic algorithm-based prediction of tacrolimus stable dose (TSD) in a large Chinese cohort. A total of 1,045 renal transplant patients were recruited, 80% of which were randomly selected as the “derivation cohort” to develop dose-prediction algorithm, while the remaining 20% constituted the “validation cohort” to test the final selected algorithm. MLR, artificial neural network (ANN), regression tree (RT), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), boosted regression tree (BRT), support vector regression (SVR), random forest regression (RFR), lasso regression (LAR) and Bayesian additive regression trees (BART) were applied and their performances were compared in this work. Among all the machine learning models, RT performed best in both derivation [0.71 (0.67-0.76)] and validation cohorts [0.73 (0.63-0.82)]. In addition, the ideal rate of RT was 4% higher than that of MLR. To our knowledge, this is the first study to use machine learning models to predict TSD, which will further facilitate personalized medicine in tacrolimus administration in the future.
Bayesian Estimation of Multivariate Latent Regression Models: Gauss versus Laplace
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Culpepper, Steven Andrew; Park, Trevor
2017-01-01
A latent multivariate regression model is developed that employs a generalized asymmetric Laplace (GAL) prior distribution for regression coefficients. The model is designed for high-dimensional applications where an approximate sparsity condition is satisfied, such that many regression coefficients are near zero after accounting for all the model…
Quantifying predictive capability of electronic health records for the most harmful breast cancer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yirong; Fan, Jun; Peissig, Peggy; Berg, Richard; Tafti, Ahmad Pahlavan; Yin, Jie; Yuan, Ming; Page, David; Cox, Jennifer; Burnside, Elizabeth S.
2018-03-01
Improved prediction of the "most harmful" breast cancers that cause the most substantive morbidity and mortality would enable physicians to target more intense screening and preventive measures at those women who have the highest risk; however, such prediction models for the "most harmful" breast cancers have rarely been developed. Electronic health records (EHRs) represent an underused data source that has great research and clinical potential. Our goal was to quantify the value of EHR variables in the "most harmful" breast cancer risk prediction. We identified 794 subjects who had breast cancer with primary non-benign tumors with their earliest diagnosis on or after 1/1/2004 from an existing personalized medicine data repository, including 395 "most harmful" breast cancer cases and 399 "least harmful" breast cancer cases. For these subjects, we collected EHR data comprised of 6 components: demographics, diagnoses, symptoms, procedures, medications, and laboratory results. We developed two regularized prediction models, Ridge Logistic Regression (Ridge-LR) and Lasso Logistic Regression (Lasso-LR), to predict the "most harmful" breast cancer one year in advance. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was used to assess model performance. We observed that the AUCs of Ridge-LR and Lasso-LR models were 0.818 and 0.839 respectively. For both the Ridge-LR and LassoLR models, the predictive performance of the whole EHR variables was significantly higher than that of each individual component (p<0.001). In conclusion, EHR variables can be used to predict the "most harmful" breast cancer, providing the possibility to personalize care for those women at the highest risk in clinical practice.
Quantifying predictive capability of electronic health records for the most harmful breast cancer.
Wu, Yirong; Fan, Jun; Peissig, Peggy; Berg, Richard; Tafti, Ahmad Pahlavan; Yin, Jie; Yuan, Ming; Page, David; Cox, Jennifer; Burnside, Elizabeth S
2018-02-01
Improved prediction of the "most harmful" breast cancers that cause the most substantive morbidity and mortality would enable physicians to target more intense screening and preventive measures at those women who have the highest risk; however, such prediction models for the "most harmful" breast cancers have rarely been developed. Electronic health records (EHRs) represent an underused data source that has great research and clinical potential. Our goal was to quantify the value of EHR variables in the "most harmful" breast cancer risk prediction. We identified 794 subjects who had breast cancer with primary non-benign tumors with their earliest diagnosis on or after 1/1/2004 from an existing personalized medicine data repository, including 395 "most harmful" breast cancer cases and 399 "least harmful" breast cancer cases. For these subjects, we collected EHR data comprised of 6 components: demographics, diagnoses, symptoms, procedures, medications, and laboratory results. We developed two regularized prediction models, Ridge Logistic Regression (Ridge-LR) and Lasso Logistic Regression (Lasso-LR), to predict the "most harmful" breast cancer one year in advance. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was used to assess model performance. We observed that the AUCs of Ridge-LR and Lasso-LR models were 0.818 and 0.839 respectively. For both the Ridge-LR and Lasso-LR models, the predictive performance of the whole EHR variables was significantly higher than that of each individual component (p<0.001). In conclusion, EHR variables can be used to predict the "most harmful" breast cancer, providing the possibility to personalize care for those women at the highest risk in clinical practice.
Regression Models for Identifying Noise Sources in Magnetic Resonance Images
Zhu, Hongtu; Li, Yimei; Ibrahim, Joseph G.; Shi, Xiaoyan; An, Hongyu; Chen, Yashen; Gao, Wei; Lin, Weili; Rowe, Daniel B.; Peterson, Bradley S.
2009-01-01
Stochastic noise, susceptibility artifacts, magnetic field and radiofrequency inhomogeneities, and other noise components in magnetic resonance images (MRIs) can introduce serious bias into any measurements made with those images. We formally introduce three regression models including a Rician regression model and two associated normal models to characterize stochastic noise in various magnetic resonance imaging modalities, including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and functional MRI (fMRI). Estimation algorithms are introduced to maximize the likelihood function of the three regression models. We also develop a diagnostic procedure for systematically exploring MR images to identify noise components other than simple stochastic noise, and to detect discrepancies between the fitted regression models and MRI data. The diagnostic procedure includes goodness-of-fit statistics, measures of influence, and tools for graphical display. The goodness-of-fit statistics can assess the key assumptions of the three regression models, whereas measures of influence can isolate outliers caused by certain noise components, including motion artifacts. The tools for graphical display permit graphical visualization of the values for the goodness-of-fit statistic and influence measures. Finally, we conduct simulation studies to evaluate performance of these methods, and we analyze a real dataset to illustrate how our diagnostic procedure localizes subtle image artifacts by detecting intravoxel variability that is not captured by the regression models. PMID:19890478
A SEMIPARAMETRIC BAYESIAN MODEL FOR CIRCULAR-LINEAR REGRESSION
We present a Bayesian approach to regress a circular variable on a linear predictor. The regression coefficients are assumed to have a nonparametric distribution with a Dirichlet process prior. The semiparametric Bayesian approach gives added flexibility to the model and is usefu...
Model building strategy for logistic regression: purposeful selection.
Zhang, Zhongheng
2016-03-01
Logistic regression is one of the most commonly used models to account for confounders in medical literature. The article introduces how to perform purposeful selection model building strategy with R. I stress on the use of likelihood ratio test to see whether deleting a variable will have significant impact on model fit. A deleted variable should also be checked for whether it is an important adjustment of remaining covariates. Interaction should be checked to disentangle complex relationship between covariates and their synergistic effect on response variable. Model should be checked for the goodness-of-fit (GOF). In other words, how the fitted model reflects the real data. Hosmer-Lemeshow GOF test is the most widely used for logistic regression model.
SPReM: Sparse Projection Regression Model For High-dimensional Linear Regression *
Sun, Qiang; Zhu, Hongtu; Liu, Yufeng; Ibrahim, Joseph G.
2014-01-01
The aim of this paper is to develop a sparse projection regression modeling (SPReM) framework to perform multivariate regression modeling with a large number of responses and a multivariate covariate of interest. We propose two novel heritability ratios to simultaneously perform dimension reduction, response selection, estimation, and testing, while explicitly accounting for correlations among multivariate responses. Our SPReM is devised to specifically address the low statistical power issue of many standard statistical approaches, such as the Hotelling’s T2 test statistic or a mass univariate analysis, for high-dimensional data. We formulate the estimation problem of SPREM as a novel sparse unit rank projection (SURP) problem and propose a fast optimization algorithm for SURP. Furthermore, we extend SURP to the sparse multi-rank projection (SMURP) by adopting a sequential SURP approximation. Theoretically, we have systematically investigated the convergence properties of SURP and the convergence rate of SURP estimates. Our simulation results and real data analysis have shown that SPReM out-performs other state-of-the-art methods. PMID:26527844
Influence diagnostics in meta-regression model.
Shi, Lei; Zuo, ShanShan; Yu, Dalei; Zhou, Xiaohua
2017-09-01
This paper studies the influence diagnostics in meta-regression model including case deletion diagnostic and local influence analysis. We derive the subset deletion formulae for the estimation of regression coefficient and heterogeneity variance and obtain the corresponding influence measures. The DerSimonian and Laird estimation and maximum likelihood estimation methods in meta-regression are considered, respectively, to derive the results. Internal and external residual and leverage measure are defined. The local influence analysis based on case-weights perturbation scheme, responses perturbation scheme, covariate perturbation scheme, and within-variance perturbation scheme are explored. We introduce a method by simultaneous perturbing responses, covariate, and within-variance to obtain the local influence measure, which has an advantage of capable to compare the influence magnitude of influential studies from different perturbations. An example is used to illustrate the proposed methodology. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Variable Selection for Regression Models of Percentile Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fouad, G.
2017-12-01
Percentile flows describe the flow magnitude equaled or exceeded for a given percent of time, and are widely used in water resource management. However, these statistics are normally unavailable since most basins are ungauged. Percentile flows of ungauged basins are often predicted using regression models based on readily observable basin characteristics, such as mean elevation. The number of these independent variables is too large to evaluate all possible models. A subset of models is typically evaluated using automatic procedures, like stepwise regression. This ignores a large variety of methods from the field of feature (variable) selection and physical understanding of percentile flows. A study of 918 basins in the United States was conducted to compare an automatic regression procedure to the following variable selection methods: (1) principal component analysis, (2) correlation analysis, (3) random forests, (4) genetic programming, (5) Bayesian networks, and (6) physical understanding. The automatic regression procedure only performed better than principal component analysis. Poor performance of the regression procedure was due to a commonly used filter for multicollinearity, which rejected the strongest models because they had cross-correlated independent variables. Multicollinearity did not decrease model performance in validation because of a representative set of calibration basins. Variable selection methods based strictly on predictive power (numbers 2-5 from above) performed similarly, likely indicating a limit to the predictive power of the variables. Similar performance was also reached using variables selected based on physical understanding, a finding that substantiates recent calls to emphasize physical understanding in modeling for predictions in ungauged basins. The strongest variables highlighted the importance of geology and land cover, whereas widely used topographic variables were the weakest predictors. Variables suffered from a high
Regression Simulation Model. Appendix X. Users Manual,
1981-03-01
change as the prediction equations become refined. Whereas no notice will be provided when the changes are made, the programs will be modified such that...NATIONAL BUREAU Of STANDARDS 1963 A ___,_ __ _ __ _ . APPENDIX X ( R4/ EGRESSION IMULATION ’jDEL. Ape’A ’) 7 USERS MANUA submitted to The Great River...regression analysis and to establish a prediction equation (model). The prediction equation contains the partial regression coefficients (B-weights) which
Grajeda, Laura M; Ivanescu, Andrada; Saito, Mayuko; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Jaganath, Devan; Gilman, Robert H; Crabtree, Jean E; Kelleher, Dermott; Cabrera, Lilia; Cama, Vitaliano; Checkley, William
2016-01-01
Childhood growth is a cornerstone of pediatric research. Statistical models need to consider individual trajectories to adequately describe growth outcomes. Specifically, well-defined longitudinal models are essential to characterize both population and subject-specific growth. Linear mixed-effect models with cubic regression splines can account for the nonlinearity of growth curves and provide reasonable estimators of population and subject-specific growth, velocity and acceleration. We provide a stepwise approach that builds from simple to complex models, and account for the intrinsic complexity of the data. We start with standard cubic splines regression models and build up to a model that includes subject-specific random intercepts and slopes and residual autocorrelation. We then compared cubic regression splines vis-à-vis linear piecewise splines, and with varying number of knots and positions. Statistical code is provided to ensure reproducibility and improve dissemination of methods. Models are applied to longitudinal height measurements in a cohort of 215 Peruvian children followed from birth until their fourth year of life. Unexplained variability, as measured by the variance of the regression model, was reduced from 7.34 when using ordinary least squares to 0.81 (p < 0.001) when using a linear mixed-effect models with random slopes and a first order continuous autoregressive error term. There was substantial heterogeneity in both the intercept (p < 0.001) and slopes (p < 0.001) of the individual growth trajectories. We also identified important serial correlation within the structure of the data (ρ = 0.66; 95 % CI 0.64 to 0.68; p < 0.001), which we modeled with a first order continuous autoregressive error term as evidenced by the variogram of the residuals and by a lack of association among residuals. The final model provides a parametric linear regression equation for both estimation and prediction of population- and individual-level growth
[Evaluation of estimation of prevalence ratio using bayesian log-binomial regression model].
Gao, W L; Lin, H; Liu, X N; Ren, X W; Li, J S; Shen, X P; Zhu, S L
2017-03-10
To evaluate the estimation of prevalence ratio ( PR ) by using bayesian log-binomial regression model and its application, we estimated the PR of medical care-seeking prevalence to caregivers' recognition of risk signs of diarrhea in their infants by using bayesian log-binomial regression model in Openbugs software. The results showed that caregivers' recognition of infant' s risk signs of diarrhea was associated significantly with a 13% increase of medical care-seeking. Meanwhile, we compared the differences in PR 's point estimation and its interval estimation of medical care-seeking prevalence to caregivers' recognition of risk signs of diarrhea and convergence of three models (model 1: not adjusting for the covariates; model 2: adjusting for duration of caregivers' education, model 3: adjusting for distance between village and township and child month-age based on model 2) between bayesian log-binomial regression model and conventional log-binomial regression model. The results showed that all three bayesian log-binomial regression models were convergence and the estimated PRs were 1.130(95 %CI : 1.005-1.265), 1.128(95 %CI : 1.001-1.264) and 1.132(95 %CI : 1.004-1.267), respectively. Conventional log-binomial regression model 1 and model 2 were convergence and their PRs were 1.130(95 % CI : 1.055-1.206) and 1.126(95 % CI : 1.051-1.203), respectively, but the model 3 was misconvergence, so COPY method was used to estimate PR , which was 1.125 (95 %CI : 1.051-1.200). In addition, the point estimation and interval estimation of PRs from three bayesian log-binomial regression models differed slightly from those of PRs from conventional log-binomial regression model, but they had a good consistency in estimating PR . Therefore, bayesian log-binomial regression model can effectively estimate PR with less misconvergence and have more advantages in application compared with conventional log-binomial regression model.
Bouwmeester, Walter; Twisk, Jos W R; Kappen, Teus H; van Klei, Wilton A; Moons, Karel G M; Vergouwe, Yvonne
2013-02-15
When study data are clustered, standard regression analysis is considered inappropriate and analytical techniques for clustered data need to be used. For prediction research in which the interest of predictor effects is on the patient level, random effect regression models are probably preferred over standard regression analysis. It is well known that the random effect parameter estimates and the standard logistic regression parameter estimates are different. Here, we compared random effect and standard logistic regression models for their ability to provide accurate predictions. Using an empirical study on 1642 surgical patients at risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting, who were treated by one of 19 anesthesiologists (clusters), we developed prognostic models either with standard or random intercept logistic regression. External validity of these models was assessed in new patients from other anesthesiologists. We supported our results with simulation studies using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) of 5%, 15%, or 30%. Standard performance measures and measures adapted for the clustered data structure were estimated. The model developed with random effect analysis showed better discrimination than the standard approach, if the cluster effects were used for risk prediction (standard c-index of 0.69 versus 0.66). In the external validation set, both models showed similar discrimination (standard c-index 0.68 versus 0.67). The simulation study confirmed these results. For datasets with a high ICC (≥15%), model calibration was only adequate in external subjects, if the used performance measure assumed the same data structure as the model development method: standard calibration measures showed good calibration for the standard developed model, calibration measures adapting the clustered data structure showed good calibration for the prediction model with random intercept. The models with random intercept discriminate better than the standard model only
Modeling maximum daily temperature using a varying coefficient regression model
Han Li; Xinwei Deng; Dong-Yum Kim; Eric P. Smith
2014-01-01
Relationships between stream water and air temperatures are often modeled using linear or nonlinear regression methods. Despite a strong relationship between water and air temperatures and a variety of models that are effective for data summarized on a weekly basis, such models did not yield consistently good predictions for summaries such as daily maximum temperature...
The Application of the Cumulative Logistic Regression Model to Automated Essay Scoring
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Haberman, Shelby J.; Sinharay, Sandip
2010-01-01
Most automated essay scoring programs use a linear regression model to predict an essay score from several essay features. This article applied a cumulative logit model instead of the linear regression model to automated essay scoring. Comparison of the performances of the linear regression model and the cumulative logit model was performed on a…
Time series regression model for infectious disease and weather.
Imai, Chisato; Armstrong, Ben; Chalabi, Zaid; Mangtani, Punam; Hashizume, Masahiro
2015-10-01
Time series regression has been developed and long used to evaluate the short-term associations of air pollution and weather with mortality or morbidity of non-infectious diseases. The application of the regression approaches from this tradition to infectious diseases, however, is less well explored and raises some new issues. We discuss and present potential solutions for five issues often arising in such analyses: changes in immune population, strong autocorrelations, a wide range of plausible lag structures and association patterns, seasonality adjustments, and large overdispersion. The potential approaches are illustrated with datasets of cholera cases and rainfall from Bangladesh and influenza and temperature in Tokyo. Though this article focuses on the application of the traditional time series regression to infectious diseases and weather factors, we also briefly introduce alternative approaches, including mathematical modeling, wavelet analysis, and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. Modifications proposed to standard time series regression practice include using sums of past cases as proxies for the immune population, and using the logarithm of lagged disease counts to control autocorrelation due to true contagion, both of which are motivated from "susceptible-infectious-recovered" (SIR) models. The complexity of lag structures and association patterns can often be informed by biological mechanisms and explored by using distributed lag non-linear models. For overdispersed models, alternative distribution models such as quasi-Poisson and negative binomial should be considered. Time series regression can be used to investigate dependence of infectious diseases on weather, but may need modifying to allow for features specific to this context. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Linear regression crash prediction models : issues and proposed solutions.
DOT National Transportation Integrated Search
2010-05-01
The paper develops a linear regression model approach that can be applied to : crash data to predict vehicle crashes. The proposed approach involves novice data aggregation : to satisfy linear regression assumptions; namely error structure normality ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jennings, Patricia
Entanglement and knots are naturally occurring, where, in the microscopic world, knots in DNA and homopolymers are well characterized. The most complex knots are observed in proteins which are harder to investigate, as proteins are heteropolymers composed of a combination of 20 different amino acids with different individual biophysical properties. As new-knotted topologies and new proteins containing knots continue to be discovered and characterized, the investigation of knots in proteins has gained intense interest. Thus far, the principle focus has been on the evolutionary origin of tying a knot, with questions of how a protein chain `self-ties' into a knot, what the mechanism(s) are that contribute to threading, and the biological relevance and functional implication of a knotted topology in vivo gaining the most insight. Efforts to study the fully untied and unfolded chain indicate that the knot is highly stable, remaining intact in the unfolded state orders of magnitude longer than first anticipated. The persistence of ``stable'' knots in the unfolded state, together with the challenge of defining an unfolded and untied chain from an unfolded and knotted chain, complicates the study of fully untied protein in vitro. Our discovery of a new class of knotted proteins, the Pierced Lassos (PL) loop topology, simplifies the knotting approach. While PLs are not easily recognizable by the naked eye, they have now been identified in many proteins in the PDB through the use of computation tools. PL topologies are diverse proteins found in all kingdoms of life, performing a large variety of biological responses such as cell signaling, immune responses, transporters and inhibitors (http://lassoprot.cent.uw.edu.pl/). Many of these PL topologies are secreted proteins, extracellular proteins, as well as, redox sensors, enzymes and metal and co-factor binding proteins; all of which provide a favorable environment for the formation of the disulphide bridge. In the PL
Predictive modeling of cardiovascular complications in incident hemodialysis patients.
Ion Titapiccolo, J; Ferrario, M; Barbieri, C; Marcelli, D; Mari, F; Gatti, E; Cerutti, S; Smyth, P; Signorini, M G
2012-01-01
The administration of hemodialysis (HD) treatment leads to the continuous collection of a vast quantity of medical data. Many variables related to the patient health status, to the treatment, and to dialyzer settings can be recorded and stored at each treatment session. In this study a dataset of 42 variables and 1526 patients extracted from the Fresenius Medical Care database EuCliD was used to develop and apply a random forest predictive model for the prediction of cardiovascular events in the first year of HD treatment. A ridge-lasso logistic regression algorithm was then applied to the subset of variables mostly involved in the prediction model to get insights in the mechanisms underlying the incidence of cardiovascular complications in this high risk population of patients.
Robust geographically weighted regression of modeling the Air Polluter Standard Index (APSI)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Warsito, Budi; Yasin, Hasbi; Ispriyanti, Dwi; Hoyyi, Abdul
2018-05-01
The Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) model has been widely applied to many practical fields for exploring spatial heterogenity of a regression model. However, this method is inherently not robust to outliers. Outliers commonly exist in data sets and may lead to a distorted estimate of the underlying regression model. One of solution to handle the outliers in the regression model is to use the robust models. So this model was called Robust Geographically Weighted Regression (RGWR). This research aims to aid the government in the policy making process related to air pollution mitigation by developing a standard index model for air polluter (Air Polluter Standard Index - APSI) based on the RGWR approach. In this research, we also consider seven variables that are directly related to the air pollution level, which are the traffic velocity, the population density, the business center aspect, the air humidity, the wind velocity, the air temperature, and the area size of the urban forest. The best model is determined by the smallest AIC value. There are significance differences between Regression and RGWR in this case, but Basic GWR using the Gaussian kernel is the best model to modeling APSI because it has smallest AIC.
Analysis of Sting Balance Calibration Data Using Optimized Regression Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ulbrich, N.; Bader, Jon B.
2010-01-01
Calibration data of a wind tunnel sting balance was processed using a candidate math model search algorithm that recommends an optimized regression model for the data analysis. During the calibration the normal force and the moment at the balance moment center were selected as independent calibration variables. The sting balance itself had two moment gages. Therefore, after analyzing the connection between calibration loads and gage outputs, it was decided to choose the difference and the sum of the gage outputs as the two responses that best describe the behavior of the balance. The math model search algorithm was applied to these two responses. An optimized regression model was obtained for each response. Classical strain gage balance load transformations and the equations of the deflection of a cantilever beam under load are used to show that the search algorithm s two optimized regression models are supported by a theoretical analysis of the relationship between the applied calibration loads and the measured gage outputs. The analysis of the sting balance calibration data set is a rare example of a situation when terms of a regression model of a balance can directly be derived from first principles of physics. In addition, it is interesting to note that the search algorithm recommended the correct regression model term combinations using only a set of statistical quality metrics that were applied to the experimental data during the algorithm s term selection process.
Prediction models for clustered data: comparison of a random intercept and standard regression model
2013-01-01
Background When study data are clustered, standard regression analysis is considered inappropriate and analytical techniques for clustered data need to be used. For prediction research in which the interest of predictor effects is on the patient level, random effect regression models are probably preferred over standard regression analysis. It is well known that the random effect parameter estimates and the standard logistic regression parameter estimates are different. Here, we compared random effect and standard logistic regression models for their ability to provide accurate predictions. Methods Using an empirical study on 1642 surgical patients at risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting, who were treated by one of 19 anesthesiologists (clusters), we developed prognostic models either with standard or random intercept logistic regression. External validity of these models was assessed in new patients from other anesthesiologists. We supported our results with simulation studies using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) of 5%, 15%, or 30%. Standard performance measures and measures adapted for the clustered data structure were estimated. Results The model developed with random effect analysis showed better discrimination than the standard approach, if the cluster effects were used for risk prediction (standard c-index of 0.69 versus 0.66). In the external validation set, both models showed similar discrimination (standard c-index 0.68 versus 0.67). The simulation study confirmed these results. For datasets with a high ICC (≥15%), model calibration was only adequate in external subjects, if the used performance measure assumed the same data structure as the model development method: standard calibration measures showed good calibration for the standard developed model, calibration measures adapting the clustered data structure showed good calibration for the prediction model with random intercept. Conclusion The models with random intercept discriminate
A Skew-Normal Mixture Regression Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liu, Min; Lin, Tsung-I
2014-01-01
A challenge associated with traditional mixture regression models (MRMs), which rest on the assumption of normally distributed errors, is determining the number of unobserved groups. Specifically, even slight deviations from normality can lead to the detection of spurious classes. The current work aims to (a) examine how sensitive the commonly…
Detecting influential observations in nonlinear regression modeling of groundwater flow
Yager, Richard M.
1998-01-01
Nonlinear regression is used to estimate optimal parameter values in models of groundwater flow to ensure that differences between predicted and observed heads and flows do not result from nonoptimal parameter values. Parameter estimates can be affected, however, by observations that disproportionately influence the regression, such as outliers that exert undue leverage on the objective function. Certain statistics developed for linear regression can be used to detect influential observations in nonlinear regression if the models are approximately linear. This paper discusses the application of Cook's D, which measures the effect of omitting a single observation on a set of estimated parameter values, and the statistical parameter DFBETAS, which quantifies the influence of an observation on each parameter. The influence statistics were used to (1) identify the influential observations in the calibration of a three-dimensional, groundwater flow model of a fractured-rock aquifer through nonlinear regression, and (2) quantify the effect of omitting influential observations on the set of estimated parameter values. Comparison of the spatial distribution of Cook's D with plots of model sensitivity shows that influential observations correspond to areas where the model heads are most sensitive to certain parameters, and where predicted groundwater flow rates are largest. Five of the six discharge observations were identified as influential, indicating that reliable measurements of groundwater flow rates are valuable data in model calibration. DFBETAS are computed and examined for an alternative model of the aquifer system to identify a parameterization error in the model design that resulted in overestimation of the effect of anisotropy on horizontal hydraulic conductivity.
Quantile regression via vector generalized additive models.
Yee, Thomas W
2004-07-30
One of the most popular methods for quantile regression is the LMS method of Cole and Green. The method naturally falls within a penalized likelihood framework, and consequently allows for considerable flexible because all three parameters may be modelled by cubic smoothing splines. The model is also very understandable: for a given value of the covariate, the LMS method applies a Box-Cox transformation to the response in order to transform it to standard normality; to obtain the quantiles, an inverse Box-Cox transformation is applied to the quantiles of the standard normal distribution. The purposes of this article are three-fold. Firstly, LMS quantile regression is presented within the framework of the class of vector generalized additive models. This confers a number of advantages such as a unifying theory and estimation process. Secondly, a new LMS method based on the Yeo-Johnson transformation is proposed, which has the advantage that the response is not restricted to be positive. Lastly, this paper describes a software implementation of three LMS quantile regression methods in the S language. This includes the LMS-Yeo-Johnson method, which is estimated efficiently by a new numerical integration scheme. The LMS-Yeo-Johnson method is illustrated by way of a large cross-sectional data set from a New Zealand working population. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Calle, M. Luz; Rothman, Nathaniel; Urrea, Víctor; Kogevinas, Manolis; Petrus, Sandra; Chanock, Stephen J.; Tardón, Adonina; García-Closas, Montserrat; González-Neira, Anna; Vellalta, Gemma; Carrato, Alfredo; Navarro, Arcadi; Lorente-Galdós, Belén; Silverman, Debra T.; Real, Francisco X.; Wu, Xifeng; Malats, Núria
2013-01-01
The relationship between inflammation and cancer is well established in several tumor types, including bladder cancer. We performed an association study between 886 inflammatory-gene variants and bladder cancer risk in 1,047 cases and 988 controls from the Spanish Bladder Cancer (SBC)/EPICURO Study. A preliminary exploration with the widely used univariate logistic regression approach did not identify any significant SNP after correcting for multiple testing. We further applied two more comprehensive methods to capture the complexity of bladder cancer genetic susceptibility: Bayesian Threshold LASSO (BTL), a regularized regression method, and AUC-Random Forest, a machine-learning algorithm. Both approaches explore the joint effect of markers. BTL analysis identified a signature of 37 SNPs in 34 genes showing an association with bladder cancer. AUC-RF detected an optimal predictive subset of 56 SNPs. 13 SNPs were identified by both methods in the total population. Using resources from the Texas Bladder Cancer study we were able to replicate 30% of the SNPs assessed. The associations between inflammatory SNPs and bladder cancer were reexamined among non-smokers to eliminate the effect of tobacco, one of the strongest and most prevalent environmental risk factor for this tumor. A 9 SNP-signature was detected by BTL. Here we report, for the first time, a set of SNP in inflammatory genes jointly associated with bladder cancer risk. These results highlight the importance of the complex structure of genetic susceptibility associated with cancer risk. PMID:24391818
Hidden Connections between Regression Models of Strain-Gage Balance Calibration Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ulbrich, Norbert
2013-01-01
Hidden connections between regression models of wind tunnel strain-gage balance calibration data are investigated. These connections become visible whenever balance calibration data is supplied in its design format and both the Iterative and Non-Iterative Method are used to process the data. First, it is shown how the regression coefficients of the fitted balance loads of a force balance can be approximated by using the corresponding regression coefficients of the fitted strain-gage outputs. Then, data from the manual calibration of the Ames MK40 six-component force balance is chosen to illustrate how estimates of the regression coefficients of the fitted balance loads can be obtained from the regression coefficients of the fitted strain-gage outputs. The study illustrates that load predictions obtained by applying the Iterative or the Non-Iterative Method originate from two related regression solutions of the balance calibration data as long as balance loads are given in the design format of the balance, gage outputs behave highly linear, strict statistical quality metrics are used to assess regression models of the data, and regression model term combinations of the fitted loads and gage outputs can be obtained by a simple variable exchange.
Maximum Entropy Discrimination Poisson Regression for Software Reliability Modeling.
Chatzis, Sotirios P; Andreou, Andreas S
2015-11-01
Reliably predicting software defects is one of the most significant tasks in software engineering. Two of the major components of modern software reliability modeling approaches are: 1) extraction of salient features for software system representation, based on appropriately designed software metrics and 2) development of intricate regression models for count data, to allow effective software reliability data modeling and prediction. Surprisingly, research in the latter frontier of count data regression modeling has been rather limited. More specifically, a lack of simple and efficient algorithms for posterior computation has made the Bayesian approaches appear unattractive, and thus underdeveloped in the context of software reliability modeling. In this paper, we try to address these issues by introducing a novel Bayesian regression model for count data, based on the concept of max-margin data modeling, effected in the context of a fully Bayesian model treatment with simple and efficient posterior distribution updates. Our novel approach yields a more discriminative learning technique, making more effective use of our training data during model inference. In addition, it allows of better handling uncertainty in the modeled data, which can be a significant problem when the training data are limited. We derive elegant inference algorithms for our model under the mean-field paradigm and exhibit its effectiveness using the publicly available benchmark data sets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prahutama, Alan; Suparti; Wahyu Utami, Tiani
2018-03-01
Regression analysis is an analysis to model the relationship between response variables and predictor variables. The parametric approach to the regression model is very strict with the assumption, but nonparametric regression model isn’t need assumption of model. Time series data is the data of a variable that is observed based on a certain time, so if the time series data wanted to be modeled by regression, then we should determined the response and predictor variables first. Determination of the response variable in time series is variable in t-th (yt), while the predictor variable is a significant lag. In nonparametric regression modeling, one developing approach is to use the Fourier series approach. One of the advantages of nonparametric regression approach using Fourier series is able to overcome data having trigonometric distribution. In modeling using Fourier series needs parameter of K. To determine the number of K can be used Generalized Cross Validation method. In inflation modeling for the transportation sector, communication and financial services using Fourier series yields an optimal K of 120 parameters with R-square 99%. Whereas if it was modeled by multiple linear regression yield R-square 90%.
A Spline Regression Model for Latent Variables
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harring, Jeffrey R.
2014-01-01
Spline (or piecewise) regression models have been used in the past to account for patterns in observed data that exhibit distinct phases. The changepoint or knot marking the shift from one phase to the other, in many applications, is an unknown parameter to be estimated. As an extension of this framework, this research considers modeling the…
Linking metabolic network features to phenotypes using sparse group lasso.
Samal, Satya Swarup; Radulescu, Ovidiu; Weber, Andreas; Fröhlich, Holger
2017-11-01
Integration of metabolic networks with '-omics' data has been a subject of recent research in order to better understand the behaviour of such networks with respect to differences between biological and clinical phenotypes. Under the conditions of steady state of the reaction network and the non-negativity of fluxes, metabolic networks can be algebraically decomposed into a set of sub-pathways often referred to as extreme currents (ECs). Our objective is to find the statistical association of such sub-pathways with given clinical outcomes, resulting in a particular instance of a self-contained gene set analysis method. In this direction, we propose a method based on sparse group lasso (SGL) to identify phenotype associated ECs based on gene expression data. SGL selects a sparse set of feature groups and also introduces sparsity within each group. Features in our model are clusters of ECs, and feature groups are defined based on correlations among these features. We apply our method to metabolic networks from KEGG database and study the association of network features to prostate cancer (where the outcome is tumor and normal, respectively) as well as glioblastoma multiforme (where the outcome is survival time). In addition, simulations show the superior performance of our method compared to global test, which is an existing self-contained gene set analysis method. R code (compatible with version 3.2.5) is available from http://www.abi.bit.uni-bonn.de/index.php?id=17. samal@combine.rwth-aachen.de or frohlich@bit.uni-bonn.de. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com
Ramadan, Ahmed; Boss, Connor; Choi, Jongeun; Peter Reeves, N; Cholewicki, Jacek; Popovich, John M; Radcliffe, Clark J
2018-07-01
Estimating many parameters of biomechanical systems with limited data may achieve good fit but may also increase 95% confidence intervals in parameter estimates. This results in poor identifiability in the estimation problem. Therefore, we propose a novel method to select sensitive biomechanical model parameters that should be estimated, while fixing the remaining parameters to values obtained from preliminary estimation. Our method relies on identifying the parameters to which the measurement output is most sensitive. The proposed method is based on the Fisher information matrix (FIM). It was compared against the nonlinear least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) method to guide modelers on the pros and cons of our FIM method. We present an application identifying a biomechanical parametric model of a head position-tracking task for ten human subjects. Using measured data, our method (1) reduced model complexity by only requiring five out of twelve parameters to be estimated, (2) significantly reduced parameter 95% confidence intervals by up to 89% of the original confidence interval, (3) maintained goodness of fit measured by variance accounted for (VAF) at 82%, (4) reduced computation time, where our FIM method was 164 times faster than the LASSO method, and (5) selected similar sensitive parameters to the LASSO method, where three out of five selected sensitive parameters were shared by FIM and LASSO methods.
Predicting recycling behaviour: Comparison of a linear regression model and a fuzzy logic model.
Vesely, Stepan; Klöckner, Christian A; Dohnal, Mirko
2016-03-01
In this paper we demonstrate that fuzzy logic can provide a better tool for predicting recycling behaviour than the customarily used linear regression. To show this, we take a set of empirical data on recycling behaviour (N=664), which we randomly divide into two halves. The first half is used to estimate a linear regression model of recycling behaviour, and to develop a fuzzy logic model of recycling behaviour. As the first comparison, the fit of both models to the data included in estimation of the models (N=332) is evaluated. As the second comparison, predictive accuracy of both models for "new" cases (hold-out data not included in building the models, N=332) is assessed. In both cases, the fuzzy logic model significantly outperforms the regression model in terms of fit. To conclude, when accurate predictions of recycling and possibly other environmental behaviours are needed, fuzzy logic modelling seems to be a promising technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adjusted variable plots for Cox's proportional hazards regression model.
Hall, C B; Zeger, S L; Bandeen-Roche, K J
1996-01-01
Adjusted variable plots are useful in linear regression for outlier detection and for qualitative evaluation of the fit of a model. In this paper, we extend adjusted variable plots to Cox's proportional hazards model for possibly censored survival data. We propose three different plots: a risk level adjusted variable (RLAV) plot in which each observation in each risk set appears, a subject level adjusted variable (SLAV) plot in which each subject is represented by one point, and an event level adjusted variable (ELAV) plot in which the entire risk set at each failure event is represented by a single point. The latter two plots are derived from the RLAV by combining multiple points. In each point, the regression coefficient and standard error from a Cox proportional hazards regression is obtained by a simple linear regression through the origin fit to the coordinates of the pictured points. The plots are illustrated with a reanalysis of a dataset of 65 patients with multiple myeloma.
Analysis of Sting Balance Calibration Data Using Optimized Regression Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ulbrich, Norbert; Bader, Jon B.
2009-01-01
Calibration data of a wind tunnel sting balance was processed using a search algorithm that identifies an optimized regression model for the data analysis. The selected sting balance had two moment gages that were mounted forward and aft of the balance moment center. The difference and the sum of the two gage outputs were fitted in the least squares sense using the normal force and the pitching moment at the balance moment center as independent variables. The regression model search algorithm predicted that the difference of the gage outputs should be modeled using the intercept and the normal force. The sum of the two gage outputs, on the other hand, should be modeled using the intercept, the pitching moment, and the square of the pitching moment. Equations of the deflection of a cantilever beam are used to show that the search algorithm s two recommended math models can also be obtained after performing a rigorous theoretical analysis of the deflection of the sting balance under load. The analysis of the sting balance calibration data set is a rare example of a situation when regression models of balance calibration data can directly be derived from first principles of physics and engineering. In addition, it is interesting to see that the search algorithm recommended the same regression models for the data analysis using only a set of statistical quality metrics.
Optimization of Regression Models of Experimental Data Using Confirmation Points
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ulbrich, N.
2010-01-01
A new search metric is discussed that may be used to better assess the predictive capability of different math term combinations during the optimization of a regression model of experimental data. The new search metric can be determined for each tested math term combination if the given experimental data set is split into two subsets. The first subset consists of data points that are only used to determine the coefficients of the regression model. The second subset consists of confirmation points that are exclusively used to test the regression model. The new search metric value is assigned after comparing two values that describe the quality of the fit of each subset. The first value is the standard deviation of the PRESS residuals of the data points. The second value is the standard deviation of the response residuals of the confirmation points. The greater of the two values is used as the new search metric value. This choice guarantees that both standard deviations are always less or equal to the value that is used during the optimization. Experimental data from the calibration of a wind tunnel strain-gage balance is used to illustrate the application of the new search metric. The new search metric ultimately generates an optimized regression model that was already tested at regression model independent confirmation points before it is ever used to predict an unknown response from a set of regressors.
Genotype-phenotype association study via new multi-task learning model
Huo, Zhouyuan; Shen, Dinggang
2018-01-01
Research on the associations between genetic variations and imaging phenotypes is developing with the advance in high-throughput genotype and brain image techniques. Regression analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and imaging measures as quantitative traits (QTs) has been proposed to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTL) via multi-task learning models. Recent studies consider the interlinked structures within SNPs and imaging QTs through group lasso, e.g. ℓ2,1-norm, leading to better predictive results and insights of SNPs. However, group sparsity is not enough for representing the correlation between multiple tasks and ℓ2,1-norm regularization is not robust either. In this paper, we propose a new multi-task learning model to analyze the associations between SNPs and QTs. We suppose that low-rank structure is also beneficial to uncover the correlation between genetic variations and imaging phenotypes. Finally, we conduct regression analysis of SNPs and QTs. Experimental results show that our model is more accurate in prediction than compared methods and presents new insights of SNPs. PMID:29218896
TU-CD-BRB-01: Normal Lung CT Texture Features Improve Predictive Models for Radiation Pneumonitis
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Krafft, S; The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, TX; Briere, T
2015-06-15
Purpose: Existing normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models for radiation pneumonitis (RP) traditionally rely on dosimetric and clinical data but are limited in terms of performance and generalizability. Extraction of pre-treatment image features provides a potential new category of data that can improve NTCP models for RP. We consider quantitative measures of total lung CT intensity and texture in a framework for prediction of RP. Methods: Available clinical and dosimetric data was collected for 198 NSCLC patients treated with definitive radiotherapy. Intensity- and texture-based image features were extracted from the T50 phase of the 4D-CT acquired for treatment planning. Amore » total of 3888 features (15 clinical, 175 dosimetric, and 3698 image features) were gathered and considered candidate predictors for modeling of RP grade≥3. A baseline logistic regression model with mean lung dose (MLD) was first considered. Additionally, a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) logistic regression was applied to the set of clinical and dosimetric features, and subsequently to the full set of clinical, dosimetric, and image features. Model performance was assessed by comparing area under the curve (AUC). Results: A simple logistic fit of MLD was an inadequate model of the data (AUC∼0.5). Including clinical and dosimetric parameters within the framework of the LASSO resulted in improved performance (AUC=0.648). Analysis of the full cohort of clinical, dosimetric, and image features provided further and significant improvement in model performance (AUC=0.727). Conclusions: To achieve significant gains in predictive modeling of RP, new categories of data should be considered in addition to clinical and dosimetric features. We have successfully incorporated CT image features into a framework for modeling RP and have demonstrated improved predictive performance. Validation and further investigation of CT image features in the context of RP
Song, Chao; Kwan, Mei-Po; Zhu, Jiping
2017-04-08
An increasing number of fires are occurring with the rapid development of cities, resulting in increased risk for human beings and the environment. This study compares geographically weighted regression-based models, including geographically weighted regression (GWR) and geographically and temporally weighted regression (GTWR), which integrates spatial and temporal effects and global linear regression models (LM) for modeling fire risk at the city scale. The results show that the road density and the spatial distribution of enterprises have the strongest influences on fire risk, which implies that we should focus on areas where roads and enterprises are densely clustered. In addition, locations with a large number of enterprises have fewer fire ignition records, probably because of strict management and prevention measures. A changing number of significant variables across space indicate that heterogeneity mainly exists in the northern and eastern rural and suburban areas of Hefei city, where human-related facilities or road construction are only clustered in the city sub-centers. GTWR can capture small changes in the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of the variables while GWR and LM cannot. An approach that integrates space and time enables us to better understand the dynamic changes in fire risk. Thus governments can use the results to manage fire safety at the city scale.
Song, Chao; Kwan, Mei-Po; Zhu, Jiping
2017-01-01
An increasing number of fires are occurring with the rapid development of cities, resulting in increased risk for human beings and the environment. This study compares geographically weighted regression-based models, including geographically weighted regression (GWR) and geographically and temporally weighted regression (GTWR), which integrates spatial and temporal effects and global linear regression models (LM) for modeling fire risk at the city scale. The results show that the road density and the spatial distribution of enterprises have the strongest influences on fire risk, which implies that we should focus on areas where roads and enterprises are densely clustered. In addition, locations with a large number of enterprises have fewer fire ignition records, probably because of strict management and prevention measures. A changing number of significant variables across space indicate that heterogeneity mainly exists in the northern and eastern rural and suburban areas of Hefei city, where human-related facilities or road construction are only clustered in the city sub-centers. GTWR can capture small changes in the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of the variables while GWR and LM cannot. An approach that integrates space and time enables us to better understand the dynamic changes in fire risk. Thus governments can use the results to manage fire safety at the city scale. PMID:28397745
Deep ensemble learning of sparse regression models for brain disease diagnosis
Suk, Heung-Il; Lee, Seong-Whan; Shen, Dinggang
2018-01-01
Recent studies on brain imaging analysis witnessed the core roles of machine learning techniques in computer-assisted intervention for brain disease diagnosis. Of various machine-learning techniques, sparse regression models have proved their effectiveness in handling high-dimensional data but with a small number of training samples, especially in medical problems. In the meantime, deep learning methods have been making great successes by outperforming the state-of-the-art performances in various applications. In this paper, we propose a novel framework that combines the two conceptually different methods of sparse regression and deep learning for Alzheimer’s disease/mild cognitive impairment diagnosis and prognosis. Specifically, we first train multiple sparse regression models, each of which is trained with different values of a regularization control parameter. Thus, our multiple sparse regression models potentially select different feature subsets from the original feature set; thereby they have different powers to predict the response values, i.e., clinical label and clinical scores in our work. By regarding the response values from our sparse regression models as target-level representations, we then build a deep convolutional neural network for clinical decision making, which thus we call ‘ Deep Ensemble Sparse Regression Network.’ To our best knowledge, this is the first work that combines sparse regression models with deep neural network. In our experiments with the ADNI cohort, we validated the effectiveness of the proposed method by achieving the highest diagnostic accuracies in three classification tasks. We also rigorously analyzed our results and compared with the previous studies on the ADNI cohort in the literature. PMID:28167394
Rapid performance modeling and parameter regression of geodynamic models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, J.; Duplyakin, D.
2016-12-01
Geodynamic models run in a parallel environment have many parameters with complicated effects on performance and scientifically-relevant functionals. Manually choosing an efficient machine configuration and mapping out the parameter space requires a great deal of expert knowledge and time-consuming experiments. We propose an active learning technique based on Gaussion Process Regression to automatically select experiments to map out the performance landscape with respect to scientific and machine parameters. The resulting performance model is then used to select optimal experiments for improving the accuracy of a reduced order model per unit of computational cost. We present the framework and evaluate its quality and capability using popular lithospheric dynamics models.
Analyzing industrial energy use through ordinary least squares regression models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golden, Allyson Katherine
Extensive research has been performed using regression analysis and calibrated simulations to create baseline energy consumption models for residential buildings and commercial institutions. However, few attempts have been made to discuss the applicability of these methodologies to establish baseline energy consumption models for industrial manufacturing facilities. In the few studies of industrial facilities, the presented linear change-point and degree-day regression analyses illustrate ideal cases. It follows that there is a need in the established literature to discuss the methodologies and to determine their applicability for establishing baseline energy consumption models of industrial manufacturing facilities. The thesis determines the effectiveness of simple inverse linear statistical regression models when establishing baseline energy consumption models for industrial manufacturing facilities. Ordinary least squares change-point and degree-day regression methods are used to create baseline energy consumption models for nine different case studies of industrial manufacturing facilities located in the southeastern United States. The influence of ambient dry-bulb temperature and production on total facility energy consumption is observed. The energy consumption behavior of industrial manufacturing facilities is only sometimes sufficiently explained by temperature, production, or a combination of the two variables. This thesis also provides methods for generating baseline energy models that are straightforward and accessible to anyone in the industrial manufacturing community. The methods outlined in this thesis may be easily replicated by anyone that possesses basic spreadsheet software and general knowledge of the relationship between energy consumption and weather, production, or other influential variables. With the help of simple inverse linear regression models, industrial manufacturing facilities may better understand their energy consumption and
Vasquez, Monica M; Hu, Chengcheng; Roe, Denise J; Chen, Zhao; Halonen, Marilyn; Guerra, Stefano
2016-11-14
The study of circulating biomarkers and their association with disease outcomes has become progressively complex due to advances in the measurement of these biomarkers through multiplex technologies. The Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) is a data analysis method that may be utilized for biomarker selection in these high dimensional data. However, it is unclear which LASSO-type method is preferable when considering data scenarios that may be present in serum biomarker research, such as high correlation between biomarkers, weak associations with the outcome, and sparse number of true signals. The goal of this study was to compare the LASSO to five LASSO-type methods given these scenarios. A simulation study was performed to compare the LASSO, Adaptive LASSO, Elastic Net, Iterated LASSO, Bootstrap-Enhanced LASSO, and Weighted Fusion for the binary logistic regression model. The simulation study was designed to reflect the data structure of the population-based Tucson Epidemiological Study of Airway Obstructive Disease (TESAOD), specifically the sample size (N = 1000 for total population, 500 for sub-analyses), correlation of biomarkers (0.20, 0.50, 0.80), prevalence of overweight (40%) and obese (12%) outcomes, and the association of outcomes with standardized serum biomarker concentrations (log-odds ratio = 0.05-1.75). Each LASSO-type method was then applied to the TESAOD data of 306 overweight, 66 obese, and 463 normal-weight subjects with a panel of 86 serum biomarkers. Based on the simulation study, no method had an overall superior performance. The Weighted Fusion correctly identified more true signals, but incorrectly included more noise variables. The LASSO and Elastic Net correctly identified many true signals and excluded more noise variables. In the application study, biomarkers of overweight and obesity selected by all methods were Adiponectin, Apolipoprotein H, Calcitonin, CD14, Complement 3, C-reactive protein, Ferritin
Modeling absolute differences in life expectancy with a censored skew-normal regression approach
Clough-Gorr, Kerri; Zwahlen, Marcel
2015-01-01
Parameter estimates from commonly used multivariable parametric survival regression models do not directly quantify differences in years of life expectancy. Gaussian linear regression models give results in terms of absolute mean differences, but are not appropriate in modeling life expectancy, because in many situations time to death has a negative skewed distribution. A regression approach using a skew-normal distribution would be an alternative to parametric survival models in the modeling of life expectancy, because parameter estimates can be interpreted in terms of survival time differences while allowing for skewness of the distribution. In this paper we show how to use the skew-normal regression so that censored and left-truncated observations are accounted for. With this we model differences in life expectancy using data from the Swiss National Cohort Study and from official life expectancy estimates and compare the results with those derived from commonly used survival regression models. We conclude that a censored skew-normal survival regression approach for left-truncated observations can be used to model differences in life expectancy across covariates of interest. PMID:26339544
Validation of a heteroscedastic hazards regression model.
Wu, Hong-Dar Isaac; Hsieh, Fushing; Chen, Chen-Hsin
2002-03-01
A Cox-type regression model accommodating heteroscedasticity, with a power factor of the baseline cumulative hazard, is investigated for analyzing data with crossing hazards behavior. Since the approach of partial likelihood cannot eliminate the baseline hazard, an overidentified estimating equation (OEE) approach is introduced in the estimation procedure. It by-product, a model checking statistic, is presented to test for the overall adequacy of the heteroscedastic model. Further, under the heteroscedastic model setting, we propose two statistics to test the proportional hazards assumption. Implementation of this model is illustrated in a data analysis of a cancer clinical trial.
Linear regression models for solvent accessibility prediction in proteins.
Wagner, Michael; Adamczak, Rafał; Porollo, Aleksey; Meller, Jarosław
2005-04-01
The relative solvent accessibility (RSA) of an amino acid residue in a protein structure is a real number that represents the solvent exposed surface area of this residue in relative terms. The problem of predicting the RSA from the primary amino acid sequence can therefore be cast as a regression problem. Nevertheless, RSA prediction has so far typically been cast as a classification problem. Consequently, various machine learning techniques have been used within the classification framework to predict whether a given amino acid exceeds some (arbitrary) RSA threshold and would thus be predicted to be "exposed," as opposed to "buried." We have recently developed novel methods for RSA prediction using nonlinear regression techniques which provide accurate estimates of the real-valued RSA and outperform classification-based approaches with respect to commonly used two-class projections. However, while their performance seems to provide a significant improvement over previously published approaches, these Neural Network (NN) based methods are computationally expensive to train and involve several thousand parameters. In this work, we develop alternative regression models for RSA prediction which are computationally much less expensive, involve orders-of-magnitude fewer parameters, and are still competitive in terms of prediction quality. In particular, we investigate several regression models for RSA prediction using linear L1-support vector regression (SVR) approaches as well as standard linear least squares (LS) regression. Using rigorously derived validation sets of protein structures and extensive cross-validation analysis, we compare the performance of the SVR with that of LS regression and NN-based methods. In particular, we show that the flexibility of the SVR (as encoded by metaparameters such as the error insensitivity and the error penalization terms) can be very beneficial to optimize the prediction accuracy for buried residues. We conclude that the simple
Inferring gene regression networks with model trees
2010-01-01
Background Novel strategies are required in order to handle the huge amount of data produced by microarray technologies. To infer gene regulatory networks, the first step is to find direct regulatory relationships between genes building the so-called gene co-expression networks. They are typically generated using correlation statistics as pairwise similarity measures. Correlation-based methods are very useful in order to determine whether two genes have a strong global similarity but do not detect local similarities. Results We propose model trees as a method to identify gene interaction networks. While correlation-based methods analyze each pair of genes, in our approach we generate a single regression tree for each gene from the remaining genes. Finally, a graph from all the relationships among output and input genes is built taking into account whether the pair of genes is statistically significant. For this reason we apply a statistical procedure to control the false discovery rate. The performance of our approach, named REGNET, is experimentally tested on two well-known data sets: Saccharomyces Cerevisiae and E.coli data set. First, the biological coherence of the results are tested. Second the E.coli transcriptional network (in the Regulon database) is used as control to compare the results to that of a correlation-based method. This experiment shows that REGNET performs more accurately at detecting true gene associations than the Pearson and Spearman zeroth and first-order correlation-based methods. Conclusions REGNET generates gene association networks from gene expression data, and differs from correlation-based methods in that the relationship between one gene and others is calculated simultaneously. Model trees are very useful techniques to estimate the numerical values for the target genes by linear regression functions. They are very often more precise than linear regression models because they can add just different linear regressions to separate
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anderson, Carolyn J.; Verkuilen, Jay; Peyton, Buddy L.
2010-01-01
Survey items with multiple response categories and multiple-choice test questions are ubiquitous in psychological and educational research. We illustrate the use of log-multiplicative association (LMA) models that are extensions of the well-known multinomial logistic regression model for multiple dependent outcome variables to reanalyze a set of…
Deep ensemble learning of sparse regression models for brain disease diagnosis.
Suk, Heung-Il; Lee, Seong-Whan; Shen, Dinggang
2017-04-01
Recent studies on brain imaging analysis witnessed the core roles of machine learning techniques in computer-assisted intervention for brain disease diagnosis. Of various machine-learning techniques, sparse regression models have proved their effectiveness in handling high-dimensional data but with a small number of training samples, especially in medical problems. In the meantime, deep learning methods have been making great successes by outperforming the state-of-the-art performances in various applications. In this paper, we propose a novel framework that combines the two conceptually different methods of sparse regression and deep learning for Alzheimer's disease/mild cognitive impairment diagnosis and prognosis. Specifically, we first train multiple sparse regression models, each of which is trained with different values of a regularization control parameter. Thus, our multiple sparse regression models potentially select different feature subsets from the original feature set; thereby they have different powers to predict the response values, i.e., clinical label and clinical scores in our work. By regarding the response values from our sparse regression models as target-level representations, we then build a deep convolutional neural network for clinical decision making, which thus we call 'Deep Ensemble Sparse Regression Network.' To our best knowledge, this is the first work that combines sparse regression models with deep neural network. In our experiments with the ADNI cohort, we validated the effectiveness of the proposed method by achieving the highest diagnostic accuracies in three classification tasks. We also rigorously analyzed our results and compared with the previous studies on the ADNI cohort in the literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A computational approach to compare regression modelling strategies in prediction research.
Pajouheshnia, Romin; Pestman, Wiebe R; Teerenstra, Steven; Groenwold, Rolf H H
2016-08-25
It is often unclear which approach to fit, assess and adjust a model will yield the most accurate prediction model. We present an extension of an approach for comparing modelling strategies in linear regression to the setting of logistic regression and demonstrate its application in clinical prediction research. A framework for comparing logistic regression modelling strategies by their likelihoods was formulated using a wrapper approach. Five different strategies for modelling, including simple shrinkage methods, were compared in four empirical data sets to illustrate the concept of a priori strategy comparison. Simulations were performed in both randomly generated data and empirical data to investigate the influence of data characteristics on strategy performance. We applied the comparison framework in a case study setting. Optimal strategies were selected based on the results of a priori comparisons in a clinical data set and the performance of models built according to each strategy was assessed using the Brier score and calibration plots. The performance of modelling strategies was highly dependent on the characteristics of the development data in both linear and logistic regression settings. A priori comparisons in four empirical data sets found that no strategy consistently outperformed the others. The percentage of times that a model adjustment strategy outperformed a logistic model ranged from 3.9 to 94.9 %, depending on the strategy and data set. However, in our case study setting the a priori selection of optimal methods did not result in detectable improvement in model performance when assessed in an external data set. The performance of prediction modelling strategies is a data-dependent process and can be highly variable between data sets within the same clinical domain. A priori strategy comparison can be used to determine an optimal logistic regression modelling strategy for a given data set before selecting a final modelling approach.
A generalized right truncated bivariate Poisson regression model with applications to health data.
Islam, M Ataharul; Chowdhury, Rafiqul I
2017-01-01
A generalized right truncated bivariate Poisson regression model is proposed in this paper. Estimation and tests for goodness of fit and over or under dispersion are illustrated for both untruncated and right truncated bivariate Poisson regression models using marginal-conditional approach. Estimation and test procedures are illustrated for bivariate Poisson regression models with applications to Health and Retirement Study data on number of health conditions and the number of health care services utilized. The proposed test statistics are easy to compute and it is evident from the results that the models fit the data very well. A comparison between the right truncated and untruncated bivariate Poisson regression models using the test for nonnested models clearly shows that the truncated model performs significantly better than the untruncated model.
Procedures for adjusting regional regression models of urban-runoff quality using local data
Hoos, A.B.; Sisolak, J.K.
1993-01-01
Statistical operations termed model-adjustment procedures (MAP?s) can be used to incorporate local data into existing regression models to improve the prediction of urban-runoff quality. Each MAP is a form of regression analysis in which the local data base is used as a calibration data set. Regression coefficients are determined from the local data base, and the resulting `adjusted? regression models can then be used to predict storm-runoff quality at unmonitored sites. The response variable in the regression analyses is the observed load or mean concentration of a constituent in storm runoff for a single storm. The set of explanatory variables used in the regression analyses is different for each MAP, but always includes the predicted value of load or mean concentration from a regional regression model. The four MAP?s examined in this study were: single-factor regression against the regional model prediction, P, (termed MAP-lF-P), regression against P,, (termed MAP-R-P), regression against P, and additional local variables (termed MAP-R-P+nV), and a weighted combination of P, and a local-regression prediction (termed MAP-W). The procedures were tested by means of split-sample analysis, using data from three cities included in the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program: Denver, Colorado; Bellevue, Washington; and Knoxville, Tennessee. The MAP that provided the greatest predictive accuracy for the verification data set differed among the three test data bases and among model types (MAP-W for Denver and Knoxville, MAP-lF-P and MAP-R-P for Bellevue load models, and MAP-R-P+nV for Bellevue concentration models) and, in many cases, was not clearly indicated by the values of standard error of estimate for the calibration data set. A scheme to guide MAP selection, based on exploratory data analysis of the calibration data set, is presented and tested. The MAP?s were tested for sensitivity to the size of a calibration data set. As expected, predictive accuracy of all MAP?s for
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ying; Bi, Peng; Hiller, Janet
2008-01-01
This is the first study to identify appropriate regression models for the association between climate variation and salmonellosis transmission. A comparison between different regression models was conducted using surveillance data in Adelaide, South Australia. By using notified salmonellosis cases and climatic variables from the Adelaide metropolitan area over the period 1990-2003, four regression methods were examined: standard Poisson regression, autoregressive adjusted Poisson regression, multiple linear regression, and a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model. Notified salmonellosis cases in 2004 were used to test the forecasting ability of the four models. Parameter estimation, goodness-of-fit and forecasting ability of the four regression models were compared. Temperatures occurring 2 weeks prior to cases were positively associated with cases of salmonellosis. Rainfall was also inversely related to the number of cases. The comparison of the goodness-of-fit and forecasting ability suggest that the SARIMA model is better than the other three regression models. Temperature and rainfall may be used as climatic predictors of salmonellosis cases in regions with climatic characteristics similar to those of Adelaide. The SARIMA model could, thus, be adopted to quantify the relationship between climate variations and salmonellosis transmission.
Kopprasch, Steffi; Dheban, Srirangan; Schuhmann, Kai; Xu, Aimin; Schulte, Klaus-Martin; Simeonovic, Charmaine J; Schwarz, Peter E H; Bornstein, Stefan R; Shevchenko, Andrej; Graessler, Juergen
2016-01-01
Glucolipotoxicity is a major pathophysiological mechanism in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). We aimed to detect subtle changes in the circulating lipid profile by shotgun lipidomics analyses and to associate them with four different insulin sensitivity indices. The cross-sectional study comprised 90 men with a broad range of insulin sensitivity including normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n = 33), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, n = 32) and newly detected T2D (n = 25). Prior to oral glucose challenge plasma was obtained and quantitatively analyzed for 198 lipid molecular species from 13 different lipid classes including triacylglycerls (TAGs), phosphatidylcholine plasmalogen/ether (PC O-s), sphingomyelins (SMs), and lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs). To identify a lipidomic signature of individual insulin sensitivity we applied three data mining approaches, namely least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), Support Vector Regression (SVR) and Random Forests (RF) for the following insulin sensitivity indices: homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), glucose insulin sensitivity index (GSI), insulin sensitivity index (ISI), and disposition index (DI). The LASSO procedure offers a high prediction accuracy and and an easier interpretability than SVR and RF. After LASSO selection, the plasma lipidome explained 3% (DI) to maximal 53% (HOMA-IR) variability of the sensitivity indexes. Among the lipid species with the highest positive LASSO regression coefficient were TAG 54:2 (HOMA-IR), PC O- 32:0 (GSI), and SM 40:3:1 (ISI). The highest negative regression coefficient was obtained for LPC 22:5 (HOMA-IR), TAG 51:1 (GSI), and TAG 58:6 (ISI). Although a substantial part of lipid molecular species showed a significant correlation with insulin sensitivity indices we were able to identify a limited number of lipid metabolites of particular importance based on the LASSO approach. These few selected lipids with the closest
The Application of Censored Regression Models in Low Streamflow Analyses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kroll, C.; Luz, J.
2003-12-01
Estimation of low streamflow statistics at gauged and ungauged river sites is often a daunting task. This process is further confounded by the presence of intermittent streamflows, where streamflow is sometimes reported as zero, within a region. Streamflows recorded as zero may be zero, or may be less than the measurement detection limit. Such data is often referred to as censored data. Numerous methods have been developed to characterize intermittent streamflow series. Logit regression has been proposed to develop regional models of the probability annual lowflows series (such as 7-day lowflows) are zero. In addition, Tobit regression, a method of regression that allows for censored dependent variables, has been proposed for lowflow regional regression models in regions where the lowflow statistic of interest estimated as zero at some sites in the region. While these methods have been proposed, their use in practice has been limited. Here a delete-one jackknife simulation is presented to examine the performance of Logit and Tobit models of 7-day annual minimum flows in 6 USGS water resource regions in the United States. For the Logit model, an assessment is made of whether sites are correctly classified as having at least 10% of 7-day annual lowflows equal to zero. In such a situation, the 7-day, 10-year lowflow (Q710), a commonly employed low streamflow statistic, would be reported as zero. For the Tobit model, a comparison is made between results from the Tobit model, and from performing either ordinary least squares (OLS) or principal component regression (PCR) after the zero sites are dropped from the analysis. Initial results for the Logit model indicate this method to have a high probability of correctly classifying sites into groups with Q710s as zero and non-zero. Initial results also indicate the Tobit model produces better results than PCR and OLS when more than 5% of the sites in the region have Q710 values calculated as zero.
Regression Model Term Selection for the Analysis of Strain-Gage Balance Calibration Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ulbrich, Norbert Manfred; Volden, Thomas R.
2010-01-01
The paper discusses the selection of regression model terms for the analysis of wind tunnel strain-gage balance calibration data. Different function class combinations are presented that may be used to analyze calibration data using either a non-iterative or an iterative method. The role of the intercept term in a regression model of calibration data is reviewed. In addition, useful algorithms and metrics originating from linear algebra and statistics are recommended that will help an analyst (i) to identify and avoid both linear and near-linear dependencies between regression model terms and (ii) to make sure that the selected regression model of the calibration data uses only statistically significant terms. Three different tests are suggested that may be used to objectively assess the predictive capability of the final regression model of the calibration data. These tests use both the original data points and regression model independent confirmation points. Finally, data from a simplified manual calibration of the Ames MK40 balance is used to illustrate the application of some of the metrics and tests to a realistic calibration data set.
Exact Analysis of Squared Cross-Validity Coefficient in Predictive Regression Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shieh, Gwowen
2009-01-01
In regression analysis, the notion of population validity is of theoretical interest for describing the usefulness of the underlying regression model, whereas the presumably more important concept of population cross-validity represents the predictive effectiveness for the regression equation in future research. It appears that the inference…
Linear regression metamodeling as a tool to summarize and present simulation model results.
Jalal, Hawre; Dowd, Bryan; Sainfort, François; Kuntz, Karen M
2013-10-01
Modelers lack a tool to systematically and clearly present complex model results, including those from sensitivity analyses. The objective was to propose linear regression metamodeling as a tool to increase transparency of decision analytic models and better communicate their results. We used a simplified cancer cure model to demonstrate our approach. The model computed the lifetime cost and benefit of 3 treatment options for cancer patients. We simulated 10,000 cohorts in a probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) and regressed the model outcomes on the standardized input parameter values in a set of regression analyses. We used the regression coefficients to describe measures of sensitivity analyses, including threshold and parameter sensitivity analyses. We also compared the results of the PSA to deterministic full-factorial and one-factor-at-a-time designs. The regression intercept represented the estimated base-case outcome, and the other coefficients described the relative parameter uncertainty in the model. We defined simple relationships that compute the average and incremental net benefit of each intervention. Metamodeling produced outputs similar to traditional deterministic 1-way or 2-way sensitivity analyses but was more reliable since it used all parameter values. Linear regression metamodeling is a simple, yet powerful, tool that can assist modelers in communicating model characteristics and sensitivity analyses.
Li, Juntao; Wang, Yanyan; Jiang, Tao; Xiao, Huimin; Song, Xuekun
2018-05-09
Diagnosing acute leukemia is the necessary prerequisite to treating it. Multi-classification on the gene expression data of acute leukemia is help for diagnosing it which contains B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BALL), T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (TALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, selecting cancer-causing genes is a challenging problem in performing multi-classification. In this paper, weighted gene co-expression networks are employed to divide the genes into groups. Based on the dividing groups, a new regularized multinomial regression with overlapping group lasso penalty (MROGL) has been presented to simultaneously perform multi-classification and select gene groups. By implementing this method on three-class acute leukemia data, the grouped genes which work synergistically are identified, and the overlapped genes shared by different groups are also highlighted. Moreover, MROGL outperforms other five methods on multi-classification accuracy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Developing and testing a global-scale regression model to quantify mean annual streamflow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barbarossa, Valerio; Huijbregts, Mark A. J.; Hendriks, A. Jan; Beusen, Arthur H. W.; Clavreul, Julie; King, Henry; Schipper, Aafke M.
2017-01-01
Quantifying mean annual flow of rivers (MAF) at ungauged sites is essential for assessments of global water supply, ecosystem integrity and water footprints. MAF can be quantified with spatially explicit process-based models, which might be overly time-consuming and data-intensive for this purpose, or with empirical regression models that predict MAF based on climate and catchment characteristics. Yet, regression models have mostly been developed at a regional scale and the extent to which they can be extrapolated to other regions is not known. In this study, we developed a global-scale regression model for MAF based on a dataset unprecedented in size, using observations of discharge and catchment characteristics from 1885 catchments worldwide, measuring between 2 and 106 km2. In addition, we compared the performance of the regression model with the predictive ability of the spatially explicit global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB by comparing results from both models to independent measurements. We obtained a regression model explaining 89% of the variance in MAF based on catchment area and catchment averaged mean annual precipitation and air temperature, slope and elevation. The regression model performed better than PCR-GLOBWB for the prediction of MAF, as root-mean-square error (RMSE) values were lower (0.29-0.38 compared to 0.49-0.57) and the modified index of agreement (d) was higher (0.80-0.83 compared to 0.72-0.75). Our regression model can be applied globally to estimate MAF at any point of the river network, thus providing a feasible alternative to spatially explicit process-based global hydrological models.
A generalized right truncated bivariate Poisson regression model with applications to health data
Islam, M. Ataharul; Chowdhury, Rafiqul I.
2017-01-01
A generalized right truncated bivariate Poisson regression model is proposed in this paper. Estimation and tests for goodness of fit and over or under dispersion are illustrated for both untruncated and right truncated bivariate Poisson regression models using marginal-conditional approach. Estimation and test procedures are illustrated for bivariate Poisson regression models with applications to Health and Retirement Study data on number of health conditions and the number of health care services utilized. The proposed test statistics are easy to compute and it is evident from the results that the models fit the data very well. A comparison between the right truncated and untruncated bivariate Poisson regression models using the test for nonnested models clearly shows that the truncated model performs significantly better than the untruncated model. PMID:28586344
[Multi-mathematical modelings for compatibility optimization of Jiangzhi granules].
Yang, Ming; Zhang, Li; Ge, Yingli; Lu, Yanliu; Ji, Guang
2011-12-01
To investigate into the method of "multi activity index evaluation and combination optimized of mult-component" for Chinese herbal formulas. According to the scheme of uniform experimental design, efficacy experiment, multi index evaluation, least absolute shrinkage, selection operator (LASSO) modeling, evolutionary optimization algorithm, validation experiment, we optimized the combination of Jiangzhi granules based on the activity indexes of blood serum ALT, ALT, AST, TG, TC, HDL, LDL and TG level of liver tissues, ratio of liver tissue to body. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) combining with criteria importance through intercriteria correlation (CRITIC) for multi activity index evaluation was more reasonable and objective, it reflected the information of activity index's order and objective sample data. LASSO algorithm modeling could accurately reflect the relationship between different combination of Jiangzhi granule and the activity comprehensive indexes. The optimized combination of Jiangzhi granule showed better values of the activity comprehensive indexed than the original formula after the validation experiment. AHP combining with CRITIC can be used for multi activity index evaluation and LASSO algorithm, it is suitable for combination optimized of Chinese herbal formulas.
Analysis of Multivariate Experimental Data Using A Simplified Regression Model Search Algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ulbrich, Norbert M.
2013-01-01
A new regression model search algorithm was developed that may be applied to both general multivariate experimental data sets and wind tunnel strain-gage balance calibration data. The algorithm is a simplified version of a more complex algorithm that was originally developed for the NASA Ames Balance Calibration Laboratory. The new algorithm performs regression model term reduction to prevent overfitting of data. It has the advantage that it needs only about one tenth of the original algorithm's CPU time for the completion of a regression model search. In addition, extensive testing showed that the prediction accuracy of math models obtained from the simplified algorithm is similar to the prediction accuracy of math models obtained from the original algorithm. The simplified algorithm, however, cannot guarantee that search constraints related to a set of statistical quality requirements are always satisfied in the optimized regression model. Therefore, the simplified algorithm is not intended to replace the original algorithm. Instead, it may be used to generate an alternate optimized regression model of experimental data whenever the application of the original search algorithm fails or requires too much CPU time. Data from a machine calibration of NASA's MK40 force balance is used to illustrate the application of the new search algorithm.
Evaluation of Regression Models of Balance Calibration Data Using an Empirical Criterion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ulbrich, Norbert; Volden, Thomas R.
2012-01-01
An empirical criterion for assessing the significance of individual terms of regression models of wind tunnel strain gage balance outputs is evaluated. The criterion is based on the percent contribution of a regression model term. It considers a term to be significant if its percent contribution exceeds the empirical threshold of 0.05%. The criterion has the advantage that it can easily be computed using the regression coefficients of the gage outputs and the load capacities of the balance. First, a definition of the empirical criterion is provided. Then, it is compared with an alternate statistical criterion that is widely used in regression analysis. Finally, calibration data sets from a variety of balances are used to illustrate the connection between the empirical and the statistical criterion. A review of these results indicated that the empirical criterion seems to be suitable for a crude assessment of the significance of a regression model term as the boundary between a significant and an insignificant term cannot be defined very well. Therefore, regression model term reduction should only be performed by using the more universally applicable statistical criterion.
Regression Models and Fuzzy Logic Prediction of TBM Penetration Rate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minh, Vu Trieu; Katushin, Dmitri; Antonov, Maksim; Veinthal, Renno
2017-03-01
This paper presents statistical analyses of rock engineering properties and the measured penetration rate of tunnel boring machine (TBM) based on the data of an actual project. The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of rock engineering properties including uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), Brazilian tensile strength (BTS), rock brittleness index (BI), the distance between planes of weakness (DPW), and the alpha angle (Alpha) between the tunnel axis and the planes of weakness on the TBM rate of penetration (ROP). Four
Modelling infant mortality rate in Central Java, Indonesia use generalized poisson regression method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prahutama, Alan; Sudarno
2018-05-01
The infant mortality rate is the number of deaths under one year of age occurring among the live births in a given geographical area during a given year, per 1,000 live births occurring among the population of the given geographical area during the same year. This problem needs to be addressed because it is an important element of a country’s economic development. High infant mortality rate will disrupt the stability of a country as it relates to the sustainability of the population in the country. One of regression model that can be used to analyze the relationship between dependent variable Y in the form of discrete data and independent variable X is Poisson regression model. Recently The regression modeling used for data with dependent variable is discrete, among others, poisson regression, negative binomial regression and generalized poisson regression. In this research, generalized poisson regression modeling gives better AIC value than poisson regression. The most significant variable is the Number of health facilities (X1), while the variable that gives the most influence to infant mortality rate is the average breastfeeding (X9).
Default Bayes Factors for Model Selection in Regression
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Morey, Richard D.
2012-01-01
In this article, we present a Bayes factor solution for inference in multiple regression. Bayes factors are principled measures of the relative evidence from data for various models or positions, including models that embed null hypotheses. In this regard, they may be used to state positive evidence for a lack of an effect, which is not possible…
Ng, Kar Yong; Awang, Norhashidah
2018-01-06
Frequent haze occurrences in Malaysia have made the management of PM 10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic less than 10 μm) pollution a critical task. This requires knowledge on factors associating with PM 10 variation and good forecast of PM 10 concentrations. Hence, this paper demonstrates the prediction of 1-day-ahead daily average PM 10 concentrations based on predictor variables including meteorological parameters and gaseous pollutants. Three different models were built. They were multiple linear regression (MLR) model with lagged predictor variables (MLR1), MLR model with lagged predictor variables and PM 10 concentrations (MLR2) and regression with time series error (RTSE) model. The findings revealed that humidity, temperature, wind speed, wind direction, carbon monoxide and ozone were the main factors explaining the PM 10 variation in Peninsular Malaysia. Comparison among the three models showed that MLR2 model was on a same level with RTSE model in terms of forecasting accuracy, while MLR1 model was the worst.
Evaluation of land use regression models in Detroit, Michigan
Introduction: Land use regression (LUR) models have emerged as a cost-effective tool for characterizing exposure in epidemiologic health studies. However, little critical attention has been focused on validation of these models as a step toward temporal and spatial extension of ...
Quantile Regression Models for Current Status Data
Ou, Fang-Shu; Zeng, Donglin; Cai, Jianwen
2016-01-01
Current status data arise frequently in demography, epidemiology, and econometrics where the exact failure time cannot be determined but is only known to have occurred before or after a known observation time. We propose a quantile regression model to analyze current status data, because it does not require distributional assumptions and the coefficients can be interpreted as direct regression effects on the distribution of failure time in the original time scale. Our model assumes that the conditional quantile of failure time is a linear function of covariates. We assume conditional independence between the failure time and observation time. An M-estimator is developed for parameter estimation which is computed using the concave-convex procedure and its confidence intervals are constructed using a subsampling method. Asymptotic properties for the estimator are derived and proven using modern empirical process theory. The small sample performance of the proposed method is demonstrated via simulation studies. Finally, we apply the proposed method to analyze data from the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. PMID:27994307
Approximating prediction uncertainty for random forest regression models
John W. Coulston; Christine E. Blinn; Valerie A. Thomas; Randolph H. Wynne
2016-01-01
Machine learning approaches such as random forest haveÂ increased for the spatial modeling and mapping of continuousÂ variables. Random forest is a non-parametric ensembleÂ approach, and unlike traditional regression approaches thereÂ is no direct quantification of prediction error. UnderstandingÂ prediction uncertainty is important when using model-basedÂ continuous maps as...
Huo, Zhiguang; Tseng, George
2017-01-01
Cancer subtypes discovery is the first step to deliver personalized medicine to cancer patients. With the accumulation of massive multi-level omics datasets and established biological knowledge databases, omics data integration with incorporation of rich existing biological knowledge is essential for deciphering a biological mechanism behind the complex diseases. In this manuscript, we propose an integrative sparse K-means (is-K means) approach to discover disease subtypes with the guidance of prior biological knowledge via sparse overlapping group lasso. An algorithm using an alternating direction method of multiplier (ADMM) will be applied for fast optimization. Simulation and three real applications in breast cancer and leukemia will be used to compare is-K means with existing methods and demonstrate its superior clustering accuracy, feature selection, functional annotation of detected molecular features and computing efficiency. PMID:28959370
Huo, Zhiguang; Tseng, George
2017-06-01
Cancer subtypes discovery is the first step to deliver personalized medicine to cancer patients. With the accumulation of massive multi-level omics datasets and established biological knowledge databases, omics data integration with incorporation of rich existing biological knowledge is essential for deciphering a biological mechanism behind the complex diseases. In this manuscript, we propose an integrative sparse K -means (is- K means) approach to discover disease subtypes with the guidance of prior biological knowledge via sparse overlapping group lasso. An algorithm using an alternating direction method of multiplier (ADMM) will be applied for fast optimization. Simulation and three real applications in breast cancer and leukemia will be used to compare is- K means with existing methods and demonstrate its superior clustering accuracy, feature selection, functional annotation of detected molecular features and computing efficiency.
Analyzing degradation data with a random effects spline regression model
Fugate, Michael Lynn; Hamada, Michael Scott; Weaver, Brian Phillip
2017-03-17
This study proposes using a random effects spline regression model to analyze degradation data. Spline regression avoids having to specify a parametric function for the true degradation of an item. A distribution for the spline regression coefficients captures the variation of the true degradation curves from item to item. We illustrate the proposed methodology with a real example using a Bayesian approach. The Bayesian approach allows prediction of degradation of a population over time and estimation of reliability is easy to perform.
Analyzing degradation data with a random effects spline regression model
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Fugate, Michael Lynn; Hamada, Michael Scott; Weaver, Brian Phillip
This study proposes using a random effects spline regression model to analyze degradation data. Spline regression avoids having to specify a parametric function for the true degradation of an item. A distribution for the spline regression coefficients captures the variation of the true degradation curves from item to item. We illustrate the proposed methodology with a real example using a Bayesian approach. The Bayesian approach allows prediction of degradation of a population over time and estimation of reliability is easy to perform.
Accounting for measurement error in log regression models with applications to accelerated testing.
Richardson, Robert; Tolley, H Dennis; Evenson, William E; Lunt, Barry M
2018-01-01
In regression settings, parameter estimates will be biased when the explanatory variables are measured with error. This bias can significantly affect modeling goals. In particular, accelerated lifetime testing involves an extrapolation of the fitted model, and a small amount of bias in parameter estimates may result in a significant increase in the bias of the extrapolated predictions. Additionally, bias may arise when the stochastic component of a log regression model is assumed to be multiplicative when the actual underlying stochastic component is additive. To account for these possible sources of bias, a log regression model with measurement error and additive error is approximated by a weighted regression model which can be estimated using Iteratively Re-weighted Least Squares. Using the reduced Eyring equation in an accelerated testing setting, the model is compared to previously accepted approaches to modeling accelerated testing data with both simulations and real data.
Vajargah, Kianoush Fathi; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Mehdizadeh-Esfanjani, Robab; Savadi-Oskouei, Daryoush; Farhoudi, Mehdi
2012-01-01
The objective of the present study was to assess the comparable applicability of orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) statistical model vs traditional linear regression in order to investigate the role of trans cranial doppler (TCD) sonography in predicting ischemic stroke prognosis. The study was conducted on 116 ischemic stroke patients admitted to a specialty neurology ward. The Unified Neurological Stroke Scale was used once for clinical evaluation on the first week of admission and again six months later. All data was primarily analyzed using simple linear regression and later considered for multivariate analysis using PLS/OPLS models through the SIMCA P+12 statistical software package. The linear regression analysis results used for the identification of TCD predictors of stroke prognosis were confirmed through the OPLS modeling technique. Moreover, in comparison to linear regression, the OPLS model appeared to have higher sensitivity in detecting the predictors of ischemic stroke prognosis and detected several more predictors. Applying the OPLS model made it possible to use both single TCD measures/indicators and arbitrarily dichotomized measures of TCD single vessel involvement as well as the overall TCD result. In conclusion, the authors recommend PLS/OPLS methods as complementary rather than alternative to the available classical regression models such as linear regression.
A Technique of Fuzzy C-Mean in Multiple Linear Regression Model toward Paddy Yield
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Syazwan Wahab, Nur; Saifullah Rusiman, Mohd; Mohamad, Mahathir; Amira Azmi, Nur; Che Him, Norziha; Ghazali Kamardan, M.; Ali, Maselan
2018-04-01
In this paper, we propose a hybrid model which is a combination of multiple linear regression model and fuzzy c-means method. This research involved a relationship between 20 variates of the top soil that are analyzed prior to planting of paddy yields at standard fertilizer rates. Data used were from the multi-location trials for rice carried out by MARDI at major paddy granary in Peninsular Malaysia during the period from 2009 to 2012. Missing observations were estimated using mean estimation techniques. The data were analyzed using multiple linear regression model and a combination of multiple linear regression model and fuzzy c-means method. Analysis of normality and multicollinearity indicate that the data is normally scattered without multicollinearity among independent variables. Analysis of fuzzy c-means cluster the yield of paddy into two clusters before the multiple linear regression model can be used. The comparison between two method indicate that the hybrid of multiple linear regression model and fuzzy c-means method outperform the multiple linear regression model with lower value of mean square error.
Screen and clean: a tool for identifying interactions in genome-wide association studies.
Wu, Jing; Devlin, Bernie; Ringquist, Steven; Trucco, Massimo; Roeder, Kathryn
2010-04-01
Epistasis could be an important source of risk for disease. How interacting loci might be discovered is an open question for genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Most researchers limit their statistical analyses to testing individual pairwise interactions (i.e., marginal tests for association). A more effective means of identifying important predictors is to fit models that include many predictors simultaneously (i.e., higher-dimensional models). We explore a procedure called screen and clean (SC) for identifying liability loci, including interactions, by using the lasso procedure, which is a model selection tool for high-dimensional regression. We approach the problem by using a varying dictionary consisting of terms to include in the model. In the first step the lasso dictionary includes only main effects. The most promising single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are identified using a screening procedure. Next the lasso dictionary is adjusted to include these main effects and the corresponding interaction terms. Again, promising terms are identified using lasso screening. Then significant terms are identified through the cleaning process. Implementation of SC for GWAS requires algorithms to explore the complex model space induced by the many SNPs genotyped and their interactions. We propose and explore a set of algorithms and find that SC successfully controls Type I error while yielding good power to identify risk loci and their interactions. When the method is applied to data obtained from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium study of Type 1 Diabetes it uncovers evidence supporting interaction within the HLA class II region as well as within Chromosome 12q24.
Estimation of variance in Cox's regression model with shared gamma frailties.
Andersen, P K; Klein, J P; Knudsen, K M; Tabanera y Palacios, R
1997-12-01
The Cox regression model with a shared frailty factor allows for unobserved heterogeneity or for statistical dependence between the observed survival times. Estimation in this model when the frailties are assumed to follow a gamma distribution is reviewed, and we address the problem of obtaining variance estimates for regression coefficients, frailty parameter, and cumulative baseline hazards using the observed nonparametric information matrix. A number of examples are given comparing this approach with fully parametric inference in models with piecewise constant baseline hazards.
SCI model structure determination program (OSR) user's guide. [optimal subset regression
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1979-01-01
The computer program, OSR (Optimal Subset Regression) which estimates models for rotorcraft body and rotor force and moment coefficients is described. The technique used is based on the subset regression algorithm. Given time histories of aerodynamic coefficients, aerodynamic variables, and control inputs, the program computes correlation between various time histories. The model structure determination is based on these correlations. Inputs and outputs of the program are given.
Robust, Adaptive Functional Regression in Functional Mixed Model Framework.
Zhu, Hongxiao; Brown, Philip J; Morris, Jeffrey S
2011-09-01
Functional data are increasingly encountered in scientific studies, and their high dimensionality and complexity lead to many analytical challenges. Various methods for functional data analysis have been developed, including functional response regression methods that involve regression of a functional response on univariate/multivariate predictors with nonparametrically represented functional coefficients. In existing methods, however, the functional regression can be sensitive to outlying curves and outlying regions of curves, so is not robust. In this paper, we introduce a new Bayesian method, robust functional mixed models (R-FMM), for performing robust functional regression within the general functional mixed model framework, which includes multiple continuous or categorical predictors and random effect functions accommodating potential between-function correlation induced by the experimental design. The underlying model involves a hierarchical scale mixture model for the fixed effects, random effect and residual error functions. These modeling assumptions across curves result in robust nonparametric estimators of the fixed and random effect functions which down-weight outlying curves and regions of curves, and produce statistics that can be used to flag global and local outliers. These assumptions also lead to distributions across wavelet coefficients that have outstanding sparsity and adaptive shrinkage properties, with great flexibility for the data to determine the sparsity and the heaviness of the tails. Together with the down-weighting of outliers, these within-curve properties lead to fixed and random effect function estimates that appear in our simulations to be remarkably adaptive in their ability to remove spurious features yet retain true features of the functions. We have developed general code to implement this fully Bayesian method that is automatic, requiring the user to only provide the functional data and design matrices. It is efficient
Robust, Adaptive Functional Regression in Functional Mixed Model Framework
Zhu, Hongxiao; Brown, Philip J.; Morris, Jeffrey S.
2012-01-01
Functional data are increasingly encountered in scientific studies, and their high dimensionality and complexity lead to many analytical challenges. Various methods for functional data analysis have been developed, including functional response regression methods that involve regression of a functional response on univariate/multivariate predictors with nonparametrically represented functional coefficients. In existing methods, however, the functional regression can be sensitive to outlying curves and outlying regions of curves, so is not robust. In this paper, we introduce a new Bayesian method, robust functional mixed models (R-FMM), for performing robust functional regression within the general functional mixed model framework, which includes multiple continuous or categorical predictors and random effect functions accommodating potential between-function correlation induced by the experimental design. The underlying model involves a hierarchical scale mixture model for the fixed effects, random effect and residual error functions. These modeling assumptions across curves result in robust nonparametric estimators of the fixed and random effect functions which down-weight outlying curves and regions of curves, and produce statistics that can be used to flag global and local outliers. These assumptions also lead to distributions across wavelet coefficients that have outstanding sparsity and adaptive shrinkage properties, with great flexibility for the data to determine the sparsity and the heaviness of the tails. Together with the down-weighting of outliers, these within-curve properties lead to fixed and random effect function estimates that appear in our simulations to be remarkably adaptive in their ability to remove spurious features yet retain true features of the functions. We have developed general code to implement this fully Bayesian method that is automatic, requiring the user to only provide the functional data and design matrices. It is efficient
Evaluation and application of regional turbidity-sediment regression models in Virginia
Hyer, Kenneth; Jastram, John D.; Moyer, Douglas; Webber, James S.; Chanat, Jeffrey G.
2015-01-01
Conventional thinking has long held that turbidity-sediment surrogate-regression equations are site specific and that regression equations developed at a single monitoring station should not be applied to another station; however, few studies have evaluated this issue in a rigorous manner. If robust regional turbidity-sediment models can be developed successfully, their applications could greatly expand the usage of these methods. Suspended sediment load estimation could occur as soon as flow and turbidity monitoring commence at a site, suspended sediment sampling frequencies for various projects potentially could be reduced, and special-project applications (sediment monitoring following dam removal, for example) could be significantly enhanced. The objective of this effort was to investigate the turbidity-suspended sediment concentration (SSC) relations at all available USGS monitoring sites within Virginia to determine whether meaningful turbidity-sediment regression models can be developed by combining the data from multiple monitoring stations into a single model, known as a “regional” model. Following the development of the regional model, additional objectives included a comparison of predicted SSCs between the regional model and commonly used site-specific models, as well as an evaluation of why specific monitoring stations did not fit the regional model.
SPSS macros to compare any two fitted values from a regression model.
Weaver, Bruce; Dubois, Sacha
2012-12-01
In regression models with first-order terms only, the coefficient for a given variable is typically interpreted as the change in the fitted value of Y for a one-unit increase in that variable, with all other variables held constant. Therefore, each regression coefficient represents the difference between two fitted values of Y. But the coefficients represent only a fraction of the possible fitted value comparisons that might be of interest to researchers. For many fitted value comparisons that are not captured by any of the regression coefficients, common statistical software packages do not provide the standard errors needed to compute confidence intervals or carry out statistical tests-particularly in more complex models that include interactions, polynomial terms, or regression splines. We describe two SPSS macros that implement a matrix algebra method for comparing any two fitted values from a regression model. The !OLScomp and !MLEcomp macros are for use with models fitted via ordinary least squares and maximum likelihood estimation, respectively. The output from the macros includes the standard error of the difference between the two fitted values, a 95% confidence interval for the difference, and a corresponding statistical test with its p-value.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Waller, Niels; Jones, Jeff
2011-01-01
We describe methods for assessing all possible criteria (i.e., dependent variables) and subsets of criteria for regression models with a fixed set of predictors, x (where x is an n x 1 vector of independent variables). Our methods build upon the geometry of regression coefficients (hereafter called regression weights) in n-dimensional space. For a…
Can We Use Regression Modeling to Quantify Mean Annual Streamflow at a Global-Scale?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barbarossa, V.; Huijbregts, M. A. J.; Hendriks, J. A.; Beusen, A.; Clavreul, J.; King, H.; Schipper, A.
2016-12-01
Quantifying mean annual flow of rivers (MAF) at ungauged sites is essential for a number of applications, including assessments of global water supply, ecosystem integrity and water footprints. MAF can be quantified with spatially explicit process-based models, which might be overly time-consuming and data-intensive for this purpose, or with empirical regression models that predict MAF based on climate and catchment characteristics. Yet, regression models have mostly been developed at a regional scale and the extent to which they can be extrapolated to other regions is not known. In this study, we developed a global-scale regression model for MAF using observations of discharge and catchment characteristics from 1,885 catchments worldwide, ranging from 2 to 106 km2 in size. In addition, we compared the performance of the regression model with the predictive ability of the spatially explicit global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB [van Beek et al., 2011] by comparing results from both models to independent measurements. We obtained a regression model explaining 89% of the variance in MAF based on catchment area, mean annual precipitation and air temperature, average slope and elevation. The regression model performed better than PCR-GLOBWB for the prediction of MAF, as root-mean-square error values were lower (0.29 - 0.38 compared to 0.49 - 0.57) and the modified index of agreement was higher (0.80 - 0.83 compared to 0.72 - 0.75). Our regression model can be applied globally at any point of the river network, provided that the input parameters are within the range of values employed in the calibration of the model. The performance is reduced for water scarce regions and further research should focus on improving such an aspect for regression-based global hydrological models.
Modeling Governance KB with CATPCA to Overcome Multicollinearity in the Logistic Regression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khikmah, L.; Wijayanto, H.; Syafitri, U. D.
2017-04-01
The problem often encounters in logistic regression modeling are multicollinearity problems. Data that have multicollinearity between explanatory variables with the result in the estimation of parameters to be bias. Besides, the multicollinearity will result in error in the classification. In general, to overcome multicollinearity in regression used stepwise regression. They are also another method to overcome multicollinearity which involves all variable for prediction. That is Principal Component Analysis (PCA). However, classical PCA in only for numeric data. Its data are categorical, one method to solve the problems is Categorical Principal Component Analysis (CATPCA). Data were used in this research were a part of data Demographic and Population Survey Indonesia (IDHS) 2012. This research focuses on the characteristic of women of using the contraceptive methods. Classification results evaluated using Area Under Curve (AUC) values. The higher the AUC value, the better. Based on AUC values, the classification of the contraceptive method using stepwise method (58.66%) is better than the logistic regression model (57.39%) and CATPCA (57.39%). Evaluation of the results of logistic regression using sensitivity, shows the opposite where CATPCA method (99.79%) is better than logistic regression method (92.43%) and stepwise (92.05%). Therefore in this study focuses on major class classification (using a contraceptive method), then the selected model is CATPCA because it can raise the level of the major class model accuracy.
Time series modeling by a regression approach based on a latent process.
Chamroukhi, Faicel; Samé, Allou; Govaert, Gérard; Aknin, Patrice
2009-01-01
Time series are used in many domains including finance, engineering, economics and bioinformatics generally to represent the change of a measurement over time. Modeling techniques may then be used to give a synthetic representation of such data. A new approach for time series modeling is proposed in this paper. It consists of a regression model incorporating a discrete hidden logistic process allowing for activating smoothly or abruptly different polynomial regression models. The model parameters are estimated by the maximum likelihood method performed by a dedicated Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm. The M step of the EM algorithm uses a multi-class Iterative Reweighted Least-Squares (IRLS) algorithm to estimate the hidden process parameters. To evaluate the proposed approach, an experimental study on simulated data and real world data was performed using two alternative approaches: a heteroskedastic piecewise regression model using a global optimization algorithm based on dynamic programming, and a Hidden Markov Regression Model whose parameters are estimated by the Baum-Welch algorithm. Finally, in the context of the remote monitoring of components of the French railway infrastructure, and more particularly the switch mechanism, the proposed approach has been applied to modeling and classifying time series representing the condition measurements acquired during switch operations.
Comparison and Contrast of Two General Functional Regression Modeling Frameworks.
Morris, Jeffrey S
2017-02-01
In this article, Greven and Scheipl describe an impressively general framework for performing functional regression that builds upon the generalized additive modeling framework. Over the past number of years, my collaborators and I have also been developing a general framework for functional regression, functional mixed models, which shares many similarities with this framework, but has many differences as well. In this discussion, I compare and contrast these two frameworks, to hopefully illuminate characteristics of each, highlighting their respecitve strengths and weaknesses, and providing recommendations regarding the settings in which each approach might be preferable.
Adjusting for Confounding in Early Postlaunch Settings: Going Beyond Logistic Regression Models.
Schmidt, Amand F; Klungel, Olaf H; Groenwold, Rolf H H
2016-01-01
Postlaunch data on medical treatments can be analyzed to explore adverse events or relative effectiveness in real-life settings. These analyses are often complicated by the number of potential confounders and the possibility of model misspecification. We conducted a simulation study to compare the performance of logistic regression, propensity score, disease risk score, and stabilized inverse probability weighting methods to adjust for confounding. Model misspecification was induced in the independent derivation dataset. We evaluated performance using relative bias confidence interval coverage of the true effect, among other metrics. At low events per coefficient (1.0 and 0.5), the logistic regression estimates had a large relative bias (greater than -100%). Bias of the disease risk score estimates was at most 13.48% and 18.83%. For the propensity score model, this was 8.74% and >100%, respectively. At events per coefficient of 1.0 and 0.5, inverse probability weighting frequently failed or reduced to a crude regression, resulting in biases of -8.49% and 24.55%. Coverage of logistic regression estimates became less than the nominal level at events per coefficient ≤5. For the disease risk score, inverse probability weighting, and propensity score, coverage became less than nominal at events per coefficient ≤2.5, ≤1.0, and ≤1.0, respectively. Bias of misspecified disease risk score models was 16.55%. In settings with low events/exposed subjects per coefficient, disease risk score methods can be useful alternatives to logistic regression models, especially when propensity score models cannot be used. Despite better performance of disease risk score methods than logistic regression and propensity score models in small events per coefficient settings, bias, and coverage still deviated from nominal.
Regression and multivariate models for predicting particulate matter concentration level.
Nazif, Amina; Mohammed, Nurul Izma; Malakahmad, Amirhossein; Abualqumboz, Motasem S
2018-01-01
The devastating health effects of particulate matter (PM 10 ) exposure by susceptible populace has made it necessary to evaluate PM 10 pollution. Meteorological parameters and seasonal variation increases PM 10 concentration levels, especially in areas that have multiple anthropogenic activities. Hence, stepwise regression (SR), multiple linear regression (MLR) and principal component regression (PCR) analyses were used to analyse daily average PM 10 concentration levels. The analyses were carried out using daily average PM 10 concentration, temperature, humidity, wind speed and wind direction data from 2006 to 2010. The data was from an industrial air quality monitoring station in Malaysia. The SR analysis established that meteorological parameters had less influence on PM 10 concentration levels having coefficient of determination (R 2 ) result from 23 to 29% based on seasoned and unseasoned analysis. While, the result of the prediction analysis showed that PCR models had a better R 2 result than MLR methods. The results for the analyses based on both seasoned and unseasoned data established that MLR models had R 2 result from 0.50 to 0.60. While, PCR models had R 2 result from 0.66 to 0.89. In addition, the validation analysis using 2016 data also recognised that the PCR model outperformed the MLR model, with the PCR model for the seasoned analysis having the best result. These analyses will aid in achieving sustainable air quality management strategies.
Bootstrap investigation of the stability of a Cox regression model.
Altman, D G; Andersen, P K
1989-07-01
We describe a bootstrap investigation of the stability of a Cox proportional hazards regression model resulting from the analysis of a clinical trial of azathioprine versus placebo in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. We have considered stability to refer both to the choice of variables included in the model and, more importantly, to the predictive ability of the model. In stepwise Cox regression analyses of 100 bootstrap samples using 17 candidate variables, the most frequently selected variables were those selected in the original analysis, and no other important variable was identified. Thus there was no reason to doubt the model obtained in the original analysis. For each patient in the trial, bootstrap confidence intervals were constructed for the estimated probability of surviving two years. It is shown graphically that these intervals are markedly wider than those obtained from the original model.
Logistic regression for risk factor modelling in stuttering research.
Reed, Phil; Wu, Yaqionq
2013-06-01
To outline the uses of logistic regression and other statistical methods for risk factor analysis in the context of research on stuttering. The principles underlying the application of a logistic regression are illustrated, and the types of questions to which such a technique has been applied in the stuttering field are outlined. The assumptions and limitations of the technique are discussed with respect to existing stuttering research, and with respect to formulating appropriate research strategies to accommodate these considerations. Finally, some alternatives to the approach are briefly discussed. The way the statistical procedures are employed are demonstrated with some hypothetical data. Research into several practical issues concerning stuttering could benefit if risk factor modelling were used. Important examples are early diagnosis, prognosis (whether a child will recover or persist) and assessment of treatment outcome. After reading this article you will: (a) Summarize the situations in which logistic regression can be applied to a range of issues about stuttering; (b) Follow the steps in performing a logistic regression analysis; (c) Describe the assumptions of the logistic regression technique and the precautions that need to be checked when it is employed; (d) Be able to summarize its advantages over other techniques like estimation of group differences and simple regression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Weichenthal, Scott; Ryswyk, Keith Van; Goldstein, Alon; Bagg, Scott; Shekkarizfard, Maryam; Hatzopoulou, Marianne
2016-04-01
Existing evidence suggests that ambient ultrafine particles (UFPs) (<0.1µm) may contribute to acute cardiorespiratory morbidity. However, few studies have examined the long-term health effects of these pollutants owing in part to a need for exposure surfaces that can be applied in large population-based studies. To address this need, we developed a land use regression model for UFPs in Montreal, Canada using mobile monitoring data collected from 414 road segments during the summer and winter months between 2011 and 2012. Two different approaches were examined for model development including standard multivariable linear regression and a machine learning approach (kernel-based regularized least squares (KRLS)) that learns the functional form of covariate impacts on ambient UFP concentrations from the data. The final models included parameters for population density, ambient temperature and wind speed, land use parameters (park space and open space), length of local roads and rail, and estimated annual average NOx emissions from traffic. The final multivariable linear regression model explained 62% of the spatial variation in ambient UFP concentrations whereas the KRLS model explained 79% of the variance. The KRLS model performed slightly better than the linear regression model when evaluated using an external dataset (R(2)=0.58 vs. 0.55) or a cross-validation procedure (R(2)=0.67 vs. 0.60). In general, our findings suggest that the KRLS approach may offer modest improvements in predictive performance compared to standard multivariable linear regression models used to estimate spatial variations in ambient UFPs. However, differences in predictive performance were not statistically significant when evaluated using the cross-validation procedure. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Advanced statistics: linear regression, part I: simple linear regression.
Marill, Keith A
2004-01-01
Simple linear regression is a mathematical technique used to model the relationship between a single independent predictor variable and a single dependent outcome variable. In this, the first of a two-part series exploring concepts in linear regression analysis, the four fundamental assumptions and the mechanics of simple linear regression are reviewed. The most common technique used to derive the regression line, the method of least squares, is described. The reader will be acquainted with other important concepts in simple linear regression, including: variable transformations, dummy variables, relationship to inference testing, and leverage. Simplified clinical examples with small datasets and graphic models are used to illustrate the points. This will provide a foundation for the second article in this series: a discussion of multiple linear regression, in which there are multiple predictor variables.
Advanced statistics: linear regression, part II: multiple linear regression.
Marill, Keith A
2004-01-01
The applications of simple linear regression in medical research are limited, because in most situations, there are multiple relevant predictor variables. Univariate statistical techniques such as simple linear regression use a single predictor variable, and they often may be mathematically correct but clinically misleading. Multiple linear regression is a mathematical technique used to model the relationship between multiple independent predictor variables and a single dependent outcome variable. It is used in medical research to model observational data, as well as in diagnostic and therapeutic studies in which the outcome is dependent on more than one factor. Although the technique generally is limited to data that can be expressed with a linear function, it benefits from a well-developed mathematical framework that yields unique solutions and exact confidence intervals for regression coefficients. Building on Part I of this series, this article acquaints the reader with some of the important concepts in multiple regression analysis. These include multicollinearity, interaction effects, and an expansion of the discussion of inference testing, leverage, and variable transformations to multivariate models. Examples from the first article in this series are expanded on using a primarily graphic, rather than mathematical, approach. The importance of the relationships among the predictor variables and the dependence of the multivariate model coefficients on the choice of these variables are stressed. Finally, concepts in regression model building are discussed.
Developing global regression models for metabolite concentration prediction regardless of cell line.
André, Silvère; Lagresle, Sylvain; Da Sliva, Anthony; Heimendinger, Pierre; Hannas, Zahia; Calvosa, Éric; Duponchel, Ludovic
2017-11-01
Following the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), drug manufacturers are encouraged to develop innovative techniques in order to monitor and understand their processes in a better way. Within this framework, it has been demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy coupled with chemometric tools allow to predict critical parameters of mammalian cell cultures in-line and in real time. However, the development of robust and predictive regression models clearly requires many batches in order to take into account inter-batch variability and enhance models accuracy. Nevertheless, this heavy procedure has to be repeated for every new line of cell culture involving many resources. This is why we propose in this paper to develop global regression models taking into account different cell lines. Such models are finally transferred to any culture of the cells involved. This article first demonstrates the feasibility of developing regression models, not only for mammalian cell lines (CHO and HeLa cell cultures), but also for insect cell lines (Sf9 cell cultures). Then global regression models are generated, based on CHO cells, HeLa cells, and Sf9 cells. Finally, these models are evaluated considering a fourth cell line(HEK cells). In addition to suitable predictions of glucose and lactate concentration of HEK cell cultures, we expose that by adding a single HEK-cell culture to the calibration set, the predictive ability of the regression models are substantially increased. In this way, we demonstrate that using global models, it is not necessary to consider many cultures of a new cell line in order to obtain accurate models. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2550-2559. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Evaluation of weighted regression and sample size in developing a taper model for loblolly pine
Kenneth L. Cormier; Robin M. Reich; Raymond L. Czaplewski; William A. Bechtold
1992-01-01
A stem profile model, fit using pseudo-likelihood weighted regression, was used to estimate merchantable volume of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in the southeast. The weighted regression increased model fit marginally, but did not substantially increase model performance. In all cases, the unweighted regression models performed as well as the...
Crime Modeling using Spatial Regression Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saleh Ahmar, Ansari; Adiatma; Kasim Aidid, M.
2018-01-01
Act of criminality in Indonesia increased both variety and quantity every year. As murder, rape, assault, vandalism, theft, fraud, fencing, and other cases that make people feel unsafe. Risk of society exposed to crime is the number of reported cases in the police institution. The higher of the number of reporter to the police institution then the number of crime in the region is increasing. In this research, modeling criminality in South Sulawesi, Indonesia with the dependent variable used is the society exposed to the risk of crime. Modelling done by area approach is the using Spatial Autoregressive (SAR) and Spatial Error Model (SEM) methods. The independent variable used is the population density, the number of poor population, GDP per capita, unemployment and the human development index (HDI). Based on the analysis using spatial regression can be shown that there are no dependencies spatial both lag or errors in South Sulawesi.
The bivariate regression model and its application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pratikno, B.; Sulistia, L.; Saniyah
2018-03-01
The paper studied a bivariate regression model (BRM) and its application. The maximum power and minimum size are used to choose the eligible tests using non-sample prior information (NSPI). In the simulation study on real data, we used Wilk’s lamda to determine the best model of the BRM. The result showed that the power of the pre-test-test (PTT) on the NSPI is a significant choice of the tests among unrestricted test (UT) and restricted test (RT), and the best model of the BRM is Y (1) = ‑894 + 46X and Y (2) = 78 + 0.2X with significant Wilk’s lamda 0.88 < 0.90 (Wilk’s table).
Determining factors influencing survival of breast cancer by fuzzy logistic regression model.
Nikbakht, Roya; Bahrampour, Abbas
2017-01-01
Fuzzy logistic regression model can be used for determining influential factors of disease. This study explores the important factors of actual predictive survival factors of breast cancer's patients. We used breast cancer data which collected by cancer registry of Kerman University of Medical Sciences during the period of 2000-2007. The variables such as morphology, grade, age, and treatments (surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy) were applied in the fuzzy logistic regression model. Performance of model was determined in terms of mean degree of membership (MDM). The study results showed that almost 41% of patients were in neoplasm and malignant group and more than two-third of them were still alive after 5-year follow-up. Based on the fuzzy logistic model, the most important factors influencing survival were chemotherapy, morphology, and radiotherapy, respectively. Furthermore, the MDM criteria show that the fuzzy logistic regression have a good fit on the data (MDM = 0.86). Fuzzy logistic regression model showed that chemotherapy is more important than radiotherapy in survival of patients with breast cancer. In addition, another ability of this model is calculating possibilistic odds of survival in cancer patients. The results of this study can be applied in clinical research. Furthermore, there are few studies which applied the fuzzy logistic models. Furthermore, we recommend using this model in various research areas.
Zhang, Xin; Liu, Pan; Chen, Yuguang; Bai, Lu; Wang, Wei
2014-01-01
The primary objective of this study was to identify whether the frequency of traffic conflicts at signalized intersections can be modeled. The opposing left-turn conflicts were selected for the development of conflict predictive models. Using data collected at 30 approaches at 20 signalized intersections, the underlying distributions of the conflicts under different traffic conditions were examined. Different conflict-predictive models were developed to relate the frequency of opposing left-turn conflicts to various explanatory variables. The models considered include a linear regression model, a negative binomial model, and separate models developed for four traffic scenarios. The prediction performance of different models was compared. The frequency of traffic conflicts follows a negative binominal distribution. The linear regression model is not appropriate for the conflict frequency data. In addition, drivers behaved differently under different traffic conditions. Accordingly, the effects of conflicting traffic volumes on conflict frequency vary across different traffic conditions. The occurrences of traffic conflicts at signalized intersections can be modeled using generalized linear regression models. The use of conflict predictive models has potential to expand the uses of surrogate safety measures in safety estimation and evaluation.
Chen, Baojiang; Qin, Jing
2014-05-10
In statistical analysis, a regression model is needed if one is interested in finding the relationship between a response variable and covariates. When the response depends on the covariate, then it may also depend on the function of this covariate. If one has no knowledge of this functional form but expect for monotonic increasing or decreasing, then the isotonic regression model is preferable. Estimation of parameters for isotonic regression models is based on the pool-adjacent-violators algorithm (PAVA), where the monotonicity constraints are built in. With missing data, people often employ the augmented estimating method to improve estimation efficiency by incorporating auxiliary information through a working regression model. However, under the framework of the isotonic regression model, the PAVA does not work as the monotonicity constraints are violated. In this paper, we develop an empirical likelihood-based method for isotonic regression model to incorporate the auxiliary information. Because the monotonicity constraints still hold, the PAVA can be used for parameter estimation. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed method can yield more efficient estimates, and in some situations, the efficiency improvement is substantial. We apply this method to a dementia study. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Comparison and Contrast of Two General Functional Regression Modeling Frameworks
Morris, Jeffrey S.
2017-01-01
In this article, Greven and Scheipl describe an impressively general framework for performing functional regression that builds upon the generalized additive modeling framework. Over the past number of years, my collaborators and I have also been developing a general framework for functional regression, functional mixed models, which shares many similarities with this framework, but has many differences as well. In this discussion, I compare and contrast these two frameworks, to hopefully illuminate characteristics of each, highlighting their respecitve strengths and weaknesses, and providing recommendations regarding the settings in which each approach might be preferable. PMID:28736502
Developing a dengue forecast model using machine learning: A case study in China.
Guo, Pi; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Li; Xiao, Jianpeng; Zhang, Qingying; Luo, Ganfeng; Li, Zhihao; He, Jianfeng; Zhang, Yonghui; Ma, Wenjun
2017-10-01
In China, dengue remains an important public health issue with expanded areas and increased incidence recently. Accurate and timely forecasts of dengue incidence in China are still lacking. We aimed to use the state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms to develop an accurate predictive model of dengue. Weekly dengue cases, Baidu search queries and climate factors (mean temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) during 2011-2014 in Guangdong were gathered. A dengue search index was constructed for developing the predictive models in combination with climate factors. The observed year and week were also included in the models to control for the long-term trend and seasonality. Several machine learning algorithms, including the support vector regression (SVR) algorithm, step-down linear regression model, gradient boosted regression tree algorithm (GBM), negative binomial regression model (NBM), least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) linear regression model and generalized additive model (GAM), were used as candidate models to predict dengue incidence. Performance and goodness of fit of the models were assessed using the root-mean-square error (RMSE) and R-squared measures. The residuals of the models were examined using the autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation function analyses to check the validity of the models. The models were further validated using dengue surveillance data from five other provinces. The epidemics during the last 12 weeks and the peak of the 2014 large outbreak were accurately forecasted by the SVR model selected by a cross-validation technique. Moreover, the SVR model had the consistently smallest prediction error rates for tracking the dynamics of dengue and forecasting the outbreaks in other areas in China. The proposed SVR model achieved a superior performance in comparison with other forecasting techniques assessed in this study. The findings can help the government and community respond early to dengue epidemics.
Developing a dengue forecast model using machine learning: A case study in China
Zhang, Qin; Wang, Li; Xiao, Jianpeng; Zhang, Qingying; Luo, Ganfeng; Li, Zhihao; He, Jianfeng; Zhang, Yonghui; Ma, Wenjun
2017-01-01
Background In China, dengue remains an important public health issue with expanded areas and increased incidence recently. Accurate and timely forecasts of dengue incidence in China are still lacking. We aimed to use the state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms to develop an accurate predictive model of dengue. Methodology/Principal findings Weekly dengue cases, Baidu search queries and climate factors (mean temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) during 2011–2014 in Guangdong were gathered. A dengue search index was constructed for developing the predictive models in combination with climate factors. The observed year and week were also included in the models to control for the long-term trend and seasonality. Several machine learning algorithms, including the support vector regression (SVR) algorithm, step-down linear regression model, gradient boosted regression tree algorithm (GBM), negative binomial regression model (NBM), least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) linear regression model and generalized additive model (GAM), were used as candidate models to predict dengue incidence. Performance and goodness of fit of the models were assessed using the root-mean-square error (RMSE) and R-squared measures. The residuals of the models were examined using the autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation function analyses to check the validity of the models. The models were further validated using dengue surveillance data from five other provinces. The epidemics during the last 12 weeks and the peak of the 2014 large outbreak were accurately forecasted by the SVR model selected by a cross-validation technique. Moreover, the SVR model had the consistently smallest prediction error rates for tracking the dynamics of dengue and forecasting the outbreaks in other areas in China. Conclusion and significance The proposed SVR model achieved a superior performance in comparison with other forecasting techniques assessed in this study. The findings
Survival Regression Modeling Strategies in CVD Prediction.
Barkhordari, Mahnaz; Padyab, Mojgan; Sardarinia, Mahsa; Hadaegh, Farzad; Azizi, Fereidoun; Bozorgmanesh, Mohammadreza
2016-04-01
A fundamental part of prevention is prediction. Potential predictors are the sine qua non of prediction models. However, whether incorporating novel predictors to prediction models could be directly translated to added predictive value remains an area of dispute. The difference between the predictive power of a predictive model with (enhanced model) and without (baseline model) a certain predictor is generally regarded as an indicator of the predictive value added by that predictor. Indices such as discrimination and calibration have long been used in this regard. Recently, the use of added predictive value has been suggested while comparing the predictive performances of the predictive models with and without novel biomarkers. User-friendly statistical software capable of implementing novel statistical procedures is conspicuously lacking. This shortcoming has restricted implementation of such novel model assessment methods. We aimed to construct Stata commands to help researchers obtain the aforementioned statistical indices. We have written Stata commands that are intended to help researchers obtain the following. 1, Nam-D'Agostino X 2 goodness of fit test; 2, Cut point-free and cut point-based net reclassification improvement index (NRI), relative absolute integrated discriminatory improvement index (IDI), and survival-based regression analyses. We applied the commands to real data on women participating in the Tehran lipid and glucose study (TLGS) to examine if information relating to a family history of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD), waist circumference, and fasting plasma glucose can improve predictive performance of Framingham's general CVD risk algorithm. The command is adpredsurv for survival models. Herein we have described the Stata package "adpredsurv" for calculation of the Nam-D'Agostino X 2 goodness of fit test as well as cut point-free and cut point-based NRI, relative and absolute IDI, and survival-based regression analyses. We hope this
Analysis of Multivariate Experimental Data Using A Simplified Regression Model Search Algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ulbrich, Norbert Manfred
2013-01-01
A new regression model search algorithm was developed in 2011 that may be used to analyze both general multivariate experimental data sets and wind tunnel strain-gage balance calibration data. The new algorithm is a simplified version of a more complex search algorithm that was originally developed at the NASA Ames Balance Calibration Laboratory. The new algorithm has the advantage that it needs only about one tenth of the original algorithm's CPU time for the completion of a search. In addition, extensive testing showed that the prediction accuracy of math models obtained from the simplified algorithm is similar to the prediction accuracy of math models obtained from the original algorithm. The simplified algorithm, however, cannot guarantee that search constraints related to a set of statistical quality requirements are always satisfied in the optimized regression models. Therefore, the simplified search algorithm is not intended to replace the original search algorithm. Instead, it may be used to generate an alternate optimized regression model of experimental data whenever the application of the original search algorithm either fails or requires too much CPU time. Data from a machine calibration of NASA's MK40 force balance is used to illustrate the application of the new regression model search algorithm.
Madarang, Krish J; Kang, Joo-Hyon
2014-06-01
Stormwater runoff has been identified as a source of pollution for the environment, especially for receiving waters. In order to quantify and manage the impacts of stormwater runoff on the environment, predictive models and mathematical models have been developed. Predictive tools such as regression models have been widely used to predict stormwater discharge characteristics. Storm event characteristics, such as antecedent dry days (ADD), have been related to response variables, such as pollutant loads and concentrations. However it has been a controversial issue among many studies to consider ADD as an important variable in predicting stormwater discharge characteristics. In this study, we examined the accuracy of general linear regression models in predicting discharge characteristics of roadway runoff. A total of 17 storm events were monitored in two highway segments, located in Gwangju, Korea. Data from the monitoring were used to calibrate United States Environmental Protection Agency's Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). The calibrated SWMM was simulated for 55 storm events, and the results of total suspended solid (TSS) discharge loads and event mean concentrations (EMC) were extracted. From these data, linear regression models were developed. R(2) and p-values of the regression of ADD for both TSS loads and EMCs were investigated. Results showed that pollutant loads were better predicted than pollutant EMC in the multiple regression models. Regression may not provide the true effect of site-specific characteristics, due to uncertainty in the data. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Li, Deping; Oranje, Andreas
2007-01-01
Two versions of a general method for approximating standard error of regression effect estimates within an IRT-based latent regression model are compared. The general method is based on Binder's (1983) approach, accounting for complex samples and finite populations by Taylor series linearization. In contrast, the current National Assessment of…
A regularization corrected score method for nonlinear regression models with covariate error.
Zucker, David M; Gorfine, Malka; Li, Yi; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Spiegelman, Donna
2013-03-01
Many regression analyses involve explanatory variables that are measured with error, and failing to account for this error is well known to lead to biased point and interval estimates of the regression coefficients. We present here a new general method for adjusting for covariate error. Our method consists of an approximate version of the Stefanski-Nakamura corrected score approach, using the method of regularization to obtain an approximate solution of the relevant integral equation. We develop the theory in the setting of classical likelihood models; this setting covers, for example, linear regression, nonlinear regression, logistic regression, and Poisson regression. The method is extremely general in terms of the types of measurement error models covered, and is a functional method in the sense of not involving assumptions on the distribution of the true covariate. We discuss the theoretical properties of the method and present simulation results in the logistic regression setting (univariate and multivariate). For illustration, we apply the method to data from the Harvard Nurses' Health Study concerning the relationship between physical activity and breast cancer mortality in the period following a diagnosis of breast cancer. Copyright © 2013, The International Biometric Society.
A Semiparametric Change-Point Regression Model for Longitudinal Observations.
Xing, Haipeng; Ying, Zhiliang
2012-12-01
Many longitudinal studies involve relating an outcome process to a set of possibly time-varying covariates, giving rise to the usual regression models for longitudinal data. When the purpose of the study is to investigate the covariate effects when experimental environment undergoes abrupt changes or to locate the periods with different levels of covariate effects, a simple and easy-to-interpret approach is to introduce change-points in regression coefficients. In this connection, we propose a semiparametric change-point regression model, in which the error process (stochastic component) is nonparametric and the baseline mean function (functional part) is completely unspecified, the observation times are allowed to be subject-specific, and the number, locations and magnitudes of change-points are unknown and need to be estimated. We further develop an estimation procedure which combines the recent advance in semiparametric analysis based on counting process argument and multiple change-points inference, and discuss its large sample properties, including consistency and asymptotic normality, under suitable regularity conditions. Simulation results show that the proposed methods work well under a variety of scenarios. An application to a real data set is also given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caimmi, R.
2011-08-01
Concerning bivariate least squares linear regression, the classical approach pursued for functional models in earlier attempts ( York, 1966, 1969) is reviewed using a new formalism in terms of deviation (matrix) traces which, for unweighted data, reduce to usual quantities leaving aside an unessential (but dimensional) multiplicative factor. Within the framework of classical error models, the dependent variable relates to the independent variable according to the usual additive model. The classes of linear models considered are regression lines in the general case of correlated errors in X and in Y for weighted data, and in the opposite limiting situations of (i) uncorrelated errors in X and in Y, and (ii) completely correlated errors in X and in Y. The special case of (C) generalized orthogonal regression is considered in detail together with well known subcases, namely: (Y) errors in X negligible (ideally null) with respect to errors in Y; (X) errors in Y negligible (ideally null) with respect to errors in X; (O) genuine orthogonal regression; (R) reduced major-axis regression. In the limit of unweighted data, the results determined for functional models are compared with their counterparts related to extreme structural models i.e. the instrumental scatter is negligible (ideally null) with respect to the intrinsic scatter ( Isobe et al., 1990; Feigelson and Babu, 1992). While regression line slope and intercept estimators for functional and structural models necessarily coincide, the contrary holds for related variance estimators even if the residuals obey a Gaussian distribution, with the exception of Y models. An example of astronomical application is considered, concerning the [O/H]-[Fe/H] empirical relations deduced from five samples related to different stars and/or different methods of oxygen abundance determination. For selected samples and assigned methods, different regression models yield consistent results within the errors (∓ σ) for both
Modeling energy expenditure in children and adolescents using quantile regression
Yang, Yunwen; Adolph, Anne L.; Puyau, Maurice R.; Vohra, Firoz A.; Zakeri, Issa F.
2013-01-01
Advanced mathematical models have the potential to capture the complex metabolic and physiological processes that result in energy expenditure (EE). Study objective is to apply quantile regression (QR) to predict EE and determine quantile-dependent variation in covariate effects in nonobese and obese children. First, QR models will be developed to predict minute-by-minute awake EE at different quantile levels based on heart rate (HR) and physical activity (PA) accelerometry counts, and child characteristics of age, sex, weight, and height. Second, the QR models will be used to evaluate the covariate effects of weight, PA, and HR across the conditional EE distribution. QR and ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions are estimated in 109 children, aged 5–18 yr. QR modeling of EE outperformed OLS regression for both nonobese and obese populations. Average prediction errors for QR compared with OLS were not only smaller at the median τ = 0.5 (18.6 vs. 21.4%), but also substantially smaller at the tails of the distribution (10.2 vs. 39.2% at τ = 0.1 and 8.7 vs. 19.8% at τ = 0.9). Covariate effects of weight, PA, and HR on EE for the nonobese and obese children differed across quantiles (P < 0.05). The associations (linear and quadratic) between PA and HR with EE were stronger for the obese than nonobese population (P < 0.05). In conclusion, QR provided more accurate predictions of EE compared with conventional OLS regression, especially at the tails of the distribution, and revealed substantially different covariate effects of weight, PA, and HR on EE in nonobese and obese children. PMID:23640591
Benchmark dose analysis via nonparametric regression modeling
Piegorsch, Walter W.; Xiong, Hui; Bhattacharya, Rabi N.; Lin, Lizhen
2013-01-01
Estimation of benchmark doses (BMDs) in quantitative risk assessment traditionally is based upon parametric dose-response modeling. It is a well-known concern, however, that if the chosen parametric model is uncertain and/or misspecified, inaccurate and possibly unsafe low-dose inferences can result. We describe a nonparametric approach for estimating BMDs with quantal-response data based on an isotonic regression method, and also study use of corresponding, nonparametric, bootstrap-based confidence limits for the BMD. We explore the confidence limits’ small-sample properties via a simulation study, and illustrate the calculations with an example from cancer risk assessment. It is seen that this nonparametric approach can provide a useful alternative for BMD estimation when faced with the problem of parametric model uncertainty. PMID:23683057
Forecasting daily meteorological time series using ARIMA and regression models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murat, Małgorzata; Malinowska, Iwona; Gos, Magdalena; Krzyszczak, Jaromir
2018-04-01
The daily air temperature and precipitation time series recorded between January 1, 1980 and December 31, 2010 in four European sites (Jokioinen, Dikopshof, Lleida and Lublin) from different climatic zones were modeled and forecasted. In our forecasting we used the methods of the Box-Jenkins and Holt- Winters seasonal auto regressive integrated moving-average, the autoregressive integrated moving-average with external regressors in the form of Fourier terms and the time series regression, including trend and seasonality components methodology with R software. It was demonstrated that obtained models are able to capture the dynamics of the time series data and to produce sensible forecasts.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chen, Chau-Kuang
2005-01-01
Logistic and Cox regression methods are practical tools used to model the relationships between certain student learning outcomes and their relevant explanatory variables. The logistic regression model fits an S-shaped curve into a binary outcome with data points of zero and one. The Cox regression model allows investigators to study the duration…
Replica analysis of overfitting in regression models for time-to-event data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coolen, A. C. C.; Barrett, J. E.; Paga, P.; Perez-Vicente, C. J.
2017-09-01
Overfitting, which happens when the number of parameters in a model is too large compared to the number of data points available for determining these parameters, is a serious and growing problem in survival analysis. While modern medicine presents us with data of unprecedented dimensionality, these data cannot yet be used effectively for clinical outcome prediction. Standard error measures in maximum likelihood regression, such as p-values and z-scores, are blind to overfitting, and even for Cox’s proportional hazards model (the main tool of medical statisticians), one finds in literature only rules of thumb on the number of samples required to avoid overfitting. In this paper we present a mathematical theory of overfitting in regression models for time-to-event data, which aims to increase our quantitative understanding of the problem and provide practical tools with which to correct regression outcomes for the impact of overfitting. It is based on the replica method, a statistical mechanical technique for the analysis of heterogeneous many-variable systems that has been used successfully for several decades in physics, biology, and computer science, but not yet in medical statistics. We develop the theory initially for arbitrary regression models for time-to-event data, and verify its predictions in detail for the popular Cox model.
Cross-validation pitfalls when selecting and assessing regression and classification models.
Krstajic, Damjan; Buturovic, Ljubomir J; Leahy, David E; Thomas, Simon
2014-03-29
We address the problem of selecting and assessing classification and regression models using cross-validation. Current state-of-the-art methods can yield models with high variance, rendering them unsuitable for a number of practical applications including QSAR. In this paper we describe and evaluate best practices which improve reliability and increase confidence in selected models. A key operational component of the proposed methods is cloud computing which enables routine use of previously infeasible approaches. We describe in detail an algorithm for repeated grid-search V-fold cross-validation for parameter tuning in classification and regression, and we define a repeated nested cross-validation algorithm for model assessment. As regards variable selection and parameter tuning we define two algorithms (repeated grid-search cross-validation and double cross-validation), and provide arguments for using the repeated grid-search in the general case. We show results of our algorithms on seven QSAR datasets. The variation of the prediction performance, which is the result of choosing different splits of the dataset in V-fold cross-validation, needs to be taken into account when selecting and assessing classification and regression models. We demonstrate the importance of repeating cross-validation when selecting an optimal model, as well as the importance of repeating nested cross-validation when assessing a prediction error.
Robust inference under the beta regression model with application to health care studies.
Ghosh, Abhik
2017-01-01
Data on rates, percentages, or proportions arise frequently in many different applied disciplines like medical biology, health care, psychology, and several others. In this paper, we develop a robust inference procedure for the beta regression model, which is used to describe such response variables taking values in (0, 1) through some related explanatory variables. In relation to the beta regression model, the issue of robustness has been largely ignored in the literature so far. The existing maximum likelihood-based inference has serious lack of robustness against outliers in data and generate drastically different (erroneous) inference in the presence of data contamination. Here, we develop the robust minimum density power divergence estimator and a class of robust Wald-type tests for the beta regression model along with several applications. We derive their asymptotic properties and describe their robustness theoretically through the influence function analyses. Finite sample performances of the proposed estimators and tests are examined through suitable simulation studies and real data applications in the context of health care and psychology. Although we primarily focus on the beta regression models with a fixed dispersion parameter, some indications are also provided for extension to the variable dispersion beta regression models with an application.
Functional mixture regression.
Yao, Fang; Fu, Yuejiao; Lee, Thomas C M
2011-04-01
In functional linear models (FLMs), the relationship between the scalar response and the functional predictor process is often assumed to be identical for all subjects. Motivated by both practical and methodological considerations, we relax this assumption and propose a new class of functional regression models that allow the regression structure to vary for different groups of subjects. By projecting the predictor process onto its eigenspace, the new functional regression model is simplified to a framework that is similar to classical mixture regression models. This leads to the proposed approach named as functional mixture regression (FMR). The estimation of FMR can be readily carried out using existing software implemented for functional principal component analysis and mixture regression. The practical necessity and performance of FMR are illustrated through applications to a longevity analysis of female medflies and a human growth study. Theoretical investigations concerning the consistent estimation and prediction properties of FMR along with simulation experiments illustrating its empirical properties are presented in the supplementary material available at Biostatistics online. Corresponding results demonstrate that the proposed approach could potentially achieve substantial gains over traditional FLMs.
Lamont, Andrea E.; Vermunt, Jeroen K.; Van Horn, M. Lee
2016-01-01
Regression mixture models are increasingly used as an exploratory approach to identify heterogeneity in the effects of a predictor on an outcome. In this simulation study, we test the effects of violating an implicit assumption often made in these models – i.e., independent variables in the model are not directly related to latent classes. Results indicated that the major risk of failing to model the relationship between predictor and latent class was an increase in the probability of selecting additional latent classes and biased class proportions. Additionally, this study tests whether regression mixture models can detect a piecewise relationship between a predictor and outcome. Results suggest that these models are able to detect piecewise relations, but only when the relationship between the latent class and the predictor is included in model estimation. We illustrate the implications of making this assumption through a re-analysis of applied data examining heterogeneity in the effects of family resources on academic achievement. We compare previous results (which assumed no relation between independent variables and latent class) to the model where this assumption is lifted. Implications and analytic suggestions for conducting regression mixture based on these findings are noted. PMID:26881956
Zhu, Yu; Xia, Jie-lai; Wang, Jing
2009-09-01
Application of the 'single auto regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model' and the 'ARIMA-generalized regression neural network (GRNN) combination model' in the research of the incidence of scarlet fever. Establish the auto regressive integrated moving average model based on the data of the monthly incidence on scarlet fever of one city, from 2000 to 2006. The fitting values of the ARIMA model was used as input of the GRNN, and the actual values were used as output of the GRNN. After training the GRNN, the effect of the single ARIMA model and the ARIMA-GRNN combination model was then compared. The mean error rate (MER) of the single ARIMA model and the ARIMA-GRNN combination model were 31.6%, 28.7% respectively and the determination coefficient (R(2)) of the two models were 0.801, 0.872 respectively. The fitting efficacy of the ARIMA-GRNN combination model was better than the single ARIMA, which had practical value in the research on time series data such as the incidence of scarlet fever.
An operational GLS model for hydrologic regression
Tasker, Gary D.; Stedinger, J.R.
1989-01-01
Recent Monte Carlo studies have documented the value of generalized least squares (GLS) procedures to estimate empirical relationships between streamflow statistics and physiographic basin characteristics. This paper presents a number of extensions of the GLS method that deal with realities and complexities of regional hydrologic data sets that were not addressed in the simulation studies. These extensions include: (1) a more realistic model of the underlying model errors; (2) smoothed estimates of cross correlation of flows; (3) procedures for including historical flow data; (4) diagnostic statistics describing leverage and influence for GLS regression; and (5) the formulation of a mathematical program for evaluating future gaging activities. ?? 1989.
Goodness-Of-Fit Test for Nonparametric Regression Models: Smoothing Spline ANOVA Models as Example.
Teran Hidalgo, Sebastian J; Wu, Michael C; Engel, Stephanie M; Kosorok, Michael R
2018-06-01
Nonparametric regression models do not require the specification of the functional form between the outcome and the covariates. Despite their popularity, the amount of diagnostic statistics, in comparison to their parametric counter-parts, is small. We propose a goodness-of-fit test for nonparametric regression models with linear smoother form. In particular, we apply this testing framework to smoothing spline ANOVA models. The test can consider two sources of lack-of-fit: whether covariates that are not currently in the model need to be included, and whether the current model fits the data well. The proposed method derives estimated residuals from the model. Then, statistical dependence is assessed between the estimated residuals and the covariates using the HSIC. If dependence exists, the model does not capture all the variability in the outcome associated with the covariates, otherwise the model fits the data well. The bootstrap is used to obtain p-values. Application of the method is demonstrated with a neonatal mental development data analysis. We demonstrate correct type I error as well as power performance through simulations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
MCKissick, Burnell T. (Technical Monitor); Plassman, Gerald E.; Mall, Gerald H.; Quagliano, John R.
2005-01-01
Linear multivariable regression models for predicting day and night Eddy Dissipation Rate (EDR) from available meteorological data sources are defined and validated. Model definition is based on a combination of 1997-2000 Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) data sources, EDR from Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS) deployment data, and regression variables primarily from corresponding Automated Surface Observation System (ASOS) data. Model validation is accomplished through EDR predictions on a similar combination of 1994-1995 Memphis (MEM) AVOSS and ASOS data. Model forms include an intercept plus a single term of fixed optimal power for each of these regression variables; 30-minute forward averaged mean and variance of near-surface wind speed and temperature, variance of wind direction, and a discrete cloud cover metric. Distinct day and night models, regressing on EDR and the natural log of EDR respectively, yield best performance and avoid model discontinuity over day/night data boundaries.
Reconstruction of missing daily streamflow data using dynamic regression models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tencaliec, Patricia; Favre, Anne-Catherine; Prieur, Clémentine; Mathevet, Thibault
2015-12-01
River discharge is one of the most important quantities in hydrology. It provides fundamental records for water resources management and climate change monitoring. Even very short data-gaps in this information can cause extremely different analysis outputs. Therefore, reconstructing missing data of incomplete data sets is an important step regarding the performance of the environmental models, engineering, and research applications, thus it presents a great challenge. The objective of this paper is to introduce an effective technique for reconstructing missing daily discharge data when one has access to only daily streamflow data. The proposed procedure uses a combination of regression and autoregressive integrated moving average models (ARIMA) called dynamic regression model. This model uses the linear relationship between neighbor and correlated stations and then adjusts the residual term by fitting an ARIMA structure. Application of the model to eight daily streamflow data for the Durance river watershed showed that the model yields reliable estimates for the missing data in the time series. Simulation studies were also conducted to evaluate the performance of the procedure.
Development of LACIE CCEA-1 weather/wheat yield models. [regression analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strommen, N. D.; Sakamoto, C. M.; Leduc, S. K.; Umberger, D. E. (Principal Investigator)
1979-01-01
The advantages and disadvantages of the casual (phenological, dynamic, physiological), statistical regression, and analog approaches to modeling for grain yield are examined. Given LACIE's primary goal of estimating wheat production for the large areas of eight major wheat-growing regions, the statistical regression approach of correlating historical yield and climate data offered the Center for Climatic and Environmental Assessment the greatest potential return within the constraints of time and data sources. The basic equation for the first generation wheat-yield model is given. Topics discussed include truncation, trend variable, selection of weather variables, episodic events, strata selection, operational data flow, weighting, and model results.
Trehan, Sumeet; Carlberg, Kevin T.; Durlofsky, Louis J.
2017-07-14
A machine learning–based framework for modeling the error introduced by surrogate models of parameterized dynamical systems is proposed. The framework entails the use of high-dimensional regression techniques (eg, random forests, and LASSO) to map a large set of inexpensively computed “error indicators” (ie, features) produced by the surrogate model at a given time instance to a prediction of the surrogate-model error in a quantity of interest (QoI). This eliminates the need for the user to hand-select a small number of informative features. The methodology requires a training set of parameter instances at which the time-dependent surrogate-model error is computed bymore » simulating both the high-fidelity and surrogate models. Using these training data, the method first determines regression-model locality (via classification or clustering) and subsequently constructs a “local” regression model to predict the time-instantaneous error within each identified region of feature space. We consider 2 uses for the resulting error model: (1) as a correction to the surrogate-model QoI prediction at each time instance and (2) as a way to statistically model arbitrary functions of the time-dependent surrogate-model error (eg, time-integrated errors). We then apply the proposed framework to model errors in reduced-order models of nonlinear oil-water subsurface flow simulations, with time-varying well-control (bottom-hole pressure) parameters. The reduced-order models used in this work entail application of trajectory piecewise linearization in conjunction with proper orthogonal decomposition. Moreover, when the first use of the method is considered, numerical experiments demonstrate consistent improvement in accuracy in the time-instantaneous QoI prediction relative to the original surrogate model, across a large number of test cases. When the second use is considered, results show that the proposed method provides accurate statistical predictions of the time- and
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Trehan, Sumeet; Carlberg, Kevin T.; Durlofsky, Louis J.
A machine learning–based framework for modeling the error introduced by surrogate models of parameterized dynamical systems is proposed. The framework entails the use of high-dimensional regression techniques (eg, random forests, and LASSO) to map a large set of inexpensively computed “error indicators” (ie, features) produced by the surrogate model at a given time instance to a prediction of the surrogate-model error in a quantity of interest (QoI). This eliminates the need for the user to hand-select a small number of informative features. The methodology requires a training set of parameter instances at which the time-dependent surrogate-model error is computed bymore » simulating both the high-fidelity and surrogate models. Using these training data, the method first determines regression-model locality (via classification or clustering) and subsequently constructs a “local” regression model to predict the time-instantaneous error within each identified region of feature space. We consider 2 uses for the resulting error model: (1) as a correction to the surrogate-model QoI prediction at each time instance and (2) as a way to statistically model arbitrary functions of the time-dependent surrogate-model error (eg, time-integrated errors). We then apply the proposed framework to model errors in reduced-order models of nonlinear oil-water subsurface flow simulations, with time-varying well-control (bottom-hole pressure) parameters. The reduced-order models used in this work entail application of trajectory piecewise linearization in conjunction with proper orthogonal decomposition. Moreover, when the first use of the method is considered, numerical experiments demonstrate consistent improvement in accuracy in the time-instantaneous QoI prediction relative to the original surrogate model, across a large number of test cases. When the second use is considered, results show that the proposed method provides accurate statistical predictions of the time- and
Kaneko, Hiromasa; Funatsu, Kimito
2013-09-23
We propose predictive performance criteria for nonlinear regression models without cross-validation. The proposed criteria are the determination coefficient and the root-mean-square error for the midpoints between k-nearest-neighbor data points. These criteria can be used to evaluate predictive ability after the regression models are updated, whereas cross-validation cannot be performed in such a situation. The proposed method is effective and helpful in handling big data when cross-validation cannot be applied. By analyzing data from numerical simulations and quantitative structural relationships, we confirm that the proposed criteria enable the predictive ability of the nonlinear regression models to be appropriately quantified.
Improved model of the retardance in citric acid coated ferrofluids using stepwise regression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, J. F.; Qiu, X. R.
2017-06-01
Citric acid (CA) coated Fe3O4 ferrofluids (FFs) have been conducted for biomedical application. The magneto-optical retardance of CA coated FFs was measured by a Stokes polarimeter. Optimization and multiple regression of retardance in FFs were executed by Taguchi method and Microsoft Excel previously, and the F value of regression model was large enough. However, the model executed by Excel was not systematic. Instead we adopted the stepwise regression to model the retardance of CA coated FFs. From the results of stepwise regression by MATLAB, the developed model had highly predictable ability owing to F of 2.55897e+7 and correlation coefficient of one. The average absolute error of predicted retardances to measured retardances was just 0.0044%. Using the genetic algorithm (GA) in MATLAB, the optimized parametric combination was determined as [4.709 0.12 39.998 70.006] corresponding to the pH of suspension, molar ratio of CA to Fe3O4, CA volume, and coating temperature. The maximum retardance was found as 31.712°, close to that obtained by evolutionary solver in Excel and a relative error of -0.013%. Above all, the stepwise regression method was successfully used to model the retardance of CA coated FFs, and the maximum global retardance was determined by the use of GA.
A quadratic regression modelling on paddy production in the area of Perlis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goh, Aizat Hanis Annas; Ali, Zalila; Nor, Norlida Mohd; Baharum, Adam; Ahmad, Wan Muhamad Amir W.
2017-08-01
Polynomial regression models are useful in situations in which the relationship between a response variable and predictor variables is curvilinear. Polynomial regression fits the nonlinear relationship into a least squares linear regression model by decomposing the predictor variables into a kth order polynomial. The polynomial order determines the number of inflexions on the curvilinear fitted line. A second order polynomial forms a quadratic expression (parabolic curve) with either a single maximum or minimum, a third order polynomial forms a cubic expression with both a relative maximum and a minimum. This study used paddy data in the area of Perlis to model paddy production based on paddy cultivation characteristics and environmental characteristics. The results indicated that a quadratic regression model best fits the data and paddy production is affected by urea fertilizer application and the interaction between amount of average rainfall and percentage of area defected by pest and disease. Urea fertilizer application has a quadratic effect in the model which indicated that if the number of days of urea fertilizer application increased, paddy production is expected to decrease until it achieved a minimum value and paddy production is expected to increase at higher number of days of urea application. The decrease in paddy production with an increased in rainfall is greater, the higher the percentage of area defected by pest and disease.
Neural Network and Regression Soft Model Extended for PAX-300 Aircraft Engine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patnaik, Surya N.; Hopkins, Dale A.
2002-01-01
In fiscal year 2001, the neural network and regression capabilities of NASA Glenn Research Center's COMETBOARDS design optimization testbed were extended to generate approximate models for the PAX-300 aircraft engine. The analytical model of the engine is defined through nine variables: the fan efficiency factor, the low pressure of the compressor, the high pressure of the compressor, the high pressure of the turbine, the low pressure of the turbine, the operating pressure, and three critical temperatures (T(sub 4), T(sub vane), and T(sub metal)). Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) calculations of the specific fuel consumption (TSFC), as a function of the variables can become time consuming, and numerical instabilities can occur during these design calculations. "Soft" models can alleviate both deficiencies. These approximate models are generated from a set of high-fidelity input-output pairs obtained from the NPSS code and a design of the experiment strategy. A neural network and a regression model with 45 weight factors were trained for the input/output pairs. Then, the trained models were validated through a comparison with the original NPSS code. Comparisons of TSFC versus the operating pressure and of TSFC versus the three temperatures (T(sub 4), T(sub vane), and T(sub metal)) are depicted in the figures. The overall performance was satisfactory for both the regression and the neural network model. The regression model required fewer calculations than the neural network model, and it produced marginally superior results. Training the approximate methods is time consuming. Once trained, the approximate methods generated the solution with only a trivial computational effort, reducing the solution time from hours to less than a minute.
Charter for the ARM Atmospheric Modeling Advisory Group
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Advisory Group, ARM Atmospheric Modeling
The Atmospheric Modeling Advisory Group of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is guided by the following: 1. The group will provide feedback on the overall project plan including input on how to address priorities and trade-offs in the modeling and analysis workflow, making sure the modeling follows general best practices, and reviewing the recommendations provided to ARM for the workflow implementation. 2. The group will consist of approximately 6 members plus the PI and co-PI of the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) pilot project. The ARM Technical Director,more » or his designee, serves as an ex-officio member. This size is chosen based on the ability to efficiently conduct teleconferences and to span the general needs for input to the LASSO pilot project.« less
Modelling Nitrogen Oxides in Los Angeles Using a Hybrid Dispersion/Land Use Regression Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilton, Darren C.
The goal of this dissertation is to develop models capable of predicting long term annual average NOx concentrations in urban areas. Predictions from simple meteorological dispersion models and seasonal proxies for NO2 oxidation were included as covariates in a land use regression (LUR) model for NOx in Los Angeles, CA. The NO x measurements were obtained from a comprehensive measurement campaign that is part of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Air Pollution Study (MESA Air). Simple land use regression models were initially developed using a suite of GIS-derived land use variables developed from various buffer sizes (R²=0.15). Caline3, a simple steady-state Gaussian line source model, was initially incorporated into the land-use regression framework. The addition of this spatio-temporally varying Caline3 covariate improved the simple LUR model predictions. The extent of improvement was much more pronounced for models based solely on the summer measurements (simple LUR: R²=0.45; Caline3/LUR: R²=0.70), than it was for models based on all seasons (R²=0.20). We then used a Lagrangian dispersion model to convert static land use covariates for population density, commercial/industrial area into spatially and temporally varying covariates. The inclusion of these covariates resulted in significant improvement in model prediction (R²=0.57). In addition to the dispersion model covariates described above, a two-week average value of daily peak-hour ozone was included as a surrogate of the oxidation of NO2 during the different sampling periods. This additional covariate further improved overall model performance for all models. The best model by 10-fold cross validation (R²=0.73) contained the Caline3 prediction, a static covariate for length of A3 roads within 50 meters, the Calpuff-adjusted covariates derived from both population density and industrial/commercial land area, and the ozone covariate. This model was tested against annual average NOx
Accounting for spatial effects in land use regression for urban air pollution modeling.
Bertazzon, Stefania; Johnson, Markey; Eccles, Kristin; Kaplan, Gilaad G
2015-01-01
In order to accurately assess air pollution risks, health studies require spatially resolved pollution concentrations. Land-use regression (LUR) models estimate ambient concentrations at a fine spatial scale. However, spatial effects such as spatial non-stationarity and spatial autocorrelation can reduce the accuracy of LUR estimates by increasing regression errors and uncertainty; and statistical methods for resolving these effects--e.g., spatially autoregressive (SAR) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models--may be difficult to apply simultaneously. We used an alternate approach to address spatial non-stationarity and spatial autocorrelation in LUR models for nitrogen dioxide. Traditional models were re-specified to include a variable capturing wind speed and direction, and re-fit as GWR models. Mean R(2) values for the resulting GWR-wind models (summer: 0.86, winter: 0.73) showed a 10-20% improvement over traditional LUR models. GWR-wind models effectively addressed both spatial effects and produced meaningful predictive models. These results suggest a useful method for improving spatially explicit models. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
The prediction of intelligence in preschool children using alternative models to regression.
Finch, W Holmes; Chang, Mei; Davis, Andrew S; Holden, Jocelyn E; Rothlisberg, Barbara A; McIntosh, David E
2011-12-01
Statistical prediction of an outcome variable using multiple independent variables is a common practice in the social and behavioral sciences. For example, neuropsychologists are sometimes called upon to provide predictions of preinjury cognitive functioning for individuals who have suffered a traumatic brain injury. Typically, these predictions are made using standard multiple linear regression models with several demographic variables (e.g., gender, ethnicity, education level) as predictors. Prior research has shown conflicting evidence regarding the ability of such models to provide accurate predictions of outcome variables such as full-scale intelligence (FSIQ) test scores. The present study had two goals: (1) to demonstrate the utility of a set of alternative prediction methods that have been applied extensively in the natural sciences and business but have not been frequently explored in the social sciences and (2) to develop models that can be used to predict premorbid cognitive functioning in preschool children. Predictions of Stanford-Binet 5 FSIQ scores for preschool-aged children is used to compare the performance of a multiple regression model with several of these alternative methods. Results demonstrate that classification and regression trees provided more accurate predictions of FSIQ scores than does the more traditional regression approach. Implications of these results are discussed.
A primer for biomedical scientists on how to execute model II linear regression analysis.
Ludbrook, John
2012-04-01
1. There are two very different ways of executing linear regression analysis. One is Model I, when the x-values are fixed by the experimenter. The other is Model II, in which the x-values are free to vary and are subject to error. 2. I have received numerous complaints from biomedical scientists that they have great difficulty in executing Model II linear regression analysis. This may explain the results of a Google Scholar search, which showed that the authors of articles in journals of physiology, pharmacology and biochemistry rarely use Model II regression analysis. 3. I repeat my previous arguments in favour of using least products linear regression analysis for Model II regressions. I review three methods for executing ordinary least products (OLP) and weighted least products (WLP) regression analysis: (i) scientific calculator and/or computer spreadsheet; (ii) specific purpose computer programs; and (iii) general purpose computer programs. 4. Using a scientific calculator and/or computer spreadsheet, it is easy to obtain correct values for OLP slope and intercept, but the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) are inaccurate. 5. Using specific purpose computer programs, the freeware computer program smatr gives the correct OLP regression coefficients and obtains 95% CI by bootstrapping. In addition, smatr can be used to compare the slopes of OLP lines. 6. When using general purpose computer programs, I recommend the commercial programs systat and Statistica for those who regularly undertake linear regression analysis and I give step-by-step instructions in the Supplementary Information as to how to use loss functions. © 2011 The Author. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
REGRESSION MODELS OF RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO CHLORPYRIFOS AND DIAZINON
This study examines the ability of regression models to predict residential exposures to chlorpyrifos and diazinon, based on the information from the NHEXAS-AZ database. The robust method was used to generate "fill-in" values for samples that are below the detection l...
Properties of added variable plots in Cox's regression model.
Lindkvist, M
2000-03-01
The added variable plot is useful for examining the effect of a covariate in regression models. The plot provides information regarding the inclusion of a covariate, and is useful in identifying influential observations on the parameter estimates. Hall et al. (1996) proposed a plot for Cox's proportional hazards model derived by regarding the Cox model as a generalized linear model. This paper proves and discusses properties of this plot. These properties make the plot a valuable tool in model evaluation. Quantities considered include parameter estimates, residuals, leverage, case influence measures and correspondence to previously proposed residuals and diagnostics.
Predictive and mechanistic multivariate linear regression models for reaction development
Santiago, Celine B.; Guo, Jing-Yao
2018-01-01
Multivariate Linear Regression (MLR) models utilizing computationally-derived and empirically-derived physical organic molecular descriptors are described in this review. Several reports demonstrating the effectiveness of this methodological approach towards reaction optimization and mechanistic interrogation are discussed. A detailed protocol to access quantitative and predictive MLR models is provided as a guide for model development and parameter analysis. PMID:29719711
Detection of Cutting Tool Wear using Statistical Analysis and Regression Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghani, Jaharah A.; Rizal, Muhammad; Nuawi, Mohd Zaki; Haron, Che Hassan Che; Ramli, Rizauddin
2010-10-01
This study presents a new method for detecting the cutting tool wear based on the measured cutting force signals. A statistical-based method called Integrated Kurtosis-based Algorithm for Z-Filter technique, called I-kaz was used for developing a regression model and 3D graphic presentation of I-kaz 3D coefficient during machining process. The machining tests were carried out using a CNC turning machine Colchester Master Tornado T4 in dry cutting condition. A Kistler 9255B dynamometer was used to measure the cutting force signals, which were transmitted, analyzed, and displayed in the DasyLab software. Various force signals from machining operation were analyzed, and each has its own I-kaz 3D coefficient. This coefficient was examined and its relationship with flank wear lands (VB) was determined. A regression model was developed due to this relationship, and results of the regression model shows that the I-kaz 3D coefficient value decreases as tool wear increases. The result then is used for real time tool wear monitoring.
Efficient least angle regression for identification of linear-in-the-parameters models
Beach, Thomas H.; Rezgui, Yacine
2017-01-01
Least angle regression, as a promising model selection method, differentiates itself from conventional stepwise and stagewise methods, in that it is neither too greedy nor too slow. It is closely related to L1 norm optimization, which has the advantage of low prediction variance through sacrificing part of model bias property in order to enhance model generalization capability. In this paper, we propose an efficient least angle regression algorithm for model selection for a large class of linear-in-the-parameters models with the purpose of accelerating the model selection process. The entire algorithm works completely in a recursive manner, where the correlations between model terms and residuals, the evolving directions and other pertinent variables are derived explicitly and updated successively at every subset selection step. The model coefficients are only computed when the algorithm finishes. The direct involvement of matrix inversions is thereby relieved. A detailed computational complexity analysis indicates that the proposed algorithm possesses significant computational efficiency, compared with the original approach where the well-known efficient Cholesky decomposition is involved in solving least angle regression. Three artificial and real-world examples are employed to demonstrate the effectiveness, efficiency and numerical stability of the proposed algorithm. PMID:28293140
Regression models to predict hip joint centers in pathological hip population.
Mantovani, Giulia; Ng, K C Geoffrey; Lamontagne, Mario
2016-02-01
The purpose was to investigate the validity of Harrington's and Davis's hip joint center (HJC) regression equations on a population affected by a hip deformity, (i.e., femoroacetabular impingement). Sixty-seven participants (21 healthy controls, 46 with a cam-type deformity) underwent pelvic CT imaging. Relevant bony landmarks and geometric HJCs were digitized from the images, and skin thickness was measured for the anterior and posterior superior iliac spines. Non-parametric statistical and Bland-Altman tests analyzed differences between the predicted HJC (from regression equations) and the actual HJC (from CT images). The error from Davis's model (25.0 ± 6.7 mm) was larger than Harrington's (12.3 ± 5.9 mm, p<0.001). There were no differences between groups, thus, studies on femoroacetabular impingement can implement conventional regression models. Measured skin thickness was 9.7 ± 7.0mm and 19.6 ± 10.9 mm for the anterior and posterior bony landmarks, respectively, and correlated with body mass index. Skin thickness estimates can be considered to reduce the systematic error introduced by surface markers. New adult-specific regression equations were developed from the CT dataset, with the hypothesis that they could provide better estimates when tuned to a larger adult-specific dataset. The linear models were validated on external datasets and using leave-one-out cross-validation techniques; Prediction errors were comparable to those of Harrington's model, despite the adult-specific population and the larger sample size, thus, prediction accuracy obtained from these parameters could not be improved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suhartono, Lee, Muhammad Hisyam; Prastyo, Dedy Dwi
2015-12-01
The aim of this research is to develop a calendar variation model for forecasting retail sales data with the Eid ul-Fitr effect. The proposed model is based on two methods, namely two levels ARIMAX and regression methods. Two levels ARIMAX and regression models are built by using ARIMAX for the first level and regression for the second level. Monthly men's jeans and women's trousers sales in a retail company for the period January 2002 to September 2009 are used as case study. In general, two levels of calendar variation model yields two models, namely the first model to reconstruct the sales pattern that already occurred, and the second model to forecast the effect of increasing sales due to Eid ul-Fitr that affected sales at the same and the previous months. The results show that the proposed two level calendar variation model based on ARIMAX and regression methods yields better forecast compared to the seasonal ARIMA model and Neural Networks.
Stabilizing l1-norm prediction models by supervised feature grouping.
Kamkar, Iman; Gupta, Sunil Kumar; Phung, Dinh; Venkatesh, Svetha
2016-02-01
Emerging Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) have reformed the modern healthcare. These records have great potential to be used for building clinical prediction models. However, a problem in using them is their high dimensionality. Since a lot of information may not be relevant for prediction, the underlying complexity of the prediction models may not be high. A popular way to deal with this problem is to employ feature selection. Lasso and l1-norm based feature selection methods have shown promising results. But, in presence of correlated features, these methods select features that change considerably with small changes in data. This prevents clinicians to obtain a stable feature set, which is crucial for clinical decision making. Grouping correlated variables together can improve the stability of feature selection, however, such grouping is usually not known and needs to be estimated for optimal performance. Addressing this problem, we propose a new model that can simultaneously learn the grouping of correlated features and perform stable feature selection. We formulate the model as a constrained optimization problem and provide an efficient solution with guaranteed convergence. Our experiments with both synthetic and real-world datasets show that the proposed model is significantly more stable than Lasso and many existing state-of-the-art shrinkage and classification methods. We further show that in terms of prediction performance, the proposed method consistently outperforms Lasso and other baselines. Our model can be used for selecting stable risk factors for a variety of healthcare problems, so it can assist clinicians toward accurate decision making. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nonlinear-regression groundwater flow modeling of a deep regional aquifer system
Cooley, Richard L.; Konikow, Leonard F.; Naff, Richard L.
1986-01-01
A nonlinear regression groundwater flow model, based on a Galerkin finite-element discretization, was used to analyze steady state two-dimensional groundwater flow in the areally extensive Madison aquifer in a 75,000 mi2 area of the Northern Great Plains. Regression parameters estimated include intrinsic permeabilities of the main aquifer and separate lineament zones, discharges from eight major springs surrounding the Black Hills, and specified heads on the model boundaries. Aquifer thickness and temperature variations were included as specified functions. The regression model was applied using sequential F testing so that the fewest number and simplest zonation of intrinsic permeabilities, combined with the simplest overall model, were evaluated initially; additional complexities (such as subdivisions of zones and variations in temperature and thickness) were added in stages to evaluate the subsequent degree of improvement in the model results. It was found that only the eight major springs, a single main aquifer intrinsic permeability, two separate lineament intrinsic permeabilities of much smaller values, and temperature variations are warranted by the observed data (hydraulic heads and prior information on some parameters) for inclusion in a model that attempts to explain significant controls on groundwater flow. Addition of thickness variations did not significantly improve model results; however, thickness variations were included in the final model because they are fairly well defined. Effects on the observed head distribution from other features, such as vertical leakage and regional variations in intrinsic permeability, apparently were overshadowed by measurement errors in the observed heads. Estimates of the parameters correspond well to estimates obtained from other independent sources.
Nonlinear-Regression Groundwater Flow Modeling of a Deep Regional Aquifer System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cooley, Richard L.; Konikow, Leonard F.; Naff, Richard L.
1986-12-01
A nonlinear regression groundwater flow model, based on a Galerkin finite-element discretization, was used to analyze steady state two-dimensional groundwater flow in the areally extensive Madison aquifer in a 75,000 mi2 area of the Northern Great Plains. Regression parameters estimated include intrinsic permeabilities of the main aquifer and separate lineament zones, discharges from eight major springs surrounding the Black Hills, and specified heads on the model boundaries. Aquifer thickness and temperature variations were included as specified functions. The regression model was applied using sequential F testing so that the fewest number and simplest zonation of intrinsic permeabilities, combined with the simplest overall model, were evaluated initially; additional complexities (such as subdivisions of zones and variations in temperature and thickness) were added in stages to evaluate the subsequent degree of improvement in the model results. It was found that only the eight major springs, a single main aquifer intrinsic permeability, two separate lineament intrinsic permeabilities of much smaller values, and temperature variations are warranted by the observed data (hydraulic heads and prior information on some parameters) for inclusion in a model that attempts to explain significant controls on groundwater flow. Addition of thickness variations did not significantly improve model results; however, thickness variations were included in the final model because they are fairly well defined. Effects on the observed head distribution from other features, such as vertical leakage and regional variations in intrinsic permeability, apparently were overshadowed by measurement errors in the observed heads. Estimates of the parameters correspond well to estimates obtained from other independent sources.
Regional regression models of watershed suspended-sediment discharge for the eastern United States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roman, David C.; Vogel, Richard M.; Schwarz, Gregory E.
2012-11-01
SummaryEstimates of mean annual watershed sediment discharge, derived from long-term measurements of suspended-sediment concentration and streamflow, often are not available at locations of interest. The goal of this study was to develop multivariate regression models to enable prediction of mean annual suspended-sediment discharge from available basin characteristics useful for most ungaged river locations in the eastern United States. The models are based on long-term mean sediment discharge estimates and explanatory variables obtained from a combined dataset of 1201 US Geological Survey (USGS) stations derived from a SPAtially Referenced Regression on Watershed attributes (SPARROW) study and the Geospatial Attributes of Gages for Evaluating Streamflow (GAGES) database. The resulting regional regression models summarized for major US water resources regions 1-8, exhibited prediction R2 values ranging from 76.9% to 92.7% and corresponding average model prediction errors ranging from 56.5% to 124.3%. Results from cross-validation experiments suggest that a majority of the models will perform similarly to calibration runs. The 36-parameter regional regression models also outperformed a 16-parameter national SPARROW model of suspended-sediment discharge and indicate that mean annual sediment loads in the eastern United States generally correlates with a combination of basin area, land use patterns, seasonal precipitation, soil composition, hydrologic modification, and to a lesser extent, topography.
Regional regression models of watershed suspended-sediment discharge for the eastern United States
Roman, David C.; Vogel, Richard M.; Schwarz, Gregory E.
2012-01-01
Estimates of mean annual watershed sediment discharge, derived from long-term measurements of suspended-sediment concentration and streamflow, often are not available at locations of interest. The goal of this study was to develop multivariate regression models to enable prediction of mean annual suspended-sediment discharge from available basin characteristics useful for most ungaged river locations in the eastern United States. The models are based on long-term mean sediment discharge estimates and explanatory variables obtained from a combined dataset of 1201 US Geological Survey (USGS) stations derived from a SPAtially Referenced Regression on Watershed attributes (SPARROW) study and the Geospatial Attributes of Gages for Evaluating Streamflow (GAGES) database. The resulting regional regression models summarized for major US water resources regions 1–8, exhibited prediction R2 values ranging from 76.9% to 92.7% and corresponding average model prediction errors ranging from 56.5% to 124.3%. Results from cross-validation experiments suggest that a majority of the models will perform similarly to calibration runs. The 36-parameter regional regression models also outperformed a 16-parameter national SPARROW model of suspended-sediment discharge and indicate that mean annual sediment loads in the eastern United States generally correlates with a combination of basin area, land use patterns, seasonal precipitation, soil composition, hydrologic modification, and to a lesser extent, topography.
A general framework for the use of logistic regression models in meta-analysis.
Simmonds, Mark C; Higgins, Julian Pt
2016-12-01
Where individual participant data are available for every randomised trial in a meta-analysis of dichotomous event outcomes, "one-stage" random-effects logistic regression models have been proposed as a way to analyse these data. Such models can also be used even when individual participant data are not available and we have only summary contingency table data. One benefit of this one-stage regression model over conventional meta-analysis methods is that it maximises the correct binomial likelihood for the data and so does not require the common assumption that effect estimates are normally distributed. A second benefit of using this model is that it may be applied, with only minor modification, in a range of meta-analytic scenarios, including meta-regression, network meta-analyses and meta-analyses of diagnostic test accuracy. This single model can potentially replace the variety of often complex methods used in these areas. This paper considers, with a range of meta-analysis examples, how random-effects logistic regression models may be used in a number of different types of meta-analyses. This one-stage approach is compared with widely used meta-analysis methods including Bayesian network meta-analysis and the bivariate and hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (ROC) models for meta-analyses of diagnostic test accuracy. © The Author(s) 2014.
Regression analysis of informative current status data with the additive hazards model.
Zhao, Shishun; Hu, Tao; Ma, Ling; Wang, Peijie; Sun, Jianguo
2015-04-01
This paper discusses regression analysis of current status failure time data arising from the additive hazards model in the presence of informative censoring. Many methods have been developed for regression analysis of current status data under various regression models if the censoring is noninformative, and also there exists a large literature on parametric analysis of informative current status data in the context of tumorgenicity experiments. In this paper, a semiparametric maximum likelihood estimation procedure is presented and in the method, the copula model is employed to describe the relationship between the failure time of interest and the censoring time. Furthermore, I-splines are used to approximate the nonparametric functions involved and the asymptotic consistency and normality of the proposed estimators are established. A simulation study is conducted and indicates that the proposed approach works well for practical situations. An illustrative example is also provided.
Wu, Baolin
2006-02-15
Differential gene expression detection and sample classification using microarray data have received much research interest recently. Owing to the large number of genes p and small number of samples n (p > n), microarray data analysis poses big challenges for statistical analysis. An obvious problem owing to the 'large p small n' is over-fitting. Just by chance, we are likely to find some non-differentially expressed genes that can classify the samples very well. The idea of shrinkage is to regularize the model parameters to reduce the effects of noise and produce reliable inferences. Shrinkage has been successfully applied in the microarray data analysis. The SAM statistics proposed by Tusher et al. and the 'nearest shrunken centroid' proposed by Tibshirani et al. are ad hoc shrinkage methods. Both methods are simple, intuitive and prove to be useful in empirical studies. Recently Wu proposed the penalized t/F-statistics with shrinkage by formally using the (1) penalized linear regression models for two-class microarray data, showing good performance. In this paper we systematically discussed the use of penalized regression models for analyzing microarray data. We generalize the two-class penalized t/F-statistics proposed by Wu to multi-class microarray data. We formally derive the ad hoc shrunken centroid used by Tibshirani et al. using the (1) penalized regression models. And we show that the penalized linear regression models provide a rigorous and unified statistical framework for sample classification and differential gene expression detection.
Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Vahabi, Nasim; Almasian, Mohammad; Bakhteyar, Katayoon
2015-01-01
Background: Unwanted pregnancy not intended by at least one of the parents has undesirable consequences for the family and the society. In the present study, three classification models were used and compared to predict unwanted pregnancies in an urban population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 887 pregnant mothers referring to health centers in Khorramabad, Iran, in 2012 were selected by the stratified and cluster sampling; relevant variables were measured and for prediction of unwanted pregnancy, logistic regression, discriminant analysis, and probit regression models and SPSS software version 21 were used. To compare these models, indicators such as sensitivity, specificity, the area under the ROC curve, and the percentage of correct predictions were used. Results: The prevalence of unwanted pregnancies was 25.3%. The logistic and probit regression models indicated that parity and pregnancy spacing, contraceptive methods, household income and number of living male children were related to unwanted pregnancy. The performance of the models based on the area under the ROC curve was 0.735, 0.733, and 0.680 for logistic regression, probit regression, and linear discriminant analysis, respectively. Conclusion: Given the relatively high prevalence of unwanted pregnancies in Khorramabad, it seems necessary to revise family planning programs. Despite the similar accuracy of the models, if the researcher is interested in the interpretability of the results, the use of the logistic regression model is recommended. PMID:26793655
Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Vahabi, Nasim; Almasian, Mohammad; Bakhteyar, Katayoon
2015-01-01
Unwanted pregnancy not intended by at least one of the parents has undesirable consequences for the family and the society. In the present study, three classification models were used and compared to predict unwanted pregnancies in an urban population. In this cross-sectional study, 887 pregnant mothers referring to health centers in Khorramabad, Iran, in 2012 were selected by the stratified and cluster sampling; relevant variables were measured and for prediction of unwanted pregnancy, logistic regression, discriminant analysis, and probit regression models and SPSS software version 21 were used. To compare these models, indicators such as sensitivity, specificity, the area under the ROC curve, and the percentage of correct predictions were used. The prevalence of unwanted pregnancies was 25.3%. The logistic and probit regression models indicated that parity and pregnancy spacing, contraceptive methods, household income and number of living male children were related to unwanted pregnancy. The performance of the models based on the area under the ROC curve was 0.735, 0.733, and 0.680 for logistic regression, probit regression, and linear discriminant analysis, respectively. Given the relatively high prevalence of unwanted pregnancies in Khorramabad, it seems necessary to revise family planning programs. Despite the similar accuracy of the models, if the researcher is interested in the interpretability of the results, the use of the logistic regression model is recommended.
Knüppel, Sven; Meidtner, Karina; Arregui, Maria; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg; Boeing, Heiner
2015-07-01
Analyzing multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is a promising approach to finding genetic effects beyond single-locus associations. We proposed the use of multilocus stepwise regression (MSR) to screen for allele combinations as a method to model joint effects, and compared the results with the often used genetic risk score (GRS), conventional stepwise selection, and the shrinkage method LASSO. In contrast to MSR, the GRS, conventional stepwise selection, and LASSO model each genotype by the risk allele doses. We reanalyzed 20 unlinked SNPs related to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the EPIC-Potsdam case-cohort study (760 cases, 2193 noncases). No SNP-SNP interactions and no nonlinear effects were found. Two SNP combinations selected by MSR (Nagelkerke's R² = 0.050 and 0.048) included eight SNPs with mean allele combination frequency of 2%. GRS and stepwise selection selected nearly the same SNP combinations consisting of 12 and 13 SNPs (Nagelkerke's R² ranged from 0.020 to 0.029). LASSO showed similar results. The MSR method showed the best model fit measured by Nagelkerke's R² suggesting that further improvement may render this method a useful tool in genetic research. However, our comparison suggests that the GRS is a simple way to model genetic effects since it does not consider linkage, SNP-SNP interactions, and no non-linear effects. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.
2014-01-01
Background Genome-wide microarrays have been useful for predicting chemical-genetic interactions at the gene level. However, interpreting genome-wide microarray results can be overwhelming due to the vast output of gene expression data combined with off-target transcriptional responses many times induced by a drug treatment. This study demonstrates how experimental and computational methods can interact with each other, to arrive at more accurate predictions of drug-induced perturbations. We present a two-stage strategy that links microarray experimental testing and network training conditions to predict gene perturbations for a drug with a known mechanism of action in a well-studied organism. Results S. cerevisiae cells were treated with the antifungal, fluconazole, and expression profiling was conducted under different biological conditions using Affymetrix genome-wide microarrays. Transcripts were filtered with a formal network-based method, sparse simultaneous equation models and Lasso regression (SSEM-Lasso), under different network training conditions. Gene expression results were evaluated using both gene set and single gene target analyses, and the drug’s transcriptional effects were narrowed first by pathway and then by individual genes. Variables included: (i) Testing conditions – exposure time and concentration and (ii) Network training conditions – training compendium modifications. Two analyses of SSEM-Lasso output – gene set and single gene – were conducted to gain a better understanding of how SSEM-Lasso predicts perturbation targets. Conclusions This study demonstrates that genome-wide microarrays can be optimized using a two-stage strategy for a more in-depth understanding of how a cell manifests biological reactions to a drug treatment at the transcription level. Additionally, a more detailed understanding of how the statistical model, SSEM-Lasso, propagates perturbations through a network of gene regulatory interactions is achieved
Duda, Piotr; Jaworski, Maciej; Rutkowski, Leszek
2018-03-01
One of the greatest challenges in data mining is related to processing and analysis of massive data streams. Contrary to traditional static data mining problems, data streams require that each element is processed only once, the amount of allocated memory is constant and the models incorporate changes of investigated streams. A vast majority of available methods have been developed for data stream classification and only a few of them attempted to solve regression problems, using various heuristic approaches. In this paper, we develop mathematically justified regression models working in a time-varying environment. More specifically, we study incremental versions of generalized regression neural networks, called IGRNNs, and we prove their tracking properties - weak (in probability) and strong (with probability one) convergence assuming various concept drift scenarios. First, we present the IGRNNs, based on the Parzen kernels, for modeling stationary systems under nonstationary noise. Next, we extend our approach to modeling time-varying systems under nonstationary noise. We present several types of concept drifts to be handled by our approach in such a way that weak and strong convergence holds under certain conditions. Finally, in the series of simulations, we compare our method with commonly used heuristic approaches, based on forgetting mechanism or sliding windows, to deal with concept drift. Finally, we apply our concept in a real life scenario solving the problem of currency exchange rates prediction.
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Gustafson, William I.; Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Cheng, Xiaoping
The Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility began a pilot project in May 2015 to design a routine, high-resolution modeling capability to complement ARM’s extensive suite of measurements. This modeling capability has been named the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) project. The initial focus of LASSO is on shallow convection at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility. The availability of LES simulations with concurrent observations will serve many purposes. LES helps bridge the scale gap between DOE ARM observations and models, and the use of routine LES addsmore » value to observations. It provides a self-consistent representation of the atmosphere and a dynamical context for the observations. Further, it elucidates unobservable processes and properties. LASSO will generate a simulation library for researchers that enables statistical approaches beyond a single-case mentality. It will also provide tools necessary for modelers to reproduce the LES and conduct their own sensitivity experiments. Many different uses are envisioned for the combined LASSO LES and observational library. For an observationalist, LASSO can help inform instrument remote sensing retrievals, conduct Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs), and test implications of radar scan strategies or flight paths. For a theoretician, LASSO will help calculate estimates of fluxes and co-variability of values, and test relationships without having to run the model yourself. For a modeler, LASSO will help one know ahead of time which days have good forcing, have co-registered observations at high-resolution scales, and have simulation inputs and corresponding outputs to test parameterizations. Further details on the overall LASSO project are available at https://www.arm.gov/capabilities/modeling/lasso.« less
A simulation study on Bayesian Ridge regression models for several collinearity levels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Efendi, Achmad; Effrihan
2017-12-01
When analyzing data with multiple regression model if there are collinearities, then one or several predictor variables are usually omitted from the model. However, there sometimes some reasons, for instance medical or economic reasons, the predictors are all important and should be included in the model. Ridge regression model is not uncommon in some researches to use to cope with collinearity. Through this modeling, weights for predictor variables are used for estimating parameters. The next estimation process could follow the concept of likelihood. Furthermore, for the estimation nowadays the Bayesian version could be an alternative. This estimation method does not match likelihood one in terms of popularity due to some difficulties; computation and so forth. Nevertheless, with the growing improvement of computational methodology recently, this caveat should not at the moment become a problem. This paper discusses about simulation process for evaluating the characteristic of Bayesian Ridge regression parameter estimates. There are several simulation settings based on variety of collinearity levels and sample sizes. The results show that Bayesian method gives better performance for relatively small sample sizes, and for other settings the method does perform relatively similar to the likelihood method.
A hybrid neural network model for noisy data regression.
Lee, Eric W M; Lim, Chee Peng; Yuen, Richard K K; Lo, S M
2004-04-01
A hybrid neural network model, based on the fusion of fuzzy adaptive resonance theory (FA ART) and the general regression neural network (GRNN), is proposed in this paper. Both FA and the GRNN are incremental learning systems and are very fast in network training. The proposed hybrid model, denoted as GRNNFA, is able to retain these advantages and, at the same time, to reduce the computational requirements in calculating and storing information of the kernels. A clustering version of the GRNN is designed with data compression by FA for noise removal. An adaptive gradient-based kernel width optimization algorithm has also been devised. Convergence of the gradient descent algorithm can be accelerated by the geometric incremental growth of the updating factor. A series of experiments with four benchmark datasets have been conducted to assess and compare effectiveness of GRNNFA with other approaches. The GRNNFA model is also employed in a novel application task for predicting the evacuation time of patrons at typical karaoke centers in Hong Kong in the event of fire. The results positively demonstrate the applicability of GRNNFA in noisy data regression problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, C. H.; Matjafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.
2015-10-01
This paper presents the prediction models which analyze and compute the CO2 emission in Malaysia. Each prediction model for CO2 emission will be analyzed based on three main groups which is transportation, electricity and heat production as well as residential buildings and commercial and public services. The prediction models were generated using data obtained from World Bank Open Data. Best subset method will be used to remove irrelevant data and followed by multi linear regression to produce the prediction models. From the results, high R-square (prediction) value was obtained and this implies that the models are reliable to predict the CO2 emission by using specific data. In addition, the CO2 emissions from these three groups are forecasted using trend analysis plots for observation purpose.
Development and Evaluation of Land-Use Regression Models Using Modeled Air Quality Concentrations
Abstract Land-use regression (LUR) models have emerged as a preferred methodology for estimating individual exposure to ambient air pollution in epidemiologic studies in absence of subject-specific measurements. Although there is a growing literature focused on LUR evaluation, fu...
Extended cox regression model: The choice of timefunction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isik, Hatice; Tutkun, Nihal Ata; Karasoy, Durdu
2017-07-01
Cox regression model (CRM), which takes into account the effect of censored observations, is one the most applicative and usedmodels in survival analysis to evaluate the effects of covariates. Proportional hazard (PH), requires a constant hazard ratio over time, is the assumptionofCRM. Using extended CRM provides the test of including a time dependent covariate to assess the PH assumption or an alternative model in case of nonproportional hazards. In this study, the different types of real data sets are used to choose the time function and the differences between time functions are analyzed and discussed.
Christensen, A L; Lundbye-Christensen, S; Dethlefsen, C
2011-12-01
Several statistical methods of assessing seasonal variation are available. Brookhart and Rothman [3] proposed a second-order moment-based estimator based on the geometrical model derived by Edwards [1], and reported that this estimator is superior in estimating the peak-to-trough ratio of seasonal variation compared with Edwards' estimator with respect to bias and mean squared error. Alternatively, seasonal variation may be modelled using a Poisson regression model, which provides flexibility in modelling the pattern of seasonal variation and adjustments for covariates. Based on a Monte Carlo simulation study three estimators, one based on the geometrical model, and two based on log-linear Poisson regression models, were evaluated in regards to bias and standard deviation (SD). We evaluated the estimators on data simulated according to schemes varying in seasonal variation and presence of a secular trend. All methods and analyses in this paper are available in the R package Peak2Trough[13]. Applying a Poisson regression model resulted in lower absolute bias and SD for data simulated according to the corresponding model assumptions. Poisson regression models had lower bias and SD for data simulated to deviate from the corresponding model assumptions than the geometrical model. This simulation study encourages the use of Poisson regression models in estimating the peak-to-trough ratio of seasonal variation as opposed to the geometrical model. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hazard Regression Models of Early Mortality in Trauma Centers
Clark, David E; Qian, Jing; Winchell, Robert J; Betensky, Rebecca A
2013-01-01
Background Factors affecting early hospital deaths after trauma may be different from factors affecting later hospital deaths, and the distribution of short and long prehospital times may vary among hospitals. Hazard regression (HR) models may therefore be more useful than logistic regression (LR) models for analysis of trauma mortality, especially when treatment effects at different time points are of interest. Study Design We obtained data for trauma center patients from the 2008–9 National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB). Cases were included if they had complete data for prehospital times, hospital times, survival outcome, age, vital signs, and severity scores. Cases were excluded if pulseless on admission, transferred in or out, or ISS<9. Using covariates proposed for the Trauma Quality Improvement Program and an indicator for each hospital, we compared LR models predicting survival at 8 hours after injury to HR models with survival censored at 8 hours. HR models were then modified to allow time-varying hospital effects. Results 85,327 patients in 161 hospitals met inclusion criteria. Crude hazards peaked initially, then steadily declined. When hazard ratios were assumed constant in HR models, they were similar to odds ratios in LR models associating increased mortality with increased age, firearm mechanism, increased severity, more deranged physiology, and estimated hospital-specific effects. However, when hospital effects were allowed to vary by time, HR models demonstrated that hospital outliers were not the same at different times after injury. Conclusions HR models with time-varying hazard ratios reveal inconsistencies in treatment effects, data quality, and/or timing of early death among trauma centers. HR models are generally more flexible than LR models, can be adapted for censored data, and potentially offer a better tool for analysis of factors affecting early death after injury. PMID:23036828
Testing a single regression coefficient in high dimensional linear models
Zhong, Ping-Shou; Li, Runze; Wang, Hansheng; Tsai, Chih-Ling
2017-01-01
In linear regression models with high dimensional data, the classical z-test (or t-test) for testing the significance of each single regression coefficient is no longer applicable. This is mainly because the number of covariates exceeds the sample size. In this paper, we propose a simple and novel alternative by introducing the Correlated Predictors Screening (CPS) method to control for predictors that are highly correlated with the target covariate. Accordingly, the classical ordinary least squares approach can be employed to estimate the regression coefficient associated with the target covariate. In addition, we demonstrate that the resulting estimator is consistent and asymptotically normal even if the random errors are heteroscedastic. This enables us to apply the z-test to assess the significance of each covariate. Based on the p-value obtained from testing the significance of each covariate, we further conduct multiple hypothesis testing by controlling the false discovery rate at the nominal level. Then, we show that the multiple hypothesis testing achieves consistent model selection. Simulation studies and empirical examples are presented to illustrate the finite sample performance and the usefulness of the proposed method, respectively. PMID:28663668
Testing a single regression coefficient in high dimensional linear models.
Lan, Wei; Zhong, Ping-Shou; Li, Runze; Wang, Hansheng; Tsai, Chih-Ling
2016-11-01
In linear regression models with high dimensional data, the classical z -test (or t -test) for testing the significance of each single regression coefficient is no longer applicable. This is mainly because the number of covariates exceeds the sample size. In this paper, we propose a simple and novel alternative by introducing the Correlated Predictors Screening (CPS) method to control for predictors that are highly correlated with the target covariate. Accordingly, the classical ordinary least squares approach can be employed to estimate the regression coefficient associated with the target covariate. In addition, we demonstrate that the resulting estimator is consistent and asymptotically normal even if the random errors are heteroscedastic. This enables us to apply the z -test to assess the significance of each covariate. Based on the p -value obtained from testing the significance of each covariate, we further conduct multiple hypothesis testing by controlling the false discovery rate at the nominal level. Then, we show that the multiple hypothesis testing achieves consistent model selection. Simulation studies and empirical examples are presented to illustrate the finite sample performance and the usefulness of the proposed method, respectively.
Aulenbach, Brent T.
2013-01-01
A regression-model based approach is a commonly used, efficient method for estimating streamwater constituent load when there is a relationship between streamwater constituent concentration and continuous variables such as streamwater discharge, season and time. A subsetting experiment using a 30-year dataset of daily suspended sediment observations from the Mississippi River at Thebes, Illinois, was performed to determine optimal sampling frequency, model calibration period length, and regression model methodology, as well as to determine the effect of serial correlation of model residuals on load estimate precision. Two regression-based methods were used to estimate streamwater loads, the Adjusted Maximum Likelihood Estimator (AMLE), and the composite method, a hybrid load estimation approach. While both methods accurately and precisely estimated loads at the model’s calibration period time scale, precisions were progressively worse at shorter reporting periods, from annually to monthly. Serial correlation in model residuals resulted in observed AMLE precision to be significantly worse than the model calculated standard errors of prediction. The composite method effectively improved upon AMLE loads for shorter reporting periods, but required a sampling interval of at least 15-days or shorter, when the serial correlations in the observed load residuals were greater than 0.15. AMLE precision was better at shorter sampling intervals and when using the shortest model calibration periods, such that the regression models better fit the temporal changes in the concentration–discharge relationship. The models with the largest errors typically had poor high flow sampling coverage resulting in unrepresentative models. Increasing sampling frequency and/or targeted high flow sampling are more efficient approaches to ensure sufficient sampling and to avoid poorly performing models, than increasing calibration period length.
Regression model estimation of early season crop proportions: North Dakota, some preliminary results
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, K. K. (Principal Investigator)
1982-01-01
To estimate crop proportions early in the season, an approach is proposed based on: use of a regression-based prediction equation to obtain an a priori estimate for specific major crop groups; modification of this estimate using current-year LANDSAT and weather data; and a breakdown of the major crop groups into specific crops by regression models. Results from the development and evaluation of appropriate regression models for the first portion of the proposed approach are presented. The results show that the model predicts 1980 crop proportions very well at both county and crop reporting district levels. In terms of planted acreage, the model underpredicted 9.1 percent of the 1980 published data on planted acreage at the county level. It predicted almost exactly the 1980 published data on planted acreage at the crop reporting district level and overpredicted the planted acreage by just 0.92 percent.
Ordinal regression models to describe tourist satisfaction with Sintra's world heritage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mouriño, Helena
2013-10-01
In Tourism Research, ordinal regression models are becoming a very powerful tool in modelling the relationship between an ordinal response variable and a set of explanatory variables. In August and September 2010, we conducted a pioneering Tourist Survey in Sintra, Portugal. The data were obtained by face-to-face interviews at the entrances of the Palaces and Parks of Sintra. The work developed in this paper focus on two main points: tourists' perception of the entrance fees; overall level of satisfaction with this heritage site. For attaining these goals, ordinal regression models were developed. We concluded that tourist's nationality was the only significant variable to describe the perception of the admission fees. Also, Sintra's image among tourists depends not only on their nationality, but also on previous knowledge about Sintra's World Heritage status.
Boligon, A A; Baldi, F; Mercadante, M E Z; Lobo, R B; Pereira, R J; Albuquerque, L G
2011-06-28
We quantified the potential increase in accuracy of expected breeding value for weights of Nelore cattle, from birth to mature age, using multi-trait and random regression models on Legendre polynomials and B-spline functions. A total of 87,712 weight records from 8144 females were used, recorded every three months from birth to mature age from the Nelore Brazil Program. For random regression analyses, all female weight records from birth to eight years of age (data set I) were considered. From this general data set, a subset was created (data set II), which included only nine weight records: at birth, weaning, 365 and 550 days of age, and 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of age. Data set II was analyzed using random regression and multi-trait models. The model of analysis included the contemporary group as fixed effects and age of dam as a linear and quadratic covariable. In the random regression analyses, average growth trends were modeled using a cubic regression on orthogonal polynomials of age. Residual variances were modeled by a step function with five classes. Legendre polynomials of fourth and sixth order were utilized to model the direct genetic and animal permanent environmental effects, respectively, while third-order Legendre polynomials were considered for maternal genetic and maternal permanent environmental effects. Quadratic polynomials were applied to model all random effects in random regression models on B-spline functions. Direct genetic and animal permanent environmental effects were modeled using three segments or five coefficients, and genetic maternal and maternal permanent environmental effects were modeled with one segment or three coefficients in the random regression models on B-spline functions. For both data sets (I and II), animals ranked differently according to expected breeding value obtained by random regression or multi-trait models. With random regression models, the highest gains in accuracy were obtained at ages with a low number of
The Highly Adaptive Lasso Estimator
Benkeser, David; van der Laan, Mark
2017-01-01
Estimation of a regression functions is a common goal of statistical learning. We propose a novel nonparametric regression estimator that, in contrast to many existing methods, does not rely on local smoothness assumptions nor is it constructed using local smoothing techniques. Instead, our estimator respects global smoothness constraints by virtue of falling in a class of right-hand continuous functions with left-hand limits that have variation norm bounded by a constant. Using empirical process theory, we establish a fast minimal rate of convergence of our proposed estimator and illustrate how such an estimator can be constructed using standard software. In simulations, we show that the finite-sample performance of our estimator is competitive with other popular machine learning techniques across a variety of data generating mechanisms. We also illustrate competitive performance in real data examples using several publicly available data sets. PMID:29094111
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masselot, Pierre; Chebana, Fateh; Bélanger, Diane; St-Hilaire, André; Abdous, Belkacem; Gosselin, Pierre; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.
2018-01-01
In a number of environmental studies, relationships between natural processes are often assessed through regression analyses, using time series data. Such data are often multi-scale and non-stationary, leading to a poor accuracy of the resulting regression models and therefore to results with moderate reliability. To deal with this issue, the present paper introduces the EMD-regression methodology consisting in applying the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) algorithm on data series and then using the resulting components in regression models. The proposed methodology presents a number of advantages. First, it accounts of the issues of non-stationarity associated to the data series. Second, this approach acts as a scan for the relationship between a response variable and the predictors at different time scales, providing new insights about this relationship. To illustrate the proposed methodology it is applied to study the relationship between weather and cardiovascular mortality in Montreal, Canada. The results shed new knowledge concerning the studied relationship. For instance, they show that the humidity can cause excess mortality at the monthly time scale, which is a scale not visible in classical models. A comparison is also conducted with state of the art methods which are the generalized additive models and distributed lag models, both widely used in weather-related health studies. The comparison shows that EMD-regression achieves better prediction performances and provides more details than classical models concerning the relationship.
Yobbi, D.K.
2000-01-01
A nonlinear least-squares regression technique for estimation of ground-water flow model parameters was applied to an existing model of the regional aquifer system underlying west-central Florida. The regression technique minimizes the differences between measured and simulated water levels. Regression statistics, including parameter sensitivities and correlations, were calculated for reported parameter values in the existing model. Optimal parameter values for selected hydrologic variables of interest are estimated by nonlinear regression. Optimal estimates of parameter values are about 140 times greater than and about 0.01 times less than reported values. Independently estimating all parameters by nonlinear regression was impossible, given the existing zonation structure and number of observations, because of parameter insensitivity and correlation. Although the model yields parameter values similar to those estimated by other methods and reproduces the measured water levels reasonably accurately, a simpler parameter structure should be considered. Some possible ways of improving model calibration are to: (1) modify the defined parameter-zonation structure by omitting and/or combining parameters to be estimated; (2) carefully eliminate observation data based on evidence that they are likely to be biased; (3) collect additional water-level data; (4) assign values to insensitive parameters, and (5) estimate the most sensitive parameters first, then, using the optimized values for these parameters, estimate the entire data set.
A Linear Regression and Markov Chain Model for the Arabian Horse Registry
1993-04-01
as a tax deduction? Yes No T-4367 68 26. Regardless of previous equine tax deductions, do you consider your current horse activities to be... (Mark one...E L T-4367 A Linear Regression and Markov Chain Model For the Arabian Horse Registry Accesion For NTIS CRA&I UT 7 4:iC=D 5 D-IC JA" LI J:13tjlC,3 lO...the Arabian Horse Registry, which needed to forecast its future registration of purebred Arabian horses . A linear regression model was utilized to
New robust statistical procedures for the polytomous logistic regression models.
Castilla, Elena; Ghosh, Abhik; Martin, Nirian; Pardo, Leandro
2018-05-17
This article derives a new family of estimators, namely the minimum density power divergence estimators, as a robust generalization of the maximum likelihood estimator for the polytomous logistic regression model. Based on these estimators, a family of Wald-type test statistics for linear hypotheses is introduced. Robustness properties of both the proposed estimators and the test statistics are theoretically studied through the classical influence function analysis. Appropriate real life examples are presented to justify the requirement of suitable robust statistical procedures in place of the likelihood based inference for the polytomous logistic regression model. The validity of the theoretical results established in the article are further confirmed empirically through suitable simulation studies. Finally, an approach for the data-driven selection of the robustness tuning parameter is proposed with empirical justifications. © 2018, The International Biometric Society.
Random regression models using different functions to model milk flow in dairy cows.
Laureano, M M M; Bignardi, A B; El Faro, L; Cardoso, V L; Tonhati, H; Albuquerque, L G
2014-09-12
We analyzed 75,555 test-day milk flow records from 2175 primiparous Holstein cows that calved between 1997 and 2005. Milk flow was obtained by dividing the mean milk yield (kg) of the 3 daily milking by the total milking time (min) and was expressed as kg/min. Milk flow was grouped into 43 weekly classes. The analyses were performed using a single-trait Random Regression Models that included direct additive genetic, permanent environmental, and residual random effects. In addition, the contemporary group and linear and quadratic effects of cow age at calving were included as fixed effects. Fourth-order orthogonal Legendre polynomial of days in milk was used to model the mean trend in milk flow. The additive genetic and permanent environmental covariance functions were estimated using random regression Legendre polynomials and B-spline functions of days in milk. The model using a third-order Legendre polynomial for additive genetic effects and a sixth-order polynomial for permanent environmental effects, which contained 7 residual classes, proved to be the most adequate to describe variations in milk flow, and was also the most parsimonious. The heritability in milk flow estimated by the most parsimonious model was of moderate to high magnitude.
Revisiting Gaussian Process Regression Modeling for Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks
Richter, Philipp; Toledano-Ayala, Manuel
2015-01-01
Signal strength-based positioning in wireless sensor networks is a key technology for seamless, ubiquitous localization, especially in areas where Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals propagate poorly. To enable wireless local area network (WLAN) location fingerprinting in larger areas while maintaining accuracy, methods to reduce the effort of radio map creation must be consolidated and automatized. Gaussian process regression has been applied to overcome this issue, also with auspicious results, but the fit of the model was never thoroughly assessed. Instead, most studies trained a readily available model, relying on the zero mean and squared exponential covariance function, without further scrutinization. This paper studies the Gaussian process regression model selection for WLAN fingerprinting in indoor and outdoor environments. We train several models for indoor/outdoor- and combined areas; we evaluate them quantitatively and compare them by means of adequate model measures, hence assessing the fit of these models directly. To illuminate the quality of the model fit, the residuals of the proposed model are investigated, as well. Comparative experiments on the positioning performance verify and conclude the model selection. In this way, we show that the standard model is not the most appropriate, discuss alternatives and present our best candidate. PMID:26370996
Wang, Wen-Cheng; Cho, Wen-Chien; Chen, Yin-Jen
2014-01-01
It is estimated that mainland Chinese tourists travelling to Taiwan can bring annual revenues of 400 billion NTD to the Taiwan economy. Thus, how the Taiwanese Government formulates relevant measures to satisfy both sides is the focus of most concern. Taiwan must improve the facilities and service quality of its tourism industry so as to attract more mainland tourists. This paper conducted a questionnaire survey of mainland tourists and used grey relational analysis in grey mathematics to analyze the satisfaction performance of all satisfaction question items. The first eight satisfaction items were used as independent variables, and the overall satisfaction performance was used as a dependent variable for quantile regression model analysis to discuss the relationship between the dependent variable under different quantiles and independent variables. Finally, this study further discussed the predictive accuracy of the least mean regression model and each quantile regression model, as a reference for research personnel. The analysis results showed that other variables could also affect the overall satisfaction performance of mainland tourists, in addition to occupation and age. The overall predictive accuracy of quantile regression model Q0.25 was higher than that of the other three models. PMID:24574916
Wang, Wen-Cheng; Cho, Wen-Chien; Chen, Yin-Jen
2014-01-01
It is estimated that mainland Chinese tourists travelling to Taiwan can bring annual revenues of 400 billion NTD to the Taiwan economy. Thus, how the Taiwanese Government formulates relevant measures to satisfy both sides is the focus of most concern. Taiwan must improve the facilities and service quality of its tourism industry so as to attract more mainland tourists. This paper conducted a questionnaire survey of mainland tourists and used grey relational analysis in grey mathematics to analyze the satisfaction performance of all satisfaction question items. The first eight satisfaction items were used as independent variables, and the overall satisfaction performance was used as a dependent variable for quantile regression model analysis to discuss the relationship between the dependent variable under different quantiles and independent variables. Finally, this study further discussed the predictive accuracy of the least mean regression model and each quantile regression model, as a reference for research personnel. The analysis results showed that other variables could also affect the overall satisfaction performance of mainland tourists, in addition to occupation and age. The overall predictive accuracy of quantile regression model Q0.25 was higher than that of the other three models.
Bayesian isotonic density regression
Wang, Lianming; Dunson, David B.
2011-01-01
Density regression models allow the conditional distribution of the response given predictors to change flexibly over the predictor space. Such models are much more flexible than nonparametric mean regression models with nonparametric residual distributions, and are well supported in many applications. A rich variety of Bayesian methods have been proposed for density regression, but it is not clear whether such priors have full support so that any true data-generating model can be accurately approximated. This article develops a new class of density regression models that incorporate stochastic-ordering constraints which are natural when a response tends to increase or decrease monotonely with a predictor. Theory is developed showing large support. Methods are developed for hypothesis testing, with posterior computation relying on a simple Gibbs sampler. Frequentist properties are illustrated in a simulation study, and an epidemiology application is considered. PMID:22822259
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
von Davier, Matthias; Sinharay, Sandip
2009-01-01
This paper presents an application of a stochastic approximation EM-algorithm using a Metropolis-Hastings sampler to estimate the parameters of an item response latent regression model. Latent regression models are extensions of item response theory (IRT) to a 2-level latent variable model in which covariates serve as predictors of the…
Hu, Wenbiao; Tong, Shilu; Mengersen, Kerrie; Connell, Des
2007-09-01
Few studies have examined the relationship between weather variables and cryptosporidiosis in Australia. This paper examines the potential impact of weather variability on the transmission of cryptosporidiosis and explores the possibility of developing an empirical forecast system. Data on weather variables, notified cryptosporidiosis cases, and population size in Brisbane were supplied by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Queensland Department of Health, and Australian Bureau of Statistics for the period of January 1, 1996-December 31, 2004, respectively. Time series Poisson regression and seasonal auto-regression integrated moving average (SARIMA) models were performed to examine the potential impact of weather variability on the transmission of cryptosporidiosis. Both the time series Poisson regression and SARIMA models show that seasonal and monthly maximum temperature at a prior moving average of 1 and 3 months were significantly associated with cryptosporidiosis disease. It suggests that there may be 50 more cases a year for an increase of 1 degrees C maximum temperature on average in Brisbane. Model assessments indicated that the SARIMA model had better predictive ability than the Poisson regression model (SARIMA: root mean square error (RMSE): 0.40, Akaike information criterion (AIC): -12.53; Poisson regression: RMSE: 0.54, AIC: -2.84). Furthermore, the analysis of residuals shows that the time series Poisson regression appeared to violate a modeling assumption, in that residual autocorrelation persisted. The results of this study suggest that weather variability (particularly maximum temperature) may have played a significant role in the transmission of cryptosporidiosis. A SARIMA model may be a better predictive model than a Poisson regression model in the assessment of the relationship between weather variability and the incidence of cryptosporidiosis.
Logsdon, Benjamin A.; Carty, Cara L.; Reiner, Alexander P.; Dai, James Y.; Kooperberg, Charles
2012-01-01
Motivation: For many complex traits, including height, the majority of variants identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have small effects, leaving a significant proportion of the heritable variation unexplained. Although many penalized multiple regression methodologies have been proposed to increase the power to detect associations for complex genetic architectures, they generally lack mechanisms for false-positive control and diagnostics for model over-fitting. Our methodology is the first penalized multiple regression approach that explicitly controls Type I error rates and provide model over-fitting diagnostics through a novel normally distributed statistic defined for every marker within the GWAS, based on results from a variational Bayes spike regression algorithm. Results: We compare the performance of our method to the lasso and single marker analysis on simulated data and demonstrate that our approach has superior performance in terms of power and Type I error control. In addition, using the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) SNP Health Association Resource (SHARe) GWAS of African-Americans, we show that our method has power to detect additional novel associations with body height. These findings replicate by reaching a stringent cutoff of marginal association in a larger cohort. Availability: An R-package, including an implementation of our variational Bayes spike regression (vBsr) algorithm, is available at http://kooperberg.fhcrc.org/soft.html. Contact: blogsdon@fhcrc.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:22563072
Wheat flour dough Alveograph characteristics predicted by Mixolab regression models.
Codină, Georgiana Gabriela; Mironeasa, Silvia; Mironeasa, Costel; Popa, Ciprian N; Tamba-Berehoiu, Radiana
2012-02-01
In Romania, the Alveograph is the most used device to evaluate the rheological properties of wheat flour dough, but lately the Mixolab device has begun to play an important role in the breadmaking industry. These two instruments are based on different principles but there are some correlations that can be found between the parameters determined by the Mixolab and the rheological properties of wheat dough measured with the Alveograph. Statistical analysis on 80 wheat flour samples using the backward stepwise multiple regression method showed that Mixolab values using the ‘Chopin S’ protocol (40 samples) and ‘Chopin + ’ protocol (40 samples) can be used to elaborate predictive models for estimating the value of the rheological properties of wheat dough: baking strength (W), dough tenacity (P) and extensibility (L). The correlation analysis confirmed significant findings (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01) between the parameters of wheat dough studied by the Mixolab and its rheological properties measured with the Alveograph. A number of six predictive linear equations were obtained. Linear regression models gave multiple regression coefficients with R²(adjusted) > 0.70 for P, R²(adjusted) > 0.70 for W and R²(adjusted) > 0.38 for L, at a 95% confidence interval. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bae, Gihyun; Huh, Hoon; Park, Sungho
This paper deals with a regression model for light weight and crashworthiness enhancement design of automotive parts in frontal car crash. The ULSAB-AVC model is employed for the crash analysis and effective parts are selected based on the amount of energy absorption during the crash behavior. Finite element analyses are carried out for designated design cases in order to investigate the crashworthiness and weight according to the material and thickness of main energy absorption parts. Based on simulations results, a regression analysis is performed to construct a regression model utilized for light weight and crashworthiness enhancement design of automotive parts. An example for weight reduction of main energy absorption parts demonstrates the validity of a regression model constructed.
Fuzzy regression modeling for tool performance prediction and degradation detection.
Li, X; Er, M J; Lim, B S; Zhou, J H; Gan, O P; Rutkowski, L
2010-10-01
In this paper, the viability of using Fuzzy-Rule-Based Regression Modeling (FRM) algorithm for tool performance and degradation detection is investigated. The FRM is developed based on a multi-layered fuzzy-rule-based hybrid system with Multiple Regression Models (MRM) embedded into a fuzzy logic inference engine that employs Self Organizing Maps (SOM) for clustering. The FRM converts a complex nonlinear problem to a simplified linear format in order to further increase the accuracy in prediction and rate of convergence. The efficacy of the proposed FRM is tested through a case study - namely to predict the remaining useful life of a ball nose milling cutter during a dry machining process of hardened tool steel with a hardness of 52-54 HRc. A comparative study is further made between four predictive models using the same set of experimental data. It is shown that the FRM is superior as compared with conventional MRM, Back Propagation Neural Networks (BPNN) and Radial Basis Function Networks (RBFN) in terms of prediction accuracy and learning speed.
Shi, J Q; Wang, B; Will, E J; West, R M
2012-11-20
We propose a new semiparametric model for functional regression analysis, combining a parametric mixed-effects model with a nonparametric Gaussian process regression model, namely a mixed-effects Gaussian process functional regression model. The parametric component can provide explanatory information between the response and the covariates, whereas the nonparametric component can add nonlinearity. We can model the mean and covariance structures simultaneously, combining the information borrowed from other subjects with the information collected from each individual subject. We apply the model to dose-response curves that describe changes in the responses of subjects for differing levels of the dose of a drug or agent and have a wide application in many areas. We illustrate the method for the management of renal anaemia. An individual dose-response curve is improved when more information is included by this mechanism from the subject/patient over time, enabling a patient-specific treatment regime. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keat, Sim Chong; Chun, Beh Boon; San, Lim Hwee; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat
2015-04-01
Climate change due to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is one of the most complex challenges threatening our planet. This issue considered as a great and international concern that primary attributed from different fossil fuels. In this paper, regression model is used for analyzing the causal relationship among CO2 emissions based on the energy consumption in Malaysia using time series data for the period of 1980-2010. The equations were developed using regression model based on the eight major sources that contribute to the CO2 emissions such as non energy, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), diesel, kerosene, refinery gas, Aviation Turbine Fuel (ATF) and Aviation Gasoline (AV Gas), fuel oil and motor petrol. The related data partly used for predict the regression model (1980-2000) and partly used for validate the regression model (2001-2010). The results of the prediction model with the measured data showed a high correlation coefficient (R2=0.9544), indicating the model's accuracy and efficiency. These results are accurate and can be used in early warning of the population to comply with air quality standards.
Variable-Domain Functional Regression for Modeling ICU Data.
Gellar, Jonathan E; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Needham, Dale M; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M
2014-12-01
We introduce a class of scalar-on-function regression models with subject-specific functional predictor domains. The fundamental idea is to consider a bivariate functional parameter that depends both on the functional argument and on the width of the functional predictor domain. Both parametric and nonparametric models are introduced to fit the functional coefficient. The nonparametric model is theoretically and practically invariant to functional support transformation, or support registration. Methods were motivated by and applied to a study of association between daily measures of the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and two outcomes: in-hospital mortality, and physical impairment at hospital discharge among survivors. Methods are generally applicable to a large number of new studies that record a continuous variables over unequal domains.
Modeling energy expenditure in children and adolescents using quantile regression
USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database
Advanced mathematical models have the potential to capture the complex metabolic and physiological processes that result in energy expenditure (EE). Study objective is to apply quantile regression (QR) to predict EE and determine quantile-dependent variation in covariate effects in nonobese and obes...
1974-01-01
REGRESSION MODEL - THE UNCONSTRAINED, LINEAR EQUALITY AND INEQUALITY CONSTRAINED APPROACHES January 1974 Nelson Delfino d’Avila Mascarenha;? Image...Report 520 DIGITAL IMAGE RESTORATION UNDER A REGRESSION MODEL THE UNCONSTRAINED, LINEAR EQUALITY AND INEQUALITY CONSTRAINED APPROACHES January...a two- dimensional form adequately describes the linear model . A dis- cretization is performed by using quadrature methods. By trans
Multilevel Modeling and Ordinary Least Squares Regression: How Comparable Are They?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huang, Francis L.
2018-01-01
Studies analyzing clustered data sets using both multilevel models (MLMs) and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression have generally concluded that resulting point estimates, but not the standard errors, are comparable with each other. However, the accuracy of the estimates of OLS models is important to consider, as several alternative techniques…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, Barry T.; Knight, Joseph F.; McRoberts, Ronald E.
2018-03-01
Imagery from the Landsat Program has been used frequently as a source of auxiliary data for modeling land cover, as well as a variety of attributes associated with tree cover. With ready access to all scenes in the archive since 2008 due to the USGS Landsat Data Policy, new approaches to deriving such auxiliary data from dense Landsat time series are required. Several methods have previously been developed for use with finer temporal resolution imagery (e.g. AVHRR and MODIS), including image compositing and harmonic regression using Fourier series. The manuscript presents a study, using Minnesota, USA during the years 2009-2013 as the study area and timeframe. The study examined the relative predictive power of land cover models, in particular those related to tree cover, using predictor variables based solely on composite imagery versus those using estimated harmonic regression coefficients. The study used two common non-parametric modeling approaches (i.e. k-nearest neighbors and random forests) for fitting classification and regression models of multiple attributes measured on USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis plots using all available Landsat imagery for the study area and timeframe. The estimated Fourier coefficients developed by harmonic regression of tasseled cap transformation time series data were shown to be correlated with land cover, including tree cover. Regression models using estimated Fourier coefficients as predictor variables showed a two- to threefold increase in explained variance for a small set of continuous response variables, relative to comparable models using monthly image composites. Similarly, the overall accuracies of classification models using the estimated Fourier coefficients were approximately 10-20 percentage points higher than the models using the image composites, with corresponding individual class accuracies between six and 45 percentage points higher.
Yusuf, O B; Bamgboye, E A; Afolabi, R F; Shodimu, M A
2014-09-01
Logistic regression model is widely used in health research for description and predictive purposes. Unfortunately, most researchers are sometimes not aware that the underlying principles of the techniques have failed when the algorithm for maximum likelihood does not converge. Young researchers particularly postgraduate students may not know why separation problem whether quasi or complete occurs, how to identify it and how to fix it. This study was designed to critically evaluate convergence issues in articles that employed logistic regression analysis published in an African Journal of Medicine and medical sciences between 2004 and 2013. Problems of quasi or complete separation were described and were illustrated with the National Demographic and Health Survey dataset. A critical evaluation of articles that employed logistic regression was conducted. A total of 581 articles was reviewed, of which 40 (6.9%) used binary logistic regression. Twenty-four (60.0%) stated the use of logistic regression model in the methodology while none of the articles assessed model fit. Only 3 (12.5%) properly described the procedures. Of the 40 that used the logistic regression model, the problem of convergence occurred in 6 (15.0%) of the articles. Logistic regression tends to be poorly reported in studies published between 2004 and 2013. Our findings showed that the procedure may not be well understood by researchers since very few described the process in their reports and may be totally unaware of the problem of convergence or how to deal with it.
New approach to probability estimate of femoral neck fracture by fall (Slovak regression model).
Wendlova, J
2009-01-01
3,216 Slovak women with primary or secondary osteoporosis or osteopenia, aged 20-89 years, were examined with the bone densitometer DXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, GE, Prodigy - Primo), x = 58.9, 95% C.I. (58.42; 59.38). The values of the following variables for each patient were measured: FSI (femur strength index), T-score total hip left, alpha angle - left, theta angle - left, HAL (hip axis length) left, BMI (body mass index) was calculated from the height and weight of the patients. Regression model determined the following order of independent variables according to the intensity of their influence upon the occurrence of values of dependent FSI variable: 1. BMI, 2. theta angle, 3. T-score total hip, 4. alpha angle, 5. HAL. The regression model equation, calculated from the variables monitored in the study, enables a doctor in praxis to determine the probability magnitude (absolute risk) for the occurrence of pathological value of FSI (FSI < 1) in the femoral neck area, i. e., allows for probability estimate of a femoral neck fracture by fall for Slovak women. 1. The Slovak regression model differs from regression models, published until now, in chosen independent variables and a dependent variable, belonging to biomechanical variables, characterising the bone quality. 2. The Slovak regression model excludes the inaccuracies of other models, which are not able to define precisely the current and past clinical condition of tested patients (e.g., to define the length and dose of exposure to risk factors). 3. The Slovak regression model opens the way to a new method of estimating the probability (absolute risk) or the odds for a femoral neck fracture by fall, based upon the bone quality determination. 4. It is assumed that the development will proceed by improving the methods enabling to measure the bone quality, determining the probability of fracture by fall (Tab. 6, Fig. 3, Ref. 22). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.
Predicting the occurrence of wildfires with binary structured additive regression models.
Ríos-Pena, Laura; Kneib, Thomas; Cadarso-Suárez, Carmen; Marey-Pérez, Manuel
2017-02-01
Wildfires are one of the main environmental problems facing societies today, and in the case of Galicia (north-west Spain), they are the main cause of forest destruction. This paper used binary structured additive regression (STAR) for modelling the occurrence of wildfires in Galicia. Binary STAR models are a recent contribution to the classical logistic regression and binary generalized additive models. Their main advantage lies in their flexibility for modelling non-linear effects, while simultaneously incorporating spatial and temporal variables directly, thereby making it possible to reveal possible relationships among the variables considered. The results showed that the occurrence of wildfires depends on many covariates which display variable behaviour across space and time, and which largely determine the likelihood of ignition of a fire. The joint possibility of working on spatial scales with a resolution of 1 × 1 km cells and mapping predictions in a colour range makes STAR models a useful tool for plotting and predicting wildfire occurrence. Lastly, it will facilitate the development of fire behaviour models, which can be invaluable when it comes to drawing up fire-prevention and firefighting plans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Scoring and staging systems using cox linear regression modeling and recursive partitioning.
Lee, J W; Um, S H; Lee, J B; Mun, J; Cho, H
2006-01-01
Scoring and staging systems are used to determine the order and class of data according to predictors. Systems used for medical data, such as the Child-Turcotte-Pugh scoring and staging systems for ordering and classifying patients with liver disease, are often derived strictly from physicians' experience and intuition. We construct objective and data-based scoring/staging systems using statistical methods. We consider Cox linear regression modeling and recursive partitioning techniques for censored survival data. In particular, to obtain a target number of stages we propose cross-validation and amalgamation algorithms. We also propose an algorithm for constructing scoring and staging systems by integrating local Cox linear regression models into recursive partitioning, so that we can retain the merits of both methods such as superior predictive accuracy, ease of use, and detection of interactions between predictors. The staging system construction algorithms are compared by cross-validation evaluation of real data. The data-based cross-validation comparison shows that Cox linear regression modeling is somewhat better than recursive partitioning when there are only continuous predictors, while recursive partitioning is better when there are significant categorical predictors. The proposed local Cox linear recursive partitioning has better predictive accuracy than Cox linear modeling and simple recursive partitioning. This study indicates that integrating local linear modeling into recursive partitioning can significantly improve prediction accuracy in constructing scoring and staging systems.
Correlation and simple linear regression.
Eberly, Lynn E
2007-01-01
This chapter highlights important steps in using correlation and simple linear regression to address scientific questions about the association of two continuous variables with each other. These steps include estimation and inference, assessing model fit, the connection between regression and ANOVA, and study design. Examples in microbiology are used throughout. This chapter provides a framework that is helpful in understanding more complex statistical techniques, such as multiple linear regression, linear mixed effects models, logistic regression, and proportional hazards regression.
Data Shared Lasso: A Novel Tool to Discover Uplift.
Gross, Samuel M; Tibshirani, Robert
2016-09-01
A model is presented for the supervised learning problem where the observations come from a fixed number of pre-specified groups, and the regression coefficients may vary sparsely between groups. The model spans the continuum between individual models for each group and one model for all groups. The resulting algorithm is designed with a high dimensional framework in mind. The approach is applied to a sentiment analysis dataset to show its efficacy and interpretability. One particularly useful application is for finding sub-populations in a randomized trial for which an intervention (treatment) is beneficial, often called the uplift problem. Some new concepts are introduced that are useful for uplift analysis. The value is demonstrated in an application to a real world credit card promotion dataset. In this example, although sending the promotion has a very small average effect, by targeting a particular subgroup with the promotion one can obtain a 15% increase in the proportion of people who purchase the new credit card.
Data Shared Lasso: A Novel Tool to Discover Uplift
Gross, Samuel M.; Tibshirani, Robert
2017-01-01
A model is presented for the supervised learning problem where the observations come from a fixed number of pre-specified groups, and the regression coefficients may vary sparsely between groups. The model spans the continuum between individual models for each group and one model for all groups. The resulting algorithm is designed with a high dimensional framework in mind. The approach is applied to a sentiment analysis dataset to show its efficacy and interpretability. One particularly useful application is for finding sub-populations in a randomized trial for which an intervention (treatment) is beneficial, often called the uplift problem. Some new concepts are introduced that are useful for uplift analysis. The value is demonstrated in an application to a real world credit card promotion dataset. In this example, although sending the promotion has a very small average effect, by targeting a particular subgroup with the promotion one can obtain a 15% increase in the proportion of people who purchase the new credit card. PMID:29056802
Variable selection in subdistribution hazard frailty models with competing risks data
Do Ha, Il; Lee, Minjung; Oh, Seungyoung; Jeong, Jong-Hyeon; Sylvester, Richard; Lee, Youngjo
2014-01-01
The proportional subdistribution hazards model (i.e. Fine-Gray model) has been widely used for analyzing univariate competing risks data. Recently, this model has been extended to clustered competing risks data via frailty. To the best of our knowledge, however, there has been no literature on variable selection method for such competing risks frailty models. In this paper, we propose a simple but unified procedure via a penalized h-likelihood (HL) for variable selection of fixed effects in a general class of subdistribution hazard frailty models, in which random effects may be shared or correlated. We consider three penalty functions (LASSO, SCAD and HL) in our variable selection procedure. We show that the proposed method can be easily implemented using a slight modification to existing h-likelihood estimation approaches. Numerical studies demonstrate that the proposed procedure using the HL penalty performs well, providing a higher probability of choosing the true model than LASSO and SCAD methods without losing prediction accuracy. The usefulness of the new method is illustrated using two actual data sets from multi-center clinical trials. PMID:25042872
Novel Harmonic Regularization Approach for Variable Selection in Cox's Proportional Hazards Model
Chu, Ge-Jin; Liang, Yong; Wang, Jia-Xuan
2014-01-01
Variable selection is an important issue in regression and a number of variable selection methods have been proposed involving nonconvex penalty functions. In this paper, we investigate a novel harmonic regularization method, which can approximate nonconvex Lq (1/2 < q < 1) regularizations, to select key risk factors in the Cox's proportional hazards model using microarray gene expression data. The harmonic regularization method can be efficiently solved using our proposed direct path seeking approach, which can produce solutions that closely approximate those for the convex loss function and the nonconvex regularization. Simulation results based on the artificial datasets and four real microarray gene expression datasets, such as real diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DCBCL), the lung cancer, and the AML datasets, show that the harmonic regularization method can be more accurate for variable selection than existing Lasso series methods. PMID:25506389
Novel harmonic regularization approach for variable selection in Cox's proportional hazards model.
Chu, Ge-Jin; Liang, Yong; Wang, Jia-Xuan
2014-01-01
Variable selection is an important issue in regression and a number of variable selection methods have been proposed involving nonconvex penalty functions. In this paper, we investigate a novel harmonic regularization method, which can approximate nonconvex Lq (1/2 < q < 1) regularizations, to select key risk factors in the Cox's proportional hazards model using microarray gene expression data. The harmonic regularization method can be efficiently solved using our proposed direct path seeking approach, which can produce solutions that closely approximate those for the convex loss function and the nonconvex regularization. Simulation results based on the artificial datasets and four real microarray gene expression datasets, such as real diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DCBCL), the lung cancer, and the AML datasets, show that the harmonic regularization method can be more accurate for variable selection than existing Lasso series methods.
A generalized multivariate regression model for modelling ocean wave heights
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, X. L.; Feng, Y.; Swail, V. R.
2012-04-01
In this study, a generalized multivariate linear regression model is developed to represent the relationship between 6-hourly ocean significant wave heights (Hs) and the corresponding 6-hourly mean sea level pressure (MSLP) fields. The model is calibrated using the ERA-Interim reanalysis of Hs and MSLP fields for 1981-2000, and is validated using the ERA-Interim reanalysis for 2001-2010 and ERA40 reanalysis of Hs and MSLP for 1958-2001. The performance of the fitted model is evaluated in terms of Pierce skill score, frequency bias index, and correlation skill score. Being not normally distributed, wave heights are subjected to a data adaptive Box-Cox transformation before being used in the model fitting. Also, since 6-hourly data are being modelled, lag-1 autocorrelation must be and is accounted for. The models with and without Box-Cox transformation, and with and without accounting for autocorrelation, are inter-compared in terms of their prediction skills. The fitted MSLP-Hs relationship is then used to reconstruct historical wave height climate from the 6-hourly MSLP fields taken from the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR, Compo et al. 2011), and to project possible future wave height climates using CMIP5 model simulations of MSLP fields. The reconstructed and projected wave heights, both seasonal means and maxima, are subject to a trend analysis that allows for non-linear (polynomial) trends.
Cox Regression Models with Functional Covariates for Survival Data.
Gellar, Jonathan E; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Needham, Dale M; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M
2015-06-01
We extend the Cox proportional hazards model to cases when the exposure is a densely sampled functional process, measured at baseline. The fundamental idea is to combine penalized signal regression with methods developed for mixed effects proportional hazards models. The model is fit by maximizing the penalized partial likelihood, with smoothing parameters estimated by a likelihood-based criterion such as AIC or EPIC. The model may be extended to allow for multiple functional predictors, time varying coefficients, and missing or unequally-spaced data. Methods were inspired by and applied to a study of the association between time to death after hospital discharge and daily measures of disease severity collected in the intensive care unit, among survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Oviedo de la Fuente, Manuel; Febrero-Bande, Manuel; Muñoz, María Pilar; Domínguez, Àngela
2018-01-01
This paper proposes a novel approach that uses meteorological information to predict the incidence of influenza in Galicia (Spain). It extends the Generalized Least Squares (GLS) methods in the multivariate framework to functional regression models with dependent errors. These kinds of models are useful when the recent history of the incidence of influenza are readily unavailable (for instance, by delays on the communication with health informants) and the prediction must be constructed by correcting the temporal dependence of the residuals and using more accessible variables. A simulation study shows that the GLS estimators render better estimations of the parameters associated with the regression model than they do with the classical models. They obtain extremely good results from the predictive point of view and are competitive with the classical time series approach for the incidence of influenza. An iterative version of the GLS estimator (called iGLS) was also proposed that can help to model complicated dependence structures. For constructing the model, the distance correlation measure [Formula: see text] was employed to select relevant information to predict influenza rate mixing multivariate and functional variables. These kinds of models are extremely useful to health managers in allocating resources in advance to manage influenza epidemics.
Mose, Louise S; Pedersen, Susanne S; Debrabant, Birgit; Jensen, Rigmor H; Gram, Bibi
2018-05-25
Factors associated with development of medication-overuse headache (MOH) in migraine patients are not fully understood, but with respect to prevention, the ability to predict the onset of MOH is clinically important. The aims were to examine if personality characteristics, disability and physical activity level are associated with the onset of MOH in a group of migraine patients and explore to which extend these factors combined can predict the onset of MOH. The study was a single-center prospective observational study of migraine patients. At inclusion, all patients completed questionnaires evaluating 1) personality (NEO Five-Factor Inventory), 2) disability (Migraine Disability Assessment), and 3) physical activity level (Physical Activity Scale 2.1). Diagnostic codes from patients' electronic health records confirmed if they had developed MOH during the study period of 20 months. Analyses of associations were performed and to identify which of the variables predict onset MOH, a multivariable least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) logistic regression model was fitted to predict presence or absence of MOH. Out of 131 participants, 12 % (n=16) developed MOH. Migraine disability score (OR=1.02, 95 % CI: 1.00 to 1.04), intensity of headache (OR=1.49, 95 % CI: 1.03 to 2.15) and headache frequency (OR=1.02, 95 % CI: 1.00 to 1.04) were associated with the onset of MOH adjusting for age and gender. To identify which of the variables predict onset MOH, we used a LASSO regression model, and evaluating the predictive performance of the LASSO-mode (containing the predictors MIDAS score, MIDAS-intensity and -frequency, neuroticism score, time with moderate physical activity, educational level, hours of sleep daily and number of contacts to the headache clinic) in terms of area under the curve (AUC) was weak (apparent AUC=0.62, 95% CI: 0.41-0.82). Disability, headache intensity and frequency were associated with the onset of MOH whereas personality and the
Rovadoscki, Gregori A; Petrini, Juliana; Ramirez-Diaz, Johanna; Pertile, Simone F N; Pertille, Fábio; Salvian, Mayara; Iung, Laiza H S; Rodriguez, Mary Ana P; Zampar, Aline; Gaya, Leila G; Carvalho, Rachel S B; Coelho, Antonio A D; Savino, Vicente J M; Coutinho, Luiz L; Mourão, Gerson B
2016-09-01
Repeated measures from the same individual have been analyzed by using repeatability and finite dimension models under univariate or multivariate analyses. However, in the last decade, the use of random regression models for genetic studies with longitudinal data have become more common. Thus, the aim of this research was to estimate genetic parameters for body weight of four experimental chicken lines by using univariate random regression models. Body weight data from hatching to 84 days of age (n = 34,730) from four experimental free-range chicken lines (7P, Caipirão da ESALQ, Caipirinha da ESALQ and Carijó Barbado) were used. The analysis model included the fixed effects of contemporary group (gender and rearing system), fixed regression coefficients for age at measurement, and random regression coefficients for permanent environmental effects and additive genetic effects. Heterogeneous variances for residual effects were considered, and one residual variance was assigned for each of six subclasses of age at measurement. Random regression curves were modeled by using Legendre polynomials of the second and third orders, with the best model chosen based on the Akaike Information Criterion, Bayesian Information Criterion, and restricted maximum likelihood. Multivariate analyses under the same animal mixed model were also performed for the validation of the random regression models. The Legendre polynomials of second order were better for describing the growth curves of the lines studied. Moderate to high heritabilities (h(2) = 0.15 to 0.98) were estimated for body weight between one and 84 days of age, suggesting that selection for body weight at all ages can be used as a selection criteria. Genetic correlations among body weight records obtained through multivariate analyses ranged from 0.18 to 0.96, 0.12 to 0.89, 0.06 to 0.96, and 0.28 to 0.96 in 7P, Caipirão da ESALQ, Caipirinha da ESALQ, and Carijó Barbado chicken lines, respectively. Results indicate that
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amaliana, Luthfatul; Sa'adah, Umu; Wayan Surya Wardhani, Ni
2017-12-01
Tetanus Neonatorum is an infectious disease that can be prevented by immunization. The number of Tetanus Neonatorum cases in East Java Province is the highest in Indonesia until 2015. Tetanus Neonatorum data contain over dispersion and big enough proportion of zero-inflation. Negative Binomial (NB) regression is an alternative method when over dispersion happens in Poisson regression. However, the data containing over dispersion and zero-inflation are more appropriately analyzed by using Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial (ZINB) regression. The purpose of this study are: (1) to model Tetanus Neonatorum cases in East Java Province with 71.05 percent proportion of zero-inflation by using NB and ZINB regression, (2) to obtain the best model. The result of this study indicates that ZINB is better than NB regression with smaller AIC.
Modeling of geogenic radon in Switzerland based on ordered logistic regression.
Kropat, Georg; Bochud, François; Murith, Christophe; Palacios Gruson, Martha; Baechler, Sébastien
2017-01-01
The estimation of the radon hazard of a future construction site should ideally be based on the geogenic radon potential (GRP), since this estimate is free of anthropogenic influences and building characteristics. The goal of this study was to evaluate terrestrial gamma dose rate (TGD), geology, fault lines and topsoil permeability as predictors for the creation of a GRP map based on logistic regression. Soil gas radon measurements (SRC) are more suited for the estimation of GRP than indoor radon measurements (IRC) since the former do not depend on ventilation and heating habits or building characteristics. However, SRC have only been measured at a few locations in Switzerland. In former studies a good correlation between spatial aggregates of IRC and SRC has been observed. That's why we used IRC measurements aggregated on a 10 km × 10 km grid to calibrate an ordered logistic regression model for geogenic radon potential (GRP). As predictors we took into account terrestrial gamma doserate, regrouped geological units, fault line density and the permeability of the soil. The classification success rate of the model results to 56% in case of the inclusion of all 4 predictor variables. Our results suggest that terrestrial gamma doserate and regrouped geological units are more suited to model GRP than fault line density and soil permeability. Ordered logistic regression is a promising tool for the modeling of GRP maps due to its simplicity and fast computation time. Future studies should account for additional variables to improve the modeling of high radon hazard in the Jura Mountains of Switzerland. Copyright Â© 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Modeling Information Content Via Dirichlet-Multinomial Regression Analysis.
Ferrari, Alberto
2017-01-01
Shannon entropy is being increasingly used in biomedical research as an index of complexity and information content in sequences of symbols, e.g. languages, amino acid sequences, DNA methylation patterns and animal vocalizations. Yet, distributional properties of information entropy as a random variable have seldom been the object of study, leading to researchers mainly using linear models or simulation-based analytical approach to assess differences in information content, when entropy is measured repeatedly in different experimental conditions. Here a method to perform inference on entropy in such conditions is proposed. Building on results coming from studies in the field of Bayesian entropy estimation, a symmetric Dirichlet-multinomial regression model, able to deal efficiently with the issue of mean entropy estimation, is formulated. Through a simulation study the model is shown to outperform linear modeling in a vast range of scenarios and to have promising statistical properties. As a practical example, the method is applied to a data set coming from a real experiment on animal communication.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bulcock, J. W.; And Others
Advantages of normalization regression estimation over ridge regression estimation are demonstrated by reference to Bloom's model of school learning. Theoretical concern centered on the structure of scholastic achievement at grade 10 in Canadian high schools. Data on 886 students were randomly sampled from the Carnegie Human Resources Data Bank.…
Chen, Liang-Hsuan; Hsueh, Chan-Ching
2007-06-01
Fuzzy regression models are useful to investigate the relationship between explanatory and response variables with fuzzy observations. Different from previous studies, this correspondence proposes a mathematical programming method to construct a fuzzy regression model based on a distance criterion. The objective of the mathematical programming is to minimize the sum of distances between the estimated and observed responses on the X axis, such that the fuzzy regression model constructed has the minimal total estimation error in distance. Only several alpha-cuts of fuzzy observations are needed as inputs to the mathematical programming model; therefore, the applications are not restricted to triangular fuzzy numbers. Three examples, adopted in the previous studies, and a larger example, modified from the crisp case, are used to illustrate the performance of the proposed approach. The results indicate that the proposed model has better performance than those in the previous studies based on either distance criterion or Kim and Bishu's criterion. In addition, the efficiency and effectiveness for solving the larger example by the proposed model are also satisfactory.
Zhu, K; Lou, Z; Zhou, J; Ballester, N; Kong, N; Parikh, P
2015-01-01
This article is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Big Data and Analytics in Healthcare". Hospital readmissions raise healthcare costs and cause significant distress to providers and patients. It is, therefore, of great interest to healthcare organizations to predict what patients are at risk to be readmitted to their hospitals. However, current logistic regression based risk prediction models have limited prediction power when applied to hospital administrative data. Meanwhile, although decision trees and random forests have been applied, they tend to be too complex to understand among the hospital practitioners. Explore the use of conditional logistic regression to increase the prediction accuracy. We analyzed an HCUP statewide inpatient discharge record dataset, which includes patient demographics, clinical and care utilization data from California. We extracted records of heart failure Medicare beneficiaries who had inpatient experience during an 11-month period. We corrected the data imbalance issue with under-sampling. In our study, we first applied standard logistic regression and decision tree to obtain influential variables and derive practically meaning decision rules. We then stratified the original data set accordingly and applied logistic regression on each data stratum. We further explored the effect of interacting variables in the logistic regression modeling. We conducted cross validation to assess the overall prediction performance of conditional logistic regression (CLR) and compared it with standard classification models. The developed CLR models outperformed several standard classification models (e.g., straightforward logistic regression, stepwise logistic regression, random forest, support vector machine). For example, the best CLR model improved the classification accuracy by nearly 20% over the straightforward logistic regression model. Furthermore, the developed CLR models tend to achieve better sensitivity of
Learning accurate and interpretable models based on regularized random forests regression
2014-01-01
Background Many biology related research works combine data from multiple sources in an effort to understand the underlying problems. It is important to find and interpret the most important information from these sources. Thus it will be beneficial to have an effective algorithm that can simultaneously extract decision rules and select critical features for good interpretation while preserving the prediction performance. Methods In this study, we focus on regression problems for biological data where target outcomes are continuous. In general, models constructed from linear regression approaches are relatively easy to interpret. However, many practical biological applications are nonlinear in essence where we can hardly find a direct linear relationship between input and output. Nonlinear regression techniques can reveal nonlinear relationship of data, but are generally hard for human to interpret. We propose a rule based regression algorithm that uses 1-norm regularized random forests. The proposed approach simultaneously extracts a small number of rules from generated random forests and eliminates unimportant features. Results We tested the approach on some biological data sets. The proposed approach is able to construct a significantly smaller set of regression rules using a subset of attributes while achieving prediction performance comparable to that of random forests regression. Conclusion It demonstrates high potential in aiding prediction and interpretation of nonlinear relationships of the subject being studied. PMID:25350120
Nonlinear-regression flow model of the Gulf Coast aquifer systems in the south-central United States
Kuiper, L.K.
1994-01-01
A multiple-regression methodology was used to help answer questions concerning model reliability, and to calibrate a time-dependent variable-density ground-water flow model of the gulf coast aquifer systems in the south-central United States. More than 40 regression models with 2 to 31 regressions parameters are used and detailed results are presented for 12 of the models. More than 3,000 values for grid-element volume-averaged head and hydraulic conductivity are used for the regression model observations. Calculated prediction interval half widths, though perhaps inaccurate due to a lack of normality of the residuals, are the smallest for models with only four regression parameters. In addition, the root-mean weighted residual decreases very little with an increase in the number of regression parameters. The various models showed considerable overlap between the prediction inter- vals for shallow head and hydraulic conductivity. Approximate 95-percent prediction interval half widths for volume-averaged freshwater head exceed 108 feet; for volume-averaged base 10 logarithm hydraulic conductivity, they exceed 0.89. All of the models are unreliable for the prediction of head and ground-water flow in the deeper parts of the aquifer systems, including the amount of flow coming from the underlying geopressured zone. Truncating the domain of solution of one model to exclude that part of the system having a ground-water density greater than 1.005 grams per cubic centimeter or to exclude that part of the systems below a depth of 3,000 feet, and setting the density to that of freshwater does not appreciably change the results for head and ground-water flow, except for locations close to the truncation surface.
Jin, H; Wu, S; Vidyanti, I; Di Capua, P; Wu, B
2015-01-01
This article is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Big Data and Analytics in Healthcare". Depression is a common and often undiagnosed condition for patients with diabetes. It is also a condition that significantly impacts healthcare outcomes, use, and cost as well as elevating suicide risk. Therefore, a model to predict depression among diabetes patients is a promising and valuable tool for providers to proactively assess depressive symptoms and identify those with depression. This study seeks to develop a generalized multilevel regression model, using a longitudinal data set from a recent large-scale clinical trial, to predict depression severity and presence of major depression among patients with diabetes. Severity of depression was measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire PHQ-9 score. Predictors were selected from 29 candidate factors to develop a 2-level Poisson regression model that can make population-average predictions for all patients and subject-specific predictions for individual patients with historical records. Newly obtained patient records can be incorporated with historical records to update the prediction model. Root-mean-square errors (RMSE) were used to evaluate predictive accuracy of PHQ-9 scores. The study also evaluated the classification ability of using the predicted PHQ-9 scores to classify patients as having major depression. Two time-invariant and 10 time-varying predictors were selected for the model. Incorporating historical records and using them to update the model may improve both predictive accuracy of PHQ-9 scores and classification ability of the predicted scores. Subject-specific predictions (for individual patients with historical records) achieved RMSE about 4 and areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve about 0.9 and are better than population-average predictions. The study developed a generalized multilevel regression model to predict depression and demonstrated that
Online Statistical Modeling (Regression Analysis) for Independent Responses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Made Tirta, I.; Anggraeni, Dian; Pandutama, Martinus
2017-06-01
Regression analysis (statistical analmodelling) are among statistical methods which are frequently needed in analyzing quantitative data, especially to model relationship between response and explanatory variables. Nowadays, statistical models have been developed into various directions to model various type and complex relationship of data. Rich varieties of advanced and recent statistical modelling are mostly available on open source software (one of them is R). However, these advanced statistical modelling, are not very friendly to novice R users, since they are based on programming script or command line interface. Our research aims to developed web interface (based on R and shiny), so that most recent and advanced statistical modelling are readily available, accessible and applicable on web. We have previously made interface in the form of e-tutorial for several modern and advanced statistical modelling on R especially for independent responses (including linear models/LM, generalized linier models/GLM, generalized additive model/GAM and generalized additive model for location scale and shape/GAMLSS). In this research we unified them in the form of data analysis, including model using Computer Intensive Statistics (Bootstrap and Markov Chain Monte Carlo/ MCMC). All are readily accessible on our online Virtual Statistics Laboratory. The web (interface) make the statistical modeling becomes easier to apply and easier to compare them in order to find the most appropriate model for the data.
Punzo, Antonio; Ingrassia, Salvatore; Maruotti, Antonello
2018-04-22
A time-varying latent variable model is proposed to jointly analyze multivariate mixed-support longitudinal data. The proposal can be viewed as an extension of hidden Markov regression models with fixed covariates (HMRMFCs), which is the state of the art for modelling longitudinal data, with a special focus on the underlying clustering structure. HMRMFCs are inadequate for applications in which a clustering structure can be identified in the distribution of the covariates, as the clustering is independent from the covariates distribution. Here, hidden Markov regression models with random covariates are introduced by explicitly specifying state-specific distributions for the covariates, with the aim of improving the recovering of the clusters in the data with respect to a fixed covariates paradigm. The hidden Markov regression models with random covariates class is defined focusing on the exponential family, in a generalized linear model framework. Model identifiability conditions are sketched, an expectation-maximization algorithm is outlined for parameter estimation, and various implementation and operational issues are discussed. Properties of the estimators of the regression coefficients, as well as of the hidden path parameters, are evaluated through simulation experiments and compared with those of HMRMFCs. The method is applied to physical activity data. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Conditional Monte Carlo randomization tests for regression models.
Parhat, Parwen; Rosenberger, William F; Diao, Guoqing
2014-08-15
We discuss the computation of randomization tests for clinical trials of two treatments when the primary outcome is based on a regression model. We begin by revisiting the seminal paper of Gail, Tan, and Piantadosi (1988), and then describe a method based on Monte Carlo generation of randomization sequences. The tests based on this Monte Carlo procedure are design based, in that they incorporate the particular randomization procedure used. We discuss permuted block designs, complete randomization, and biased coin designs. We also use a new technique by Plamadeala and Rosenberger (2012) for simple computation of conditional randomization tests. Like Gail, Tan, and Piantadosi, we focus on residuals from generalized linear models and martingale residuals from survival models. Such techniques do not apply to longitudinal data analysis, and we introduce a method for computation of randomization tests based on the predicted rate of change from a generalized linear mixed model when outcomes are longitudinal. We show, by simulation, that these randomization tests preserve the size and power well under model misspecification. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Weighted functional linear regression models for gene-based association analysis.
Belonogova, Nadezhda M; Svishcheva, Gulnara R; Wilson, James F; Campbell, Harry; Axenovich, Tatiana I
2018-01-01
Functional linear regression models are effectively used in gene-based association analysis of complex traits. These models combine information about individual genetic variants, taking into account their positions and reducing the influence of noise and/or observation errors. To increase the power of methods, where several differently informative components are combined, weights are introduced to give the advantage to more informative components. Allele-specific weights have been introduced to collapsing and kernel-based approaches to gene-based association analysis. Here we have for the first time introduced weights to functional linear regression models adapted for both independent and family samples. Using data simulated on the basis of GAW17 genotypes and weights defined by allele frequencies via the beta distribution, we demonstrated that type I errors correspond to declared values and that increasing the weights of causal variants allows the power of functional linear models to be increased. We applied the new method to real data on blood pressure from the ORCADES sample. Five of the six known genes with P < 0.1 in at least one analysis had lower P values with weighted models. Moreover, we found an association between diastolic blood pressure and the VMP1 gene (P = 8.18×10-6), when we used a weighted functional model. For this gene, the unweighted functional and weighted kernel-based models had P = 0.004 and 0.006, respectively. The new method has been implemented in the program package FREGAT, which is freely available at https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/FREGAT/index.html.
Cooley, Richard L.
1982-01-01
Prior information on the parameters of a groundwater flow model can be used to improve parameter estimates obtained from nonlinear regression solution of a modeling problem. Two scales of prior information can be available: (1) prior information having known reliability (that is, bias and random error structure) and (2) prior information consisting of best available estimates of unknown reliability. A regression method that incorporates the second scale of prior information assumes the prior information to be fixed for any particular analysis to produce improved, although biased, parameter estimates. Approximate optimization of two auxiliary parameters of the formulation is used to help minimize the bias, which is almost always much smaller than that resulting from standard ridge regression. It is shown that if both scales of prior information are available, then a combined regression analysis may be made.
Wang, Shuang; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Wu, Yuan; Cui, Lijuan; Cheng, Samuel; Ohno-Machado, Lucila
2013-06-01
We developed an EXpectation Propagation LOgistic REgRession (EXPLORER) model for distributed privacy-preserving online learning. The proposed framework provides a high level guarantee for protecting sensitive information, since the information exchanged between the server and the client is the encrypted posterior distribution of coefficients. Through experimental results, EXPLORER shows the same performance (e.g., discrimination, calibration, feature selection, etc.) as the traditional frequentist logistic regression model, but provides more flexibility in model updating. That is, EXPLORER can be updated one point at a time rather than having to retrain the entire data set when new observations are recorded. The proposed EXPLORER supports asynchronized communication, which relieves the participants from coordinating with one another, and prevents service breakdown from the absence of participants or interrupted communications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Shuang; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Wu, Yuan; Cui, Lijuan; Cheng, Samuel; Ohno-Machado, Lucila
2013-01-01
We developed an EXpectation Propagation LOgistic REgRession (EXPLORER) model for distributed privacy-preserving online learning. The proposed framework provides a high level guarantee for protecting sensitive information, since the information exchanged between the server and the client is the encrypted posterior distribution of coefficients. Through experimental results, EXPLORER shows the same performance (e.g., discrimination, calibration, feature selection etc.) as the traditional frequentist Logistic Regression model, but provides more flexibility in model updating. That is, EXPLORER can be updated one point at a time rather than having to retrain the entire data set when new observations are recorded. The proposed EXPLORER supports asynchronized communication, which relieves the participants from coordinating with one another, and prevents service breakdown from the absence of participants or interrupted communications. PMID:23562651
Wu, Haifeng; Sun, Tao; Wang, Jingjing; Li, Xia; Wang, Wei; Huo, Da; Lv, Pingxin; He, Wen; Wang, Keyang; Guo, Xiuhua
2013-08-01
The objective of this study was to investigate the method of the combination of radiological and textural features for the differentiation of malignant from benign solitary pulmonary nodules by computed tomography. Features including 13 gray level co-occurrence matrix textural features and 12 radiological features were extracted from 2,117 CT slices, which came from 202 (116 malignant and 86 benign) patients. Lasso-type regularization to a nonlinear regression model was applied to select predictive features and a BP artificial neural network was used to build the diagnostic model. Eight radiological and two textural features were obtained after the Lasso-type regularization procedure. Twelve radiological features alone could reach an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.84 in differentiating between malignant and benign lesions. The 10 selected characters improved the AUC to 0.91. The evaluation results showed that the method of selecting radiological and textural features appears to yield more effective in the distinction of malignant from benign solitary pulmonary nodules by computed tomography.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chardon, Jérémy; Hingray, Benoit; Favre, Anne-Catherine
2018-01-01
Statistical downscaling models (SDMs) are often used to produce local weather scenarios from large-scale atmospheric information. SDMs include transfer functions which are based on a statistical link identified from observations between local weather and a set of large-scale predictors. As physical processes driving surface weather vary in time, the most relevant predictors and the regression link are likely to vary in time too. This is well known for precipitation for instance and the link is thus often estimated after some seasonal stratification of the data. In this study, we present a two-stage analog/regression model where the regression link is estimated from atmospheric analogs of the current prediction day. Atmospheric analogs are identified from fields of geopotential heights at 1000 and 500 hPa. For the regression stage, two generalized linear models are further used to model the probability of precipitation occurrence and the distribution of non-zero precipitation amounts, respectively. The two-stage model is evaluated for the probabilistic prediction of small-scale precipitation over France. It noticeably improves the skill of the prediction for both precipitation occurrence and amount. As the analog days vary from one prediction day to another, the atmospheric predictors selected in the regression stage and the value of the corresponding regression coefficients can vary from one prediction day to another. The model allows thus for a day-to-day adaptive and tailored downscaling. It can also reveal specific predictors for peculiar and non-frequent weather configurations.
Logistic regression for dichotomized counts.
Preisser, John S; Das, Kalyan; Benecha, Habtamu; Stamm, John W
2016-12-01
Sometimes there is interest in a dichotomized outcome indicating whether a count variable is positive or zero. Under this scenario, the application of ordinary logistic regression may result in efficiency loss, which is quantifiable under an assumed model for the counts. In such situations, a shared-parameter hurdle model is investigated for more efficient estimation of regression parameters relating to overall effects of covariates on the dichotomous outcome, while handling count data with many zeroes. One model part provides a logistic regression containing marginal log odds ratio effects of primary interest, while an ancillary model part describes the mean count of a Poisson or negative binomial process in terms of nuisance regression parameters. Asymptotic efficiency of the logistic model parameter estimators of the two-part models is evaluated with respect to ordinary logistic regression. Simulations are used to assess the properties of the models with respect to power and Type I error, the latter investigated under both misspecified and correctly specified models. The methods are applied to data from a randomized clinical trial of three toothpaste formulations to prevent incident dental caries in a large population of Scottish schoolchildren. © The Author(s) 2014.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delbari, Masoomeh; Sharifazari, Salman; Mohammadi, Ehsan
2018-02-01
The knowledge of soil temperature at different depths is important for agricultural industry and for understanding climate change. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of a support vector regression (SVR)-based model in estimating daily soil temperature at 10, 30 and 100 cm depth at different climate conditions over Iran. The obtained results were compared to those obtained from a more classical multiple linear regression (MLR) model. The correlation sensitivity for the input combinations and periodicity effect were also investigated. Climatic data used as inputs to the models were minimum and maximum air temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, dew point, and the atmospheric pressure (reduced to see level), collected from five synoptic stations Kerman, Ahvaz, Tabriz, Saghez, and Rasht located respectively in the hyper-arid, arid, semi-arid, Mediterranean, and hyper-humid climate conditions. According to the results, the performance of both MLR and SVR models was quite well at surface layer, i.e., 10-cm depth. However, SVR performed better than MLR in estimating soil temperature at deeper layers especially 100 cm depth. Moreover, both models performed better in humid climate condition than arid and hyper-arid areas. Further, adding a periodicity component into the modeling process considerably improved the models' performance especially in the case of SVR.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cepeda-Cuervo, Edilberto; Núñez-Antón, Vicente
2013-01-01
In this article, a proposed Bayesian extension of the generalized beta spatial regression models is applied to the analysis of the quality of education in Colombia. We briefly revise the beta distribution and describe the joint modeling approach for the mean and dispersion parameters in the spatial regression models' setting. Finally, we motivate…
A Hierarchical Poisson Log-Normal Model for Network Inference from RNA Sequencing Data
Gallopin, Mélina; Rau, Andrea; Jaffrézic, Florence
2013-01-01
Gene network inference from transcriptomic data is an important methodological challenge and a key aspect of systems biology. Although several methods have been proposed to infer networks from microarray data, there is a need for inference methods able to model RNA-seq data, which are count-based and highly variable. In this work we propose a hierarchical Poisson log-normal model with a Lasso penalty to infer gene networks from RNA-seq data; this model has the advantage of directly modelling discrete data and accounting for inter-sample variance larger than the sample mean. Using real microRNA-seq data from breast cancer tumors and simulations, we compare this method to a regularized Gaussian graphical model on log-transformed data, and a Poisson log-linear graphical model with a Lasso penalty on power-transformed data. For data simulated with large inter-sample dispersion, the proposed model performs better than the other methods in terms of sensitivity, specificity and area under the ROC curve. These results show the necessity of methods specifically designed for gene network inference from RNA-seq data. PMID:24147011
Modeling animal-vehicle collisions using diagonal inflated bivariate Poisson regression.
Lao, Yunteng; Wu, Yao-Jan; Corey, Jonathan; Wang, Yinhai
2011-01-01
Two types of animal-vehicle collision (AVC) data are commonly adopted for AVC-related risk analysis research: reported AVC data and carcass removal data. One issue with these two data sets is that they were found to have significant discrepancies by previous studies. In order to model these two types of data together and provide a better understanding of highway AVCs, this study adopts a diagonal inflated bivariate Poisson regression method, an inflated version of bivariate Poisson regression model, to fit the reported AVC and carcass removal data sets collected in Washington State during 2002-2006. The diagonal inflated bivariate Poisson model not only can model paired data with correlation, but also handle under- or over-dispersed data sets as well. Compared with three other types of models, double Poisson, bivariate Poisson, and zero-inflated double Poisson, the diagonal inflated bivariate Poisson model demonstrates its capability of fitting two data sets with remarkable overlapping portions resulting from the same stochastic process. Therefore, the diagonal inflated bivariate Poisson model provides researchers a new approach to investigating AVCs from a different perspective involving the three distribution parameters (λ(1), λ(2) and λ(3)). The modeling results show the impacts of traffic elements, geometric design and geographic characteristics on the occurrences of both reported AVC and carcass removal data. It is found that the increase of some associated factors, such as speed limit, annual average daily traffic, and shoulder width, will increase the numbers of reported AVCs and carcass removals. Conversely, the presence of some geometric factors, such as rolling and mountainous terrain, will decrease the number of reported AVCs. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitra, Ashis; Majumdar, Prabal Kumar; Bannerjee, Debamalya
2013-03-01
This paper presents a comparative analysis of two modeling methodologies for the prediction of air permeability of plain woven handloom cotton fabrics. Four basic fabric constructional parameters namely ends per inch, picks per inch, warp count and weft count have been used as inputs for artificial neural network (ANN) and regression models. Out of the four regression models tried, interaction model showed very good prediction performance with a meager mean absolute error of 2.017 %. However, ANN models demonstrated superiority over the regression models both in terms of correlation coefficient and mean absolute error. The ANN model with 10 nodes in the single hidden layer showed very good correlation coefficient of 0.982 and 0.929 and mean absolute error of only 0.923 and 2.043 % for training and testing