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  1. The Last Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhl, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    The last class of the semester is like a goodbye. It can be cold and perfunctory or warm and heartfelt. For many years, I erred on the side of "cold and perfunctory." No more. Now my last classes are a time of celebration and ritual as I invite students to focus on qualities such as acceptance and gratitude.

  2. Saving the Last Dance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douban, Gigi

    2007-01-01

    This article features a 76-year-old dance program instructor Annie Lindsay. She has been teaching at Ramsay High School in Birmingham, Alabama, since 1970. Maintaining the dance program has become a personal mission for Lindsay. She could have retired long ago, but is afraid that if she does, Birmingham, Alabama's, last public dance school class…

  3. Long lasting decontamination foam

    DOEpatents

    Demmer, Ricky L.; Peterman, Dean R.; Tripp, Julia L.; Cooper, David C.; Wright, Karen E.

    2010-12-07

    Compositions and methods for decontaminating surfaces are disclosed. More specifically, compositions and methods for decontamination using a composition capable of generating a long lasting foam are disclosed. Compositions may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6. Such compositions may further include affinity-shifting chemicals. Methods may include decontaminating a contaminated surface with a composition or a foam that may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6.

  4. The last glacial maximum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, P.U.; Dyke, A.S.; Shakun, J.D.; Carlson, A.E.; Clark, J.; Wohlfarth, B.; Mitrovica, J.X.; Hostetler, S.W.; McCabe, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level ???14.5 ka.

  5. The Last Glacial Maximum.

    PubMed

    Clark, Peter U; Dyke, Arthur S; Shakun, Jeremy D; Carlson, Anders E; Clark, Jorie; Wohlfarth, Barbara; Mitrovica, Jerry X; Hostetler, Steven W; McCabe, A Marshall

    2009-08-01

    We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level approximately 14.5 ka.

  6. The Iceman's last weeks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spindler, Konrad

    1994-06-01

    The author presents the archaeological, botanical and anatomical of medical evidence relating to the events of the last few days of the Iceman's life. The unfinished arrows and the half-completed bow indicate that he had lost his weapons and was in the process of re-arming himself. The quiver and the two primed arrows show clear signs of damage that has been proved to originate from before entombment in the ice of Hauslabjoch. An intravital series of fractured ribs and atrophic changes to the humerus on the same side of the body are also indicative of a violent conflict. The presence of threshing and winnowing fragments proves that, shortly before his death, the Iceman spent some time in a human settlement in which the grain crop was threshed. The theory is therefore proposed that shortly before his death the Iceman suffered some personal catastrophe involving damage to his possessions and physical injury. He fled in the direction of the inner Ötz Valley, a region of high alpine pastures he may have been familiar with from summer transhumance. Just beyond the ridge of the main Alpine chain he was caught by a sudden fall in temperature and snowfall, which he did not survive.

  7. MEXFAM's 'The Last Train'.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    One of the short educational video programs produced by MEXFAM is called The Last Train, a love story of 2 teenagers which vividly describes the type of adolescent problems confronting Mexican society today. The film raises a number of questions which teenagers do not often consider. The objective of the film is to put in evidence the principles, myths, beliefs, omissions, and misinformation that exist between youth and adults regarding early genital urges. The movie aims to reach underprivileged urban youth between the ages of 11 and 20 years, as well as teachers and parents who are sensitive to youth's sex problems. MEXFAM emphasizes that the educational objective of the film should be pointed out to its audiences before it is shown. After the screening the main points recommended for discussion are: genital attraction, physical control, masturbation, virginity, and 1st sexual experience. MEXFAM also provides audiences with values sheets on which the participants are to write their reactions to certain situations in the film. PMID:12269064

  8. Last interglacial climates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kukla, G.J.; Bender, M.L.; de Beaulieu, J. -L.; Bond, G.; Broecker, W.S.; Cleveringa, P.; Gavin, J.E.; Herbert, T.D.; Imbrie, J.; Jouzel, J.; Keigwin, L.D.; Knudsen, K.-L.; McManus, J.F.; Merkt, J.; Muhs, D.R.; Muller, H.; Poore, R.Z.; Porter, S.C.; Seret, G.; Shackleton, N.J.; Turner, C.; Tzedakis, P.C.; Winograd, I.J.

    2002-01-01

    The last interglacial, commonly understood as an interval with climate as warm or warmer than today, is represented by marine isotope stage (MIS) 5e, which is a proxy record of low global ice volume and high sea level. It is arbitrarily dated to begin at approximately 130,000 yr B.P. and end at 116,000 yr B.P. with the onset of the early glacial unit MIS 5d. The age of the stage is determined by correlation to uranium-thorium dates of raised coral reefs. The most detailed proxy record of interglacial climate is found in the Vostok ice core where the temperature reached current levels 132,000 yr ago and continued rising for another two millennia. Approximately 127,000 yr ago the Eemian mixed forests were established in Europe. They developed through a characteristic succession of tree species, probably surviving well into the early glacial stage in southern parts of Europe. After ca. 115,000 yr ago, open vegetation replaced forests in northwestern Europe and the proportion of conifers increased significantly farther south. Air temperature at Vostok dropped sharply. Pulses of cold water affected the northern North Atlantic already in late MIS 5e, but the central North Atlantic remained warm throughout most of MIS 5d. Model results show that the sea surface in the eastern tropical Pacific warmed when the ice grew and sea level dropped. The essentially interglacial conditions in southwestern Europe remained unaffected by ice buildup until late MIS 5d when the forests disappeared abruptly and cold water invaded the central North Atlantic ca. 107,000 yr ago. ?? 2002 University of Washington.

  9. Daedalus - Last Dryden flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Daedalus 88, with Glenn Tremml piloting, is seen here on its last flight for the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Light Eagle and Daedalus human powered aircraft were testbeds for flight research conducted at Dryden between January 1987 and March 1988. These unique aircraft were designed and constructed by a group of students, professors, and alumni of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology within the context of the Daedalus project. The construction of the Light Eagle and Daedalus aircraft was funded primarily by the Anheuser Busch and United Technologies Corporations, respectively, with additional support from the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum, MIT, and a number of other sponsors. To celebrate the Greek myth of Daedalus, the man who constructed wings of wax and feathers to escape King Minos, the Daedalus project began with the goal of designing, building and testing a human-powered aircraft that could fly the mythical distance, 115 km. To achieve this goal, three aircraft were constructed. The Light Eagle was the prototype aircraft, weighing 92 pounds. On January 22, 1987, it set a closed course distance record of 59 km, which still stands. Also in January of 1987, the Light Eagle was powered by Lois McCallin to set the straight distance, the distance around a closed circuit, and the duration world records for the female division in human powered vehicles. Following this success, two more aircraft were built, the Daedalus 87 and Daedalus 88. Each aircraft weighed approximately 69 pounds. The Daedalus 88 aircraft was the ship that flew the 199 km from the Iraklion Air Force Base on Crete in the Mediterranean Sea, to the island of Santorini in 3 hours, 54 minutes. In the process, the aircraft set new records in distance and endurance for a human powered aircraft. The specific areas of flight research conducted at Dryden included characterizing the rigid body and flexible dynamics of the Light Eagle, investigating sensors for an

  10. The last common bilaterian ancestor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erwin, Douglas H.; Davidson, Eric H.

    2002-01-01

    Many regulatory genes appear to be utilized in at least superficially similar ways in the development of particular body parts in Drosophila and in chordates. These similarities have been widely interpreted as functional homologies, producing the conventional view of the last common protostome-deuterostome ancestor (PDA) as a complex organism that possessed some of the same body parts as modern bilaterians. Here we discuss an alternative view, in which the last common PDA had a less complex body plan than is frequently conceived. This reconstruction alters expectations for Neoproterozoic fossil remains that could illustrate the pathways of bilaterian evolution.

  11. Trouble Don't Last

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearsall, Shelley

    2004-01-01

    Even as a child, Pearsall questioned social injustice and prejudice. In her own community in Ohio and, as she grew, all over the world, she saw social inequities she could neither understand nor accept. Her novel "Trouble Don't Last," takes place during the era of the Underground Railroad. The chapter included here pulls us in immediately with a…

  12. How to Create Lasting Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trusteeship, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Five members of the Commission on the Academic Presidency (Michael Schwartz, Garrey Caruthers, Mary Maples Dunn, Paul D. Schauer, Donald G. Phelps) reflect on how the commission's recommendations to public and higher education leaders can encourage meaningful, lasting change in college governance. Each speaks from a different policy perspective…

  13. Education's Lasting Influence on Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Herbert H.; Wright, Charles R.

    This book examines the long-term effects of education on the values of adult Americans. To measure education's lasting effects the authors did a "secondary analysis" of national attitude surveys that had been conducted in four time periods from 1950 to 1975. Thirty-eight surveys that included 45,000 white adults from 25 to 72 years of age were…

  14. Teaching Tools: One Last Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Burke's own teacher-research has resulted in solutions for real classroom situations. In this, his last contribution as a column editor for "VM," he offers two more practical ideas for helping students achieve, and sends his readers off with advice to look to their own classrooms for solutions to the ever-present challenges of teaching. (Contains…

  15. An Old Dog's Last Hunt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rood, R. T.; Bania, T. M.; Balser, D. S.

    2001-05-01

    At 08:12:20 EDT, 19 July, 1999 the Green Bank 140 Foot Telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory made its last scientific observation, having been given a 12 minute reprieve. That last 12 minute Total Power pair taken toward the H II region S159 to the untrained eye looks like a noise spectrum, like most of the other roughly 25,000 pairs we have obtained since 1982. However, careful examination revealed a hint of of a feature at the frequency of the H130γ recombination line. Our ``target,'' the much weaker hyperfine line of 3 He+, is readily visible in the 11.8 hours of integration acquired toward S159 over the previous three nights. The fact that we could detect 3 He+ in a mere 11.8 hour integration, or indeed that we would be observing an obscure H II region like S159 reflects both the dramatic improvement in receivers and our change in thinking since 1982. We take this time to reflect on the last days of a noble instrument and its contributions toward our knowledge of an isotope whose cosmic abundance can set important astrophysical constraints for theories of primordial nucleosynthesis and the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. The research was supported by the National Science Foundation (AST 97-31484).

  16. [Friedrich Nietzsche's last lucid year].

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Gustavo

    2007-05-01

    As an outstanding philosopher Nietzsche poses the question whether his creativeness persisted in spite of his deteriorating disease or appeared, among other features, as a consequence of his illness. A thorough psychopathological understanding of his last lucid year is attempted. He had an exaggerated self-esteem and grandiose sense of confidence and achievements. But his lack of insight did not lead him to engage in activities that could harm himself or his loved ones. Between January 1888 and until his ultimate deterioration in January 1889, Nietzsche was exceedingly productive. During this period, polar changes along with moderately overlapping periods appeared.

  17. Dad’s Last Week

    PubMed Central

    DeVoe, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    I had intended to spend our spring break week in Montana with my kids and my dad, going to parks and museums together. Instead, I spent the week in the hospital, helping my dad make end-of-life choices and learning more about the importance of communication in health care settings and the preciousness of close relationships in life. I am a better person and a better physician because my dad trusted me to be there while he was dying. During his last week, I was grateful to have spent years studying medicine and years getting to know my dad. This combination of professional and personal knowledge enabled me to help him choose his own end-of-life path. As someone who does not like hospitals, I have always wondered why I became a doctor; now I know. PMID:27185000

  18. [Long-lasting filling procedures].

    PubMed

    Môle, B

    2008-01-01

    A long-lasting filling product is accepted as such when, once the result has been obtained, no correction is required before the end of an arbitrary 2-year period. Other than silicone oil, which is not officially recognized for this indication in France, pure products can be distinguished from microparticle suspensions in a vector that will disappear in a short time. Flexible implants represent a totally separate entity and remain relatively little used since surgery is necessary for implantation. Our experience has led us to prefer monomolecular filling gels, in particular polyacrylamide hydrogels, with which we have had extensive experience, over gels with microparticles that we believe expose the patient to much greater inflammatory reactions that are sometimes difficult to overcome.

  19. How long does chlorpromazine last?

    PubMed

    Lacoursiere, R B; Spohn, H E

    1976-10-01

    How long does chlorpromazine last? This question regarding the persistence of chlorpromazine (CPZ) in chronically medicated schizophrenic patients after drug discontinuation led to wide ranging preliminary answers. These varied from a few to several days for blood studies up to many months for urinary and clinical studies. At least two implications of the question need to be considered: a) the pharmacological persistence of active drug and/or metabolites after drug discontinuation; and b) the persistence of the therapeutic effects regardless of whether or not active drug and/or metabolites are pharmacologically present. For example, a patient's behavior may improve while on CPZ and this improvement may persist after the active drug and/or metabolites cease to be present in the patient's body. These two areas of inquiry were examined by looking at blood, urinary, and clinical data. Although blood studies undoubtedly give the most definitive data, they are greatly complicated by the lack of definitive information regarding the active moiety (moieties) and crucial sites of action, the large number of metabolites (up to 150 or so), the minute quantities involved (ng/ml), the wide inter- and intrapatient variations, and the newness and lack of complete comparability of the quantitative methodologies. Within these limitations, there are a number of studies that are fairly consistent in showing a half-life of disappearance from the plasma of CPZ and/or metabolites in the range of a few to several hours. This would usually mean that most of the drug and metabolites are cleared from the plasma in a few days after drug discontinuation. Urinary studies are related less directly than blood studies to desired clinical effects. Under steady-state conditions in various studies, 43 to 63 per cent of a daily therapeutic dose of CPZ can be recovered in the urine in 24 hours. After drug discontinuation, urinary drug and/or metabolites in most studies last from about 3 to 18 days

  20. Smoking Leaves Lasting Marks on DNA: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_161060.html Smoking Leaves Lasting Marks on DNA: Study Changes related to disease found in more ... cigarettes can leave a lasting imprint on human DNA, altering more than 7,000 genes in ways ...

  1. Sturckow Recaps Last Shuttle Landing at Edwards

    NASA Video Gallery

    When Space Shuttle Discovery touched down at Edwards Air Force Base in Southern California on Sept. 11, 2009 to conclude mission STS-128, no one foresaw that it would be the last of 54 such landing...

  2. Exercise Brings Bone Benefits that Last

    MedlinePlus

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Exercise Brings Bone Benefits that Last Building bone as ... lose bone. Studies of animals have shown that exercise during periods of rapid growth can lead to ...

  3. The Last Five Years of the Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickerman, Kathrine D.

    This document presents the history of the last five years (1996-2000) of the Mountain Plains Adult Education Association (MPAEA) through summaries and photos of the yearly conferences held between 1996 and 2000. The MPAEA, which includes adult education leaders from the states of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming,…

  4. Imperatives of Lasting Public School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Truman M.

    This book considers the appropriateness of efforts for lasting and effective school reform, particularly focusing on the dissatisfaction many individuals feel about current reform efforts. Four related areas are discussed: (1) an overview of the American experience in education, its cornerstone and its sociological, economic, and philosophical…

  5. The Professional's Last Will and Testament.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, James M.

    2003-01-01

    In this article a case study illustrates the initial issues arising from the sudden death of key personnel, and then offers an outline for the Professional's Last Will and Testament. This document includes attention to logistical issues and planning for organizational change. It begins with short-term transition issues and continues through other,…

  6. "The Last of the Mohicans" Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Identifies in the novel, "The Last of the Mohicans," some of the artistic strategies by which James Fenimore Cooper converted the tale into the novel. Considers why the novel continues to provoke cultural interest in today's milieu. Overviews the historical reception of the work. (HB)

  7. "The Last Waltz": Variations on a Theme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    When the film "The Last Waltz" was released in 1978 the rock music press lost itself in comparisons of the performances of the rock group. The Band's many famous guest artists, while movie critics, for the most part, considered it only a concert film. Few critics saw the film as an integral part of director Martin Scorsese's continuing body of…

  8. Myth of the "Last-In" Superstar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesley, Gary M.; Hartman, Diane M.

    2011-01-01

    In the new political landscape, lawmakers in state after state are anxiously sponsoring legislation eliminating "last-in, first-out" policies. News reports would have people believe every untenured teacher, with just a few months of experience, is a "Teacher of the Year" candidate, while every tenured professional is a money-grabbing, lazy and…

  9. Optical networks, last mile access and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitgeb, E.; Gebhart, M.; Birnbacher, U.

    Free Space Optical (FSO) links can be used to setup FSO communication networks or to supplement radio and optical fiber networks. Hence, it is the broadband wireless solution for closing the "last mile" connectivity gap throughout metropolitan networks. Optical wireless fits well into dense urban areas and is ideally suited for urban applications. This paper gives an overview of free-space laser communications. Different network architectures will be described and investigated regarding reliability. The usage of "Optical Repeaters", Point-to-Point and Point-to-Multipoint solutions will be explained for setting up different network architectures. After having explained the different networking topologies and technologies, FSO applications will be discussed in section 2, including terrestrial applications for short and long ranges, and space applications. Terrestrial applications for short ranges cover the links between buildings on campus or different buildings of a company, which can be established with low-cost technology. For using FSO for long-range applications, more sophisticated systems have to be used. Hence, different techniques regarding emitted optical power, beam divergence, number of beams and tracking will be examined. Space applications have to be divided into FSO links through the troposphere, for example up- and downlinks between the Earth and satellites, and FSO links above the troposphere (e.g., optical inter-satellite links). The difference is that links through the troposphere are mainly influenced by weather conditions similar but not equal to terrestrial FSO links. Satellite orbits are above the atmosphere and therefore, optical inter-satellite links are not influenced by weather conditions. In section 3 the use of optical wireless for the last mile will be investigated and described in more detail. Therefore important design criteria for connecting the user to the "backbone" by FSO techniques will be covered, e.g., line of sight, network

  10. Agents of Last Resort: Polymyxin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Keith S; Pogue, Jason M; Tran, Thien B; Nation, Roger L; Li, Jian

    2016-06-01

    Polymyxin resistance is a major public health threat, as the polymyxins represent "last-line" therapeutics for Gram-negative pathogens resistant to essentially all other antibiotics. Improved understanding of mechanisms of, and risk factors for, polymyxin resistance, as well as infection prevention and stewardship strategies, together with optimization of dosing of polymyxins including in combination regimens, can help to limit the emergence and dissemination of polymyxin resistance. PMID:27208765

  11. Last Glacial loess in the conterminous USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettis, E. Arthur; Muhs, Daniel R.; Roberts, Helen M.; Wintle, Ann G.

    2003-01-01

    The conterminous United States contains an extensive and generally well-studied record of Last Glacial loess. The loess occurs in diverse physiographic provinces, and under a wide range of climatic and ecological conditions. Both glacial and non-glacia lloess sources are present, and many properties of the loess vary systematically with distance from loess sources. United States' mid-continent Last Glacial loess is probably the thickest in the world, and our calculated mass accumulation rates (MARs) are as high as 17,500 g/m2/yr at the Bignell Hill locality in Nebraska, and many near-source localities have MARs greater than 1500 g/m2/yr. These MARs are high relative to rates calculated in other loess provinces around the world. Recent models of LastGlacial dust sources fail to predict the extent and magnitude of dust flux from the mid-continent of the United States. A better understanding of linkages between climate, ice sheet behaviour, routing of glacial meltwater, land surface processes beyond the ice margin, and vegetation is needed to improve the predictive capabilities of models simulating dust flux from this region.

  12. The flickering genes of the last mammoths.

    PubMed

    Thomas, M G

    2012-07-01

    Woolly mammoths, Mammuthus primigenius, are arguably the most iconic of the extinct Pleistocene megafauna, and an abundance of large permafrost-embedded bone and ivory material (Fig. 1) means they were also among the first to yield credible DNA sequences (Hagelberg et al. 1994; Hoss et al. 1994). Despite mammoth remains being numerous throughout northern Eurasia and North America, both the earliest and most recent fossils are found in northeast Siberia, with the last known population being confined to Wrangel Island in the Arctic Ocean from around 10,000 years ago until their extinction around 4,000 years ago. The extent to which these Holocene mammoths were descended from the Pleistocene populations of Wrangel Island and the demographic nature of their terminal decline have, until now, remained something of a mystery. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Nyström et al. (2012) report the first use of autosomal variation to track the decline of the last mammoths and, in doing so, take a significant step towards resolving these questions. The authors genotyped four microsatellite loci in 59 Pleistocene and Holocene mammoths from Wrangel Island and Chukotka in mainland northeastern Siberia and showed that while the Pleistocene-to-Holocene transition is associated with a significant reduction in genetic diversity, subsequent levels of variation remain constant until extinction. Such a pattern is somewhat surprising as it indicates that while the last mammoths were confined to only a few Arctic islands, their final extinction on Wrangel Island was not a gradual process resulting from loss of genetic diversity/inbreeding. Instead, it seems they maintained a viable effective population size of around 500 until near their presumably rapid extinction. While the ultimate agent of mammoth extinction remains unknown, the work of Nyström et al. (2012). suggests that we should be looking for something sudden, like a rapid change in climate/ecology or perhaps the arrival of

  13. The flickering genes of the last mammoths.

    PubMed

    Thomas, M G

    2012-07-01

    Woolly mammoths, Mammuthus primigenius, are arguably the most iconic of the extinct Pleistocene megafauna, and an abundance of large permafrost-embedded bone and ivory material (Fig. 1) means they were also among the first to yield credible DNA sequences (Hagelberg et al. 1994; Hoss et al. 1994). Despite mammoth remains being numerous throughout northern Eurasia and North America, both the earliest and most recent fossils are found in northeast Siberia, with the last known population being confined to Wrangel Island in the Arctic Ocean from around 10,000 years ago until their extinction around 4,000 years ago. The extent to which these Holocene mammoths were descended from the Pleistocene populations of Wrangel Island and the demographic nature of their terminal decline have, until now, remained something of a mystery. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Nyström et al. (2012) report the first use of autosomal variation to track the decline of the last mammoths and, in doing so, take a significant step towards resolving these questions. The authors genotyped four microsatellite loci in 59 Pleistocene and Holocene mammoths from Wrangel Island and Chukotka in mainland northeastern Siberia and showed that while the Pleistocene-to-Holocene transition is associated with a significant reduction in genetic diversity, subsequent levels of variation remain constant until extinction. Such a pattern is somewhat surprising as it indicates that while the last mammoths were confined to only a few Arctic islands, their final extinction on Wrangel Island was not a gradual process resulting from loss of genetic diversity/inbreeding. Instead, it seems they maintained a viable effective population size of around 500 until near their presumably rapid extinction. While the ultimate agent of mammoth extinction remains unknown, the work of Nyström et al. (2012). suggests that we should be looking for something sudden, like a rapid change in climate/ecology or perhaps the arrival of

  14. Intentional extraction and replantation: the last resort.

    PubMed

    Abdurahiman, V T; Jolly, Sanju John; Khader, M Abdul

    2013-01-01

    The importance of the first molar in the development of occlusion is well-known. The difficulties when first molar is not there during the eruption of the second molar and the premolar don't have to be explained much. The construction of a space maintainer in the area of missing first molar is difficult when seven and five are not erupted. The article highlights a case where a grossly decayed first molar with repeated endodontic failures was treated by intentional extraction and replantation as a last resort. A follow-up along with indications and considerations are documented.

  15. The last months of Andreas Vesalius.

    PubMed

    Biesbrouck, Maurits; Steeno, Omer

    2010-12-01

    A good deal has already been written about the last months of Andreas Vesalius' life. Most of it has been fairly speculative, because the necessary primary sources have been lacking. Much of what was supposedly known for sure seemed bizarre, and various writers even frankly characterised their own accounts as 'legend'. It is only since the discovery of several letters in the archives of Simancas by Josh Baron in 1962 that various points have become somewhat clearer. Baron presented these letters at the 19th International Congress on the History of Medicine in Basel in September 1964. PMID:21560612

  16. The last months of Andreas Vesalius.

    PubMed

    Biesbrouck, Maurits; Steeno, Omer

    2010-12-01

    A good deal has already been written about the last months of Andreas Vesalius' life. Most of it has been fairly speculative, because the necessary primary sources have been lacking. Much of what was supposedly known for sure seemed bizarre, and various writers even frankly characterised their own accounts as 'legend'. It is only since the discovery of several letters in the archives of Simancas by Josh Baron in 1962 that various points have become somewhat clearer. Baron presented these letters at the 19th International Congress on the History of Medicine in Basel in September 1964.

  17. Global sediment fluxes during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naipal, Victoria; Reick, Christian; Van Oost, Kristof; Hoffmann, Thomas; Pongratz, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Soil redistribution plays an important role in the transport of carbon and nutrients between terrestrial ecosystems. However, quantification of soil redistribution and its effects on the global biogeochemical cycles is currently unknown. This study aims at developing new tools and methods to represent soil redistribution on a global scale, and contribute to the quantification of anthropogenic disturbances to the biogeochemical cycles. We present a new large-scale coarse resolution sediment budget model that can simulate spatial patterns and long-term trends in soil redistribution in floodplains and on hillslope, resulting from external forces such as climate and land use change. First, we validated the model for the Rhine catchment using observed Holocene sediment storage data and observed scaling behavior between sediment storage and catchment area. Then, we applied the model on 20 large river catchments globally, using climate and land cover data from the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) for the last millennium (850 - 2005AD). We show that the model can reproduce current observed sediment yields if uncertainty in the observations is taken into account. Furthermore, we find that the change in erosion rates during the last millennium resulted in a significant increase in sediment storage for different global catchments. We identify land use change as the main driver behind this change in sediment storage. Finally, catchments characteristics, such as area and slope, play an important role in buffering or amplifying the effect of land use and other external forces on the change in erosion and sediment storage.

  18. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium

    PubMed Central

    Burn, Michael J.; Palmer, Suzanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854–2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851–2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773–2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium. PMID:26243340

  19. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium.

    PubMed

    Burn, Michael J; Palmer, Suzanne E

    2015-01-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium. PMID:26243340

  20. Global climate evolution during the last deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Clark, Peter U; Shakun, Jeremy D; Baker, Paul A; Bartlein, Patrick J; Brewer, Simon; Brook, Ed; Carlson, Anders E; Cheng, Hai; Kaufman, Darrell S; Liu, Zhengyu; Marchitto, Thomas M; Mix, Alan C; Morrill, Carrie; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L; Pahnke, Katharina; Russell, James M; Whitlock, Cathy; Adkins, Jess F; Blois, Jessica L; Clark, Jorie; Colman, Steven M; Curry, William B; Flower, Ben P; He, Feng; Johnson, Thomas C; Lynch-Stieglitz, Jean; Markgraf, Vera; McManus, Jerry; Mitrovica, Jerry X; Moreno, Patricio I; Williams, John W

    2012-05-01

    Deciphering the evolution of global climate from the end of the Last Glacial Maximum approximately 19 ka to the early Holocene 11 ka presents an outstanding opportunity for understanding the transient response of Earth's climate system to external and internal forcings. During this interval of global warming, the decay of ice sheets caused global mean sea level to rise by approximately 80 m; terrestrial and marine ecosystems experienced large disturbances and range shifts; perturbations to the carbon cycle resulted in a net release of the greenhouse gases CO(2) and CH(4) to the atmosphere; and changes in atmosphere and ocean circulation affected the global distribution and fluxes of water and heat. Here we summarize a major effort by the paleoclimate research community to characterize these changes through the development of well-dated, high-resolution records of the deep and intermediate ocean as well as surface climate. Our synthesis indicates that the superposition of two modes explains much of the variability in regional and global climate during the last deglaciation, with a strong association between the first mode and variations in greenhouse gases, and between the second mode and variations in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation.

  1. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium.

    PubMed

    Burn, Michael J; Palmer, Suzanne E

    2015-08-05

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium.

  2. The Last Element of Mendeleev's Periodic Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazan, Albert

    2010-02-01

    Despite much achievements of the synthesis for super-heavy elements (10 new elements were obtained during the last 25 years), the experts in Mendeleev's Periodic Table have not answered the most fundamental question: where the Table ends? The calculations produced on the basis of Quantum Mechanics (the physical conditions in micro-scales) do not not answer this question till now. In my study of chemical compounds, I focused onto the physical conditions observed in macro-scales (the subjects of the regular physics and chemistry). Thus, the Law of Hyperboles was discovered in the Periodic Table: given any chemical compound, the contents of any element in it (per 1 gram-atom), including the contents of unknown elements, whose atomic masses can be set up arbitrarily, is described by the equation of a equilateral hyperbola Y=K/X. The tops of all the arcs are distributed along a real axis crossing the line Y=1 in the point of abscissa 411.66, which manifests the actual atomic mass of the last (heaviest) element of the Periodic Table: its location is Period 8, Group 1; its atomic mass is 411.66, its number is 155 (Khazan A. Upper Limit in Mendeleev's Periodic Table --- Element No.155. Svenska fysikarkivet, 2009). )

  3. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burn, Michael J.; Palmer, Suzanne E.

    2015-08-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium.

  4. Paediatric cardiology: the last 50 years.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Malcolm E

    2015-01-01

    In the last half-century, the outlook for children with heart disease has changed dramatically. Morphologists have transformed our understanding of heart defects. Improved imaging methods, such as echocardiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, have made diagnostic cardiac catheterisation almost redundant. However, interventional catheterisation has flourished as transcatheter procedures have replaced surgery for many lesions. The ability to pharmacologically manipulate the duct has revolutionised the management of the sick neonate with major heart disease. Better surgical techniques, such as deep hypothermia and circulatory arrest, allow repair of lesions in early infancy before irreversible complications develop. Advances in anaesthesia and intensive care have been integral. New sub-disciplines, such as fetal cardiology and electrophysiology, have emerged. The sum of these numerous developments is enormous. Lesions that were previously considered lethal are now routinely treated. Consequently, the great majority of children with major heart disease now reach adulthood in good health.

  5. Climate records recovering the last deglaciation

    SciTech Connect

    Sowers, T.; Bender, M.

    1995-07-14

    The oxygen-18/oxygen-16 ratio of molecular oxygen trapped in ice cores provides a time-stratigraphic marker for transferring the absolute chronology for the Greenland Ice Sheet Project (GISP)II ice core to the Vostok and Byrd ice cores in Antarctica. Comparison of the climate records from these cores suggests that, near the beginning of the last deglaciation, warming in Antarctica began approximately 3000 years before the onset of the warm Bolling period in Greenland. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane concentrations began to rise 2000 to 3000 years before the warming began in Greenland and must have contributed to deglaciation and warming of temperate and boreal regions in the Northern Hemisphere. 60 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Fabrication of long lasting phosphorescence glass spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Hao; Liu, Aimei; Tong, Jufang; Yi, Xunong; Li, Qianguang

    2008-12-01

    The long lasting phosphorescence glass spheres doped with Eu2O3 and Dy2O3 were prepared under the reducing atmosphere and characterized. XRD analysis indicated the glass spheres exhibited the typical diffraction peaks of SrAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+. The emission spectra of the glass spheres showed broad bands peaking at 510nm. The excitation spectra of the glass spheres showed broad bands ranging from 300 to 480nm. These are believed due to the 5d4f-->4f transitions of Eu2+ in the SrAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+ phosphors. The afterglow luminescence of the glass spheres excited by a 40W fluorescence lamp for 30min can be observed in the dark for about 15h with the naked eye.

  7. The 2005 'Last Chance Bravo' bioterrorism exercise.

    PubMed

    Balch, David; Rosenthal, David; Taylor, Carl

    2007-01-01

    The 2005 'Last Chance Bravo' bioterrorism exercise provided a forum for testing advanced technologies in a simulated disaster. The four-day exercise included a 2-day simulated pneumonic plague outbreak, with 50 participants from the Montana Department of Health and Human Services, 20 participants from various hospital organizations and approximately 150 participants from over 40 telemedicine sites. Telephone communications and Web tools supported much of the critical information exchange. Videoconferencing added an element of image sharing for pathology, radiology and geospatial mapping. During the exercise three telehealth networks facilitated a telemedicine session to over 40 sites across Montana. Because of the large number of telehealth sites participating, the videoconference session became more like an informational news broadcast. The ability of telemedicine to support image and data sharing may be a significant advantage over simple telephone communications in disaster response.

  8. Fluorescence imaging in the last two decades

    PubMed Central

    Miyawaki, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    In commemoration of the 20th anniversary of the molecular cloning of the gene for the green fluorescent protein from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, I would like to reflect on the development of new fluorescence imaging technology in the last two decades. As this technology has become increasingly diversified, it has become more and more of a challenge to come up with a comprehensive and exhaustive review of it. Here I will focus on optogenetics and large-scale, three-dimensional reconstruction. Those two technological innovations have been achieved in the neuroscience community owing to the combined efforts of molecular biologists and light microscopists. In addition, modern fluorescence imaging has indeed improved our understanding of the spatiotemporal regulation of fundamental biological functions at cellular level. As an example, I will introduce some findings we made regarding the movement of biomolecules across the nuclear membrane. The above-mentioned imaging approaches are possible today but were impossible two decades ago. PMID:23393311

  9. Fermi's Paradox - The Last Challenge For Copernicanism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirkovic, M. M.

    2009-06-01

    We review Fermi's paradox (or the "Great Silence" problem), not only arguably the oldest and crucial problem for the Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI), but also a conundrum of profound scientific, philosophical and cultural importance. By a simple analysis of observation selection effects, the correct resolution of Fermi's paradox is certain to tell us something about the future of humanity. Already more than three quarters of century old puzzle -- and a quarter of century since the last major review paper in the field by G. David Brin -- has generated many ingenious discussions and hypotheses. We analyze the often tacit methodological assumptions built in various answers to this puzzle and attempt a new classification of the numerous solutions proposed in an already huge literature on the subject. Finally, we consider the ramifications of various classes of hypotheses for the practical SETI projects. Somewhat paradoxically, it seems that the class of (neo)catastrophic hypotheses gives, on the balance, the strongest justification to optimism regarding our current and near-future SETI efforts.

  10. Metals at the surface of last scatter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali-Haïmoud, Yacine; Hirata, Christopher M.; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2011-04-01

    Standard big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) predicts only a trace abundance of lithium and no heavier elements, but some alternatives predict a nonzero primordial metallicity. Here we explore whether CMB measurements may set useful constraints to the primordial metallicity and/or whether the standard CMB calculations are robust, within the tolerance of forthcoming CMB maps, to the possibility of primordial metals. Metals would affect the recombination history (and thus CMB power spectra) in three ways: (1) Lyα photons can be removed (and recombination thus accelerated) by photoionizing metals; (2) The Bowen resonance-fluorescence mechanism may degrade Lyβ photons and thus enhance the Lyβ escape probability and speed up recombination; (3) Metals could affect the low-redshift tail of the CMB visibility function by providing additional free electrons. The last two of these provide the strongest CMB signal. However, the effects are detectable in the Planck satellite only if the primordial metal abundance is at least a few hundredths of solar for (2) and a few tenths of solar for (3). We thus conclude that Planck will not be able to improve upon current constraints to primordial metallicity, at the level of a thousandth of solar, from the Lyman-α forest and ultra-metal-poor halo stars, and that the CMB power-spectrum predictions for Planck suffer no uncertainty arising from the possibility that there may be primordial metals.

  11. Long-Lasting Effects of Undernutrition

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Vinicius J. B.; Toledo Florêncio, Telma M. M.; Grillo, Luciane P.; Franco, Maria do Carmo P.; Martins, Paula A.; Clemente, Ana Paula G.; Santos, Carla D. L.; Vieira, Maria de Fatima A.; Sawaya, Ana Lydia

    2011-01-01

    Undernutrition is one of the most important public health problems, affecting more than 900 million individuals around the World. It is responsible for the highest mortality rate in children and has long-lasting physiologic effects, including an increased susceptibility to fat accumulation mostly in the central region of the body, lower fat oxidation, lower resting and postprandial energy expenditure, insulin resistance in adulthood, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and a reduced capacity for manual work, among other impairments. Marked changes in the function of the autonomic nervous system have been described in undernourished experimental animals. Some of these effects seem to be epigenetic, passing on to the next generation. Undernutrition in children has been linked to poor mental development and school achievement as well as behavioural abnormalities. However, there is still a debate in the literature regarding whether some of these effects are permanent or reversible. Stunted children who had experienced catch-up growth had verbal vocabulary and quantitative test scores that did not differ from children who were not stunted. Children treated before 6 years of age in day-hospitals and who recovered in weight and height have normal body compositions, bone mineral densities and insulin production and sensitivity. PMID:21776204

  12. Last results from the WEBT and GASP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raiteri, C. M.; Villata, M.

    Born in 1997, the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) is a network of optical, near-infrared, and radio telescopes that in concert have the capability to obtain continuous, high-temporal- density monitoring of blazars during time-limited campaigns on specific objects. The GLAST-AGILE Support Program (GASP) was organized within the WEBT to provide optical-to-radio long-term continuous monitoring of a list of selected γ -ray-loud blazars during the operation of the AGILE and GLAST satellites. We present the results of the first GASP effort, targetting the BL Lac object 0716+714 in September November 2007, when the source was detected by AGILE. In October an outburst was detected simultaneously in the optical and radio bands. We also show some results of the last WEBT campaign on the quasar-type blazar 3C 454.3 in the 2007 2008 observing season. In this period 3C 454.3 was very active, showing pronounced opti- cal outbursts, and it was detected by AGILE in July and then in November December. Moreover, several noticeable episodes of very fast (i.e. intranight) variability were observed in the optical light curves.

  13. The lasting value of clinical skills.

    PubMed

    Kern, D C; Parrino, T A; Korst, D R

    1985-07-01

    To assess the lasting value of clinical skills learned by residents in a subspecialty-oriented training program in internal medicine, we surveyed recent graduates. Graduates received a questionnaire contrasting separate ratings of the amount of training (preparation) they received during residency with the importance of this training in subsequent career activities. Topics included 12 traditional medical disciplines, 15 areas related to the practice of medicine, 15 allied medical disciplines, ten basic skill and knowledge areas, and 28 technical procedures. Response rate was 91.8% (56/61). Ninety-five percent of respondents had certification from the American Board of Internal Medicine, 80% had subspecialty training, and 89% rendered direct patient care. Fifty-six topics showed disparity between preparation and importance scores (45 with P less than .0001). For 14 categories, mainly technical procedures, disparate ratings suggested excessive programmatic emphasis, while for 42 categories, including history taking and physical examination, there may have been inadequate emphasis. These data suggest that basic clinical skills may require greater emphasis, even in traditional programs. The opinion of program graduates is an important resource in designing training programs in internal medicine. PMID:3999353

  14. Making lasting memories: Remembering the significant

    PubMed Central

    McGaugh, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Although forgetting is the common fate of most of our experiences, much evidence indicates that emotional arousal enhances the storage of memories, thus serving to create, selectively, lasting memories of our more important experiences. The neurobiological systems mediating emotional arousal and memory are very closely linked. The adrenal stress hormones epinephrine and corticosterone released by emotional arousal regulate the consolidation of long-term memory. The amygdala plays a critical role in mediating these stress hormone influences. The release of norepinephrine in the amygdala and the activation of noradrenergic receptors are essential for stress hormone-induced memory enhancement. The findings of both animal and human studies provide compelling evidence that stress-induced activation of the amygdala and its interactions with other brain regions involved in processing memory play a critical role in ensuring that emotionally significant experiences are well-remembered. Recent research has determined that some human subjects have highly superior autobiographic memory of their daily experiences and that there are structural differences in the brains of these subjects compared with the brains of subjects who do not have such memory. Understanding of neurobiological bases of such exceptional memory may provide additional insights into the processes underlying the selectivity of memory. PMID:23754441

  15. Last Days of Life (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about care during the last days to last hours of life, including common symptoms, ethical dilemmas that may arise, and the role of the oncologist in caring for patients and their families during this time.

  16. Last Days of Life (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about care during the last days to last hours of life, including common symptoms, ethical dilemmas that may arise, and the role of the oncologist in caring for patients and their families during this time.

  17. Last deglaciation and last glacial climatic record from the new coastal TALDICE ice core (East Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buiron, D.; Stenni, B.; Frezzotti, M.; Chappellaz, J.; Lemieux-Dudon, B.

    2009-12-01

    The TALDICE project retrieved a new ice core from a peripheral dome of East Antarctica. Talos Dome (72° 49’ S, 159° 11’ E; 2315 m; 80 kg m-2 yr-1; -41°C) is located in the Northern Victoria Land, close from the Ross Sea. Back-trajectory analyses suggest that the site is mostly fed by air masses arriving both from the Pacific (and Ross Sea) and Indian Ocean sectors. In December 2007 the drilling team reached the depth of 1619.2 m. A preliminary dating based on an ice flow model and an inverse method suggests an age of about 300,000 years BP at 1560 m of depth. We measured the methane (CH4) mixing ratio in the Talos Dome ice core at a depth resolution ranging from 0.5 to 4 m. Two laboratories (LGGE and Bern) were involved, using slightly different techniques. The CH4 mixing ratio measured in the TALDICE ice core allows us to define tie points with respect to other ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica, using in particular the rapid CH4 changes associated with the last termination and the D/O events. Additional chronological constraints are offered by the isotopic composition of molecular oxygen, the dust profile, and volcanic peaks. The comparison of water isotopic profiles from Talos Dome, EDC, EDML (Antarctica) and North-GRIP (Greenland) ice cores, once put on a common time scale, reveals that during the last deglaciation, climatic changes at Talos Dome were essentially in phase with the Antarctic plateau, and that the bipolar seesaw is also valid for this coastal site. A similar comparison extended to the last glacial period (work in progress) enables us to evaluate the timing, shape and duration of the Talos Dome warm events with respect to AIM events on the Antarctic plateau, and to the Dansgaard/Oeschger events in Greenland.

  18. 49 CFR 24.404 - Replacement housing of last resort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Replacement housing of last resort. 24.404 Section....404 Replacement housing of last resort. (a) Determination to provide replacement housing of last resort. Whenever a program or project cannot proceed on a timely basis because comparable...

  19. 42 CFR 136.61 - Payor of last resort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payor of last resort. 136.61 Section 136.61 Public... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Residual Status § 136.61 Payor of last resort. (a) The Indian Health Service is the payor of last resort for persons defined as eligible for contract...

  20. 42 CFR 136a.61 - Payor of last resort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payor of last resort. 136a.61 Section 136a.61..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Residual Status § 136a.61 Payor of last resort. (a) The Indian Health Service is the payor of last resort of persons defined as eligible for contract...

  1. 39 CFR 777.27 - Last resort housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Last resort housing. 777.27 Section 777.27 Postal... ACQUISITION POLICIES Uniform Relocation Assistance § 777.27 Last resort housing. (a) Basic Determination to Provide Last Resort Housing. A displaced person cannot be required to move from his or her dwelling...

  2. Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs): A Strategy for Making Long-Lasting Nets Last Longer?

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Steven A.; Paredes Olórtegui, Maribel; Leontsini, Elli; Ramal Asayag, César; Scott, Kerry; Winch, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) use is a proven malaria prevention method. Mass distribution has greatly expanded LLIN access in sub-Saharan Africa, but a gap remains between LLIN ownership and use. Furthermore, LLINs wear out more quickly than anticipated. This paper suggests a participatory research strategy—trials of improved practices (TIPs)—that could identify locally appropriate approaches to prolonging net life and increasing effective use. We used TIPs to overcome barriers to optimal net use in the Peruvian Amazon. Working with 15 families in three villages, we tested home treatment of cotton nets, use of an alternative netting fabric, and alternative washing and care instructions. TIPs helped confirm feasibility of these interventions. Although our findings are time- and context-specific, TIPs could help improve consistency and effectiveness of current LLIN use and prolong net lifespan in sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere. This would help maximize the value of shrinking donor resources for malaria. PMID:23530074

  3. Vegetation and paleoclimate of the last interglacial period, central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Ager, T.A.; Beget, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    The last interglacial period is thought to be the last time global climate was significantly warmer than present. New stratigraphic studies at Eva Creek, near Fairbanks, Alaska indicate a complex last interglacial record wherein periods of loess deposition alternated with periods of soil formation. The Eva Forest Bed appears to have formed about the time of or after deposition of the Old Crow tephra (dated to ??? 160 to ??? 120 ka), and is therefore correlated with the last interglacial period. Pollen, macrofossils, and soils from the Eva Forest Bed indicate that boreal forest was the dominant vegetation and precipitation may have been greater than present around Fairbanks during the peak of the last interglacial period. A new compilation of last interglacial localities indicates that boreal forest was extensive over interior Alaska and Yukon Territory. Boreal forest also extended beyond its present range onto the Seward and Baldwin Peninsulas, and probably migrated to higher elevations, now occupied by tundra, in the interior. Comparison of last interglacial pollen and macrofossil data with atmospheric general circulation model results shows both agreement and disagreement. Model results of warmer-than-present summers are in agreement with fossil data. However, numerous localities with boreal forest records are in conflict with model reconstructions of an extensive cool steppe in interior Alaska and much of Yukon Territory during the last interglacial. ?? 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  4. Early local last glacial maximum in the tropical Andes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jacqueline A; Seltzer, Geoffrey O; Farber, Daniel L; Rodbell, Donald T; Finkel, Robert C

    2005-04-29

    The local last glacial maximum in the tropical Andes was earlier and less extensive than previously thought, based on 106 cosmogenic ages (from beryllium-10 dating) from moraines in Peru and Bolivia. Glaciers reached their greatest extent in the last glacial cycle approximately 34,000 years before the present and were retreating by approximately 21,000 years before the present, implying that tropical controls on ice volumes were asynchronous with those in the Northern Hemisphere. Our estimates of snowline depression reflect about half the temperature change indicated by previous widely cited figures, which helps resolve the discrepancy between estimates of terrestrial and marine temperature depression during the last glacial cycle.

  5. View facing northeast of Structure 1034, last numbered structure on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View facing northeast of Structure 103-4, last numbered structure on northern (Havre) end of Transmission Line - Havre Rainbow Transmission Line, Havre City to Great Falls vicinity, Montana, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  6. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey (Sold by Anita Pacheco last ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey (Sold by Anita Pacheco last owner of Pacheco Estate 8 years ago. Now owned by Pentecost Church Society. YEAR BUILT: 1830 - Salvio Pancheco Adobe, 2030 Adobe Street, Concord, Contra Costa County, CA

  7. Gulf of Mexico dead zone - the last 150 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterman, Lisa; Swarzenski, P.W.; Poore, R.Z.

    2006-01-01

    'Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone-The Last 150 Years' discusses the dead zone that forms seasonally in the northern Gulf of Mexico when subsurface waters become depleted in dissolved oxygen and cannot support most life.

  8. Colorful Demos with a Long-Lasting Soap Bubble.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behroozi, F.; Olson, D. W.

    1994-01-01

    Describes several demonstrations that feature interaction of light with soap bubbles. Includes directions about how to produce a long-lasting stationary soap bubble with an easily changeable size and describes the interaction of white light with the bubble. (DDR)

  9. 99. DETAIL OF TYPICAL METER ADJUST PANELS LOCATED IN LAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    99. DETAIL OF TYPICAL METER ADJUST PANELS LOCATED IN LAST TWO CABINETS ON RIGHT IN CA-133-1-A-97 - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  10. At last, a medical website designed for grown-ups

    MedlinePlus

    ... At last, a medical website designed for grown-ups Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents For ... U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. For up-to-date health information tailor-made just for ...

  11. Ice volume and sea level during the last interglacial.

    PubMed

    Dutton, A; Lambeck, K

    2012-07-13

    During the last interglacial period, ~125,000 years ago, sea level was at least several meters higher than at present, with substantial variability observed for peak sea level at geographically diverse sites. Speculation that the West Antarctic ice sheet collapsed during the last interglacial period has drawn particular interest to understanding climate and ice-sheet dynamics during this time interval. We provide an internally consistent database of coral U-Th ages to assess last interglacial sea-level observations in the context of isostatic modeling and stratigraphic evidence. These data indicate that global (eustatic) sea level peaked 5.5 to 9 meters above present sea level, requiring smaller ice sheets in both Greenland and Antarctica relative to today and indicating strong sea-level sensitivity to small changes in radiative forcing.

  12. Early local last glacial maximum in the tropical Andes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jacqueline A; Seltzer, Geoffrey O; Farber, Daniel L; Rodbell, Donald T; Finkel, Robert C

    2005-04-29

    The local last glacial maximum in the tropical Andes was earlier and less extensive than previously thought, based on 106 cosmogenic ages (from beryllium-10 dating) from moraines in Peru and Bolivia. Glaciers reached their greatest extent in the last glacial cycle approximately 34,000 years before the present and were retreating by approximately 21,000 years before the present, implying that tropical controls on ice volumes were asynchronous with those in the Northern Hemisphere. Our estimates of snowline depression reflect about half the temperature change indicated by previous widely cited figures, which helps resolve the discrepancy between estimates of terrestrial and marine temperature depression during the last glacial cycle. PMID:15860623

  13. [The last melancholia of Alonso Quijano, the Righteous].

    PubMed

    Chiappo, L

    1994-03-01

    In Cervantes' immortal novel, "Don Quixote" is the nom de guerre that Alonso Quijano--a honest Spanish yeoman nicknamed "The Upright One"--adopts under the spell of insanity that has lured him into being a knight rider. A psycho-spiritual analysis of Don Quixote's return to mental health is presented, covering the time-span between Don Quixote's coming back to this native village and his last days. By way of a "historical diagnosis", the author proposes some clinical explanations: Goodman Quijano's last illness might have been a plasmodium falciparum-caused malaria; malaria, however did not contribute to reinstate soundmindedness (as per Wagner von Jauregg's therapeutic criteria, for example). Goodman Quijano's last fit of melancholy disclosed contempu mundi in him, a renunciation giving way to a joyful lucidity--in other words, a psychological awakening to a sublime conscience level of genuine spiritual characteristics.

  14. Early reactivation of European rivers during the last deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Ménot, Guillemette; Bard, Edouard; Rostek, Frauke; Weijers, Johan W H; Hopmans, Ellen C; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S

    2006-09-15

    During the Last Glacial Maximum, the sea-level lowstand combined with the large extent of the Fennoscandian and British ice sheets led to the funneling of European continental runoff, resulting in the largest river system that ever drained the European continent. Here, we show an abrupt and early reactivation of the European hydrological cycle at the onset of the last deglaciation, leading to intense discharge of the Channel River into the Bay of Biscay. This freshwater influx, probably combined with inputs from proglacial or ice-dammed lakes, dramatically affected the hydrology of the region, both on land and in the ocean. PMID:16973877

  15. 34 CFR 303.126 - Payor of last resort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payor of last resort. 303.126 Section 303.126 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS...

  16. Taking Successful Programs to Scale and Creating Lasting Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Math and Science Initiative, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Scaling Effective Programs is a category of giving that is quite unique. Philanthropists have many different interests that guide their giving, but Scaling Effective Programs offers an approach that can produce lasting transformation. This guide speaks to funders who: (1) view their giving as venture capital that stimulates other giving; (2) want…

  17. 77. Ferry Street Bridge and last catenary gantry on mainline. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    77. Ferry Street Bridge and last catenary gantry on mainline. New Haven, New Haven Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 74.38. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  18. Probabilistic assessment of sea level during the last interglacial stage.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Robert E; Simons, Frederik J; Mitrovica, Jerry X; Maloof, Adam C; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2009-12-17

    With polar temperatures approximately 3-5 degrees C warmer than today, the last interglacial stage (approximately 125 kyr ago) serves as a partial analogue for 1-2 degrees C global warming scenarios. Geological records from several sites indicate that local sea levels during the last interglacial were higher than today, but because local sea levels differ from global sea level, accurately reconstructing past global sea level requires an integrated analysis of globally distributed data sets. Here we present an extensive compilation of local sea level indicators and a statistical approach for estimating global sea level, local sea levels, ice sheet volumes and their associated uncertainties. We find a 95% probability that global sea level peaked at least 6.6 m higher than today during the last interglacial; it is likely (67% probability) to have exceeded 8.0 m but is unlikely (33% probability) to have exceeded 9.4 m. When global sea level was close to its current level (>or=-10 m), the millennial average rate of global sea level rise is very likely to have exceeded 5.6 m kyr(-1) but is unlikely to have exceeded 9.2 m kyr(-1). Our analysis extends previous last interglacial sea level studies by integrating literature observations within a probabilistic framework that accounts for the physics of sea level change. The results highlight the long-term vulnerability of ice sheets to even relatively low levels of sustained global warming.

  19. "Life after Last Orders": Microbiology as a Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verran, Joanna

    2004-01-01

    The 2003 conference of the International Biodegradation and Biodeterioration Society (www.biodeterioration. org) and the International Biodegradation Research Group (www.ibrg.org), was held last September at the Manchester Metropolitan University. The conference, "Management and Control of Undesirable Microorganisms", followed the usual format of…

  20. The Last 40 Years in Finnish Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    This article sets out to identify and discuss the changes that have taken place in Finnish teacher education during the last 40 years (1974-2014). A brief history of teacher education in Finland is presented, followed by the goals and aims of current research-based teacher education in Finland. Finally, the major changes in Finnish teacher…

  1. Changes in Climate and Variability over the Last 1000 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, P. D.

    INTRODUCTION THE INSTRUMENTAL PERIOD (1850-) EARLY EUROPEAN INSTRUMENTAL RECORDS THE PRE-INSTRUMENTAL PERIOD (BACK TO 1000) Palaeoclimatic Sources Multiproxy Averages from High-Frequency Sources Low-Frequency Sources DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS The Instrumental Period The Last 1000 Years REFERENCES

  2. Fermat's Last Theorem for Factional and Irrational Exponents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Fermat's Last Theorem says that for integers n greater than 2, there are no solutions to x[superscript n] + y[superscript n] = z[superscript n] among positive integers. What about rational exponents? Irrational n? Negative n? See what an undergraduate senior seminar discovered.

  3. 60. Jet Lowe, Photographer. July 1978. INTERIOR VIEW OF LAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Jet Lowe, Photographer. July 1978. INTERIOR VIEW OF LAST NO. 2 HOIST HOUSE, FROM BENEATH HOISTING DRUM AND OPERATOR'S PLATFORM, SHOWING LILLY OVERRUN PROTECTOR (FOREGROUND), THROTTLE LEAKAGE (UPPER LEFT), HYDRAULIC CYLINDERS FOR BRAKE SYSTEM AND REVERSING GEAR. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  4. Interior, detail view of last original windows and filed in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, detail view of last original windows and filed in wall arches, also concrete block wall of beryllum/uranium labs to left, looking southwest near center of west elevation, main building. - Watertown Arsenal, Building No. 312, Wooley Avenue, Watertown, Middlesex County, MA

  5. 34 CFR 303.527 - Payor of last resort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DISABILITIES State Administration Policies and Procedures Related to Financial Matters § 303.527 Payor of last... under any other Federal, State, local, or private source. (b) Interim payments—reimbursement. (1) If... of benefits. Nothing in this part may be construed to permit a State to reduce medical or...

  6. Peatlands and the C cycle during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego-Sala, Angela; Charman, Dan; Brewer, Simon

    2016-04-01

    The last millennium (850-1850 AD) has seen significant changes in climate and in atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. This relatively recent time period can be used to assess the peatland contribution to the global carbon cycle, as; 1) the peat accumulation record can be readily assembled from a representative range of peatlands worldwide; 2) climate and greenhouse variability over this time period is reasonably well-known for many regions and; 3) the spatial variability in modern climate space can be used to assess the relationship between peat accumulation and climate variables. Here we present the results of a global compilation of peat accumulation rates over the last 1000 years based on existing published and unpublished data and acquisition of new data in critical regions, especially in the tropics. The new global dataset comprises: a) a set of high temporal resolution sites for which variations of the rate of carbon accumulation during the last millennium in relation to past climate fluctuations can be analysed (e.g. the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) to Little Ice Age (LIA) transition in northern high latitudes). b) a set of low temporal resolution sites for which an overall carbon accumulation rate for the whole of the millennium period is calculated. This low-resolution but more sizeable dataset allows for the analysis of potential regional differences and overall contribution of peatlands to the C cycle in the last thousand years. Furthermore, we use the natural range of climate variation across sites to explore the relationship between total carbon accumulation over the last millennium and bioclimatic variables characteristic of each site. We conclude by discussing the implications of the relationships between past climate and peat accumulation for the global carbon cycle.

  7. Last-position elimination-based learning automata.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junqi; Wang, Cheng; Zhou, MengChu

    2014-12-01

    An update scheme of the state probability vector of actions is critical for learning automata (LA). The most popular is the pursuit scheme that pursues the estimated optimal action and penalizes others. This paper proposes a reverse philosophy that leads to last-position elimination-based learning automata (LELA). The action graded last in terms of the estimated performance is penalized by decreasing its state probability and is eliminated when its state probability becomes zero. All active actions, that is, actions with nonzero state probability, equally share the penalized state probability from the last-position action at each iteration. The proposed LELA is characterized by the relaxed convergence condition for the optimal action, the accelerated step size of the state probability update scheme for the estimated optimal action, and the enriched sampling for the estimated nonoptimal actions. The proof of the ϵ-optimal property for the proposed algorithm is presented. Last-position elimination is a widespread philosophy in the real world and has proved to be also helpful for the update scheme of the learning automaton via the simulations of well-known benchmark environments. In the simulations, two versions of the LELA, using different selection strategies of the last action, are compared with the classical pursuit algorithms Discretized Pursuit Reward-Inaction (DP(RI)) and Discretized Generalized Pursuit Algorithm (DGPA). Simulation results show that the proposed schemes achieve significantly faster convergence and higher accuracy than the classical ones. Specifically, the proposed schemes reduce the interval to find the best parameter for a specific environment in the classical pursuit algorithms. Thus, they can have their parameter tuning easier to perform and can save much more time when applied to a practical case. Furthermore, the convergence curves and the corresponding variance coefficient curves of the contenders are illustrated to characterize their

  8. Beads: Long Lasting Stationary Optical Features in Sprites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; McHarg, M. G.; Haaland, R. K.; Luque, A.; Ahrns, M. J.; Kanmae, T.

    2014-12-01

    Sprites are spectacular transient luminous structures observed in the 50-95 km altitude range above active thunderstorms following large cloud-to-ground lightning strikes. Recordings at 10,000 images per second show impressive streamer activity with bright streamers moving up or down at velocities up to half the speed of light. Not surprisingly, the streamers have attracted much research attention. However, here we will concentrate on sprite beads, which together with sprite glows, are the dominant features in video images (30 or 25 images per second) and in photographs. Sprite glow forms after streamer activity near the sprite onset altitude and beads are small point-like optical features also associated with streamer activity. The reason that the glow and the beads are dominant in longer exposure images is primarily that they do not move much and hence light can integrate over the longer exposure times. In general, streamer activity at the start of the sprite lasts a few 10s of ms, while glow and beads last considerable longer; we have observed beads lasting in excess of 500 ms. High-speed imaging shows the glow and the beads to form along the path of streamers, but they do not appear optically before almost a millisecond after streamer passage. To first order, beads appear to be stationary, but a detailed analysis of high-speed observations often indicates a slow upward or downward motion. The optical emissions decay much slower than in other parts of the sprite indicating the presence of a longer lasting source of energy. The processes in beads leave an imprint, presumably creating a local irregularity, on the atmosphere lasting longer than the optical emissions. This imprint can serve as seed for streamer initiation in a subsequent sprite (re-ignition). Based on our observations the imprint can last up to 1 second. There have been suggestions that beads are formed around local pre-existing inhomogineities, but a recent observation indicate their formation more

  9. Mineralogy of the last lunar basalts: Results from Clementine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staid, M.I.; Pieters, C.M.

    2001-01-01

    The last major phase of lunar volcanism produced extensive high-titanium mare deposits on the western nearside which remain unsampled by landing missions. The visible and near-infrared reflectance properties of these basalts are examined using Clementine multispectral images to better constrain their mineralogy. A much stronger 1 ??m ferrous absorption was observed for the western high-titanium basalts than within earlier maria, suggesting that these last major mare eruptions also may have been the most iron-rich. These western basalts also have a distinctly long-wavelength, 1 ??m ferrous absorption which was found to be similar for both surface soils and materials excavated from depth, supporting the interpretation of abundant olivine within these deposits. Spectral variation along flows within the Imbrium basin also suggests variations in ilmenite content along previously mapped lava flows as well as increasing olivine content within subsequent eruptions. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. North Atlantic Deep Water Production during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Jacob N. W.; Piotrowski, Alexander M.; Noble, Taryn L.; Mulitza, Stefan; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Bayon, Germain

    2016-06-01

    Changes in deep ocean ventilation are commonly invoked as the primary cause of lower glacial atmospheric CO2. The water mass structure of the glacial deep Atlantic Ocean and the mechanism by which it may have sequestered carbon remain elusive. Here we present neodymium isotope measurements from cores throughout the Atlantic that reveal glacial-interglacial changes in water mass distributions. These results demonstrate the sustained production of North Atlantic Deep Water under glacial conditions, indicating that southern-sourced waters were not as spatially extensive during the Last Glacial Maximum as previously believed. We demonstrate that the depleted glacial δ13C values in the deep Atlantic Ocean cannot be explained solely by water mass source changes. A greater amount of respired carbon, therefore, must have been stored in the abyssal Atlantic during the Last Glacial Maximum. We infer that this was achieved by a sluggish deep overturning cell, comprised of well-mixed northern- and southern-sourced waters.

  11. Last-passage Monte Carlo algorithm for mutual capacitance.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Chi-Ok; Given, James A

    2006-08-01

    We develop and test the last-passage diffusion algorithm, a charge-based Monte Carlo algorithm, for the mutual capacitance of a system of conductors. The first-passage algorithm is highly efficient because it is charge based and incorporates importance sampling; it averages over the properties of Brownian paths that initiate outside the conductor and terminate on its surface. However, this algorithm does not seem to generalize to mutual capacitance problems. The last-passage algorithm, in a sense, is the time reversal of the first-passage algorithm; it involves averages over particles that initiate on an absorbing surface, leave that surface, and diffuse away to infinity. To validate this algorithm, we calculate the mutual capacitance matrix of the circular-disk parallel-plate capacitor and compare with the known numerical results. Good agreement is obtained.

  12. A last updating evolution model for online social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Zhan; Xia, Zhengyou; Wang, Jiandong; Zhang, Chengcui

    2013-05-01

    As information technology has advanced, people are turning to electronic media more frequently for communication, and social relationships are increasingly found on online channels. However, there is very limited knowledge about the actual evolution of the online social networks. In this paper, we propose and study a novel evolution network model with the new concept of “last updating time”, which exists in many real-life online social networks. The last updating evolution network model can maintain the robustness of scale-free networks and can improve the network reliance against intentional attacks. What is more, we also found that it has the “small-world effect”, which is the inherent property of most social networks. Simulation experiment based on this model show that the results and the real-life data are consistent, which means that our model is valid.

  13. Vaccine refusal and the endgame: walking the last mile first

    PubMed Central

    Saint-Victor, Diane S.; Omer, Saad B.

    2013-01-01

    As multiple papers within this special issue illustrate, the dynamics of disease eradication are different from disease control. When it comes to disease eradication, ‘the last mile is longest’. For social and ecological reasons such as vaccine refusal, further ending incidence of a disease when it has reached low levels is frequently complex. Issues of non-compliance within a target population often influence the outcome of disease eradication efforts. Past eradication efforts confronted such obstacles towards the tail end of the campaign, when disease incidence was lowest. This article provides a comparison of non-compliance within polio, measles and smallpox campaigns, demonstrating the tendency of vaccine refusal to rise as disease incidence falls. In order to overcome one of the most intractable challenges to eradication, future disease eradication efforts must prioritize vaccine refusal from the start, i.e. ‘walk the last mile first’. PMID:23798696

  14. Statistical inference for extinction rates based on last sightings.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Miguel; Del Monte-Luna, Pablo; Lluch-Belda, Daniel; Lluch-Cota, Salvador E

    2013-09-21

    Rates of extinction can be estimated from sighting records and are assumed to be implicitly constant by many data analysis methods. However, historical sightings are scarce. Frequently, the only information available for inferring extinction is the date of the last sighting. In this study, we developed a probabilistic model and a corresponding statistical inference procedure based on last sightings. We applied this procedure to data on recent marine extirpations and extinctions, seeking to test the null hypothesis of a constant extinction rate. We found that over the past 500 years extirpations in the ocean have been increasing but at an uncertain rate, whereas a constant rate of global marine extinctions is statistically plausible. The small sample sizes of marine extinction records generate such high uncertainty that different combinations of model inputs can yield different outputs that fit the observed data equally well. Thus, current marine extinction trends may be idiosyncratic.

  15. North Atlantic Deep Water Production during the Last Glacial Maximum.

    PubMed

    Howe, Jacob N W; Piotrowski, Alexander M; Noble, Taryn L; Mulitza, Stefan; Chiessi, Cristiano M; Bayon, Germain

    2016-01-01

    Changes in deep ocean ventilation are commonly invoked as the primary cause of lower glacial atmospheric CO2. The water mass structure of the glacial deep Atlantic Ocean and the mechanism by which it may have sequestered carbon remain elusive. Here we present neodymium isotope measurements from cores throughout the Atlantic that reveal glacial-interglacial changes in water mass distributions. These results demonstrate the sustained production of North Atlantic Deep Water under glacial conditions, indicating that southern-sourced waters were not as spatially extensive during the Last Glacial Maximum as previously believed. We demonstrate that the depleted glacial δ(13)C values in the deep Atlantic Ocean cannot be explained solely by water mass source changes. A greater amount of respired carbon, therefore, must have been stored in the abyssal Atlantic during the Last Glacial Maximum. We infer that this was achieved by a sluggish deep overturning cell, comprised of well-mixed northern- and southern-sourced waters. PMID:27256826

  16. North Atlantic Deep Water Production during the Last Glacial Maximum

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Jacob N. W.; Piotrowski, Alexander M.; Noble, Taryn L.; Mulitza, Stefan; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Bayon, Germain

    2016-01-01

    Changes in deep ocean ventilation are commonly invoked as the primary cause of lower glacial atmospheric CO2. The water mass structure of the glacial deep Atlantic Ocean and the mechanism by which it may have sequestered carbon remain elusive. Here we present neodymium isotope measurements from cores throughout the Atlantic that reveal glacial–interglacial changes in water mass distributions. These results demonstrate the sustained production of North Atlantic Deep Water under glacial conditions, indicating that southern-sourced waters were not as spatially extensive during the Last Glacial Maximum as previously believed. We demonstrate that the depleted glacial δ13C values in the deep Atlantic Ocean cannot be explained solely by water mass source changes. A greater amount of respired carbon, therefore, must have been stored in the abyssal Atlantic during the Last Glacial Maximum. We infer that this was achieved by a sluggish deep overturning cell, comprised of well-mixed northern- and southern-sourced waters. PMID:27256826

  17. Trial reduction: the last chance to get it right.

    PubMed

    Hungerford, David S

    2007-06-01

    Trial reduction at total knee arthroplasty is an integral part of the procedure. It is the last thing that is done before the components are implanted and the knee is closed. Perhaps because it is the last step, it is getting less attention than it deserves. It is obvious from some of the postoperative radiographs seen in our clinic that the surgeon could not have done a careful trial reduction. This article defines the importance of performing a careful trial reduction and points out some of the pitfalls in detecting the true cause of the abnormality that might be detected at trial reduction. It implores the surgeon to give the proper attention to the importance of this part of the procedure.

  18. Bipolar seesaw control on last interglacial sea level.

    PubMed

    Marino, G; Rohling, E J; Rodríguez-Sanz, L; Grant, K M; Heslop, D; Roberts, A P; Stanford, J D; Yu, J

    2015-06-11

    Our current understanding of ocean-atmosphere-cryosphere interactions at ice-age terminations relies largely on assessments of the most recent (last) glacial-interglacial transition, Termination I (T-I). But the extent to which T-I is representative of previous terminations remains unclear. Testing the consistency of termination processes requires comparison of time series of critical climate parameters with detailed absolute and relative age control. However, such age control has been lacking for even the penultimate glacial termination (T-II), which culminated in a sea-level highstand during the last interglacial period that was several metres above present. Here we show that Heinrich Stadial 11 (HS11), a prominent North Atlantic cold episode, occurred between 135 ± 1 and 130 ± 2 thousand years ago and was linked with rapid sea-level rise during T-II. Our conclusions are based on new and existing data for T-II and the last interglacial that we collate onto a single, radiometrically constrained chronology. The HS11 cold episode punctuated T-II and coincided directly with a major deglacial meltwater pulse, which predominantly entered the North Atlantic Ocean and accounted for about 70 per cent of the glacial-interglacial sea-level rise. We conclude that, possibly in response to stronger insolation and CO2 forcing earlier in T-II, the relationship between climate and ice-volume changes differed fundamentally from that of T-I. In T-I, the major sea-level rise clearly post-dates Heinrich Stadial 1. We also find that HS11 coincided with sustained Antarctic warming, probably through a bipolar seesaw temperature response, and propose that this heat gain at high southern latitudes promoted Antarctic ice-sheet melting that fuelled the last interglacial sea-level peak.

  19. Kaon decay studies at CERN SPS in the last decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccucci, A.; Goudzovski, E.; Kekelidze, V.; Madigozhin, D.; Potrebenikov, I.

    2016-07-01

    This review summarizes the kaon experimental results obtained in the last 15 years on the basis of data collected on the SPS in CERN with a participance of JINR physicists. These results contribute essentially into the Standard Model checks and search for its extension, fundamental symmetry violations and low energy strong interactions theory development. A progress in the experimental technique and prospects for the future results are also discussed.

  20. 2001 BUDGET: NSF and NASA Score Last-Minute Victories.

    PubMed

    Lawler, A; Mervis, J

    2000-10-27

    Congress last week gave both NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF) significant hikes for 2001: NSF got $4.42 billion, a $522 million boost over this year that nearly matched NSF's 17% request, and NASA received $14.3 billion, nearly twice the White House's request for a 3% boost-but with hundreds of millions of dollars in earmarks added on. PMID:17780498

  1. Massachusetts dental establishments in 2011: after the last recession.

    PubMed

    Waldman, H Barry; Perlman, Steven P

    2013-01-01

    Census Bureau reports for 2007 and 2011 (before and after the last recession) were used to develop data for "average" dental establishments in the counties of Massachusetts. Any changes should be considered while bearing in mind the American Dental Association (ADA) 2013 report indicating that spending for dental services has stagnated. In terms of these findings, the need for continued monitoring of dental establishment activities beyond the confines of one's own facility is emphasized. PMID:24428029

  2. Ocean Cooling Pattern at the Last Glacial Maximum

    DOE PAGES

    Zhuang, Kelin; Giardino, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Ocean temperature and ocean heat content change are analyzed based on four PMIP3 model results at the Last Glacial Maximum relative to the prehistorical run. Ocean cooling mostly occurs in the upper 1000 m depth and varies spatially in the tropical and temperate zones. The Atlantic Ocean experiences greater cooling than the rest of the ocean basins. Ocean cooling is closely related to the weakening of meridional overturning circulation and enhanced intrusion of Antarctic Bottom Water into the North Atlantic.

  3. Coherence Constraints and the Last Hidden Optical Coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xiao-Feng; Malhotra, Tanya; Vamivakas, A. Nick; Eberly, Joseph H.

    2016-10-01

    We have discovered a new domain of optical coherence, and show that it is the third and last member of a previously unreported fundamental triad of coherences. These are unified by our derivation of a parallel triad of coherence constraints that take the form of complementarity relations. We have been able to enter this new coherence domain experimentally and we describe the novel tomographic approach devised for that purpose.

  4. Belize--a last stronghold for manatees in the Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, T.J.; Salisbury, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Belize is a small country but it offers a safe haven for the largest number of manatees in the Caribbean. The authors' survey in 1989 revealed that there has been no apparent decline since the last study in 1977. However, there is no evidence for population growth either and as the Belize economy develops threats from fisheries, human pressure and declining habitat quality will increase. Recommendations are made to ensure that Belize safeguards its manatee populations.

  5. Bipolar seesaw control on last interglacial sea level.

    PubMed

    Marino, G; Rohling, E J; Rodríguez-Sanz, L; Grant, K M; Heslop, D; Roberts, A P; Stanford, J D; Yu, J

    2015-06-11

    Our current understanding of ocean-atmosphere-cryosphere interactions at ice-age terminations relies largely on assessments of the most recent (last) glacial-interglacial transition, Termination I (T-I). But the extent to which T-I is representative of previous terminations remains unclear. Testing the consistency of termination processes requires comparison of time series of critical climate parameters with detailed absolute and relative age control. However, such age control has been lacking for even the penultimate glacial termination (T-II), which culminated in a sea-level highstand during the last interglacial period that was several metres above present. Here we show that Heinrich Stadial 11 (HS11), a prominent North Atlantic cold episode, occurred between 135 ± 1 and 130 ± 2 thousand years ago and was linked with rapid sea-level rise during T-II. Our conclusions are based on new and existing data for T-II and the last interglacial that we collate onto a single, radiometrically constrained chronology. The HS11 cold episode punctuated T-II and coincided directly with a major deglacial meltwater pulse, which predominantly entered the North Atlantic Ocean and accounted for about 70 per cent of the glacial-interglacial sea-level rise. We conclude that, possibly in response to stronger insolation and CO2 forcing earlier in T-II, the relationship between climate and ice-volume changes differed fundamentally from that of T-I. In T-I, the major sea-level rise clearly post-dates Heinrich Stadial 1. We also find that HS11 coincided with sustained Antarctic warming, probably through a bipolar seesaw temperature response, and propose that this heat gain at high southern latitudes promoted Antarctic ice-sheet melting that fuelled the last interglacial sea-level peak. PMID:26062511

  6. Tropical boundary layer equilibrium in the last ice age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Alan K.; Ridgway, W.

    1992-01-01

    A radiative-convective boundary layer model is used to assess the effect of changing sea surface temperature, pressure, wind speed, and the energy export from the tropics on the boundary layer equilibrium equivalent potential temperature. It remains difficult to reconcile the observations that during the last glacial maximum (18,000 yr BP) the snowline on the tropical mountains fell 950 m, while the tropical sea surface temperatures fell only 1-2 K.

  7. The last illnesses of Robert and Horace Walpole.

    PubMed Central

    Viseltear, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Urinary lithiasis and gout were uncommonly prevalent in the eighteenth century. This essay considers the history of both afflictions and especially tells of the last illnesses of Sir Robert Walpole, who died from complications of stone, and his son, Horace, who throughout his life was a sufferer of gout. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 PMID:6356637

  8. Grand minima of solar activity during the last millennia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usoskin, Ilya G.; Solanki, Sami K.; Kovaltsov, Gennady A.

    2012-07-01

    In this review we discuss the occurrence and statistical properties of Grand minima based on the available data covering the last millennia. In particular, we consider the historical record of sunspot numbers covering the last 400 years as well as records of cosmogenic isotopes in natural terrestrial archives, used to reconstruct solar activity for up to the last 11.5 millennia, i.e. throughout the Holocene. Using a reconstruction of solar activity from cosmogenic isotope data, we analyze statistics of the occurrence of Grand minima. We find that: the Sun spends about most of the time at moderate activity, 1/6 in a Grand minimum and some time also in a Grand maximum state; Occurrence of Grand minima is not a result of long-term cyclic variations but is defined by stochastic/chaotic processes; There is a tendency for Grand minima to cluster with the recurrence rate of roughly 2000-3000 years, with a weak ~210-yr periodicity existing within the clusters. Grand minima occur of two different types: shorter than 100 years (Maunder-type) and long ~150 years (Spörer-type). It is also discussed that solar cycles (most possibly not sunspots cycle) could exist during the Grand minima, perhaps with stretched length and asymmetric sunspot latitudinal distribution. These results set new observational constraints on long-term solar and stellar dynamo models.

  9. Rapid and long-lasting learning of feature binding.

    PubMed

    Yashar, Amit; Carrasco, Marisa

    2016-09-01

    How are features integrated (bound) into objects and how can this process be facilitated? Here we investigated the role of rapid perceptual learning in feature binding and its long-lasting effects. By isolating thecontributions of individual features from their conjunctionsbetween training and test displays, we demonstrate for the first time that training can rapidly and substantially improve feature binding. Observers trained on a conjunction search task consisting of a rapid display with one target-conjunction, then tested with a new target-conjunction. Features were the same between training and test displays. Learning transferred to the new target when its conjunction was presented as a distractor, but not when only its component features were presented in different conjunction distractors during training. Training improvement lasted for up to 16months, but, in all conditions, it was specific to the trained target. Our findings suggest that with short training observers' ability to bind two specific features into an object is improved, and that this learning effect can last for over a year. Moreover, our findings show that while the short-term learning effect reflects activation of presented items and their binding, long-term consolidation is task specific.

  10. Initiation of the last glaciation in northern europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsström, Lars; Punkari, Mikko

    The bio- and chronostratigraphy of the Eemian interglacial (marine isotope substage 5e) and an Early Weichselian glaciation (5d-a) established from representative and detailed sequences can be correlated with the deep-sea oxygen isotope stratigraphy, ice-core data, sea-level fluctuations and coupled ice sheet-climate models. Biostratigraphic sequences from Fennoscandian key sections are correlated with reference sequences from Estonia and from sections located near or beyond the margins of the last glaciation. Organic sediments previously attributed to Early and Middle Weichselian interstadial periods in Finland are argued to be redeposited and mixed older (last interglacial) material. Pollen and diatom spectra of the undisturbed materials suggest that the Eemian climatic optimum was followed by a continuously cooling climate and a regressive marine level. If only undisturbed sequences are considered, the major climatic fluctuations of the Early Weichselian, apparent in Central and Western Europe, are not apparent in the sequences from the central part of the glaciated terrain. Instead, some sequences are truncated by sediments indicating approaching ice sheets soon after the interglacial. This may imply that the ice sheet grew over Finland during the first Early Weichselian stadial. The preservation of the interglacial beds and the lack of younger non-glacial sediments support the interpretation that the area remained ice-covered until the final deglaciation. During the Early Weichselian, the Norwegian coast was probably occasionally ice free, similar to the coastal zone of Greenland today. The authors' interpretation of the Fennoscandian organic deposits of the last glaciation may also explain similar observations from the central parts of the Laurentide ice sheet.

  11. Interhemispheric ice-sheet synchronicity during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M. E.; Clark, P. U.; Ricken, W.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Hostetler, S. W.; Kuhn, G.

    2012-04-01

    The timing of the last maximum extent of the Antarctic ice sheets relative to those in the Northern Hemisphere remains poorly understood because only a few findings with robust chronologies exist for Antarctic ice sheets. We developed a chronology for the Weddell Sea sector of the East Antarctic ice sheet that, combined with ages from other Antarctic ice-sheet sectors, indicates the advance to their maximum extent at 29 -28 ka, and retreat from their maximum extent at 19 ka was nearly synchronous with Northern Hemisphere ice sheets (Weber, M.E., Clark, P. U., Ricken, W., Mitrovica, J. X., Hostetler, S. W., and Kuhn, G. (2011): Interhemispheric ice-sheet synchronicity during the Last Glacial Maximum. - Science, 334, 1265-1269, doi: 10.1126:science.1209299). As for the deglaciation, modeling studies suggest a late ice-sheet retreat starting around 14 ka BP and ending around 7 ka BP with a large impact of an unstable West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) and a small impact of a stable East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). However, the Weddell Sea sites studied here, as well as sites from the Scotia Sea, provide evidence that specifically the EAIS responded much earlier, possibly provided a significant contribution to the last sea-level rise, and was much more dynamic than previously thought. Using the results of an atmospheric general circulation we conclude that surface climate forcing of Antarctic ice mass balance would likely cause an opposite response, whereby a warming climate would increase accumulation but not surface melting. Furthermore, our new data support teleconnections involving a sea-level fingerprint forced from Northern Hemisphere ice sheets as indicated by gravitational modeling. Also, changes in North Atlantic Deepwater formation and attendant heat flux to Antarctic grounding lines may have contributed to synchronizing the hemispheric ice sheets.

  12. Windiness spells in SW Europe since the last glacial maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costas, Susana; Naughton, Filipa; Goble, Ronald; Renssen, Hans

    2016-02-01

    Dunefields have a great potential to unravel past regimes of atmospheric circulation as they record direct traces of this component of the climate system. Along the Portuguese coast, transgressive dunefields represent relict features originated by intense and frequent westerly winds that largely contrast with present conditions, clearly dominated by weaker northwesterly winds. Optical dating and subsurface stratigraphy document three age clusters indicating main episodes of dune mobilization during: the last termination (20-11.6 ka), Middle Holocene (5.6 ka), and Late Holocene (1.2-0.98 and 0.4-0.15 ka). We find reconstructed windfields to be analogous during all episodes and dominated by strong westerlies. Yet, larger grain size diameters and dune volumes documented for the last termination support amplified patterns compatible with a southward shift and intensification of the North Atlantic westerlies during winters. Conversely, dunes deposited after the Middle Holocene are compatible with more variable windfields and weakened patterns controlled by interannual shifts towards low values of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). This work demonstrates that present windfield regimes in southern Europe are not compatible with past aeolian activity. Indeed, present day analogs indicate that wind intensities compatible with past aeolian activity are rare at present (sediment transport potentials below estimates in the aeolian record), but can occur if the jet stream is diverted to the south (i.e. 30°N with negative NAO index) or if very deep cyclones anchor around 50°N, extending their influence to the western Portuguese coast (relatively low NAO index). However, these conditions represent temporary patterns lasting around one day, while we suggest that the identified episodes of aeolian activity may represent semi-permanent conditions.

  13. Northern high latitude climate variability of the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, Heather J.

    This work explores the causes of northern high-latitude climate variations over the last millennium, and industrial and future periods. Attribution studies are performed on a suite of global climate simulations, and four historical reconstructions of Greenland surface temperatures and precipitation (two of which are new to this work). The simulations followed the protocols of the Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project 3 and Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5. At least half of the multi-decadal variability in simulated Greenland climate variations over the last millennium is reproduced by a linear, empirically-generated model including terms for volcanic emissions, solar insolation changes (including total solar irradiance and orbital components) and an index associated with latitudinal shifts in the North Atlantic jet. Empirical model parameters are obtained by regressing simulated Greenland temperatures and precipitation against time series for each of the response variables. Greenhouse gas radiative forcing changes are unimportant to simulated Greenland conditions over the last millennium, although they dominate after the mid-20th century. Most of the historical Greenland climate reconstructions are restricted to the industrial period, due to a lack of spatially-comprehensive climate records. They exhibit substantial differences in the timing, phasing and amplitudes of past climate variations, due to regional sensitivities in the source data and the reconstruction methodologies. Reconstructions indicate that Greenland temperatures did not begin to follow hemispheric greenhouse gas warming patterns until the mid-1990s. This discrepancy indicates either that the warming hiatus was associated with internal climate variability, or that the simulations are missing processes important to Greenland climate. For example, indirect effects of anthropogenic aerosols are not captured in the climate model employed here. All of the external climate forcings

  14. Changes in Space Food over the Last 45 Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Lane, Helen W.; Kloeris, Vickie; Perchonok, Michele; Zwart, Sara

    2006-01-01

    The space food system has improved over the last 45 years. With the advances for a Moon base, there is a potential that foods in space will be more like home cooked foods. However, until that happens, there will continue to be dehydrated and thermostablized foods providing the bulk of the astronauts food. In order for the astronauts to have adequate macronutrients, a food system must be developed including raising plants and food preparation, both a major challenge given the limited water, volume, and power. The lunar kitchens will be very different, but good food is essential to maintain good health.

  15. Last Advances in Silicon-Based Optical Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Fernández Gavela, Adrián; Grajales García, Daniel; Ramirez, Jhonattan C.; Lechuga, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    We review the most important achievements published in the last five years in the field of silicon-based optical biosensors. We focus specially on label-free optical biosensors and their implementation into lab-on-a-chip platforms, with an emphasis on developments demonstrating the capability of the devices for real bioanalytical applications. We report on novel transducers and materials, improvements of existing transducers, new and improved biofunctionalization procedures as well as the prospects for near future commercialization of these technologies. PMID:26927105

  16. Bioturbation: a fresh look at Darwin's last idea.

    PubMed

    Meysman, Filip J R; Middelburg, Jack J; Heip, Carlo H R

    2006-12-01

    Bioturbation refers to the biological reworking of soils and sediments, and its importance for soil processes and geomorphology was first realised by Charles Darwin, who devoted his last scientific book to the subject. Here, we review some new insights into the evolutionary and ecological role of bioturbation that would have probably amazed Darwin. In modern ecological theory, bioturbation is now recognised as an archetypal example of 'ecosystem engineering', modifying geochemical gradients, redistributing food resources, viruses, bacteria, resting stages and eggs. From an evolutionary perspective, recent investigations provide evidence that bioturbation had a key role in the evolution of metazoan life at the end of the Precambrian Era. PMID:16901581

  17. Comparative biomorphologic analysis about three dentinal adhesives of last generations.

    PubMed

    Carini, F; Varia, P; Valenza, V

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work consists in a comparative biomorphological analysis of the properties of infiltration and of adhesion to dental tissues of three among the more used enamel dentinal adhesives of the last generation known with the commercial name of Syntac, Excite and Prompt. The results have given evidence that Syntac has got short adhesion, Excite has got good capacity of infiltration and moderate adhesion, Prompt seems to possess a capacity of infiltration equal to Excite's one, but a better adhesion besides an easier modality of use.

  18. Alfred Lee Loomis - last great amateur of science

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarex, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    Alfred Loomis may well be remembered as the last of the great amateurs of science. He had distinguished careers as a lawyer, as an Army officer and as an investment banker before he turned his full energies to the pursuit of scientific knowledge, first in the field of physics and later as a biologist. By any measure that can be employed, he was one of the most influential physical scientists of this century: he was elected to the National Academy when he was 53 years old; he received many honorary degrees from prestigious universities; and he played a crucial role as director of all NDRC-OSRD radar research in World War II.

  19. Bioturbation: a fresh look at Darwin's last idea.

    PubMed

    Meysman, Filip J R; Middelburg, Jack J; Heip, Carlo H R

    2006-12-01

    Bioturbation refers to the biological reworking of soils and sediments, and its importance for soil processes and geomorphology was first realised by Charles Darwin, who devoted his last scientific book to the subject. Here, we review some new insights into the evolutionary and ecological role of bioturbation that would have probably amazed Darwin. In modern ecological theory, bioturbation is now recognised as an archetypal example of 'ecosystem engineering', modifying geochemical gradients, redistributing food resources, viruses, bacteria, resting stages and eggs. From an evolutionary perspective, recent investigations provide evidence that bioturbation had a key role in the evolution of metazoan life at the end of the Precambrian Era.

  20. Cannabinoids and Reproduction: A Lasting and Intriguing History

    PubMed Central

    Cacciola, Giovanna; Chianese, Rosanna; Chioccarelli, Teresa; Ciaramella, Vincenza; Fasano, Silvia; Pierantoni, Riccardo; Meccariello, Rosaria; Cobellis, Gilda

    2010-01-01

    Starting from an historical overview of lasting Cannabis use over the centuries, we will focus on a description of the cannabinergic system, with a comprehensive analysis of chemical and pharmacological properties of endogenous and synthetic cannabimimetic analogues. The metabolic pathways and the signal transduction mechanisms, activated by cannabinoid receptors stimulation, will also be discussed. In particular, we will point out the action of cannabinoids and endocannabinoids on the different neuronal networks involved in reproductive axis, and locally, on male and female reproductive tracts, by emphasizing the pivotal role played by this system in the control of fertility.

  1. Last Glacial vegetation and climate change in the southern Levant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miebach, Andrea; Chen, Chunzhu; Litt, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Reconstructing past climatic and environmental conditions is a key task for understanding the history of modern mankind. The interaction between environmental change and migration processes of the modern Homo sapiens from its source area in Africa into Europe is still poorly understood. The principal corridor of the first human dispersal into Europe and also later migration dynamics crossed the Middle East. Therefore, the southern Levant is a key area to investigate the paleoenvironment during times of human migration. In this sense, the Last Glacial (MIS 4-2) is particularly interesting to investigate for two reasons. Firstly, secondary expansions of the modern Homo sapiens are expected to occur during this period. Secondly, there are ongoing discussions on the environmental conditions causing the prominent lake level high stand of Lake Lisan, the precursor of the Dead Sea. This high stand even culminated in the merging of Lake Lisan and Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee). To provide an independent proxy for paleoenvironmental reconstructions in the southern Levant during the Last Glacial, we investigated pollen assemblages of the Dead Sea/Lake Lisan and Lake Kinneret. Located at the Dead Sea Transform, the freshwater Lake Kinneret is nowadays connected via the Jordan with the hypersaline Dead Sea, which occupies Earth's lowest elevation on land. The southern Levant is a transition area of three different vegetation types. Therefore, also small changes in the climate conditions effect the vegetation and can be registered in the pollen assemblage. In contrast to the Holocene, our preliminary results suggest another vegetation pattern during the Last Glacial. The vegetation belt of the fragile Mediterranean biome did no longer exist in the vicinity of Lake Kinneret. Moreover, the vegetation was rather similar in the whole study area. A steppe vegetation with dwarf shrubs, herbs, and grasses predominated. Thermophilous elements like oaks occurred in limited amounts. The

  2. Deoxygenation of the Baltic Sea during the last century.

    PubMed

    Carstensen, Jacob; Andersen, Jesper H; Gustafsson, Bo G; Conley, Daniel J

    2014-04-15

    Deoxygenation is a global problem in coastal and open regions of the ocean, and has led to expanding areas of oxygen minimum zones and coastal hypoxia. The recent expansion of hypoxia in coastal ecosystems has been primarily attributed to global warming and enhanced nutrient input from land and atmosphere. The largest anthropogenically induced hypoxic area in the world is the Baltic Sea, where the relative importance of physical forcing versus eutrophication is still debated. We have analyzed water column oxygen and salinity profiles to reconstruct oxygen and stratification conditions over the last 115 y and compare the influence of both climate and anthropogenic forcing on hypoxia. We report a 10-fold increase of hypoxia in the Baltic Sea and show that this is primarily linked to increased inputs of nutrients from land, although increased respiration from higher temperatures during the last two decades has contributed to worsening oxygen conditions. Although shifts in climate and physical circulation are important factors modulating the extent of hypoxia, further nutrient reductions in the Baltic Sea will be necessary to reduce the ecosystems impacts of deoxygenation.

  3. A White Nile megalake during the last interglacial period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrows, Timothy T.; Williams, Martin A. J.; Mills, Stephanie C.; Duller, Geoff A. T.; Fifield, L. Keith; Haberlah, David; Tims, Stephen G.; Williams, Frances M.

    2014-05-01

    The eastern Sahara Desert of Africa is one of the most climatically sensitive areas on Earth, varying from lake-studded savannah woodland to hyperarid desert over the course of a glacial-interglacial cycle. In currently semiarid Sudan there is widespread evidence that a very large freshwater lake once filled the White Nile River valley (Barrows et al., 2014). Here we present the first quantitative estimate for the dimensions of the lake and a direct age for the emplacement of its shoreline. Using a profile dating approach with the cosmogenic nuclide 10Be, we estimate an exposure age of 109 ± 8 ka for this megalake, indicating that it probably formed during the last interglacial period. This age is supported by optically stimulated luminescence dating of Blue Nile paleochannels associated with the lake. Using a high-resolution digital elevation model, we estimate that the lake was more than 45,000 km2 in area, making it comparable to the largest freshwater lakes on Earth today. We attribute the lake's existence to seasonal flood pulses as a result of local damming of the White Nile by a more southern position of the Blue Nile and greatly increased precipitation associated with an enhanced monsoon. References Barrows, T.T., Williams, M.A.J., Mills, S.C., Duller, G.A.T., Fifield, L.K., Haberlah, D., Tims, S.G., Williams, F.M., 2014. A White Nile megalake during the last interglacial period. Geology. 10.1130/g35238.1

  4. Obliquity Control On Southern Hemisphere Climate During The Last Glacial

    PubMed Central

    Fogwill, C.J.; Turney, C.S.M.; Hutchinson, D.K.; Taschetto, A.S.; England, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Recent paleoclimate reconstructions have challenged the traditional view that Northern Hemisphere insolation and associated feedbacks drove synchronous global climate and ice-sheet volume during the last glacial cycle. Here we focus on the response of the Patagonian Ice Sheet, and demonstrate that its maximum expansion culminated at 28,400 ± 500 years before present (28.4 ± 0.5 ka), more than 5,000 years before the minima in 65°N summer insolation and the formally-defined Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) at 21,000 ± 2,000 years before present. To investigate the potential drivers of this early LGM (eLGM), we simulate the effects of orbital changes using a suite of climate models incorporating prescribed and evolving sea-ice anomalies. Our analyses suggest that Antarctic sea-ice expansion at 28.5 ka altered the location and intensity of the Southern Hemisphere storm track, triggering regional cooling over Patagonia of 5°C that extends across the wider mid-southern latitudes. In contrast, at the LGM, continued sea-ice expansion reduced regional temperature and precipitation further, effectively starving the ice sheet and resulting in reduced glacial expansion. Our findings highlight the dominant role that orbital changes can play in driving Southern Hemisphere glacial climate via the sensitivity of mid-latitude regions to changes in Antarctic sea-ice extent. PMID:26115344

  5. Surface Temperature Reconstructions for the Last 1000 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, G. R.

    2006-12-01

    This is a presentation of results from a recently released report written by a committee established by the National Research Council and chaired by the speaker. The report was titled the same as the title of this talk. It focused on the methods of reconstructing the large scales of such surface temperature fields, since there has been considerable discussion in the scientific literature, assessments such as the IPCC, the popular press, blogs and even Congressional Hearings. The so-called `hockey stick' curve indicating a gradual cooling from the beginning of the record at about 1000AD to roughly 150 years ago when the curve take a steep upward trend (the so-called global warming). The original publications by Mann, Bradley and Hughes were careful to present and emphasize error margins that have been ignored by many in the controversy. The Committee found that numerous subsequent publications have reported reconstructions that utilized different data and different statistical assumptions. These all fall within the error margins of the original studies. While the committee has some reservations about the period prior to the year 1600AD, it still concludes that it is plausible that surface temperatures averaged over the Northern Hemisphere over the last three decades are plausibly the warmest for any such comparable period in the last 1000 years.

  6. Extensive glaciation in Transbaikalia, Siberia, at the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margold, Martin; Jansen, John D.; Gurinov, Artem L.; Codilean, Alexandru T.; Fink, David; Preusser, Frank; Reznichenko, Natalya V.; Mifsud, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Successively smaller glacial extents have been proposed for continental Eurasia during the stadials of the last glacial period leading up to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). At the same time the large mountainous region east of Lake Baikal, Transbaikalia, has remained unexplored in terms of glacial chronology despite clear geomorphological evidence of substantial past glaciations. We have applied cosmogenic 10Be exposure dating and optically stimulated luminescence to establish the first quantitative glacial chronology for this region. Based on eighteen exposure ages from five moraine complexes, we propose that large mountain ice fields existed in the Kodar and Udokan mountains during Oxygen Isotope Stage 2, commensurate with the global LGM. These ice fields fed valley glaciers (>100 km in length) reaching down to the Chara Depression between the Kodar and Udokan mountains and to the valley of the Vitim River northwest of the Kodar Mountains. Two of the investigated moraines date to the Late Glacial, but indications of incomplete exposure among some of the sampled boulders obscure the specific details of the post-LGM glacial history. In addition to the LGM ice fields in the highest mountains of Transbaikalia, we report geomorphological evidence of a much more extensive, ice-cap type glaciation at a time that is yet to be firmly resolved.

  7. Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years.

    PubMed

    de Dear, R J; Akimoto, T; Arens, E A; Brager, G; Candido, C; Cheong, K W D; Li, B; Nishihara, N; Sekhar, S C; Tanabe, S; Toftum, J; Zhang, H; Zhu, Y

    2013-12-01

    Climate change and the urgency of decarbonizing the built environment are driving technological innovation in the way we deliver thermal comfort to occupants. These changes, in turn, seem to be setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research. This article presents a literature review of major changes, developments, and trends in the field of thermal comfort research over the last 20 years. One of the main paradigm shift was the fundamental conceptual reorientation that has taken place in thermal comfort thinking over the last 20 years; a shift away from the physically based determinism of Fanger's comfort model toward the mainstream and acceptance of the adaptive comfort model. Another noticeable shift has been from the undesirable toward the desirable qualities of air movement. Additionally, sophisticated models covering the physics and physiology of the human body were developed, driven by the continuous challenge to model thermal comfort at the same anatomical resolution and to combine these localized signals into a coherent, global thermal perception. Finally, the demand for ever increasing building energy efficiency is pushing technological innovation in the way we deliver comfortable indoor environments. These trends, in turn, continue setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research for the next decades.

  8. Terrestrial biosphere changes over the last 120 kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogakker, B. A. A.; Smith, R. S.; Singarayer, J. S.; Marchant, R.; Prentice, I. C.; Allen, J. R. M.; Anderson, R. S.; Bhagwat, S. A.; Behling, H.; Borisova, O.; Bush, M.; Correa-Metrio, A.; de Vernal, A.; Finch, J. M.; Fréchette, B.; Lozano-Garcia, S.; Gosling, W. D.; Granoszewski, W.; Grimm, E. C.; Grüger, E.; Hanselman, J.; Harrison, S. P.; Hill, T. R.; Huntley, B.; Jiménez-Moreno, G.; Kershaw, P.; Ledru, M.-P.; Magri, D.; McKenzie, M.; Müller, U.; Nakagawa, T.; Novenko, E.; Penny, D.; Sadori, L.; Scott, L.; Stevenson, J.; Valdes, P. J.; Vandergoes, M.; Velichko, A.; Whitlock, C.; Tzedakis, C.

    2016-01-01

    A new global synthesis and biomization of long (> 40 kyr) pollen-data records is presented and used with simulations from the HadCM3 and FAMOUS climate models and the BIOME4 vegetation model to analyse the dynamics of the global terrestrial biosphere and carbon storage over the last glacial-interglacial cycle. Simulated biome distributions using BIOME4 driven by HadCM3 and FAMOUS at the global scale over time generally agree well with those inferred from pollen data. Global average areas of grassland and dry shrubland, desert, and tundra biomes show large-scale increases during the Last Glacial Maximum, between ca. 64 and 74 ka BP and cool substages of Marine Isotope Stage 5, at the expense of the tropical forest, warm-temperate forest, and temperate forest biomes. These changes are reflected in BIOME4 simulations of global net primary productivity, showing good agreement between the two models. Such changes are likely to affect terrestrial carbon storage, which in turn influences the stable carbon isotopic composition of seawater as terrestrial carbon is depleted in 13C.

  9. Laurentide ice-sheet instability during the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullman, David J.; Carlson, Anders E.; Anslow, Faron S.; Legrande, Allegra N.; Licciardi, Joseph M.

    2015-07-01

    Changes in the amount of summer incoming solar radiation (insolation) reaching the Northern Hemisphere are the underlying pacemaker of glacial cycles. However, not all rises in boreal summer insolation over the past 800,000 years resulted in deglaciation to present-day ice volumes, suggesting that there may be a climatic threshold for the disappearance of land-based ice. Here we assess the surface mass balance stability of the Laurentide ice sheet--the largest glacial ice mass in the Northern Hemisphere--during the last deglaciation (24,000 to 9,000 years ago). We run a surface energy balance model with climate data from simulations with a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model for key time slices during the last deglaciation. We find that the surface mass balance of the Laurentide ice sheet was positive throughout much of the deglaciation, and suggest that dynamic discharge was mainly responsible for mass loss during this time. Total surface mass balance became negative only in the early Holocene, indicating the transition to a new state where ice loss occurred primarily by surface ablation. We conclude that the Laurentide ice sheet remained a viable ice sheet before the Holocene and began to fully deglaciate only once summer temperatures and radiative forcing over the ice sheet increased by 6-7 °C and 16-20 W m-2, respectively, relative to full glacial conditions.

  10. Obliquity Control on Southern Hemisphere Climate during the Last Glacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogwill, C. J.; Hutchinson, D. K.; Turney, C. S.; Taschetto, A.; England, M. H.

    2015-12-01

    Recent paleoclimate reconstructions have challenged the traditional view that Northern Hemisphere insolation and associated feedbacks drove synchronous global climate and ice-sheet volume during the last glacial cycle. Here we focus on the response of the Patagonian Ice Sheet, and demonstrate that its maximum expansion culminated at 28,400 ± 500 years before present (28.4 ± 0.5 ka), more than 5,000 years before the minima in 65°N summer insolation and the formally-defined Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) at 21,000 ± 2,000 years before present. To investigate the potential drivers of this early LGM (eLGM), we simulate the effects of orbital changes using a suite of climate models incorporating prescribed and evolving sea-ice anomalies. Our analyses suggest that Antarctic sea-ice expansion at 28.5 ka altered the location and intensity of the Southern Hemisphere storm track, triggering regional cooling over Patagonia of 5°C that extends across the wider mid-southern latitudes. In contrast, at the LGM, continued sea-ice expansion reduced regional temperature and precipitation further, effectively starving the ice sheet and resulting in reduced glacial expansion. Our findings highlight the dominant role that orbital changes can play in driving Southern Hemisphere glacial climate via the sensitivity of mid-latitude regions to changes in Antarctic sea-ice extent.

  11. A Beautician's Dystonia: Long-Lasting Effect of Botulinum Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Di Martino, Siria; Dalise, Stefania; Lamola, Giuseppe; Venturi, Martina; Rossi, Bruno; Chisari, Carmelo

    2014-01-01

    Treatment options for dystonia are not curative but symptomatic; the treatment of choice for focal dystonias is repeated botulinum toxin injections. Here, we present the case of a 46-year-old beautician with focal dystonia in her left hand that affected her ability to work. Pharmacological treatment with clonazepam and gabapentin failed to resolve her symptoms and was discontinued due to side effects (sleepiness, gastrointestinal disorders). Intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin (incobotulinumtoxinA, Xeomin) into the extensor digitorum communis (35 U), flexor carpi radialis (35 U), and flexor digitorum superficialis (30 U) muscles resulted in complete resolution of symptoms at clinical assessments at 1, 3, 6, and 10 months after the injections, confirmed by the results of surface electromyography 10 months after treatment. The patient was able to work again 1 month after treatment. No reinjection has been necessary at the last evaluation (12 months after treatment). In conclusion, botulinum toxin is an effective treatment for focal dystonia that can have long-lasting effects and can improve patients' ability to work and quality of life. PMID:25143844

  12. Western Arctic Ocean temperature variability during the last 8000 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farmer, Jesse R.; Cronin, Thomas M.; De Vernal, Anne; Dwyer, Gary S.; Keigwin, Loyd D.; Thunell, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    We reconstructed subsurface (∼200–400 m) ocean temperature and sea-ice cover in the Canada Basin, western Arctic Ocean from foraminiferal δ18O, ostracode Mg/Ca ratios, and dinocyst assemblages from two sediment core records covering the last 8000 years. Results show mean temperature varied from −1 to 0.5°C and −0.5 to 1.5°C at 203 and 369 m water depths, respectively. Centennial-scale warm periods in subsurface temperature records correspond to reductions in summer sea-ice cover inferred from dinocyst assemblages around 6.5 ka, 3.5 ka, 1.8 ka and during the 15th century Common Era. These changes may reflect centennial changes in the temperature and/or strength of inflowing Atlantic Layer water originating in the eastern Arctic Ocean. By comparison, the 0.5 to 0.7°C warm temperature anomaly identified in oceanographic records from the Atlantic Layer of the Canada Basin exceeded reconstructed Atlantic Layer temperatures for the last 1200 years by about 0.5°C.

  13. Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years.

    PubMed

    de Dear, R J; Akimoto, T; Arens, E A; Brager, G; Candido, C; Cheong, K W D; Li, B; Nishihara, N; Sekhar, S C; Tanabe, S; Toftum, J; Zhang, H; Zhu, Y

    2013-12-01

    Climate change and the urgency of decarbonizing the built environment are driving technological innovation in the way we deliver thermal comfort to occupants. These changes, in turn, seem to be setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research. This article presents a literature review of major changes, developments, and trends in the field of thermal comfort research over the last 20 years. One of the main paradigm shift was the fundamental conceptual reorientation that has taken place in thermal comfort thinking over the last 20 years; a shift away from the physically based determinism of Fanger's comfort model toward the mainstream and acceptance of the adaptive comfort model. Another noticeable shift has been from the undesirable toward the desirable qualities of air movement. Additionally, sophisticated models covering the physics and physiology of the human body were developed, driven by the continuous challenge to model thermal comfort at the same anatomical resolution and to combine these localized signals into a coherent, global thermal perception. Finally, the demand for ever increasing building energy efficiency is pushing technological innovation in the way we deliver comfortable indoor environments. These trends, in turn, continue setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research for the next decades. PMID:23590514

  14. Multiple Pathways to Long-lasting Phrenic Motor Facilitation

    PubMed Central

    Dale-Nagle, Erica A.; Hoffman, Michael S.; MacFarlane, Peter M.; Mitchell, Gordon S.

    2010-01-01

    Plasticity is a hallmark of neural systems, including the neural system controlling breathing (Mitchell and Johnson, 2003). Despite its biological and potential clinical significance, our understanding of mechanisms giving rise to any form of respiratory plasticity remains incomplete. Here we discuss recent advances in our understanding of cellular mechanisms giving rise to phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF), a long-lasting increase in phrenic motor output induced by acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH). Recently, we have come to realize that multiple, distinct mechanisms are capable of giving rise to long-lasting phrenic motor facilitation (PMF); we use PMF as a general term that includes AIH-induced pLTF. It is important to begin an appreciation and understanding of these diverse pathways. Hence, we introduce a nomenclature based on upstream steps in the signaling cascade leading to PMF. Two pathways are featured here: the “Q” and the “S” pathways, named because they are induced by metabotropic receptors coupled to Gq and Gs proteins, respectively. These pathways appear to interact in complex and interesting ways, thus providing a range of potential responses in the face of changing physiological conditions or the onset of disease. PMID:20217354

  15. Mechanisms of abrupt climate change of the last glacial period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, Amy C.; Peterson, Larry C.

    2008-12-01

    More than a decade ago, ice core records from Greenland revealed that the last glacial period was characterized by abrupt climate changes that recurred on millennial time scales. Since their discovery, there has been a large effort to determine whether these climate events were a global phenomenon or were just confined to the North Atlantic region and also to reveal the mechanisms that were responsible for them. In this paper, we review the available paleoclimate observations of abrupt change during the last glacial period in order to place constraints on possible mechanisms. Three different mechanisms are then reviewed: ocean thermohaline circulation, sea ice feedbacks, and tropical processes. Each mechanism is tested for its ability to explain the key features of the observations, particularly with regard to the abruptness, millennial recurrence, and geographical extent of the observed changes. It is found that each of these mechanisms has explanatory strengths and weaknesses, and key areas in which progress could be made in improving the understanding of their long-term behavior, both from observational and modeling approaches, are suggested. Finally, it is proposed that a complete understanding of the mechanisms of abrupt change requires inclusion of processes at both low and high latitudes, as well as the potential for feedbacks between them. Some suggestions for experimental approaches to test for such feedbacks with coupled climate models are given.

  16. Deoxygenation of the Baltic Sea during the last century

    PubMed Central

    Carstensen, Jacob; Andersen, Jesper H.; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Conley, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Deoxygenation is a global problem in coastal and open regions of the ocean, and has led to expanding areas of oxygen minimum zones and coastal hypoxia. The recent expansion of hypoxia in coastal ecosystems has been primarily attributed to global warming and enhanced nutrient input from land and atmosphere. The largest anthropogenically induced hypoxic area in the world is the Baltic Sea, where the relative importance of physical forcing versus eutrophication is still debated. We have analyzed water column oxygen and salinity profiles to reconstruct oxygen and stratification conditions over the last 115 y and compare the influence of both climate and anthropogenic forcing on hypoxia. We report a 10-fold increase of hypoxia in the Baltic Sea and show that this is primarily linked to increased inputs of nutrients from land, although increased respiration from higher temperatures during the last two decades has contributed to worsening oxygen conditions. Although shifts in climate and physical circulation are important factors modulating the extent of hypoxia, further nutrient reductions in the Baltic Sea will be necessary to reduce the ecosystems impacts of deoxygenation. PMID:24706804

  17. Trends in sensitivity analysis practice in the last decade.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Federico; Saltelli, Andrea; Tarantola, Stefano

    2016-10-15

    The majority of published sensitivity analyses (SAs) are either local or one factor-at-a-time (OAT) analyses, relying on unjustified assumptions of model linearity and additivity. Global approaches to sensitivity analyses (GSA) which would obviate these shortcomings, are applied by a minority of researchers. By reviewing the academic literature on SA, we here present a bibliometric analysis of the trends of different SA practices in last decade. The review has been conducted both on some top ranking journals (Nature and Science) and through an extended analysis in the Elsevier's Scopus database of scientific publications. After correcting for the global growth in publications, the amount of papers performing a generic SA has notably increased over the last decade. Even if OAT is still the most largely used technique in SA, there is a clear increase in the use of GSA with preference respectively for regression and variance-based techniques. Even after adjusting for the growth of publications in the sole modelling field, to which SA and GSA normally apply, the trend is confirmed. Data about regions of origin and discipline are also briefly discussed. The results above are confirmed when zooming on the sole articles published in chemical modelling, a field historically proficient in the use of SA methods. PMID:26934843

  18. Trends in sensitivity analysis practice in the last decade.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Federico; Saltelli, Andrea; Tarantola, Stefano

    2016-10-15

    The majority of published sensitivity analyses (SAs) are either local or one factor-at-a-time (OAT) analyses, relying on unjustified assumptions of model linearity and additivity. Global approaches to sensitivity analyses (GSA) which would obviate these shortcomings, are applied by a minority of researchers. By reviewing the academic literature on SA, we here present a bibliometric analysis of the trends of different SA practices in last decade. The review has been conducted both on some top ranking journals (Nature and Science) and through an extended analysis in the Elsevier's Scopus database of scientific publications. After correcting for the global growth in publications, the amount of papers performing a generic SA has notably increased over the last decade. Even if OAT is still the most largely used technique in SA, there is a clear increase in the use of GSA with preference respectively for regression and variance-based techniques. Even after adjusting for the growth of publications in the sole modelling field, to which SA and GSA normally apply, the trend is confirmed. Data about regions of origin and discipline are also briefly discussed. The results above are confirmed when zooming on the sole articles published in chemical modelling, a field historically proficient in the use of SA methods.

  19. Greenland temperature response to climate forcing during the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buizert, C.; Gkinis, V.; Severinghaus, J. P.; He, F.; Lecavalier, B.; Kindler, P.; Leuenberger, M.; Carlson, A. E.; Vinther, B.; White, J. W.; Liu, Z.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Brook, E.

    2013-12-01

    Much of the regional and global climate variability during the last glacial termination (19-11 ka BP) can be explained as the superposition of two distinct modes (1, 2); a spatially uniform increase in global temperature correlated with greenhouse gas forcing, and a redistribution of heat associated with variability in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) strength. The latter mode is expressed most clearly in the abrupt climate shifts recorded in the precipitation isotopic composition (δ18O) of Greenland ice cores, which are now widely used as a template for abrupt change in the northern hemisphere. Greenland δ18O is influenced by many factors, including source temperature, moisture transport and origin, and precipitation seasonality, complicating reconstruction of past temperatures. Here we use three non-δ18O temperature reconstructions from three ice cores and a general circulation model (GCM) to elucidate the (often abrupt) Greenland surface temperature response to external (insolation) and internal (CO2, AMOC, ice topography) climate forcings during the last termination. Our reconstructions are based on δ15N (NEEM, GISP2) and water isotope diffusion (NGRIP), both of which depend on physical processes in the firn column. The GCM and our reconstructions show excellent agreement on several key features. First, we find that the Younger Dryas (YD) period was 4-6oC warmer than the Oldest Dryas (OD) period in response to increased summer insolation and CO2 forcing. By contrast, δ18O-based reconstrucions from Greenland summit suggest the YD to be the colder of the two periods. Our finding is consistent with non-ice core NH proxy reconstructions, as well as with East Greenland deglacial moraine sequences that suggest only a modest glacial re-advance during the YD. Second, the YD-OD temperature difference shows a polar amplification signal, with warming being greatest at the northernmost NEEM site. By isolating different forcings in the GCM, we

  20. Food transitions in last 50 years and related environmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, P.; Reusser, D. E.; Kropp, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    Food production is an important driver for global change processes such as land use change and green-house-gas emissions. We analyzed a global, long term data set on food consumption per country to identify typical patterns of diets for the last 50 years. From changes in these patterns, we derived food transitions on a global scale. Subsequently we assessed the environmental consequences from green-house-gas (GHG) emission and anthropogenic inputs. More specifically, we applied Self Organizing Maps (SOM) to identify the dietary patterns based on supply of 12 food groups from FAOSTAT dataset for a period 1961-2007. Using the data on energy output/input ratio for crop production and agricultural emission, we estimated fossil energy and GHG emission associated with the diets. We found 16 typical consumption patterns consisting of high, moderate, low and lowest calorie supply with varied food compositions. The high calorie diets are associated with a higher supply of cereals, animal-products, vegetable-oils and sugar-sweeteners featuring a total supply greater than 2800 kcal/cap/day. During the last 50 years, we observed food transitions from lower calories diets to higher calories diets. On the one hand, food transition towards affluent diet, sometime with shortcuts, occurred in developing countries. On the other hand, developed countries increased consumption of fruits and vegetables. Some of the developing countries are also stagnated in the low consumption level during the last 50 years. The high calorie diets also embed higher fossil energy (1800-3500 kcal/cap/day) and are associated with higher GHG emissions (3.7-6.1 kg CO2 eq/cap/day). However, their non-CO2 GHG emission intensities per kilo calorie of food are relatively low. Changes in dietary patterns are a part of the global change processes. Identification of past transitions is way to predict possible future transitions. This in turn supports policy processes and negotiations in the fields of climate

  1. Reconstructing the last Newfoundland Ice Sheet,Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHenry, Maureen; Dunlop, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The Newfoundland Ice Sheet which formed part of the North American Ice Sheet Complex was situated on the margins of the northwest Atlantic Ocean during the Wisconsinan glaciation (~80ka BP to 10ka BP). This complex consisted of the Laurentide, the Cordilleran and Innuitian Ice Sheets, the Canadian Maritime Provinces Ice Cover and the Newfoundland Ice Sheet (NIS). Although all were confluent at the last glacial maximum, the NIS is known to have supported independent ice centres with advances from the Laurentide Ice Sheet being restricted to Newfoundland's northern and western margins. Given its distinctive position, it is likely the evolution of the NIS through the last glacial cycle was influenced by a number of external and internal drivers including configuration changes in the Laurentide Ice Sheet, ice stream initiation and shutdown, changes in oceanic circulation and fluctuating sea levels and climate signals from the wider Amphi-North Atlantic. As such Newfoundland is a key location for investigating ice sheet response to a number of internal and external forcing mechanisms during glacial cycles. An established technique for reconstructing former ice sheet behaviour is the mapping and spatial analysis of glacial landforms. This provides a valuable record of former ice sheet extent and behaviour through time as well as ice sheet retreat during deglaciation. Here we present new mapping based on our interpretation of SPOT satellite imagery and Digital Elevation Models of the entire Island of Newfoundland as well as swath bathymetric imagery from several locations offshore. Our new database consisting of ~150,000 individually mapped subglacial bedforms that includes drumlins, crag and tails, glacially moulded bedrock lineations and ribbed moraines significantly increases the known landform record in this region. The new database shows Newfoundland has a complex palimpsest landscape that records multiple ice sheet events across the island. Here we report our

  2. Deciphering the evolution of the last Eurasian ice sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Anna; Gyllencreutz, Richard; Mangerud, Jan; Svendsen, John Inge

    2016-04-01

    Glacial geologists need ice sheet-scale chronological reconstructions of former ice extent to set individual records in a wider context and compare interpretations of ice sheet response to records of past environmental changes. Ice sheet modellers require empirical reconstructions on size and volume of past ice sheets that are fully documented, specified in time and include uncertainty estimates for model validation or constraints. Motivated by these demands, in 2005 we started a project (Database of the Eurasian Deglaciation, DATED) to compile and archive all published dates relevant to constraining the build-up and retreat of the last Eurasian ice sheets, including the British-Irish, Scandinavian and Svalbard-Barents-Kara Seas ice sheets (BIIS, SIS and SBKIS respectively). Over 5000 dates were assessed for reliability and used together with published ice-sheet margin positions to reconstruct time-slice maps of the ice sheets' extent, with uncertainty bounds, every 1000 years between 25-10 kyr ago and at four additional periods back to 40 kyr ago. Ten years after the idea for a database was conceived, the first version of results (DATED-1) has now been released (Hughes et al. 2016). We observe that: i) both the BIIS and SBKIS achieve maximum extent, and commence retreat earlier than the larger SIS; ii) the eastern terrestrial margin of the SIS reached its maximum extent up to 7000 years later than the westernmost marine margin; iii) the combined maximum ice volume (~24 m sea-level equivalent) was reached c. 21 ka; iv) large uncertainties exist; predominantly across marine sectors (e.g. the timing of coalescence and separation of the SIS and BKIS) but also in well-studied areas due to conflicting yet equally robust data. In just three years since the DATED-1 census (1 January 2013), the volume of new information (from both dates and mapped glacial geomorphology) has grown significantly (~1000 new dates). Here, we present the DATED-1 results in the context of the

  3. Hydroclimate variability in NE Brazil over the last 2K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giselle, Utida; Ioanna, Bouloubassi; Francisco, Cruz; Enno, Schefuβ; Abdel, Sifeddine; Vincent, Klein; Johan, Etourneau; Renata, Zocatelli; André, Zular; Hai, Cheng; Laurence, Edwards R.

    2016-04-01

    Precipitation associated with the South American Summer Monsoon (SASM) and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) supplies more than 70% of tropical South America's annual precipitation and is fundamental in sustaining the water regime for regional socioeconomic activities. Motivated by the fact that the greatest uncertainty in model projections of future precipitation trends lies in the tropics, and particularly in South America, a number of recent proxy and modeling studies have aimed at understanding SASM spatiotemporal variability regarding its dynamics, driving mechanisms and teleconnections. Exact reconstructions of past meridional ITCZ displacements (timing, sign, amplitude), however, are currently lacking, mainly because of the paucity of suited high-resolution archives. This restricts our ability to assess regional rainfall variability at decadal to centennial timescales, especially in the hydroclimatic-sensitive semi-arid Nordeste, needed to understand the interactions between SASM and ITCZ and to evaluate the impact of Pacific-Atlantic climate interactions on the regional rainfall variability at decadal/multi-decadal scale. Here we present two new and complementary high-resolution records of past precipitation over the last 2K from the north area of Nordeste, an area ideally located to track fluctuations in the southernmost edge of ITCZ movement. We present a new δO18 record from a local speleothem and combine it, for the first time, with δD analyses of wax lipids in well-dated sediments from a nearby lake. The two independent records show a remarkable similarity and are characterized by strong decadal to multidecadal variability as well as century-scale changes. The period 250-450 yrs CE appears as the wettest phase over the last 2K, while the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) is characterized by extremely dry conditions. Following the MCA, the Little Ice Age (LIA) is a relatively wetter phase. The data document fluctuations of southern meridional

  4. Anxiety in females induced by long-lasting psychoemotional influences.

    PubMed

    Avgustinovich, D F

    2005-02-01

    The experiments reported here addressed the behavior of female mice after long-lasting psychoemotional influences consisting of daily placing of females in the presence of intermale confrontations, the females being on the other side of a transparent perforated partition; females were subsequently placed in the territory (litter) in which the conflict had taken place. These conditions induced anxiety in the females, detected in the elevated cross maze test. In the absence of any marked prodepressant effect, females were more passive in the Porsolt test. There was also an increase in the time spent by females close to the partition both 5 min before the start of the conflict and during the intermale conflict.

  5. Indian contribution to reproductive physiology: the last 2 decades.

    PubMed

    Kothari, L K; Jain, M

    1990-04-01

    The end of twentieth century is witnessing far-reaching changes in the reproductive behaviour of modern man. Population is doubling now in a record time of 30 years in some parts of the world like India. On the other hand, living-together without marriage and widespread use of contraceptives is making child bearing highly optional in the West. Technological advances in the realm of in-vitro fertilization and genetic manipulation have opened up enormous possibilities, bringing us almost on the verge of Aldous Huxley's Brave New World. It is natural, therefore, that reproduction has become an attractive area of research for physiologists. We review here some of the significant contributions made by Indians to reproduction physiology during the last 20 years (1970-1990). Considerable pruning of available material has been necessary. The emphasis sometimes was on Physiologists although their contribution may not be exactly basic physiology, and sometimes on Physiology although the contributors were not exactly physiologists.

  6. The Last Possible Outposts for Life on Mars.

    PubMed

    Davila, Alfonso F; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    The evolution of habitable conditions on Mars is often tied to the existence of aquatic habitats and largely constrained to the first billion years of the planet. Here, we propose an alternate, lasting evolutionary trajectory that assumes the colonization of land habitats before the end of the Hesperian period (ca. 3 billion years ago) at a pace similar to life on Earth. Based on the ecological adaptations to increasing dryness observed in dryland ecosystems on Earth, we reconstruct the most likely sequence of events leading to a late extinction of land communities on Mars. We propose a trend of ecological change with increasing dryness from widespread edaphic communities to localized lithic communities and finally to communities exclusively found in hygroscopic substrates, reflecting the need for organisms to maximize access to atmospheric sources of water. If our thought process is correct, it implies the possibility of life on Mars until relatively recent times, perhaps even the present. PMID:26836457

  7. Solar total and spectral irradiance reconstruction over last 9000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chi-Ju; Usoskin, Ilya; Krivova, Natalie; Solanki, Sami K.

    2016-07-01

    Although the mechanisms of solar influence on Earth climate system are not yet fully understood, solar total and spectral irradiance are considered to be among the main determinants. Solar total irradiance is the total flux of solar radiative energy entering Earth's climate system, whereas the spectral irradiance describes this energy is distributed over the spectrum. Solar irradiance in the UV band is of special importance since it governs chemical processes in the middle and upper atmosphere. On timescales of the 11-year solar cycle and shorter, solar irradiance is measured by space-based instruments while models are needed to reconstruct solar irradiance on longer timescale. The SATIRE-M model (Spectral And Total Irradiance Reconstruction over millennia) is employed in this study to reconstruct solar irradiance from decadal radionuclide isotope data such as 14C and 10Be stored in tree rings and ice cores, respectively. A reconstruction over the last 9000 years will be presented.

  8. The last total solar eclipse of the millennium in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozguc, A.; Atac, T.; Altas, L.

    1999-03-01

    The last total solar eclipse of the millennium will be observed from Turkey which bridges two continents and has been the cradle of so many past civilizations. Wouldn't you like to witness this magnificent event in the mystic ambiance of central Anatolia which offers its guests Turkish hospitality and a lot of historical examples of paganism, Christianity and Islam. Among the countries from which the eclipse will be visible, Turkey seems to be one of the most suitable countries in terms of its climate and observational facilities. Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute has arranged fieldwork on the eclipse path to determine the suitable points for the observations. The shadow of the moon will be first seen from the Black Sea coast at 14:20 L.T. It will then pass through central Anatolia and will leave Turkey from south-east at 14:42 L.T.

  9. Greenland temperature response to climate forcing during the last deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Buizert, Christo; Gkinis, Vasileios; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P; He, Feng; Lecavalier, Benoit S; Kindler, Philippe; Leuenberger, Markus; Carlson, Anders E; Vinther, Bo; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; White, James W C; Liu, Zhengyu; Otto-Bliesner, Bette; Brook, Edward J

    2014-09-01

    Greenland ice core water isotopic composition (δ(18)O) provides detailed evidence for abrupt climate changes but is by itself insufficient for quantitative reconstruction of past temperatures and their spatial patterns. We investigate Greenland temperature evolution during the last deglaciation using independent reconstructions from three ice cores and simulations with a coupled ocean-atmosphere climate model. Contrary to the traditional δ(18)O interpretation, the Younger Dryas period was 4.5° ± 2°C warmer than the Oldest Dryas, due to increased carbon dioxide forcing and summer insolation. The magnitude of abrupt temperature changes is larger in central Greenland (9° to 14°C) than in the northwest (5° to 9°C), fingerprinting a North Atlantic origin. Simulated changes in temperature seasonality closely track changes in the Atlantic overturning strength and support the hypothesis that abrupt climate change is mostly a winter phenomenon. PMID:25190795

  10. Does income inequality have lasting effects on health and trust?

    PubMed

    Rözer, Jesper Jelle; Volker, Beate

    2016-01-01

    According to the income inequality hypothesis, income inequality is associated with poorer health. One important proposed mechanism for this effect is reduced trust. In this study, we argue that income inequality during a person's formative years (i.e., around age 16) may have lasting consequences for trust and health. Multilevel analyses of data from the combined World Values Survey and European Values Study that were collected between 1981 and 2014 support our prediction and show that income inequality is associated with ill health in young adults, in part because it reduces their social trust. The negative consequences of income inequality remain stable for a substantial period of life but eventually fade away and have no effect after age 36.

  11. The budget of methane over the last several hundred years

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, M.A.K.; Shearer, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    The atmospheric concentration of methane has increased for more than a hundred years. The trends have not been steady, however. Climatic events, global economic conditions, changes in energy use, and shifting patterns of agriculture appear to have contributed to measurable changes in the global concentrations. At present, there is agreement between the measured concentrations, which are known quite precisely, and the less certain knowledge about changes in the sources and sinks of methane. In this paper we will discuss how well we understand the trends over the last 100 years, based on the existing records. In particular, we will discuss the possible reasons for the current slowdown in the global rate of increase of methane in the atmosphere.

  12. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations over the last glacial termination.

    PubMed

    Monnin, E; Indermühle, A; Dällenbach, A; Flückiger, J; Stauffer, B; Stocker, T F; Raynaud, D; Barnola, J M

    2001-01-01

    A record of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration during the transition from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene, obtained from the Dome Concordia, Antarctica, ice core, reveals that an increase of 76 parts per million by volume occurred over a period of 6000 years in four clearly distinguishable intervals. The close correlation between CO2 concentration and Antarctic temperature indicates that the Southern Ocean played an important role in causing the CO2 increase. However, the similarity of changes in CO2 concentration and variations of atmospheric methane concentration suggests that processes in the tropics and in the Northern Hemisphere, where the main sources for methane are located, also had substantial effects on atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

  13. Famines in the last 100 years: implications for diabetes.

    PubMed

    de Rooij, Susanne R; Roseboom, Tessa J; Painter, Rebecca C

    2014-10-01

    Overnutrition is a major cause of diabetes. The contrary situation of undernutrition has also been suggested to increase the risk of the disease. Especially undernutrition during prenatal life has been hypothesized to program the structure and physiology of the fetus in such a way that it is more prone to develop diabetes in later life. Famines over the last 100 years have provided historical opportunities to study later-life health consequences of poor nutritional circumstances in early life. The majority of studies based on famine exposure during prenatal life clearly show that diabetes risk is increased. Postnatal famine exposure in childhood, adolescence, or young adulthood also seems to raise risk for diabetes, although prenatal famine effects seem to be more substantial. These study results not only have implications for the consequences of famines still happening but also for pregnancies complicated by factors mimicking poor nutritional situations.

  14. The Last Possible Outposts for Life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davila, Alfonso F.; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    The evolution of habitable conditions on Mars is often tied to the existence of aquatic habitats and largely constrained to the first billion years of the planet. Here, we propose an alternate, lasting evolutionary trajectory that assumes the colonization of land habitats before the end of the Hesperian period (ca. 3 billion years ago) at a pace similar to life on Earth. Based on the ecological adaptations to increasing dryness observed in dryland ecosystems on Earth, we reconstruct the most likely sequence of events leading to a late extinction of land communities on Mars. We propose a trend of ecological change with increasing dryness from widespread edaphic communities to localized lithic communities and finally to communities exclusively found in hygroscopic substrates, reflecting the need for organisms to maximize access to atmospheric sources of water. If our thought process is correct, it implies the possibility of life on Mars until relatively recent times, perhaps even the present.

  15. Modeling East African tropical glaciers during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, Alice; Kelly, Meredith; Russell, James; Jackson, Margaret; Anderson, Brian; Nakileza, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The timing and magnitude of tropical glacier fluctuations since the last glacial maximum could elucidate how climatic signals transfer between hemispheres. We focus on ancient glaciers of the East African Rwenzori Mountains, Uganda/D.R. Congo, where efforts to map and date the moraines are on-going. We use a coupled mass balance - ice flow model to infer past climate by simulating glacier extents that match the mapped and dated LGM moraines. A range of possible temperature/precipitation change combinations (e.g. -15% precipitation and -7C temperature change) allow simulated glaciers to fit the LGM moraines dated to 20,140±610 and 23,370±470 years old.

  16. Greenland temperature response to climate forcing during the last deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Buizert, Christo; Gkinis, Vasileios; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P; He, Feng; Lecavalier, Benoit S; Kindler, Philippe; Leuenberger, Markus; Carlson, Anders E; Vinther, Bo; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; White, James W C; Liu, Zhengyu; Otto-Bliesner, Bette; Brook, Edward J

    2014-09-01

    Greenland ice core water isotopic composition (δ(18)O) provides detailed evidence for abrupt climate changes but is by itself insufficient for quantitative reconstruction of past temperatures and their spatial patterns. We investigate Greenland temperature evolution during the last deglaciation using independent reconstructions from three ice cores and simulations with a coupled ocean-atmosphere climate model. Contrary to the traditional δ(18)O interpretation, the Younger Dryas period was 4.5° ± 2°C warmer than the Oldest Dryas, due to increased carbon dioxide forcing and summer insolation. The magnitude of abrupt temperature changes is larger in central Greenland (9° to 14°C) than in the northwest (5° to 9°C), fingerprinting a North Atlantic origin. Simulated changes in temperature seasonality closely track changes in the Atlantic overturning strength and support the hypothesis that abrupt climate change is mostly a winter phenomenon.

  17. The Last Possible Outposts for Life on Mars.

    PubMed

    Davila, Alfonso F; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    The evolution of habitable conditions on Mars is often tied to the existence of aquatic habitats and largely constrained to the first billion years of the planet. Here, we propose an alternate, lasting evolutionary trajectory that assumes the colonization of land habitats before the end of the Hesperian period (ca. 3 billion years ago) at a pace similar to life on Earth. Based on the ecological adaptations to increasing dryness observed in dryland ecosystems on Earth, we reconstruct the most likely sequence of events leading to a late extinction of land communities on Mars. We propose a trend of ecological change with increasing dryness from widespread edaphic communities to localized lithic communities and finally to communities exclusively found in hygroscopic substrates, reflecting the need for organisms to maximize access to atmospheric sources of water. If our thought process is correct, it implies the possibility of life on Mars until relatively recent times, perhaps even the present.

  18. A last interglacial fauna from the Eastern Sahara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Kazimierz; Neer, Wim van; Bocheński, Zygmunt; Młynarski, Marian; Rzebik-Kowalska, Barbara; Szyndlar, Zbigniew; Gautier, Achilles; Schild, Romuald; Close, Angela E.; Wendorf, Fred

    1989-11-01

    Recent work on the middle Paleolithic at Bir Tarfawi, in the hyperarid Eastern Sahara (<1 mm of rain per annum), has yielded a rich faunal assemblage, including several thousand remains of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and small mammals. They are derived from the sediments of two consecutive lakes dated by several techniques to about 135,000 yr B.P. Fifty-nine taxa have been identified and indicate that at times during the Last Interglaciation the area received at least 500 mm of rainfall as a result of the northward shift of the monsoon belt, and that, on several occasions, there may have been water connections between Bir Tarfawi and unidentified but permanent bodies of water elsewhere.

  19. Characterizing Interplanetary Structures of Long-Lasting Ionospheric Storm Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tandoi, C.; Dong, Y.; Ngwira, C. M.; Damas, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    Geomagnetic storms can result in periods of heightened TEC (Total Electron Content) in Earth's ionosphere. These periods of change in TEC (dTEC) can have adverse impacts on a technological society, such as scintillation of radio signals used by communication and navigation satellites. However, it is unknown which exact properties of a given storm cause dTEC. We are comparing different solar wind properties that result in a significant long-lasting dTEC to see if there are any patterns that remain constant in these storms. These properties, among others, include the interplanetary magnetic field By and Bz components, the proton density, and the flow speed. As a preliminary investigation, we have studied 15 solar storms. Preliminary results will be presented. In the future, we hope to increase our sample size and analyze over 80 different solar storms, which result in significant dTEC.

  20. Cannabis and psychopathology: The meandering journey of the last decade

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Abhishek; Basu, Debasish

    2015-01-01

    Since its inception cannabis has been observed to be associated with various psycho-pathology. In this paper, the authors have reviewed the advancement made in this area over the last decade. The association between cannabis and schizophrenia has been researched more intensively. The controversy regarding the reliability, clinical utility, and the existence of a cannabis withdrawal syndrome has also been settled. Recent studies also buttressed the possibility of acute and chronic effect of cannabis on various cognitive functions. There has been a plethora of research regarding the treatment for cannabis use disorders. But the new and most interesting area of research is concentrated on the endocannabinoid system and its contribution in various psychiatric disorders. PMID:26124519

  1. [Lieutenant-general V.O.Kappel: last campaign].

    PubMed

    Briniuk, I Iu

    2012-02-01

    The article is devoted to the last days of life and illness of one of commanders of the White movement, lieutenant-general Vladimir Oskarovich Kappel (1883-1920). Professional soldier, Nicholas Military Academy graduate, participant of the World War 1, Kappel was one of the staunch opponents of Soviet power. It is difficult to overemphasize Kappel's role in the armed struggle against Bolshevism in Volga region and Siberia in 1918-1919. He deserved reputation of the most talented and respected generals in the army of Admiral Kolchak. Kappel died January 26, 1920, his death was recorded on the death certificate, signed by temporarily seconded to the staff of East-precision front by the Russian doctor and the doctor Ryabov Romanian AK-tier Danets. The cause of the death of General called bilateral lung fever.

  2. Distributional learning has immediate and long-lasting effects.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Paola; Williams, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Evidence of distributional learning, a statistical learning mechanism centered on relative frequency of exposure to different tokens, has mainly come from short-term learning and therefore does not ostensibly address the development of important learning processes. The present longitudinal study examines both short- and long-term effects of distributional learning of phonetic categories on non-native sound discrimination over a 12-month period. Two groups of listeners were exposed to a two-minute distribution of auditory stimuli in which the most frequently presented tokens either approximated or exaggerated the natural production of the speech sounds, whereas a control group listened to a piece of classical music for the same length of time. Discrimination by listeners in the two distribution groups improved immediately after the short exposure, replicating previous results. Crucially, this improvement was maintained after six and 12 months, demonstrating that distributional learning has long-lasting effects.

  3. 1. Remnants of the last lock on the George Washington ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Remnants of the last lock on the George Washington 'Potowmack Canal, just before the barge entered the Potomac River. The latter can be seen through the foliage of the tree which has grown up in the old canal bed. On the left hand side of the photograph, not shown here in its entirety, are the old iron studdings which held the gates, to permit the barges to pass easily into the river. On the right hand side of the photograph is shown the crumbling remains of the lock with their receased oval space clearly shown, into which the lock gate retrieved when the barge was lowered to the next level. The depth from the spot where the individual is shown pointing to the top of the lock, is about 24 or 25 ft., and the canal has been filled up with broken ... - Potowmack Company: Great Falls Canal, Locks No. 3, 4, 5, Great Falls, Fairfax County, VA

  4. Sylvia Plath: a protocol analysis of her last poems.

    PubMed

    Leenaars, A A; Wenckstern, S

    1998-01-01

    Personal documents have a significant place in psychological research. Suicide notes, diaries, novels, poems, and so on allow us to better understand the suicidal mind. The works of Sylvia Plath--a poet who killed herself at age 30--are prime examples for such protocol study. This article examines the last 6 months of Plath's poetry, revealing a suicidal malaise. Associating the results to the lives of Cesare Pavese and the case study of Natalie, a Terman-Shneidman subject of the intellectually gifted, the study shows a unit thema that facilitates the process of death. The poems reveal such themes as unbearable pain, loss, and abandonment that likely contributed significantly to death becoming the only solution.

  5. For the first fracture to be the last

    PubMed Central

    Stolnicki, Bernardo; Oliveira, Lindomar Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Increased longevity has made progression in the number of fractures increasingly significant. Because hip fractures give rise to high morbidity and mortality rates and have high treatment costs, their occurrence is the most important marker of effectiveness in relation to osteoporosis treatment. In countries and systems that, especially over the last decade, have been investing in the prevention of osteoporosis and its consequences, the number of hip fractures has been decreasing. What these countries have in common is secondary prevention of fractures, i.e. to avoid subsequent fractures. Given that half of the patients who present hip fractures have had a previous fracture and that the treatments available have proven to be extremely efficient for decreasing subsequent fractures, a good proportion of hip fractures are preventable. It is within this scenario that orthopedists play a leading role. PMID:27069877

  6. Interhemispheric ice-sheet synchronicity during the last glacial maximum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weber, Michael E.; Clark, Peter U.; Ricken, Werner; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Hostetler, Steven W.; Kuhn, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    The timing of the last maximum extent of the Antarctic ice sheets relative to those in the Northern Hemisphere remains poorly understood. We develop a chronology for the Weddell Sea sector of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet that, combined with ages from other Antarctic ice-sheet sectors, indicates that the advance to and retreat from their maximum extent was within dating uncertainties synchronous with most sectors of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. Surface climate forcing of Antarctic mass balance would probably cause an opposite response, whereby a warming climate would increase accumulation but not surface melting. Our new data support teleconnections involving sea-level forcing from Northern Hemisphere ice sheets and changes in North Atlantic deep-water formation and attendant heat flux to Antarctic grounding lines to synchronize the hemispheric ice sheets.

  7. The last mile: earthquake risk mitigation assistance in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Shah, Haresh C

    2006-08-15

    Over the past few decades, we have seen many joint programmes between developed countries and developing countries to help the latter in managing their earthquake risks. These programmes span the whole spectrum of disciplines from seismology and geology to engineering, social science and economics. Many of these programmes have been effective in raising awareness, in urging governments to work towards risk reduction and in spawning an 'industry' of disaster management in many of the developing countries. However, even as these efforts proceed, we have seen death and destruction due to earthquake after earthquake in developing countries, strongly suggesting that the problems for which those assistance programmes were developed are not so effective. Therefore, it is natural to ask why this is happening. Are the assistance programmes reaching the right people? Maybe we are reaching the right people and doing the right type of things in these countries, but we have not allowed enough time for our actions to take effect. Maybe we are reaching the right people and doing the right actions for most of the miles we need to cover in helping communities mitigate their earthquake risks. However, the issue could be whether we are reaching people who represent the 'last mile' on this pathway. Here, I explore whether the work that many organizations and countries have done towards earthquake risk reduction over the past few decades in developing countries is appropriate or not. Why do we keep seeing the catastrophes of Sumatra, Chi Chi, Bhuj, Turkey, Algeria and on and on? I will articulate what I think is the problem. My contribution is intended to generate discussions, self-analysis of our approaches, what we are doing right and what we are not doing right. Hopefully such discussions will result in a better connection between the last mile and programmes around the world which are working towards earthquake risk mitigation. PMID:16844655

  8. Interhemispheric Ice-Sheet Synchronicity During the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M. E.; Clark, P. U.; Kuhn, G.; Ricken, W.; Sprenk, D.

    2011-12-01

    The timing of the last maximum extent of the Antarctic ice sheets relative to those in the Northern Hemisphere remains poorly understood because only a few findings with robust chronologies exist for Antarctic ice sheets. We developed a chronology for the Weddell Sea sector of the East Antarctic ice sheet that, combined with ages from other Antarctic ice-sheet sectors, indicates the advance to and retreat from their maximum extent was nearly synchronous with Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. As for the deglaciation, modeling studies suggest a late ice-sheet retreat starting around 14 ka BP and ending around 7 ka BP with a large impact of an unstable West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) and a small impact of a stable East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). However, the Weddell Sea sites studied here, as well as sites from the Scotia Sea, provide evidence that specifically the EAIS responded much earlier, possibly provided a significant contribution to the last sea-level rise, and was much more dynamic than previously thought. Deep-sea sediment sites from the central Scotia Sea "iceberg alley" show four phases of enhanced deposition of ice-rated detritus (IRD) occurred at 19.5, 16.5,14.5, and 12 ka. The first two relate to the two ice-sheet retreat signals documented for the Weddell Sea; the third phase indicates an Antarctic component to meltwater pulse 1a; the fourth phase falls roughly into period of the Younger Dryas. Our modeling studies show that surface climate forcing of Antarctic ice sheets would have likely increased ice mass balance during deglaciation, whereby a warming climate would increase accumulation but not surface melting. We propose that sea-level forcing from Northern Hemisphere ice sheets and changes in North Atlantic deepwater formation and attendant heat flux to Antarctic grounding lines provided the teleconnections to synchronize the hemispheric ice sheets.

  9. Intermediate Water Radiocarbon Anomalies During the Last Deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, S. P.; Lehman, S. J.; Marchitto, T. M.; Ninnemann, U. S.

    2011-12-01

    Several recent reconstructions of intermediate water radiocarbon activities (Δ14C) have revealed intervals of very low Δ14C during the last deglaciation [Bryan et al., 2010; Marchitto et al., 2007; Thornalley et al., 2011]. Anomalously low Δ14C values coincided with increases in atmospheric CO2 and decreases in atmospheric Δ14C. As such, these Δ14C anomalies have been interpreted as the transfer of 14C-depleted carbon from the deep ocean to the upper ocean and atmosphere. An important component of this interpretation is the transport of low-Δ14C waters from the Southern Ocean, where they presumably upwelled from the deep ocean, northward to the core sites via intermediate waters. However, contrary to expectations, anomalously low Δ14C values have not been found at intermediate water sites closer to the Southern Ocean [e.g., De Pol-Holz et al., 2009; Rose et al., 2010]. In this talk, we will present new intermediate water Δ14C measurements from ~53°S along the Chile Margin, reconstructed using sediment core MD07-3128. Consistent with other intermediate water records from the Southern Hemisphere, these measurements do not show anomalously low Δ14C during the deglaciation. Instead, these results indicate lower Δ14C values during the Last Glacial Maximum and a rapid increase in Δ14C at the start of the deglaciation. We interpret this change as a shift in the boundary between Circumpolar Deep Water and Antarctic Intermediate Water. These results along with the previously published records provide strong evidence that low-Δ14C waters were not transported by an intermediate water mass analogous to modern Antarctic Intermediate Water. We synthesize the currently available deglacial intermediate water Δ14C records and discuss possible changes to Southern Ocean intermediate water formation, which could reconcile the available data.

  10. The UNOS Renal Transplant Registry: Review of the Last Decade.

    PubMed

    Andre, Mark; Huang, Edmund; Everly, Matthew; Bunnapradist, Suphamai

    2014-01-01

    Kidney transplantation has become a preferred treatment for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) as transplant recipients enjoy freedom from dialysis and improvement in both quality and quantity of life. More patients are being placed on the transplant waiting list, although the waiting list patients still only represent a very small fraction of ESRD patients. The characteristics of both waitlisted and transplanted patients have changed considerably in the last decade, as the ESRD population has aged and waiting list times have increased. Over the last 10 years, we have witnessed an increasingly severe shortage of kidney donors. Even with increasing efforts of the transplant community to expand the donor pool by including larger numbers of high risk deceased donor transplants, the overall number of kidney transplants has remained relatively stable. Those who do receive transplants, however, benefit from excellent transplant outcomes. The use of paired exchange/chain transplant donors has increased the living donor pool significantly and with outstanding results. Belatacept, a costimulation blockage drug, represents a new class of transplant immunosuppression. It has been used sparingly in the first few years of its approval. Most kidney transplant patients are still maintained on immunosuppressive agents that were approved almost two decades ago. In the next decade, we will certainly continue to deal with an organ shortage as the number of eligible and waitlisted patients is likely to increase. Effective and efficient organ allocation policies will be increasingly necessary to address this scarcity. Optimizing the transplant candidate work-up, improving maintenance of waitlisted patients, and providing optimal post-transplant medical care will be vital to the continued success of kidney transplantation.

  11. Atmospheric Oxygen Variation Over the Last 100 Million Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, A. J.; Mills, B.; Daines, S. J.; Lenton, T. M.; Belcher, C.

    2014-12-01

    There is no agreement over how atmospheric oxygen has varied over recent Earth history. Our knowledge of past O2 concentrations relies on biogeochemical modelling, constrained by geochemical data and proxies. There are however few direct indicators of oxygen concentrations, though the presence of fossil charcoal indicates that levels have not strayed outside the "fire window", say below 16% or above 35%, during the last hundred million years. Different model predictions encompass both decreasing and increasing trends over this period however. These predictions are sensitive to weathering of continental rocks, which provide a sink for O2, but also a supply of phosphorus and sediment to the ocean, both of which increase carbon burial and thereby provide an oxygen source. Here we update our COPSE model with a more detailed treatment than hitherto, incorporating new input data, seafloor weathering processes, and different compositions and weatherability of granites and basalts. Our model suggests a broadly declining O2 trend over the late Mesozoic to present. An alternative forcing uses the phosphorus deposition curve of Follmi (1995), which is constructed from P measurements in ocean cores, and indicates P fluxes to the oceans that have varied over time by two orders of magnitude. Used to drive the model this also results in a declining long-term trend for atmospheric O2 over the last hundred million years, but with dramatic shorter-term variations superposed on the trend. These however stay (just) within the "fire window" for oxygen concentrations, and can be tentatively related to the evolution of fire adaptations in plants.

  12. Interglacials of the last 800,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Past Interglacials Working Group Of Pages

    2016-03-01

    Interglacials, including the present (Holocene) period, are warm, low land ice extent (high sea level), end-members of glacial cycles. Based on a sea level definition, we identify eleven interglacials in the last 800,000 years, a result that is robust to alternative definitions. Data compilations suggest that despite spatial heterogeneity, Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5e (last interglacial) and 11c (~400 ka ago) were globally strong (warm), while MIS 13a (~500 ka ago) was cool at many locations. A step change in strength of interglacials at 450 ka is apparent only in atmospheric CO2 and in Antarctic and deep ocean temperature. The onset of an interglacial (glacial termination) seems to require a reducing precession parameter (increasing Northern Hemisphere summer insolation), but this condition alone is insufficient. Terminations involve rapid, nonlinear, reactions of ice volume, CO2, and temperature to external astronomical forcing. The precise timing of events may be modulated by millennial-scale climate change that can lead to a contrasting timing of maximum interglacial intensity in each hemisphere. A variety of temporal trends is observed, such that maxima in the main records are observed either early or late in different interglacials. The end of an interglacial (glacial inception) is a slower process involving a global sequence of changes. Interglacials have been typically 10-30 ka long. The combination of minimal reduction in northern summer insolation over the next few orbital cycles, owing to low eccentricity, and high atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations implies that the next glacial inception is many tens of millennia in the future.

  13. Atmospheric nitrous oxide during the last 140,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilt, Adrian; Baumgartner, Matthias; Schwander, Jakob; Buiron, Daphné; Capron, Emilie; Chappellaz, Jérôme; Loulergue, Laetitia; Schüpbach, Simon; Spahni, Renato; Fischer, Hubertus; Stocker, Thomas F.

    2010-11-01

    Reconstructions of past atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases provide unique insight into the biogeochemical cycles and the past radiative forcing in the Earth's climate system. We present new measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide along the ice cores of the North Greenland Ice Core Project and Talos Dome sites. Using records of several other ice cores, we are now able to establish the first complete composite nitrous oxide record reaching back to the beginning of the previous interglacial about 140,000 yr ago. On the basis of such composite ice core records, we further calculate the radiative forcing of the three most important greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide during more than a full glacial-interglacial cycle. Nitrous oxide varies in line with climate, reaching very low concentrations of about 200 parts per billion by volume during Marine Isotope Stages 4 and 2, and showing substantial responses to millennial time scale climate variations during the last glacial. A large part of these millennial time scale variations can be explained by parallel changes in the sources of methane and nitrous oxide. However, as revealed by high-resolution measurements covering the Dansgaard/Oeschger events 17 to 15, the evolution of these two greenhouse gases may be decoupled on the centennial time scale. Carbon dioxide and methane concentrations do not reach interglacial levels in the course of millennial time scale climate variations during the last glacial. In contrast, nitrous oxide often reaches interglacial concentrations in response to both, glacial terminations and Dansgaard/Oeschger events. This indicates, from a biogeochemical point of view, similar drivers in both temporal cases. While carbon dioxide and methane concentrations are more strongly controlled by climate changes in high latitudes, nitrous oxide emissions changes may mainly stem from the ocean and/or from soils located at low latitudes. Accordingly, we speculate that high

  14. Progressive Cenozoic cooling and the demise of Antarctica's last refugium.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John B; Warny, Sophie; Askin, Rosemary A; Wellner, Julia S; Bohaty, Steven M; Kirshner, Alexandra E; Livsey, Daniel N; Simms, Alexander R; Smith, Tyler R; Ehrmann, Werner; Lawver, Lawrence A; Barbeau, David; Wise, Sherwood W; Kulhanek, Denise K; Kulhenek, Denise K; Weaver, Fred M; Majewski, Wojciech

    2011-07-12

    The Antarctic Peninsula is considered to be the last region of Antarctica to have been fully glaciated as a result of Cenozoic climatic cooling. As such, it was likely the last refugium for plants and animals that had inhabited the continent since it separated from the Gondwana supercontinent. Drill cores and seismic data acquired during two cruises (SHALDRIL I and II) in the northernmost Peninsula region yield a record that, when combined with existing data, indicates progressive cooling and associated changes in terrestrial vegetation over the course of the past 37 million years. Mountain glaciation began in the latest Eocene (approximately 37-34 Ma), contemporaneous with glaciation elsewhere on the continent and a reduction in atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. This climate cooling was accompanied by a decrease in diversity of the angiosperm-dominated vegetation that inhabited the northern peninsula during the Eocene. A mosaic of southern beech and conifer-dominated woodlands and tundra continued to occupy the region during the Oligocene (approximately 34-23 Ma). By the middle Miocene (approximately 16-11.6 Ma), localized pockets of limited tundra still existed at least until 12.8 Ma. The transition from temperate, alpine glaciation to a dynamic, polythermal ice sheet took place during the middle Miocene. The northernmost Peninsula was overridden by an ice sheet in the early Pliocene (approximately 5.3-3.6 Ma). The long cooling history of the peninsula is consistent with the extended timescales of tectonic evolution of the Antarctic margin, involving the opening of ocean passageways and associated establishment of circumpolar circulation.

  15. Evidence from the Seychelles of Last Interglacial Sea Level Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyverberg, K.; Dutton, A.; Dechnik, B.; Webster, J.; Zwartz, D.

    2014-12-01

    Several studies indicate that sea level oscillated during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e, but the details of these scenarios, including the number of sea level oscillations, are still debated. We lack a detailed understanding of the sensitivity of the large polar ice sheets to changes in temperature that could result in eustatic sea level oscillations. Because the Seychelles are located far from the margins of the Last Glacial Maximum northern hemisphere ice sheets, they have not been subjected to glacial isostatic adjustment, and have been tectonically stable since the Last Interglacial period; therefore, they provide a robust record of eustatic sea level during MIS 5e. All of the outcrops we examined contain unconformities and/or sharp transitions between facies, though the nature of these boundaries varies between sites. In some outcrops we observed a hardground comprising fine-grained, mollusc-rich sediment layer between distinct generations of in situ coralgal framework. In one outcrop, this succession was observed twice, where two generations of reef growth were each capped by a strongly indurated fine-grained, mollusc-rich sediment layer. At the site with the greatest vertical extent of outcrop, there is a marked difference in the taxonomic composition of the coral community above and below an unconformable surface, but the indurated fine-grained, sediment layer observed elsewhere was absent. Most of the other outcrops we studied contained a common succession of facies from in situ reef units overlain by cemented coral rubble. In two dated outcrops, the age of corals above and below the rubble layer are the same age. The hardgrounds and rubble layers may represent ephemeral exposure of the reef units during two drops in sea level. The inference of multiple meter-scale oscillations during the MIS 5e highstand indicates a more dynamic cryosphere than the present interglacial, although the climatic threshold for more volatile polar ice sheets is not yet clear.

  16. The timing and duration of the Last Interglacial Asian Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, D.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R.; Kelly, M.; Qing, J.; Lin, Y.; Zhang, M.

    2002-12-01

    An accurate estimate for the timing and duration of regional and global climate change associated with the Last Interglacial is important for elucidating climate change mechanisms. We present a 230Th-dated δ18O record of 2 stalagmites (D3 and D4) from Dongge Cave, southern China (25°N, 109°E, an area affected by East Asian and Indian Monsoons), which record Asian Monsoon history over 3 periods, 160-110 ka, 65-43 ka and 15.5 ka - present. The stalagmites have different precipitation environments and water flow paths as indicated by different growth histories, growth rates and δ234U values. D3 grew faster between 123-118 ka (12 vs. 0.4 cm/ka), but D4 grew faster between 138-126 ka (3.4 vs. 0.7 cm/ka). The mean initial δ234U value of D3 is -272 (range of -261 to -287). D4 values are higher (mean = -78, range of -27 to -160). Despite these differences, both have similar large δ18O variations for the interval over which both were active (148 to 113 ka), suggesting that water-rock interactions and kinetic fractionation did not affect δ18O values significantly. Dongge Cave stalagmites exhibit features similar to the Younger Dryas (YD) and the Bolling/Allerod as recorded in Greenland ice cores (GISP, 1997) and stalagmites from Hulu Cave, eastern China (Wang et al., 2001). The Dongge YD lies between 12640 +/-140 and 11550 +/-80 years BP, synchronous with Greenland and Hulu Cave YD analogues. Similar to Hulu Cave, light Dongge Cave δ18O excursions correspond to heavy isotopic excursions in Greenland, consistent with a positive correlation between the intensity of the Asian summer monsoon and Greenland temperature. The most prominent feature in the Dongge record is a peak that approximates a square wave and is contemporaneous with at least portions of the Last Interglacial sea level high. Dongge Termination II is a large, abrupt negative shift in δ18O (>3 per mil). The mid-point is at 129.3 +/-0.9 ka, based on direct dating of D4. D3 gives an age indistinguishable

  17. The Last Interglacial History of the Antarctic Ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Sarah; Siddall, Mark; Milne, Glenn A.; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Wolff, Eric; Hindmarsh, Richard C. A.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we present a summary of the work which was conducted as part of the 'PAST4FUTURE -WP4.1: Sea Level and Ice sheets' project. The overall aim of this study was to understand the response of the Antarctic Ice sheet (AIS) to climate forcing during the Last interglacial (LIG) and its contribution to the observed higher than present sea level during this period. The study involved the application and development of a novel technique which combined East Antarctic stable isotope ice core data with the output from a Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) model [Bradley et al., 2012]. We investigated if the stable isotope ice core data are sensitive to detecting isostatically driven changes in the surface elevation driven by changes in the ice-loading history of the AIS and if so, could we address some key questions relating to the LIG history of the AIS. Although it is believed that the West Antarctic Ice sheet (WAIS) reduced in size during the LIG compared to the Holocene, major uncertainties and unknowns remain unresolved: Did the WAIS collapse? What would the contribution of such a collapse be the higher than present LIG eustatic sea level (ESL)? We will show that a simulated collapse of the WAIS does not generate a significant elevation driven signal at the EAIS LIG ice core sites, and as such, these ice core records cannot be used to assess WAIS stability over this period. However, we will present 'treasure maps' [Bradley et al., 2012] to identify regions of the AIS where results from geological studies and/or new paleoclimate data may be sensitive to detecting a WAIS collapse. These maps can act as a useful tool for the wider science community/field scientists as a guide to highlight sites suitable to constrain the evolution of the WAIS during the LIG. Studies have proposed that the surface temperature across the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) was significantly warmer, 2-5°C during the LIG compared to present [Lang and Wolff, 2011]. These higher

  18. The CMIP6/PMIP4 Last Millennium Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungclaus, Johann

    2016-04-01

    Climate has varied considerably during the late Holocene and these changes left their traces in history (Medieval Climate Optimum, Little Ice Age). However, the relative magnitude of natural fluctuations due to internal variability of the Earth's climate system and to variations in the external forcing and the present global warming, attributed to anthropogenic greenhouse gases, is still under debate. Investigating the response to (mainly) natural forcing under climatic background conditions not too different from today is crucial for an improved understanding of climate variability, circulation, and regional connectivity. Simulations over the last millennium (LM) allow assessing climate variability on decadal and longer scales and provide information on predictability under forced and unforced conditions. In providing in-depth model evaluation with respect to observations and paleoclimatic reconstructions, LM simulations serve to understand origins and consequences of systematic model biases. PMIP4 Tier-1 includes the standard LM simulation covering 850 to 1849 CE and a subsequent "historical" (1850 - 2010 CE) experiment as a minimum requirement. In addition to changes in Earth's orbit and greenhouse gas concentrations, the models are forced by variations in solar irradiance, volcanic aerosol load, and anthropogenic land-cover. As part of Tier-2, the modeling groups are asked to provide additional simulations in the form of ensembles, single forcing experiments, as well as sensitivity runs using alternative forcing combinations. The extension of the simulations to cover the complete last two millennia (0 CE to present) is also part of Tier-2. We describe the experimental design of the LM simulations and discuss the protocol on new forcing and boundary conditions. We discuss recent advances in the reconstruction of solar, volcanic, and land-cover changes and their implementation in the CMIP6 models. PMIP4 aims to provide forcing datasets that are consistent with

  19. Flow-pattern evolution of the last British Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Anna L. C.; Clark, Chris D.; Jordan, Colm J.

    2014-04-01

    We present a 10-stage reconstruction of the evolution in ice-flow patterns of the last British Ice Sheet from build-up to demise derived from geomorphological evidence. 100 flowsets identified in the subglacial bedform record (drumlins, mega-scale glacial lineations, and ribbed moraine) are combined with ancillary evidence (erratic-transport paths, absolute dates and a semi-independently reconstructed retreat pattern) to define flow patterns, ice divides and ice-sheet margins during build-up, maximum glaciation and retreat. Overprinting and cross-cutting of landform assemblages are used to define the relative chronology of flow patterns and a tentative absolute chronology is presented based on a collation of available dates for ice advance and retreat. The ice-flow configuration of the last British Ice Sheet was not static. Some ice divides were remarkably stable, persisting through multiple stages of the ice-sheet evolution, whereas others were transient features existing for a short time and/or shifting in position 10s km. The 10 reconstructed stages of ice-sheet geometry capture two main modes of operation; first as an integrated ice sheet with a broadly N-S orientated ice divide, and second as a multi-domed ice sheet orientated parallel with the shelf edge. A thick integrated ice sheet developed as ice expanded out of source areas in Scotland to envelop southerly ice caps in northern England and Wales, and connect with the Irish Ice Sheet to the west and the Scandinavian Ice Sheet across the North Sea. Following break-up of ice over the North Sea, ice streaming probably drove mass loss and ice-sheet thinning to create a more complex divide structure, where ice-flow patterns were largely controlled by the form of the underlying topography. Ice surface lowering occurred before separation of, and retreat to, multiple ice centres centred over high ground. We consider this 10-stage reconstruction of the evolution in ice-sheet configuration to be the simplest palaeo

  20. Free space optics: a viable last-mile alternative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willebrand, Heinz A.; Clark, Gerald R.

    2001-10-01

    This paper explores Free Space Optics (FSO) as an access technology in the last mile of metropolitan area networks (MANs). These networks are based in part on fiber-optic telecommunications infrastructure, including network architectures of Synchronous Optical Network (commonly referred to as SONET), the North American standard for synchronous data transmission; and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (commonly referred to as SDH), the international standard and equivalent of SONET. Several converging forces have moved FSO beyond a niche technology for use only in local area networks (LANs) as a bridge connecting two facilities. FSO now allows service providers to cost effectively provide optical bandwidth for access networks and accelerate the extension of metro optical networks bridging what has been termed by industry experts as the optical dead zone. The optical dead zone refers to both the slowdown in capital investment in the short-term future and the actual connectivity gap that exists today between core metro optical networks and the access optical networks. Service providers have built extensive core and minimal metro networks but have not yet provided optical bandwidth to the access market largely due to the non-compelling economics to bridge the dead zone with fiber. Historically, such infrastructure build-out slowdowns have been blamed on a combination of economics, time-to-market constraints and limited technology options. However, new technology developments and market acceptance of FSO give service providers a new cost-effective alternative to provide high-bandwidth services with optical bandwidth in the access networks. Merrill Lynch predicts FSO will grow into a $2 billion market by 2005. The drivers for this market are a mere 5%- 6% penetration of fiber to business buildings; cost effective solution versus RF or fiber; and significant capacity which can only be matched by a physical fiber link, Merrill Lynch reports. This paper will describe FSO

  1. Comparative carbon cycle dynamics of the present and last interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovkin, Victor; Brücher, Tim; Kleinen, Thomas; Zaehle, Sönke; Joos, Fortunat; Roth, Raphael; Spahni, Renato; Schmitt, Jochen; Fischer, Hubertus; Leuenberger, Markus; Stone, Emma J.; Ridgwell, Andy; Chappellaz, Jérôme; Kehrwald, Natalie; Barbante, Carlo; Blunier, Thomas; Dahl Jensen, Dorthe

    2016-04-01

    Changes in temperature and carbon dioxide during glacial cycles recorded in Antarctic ice cores are tightly coupled. However, this relationship does not hold for interglacials. While climate cooled towards the end of both the last (Eemian) and present (Holocene) interglacials, CO2 remained stable during the Eemian while rising in the Holocene. We identify and review twelve biogeochemical mechanisms of terrestrial (vegetation dynamics and CO2 fertilization, land use, wildfire, accumulation of peat, changes in permafrost carbon, subaerial volcanic outgassing) and marine origin (changes in sea surface temperature, carbonate compensation to deglaciation and terrestrial biosphere regrowth, shallow-water carbonate sedimentation, changes in the soft tissue pump, and methane hydrates), which potentially may have contributed to the CO2 dynamics during interglacials but which remain not well quantified. We use three Earth System Models (ESMs) of intermediate complexity to compare effects of selected mechanisms on the interglacial CO2 and δ13CO2 changes, focusing on those with substantial potential impacts: namely carbonate sedimentation in shallow waters, peat growth, and (in the case of the Holocene) human land use. A set of specified carbon cycle forcings could qualitatively explain atmospheric CO2 dynamics from 8 ka BP to the pre-industrial. However, when applied to Eemian boundary conditions from 126 to 115 ka BP, the same set of forcings led to disagreement with the observed direction of CO2 changes after 122 ka BP. This failure to simulate late-Eemian CO2 dynamics could be a result of the imposed forcings such as prescribed CaCO3 accumulation and/or an incorrect response of simulated terrestrial carbon to the surface cooling at the end of the interglacial. These experiments also reveal that key natural processes of interglacial CO2 dynamics - shallow water CaCO3 accumulation, peat and permafrost carbon dynamics - are not well represented in the current ESMs. Global

  2. The physiology and habitat of the last universal common ancestor.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Madeline C; Sousa, Filipa L; Mrnjavac, Natalia; Neukirchen, Sinje; Roettger, Mayo; Nelson-Sathi, Shijulal; Martin, William F

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a last universal common ancestor of all cells (LUCA, or the progenote) is central to the study of early evolution and life's origin, yet information about how and where LUCA lived is lacking. We investigated all clusters and phylogenetic trees for 6.1 million protein coding genes from sequenced prokaryotic genomes in order to reconstruct the microbial ecology of LUCA. Among 286,514 protein clusters, we identified 355 protein families (∼0.1%) that trace to LUCA by phylogenetic criteria. Because these proteins are not universally distributed, they can shed light on LUCA's physiology. Their functions, properties and prosthetic groups depict LUCA as anaerobic, CO2-fixing, H2-dependent with a Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, N2-fixing and thermophilic. LUCA's biochemistry was replete with FeS clusters and radical reaction mechanisms. Its cofactors reveal dependence upon transition metals, flavins, S-adenosyl methionine, coenzyme A, ferredoxin, molybdopterin, corrins and selenium. Its genetic code required nucleoside modifications and S-adenosyl methionine-dependent methylations. The 355 phylogenies identify clostridia and methanogens, whose modern lifestyles resemble that of LUCA, as basal among their respective domains. LUCA inhabited a geochemically active environment rich in H2, CO2 and iron. The data support the theory of an autotrophic origin of life involving the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway in a hydrothermal setting. PMID:27562259

  3. Oxygenation variability off Northern Chile during the last two centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Ochoa, J. A.; Pantoja, S.; de Lange, G. J.; Lange, C. B.; Sánchez, G. E.; Acuña, V. R.; Muñoz, P.; Vargas, G.

    2010-07-01

    The Peru Chile Current ecosystem is characterized by high biological productivity and important fisheries. Although this system is likely to be severely affected by climate change, its response to current global warming is still uncertain. In this paper we analyze 10-166 year old sediments in two cores collected in Mejillones Bay, an anoxic sedimentary setting favorable for preservation of proxies. Based on a 166 year chronology we used indicators of bottom water oxygenation proxies (Mo, V, S, and the (lycopane+n-C35)/n-C31) ratio) and surface water productivity (biogenic opal, counts of diatom valves, biogenic Ba, organic carbon and chlorins) to reconstruct environmental variations in Mejillones Bay. We find that at decadal scales, and during the last two centuries, a shift in the coastal marine ecosystem off Northern Chile took place which was characterized by intense ENSO-like activity and large fluctuations in biological export productivity, in bottom water oxygenation, and increased eolic activity (inferred from Ti/Al and Zr/Al). On top of this short-term variability, a gradual increase of sulfidic conditions has occurred being even more intensified since the early 1960s.

  4. The 'last mile' of data handling: Fermilab's IFDH tools

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, Adam L.; Mengel, Marc W.

    2014-01-01

    IFDH (Intensity Frontier Data Handling), is a suite of tools for data movement tasks for Fermilab experiments and is an important part of the FIFE[2] (Fabric for Intensity Frontier [1] Experiments) initiative described at this conference. IFDH encompasses moving input data from caches or storage elements to compute nodes (the 'last mile' of data movement) and moving output data potentially to those caches as part of the journey back to the user. IFDH also involves throttling and locking to ensure that large numbers of jobs do not cause data movement bottlenecks. IFDH is realized as an easy to use layer that users call in their job scripts (e.g. 'ifdh cp'), hiding the low level data movement tools. One advantage of this layer is that the underlying low level tools can be selected or changed without the need for the user to alter their scripts. Logging and performance monitoring can also be added easily. This system will be presented in detail as well as its impact on the ease of data handling at Fermilab experiments.

  5. Integrative oncology: the last ten years--a personal retrospectve.

    PubMed

    Boyd, D Barry

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade, there has been dramatic changes in all areas of integrative patient care. None has been more dramatic than those in the field of cancer care, which has gone from alternative and complementary treatments delivered outside the conventional setting to the integration of many of these approaches into the care of the cancer patient. In many cases, these changes have been driven by patient demand and supported by private funding and out-of-pocket payments by patients themselves. Virtually all major medical centers have departments devoted to integrative patient care--whether true stand-alone centers or departments with a research interest in this area. This is particularly true of the major cancer centers, many of which-including Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York; M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Tex; Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md; Duke University, Durham, NC; and the Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Mass--have developed integrative cancer programs. In addition, programs such as the Cancer Treatment Centers of America have inpatient and outpatient programs with teams of practitioners, including medical oncologists, surgeons, and radiation therapists, as well as credentialed naturopathic doctors, nutritionists, mind-body specialists and other integrative practitioners. Despite the increased interest in developing integrative approaches to cancer, many medical oncologists remain skeptical about the value of these modalities. PMID:17283742

  6. Asian summer monsoon variability during the last two millennia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawchai, Sakonvan; Chabangborn, Akkaneewut; Fritz, Sherilyn; Blaauw, Maarten; Löwemark, Ludvig; Reimer, Paula J.; Krusic, Paul J.; Väliranta, Minna; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Wohlfarth, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    The Southeast Asian mainland is located in the central path of the Asian summer monsoon, a region where paleoclimatic data are still sparse. Here we report a new detailed reconstruction of monsoon variability during the past 2000 years from a multi-proxy sediment record (TOC, C/N, δ13C, δ15N, Si, K, Ti elemental data, biogenic silica and fossil plant remains) from Lake Pa Kho in northeast Thailand. We infer a stronger summer monsoon between BC 200 - AD 400 and AD 800 - 1350, a weaker summer monsoon AD 400 - 800, and fluctuating moisture availability AD 1350 - 1550. Increased run-off after AD 1750 can be linked to agricultural intensification in the region. Placed in a wider context our high-resolution data set contributes important information regarding abrupt shifts in hydroclimatic conditions, spatial patterns of monsoon variability, and variations in the position of the ITCZ across SE Asia during the last two millennia. These paleoclimatic shifts may have contributed to the rise and fall of Iron Age and Khmer societies.

  7. How warm was Greenland during the last interglacial period?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landais, Amaelle; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Capron, Emilie; Langenbroeck, Petra; Bakker, Pepijn; Stone, Emma; Fischer, Hubertus; Vinther, Bo; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2016-04-01

    The last interglacial period (LIG, ~129-116 thousand years ago) provides the most recent evidence for the response of Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to polar warming above pre-industrial level, and a valuable test bed for ice sheet models. Key constraints on past changes in both ice sheet topography and surface temperature are derived from Greenland ice cores. The large warming estimated from the recent NEEM ice core drilled in northwest Greenland (8 ±4°C above pre-industrial) together with the evidence for limited local ice thinning have led to the "NEEM paradox", suggesting more stability of the ice sheet than simulated by ice flow models in response to such large warming. Here, we provide a new assessment of the LIG warming using ice core air isotopic composition (d15N) together with available relationships for Greenland between accumulation rate and temperature. The temperature at the upstream NEEM deposition site is estimated to be between -20°C to -24°C which is consistent with the 8±4°C warming relative to pre-industrial previously determined from water isotopic records measured on the NEEM ice, although we feel the lower end of this range to be more likely. Moreover, we show that under such warm temperature, melting of snow probably led to a significant firn shrinking by 15 m. We show that confirmation of this high temperature range for the LIG in Greenland is difficult to reconcile with climate modeling experiments

  8. [Evolution of male fertility in the last twenty years].

    PubMed

    Auger, J

    1997-01-01

    After the meta-analysis by Carlsen et al. (1992) showing a decline in human sperm count over the last 50 years, several studies have been made on the sperm characteristics of more or less homogeneous groups of men who were collecting semen in the same center for 10-20 years. A significant decline in sperm count was reported in some studies but not in others. The debate on declining sperm counts is not closed and these studies raised the following important questions: could the differences in results be the reflect of variation in techniques or blas in methodologies? If these phenomena are real, why a deterioration of semen quality in some places and not in others with so important geographical differences of sperm production? What are the possible consequences on human fertility and what are the causes? Unfortunately, there is presently no answer. The danish study provoked extensive discussion on the many possible sources of bias while there was less controversy concerning the studies carried out in a single center despite the extent of limitations of several of them. Recent publications indicated concomitant and increasing alterations of the development and/or function of the male genital tract, various observations in the wildlife and several experimental studies suggesting the possible deleterious role of numerous chemical compounds present in our environment. Therefore, prospective epidemiological studies and fundamental researchs are urgently needed.

  9. Long lasting consequences of cannabis exposure in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Rubino, T; Parolaro, D

    2008-04-16

    Despite the increasing use of cannabis among adolescents, there are little and often contradictory studies on the long-term neurobiological consequences of cannabis consumption in juveniles. Adolescence is a critical phase for cerebral development, where the endocannabinoid system plays an important role influencing the release and action of different neurotransmitters. Therefore, a strong stimulation by the psychoactive component of marijuana, delta-9-tetrahydrocanabinol (THC), might lead to subtle but lasting neurobiological changes that can affect adult brain functions and behaviour. The literature here summarized by use of experimental animal models, puts forward that heavy cannabis consumption in adolescence may induce subtle changes in the adult brain circuits ending in altered emotional and cognitive performance, enhanced vulnerability for the use of more harmful drugs of abuse in selected individuals, and may represent a risk factor for developing schizophrenia in adulthood. Therefore, the potential problems arising in relation to marijuana consumption in adolescence suggest that this developmental phase is a vulnerable period for persistent adverse effects of cannabinoids.

  10. Greenland ice sheet melting during the last interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langebroek, Petra M.; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.

    2016-04-01

    During the last interglacial period (LIG) peak temperatures over Greenland were several degrees warmer than today. The Greenland ice sheet (GIS) retreated causing a global sea-level rise in the order of several meters. Large uncertainties still exist in the exact amount of melt and on the source location of this melt. Here we examine the GIS response to LIG temperature and precipitation patterns using the SICOPOLIS ice sheet model. The LIG climate was simulated by forcing the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM) with the appropriate greenhouse gases and orbital settings. The resulting LIG ice volume evolution strongly depends on the chosen value of uncertain model parameters for the ice sheet (e.g. basal sliding parameter, PDD factors, and atmospheric temperature lapse rate). We reduce the uncertainty by evaluating an ensemble of model results against present-day observations of ice sheet size, elevation and stability, together with paleo information from deep ice cores. We find a maximum GIS reduction equivalent to 0.8 to 2.2m of global sea-level rise. In this model set-up most of the melting occurs in southwestern Greenland.

  11. Human population dynamics in Europe over the Last Glacial Maximum.

    PubMed

    Tallavaara, Miikka; Luoto, Miska; Korhonen, Natalia; Järvinen, Heikki; Seppä, Heikki

    2015-07-01

    The severe cooling and the expansion of the ice sheets during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), 27,000-19,000 y ago (27-19 ky ago) had a major impact on plant and animal populations, including humans. Changes in human population size and range have affected our genetic evolution, and recent modeling efforts have reaffirmed the importance of population dynamics in cultural and linguistic evolution, as well. However, in the absence of historical records, estimating past population levels has remained difficult. Here we show that it is possible to model spatially explicit human population dynamics from the pre-LGM at 30 ky ago through the LGM to the Late Glacial in Europe by using climate envelope modeling tools and modern ethnographic datasets to construct a population calibration model. The simulated range and size of the human population correspond significantly with spatiotemporal patterns in the archaeological data, suggesting that climate was a major driver of population dynamics 30-13 ky ago. The simulated population size declined from about 330,000 people at 30 ky ago to a minimum of 130,000 people at 23 ky ago. The Late Glacial population growth was fastest during Greenland interstadial 1, and by 13 ky ago, there were almost 410,000 people in Europe. Even during the coldest part of the LGM, the climatically suitable area for human habitation remained unfragmented and covered 36% of Europe.

  12. Volcanic forcing and climate variations during the last glacial period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flinders, A. F.

    2012-10-01

    Measurements of δ18O in the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2) ice-core from Summit, Greenland, show repeated temporal variations associated with rapid warming events throughout the last glacial period of the Pleistocene-10-110 kya. The majority of these warming events are preceded in the ice-core record by an increased concentration of insoluble micro-particulate sulfate, indicative of increases in global volcanism. Wavelet analysis of ice-core and marine-sediment records show a repeated 5000-6000 yr periodicity in both volcanic SO4 and δ18O ice records, as well as a 5000-8000 yr cycle in the lithic concentration of ice-rafted debris, atmospheric CO2 concentration, and a database of late Quaternary volcanic eruptions. Increasing concentrations in atmospheric CO2 and CH4 initiated during periods of increased volcanism, peaking during a warm transition, reflect a volcanic-atmospheric-deglaciation feedback, regulated by meridional overturning current-shutdown related cooling.

  13. Eastern Tropical Pacific Paleosalinity Reconstructions During the Last Deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leduc, G.; Gregersen, J. A.; Sachs, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    The eastern tropical Pacific is an important climatic crossroad where the Intertropical Convergence Zone and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation drive seasonal and interannual changes in the regional rainfall patterns. Marine sediment cores indicate that the regional hydrological cycle experienced extreme changes during the last deglaciation, in close relationship with changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. There is, however, no consensus yet on the timing and geographical extent of those hydrological changes, as the timing of the recorded hydrological changes vary from site to site and depend on the proxy used. We present new hydrogen isotope measurements performed on C37:2 alkenones from a marine sedimentary sequence collected in the Panama Basin, off the Costa Rican margin. While an increase in δD of about 10 ‰ is recorded at the end of the Heinrich event 1, there is no significant change in δD during the Younger Dryas. A comparison of those data with seawater oxygen isotopic signatures estimated from the same core reveals differences in the way atmospheric circulation is captured by those two proxies. A comparison with alkenone hydrogen isotope measurements performed on a core located along the Columbian Margin demonstrates regional contrasts in the sensitivity of the hydrological cycle during te deglaciation. We will tentatively use jointly these results to build up a climatic scenario capable of explaining those contrasting modes of millenial-scale variability.

  14. Transient Climate Simulation of the last deglaciation in CCSM3

    SciTech Connect

    He, Feng; Erickson III, David J; Jacob, Robert L.

    2009-12-01

    We conducted the first synchronously coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model simulation of global climate evolution of the last deglaciation (21,000-10,000 years ago) using the NCAR CCSM3. With realistic climate forcings associated with greenhouse gasses, orbital forcing and continental ice sheet, as well as a reasonable melting water forcing, our model reproduces some major deglacial climate features, such as the H1 event, the BA warming and the YD event. A preliminary model-data comparison shows a global climate evolution largely consistent with the reconstruction. The magnitude of our model climate responses are largely consistent with the reconstruction, suggesting a good agreement between observed and modeled climate sensitivity. In contrast to previous simulations of intermediate climate models, our model AMOC has little hysteresis. As a result, the model simulates the abrupt onset of the BA warming and the abrupt termination of the YD cooling as transient responses of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) to abrupt terminations of freshwater discharges. Further implications to transient model-data comparison will also be discussed.

  15. Syphilis hospitalisations in Portugal over the last decade.

    PubMed

    Sousa-Pinto, B; Freitas, A; Lisboa, C

    2016-02-01

    Although several studies have reported an increase of syphilis incidence over the last decade in Western Europe, information concerning syphilis epidemiology in Portugal remains scarce. Therefore, we sought to characterise acquired syphilis-associated hospitalisations in Portugal according to demographic and clinical data. We used a database containing all hospitalisations that occurred in mainland Portugal public hospitals with discharges between 2000 and 2014. We analysed all hospitalisations associated with ICD-9-CM codes 091-097.x (corresponding to acquired syphilis diagnosis) concerning inpatients' gender, age and comorbidities. The median length of stay and in-hospital mortality rates were also studied. Between 2000 and 2014, there were a total of 8974 syphilis-related hospitalisations in mainland Portugal. The rate of acquired syphilis hospitalisations per 100,000 inhabitants increased by 33 % during the studied period. Syphilis hospitalisation rates increased by 70 % in males and 139 % among patients aged over 55 years. On the other hand, they declined by 10 % in females and 20 % among patients younger than 55 years old. The percentage of syphilis episodes presenting cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric comorbidities increased, while the percentage of syphilis episodes presenting HIV co-infection decreased by 69 %. A fatal outcome was reported in 5 % of episodes; 4.6 % of them had acquired syphilis as the main reason for hospitalisation. This study illustrates that, despite being a preventable infection, syphilis remains a public health problem. The analysis of hospitalisation and administrative data helps to understand syphilis epidemiology and provides a supplement to traditional case notifications.

  16. Human population dynamics in Europe over the Last Glacial Maximum

    PubMed Central

    Tallavaara, Miikka; Luoto, Miska; Korhonen, Natalia; Järvinen, Heikki; Seppä, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    The severe cooling and the expansion of the ice sheets during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), 27,000–19,000 y ago (27–19 ky ago) had a major impact on plant and animal populations, including humans. Changes in human population size and range have affected our genetic evolution, and recent modeling efforts have reaffirmed the importance of population dynamics in cultural and linguistic evolution, as well. However, in the absence of historical records, estimating past population levels has remained difficult. Here we show that it is possible to model spatially explicit human population dynamics from the pre-LGM at 30 ky ago through the LGM to the Late Glacial in Europe by using climate envelope modeling tools and modern ethnographic datasets to construct a population calibration model. The simulated range and size of the human population correspond significantly with spatiotemporal patterns in the archaeological data, suggesting that climate was a major driver of population dynamics 30–13 ky ago. The simulated population size declined from about 330,000 people at 30 ky ago to a minimum of 130,000 people at 23 ky ago. The Late Glacial population growth was fastest during Greenland interstadial 1, and by 13 ky ago, there were almost 410,000 people in Europe. Even during the coldest part of the LGM, the climatically suitable area for human habitation remained unfragmented and covered 36% of Europe. PMID:26100880

  17. The last total Eclipse of teh Millenium in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozguch, A.; Atac, T.; Altas, L.

    1998-09-01

    The last total solar eclipse of the millenium will be observed from Turkey which bridges two components and has been the cradle of so many past civilisations. Wouldn't you like to witness this magnificient event in the mystic ambiance of central Anatolia which offers its guests Turkish hospitality and a lot of hystorical examples of paganism, Christianity and Islam. Among the countries from which the eclipse will be visible , Turkey seems to be one of the most suitable countries in terms of its climate and observational facilities. Kandilli Observatory and the Earthquake Research Institute has arranged field work on the eclipse path to determine the suitable points for the observations. The shadow of the moon will be first seen from the Black Sea coast at 14:20 L.T. It will then pass through central Anatolia and will leave Turkey form south-east at 14:42 L.T. Official observational sites are given in the following table. These sites will have catering, toilet, and guidance facilities. Osmanchik 40.98D North 34.82D East Turhal 40.40D North 36.10D East Sivas 39.75D North 37.03D East Elazig 38.68D North 39.23D East Diyarbakir 37.92D North 40.23D East Batman 37.87 North 41.12D East

  18. Social facilitation of long-lasting memory retrieval in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Chabaud, Marie-Ange; Isabel, Guillaume; Kaiser, Laure; Preat, Thomas

    2009-10-13

    Recent studies demonstrate that social interactions can have a profound influence on Drosophila melanogaster behavior and cuticular pheromone patterns. Olfactory memory performance has mostly been investigated in groups, and previous studies have reported that grouped flies do not interact with each other and behave in the same way as individual flies during short-term memory retrieval. However, the influence of social effects on the two known forms of Drosophila long-lasting associative memory, anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM) and long-term memory (LTM), has never been reported. We show here that ARM is displayed by individual flies but is socially facilitated; flies trained for ARM interact within a group to improve their conditioned performance. In contrast, testing shows LTM improvement in individual flies rather than in a group. We show that the social facilitation of ARM during group testing is independent of the social context of training and does not involve nonspecific aggregation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that social interactions facilitate ARM retrieval. We also show that social interactions necessary for this facilitation are specifically generated by trained flies: when single flies trained for ARM are mixed with groups of naive flies, they display poor retrieval, whereas mixing with groups trained either for ARM or LTM enhances performance. PMID:19781943

  19. The Last Glacial Maximum experiment in PMIP4-CMIP6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, Masa; Braconnot, Pascale; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Harrison, Sandy; Lambert, Fabrice; Peltier, W. Richard; Tarasov, Lev

    2016-04-01

    The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), around 21,000 years ago, is a cold climate extreme. As such, it has been the focus of many studies on modelling and climate reconstruction, which have brought knowledge on the mechanisms explaining this climate, in terms of climate on the continents and of the ocean state, and in terms relationships between climate changes over land, ice sheets and oceans. It is still a challenge for climate or Earth System models to represent the amplitude of climate changes for this period, under the following forcings: - Ice sheets, which represent perturbations in land surface type, altitude and land/ocean distribution - Atmospheric composition - Astronomical parameters Feedbacks from the vegetation and dust are also known to have played a role in setting up the LGM climate but have not been accounted for in previous PMIP experiments. In this poster, we will present the experimental set-up of the PMIP4 LGM experiment, which is presently being discussed and will be finalized for March 2016. For more information and discussion of the PMIP4-CMIP6 experimental design, please visit: https://wiki.lsce.ipsl.fr/pmip3/doku.php/pmip3:cmip6:design:index

  20. NASA's Heliophysics Theory Program - Accomplishments in its Last Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebowsky, J.

    2008-12-01

    NASA's Heliophysics Theory Program (HTP) is now into a new triennial cycle of funded research, with new research awards beginning in 2008. The theory program was established by the (former) Solar Terrestrial Division in 1980 to redress a weakness of support in the theory area. It has been a successful, evolving scientific program with long-term funding of relatively large "critical mass groups" pursuing theory and modeling on a scale larger than that available within the limits of traditional NASA Supporting Research and Technology (SR&T) awards. The results of the last 3 year funding cycle, just ended, contributed to ever more cutting edge theoretical understanding of all parts of the Sun-Earth Connection chain. Advances ranged from the core of the Sun out into the corona, through the solar wind into the Earth's magnetosphere and down to the ionosphere and lower atmosphere, also contributing to understanding the environments of other solar system bodies. The HTP contributions were not isolated findings but continued to contribute to the planning and implementation of NASA spacecraft missions and to the development of the predictive computer models that have become the workhorses for analyzing satellite and ground-based measurements.

  1. NASA's Heliophysics Theory Program - Accomplishments In Last Cycle Ending 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebowsky, J. M.; Summerlin, E. J.

    2011-12-01

    NASA's Heliophysics Theory Program is now into a new triennial cycle of funded research, with new research awards beginning in 2011. The theory program was established by the (former) Solar Terrestrial Division in 1980 to redress a weakness of support in the theory area. It has been a successful, evolving scientific program with long-term funding of relatively large "critical mass groups" pursuing theory and modeling on a scale larger than that available within the limits of traditional NASA Supporting Research and Technology awards. The results of the last 3 year funding cycle, just ended, contributed to ever more cutting edge theoretical understanding of all parts of the Sun-Earth Connection chain. Advances ranged from the core of the Sun out into the corona, through the solar wind into the Earth's magnetosphere and down to the ionosphere and lower atmosphere, also contributing to understanding the environments of other solar system bodies. The HTP contributions were not isolated findings but continued to contribute to the planning and implementation of NASA spacecraft missions and to the development of the predictive computer models that have become the workhorses for analyzing satellite and ground-based measurements.

  2. 25 CFR 700.213 - Methods of providing last resort replacement housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods of providing last resort replacement housing. 700... RELOCATION PROCEDURES Last Resort Replacement Housing § 700.213 Methods of providing last resort replacement housing. (a) General. The methods of providing last resort housing include, but are not limited to—...

  3. The relative importance of methane sources and sinks over the Last Interglacial period and into the last glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiquet, A.; Archibald, A. T.; Friend, A. D.; Chappellaz, J.; Levine, J. G.; Stone, E. J.; Telford, P. J.; Pyle, J. A.

    2015-03-01

    All recent climatic projections for the next century suggest that we are heading towards a warmer climate than today (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; Fifth Assessment Report), driven by increasing atmospheric burdens of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. In particular, the volume mixing ratio of methane, the second-most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas, has increased by a factor of ˜2.5 from the beginning of the European Industrial Revolution. Due to their complex responses to climatic factors, understanding of the dynamics of future global methane emissions and sinks is crucial for the next generation of climate projections. Of relevance to this problem, the Earth likely experienced warmer average temperatures than today during the Last Interglacial (LIG) period (130-115 kaBP). Interestingly, ice cores do not indicate a different methane mixing ratio from the Pre-Industrial Holocene (PIH), in other words the current interglacial period prior to anthropogenic influence. This is surprising as warmer temperatures might be expected to increase methane emissions. The present study aims to improve our understanding of the changes in the global methane budget through quantifying the relative importance of sources and sinks of methane during the last full glacial-interglacial cycle. A fairly limited number of studies have investigated this cycle at the millenium time scale with most of them examining the doubling in CH4 from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to the PIH. Though it is still a matter of debate, a general consensus suggests a predominant role to the change in methane emissions from wetlands and only a limited change in the oxidising capacity of the atmosphere. In the present study we provide an estimate of the relative importance of sources and sinks during the LIG period, using a complex climate-chemistry model to quantify the sinks, and a methane emissions model included in a global land surface model, for the sources. We are not aware of any

  4. Variations in the methane budget over the last two millennia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapart, C. J.

    2012-06-01

    Methane (CH4) is a strong greenhouse gas and even though its atmospheric abundance is lower than carbon dioxide (CO2), CH4 has a global warming potential twenty-five times larger than CO2 and its atmospheric abundance has drastically increased since 1800. Understanding the evolution of the CH4 atmospheric abundance is complex, because it is controlled by multiple sources (e.g. wetlands, biomass burning, ruminants, rice paddies and fossil fuel) and sinks, and large uncertainties exist on how sensitive those sources and sinks are to climate variability. The aim of this research is to understand the influence of climate variability and anthropogenic activity on the CH4 budget, i.e. the balance between the different sources and sinks, during the last two millennia. For this purpose a technique was developed to analyze the CH4 isotopic composition of air in ice cores. Analysis of the isotopic composition of CH4 preserved in ice cores provides evidence for the environmental drivers of variations in CH4 mixing ratios, because different sources and sinks affect the isotopic composition of CH4 uniquely. Our main results from air trapped in Greenland ice cores shows that the carbon isotopic composition (d13C) of CH4 underwent pronounced centennial-scale variations between 200 BC and 1600 AD without clear corresponding changes in CH4 mixing ratios. Two-box model calculations suggest that those centennial-scale variations in isotope ratios are due to changes in biomass burning and biogenic sources (e.g. wetlands, agriculture), which are correlated with both natural climate variability, including the Medieval Climate Anomaly and with changes in human population, land-use and important events in history as the expansion of the Roman Empire, the fall of the Han dynasty and the Medieval period. This shows that human activity had an impact on the methane budget already two thousand years ago and is likely responsible for the atmospheric methane increase in the atmosphere during

  5. Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC - Last Call for Predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Armesto, N; Borghini, N; Jeon, S; Wiedemann, U A; Abreu, S; Akkelin, V; Alam, J; Albacete, J L; Andronic, A; Antonuv, D; Arleo, F; Armesto, N; Arsene, I C; Barnafoldi, G G; Barrette, J; Bauchle, B; Becattini, F; Betz, B; Bleicher, M; Bluhm, M; Boer, D; Bopp, F W; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bravina, L; Busza, W; Cacciari, M; Capella, A; Casalderrey-Solana, J; Chatterjee, R; Chen, L; Cleymans, J; Cole, B A; delValle, Z C; Csernai, L P; Cunqueiro, L; Dainese, A; de Deus, J D; Ding, H; Djordjevic, M; Drescher, H; Dremin, I M; Dumitru, A; El, A; Engel, R; d'Enterria, D; Eskola, K J; Fai, G; Ferreiro, E G; Fries, R J; Frodermann, E; Fujii, H; Gale, C; Gelis, F; Goncalves, V P; Greco, V; Gyulassy, M; van Hees, H; Heinz, U; Honkanen, H; Horowitz, W A; Iancu, E; Ingelman, G; Jalilian-Marian, J; Jeon, S; Kaidalov, A B; Kampfer, B; Kang, Z; Karpenko, I A; Kestin, G; Kharzeev, D; Ko, C M; Koch, B; Kopeliovich, B; Kozlov, M; Kraus, I; Kuznetsova, I; Lee, S H; Lednicky, R; Letessier, J; Levin, E; Li, B; Lin, Z; Liu, H; Liu, W; Loizides, C; Lokhtin, I P; Machado, M T; Malinina, L V; Managadze, A M; Mangano, M L; Mannarelli, M; Manuel, C; Martinez, G; Milhano, J G; Mocsy, A; Molnar, D; Nardi, M; Nayak, J K; Niemi, H; Oeschler, H; Ollitrault, J; Paic, G; Pajares, C; Pantuev, V S; Papp, G; Peressounko, D; Petreczky, P; Petrushanko, S V; Piccinini, F; Pierog, T; Pirner, H J; Porteboeuf, S; Potashnikova, I; Qin, G Y; Qiu, J; Rafelski, J; Rajagopal, K; Ranft, J; Rapp, R; Rasanen, S S; Rathsman, J; Rau, P; Redlich, K; Renk, T; Rezaeian, A H; Rischke, D; Roesler, S; Ruppert, J; Ruuskanen, P V; Salgado, C A; Sapeta, S; Sarcevic, I; Sarkar, S; Sarycheva, L I; Schmidt, I; Shoski, A I; Sinha, B; Sinyukov, Y M; Snigirev, A M; Srivastava, D K; Stachel, J; Stasto, A; Stocker, H; Teplov, C Y; Thews, R L; Torrieri, G; Pop, V T; Triantafyllopoulos, D N; Tuchin, K L; Turbide, S; Tywoniuk, K; Utermann, A; Venugopalan, R; Vitev, I; Vogt, R; Wang, E; Wang, X N; Werner, K; Wessels, E; Wheaton, S; Wicks, S; Wiedemann, U A; Wolschin, G; Xiao, B; Xu, Z; Yasui, S; Zabrodin, E; Zapp, K; Zhang, B

    2008-02-25

    In August 2006, the CERN Theory Unit announced to restructure its visitor program and to create a 'CERN Theory Institute', where 1-3 month long specific programs can take place. The first such Institute was held from 14 May to 10 June 2007, focusing on 'Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC - Last Call for Predictions'. It brought together close to 100 scientists working on the theory of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. The aim of this workshop was to review and document the status of expectations and predictions for the heavy ion program at the Large Hadron Collider LHC before its start. LHC will explore heavy ion collisions at {approx} 30 times higher center of mass energy than explored previously at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider RHIC. So, on the one hand, the charge of this workshop provided a natural forum for the exchange of the most recent ideas, and allowed to monitor how the understanding of heavy ion collisions has evolved in recent years with the data from RHIC, and with the preparation of the LHC experimental program. On the other hand, the workshop aimed at a documentation which helps to distinguish pre- from post-dictions. An analogous documentation of the 'Last Call for Predictions' [1] was prepared prior to the start of the heavy-ion program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider RHIC, and it proved useful in the subsequent discussion and interpretation of RHIC data. The present write-up is the documentation of predictions for the LHC heavy ion program, received or presented during the CERN TH Institute. The set-up of the CERN TH Institute allowed us to aim for the wide-most coverage of predictions. There were more than 100 presentations and discussions during the workshop. Moreover, those unable to attend could still participate by submitting predictions in written form during the workshop. This followed the spirit that everybody interested in making a prediction had the right to be heard. To arrive at a concise document, we required that

  6. The unstable geomagnetic field during the last glacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowaczyk, Norbert; Frank, Ute; Kind, Jessica; Plessen, Birgit; Arz, Helge

    2013-04-01

    Detailed stratigraphic analyses of a sediment composite record from three different sites in the southeastern Black Sea yielded a high-resolution, well-dated paleomagnetic record of the past 14 to 68 ka. Age constraints are provided by 16 AMS 14C ages, identification of the Campanian Ignimbrite tephra (39.28±0.11 ka), and by detailed tuning of sedimentologic parameters of the Black Sea sediments to the oxygen isotope record from the Greenland NGRIP ice core. Dansgaard-Oeschger events 3 through 18 are very well expressed in the Black Sea sedimentary records of Ca-content, oxygen isotopes as well as in records of ice-rafted detritus. Though hampered by some larger hiatusses at one site, and patchy contaminations by diagenetically formed greigite, the paleomagnetic composite record obtained from the preserved primary detrital magnetite phase reflects a highly dynamic geomagnetic field during the last glacial period. Relative variations of paleointensity inferred from the sediments' magnetisations were converted into a record of the virtual axial dipole moment (VADM). Thus, the Black Sea paleomagnetic record comprises evidence for the Norwegian-Greenland-Sea excursion at 64.5 ka (VADM = 1.5×1022 Am2), a full reversal of the geomagnetic field during the Laschamp excursion at 41 ka and several subsequent excursions with low northern virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) latitudes, including the Mono Lake excursion at 34.5 ka (VADM = 3.0×1022 Am2). According to the derived age model, VGP positions during the Laschamp excursion persisted at high southern latitudes in Antarctica for an estimated 440 years, making the Laschamp excursion a short-lived event with fully reversed polarity directions. Recorded field reversals of the Laschamp excursion, lasting only an estimated ~250 years, are characterized by very low paleointensities with VADMs as low as 0.50×1022 Am2. The reversed phase of the Laschamp excursion is associated with a significant field recovery with a VADM of 2.0

  7. Last interglacial temperature seasonality reconstructed from tropical Atlantic corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocas, William M.; Felis, Thomas; Obert, J. Christina; Gierz, Paul; Lohmann, Gerrit; Scholz, Denis; Kölling, Martin; Scheffers, Sander R.

    2016-09-01

    Reconstructions of last interglacial (LIG, MIS 5e, ∼127-117 ka) climate offer insights into the natural response and variability of the climate system during a period partially analogous to future climate change scenarios. We present well preserved fossil corals (Diploria strigosa) recovered from the southern Caribbean island of Bonaire (Caribbean Netherlands). These have been precisely dated by the 230Th/U-method to between 130 and 120 ka ago. Annual banding of the coral skeleton enabled construction of time windows of monthly resolved strontium/calcium (Sr/Ca) temperature proxy records. In conjunction with a previously published 118 ka coral record, our eight records of up to 37 years in length, cover a total of 105 years within the LIG period. From these, sea surface temperature (SST) seasonality and variability in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean is reconstructed. We detect similar to modern SST seasonality of ∼2.9 °C during the early (130 ka) and the late LIG (120-118 ka). However, within the mid-LIG, a significantly higher than modern SST seasonality of 4.9 °C (at 126 ka) and 4.1 °C (at 124 ka) is observed. These findings are supported by climate model simulations and are consistent with the evolving amplitude of orbitally induced changes in seasonality of insolation throughout the LIG, irrespective of wider climatic instabilities that characterised this period. The climate model simulations suggest that the SST seasonality changes documented in our LIG coral Sr/Ca records are representative of larger regions within the tropical North Atlantic. These simulations also suggest that the reconstructed SST seasonality increase during the mid-LIG is caused primarily by summer warming. A 124 ka old coral documents, for the first time, evidence of decadal SST variability in the tropical North Atlantic during the LIG, akin to that observed in modern instrumental records.

  8. An Atlantic-Pacific ventilation seesaw across the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, E.; Skinner, L. C.; Tisserand, A.; Dokken, T.; Timmermann, A.; Menviel, L.; Friedrich, T.

    2015-08-01

    It has been proposed that the rapid rise of atmospheric CO2 across the last deglaciation was driven by the release of carbon from an extremely radiocarbon-depleted abyssal ocean reservoir that was 'vented' to the atmosphere primarily via the deep- and intermediate overturning loops in the Southern Ocean. While some radiocarbon observations from the intermediate ocean appear to confirm this hypothesis, others appear to refute it. Here we use radiocarbon measurements in paired benthic- and planktonic foraminifera to reconstruct the benthic-planktonic 14C age offset (i.e. 'ventilation age') of intermediate waters in the western equatorial Atlantic. Our results show clear increases in local radiocarbon-based ventilation ages during Heinrich-Stadial 1 (HS1) and the Younger Dryas (YD). These are found to coincide with opposite changes of similar magnitude observed in the Pacific, demonstrating a 'seesaw' in the ventilation of the intermediate Atlantic and Pacific Oceans that numerical model simulations of North Atlantic overturning collapse indicate was primarily driven by North Pacific overturning. We propose that this Atlantic-Pacific ventilation seesaw would have combined with a previously identified North Atlantic-Southern Ocean ventilation seesaw to enhance ocean-atmosphere CO2 exchange during a 'collapse' of the North Atlantic deep overturning limb. Whereas previous work has emphasized a more passive role for intermediate waters in deglacial climate change (merely conveying changes originating in the Southern Ocean) we suggest instead that the intermediate water seesaw played a more active role via relatively subtle but globally coordinated changes in ocean dynamics that may have further influenced ocean-atmosphere carbon exchange.

  9. A long-lasting wireless stimulator for small mammals.

    PubMed

    Hentall, Ian D

    2013-01-01

    The chronic effects of electrical stimulation in unrestrained awake rodents are best studied with a wireless neural stimulator that can operate unsupervised for several weeks or more. A robust, inexpensive, easily built, cranially implantable stimulator was developed to explore the restorative effects of brainstem stimulation after neurotrauma. Its connectorless electrodes directly protrude from a cuboid epoxy capsule containing all circuitry and power sources. This physical arrangement prevents fluid leaks or wire breakage and also simplifies and speeds implantation. Constant-current pulses of high compliance (34 volts) are delivered from a step-up voltage regulator under microprocessor control. A slowly pulsed magnetic field controls activation state and stimulation parameters. Program status is signaled to a remote reader by interval-modulated infrared pulses. Capsule size is limited by the two batteries. Silver oxide batteries rated at 8 mA-h were used routinely in 8 mm wide, 15 mm long and 4 mm high capsules. Devices of smaller contact area (5 by 12 mm) but taller (6 mm) were created for mice. Microstimulation of the rat's raphe nuclei with intermittent 5-min (50% duty cycle) trains of 30 μA, 1 ms pulses at 8 or 24 Hz frequency during 12 daylight hours lasted 21.1 days ±0.8 (mean ± standard error, Kaplan-Meir censored estimate, n = 128). Extended lifetimes (>6 weeks, no failures, n = 16) were achieved with larger batteries (44 mA-h) in longer (18 mm), taller (6 mm) capsules. The circuit and electrode design are versatile; simple modifications allowed durable constant-voltage stimulation of the rat's sciatic nerve through a cylindrical cathode from a subcutaneous pelvic capsule. Devices with these general features can address in small mammals many of the biological and technical questions arising neurosurgically with prolonged peripheral or deep brain stimulation.

  10. Epidemiology of periodontal diseases in Indian population since last decade

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Anuja; Yadav, Om Prakash; Narula, Sugandha; Dutta, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Objective: India suffers lot of disparities in terms of oral health care and 95% of the Indian population suffers from periodontal disease. The aim of this review is to estimate the risk factors responsible for periodontal diseases as well as prevalence for the same in the last decade to make an attempt to develop a strategy to improve formulation of an effective oral health care policy in India. Materials and Methods: Keywords such as “prevalence of periodontal diseases,” “epidemiology,” “periodontitis in India,” and “oral hygiene status in India” were searched for appropriate studies to obtain a bibliographic database. The references of selected articles and relevant reviews were searched for any missed publications that included studies conducted in India estimating periodontal diseases with adequate sample size. Clinical parameters, sample size, and findings for each study were tabulated from 2006 to 2015 (till September 15, 2015) in chronological order to observe the prevalence as well as epidemiology of periodontal disease in India. Results: The projection of periodontal disease is disturbing. In addition, the majority of studies done have used the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN) as its epidemiological tool that can grossly underestimate the presence of deep pockets. Conclusion: Current knowledge has shown that periodontitis does not present a linear progression and is not age-dependent. Moreover, its distribution and severity are strongly influenced by host susceptibility and risk factors. A structured all-inclusive survey of all districts of the states is a prerequisite for the constitution of an apt and cogent health care policy in our country. PMID:27114945

  11. Rheumatic fever & rheumatic heart disease: The last 50 years

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, R. Krishna; Tandon, R.

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatic fever (RF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) continue to be a major health hazard in most developing countries as well as sporadically in developed economies. Despite reservations about the utility, echocardiographic and Doppler (E&D) studies have identified a massive burden of RHD suggesting the inadequacy of the Jones’ criteria updated by the American Heart Association in 1992. Subclinical carditis has been recognized by E&D in patients with acute RF without clinical carditis as well as by follow up of RHD patients presenting as isolated chorea or those without clinical evidence of carditis. Over the years, the medical management of RF has not changed. Paediatric and juvenile mitral stenosis (MS), upto the age of 12 and 20 yr respectively, severe enough to require operative treatement was documented. These negate the belief that patients of RHD become symptomatic ≥20 years after RF as well as the fact that congestive cardiac failure in childhood indicates active carditis and RF. Non-surgical balloon mitral valvotomy for MS has been initiated. Mitral and/or aortic valve replacement during active RF in patients not responding to medical treatment has been found to be life saving as well as confirming that congestive heart failure in acute RF is due to an acute haemodynamic overload. Pathogenesis as well as susceptibility to RF continue to be elusive. Prevention of RF morbidity depends on secondary prophylaxis which cannot reduce the burden of diseases. Primary prophylaxis is not feasible in the absence of a suitable vaccine. Attempts to design an antistreptococcal vaccine utilizing the M-protein has not succeeded in the last 40 years. Besides pathogenesis many other questions remain unanswered. PMID:23703332

  12. "Last mile" challenges to in situ volcanic data transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, J. F. B. D.; Faria, B. V. E.; Trindade, J.; Cruz, G.; Chambel, A.; Silva, F. M.; Pereira, R. L.; Vazão, T.

    2013-08-01

    Scientists play a key role in volcanic risk mitigation, but rely heavily on fast access to data acquired in the vicinity of an active volcano. Hazardous volcanoes are often located in remote areas were telecommunications infrastructure is fragile. Besides being exposed directly to the volcanic hazard, the infrastructure in such remote areas can suffer also from "last mile" limitations derived from lack of market demand for data transmission services. In this paper, we report on the findings of FP7 MIAVITA project in the topic of volcanic data transmission. We draw on the contribution of partners from emergent or developing countries to identify the main bottlenecks and fragilities. We present also the results of an experiment conducted in Fogo island, Cape Verde, to test the availability of VSAT services adequate for volcanic monitoring. We warn against the false sense of security resulting from increasingly ubiquitous connectivity, and point out the lack of reliability of many consumer-type services, particularly during emergencies when such services are likely to crash due to excess of demand from the public. Finally, we propose guidelines and recommend best practices for the design of volcanic monitoring networks in what concerns data transmission. In particular, we advise that the data transmission equipment close to the exposed area should be owned, operated and maintained by the volcanic monitoring institution. We exemplify with the setup of the Fogo telemetric interface, which uses low-power licence-free radio modems to reach a robust point of entry into the public network at a suitable distance from the volcano.

  13. "Last mile" challenges to in situ volcanic data transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, J. F. B. D.; Faria, B. V. E.; Trindade, J.; Cruz, G.; Chambel, A.; Silva, F. M.; Pereira, R. L.; Vazão, T.

    2013-12-01

    Scientists play a key role in volcanic risk management, but rely heavily on fast access to data acquired in the vicinity of an active volcano. Hazardous volcanoes are often located in remote areas were telecommunications infrastructure is fragile. Besides being exposed directly to the volcanic hazard, the infrastructure in such remote areas can also suffer from "last mile" limitations derived from lack of market demand for data transmission services. In this paper, we report on the findings of the FP7 MIAVITA project in the topic of volcanic data transmission. We draw on the contribution of partners from emergent or developing countries to identify the main bottlenecks and fragilities. We also present the results of an experiment conducted on Fogo Island, Cape Verde, to test the availability of VSAT services adequate for volcanic monitoring. We warn against the false sense of security resulting from increasingly ubiquitous connectivity, and point out the lack of reliability of many consumer-type services, particularly during emergencies when such services are likely to crash due to excess of demand from the public. Finally, we propose guidelines and recommend best practices for the design of volcanic monitoring networks in what concerns data transmission. In particular, we advise that the data transmission equipment close to the exposed area should be owned, operated and maintained by the volcanic monitoring institution. We exemplify with the set-up of the Fogo telemetric interface, which uses low-power licence-free radio modems to reach a robust point of entry into the public network at a suitable distance from the volcano.

  14. Nitrate Removal in Stream Riparian Zones: The Last Fifteen Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duval, T. P.

    2009-05-01

    Anthropogenic loadings of nitrate from agricultural fertilizer use and deforestation can result in levels deleterious to stream ecosystems and downstream receiving water bodies. Riparian zones represent perhaps our most effective management tool in mitigating these elevated stream nitrate levels. In many settings these interfaces between the terrestrial and the aquatic have been shown to efficiently remove elevated nitrate loadings through denitrification and/or plant uptake. However, it was realized early that some riparian zones are not effective nitrate removers, and the relative importance of plant uptake versus denitrification was unclear. The uncertainty that existed 15 years ago fueled a plethora of studies on nitrate removal in stream riparian zones. This talk will highlight the most important findings of this research over the last decade and a half. Notably, the detailed description of hydrological flowpaths into and through riparian zones to the downstream environment has gone a long way to explaining the ineffectiveness of some riparian zones. Furthermore, the use of 15-N isotope tracers and field and lab incubation studies have aided in quantifying the importance of the denitrification pathway of removal. Patterns of terminal electron donors and acceptors and the importance of the intersection of the nitrate-elevated water with a source of bioavailable organic carbon, including deeply buried carbon, were a series of key achievements. Somewhat surprisingly, it has been shown that hydrogeology/landscape setting has a greater control on nitrate removal that climate/geography, as indicated by studies in different hydrogeologic settings in southern Ontario and uniform settings across a climatic gradient in Europe. Finally, the integration and generalization of these findings to the watershed-regional scale has aided in the transfer of knowledge from the scientist to the manager.

  15. Early-type Galaxy Evolution: The Last 8 Billion Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaviraj, Sugata; Yi, S. K.; Ellis, R.; Schawinski, K.; Gawiser, E.; Silk, J.; van Dokkum, P.; Urry, M.

    2010-01-01

    I review our current understanding of the star formation histories of early-type galaxies, in the context of recent observational studies of their rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) properties. By combining GALEX and SDSS photometry at low reshift, and exploiting (deep) optical surveys (MUSYC/COMBO-17/GEMS/COSMOS) at intermediate redshift, we are able to put unprecedented constraints on the formation and evolution of these galaxies over the last 8 billion years. In agreement with previous (optical) studies, the results indicate that the bulk of the stellar mass in early-types forms at high redshift (z > 1), possibly over short timescales (< 1 Gyr). Nevertheless, early-types of all luminosities form stars over the lifetime of the Universe, with most luminous (-23 < M(V) -21) systems forming up to 10-15% of their stellar mass after z = 1 (with a scatter to higher values), while their less massive counterparts form up to 30-60% of their mass in the same redshift range. The intensity of recent star formation and the UV colour distribution is quantitatively consistent with what might be expected from minor mergers (mass ratios < 1:3) in an LCDM cosmology. This is supported by visual inspection of HST images of early-types around z 0.5 which show a remarkable correspondence between the presence of morphological disturbances and UV excess. We use our results to speculate on the potentially significant role of minor merging on the evolution of the massive galaxy population at late epochs and the possible characteristics that future surveys will have to possess to study the minor merger process. This research was supported by a Fellowship from the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851 and a Senior Research Fellowship from Worcester College, Oxford (SK).

  16. A long-lasting wireless stimulator for small mammals

    PubMed Central

    Hentall, Ian D.

    2013-01-01

    The chronic effects of electrical stimulation in unrestrained awake rodents are best studied with a wireless neural stimulator that can operate unsupervised for several weeks or more. A robust, inexpensive, easily built, cranially implantable stimulator was developed to explore the restorative effects of brainstem stimulation after neurotrauma. Its connectorless electrodes directly protrude from a cuboid epoxy capsule containing all circuitry and power sources. This physical arrangement prevents fluid leaks or wire breakage and also simplifies and speeds implantation. Constant-current pulses of high compliance (34 volts) are delivered from a step-up voltage regulator under microprocessor control. A slowly pulsed magnetic field controls activation state and stimulation parameters. Program status is signaled to a remote reader by interval-modulated infrared pulses. Capsule size is limited by the two batteries. Silver oxide batteries rated at 8 mA-h were used routinely in 8 mm wide, 15 mm long and 4 mm high capsules. Devices of smaller contact area (5 by 12 mm) but taller (6 mm) were created for mice. Microstimulation of the rat's raphe nuclei with intermittent 5-min (50% duty cycle) trains of 30 μA, 1 ms pulses at 8 or 24 Hz frequency during 12 daylight hours lasted 21.1 days ±0.8 (mean ± standard error, Kaplan-Meir censored estimate, n = 128). Extended lifetimes (>6 weeks, no failures, n = 16) were achieved with larger batteries (44 mA-h) in longer (18 mm), taller (6 mm) capsules. The circuit and electrode design are versatile; simple modifications allowed durable constant-voltage stimulation of the rat's sciatic nerve through a cylindrical cathode from a subcutaneous pelvic capsule. Devices with these general features can address in small mammals many of the biological and technical questions arising neurosurgically with prolonged peripheral or deep brain stimulation. PMID:24130527

  17. Bar pattern speed evolution over the last 7 Gyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, I.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Méndez-Abreu, J.

    2012-04-01

    Context. The tumbling pattern of a bar is the main parameter characterising its dynamics. From numerical simulations, its evolution since bar formation is tightly linked to the dark halo in which the bar is formed through dynamical friction and angular momentum exchange. Observational measurements of the bar pattern speed with redshift can restrict models of galaxy formation and bar evolution. Aims: We aim to determine for the first time the bar pattern speed evolution with redshift based on morphological measurements. Methods: We have selected a sample of 44 low-inclination ringed galaxies from the SDSS and COSMOS surveys covering the redshift range 0 < z < 0.8 to investigate the evolution of the bar pattern speed. We derived morphological ratios between the deprojected outer ring radius (Rring) and the bar size (Rbar). This quantity is related to the parameter ℛ = RCR/Rbar used for classifiying bars in slow and fast rotators, and allows us to investigate possible differences with redshift. Results: We obtain a similar distribution of R at all redshifts. We do not find any systematic effect that could be forcing this result. Conclusions: The results obtained here are compatible with the main bulk of the bar population (~70%) being fast-rotators and with no evolution of the pattern speed with redshift. We argue that if bars are long-lasting structures, the results presented here imply that there has not been a substantial angular momentum exchange between the bar and halo, as predicted by numerical simulations. In consequence, this might imply that the discs of these high surface-brightness galaxies are maximal. The appendix is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgBased on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  18. How warm was Greenland during the last interglacial period?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landais, Amaelle; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Capron, Emilie; Langebroek, Petra M.; Bakker, Pepijn; Stone, Emma J.; Merz, Niklaus; Raible, Christoph C.; Fischer, Hubertus; Orsi, Anaïs; Prié, Frédéric; Vinther, Bo; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2016-09-01

    The last interglacial period (LIG, ˜ 129-116 thousand years ago) provides the most recent case study of multimillennial polar warming above the preindustrial level and a response of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to this warming, as well as a test bed for climate and ice sheet models. Past changes in Greenland ice sheet thickness and surface temperature during this period were recently derived from the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice core records, northwest Greenland. The NEEM paradox has emerged from an estimated large local warming above the preindustrial level (7.5 ± 1.8 °C at the deposition site 126 kyr ago without correction for any overall ice sheet altitude changes between the LIG and the preindustrial period) based on water isotopes, together with limited local ice thinning, suggesting more resilience of the real Greenland ice sheet than shown in some ice sheet models. Here, we provide an independent assessment of the average LIG Greenland surface warming using ice core air isotopic composition (δ15N) and relationships between accumulation rate and temperature. The LIG surface temperature at the upstream NEEM deposition site without ice sheet altitude correction is estimated to be warmer by +8.5 ± 2.5 °C compared to the preindustrial period. This temperature estimate is consistent with the 7.5 ± 1.8 °C warming initially determined from NEEM water isotopes but at the upper end of the preindustrial period to LIG temperature difference of +5.2 ± 2.3 °C obtained at the NGRIP (North Greenland Ice Core Project) site by the same method. Climate simulations performed with present-day ice sheet topography lead in general to a warming smaller than reconstructed, but sensitivity tests show that larger amplitudes (up to 5 °C) are produced in response to prescribed changes in sea ice extent and ice sheet topography.

  19. Long-lasting virtual motorcycle-riding trainer effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Vidotto, Giulio; Tagliabue, Mariaelena; Tira, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    This work aimed to test the long-lasting effects of learning acquired with a virtual motorcycle-riding trainer as a tool to improve hazard perception. During the simulation, the rider can interact with other road actors and experience the most common potential accident situations in order to learn to modify his or her behavior to anticipate hazards and avoid crashes. We compared performance to the riding simulator of the two groups of participants: the experimental group, which was trained with the same simulator one year prior, and the control group that had not received any type of training with a riding or driving simulator. All of the participants had ridden a moped in the previous 12 months. The experimental group showed greater abilities to avoid accidents and recognize hazards in comparison to their performance observed a year before, whereas the performance of the control group was similar to that of the experimental group 1 year before in the first two sessions, and even better in the third. We interpreted this latter result as a consequence of their prior on-road experience. Also, the fact that the performance of the experimental group at the beginning of the follow-up is better than that recorded at the end of the training—1 year before—is in line with the idea of a transfer from the on-road experience to the simulator. The present data confirm our main expectation that the effectiveness of the riding training simulator on the ability to cope with potentially dangerous situations persists over time and provides additional evidence in favor of the idea that simulators may be considered useful tools for training the ability to detect and react to hazards, leading to an improvement of this higher-order cognitive skill that persists over time. Implications for the reciprocal influence of the training with the simulator and the on-the road experience are discussed as well. PMID:26579036

  20. Microcapsules: Reverse Sonoporation and Long-lasting, Safe Contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrenn, Steven; Dicker, Stephen; Small, Eleanor; Maghnouj, Abdelouahid; Hahn, Stephan A.; Mleczko, Michał; Hensel, Karin; Schmitz, Georg

    We present a novel vehicle designed to serve the dual roles of enhanced ultrasound contrast and ultrasound-triggered drug delivery. The vehicle is comprised of a microcapsule that is filled with water in whose aqueous core a population of freely floating, phospholipid-coated microbubbles is suspended. At ultrasound intensities below the inertial cavitation threshold of the microbubbles, the microbubbles provide enhanced ultrasound contrast. The measured contrast is comparable in strength with SonoVue®. Encapsulation of microbubbles within microcapsules putatively eliminates - or at least significantly slows - dissolution of gas in the bulk aqueous medium, thereby avoiding disappearance of microbubbles that would otherwise occur due to pressure-induced gas diffusion across the surfactant monolayer coating the microbubble-water interface. Results suggest that our vehicle might provide longer lasting contrast in a clinical setting. We demonstrate that encapsulation of the microbubbles within microcapsules causes at least a doubling of the ultrasound intensity necessary to induce inertial cavitation. Moreover, no cell death was observed when cells were insonified in the presence of microbubble-containing microcapsules, whereas appreciable cell death occurs with unencapsulated microbubbles. These results point toward a potential safety benefit during ultrasound contrast imaging by using encapsulated microbubbles. Studies are underway to investigate the feasibility of ultrasound-triggered release of drug from the microcapsules, owing to inertial- or stable-cavitation, or both. Whereas leakage from polymeric microcapsule shells, such as poly(lactic acid), seemingly requires shell rupture and is exceedingly difficult to achieve, leakage across a lipid bilayer microcapsule shells appears feasible. Leakage across a bilayer shell has the additional benefit that the leakage mechanism can be tuned via phase behavior (liquid-ordered versus liquid-disordered) and cavitation

  1. Topoclimatic Refugia for Last Stands: Empirical Examples and Modeling Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    Maintaining regional biogeographic distributions - the presence of species or assemblages within defined geographic areas - may be the only realistic conservation strategy given the magnitude of projected warming. In California, consistent projections of altered phenology driven by warmer temperatures and landscape aridification driven by increased climatic water deficit (CWD) will play out over complex mesoclimatic and topoclimatic gradients. Topoclimatic refugia provide for "last stands" of species within large landscapes. Range contractions during warming/drying periods eventually end in small mesic pockets determined by fine-scale topography and hydrology. Topoclimatic refugia can be mapped using models of insolation, cold-air pooling, flow accumulation, and soil depth. Arrays of temperature sensors can quantify lengths and correlations of intersecting topoclimatic gradients. Species respond along these gradients according to their life-history. Bay checkerspot butterfly populations persist through phenological extremes when late hostplant senescence on steep north-facing slopes allows springtime larval survival. The following winter growing larvae can crawl tens of meters upslope onto warmer slopes, advance their emergence by weeks, and provide a buffer against early hostplant senescence. The refugia consist of steep north-facing slopes within tens of meters of warmer upslope areas. Pockets of low CWD on low insolation slopes with deeper soils that accumulate upslope water provide mesic refugia; currently, these sites often support outlying stands of mesic vegetation. CWD tolerance of existing vegetation near arid limits will be exceeded as temperatures rise, but stands currently well away from the limits may persist longer. If CWD limits are exceeded, short range shifts (< 1 km) may allow persistence in adjacent areas. Importantly, species may already be present but rare in or near potential refugia in complex topography.

  2. Long-lasting bradypnea induced by repeated social defeat.

    PubMed

    Brouillard, Charly; Carrive, Pascal; Camus, Françoise; Bénoliel, Jean-Jacques; Similowski, Thomas; Sévoz-Couche, Caroline

    2016-08-01

    Repeated social defeat in the rat induces long-lasting cardiovascular changes associated with anxiety. In this study, we investigated the effects of repeated social defeat on breathing. Respiratory rate was extracted from the respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) peak frequency of the ECG in rats subjected to social defeat for 4 consecutive days. Respiratory rate was recorded under anesthesia 6 days (D+10) or 26 days (D+30) after social defeat. At D+10, defeated (D) rats spent less time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze test, had heavier adrenal glands, and displayed bradypnea, unlike nondefeated animals. At D+30, all signs of anxiety had disappeared. However, one-half of the rats still displayed bradypnea (DL rats, for low respiratory rate indicated by a lower RSA frequency), whereas those with higher respiratory rate (DH rats) had recovered. Acute blockade of the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) or nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) 5-HT3 receptors reversed bradypnea in all D rats at D+10 and in DL rats at D+30. Respiratory rate was also recorded in conscious animals implanted with radiotelemetric ECG probes. DH rats recovered between D+10 and D+18, whereas DL rats remained bradypneic until D+30. In conclusion, social stress induces sustained chronic bradypnea mediated by DMH neurons and NTS 5-HT3 receptors. These changes are associated with an anxiety-like state that persists until D+10, followed by recovery. However, bradypnea may persist in one-half of the population up until D+30, despite apparent recovery of the anxiety-like state. PMID:27225946

  3. The period from the Last Interglacial to the Last Glacial Maximum (MIS 5 - 2) in different archives of southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Daniela; Wagner, Stephen; Al-Sharif, Riyad; Brückner, Helmut; Scarciglia, Fabio; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Stahr, Karl

    2010-05-01

    Sediment cores from S Italy provide excellent archives of Late Pleistocene climate and vegetation changes, particularly from the Lago Grande di Monticchio (Allen et al., 2000; Brauer et al., 2007), the crater lakes of the central West coast of Italy, Valle di Castiglione, Lagaccione, Lago di Vico, Stracciacappa (Follieri et al., 1998) and the marine core GNS84-C106 in the Gulf of Salerno (Di Donato et al., 2008). These records show that woody Mediterranean vegetation covered the region during most of the Last Interglacial (from 129-127 ka BP until 115-116 ka BP). In the last phase of the interglacial (from 115-116 ka BP until about 110 ka BP), the forest composition changed, showing an increase in Abies and Alnus and a decrease in Mediterranean taxa. The interglacial was terminated by the Melisey I Stadial, during which grasses and Betula predominated. Forests spread again during St. Germain I, but they consisted mainly of Fagus, Abies and various deciduous trees. A steppe phase (Melisey II) followed, in which Chenopodiaceae prevailed, before St. Germain II set in, with forests dominated by Abies, Ulmus and Carpinus. From the end of St. Germain II until the Lateglacial, steppe, composed of Artemisia, Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae, predominated, with week expansions of trees (mainly Pinus and Juniperus) during several periods. What information can be obtained from terrestrial geo-archives for the same region and time? Sea level highstands, corresponding to interglacial and interstadial periods, created marine terraces along the coasts of S Italy. We are currently carrying out a geomorphological, sedimentological and pedological study on a flight of 11 uplifted marine terraces in the central Gulf of Taranto, the lowermost of them falling into the time span of interest. The terraces generally comprise a gravel body, deposited in a littoral environment, covered by a layer of fine sediments of varying thickness. The latter were deposited when the terrace was still close

  4. The Southern Ocean's biological pump during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Robert F.; Chase, Zanna; Fleisher, Martin Q.; Sachs, Julian

    Ice core records from Antarctica show large (˜80 ppm) and regular climate-related changes in atmospheric CO 2, with minimum values during glacial periods and maximum values during peak interglacials. The suggested role of the Southern Ocean in driving these changes is based on either the potential for increased utilization of surface nutrients or the potential for decreased ventilation of deep waters during glacial times. Several recent studies have invoked increased stratification of the Southern Ocean to explain lower glacial atmospheric CO 2 levels in terms of reduced exchange of CO 2 between the deep sea and the atmosphere. A northward displacement and/or substantial weakening of the westerly winds during glacial periods are implicit in the scenarios that invoke enhanced stratification. However, both circulation models and proxy results argue against a weakening of the westerlies. In fact, the mean flow of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and wind-driven upwelling during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are thought to be at least as vigorous as those which exist today. Given these boundary conditions, we offer two (competing) scenarios for ecosystem structure and export production of the glacial Southern Ocean. The first scenario satisfies all proxy records for nutrient utilization and phytoplankton growth rate, and requires increased (relative to today) nitrate utilization south of the Antarctic Polar Front (APF) by phytoplankton other than diatoms, together with a shift in the zone of maximum diatom growth from south (interglacials) to north (glacials) of the APF. The second scenario has reduced growth of all phytoplankton species south of the APF during glacials, and a shift in the zone of maximum export production to the north of the Polar Front. The principal weakness of the first scenario is that there is little sedimentary evidence to support the increased export of particulate organic carbon required by the inferred increase in nitrate utilization south

  5. First Results from The Last Millennium Climate Reanalysis Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakim, G. J.; Steig, E. J.; Emile-Geay, J.; Noone, D. C.; Anderson, D. M.; Tardif, R.; Steiger, N. J.; Perkins, W. A.

    2015-12-01

    Paleoclimate proxies provide the only measured record of Earth's climate history, but they are noisy and sparse in space and time. Climate model simulations provide dynamically consistent spatial fields, but lack a direct connection to specific climate states prior to the instrumental record. Paleoclimate data assimilation (PDA) provides an optimally weighted estimate of the climate state from these two sources of information based on their error characteristics. The Last Millennium Climate Reanalysis Project (LMR) uses an ensemble-based PDA method and annually-resolved proxy records to reconstruct Earth's climate for the past 1000 years on a regular latitude--longitude grid. First results of the LMR project are reported here. Proxy records used in the first LMR reconstructions include: trees (ring width and wood density), corals (d18O and luminescence), ice cores (d18O), and a small number of sediment and speleothem records. A component of the data assimilation approach that distinguishes it from other techniques concerns the use of proxy system models to estimate the proxy from climate variables from a model simulation. Proxies are linearly related to 2-meter air temperature in a calibration dataset. Given a prior estimate of the climate from a model (here, a randomly sampled 1000-year control integration of CCSM4), we estimate the proxy value from the linear relationship (derived independently from the model). LMR analyses are compared against both existing gridded reanalysis records and withheld proxy records. Results show a cooling trend in global-mean air temperature during 1000-1900 CE, which derives primarily from cooling of the Northern Hemisphere extratropics, offset by weak tropical warming. There is no evidence of a Medieval Climate Anomaly. During the 20th century, the LMR estimate of the global-mean air temperature compares very closely with other reanalysis products. Skill appears insensitive to the calibration dataset used to derive the proxy system

  6. Last millenium environmental changes in Lake Bertrand sediments, Chilean Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacré, V.; Fagel, N.; Schmidt, S.; Alvarez, D.; Araneda, A.; Urrutia, R.

    2012-04-01

    Our study focuses on a multiproxy analysis of sedimentary records from Lago Bertrand (area 50 km2; 227 masl; 46°55'S 72°50'W). Three cores were retrieved during fieldtrips in 2009 and 2011 with an Uwitec gravity corer. One core was collected in the main lake (LBt09, 102 cm) and two others in a lateral extension (LBb11-A, 162 cm and LBb11-B, 156 cm). Data 210Pb and 137Cs give average sedimentation rates of 2 mm/yr for the upper core section from the main lake, allowing a decennial resolution. Our aim is to document the climatic variability during the last millennium in Northern Patagonia and its impact on the environment. Lago Bertrand is separated from a pro-glacial lake (Lago Plomo) by a morainic barrier. The sediments of this lake are mainly composed of clayed silts and very few sandy silts. In the cores from the Eastern branch of Lago Bertrand, X-ray radiographies and magnetic susceptibility profiles evidence well-defined pluri-millimetric laminations with organic-rich layers, especially in the central core section. In the main lake, X-ray radiographies show diffuse pluri-millimetric laminations while magnetic susceptibility profiles do not confirm it. The sediments of the main lake appear more homogeneous with less organic-rich layers. They are characterized by low C/N ratio (10), supporting an important aquatic productivity; high inorganic content (90-95% of the bulk sediment); two peaks in the biological silica profile; and abundant diatoms (50-100 µm). According to the age model, the changes in aquatic productivity occurred between 1700 and 1850 AD. The cores from the Eastern branch of Lago Bertrand are under investigation to confirm the extension of the sedimentological changes observed in the main lake. The main sedimentological change observed in Lago Bertrand occurs during an interval equivalent to a part of the Little Ice Age. A similar biogenic silica-rich layer was also recorded in another relatively distant lake (Lago Thompson at 45°30'S, 72°47

  7. High-resolution climate simulation of the last glacial maximum

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson III, David J

    2008-01-01

    The climate of the last glacial maximum (LGM) is simulated with a high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model, the NCAR CCM3 at spectral truncation of T170, corresponding to a grid cell size of roughly 75 km. The purpose of the study is to assess whether there are significant benefits from the higher resolution simulation compared to the lower resolution simulation associated with the role of topography. The LGM simulations were forced with modified CLIMAP sea ice distribution and sea surface temperatures (SST) reduced by 1 C, ice sheet topography, reduced CO{sub 2}, and 21,000 BP orbital parameters. The high-resolution model captures modern climate reasonably well, in particular the distribution of heavy precipitation in the tropical Pacific. For the ice age case, surface temperature simulated by the high-resolution model agrees better with those of proxy estimates than does the low-resolution model. Despite the fact that tropical SSTs were only 2.1 C less than the control run, there are many lowland tropical land areas 4-6 C colder than present. Comparison of T170 model results with the best constrained proxy temperature estimates (noble gas concentrations in groundwater) now yield no significant differences between model and observations. There are also significant upland temperature changes in the best resolved tropical mountain belt (the Andes). We provisionally attribute this result in part as resulting from decreased lateral mixing between ocean and land in a model with more model grid cells. A longstanding model-data discrepancy therefore appears to be resolved without invoking any unusual model physics. The response of the Asian summer monsoon can also be more clearly linked to local geography in the high-resolution model than in the low-resolution model; this distinction should enable more confident validation of climate proxy data with the high-resolution model. Elsewhere, an inferred salinity increase in the subtropical North Atlantic may have

  8. Field Topology Analysis of a Long-lasting Coronal Sigmoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savcheva, A. S.; van Ballegooijen, A. A.; DeLuca, E. E.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first field topology analysis based on nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) models of a long-lasting coronal sigmoid observed in 2007 February with the X-Ray Telescope on Hinode. The NLFFF models are built with the flux rope insertion method and give the three-dimensional coronal magnetic field as constrained by observed coronal loop structures and photospheric magnetograms. Based on these models, we have computed horizontal maps of the current and the squashing factor Q for 25 different heights in the corona for all six days of the evolution of the region. We use the squashing factor to quantify the degree of change of the field line linkage and to identify prominent quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs). We discuss the major properties of these QSL maps and devise a way to pick out important QSLs since our calculation cannot reach high values of Q. The complexity in the QSL maps reflects the high degree of fragmentation of the photospheric field. We find main QSLs and current concentrations that outline the flux rope cavity and that become characteristically S-shaped during the evolution of the sigmoid. We note that, although intermittent bald patches exist along the length of the sigmoid during its whole evolution, the flux rope remains stable for several days. However, shortly after the topology of the field exhibits hyperbolic flux tubes (HFT) on February 7 and February 12 the sigmoid loses equilibrium and produces two B-class flares and associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The location of the most elevated part of the HFT in our model coincides with the inferred locations of the two flares. Therefore, we suggest that the presence of an HFT in a coronal magnetic configuration may be an indication that the system is ready to erupt. We offer a scenario in which magnetic reconnection at the HFT drives the system toward the marginally stable state. Once this state is reached, loss of equilibrium occurs via the torus instability, producing a CME.

  9. Analysis of satellite precipitation over East Africa during last decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattani, Elsa; Wenhaji Ndomeni, Claudine; Merino, Andrés; Levizzani, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    Daily accumulated precipitation time series from satellite retrieval algorithms (e.g., ARC2 and TAMSAT) are exploited to extract the spatial and temporal variability of East Africa (EA - 5°S-20°N, 28°E-52°E) precipitation during last decades (1983-2013). The Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis is applied to precipitation time series to investigate the spatial and temporal variability in particular for October-November-December referred to as the short rain season. Moreover, the connection among EA's precipitation, sea surface temperature, and soil moisture is analyzed through the correlation with the dominant EOF modes of variability. Preliminary results concern the first two EOF's modes for the ARC2 data set. EOF1 is characterized by an inter-annual variability and a positive correlation between precipitation and El Niño, positive Indian Ocean Dipole mode, and soil moisture, while EOF2 shows a dipole structure of spatial variability associated with a longer scale temporal variability. This second dominant mode is mostly linked to sea surface temperature variations in the North Atlantic Ocean. Further analyses are carried out by computing the time series of the joint CCI/CLIVAR/JCOMM Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI, http://etccdi.pacificclimate.org/index.shtml), i.e. RX1day, RX5day, CDD, CDD, CWD, SDII, PRCPTOT, R10, R20. The purpose is to identify the occurrenes of extreme events (droughts and floods) and extract precipitation temporal variation by trend analysis (Mann-Kendall technique). Results for the ARC2 data set demonstrate the existence of a dipole spatial pattern in the linear trend of the time series of PRCPTOT (annual precipitation considering days with a rain rate > 1 mm) and SDII (average precipitation on wet days over a year). A negative trend is mainly present over West Ethiopia and Sudan, whereas a positive trend is exhibited over East Ethiopia and Somalia. CDD (maximum number of consecutive dry days) and

  10. Urban Geocaching: what Happened in Lisbon during the Last Decade?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira Mendes, R.; Rodrigues, T.; Rodrigues, A. M.

    2013-05-01

    Created in 2000 in the United States of America, Geocaching has become a major phenomenon all around the world, counting actually with millions of Geocaches (or caches) that work as a recreational motivation for millions of users, called Geocachers. During the last 30 days over 5,000,000 new logs have been submitted worldwide, disseminating individual experiences, motivations, emotions and photos through the official Geocaching website (www.geocaching.com), and several official or informal national web forums. The activity itself can be compared with modern treasure hunting that uses handheld GPS, Smartphones or Tablets, WEB 2.0, wiki features and technologies to keep Geocachers engaged with their activity, in a strong social-network. All these characteristics make Geocaching an activity with a strong geographic component that deals closely with the surrounding environment where each cache has been hidden. From previous work, significance correlation has been found regarding hides and natural/rural environments, but metropolitan and urban areas like Lisbon municipality (that holds 3.23% of the total 27534 Portuguese caches), still registers the higher density of Geocaches, and logs numbers. Lacking "natural/rural" environment, Geocaching in cities tend to happen in symbolic areas, like public parks and places, sightseeing spots and historical neighborhoods. The present study looks to Geocaching within the city of Lisbon, in order to understand how it works, and if this activity reflects the city itself, promoting its image and cultural heritage. From a freely available dataset that includes all Geocaches that have been placed in Lisbon since February 2001, spatial analysis has been conducted, showing the informal preferences of this activity. Results show a non-random distribution of caches within the study area, similar to the land use distribution. Preferable locations tend to be in iconic places of the city, usually close to the

  11. Indonesian Throughflow variability over the last glacial cycle (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbourn, A. E.; Kuhnt, W.; Regenberg, M.; Xu, J.; Hendrizan, M.; Schröder, J.

    2013-12-01

    over the Australian continent. However, the development of the monsoon was asynchronous over the region, which we relate to changes in landmass exposure during deglacial sea-level rise. Thus, we find that sea-level exerted a major control on ITF properties through the last glacial termination by altering gateway configuration and precipitation-evaporation budgets over the Indonesian archipelago.

  12. Extreme drought events in Germany during the last 60 yrs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaniego, L. E.; Kumar, R.; Zink, M.

    2011-12-01

    Droughts are among the most costly natural disasters because they heavily impact on the economy of a region as well as on its social and cultural activities. Droughts do not only occur in arid or semiarid regions but also in humid ones. The year 2007, for example, was the sunniest, hottest and driest in Germany in the last two centuries. In this case, it was too dry too early. As a result, the harvest was cut by half leading to enormous losses in the primary sector. Consumer prices of some agricultural products went up 26 percent. The purpose of this study is to identify the major agricultural and hydrological droughts in Germany since 1950 based on their severity, duration and areal extend. To achieve this goal, a 60-yr retrospective hydrological simulation of the land surface water budget over Germany was carried out with the process-based distributed hydrological model mHM. The model was forced with grided daily precipitation and temperature data at 4x4 km, and the model simulations were carried out at same spatial resolutions. Point measurement data from more than 5600 raingauges and about 1120 meteorological stations (DWD) were interpolated with EDK. Land cover change was also considered during this period. Drought indices were derived as monthly quantiles of the simulated fluxes which include root zone soil moisture and total runoff. A Gaussian kernel smoother was used to estimate these quantiles at each grid cell. A spatio-temporal cluster algorithm was used to consolidate all significant drought events. Main statistics such as magnitude, areal extend, duration, and severity were estimated only on those selected clusters. The mHM model was calibrated in major river basins giving Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies for daily discharge simulations greater than 0.8 in the evaluation period. Plausibility tests between the simulated mHM soil moisture and land surface temperature from MODIS and regional climate model reanalysis data compared well. Results indicated that

  13. Are 2000 m asl a last frontier in hydrology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranzi, R.

    2009-04-01

    In spite of several advancements in monitoring systems in the last decades our understanding of some key hydrological processes and measurements in mountain areas still remain affected by large uncertainties. Above 2000 m asl in the Alps, and at higher altitudes in other mountain ranges, precipitation measurements with raingauges are still affected by the snow/rain partitioning uncertainties and wind-induced losses. The network density is not sufficient to capture heavy localised storms triggered by orography, which sometimes induce extreme debris flow events; today, in some cases, raingauge density at high altitudes is coarser than several decades ago, when networks were installed for designing hydropower plants. Radar measurements, which can be more effective in monitoring localised storms, are disturbed by the melting layer and ground clutter. Areal snow water equivalent estimates are still based on point measurements of snow density and depth and, over complex topography, remote sensing is helping for estimating snow cover areas only, while distributed information on vertical snow profiles is still difficult to be obtained. Also micrometeorological measurements of turbulent fluxes are sparse for logistic reasons and data spatialisation needs meteorological modelling or complex geostatistical interpolation algorithms to be effective. Runoff is difficult to be measured in winter because of freezing of streamwater. These examples show how the key components of the hydrological balance, i.e. precipitation, snow storage, evapotranspiration losses and runoff at the basin scale are difficult to be estimated with the accuracy required by several challenging scientific investigations, as those concerning adaptation of forests to climate changes and resulting feedback, or the assessment of the benefit for aquatic systems derived from new environmental flow releases in mountain creeks. Some examples from recent experiments to measure, for energy-balance studies, eddy

  14. The last ~1 million years of carbonatite volcanism in northern Tanzania; last gasp of a decaying rift?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A.

    2003-04-01

    Continued monitoring of volcanic activity at Oldoinyo Lengai for the last ~35 years suggests that this central volcano has become a highly evolved low temperature/low volume carbonatite-nephelinite system. The sustained intermingling of silicate and carbonatitic eruptions for most of this volcano's history contrasts sharply with the two-stage sequential development of neighbouring Kerimasi (nephelinite then carbonatite). The footprint of the older Kerimasi volcano is effected by active faulting of earlier flood lavas along the west rift wall. The mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry of both volcanos generally conform with the LeBas model of carbonatite-nephelinite volcanism for the eastern arm of the EAR. However, their overall differences in bulk chemistry suggest that their ~15 km horizontal separation at the surface, reflects compositional heterogeneity of the mantle source over a similar length scale. This is consistent with primary melt segregation at relatively shallow mantle depths, and crustal delivery along pipe-like conduits with minimal lateral transport. The surrounding rift valley floor is pock-marked with numerous small volcanic structures, such as tuff cones, craters and minor lava flows. The ages of these minor volcanos are bracketed by the two larger central volcanos, and also contain both carbonatite and alkaline silicate magmas; they extend the compositional range and suggest deeper sources for periodic small volume primary melilitite magmas. Their xenolith populations are consistent with an extended history of metasomatised mantle peridotites characterised by increasing amphibole, mica, and clinopyroxene at the expense of orthopyroxene. Megacrysts and cumulate-textured xenoliths are also consistent with repeated occupation of vertical conduits and local sidewall crystallisation at depths close to the Moho. Overall, the recent volcanic activity represents highly evolved small volume batches of mantle melts with high carbonate and CO2, and

  15. Radiocarbon Variability in the Tropical Pacific During the Last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaunbrecher, L. K.; Cobb, K. M.; Druffel, E. R.; Griffin, S. M.

    2007-12-01

    The strength of upwelling in the tropical Pacific strongly influences global climate, as demonstrated during El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) extremes. Understanding the causes of past variability in tropical Pacific upwelling will help to predict how future climate may evolve under radiative forcing caused by the increase in greenhouse gases. We measured radiocarbon (14C) records in corals collected from Palmyra (6°°N, 162°°W) and Christmas (2°°N, 157°°W) Islands, located in the central tropical Pacific, to reconstruct high-resolution variations in tropical Pacific upwelling over the last millennium. Corals incorporate 14C/12C ratios equal to those in the dissolved inorganic carbon of surrounding seawater, and thus provide monthly-resolved records of surface ocean radiocarbon concentrations back through time. Surface ocean waters are more enriched with radiocarbon than deep waters, owing to the atmospheric source for radiocarbon. Upwelled waters are depleted in radiocarbon because significant radioactive decay has occurred during their isolation in the deeper ocean. Previous work with central tropical Pacific corals has determined that upwelled waters are approximately -55‰° to -65‰° in this region, while currents flowing from the west Pacific to the east Pacific carry waters with a higher 14C signature, roughly -38‰, and waters from the east have a value of -72‰° (Konishi et. al, 1981, Druffel, 1981). Therefore, variations in 14C in the Palmyra and Christmas corals reflect the mixing of the cool, radiocarbon-depleted, waters associated with equatorial upwelling and the warm, radiocarbon-enriched waters advected from the western tropical Pacific. Oxygen isotopic (δ18O) analyses of the Palmyra and Christmas fossil corals reveal a rich climatic history of interannual to centennial variability (Cobb et al., 2003). Our approach targets specific time intervals associated with strong interannual to centennial δ18O anomalies for high

  16. Florida Current Temperature and Salinity Variability during the Last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, D. C.; Curry, W. B.

    2004-12-01

    Planktonic foraminiferal time series from four well-dated, high sedimentation rate cores exhibit significant changes in Florida Current δ 18O, SST, and δ 18Ow during the past 1000 years. On the Florida Margin (24.4 ° N, 83.3 ° W), G. ruber δ 18O in two cores increased by 0.1-0.2 ‰ from 500 to 200 yr BP. During the same time interval, Mg/Ca-derived SSTs warmed by 0.5-1.0 ° C. These shifts in δ 18O and temperature require an increase in δ 18Ow of 0.2-0.4 ‰ , equivalent to a salinity increase of 1-2 psu. From 200 yr BP to present, δ 18Ow values decreased by 0.1-0.2 ‰ . On the other side of the Florida Current (FC), two cores from the Great Bahama Bank (24.6 ° N, 79.3 ° W) also support a ~1-2 psu increase in salinity, but the shift occurs about 200 years later. G. ruber δ 18O at the Great Bahama Bank sites changed little from 1000 to 300 yr BP, but from 300 yr BP to present, it increased by 0.2-0.3 ‰ . SSTs during the last 300 years increased by 0.5-1.0 ° C, indicating that δ 18Ow increased by 0.3-0.4 ‰ since 300 yr BP. In the earlier portion of the record, δ 18Ow variability is on the order of 0.1 ‰ . Mg/Ca analyses from the Great Bahama Bank indicate that coretop SSTs are similar to those at 1000 yr BP (the so-called Medieval Warm Period). SSTs were 0.5-1.0 ° C cooler during the Little Ice Age (~750 to 200 yr BP). Although small, these changes in SST are consistent in magnitude and timing in two separate time series. The Florida Current SST variability is similar to that estimated for the Sargasso Sea (Keigwin, 1996), although the Sargasso Sea reconstruction implies higher SSTs than modern during the Medieval Warm Period. Changes in Florida Current salinity result from evaporation-precipitation variability in the central and western tropical Atlantic, the source region for much of the FC surface water (Schmitz and Richardson, 1991). Evidence of centennial-scale hydrologic variability from the Cariaco Basin (Haug et al., 2001; Black et al

  17. Nearly 10 Million U.S. Adults Considered Suicide Last Year

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160979.html Nearly 10 Million U.S. Adults Considered Suicide Last Year Rates at historically high levels -- up ... 10 million U.S. adults seriously thought about committing suicide last year, federal health officials reported Thursday. Rates ...

  18. 2nd U.S. Case of Bacteria Resistant to Last-Resort Antibiotic

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159807.html 2nd U.S. Case of Bacteria Resistant to Last-Resort Antibiotic Scientists concerned it ... the United States who was infected with a bacteria that is resistant to an antibiotic of last ...

  19. What Did You Try Last Semester? How Did It Work?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-02-01

    to use, and to evaluate, the many excellent ideas, materials, and pedagogical tools they have created. But we should not confine our experimentation to just the results of the systemic projects, nor should we let it lapse when their funding has ended. Every issue of this Journal contains new ideas, suggestions, and pedagogical tools that can be incorporated into our teaching and evaluated for effectiveness across a broad range of students and institutions. And these pages are open to those who want to report the results of such experimentation, particularly when clear, down-to-earth suggestions are given for how to use the new tools. It is my intention that JCE can serve as a catalyst to increase the rate of experimentation and incremental change. All of us should add to our list of New Year's resolutions one that involves applying the experimental approach to what happens in our classrooms and laboratories. If each of us would identify the one change that would be most effective in improving our students' learning environment, figure out how that change can be implemented without undue burden on our time and energy, and try it out in the upcoming semester, we could garner a tremendous amount of information-and even perhaps some collective wisdom. If that process continued long term there would be very little need for special projects and systemic programs of reform. We would all be carrying out reform, slowly but surely, all the time. What did you try last semester? How did it work? What are you going to try this semester? Literature Cited 1. NSTA Reports December 1997/January 1998, p. 2.

  20. 20 CFR 330.4 - Last railroad employment in the base year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Last railroad employment in the base year... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DETERMINATION OF DAILY BENEFIT RATES § 330.4 Last railroad employment in the base year. The phrase “last railroad employment in the applicable base year,” as used in § 330.2(a) of...

  1. 20 CFR 330.4 - Last railroad employment in the base year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Last railroad employment in the base year. 330... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DETERMINATION OF DAILY BENEFIT RATES § 330.4 Last railroad employment in the base year. The phrase “last railroad employment in the applicable base year,” as used in § 330.2(a) of...

  2. 20 CFR 330.4 - Last railroad employment in the base year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Last railroad employment in the base year. 330... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DETERMINATION OF DAILY BENEFIT RATES § 330.4 Last railroad employment in the base year. The phrase “last railroad employment in the applicable base year,” as used in § 330.2(a) of...

  3. 20 CFR 330.4 - Last railroad employment in the base year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Last railroad employment in the base year... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DETERMINATION OF DAILY BENEFIT RATES § 330.4 Last railroad employment in the base year. The phrase “last railroad employment in the applicable base year,” as used in § 330.2(a) of...

  4. 20 CFR 330.4 - Last railroad employment in the base year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Last railroad employment in the base year... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DETERMINATION OF DAILY BENEFIT RATES § 330.4 Last railroad employment in the base year. The phrase “last railroad employment in the applicable base year,” as used in § 330.2(a) of...

  5. 25 CFR 700.213 - Methods of providing last resort replacement housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methods of providing last resort replacement housing. 700.213 Section 700.213 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES Last Resort Replacement Housing § 700.213 Methods of providing last resort...

  6. Lasting Impressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottle, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how the matter of civil rights, and in particular the treatment of black people at the hands of white people, was conveyed to him most powerfully by three men of Harvard. The first was his high school headmaster, Herbert W. Smith, who introduced their class to the horrors of apartheid through the writings of…

  7. Lasting Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolicoeur, Mark; Kahl, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    More than 10 years ago, the U.S. Department of Education estimated that the average age of American school facilities was 40 years. With the slowing education construction market, one can assume that this age is continuing to rise. And this system of aging school facilities begs the question: Renovate or replace? When schools are looking at their…

  8. Last Sanctuary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durning, Alan Thein

    1992-01-01

    Report on Philippine tribal people's struggle to protect their homelands against loggers, miners, and the global industrial economy. Links the issues surrounding tribal homelands and environmental degradation to world trade, foreign debt, and expansion of the industrial economy. (MCO)

  9. Last Call

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Teresa

    2003-01-01

    From the bleached blond hair with black tips to the intentionally torn clothes to the tattoo on her arm, Annie looked and acted like a rebel from the first day she set foot in the author's literature classroom. In this article, the author describes how the journal for literature class had been instrumental in finding out about Annie's life and how…

  10. Lasting Impression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Many schools and universities thought they were getting a good deal when they were building education facilities in the 1950s and 1960s. However, the K-12 and higher-education spaces constructed to accommodate the millions of baby-boomer students no longer look like the quick-fix bargain they did years ago. Low-quality materials and construction,…

  11. CAD system for footwear design based on whole real 3D data of last surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wanzhong; Su, Xianyu

    2000-10-01

    Two major parts of application of CAD in footwear design are studied: the development of last surface; computer-aided design of planar shoe-template. A new quasi-experiential development algorithm of last surface based on triangulation approximation is presented. This development algorithm consumes less time and does not need any interactive operation for precisely development compared with other development algorithm of last surface. Based on this algorithm, a software, SHOEMAKERTM, which contains computer aided automatic measurement, automatic development of last surface and computer aide design of shoe-template has been developed.

  12. 78 FR 13751 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel LAST TIME AROUND; Invitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel LAST TIME... the applicant the intended service of the vessel LAST TIME AROUND is: Intended Commercial Use...

  13. Hong Kong Educational Reforms in the Last Decade: Reform Syndrome and New Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yin Cheong

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to analyse the reform syndrome, bottle-neck effects and their impacts on teachers and school education in the last ten years and highlight the direction of new developments. Design/methodology/approach: The paper examines educational reforms in Hong Kong in the last decade. Findings: Echoing the international trends of…

  14. 14 CFR 47.35 - Aircraft last previously registered in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... applicable and submits with his application an Aircraft Bill of Sale, AC Form 8050-2, signed by the seller or... bought the aircraft from the last registered owner, the conveyance must be from that owner to the applicant. (2) If the applicant did not buy the aircraft from the last registered owner, he must...

  15. 33 CFR 148.310 - How long does a license last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How long does a license last? 148.310 Section 148.310 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: GENERAL Licenses § 148.310 How long does a license last?...

  16. 20 CFR 220.28 - How long the impairment must last.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How long the impairment must last. 220.28 Section 220.28 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT... long the impairment must last. Unless the claimant's impairment is expected to result in death, it...

  17. 22 CFR 208.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How long may my suspension last? 208.760 Section 208.760 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 208.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If legal or...

  18. 31 CFR 19.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How long may my suspension last? 19.760 Section 19.760 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 19.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If...

  19. 33 CFR 148.310 - How long does a license last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How long does a license last? 148.310 Section 148.310 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: GENERAL Licenses § 148.310 How long does a license last?...

  20. 22 CFR 208.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How long may my debarment last? 208.865 Section 208.865 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 208.865 How long may my debarment last? (a) If the debarring official decides...

  1. 21 CFR 1404.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How long may my suspension last? 1404.760 Section 1404.760 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 1404.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If legal or debarment proceedings...

  2. 22 CFR 1006.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How long may my debarment last? 1006.865 Section 1006.865 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1006.865 How long may my debarment last? (a) If the debarring official decides...

  3. 22 CFR 1006.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true How long may my debarment last? 1006.865 Section 1006.865 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1006.865 How long may my debarment last? (a) If the debarring official decides...

  4. 29 CFR 98.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How long may my suspension last? 98.760 Section 98.760 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 98.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If legal or debarment proceedings are initiated...

  5. 2 CFR 180.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How long may my suspension last? 180.760 Section 180.760 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS... (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 180.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If legal or debarment proceedings...

  6. 31 CFR 19.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How long may my suspension last? 19.760 Section 19.760 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 19.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If...

  7. 29 CFR 1471.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How long may my debarment last? 1471.865 Section 1471.865 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1471.865 How long may my debarment last?...

  8. 22 CFR 1006.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true How long may my suspension last? 1006.760 Section 1006.760 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 1006.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If legal or debarment proceedings...

  9. 31 CFR 19.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How long may my debarment last? 19.865 Section 19.865 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 19.865 How long may my debarment last? (a) If...

  10. 21 CFR 1404.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How long may my debarment last? 1404.865 Section 1404.865 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1404.865 How long may my debarment last? (a) If the debarring official decides...

  11. 22 CFR 1508.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true How long may my debarment last? 1508.865 Section 1508.865 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1508.865 How long may my debarment last? (a) If the debarring official decides...

  12. 22 CFR 208.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long may my suspension last? 208.760 Section 208.760 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 208.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If legal or...

  13. 33 CFR 148.310 - How long does a license last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How long does a license last? 148.310 Section 148.310 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: GENERAL Licenses § 148.310 How long does a license last?...

  14. 29 CFR 98.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How long may my debarment last? 98.865 Section 98.865 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 98.865 How long may my debarment last? (a) If the debarring official decides to debar you, your period...

  15. 29 CFR 1471.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How long may my debarment last? 1471.865 Section 1471.865 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1471.865 How long may my debarment last?...

  16. 31 CFR 19.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How long may my debarment last? 19.865 Section 19.865 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 19.865 How long may my debarment last? (a) If...

  17. 20 CFR 220.28 - How long the impairment must last.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true How long the impairment must last. 220.28 Section 220.28 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT... long the impairment must last. Unless the claimant's impairment is expected to result in death, it...

  18. 22 CFR 1508.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true How long may my suspension last? 1508.760 Section 1508.760 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 1508.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If legal or debarment proceedings...

  19. 22 CFR 1006.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true How long may my debarment last? 1006.865 Section 1006.865 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1006.865 How long may my debarment last? (a) If the debarring official decides...

  20. 29 CFR 98.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How long may my debarment last? 98.865 Section 98.865 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 98.865 How long may my debarment last? (a) If the debarring official decides to debar you, your period...

  1. 2 CFR 180.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How long may my debarment last? 180.865 Section 180.865 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS... (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 180.865 How long may my debarment last? (a) If the debarring official decides...

  2. 22 CFR 1508.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How long may my suspension last? 1508.760 Section 1508.760 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 1508.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If legal or debarment proceedings...

  3. 22 CFR 1508.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true How long may my debarment last? 1508.865 Section 1508.865 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1508.865 How long may my debarment last? (a) If the debarring official decides...

  4. 22 CFR 1006.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true How long may my suspension last? 1006.760 Section 1006.760 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 1006.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If legal or debarment proceedings...

  5. 22 CFR 1508.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How long may my debarment last? 1508.865 Section 1508.865 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1508.865 How long may my debarment last? (a) If the debarring official decides...

  6. 29 CFR 1471.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How long may my debarment last? 1471.865 Section 1471.865 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1471.865 How long may my debarment last?...

  7. 29 CFR 98.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true How long may my suspension last? 98.760 Section 98.760 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 98.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If legal or debarment proceedings are initiated at the...

  8. 31 CFR 19.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How long may my suspension last? 19.760 Section 19.760 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 19.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If...

  9. 22 CFR 1006.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How long may my suspension last? 1006.760 Section 1006.760 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 1006.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If legal or debarment proceedings...

  10. 22 CFR 1006.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true How long may my suspension last? 1006.760 Section 1006.760 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 1006.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If legal or debarment proceedings...

  11. 20 CFR 416.909 - How long the impairment must last.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How long the impairment must last. 416.909 Section 416.909 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE... long the impairment must last. Unless your impairment is expected to result in death, it must...

  12. 21 CFR 1404.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How long may my debarment last? 1404.865 Section 1404.865 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1404.865 How long may my debarment last? (a) If the debarring official decides...

  13. 22 CFR 1006.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true How long may my debarment last? 1006.865 Section 1006.865 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1006.865 How long may my debarment last? (a) If the debarring official decides...

  14. 29 CFR 98.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How long may my suspension last? 98.760 Section 98.760 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 98.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If legal or debarment proceedings are initiated at the...

  15. 29 CFR 98.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true How long may my debarment last? 98.865 Section 98.865 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 98.865 How long may my debarment last? (a) If the debarring official decides to debar you, your period...

  16. 22 CFR 1006.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true How long may my debarment last? 1006.865 Section 1006.865 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1006.865 How long may my debarment last? (a) If the debarring official decides...

  17. 20 CFR 220.28 - How long the impairment must last.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long the impairment must last. 220.28 Section 220.28 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT... long the impairment must last. Unless the claimant's impairment is expected to result in death, it...

  18. 21 CFR 1404.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How long may my suspension last? 1404.760 Section 1404.760 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 1404.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If legal or debarment proceedings...

  19. 20 CFR 220.28 - How long the impairment must last.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true How long the impairment must last. 220.28 Section 220.28 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT... long the impairment must last. Unless the claimant's impairment is expected to result in death, it...

  20. 7 CFR 3017.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How long may my suspension last? 3017.760 Section 3017.760 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF...) Suspension § 3017.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If legal or debarment proceedings are initiated...

  1. 22 CFR 1508.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true How long may my debarment last? 1508.865 Section 1508.865 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1508.865 How long may my debarment last? (a) If the debarring official decides...

  2. 31 CFR 19.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How long may my suspension last? 19.760 Section 19.760 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 19.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If...

  3. 21 CFR 1404.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How long may my suspension last? 1404.760 Section 1404.760 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 1404.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If legal or debarment proceedings...

  4. 2 CFR 180.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How long may my debarment last? 180.865 Section 180.865 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements... § 180.865 How long may my debarment last? (a) If the debarring official decides to debar you,...

  5. 21 CFR 1404.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How long may my debarment last? 1404.865 Section 1404.865 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1404.865 How long may my debarment last? (a) If the debarring official decides...

  6. 20 CFR 416.909 - How long the impairment must last.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long the impairment must last. 416.909 Section 416.909 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE... long the impairment must last. Unless your impairment is expected to result in death, it must...

  7. 22 CFR 1508.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true How long may my suspension last? 1508.760 Section 1508.760 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 1508.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If legal or debarment proceedings...

  8. 29 CFR 98.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How long may my debarment last? 98.865 Section 98.865 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 98.865 How long may my debarment last? (a) If the debarring official decides to debar you, your period...

  9. 31 CFR 19.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How long may my debarment last? 19.865 Section 19.865 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 19.865 How long may my debarment last? (a) If...

  10. 2 CFR 180.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How long may my suspension last? 180.760 Section 180.760 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements... § 180.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If legal or debarment proceedings are initiated at...

  11. 20 CFR 416.909 - How long the impairment must last.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How long the impairment must last. 416.909 Section 416.909 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE... long the impairment must last. Unless your impairment is expected to result in death, it must...

  12. 29 CFR 1471.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How long may my debarment last? 1471.865 Section 1471.865 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1471.865 How long may my debarment last?...

  13. 20 CFR 220.28 - How long the impairment must last.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How long the impairment must last. 220.28 Section 220.28 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT... long the impairment must last. Unless the claimant's impairment is expected to result in death, it...

  14. 22 CFR 1006.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true How long may my suspension last? 1006.760 Section 1006.760 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 1006.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If legal or debarment proceedings...

  15. 7 CFR 3017.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How long may my debarment last? 3017.865 Section 3017.865 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL... § 3017.865 How long may my debarment last? (a) If the debarring official decides to debar you,...

  16. 22 CFR 208.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long may my debarment last? 208.865 Section 208.865 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 208.865 How long may my debarment last? (a) If the debarring official decides...

  17. 22 CFR 1508.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true How long may my suspension last? 1508.760 Section 1508.760 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 1508.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If legal or debarment proceedings...

  18. 20 CFR 416.909 - How long the impairment must last.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How long the impairment must last. 416.909 Section 416.909 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE... long the impairment must last. Unless your impairment is expected to result in death, it must...

  19. 29 CFR 98.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How long may my suspension last? 98.760 Section 98.760 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 98.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If legal or debarment proceedings are initiated...

  20. 33 CFR 148.310 - How long does a license last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How long does a license last? 148.310 Section 148.310 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: GENERAL Licenses § 148.310 How long does a license last?...

  1. 21 CFR 1404.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How long may my suspension last? 1404.760 Section 1404.760 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 1404.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If legal or debarment proceedings...

  2. 22 CFR 1508.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true How long may my suspension last? 1508.760 Section 1508.760 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 1508.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If legal or debarment proceedings...

  3. Screening for Language Disorders in Stroke: German Validation of the Language Screening Test (LAST)

    PubMed Central

    Koenig-Bruhin, M.; Vanbellingen, T.; Schumacher, R.; Pflugshaupt, T.; Annoni, J.M.; Müri, R.M.; Bohlhalter, S.; Nyffeler, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Screening of aphasia in acute stroke is crucial for directing patients to early language therapy. The Language Screening Test (LAST), originally developed in French, is a validated language screening test that allows detection of a language deficit within a few minutes. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate two parallel German versions of the LAST. Methods The LAST includes subtests for naming, repetition, automatic speech, and comprehension. For the translation into German, task constructs and psycholinguistic criteria for item selection were identical to the French LAST. A cohort of 101 stroke patients were tested, all of whom were native German speakers. Validation of the LAST was based on (1) analysis of equivalence of the German versions, which was established by administering both versions successively in a subset of patients, (2) internal validity by means of internal consistency analysis, and (3) external validity by comparison with the short version of the Token Test in another subset of patients. Results The two German versions were equivalent as demonstrated by a high intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.91. Furthermore, an acceptable internal structure of the LAST was found (Cronbach's α = 0.74). A highly significant correlation (r = 0.74, p < 0.0001) between the LAST and the short version of the Token Test indicated good external validity of the scale. Conclusion The German version of the LAST, available in two parallel versions, is a new and valid language screening test in stroke. PMID:27194999

  4. 21 CFR 1404.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long may my suspension last? 1404.760 Section 1404.760 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 1404.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If legal or debarment proceedings...

  5. Singular Lagrangian, Hamiltonization and Jacobi last multiplier for certain biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, Partha; Ghose Choudhury, Anindya

    2013-07-01

    We study the construction of singular Lagrangians using Jacobi's last multiplier (JLM). We also demonstrate the significance of the last multiplier in Hamiltonian theory by explicitly constructing the Hamiltonian of the Host-Parasite model and a Lotka-Volterra mutualistic system, both of which are well known first-order systems of differential equations arising in biology.

  6. Potential Role of the Last Half Repeat in TAL Effectors Revealed by a Molecular Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Hua; Chang, Shan; Hu, Jian-ping; Tian, Xu-hong

    2016-01-01

    TAL effectors (TALEs) contain a modular DNA-binding domain that is composed of tandem repeats. In all naturally occurring TALEs, the end of tandem repeats is invariantly a truncated half repeat. To investigate the potential role of the last half repeat in TALEs, we performed comparative molecular dynamics simulations for the crystal structure of DNA-bound TALE AvrBs3 lacking the last half repeat and its modeled structure having the last half repeat. The structural stability analysis indicates that the modeled system is more stable than the nonmodeled system. Based on the principle component analysis, it is found that the AvrBs3 increases its structural compactness in the presence of the last half repeat. The comparison of DNA groove parameters of the two systems implies that the last half repeat also causes the change of DNA major groove binding efficiency. The following calculation of hydrogen bond reveals that, by stabilizing the phosphate binding with DNA at the C-terminus, the last half repeat helps to adopt a compact conformation at the protein-DNA interface. It further mediates more contacts between TAL repeats and DNA nucleotide bases. Finally, we suggest that the last half repeat is required for the high-efficient recognition of DNA by TALE. PMID:27803930

  7. A revised chronology for the last Pleistocene Lake cycle in the central Lahontan Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, R.S.; Benson, L.; Hattor, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    Radiocarbon dates of plant materials from packrat middens in caves below the elevation of the last high stand of Pleistocene Lake Lahontan, in conjunction with radiocarbon dates of ancient archaeological materials, provide evidence that the last high stand terminated before 12,070 yr B.P. This new information suggests that the last major fluctuation in the level of Lake Lahontan was approximately synchronous with those of Lakes Bonneville and Russell, and that these three lakes probably responded contemporaneously to the same regional paleoclimatic changes. ?? 1986.

  8. Direct evidence of central European forest refugia during the last glacial period based on mollusc fossils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juřičková, Lucie; Horáčková, Jitka; Ložek, Vojen

    2014-07-01

    Although there is evidence from molecular studies for the existence of central European last glacial refugia for temperate species, there is still a great lack of direct fossil records to confirm this theory. Here we bring such evidence in the form of fossil shells from twenty strictly forest land snail species, which were recorded in radiocarbon-dated late glacial or older mollusc assemblages of nine non-interrupted mollusc successions situated in the Western Carpathians, and one in the Bohemian Massif. We proposed that molluscs survived the last glacial period in central Europe in isolated small patches of broadleaf forest, which we unequivocally demonstrate for two sites of last glacial maximum age.

  9. Percentage of People Who Used the Oral Care System in the Last 12 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... Months Percentage of People who Used the Oral Care System in the Last 12 Months Oral diseases, ... Group Percentage of People Who Use the Oral Care System by Age Group uv9w-t62r Download these ...

  10. [Description of the last instar larva and pupa of Cryptophlebia cortesi Clarke (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Héctor A

    2006-01-01

    A description of the last instar larva and pupa of Cryptophlebia cortesi Clarke, based on specimens collected on yaro, Acacia macracantha Bonpl & Humb ex Willd. (Fabaceae), in the Chaca valley, Primera Región, Chile, is presented.

  11. Eye Study Underscores the Long-Lasting Benefits of Controlling Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Monday, June 13, 2016 Eye study underscores the long-lasting benefits of controlling diabetes NIH-funded study ... received intensive glycemic therapy in the 10-year-long Diabetes Control and Complications Trial on average had ...

  12. Condom use at last sexual relationship among adolescents of Santiago Island, Cape Verde, - West Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate factors associated with condom use at last sexual intercourse among adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 368 sexually active adolescents aged 13–17 years from eight public high schools on Santiago Island, Cape Verde, 2007. The level of significance was 5.0% obtained from logistic regression, considering the association between condom use and socio-demographic, sexual and reproductive variables. Results The prevalence of condom use at last sexual intercourse was 94.9%. Factors associated with condom use at last sexual relationship were: non-Catholic religion (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.52; 0.88) and affective-sexual partnership before the interview (OR=5.15, 95%CI: 1.79; 14.80). Conclusions There was a high prevalence of condom use at last sexual intercourse of adolescents. PMID:23153259

  13. Long-lasting desynchronization in rat hippocampal slice induced by coordinated reset stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tass, P. A.; Barnikol, U. B.; Silchenko, A. N.; Hauptmann, C.; Speckmann, E.-J.

    2009-07-15

    In computational models it has been shown that appropriate stimulation protocols may reshape the connectivity pattern of neural or oscillator networks with synaptic plasticity in a way that the network learns or unlearns strong synchronization. The underlying mechanism is that a network is shifted from one attractor to another, so that long-lasting stimulation effects are caused which persist after the cessation of stimulation. Here we study long-lasting effects of multisite electrical stimulation in a rat hippocampal slice rendered epileptic by magnesium withdrawal. We show that desynchronizing coordinated reset stimulation causes a long-lasting desynchronization between hippocampal neuronal populations together with a widespread decrease in the amplitude of the epileptiform activity. In contrast, periodic stimulation induces a long-lasting increase in both synchronization and amplitude.

  14. 34 CFR 85.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How long may my suspension last? 85.760 Section 85.760... (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 85.760 How long may my suspension last? (a) If legal or debarment proceedings are... extension. Authority: E.O. 12549 (3 CFR, 1986 Comp., p. 189); E.O 12689 (3 CFR, 1989 Comp., p. 235); 20...

  15. 34 CFR 85.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How long may my debarment last? 85.865 Section 85.865... (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 85.865 How long may my debarment last? (a) If the debarring official decides to debar... five years. Authority: E.O. 12549 (3 CFR, 1986 Comp., p. 189); E.O 12689 (3 CFR, 1989 Comp., p....

  16. Identification of last interglacial deposits in eastern Beringia: a cautionary note from the Palisades, interior Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reyes, Alberto V.; Zazula, Grant D.; Kuzmina, Svetlana; Ager, Thomas A.; Froese, Duane G.

    2011-01-01

    Last interglacial sediments in unglaciated Alaska and Yukon (eastern Beringia) are commonly identified by palaeoecological indicators and stratigraphic position ~2-5m above the regionally prominent Old Crow tephra (124 + or - 10ka). We demonstrate that this approach can yield erroneous age assignments using data from a new exposure at the Palisades, a site in interior Alaska with numerous exposures of last interglacial sediments. Tephrochronology, stratigraphy, plant macrofossils, pollen and fossil insects from a prominent wood-rich organic silt unit are all consistent with a last interglacial age assignment. However, six 14C dates on plant and insect macrofossils from the organic silt range from non-finite to 4.0 14C ka BP, indicating that the organic silt instead represents a Holocene deposit with a mixed-age assemblage of organic material. In contrast, wood samples from presumed last interglacial organic-rich sediments elsewhere at the Palisades, in a similar stratigraphic position with respect to Old Crow tephra, yield non-finite 14C ages. Given that local permafrost thaw since the last interglaciation may facilitate reworking of older sediments into new stratigraphic positions, minimum constraining ages based on 14C dating or other methods should supplement age assignments for last interglacial sediments in eastern Beringia that are based on palaeoecology and stratigraphic association with Old Crow tephra.

  17. Batting last as a home advantage factor in men's NCAA tournament baseball.

    PubMed

    Bray, Steven R; Obara, Jeff; Kwan, Matt

    2005-07-01

    In baseball and softball, there is a rule that allows the home team to have the last at-bat and thus the final opportunity to win the game. However, in tournament play, this rule is often set aside and, instead, batting order is decided by other means (e.g. tournament rules, the flip of a coin). The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the batting last rule on game outcome in NCAA men's regional tournament baseball. It was hypothesized that host (i.e. home) teams would win a greater percentage of the games in which they batted last compared with when they batted first. This hypothesis was not supported. Closer examination of the last inning of play showed home teams were no more likely to have won the game during their last bat than visitors playing other visitors. The results suggest that the batting last rule contributes minimally, if at all, to home advantage in NCAA tournament baseball.

  18. Auditory cortical field coding long-lasting tonal offsets in mice

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Hironori; Tsukano, Hiroaki; Hishida, Ryuichi; Takahashi, Kuniyuki; Horii, Arata; Takahashi, Sugata; Shibuki, Katsuei

    2016-01-01

    Although temporal information processing is important in auditory perception, the mechanisms for coding tonal offsets are unknown. We investigated cortical responses elicited at the offset of tonal stimuli using flavoprotein fluorescence imaging in mice. Off-responses were clearly observed at the offset of tonal stimuli lasting for 7 s, but not after stimuli lasting for 1 s. Off-responses to the short stimuli appeared in a similar cortical region, when conditioning tonal stimuli lasting for 5–20 s preceded the stimuli. MK-801, an inhibitor of NMDA receptors, suppressed the two types of off-responses, suggesting that disinhibition produced by NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic depression might be involved in the off-responses. The peak off-responses were localized in a small region adjacent to the primary auditory cortex, and no frequency-dependent shift of the response peaks was found. Frequency matching of preceding tonal stimuli with short test stimuli was not required for inducing off-responses to short stimuli. Two-photon calcium imaging demonstrated significantly larger neuronal off-responses to stimuli lasting for 7 s in this field, compared with off-responses to stimuli lasting for 1 s. The present results indicate the presence of an auditory cortical field responding to long-lasting tonal offsets, possibly for temporal information processing. PMID:27687766

  19. Long-Lasting Sparks: Multi-Metastability and Release Competition in the Calcium Release Unit Network

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhen; Karma, Alain; Weiss, James N.; Qu, Zhilin

    2016-01-01

    Calcium (Ca) sparks are elementary events of biological Ca signaling. A normal Ca spark has a brief duration in the range of 10 to 100 ms, but long-lasting sparks with durations of several hundred milliseconds to seconds are also widely observed. Experiments have shown that the transition from normal to long-lasting sparks can occur when ryanodine receptor (RyR) open probability is either increased or decreased. Here, we demonstrate theoretically and computationally that long-lasting sparks emerge as a collective dynamical behavior of the network of diffusively coupled Ca release units (CRUs). We show that normal sparks occur when the CRU network is monostable and excitable, while long-lasting sparks occur when the network dynamics possesses multiple metastable attractors, each attractor corresponding to a different spatial firing pattern of sparks. We further highlight the mechanisms and conditions that produce long-lasting sparks, demonstrating the existence of an optimal range of RyR open probability favoring long-lasting sparks. We find that when CRU firings are sparse and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca load is high, increasing RyR open probability promotes long-lasting sparks by potentiating Ca-induced Ca release (CICR). In contrast, when CICR is already strong enough to produce frequent firings, decreasing RyR open probability counter-intuitively promotes long-lasting sparks by decreasing spark frequency. The decrease in spark frequency promotes intra-SR Ca diffusion from neighboring non-firing CRUs to the firing CRUs, which helps to maintain the local SR Ca concentration of the firing CRUs above a critical level to sustain firing. In this setting, decreasing RyR open probability further suppresses long-lasting sparks by weakening CICR. Since a long-lasting spark terminates via the Kramers’ escape process over a potential barrier, its duration exhibits an exponential distribution determined by the barrier height and noise strength, which is modulated

  20. Long Lasting Protein Synthesis- and Activity-Dependent Spine Shrinkage and Elimination after Synaptic Depression

    PubMed Central

    Ramiro-Cortés, Yazmín; Israely, Inbal

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal circuits modify their response to synaptic inputs in an experience-dependent fashion. Increases in synaptic weights are accompanied by structural modifications, and activity dependent, long lasting growth of dendritic spines requires new protein synthesis. When multiple spines are potentiated within a dendritic domain, they show dynamic structural plasticity changes, indicating that spines can undergo bidirectional physical modifications. However, it is unclear whether protein synthesis dependent synaptic depression leads to long lasting structural changes. Here, we investigate the structural correlates of protein synthesis dependent long-term depression (LTD) mediated by metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) through two-photon imaging of dendritic spines on hippocampal pyramidal neurons. We find that induction of mGluR-LTD leads to robust and long lasting spine shrinkage and elimination that lasts for up to 24 hours. These effects depend on signaling through group I mGluRs, require protein synthesis, and activity. These data reveal a mechanism for long lasting remodeling of synaptic inputs, and offer potential insights into mental retardation. PMID:23951097

  1. Age of the last major scabland flood of the Columbia Plateau in eastern Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullineaux, D.R.; Wilcox, R.E.; Ebaugh, W.F.; Fryxell, R.; Rubin, M.

    1978-01-01

    Pumice layers of set S from Mount St. Helens can be correlated with certain ash beds associated with young flood deposits of the channeled scabland. The correlation points to an age of about 13,000 14C yr B.P. for the last major flood to have crossed the scabland. Until recently, the last major episode of flooding was thought to be closer to 20,000 yr B.P., an age inferred chiefly from the relation of the flood to glacial events of the northern Rocky Mountains. Several investigations within the last few years have suggested that the last major flood occurred well after 20,000 yr B.P. Tentative correlations of ash beds of the scabland with set S pumice layers, the relations of flood and glacial events along the northwestern margin of the Columbia Plateau, and a radiocarbon date from the Snake River drainage southeast of the plateau all indicate an age much younger than 20,000 yr. The postulated age of about 13,000 yr B.P. is further supported by a radiocarbon date in the Columbia River valley downstream from the scabland tract. Basal peat from a bog on the Portland delta of Bretz, which is a downvalley deposit of the last major scabland flood, has been dated as 13,080 ?? 300 yr B.P. (W-3404). ?? 1978.

  2. Late-Life Depressive Symptoms, Religiousness, and Mood in the Last Week of Life

    PubMed Central

    Braam, Arjan W.; Klinkenberg, Marianne; Galenkamp, Henrike; Deeg, Dorly J. H.

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the current study is to examine whether previous depressive symptoms modify possible effects of religiousness on mood in the last week of life. After-death interviews with proxy respondents of deceased sample members of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam provided information on depressed mood in the last week of life, as well as on the presence of a sense of peace with the approaching end of life. Other characteristics were derived from interviews with the sample members when still alive. Significant interactions were identified between measures of religiousness and previous depressive symptoms (CES-D scores) in their associations with mood in the last week of life. Among those with previous depressive symptoms, church-membership, church-attendance and salience of religion were associated with a greater likelihood of depressed mood in the last week of life. Among those without previous depressive symptoms, church-attendance and salience of religion were associated with a higher likelihood of a sense of peace. For older adults in the last phase of life, supportive effects of religiousness were more or less expected. Fore those with recent depressive symptoms, however, religiousness might involve a component of existential doubt. PMID:22844587

  3. A regional overview of the last glacial period in the temperate NE Atlantic: varying paleoproductivity centers over the last 50 ka BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penaud, Aurélie; Eynaud, Frédérique; Ganne, Axelle

    2015-04-01

    Recent palynological investigations carried out in the eastern Gulf of Cadiz (MD99-2339 core) over MIS 3 enable to consider dinoflagellate cyst assemblage patterns over the last 50 ka BP through a compilation of 6 cores from the NE subtropical Atlantic to the Northern Bay of Biscay (also including cores MD95-2042, MD95-2043, MD04-2805CQ, VK03-58bis). Dinocyst signals depict hydrological front latitudinal shifts over the last glacial and associated sea-surface consequences regarding past regimes of primary productivity. We show here new data clearly evidencing subtropical latitudes of Cadiz as being as productive areas over the last glacial as recorded today in the septentrional part of the Bay of Biscay, especially between GI 8 and GI 12. We especially focus on dinocyst-species Lingulodinium machaerophorum relative abundances and absolute concentrations that we first evidence as a powerful tool to reconstruct and discuss productivity shifts through time in the temperate North Atlantic. This spatio-temporal synthesis bring important evidences of fast migrating paleoproductiviy centers from the last glacial period to present, implying also large consequences on the biological pump through time. Regarding this specific session, 5 of the 6 cores discussed here were retrieved by the R/V Marion Dufresne through 3 different cruises: Core MD99-2339 (35.89°N, 7.53°W, 1170m water depth, 18.54m long) was retrieved in a contouritic field in the oriental part of the Gulf of Cadiz by the oceanographic R/V Marion Dufresne during the 1999 International Marine Global Change Studies V (IMAGES V) cruise (Labeyrie, Jansen and Cortijo, 2003). Cores MD95-2042 (37°48'N, 10°10'W, 3146m water depth, 39.56m long) and MD95-2043 (36°8.6'N, 2°37.3'W, 1841m water depth, 36m long) were retrieved from the SW Iberian margin and the central Alboran Sea, respectively, by the oceanographic R/V Marion Dufresne during the 1995 IMAGES I cruise (Bassinot and Labeyrie, 1996). Core MD04-2805 CQ (34

  4. An enigmatic long-lasting gamma-ray burst not accompanied by a bright supernova.

    PubMed

    Della Valle, M; Chincarini, G; Panagia, N; Tagliaferri, G; Malesani, D; Testa, V; Fugazza, D; Campana, S; Covino, S; Mangano, V; Antonelli, L A; D'Avanzo, P; Hurley, K; Mirabel, I F; Pellizza, L J; Piranomonte, S; Stella, L

    2006-12-21

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are short, intense flashes of soft gamma-rays coming from the distant Universe. Long-duration GRBs (those lasting more than approximately 2 s) are believed to originate from the deaths of massive stars, mainly on the basis of a handful of solid associations between GRBs and supernovae. GRB 060614, one of the closest GRBs discovered, consisted of a 5-s hard spike followed by softer, brighter emission that lasted for approximately 100 s (refs 8, 9). Here we report deep optical observations of GRB 060614 showing no emerging supernova with absolute visual magnitude brighter than M(V) = -13.7. Any supernova associated with GRB 060614 was therefore at least 100 times fainter, at optical wavelengths, than the other supernovae associated with GRBs. This demonstrates that some long-lasting GRBs can either be associated with a very faint supernova or produced by different phenomena.

  5. Iceberg discharges of the last glacial period driven by oceanic circulation changes.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Solas, Jorge; Robinson, Alexander; Montoya, Marisa; Ritz, Catherine

    2013-10-01

    Proxy data reveal the existence of episodes of increased deposition of ice-rafted detritus in the North Atlantic Ocean during the last glacial period interpreted as massive iceberg discharges from the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Although these have long been attributed to self-sustained ice sheet oscillations, growing evidence of the crucial role that the ocean plays both for past and future behavior of the cryosphere suggests a climatic control of these ice surges. Here, we present simulations of the last glacial period carried out with a hybrid ice sheet-ice shelf model forced by an oceanic warming index derived from proxy data that accounts for the impact of past ocean circulation changes on ocean temperatures. The model generates a time series of iceberg discharge that closely agrees with ice-rafted debris records over the past 80 ka, indicating that oceanic circulation variations were responsible for the enigmatic ice purges of the last ice age.

  6. Antarctic last interglacial isotope peak in response to sea ice retreat not ice-sheet collapse.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Max D; Sime, Louise C; Singarayer, Joy S; Tindall, Julia C; Bunch, Pete; Valdes, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that sea-level rise during the last interglacial implies retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). The prevalent hypothesis is that the retreat coincided with the peak Antarctic temperature and stable water isotope values from 128,000 years ago (128 ka); very early in the last interglacial. Here, by analysing climate model simulations of last interglacial WAIS loss featuring water isotopes, we show instead that the isotopic response to WAIS loss is in opposition to the isotopic evidence at 128 ka. Instead, a reduction in winter sea ice area of 65±7% fully explains the 128 ka ice core evidence. Our finding of a marked retreat of the sea ice at 128 ka demonstrates the sensitivity of Antarctic sea ice extent to climate warming. PMID:27526639

  7. Radiocarbon evidence for enhanced respired carbon storage in the Atlantic at the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, E.; Skinner, L. C.; Waelbroeck, C.; Hodell, D.

    2016-06-01

    The influence of ocean circulation changes on atmospheric CO2 hinges primarily on the ability to alter the ocean interior's respired nutrient inventory. Here we investigate the Atlantic overturning circulation at the Last Glacial Maximum and its impact on respired carbon storage using radiocarbon and stable carbon isotope data from the Brazil and Iberian Margins. The data demonstrate the existence of a shallow well-ventilated northern-sourced cell overlying a poorly ventilated, predominantly southern-sourced cell at the Last Glacial Maximum. We also find that organic carbon remineralization rates in the deep Atlantic remained broadly similar to modern, but that ventilation ages in the southern-sourced overturning cell were significantly increased. Respired carbon storage in the deep Atlantic was therefore enhanced during the last glacial period, primarily due to an increase in the residence time of carbon in the deep ocean, rather than an increase in biological carbon export.

  8. Measuring nepotism through shared last names: the case of Italian Academia.

    PubMed

    Allesina, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Nepotistic practices are detrimental for academia. Here I show how disciplines with a high likelihood of nepotism can be detected using standard statistical techniques based on shared last names among professors. As an example, I analyze the set of all 61,340 Italian academics. I find that nepotism is prominent in Italy, with particular disciplinary sectors being detected as especially problematic. Out of 28 disciplines, 9 - accounting for more than half of Italian professors - display a significant paucity of last names. Moreover, in most disciplines a clear north-south trend emerges, with likelihood of nepotism increasing with latitude. Even accounting for the geographic clustering of last names, I find that for many disciplines the probability of name-sharing is boosted when professors work in the same institution or sub-discipline. Using these techniques policy makers can target cuts and funding in order to promote fair practices.

  9. U-series evidence for two high Last Interglacial sea levels in southeastern Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedoui, Younes; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Kallel, Nejib; Montacer, Mabrouk; Ismaı̈l, Hedi Ben; Davaud, Eric

    2003-02-01

    Pleistocene raised marine deposits in southeastern Tunisia consist of a siliciclastic unit that culminates at +3 m asl, overlain by a carbonate-rich unit with Strombus bubonius that culminates at +5 m asl. 234U/ 238U ratios on fossil Ostraea shells from both units are compatible with a marine origin from the uranium incorporated into the shells and show narrowly clustered 230Th-ages, respectively, between 147 and 110 ka and 141 and 100 ka. The two units were therefore developed during Marine Isotopic Substage 5e (MISs 5e, Last Interglacial). Their heights are comparable to those of contemporaneous marine deposits found in many tectonically stable areas of the world such as in the Bahamas and in Bermuda and can therefore be used as indicators of eustatic changes during the Last Interglacial. It is argued that on the basis of this evidence, the Last Interglacial was characterised by two eustatic maxima.

  10. Role of seasonality in the evolution of climate during the last 100 million years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, T. J.; Short, D. A.; North, G. R.; Mengel, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    A simple climate model has been used to calculate the effect of past changes in the land-sea distribution on the seasonal cycle of temperatures during the last 100 million years. Modeled summer temperature decreased over Greenland by more than 10 C and over Antarctica by 5 to 8 C. For the last 80 million years, this thermal response is comparable in magnitude to estimated atmospheric carbon dioxide effects. Analysis of paleontological data provides some support for the proposed hypothesis that large changes due to seasonality may have sometimes resulted in an ice-free state due to high summer temperatures rather than year-round warmth. Such 'cool' nonglacials may have prevailed for as much as one-third of the last 100 million years.

  11. Geochemical evidence for anoxic deep water in the Arabian Sea during the last glaciation

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, A.; Bhattacharya, S.K.; Sarin, M.M. )

    1993-03-01

    Various paleoceanographic studies have indicated that the deep ocean was probably depleted in dissolved oxygen during the last glacial period ([approximately]18 kyr B.P.; [delta][sup 18]O, stage 2) compared to present time. However, direct evidence of low oxygen content in the deep waters has been lacking. Here, the authors report geochemical evidence of near anoxic conditions in the deep Arabian Sea during the entire last glacial cycle ([delta][sup 18]O; stages 2, 3, and 4). Anoxia is inferred from the concomitant enrichment of organic carbon and authigenic uranium in the glacial sections of a core from the deep eastern Arabian Sea. The anoxic conditions during the last glacial period, probably caused by a change in deep water circulation, evidently enhanced preservation of organic matter and simultaneous removal of uranium from seawater. 57 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Radiocarbon evidence for enhanced respired carbon storage in the Atlantic at the Last Glacial Maximum.

    PubMed

    Freeman, E; Skinner, L C; Waelbroeck, C; Hodell, D

    2016-01-01

    The influence of ocean circulation changes on atmospheric CO2 hinges primarily on the ability to alter the ocean interior's respired nutrient inventory. Here we investigate the Atlantic overturning circulation at the Last Glacial Maximum and its impact on respired carbon storage using radiocarbon and stable carbon isotope data from the Brazil and Iberian Margins. The data demonstrate the existence of a shallow well-ventilated northern-sourced cell overlying a poorly ventilated, predominantly southern-sourced cell at the Last Glacial Maximum. We also find that organic carbon remineralization rates in the deep Atlantic remained broadly similar to modern, but that ventilation ages in the southern-sourced overturning cell were significantly increased. Respired carbon storage in the deep Atlantic was therefore enhanced during the last glacial period, primarily due to an increase in the residence time of carbon in the deep ocean, rather than an increase in biological carbon export. PMID:27346723

  13. Antarctic last interglacial isotope peak in response to sea ice retreat not ice-sheet collapse

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Max D.; Sime, Louise C.; Singarayer, Joy S.; Tindall, Julia C.; Bunch, Pete; Valdes, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that sea-level rise during the last interglacial implies retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). The prevalent hypothesis is that the retreat coincided with the peak Antarctic temperature and stable water isotope values from 128,000 years ago (128 ka); very early in the last interglacial. Here, by analysing climate model simulations of last interglacial WAIS loss featuring water isotopes, we show instead that the isotopic response to WAIS loss is in opposition to the isotopic evidence at 128 ka. Instead, a reduction in winter sea ice area of 65±7% fully explains the 128 ka ice core evidence. Our finding of a marked retreat of the sea ice at 128 ka demonstrates the sensitivity of Antarctic sea ice extent to climate warming. PMID:27526639

  14. [LAST-Q: Adaptation and normalisation in Quebec of the Language Screening Test].

    PubMed

    Bourgeois-Marcotte, J; Flamand-Roze, C; Denier, C; Monetta, L

    2015-05-01

    The goal of the present study was to adapt and to establish normative data for the recently developed Language Screening Test (LAST; Flamand-Roze et al., 2011) in the French-Canadian population according to age and level of education. After an adaptation process, 100 French-Canadian speakers were evaluated with the LAST-Q. As expected, a perfect score of 15/15 was obtained for all high level education participants, and a score of 14/15 was obtained for all participants with a lowest level of education or aged 80 years or more. Thanks to this adaptation, LAST-Q can be used in acute patients in stroke unit in Quebec.

  15. Radiocarbon evidence for enhanced respired carbon storage in the Atlantic at the Last Glacial Maximum

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, E.; Skinner, L. C.; Waelbroeck, C.; Hodell, D.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of ocean circulation changes on atmospheric CO2 hinges primarily on the ability to alter the ocean interior's respired nutrient inventory. Here we investigate the Atlantic overturning circulation at the Last Glacial Maximum and its impact on respired carbon storage using radiocarbon and stable carbon isotope data from the Brazil and Iberian Margins. The data demonstrate the existence of a shallow well-ventilated northern-sourced cell overlying a poorly ventilated, predominantly southern-sourced cell at the Last Glacial Maximum. We also find that organic carbon remineralization rates in the deep Atlantic remained broadly similar to modern, but that ventilation ages in the southern-sourced overturning cell were significantly increased. Respired carbon storage in the deep Atlantic was therefore enhanced during the last glacial period, primarily due to an increase in the residence time of carbon in the deep ocean, rather than an increase in biological carbon export. PMID:27346723

  16. Antarctic last interglacial isotope peak in response to sea ice retreat not ice-sheet collapse.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Max D; Sime, Louise C; Singarayer, Joy S; Tindall, Julia C; Bunch, Pete; Valdes, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that sea-level rise during the last interglacial implies retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). The prevalent hypothesis is that the retreat coincided with the peak Antarctic temperature and stable water isotope values from 128,000 years ago (128 ka); very early in the last interglacial. Here, by analysing climate model simulations of last interglacial WAIS loss featuring water isotopes, we show instead that the isotopic response to WAIS loss is in opposition to the isotopic evidence at 128 ka. Instead, a reduction in winter sea ice area of 65±7% fully explains the 128 ka ice core evidence. Our finding of a marked retreat of the sea ice at 128 ka demonstrates the sensitivity of Antarctic sea ice extent to climate warming.

  17. Laurentide Ice Sheet basal temperatures during the last glacial cycle as inferred from borehole data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickler, C.; Beltrami, H.; Mareschal, J.-C.

    2016-01-01

    Thirteen temperature-depth profiles ( ≥ 1500 m) measured in boreholes in eastern and central Canada were inverted to determine the ground surface temperature histories during and after the last glacial cycle. The sites are located in the southern part of the region that was covered by the Laurentide Ice Sheet. The inversions yield ground surface temperatures ranging from -1.4 to 3.0 °C throughout the last glacial cycle. These temperatures, near the pressure melting point of ice, allowed basal flow and fast flowing ice streams at the base of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Despite such conditions, which have been inferred from geomorphological data, the ice sheet persisted throughout the last glacial cycle. Our results suggest some regional trends in basal temperatures with possible control by internal heat flow.

  18. Laurentide Ice Sheet basal temperatures at the Last Glacial Cycle as inferred from borehole data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickler, C.; Beltrami, H.; Mareschal, J.-C.

    2015-08-01

    Thirteen temperature-depth profiles (≥ 1500 m) measured in boreholes in eastern and central Canada were inverted to determine the ground surface temperature histories during and after the last glacial cycle. The sites are located in the southern part of the region covered by the Laurentide Ice Sheet. The inversions yield ground surface temperatures ranging from -1.4 to 3.0 °C throughout the last glacial cycle. These temperatures, near the pressure melting point of ice, allowed basal flow and fast flowing ice streams at the base of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Despite such conditions, which have been inferred from geomorphological data, the ice sheet persisted throughout the last glacial cycle. Our results suggest some regional trends in basal temperatures with possible control by internal heat flow.

  19. Laurentide Ice Sheet basal temperatures at the Last Glacial Cycle as inferred from borehole data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mareschal, Jean-Claude; Pickler, Carolyne; Beltrami, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    We measured and inverted thirteen temperature-depth profiles (≥1500 m) in boreholes in eastern and central Canada to determine the ground surface temperature histories during and after the last glacial cycle. The sites are located in the southern part of the region covered by the Laurentide Ice Sheet. The inversions yield ground surface temperatures ranging from -1.4 to 3.0oC throughout the last glacial cycle. These temperatures, near the pressure melting point of ice, demonstrate that the southern portion of the Laurentide Ice Sheet was not frozen to the bed, allowing for basal flow and fast flowing ice streams at the base. Despite such conditions, which have been inferred from geomorphological data and models, the ice sheet persisted throughout the last glacial cycle. Our results suggest some regional trends in basal temperatures with possible control by internal heat flow.

  20. Millennial climatic fluctuations are key to the structure of last glacial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Huntley, Brian; Allen, Judy R M; Collingham, Yvonne C; Hickler, Thomas; Lister, Adrian M; Singarayer, Joy; Stuart, Anthony J; Sykes, Martin T; Valdes, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Whereas fossil evidence indicates extensive treeless vegetation and diverse grazing megafauna in Europe and northern Asia during the last glacial, experiments combining vegetation models and climate models have to-date simulated widespread persistence of trees. Resolving this conflict is key to understanding both last glacial ecosystems and extinction of most of the mega-herbivores. Using a dynamic vegetation model (DVM) we explored the implications of the differing climatic conditions generated by a general circulation model (GCM) in "normal" and "hosing" experiments. Whilst the former approximate interstadial conditions, the latter, designed to mimic Heinrich Events, approximate stadial conditions. The "hosing" experiments gave simulated European vegetation much closer in composition to that inferred from fossil evidence than did the "normal" experiments. Given the short duration of interstadials, and the rate at which forest cover expanded during the late-glacial and early Holocene, our results demonstrate the importance of millennial variability in determining the character of last glacial ecosystems. PMID:23613985

  1. Love, spirituality, and regret: thematic analysis of last statements from death row, Texas (2006-2011).

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brendan D; Foley, Sharon R

    2013-01-01

    Individuals awaiting execution have high rates of mental illness and psychological problems. We examined themes and psychological factors in last statements before execution in Texas between December 2006 and July 2011 (n = 79) and compared them to our previous research on last statements between April 2002 and November 2006 (n = 100). We used the Thematic Guide for Suicide Prediction to examine the state of mind of the prisoners facing imminent death. The most common themes in last statements were love (82%), spirituality (52%), and regret (39%). The most common psychological factors were indirect expressions (43%), identification-egression (i.e., identification with a lost or rejecting person or with any lost ideal) (40%), rejection-aggression (38%), and unbearable psychological pain (37%). These features were constant over time. Evidence of deteriorating mental health, unbearable psychological pain, and increased suicide risk suggests an ethics-related medical duty for psychiatrists to object to the death sentence.

  2. How long do the short-term violent video game effects last?

    PubMed

    Barlett, Christopher; Branch, Omar; Rodeheffer, Christopher; Harris, Richard

    2009-01-01

    How long do the effects of the initial short-term increase in aggression and physiological arousal last after violent video game play? Study 1 (N=91) had participants complete pre- and postvideo game measures of aggressive thoughts, aggressive feelings, and heart rate. Then, participants completed Time 3 measures after 4 min or 9 min of delay. Study 2 employed a similar procedure, but had participants (N=91) complete the hot sauce paradigm to assess aggressive behavior after a 0, 5, or 10 min delay. First, results indicated that aggressive feelings, aggressive thoughts, aggressive behavior, and heart rate initially increased after violent video game play. Second, results of the delay condition revealed that the increase in aggressive feelings and aggressive thoughts lasted less than 4 min, whereas heart rate and aggressive behavior lasted 4-9 min.

  3. Extent of the last ice sheet in northern Scotland tested with cosmogenic 10Be exposure ages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, W.M.; Hall, A.M.; Ballantyne, C.K.; Binnie, S.; Kubik, P.W.; Freeman, S.

    2008-01-01

    The extent of the last British-Irish Ice Sheet (BIIS) in northern Scotland is disputed. A restricted ice sheet model holds that at the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ca. 23-19 ka) the BIIS terminated on land in northern Scotland, leaving Buchan, Caithness and the Orkney Islands ice-free. An alternative model implies that these three areas were ice-covered at the LGM, with the BIIS extending offshore onto the adjacent shelves. We test the two models using cosmogenic 10Be surface exposure dating of erratic boulders and glacially eroded bedrock from the three areas. Our results indicate that the last BIIS covered all of northern Scotland during the LGM, but that widespread deglaciation of Caithness and Orkney occurred prior to rapid warming at ca. 14.5 ka. Copyright ?? 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Love, spirituality, and regret: thematic analysis of last statements from death row, Texas (2006-2011).

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brendan D; Foley, Sharon R

    2013-01-01

    Individuals awaiting execution have high rates of mental illness and psychological problems. We examined themes and psychological factors in last statements before execution in Texas between December 2006 and July 2011 (n = 79) and compared them to our previous research on last statements between April 2002 and November 2006 (n = 100). We used the Thematic Guide for Suicide Prediction to examine the state of mind of the prisoners facing imminent death. The most common themes in last statements were love (82%), spirituality (52%), and regret (39%). The most common psychological factors were indirect expressions (43%), identification-egression (i.e., identification with a lost or rejecting person or with any lost ideal) (40%), rejection-aggression (38%), and unbearable psychological pain (37%). These features were constant over time. Evidence of deteriorating mental health, unbearable psychological pain, and increased suicide risk suggests an ethics-related medical duty for psychiatrists to object to the death sentence. PMID:24335328

  5. How long do the short-term violent video game effects last?

    PubMed

    Barlett, Christopher; Branch, Omar; Rodeheffer, Christopher; Harris, Richard

    2009-01-01

    How long do the effects of the initial short-term increase in aggression and physiological arousal last after violent video game play? Study 1 (N=91) had participants complete pre- and postvideo game measures of aggressive thoughts, aggressive feelings, and heart rate. Then, participants completed Time 3 measures after 4 min or 9 min of delay. Study 2 employed a similar procedure, but had participants (N=91) complete the hot sauce paradigm to assess aggressive behavior after a 0, 5, or 10 min delay. First, results indicated that aggressive feelings, aggressive thoughts, aggressive behavior, and heart rate initially increased after violent video game play. Second, results of the delay condition revealed that the increase in aggressive feelings and aggressive thoughts lasted less than 4 min, whereas heart rate and aggressive behavior lasted 4-9 min. PMID:19206102

  6. Last-In First-Elected Last-Out (LIFELO) Scheme for Real-Time Sequential Analysis of Continuous Spatial Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Ding Yuan and Warnick Kernan

    2007-07-09

    Conventionally, sequential analysis of time-dependent observation data follows a simple First-in/ First-out (FIFO) scheme. Under a FIFO scheme, the oldest data point in the system is first chosen for subsequent analysis, such as for computing population mean and sequential probability ratio test (SPRT). Once the analysis is completed or the decision is made, the oldest data point is dropped out of the system and a new sample is drawn. The intrinsic disadvantage of a FIFO scheme is its delayed response. At the time a new sample is drawn, the analysis either cannot tell immediately about the sample, or makes an incorrect statement about the sample. In our research, we adopted a Last-In/ First-Elected/ Last-Out (LIFELO) scheme for realtime sequential analysis of continuous spatial survey data. In this scheme, the most recent data point from a given spatial location in the sequence is first selected for starting the subsequent analysis. If needed, the next youngest data point is chosen to join the analysis. This process is continued until a conclusion is made about the most recent location or data point. LIFELO scheme offers a reduced response time and spatial errors for decision-making for time-and-spatial critical environmental contamination surveys. In terms of methodology, it can also be used for early detection of epidemic diseases.

  7. Permafrost response to last interglacial warming: field evidence from non-glaciated Yukon and Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Alberto V.; Froese, Duane G.; Jensen, Britta J. L.

    2010-11-01

    We present stratigraphic observations from three sites in eastern Beringia - Ch'ijee's Bluff in northern Yukon and nearby exposures on the Old Crow River, the Palisades on the Yukon River in Alaska, and placer mining exposures at Thistle Creek in west-central Yukon - which provide insight into the response of permafrost to regional warming during the last interglaciation. Chronology is based on the presence of Old Crow tephra, an important regional stratigraphic marker that dates to late Marine Isotope Stage 6, supplemented by paleoecology and non-finite 14C ages on wood-rich organic silts. Old Crow tephra overlies several relict ice wedges at the Palisades and Thistle Creek, indicating that permafrost at these sites did not thaw completely during the last interglaciation. Prominent deposits of last interglacial wood-rich organic silt are present at multiple sites in eastern Beringia, and probably represent accumulations of reworked forest vegetation due to thaw slumping or deposition into thermokarst ponds or depressions. Consistent stratigraphic relations between these deposits, Old Crow tephra, and ice wedge pseudomorphs at our three study sites, and at least six other sites in eastern Beringia, suggest that thaw of shallow permafrost was widespread during the last interglaciation. Limited stratigraphic evidence suggests that thaw was probably on the order of meters, rather than 10s of meters. The ubiquity of shallow permafrost degradation during the last interglaciation suggests that current ground warming may foreshadow widespread near-surface thaw under even modest future warming scenarios. However, the persistence of relict pre-last interglacial ice wedges highlights the potential for the regional antiquity of discontinuous permafrost, and provides compelling field evidence for the long-term resilience of deep permafrost during sustained periods of warmer-than-present climate.

  8. Tropical Atlantic Temperature Seasonality at the End of the Last Interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felis, T.; Giry, C.; Scholz, D.; Lohmann, G.; Pfeiffer, M.; Pätzold, J.; Kölling, M.; Scheffers, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    The end of the last interglacial period, ~118 kyr ago, was characterized by substantial ocean circulation and climate perturbations resulting from instabilities of polar ice sheets, which are partially comparable to those projected for future climate change. The seasonal temperature changes of the tropical ocean, however, which play an important role in seasonal climate extremes such as hurricanes, floods and droughts at the present day, are not well known for this period that lead into the last glacial. Here we present a monthly resolved snapshot of reconstructed sea surface temperature variability in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean for 117.7 ± 0.8 kyr ago, using fossil coral (Diploria strigosa) Sr/Ca and δ18O records from Bonaire (Caribbean Netherlands). Our 20-year snapshot of reconstructed sea surface temperature variability for the end of the last interglacial is compared with Bonaire monthly coral Sr/Ca and δ18O records for snapshots since the mid-Holocene, comprising a total length of 295 years. We find that temperature seasonality in the southern Caribbean Sea at the end of the last interglacial was relatively stable and similar to today. Our coral records and simulations with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (COSMOS) indicate an orbital control on temperature seasonality in the tropical North Atlantic at the end of the last interglacial, despite the large-scale perturbations of ocean circulation and climate during this period, and suggest that temperature seasonality of the tropical surface ocean was a relatively stable feature of the ocean-atmosphere system at the end of the last interglacial.

  9. Decadal variability of NAO during the last millennium inferred from Saharan dust in Alpine ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwikowski, Margit; Sigl, Michael; Gäggeler, Heinz W.; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Barbante, Carlo; Boutron, Claude

    2010-05-01

    Interannual variability of North African atmospheric dust is strongly linked to drought conditions in the Sahel and to the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Dust generation and transport are enhanced during winter NAO(+) phases when the North African dust source regions are controlled by high pressure situations leading to less precipitation, and thus to stronger wind erosion of soil material. However, direct Saharan dust observations are limited to the last decades only. Here, we present a first highly resolved ice core record of Saharan dust from the Alps, spanning the last 1,000 years. We focus thereby on concentrations of Fe, Al, Sr, and Ca which are typical elements present in long-range transported Saharan dust. We show that the mineral dust transport to the Southern Alps is primarily controlled by drought conditions in Northern Africa and by the winter NAO. Mean dust concentrations of the last 20 years are unprecedented in the context of the last 1,000 years. These elevated Saharan dust concentrations are consistent with the observed widespread increase in dustiness and dust storm frequencies over Northern Africa from direct measurements or from satellite based observations over the last decades. In contrast, between AD 1050 and 1400, when persistent arid conditions in the main source regions of dust in Northern Africa were deduced from tree-ring data and linked to a pervasive positive NAO mode over centuries, no according imprint is recorded in the ice core mineral dust record. We assume that the low-frequency variability of the tree-ring based reconstruction of Moroccan droughts (which also form the basis for the NAO reconstruction) is biased by the method applied to remove the non-climatic growth trends from the tree-ring series. Based on the ice core data we suggest that decadal-scale variability of the NAO (Moroccan droughts) prevailed over the last 1,000 years.

  10. Beryllium-10 dating of the duration and retreat of the last pinedale glacial sequence.

    PubMed

    Gosse, J C; Klein, J; Lawn, B; Middleton, R; Evenson, E B

    1995-06-01

    Accurate terrestrial glacial chronologies are needed for comparison with the marine record to establish the dynamics of global climate change during transitions from glacial to interglacial regimes. Cosmogenic beryllium-10 measurements in the Wind River Range indicate that the last glacial maximum (marine oxygen isotope stage 2) was achieved there by 21,700 +/- 700 beryllium-10 years and lasted 5900 years. Ages of a sequence of recessional moraines and striated bedrock surfaces show that the initial deglaciation was rapid and that the entire glacial system retreated 33 kilometers to the cirque basin by 12,100 +/- 500 beryllium-10 years.

  11. Beryllium-10 dating of the duration and retreat of the last pinedale glacial sequence.

    PubMed

    Gosse, J C; Klein, J; Lawn, B; Middleton, R; Evenson, E B

    1995-06-01

    Accurate terrestrial glacial chronologies are needed for comparison with the marine record to establish the dynamics of global climate change during transitions from glacial to interglacial regimes. Cosmogenic beryllium-10 measurements in the Wind River Range indicate that the last glacial maximum (marine oxygen isotope stage 2) was achieved there by 21,700 +/- 700 beryllium-10 years and lasted 5900 years. Ages of a sequence of recessional moraines and striated bedrock surfaces show that the initial deglaciation was rapid and that the entire glacial system retreated 33 kilometers to the cirque basin by 12,100 +/- 500 beryllium-10 years. PMID:17778979

  12. Beryllium-10 dating of the duration and retreat of the last pinedale glacial sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Gosse, J.C. |; Klein, J.; Evenson, E.B.

    1995-06-02

    Accurate terrestrial glacial chronologies are needed for comparison with the marine record to establish the dynamics of global climate change during transitions from glacial to interglacial regimes. Cosmogenic beryllium-10 measurements in the Wind River Range indicate that the last glacial maximum (marine oxygen isotope stage 2) was achieved there by 21,700 {+-} 700 beryllium-10 years and lasted 5900 years. Ages of a sequence of recessional moraines and striated bedrock surfaces show that the initial deglaciation was rapid and that the entire glacial system retreated 33 kilometers to the cirque basin by 12,100 {+-} 500 beryllium-10 years.

  13. Slavery and Cinema in Cuba: The Case of Gutierrez Alea's The Last Supper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Dennis

    1979-01-01

    "The Last Supper" deals with slavery and social stratification in late eighteenth century Cuba. In this article, the film is described in artistic and historical terms, and is discussed in relation to the larger body of theory on Latin American slavery. (EB)

  14. Increased seasonality in Middle East temperatures during the last interglacial period.

    PubMed

    Felis, Thomas; Lohmann, Gerrit; Kuhnert, Henning; Lorenz, Stephan J; Scholz, Denis; Pätzold, Jürgen; Al-Rousan, Saber A; Al-Moghrabi, Salim M

    2004-05-13

    The last interglacial period (about 125,000 years ago) is thought to have been at least as warm as the present climate. Owing to changes in the Earth's orbit around the Sun, it is thought that insolation in the Northern Hemisphere varied more strongly than today on seasonal timescales, which would have led to corresponding changes in the seasonal temperature cycle. Here we present seasonally resolved proxy records using corals from the northernmost Red Sea, which record climate during the last interglacial period, the late Holocene epoch and the present. We find an increased seasonality in the temperature recorded in the last interglacial coral. Today, climate in the northern Red Sea is sensitive to the North Atlantic Oscillation, a climate oscillation that strongly influences winter temperatures and precipitation in the North Atlantic region. From our coral records and simulations with a coupled atmosphere-ocean circulation model, we conclude that a tendency towards the high-index state of the North Atlantic Oscillation during the last interglacial period, which is consistent with European proxy records, contributed to the larger amplitude of the seasonal cycle in the Middle East.

  15. Selective Maintenance of Motor Performance in Older Adults from Long-Lasting Sport Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dascal, Juliana Bayeux; Teixeira, Luis Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Decline of motor performance in older individuals affects their quality of life. Understanding the contribution of sport-related training in advanced ages might help to attenuate motor performance decay as one gets older. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the extent to which long-lasting training in running or sport-specific skills…

  16. Lessons Learned from the Last Twenty Years of Sexual Violence Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Brian P.

    2005-01-01

    The present article attempts to answer important questions about the most important thing learned from the past 20 years of research on sexual violence, the most important thing to be learned about sexual violence over the next 10 years, and the most promising methodological innovation in the study of sexual violence from the last 20 years. It is…

  17. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of Research in the Last Decade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leekam, Susan R.; Prior, Margot R.; Uljarevic, Mirko

    2011-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorders. They constitute a major barrier to learning and social adaptation, but research on their definition, cause, and capacity for change has been relatively neglected. The last decade of research has brought new measurement techniques that have improved the…

  18. 31 CFR 19.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How long may my debarment last? 19.865 Section 19.865 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE...) If the debarment is for a violation of the provisions of the Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988,...

  19. Psychology Studies' Drive to Educational Reform in the Last 20 Years in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Da-jun; Xu, Xing-chun

    2006-01-01

    In order to better understand the relationship between educational psychology research and educational reform, this essay reviews the development of educational psychology studies in the last 20 years in China. The study shows that: (1) Rapid development has been made in the areas of establishing discipline systems; (2) Research fields have been…

  20. 5 CFR 894.703 - How long does my coverage as an annuitant or compensationer last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How long does my coverage as an annuitant or compensationer last? 894.703 Section 894.703 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION...

  1. 5 CFR 894.703 - How long does my coverage as an annuitant or compensationer last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How long does my coverage as an annuitant or compensationer last? 894.703 Section 894.703 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION...

  2. 5 CFR 894.703 - How long does my coverage as an annuitant or compensationer last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How long does my coverage as an annuitant or compensationer last? 894.703 Section 894.703 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION...

  3. 5 CFR 894.703 - How long does my coverage as an annuitant or compensationer last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How long does my coverage as an annuitant or compensationer last? 894.703 Section 894.703 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION...

  4. 5 CFR 894.703 - How long does my coverage as an annuitant or compensationer last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How long does my coverage as an annuitant or compensationer last? 894.703 Section 894.703 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION...

  5. At the Last Hour, It's Financial Aid 101 for These High-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supiano, Beckie

    2009-01-01

    The high-school seniors drifting in and out of the office in New York should be weighing financial-aid offers and deciding where to go to college. But some of them have yet to begin the process of applying for student aid. This article describes a nonprofit group in Harlem which gives last-minute help to students uncertain about applying for…

  6. The early rise and late demise of New Zealand's last glacial maximum.

    PubMed

    Rother, Henrik; Fink, David; Shulmeister, James; Mifsud, Charles; Evans, Michael; Pugh, Jeremy

    2014-08-12

    Recent debate on records of southern midlatitude glaciation has focused on reconstructing glacier dynamics during the last glacial termination, with different results supporting both in-phase and out-of-phase correlations with Northern Hemisphere glacial signals. A continuing major weakness in this debate is the lack of robust data, particularly from the early and maximum phase of southern midlatitude glaciation (∼30-20 ka), to verify the competing models. Here we present a suite of 58 cosmogenic exposure ages from 17 last-glacial ice limits in the Rangitata Valley of New Zealand, capturing an extensive record of glacial oscillations between 28-16 ka. The sequence shows that the local last glacial maximum in this region occurred shortly before 28 ka, followed by several successively less extensive ice readvances between 26-19 ka. The onset of Termination 1 and the ensuing glacial retreat is preserved in exceptional detail through numerous recessional moraines, indicating that ice retreat between 19-16 ka was very gradual. Extensive valley glaciers survived in the Rangitata catchment until at least 15.8 ka. These findings preclude the previously inferred rapid climate-driven ice retreat in the Southern Alps after the onset of Termination 1. Our record documents an early last glacial maximum, an overall trend of diminishing ice volume in New Zealand between 28-20 ka, and gradual deglaciation until at least 15 ka.

  7. The early rise and late demise of New Zealand’s last glacial maximum

    PubMed Central

    Rother, Henrik; Fink, David; Shulmeister, James; Mifsud, Charles; Evans, Michael; Pugh, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Recent debate on records of southern midlatitude glaciation has focused on reconstructing glacier dynamics during the last glacial termination, with different results supporting both in-phase and out-of-phase correlations with Northern Hemisphere glacial signals. A continuing major weakness in this debate is the lack of robust data, particularly from the early and maximum phase of southern midlatitude glaciation (∼30–20 ka), to verify the competing models. Here we present a suite of 58 cosmogenic exposure ages from 17 last-glacial ice limits in the Rangitata Valley of New Zealand, capturing an extensive record of glacial oscillations between 28–16 ka. The sequence shows that the local last glacial maximum in this region occurred shortly before 28 ka, followed by several successively less extensive ice readvances between 26–19 ka. The onset of Termination 1 and the ensuing glacial retreat is preserved in exceptional detail through numerous recessional moraines, indicating that ice retreat between 19–16 ka was very gradual. Extensive valley glaciers survived in the Rangitata catchment until at least 15.8 ka. These findings preclude the previously inferred rapid climate-driven ice retreat in the Southern Alps after the onset of Termination 1. Our record documents an early last glacial maximum, an overall trend of diminishing ice volume in New Zealand between 28–20 ka, and gradual deglaciation until at least 15 ka. PMID:25071171

  8. Was millennial scale climate change during the Last Glacial triggered by explosive volcanism?

    PubMed Central

    Baldini, James U.L.; Brown, Richard J.; McElwaine, Jim N.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for millennial scale climate change within glacial time intervals are equivocal. Here we show that all eight known radiometrically-dated Tambora-sized or larger NH eruptions over the interval 30 to 80 ka BP are associated with abrupt Greenland cooling (>95% confidence). Additionally, previous research reported a strong statistical correlation between the timing of Southern Hemisphere volcanism and Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events (>99% confidence), but did not identify a causative mechanism. Volcanic aerosol-induced asymmetrical hemispheric cooling over the last few hundred years restructured atmospheric circulation in a similar fashion as that associated with Last Glacial millennial-scale shifts (albeit on a smaller scale). We hypothesise that following both recent and Last Glacial NH eruptions, volcanogenic sulphate injections into the stratosphere cooled the NH preferentially, inducing a hemispheric temperature asymmetry that shifted atmospheric circulation cells southward. This resulted in Greenland cooling, Antarctic warming, and a southward shifted ITCZ. However, during the Last Glacial, the initial eruption-induced climate response was prolonged by NH glacier and sea ice expansion, increased NH albedo, AMOC weakening, more NH cooling, and a consequent positive feedback. Conversely, preferential SH cooling following large SH eruptions shifted atmospheric circulation to the north, resulting in the characteristic features of DO events. PMID:26616338

  9. Student Projects that Make a Meaningful and Lasting Contribution to Course Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Shelly J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this teaching tip is to share with others an idea of how to transform student projects from a dead-end process to a value-added end product, value-added end products that make a meaningful and lasting contribution to course content for use by future students. (Contains 2 tables.)

  10. COMPARISON OF GESTATIONAL AGE AT DELIVERY BASED ON LAST MENSTRUAL PERIOD AND EARLY ULTRASOUND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reported date of last menstrual period (LMP) is commonly used to estimate gestational age but may be unreliable if recall is inaccurate or time between menstruation and ovulation differs from the presumed 15-day interval. Early ultrasound is generally a more accurate method than ...

  11. 30 CFR 250.170 - How long does a suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How long does a suspension last? 250.170 Section 250.170 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General...

  12. 30 CFR 250.170 - How long does a suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How long does a suspension last? 250.170 Section 250.170 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General...

  13. 30 CFR 250.170 - How long does a suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How long does a suspension last? 250.170 Section 250.170 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General...

  14. Physics Last: A Historical Study of the Development of the US High School Science Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Keith; Robbins, Dennis M.

    This study explores how and when physics became the last course in U.S. high school science and what impact this had on high school physics offerings and student enrollment. Four main areas of historical data were identified: (1) national and state education statistics; (2) reports from major organizations on reform and policy; (3) reports from…

  15. Losing Sight of Humboldt: A Synoptic Review of Australian Government Policy over the Last 35 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Brad

    2010-01-01

    Over the last 35 years Australian higher education policy, like that of most countries, has undergone radical changes. This article reviews these changes in terms of four key periods, beginning with the abolition of student fees, through to the recent unprecedented levels of government control and intervention. Policies are compared with each…

  16. Has New Labour's Numbers Drive Done Lasting Damage to State Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansell, Warwick

    2010-01-01

    The last government's emphasis on results statistics--implicit in its systems for holding teachers to account--as the be-all-and-end-all of a good education, reflected the largely undebated victory of one set of possible aims for schooling over another. Pragmatism beat idealism, as schools' priorities were reshaped along similarly calculating…

  17. 46 CFR 280.9 - Special rules for last year of ODS agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special rules for last year of ODS agreement. 280.9 Section 280.9 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING SUBSIDIZED VESSELS AND OPERATORS LIMITATIONS ON THE AWARD AND PAYMENT OF OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY...

  18. A 1000-year increase in deep Pacific ventilation age during the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, D. C.; Mix, A. C.; Southon, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    The rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide during the last deglaciation may have been driven by release of carbon sequestered in the abyssal ocean. This mechanism requires a poorly ventilated deep Pacific during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and enhanced ventilation during the deglaciation. Here we present planktonic and benthic foraminiferal radiocarbon data from a high-sedimentation rate core collected at 2.7 km water depth in the Northeast Pacific, a site that monitors the oldest watermass in the modern ocean. We estimate ventilation age (i.e. the time elapsed since water was last at the surface) using the projection age (Adkins and Boyle, 1997) and TTD-ETD methods (DeVries and Primeau, 2010). We show that both methods yield LGM ventilation ages similar to today, suggesting this depth horizon in the NE Pacific was not an important carbon reservoir at the LGM. During the deglaciation, both projection and TTD-ETD ages increased by ~1 kyr, indicating that either the 1) ventilation rate decreased, 2) the surface water reservoir age in the Southern Ocean increased, or 3) there was an influx of 14C-depleted carbon from another source into the deep Pacific. The available paleoceanographic evidence is inconsistent with the first two options, implying that another source of old carbon may have been responsible for the apparent increase in ventilation age during the last deglaciation.

  19. Coteaching, Peer Tutoring and Curriculum Writing: Lasting Effects of Involving Students in Talking about Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayne, Gillian U.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a 3-year case study that examines the lasting effects of having participated in cogenerative dialogues during a 9th grade science experience. Theo, a high school student researcher of more than three years, affords insights into the expansion of human agency, attributing it to his consistent participation in…

  20. The early rise and late demise of New Zealand's last glacial maximum.

    PubMed

    Rother, Henrik; Fink, David; Shulmeister, James; Mifsud, Charles; Evans, Michael; Pugh, Jeremy

    2014-08-12

    Recent debate on records of southern midlatitude glaciation has focused on reconstructing glacier dynamics during the last glacial termination, with different results supporting both in-phase and out-of-phase correlations with Northern Hemisphere glacial signals. A continuing major weakness in this debate is the lack of robust data, particularly from the early and maximum phase of southern midlatitude glaciation (∼30-20 ka), to verify the competing models. Here we present a suite of 58 cosmogenic exposure ages from 17 last-glacial ice limits in the Rangitata Valley of New Zealand, capturing an extensive record of glacial oscillations between 28-16 ka. The sequence shows that the local last glacial maximum in this region occurred shortly before 28 ka, followed by several successively less extensive ice readvances between 26-19 ka. The onset of Termination 1 and the ensuing glacial retreat is preserved in exceptional detail through numerous recessional moraines, indicating that ice retreat between 19-16 ka was very gradual. Extensive valley glaciers survived in the Rangitata catchment until at least 15.8 ka. These findings preclude the previously inferred rapid climate-driven ice retreat in the Southern Alps after the onset of Termination 1. Our record documents an early last glacial maximum, an overall trend of diminishing ice volume in New Zealand between 28-20 ka, and gradual deglaciation until at least 15 ka. PMID:25071171

  1. Large inert carbon pool in the terrestrial biosphere during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciais, P.; Tagliabue, A.; Cuntz, M.; Bopp, L.; Scholze, M.; Hoffmann, G.; Lourantou, A.; Harrison, S. P.; Prentice, I. C.; Kelley, D. I.; Koven, C.; Piao, S. L.

    2012-01-01

    During each of the late Pleistocene glacial-interglacial transitions, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations rose by almost 100ppm. The sources of this carbon are unclear, and efforts to identify them are hampered by uncertainties in the magnitude of carbon reservoirs and fluxes under glacial conditions. Here we use oxygen isotope measurements from air trapped in ice cores and ocean carbon-cycle modelling to estimate terrestrial and oceanic gross primary productivity during the Last Glacial Maximum. We find that the rate of gross terrestrial primary production during the Last Glacial Maximum was about 40+/-10 Pg C yr-1, half that of the pre-industrial Holocene. Despite the low levels of photosynthesis, we estimate that the late glacial terrestrial biosphere contained only 330 Pg less carbon than pre-industrial levels. We infer that the area covered by carbon-rich but unproductive biomes such as tundra and cold steppes was significantly larger during the Last Glacial Maximum, consistent with palaeoecological data. Our data also indicate the presence of an inert carbon pool of 2,300 Pg C, about 700 Pg larger than the inert carbon locked in permafrost today. We suggest that the disappearance of this carbon pool at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum may have contributed to the deglacial rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.

  2. To This Day: College Graduates on the Lasting Significance of Relationality and Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullerton, Ann; Reitenauer, Vicki L.

    2015-01-01

    In the past twenty years, much research has been conducted into the effects of community-based learning and service-learning on students, but studies into the long-term impacts that persist after graduation have been fewer in number. In this article, the authors share perspectives from Portland State University alumni on the lasting significance…

  3. Mechanical small bowel obstruction due to an inflamed appendix wrapping around the last loop of ileum.

    PubMed

    Assenza, M; Ricci, G; Bartolucci, P; Modini, C

    2005-01-01

    Acute apendicitis rarely presents with a clinical picture of mechanical small-bowel obstruction. The Authors report a case of this inusual clinical occurrence, arised like a complication of a common disease, characterized by a chronically inflamed appendix (mucocele) wrapping around the last loop of ileum that produced volvolus and strangulation. The few similar cases reported in the literature are moreover reviewed.

  4. Numerical simulations of the Cordilleran ice sheet through the last glacial cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seguinot, Julien; Rogozhina, Irina; Stroeven, Arjen P.; Margold, Martin; Kleman, Johan

    2016-03-01

    After more than a century of geological research, the Cordilleran ice sheet of North America remains among the least understood in terms of its former extent, volume, and dynamics. Because of the mountainous topography on which the ice sheet formed, geological studies have often had only local or regional relevance and shown such a complexity that ice-sheet-wide spatial reconstructions of advance and retreat patterns are lacking. Here we use a numerical ice sheet model calibrated against field-based evidence to attempt a quantitative reconstruction of the Cordilleran ice sheet history through the last glacial cycle. A series of simulations is driven by time-dependent temperature offsets from six proxy records located around the globe. Although this approach reveals large variations in model response to evolving climate forcing, all simulations produce two major glaciations during marine oxygen isotope stages 4 (62.2-56.9 ka) and 2 (23.2-16.9 ka). The timing of glaciation is better reproduced using temperature reconstructions from Greenland and Antarctic ice cores than from regional oceanic sediment cores. During most of the last glacial cycle, the modelled ice cover is discontinuous and restricted to high mountain areas. However, widespread precipitation over the Skeena Mountains favours the persistence of a central ice dome throughout the glacial cycle. It acts as a nucleation centre before the Last Glacial Maximum and hosts the last remains of Cordilleran ice until the middle Holocene (6.7 ka).

  5. Did the North Atlantic Ocean sequester more CO2 during the last glacial?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J.; Thornalley, D. J.; Jin, Z.; Rohling, E. J.; Menviel, L.; McCave, I. N. N.

    2015-12-01

    To explain the ~90 ppm lower atmospheric CO2 content during the Last Glacial Maximum, much effort has been focused on the mechanisms that helped to limit the outgassing of CO2 from the deep ocean to the atmosphere via the Southern Ocean. Field measurements and modeling studies suggest that the North Atlantic Ocean has been an important sink of CO2 during preindustrial and modern times. However, the role of the North Atlantic in sequestering atmospheric CO2 in the past largely remains unconstrained. Here, we use a suite of geochemical proxies to reconstruct nutrient and carbonate ion concentrations of both surface and deep waters in the North Atlantic during the last ~25 kyr. When normalized to the same nutrient levels, we find that the gradient in carbonate ion content between surface and mid-depth waters increased during the last glacial. Although a combination of factors including changes in Redfield ratio and rain ratio and increased CO2 absorption at the air-sea boundary might have caused the observed change, the greater gradient most likely suggests an enhanced sequestration of CO2 in the North Atlantic Ocean during the Last Glacial Maximum. Therefore, we infer that, in addition to changes in the Southern Ocean, processes in the North Atlantic Ocean enhanced the uptake of CO2 and synergistically contributed to the low atmospheric CO2 during ice ages.

  6. Bona Fide Seniority Systems and Relief from "Last Hired, First Fired" Layoffs Under Title VII

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegelman, Paul J.

    1976-01-01

    The history of the exemption for bona fide seniority systems under Title VII is explored briefly. It is suggested that the courts can provide protection for incumbent workers potentially disadvantaged, which may mean substantial monetary liability for employers using "last hired, first fired" layoff systems. (Author/LBH)

  7. Description of the last stadium larva and female of Microgomphus thailandica Asahina, 1981 (Odonata: Gomphidae).

    PubMed

    Boonsoong, Boonsatien; Chainthong, Damrong

    2014-01-01

    The last stadium larva of Microgomphus thailandica is described, illustrated and compared with the larvae of congeneric species based on reared specimens collected from the Phachi headwater stream, Ratchaburi province, Thailand. The female adult of this species is described for the first time from a reared specimen from the same locality. PMID:24943164

  8. Last Call at Loon Lake: Counter-Narratives in Human Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylie, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    In cultures of excess, the challenge is to see. In a time of climate change, how will humans find the questions, the reflections, the poems, or the prayers that will bring ecological justice and peace? This writing begins a response to the call made on the last day of our gathering at Loon Lake for a "commonist manifesto" around…

  9. 42 CFR 63a.8 - How long does grant support last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How long does grant support last? 63a.8 Section 63a.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH TRAINING GRANTS § 63a.8 How long does grant support...

  10. 42 CFR 63a.8 - How long does grant support last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How long does grant support last? 63a.8 Section 63a.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH TRAINING GRANTS § 63a.8 How long does grant support...

  11. 42 CFR 63a.8 - How long does grant support last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How long does grant support last? 63a.8 Section 63a.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH TRAINING GRANTS § 63a.8 How long does grant support...

  12. 42 CFR 63a.8 - How long does grant support last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How long does grant support last? 63a.8 Section 63a.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH TRAINING GRANTS § 63a.8 How long does grant support...

  13. 42 CFR 63a.8 - How long does grant support last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How long does grant support last? 63a.8 Section 63a.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH TRAINING GRANTS § 63a.8 How long does grant support...

  14. [Last instar larva, pupa and a new distribution record of Periploca otrebla Vargas (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae)].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Héctor A

    2007-01-01

    A description and figures of the last instar larva and pupa of Periploca otrebla Vargas are presented, based on specimens collected on Acacia macracantha (Fabaceae) in the type locality, Azapa valley, Arica Province, northern Chile. The Chaca valley, Arica Province, northern Chile, is mentioned as a new locality for the geographic distribution of P. otrebla, previously known only from the type locality.

  15. A Chronological Perspective on Suicide--The Last Days of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orbach, I.; Gilboa-Schechtman, E.; Ofek, H.; Lubin, G.; Mark, M.; Bodner, E.; Cohen, D.; King, R.

    2007-01-01

    A combined psychological autopsy and narrative approach was used to study the completed suicides of 67 Israeli soldiers. Three issues were addressed. First, the authors examined the typology of the life narratives of suicide completed during active army duty. Second, focusing on the last 3 weeks of the soldiers' lives, they sought to examine their…

  16. Future generations of horizontal tools will make tighter turns and last longer

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle, D.

    1995-10-01

    Operators want horizontal tools that turn tighter and last longer, and manufacturers are working to meet the need. An operator needs control of tools in the hole to drill a good horizontal well, and service and supply companies are trying to improve that control.

  17. Research on Mathematics Education in China in the Last Decade: A Review of Journal Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Binyan

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews literature on mathematics education in China in the last decade. It focuses on papers that were published after 2000, and Chinese Social Science Citation Index (CSSCI). Some influential journals in the field of mathematics education, such as the "Journal of Mathematics Education" and "Mathematics Instruction" were also…

  18. Increased seasonality in Middle East temperatures during the last interglacial period.

    PubMed

    Felis, Thomas; Lohmann, Gerrit; Kuhnert, Henning; Lorenz, Stephan J; Scholz, Denis; Pätzold, Jürgen; Al-Rousan, Saber A; Al-Moghrabi, Salim M

    2004-05-13

    The last interglacial period (about 125,000 years ago) is thought to have been at least as warm as the present climate. Owing to changes in the Earth's orbit around the Sun, it is thought that insolation in the Northern Hemisphere varied more strongly than today on seasonal timescales, which would have led to corresponding changes in the seasonal temperature cycle. Here we present seasonally resolved proxy records using corals from the northernmost Red Sea, which record climate during the last interglacial period, the late Holocene epoch and the present. We find an increased seasonality in the temperature recorded in the last interglacial coral. Today, climate in the northern Red Sea is sensitive to the North Atlantic Oscillation, a climate oscillation that strongly influences winter temperatures and precipitation in the North Atlantic region. From our coral records and simulations with a coupled atmosphere-ocean circulation model, we conclude that a tendency towards the high-index state of the North Atlantic Oscillation during the last interglacial period, which is consistent with European proxy records, contributed to the larger amplitude of the seasonal cycle in the Middle East. PMID:15141207

  19. Numerical simulations of the Cordilleran ice sheet through the last glacial cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seguinot, J.; Rogozhina, I.; Stroeven, A. P.; Margold, M.; Kleman, J.

    2015-08-01

    Despite more than a century of geological observations, the Cordilleran ice sheet of North America remains poorly understood in terms of its former extent, volume and dynamics. Although geomorphological evidence is abundant, its complexity is such that whole ice-sheet reconstructions of advance and retreat patterns are lacking. Here we use a numerical ice sheet model calibrated against field-based evidence to attempt a quantitative reconstruction of the Cordilleran ice sheet history through the last glacial cycle. A series of simulations is driven by time-dependent temperature offsets from six proxy records located around the globe. Although this approach reveals large variations in model response to evolving climate forcing, all simulations produce two major glaciations during marine oxygen isotope stages 4 (61.9-56.5 ka) and 2 (23.2-16.8 ka). The timing of glaciation is better reproduced using temperature reconstructions from Greenland and Antarctic ice cores than from regional oceanic sediment cores. During most of the last glacial cycle, the modelled ice cover is discontinuous and restricted to high mountain areas. However, widespread precipitation over the Skeena Mountains favours the persistence of a central ice dome throughout the glacial cycle. It acts as a nucleation centre before the Last Glacial Maximum and hosts the last remains of Cordilleran ice until the middle Holocene (6.6-6.2 ka).

  20. Unpublished manuscripts of Sophie Germain and a revaluation of her work on Fermat's Last Theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Centina, Andrea

    2008-07-01

    Published, and discussed, are some manuscripts and a letter of Sophie Germain concerning her work on Fermat's Last Theorem. These autographs, held at Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, at the Moreniana Library, Florence, and at the University Library, Göttingen, contribute to a substantial revaluation of her work on this subject.

  1. Persistent ERK Activation Maintains Learning-Induced Long-Lasting Modulation of Synaptic Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Matsliah, Sivan Ida; Seroussi, Yaron; Rosenblum, Kobi; Barkai, Edi

    2008-01-01

    Pyramidal neurons in the piriform cortex from olfactory-discrimination (OD) trained rats undergo synaptic modifications that last for days after learning. A particularly intriguing modification is reduced paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) in the synapses interconnecting these cells; a phenomenon thought to reflect enhanced synaptic release. The…

  2. 14 CFR 47.35 - Aircraft last previously registered in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... applicable and submits with his Aircraft Registration Application, AC Form 8050-1 an Aircraft Bill of Sale... authorized by § 47.11. (1) If the applicant bought the aircraft from the last registered owner, the conveyance must be from that owner to the applicant. (2) If the applicant did not buy the aircraft from...

  3. 14 CFR 47.35 - Aircraft last previously registered in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... an Aircraft Bill of Sale, AC Form 8050-2, signed by the seller or an equivalent conveyance, or other evidence of ownership authorized by § 47.11. (1) If the applicant bought the aircraft from the last registered owner, the conveyance must be from that owner to the applicant. (2) If the applicant did not...

  4. 14 CFR 47.35 - Aircraft last previously registered in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... an Aircraft Bill of Sale, AC Form 8050-2, signed by the seller or an equivalent conveyance, or other evidence of ownership authorized by § 47.11. (1) If the applicant bought the aircraft from the last registered owner, the conveyance must be from that owner to the applicant. (2) If the applicant did not...

  5. 14 CFR 47.35 - Aircraft last previously registered in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... applicable and submits with his Aircraft Registration Application, AC Form 8050-1 an Aircraft Bill of Sale... authorized by § 47.11. (1) If the applicant bought the aircraft from the last registered owner, the conveyance must be from that owner to the applicant. (2) If the applicant did not buy the aircraft from...

  6. [Use of Intramag devices with Intraterm and LAST-02 attachments in complex therapy of chronic prostatitis].

    PubMed

    Shaplygin, L V; Begaev, A I; V'iushina, V V

    2006-01-01

    The examination of the patients exposed to physical factors (magnetotherapy, laser therapy and thermotherapy) has demonstrated that Intramag unit with attachments Intraterm and LAST-02 for local physiotherapy is effective in patients with chronic prostatitis and can be used in urological hospitals and outpatient clinics. PMID:17058682

  7. 13 CFR 124.1005 - How long does an SDB certification last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How long does an SDB certification last? 124.1005 Section 124.1005 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a... Protests Relating to Federal Small Disadvantaged Business Programs § 124.1005 How long does an...

  8. 29 CFR 1471.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How long may my suspension last? 1471.760 Section 1471.760 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 1471.760 How long may my suspension...

  9. 41 CFR 105-68.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How long may my debarment last? 105-68.865 Section 105-68.865 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Administration 68-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 105-68.865 How long may...

  10. 41 CFR 105-68.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How long may my suspension last? 105-68.760 Section 105-68.760 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Administration 68-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 105-68.760 How long...

  11. 5 CFR 919.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How long may my debarment last? 919.865 Section 919.865 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 919.865 How...

  12. 5 CFR 919.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How long may my debarment last? 919.865 Section 919.865 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 919.865 How...

  13. 2 CFR 180.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How long may my debarment last? 180.865 Section 180.865 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements... TO AGENCIES ON GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 180.865 How...

  14. 2 CFR 180.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How long may my suspension last? 180.760 Section 180.760 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements... AGENCIES ON GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 180.760 How long may...

  15. 5 CFR 919.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How long may my suspension last? 919.760 Section 919.760 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 919.760 How...

  16. 5 CFR 919.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How long may my suspension last? 919.760 Section 919.760 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 919.760 How...

  17. 41 CFR 105-68.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How long may my debarment last? 105-68.865 Section 105-68.865 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Administration 68-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 105-68.865 How long may...

  18. 5 CFR 919.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How long may my debarment last? 919.865 Section 919.865 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 919.865 How...

  19. 41 CFR 105-68.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How long may my suspension last? 105-68.760 Section 105-68.760 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Administration 68-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 105-68.760 How long...

  20. 29 CFR 1471.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How long may my suspension last? 1471.760 Section 1471.760 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 1471.760 How long may my suspension...

  1. 2 CFR 180.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How long may my debarment last? 180.865 Section 180.865 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements... AGENCIES ON GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 180.865 How long may...

  2. 29 CFR 1471.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How long may my suspension last? 1471.760 Section 1471.760 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 1471.760 How long may my suspension...

  3. 13 CFR 124.1005 - How long does an SDB certification last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How long does an SDB certification last? 124.1005 Section 124.1005 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a... Protests Relating to Federal Small Disadvantaged Business Programs § 124.1005 How long does an...

  4. 29 CFR 1471.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How long may my suspension last? 1471.760 Section 1471.760 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 1471.760 How long may my suspension...

  5. 30 CFR 250.170 - How long does a suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How long does a suspension last? 250.170 Section 250.170 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General Suspensions § 250.170 How long...

  6. 41 CFR 105-68.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How long may my debarment last? 105-68.865 Section 105-68.865 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Administration 68-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 105-68.865 How long may...

  7. 41 CFR 105-68.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How long may my suspension last? 105-68.760 Section 105-68.760 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Administration 68-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 105-68.760 How long...

  8. 5 CFR 919.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How long may my debarment last? 919.865 Section 919.865 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 919.865 How...

  9. 41 CFR 105-68.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How long may my suspension last? 105-68.760 Section 105-68.760 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Administration 68-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 105-68.760 How long...

  10. 5 CFR 919.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How long may my suspension last? 919.760 Section 919.760 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 919.760 How...

  11. 5 CFR 919.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How long may my debarment last? 919.865 Section 919.865 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 919.865 How...

  12. 41 CFR 105-68.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How long may my debarment last? 105-68.865 Section 105-68.865 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Administration 68-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 105-68.865 How long may...

  13. 5 CFR 919.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How long may my suspension last? 919.760 Section 919.760 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 919.760 How...

  14. 41 CFR 105-68.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How long may my suspension last? 105-68.760 Section 105-68.760 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Administration 68-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 105-68.760 How long...

  15. 41 CFR 105-68.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How long may my debarment last? 105-68.865 Section 105-68.865 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Administration 68-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 105-68.865 How long may...

  16. 5 CFR 919.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How long may my suspension last? 919.760 Section 919.760 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 919.760 How...

  17. 2 CFR 180.760 - How long may my suspension last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How long may my suspension last? 180.760 Section 180.760 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements... TO AGENCIES ON GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Suspension § 180.760 How...

  18. Outpatient Health Care Utilization of Suicide Decedents in Their Last Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hui-Li; Chen, Lih-Hwa; Huang, Shiuh-Ming

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of health care utilization during the last year of life by Taiwanese who died by suicide were analyzed. The degree of health services utilization was evaluated by extracting the data of National Health Insurance (NHI) outpatient cohort records in 2006. A total of 4,406 fatal suicide cases were matched with the 17,587,901…

  19. By a Thread: How Child Care Centers Hold on to Teachers, How Teachers Build Lasting Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitebook, Marcy; Sakai, Laura

    2004-01-01

    Demand for child care services has grown steadily over the last few decades due to demographic trends, public policies, newly discovered links between brain development and early environments, and the number of parents entering the labor market for reasons such as welfare reform. As a result, most U. S. children under five spend time on a regular…

  20. Tropical Atlantic temperature seasonality at the end of the last interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felis, Thomas; Giry, Cyril; Scholz, Denis; Lohmann, Gerrit; Pfeiffer, Madlene; Pätzold, Jürgen; Kölling, Martin; Scheffers, Sander R.

    2015-04-01

    The end of the last interglacial period, ~118 kyr ago, was characterized by substantial ocean circulation and climate perturbations resulting from instabilities of polar ice sheets. It has been suggested that these perturbations at the end of the last interglacial are crucial for a better understanding of future climate change. The seasonal temperature changes of the tropical ocean, however, which play an important role in seasonal climate extremes such as hurricanes, floods and droughts at the present day, are not well known for this period that led into the last glacial. Here we present a monthly resolved snapshot of reconstructed sea surface temperature in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean for 117.7 ± 0.8 kyr ago, using coral Sr/Ca and δ18O records in a precisely 230Th/U dated shallow-water fossil coral recovered from the southern Caribbean (Bonaire). We find that temperature seasonality was similar to today, which is consistent with the orbital insolation forcing. Our coral records and simulations with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (COSMOS) indicate an orbital control on temperature seasonality in the tropical North Atlantic at the end of the last interglacial, despite the large-scale perturbations of ocean circulation and climate during this period, and suggest that temperature seasonality of the tropical surface ocean is controlled mainly by orbital insolation changes during interglacials.

  1. Short-Term Second Language and Music Training Induces Lasting Functional Brain Changes in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Sylvain; Lee, Yunjo; Janus, Monika; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Immediate and lasting effects of music or second-language training were examined in early childhood using event-related potentials. Event-related potentials were recorded for French vowels and musical notes in a passive oddball paradigm in thirty-six 4- to 6-year-old children who received either French or music training. Following training, both…

  2. 42 CFR 65a.8 - How long does grant support last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How long does grant support last? 65a.8 Section 65a.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES BASIC...

  3. 42 CFR 65.6 - How long does grant support last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How long does grant support last? 65.6 Section 65.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES HAZARDOUS WASTE WORKER TRAINING § 65.6...

  4. 42 CFR 65.6 - How long does grant support last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How long does grant support last? 65.6 Section 65.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES HAZARDOUS WASTE WORKER TRAINING § 65.6...

  5. 42 CFR 65.6 - How long does grant support last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How long does grant support last? 65.6 Section 65.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES HAZARDOUS WASTE WORKER TRAINING § 65.6...

  6. 42 CFR 65a.8 - How long does grant support last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How long does grant support last? 65a.8 Section 65a.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES BASIC...

  7. 42 CFR 65a.8 - How long does grant support last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How long does grant support last? 65a.8 Section 65a.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES BASIC...

  8. 42 CFR 65a.8 - How long does grant support last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How long does grant support last? 65a.8 Section 65a.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES BASIC...

  9. 42 CFR 65.6 - How long does grant support last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How long does grant support last? 65.6 Section 65.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES HAZARDOUS WASTE WORKER TRAINING § 65.6...

  10. 42 CFR 65a.8 - How long does grant support last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How long does grant support last? 65a.8 Section 65a.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES BASIC...

  11. 42 CFR 65.6 - How long does grant support last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How long does grant support last? 65.6 Section 65.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES HAZARDOUS WASTE WORKER TRAINING § 65.6...

  12. Age at Adoption from Institutional Care as a Window into the Lasting Effects of Early Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julian, Megan M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the major questions of human development is how early experience impacts the course of development years later. Children adopted from institutional care experience varying levels of deprivation in their early life followed by qualitatively better care in an adoptive home, providing a unique opportunity to study the lasting effects of early…

  13. Leadership and Change in Schools: Personal Reflections over the Last 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seashore, Karen R.

    2009-01-01

    The two fields of leadership studies and school change have increasingly converged over the last 30 years. This paper reviews the origins of the intersection, and the development of research themes in three areas: The role of leaders in shaping and using organizational culture, the agency of teachers in the change process, and the importance of…

  14. 20 CFR 404.1509 - How long the impairment must last.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How long the impairment must last. 404.1509 Section 404.1509 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability § 404.1509...

  15. 20 CFR 404.1509 - How long the impairment must last.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How long the impairment must last. 404.1509 Section 404.1509 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability § 404.1509...

  16. 20 CFR 404.1509 - How long the impairment must last.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How long the impairment must last. 404.1509 Section 404.1509 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability § 404.1509...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1509 - How long the impairment must last.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How long the impairment must last. 404.1509 Section 404.1509 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability § 404.1509...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1509 - How long the impairment must last.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long the impairment must last. 404.1509 Section 404.1509 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability § 404.1509...

  19. 21 CFR 1404.865 - How long may my debarment last?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long may my debarment last? 1404.865 Section 1404.865 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION... violation of the provisions of the Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988, your period of debarment may not...

  20. Changes in Lithuanian Pre-School and Pre-Primary Education Quality over the Last Decade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monkeviciene, Ona; Stankeviciene, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, the changes in Lithuanian pre-school and pre-primary education have been predetermined by changes in paradigms of children's education and strategic education documents that provided for guidelines of high quality children's (self-)education, an increasing attention of society to the quality of children's education, training…

  1. Last male wins the egg fertilization fight: A case study in ladybird, Menochilus sexmaculatus.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Desh Deepak; Mishra, Geetanjali; Omkar

    2016-10-01

    Sexual selection and the mechanisms involved in sperm competition have not been greatly explored in ladybird beetles. The present study was conducted to investigate the processes of sperm competition and the role of mate guarding behaviour in its regulation in ladybird beetles. We investigated these questions in polyandrous females of the ladybird, Menochilus sexmaculatus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) using a phenotypic marker (typical and intermediate morph) to assess paternity of offspring; to determine sperm competition. We conducted two double mating experiments: (i) complete first and second matings, and (ii) disrupted first and complete second matings each using homomorphic and heteromorphic pairing in alternation. Males which mated last were found to sire up to 72% of the offspring produced, indicating last male sperm precedence. Morph itself, independent of mating order, did not have a significant effect on proportion of offspring sired. Paternity share of the last male was negatively associated with mating duration of the first male; mating duration of the first male being indicative of mate guarding. This therefore indicates that prolonged matings by first males are essentially examples of post-copulatory mate guarding to prevent last male sperm precedence. PMID:27476769

  2. The Last Days of Life: Symptom Burden and Impact on Nutrition and Hydration in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hui, David; Dev, Rony; Bruera, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review We will review the symptom burden in cancer patients in the last days of life, its impact on nutrition and hydration, and the role of artificial nutrition and hydration in patients with days of life expectancy. Recent findings In the last days of life, cancer patients often experience progressive functional decline and worsening symptom burden. Many symptoms such as anorexia-cachexia, dysphagia and delirium could impair oral intake. These, coupled with refractory cachexia, contribute to persistent weight loss and decreased quality of life. Furthermore, the inability to eat/drink and body image changes can result in emotional distress for patients and caregivers. Clinicians caring for these individuals need to ensure longitudinal communication about goals of care, education about the natural process of dying, optimization of symptom management, and provide appropriate emotional support for patients and caregivers. There is a lack of evidence to support that artificial nutrition and hydration can improve outcomes in the last days of life. Artificial nutrition is not recommended because of its invasive nature, while artificial hydration may be considered on a case-by-case basis. Summary This review highlights the need to conduct further research on symptom burden, nutrition and hydration in the last days of life. PMID:26509860

  3. Will It Last? Evidence of Institutionalization at Carnegie Classified Community Engagement Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    The traditional question inferred by attention to institutionalization is, "Will it last?" or "Will it die out when there is a new leader or when the grant ends?" In the case of community engagement, attention to institutionalization reveals a more complex portrait of organizational change that includes a critical reflection on not only the…

  4. Last male wins the egg fertilization fight: A case study in ladybird, Menochilus sexmaculatus.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Desh Deepak; Mishra, Geetanjali; Omkar

    2016-10-01

    Sexual selection and the mechanisms involved in sperm competition have not been greatly explored in ladybird beetles. The present study was conducted to investigate the processes of sperm competition and the role of mate guarding behaviour in its regulation in ladybird beetles. We investigated these questions in polyandrous females of the ladybird, Menochilus sexmaculatus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) using a phenotypic marker (typical and intermediate morph) to assess paternity of offspring; to determine sperm competition. We conducted two double mating experiments: (i) complete first and second matings, and (ii) disrupted first and complete second matings each using homomorphic and heteromorphic pairing in alternation. Males which mated last were found to sire up to 72% of the offspring produced, indicating last male sperm precedence. Morph itself, independent of mating order, did not have a significant effect on proportion of offspring sired. Paternity share of the last male was negatively associated with mating duration of the first male; mating duration of the first male being indicative of mate guarding. This therefore indicates that prolonged matings by first males are essentially examples of post-copulatory mate guarding to prevent last male sperm precedence.

  5. A Potential Value of Familiarity and Experience: Can Informal Fieldwork Have a Lasting Impact upon Literacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Graham W.; Boyd, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that an informal field trip can have a lasting impact upon aspects of learning in a primary school context. Specifically, we consider the longer term impact of an informal trip to a rocky shore upon scores achieved in literacy assessments taking place five months after a relevant five months after a fieldwork. Pupils…

  6. Young Adult Books: A Writer's Response to "Members of the Last Generation."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolan, Stephanie S.

    1986-01-01

    Responds to both Kate Water's May l985 article, "Members of the Last Generation" and to a response to it written by Bryna J. Fireside in the January l986 issue, both dealing with whether authors of adolescent literature have a moral obligation to address the issue of nuclear war. (EL)

  7. Preparing for Public Life: School Sector and the Educational Context of Lasting Citizen Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    School sector and educational context seem to make a difference in civic socialization. There is limited knowledge, however, of the mechanisms through which socialization may occur in public and private schools, and the extent to which they have any lasting effect. Does the private school effect on civic socialization persist into young adulthood,…

  8. Last plant experiments in the "SVET" Space Greenhouse equipment onboard the "MIR" orbital station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Tania; Sapunova, Svetlana; Kostov, Plamen; Dandolov, Ivan

    Unique results from the plant growth research under microgravity were achieved during the last experiments in the Bulgarian SVET Space Greenhouse (SG). It was launched onboard the MIR Orbital Stations (OS) in 1990 and was the only equipment for long lasting planet experiments in the world till the end of MIR OS. A total of 680 days of experiments with different plant species were carried out on international programs. In 1989-1999 two Russian crews conducted the most productive several-month experiments with a new wheat variety. This more resistant variety allowed full life cycle plant development and even producing second generation "space" seeds. So, it was proved that there were no obstacles to grow the crop that is most important for the future Biological Life Support Systems (BLSS) during long-lasting missions. The last OS MIR crew conducted experiments with different leafy vegetables in the SVET SG in 2000. Plant samples were returned to Earth for analysis while the rest were eaten with pleasure by the cosmonauts to taste their flavour qualities.

  9. Sex Education in Modern and Contemporary China: Interrupted Debates across the Last Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aresu, Alessandra

    2009-01-01

    Since the late 1980s sex education has been widely promoted in the PRC, but this is not the first time in China's modern history that attempts to develop sex education have been made. The present essay traces the development of sex education debates over the last century, identifying the historical, political and social contexts in which they…

  10. Increasing trends in kidney cancer over the last 2 decades in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alkhateeb, Sultan S.; Alkhateeb, Jawaher M.; Alrashidi, Eman A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the trends of kidney cancer over the last 2 decades in a subset of a Saudi Arabian population. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study in a tertiary care center including all adult patients with primary kidney cancer who presented and were managed between 1990 and 2010. The time period was split into 4 quartiles, and variables tested and compared using chi-square, T-test, and Kaplan-Meier curves for survival. Results: The total was 215 patients with a mean age of 57.8 years. There was an increase in the number of kidney cancer cases over the last 2 decades. There was no significant difference in the mode of presentation or stage distribution between quartiles. A significant change was observed in the management towards minimally invasive and nephron-sparing surgeries (p<0.001). There was no change in recurrence-free and disease-specific survival over the last 20 years. Conclusions: There have been an increasing number of kidney cancer patients over the last 2 decades with no observed migration towards more incidental and low stage tumors as compared with developed countries. PMID:25987112

  11. Climatic records of the last and penultimate deglaciations in the South Atlantic and South Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Elisabeth; Waelbroeck, Claire; Govin, Aline; Skinner, Luke; Vàzquez Riveiros, Natalia; Dewilde, Fabien; Isguder, Gulay; Rebaubier, Hélène

    2013-04-01

    Surface and deep-water records of Termination I and II in two twin South Atlantic deep-sea cores (44°09' S, 14°14' W, 3770 m depth) and one South Indian core (46°29' S, 88°01' E, 3420 m depth) are presented. Sea surface temperature has been reconstructed based on planktonic foraminifera census counts in all cases, as well as Mg/Ca of G. bulloides and N. pachyderma s. over the last deglaciation. The uncertainty on reconstructed SST using different statistical methods and different faunal databases is assessed. Over the last deglaciation, combined 14C dating and correlation of the SST record with the air temperature signal recorded in Antarctic ice cores allowed us to correct for variable surface reservoir ages in the South Atlantic core (Skinner et al., 2010). Preliminary dating of the South Indian core over the last termination has been done by correlation of its magnetic signal with those of a neighboring 14C dated core (Smart et al., 2010). We have refined the later age scale using the Atlantic core age scale as reference. Benthic isotopic signals in the South Atlantic and South Indian cores over the last deglaciation exhibit the same amplitude and timing. Our results thus indicate that bottom waters at the South Indian site remained isolated from better ventilated deep waters of northern origin until ~15 ka (Waelbroeck et al., 2011). Over Termination II, the two cores have been dated by correlation of their SST records with the air temperature signal recorded in EDC versus the EDC3 age scale (Govin et al., 2009; 2012). A careful examination of the various sources of uncertainty on the derived dating has been performed. Benthic and planktonic isotopic signals reveal analogies but also differences with respect to the last termination. SST was significantly warmer during the Last Interglacial than during the Holocene in both sites. South Atlantic deep waters were also significantly better ventilated during the Last Interglacial than during the Holocene, whereas

  12. Palliative radiotherapy during the last month of life: Predictability for referring physicians and radiation oncologists

    PubMed Central

    NIEDER, CARSTEN; ANGELO, KENT; DALHAUG, ASTRID; PAWINSKI, ADAM; HAUKLAND, ELLINOR; NORUM, JAN

    2015-01-01

    Oncologists commonly overestimate the survival time of patients receiving palliative therapy, which may result in the administration of treatments that are too aggressive for patients near the end of their lives. Previous studies have discussed the negative implications of palliative radiotherapy if administered during the last month of life. Models predicting a limited survival time may improve the ability of the oncologists to tailor the treatment according to the needs of each individual patient. In the present study, prognostic factors for survival time, and the use of palliative radiotherapy during the last month of life, were analyzed in 873 patients. Models predicting the likelihood of administering such therapy were examined, and the risk of receiving radiotherapy during the last month of life was observed to be lower in patients with non-metastatic cancer than in those with metastatic cancer (7 vs. 13%, respectively; P=0.12). On multivariate analysis, 11 factors that significantly influenced the survival time were identified. These findings emphasize the complexity of potential prediction models. The most important risk factor regarding the prediction of extremely short survival times was observed to be an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) of 4, followed by an ECOG PS of 3 (median survival times, 14 and 64 days, respectively). A limited number of patients who received palliative radiotherapy during their last month of life died unexpectedly. Disease-specific prediction models were developed; however, the small number of events available for analysis limited their immediate clinical impact. Furthermore, these prediction models identified a minority of patients who received radiotherapy during the last month of life. In conclusion, the majority of the palliative radiotherapy courses administered to patients with advanced cancer during their last month of life may be preventable if accurate decision models for the clinic are

  13. Long-lasting facilitation of respiratory rhythm by treatment with TRPA1 agonist, cinnamaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Tani, Mariho; Yazawa, Itaru; Ikeda, Keiko; Kawakami, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system. We examined the effects of TRP ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) agonists (cinnamaldehyde and allyl isothiocyanate) on respiratory rhythm generation in brainstem-spinal cord preparations from newborn rats [postnatal days 0–3 (P0–P3)] and in in situ-perfused preparations from juvenile rats (P11–P13). Preparations were superfused with modified Krebs solution at 25–26°C, and activity of inspiratory C4 ventral root (or phrenic nerve) was monitored. In the newborn rat, an in vitro preparation of cinnamaldehyde (0.5 mM) induced typically biphasic responses in C4 rate: an initial short increase and subsequent decrease, then a gradual recovery of rhythm during 15 min of bath application. After washout, the respiratory rhythm rate further increased, remaining 200% of control for >120 min, indicating long-lasting facilitation. Allyl isothiocyanate induced effects similar to those of cinnamaldehyde. The long-lasting facilitation of respiratory rhythm was partially antagonized by the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 (10 μM). We obtained similar long-lasting facilitation in an in situ-perfused reparation from P11–P13 rats. On the basis of results from transection experiments of the rostral medulla and whole-cell recordings from preinspiratory neurons in the parafacial respiratory group (pFRG), we suggest that the rostral medulla, including the pFRG, is important to the induction of long-lasting facilitation. A histochemical analysis demonstrated a wide distribution of TRPA1 channel-positive cells in the reticular formation of the medulla, including the pFRG. Our findings suggest that TRPA1 channel activation could induce long-lasting facilitation of respiratory rhythm and provide grounds for future study on the roles of TRPA1 channels in the CNS. PMID:26108952

  14. Abrupt climate and vegetation variability of eastern Anatolia during the last glacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickarski, N.; Kwiecien, O.; Langgut, D.; Litt, T.

    2015-11-01

    Detailed analyses of the Lake Van pollen, Ca / K ratio, and stable oxygen isotope record allow the identification of millennial-scale vegetation and environmental changes in eastern Anatolia throughout the last glacial (~ 111.5-11.7 ka BP). The climate of the last glacial was cold and dry, indicated by low arboreal pollen (AP) levels. The driest and coldest period corresponds to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2 (~ 28-14.5 ka BP), which was dominated by highest values of xerophytic steppe vegetation. Our high-resolution multi-proxy record shows rapid expansions and contractions of tree populations that reflect variability in temperature and moisture availability. These rapid vegetation and environmental changes can be related to the stadial-interstadial pattern of Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events as recorded in the Greenland ice cores. Periods of reduced moisture availability were characterized by enhanced occurrence of xerophytic species and high terrigenous input from the Lake Van catchment area. Furthermore, the comparison with the marine realm reveals that the complex atmosphere-ocean interaction can be explained by the strength and position of the westerlies, which are responsible for the supply of humidity in eastern Anatolia. Influenced by the diverse topography of the Lake Van catchment, more pronounced DO interstadials (e.g., DO 19, 17-16, 14, 12 and 8) show the strongest expansion of temperate species within the last glacial. However, Heinrich events (HE), characterized by highest concentrations of ice-rafted debris (IRD) in marine sediments, cannot be separated from other DO stadials based on the vegetation composition in eastern Anatolia. In addition, this work is a first attempt to establish a continuous microscopic charcoal record for the last glacial in the Near East. It documents an immediate response to millennial-scale climate and environmental variability and enables us to shed light on the history of fire activity during the last glacial.

  15. Comparison of simulated and reconstructed variations in East African hydroclimate over the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, François; Goosse, Hugues; Graham, Nicholas E.; Verschuren, Dirk

    2016-07-01

    The multi-decadal to centennial hydroclimate changes in East Africa over the last millennium are studied by comparing the results of forced transient simulations by six general circulation models (GCMs) with published hydroclimate reconstructions from four lakes: Challa and Naivasha in equatorial East Africa, and Masoko and Malawi in southeastern inter-tropical Africa. All GCMs simulate fairly well the unimodal seasonal cycle of precipitation in the Masoko-Malawi region, while the bimodal seasonal cycle characterizing the Challa-Naivasha region is generally less well captured by most models. Model results and lake-based hydroclimate reconstructions display very different temporal patterns over the last millennium. Additionally, there is no common signal among the model time series, at least until 1850. This suggests that simulated hydroclimate fluctuations are mostly driven by internal variability rather than by common external forcing. After 1850, half of the models simulate a relatively clear response to forcing, but this response is different between the models. Overall, the link between precipitation and tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) over the pre-industrial portion of the last millennium is stronger and more robust for the Challa-Naivasha region than for the Masoko-Malawi region. At the inter-annual timescale, last-millennium Challa-Naivasha precipitation is positively (negatively) correlated with western (eastern) Indian Ocean SST, while the influence of the Pacific Ocean appears weak and unclear. Although most often not significant, the same pattern of correlations between East African rainfall and the Indian Ocean SST is still visible when using the last-millennium time series smoothed to highlight centennial variability, but only in fixed-forcing simulations. This means that, at the centennial timescale, the effect of (natural) climate forcing can mask the imprint of internal climate variability in large-scale teleconnections.

  16. Environmental evolution in the Picos de Europa (Cantabrian Mountains, SW Europe) since the Last Glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Oliva, Marc; Cruces, Anabela; Lopes, Vera; Freitas, Maria da Conceição; Andrade, César; García-Hernández, Cristina; López-Sáez, José Antonio; Geraldes, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    The Western Massif of the Picos de Europa (latitude 43° N, longitude 4-5° W) includes some of the highest peaks in the Cantabrian Mountains. This massif was heavily glaciated during the Last Glaciation, though the post-glacial environmental evolution is still poorly understood. Using a complementary geomorphological and sedimentological approach, we have reconstructed the environmental events occurred in this massif since the last Pleistocene glaciation. The geomorphological distribution of glacial landforms suggests the occurrence of four main glacial stages: maximum glacial advance, glacial expansion after the maximum advance, Late Glacial and Little Ice Age. Moreover, a 5.4-m long sedimentary sequence was retrieved from the karstic depression of Belbín providing a continuous record of the paleoenvironmental conditions in this area since the Last Glaciation until nowadays. This section suggests that the maximum glacial expansion occurred at a minimum age of 37.2 ka cal BP, significantly prior to the global Last Glacial Maximum. Subsequently, periglacial processes prevailed in the mid lands of the massif until glaciers expanded between 22.5 and 18.7 ka cal BP. Following the melting of the glaciers, a shallow lake appeared in the Belbín depression. Lake sediments do not show evidence of a cold stage during the Late Glacial, when moraine systems formed at higher locations. The terrestrification of this lake started at 8 ka cal BP and the area turned into grassland. At 4.9 ka cal BP the existence of charcoal particles in the sediments of Belbín sequence reveals the onset of human occupation in the massif through the use of fire activity for grazing purposes. Finally, the presence of moraines inside the highest northern cirques shows evidence of the last glacial phase that occurred during the Little Ice Age cold event. Since then, the warming climate has led to the melting of these glaciers and periglacial processes prevail in the high lands of the massif.

  17. Geomorphological and sedimentological evidences in the Western Massif of Picos de Europa since the Last Glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Fernández, Jesus; Oliva, Marc; Cruces, Anabela; Lopes, Vera; Conceição Freitas, Maria; García-Hernández, Cristina; Nieuwendam, Alexandre; López-Sáez, José Antonio; Gallinar, David; Geraldes, Miguel

    2015-04-01

    The Western Massif of Picos de Europa includes some of the highest peaks of the Cantabrian Mountains. However, the environmental evolution in this massif since the Last Glaciation is still poorly understood. This research provides a new geochronological approach to the sequence of environmental events occurred here since the maximum expansion of glaciers during the last Pleistocene glaciation. The distribution of the glacial landforms suggests four main stages regarding the environmental evolution in the massif: maximum glacial advance, phase of second maximum glacial expansion, Late Glacial and Little Ice Age. A 5.4-m long sedimentological section retrieved from the kame terrace of Belbín, in a mid-height area of the massif, complements the geomorphological interpretation and provides a continuous paleoenvironmental sequence from this area since the Last Glaciation until nowadays. This section suggests that the maximum glacial expansion occurred at a minimum age of 37.2 ka cal BP, significantly prior to the global Last Glacial Maximum. Subsequently, a new glacial expansion occurred around 18.7-22.5 ka cal BP. The melting of the glaciers after this phase generated a shallow lake in the Belbín depression. Lake sediments do not reveal the occurrence of a cold stage during the Late Glacial, whilst, at higher locations, moraine complexes were formed suggesting a glacier readvance. The terrestrification of this lake started at 8 ka cal BP, when Belbín changed to a peaty environment. At 5 ka cal BP human occupation started at the high lands of the massif according to the existence of charcoal particles in the section. The presence of moraines in the highest northern cirques evidences the last phase with formation of small glaciers in the Western Massif of Picos de Europa, corresponding to the Little Ice Age cold event. Since then, the warming climate has led to the melting of these glaciers.

  18. The last glacial termination: targets for climate modelling and proxy-based reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renssen, Hans; Blockley, Simon P.; Rasmussen, Sune O.; Roche, Didier M.; Valdes, Paul J.; Nisancioglu, Kerim M.; Working Group 3 Members Of Intimate

    2013-04-01

    During the last glacial termination, the climate system experienced a major reorganisation, making this time interval a crucial period for our understanding of climate change. Despite a basic understanding of these changes and a reasonable level of agreement between data and model simulations, a deeper understanding of the last glacial termination remains a long standing goal: we are still faced with the dual challenge of reconstructing the climate history from incomplete and uncertain proxy data, and accurately simulating the climate history with physics-based climate models. There are, however, significant advantages in attempting to reliably integrate palaeoclimate data with model simulations, not least because it is necessary to examine the limitations of both current models and palaeoclimate records before testing possible forcing mechanisms. For the model studies, palaeodata play a crucial role, both as a source of (1) climate forcings for the modelling experiments and (2) palaeoclimate information that is required for model evaluation. Therefore, interaction between the modelling and data communities is essential. For this purpose, and with the last termination as a target, a working group has been set up within the INTIMATE (INTegration of Ice core, MArine and TErrestrial records of the last termination) COST Action (http://cost-es0907.geoenvi.org). We report on the outcome of a workshop of this working group, discussing the state of knowledge of the forcings and various aspects of climate variability during the last termination. We focus in particular on the main uncertainties in the climate signals and the forcings. We discuss the major problems that must be solved to make further progress in our understanding. This requires a joint effort of paleodata, chronology, and climate modelling communities. A number of specific targets for these communities are identified.

  19. Strong and deep Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the last glacial cycle.

    PubMed

    Böhm, E; Lippold, J; Gutjahr, M; Frank, M; Blaser, P; Antz, B; Fohlmeister, J; Frank, N; Andersen, M B; Deininger, M

    2015-01-01

    Extreme, abrupt Northern Hemisphere climate oscillations during the last glacial cycle (140,000 years ago to present) were modulated by changes in ocean circulation and atmospheric forcing. However, the variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), which has a role in controlling heat transport from low to high latitudes and in ocean CO2 storage, is still poorly constrained beyond the Last Glacial Maximum. Here we show that a deep and vigorous overturning circulation mode has persisted for most of the last glacial cycle, dominating ocean circulation in the Atlantic, whereas a shallower glacial mode with southern-sourced waters filling the deep western North Atlantic prevailed during glacial maxima. Our results are based on a reconstruction of both the strength and the direction of the AMOC during the last glacial cycle from a highly resolved marine sedimentary record in the deep western North Atlantic. Parallel measurements of two independent chemical water tracers (the isotope ratios of (231)Pa/(230)Th and (143)Nd/(144)Nd), which are not directly affected by changes in the global cycle, reveal consistent responses of the AMOC during the last two glacial terminations. Any significant deviations from this configuration, resulting in slowdowns of the AMOC, were restricted to centennial-scale excursions during catastrophic iceberg discharges of the Heinrich stadials. Severe and multicentennial weakening of North Atlantic Deep Water formation occurred only during Heinrich stadials close to glacial maxima with increased ice coverage, probably as a result of increased fresh-water input. In contrast, the AMOC was relatively insensitive to submillennial meltwater pulses during warmer climate states, and an active AMOC prevailed during Dansgaard-Oeschger interstadials (Greenland warm periods). PMID:25517093

  20. The evolutionary history of the hominin hand since the last common ancestor of Pan and Homo.

    PubMed

    Tocheri, Matthew W; Orr, Caley M; Jacofsky, Marc C; Marzke, Mary W

    2008-04-01

    Molecular evidence indicates that the last common ancestor of the genus Pan and the hominin clade existed between 8 and 4 million years ago (Ma). The current fossil record indicates the Pan-Homo last common ancestor existed at least 5 Ma and most likely between 6 and 7 Ma. Together, the molecular and fossil evidence has important consequences for interpreting the evolutionary history of the hand within the tribe Hominini (hominins). Firstly, parsimony supports the hypothesis that the hand of the last common ancestor most likely resembled that of an extant great ape overall (Pan, Gorilla, and Pongo), and that of an African ape in particular. Second, it provides a context for interpreting the derived changes to the hand that have evolved in various hominins. For example, the Australopithecus afarensis hand is likely derived in comparison with that of the Pan-Homo last common ancestor in having shorter fingers relative to thumb length and more proximo-distally oriented joints between its capitate, second metacarpal, and trapezium. This evidence suggests that these derived features evolved prior to the intensification of stone tool-related hominin behaviors beginning around 2.5 Ma. However, a majority of primitive features most likely present in the Pan-Homo last common ancestor are retained in the hands of Australopithecus, Paranthropus/early Homo, and Homo floresiensis. This evidence suggests that further derived changes to the hands of other hominins such as modern humans and Neandertals did not evolve until after 2.5 Ma and possibly even later than 1.5 Ma, which is currently the earliest evidence of Acheulian technology. The derived hands of modern humans and Neandertals may indicate a morphological commitment to tool-related manipulative behaviors beyond that observed in other hominins, including those (e.g. H. floresiensis) which may be descended from earlier tool-making species. PMID:18380869