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Sample records for late 18th century

  1. Auroras Observed in Portugal in Late 18th Century Obtained from Printed and Manuscript Meteorological Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquero, José M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2005-09-01

    We present a new catalogue of observations of the aurora borealis at Lisbon, i.e., at low-latitudes, in the late 18th century by Jacob Præ torius and Henrique Schulze, two German artillery officers. Dates of 18 auroras compiled by Præ torius and Schulze are compared with those published in other catalogues for that period. The number of annual auroras observed by the two Germans is then compared with two indices of solar activity showing a very good level of consistency between all time series. Finally, we have assessed the number of auroras observed taking into consideration the phase of the lunar cycle and the geomagnetic latitude of Lisbon.

  2. Analysis of Time Data in Chinese Astronomical Almanacs of the Late 18th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K.-W.; Mihn, B.-H.; Ahn, Y. S.; Choi, G.-E.

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the time data in Chinese astronomical almanacs of the late 18th century in order to estimate the accuracy of the Shixian calendar. It is known that the calendar was enforced during the period of the Ching dynasty (1664--1912), and several astronomical almanacs using the calendar are preserved in the Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies of Korea; these almanacs cover the years 1772, 1773, 1774, 1780, 1781, 1783, 1785, and 1787. We compiled the times of the new moon, sunrise/sunset, and twenty-four seasonal subdivisions from the almanacs and compared them with the results of modern calculations. As a result, we found that the times of the new moon and twenty-four seasonal subdivisions show average differences of ˜ 3.35 ± 4.43 and ˜ 9.67± 13.24 min, respectively. Regarding he sunrise/sunset time, however, we found that the difference was less than 1 min when we defined the time as the moment that the zenith distance (z) of the Sun is 90°, unlike the modern definition, z=90° 50'. We expect that this study to contribute to the understanding of the accuracy obtained by Shixian calendar in calculations of the movements of celestial bodies.

  3. Climate and history in the late 18th and early 19th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Theodore S.

    As in many areas of human knowledge, the notion of climate acquired a deeper historical content around the turn of the 19th century. Natural philosophers, geographers, and others became increasingly aware of climate's own history and its relation to human, plant and animal, and Earth history. This article examines several aspects of this “historicization” of climate.The lively 18th century discussion of the influence of climate on society is well known. Montesquieu is its most famous representative, but Voltaire, Hume, Kant, and others also participated. Their debate was literary more than scientific, their goal the understanding of man, not climate. Partly for this reason and partly because of the lack of good information on climates, they made no attempt to gather substantial climatic data. In fact, the importance of systematically collecting reliable data was scarcely understood in any area of natural philosophy before the last decades of the century [Cf. Frängsmyr et al., 1990; Feldman, 1990]. Instead, participants in the debate repeated commonplaces dating from Aristotle and Hippocrates and based their conclusions on unreliable reports from travelers. As Glacken wrote of Montesquieu, “his dishes are from old and well-tested recipes” [Glacken, 1967, chapter 12]. This is not to say that the debate over climatic influence was not significant—only that its significance lay more in the history of man than in the atmospheric sciences.

  4. Two positive tuberculosis cases in the late Nigrovits family, 18th century, Vác, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Szikossy, Ildikó; Pálfi, György; Molnár, Erika; Karlinger, Kinga; Kovács, Balázs K; Korom, Csaba; Schultz, Michael; Schmidt-Schultz, Tyede H; Spigelman, Mark; Donoghue, Helen D; Kustár, Ágnes; Pap, Ildikó

    2015-06-01

    Two mummies of the Hungarian mummy collection from Vác were the subjects of anthropological, paleopathological, radiological, paleomicrobiological, paleohistological and paleoproteomic studies. Both individuals belonged to the same family. The father, József Nigrovits (No 29), died at the age of 55 on the 11th of November 1793; his son, Antal Nigrovits (No 54), died on the 16th of July 1803, at the age of 22. They lived in the 18th century in Vác, a small town in northern Hungary. The macroscopic examination of the son showed a severely deformed neck and back region; the father has no visible mark of any illnesses. As earlier researches showed that tuberculosis was widespread in the community, the etiology of these deformities was examined. The paleomicrobiological results found that both individuals were infected with tuberculosis. Although they suffered from TB, the CT scan data of the bodies and their 3D reconstructions showed no skeletal evidence of tuberculosis. The deformity of the son turned to be a developmental abnormality of unknown origin, but no Pott's gibbus was present.

  5. Mortality differentials in France during the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

    PubMed

    Blum, A; Houdaille, J; Lamouche, M

    1990-01-01

    "The very high quality of a set of marriage records for Paris during the 1860s made it possible to apply indirect methods to estimate adult mortality differentials by certain geographical and social criteria of the 19th century. The largest differences between groups were observed to be social, geographical origin apparently having little impact.... It is interesting that social differences in adult mortality are similar in magnitude to those observed today. Perhaps the principal factor of differentiation is then the level of child mortality.... It is by no means necessary to have a set of data as complete as ours. The indirect methods we have used proved largely adequate for estimating mortality differentials."

  6. Observing Sunspots with 18th Century Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svalgaard, Leif

    2016-05-01

    The sunspot and group numbers in the 18th Century relies heavily on the observations by J.C. Staudauch during 1749-1799 performed with a three-foot 'sky tube', likely affected by spherical and chromatc aberration. An observing network has been set up to make drawings of the spots on the solar disk using original telescopes from the 18th Century or reconstructed 'sky tubes' with the same defects as the instruments available to and affordable for amateurs of the period. We report the initial results of the effort, finding that the counts of groups and the sunspot numbers must be multipled by three to reproduce modern observations. This confirms the scale factors derived from recent revisions of the solar record.

  7. [Criminal madness in the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Barras, V

    1990-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry, as we know it, was established in the early 19th century. But already the "Ancien Régime" knew--with regard to mentally disturbed criminals--particular legal and medical considerations and practical arrangements. The author analyses the theoretical reasoning of some cases selected from the judicial archives of Geneva (mainly 18th c.). This enables him to establish the great lines of a "prehistory" of forensic-psychiatric expertise.

  8. Captain Cook's beer: the antiscorbutic use of malt and beer in late 18th century sea voyages.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, Brett J

    2003-01-01

    The custom of allowing British seamen the regular use of fermented liquor is an old one. Ale was a standard article of the sea ration as early as the fourteenth century. By the late eighteenth century, beer was considered to be at once a food (a staple beverage and essential part of the sea diet), a luxury (helping to ameliorate the hardship and irregularity of sea life) and a medicine (conducive to health at sea). In particular, beer and its precursors, wort and malt, were administered with the aim of preventing and curing scurvy. This paper examines the use of malt and beer during late eighteenth century British sea voyages, particularly their use as antiscorbutic agents, focusing on James Cook's three voyages during the period 1768-1780. Cook administered sweet wort (an infusion of malt), beer (prepared from an experimental, concentrated malt extract), and spruce beer (prepared mainly from molasses), among many other items, in his attempts to prevent and to cure scurvy. Despite the inconclusive nature of his own experiments, he reported favourably after his second voyage (1772-1775) on the use of wort as an antiscorbutic sea medicine (for which purpose it is now known to be useless). Cook thereby lent credibility to erroneous medical theories about scurvy, helping to perpetuate the use of ineffective treatments and to delay the discovery of a cure for the disorder. PMID:12810402

  9. [Health care in Western Europe in the late 18th century, as reported in Sámuel Cseh-Szombaty's travel journal].

    PubMed

    Rab, Irén

    2015-07-19

    Medical doctors working in Hungary and Transylvania were all trained abroad before the medical faculty of the University of Nagyszombat was founded in 1769. Most Roman Catholic medical students were trained in Vienna and Italy, whereas Protestants in Germany, The Netherlands, and Switzerland. In the 18th century a total of 500 Hungarian medical students studied at universities in Western Europe. Medical students' peregrination did not involve academic training only: whenever they had the possibility, students visited renowned hospitals, university clinics and famous doctors in order to gain experience and medical practice to complete their education. Sámuel Cseh-Szombaty studied in Pest and Göttingen, obtained his medical doctor's diploma in Vienna in 1790, and then spent a year and a half at various medical institutions in Germany, The Netherlands, and England. Cseh-Szombaty's so far unpublished travel journal and alba amicorum provide a wealth of information about the practical knowledge that could be learned during peregrination, characteristics of medical training, patients' treatment, quality of German hospitals of the late 18th century, where the most famous doctors worked. It is an exciting description, how a doctor from Hungary spent his time studying in Western Europe.

  10. [Health care in Western Europe in the late 18th century, as reported in Sámuel Cseh-Szombaty's travel journal].

    PubMed

    Rab, Irén

    2015-07-19

    Medical doctors working in Hungary and Transylvania were all trained abroad before the medical faculty of the University of Nagyszombat was founded in 1769. Most Roman Catholic medical students were trained in Vienna and Italy, whereas Protestants in Germany, The Netherlands, and Switzerland. In the 18th century a total of 500 Hungarian medical students studied at universities in Western Europe. Medical students' peregrination did not involve academic training only: whenever they had the possibility, students visited renowned hospitals, university clinics and famous doctors in order to gain experience and medical practice to complete their education. Sámuel Cseh-Szombaty studied in Pest and Göttingen, obtained his medical doctor's diploma in Vienna in 1790, and then spent a year and a half at various medical institutions in Germany, The Netherlands, and England. Cseh-Szombaty's so far unpublished travel journal and alba amicorum provide a wealth of information about the practical knowledge that could be learned during peregrination, characteristics of medical training, patients' treatment, quality of German hospitals of the late 18th century, where the most famous doctors worked. It is an exciting description, how a doctor from Hungary spent his time studying in Western Europe. PMID:26170183

  11. Ballistic blocks around Kīlauea Caldera: Their vent locations and number of eruptions in the late 18th century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, Donald A.; Zolkos, Scott P.; Haravitch, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of ballistic blocks occur around Kīlauea Caldera and record part of the latest major period of explosive activity on the volcano, in late 1790 or within a few years thereafter. The sizes of the blocks – the largest of which is more than 2 m in nominal diameter – and differences in rock types allow the definition of at least 6 dispersal lobes of mostly undetermined relative age. The orientations of the lobes help approximate the locations of vents or explosion sources on the floor of the caldera, now deeply buried by younger lava flows. The vents may have been distributed northward for about 2 km from near the site of the modern Halema'uma'u Crater and were apparently confined to the western half of the caldera. The blocks are entirely lithic except for those in one dispersal lobe, which contains cored bombs and blocks as well as juvenile lapilli. Eruption parameters calculated from EJECT! suggest that the phreatic and phreatomagmatic explosions could have been generated at the water table, about 600 m below the high point on the caldera rim.

  12. [Counteraction against alcoholism in religious letters of 18th century].

    PubMed

    Rok, B

    1999-01-01

    The Polish historiography talks at length about the problem of alcoholism in Poland in the 18th century. Estimates were made about the scale and consumption of alcoholic beverages. Many records are available today, mainly in the form of diaries, which describe the extent of drunkenness at that time. Much information on drinking bouts comes from satires (this article quotes after an anonymous satire found in the Polish manuscripts of the 18th century). Apart from the literature, also preachers contributed to the present knowledge of alcohol consumption within that period. Drunkenness was often mentioned in sermons and varied types of religious guides. The 18th century priests deemed drunkenness as a heavy sin and fiercely counteracted the abuse of alcoholic beverages, by condemning people in a state of intoxication.

  13. [Astrologic and medical manuscript of the 18th Century].

    PubMed

    Kugener, Henri

    2010-01-01

    We present a manuscript from the 18th century, an extract taken from the "Great and the Little Albert" attributed to Albertus Magnus. The linguistic variety in the paper is typical for a text composed in Luxembourg. Added to this text are two incantations and a short cartomancy paper.

  14. [Astrologic and medical manuscript of the 18th Century].

    PubMed

    Kugener, Henri

    2010-01-01

    We present a manuscript from the 18th century, an extract taken from the "Great and the Little Albert" attributed to Albertus Magnus. The linguistic variety in the paper is typical for a text composed in Luxembourg. Added to this text are two incantations and a short cartomancy paper. PMID:20882751

  15. [Louis XIV's Ginseng: Shaping of Knowledge on an Herbal Medicine in the Late 17th and the Early 18th Century France].

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Min

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state's policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie. The East Asian ginseng, renowned as a panacea, was first introduced into France in the 17th century, initially in a roundabout way through transportation and English and Dutch publications of travel tales from various foreign countries. The publication activity was mainly conducted by Thévenot company with the intention to meet the needs of French mercantilism promoted by Colbert. It also implied interests on medicine in order to bolster the people's health. The Thévenot company's activity thus offered vital information on plants and herbs abroad, one of which was ginseng. Furthermore, with Louis XIV's dispatching of the Jesuit missionaries to East Asia, the Frenchmen were able to directly gather information on ginseng. These information became a basis for research of the Académie. In the Académie, founded in 1666 by Colbert, the king's physicians and botanists systematically and collectively studied on exotic plants and medical herbs including ginseng. They were also key figures of the Jardin du Roi. These institutions bore a striking contrast to the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris which has been a center of the traditional Galenic medicine. The research of the Académie on ginseng was greatly advanced, owing much to the reports and samples sent from China and Canada by Jartoux, Sarrazin, and Lapitau. From the early 18th century, the conservative attitude of the University of Paris, which was a stronghold of

  16. [Louis XIV's Ginseng: Shaping of Knowledge on an Herbal Medicine in the Late 17th and the Early 18th Century France].

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Min

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state's policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie. The East Asian ginseng, renowned as a panacea, was first introduced into France in the 17th century, initially in a roundabout way through transportation and English and Dutch publications of travel tales from various foreign countries. The publication activity was mainly conducted by Thévenot company with the intention to meet the needs of French mercantilism promoted by Colbert. It also implied interests on medicine in order to bolster the people's health. The Thévenot company's activity thus offered vital information on plants and herbs abroad, one of which was ginseng. Furthermore, with Louis XIV's dispatching of the Jesuit missionaries to East Asia, the Frenchmen were able to directly gather information on ginseng. These information became a basis for research of the Académie. In the Académie, founded in 1666 by Colbert, the king's physicians and botanists systematically and collectively studied on exotic plants and medical herbs including ginseng. They were also key figures of the Jardin du Roi. These institutions bore a striking contrast to the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris which has been a center of the traditional Galenic medicine. The research of the Académie on ginseng was greatly advanced, owing much to the reports and samples sent from China and Canada by Jartoux, Sarrazin, and Lapitau. From the early 18th century, the conservative attitude of the University of Paris, which was a stronghold of

  17. Roads and cities of 18th century France.

    PubMed

    Perret, Julien; Gribaudi, Maurizio; Barthelemy, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of infrastructure networks such as roads and streets are of utmost importance to understand the evolution of urban systems. However, datasets describing these spatial objects are rare and sparse. The database presented here represents the road network at the french national level described in the historical map of Cassini in the 18th century. The digitization of this historical map is based on a collaborative methodology that we describe in detail. This dataset can be used for a variety of interdisciplinary studies, covering multiple spatial resolutions and ranging from history, geography, urban economics to network science. PMID:26401316

  18. Roads and cities of 18th century France

    PubMed Central

    Perret, Julien; Gribaudi, Maurizio; Barthelemy, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of infrastructure networks such as roads and streets are of utmost importance to understand the evolution of urban systems. However, datasets describing these spatial objects are rare and sparse. The database presented here represents the road network at the french national level described in the historical map of Cassini in the 18th century. The digitization of this historical map is based on a collaborative methodology that we describe in detail. This dataset can be used for a variety of interdisciplinary studies, covering multiple spatial resolutions and ranging from history, geography, urban economics to network science. PMID:26401316

  19. Roads and cities of 18th century France.

    PubMed

    Perret, Julien; Gribaudi, Maurizio; Barthelemy, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of infrastructure networks such as roads and streets are of utmost importance to understand the evolution of urban systems. However, datasets describing these spatial objects are rare and sparse. The database presented here represents the road network at the french national level described in the historical map of Cassini in the 18th century. The digitization of this historical map is based on a collaborative methodology that we describe in detail. This dataset can be used for a variety of interdisciplinary studies, covering multiple spatial resolutions and ranging from history, geography, urban economics to network science.

  20. Mingantu, 18th-Century Mongol Astronomer and Radioheliograph Namesake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2013-01-01

    The 18th-century Mongol astronomer Mingantu (1692-1765) has been honored with a city named after him and a nearby solar telescope array. During the IAU/Beijing, my wife and I went to the new Chinese solar radioheliograph, the Mingantu Observing Station, in Inner Mongolia, ~400 km northwest of Beijing, a project of the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It currently contains 40 dishes each 4.5 m across, with a correlator from Beijing. Within a year, 60 2-m dishes will be added. We passed by the 12-century ruins of Xanadu (about 20 km north of Zhangbei) about halfway. The radioheliograph is in a plane about 1 km across, forming a three-armed spiral for interferometric solar mapping, something colleagues and I had carried out with the Jansky Very Large Array, taking advantage of the lunar occultation before annularity at the 20 May 2012 solar eclipse. In the central square of Mingantu city, a statue ~10-m high of the Mongol astronomer Mingantu appears. Its base bears a plaque ~1-m high of IAU Minor Planet Circular MPC 45750 announcing the naming in 2002 of asteroid 28242 Mingantu, discovered at a Chinese observatory in 1999. Mingantu carried out orbital calculations, mapping, mathematical work on infinite series, and other scientific research. He is honored by a modern museum behind the statue. The museum's first 40% describes Mingantu and his work, and is followed by some artifacts of the region from thousands of years ago. The final, large room contains a two-meter-square scale model of the radioheliograph, flat-screen televisions running Solar Dynamics Observatory and other contemporary visualizations, orreries and other objects, and large transparencies of NASA and other astronomical imagery. See my post at http://www.skyandtelescope.com/community/skyblog/newsblog/ specfically Astro-Sightseeing_in_Inner_Mongolia-167712965.html. We thank Yihua Yan for arranging the visit and Wang Wei (both NAOC) for accompanying us. My solar research

  1. Evolution of Interannual and Decadal/Interdecadal variability of the SPCZ since the late 18th century using a network of Fiji coral δ18O time-series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dassie, E. P.; Linsley, B. K.; Correge, T.; Wu, H. C.; Lemley, G. M.; Cabioch, G.

    2012-12-01

    interannual and D/I coral δ18O variability from equatorial sites in the Pacific (e.g. Maiana). Collectively, our results from the SPCZ region reflect the validity of the coral δ18O composite to track regional climatic variability at both interannual and decadal/interdecadal timescales. From the late 18th century to the late 19th century the D/I band dominates the Fiji composite while the ENSO-band amplitude is relatively small. Starting around 1885, this tendency reverses and we observed a drastic decrease in the D/I signal amplitude, with its variance reduced by more than 50%, while the ENSO-band signal increases progressively in amplitude toward the present, reaching unprecedented values during the mid-20th century. This switch around 1885 A.D. is unique over the last 250 years and may correspond to a reorganization of Pacific-wide climate.

  2. John Stirling and the Classical Approach to Style in 18th Century England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Michael G.

    Most 18th-century rhetoricians viewed style as the expression of a writer's individual character and thought, placing little emphasis on the lists of figures common in many 17th-century rhetorics. John Stirling and others, however, continued the 17th-century tradition that reduced rhetoric largely to style and emphasized classical figures of…

  3. Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi: 18th Century Swiss Educator and Correctional Reformer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Fredalene B.; Gehring, Thom

    2004-01-01

    This is the second in a series of articles on famous correctional educators. The first article introduced Mary Carpenter: 19th Century English Correctional Education Hero. (Editor's Note: See the September 2003 Issue for the first article) This article focuses on Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, 18th century Swiss educator. It begins with a summary of…

  4. Negative Numbers in the 18th and 19th Centuries: Phenomenology and Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maz-Machado, Alexander; Rico-Romero, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a categorization of the phenomena and representations used to introduce negative numbers in mathematics books published in Spain during the 18th and 19th centuries. Through a content analysis of fourteen texts which were selected for the study, we distinguished four phenomena typologies: physical, accounting, temporal and…

  5. Medical semiotics in the 18th century: a theory of practice?

    PubMed

    Hess, V

    1998-06-01

    Medical semiotics in the 18th century was more than a premodern form of diagnosis. Its structure allowed for the combination of empirically proven rules of instruction with the theoretical knowledge of the new sciences, employing the relation between the sign and the signified.

  6. [Pharmacopea of the Farmacia Esteva of Llivia in the 18th century and his use].

    PubMed

    Tamarelle, Charles

    2011-02-01

    A dispensary register from 1725 and contemporaneous container subscriptions allows an approach of 18th century pharmacopea different from the treatises' in a Catalonian farmacy. The drugs panel shows comparisons with regional scheme and the role of local flora. The prescription register--exceptional document--exhibits differences between pharmacopea and daily use through medical prescription, and influences of local conditions and Lights Century's scientific contribution.

  7. Solutions To the Problem of Impact in the 17th and 18th Centuries and Teaching Newton's Third Law Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauld, Colin

    1998-01-01

    Compares the ideas of young people about Newton's third law, focusing on youth of today and youth of the 17th and 18th centuries. Examines the use of Newton's third law in understanding impact phenomena in the 17th and 18th centuries. Contains 46 references. (DDR)

  8. The Treatment of the Motion of a Simple Pendulum in Some Early 18th Century Newtonian Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauld, Colin

    2004-01-01

    The treatment of pendulum motion in early 18th century Newtonian textbooks is quite different to what we find in today's physics textbooks and is based on presuppositions and mathematical techniques which are not widely used today. In spite of a desire to present Newton's new philosophy of nature as found in his "Principia" 18th century textbook…

  9. Socioeconomic background of hysteria's metamorphosis from the 18th Century to World War I.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Nicole; Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The many changes in the etiopathogenic theories of hysteria, developed from the end of the 18th century to the end of World War I, can only be understood by studying the social, political, economic, and cultural transformations of the Western world during the same period. These transformations, presented below along with concurrent medical discoveries, make it possible to explain the ongoing metamorphosis of both hysteria and the image of the hysteric patient.

  10. Chapter 9: understanding the nervous system in the 18th century.

    PubMed

    Smith, Christopher U M

    2010-01-01

    The 18th century was an age of transition. The time-honored neuropsychology of classical and medieval times, mechanized in Descartes' hydraulic neurophysiology, was undermined by microscopical observations and careful physiological experimentation. Yet it was not until the very end of the century, when work on electric fish and amphibia began to suggest an acceptable successor to "animal spirit," that the old understanding of human neurophysiology began to fade. This chapter traces this slow retreat from the iatrophysics of the early part of the century, with its hollow nerves and animal spirits, through a number of stop-gap explanations involving mysterious subtle fluids or forces described variously as irritability, élan vital, vis viva, vis insita, the spirit of animation etc., or perhaps involving vibrations and vibratiuncles and mysterious magnetic effluvia, to the dawning electrophysiology of the end of the century and the beginning of the next. This developing understanding filtered slowly through to affect medical education, and the 18th century saw the development of strong medical schools at Leiden, Edinburgh, Paris, Bologna and London. Associated with these developments there was a great increase, as a well-known physician looking back at the beginning of the following century noted, in a class of diseases that had little concerned physicians in the preceding century - "nervous disorders."

  11. [The debate on the generation of imperfect plants in the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, Alessandro

    2003-01-01

    18th-century discussions on the generation of imperfect plants were often linked with the question of their position in the natural world, namely as whether they were part of the vegetable or mineral realm. As attested by the work of Joseph Gaertner, Johann Jakob Dillen, Pier Antonio Micheli and René-Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur, as well as of Antonio Vallisneri, and Lazzaro Spallanzani, the different images of nature - continuity and discontinuity - adopted by naturalists influenced their solution to this question.

  12. From Flamsteed to Piazzi and Lalande: new standards in 18th century astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lequeux, James

    2014-07-01

    Aims: The present high accuracy of stellar positions and proper motions allows us to determine the positional accuracy of old stellar catalogues. This has already been done for the most important catalogues from before the 18th century. Our aim is to extend this study to several 18th century catalogues. Methods: To do this, I studied ten catalogues: those of Flamsteed and Rømer, four catalogues of La Caille, and catalogues of Tobias Mayer, Bradley, Piazzi, and Lalande. A comparison with modern data, mostly from Hipparcos, compiled in the Simbad database of the CDS allowed me to determine the position errors of these catalogues. I also compared the stellar visual magnitudes given in eight of these catalogues with photometric V magnitudes. Results: Thanks to novel instruments, the rms positional accuracy improved from thousands to hundreds of arcsec in older catalogues to less than one minute in that of Flamsteed, and to 2-6 arcsec in the other catalogues I examined. These improvements allowed for the first time relatively accurate proper motions to be determined by 19th century astronomers. The catalogues with some corrections are available in digital form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/567/A26

  13. Domenico Cirillo's collections. A recently rediscovered 18th-century Neapolitan herbarium.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Massimo; Castellano, Maria Laura

    2014-01-01

    The herbarium of the 19th-century Neapolitan botanists Vincenzo and Francesco Briganti was acquired by Orazio Comes in 1892 for the Royal Higher School of Agriculture in Naples. Based on a study of the handwriting on their labels, Comes concluded that some of the dried specimens were the sole remains of the herbarium of Domenico Cirillo, the distinguished 18th-century Neapolitan botanist, entomologist and physician. The current arrangement of the specimens not uniform and it is clear that they underwent extensive handling and rearrangement Some of the exsiccata are preserved in two packets, fixed on sheets bearing a printed label that reads "Herbarium D. Cyrilli". In an additional label Gaetano Nicodemi's handwriting and not Cirillo's as stated by Comes was identified. Other specimens, many of them mounted in a different manner from those in the first group, are arranged in another three packets. Certain characteristics of the herbarium may be explained by the vicissitudes of its history, including a hasty salvage operation. A study of the collection was conducted, including an analysis of the handwritten labels and notes, leading to conclusions that shed light on the significance of the Cirillo collection within the historical and scientific context of 18th-century Naples. PMID:25510076

  14. Aspects of public health within accreditation of public healthcare management specialists in ukraine and russia in the late 18th - early 19th century (dedicated to the 250th anniversary of a prominent professor Mukhin E.O.).

    PubMed

    Grinzovsky, A M

    2016-01-01

    Public healthcare management and supply of qualified medical personnel attained state significance in the early 19th century, the issue to be regulated by special and general law regulations. Public health promotion was the duty of medical authorities, which required professional training in this branch. The article contains the requirements for the employers' knowledge and skills in the mentioned area of medicine. The author reveals the main questions which medical authorities were concerned with and the main requirements for academic examinations. PMID:27487554

  15. Isotopic Ag–Cu–Pb record of silver circulation through 16th–18th century Spain

    PubMed Central

    Desaulty, Anne-Marie; Telouk, Philippe; Albalat, Emmanuelle; Albarède, Francis

    2011-01-01

    Estimating global fluxes of precious metals is key to understanding early monetary systems. This work adds silver (Ag) to the metals (Pb and Cu) used so far to trace the provenance of coinage through variations in isotopic abundances. Silver, copper, and lead isotopes were measured in 91 coins from the East Mediterranean Antiquity and Roman world, medieval western Europe, 16th–18th century Spain, Mexico, and the Andes and show a great potential for provenance studies. Pre-1492 European silver can be distinguished from Mexican and Andean metal. European silver dominated Spanish coinage until Philip III, but had, 80 y later after the reign of Philip V, been flushed from the monetary mass and replaced by Mexican silver. PMID:21606351

  16. [Experiences and knowledge exchanged in medical consultations by post (16th-18th centuries)].

    PubMed

    Barroux, Gilles

    2014-03-01

    Consultations by post make up together a significant part of the medical literature, especially between the 16(th) and 18(th) centuries and bring irreplaceable testimonies on how physicians could follow up their patients from far away, in relation with local practitioners who were at their patients' bedside or who could visit them on a regular basis. These testimonies are of a scientific nature since they show how illustrious physicians diagnosed, predicted and prescribed, such as Fernel, Chirac and later on Barthez and Tissot, or less famous practitioners such as Le Thieullier, for instance. They are of a literary nature since every physician has his own writing style, and the lay out of their letters often respects codes. They are of an anthropological nature in the sense that a conception of man, ill, with his character, his own life, is rendered under the form of narratives.

  17. Early 18th century cosmic ray flux inferred from 44Ti in Agen meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taricco, C.; Sinha, N.; Bhandari, N.; Colombetti, P.; Mancuso, S.; Rubinetti, S.; Barghini, D.

    2016-10-01

    We report the measurement of radioactivity of cosmogenic 44Ti in Agen meteorite, a H5 chondrite that fell in 1814. The 44Ti activity in meteorites is related to centennial-scale changes in cosmic ray intensity caused by heliospheric magnetic field modulation in the interplanetary space between heliocentric distances of 1 and 3 AU. The measured low 44Ti activity in Agen suggests a strong modulation of galactic cosmic rays at the turn of the 18th century, resulting in a low cosmic ray flux and is consistent with the linearly decreasing trend of GCR flux, modulated by the Gleissberg solar cycle during the past 250 years, as previously suggested by us.

  18. [Vitalism and mechanism: their meanings in the milieu of the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Hwang, S I

    1993-01-01

    The views on the life in the early modern period (the 17th and 18th centuries) with their socio-cultural backgrounds and their meanings at that time were discussed in this paper. Those views discussed here were the dualistic, mechanistic one of Rene Descartes (1596-1650), the animistic, vitalistic one of Georg Ernst Stahl (1660-1734), and the monistic, mechanistic one of Julien Offray de la Mettrie (1709-1751). Author stressed that the processes of their view formation were influenced by the wide range of the various political and religious factors as well as the scientific, medical facts and opinions at that time, and that not only the contents of the views but also their historical contexts should be pursued in the study on the medical thoughts.

  19. Six calendar systems in the European history from 18^{th} to 20^{th} Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, Efstratios; Manimanis, Vassilios N.; Dimitrijević, Milan S.

    The following calendar systems, introduced in Europe from 18^{th} to 20^{th} century, which were in use for a shorter or longer period by a larger or smaller community, were reviewed and discussed: The French Revolutionary Calendar, the Theosebic calendar invented by Theophilos Kairis, the Revolutionary Calendar of the Soviet Union (or 'Bolshevik calendar'), the Fascist calendar in Italy and the calendar of the Metaxas dictatorship in Greece before World War II. Also the unique of them, which is still in use, the New Rectified Julian calendar of the Orthodox Church, adopted according to proposition of Milutin Milanković on the Congress of Orthodox Churches in 1923 in Constantinople, is presented and discussed. At the end, difficulties to introduce a new calendar are discussed as well.

  20. An analytical Raman spectroscopic study of an important english oil painting of the 18th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Howell G. M.; Vandenabeele, Peter; Jehlicka, Jan; Benoy, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    An opportunity was afforded to analyse pigment specimens from an unrestored oil painting in the style of the English School of the mid-18th Century prior to conservation being undertaken. Raman spectroscopy was adopted to characterise the pigments and indicated the presence of a novel red pigment which was assigned to the complex chromium mineral, hemihedrite, in addition to other interesting materials found in combination. This is the first recorded identification of hemihedrite spectral signals in an art context in a range of mineral pigments that are otherwise typical of this period and some hypotheses are presented to explain its presence based on its occurrence with associated mineral pigments. It is suggested that the presence of powdered glass identified in certain areas of the painting enhanced the reflectivity of the pigment matrix.

  1. Head injuries in the 18th century: the management of the damaged brain.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Jeremy C

    2013-07-01

    The 18th century was the time when trauma neurosurgery began to develop into the modern discipline. Before this, the management had, for the most part, changed little from the days of Hippocrates, Celsus, and Galen. Attention was directed to skull injuries, and the brain was treated as the seat of the rational soul but without other function. Symptoms after trauma were attributed to injuries to the bone and meninges. Following the lead of the Royal Academy of Surgery in Paris, it was accepted from the 1730s that the brain was the seat of symptoms after cranial trauma. During the 18th century, at least 12 surgeons published articles on cranial injury, 6 describing significant clinical series on this topic. They were Henri-François Le Dran (1685-1770) of Paris, Percival Pott (1714-1788) of London, James Hill (1703-1776) from Dumfries, Sylvester O'Halloran (1728-1807) of Limerick (Ireland), William Dease (1750-1798) of Dublin, and John Abernethy (1764-1831) of London. This article analyzes these series. Each individual made a different contribution. It is suggested that the relatively lesser-known James Hill in Scotland demonstrated the greatest understanding of the management of brain trauma and achieved the best results. A product of the Scottish Enlightenment, he adapted his management to his own experience and was not tied to the accepted authorities of his day, but he improved the management of each case following his experience with previous patients. He deserves to be remembered.

  2. [Concepts and findings in dentistry in medical dissertations from the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Lorber, C G

    1977-12-01

    This historical paper deals with medical dissertations from the second half of the 18th century which deal with stomatology. 30 of the 100 consulted dissertations were translated from latin with great differences in scientific content and style, because they dated from the 16th to the 18th century. The views of normal anatomy and physiology of that time are described. Strange views were held on the embryological development. Apart from toothache, dentitio difficilis in children, aphtous stomatitis, cleft palates and the respective therapies were described. The scientific content of those dissertations was way backward when compared to contemporary text book literature.

  3. Hydro-meteorological extreme events in the 18th century in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, Marcelo; João Alcoforado, Maria; Taborda, João Paulo

    2013-04-01

    The present work is carried out in the frame of the KLIMHIST PROJECT ("Reconstruction and model simulations of past climate in Portugal using documentary and early instrumental sources, 17th-19th century)", and is devoted to the study of hydro-meteorological extreme events during the last 350 years, in order to understand how they have changed in time and compare them with current analogues. More specifically, the results selected to this presentation will focus on some hydro-meteorological extreme events of the 18th century, like severe droughts, heavy precipitation episodes and windstorms. One of the most noteworthy events was the winterstorm Bárbara (3rd to 6th December 1739), already studied in prior investigations (Taborda et al, 2004; Pfister et al, 2010), a devastating storm with strong impacts in Portugal caused by violent winds and heavy rainfall. Several other extreme events were detected by searching different documentary archives, including individual, administrative and ecclesiastic sources. Moreover, a more detailed insight to the 1783-1787 period will be made with regard the Lisbon region, taking into consideration the availability of information for daily meteorological observations as well as documentary evidences, like descriptions from Gazeta de Lisboa, the periodic with more continuous publication in the 18thcentury. Key-words: Instrumental data, Documentary data, Extreme events, Klimhist Project, Portugal References Pfister, C., Garnier, E., Alcoforado, M.J., Wheeler, D. Luterbacher, J. Nunes, M.F., Taborda, J.P. (2010) The meteorological framework and the cultural memory of three severe winter-storms in early eighteenth-century Europe, Climatic Change, 101, 1-2, 281-310 Taborda, JP; Alcoforado, MJ and Garcia, JC (2004) O Clima do Sul de Portugal no Séc.XVIII, Centro de Estudos Geográficos, Área de de Investigação de Geo-Ecologia, relatório no 2

  4. The Struggle To Survive: Work for Racial Ethnic Women in the 18th- and 19th-Century United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham, Elizabeth

    The work situations of Black, Mexican American, and Chinese immigrant women in 18th- and 19th-century United States are explored. Generally, when engaged in agricultural work, all ethnic people were considered units of labor. However, because the slave owner needed to perpetuate his property, Black women were allowed lower rates of production when…

  5. The "System of Chymists" and the "Newtonian Dream" in Greek-Speaking Communities in the 17th-18th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokaris, Efthymios P.; Koutalis, Vangelis

    2008-01-01

    The acceptance of new chemical ideas, before the Chemical Revolution of Lavoisier, in Greek-speaking communities in the 17th and 18th centuries did not create a discourse of chemical philosophy, as it did in Europe, but rather a "philosophy" of chemistry as it was formed through the evolution of didactic traditions of Chemistry. This…

  6. A comparison of large 18th-century floods on Danube: Vienna - Bratislava - Budapest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea; Parajka, Juraj

    2013-04-01

    The documentation of historic floods can help in better understanding of factors that might cause and contribute to large and extreme flood events. In particular, the analysis of historic floods provides information about flood seasonality, its changes and anthropogenic impacts on river flood regime which in some cases strongly influenced flood behaviour. The main objective of the present contribution is to document large and medium size flood events on Danube in Vienna, Bratislava and Budapest in the 18th century. In the present study, based on contemporary documentary evidence, for each of the three towns a five-scaled flood index series is developed to describe the magnitude and intensity of flood events. According to this classification, the 100-year flood event was characterised by the index value 5, while great destructive floods - depending on their extension, destructivity and further impacts - received the values 4 and 3, respectively. Less significant but still harmful flood events were classified as No. 2, and floods without further specification remained in the lowest category (No. 1). Beside classification issues, seasonality and flood frequency differences between the three towns are as well discussed. The results indicate that a greater number of flood events took place in the last decades of the century, but only a few flood events of the same magnitude are documented simultaneously in all three towns. And whereas in 1775 no winter flood event was reported in Vienna, an important ice jam flood was documented in Bratislava, and a catastrophic ice jam flood event, greatest of the century, occurred in Budapest. In 1787 autumn the greatest flood event of the century occurred in Vienna, while hardly any flood waves were observed at Budapest. While in Vienna, summer (and partly autumn) floods had great importance, in Budapest a large number of ice jam floods were documented. In some cases the differences are likely caused by different hydrometeorological

  7. Comparing ground-penetrating radar (GPR) techniques in 18th-century yard spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carducci, Christiane M.

    Yards surrounding historical homesteads are the liminal space between private houses and public space, and contain artifactural and structural remains that help us understand how the residents interfaced with the world. Comparing different yards means collecting reliable evidence, and what is missing is just as important as what is found. Excavations can rely on randomly placed 50-cm shovel test pits to locate features, but this can miss important features. Shallow geophysics, in particular ground-penetrating radar (GPR), can be used to identify features and reliably and efficiently collect evidence. GPR is becoming more integrated into archaeological investigations due to the potential to quickly and nondestructively identify archaeological features and to recent advancements in processing software that make these methods more user-friendly. The most efficacious GPR surveys must take into consideration what is expected to be below the surface, what features look like in GPR outputs, the best methods for detecting features, and the limitations of GPR surveys. Man-made landscape features are expected to have existed within yard spaces, and the alteration of these features shows how the domestic economy of the residence changed through time. This study creates an inventory of these features. By producing a standardized sampling method for GPR in yard spaces, archaeologists can quickly map subsurface features and carry out broad comparisons between yards. To determine the most effective sampling method, several GPR surveys were conducted at the 18th-century Durant-Kenrick House in Newton, Massachusetts, using varied line spacing, line direction, and bin size. Examples of the GPR signatures of features, obtained using GPR-Slice software, from the Durant-Kenrick House and similar sites were analyzed. The efficacy of each method was determined based on the number of features distinguished, clarity of the results, and the time involved. The survey at Newton showed that

  8. [Medical care and environmental hygiene in Mexico City from the 16th through the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M E; Rodríguez-de Romo, A C

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with public health in Mexico City from the 16th to the 18th century. The first part is about sickness and epidemics; the origin of a very high concerned with death rate at that time; general and private hospitals foundations, and about the role of the Church, Medical Board and the Viceroy in Health Care and Preventive Medicine. Medical care was efficient in these aspects. The second part deals with public services concerning public health as a clean environment and streets and collecting garbage, problems that caused sickness according to the ideas of those days. A clear environment was good until the second half of the 18th century. The paper is divided as follows: introduction; sickness and epidemics; medical care; actions against epidemics; public services, and final commentary.

  9. The first Finnish malariologist, Johan Haartman, and the discussion about malaria in 18th century Turku, Finland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    After the Great Northern War in 1721, Sweden ceased to be an important military power. Instead, the kingdom concentrated on developing science. Swedish research got international fame with names as Carolus Linnaeus, Pehr Wargentin and Anders Celsius. Medical research remained limited and malaria was common especially in the coastal area and along the shores of the big lakes. Already in the beginning of the 18th century Swedish physicians recommended Peruvian bark as medication and they also emphasized that bleeding or blood-letting a malaria patient was harmful. Although malaria was a common disease in the kingdom, the situation was worst in the SW-part of Finland which consisted of the town of Turku and a large archipelago in the Baltic. The farmers had no opportunity to get modern healthcare until Johan Haartman was appointed district physician in 1754. To improve the situation he wrote a medical handbook intended for both the farmers and for persons of rank. Haartman's work was first published 1759 and he discussed all the different cures and medications. His aim was to recommend the best ones and warn against the harmful. His first choice was Peruvian bark, but he knew that the farmers could not afford it. Haartman was appointed professor in medicine at the Royal Academy of Turku in 1765. The malaria situation in Finland grew worse in the 1770's and Haartman analysed the situation. He found the connection between the warm summers and the spring epidemics next year. In a later thesis, Haartman analysed the late summer/early autumn malaria epidemics in the archipelago. Althouh Haartman did not know the connection between malaria and the vector, he gave astute advice and encouraged the farmers to build their cottages in windy places away from the shallow bays in which the Anopheles females hatched. Haartman died in 1788. After his death malaria research in Turku declined. His medical handbook would not be replaced until 1844. PMID:21324104

  10. The first Finnish malariologist, Johan Haartman, and the discussion about malaria in 18th century Turku, Finland.

    PubMed

    Hulden, Lena

    2011-02-15

    After the Great Northern War in 1721, Sweden ceased to be an important military power. Instead, the kingdom concentrated on developing science. Swedish research got international fame with names as Carolus Linnaeus, Pehr Wargentin and Anders Celsius. Medical research remained limited and malaria was common especially in the coastal area and along the shores of the big lakes.Already in the beginning of the 18th century Swedish physicians recommended Peruvian bark as medication and they also emphasized that bleeding or blood-letting a malaria patient was harmful. Although malaria was a common disease in the kingdom, the situation was worst in the SW-part of Finland which consisted of the town of Turku and a large archipelago in the Baltic. The farmers had no opportunity to get modern healthcare until Johan Haartman was appointed district physician in 1754. To improve the situation he wrote a medical handbook intended for both the farmers and for persons of rank. Haartman's work was first published 1759 and he discussed all the different cures and medications. His aim was to recommend the best ones and warn against the harmful. His first choice was Peruvian bark, but he knew that the farmers could not afford it. Haartman was appointed professor in medicine at the Royal Academy of Turku in 1765. The malaria situation in Finland grew worse in the 1770's and Haartman analysed the situation. He found the connection between the warm summers and the spring epidemics next year.In a later thesis, Haartman analysed the late summer/early autumn malaria epidemics in the archipelago. Althouh Haartman did not know the connection between malaria and the vector, he gave astute advice and encouraged the farmers to build their cottages in windy places away from the shallow bays in which the Anopheles females hatched. Haartman died in 1788. After his death malaria research in Turku declined. His medical handbook would not be replaced until 1844.

  11. The first Finnish malariologist, Johan Haartman, and the discussion about malaria in 18th century Turku, Finland.

    PubMed

    Hulden, Lena

    2011-01-01

    After the Great Northern War in 1721, Sweden ceased to be an important military power. Instead, the kingdom concentrated on developing science. Swedish research got international fame with names as Carolus Linnaeus, Pehr Wargentin and Anders Celsius. Medical research remained limited and malaria was common especially in the coastal area and along the shores of the big lakes.Already in the beginning of the 18th century Swedish physicians recommended Peruvian bark as medication and they also emphasized that bleeding or blood-letting a malaria patient was harmful. Although malaria was a common disease in the kingdom, the situation was worst in the SW-part of Finland which consisted of the town of Turku and a large archipelago in the Baltic. The farmers had no opportunity to get modern healthcare until Johan Haartman was appointed district physician in 1754. To improve the situation he wrote a medical handbook intended for both the farmers and for persons of rank. Haartman's work was first published 1759 and he discussed all the different cures and medications. His aim was to recommend the best ones and warn against the harmful. His first choice was Peruvian bark, but he knew that the farmers could not afford it. Haartman was appointed professor in medicine at the Royal Academy of Turku in 1765. The malaria situation in Finland grew worse in the 1770's and Haartman analysed the situation. He found the connection between the warm summers and the spring epidemics next year.In a later thesis, Haartman analysed the late summer/early autumn malaria epidemics in the archipelago. Althouh Haartman did not know the connection between malaria and the vector, he gave astute advice and encouraged the farmers to build their cottages in windy places away from the shallow bays in which the Anopheles females hatched. Haartman died in 1788. After his death malaria research in Turku declined. His medical handbook would not be replaced until 1844. PMID:21324104

  12. Non Destructive Investigation on the 17th/18th Century Sicilian Jewellery Collection at the Messina Regional Museum Using Mobile Raman Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, G.; Bersani, D.; Jehlicka, J.; Lottici, P. P.; Mazzoleni, P.; Raneri, S.; Vandenabeele, P.; Di Giacomo, C.; Larinà, G.

    2014-06-01

    A handheld Raman spectrometer operating at 785 nm was used for the in situ analysis of the gems present in the 17th/18th century Sicilian jewelry collection preserved in the Messina Regional Museum (Italy).

  13. Detection of a Tumor Suppressor Gene Variant Predisposing to Colorectal Cancer in an 18th Century Hungarian Mummy

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Michal; Hershkovitz, Israel; Sklan, Ella H.; Kahila Bar-Gal, Gila; Pap, Ildikó; Szikossy, Ildikó; Rosin-Arbesfeld, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of the Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene are common and strongly associated with the development of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. While extensively studied in modern populations, reports on visceral tumors in ancient populations are scarce. To the best of our knowledge, genetic characterization of mutations associated with colorectal cancer in ancient specimens has not yet been described. In this study we have sequenced hotspots for mutations in the APC gene isolated from 18th century naturally preserved human Hungarian mummies. While wild type APC sequences were found in two mummies, we discovered the E1317Q missense mutation, known to be a colorectal cancer predisposing mutation, in a large intestine tissue of an 18th century mummy. Our data suggests that this genetic predisposition to cancer already existed in the pre-industrialization era. This study calls for similar investigations of ancient specimens from different periods and geographical locations to be conducted and shared for the purpose of obtaining a larger scale analysis that will shed light on past cancer epidemiology and on cancer evolution. PMID:26863316

  14. Metallographic study of articles of the Kamensk iron foundry and iron works produced in the 18th-20th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Gizhevski, B. A.; Khlebnikova, Yu. V.; Naumov, S. V.; Egorova, L. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Results have been presented for studies of the microstructure and chemical composition of a number of articles made of iron and cast iron at the Kamensk plant, which cover the period from the start of the production of iron on the territory of the city of Kamensk-Ural'skii at the turn of the 17th-18th centuries to the beginning of the 20th century. Differences in the composition of the Kamensk cast iron and modern grades of foundry cast iron have been established. Possible sources of technological difficulties and production waste at the Kamensk plant have been revealed. The potential of metallographic studies for the attribution of historical articles made of ferrous metals are shown.

  15. Plant phenological records in northern Finland since the 18th century as retrieved from databases, archives and diaries for biometeorological research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holopainen, Jari; Helama, Samuli; Lappalainen, Hanna; Gregow, Hilppa

    2013-05-01

    Plant phenological data from northern Finland, compiled from several sources, were examined as potential biometeorological indicators of climate change since the 18th century. A common feature of individual series was their sporadic nature. In addition to waning enthusiasm, wartime hardships and crop failures had caused gaps in recording observations during the 18th and 19th centuries. The present study's challenge was to combine separate records, as retrieved from several historical archives and personal diaries, into a single continuous series. To avoid possible biases due to the variability of data availability each year, each phenomenon-specific mean series was transformed into normalized site-specific index series. These series were compared to each other and to a regional instrumental temperature series (years 1802-2011). The inter-phenomena correlations were high. Moreover, a strong biometeorological response of the phenological series, most especially to monthly mean temperature in May, and seasonally to the April through June temperatures, was identified. This response focused on slightly later spring months compared to the responses in an earlier study conducted for southern Finland. The findings encouraged us to compute a total phenological index series as an average of all available phenomenon-specific index series for northern Finland. The earliest phenological springs were found as a cluster in the recent end of the record, whereas the anomalously-late phenological spring could be found through the centuries. This finding could indicate that potential future warming could result in an earlier onset of phenological springs (i.e. as experienced by the plants), with a remaining possibility of late phenological springs. To conclude, it was shown that the indices are reliable biometeorological indicators of the April through June temperature variations and thus of the climate variability in the region.

  16. Raja Sawai Jai Singh II: An 18th Century Medieval Astronomer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanpied, William A.

    1975-01-01

    Offers a description of the instrumentation and methods utilized in this attempt at naked eye astronomy one century after the invention of the telescope. Also examines the motives which resulted in the implementation of an antiquated mode of observation. (Author/CP)

  17. [Surgeons and the spirit of surgery in France during the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Imbault-Huart, M J

    1981-04-01

    In less than a century, French surgery changed completely by ceasing to be an uncertain technique practised by routine practitioners and becoming a scientific discipline. This transformation involves the 4 following aspects: 1. The surgeon becomes an anatomist, a scientist, a clinician and a pathologist. 2. New structures and new teaching methods are adopted. 3. The separation between medicine and surgery progressively decreases; if not structurally at least in fact, surgery becomes associated to medicine. 4. Surgery takes a prominent place in the private life of the French. In the light of these facts, it could be said that surgery has developed medicine to a point where it raises new hopes for the scientific world and gains the support and esteem of the public at the end of the XVIIIth century.

  18. [Sanitary state of the ships of the Baltic fleet and development of the navy hygiene in the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Kostyuk, A V

    2015-09-01

    Sanitary and hygienic state of the Baltic navy ships in the 18th century was considered as unsatisfactory due to inappropriate habitation conditions answering hygienic requirements. The reason for the low ship habitation of that time was limited technological possibilities of the sail shipbuilding, lack of appropriate labour, and life and rest conditions for navy servicemen. In fact, wooden ships were not suitable for life activity of the navy crew, but contributed to disease increase. Because of the rapid development of the' navy hygiene and improvement of shipbuilding technologies, sanitary and hygienic state of local navy ships had became improving. With a glance on recommendations, developed by physicians D.P.Sinopeus and A.G.Bakherakht, were made following improvements: were implemented ventilators on ships, daily fumigation of ships rooms, monitoring of personal hygiene. PMID:26827523

  19. [Sanitary state of the ships of the Baltic fleet and development of the navy hygiene in the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Kostyuk, A V

    2015-09-01

    Sanitary and hygienic state of the Baltic navy ships in the 18th century was considered as unsatisfactory due to inappropriate habitation conditions answering hygienic requirements. The reason for the low ship habitation of that time was limited technological possibilities of the sail shipbuilding, lack of appropriate labour, and life and rest conditions for navy servicemen. In fact, wooden ships were not suitable for life activity of the navy crew, but contributed to disease increase. Because of the rapid development of the' navy hygiene and improvement of shipbuilding technologies, sanitary and hygienic state of local navy ships had became improving. With a glance on recommendations, developed by physicians D.P.Sinopeus and A.G.Bakherakht, were made following improvements: were implemented ventilators on ships, daily fumigation of ships rooms, monitoring of personal hygiene.

  20. Venetian Rule and Control of Plague Epidemics on the Ionian Islands during 17th and 18th Centuries

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinidou, Katerina; Mantadakis, Elpis; Sardi, Thalia; Samonis, George

    2009-01-01

    During the 17th and 18th centuries, measures were taken by the Venetian administration to combat plague on the Ionian Islands. At that time, although the scientific basis of plague was unknown, the Venetians recognized its infectious nature and successfully decreased its spread by implementing an information network. Additionally, by activating a system of inspection that involved establishing garrisons along the coasts, the Venetians were able to control all local movements in plague-infested areas, which were immediately isolated. In contrast, the neighboring coast of mainland Greece, which was under Ottoman rule, was a plague-endemic area during the same period. We conclude that even in the absence of scientific knowledge, close observation and social and political measures can effectively restrain infectious outbreaks to the point of disappearance. PMID:19116047

  1. [Reports on eye diseases and their care in Sweden in the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Rehn, Nils O

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the physicians, active in the 1800 century in Sweden, who have reported in the annual proceedings of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, dealing with diseases and care of the eye. These articles, earlier described in a paper by the author, show a wide panorama in this field, discussing cataract surgery as well as surgery of other parts of the eye, injuries and diseases and ways of treatment. Most physicians have gone through their basic medical education in Sweden, completed with often many years studying abroad at well-known universities or hospital clinics. Some of them, particulary Acrel and Odhelius, specialized in eye surgery. PMID:17153173

  2. [The origins of the Pavilion Lazaretto: quarantine architecture between the 18th and 19th centuries].

    PubMed

    Bonastra, Quim

    2008-01-01

    The model of pavilion lazaretto was built above the scientific basis established during the hospital reform process held in France on the lasts decades of the eighteenth century. The morphological solutions adopted for the new quarantine taxonomy has not been given by the example borrowed by the new typology of hospital as resulted in this discussion, but by existing quarantine and detention facilities in general. In this paper we will analyse all factors that have influenced in the configuration of this model of lazarettos.

  3. Paleoradiology of the Savoca Mummies, Sicily, Italy (18th-19th Centuries AD).

    PubMed

    Piombino-Mascali, Dario; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Zink, Albert R; Sergio Todesco, M; Aufderheide, Arthur C; Panzer, Stephanie

    2015-06-01

    Mummified remains have been successfully studied radiologically since the end of the 19th century, giving rise to a specific field of research-paleoradiology. In this paper, we present the results of the first radiological investigation of a collection of Sicilian mummies found in a subterranean chamber beneath the Capuchin Church of Savoca. The chamber contains a number of preserved bodies, either held in special niches in the walls or interred within coffins. A recent detailed radiological examination of these mummies allowed the authors to determine information relating to the funerary treatment and some of the pathological alterations witnessed in the remains. Specifically, evidence of gout and DISH was identified, along with frequent degenerative joint disease, suggestive of rich dietary habits and a longer life expectancy. These findings were interpreted in the light of historical information and the social status of the subjects concerned.

  4. [Relations between equilibrium and dynamics at the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Schmit, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the reception of Galileo and Descartes' principles of statics in the works of some French scientists in the second half of seventeenth century, tracing their importance for the genesis of a concept of force. Through an examination of the link between statics and dynamics--especially concerning the phenomena of collision and the motion of falling bodies--it will be shown, first, that these principles of statics actually contributed to the genesis of dynamics; secondly, that the authors examined in this article managed to unify the various fields of mechanics by building a common axiomatic basis, and, thirdly, that there exists a conceptual identity between actions in engines and actions in dynamic phenomena. The evidence brought fourth in this articles challenges the view according to which statics, and more particularly the law of the lever, was an obstacle for the development of dynamics, and particularly for the conceptualization of force. PMID:25577927

  5. [Relations between equilibrium and dynamics at the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Schmit, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the reception of Galileo and Descartes' principles of statics in the works of some French scientists in the second half of seventeenth century, tracing their importance for the genesis of a concept of force. Through an examination of the link between statics and dynamics--especially concerning the phenomena of collision and the motion of falling bodies--it will be shown, first, that these principles of statics actually contributed to the genesis of dynamics; secondly, that the authors examined in this article managed to unify the various fields of mechanics by building a common axiomatic basis, and, thirdly, that there exists a conceptual identity between actions in engines and actions in dynamic phenomena. The evidence brought fourth in this articles challenges the view according to which statics, and more particularly the law of the lever, was an obstacle for the development of dynamics, and particularly for the conceptualization of force.

  6. Food on foot: long-distance trade in slaughter oxen between Denmark and the Netherlands (14th-18th century).

    PubMed

    Gijsbers, W; Koolmees, P

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a short review of the long-distance trade in slaughter oxen in Northwest Europe. The long-term development of the trade is described against the social-economic background of the production and consumption areas. In the 14th century, the Danes obtained the right to sell cattle in certain Dutch cities. From 1500 onwards, the export of oxen from Denmark and the adjacent duchy of Schleswig-Holstein increased considerably. The export reached its peak in the first quarter of the 17th century; registered export in 1612 amounted to more than 52.000 oxen over land and, in 1624, about 10.000 oxen over sea. Part of that export was destined for the Dutch market. Protectionist tax measures taken by the Dutch government and the outbreaks of rinderpest put an end to the regular ox trade in the first half of the 18th century. By decree, local authorities tried to prevent the spread of contagious animal diseases. The history of international cattle trade and hauling, however, indicates that economic motives largely outweighed animal welfare issues. Thus, in addition to addressing the logistics of the trade, this paper also addresses veterinary aspects and animal welfare issues related to the transport of cattle. PMID:11762404

  7. Limited urban growth: London's street network dynamics since the 18th century.

    PubMed

    Masucci, A Paolo; Stanilov, Kiril; Batty, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the growth dynamics of Greater London defined by the administrative boundary of the Greater London Authority, based on the evolution of its street network during the last two centuries. This is done by employing a unique dataset, consisting of the planar graph representation of nine time slices of Greater London's road network spanning 224 years, from 1786 to 2010. Within this time-frame, we address the concept of the metropolitan area or city in physical terms, in that urban evolution reveals observable transitions in the distribution of relevant geometrical properties. Given that London has a hard boundary enforced by its long standing green belt, we show that its street network dynamics can be described as a fractal space-filling phenomena up to a capacitated limit, whence its growth can be predicted with a striking level of accuracy. This observation is confirmed by the analytical calculation of key topological properties of the planar graph, such as the topological growth of the network and its average connectivity. This study thus represents an example of a strong violation of Gibrat's law. In particular, we are able to show analytically how London evolves from a more loop-like structure, typical of planned cities, toward a more tree-like structure, typical of self-organized cities. These observations are relevant to the discourse on sustainable urban planning with respect to the control of urban sprawl in many large cities which have developed under the conditions of spatial constraints imposed by green belts and hard urban boundaries.

  8. Limited urban growth: London's street network dynamics since the 18th century.

    PubMed

    Masucci, A Paolo; Stanilov, Kiril; Batty, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the growth dynamics of Greater London defined by the administrative boundary of the Greater London Authority, based on the evolution of its street network during the last two centuries. This is done by employing a unique dataset, consisting of the planar graph representation of nine time slices of Greater London's road network spanning 224 years, from 1786 to 2010. Within this time-frame, we address the concept of the metropolitan area or city in physical terms, in that urban evolution reveals observable transitions in the distribution of relevant geometrical properties. Given that London has a hard boundary enforced by its long standing green belt, we show that its street network dynamics can be described as a fractal space-filling phenomena up to a capacitated limit, whence its growth can be predicted with a striking level of accuracy. This observation is confirmed by the analytical calculation of key topological properties of the planar graph, such as the topological growth of the network and its average connectivity. This study thus represents an example of a strong violation of Gibrat's law. In particular, we are able to show analytically how London evolves from a more loop-like structure, typical of planned cities, toward a more tree-like structure, typical of self-organized cities. These observations are relevant to the discourse on sustainable urban planning with respect to the control of urban sprawl in many large cities which have developed under the conditions of spatial constraints imposed by green belts and hard urban boundaries. PMID:23950895

  9. The construction of the country landscape in Veneto plains (North of Italy) during 18th-21st centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borin, Maurizio; Novello, Elisabetta

    2013-04-01

    This paper focuses on the transformation that has taken place in the last four centuries in Veneto's plain in northern Italy. The analysis of statistical data over a long period of time has made it possible to chronologically reconstruct the gradual transformation of wetlands into arable land, suitable for human settlement and for the development of industrial activities. Particularly relevant are the policies adopted by the Republic of Venice (14th-18th centuries) with regard to the management of waters, policies which were continued by the Italian State after its unification in 1861. The evolution of the concept of land reclamation gradually came to include draining, hygienic, agrarian and environmental factors, paying attention to the specific character of both mountain and lagoon areas. Over many centuries new country areas were created, 2/5 of them located below sea level, which can be cultivated due to complex systems of canalization and water pumping. Both the State and landowners invested capital in a project that was not only meant to sustain private interest but that also met public needs. Since 1882 (when the Baccarini law was passed) the subject of the 'sanitary reclamation' began to be discussed in Italy. This concerned 1/16 of the total surface of the country, 400,000 hectares of which in Veneto, where malaria was directly or indirectly responsible for the death of thousands of people. New livelihoods substituted those of the past: some economies based, for instance, on the harvesting of the marshes' products or on the common use of marginal lands disappeared. The recent process of industrialization in Veneto, often carried out with little consideration for the environment, has eventually opened up a new chapter in the history of the countryside of this region, that of environmental and landscape enhancement.

  10. Evidence for tuberculosis in 18th/19th century slaves in Anse Sainte-Marguerite (Guadeloupe - French Western Indies).

    PubMed

    Lösch, Sandra; Kim, Mi-Ra; Dutour, Olivier; Courtaud, Patrice; Maixner, Frank; Romon, Thomas; Sola, Christophe; Zink, Albert

    2015-06-01

    During the American colonization in the 18th and 19th century, Africans were captured and shipped to America. Harsh living and working conditions often led to chronic diseases and high mortality rates. Slaves in the Caribbean were forced to work mainly on sugar plantations. They were buried in cemeteries like Anse Sainte-Marguerite on the isle of Grande-Terre (Guadeloupe) which was examined by archaeologists and physical anthropologists. Morphological studies on osseous remains of 148 individuals revealed 15 cases with signs for bone tuberculosis and a high frequency of periosteal reactions which indicates early stages of the disease. 11 bone samples from these cemeteries were analysed for ancient DNA. The samples were extracted with established procedures and examined for the cytoplasmic multicopy β-actin gene and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA (IS 6110) by PCR. An amplification product for M. tuberculosis with the size of 123 bp was obtained. Sequencing confirmed the result. This study shows evidence of M. tuberculosis complex DNA in a Caribbean slave population.

  11. (Re)Constructions of Etymology of the Term "Electricity" in French German and Modern Greek Textbooks of Physics of 18th-19th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patsopoulos, Dimitrios

    2005-01-01

    The different and contrasting versions of the etymology of the term "electricity" in Modern Greek textbooks of Physics of the 18th and 19th century, which are influenced by French and German textbooks, are not mere (re)constructions that serve the didactic purposes and objectives of their authors. They are (in)directly related to the social and…

  12. Women's translations of scientific texts in the 18th century: a case study of Marie-Anne Lavoisier.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    In the 18th century, many outstanding translations of scientific texts were done by women. These women were important mediators of science. However, I would like to raise the issue that the 'selection,' which is the process by which intellectual women chose to conduct translation works, and those 'selections' made by male translators, would not be made at the same level. For example, Émilie du Châtelet (1706-1749), the only French translator of Newton's "Principia," admitted her role as participating in important work, but, still, she was not perfectly satisfied with the position. For du Châtelet, the role as a translator was only an option under the current conditions that a female was denied the right to be a creator by society. In the case of Marie-Anne Lavoisier (1743-1794), like du Châtelet, we find an acute feeling in her mind that translation was not the work of creators. Because of her respect toward creative geniuses and her knowledge about the practical situation and concrete results of scientific studies, the translation works done by Marie-Anne Lavoisier were excellent. At the same time, the source of this excellence appears paradoxical at a glance: this excellence of translation was related closely with her low self-estimation in the field of science. Hence, we should not forget the gender problem that is behind such translations of scientific works done by women in that era. Such a possibility was a ray of light that was grasped by females, the sign of a gender that was eliminated from the center of scientific study due to social systems and norms and one of the few valuable opportunities to let people know of her own existence in the field of science. PMID:22606747

  13. Women's translations of scientific texts in the 18th century: a case study of Marie-Anne Lavoisier.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    In the 18th century, many outstanding translations of scientific texts were done by women. These women were important mediators of science. However, I would like to raise the issue that the 'selection,' which is the process by which intellectual women chose to conduct translation works, and those 'selections' made by male translators, would not be made at the same level. For example, Émilie du Châtelet (1706-1749), the only French translator of Newton's "Principia," admitted her role as participating in important work, but, still, she was not perfectly satisfied with the position. For du Châtelet, the role as a translator was only an option under the current conditions that a female was denied the right to be a creator by society. In the case of Marie-Anne Lavoisier (1743-1794), like du Châtelet, we find an acute feeling in her mind that translation was not the work of creators. Because of her respect toward creative geniuses and her knowledge about the practical situation and concrete results of scientific studies, the translation works done by Marie-Anne Lavoisier were excellent. At the same time, the source of this excellence appears paradoxical at a glance: this excellence of translation was related closely with her low self-estimation in the field of science. Hence, we should not forget the gender problem that is behind such translations of scientific works done by women in that era. Such a possibility was a ray of light that was grasped by females, the sign of a gender that was eliminated from the center of scientific study due to social systems and norms and one of the few valuable opportunities to let people know of her own existence in the field of science.

  14. The ``System of Chymists'' and the ``Newtonian dream'' in Greek-speaking Communities in the 17th-18th Centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokaris, Efthymios P.; Koutalis, Vangelis

    2008-06-01

    The acceptance of new chemical ideas, before the Chemical Revolution of Lavoisier, in Greek-speaking communities in the 17th and 18th centuries did not create a discourse of chemical philosophy, as it did in Europe, but rather a “philosophy” of chemistry as it was formed through the evolution of didactic traditions of Chemistry. This “philosophical” chemistry was not based on the existence of any academic institutions, it was focused on the ontology of principles and forces governing the analysis/synthesis of matter and formulated two didactic traditions. The one, named “the system of chymists”, close to the Boylean/Cartesian tradition, accepted, contrary to Aristotelianism, the five “chymical” principles and also the analytical ideal, but the “chymical” principles were not under a conceptual and experimental investigation, as they were in Europe. Also, a crucial issue for this tradition remained the “mechanical” principles which were under the influence of the metaphysical nature of the Aristotelian principles. The other, close to the Boylean/Newtonian tradition, was the integrated presentation of the Newtonian “dream”, which maintained a discursive attitude with reference to the “chemical attractions”-“chemical affinities” and actualised the mathematical atomism of Boscovich, according to which the elementary texture of matter could be causally explained within this complex architecture of mathematical “ punkta”. In this tradition also coexisted, in a discursive synthesis, the “chemical element” of Lavoisier and the arguments of the new theory and its opposition to the phlogiston theory, but the “chemical affinities” were under the realm of the “physical element” as “metaphysical point”.

  15. Flood hazard and a rapidly growing capital in the floodplain: Social response on major 18th-century Danube floods in Pest (East-Budapest)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Due to its floodplain location, Pest was especially prone to damages caused by great flood events. Before water regulation works, the greatest flood events, and the highest rate of destruction occurred during ice jam floods. Whereas in the first half of the 18th century Pest is restricted to the medieval downtown located on a higher terrain (Danube terrace), from the mid 18th century onwards the rapidly growing population established suburbs around the downtown in the lower-lying flood plain. Thus, while in the first half of the century floods were more dangerous for the harvest in the agricultural lands, in the second half of the century at the same place suburbs, urban areas with thousands of inhabitants were prone to the same danger. In the first half of the century at least three particularly large flood events, in 1712, 1732 and 1744, caused increasing problems in the close vicinity of the town (and its lands), the second half of the century - as part of a climatic anomaly (Maldá) famous of its weather extremes - was characterised by two extreme (in 1775 and 1799), at least two larger (1789 and 1795) and some more, medium-sized ice jam floods. While in terms of damaged houses the loss was only some dozens in the early part of the century, several hundreds of houses - actually, complete suburbs were erased by floods in 1775 and 1799. In the poster presentation a series of known damaging 18th-century floods, occurred at Pest, is presented, the short-term impacts (e.g. damages), and medium-, long-term administrative responses as well as related long-term landscape changes influenced by floods and flood protection are discussed. Another important aim of the poster is to present the main reasons why in the 18th century these great ice jam floods caused much greater damages (e.g. percentage of collapsed houses in suburbs) in Pest protected by dams than, for example, in the Buda suburbs with no dams, partly also located in high flood-risk areas, in the immediate

  16. Human impacts of hydrometeorological extremes in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands derived from documentary sources in the 18th-19th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolák, Lukáš; Brázdil, Rudolf; Valášek, Hubert

    2014-05-01

    The extent of damage caused by hydrometeorological events or extremes (HME) has risen up in the entire world in the last few years. Especially the floods, flash floods, torrential rains and hailstorms are the most typical and one of the most frequent kind of natural disasters in the central Europe. Catastrophes are a part of human history and people were forced to cope with their consequences (e. g. material damage, economical losses, impacts on agriculture and society or losses of human lives). This paper analyses the human impacts of HME in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands (central part of the Czech Republic) on the basis of documentary sources from the 18th-19th centuries. The paper presents various negative impacts of natural disasters on lives and property and subsequent inconveniences of Czech peasants. The preserved archival documents of estates or domains became the primary sources of data (e. g. taxation reliefs, damaged records, reports of afflicted farmers, administrative correspondence etc.). Particularly taxation reliefs relate to taxation system in the Czech lands during the 17th-19th centuries allowing to farmers to ask for tax alleviation when their crops were significantly damaged by any HME. These archival documents are a highly valuable source for the study of human impacts of natural disasters. Devastating consequences of these extremes affected individual farmers much more than the aristocracy. Floods caused inundations of farmer's fields, meadows, houses and farm buildings, washed away the arable land with crops, caused losses of cattle, clogged the land with gravel and mud and destroyed roads, bridges or agricultural equipment. Afflicted fields became worthless and it took them many years to become became fertile again. Crop was also damaged by hailstorms, droughts or late/early frosts. All these events led to lack of food and seeds in the following year and it meant the decrease of living standard, misery and poverty of farmers. Acquired

  17. [Genealogy of the Books of Practica medicinae in Europe before the End of 18th Century: From the Origin to the Disappearance].

    PubMed

    Sakai, Tatsuo

    2015-09-01

    The Practica medicinae represented the books written in Europe before the end of 18th century that dealt with individual deseases. In total, 100 Practica books, written by 95 authors, were collected and divided into four periods from the early 11th to the end of 18th century. The first Practica book was written at the Salernitan medical school on the basis of ancient medical books in the basic style, dealing with regional deseases arranged in "a capite ad calcem" manner, as well as with the fevers. The basic style comprised a majority in the first period and decreased gradually, becoming a minority in the 3rd and 4th periods. Sennert's practica was the largest and it elaborated with precise construction. The additional categories, such as female, children, and surgical deseases increased in the later periods. Those written in non-basic style based on pathogenesis or in alphabetical order also increased in the later periods. The practica books changed slightly and gradually, indicating the essential consistency of the concepts of diseases in these periods.

  18. [Genealogy of the Books of Practica medicinae in Europe before the End of 18th Century: From the Origin to the Disappearance].

    PubMed

    Sakai, Tatsuo

    2015-09-01

    The Practica medicinae represented the books written in Europe before the end of 18th century that dealt with individual deseases. In total, 100 Practica books, written by 95 authors, were collected and divided into four periods from the early 11th to the end of 18th century. The first Practica book was written at the Salernitan medical school on the basis of ancient medical books in the basic style, dealing with regional deseases arranged in "a capite ad calcem" manner, as well as with the fevers. The basic style comprised a majority in the first period and decreased gradually, becoming a minority in the 3rd and 4th periods. Sennert's practica was the largest and it elaborated with precise construction. The additional categories, such as female, children, and surgical deseases increased in the later periods. Those written in non-basic style based on pathogenesis or in alphabetical order also increased in the later periods. The practica books changed slightly and gradually, indicating the essential consistency of the concepts of diseases in these periods. PMID:26775338

  19. GRANTING A LICENCE FOR OPENING A PHARMACY IN BOLOGNA DURING ACTIVITY OF THE BOLOGNESE ARTE DE' SPEZIALI (13TH - 18TH CENTURY).

    PubMed

    Oszajca, Paulina; Bela, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the main changes in legislation concerning granting the licenses for opening a new pharmacy in Bologna in the Middle Ages and Early Modern period. The organization of all traders, including apothecaries, was subordinated, as almost everywhere in Italy, to the Guilds. In the 2nd half of 16th century the Arte de' Speziali of Bologna came under the jurisdiction of the Collegio di Medicina, leading to disagreements between the two corporations. Giovanni Baldi, in his Notizie storiche su la farmacia bolognese (Bologna, 1955) mentioned one of these controversies, dating on the second half of 18th century. The Authors present this controversy basing on original documents from Archivio di Stato di Bologna.

  20. GRANTING A LICENCE FOR OPENING A PHARMACY IN BOLOGNA DURING ACTIVITY OF THE BOLOGNESE ARTE DE' SPEZIALI (13TH - 18TH CENTURY).

    PubMed

    Oszajca, Paulina; Bela, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the main changes in legislation concerning granting the licenses for opening a new pharmacy in Bologna in the Middle Ages and Early Modern period. The organization of all traders, including apothecaries, was subordinated, as almost everywhere in Italy, to the Guilds. In the 2nd half of 16th century the Arte de' Speziali of Bologna came under the jurisdiction of the Collegio di Medicina, leading to disagreements between the two corporations. Giovanni Baldi, in his Notizie storiche su la farmacia bolognese (Bologna, 1955) mentioned one of these controversies, dating on the second half of 18th century. The Authors present this controversy basing on original documents from Archivio di Stato di Bologna. PMID:26946818

  1. 'Dentists' and the establishment of the Anglo-American profession in the 18th century. Part 4. North America.

    PubMed

    Bishop, M

    2014-12-01

    This series of papers examines how the Anglo-American dental profession was established in the eighteenth century, examining its need for a name and identity, public recognition and official status. This final paper describes the presence of the new dentists in North America before and after the revolution.

  2. [Military, sailors and the sick poor: contribution to the history of the San Juan de Dios Hospital in Cartagena de Indias (18th century)].

    PubMed

    Echeverri, Adriana María Alzate

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the history of the San Juan de Dios Hospital in Cartagena de Indias, at the end of the 18th century. Its activities and evolution cannot be understood unless they are analyzed within the context of the Bourbon sanitary reforms. it was precisely at that time when these reforms were being implemented in Nueva Granada. One of the goals of the reforms was to improve the health of the population in order to discipline the vassals, to promote the growth of the workforce and to increase the Crown's wealth. The text reviews different aspects of the institution, and how it operated. It examines the budget, its expenses, and the dynamics of the hospital population and of its employees. In doing so, it intends to explain what the hospital offered to the city's various social groups. PMID:19856530

  3. Finnish wallpaper pigments in the 18th-19th century: Presence of KFe3(CrO4)2(OH)6 and odd pigment mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz de; Irazola, Mireia; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Several Finish wallpapers from the 18th and 19th century were analysed by using Raman spectroscopy assisted with EDXRF instrumentation, in an attempt of determine the pigments used in their manufacture process as well as of trying to date some of the samples through pigment composition. All pigments present in samples were determined and surprisingly the unusual and strange iron (III) chromate yellow pigment was found. Besides, unusual mixtures were found to obtain fashionable colours, especially in blue and green areas, where more than one blue pigments were mixed with green and yellow pigments. Blue verditer, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, chrome yellow, calcite, lead white, red and yellow iron oxide, gypsum and carbon black were identified. The presence of the risky and poisonous emerald green must be highlighted. The results were compared with those found in other wallpapers from Spain and France.

  4. In naming the dead: Autosomal and Y-chromosomal STR typing on human skeletal remains from an 18th/19th century aristocratic crypt in Gallspach, Upper Austria.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Reinhard; Renhart, Silvia; Gruber, Heinz; Kli Mesch, Wolfgang; Neuhuber, Franz; Cemper-Kiesslich, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Ancient DNA analyses have shown to be a powerful tool in the joint transdisciplinary assessment of archaeological records involving human remains. In this study we set out to identify single inhumations by synoptically evaluating the historical, archaeological, anthropological and molecular records on human remains from the crypt of the aristocratic family of Hoheneck (or: Hohenegg) dating to the 18(th) and 19(th) century AD. A total of 11 individuals were under investigation, yielding complete autosomal and Y-chromosomal STR profiles for 5 persons clearly showing a family group. DNA results, anthropological data and archaeological records taken together resulted in (almost) unambiguous correlation to historical records on the persons entombed in the crypt.

  5. [Inadequate burials as an important factor in plague epidemic amongst Serbs in the Habsburg monarchy by the end of the 18th century: a historical analysis].

    PubMed

    Vasin, Goran; Božanić, Snežana; Božić, Milica Kisić

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the archaic customs of burying the deceased in Srem, primarily amongst Serbs, in the second half of the 18th century is the essential part of the paper that aims at clarifying the consequences of this negative habit onto the spreading of plague epidemic. The Austrian Empire tried to stop and prevent the epidemic with an array of legal norms, but in practice, these orders were often not upheld. Serbian Metropolitans Pavle Nenadović and Stefan Stratimirović insisted on eradicating superstition and retrograde, often uncivilized actions in burial rituals, and they partially succeeded. The example of plague in Irig and the surroundings in 1795-1796 explicitly shows the hazardous effects of the inadequate attitude towards the deceased as one of the factors in spreading the epidemic. Using primary archives, and published sources, with adequate literature, authors depict this complex historical process.

  6. [Military, sailors and the sick poor: contribution to the history of the San Juan de Dios Hospital in Cartagena de Indias (18th century)].

    PubMed

    Echeverri, Adriana María Alzate

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the history of the San Juan de Dios Hospital in Cartagena de Indias, at the end of the 18th century. Its activities and evolution cannot be understood unless they are analyzed within the context of the Bourbon sanitary reforms. it was precisely at that time when these reforms were being implemented in Nueva Granada. One of the goals of the reforms was to improve the health of the population in order to discipline the vassals, to promote the growth of the workforce and to increase the Crown's wealth. The text reviews different aspects of the institution, and how it operated. It examines the budget, its expenses, and the dynamics of the hospital population and of its employees. In doing so, it intends to explain what the hospital offered to the city's various social groups.

  7. [Records of the invisible: Visa reperta in 18th- and 19th-century forensic medicine and their role as promoters of pathological-anatomical knowledge].

    PubMed

    Müller, Irmgard; Fangerau, Heiner

    2010-01-01

    Case reports in medicine serve as a tool to collect and to transfer knowledge. A special kind of case report in forensic medicine during the 18th and 19th centuries was the so-called Visum repertum. This format of note-taking and of rendering an expert opinion without presuppositions has rarely investigated in the history of medicine. Analyzing Visa reperta the authors argue that due to their special structure and mode of representation Visa reperta not only shaped the practice of forensic medicine but also the standardized examination and documentation in pathological anatomy. Based on previous studies on medical case reports, medical expert witnesses in court and traditions in pathological anatomy the authors examine two examples from the 18th and 19th centuries in order to show how semiological, classifying methods of presenting forensic examinations were replaced by the material aspect of the observation of examination results itself. The examples are a forensic case report by Michael Alberti (1682-1757) from 1728 and a Visum repertum by Joseph Bernt (1770-1842) from 1827. The authors argue that Visa reperta transcended their original forensic purpose and served as a guideline for pathology leading to an understanding of the origin of diseases in organs. They served as a promoter of scientific medicine, and their persuasiveness was backed by factors such as (a) the extreme conditions of forensic practice, (b) the claim to act as a tool for the sound and precise recording of facts and c) the awareness that they documented objects that were destroyed during the process of documentation.

  8. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy analysis of house paint and wallpaper samples from an 18th century historic property.

    PubMed

    Harroun, S G; Bergman, J; Jablonski, E; Brosseau, C L

    2011-09-01

    Conservation efforts for heritage buildings require a substantial knowledge of the chemical makeup of materials that were used throughout the lifetime of the property. In particular, conservators are often concerned with the identification of colorants used in both interior and exterior wall treatments (paint, wallpaper, etc.) in order to gain perspective into how the building may have appeared during a certain time period in its existence. Ideally, such an analysis requires a technique that provides molecular level information as to the identity of the colorant as well as other sample components (binders, fillers, etc.), which is useful for dating purposes. In addition, the technique should be easily applied to paint layer samples which can be extremely thin and fragile. Herein we report the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) analysis of paint and wallpaper samples taken from exterior and interior surfaces of a historic building. Several pigments were identified in the samples, which ranged from early inorganic pigments (lead white, barium sulfate, calcium carbonate, anhydrous chromium(III) oxide) which have been used in house paints for centuries, to a more modern pigment (phthalocyanine blue), developed in the middle of the 20th century. This analysis highlights the usefulness of SERS in such a conservation effort, and demonstrates for the first time pigment identification in house paints and wallpaper using SERS, which has far-reaching implications not only in the field of conservation, but also in forensics, industrial process control, and environmental health and safety. PMID:21267481

  9. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy analysis of house paint and wallpaper samples from an 18th century historic property.

    PubMed

    Harroun, S G; Bergman, J; Jablonski, E; Brosseau, C L

    2011-09-01

    Conservation efforts for heritage buildings require a substantial knowledge of the chemical makeup of materials that were used throughout the lifetime of the property. In particular, conservators are often concerned with the identification of colorants used in both interior and exterior wall treatments (paint, wallpaper, etc.) in order to gain perspective into how the building may have appeared during a certain time period in its existence. Ideally, such an analysis requires a technique that provides molecular level information as to the identity of the colorant as well as other sample components (binders, fillers, etc.), which is useful for dating purposes. In addition, the technique should be easily applied to paint layer samples which can be extremely thin and fragile. Herein we report the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) analysis of paint and wallpaper samples taken from exterior and interior surfaces of a historic building. Several pigments were identified in the samples, which ranged from early inorganic pigments (lead white, barium sulfate, calcium carbonate, anhydrous chromium(III) oxide) which have been used in house paints for centuries, to a more modern pigment (phthalocyanine blue), developed in the middle of the 20th century. This analysis highlights the usefulness of SERS in such a conservation effort, and demonstrates for the first time pigment identification in house paints and wallpaper using SERS, which has far-reaching implications not only in the field of conservation, but also in forensics, industrial process control, and environmental health and safety.

  10. Structural and optical properties of wood and wood finishes studied using optical coherence tomography: application to an 18th century Italian violin.

    PubMed

    Latour, Gaël; Echard, Jean-Philippe; Soulier, Balthazar; Emond, Isabelle; Vaiedelich, Stéphane; Elias, Mady

    2009-11-20

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is especially attractive for the study of cultural heritage artifacts because it is noninvasive and nondestructive. We have developed an original full-field time-domain OCT system dedicated to the investigation of varnished and painted artifacts: an interferometric Mirau objective allows one to perform the scan without moving the works of art. The axial and transverse high resolution (respectively, 1.5 and 1 microm) are well adapted to the detection of the investigated structures (pigment grains, wood fibers, etc.). The illumination spectrum is in the visible range (centered at 630 nm, 150 nm wide) to potentially allow us to perform spectroscopic OCT on pigment particles. The examination of wood samples coated with a traditional finish, demonstrates the ability of the system to detect particles, characterize layers thickness, and image the three-dimensional wood structures below the varnishes. OCT has finally been applied to study in situ the coated wood surface of an 18th century Italian violin and provides important information for its conservation treatment. PMID:19935970

  11. The inquisitorial trial of a cross-dressing lesbian: reactions and responses to female homosexuality in 18th-century portugal.

    PubMed

    Soyer, François

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the inquisitorial trial of Maria Duran, a Catalan novice in the Dominican convent of Nossa Senhora do Paraíso in Portugal. Maria Duran was arrested by the Inquisition in 1741 and, after a lengthy trial, condemned in 1744 to a public lashing and exile. She was suspected of having made a pact with the Devil and was accused by many female witnesses of possessing a "secret penis" that she had allegedly used in her amorous relations with fellow nuns and novices. Her voluminous trial dossier offers a rare and fascinating documentary insight into the often extreme reactions that female homosexuality provoked from both men and women in early modern Portugal. Using the evidence offered by the 18th-century trial of Maria Duran, this article highlights female bewilderment when faced with female-on-female sexual violence and the difficulty that men (in this case, churchmen) had coming to terms with the existence of female homosexuality. It also discusses the case in light of the acts/identity debate among historians of the history of sexuality.

  12. "Diarium patris ministri", a Jesuit view of social structures at the break of 18th century in south-west Bohemian town of Klatovy.

    PubMed

    Cerný, Karel

    2009-01-01

    The Jesuit college in the Czech town of Klatovy was founded in 1636 and canceled in 1773. It had its own grammar school and numerous contacts with local nobility and church dignitaries. The college was the most important house of a catholic order in the area and baroque festivities organised by the jesuits were visited (or it would be better to say taken part in) by a wide spectrum of members of the local society. The Jesuits concerned not only on careful arrangement of their ecclesiastical celebrations, but also on presence of the important guests. They recorded numbers of the guests who visited the college and their social status in the college manuscripts. The records were then used for an internal need of the order. Till the present day three manuscripts related to the college in Klatovy have been preserved. The most interesting records of the guests are in the diary of father "minister" of the college. The article focuses on a reconstruction of a not very conventional view of social structure in an average Czech town in the beginnig of 18th century. I'm trying to describe the social situation from the jesuit point of view using internal records of the order. PMID:20063670

  13. Structural and optical properties of wood and wood finishes studied using optical coherence tomography: application to an 18th century Italian violin.

    PubMed

    Latour, Gaël; Echard, Jean-Philippe; Soulier, Balthazar; Emond, Isabelle; Vaiedelich, Stéphane; Elias, Mady

    2009-11-20

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is especially attractive for the study of cultural heritage artifacts because it is noninvasive and nondestructive. We have developed an original full-field time-domain OCT system dedicated to the investigation of varnished and painted artifacts: an interferometric Mirau objective allows one to perform the scan without moving the works of art. The axial and transverse high resolution (respectively, 1.5 and 1 microm) are well adapted to the detection of the investigated structures (pigment grains, wood fibers, etc.). The illumination spectrum is in the visible range (centered at 630 nm, 150 nm wide) to potentially allow us to perform spectroscopic OCT on pigment particles. The examination of wood samples coated with a traditional finish, demonstrates the ability of the system to detect particles, characterize layers thickness, and image the three-dimensional wood structures below the varnishes. OCT has finally been applied to study in situ the coated wood surface of an 18th century Italian violin and provides important information for its conservation treatment.

  14. Structural and behavioural changes in the short term preventive check in the northwest Balkans in the 18th and 19th centuries.

    PubMed

    Hammel, E A; Galloway, P R

    2000-03-01

    Fertility responded negatively to grain insufficiency (proxied by grain price increases), and mortality responded positively in Croatia-Slavonia-Srem in the 18th and 19th centuries, as in most of Europe. Shifts in the intensity and timing of these responses occurred over time as social and economic structures changed. Shifts in the elasticity of fertility with respect to grain supply inversely mimic and lag changes in the elasticity of mortality. Both appear to be induced by increasing land shortage, the collapse of feudalism, and differences in the patterns of adjustment to post-feudal conditions among former civil and military serfs. Generally, responses are stronger for civil and former civil serfs, who may have been in less favorable economic circumstances than the military. Fertility responses in the year of a price shock come to dominate those in the year following, suggesting a shift from contraception to abortion as economic and social conditions apparently worsened and strategies of control intensified. Analysis of monthly responses supports the conjecture based on the annual responses. The shift to the preventive check and strength of the preventive check in the same year as the price shock is unusual in Europe and beyond. Analysis is based on 25 parishes and employs lagged annual and monthly time series analysis with corrections for autocorrelation, in combination with ethnographic and historical data.

  15. Quantitative analysis of human remains from 18(th)-19(th) centuries using X-ray fluorescence techniques: The mysterious high content of mercury in hair.

    PubMed

    Pessanha, Sofia; Carvalho, Marta; Carvalho, Maria Luisa; Dias, António

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report the unusual concentration of mercury in the hair of an individual buried in the 18th to mid-19th centuries and the comparison with the elemental composition of other remains from the same individual. Two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) setups, one with tri-axial geometry and the second one with micro-beam capabilities and a vacuum system, for light elements detection, have been used. Quantitative evaluation of the obtained spectra were made by fundamental parameters and winAXIL program by compare mode method. The levels of Hg in the hair of buried samples presented a concentration over 5% (w/w), a significantly lower presence of this element in the cranium, and no Hg in the remaining organs. Furthermore, there was no evidence of Hg in the burial soil, which has been also analyzed. From this result, we could conclude that the possibility of post-mortem contamination from the burial surroundings is very unlikely. The obtained results are indicative of the apparent use of a mercury-based compound for medical purposes, most likely lice infestation.

  16. "Do Not Turn a Deaf Ear or a Blind Eye on Me, as I Am Your Son": New Conceptions of Childhood and Parenthood in 18th- and 19th-Century Jewish Letter-Writing Manuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogman, Tal

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the cultural functions of Hebrew letter-writing manuals published in German-speaking countries in the 18th and 19th centuries, aimed at young people. I argue that these books, which were used frequently as textbooks for studying Hebrew writing, conveyed modern ideological values and at the same time corresponded to the…

  17. The Problem of Longitude in the 18th Century: Jorge Juan, Antonio de Ulloa and the Expedition of the Paris Academy of Sciences to the Kingdom of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Manuel Pérez

    2015-05-01

    Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa, naval officers of the Spanish Navy in the Midshipmen's Royal Academy were appointed to take part in one of the most important scientific expeditions of the 18th century. The question of the shape of the Earth, of vital importance for navigation, was solved by the Paris Academy of Sciences by request of Louis XV of France in 1735. The aim was to determine the form of the ellipsoid that Newton had described in the 17th century for any spherical and homogeneous body in rotation about an axis. Two expeditions were prepared for the geodetic measures of meridian arc both in high latitudes (Lapland, Finland) and in the equatorial zone (the Kingdom of Peru); Pierre Louis Maupertuis took charge of the northern expedition whereas the second one was charged to La Condamine, along with Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa. The results obtained by the Spaniards were gathered in a publication: Observaciones astronómicas y físicas hechas en los Reinos del Perú. In it, they dedicate a chapter to the determination of astronomic longitude with the only technology that was providing certain precision at the moment: the simultaneous observation of the same astronomic phenomenon in two different places. Specifically, they explain in detail in Book III: Las Observaciones de la Inmersiones y Emersiones de los satélites de Júpiter, como asimismo de los eclipses de Luna; de las cuales de deduce la Longitud de los Lugares, incluyendo las correcciones a efectuar por la variación de la declinación diaria del Sol.

  18. [Gutiérrez Bueno (1745-1822), textbooks and a new public for chemistry in the last third of the 18th century].

    PubMed

    García Belmar, A; Bertomeu Sánchez, J R

    2001-01-01

    This paper is a part of a general research project on the role that chemistry played in the transition of materia medica to experimental pharmacology during 19th century Spain. Within this general framework, the paper deals with the main characteristics of Spanish textbooks aimed at pharmaceutical and medical students. In a former study, published in this journal, we outlined the institutional context in which these books were read, written and published. Some of these issues are developed in the present paper through analysis of the "Curso de química" written by Pedro Gutiérrez Bueno. New light is shed on the public for chemistry during the late XVIII century Spain and their role in shaping the contents and organisation of chemistry textbooks.

  19. The Role of Education Redefined: 18th Century British and French Educational Thought and the Rise of the Baconian Conception of the Study of Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilead, Tal

    2011-01-01

    The idea that science teaching in schools should prepare the ground for society's future technical and scientific progress has played an important role in shaping modern education. This idea, however, was not always present. In this article, I examine how this idea first emerged in educational thought. Early in the 17th century, Francis Bacon…

  20. Girls' Secondary Education in the Western World: From the 18th to the 20th Century. Secondary Education in a Changing World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albisetti, James C.; Goodman, Joyce; Rogers, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This long-awaited synthesis approaches the past three centuries with an eye to highlighting the importance of significant schools, as well as important women educators in the emergence of secondary education for girls. At the same time, each contributor pays careful attention to the specific political, cultural, and socio-economic factors that…

  1. [The beginnings of the nursing profession : the complementary relationship between secular caregivers and hospital nuns in France in the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Diebolt, Evelyne

    2013-06-01

    The words used for designating the caregivers are ambiguous. Little by little, the word "nurse" becomes widely used, mainly in the feminine form due to the need of specialized staff. Health care structures are developing in the 17th and 18 centuries, the remains of which you can find in today hospitals (Salpêtrière hospital, Hôtel-Dieu hospital in Paris). The government of Louis XIV cares for the poor sick people, the vagabonds and the beggars. It opens new general hospitals as it will be the case later in all Europe. In the 17th century, the staff of the general hospital in Paris is entirely secular. The Paris general hospital is headed by the magistrates of Paris Parliament. The healthcare institutions employ both secular and religious staff for example the Hotel Dieu in Paris and the one in Marseilles. In the 17th century, there are 2000 secular caregivers in France. The order of the "Filles de la Charité" (grey sisters) is not submitted to the rule of enclosure. They renew their vows every year. For their founders Vincent de Paul and Louise de Marcillac, their monastery should be the cells of the sick, their cloister should be the rooms of the hospitals or the streets of the town. The secular or religious caregivers are excellent in the apothecary and they open a network of small dispensaries. It improves the health of the French population and allows fighting against the epidemics. This activity allowed some women to have a rewarding activity and a social status of which they were apparently satisfied.

  2. [The beginnings of the nursing profession : the complementary relationship between secular caregivers and hospital nuns in France in the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Diebolt, Evelyne

    2013-06-01

    The words used for designating the caregivers are ambiguous. Little by little, the word "nurse" becomes widely used, mainly in the feminine form due to the need of specialized staff. Health care structures are developing in the 17th and 18 centuries, the remains of which you can find in today hospitals (Salpêtrière hospital, Hôtel-Dieu hospital in Paris). The government of Louis XIV cares for the poor sick people, the vagabonds and the beggars. It opens new general hospitals as it will be the case later in all Europe. In the 17th century, the staff of the general hospital in Paris is entirely secular. The Paris general hospital is headed by the magistrates of Paris Parliament. The healthcare institutions employ both secular and religious staff for example the Hotel Dieu in Paris and the one in Marseilles. In the 17th century, there are 2000 secular caregivers in France. The order of the "Filles de la Charité" (grey sisters) is not submitted to the rule of enclosure. They renew their vows every year. For their founders Vincent de Paul and Louise de Marcillac, their monastery should be the cells of the sick, their cloister should be the rooms of the hospitals or the streets of the town. The secular or religious caregivers are excellent in the apothecary and they open a network of small dispensaries. It improves the health of the French population and allows fighting against the epidemics. This activity allowed some women to have a rewarding activity and a social status of which they were apparently satisfied. PMID:23923734

  3. [The role of the Junta Suprema de Sanidad (Supreme Board of Health) in Spanish health policy in the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Varela Peris, F

    1998-01-01

    The Supreme Board of Health was the first Spanish health institution that took responsibility for health throughout the entire territory of the Crown. Established in 1720 at the behest of Felipe V, the Board was endowed of wide prerogatives from the political and administrative point of view, and was characterized by a rational, centralist stance. In practice, however, its function was limited in essence to the preservation of the Kingdom and the protection of the people's health against catastrophic diseases. It adopted measures of a defensive nature in the face of the various epidemics that occurred within the outside of Spain during the eighteenth century.

  4. Austrian-Hungarian Astronomical Observatories Run by the Society of Jesus at the Time of the 18th Century Venus Transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posch, Thomas; Aspaas, Per Pippin; Bazso, Akos; Mueller, Isolde

    2013-05-01

    The Venus transit in June 1761 was the first one to be observed on a truly international scale: almost 250 astronomers followed this rare celestial event (e.g. Wulff 2012, p. 115), and at least 130 published successful observations of it (Aspaas 2012, p. 423). The present paper deals with the astronomical observatories built by the Society of Jesus in its eighteenth century "Provincia Austriae", at which the 1761 transit could be observed. Five Jesuit observatories are being presented in this context: three in today's Austria, namely, two in Vienna and one in Graz; one in Trnava in today's Slovakia and one in Cluj in today's Romania. Thereafter, we briefly examine which of these observatories submitted any Venus transit observations for publication in the appendix to Maximilian Hell's "Ephemerides astronomicae ad meridianum Vindobonensem" for the year 1762.

  5. The garden as a laboratory: the role of domestic gardens as places of scientific exploration in the long 18th century

    PubMed Central

    HICKMAN, CLARE

    2014-01-01

    Eighteenth-century gardens have traditionally been viewed as spaces designed for leisure, and as representations of political status, power and taste. In contrast, this paper will explore the concept that gardens in this period could be seen as dynamic spaces where scientific experiment and medical practice could occur. Two examples have been explored in the pilot study which has led to this paper — the designed landscapes associated with John Hunter’s Earl’s Court residence, in London, and the garden at Edward Jenner’s house in Berkeley, Gloucestershire. Garden history methodologies have been implemented in order to consider the extent to which these domestic gardens can be viewed as experimental spaces. PMID:26052165

  6. New information on earthquake history of the Aksehir-Afyon Graben System, Turkey, since the second half of 18th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozer, N.

    2006-12-01

    Researches aimed at enriching the number of available documentary sources on earthquakes have an important role in seismology. To this end, this paper documents the history of prominent earthquakes associated with the NW-SE trending Sultandag-Aksehir Fault and Aksehir-Afyon graben system in Western-Central Anatolia since the historical times through 1766. This work also combines the earthquake data for both historical and instrumental periods, previously listed in various catalogues and resources, for the studied area. Documents from the Ottoman archives and libraries as well as the Ottoman and Turkish newspapers were scrutinized, and eight previously unreported earthquakes in the latter half of the nineteenth century and four new earthquakes in the period 1900-1931 were revealed. For the period from 1766 to 1931, the total number of known earthquakes for the area under investigation increased from eighteen to thirty thanks to the document search. Furthermore, the existing information on eleven previously reported earthquakes is updated for the period from 1862 to 1946. Earthquakes from 1946 to 1964 are compiled from the catalogues for data completeness.

  7. Loss of genetic diversity in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) associated with the fur trade of the 18th and 19th centuries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, S.; Jameson, R.; Etnier, M.; Flemings, M.; Bentzen, P.

    2002-01-01

    During 1969 and 1970, surveys of the endangered Yuma Clapper Rail were conducted using taped calls to elicit responses from the birds. During the two summers, more than 158 Yuma clappers were located in cattailtule marshes along the Colorado River south of Needles, California, to the International Boundary, a distance of about 240 miles. Clappers (probably of the same race) were also found in estuarian marshes of the Colorado River Delta of Mexico; in the Salton Sea; in two freshwater marsh areas near Phoenix, Arizona; and in two freshwater marshes adjacent to the lower Gila River near Tacna, Arizona.....Populations of Sonora Clapper Rails were discovered as permanent residents in five separate mangrove swamps along the west coast of Mexico in the vicinity of Kino Bay, Sonora. These observations were farther north than any heretofore reported for the race R. l. rhizophorae, and the swamps also represent the extreme northward limit of mangroves in Sonora.....During the winter, Yuma clappers did not respond to taped calls north of the International Boundary, whereas clappers along the coast of Sonora readily answered the calls during the same period of time. We conclude that most Yuma Clapper Rails migrate from their summer habitat along the Colorado River in September and do not return to the breeding areas until late April.

  8. Acoustics of early music spaces from the 11th to 18th century: Rediscovery of the acoustical excellence of medium-sized rooms and new perspectives for modern concert hall design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassuet, Alban

    2001-05-01

    The acoustical characteristics of 50 rooms that played a prominent role in the history of music between the 11th and 18th centuries were studied. The rooms include basilicas, oratorios, organ churches, and the great halls and courts of the European palaces. The research provides an understanding of the acoustical features that suit the early music repertoire, and how these rooms achieved an enhanced emotional engagement through their unique acoustical characteristics. This paper provides a summary of the acoustic measurements, which include binaural and B-format recordings in each of the rooms, and presents a unique new approach to understanding their subjective characteristics through detailed analysis and auralization of their 3-D impulse response. The study shows that the timing and direction of reflections in three dimensions is critically important to defining the subjective characteristic of a room. The results emphasize the importance of developing techniques to understand the 3-D impulse response and using auralization techniques for interpreting results and making subjective judgments. The enhanced musical experience that is achieved in these early rooms offers an invitation to rethink modern acoustics and to develop a new design approach that focuses more strongly on the subjective response and emotional engagement of the music.

  9. A Multi-Analytical Approach for the Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Conservation-Restoration Treatment of Moroccan Historical Manuscripts Dating to the 16th, 17th, and 18th Centuries.

    PubMed

    Hajji, Latifa; Boukir, Abdellatif; Assouik, Jamal; Kerbal, Abdelali; Kajjout, Mohamed; Doumenq, Pierre; De Carvalho, Maria Luisa

    2015-08-01

    The most critical steps during the conservation-restoration treatment applied in Moroccan libraries are the deacidification using immersion in a saturated aqueous calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) solution and the consolidation of degraded manuscripts using Japanese paper. The present study aims to assess the efficiency of this restoration method using a multi-analytical approach. For this purpose, three ancient Arabic Moroccan manuscript papers dating back to the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries were investigated to characterize the paper support and make a comparative study between pre-restoration and post-restoration states. Three structural and molecular characterization techniques including solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on (13)C with cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C CP-MAS NMR), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to elucidate the cellulose main features, to identify the inorganic composition of the papers, and to study the crystallinity of the samples. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) allowed us to obtain a qualitative and quantitative characterization of the mineral fillers used in the manufacturing of the papers. Scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) ascertained the state of conservation of the different papers and helped us to study the elemental composition of the samples. After restoration, it was shown that the deacidification improved the stability of papers by providing an important alkaline buffer, as demonstrated using FT-IR and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) results. However, XRD and ICP-AES did not confirm the pertinence of the treatment for all samples because of the unequal distribution of Ca on the paper surface during the restoration. The consolidation process was studied using SEM analysis; its effectiveness in restoring

  10. History of individuals of the 18th/19th centuries stored in bones, teeth, and hair analyzed by LA-ICP-MS--a step in attempts to confirm the authenticity of Mozart's skull.

    PubMed

    Stadlbauer, Christina; Reiter, Christian; Patzak, Beatrix; Stingeder, Gerhard; Prohaska, Thomas

    2007-06-01

    A cranium stored in the Stiftung Mozarteum in Salzburg/Austria which is believed to be that of Mozart, and skeletal remains of suspected relatives which have been excavated from the Mozart family grave in the cemetery in Salzburg, have been subjected to scientific investigations to determine whether or not the skull is authentic. A film project by the Austrian television ORF in collaboration with Interspot Film on this issue was broadcast at the beginning of the "Mozart year 2006". DNA analysis could not clarify relationships among the remains and, therefore, assignment of the samples was not really possible. In our work this skull and excavated skeletal remains have been quantified for Pb, Cr, Hg, As, and Sb content by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to obtain information about the living conditions of these individuals. A small splinter of enamel (less than 1 mm(3)) from a tooth of the "Mozart cranium" was also available for investigation. Quantification was performed by using spiked hydroxyapatite standards. Single hair samples which are recorded to originate from Mozart have also been investigated by LA-ICP-MS and compared with hair samples of contemporary citizens stored in the Federal Pathologic-Anatomical Museum, Vienna. In general, Pb concentrations up to approximately 16 mug g(-1) were found in the bone samples of 18th century individuals (a factor of 7 to 8 higher than in recent samples) reflecting elevated Pb levels in food or beverages. Elevated Pb levels were also found in hair samples. The amount of Sb in the enamel sample of the "Mozart cranium" (approx. 3 mug g(-1)) was significantly higher than in all the other tooth samples investigated, indicating possible Sb ingestion in early childhood. Elevated concentrations of elements in single hair samples gave additional information about possible exposure of the individuals to heavy metals at a particular point in their life.

  11. Some Radical Educational Networks of the Late Eighteenth Century and Their Influence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Ruth

    1998-01-01

    Examines the work of 18th-century educational reformer Anna Barbauld. Traces her links to other radical reform circles including the dissenting academy of Warrington, radical circles in East Anglia, Stoke Newington, the publisher Joseph Johnson, and Joseph and Mary Priestly. Discusses the impact of these groups on early 19th-century education.…

  12. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF EAST (FRONT) ELEVATION DURING EXCAVATION OF 18TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF EAST (FRONT) ELEVATION DURING EXCAVATION OF 18TH CENTURY BASEMENT ENTRY WELL AND DRAINAGE SYSTEM, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Belair, Tulip Grove Drive, Belair-at-Bowie, Bowie, Prince George's County, MD

  13. Organic Education in Public Schools of Late Nineteenth Century America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewes, Dorothy W.

    Organic education, which was introduced into the United States during the last third of the 19th century, was based upon Froebel's ideal of life as a connected whole. The late 19th century was a favorable period for innovation, for its economic prosperity made leaders feel that with the use of scientific methods anything was possible, and its…

  14. Late 18th to early 19th century sea-level history and inter-seismic behavior along the western Myanmar plate boundary belt recorded by coral microatolls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sze-Chieh; Shyu, J. Bruce H.

    2016-04-01

    Along the western Myanmar plate boundary belt, the Indian-Australian plate is subducting obliquely beneath the Burma micro-plate at a rate of about 23 mm/yr. Although information about the 1762 Arakan earthquake, the only major historical event occurred along this plate boundary belt, has been delineated recently from uplifted coastal features, constraints on the inter-seismic behavior of this belt is still very limited, due to the lack of high resolution instrumental records in the area. Therefore, we utilized coral microatolls to analyze relative sea level history, in order to obtain potential information of land-level change along the western coast of Myanmar. Our sample was collected from northwestern Ramree Island, approximately 80 km away from the trench. Previous studies suggest that the coral was uplifted and killed during a local earthquake event in 1848, and recorded relative sea level history of ~80 years prior to that event. Since the highest level of survival (HLS) of coral microatolls is constrained within a few centimeters of the lowest tide level of the area, the patterns of annual growth bands of the coral microatoll in x-radiograph provide us yearly record of relative sea level, and we used U-Th dating technique to constrain the age of the coral. Our results show that this coral microatoll may have recorded the inter-seismic subsidence of northwestern Ramree Island, punctuated by several climatic events that produced die-down records of the coral growth bands. We hope the data obtained from this coral microatoll, combined with previously reported information of the area, will enable us to further understand the seismic behavior of this major plate boundary belt.

  15. 18th International Mouse Genome Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Darla R Miller

    2005-07-01

    The 18th International Mouse Genome Conference was held in Seattle, WA, US on October 18-22,2004. The meeting was partially supported by the Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-04ER63851. Abstracts can be seen at imgs.org and the summary of the meeting was published in “Mammalian Genome”, Vol 16, Number 7, Pages 471-475.

  16. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY SKETCH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY SKETCH OF EXTERIOR From King's Hand-Book of Boston, fourth edition Photocopy by Jack E. Boucher, February 1962 - Massachusetts Charitable Mechanics Association, Exhibition Hall, Huntington Avenue & West Newton Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  17. [Of the Hôtel des invalides at the imperial court. Careers of Maloet father and son, doctors regents of the Medical College of Paris at the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Coquillard, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    Although the names of the 18 Century's doctors of Medicine are not unknown, no essay was really written about them and this paper tends to attract attention to the Parisian medical elite of the Ancient System. Pierre Maloet is the example of the doctor of the Monarchical system who as a doctor from Montpellier registered in the Paris Faculty at the beginning of the Century and thanks to his relations with the Guyard-Duchenne managed to be introduced into the Court and the military world. Maloets' careers are good illustrations of penetration into the society and onto the domain of the great varieties of medical exercises. Never they publicly claimed the new ideas of the Century of Enlightment but they embodied its contradictions into the attachment to old structures and the will of innovation.

  18. 18th International Conference on Antiviral Research.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, William M

    2005-08-01

    The 18th International Conference on Antiviral Research (ICAR) was held at the Princess Sofia Hotel in Barcelona, Spain, from 11th-14th April, 2005. This is a yearly international meeting sponsored by the International Society for Antiviral Research (ISAR). The current president of ISAR is John A Secrest 3rd of the Southern Research Institute. The scientific programme committee was chaired by John C Drach from the University of Michigan. ISAR was founded in 1987 to exchange prepublication basic, applied and clinical information on the development of antiviral, chemical and biological agents as well as to promote collaborative research. The ISAR has had a major role in the significant advances of the past decade in the reduction of the societal burdens of viral diseases by the focus of ICAR on the discovery and clinical application of antiviral agents. The 18th ICAR was organised as a series of focus presentations on specific viral groups consisting of oral and poster presentations of original research findings. In addition, the conference included plenary speakers, award presentations, a minisymposium on bioterrorism, and a satellite symposium on clinical antiviral drug developments. The size of the conference (> 50 oral and 250 poster presentations) necessitates limitation to the most noteworthy in the judgment of this reviewer. The current membership of the ISAR is approximately 700 with approximately 50% the membership in attendance. PMID:16086663

  19. 8. 1770 S. CANALPORT & 530 W. 18TH STREET. SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. 1770 S. CANALPORT & 530 W. 18TH STREET. SOUTH FRONT MAIN ENTRY OF 1770 CANALPORT & SOUTHEAST CORNER OF 530 W. 18TH STREET. VIEW TO NORTHWEST - Peter Schoenhofen Brewery, West Eighteenth Street & Canalport Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  20. Problema vizual'noj registratsii nablyudenij v opticheskoj astronomii XVII-XVIII vekov %t Problem of visual registration of observations in optical astronomy in the 17th-18th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Kostantin V.

    This paper attempts to explain the growth of optical astronomy as a result of more general social and cultural change in European life during the two post-Renaissance centuries. It shows how the introduction of optical instruments into astronomical work was accompanied (and partly conditioned) by a few nonastronomical practices, such as collecting unusual things and their images, producing illusionary effects by means of optical devices, manufacturing pictures that could disturb the common visual perception, etc. The paper draws particular attention to the practices of manipulation with visual images that could help to introduce "illusionary" optical knowledge into making "true" drawings from natural objects, including celestial ones. In this way, the formation of new astronomical language can be understood as closely connected to the explicit formulation of technological instructions and legal rules for making copies from natural objects, as well as the general development of printing production and broadening of the market of printed illustrations. These often not enough co-ordinated practices stipulated the shift of optical astronomy into a significant part of seigniorial culture, where it obtained recognition as an essentially new and elite knowledge, associated with particular technological vigilance. During the transition of European monarchies into the absolutist social order, astronomy, on a level with other court services, assumed a shape of professional occupation supplied with certain monetary salaries, a stable position in official hierarchy, and supreme privileges. This was the way by which astronomy merged with the other natural studies and became one of the publicly recognised scientific disciplines.

  1. Peterburgskaya akademiya nauk v XVIII v. i ee pol' v rasprostranenii N'yutonianstva na kontinente Evropy %t Petersburg Academy of Sciences of 18th century and its role in the dissemination of Newtonianism in teh continental Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevskaya, N. I.

    "Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" by I. Newton were published and immediately recognized in England in 1687. However in countries of the continental Europe up to 1744 dominated the Cartesianism. Few newtonians were exposed to persecutions. Under such circumstances in 1724 Peter The Great decided to found an Academy of sciences in Russia. Since in this country there were no scientists, it was decided to invite them from the continental Europe. Two scientists arrived to Russia were newtonians. Other just were graduated from universities and had no hope for scientific work in their native lands. This situation turned out to be rather happy. The newtonians - J. N. Delisle and J. Hermann - trained the youth (D. Bernoulli, L. Euler, F. Ch. Mayer, G. W. Krafft, A. D. Kantemir, G. W. Richmann, M. V. Lomonosov, N. I. Popov, V. K. Trediakovskij, A. D. Krasilnikov etc.). They created the science of Russia and enhanced the doctrine of Newton. Their scientific works were printed in "Commentarii" in Latin. The newspaper "St.-Petersburg sheets" and its appendix, the magazine "Notes on the Sheet" (issued in Russian and German) - published the works of Petersburg Academy of sciences and promoted the Newtonianism. Everyone, who could read in German, used these materials. One of the readers was I. Kant. He relied upon these publications in preparing his lectures at Königsberg University, and then later, in working out the cosmogony theory. The works of J. N. Delisle, L. Euler and A. C. Clairaut on the theory of comets' and planets' movement justified Newtons doctrine. They also forced J. Cassini to accept the doctrine as well. Delisle's papers on the history of astronomy published there are helpful for understanding of the history of development the astronomy. The books of J. F. Weidler "A history of astronomy" (1741) and "Astronomical bibliography" (1755) formed the basis for all histories of astronomy in the XVIII-XIX centuries.

  2. The nature of plague in late eighteenth-century Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mikhail, Alan

    2008-01-01

    This article uses an examination of the 1791 plague in Egypt to explore the relationships among disease, famine, flood, drought, and death in late eighteenth-century Egypt. It analyzes how plague functioned as part of a regular biophysical pathology of the environment in which the disease came and went as one iteration in a cycle that included famine, wind, flood, drought, price inflation, and revolt. Using the works of Egyptian chroniclers, archival materials, secondary studies, and traveler accounts, this article integrates plague into the study of the Egyptian environment by showing how it was a regular and expected part of life in Egypt. PMID:18622069

  3. Lightning and Gunpowder in the 18th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krider, E. P.

    2006-12-01

    On or before June, 1751, Benjamin Franklin and co-workers showed that gunpowder could be ignited by a small electric spark, and subsequently people used gunpowder to enhance the explosions of "thunder houses" to demonstrate that grounded metallic rods would protect model structures against lightning damage. Even before the sentry box and kite experiments proved that thunderclouds are electrified and that lightning is an electrical discharge in 1752, Franklin had hypothesized that a tall, well-grounded conductor might reduce or prevent lightning damage by silently discharging the cloud, and if a discharge did occur, then the tall rod would offer a preferred place for the lightning to strike, and the grounding conductors would guide the current into the ground in a harmless fashion. Over the next 10 years, experience gained through practice showed that grounded rods did indeed protect ordinary structures from lightning damage, but a question remained about the best way to protect gunpowder magazines. In 1762, Franklin recommended a tall "mast not far from it, which may reach 15 or 20 feet above the top of it, with a thick iron rod in one piece fastened to it, pointed at the highest end, and reaching down through the earth till it comes to water," and in 1772 he made a similar recommendation for protecting the British powder magazine at Purfleet. In 1780, Jan Ingenhousz asked Franklin to "communicate to me some short hints, which may occur to you about the most convenient manner of constructing gun powder magazines, the manner of preserving the powder from moisture and securing the building in the best manner from the effects of lightning." In his reply, Franklin detailed a method of protection that is almost perfect, "they should be constructed in the Ground; that the Walls should be lin'd with Lead, the Floor Lead, all 1/4 Inch thick & the Joints well solder'd; the Cover Copper; with a little Scuttle to enter, the whole in the Form of a Canister for Tea. If the Edges of the Cover scuttle fall into a Copper Channel containing Mercury, not the smallest Particle of Air or Moisture can enter to the Powder, even tho' the Walls stood in Water, or the whole was under Water." In 1876, the Scottish physicist, James Clerk Maxwell, made almost exactly the same recommendation for protecting against lightning, a method known today as a "Faraday cage."

  4. Surgery and national identity in late nineteenth-century Vienna

    PubMed Central

    Buklijas, Tatjana

    2008-01-01

    For historians of medicine, the professor Theodor Billroth of the University of Vienna was the leading European surgeon of late nineteenth century and the personification of intervention by organ or body part removal. For social and political historians, he was a German nationalist whose book on medical education heralded the rise of anti-Semitism in the Austrian public sphere. This article brings together and critically reassesses these two hitherto separate accounts to show how, in a period of dramatic social and political change, Viennese surgery split into two camps. One, headed by Billroth, was characterized by an alliance with the German educational model, German nationalism leading to racial anti-Semitism and an experimental approach to the construction of surgical procedure, which heavily relied on the methods of pathological physiology. The other, which followed a long Austrian tradition, stood for a clinically-oriented and strictly organized medical education that catered to an ethnically and socially diverse population and, simultaneously, for an anatomically oriented surgery, largely of the locomotor apparatus. This study shows how, in a major centre of medical education and capital of a multiethnic empire, surgical and national identities were forged together. PMID:18053931

  5. Azaria's antecedents: stereotyping infanticide in late nineteenth-century Australia.

    PubMed

    Kociumbas, J

    2001-01-01

    Recent historical studies have reconsidered the plight of white women accused of infanticide in Australia, casting new light especially on the motives of single women and mothers of large families. Still unredeemed and largely unanalysed, however, is the baby-farmer. This article explores stereotypes of this bête noire of the nineteenth-century city, addressing concurrent medicalisation of the maternal body, child-birth, infant feeding and foster care. In so doing it also analyses representations of the midwife and the wet-nurse, along with their essentialised opposite, the good mother, who abided by the newly defined "rights of the child".

  6. [Tuberculosis in Russia in the late 20th century].

    PubMed

    Shilova, M V

    2001-01-01

    The present tuberculosis epidemic situation in Russia is marked by an increasing role of exogenous infection. The peak deteriorated epidemic situation was observed in 1993 and 1999. There was a considerable deterioration of the epidemic situation in 1999 due to the economic crisis in August 1998, which caused a drastic fall in living conditions. Trends for an epidemic process changed in the 1990s. Spread of tuberculous infection occurs by the same mechanisms as did in the early 20th century. The official incidence of tuberculosis does not completely reflect actual morbidity (nearly by 15%) due to the fact that patients with tuberculosis have not been detected. PMID:11588973

  7. [Modern medicine environment and adaptation of Korean trader for medicinal herbs from the late 19th century to the early 20th century].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jeongpil

    2006-12-01

    Since the late 18th century, the Korean traditional medicine trade witnessed a steady growth. There were lots of stores which sold Korean medicinal herbs in Seoul and every major towns had at least one or more stores in Korea, which led to a subsequent growth of people involved in the trade. However, Korean medicine merchants encountered a new environment with the influx of western medicines after the Opening of Ports and the execution of modern medicine policies. Such change of atmosphere led the merchants to seek new breakthroughs. Some of the merchants found the answer in producing and selling patent medicine. The people in the industry had little knowledge of western medicine, so that they had little choice but to combine their experience of Korean medicine with whatever information they had about western counterpart. Such resolution generated a new kind of medicine known as patent medicine. Patent medicine businessmen observed the new medicine policies of the Korean Empire. Some visionary ones even sought to eagerly utilize the trademark system to secure the selling route. The Japanese colonial government strengthened the medicine policies. It revised the legislature and mobilized administrative powers to manage and control the industry. However, such colonial policies in the 1910s implicated certain limits due to its lack of understanding of Korean medicine industry. Also, the colonial government showed poor efforts in introducing modern medicine facilities and systems, so that the ground was set for the patent medicine business to flourish. Patent medicine enjoyed a high turnover. So, the entrepreneurs endeavored to promote the sales in whatever means necessary. The most basic form of advertisement was through the newspaper. Indirect promotion through newspaper articles, issuing medicine flyers, free gift draw, reputation of an influential expert were widely used for its sales. Consequently, patent medicine industry in the 1910s saw a healthy prosperity. One

  8. Modern solar maximum forced late twentieth century Greenland cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobashi, T.; Box, J. E.; Vinther, B. M.; Goto-Azuma, K.; Blunier, T.; White, J. W. C.; Nakaegawa, T.; Andresen, C. S.

    2015-07-01

    The abrupt Northern Hemispheric warming at the end of the twentieth century has been attributed to an enhanced greenhouse effect. Yet Greenland and surrounding subpolar North Atlantic remained anomalously cold in 1970s to early 1990s. Here we reconstructed robust Greenland temperature records (North Greenland Ice Core Project and Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2) over the past 2100 years using argon and nitrogen isotopes in air trapped within ice cores and show that this cold anomaly was part of a recursive pattern of antiphase Greenland temperature responses to solar variability with a possible multidecadal lag. We hypothesize that high solar activity during the modern solar maximum (approximately 1950s-1980s) resulted in a cooling over Greenland and surrounding subpolar North Atlantic through the slowdown of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation with atmospheric feedback processes.

  9. Stratospheric Ozone Predictions For The Late 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, A. R.; Olsen, M. A.; Stolarski, R. S.; Strahan, S. E.; Oman, L.

    2013-12-01

    Simulations of ozone evolution from 1960 until ~2100 from chemistry climate models (CCMs) that participated in CCMVal-2 are broadly consistent in that stratospheric ozone increases as chlorofluorcarbons decrease and the stratosphere cools (which affects the rate of temperature dependent loss processes), however, details of the projections vary significantly. Differences in the ozone response to specified changes in chlorine containing source gases dominate during the first half of the integrations. For example, from 1980 to 2000, chlorine change is by far the most important cause of ozone change, and the CCMs produce changes in the 60S-60N average column ozone that range between -3 DU and -17 DU. In the second half of the 21st century climate change is primarily responsible for ozone change. By 2080 the CCMs produce changes in the 60S-60N average upper stratospheric ozone column that range from 4 DU to 10 DU. The CCM range of differences is due to differences in both composition and upper stratospheric temperature. Ozone loss processes each have their own temperature sensitivity, and the net sensitivity of ozone to temperature change in each CCM depends on the relative importance of each loss process; this depends on the composition and temperature for the baseline atmosphere. In the lower stratosphere, climate change affects ozone evolution through changes in photochemical reaction rates due to stratospheric cooling and through circulation differences affecting transport of ozone and other trace gases. These are not separable using an approach such as multiple linear regression because changes in circulation and temperature have the same time dependence after accounting for contributions due to chlorine change. Recent attention has focused on similarity of the CCMs in that all predict a speed-up of the Brewer Dobson circulation. However, differences in the magnitude of the speed-up, differences in horizontal mixing and differences in the photochemical response to

  10. [Effects of physics on development of optometry in the United States from the late 19th to the mid 20th century].

    PubMed

    Kim, Dal-Young

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, it was studied how physics affected development of optometry in the United States, from aspects of formation and academization of optometry. It was also revealed that history of optometry was analogous to history of engineering. Optics in the 19th century was divided into electromagnetic study of light and visual optics. Development of the visual optics promoted professionalization of ophthalmology that had already started in the 18th century. The visual optics also stimulated formation of optometry and optometrists body in the late 19th century of the United States. The American optometrists body were originated from opticians who had studied visual optics. Publication of several English academic textbooks on visual optics induced appearance of educated opticians (and jewelers). They acquired a right to do the eye examination in the early 20th century after C. F. Prentice's trial in 1897, evolving into optometrists. The opticians could be considered as craftsmen, and they were divided into (dispensing) opticians and optometrists. Such history of American optometrists body is analogous to that of engineers body in the viewpoints of craftsmen origin and separation from craftsmen. Engineers were also originated from educated craftsmen, but were separated from craftsmen when engineering was built up. Education system and academization of optometry was strongly influenced by physics, too. When college education of optometry started at American universities, it was not belonged to medical school but to physics department. Physics and optics were of great importance in curriculum, and early faculty members were mostly physicists. Optometry was academized in the 1920s by the college education, standardization of curriculum, and formation of the American Academy of Optometry. This is also analogous to history of engineering, which was academized by natural sciences, especially by mathematics and physics. The reason why optometry was academized not by

  11. 18th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Thomas L. (Compiler)

    2005-01-01

    The 18th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology (SPRAT XVIII) Conference was held September 16 to 18, 2003, at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Brook Park, Ohio. The SPRAT conference, hosted by the Photovoltaic and Space Environments Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center, brought together representatives of the space photovoltaic community from around the world to share the latest advances in space solar cell technology. This year s conference continued to build on many of the trends shown in SPRAT XVII-the continued advances of thin-film and multijunction solar cell technologies and the new issues required to qualify those types of cells for space applications.

  12. Converting the Rosebud: Sicangu Lakota Catholicism in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitz, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a number of the dominant features of late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Indian Catholicism on the Rosebud Reservation, focusing primarily on the Sicangu's responses to the significant differences between their traditional religious customs and the beliefs, rituals, and requirements of Catholicism. It first examines…

  13. 1. COPY OF A LATE 19TH CENTURY BUSINESS CARD FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. COPY OF A LATE 19TH CENTURY BUSINESS CARD FOR A. ALEXANDER & SON FLOURING MILLS. CARD OWNED BY THOMAS R. WILSON. Photographer: Berni Rich, Score Photographers, September 1986. - Alexander's Grist Mill, Lock 37 on Ohio & Erie Canal, South of Cleveland, Valley View, Cuyahoga County, OH

  14. Charlotte Mason, Home Education and the Parents' National Educational Union in the Late Nineteenth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bellaigue, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the work of educationist Charlotte Mason (1842-1923) to explore the practice of home education in the late nineteenth century. Mason's work reflected and responded to the particular circumstances and concerns of her clientele. She provided a way for parents to compensate for the practical deficiencies of contemporary…

  15. "The Business of Life": Educating Catholic Deaf Children in Late Nineteenth-Century England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangion, Carmen M.

    2012-01-01

    Much of the debates in late nineteenth-century Britain regarding the education of deaf children revolved around communication. For many Victorians, sign language was unacceptable; many proponents of oralism attempted to "normalise" the hearing impaired by replacing deaf methods of communication with spoken language and lipreading. While debates on…

  16. Dragons in English: The Great Change of the Late Nineteenth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheetham, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    The impetus for the incredible variety found in the modern literary dragon is commonly seen to stem from the creative genius of either E. Nesbit or Kenneth Grahame. However, examination of dragon stories in the late nineteenth century shows that several different authors, on both sides of the Atlantic, were producing similar stories at about the…

  17. 12. Photocopy, BOYS' MILITARY BAND, mid or late 19th century. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy, BOYS' MILITARY BAND, mid or late 19th century. Original photograph at State Historical Society of North Dakota, file No. TF854 - Fort Totten, 12 miles southwest of Devils Lake City off Route 57, Devils Lake, Ramsey County, ND

  18. Building the Ivory Tower: The Social Functions of Late Nineteenth Century Collegiate Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, R. A.; Knight, Rex

    1982-01-01

    Between 1870 and 1914 there was an expansion of the ancient universities in England and the appearance of "redbrick" universities. Ways in which architects attempted to establish a new style of collegiate architecture suggesting the antiquity and prestige of the universities, yet appropriate for the late nineteenth century, are examined.…

  19. Manners of Speaking: Linguistic Capital and the Rhetoric of Correctness in Late-Nineteenth-Century America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, William Rodney, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    A number of arguments appeared in the late-nineteenth-century United States about "correctness" in language, arguments for and against enforcing a standard of correctness and arguments about what should count as correct in language. Insofar as knowledge about and facility with "correct" linguistic usage could affect one's standing in the social…

  20. Alcoholism in Romania in the Late Nineteenth Century and at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century

    PubMed Central

    ANDREESCU, OANA; LEAŞU, FLORIN; ROGOZEA, LILIANA

    2014-01-01

    Although alcohol consumption has been described from the earliest times, alcohol abuse has grown significantly since the mid-nineteenth century as a consequence of the industrialization progress. Due to the socio-economic profile of Romania, which was considered to be agrarian, the idea of developing mainly the industry branches belonging to agriculture was considered. Amongst these branches, the production of alcohol appeared to be the most appropriate. The political state leaders from Romania enjoyed the taxes collected from alcohol commercialization, disregarding the costs involved in alcoholism which went far beyond them. PMID:26528038

  1. Alcoholism in Romania in the Late Nineteenth Century and at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century.

    PubMed

    Andreescu, Oana; Leaşu, Florin; Rogozea, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    Although alcohol consumption has been described from the earliest times, alcohol abuse has grown significantly since the mid-nineteenth century as a consequence of the industrialization progress. Due to the socio-economic profile of Romania, which was considered to be agrarian, the idea of developing mainly the industry branches belonging to agriculture was considered. Amongst these branches, the production of alcohol appeared to be the most appropriate. The political state leaders from Romania enjoyed the taxes collected from alcohol commercialization, disregarding the costs involved in alcoholism which went far beyond them. PMID:26528038

  2. JANNAF 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 18 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) meeting held jointly with the 36th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and 24th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS) meetings. The meeting was held 18-21 October 1999 at NASA Kennedy Space Center and The DoubleTree Oceanfront Hotel, Cocoa Beach, Florida. Topics covered at the PSHS meeting include: shaped charge jet and kinetic energy penetrator impact vulnerability of gun propellants; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; violent reaction; detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials subjected to shock and impact stimuli; and hazard classification, insensitive munitions, and propulsion systems safety.

  3. EDITORIAL: The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Soto, Luis L.; Man'ko, Margarita A.

    2012-02-01

    to the proceedings of the 15th CEWQO (Physica Scripta 2009 T135 011005). The 18th edition of CEWQO (CEWQO11) was held in Madrid in 2011. There were about 250 participants, from practically every European country. Many colleagues from other continents also joined the event, including well-established researchers in the field. This is a clear demonstration that these meetings provide an excellent chance to hear about the latest results and new directions of research. The organization of CEWQO11 was carried out by a committee consisting of members active in this topic in Madrid. From Universidad Complutense, Alberto Galindo and Luis L Sánchez-Soto from Universidad Autónoma, Jose Calleja and Carlos Tejedor; from Universidad Politécnica, Enrique Calleja; from Universidad Carlos III, Alberto Ibort; and from the National Research Council (CSIC), Juan León and Juan J García-Ripoll. Special thanks go to the Spanish Ministry for Science and Innovation, Universidad Complutense and the Quitemad Consortium for financial support. The proceedings of the 16th CEWQO held at the University of Turku, Finland and the 17th CEWQO held at the University of St Andrews, Scotland, UK are also available (Physica Scripta 2010 T140 and Physica Scripta 2011 T143). The present Topical Issue is a collection of papers presented in Madrid; they represent an illustrative sample of the major achievements and trends in this area. In turn, they reflect the wide range of interests in this rapidly evolving field. Some collaborators from different scientific centres who could not, due to different reasons, come to Madrid, but participated in previous CEWQOs and plan to participate in future CEWQOs, also contributed to this issue. The papers are arranged alphabetically by the name of the first author. Special thanks goes to Roger Wäppling, the Managing Editor of Physica Scripta, and Graeme Watt, the Publisher, for the opportunity to publish CEWQO11. From a Physica Scripta Editorial Board meeting it was

  4. Glacier changes on South Georgia since the late-19th century documented in historical photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, John; Haynes, Valerie

    2014-05-01

    South Georgia is one of the few landmasses in the Southern Ocean. It provides a crucial geographical datapoint for glacier responses to climate change over different timescales. As part of an ongoing glacier inventory of the island, we are compiling a database of historical glacier photographs. Since the late 19th century, the island has been visited by numerous scientific and survey expeditions, as well as being the land-base for a major whaling industry. Historical photographs of the island are available from the late-19th century, beginning with the 1882-83 German International Polar Year Expedition. Many more exist from the 20th century, notably from the South Georgia Surveys in the 1950s. An assessment of the value of the photographs indicates that spatial coverage is variable, many lack reference features to pinpoint glacier positions and, in the case of smaller glaciers, the presence of snowcover makes it difficult to define the ice edge. Nevertheless, the photographs provide useful corroboration of more advanced glacier positions during the late-19th century and recession of smaller mountain and valley glaciers during the mid-20th century, while larger tidewater and sea-calving glaciers generally remained in relatively advanced positions until the 1980s. Since then, nearly all the glaciers have retreated; some of these retreats have been dramatic and a number of small mountain glaciers have fragmented or disappeared. The response of the glaciers can be related to synoptic-scale warming, particularly since the 1950s, moderated by individual glacier geometry and topography.

  5. The purple coloration of four late 19th century silk dresses: A spectroscopic investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhead, Andrea L.; Cosgrove, Bronwyn; Church, Jeffrey S.

    2016-02-01

    Prior to the 19th century the use of purple dyes for textile coloration was expensive and usually limited to royalty. The discovery of several synthetic purple dyes during the 19th century made the production of purple textiles more affordable and thus more readily available. The identification of the source of the purple coloration is of historical interest. Small yarn samples from four late 19th century silk dresses were analyzed using a combination of thin layer chromatography and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. This combination of techniques enabled the analysis of the complex extraction products. While three of the dresses were found to be dyed using methyl violet, the fourth dress was found to be constructed from a warp yarn dyed with methyl violet in the presence of a tannic acid mordant, and a weft yarn dyed with mauve and a tin mordant.

  6. The purple coloration of four late 19th century silk dresses: A spectroscopic investigation.

    PubMed

    Woodhead, Andrea L; Cosgrove, Bronwyn; Church, Jeffrey S

    2016-02-01

    Prior to the 19th century the use of purple dyes for textile coloration was expensive and usually limited to royalty. The discovery of several synthetic purple dyes during the 19th century made the production of purple textiles more affordable and thus more readily available. The identification of the source of the purple coloration is of historical interest. Small yarn samples from four late 19th century silk dresses were analyzed using a combination of thin layer chromatography and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. This combination of techniques enabled the analysis of the complex extraction products. While three of the dresses were found to be dyed using methyl violet, the fourth dress was found to be constructed from a warp yarn dyed with methyl violet in the presence of a tannic acid mordant, and a weft yarn dyed with mauve and a tin mordant. PMID:26523685

  7. FOREWORD: 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana; Genova, Julia; Nesheva, Diana; Petrov, Alexander G.; Primatarowa, Marina T.

    2014-12-01

    We are delighted to present the Proceedings of the 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics: Challenges of Nanoscale Science: Theory, Materials, Applications, organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and chaired by Professor Alexander G Petrov. On this occasion the School was held in memory of Professor Nikolay Kirov (1943-2013), former Director of the Institute and Chairman between 1991 and 1998. The 18ISCMP was one of several events dedicated to the 145th anniversary of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in 2014, and was held in the welcoming Black Sea resort of St. Constantine and Helena near Varna, at the Hotel and Congress Centre Frederic Joliot-Curie. Participants from 16 countries delivered 32 invited lectures, and 71 contributed posters were presented over three lively and well-attended evening sessions. Manuscripts submitted to the Proceedings were refereed in accordance with the guidelines of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series, and we believe the papers published herein testify to the high technical quality and diversity of contributions. A satellite meeting, Transition Metal Oxide Thin Films - Functional Layers in Smart Windows and Water Splitting Devices: Technology and Optoelectronic Properties was held in parallel with the School (http://www.inera.org, 3-6 Sept 2014). This activity, which took place under the FP7-funded project INERA, offered opportunities for crossdisciplinary discussions and exchange of ideas between both sets of participants. As always, a major factor in the success of the 18ISCMP was the social programme, headed by the organized events (Welcome and Farewell Parties) and enhanced in no small measure by a variety of pleasant local restaurants, bars and beaches. We are most grateful to staff of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series for their continued support for the School, this being the third occasion on which the Proceedings have been published under its

  8. EDITORIAL: The 18th European Workshop on Micromechanics (MME 07)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, J. H.

    2008-06-01

    This special issue of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering is devoted to the 18th European Workshop on Micromechanics (MME 07), which took place at the University of Minho, Guimarães, Portugal from 16-18 September 2007. Since the first workshop at the University of Twente in 1989 the field of micromechanics has grown substantially and new fields have been added: optics, RF, biomedical, chemistry, and in recent years the emergence of nanotechnology. This year an extensive programme was scheduled with contributions from new materials research to new manufacturing techniques. In addition, the invited speakers presented a review of the state-of-the-art in several main trends in current research, with the focus on micro/nanosystems in the ICT Work Programme in EC FP7. As ever, the two day workshop was attended by delegates from all over Europe, the USA, Brazil, Egypt, Japan and Canada. A total of 96 papers were accepted for presentation and there were a further five keynote presentations. The workshop provides a forum for young researchers to learn about new experimental methods and to enhance their knowledge of the field. This special issue presents a selection of 17 of the best papers from the workshop. The papers highlight fluidic and optical devices, energy scavenging microsystems, neural probe arrays and microtechnology fabrication techniques. All the papers went through the regular reviewing procedure of IOP Publishing, and I am grateful to all the referees for their excellent work. I would also like to extend my thanks to Professor Robert Puers for advice on the final selection of papers and to Ian Forbes of IOP Publishing for managing the entire process. My thanks also go to the editorial staff of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering. I believe that this special issue will provide a good overview of the topics presented at the workshop and I hope you enjoy reading it.

  9. Priestley's Shadow and Lavoisier's Influence: Electricity and Heat in the Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Amy

    In the late eighteenth century, Joseph Priestley argued that any complete theory of heat also had to explain electrical phenomena, which manifested many similar effects to heat. For example, sparking or heating a sample of trapped air caused a reduction in the volume of air and made the gas toxic to living organisms. Because of the complexity of electrical and thermal phenomena, Antoine Lavoisier did not address electrical action in his published works. Rather, he focused on those effects produced by heating alone. With the success of Lavoisier's caloric theory of heat, natural philosophers and chemists continued to debate the relationship between heat and electricity. In this presentation, I compare and contrast the fate of caloric in early-nineteenth-century electrical studies via the work of two scientists: Humphry Davy in Britain and Robert Hare in America.

  10. Paths to and from poverty in late 19th century novels

    PubMed Central

    Howden‐Chapman, Philippa; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2006-01-01

    Late 19th century novels provide graphic descriptions of working and living conditions and their impact on population health, in particular the detrimental effects of hunger, poor housing, environmental conditions, hazardous work and poor pay, smoking and alcohol and crime, but also the transformative possibilities of social and political action. The popularity of these novels helped raise the collective conscience of citizens and illuminated the direction for 20th century welfare reforms. Yet many of these problems remain and the pathways to and from poverty are still recognisable today. Although novels are now less central in conveying social information, re‐reading these novels enables us to understand how social and economic circumstances were understood at the time and what led to social and political change. PMID:16415257

  11. ["Catching falcons, training and keeping healthy". A hunting related reference of the late 16th century].

    PubMed

    Giese, Martina

    2009-01-01

    The "Osterreichische Nationalbibliothek" in Vienna houses a copy of Jacques Du Fouilloux, La vénerie avec plusieurs receptes pour guerir les chiens, Poitiers 1564 (signature: *44. Q. 13), a classic of early modern hunting literature, containing handwritten german notes on the catching, training and healing of birds of prey, mostly falcons, written by the anonymous passionate falconer who owned the print in the late 16th century. These handwritten notes are an interesting document for the history of falconry and likewise for the special terminology of this field of hunting "Fachprosa". In the appendix of the article the handwritten notes are edited and commented.

  12. Pioneers of Gentrification: Transformation in Global Neighborhoods in Urban America in the Late Twentieth Century.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jackelyn

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have considered the role of immigration in the rise of gentrification in the late twentieth century. Analysis of U.S. Census and American Community Survey data over 24 years and field surveys of gentrification in low-income neighborhoods across 23 U.S. cities reveal that most gentrifying neighborhoods were "global" in the 1970s or became so over time. An early presence of Asians was positively associated with gentrification; and an early presence of Hispanics was positively associated with gentrification in neighborhoods with substantial shares of blacks and negatively associated with gentrification in cities with high Hispanic growth, where ethnic enclaves were more likely to form. Low-income, predominantly black neighborhoods and neighborhoods that became Asian and Hispanic destinations remained ungentrified despite the growth of gentrification during the late twentieth century. The findings suggest that the rise of immigration after 1965 brought pioneers to many low-income central-city neighborhoods, spurring gentrification in some neighborhoods and forming ethnic enclaves in others. PMID:26689938

  13. William Keith Brooks and the naturalist's defense of Darwinism in the late-nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Nash, Richard

    2015-06-01

    William Keith Brooks was an American zoologist at Johns Hopkins University from 1876 until his death in 1908. Over the course of his career, Brooks staunchly defended Darwinism, arguing for the centrality of natural selection in evolutionary theory at a time when alternative theories, such as neo-Lamarckism, grew prominent in American biology. In his book The Law of Heredity (1883), Brooks addressed problems raised by Darwin's theory of pangenesis. In modifying and developing Darwin's pangenesis, Brooks proposed a new theory of heredity that sought to avoid the pitfalls of Darwin's hypothesis. In so doing he strengthened Darwin's theory of natural selection by undermining arguments for the inheritance of acquired characteristics. In later attacks on neo-Lamarckism, Brooks consistently defended Darwin's theory of natural selection on logical grounds, continued to challenge the idea of the inheritance of acquired characteristics, and argued that natural selection best explained a wide range of adaptations. Finally, he critiqued Galton's statistical view of heredity and argued that Galton had resurrected an outmoded typological concept of species, one which Darwin and other naturalists had shown to be incorrect. Brooks's ideas resemble the "biological species concept" of the twentieth century, as developed by evolutionary biologist Ernst Mayr and others. The late-nineteenth century was not a period of total "eclipse" of Darwinism, as biologists and historians have hitherto seen it. Although the "Modern Synthesis" refers to the reconciliation of post-Mendelian genetics with evolution by natural selection, we might adjust our understanding of how the synthesis developed by seeing it as the culmination of a longer discussion that extends back to the late-nineteenth century.

  14. Preface: 18th Aps-Sccm and 24th Airapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Gilbert; Moore, David S.; Yoo, Choong-Shik; Buttler, William; Furlanetto, Michael; Evans, William

    2014-05-01

    The 18th Biennial International Conference of the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter in conjunction with the 24th Biennial International Conference of the International Association for the Advancement of High Pressure Science & Technology (AIRAPT) was held at the Westin Hotel in Seattle, Washington from 7-12 July, 2013. This is only the second time that these two organizations have held a Joint Conference — the first was 20 years previous (1993) in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Seattle was chosen for this joint conference because of its central location for the world-wide attendees as well as its metropolitan vibrancy. The scientific program consisted of 858 scheduled presentations organized into 23 topical areas and included contributed (537), invited (95), and plenary (6) lectures, as well as two poster sessions with 110 posters each. The scientific focus of the Joint Conference was on fundamental and applied research topics related to the static or dynamic compression of condensed matter. This multidisciplinary field of research encompasses areas of physics, chemistry, materials science, mechanics, geophysics and planetary physics, and applied mathematics. Experimental, computational and theoretical studies all play important roles. The organizers endeavored to intertwine static and dynamic experimental alongside computational and theoretical studies of similar materials in the organization of the sessions. This goal was aided by the addition of three special focus sessions on deep carbon budget, high energy density materials, and dynamic response of materials. 722 scientists and engineers from 25 countries registered at the conference, including 132 students from 12 countries. The attendee countries represented included: Argentina (2), Australia (2), Brazil (3), Canada (25), China (22), Czech Republic (2), France (35), Germany (19), India (6), Israel (21), Italy (10), Japan (49), Netherlands (1), Poland (1), Portugal (2), Russia (26

  15. In Referees We Trust? Controversies over Grant Peer Review in the Late Twentieth Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Melinda

    While many accounts of external refereeing assume that it has been a consistent part of science since the seventeenth century, the practice developed far more slowly and haphazardly than many observers realize, and it was not until after the Second World War that ''peer review'' became considered an essential part of scientific publishing or grant-making. This talk will explore refereeing procedures at American grant-giving organizations in the twentieth century, focusing especially on the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health. The creators of the NSF and the NIH put refereeing systems in place at their foundation. However, the form and function of these systems differed from modern ''peer review'' in several important ways. At the NSF the initial purpose of the referee process was to advise the NSF program directors, not to dictate funding decisions. At the NIH, small ''study sections'' devoted to particular subjects made recommendations to the NIH leadership, which rendered final judgments. However, beginning in the 1960s a series of controversies about NIH and NSF grants placed refereeing procedures at these organizations under more intense scrutiny. These debates culminated in six days of Special Oversight Hearings into the NSF's peer review process in the summer of 1975. Following the hearings, both the NSF and NIH reformed their review processes to place more emphasis on referees' opinions about grant proposals, making peer review increasingly responsible for decision-making. These controversies illustrate that refereeing continued to undergo significant changes in form and purpose throughout the twentieth century, and further suggest that both the scientific community and the public placed increased emphasis on the role of the referee during the late twentieth century.

  16. EDITORIAL: 18th European Conference on Dynamics of Molecular Systems 18th European Conference on Dynamics of Molecular Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varandas, A. J. C.

    2011-08-01

    This special section of Comments on Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (CAMOP) in Physica Scripta collects some of the papers that have been presented at the 18th European Conference on Dynamics of Molecular Systems MOLEC 2010 held in September 2010 in Curia, Portugal, as part of a series of biennial MOLEC conferences. This started in 1976 in Trento, Italy, and has continued, visiting 17 cities in 11 countries, namely Denmark, The Netherlands, Israel, France, Italy, Germany, Czech Republic, Spain, United Kingdom, Turkey and Russia. Following the MOLEC tradition, the scientific programme of the Curia meeting focused on experimental and theoretical studies of molecular interactions, collision dynamics, spectroscopy, and related fields. It included invited speakers from 22 countries, who were asked to summarize the problems reported in their presentations with the objective of revealing the current thinking of leading researchers in atomic, molecular and optical physics. It is hoped that their authoritative contributions presented in this CAMOP special section will also appeal to non-specialists through their clear and broad introductions to the field as well as references to the accessible literature. This CAMOP special section comprises ten contributions, which cover theoretical studies on the electronic structure of molecules and clusters as well as dynamics of elastic, inelastic and reactive encounters between atoms, molecules, ions, clusters and surfaces. Specifically, it includes electronic structure calculations using the traditional coupled-cluster method (Barreto et al 028111), the electron-attached equation-of-motion coupled cluster method (Hansen et al 028110), the diffusion Monte Carlo method (López-Durán et al 028107) and the path-integral Monte Carlo method (Barragán et al 028109). The contributions on molecular dynamics include on-the-fly quasi-classical trajectories on a five-atom molecule (Yu 028104), quantum reaction dynamics on triatomics

  17. PREFACE: 18th Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials Conference (MSM XVIII)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, T.; Hutchison, John L.

    2013-11-01

    YRM logo This volume contains invited and contributed papers from the 18th international conference on 'Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials' held at St Catherine's College, University of Oxford, on 7-11 April 2013. The meeting was organised under the auspices of the Royal Microscopical Society and supported by the Institute of Physics as well as the Materials Research Society of the USA. This conference series deals with recent advances in semiconductor studies carried out by all forms of microscopy, with an emphasis on electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy with high spatial resolution. This time the meeting was attended by 109 delegates from 17 countries world-wide. We were welcomed by Professor Sir Peter Hirsch, who noted that this was the first of these conferences where Professor Tony Cullis was unable to attend, owing to ill-health. During the meeting a card containing greetings from many of Tony's friends and colleagues was signed, and duly sent to Tony afterwards. As semiconductor devices shrink further new routes for device processing and characterisation need to be developed, and, for the latter, methods that offer sub-nanometre spatial resolution are particularly valuable. The various forms of imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy available in modern microscopes are powerful tools for studying the microstructure, electronic structure, chemistry and also electric fields in semiconducting materials. Recent advances in instrumentation, from lens aberration correction in both TEM and STEM instruments, to the development of a wide range of scanning probe techniques, as well as new methods of signal quantification have been presented at this conference. Two topics that have at this meeting again highlighted the interesting contributions of aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy were: contrast quantification of annular dark-field STEM images in terms of chemical composition (Z-contrast), sample thickness and strain, and the study of

  18. Medicine, belief, witchcraft and demonic possession in late seventeenth-century Ulster.

    PubMed

    Sneddon, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Ireland's only published witchcraft pamphlet, written by Daniel Higgs, The Wonderful and True Relation of the Bewitching of a Young Girle in Ireland, What Ways she was Tormented, and a Receipt of the Ointment that she was Cured with (1699), works within the confines of late seventeenth-century demonology, while upholding the patriarchy of the fledgling Protestant Ascendancy. More importantly, it provides rare insight into early modern Protestant witchcraft beliefs, highlights the limits of contemporary medical care and provision and details the pathways of self-medication people resorted to. Higgs' method of promoting self-medication as a cure to bewitchment and demonic possession was based on a remedy described in an obscure Renaissance magical text. To promote his 'cure' the pamphlet included a particularly vitriolic critique of the established Irish medical profession, as self-regarding and incompetent witchcraft deniers. This article uses Higgs' pamphlet to explore the limits to/of medical knowledge in early modern Ireland and Europe.

  19. [Crespi d'Adda: psychosocial risk factors in a late 19th century company town].

    PubMed

    Punzi, S

    2012-01-01

    Crespi d'Adda is a late 19th century company town established around a textile factory by Cristoforo Benigno Crespi and his son Silvio. It was an ideal model of company residency being a self-sufficient microcosm equipped with all the services needed by a community where the life of workers and their families was revolving around the factory and the working requirements. It was the expression of philanthropic and patronizing enlightened entrepreneurs at that time, committed in protecting workers' life inside and outside the factory, resulting into a more affectionate and productive manpower. Silvio Benigno Crespi developed an extensive activity to improve working conditions, with special reference to accident prevention and work-related diseases, as well as night work in factories, weekly day off, reduction of working hours: we can say that in some ways he was concerned also with psychosocial risks. PMID:23405777

  20. [Outer form and internal disease: clinical photography in the late 19th century].

    PubMed

    Kröner, Hans-Peter

    2005-06-01

    Clinical photography in the late 19th century aimed at unveiling the hidden processes invisible to the clinical eye. Changes in the outer form hinted at deeper lying causes, and decoding these forms was supposed to extend the range of the clinical eye in to the realm of invisibility. Two suppositions supported this hope: the belief that each disease as an ontological entity showed typical exterior signs which allowed a diagnosis at sight, and the technological trust in photography as a precise and objective means of representation superior to the human eye. For a short time, clinical photography seemed to be the 'via regia" of diagnosis. Heinrich Curschmann's Klinische Abbildungen and Ludwig Jankau's periodical Internationale medizinisch-photographische Monatsschrift marked the climax of this development in Germany. Röntgen's discovery and its immediate application in clinical medicine put an end to the optimistic expectations: clinical photography was from now on only one among many different means of documenting clinical signs and findings.

  1. [School museums, collections, and elementary teaching of the natural sciences in late XIX century Argentina].

    PubMed

    García, Susana V

    2007-01-01

    In this study we analyze the organization of natural science teaching within the Argentinian school context starting with teaching practices and material support in the late XIX century. By that time, school staff and teachers fostered modernization and nationalization of teaching by using collections with national issues and the foundation of museums within the schools. In particular, we examine the official debates over the mineralogical collections offered for sale by the naturalist Enrique de Carlés, and the "school museums" by professors Pedro Scalabrini and Guillermo Navarro. These account for the tension between searching for modern didactic materials associated with foreign models, and the importance of counting on elements that represented the country nature and industry.

  2. Medical confidentiality in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries: an Anglo-German comparison1

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Summary Professional secrecy of doctors became an issue of considerable medico-legal and political debate in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in both Germany and England, although the legal preconditions for this debate were quite different in the two countries. While in Germany medical confidentiality was a legal obligation and granted in court, no such statutory recognition of doctors’ professional secrecy existed in England. This paper is a comparative analysis of medical secrecy in three key areas - divorce trials, venereal disease and abortion - in both countries. Based on sources from the period between c.1870 and 1939, our paper shows how doctors tried to define the scope of professional secrecy as an integral part of their professional honour in relation to important matters of public health. PMID:21077462

  3. [THE SOCIAL HYGIENE AS A PHENOMENON OF SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION IN MEDICINE OF LATE XIX--FIRST HALF XX CENTURIES].

    PubMed

    Schepin, V O; Zatravkin, S N

    2015-01-01

    The article presents results of analysis of works of late XIX--first quarter of XY centuries devoted to problems of social hygiene. It is established that origin of social hygiene was directly related to crucial revision of conceptions of causes and essence of diseases that created necessary conditions for transfer into medicine ideas and methods of political economy, sociology and eugenics. It is proved that origin of social hygiene was appropriate consequence of those crucial alterations in mass physician's consciousness that characterize scientific revolution in medicine of late XIX--first half XX centuries.

  4. [THE SOCIAL HYGIENE AS A PHENOMENON OF SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION IN MEDICINE OF LATE XIX--FIRST HALF XX CENTURIES].

    PubMed

    Schepin, V O; Zatravkin, S N

    2015-01-01

    The article presents results of analysis of works of late XIX--first quarter of XY centuries devoted to problems of social hygiene. It is established that origin of social hygiene was directly related to crucial revision of conceptions of causes and essence of diseases that created necessary conditions for transfer into medicine ideas and methods of political economy, sociology and eugenics. It is proved that origin of social hygiene was appropriate consequence of those crucial alterations in mass physician's consciousness that characterize scientific revolution in medicine of late XIX--first half XX centuries. PMID:27116831

  5. Century-scale variability in late-summer rainfall events recorded over seven centuries in subannually laminated lacustrine sediments, White Pass, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockburn, Jaclyn M. H.; Lamoureux, Scott F.

    2007-03-01

    Formation of annually laminated sediments in Summit Lake, White Pass, British Columbia is controlled by runoff generated by snowpack and glacier melt and major rainfall events. The 700-yr varve record is divided into two subannual series (early and late) based on sedimentological criteria and sedimentary structures within each varve. A comparison of recent subannual laminae with nearby meteorological records supports the interpretation they are formed by river discharge events generated by major snow and glacier melt events and large late-summer rainfall events. A significant correlation exists between the late subannual thickness series and the size of the largest rainfall events in late summer. The long record indicates there was an abrupt increase in the thickness and frequency of major rainfall-induced sedimentary events at the end of the seventeenth century. In addition, the frequency of laminae generated by early runoff events also increased. However, early subannual varve thickness component remains statistically the same as the thickness prior to the end of the seventeenth century. This suggests the change in varve thickness at this time is due to increases in major late-summer rainfall frequency rather than increased sediment availability caused by regional Little Ice Age glacier advances.

  6. The Teaching of Astronomy in Jesuit Colleges in the 18th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanovas, J.

    On the occasion of the 250th anniversary of the foundation of the astronomical observatory at the college and seminary of Nagyszombat in 1755, it may be of interest to say something about the colleges of the Society of Jesus. The presence of the Jesuits there was brief, only two decades, as under the pressure of various external forces, the Jesuit Order was suppressed by Pope Clement XIV with the bull Dominus ac Redemptor on 23 July 1773. All the colleges that the Society had been running successfully all over the world either were closed, taken over by the governments, or given to the local bishops. Shortly after the Jesuits left the college of Nagyszombat, the king transferred it to Buda, where it gave rise to modern institutions of higher education derived. When Pope Pius VII returned to Rome after the Napoleonic wars, one of the first things he did was to reestablish the Society of Jesus in 1814. Old Jesuits, survivors of so many disgraces, joined younger Jesuits from Russia and Poland where in fact the order had never been suppressed. The most important of the Jesuit colleges, the Collegium Romanum in Rome, was given back to the Society of Jesus in 1823. Many other colleges were lost forever, but new ones were founded to continue the Society's previous successful activity.

  7. John Hyacinth de Magellan (1722-90): 18th century physicist with views on medical matters.

    PubMed

    Fernandes-Thomaz, Manuel

    2009-02-01

    John Hyacinth de Magellan, whose Portuguese name was João Hyacintho de Magalhaens, though not a doctor nevertheless had many contacts with doctors and showed a genuine interest in disseminating medical news to his many friends and correspondents in Europe. The abundant and less formal correspondence with his friend Ribeiro Sanches forms the greater part of the work but in letters to other correspondents, including Trudaine de Montigny, Condorcet, Volta, J A Euler, Fabroni and Johann III Bernoulli, we find comments on medical subjects. The Sanches letters are particularly interesting because they are private, friend-to-friend letters that convey spontaneous and sincere thoughts and feelings.

  8. Gestural Enthymemes: Delivering Movement in 18th- and 19th-Century Medical Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Sara

    2009-01-01

    This article contributes to recent efforts to add life and movement to rhetorical studies by focusing on the representation of movement in medical texts. More specifically, this study examines medical texts, illustrations, and photographs involving movement by Johann Casper Lavater, G. B. Duchenne de Bologne, Charles Darwin, and Etienne-Jules…

  9. Can legislation prevent debauchery? Mother gin and public health in 18th-century England.

    PubMed Central

    Warner, J; Her, M; Gmel, G; Rehm, J

    2001-01-01

    The "gin epidemic" of 1720 to 1751 in England was the first time that government intervened in a systematic fashion to regulate and control sales of alcohol. The epidemic therefore provides an opportunity to gauge the effects of multiple legislative interventions over time. Toward that end, we employed time series analysis in conjunction with qualitative methodologies to test the interplay of multiple independent variables, including real wages and taxes, on the consumption of distilled spirits from 1700 through 1771. The results showed that each of the 3 major gin acts was successful in the short term only, consistent with the state's limited resources for enforcement at the local level, and that in each instance consumption actually increased shortly thereafter. This was true even of the Gin Act of 1751, which, contrary to the assumptions of contemporaries and many historians, succeeded by accident rather than by design. The results also suggest that the epidemic followed the inverse U-shaped trajectory of more recent drug scares and that consumption declined only after the more deleterious effects of distilled spirits had been experienced by large numbers of people. PMID:11236401

  10. [Reform of public health in Central Europe during the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Kapronczay, Károly

    2010-01-01

    Author outlines the history of making and of development of public health during the period of enlightenment in Central Europe, with special regards on the Habsurg Empire, on Poland and on Russia. This development--including the foundation or reforms of medical education--was highly influenced by the ideas of the enlightened absolutism and by other international trends of the age as well. The detailed analysis of the factors shaping the history of public health in the three rather different countries shows an interesing parallelism regarding main issues. While re-organization of public health in all these countries was initiated and directed by the government and shaped according to western models, it was strongly influenced by local possibilities, culture and history.

  11. [Exploration of salt in Poland in the second half of the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Danowska, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Following the First Partition in 1772, Poland lost the salt mines in Wieliczka, Bochnia and in the territory of Ruthenia to Austria. This was a serious blow to the economy, because since then, it became necessary to import salt, which was primarily taken advantage of by the Royal Prussian Maritime Trading Company (Pruska Kompania Morska) importing it from Austria. King Stanislaw August Poniatowski tried to initiate the exploration and exploitation of salt in the areas where it could be profitable. To this end, he ordered the exploration to Filip Carosi and Stanislaw Okraszewski, among other. The salt-works of the Castellan of Leukow, Jacek Jezierski in the town of Solca, in the Lqczyckie Region, active since 1780, was a private investment. Leopold von Beust's Kompania akcyjna obtained salt from a brine near the town of Busko, and Kompania z Osob Krajowych--from a brine in the town of Raczki nad Pilica. In 1782, the King appointed The Ore Commission (Komisja Kruszcowa), consisted of twelve commissioners, in order to conduct the exploration for minerals, including salt, their extraction and further administration. The Crown Treasury Commission (Komisja Skarbu Koronnego), a magistracy dealing with, among others, the economy of the country in a broad sense, was also involved in the exploration and exploatation of salt. At its command, in the summer of 1788, Tadeusz Czacki made a tour of the Kielce region in search of traces of salt. In view of the important events of the Four-Year Sejm (Sejm Czteroletni) and the subsequent loss of independence, the subject of salt exploration had to be abandoned.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: New standards in 18th century astrometry (Lequeux, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lequeux, J.

    2014-05-01

    Catalogue of Flamsteed (flamstee.dat): John Flamsteed (1646-1719) was the first astronomer in charge of Greenwich Observatory. His stellar catalogue (Flamsteed 1725) was built on observations from 1675 to 1683 with a 6-feet radius sextant mounted on an axis parallel to the polar axis of the Earth, then from 1683 to 1719 with a mural circle with a radius of 79.5 inches (2m). 220 stars over 3925. Catalogue of Romer (romer.dat): Ole (or Olaus) Romer (1644-1710) is principally known for his 1676 discovery of the finite velocity of light, a discovery that he shared with Jean-Dominique Cassini. After a long stay in Paris, he returned to Copenhagen in 1681 and was appointed professor of astronomy at the University. The observatory and all the observations were destroyed in the great Copenhagen fire of 1728, with the exception of observations of 88 stars obtained during three observing nights, from 20 to 23 October 1706. La Caille's catalogue of fundamental stars (lacaifun.dat): Nicolas-Louis La Caille (or Lacaille, or de la Caille, 1713-1762) was a French astronomer who is remembered principally for his survey of the southern sky, where he introduced 14 new constellations that are still in use today. Before leaving for the Cape of Good Hope in 1750, he started a catalogue of the 400 brightest stars of both hemispheres, which he completed during his stays in Cape Town and in the Mauritius island, then after his return to Paris in 1754. He reduced the observations himself, including for the first time corrections for aberration and nutation, and published them with details of the observations and reductions (La Caille 1757). Bailly's adaptation of La Caille's catalogue of fundamental stars (bailly.dat): After the death of La Caille, Jean-Sylvain Bailly published a catalogue of the brighest stars of both hemispheres for the equinox B1750.0 in Ephemerides for 10 year from 1765 to 1775 (Anonymous (Bailly) 1763, p. lvii-lxiv). This catalogue obviously derives from the catalogue named lacaillefund.dat. La Caille's complete survey of the southern sky (lacaisur.dat): During his stay in Cape Town in 1751-1752, La Caille made the first systematic survey of the sky ever, in the modern sense. 244 stars over 9766. La Caille's catalogue of zodiacal stars (lacaizod.dat): When La Caille returned from his southern expedition in 1754, he undertook the construction of a catalogue of zodiacal stars. Mayer's zodiacal catalogue (mayer.dat): At exactly the same time as La Caille, Tobias Mayer (1723-1762) in Gottingen undertook a similar catalogue of zodiacal stars, using a 6-feet radius mural quadrant made by John Bird (1709-1776). 200 stars over 998. Bradley's stellar catalogue (bradley.dat): James Bradley (1693-1762) is famous for his discovery of aberration and nutation. From 1750 to his death in 1762, he built a large stellar catalogue, from observations first with an old mural sector and after 1753 with the Bird 8-ft mural sector located in Greenwich, where it 215 stars over 3220. Piazzi's stellar catalogue (piazzi.dat): Giuseppe Piazzi (1746-1846) built a large catalogue containing 7646 stars from 1792 to 1813, observed in Palermo with an altazimuthal circle of Jesse Ramsden (1735-1800) can still be seen. 202 stars over 7646. Lalande's stellar catalogue (lalande.dat): L'Histoire celeste francaise de Lalande (Lalande 1801), which contains the unreduced observations of approximately 40,000 stars, is the first very large stellar catalogue. 198 stars over ~45000. (10 data files).

  13. Frederica: An 18th-Century Planned Community. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Marion

    The excavated foundations of various structures in Frederica, Saint Simons Island, Georgia, remind visitors that from 1736 until 1758, this planned community served the military garrison quartered there and housed a population of 1000. This lesson is based on the Fort Frederica National Monument listed in the National Register of Historic Places.…

  14. [The natural dream: physiology of dreaming in the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Tavera, M

    2000-01-01

    To give back dreaming to reason, to remove from it "that which is marvellous, supernatural and often terrible for the common man who studies it seriously", that is the intention of Jérôme Richard and Samuel Formey, who were both contemporaries of the philosophers of the Age of the Enlightenment. Relying on the medical theories of the time as well as on the explanatory models of physiology and psychology, they try to demonstrate "the true cause of dreaming" and the natural character of the oneiric phenomenon. The transmission of sensations, the working of memory and the association of ideas, the nature and power of imagination, the predetermined or random character of dreams constitute the framework of the questions from which the explanation of "all this apparent confusion" is developed. PMID:10986794

  15. Communicating the new chemistry in 18th-century Portugal: Seabra's Elementos de Chimica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carneiro, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula; Simões, Ana

    2006-11-01

    In this paper, we analyse the aims, contents and impact of Seabra’s two-volume textbook - Elementos de Chimica ( Elements of Chemistry) - published in 1788 and 1790. Seabra’s Elements of Chemistry does not conform to the characteristics usually ascribed to textbooks by traditional historiography, and in particular to textbooks published in the peripheries. Marking the arrival of the new chemistry in Portugal, in a period in which many still resisted Lavoisier’s chemistry, this textbook was a state of the art account written in Portuguese, interspersed with critical evaluations, original comments and novel contributions. Despite being the only Portuguese chemistry textbook written during this period, it had hardly any readers, even among its natural audience at the University of Coimbra.

  16. [Theriacs in charity books, during the 17th and the 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Lafont, Olivier

    2010-10-01

    "Charity books" were books containing formulas of remedies, which were easy to prepare and not too expensive. Their purpose was to cure poor people who had not enough money to have access to official Medicine or who lived too far away from medicine doctors and apothecaries. They were then useful for charitable people such as country priests or charitable Ladies. Great Theriacs were very expensive and too difficult to prepare to be described in this kind of books for non-professional people. Simplified formulas were then proposed. They contained much less products and were quite cheaper. Some of these medicines are described in this article.

  17. [Reform of public health in Central Europe during the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Kapronczay, Károly

    2010-01-01

    Author outlines the history of making and of development of public health during the period of enlightenment in Central Europe, with special regards on the Habsurg Empire, on Poland and on Russia. This development--including the foundation or reforms of medical education--was highly influenced by the ideas of the enlightened absolutism and by other international trends of the age as well. The detailed analysis of the factors shaping the history of public health in the three rather different countries shows an interesing parallelism regarding main issues. While re-organization of public health in all these countries was initiated and directed by the government and shaped according to western models, it was strongly influenced by local possibilities, culture and history. PMID:21661255

  18. Complement research in the 18th-21st centuries: Progress comes with new technology.

    PubMed

    Sim, R B; Schwaeble, W; Fujita, T

    2016-10-01

    The complement system has been studied for about 120 years. Progress in defining this large and complex system has been dependent on the research technologies available, but since the introduction of protein chromatography, electrophoresis, and antibody-based assay methods in the 1950s and 60s, and sequencing of proteins and DNA in the 70s and 80s, there has been very rapid accumulation of data. With more recent improvements in 3D structure determination (nmr and X-ray crystallography), the structures of most of the complement proteins have now been solved. Complement research since 1990 has been greatly stimulated by the discoveries of the multiple proteins in the lectin pathway, the strong association of Factor H, C3, Factor B allelic variants with adult macular degeneration and atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome, and the introduction of the anti-C5 monoclonal antibody as a therapy for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome. Potential new roles for complement in tissue development and the search for novel therapeutics suggest a very active future for complement research. PMID:27371361

  19. Bradley's Nutation, 18th-Century Analytic Argument, and the Contemporary Technical Communication Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Michael G.

    One of the more difficult elements to teach well in the introductory technical writing classroom is rhetorical form. Although textbooks have gotten much better than in the past at teaching this element, some still imply that structure is a matter of filling up a set form with content. One way to help students avoid this difficulty is to introduce…

  20. AIP mutation in pituitary adenomas in the 18th century and today.

    PubMed

    Chahal, Harvinder S; Stals, Karen; Unterländer, Martina; Balding, David J; Thomas, Mark G; Kumar, Ajith V; Besser, G Michael; Atkinson, A Brew; Morrison, Patrick J; Howlett, Trevor A; Levy, Miles J; Orme, Steve M; Akker, Scott A; Abel, Richard L; Grossman, Ashley B; Burger, Joachim; Ellard, Sian; Korbonits, Márta

    2011-01-01

    Gigantism results when a growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma is present before epiphyseal fusion. In 1909, when Harvey Cushing examined the skeleton of an Irish patient who lived from 1761 to 1783, he noted an enlarged pituitary fossa. We extracted DNA from the patient's teeth and identified a germline mutation in the aryl hydrocarbon-interacting protein gene (AIP). Four contemporary Northern Irish families who presented with gigantism, acromegaly, or prolactinoma have the same mutation and haplotype associated with the mutated gene. Using coalescent theory, we infer that these persons share a common ancestor who lived about 57 to 66 generations earlier. PMID:21208107

  1. Tongue and lip frenectomy in Spanish medical texts of the 16th-18th centuries.

    PubMed

    Romero-Maroto, Martín; Sáez-Gómez, José Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The frena of the tongue and lip are normal structures of the buccal cavity, and surgical resection is only necessary in cases of hypertrophy. This article looks at medical texts of the Early Modern Era to analyze the origins and quality of our knowledge on this topic and examine any therapeutic measures proposed. This review shows that while the indications for carrying out tongue frenectomy are very similar to those today (speech and breastfeeding difficulties), those for carrying out a lip frenectomy are very different. Interestingly, apart from purely surgical or medicinal treatments, some authors indicated the need to complement such treatment with educational intervention and what can only be called basic speech therapy. PMID:22916406

  2. Communicating the New Chemistry in 18th-Century Portugal: Seabra's "Elementos de Chimica"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carneiro, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula; Simoes, Ana

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the aims, contents and impact of Seabra's two-volume textbook--"Elementos de Chimica" ("Elements of Chemistry")--published in 1788 and 1790. Seabra's "Elements of Chemistry" does not conform to the characteristics usually ascribed to textbooks by traditional historiography, and in particular to textbooks published in the…

  3. [Exploration of salt in Poland in the second half of the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Danowska, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Following the First Partition in 1772, Poland lost the salt mines in Wieliczka, Bochnia and in the territory of Ruthenia to Austria. This was a serious blow to the economy, because since then, it became necessary to import salt, which was primarily taken advantage of by the Royal Prussian Maritime Trading Company (Pruska Kompania Morska) importing it from Austria. King Stanislaw August Poniatowski tried to initiate the exploration and exploitation of salt in the areas where it could be profitable. To this end, he ordered the exploration to Filip Carosi and Stanislaw Okraszewski, among other. The salt-works of the Castellan of Leukow, Jacek Jezierski in the town of Solca, in the Lqczyckie Region, active since 1780, was a private investment. Leopold von Beust's Kompania akcyjna obtained salt from a brine near the town of Busko, and Kompania z Osob Krajowych--from a brine in the town of Raczki nad Pilica. In 1782, the King appointed The Ore Commission (Komisja Kruszcowa), consisted of twelve commissioners, in order to conduct the exploration for minerals, including salt, their extraction and further administration. The Crown Treasury Commission (Komisja Skarbu Koronnego), a magistracy dealing with, among others, the economy of the country in a broad sense, was also involved in the exploration and exploatation of salt. At its command, in the summer of 1788, Tadeusz Czacki made a tour of the Kielce region in search of traces of salt. In view of the important events of the Four-Year Sejm (Sejm Czteroletni) and the subsequent loss of independence, the subject of salt exploration had to be abandoned. PMID:25675732

  4. Healing with animals in the Levant from the 10th to the 18th century.

    PubMed

    Lev, Efraim

    2006-02-21

    Animals and products derived from different organs of their bodies have constituted part of the inventory of medicinal substances used in various cultures since ancient times. The article reviews the history of healing with animals in the Levant (The Land of Israel and parts of present-day Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan, defined by the Muslims in the Middle Ages as Bilad al-Sham) in the medieval and early Ottoman periods. Intensive research into the phenomenon of zootherapy in the medieval and early Ottoman Levant has yielded forty-eight substances of animal origin that were used medicinally. The vast majority of these substances were local and relatively easy to obtain. Most of the substances were domestic (honey, wax, silkworm, etc.), others were part of the local wildlife (adder, cuttle fish, flycatcher, firefly, frog, triton, scorpion, etc.), part of the usual medieval household (milk, egg, cheese, lamb, etc.), or parasites (louse, mouse, stinkbug, etc.). Fewer substances were not local but exotic, and therefore rare and expensive (beaver testicles, musk oil, coral, ambergris, etc.). The range of symptoms that the substances of animal origin were used to treat was extensive and included most of the known diseases and maladies of that era: mainly hemorrhoids, burns, impotence, wounds, and skin, eye, and stomach diseases. Changes in the moral outlook of modern societies caused the use of several substances of animal origin to cease in the course of history. These include mummy, silkworm, stinkbug, scarabees, snail, scorpion, and triton.

  5. [Doctors and surgeons in Extremadura at the end of the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Granjel, Mercedes

    2002-01-01

    The Royal Council of Extremadura was established by Carlos IV on 30 May 1790. Within a few months, its officials undertook a visit of the whole territory. They drew up a questionnaire with 57 items that allowed them to collect specific information of interest to the court. Through the information gathered from the responses of the different communities, we have studied the distribution of the doctors and surgeons practising there. This analysis allowed us to confirm the many different health and health care conditions in the region, and the determining demographic, social and economic factors that were, in the final instance, decisive for the presence of these professionals.

  6. Healing with animals in the Levant from the 10th to the 18th century

    PubMed Central

    Lev, Efraim

    2006-01-01

    Animals and products derived from different organs of their bodies have constituted part of the inventory of medicinal substances used in various cultures since ancient times. The article reviews the history of healing with animals in the Levant (The Land of Israel and parts of present-day Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan, defined by the Muslims in the Middle Ages as Bilad al-Sham) in the medieval and early Ottoman periods. Intensive research into the phenomenon of zootherapy in the medieval and early Ottoman Levant has yielded forty-eight substances of animal origin that were used medicinally. The vast majority of these substances were local and relatively easy to obtain. Most of the substances were domestic (honey, wax, silkworm, etc.), others were part of the local wildlife (adder, cuttle fish, flycatcher, firefly, frog, triton, scorpion, etc.), part of the usual medieval household (milk, egg, cheese, lamb, etc.), or parasites (louse, mouse, stinkbug, etc.). Fewer substances were not local but exotic, and therefore rare and expensive (beaver testicles, musk oil, coral, ambergris, etc.). The range of symptoms that the substances of animal origin were used to treat was extensive and included most of the known diseases and maladies of that era: mainly hemorrhoids, burns, impotence, wounds, and skin, eye, and stomach diseases. Changes in the moral outlook of modern societies caused the use of several substances of animal origin to cease in the course of history. These include mummy, silkworm, stinkbug, scarabees, snail, scorpion, and triton. PMID:16504024

  7. A historical perspective: infection from cadaveric dissection from the 18th to 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Benninger, Brion; Agutter, Paul; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2013-03-01

    Today, the study of human anatomy utilizing the ultimate study guide, the cadaver, is relatively safe. In the past, however, human dissection was dangerous. Prior to the germ theory, antibiotics, and the use of gloves, cadavers were often life threatening to dissectors including both the teacher and the student. Medical students who graduated in the United States before 1880 were unlikely to practice antisepsis in the dissecting room. In the present article, we review human cadaveric dissection in Europe and the United States primarily from the 1700s to the early 1900s in regard to its potential for transmission of infection to the dissector. A brief account of the infectious hazards of human cadavers in general and those of cadavers used for dissection in particular is given.

  8. The Visualization of Native-American Peoples in a Late-Nineteenth-Century Sculpture Program in Vienna, Austria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Bussel, Gerard W.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author addresses historical representational strategies in his "inside" look at how Native culture and people were viewed from the perspective of Europeans. He presents an interesting study of a series of late-nineteenth-century sculptures at the Natural History Museum in Vienna that represents Indians from throughout the…

  9. Discourses for the New Industrial World: Industrialisation and the Education of the Public in Late Eighteenth-Century Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Malcolm McKinnon

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at the transmission of ideas in the British Enlightenment. The focus is on three individuals, Matthew Boulton, James Keir and Anna Seward, who constructed and communicated messages about industrialisation in the late eighteenth century to the public rather than through formal education. Boulton, Keir and Seward attempted to…

  10. History, Nation and School Inspections: The Introduction of Citizenship Education in Elementary Schools in Late Nineteenth-Century Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evertsson, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    It was in the late nineteenth century that teaching in Sweden's elementary schools began its transformation from a religious education to a broader, national citizenship education that included history and geography. International research has pointed to a connection between the introduction of school inspections and the reform of public education…

  11. Late Nineteenth Century Popular Educational Conservatism: The Work of Coalminers on the School Boards of the North-East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Brendan

    1998-01-01

    Examines educational preferences of workers in England's North-East coal mining districts in the late 19th-century. Contrasts views of worker preferences represented in the memoirs of socialist labor organizers with the preferences recorded in votes of working-class members of local school boards. Finds a strong conservatism in many areas of…

  12. The lost origin of chemical ecology in the late 19th century.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Thomas

    2008-03-25

    The origin of plant chemical ecology generally dates to the late 1950s, when evolutionary entomologists recognized the essential role of plant secondary metabolites in plant-insect interactions and suggested that plant chemical diversity evolved under the selection pressure of herbivory. However, similar ideas had already flourished for a short period during the second half of the 19th century but were largely forgotten by the turn of the century. This article presents the observations and studies of three protagonists of chemical ecology: Anton Kerner von Marilaun (1831-1898, Innsbruck, Austria, and Vienna, Austria), who mainly studied the impact of geological, climatic, and biotic factors on plant distribution and survival; Léo Errera (1858-1906, Brussels, Belgium), a plant physiologist who analyzed the localization of alkaloids in plant cells and tissues histochemically; and Ernst Stahl (1848-1919, Jena, Germany), likely the first experimental ecologist and who performed feeding studies with snails and slugs that demonstrated the essential role of secondary metabolites in plant protection against herbivores. All three, particularly Stahl, suggested that these "chemical defensive means" evolved in response to the relentless selection pressure of the heterotrophic community that surrounds plants. Although convincingly supported by observations and experiments, these ideas were forgotten until recently. Now, more than 100 years later, molecular analysis of the genes that control secondary metabolite production underscores just how correct Kerner von Marilaun, Errera, and, particularly, Stahl were in their view. Why their ideas were lost is likely a result of the adamant rejection of all things "teleological" by the physiologists who dominated biological research at the time. PMID:18218780

  13. The lost origin of chemical ecology in the late 19th century

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The origin of plant chemical ecology generally dates to the late 1950s, when evolutionary entomologists recognized the essential role of plant secondary metabolites in plant–insect interactions and suggested that plant chemical diversity evolved under the selection pressure of herbivory. However, similar ideas had already flourished for a short period during the second half of the 19th century but were largely forgotten by the turn of the century. This article presents the observations and studies of three protagonists of chemical ecology: Anton Kerner von Marilaun (1831–1898, Innsbruck, Austria, and Vienna, Austria), who mainly studied the impact of geological, climatic, and biotic factors on plant distribution and survival; Léo Errera (1858–1906, Brussels, Belgium), a plant physiologist who analyzed the localization of alkaloids in plant cells and tissues histochemically; and Ernst Stahl (1848–1919, Jena, Germany), likely the first experimental ecologist and who performed feeding studies with snails and slugs that demonstrated the essential role of secondary metabolites in plant protection against herbivores. All three, particularly Stahl, suggested that these “chemical defensive means” evolved in response to the relentless selection pressure of the heterotrophic community that surrounds plants. Although convincingly supported by observations and experiments, these ideas were forgotten until recently. Now, more than 100 years later, molecular analysis of the genes that control secondary metabolite production underscores just how correct Kerner von Marilaun, Errera, and, particularly, Stahl were in their view. Why their ideas were lost is likely a result of the adamant rejection of all things “teleological” by the physiologists who dominated biological research at the time. PMID:18218780

  14. The fire ant wars. Nature and science in the pesticide controversies of the late twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Buhs, Joshua Blu

    2002-09-01

    This essay uses an approach borrowed from environmental history to investigate the interaction of science and nature in a late twentieth-century controversy. This debate, over the proper response to fire ants that had been imported into the American South accidentally and then spread across the region, pitted Rachel Carson and loosely federated groups of conservationists, scientists, and citizens against the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The analysis falls into three sections: an examination of the natural history of the ants; an examination of the views of the competing factions; and an examination of how those views, transformed into action, affected the natural world. Both sides saw the ants in terms of a constellation of beliefs about the relationship between nature, science, and democracy. As various ideas were put into play, they interacted with the natural history of the insects in unexpected ways--and with consequences for the cultural authority of the antagonists. Combining insights from the history of science and environmental history helps explain how scientists gain and lose cultural authority and, more fundamentally, allows for an examination of how nature can be integrated into the history of science.

  15. Medicine, belief, witchcraft and demonic possession in late seventeenth-century Ulster.

    PubMed

    Sneddon, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Ireland's only published witchcraft pamphlet, written by Daniel Higgs, The Wonderful and True Relation of the Bewitching of a Young Girle in Ireland, What Ways she was Tormented, and a Receipt of the Ointment that she was Cured with (1699), works within the confines of late seventeenth-century demonology, while upholding the patriarchy of the fledgling Protestant Ascendancy. More importantly, it provides rare insight into early modern Protestant witchcraft beliefs, highlights the limits of contemporary medical care and provision and details the pathways of self-medication people resorted to. Higgs' method of promoting self-medication as a cure to bewitchment and demonic possession was based on a remedy described in an obscure Renaissance magical text. To promote his 'cure' the pamphlet included a particularly vitriolic critique of the established Irish medical profession, as self-regarding and incompetent witchcraft deniers. This article uses Higgs' pamphlet to explore the limits to/of medical knowledge in early modern Ireland and Europe. PMID:26979075

  16. The fire ant wars. Nature and science in the pesticide controversies of the late twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Buhs, Joshua Blu

    2002-09-01

    This essay uses an approach borrowed from environmental history to investigate the interaction of science and nature in a late twentieth-century controversy. This debate, over the proper response to fire ants that had been imported into the American South accidentally and then spread across the region, pitted Rachel Carson and loosely federated groups of conservationists, scientists, and citizens against the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The analysis falls into three sections: an examination of the natural history of the ants; an examination of the views of the competing factions; and an examination of how those views, transformed into action, affected the natural world. Both sides saw the ants in terms of a constellation of beliefs about the relationship between nature, science, and democracy. As various ideas were put into play, they interacted with the natural history of the insects in unexpected ways--and with consequences for the cultural authority of the antagonists. Combining insights from the history of science and environmental history helps explain how scientists gain and lose cultural authority and, more fundamentally, allows for an examination of how nature can be integrated into the history of science. PMID:12592885

  17. Debating scientific medicine: homoeopathy and allopathy in late nineteenth-century medical print in Bengal.

    PubMed

    Das, Shinjini

    2012-10-01

    The historiography of medicine in South Asia often assumes the presence of preordained, homogenous, coherent and clearly-bound medical systems. They also tend to take the existence of a medical 'mainstream' for granted. This article argues that the idea of an 'orthodox', 'mainstream' named allopathy and one of its 'alternatives' homoeopathy were co-produced in Bengal. It emphasises the role of the supposed 'fringe', ie. homoeopathy, in identifying and organising the 'orthodoxy' of the time. The shared market for medicine and print provided a crucial platform where such binary identities such as 'homoeopaths' and 'allopaths' were constituted and reinforced. This article focuses on a range of polemical writings by physicians in the Bengali print market since the 1860s. Published mostly in late nineteenth-century popular medical journals, these concerned the nature, definition and scope of 'scientific' medicine. The article highlights these published disputes and critical correspondence among physicians as instrumental in simultaneously shaping the categories 'allopathy' and 'homoeopathy' in Bengali print. It unravels how contemporary understandings of race, culture and nationalism informed these medical discussions. It further explores the status of these medical contestations, often self-consciously termed 'debates', as an essential contemporary trope in discussing 'science' in the vernacular. PMID:23112381

  18. Dental health of the late 19th and early 20th century Khoesan.

    PubMed

    Botha, D; Steyn, M

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the results of the dental analysis performed on a Khoesan skeletal sample representing the late 19th and early 20th century Cape Colony in southern Africa. Skeletal material from two European collections (Vienna and Paris) was selected to compile a total sample of 116 specimens. Dental pathology frequencies were calculated for caries (28.4%), antemortem tooth loss (37.9%), periapical abscesses (29.3%), periodontal disease (26.7%), calculus (44.0%) and impacted canines (4.3%). Attrition scores indicated that the group under study had an average rate of attrition compared to other southern African populations. Frequency and intensity data were compared to several other samples from both the pre-contact and contact phases by means of chi-squared analysis. The outcome of the study suggested that the group under study was most likely in a state of transition between a diet and lifestyle of hunting-and-gathering and agriculture. Results were also consistent with those of groups from a low socio-economic status.

  19. Debating Scientific Medicine: Homoeopathy and Allopathy in Late Nineteenth-century Medical Print in Bengal1

    PubMed Central

    Das, Shinjini

    2012-01-01

    The historiography of medicine in South Asia often assumes the presence of preordained, homogenous, coherent and clearly-bound medical systems. They also tend to take the existence of a medical ‘mainstream’ for granted. This article argues that the idea of an ‘orthodox’, ‘mainstream’ named allopathy and one of its ‘alternatives’ homoeopathy were co-produced in Bengal. It emphasises the role of the supposed ‘fringe’, ie. homoeopathy, in identifying and organising the ‘orthodoxy’ of the time. The shared market for medicine and print provided a crucial platform where such binary identities such as ‘homoeopaths’ and ‘allopaths’ were constituted and reinforced. This article focuses on a range of polemical writings by physicians in the Bengali print market since the 1860s. Published mostly in late nineteenth-century popular medical journals, these concerned the nature, definition and scope of ‘scientific’ medicine. The article highlights these published disputes and critical correspondence among physicians as instrumental in simultaneously shaping the categories ‘allopathy’ and ‘homoeopathy’ in Bengali print. It unravels how contemporary understandings of race, culture and nationalism informed these medical discussions. It further explores the status of these medical contestations, often self-consciously termed ‘debates’, as an essential contemporary trope in discussing ‘science’ in the vernacular. PMID:23112381

  20. Debating scientific medicine: homoeopathy and allopathy in late nineteenth-century medical print in Bengal.

    PubMed

    Das, Shinjini

    2012-10-01

    The historiography of medicine in South Asia often assumes the presence of preordained, homogenous, coherent and clearly-bound medical systems. They also tend to take the existence of a medical 'mainstream' for granted. This article argues that the idea of an 'orthodox', 'mainstream' named allopathy and one of its 'alternatives' homoeopathy were co-produced in Bengal. It emphasises the role of the supposed 'fringe', ie. homoeopathy, in identifying and organising the 'orthodoxy' of the time. The shared market for medicine and print provided a crucial platform where such binary identities such as 'homoeopaths' and 'allopaths' were constituted and reinforced. This article focuses on a range of polemical writings by physicians in the Bengali print market since the 1860s. Published mostly in late nineteenth-century popular medical journals, these concerned the nature, definition and scope of 'scientific' medicine. The article highlights these published disputes and critical correspondence among physicians as instrumental in simultaneously shaping the categories 'allopathy' and 'homoeopathy' in Bengali print. It unravels how contemporary understandings of race, culture and nationalism informed these medical discussions. It further explores the status of these medical contestations, often self-consciously termed 'debates', as an essential contemporary trope in discussing 'science' in the vernacular.

  1. [THE IMPROVEMENT OF CITIES AND SANITARY CONTROL IN RUSSIA IN LATE XIX--EARLY XX CENTURIES].

    PubMed

    Sherstneva, E V

    2015-01-01

    The article considers activity of municipal self-governments of Russia concerning support of sanitary epidemiological well-being of cities in the late XIX--early XX centuries. The acuteness of problem of sanitary conditions of urban settlements particularly became visible in post-reform period due to increasing of number of urban population, alteration of setup and rhythm of life in cities, appearance of new forms of worker's daily chores. Al this, against the background of underdevelopment of communal sphere aggravated epidemiological situation in cities. The impulse to improvement and development of sanitary control was made by the city regulations of 1870 presenting to town authorities the right to deal with sanitary issues. The significant input into improvement of cities was made first of all at the expense of construction of water supplies and sewerage and support of sanitary control of these spheres of municipal economy. Under town councils of many cities the sanitary commissions were organized to support permanent sanitary control in town. The development of town sanitation followed the way of specialization. The housing and communal, trade and food, school and sanitary and sanitary and veterinary control were organized. PMID:26399074

  2. Dental health of the late 19th and early 20th century Khoesan.

    PubMed

    Botha, D; Steyn, M

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the results of the dental analysis performed on a Khoesan skeletal sample representing the late 19th and early 20th century Cape Colony in southern Africa. Skeletal material from two European collections (Vienna and Paris) was selected to compile a total sample of 116 specimens. Dental pathology frequencies were calculated for caries (28.4%), antemortem tooth loss (37.9%), periapical abscesses (29.3%), periodontal disease (26.7%), calculus (44.0%) and impacted canines (4.3%). Attrition scores indicated that the group under study had an average rate of attrition compared to other southern African populations. Frequency and intensity data were compared to several other samples from both the pre-contact and contact phases by means of chi-squared analysis. The outcome of the study suggested that the group under study was most likely in a state of transition between a diet and lifestyle of hunting-and-gathering and agriculture. Results were also consistent with those of groups from a low socio-economic status. PMID:25882044

  3. In pursuit of precision: the calibration of minds and machines in late nineteenth-century psychology.

    PubMed

    Benschop, R; Draaisma, D

    2000-01-01

    A prominent feature of late nineteenth-century psychology was its intense preoccupation with precision. Precision was at once an ideal and an argument: the quest for precision helped psychology to establish its status as a mature science, sharing a characteristic concern with the natural sciences. We will analyse how psychologists set out to produce precision in 'mental chronometry', the measurement of the duration of psychological processes. In his Leipzig laboratory, Wundt inaugurated an elaborate research programme on mental chronometry. We will look at the problem of calibration of experimental apparatus and will describe the intricate material, literary, and social technologies involved in the manufacture of precision. First, we shall discuss some of the technical problems involved in the measurement of ever shorter time-spans. Next, the Cattell-Berger experiments will help us to argue against the received view that all the precision went into the hardware, and practically none into the social organization of experimentation. Experimenters made deliberate efforts to bring themselves and their subjects under a regime of control and calibration similar to that which reigned over the experimental machinery. In Leipzig psychology, the particular blend of material and social technology resulted in a specific object of study: the generalized mind. We will then show that the distribution of precision in experimental psychology outside Leipzig demanded a concerted effort of instruments, texts, and people. It will appear that the forceful attempts to produce precision and uniformity had some rather paradoxical consequences. PMID:11624166

  4. SUMMARY REPORT OF THE DOE DIRECT LIQUEFACTION PROCESS DEVELOPMENT CAMPAIGN OF THE LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY

    SciTech Connect

    F.P. Burke; S.D. Brandes; D.C. McCoy; R.A. Winschel; D. Gray; G. Tomlinson

    2001-07-01

    Following the petroleum price and supply disruptions of 1973, the U.S. government began a substantial program to fund the development of alternative fuels. Direct coal liquefaction was one of the potential routes to alternative fuels. The direct coal liquefaction program was funded at substantial levels through 1982, and at much lower levels thereafter. Those processes that were of most interest during this period were designed to produce primarily distillate fuels. By 1999, U.S. government funding for the development of direct coal liquefaction ended. Now that the end of this campaign has arrived, it is appropriate to summarize the process learnings derived from it. This report is a summary of the process learnings derived from the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development campaign of the late twentieth century. The report concentrates on those process development programs that were designed to produce primarily distillate fuels and were largely funded by DOE and its predecessors in response to the petroleum supply and price disruptions of the 1970s. The report is structured as chapters written by different authors on most of the major individual DOE-funded process development programs. The focus of the report is process learnings, as opposed to, say, fundamental coal liquefaction science or equipment design. As detailed in the overview (Chapter 2), DOE's direct coal liquefaction campaign made substantial progress in improving the process yields and the quality of the distillate product. Much of the progress was made after termination by 1983 of the major demonstration programs of the ''first generation'' (SRC-II, H-Coal, EDS) processes.

  5. [Mental signs of individual predisposition to madness in French psychiatry of the late XIX-early XX centuries].

    PubMed

    Pyatnitskiy, N Yu

    2016-01-01

    The author analyze conceptions of mental signs of predisposition (diathesis, vulnerability) to non-psychotic and delusional mental disorders of functional origin described in the works of leading French psychiatrists of the late 19th/early 20th centuries (E. Regis, P. Serieux, J. Capgras, E. Dupre, J. Levy-Valensi etc). The descriptions of characteristics of some constitutional types and the differences in the structure of constitutional types and the structure of delusional disorders developed on their basis are compared.

  6. Pictures, preparations, and living processes: the production of immediate visual perception (anschauung) in the late-19th-century physiology.

    PubMed

    Schmidgen, Henning

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the visual culture of the late-19th-century experimental physiology. Taking this case of Johann Nopomuk Czermak (1828-1873) as a key example, it argues that images played a crucial role in acquiring experimental physiological skills. Czermak, Emil Du Bois-Reymond (1818-1896) and other late-19th-century physiologists sought to present the achievements and perspective of their discipline by way of "immediate visual perception (unmittelbare Anschauung)." However, the images they produced and presented for this purpose were strongly mediated. By means of specifically designed instruments, such as the "cardioscope," the "contraction telegraph," and the "frog pistol," and specifically constructed rooms, so-called "spectatoriums," physiologists trained and controlled experiments on their own. Studying the material culture of physiological image production reveals that technological resources such as telegraphy, photography, and even railways contributed to making physiological facts anschaulich. At the same time, it shows that the more traditional image techniques of anatomy played an important role in physiological lecture halls, especially when it came to displaying the details of vivisection experiments to the public. Thus, the images of late 19th century physiology stood half-way between machines and organisms, between books and instruments.

  7. Pictures, preparations, and living processes: the production of immediate visual perception (anschauung) in the late-19th-century physiology.

    PubMed

    Schmidgen, Henning

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the visual culture of the late-19th-century experimental physiology. Taking this case of Johann Nopomuk Czermak (1828-1873) as a key example, it argues that images played a crucial role in acquiring experimental physiological skills. Czermak, Emil Du Bois-Reymond (1818-1896) and other late-19th-century physiologists sought to present the achievements and perspective of their discipline by way of "immediate visual perception (unmittelbare Anschauung)." However, the images they produced and presented for this purpose were strongly mediated. By means of specifically designed instruments, such as the "cardioscope," the "contraction telegraph," and the "frog pistol," and specifically constructed rooms, so-called "spectatoriums," physiologists trained and controlled experiments on their own. Studying the material culture of physiological image production reveals that technological resources such as telegraphy, photography, and even railways contributed to making physiological facts anschaulich. At the same time, it shows that the more traditional image techniques of anatomy played an important role in physiological lecture halls, especially when it came to displaying the details of vivisection experiments to the public. Thus, the images of late 19th century physiology stood half-way between machines and organisms, between books and instruments. PMID:15685744

  8. Pacific Telecommunications Council Annual Conference Proceedings (18th, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 14-18, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedemeyer, Dan J. Ed.; Nickelson, Richard, Ed.

    The Pacific Telecommunications Council's 18th annual conference is presented in two volumes. The PTC'96 gathering focused on seven streams: socio-economic issues; regulatory, legal and political issues; business and finance solutions; country studies; education, training, and human resources; convergence and networks; and technologies and…

  9. Upper Mississippi River Floods During Late Holocene Warm Episodes: Implications for the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, J. C.

    2002-12-01

    Instrument records for the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) show that the mean and variance of annual maximum flood magnitudes increased during the late 20th century in relation to their long-term average values for the period from about 1880 to present. These increases parallel an observed global warming trend over the same period and the similarity supports the idea that global warming enhances the hydrologic cycle of the UMR watershed. However, a longer perspective from geologic evidence shows a more complex relationship between UMR floods and warm climate episodes whereby large floods tend to be especially frequent at the beginning of warm episodes and/or during short duration warm episodes. A proxy record of floods representing the last few thousand years is retained in the alluvial sedimentary record that underlies low terraces and the floodplain of the UMR. The bed sediments of the UMR and its floodplain secondary channels are dominated by sand,whereas large volumes of silt and clay are transported as suspended load,especially during floods.Turbulent energy of floods delivers sediment onto floodplain and low terraces resulting in vertical strata of various mixtures of sand, silt, and clay that reflect the specific energy of the floods and define individual flood depositional units. Deposits associated with periods of small floods normally are finer textured and are associated with relatively higher magnitudes of organic carbon than deposits associated with large floods. Application of radiocarbon dating to alluvial deposits of the UMR on Wisconsin's western border indicates that exceptionally large floods occurred about 4700, 2500-2200, 1800-1500, 1280, 1000-750, and 600-300 calendar years B.P. These ages, in many cases, are broadly similar to the ages of about 4800-4300, 1750-1580, 1250-1050, 950-750, and 550-450 calendar years B.P. that other researchers have recognized as times of relative warming and major droughts for nearby areas marginal to the UMR

  10. Hydraulics for Royal Gardens: Water Art as a Challenge for 18th Century Science and 21st Century Physics Teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Michael

    2007-06-01

    Hydraulics is an engineering specialty and largely neglected as a topic in physics teaching. But the history of hydraulics from the Renaissance to the Baroque, merits our attention because hydraulics was then more broadly conceived as a practical and theoretical science; it served as a constant bone of contention for mechanics and mathematics; its obvious practical importance from raising water in mines to the playful fountains in royal gardens illustrates the social role of science like few others do. The playful character of historic hydraulics problems makes it also an appealing topic for modern science education.

  11. [Iconography of embryos and fetuses in the treaties of delivery and anatomy from 16th century till 18th century].

    PubMed

    Morel, Marie-France

    2009-01-01

    Leonardo', Eurakius' and Jacob Rueff's carved woods focus attention as they are sketches of foetuses in breech presentation. From the very beginning foetus is a little man made in the image of God in the works of Guillemeau, Mauriceau and Viardel. Later the liking for Baroque made the Putti, embryos with kindly faces created in Padua and Venice. Hunter's treatise finishes this picturesque review. PMID:19852242

  12. Hydraulics for Royal Gardens: Water Art as a Challenge for 18th Century Science and 21st Century Physics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Hydraulics is an engineering specialty and largely neglected as a topic in physics teaching. But the history of hydraulics from the Renaissance to the Baroque, merits our attention because hydraulics was then more broadly conceived as a practical "and" theoretical science; it served as a constant bone of contention for mechanics and…

  13. High-resolution dynamically downscaled projections of precipitation in the mid and late 21st century over North America

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2015-07-29

    This study performs high-spatial-resolution (12 km) Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulations over a very large domain (7200 km × 6180 km, covering much of North America) to explore changes in mean and extreme precipitation in the mid and late 21st century under Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 (RCP 4.5) and 8.5 (RCP 8.5). We evaluate WRF model performance for a historical simulation and future projections, applying the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) as initial and boundary conditions with and without a bias correction. WRF simulations using boundary and initial conditions from both versions of CCSM4 show smaller biases versus evaluation data sets than does CCSM4 over western North America. WRF simulations also improve spatial details of precipitation over much of North America. However, driving the WRF with the bias-corrected CCSM4 does not always reduce the bias. WRF-projected changes in precipitation include decreasing intensity over the southwestern United States, increasing intensity over the eastern United States and most of Canada, and an increase in the number of days with heavy precipitation over much of North America. Projected precipitation changes are more evident in the late 21st century than the mid 21st century, and they are more evident under RCP 8.5 than under RCP 4.5 in the late 21st century. Uncertainties in the projected changes in precipitation due to different warming scenarios are non-negligible. Differences in summer precipitation changes between WRF and CCSM4 are significant over most of the United States.

  14. High-resolution dynamically downscaled projections of precipitation in the mid and late 21st century over North America

    DOE PAGESBeta

    none,

    2015-07-29

    This study performs high-spatial-resolution (12 km) Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulations over a very large domain (7200 km × 6180 km, covering much of North America) to explore changes in mean and extreme precipitation in the mid and late 21st century under Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 (RCP 4.5) and 8.5 (RCP 8.5). We evaluate WRF model performance for a historical simulation and future projections, applying the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) as initial and boundary conditions with and without a bias correction. WRF simulations using boundary and initial conditions from both versions of CCSM4 show smaller biasesmore » versus evaluation data sets than does CCSM4 over western North America. WRF simulations also improve spatial details of precipitation over much of North America. However, driving the WRF with the bias-corrected CCSM4 does not always reduce the bias. WRF-projected changes in precipitation include decreasing intensity over the southwestern United States, increasing intensity over the eastern United States and most of Canada, and an increase in the number of days with heavy precipitation over much of North America. Projected precipitation changes are more evident in the late 21st century than the mid 21st century, and they are more evident under RCP 8.5 than under RCP 4.5 in the late 21st century. Uncertainties in the projected changes in precipitation due to different warming scenarios are non-negligible. Differences in summer precipitation changes between WRF and CCSM4 are significant over most of the United States.« less

  15. Late nineteenth to early twenty-first century behavior of Alaskan glaciers as indicators of changing regional climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molnia, B.F.

    2007-01-01

    Alaska's climate is changing and one of the most significant indications of this change has been the late 19th to early 21st century behavior of Alaskan glaciers. Weather station temperature data document that air temperatures throughout Alaska have been increasing for many decades. Since the mid-20th century, the average change is an increase of ?????2.0????C. In order to determine the magnitude and pattern of response of glaciers to this regional climate change, a comprehensive analysis was made of the recent behavior of hundreds of glaciers located in the eleven Alaskan mountain ranges and three island areas that currently support glaciers. Data analyzed included maps, historical observations, thousands of ground-and-aerial photographs and satellite images, and vegetation proxy data. Results were synthesized to determine changes in length and area of individual glaciers. Alaskan ground photography dates from 1883, aerial photography dates from 1926, and satellite photography and imagery dates from the early 1960s. Unfortunately, very few Alaskan glaciers have any mass balance observations. In most areas analyzed, every glacier that descends below an elevation of ?????1500??m is currently thinning and/or retreating. Many glaciers have an uninterrupted history of continuous post-Little-Ice-Age retreat that spans more than 250??years. Others are characterized by multiple late 19th to early 21st century fluctuations. Today, retreating and/or thinning glaciers represent more than 98% of the glaciers examined. However, in the Coast Mountains, St. Elias Mountains, Chugach Mountains, and the Aleutian Range more than a dozen glaciers are currently advancing and thickening. Many currently advancing glaciers are or were formerly tidewater glaciers. Some of these glaciers have been expanding for more than two centuries. This presentation documents the post-Little-Ice-Age behavior and variability of the response of many Alaskan glaciers to changing regional climate. ?? 2006.

  16. Instruments of Science and Citizenship: Science Education for Dutch Orphans during the Late Eighteenth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Lissa L.

    2012-01-01

    One of the two most extensive instrument collections in the Netherlands during the second half of the eighteenth century--rivaling the much better known collection at the University of Leiden--belonged to an orphanage in The Hague that was specially established to mold hand-picked orphans into productive citizens. (The other was housed at the…

  17. American Populism and Its Ontario Offshoots in the Late 19th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Paul W.

    1988-01-01

    Briefly discusses the nineteenth century agrarian movements in Canada and the U.S., examining the similarities between Populism and the Canadian agricultural movement. Presents the American Populist Party Platform of 1892 and the Patrons of Industry Platform of 1891 to illustrate the agrarian ideas and political policies of each country. (GEA)

  18. Revolution and Education in Late Nineteenth Century France: The Early Career of Paul Robin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mclaren, Angus

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the importance of the work of radical educator Paul Robin and the socio-political environment in nineteenth century France which prompted it. Robin advocated free, secular, public education for the working classes which stressed spontaneity, practicality, individualized instruction, and sexual equality. (AM)

  19. The Egalitarian Marriages of Six Froebelian Leaders in Late Nineteenth Century America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewes, Dorothy W.

    During the final years of the nineteenth century, among the leaders of the American Froebelian kindergarten movement were three dual-career couples who exemplified the concept of egalitarian marriage: John Kraus and Maria Kraus-Boelte, William and Eudora Hailmann, and Ada Morean Hughes and John Hughes. This paper focuses on the way these six…

  20. When realism made a difference: The constitution of matter and its conceptual enigmas in late 19th century physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilholt, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    The late 19th century debate among German-speaking physicists about theoretical entities is often regarded as foreshadowing the scientific realism debate. This paper brings out differences between them by concentrating on the part of the earlier debate that was concerned with the conceptual consistency of the competing conceptions of matter-mainly, but not exclusively, of atomism. Philosophical antinomies of atomism were taken up by Emil Du Bois-Reymond in an influential lecture in 1872. Such challenges to the consistency of atomism had repercussions within the physics community, as can be shown for the examples of Heinrich Hertz and Ludwig Boltzmann. The latter developed a series of counter-arguments, culminating in an ingenious attempt to turn the tables on the critics of atomism and prove the inconsistency of non-atomistic conceptions of nature. Underlying this controversy is a disagreement over specific goals of physical research which was considered crucially relevant to the further course of physical inquiry. It thereby exemplifies an attitude towards the realism issue that can be contrasted with a different, more neutral attitude of construing the realism issue as merely philosophical and indifferent with respect to concrete research programs in physics, which one also occasionally finds expressed in the 19th century controversy and which may be seen as the prevailing attitude of the 20th century debate.

  1. The State and Industrial Development in Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century Peru.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Douglas

    Spanish American political and economic development has historically diverged from the other Western geographic areas. The economic systems of these nations have been characterized as dependent, and their political systems have reflected instability, authoritarian rule, and fraudulent democracy. In Peru, industrial progress began in the late 19th…

  2. Late Quaternary Paleoclimates of Turkey From Glacial Records and Their Link to the Climate Change of the Past Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarikaya, M.; Zreda, M.; Ciner, A.

    2008-12-01

    Glaciers are not among the first things usually associated with Turkey. But glaciers do exist in several high mountains of Turkey, and glacial-geological evidence show that much bigger glaciers existed in Turkish mountains in the past, providing information on paleoclimate. Mount Ağri (5137 m) (also known as Mt.Ararat), in the Eastern Anatolia, has a large ice cap with several outlet glaciers. Mount Cilo (4135 m), in the Southeastern Turkey, has active glaciers up to 1.5 km long. Kaçkar Mountains (3932 m), on the Black Sea coast, have about 1 km long glacier. Mount Erciyes (3917 m) is the westernmost mountain that has a glacier today. Recent cosmogenic 10Be and 36Cl dating of glacial deposits and modeling of glacier flow on the mountains of Turkey reveal Late Quaternary paleoclimate of the region. Late Glacial Maximum glaciers were the most extensive ones in the last 22 ka (thousands years) and they developed in cold (6- 11.5°C colder than today) and wet (up to 2 times) climates. Late Glacial (14.1 ± 1.3 ka ago) climate was colder by 5 to 8°C based on 50% wetter and 25% drier conditions, respectively. Early Holocene moraines (range from 10.2 ± 0.2 ka to 8.6 ± 0.3 ka ago) in the central Turkey show that glaciers were extraordinarily large and climate was up to twice as wet as today. Glaciers present in Turkish mountains today may be remnants from the last advance (possibly the Little Ice Age) and their length change since the beginning of the century reveals a constant retreat under a warming rate of 0.9-1.2°C per century, consistent with the global warming trend.

  3. Psychicones: Visual Traces of the Soul in Late Nineteenth-Century Fluidic Photography.

    PubMed

    Pethes, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    The article discusses attempts to visualise the soul on photographic plates at the end of the nineteenth century, as conducted by the French physician Hippolyte Baraduc in Paris. Although Baraduc refers to earlier experiments on fluidic photography in his book on The Human Soul (1896) and is usually mentioned as a precursor to parapsychological thought photography of the twentieth century, his work is presented as a genuine attempt at photographic soul-catching. Rather than producing mimetic representations of thoughts and imaginations, Baraduc claims to present the vital radiation of the psyche itself and therefore calls the images he produces psychicones. The article first discusses the difference between this method of soul photography and other kinds of occult media technologies of the time, emphasising the significance of its non-mimetic, abstract character: since the soul itself was considered an abstract entity, abstract traces seemed all the more convincing to the contemporary audience. Secondly, the article shows how the technological agency of photography allowed Baraduc's psychicones to be tied into related discourses in medicine and psychology. Insofar as the photographic plates displayed actual visual traces, Baraduc and his followers no longer considered hallucinations illusionary and pathological but emphasised the physical reality and normality of imagination. Yet, the greatest influence of soul photography was not on science but on art. As the third part of the paper argues, the abstract shapes on Baraduc's plates provided inspiration for contemporary avant-garde aesthetics, for example, Kandinsky's abstract paintings and the random streams of consciousness in surrealistic literature.

  4. PSYCHOLOGY IN FRENCH ACADEMIC PUBLISHING IN THE LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY: ALFRED BINET, EDITORIAL DIRECTOR AT THE SCHLEICHER PUBLISHING HOUSE.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Serge

    2015-01-01

    To date, historians of psychology have largely ignored the role of academic publishing and the editorial policies of the late nineteenth century. This paper analyzes the role played by academic publishing in the history of psychology in the specific case of France, a country that provides a very interesting and unique model. Up until the middle of the 1890s, there was no collection specifically dedicated to psychology. Alfred Binet was the first to found, in 1897, a collection of works specifically dedicated to scientific psychology. He chose to work with Reinwald-Schleicher. However, Binet was soon confronted with (1) competition from other French publishing houses, and (2) Schleicher's management and editorial problems that were to sound the death knell for Binet's emerging editorial ambitions. The intention of this paper is to encourage the efforts of the pioneers of modern psychology to have their work published and disseminated.

  5. Science, suffrage, and experimentation: Mary Putnam Jacobi and the controversy over vivisection in late nineteenth-century America.

    PubMed

    Bittel, Carla Jean

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the medical activism of the New York physician Mary Putnam Jacobi (1842-1906), to illustrate the problems of gender and science at the center of the vivisection debate in late nineteenth-century America. In the post-Civil War era, individuals both inside and outside the medical community considered vivisection to be a controversial practice. Physicians divided over the value of live animal experimentation, while reformers and activists campaigned against it. Jacobi stepped into the center of the controversy and tried to use her public defense of experimentation to the advantage of women in the medical profession. Her advocacy of vivisection was part of her broader effort to reform medical education, especially at women's institutions. It was also a political strategy aimed at associating women with scientific practices to advance a women's rights agenda. Her work demonstrates how debates over women in medicine and science in medicine, suffrage, and experimentation overlapped at a critical moment of historical transition.

  6. Late Holocene history of Chaitén Volcano: new evidence for a 17th century eruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lara, Luis E.; Moreno, Rodrigo; Amigo, Álvaro; Hoblitt, Richard P.; Pierson, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Prior to May 2008, it was thought that the last eruption of Chaitén Volcano occurred more than 5,000 years ago, a rather long quiescent period for a volcano in such an active arc segment. However, increasingly more Holocene eruptions are being identified. This article presents both geological and historical evidence for late Holocene eruptive activity in the 17th century (AD 1625-1658), which included an explosive rhyolitic eruption that produced pumice ash fallout east of the volcano and caused channel aggradation in the Chaitén River. The extents of tephra fall and channel aggradation were similar to those of May 2008. Fine ash, pumice and obsidian fragments in the pre-2008 deposits are unequivocally derived from Chaitén Volcano. This finding has important implications for hazards assessment in the area and suggests the eruptive frequency and magnitude should be more thoroughly studied.

  7. PSYCHOLOGY IN FRENCH ACADEMIC PUBLISHING IN THE LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY: ALFRED BINET, EDITORIAL DIRECTOR AT THE SCHLEICHER PUBLISHING HOUSE.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Serge

    2015-01-01

    To date, historians of psychology have largely ignored the role of academic publishing and the editorial policies of the late nineteenth century. This paper analyzes the role played by academic publishing in the history of psychology in the specific case of France, a country that provides a very interesting and unique model. Up until the middle of the 1890s, there was no collection specifically dedicated to psychology. Alfred Binet was the first to found, in 1897, a collection of works specifically dedicated to scientific psychology. He chose to work with Reinwald-Schleicher. However, Binet was soon confronted with (1) competition from other French publishing houses, and (2) Schleicher's management and editorial problems that were to sound the death knell for Binet's emerging editorial ambitions. The intention of this paper is to encourage the efforts of the pioneers of modern psychology to have their work published and disseminated. PMID:25975358

  8. Finding ancient parasite larvae in a sample from a male living in late 17th century Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, D H; Chai, J Y; Park, E A; Lee, W; Lee, H; Lee, J S; Choi, Y M; Koh, B J; Park, J B; Oh, C S; Bok, G D; Kim, W L; Lee, E; Lee, E J; Seo, M

    2009-06-01

    Parasitological examination of samples from tombs of the Korean Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) could be helpful to researchers in understanding parasitic infection prevalence in pre-industrial Korean society. Whereas most of our previous parasitological studies revealed the presence of ancient parasite eggs in coprolites of Korean mummies, a sample from a man living in late 17th century Korea proved to be relatively unique in possessing what appeared to be several species of parasite larvae. The larvae identified included Strongyloides stercoralis and Trichostrongylus spp., along with eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Paragonimus westermani. Since ancient parasite larvae retain enough morphology to make proper species identification possible, even after long burial times, the examination of parasite larvae within ancient samples will be conducted more carefully in our future work. PMID:19071966

  9. Human lead exposure in a late 19th century mental asylum population.

    PubMed

    Bower, Nathan W; McCants, Sarah A; Custodio, Joseph M; Ketterer, Michael E; Getty, Stephen R; Hoffman, J Michael

    2007-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios and lead (Pb) levels were analyzed in 33 individuals from a forgotten cemetery at the Colorado Mental Health Institute at Pueblo, Colorado dating to 1879-1899. Isotopic ratios from healing bone fractures, cortical bone, and tooth dentine provide information about sources of Pb exposures over a range of time that illuminates individual's life histories and migration patterns. Historical records and Pb production data from the 19th century were used to create a database for interpreting Pb exposures for these African, Hispanic and European Americans. The analysis of these individuals suggests that Pb exposure noticeably impacted the mental health of 5-10% of the asylum patients in this frontier population, a high number by standards today, and that differences exist in the three ancestral groups' exposure histories.

  10. Cooling trend and enhancement of productivity in the upwelling off Peru since the late 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouloubassi, I.; Gutierrez, D.; Sifeddine, A.; Purca, S.; Salvatteci, R.; Field, D.; Mejanelle, L.; Velazco, F.; Ortlieb, L.

    2009-12-01

    Reconstructions of past climate and ocean variability and of the response of the marine ecosystems from high-resolution marine archives are critical to our understanding of climate/ocean dynamics and its links with ecosystem change. Laminated sediments preserved in the Peruvian margin within the oxygen minimum zone allow reconstructing past climate/ocean variability and environmental changes from interannual to centennial or longer time-scales (Gutierrez et al., 2009). We investigated proxy records in laminated sediments downstream the main upwelling area of the Peruvian coast (off Pisco, 14° S, 300m water depth) aiming at reconstructing variations of sea-surface temperature and biological productivity during the past century in order to explore potential (global warming related) changes in the intensity of coastal upwelling and ecosystem response. Dating of the sediment core revealed extremely high sedimentation rates of 1.9-2.3 mm/year for the period since the late nineteenth century to the present (Gutierrez et al., 2009). SST values, reconstructed from the alkenone unsaturation index (Uk'37), are within the range observed in the Pisco coastal area during spring/summer, when productivity (inferred from Chl-a) is highest. They show conspicuous positive/negative excursions which are generally in-line with known past El Nino/El Nina events. The record reveals significant multidecadal variability: SSTs smoothly decrease from 1880 to ca.1920, show little variation between 1920 and 1945 followed by a steady rapid cooling of ca. 1.5° C in the latter part of the 20th century (after 1950). This trend is consistent with instrumental inshore SST time-series from central and southern Peru which also exhibit significant cooling since 1950 and with satellite SST data. Yet, for the same period, these data are not in line with ICOADS-SSTs, most likely depicting a strong onshore-offshore gradient. The negative SST changes coincide with increased, upwelling favorable alongshore

  11. Psychicones: Visual Traces of the Soul in Late Nineteenth-Century Fluidic Photography.

    PubMed

    Pethes, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    The article discusses attempts to visualise the soul on photographic plates at the end of the nineteenth century, as conducted by the French physician Hippolyte Baraduc in Paris. Although Baraduc refers to earlier experiments on fluidic photography in his book on The Human Soul (1896) and is usually mentioned as a precursor to parapsychological thought photography of the twentieth century, his work is presented as a genuine attempt at photographic soul-catching. Rather than producing mimetic representations of thoughts and imaginations, Baraduc claims to present the vital radiation of the psyche itself and therefore calls the images he produces psychicones. The article first discusses the difference between this method of soul photography and other kinds of occult media technologies of the time, emphasising the significance of its non-mimetic, abstract character: since the soul itself was considered an abstract entity, abstract traces seemed all the more convincing to the contemporary audience. Secondly, the article shows how the technological agency of photography allowed Baraduc's psychicones to be tied into related discourses in medicine and psychology. Insofar as the photographic plates displayed actual visual traces, Baraduc and his followers no longer considered hallucinations illusionary and pathological but emphasised the physical reality and normality of imagination. Yet, the greatest influence of soul photography was not on science but on art. As the third part of the paper argues, the abstract shapes on Baraduc's plates provided inspiration for contemporary avant-garde aesthetics, for example, Kandinsky's abstract paintings and the random streams of consciousness in surrealistic literature. PMID:27292323

  12. Psychicones: Visual Traces of the Soul in Late Nineteenth-Century Fluidic Photography

    PubMed Central

    Pethes, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses attempts to visualise the soul on photographic plates at the end of the nineteenth century, as conducted by the French physician Hippolyte Baraduc in Paris. Although Baraduc refers to earlier experiments on fluidic photography in his book on The Human Soul (1896) and is usually mentioned as a precursor to parapsychological thought photography of the twentieth century, his work is presented as a genuine attempt at photographic soul-catching. Rather than producing mimetic representations of thoughts and imaginations, Baraduc claims to present the vital radiation of the psyche itself and therefore calls the images he produces psychicones. The article first discusses the difference between this method of soul photography and other kinds of occult media technologies of the time, emphasising the significance of its non-mimetic, abstract character: since the soul itself was considered an abstract entity, abstract traces seemed all the more convincing to the contemporary audience. Secondly, the article shows how the technological agency of photography allowed Baraduc’s psychicones to be tied into related discourses in medicine and psychology. Insofar as the photographic plates displayed actual visual traces, Baraduc and his followers no longer considered hallucinations illusionary and pathological but emphasised the physical reality and normality of imagination. Yet, the greatest influence of soul photography was not on science but on art. As the third part of the paper argues, the abstract shapes on Baraduc’s plates provided inspiration for contemporary avant-garde aesthetics, for example, Kandinsky’s abstract paintings and the random streams of consciousness in surrealistic literature. PMID:27292323

  13. [Experimental testing of Pflüger's reflex hypothesis of menstruation in late 19th century].

    PubMed

    Simmer, H H

    1980-07-01

    Pflüger's hypothesis of a nerve reflex as the cause of menstruation published in 1865 and accepted by many, nonetheless did not lead to experimental investigations for 25 years. According to this hypothesis the nerve reflex starts in the ovary by an increase of the intraovarian pressure by the growing follicles. In 1884 Adolph Kehrer proposed a program to test the nerve reflex, but only in 1890, Cohnstein artificially increased the intraovarian pressure in women by bimanual compression from the outside and the vagina. His results were not convincing. Six years later, Strassmann injected fluids into ovaries of animals and obtained changes in the uterus resembling those of oestrus. His results seemed to verify a prognosis derived from Pflüger's hypothesis. Thus, after a long interval, that hypothesis had become a paradigma. Though reasons can be given for the delay, it is little understood, why experimental testing started so late. PMID:6161737

  14. [Experimental testing of Pflüger's reflex hypothesis of menstruation in late 19th century].

    PubMed

    Simmer, H H

    1980-07-01

    Pflüger's hypothesis of a nerve reflex as the cause of menstruation published in 1865 and accepted by many, nonetheless did not lead to experimental investigations for 25 years. According to this hypothesis the nerve reflex starts in the ovary by an increase of the intraovarian pressure by the growing follicles. In 1884 Adolph Kehrer proposed a program to test the nerve reflex, but only in 1890, Cohnstein artificially increased the intraovarian pressure in women by bimanual compression from the outside and the vagina. His results were not convincing. Six years later, Strassmann injected fluids into ovaries of animals and obtained changes in the uterus resembling those of oestrus. His results seemed to verify a prognosis derived from Pflüger's hypothesis. Thus, after a long interval, that hypothesis had become a paradigma. Though reasons can be given for the delay, it is little understood, why experimental testing started so late.

  15. Impact of sea surface temperature trend on late summer Asian rainfall in the twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Qiying; Lu, Riyu

    2013-05-01

    impact of the global sea surface temperature (SST) warming trend, which is the leading mode of SST variability, on late summer Asian rainfall is analyzed based on the simulations of five atmospheric general circulation models, which are performed by the U. S. Climate Variability and Predictability Drought Working Group. Our evaluations of the model outputs indicate that these models roughly capture the main features of climatological rainfall and circulations over Asia and the western North Pacific (WNP), but they simulate a too strong monsoon trough and a too northward shifted in the subtropical anticyclone in the WNP and fail to reproduce the rain belt over East Asia. It is found that all of the models simulate an intensified WNP subtropical high (WNPSH) in late summer, an enhanced precipitation in the tropical Indian Ocean and the maritime continent, and a suppressed precipitation in the South Asian monsoon region, the South China Sea, and the Philippine Sea, when the models are forced with the SST trend, which is characterized by a significant increase in the Indian Ocean and western Pacific. All these changes are suggested to be dynamically coherent. The warmer SST trend in the Indian Ocean and western Pacific may suppress precipitation over the Philippine Sea and thus result in a lower tropospheric anticyclonic circulation over the subtropical WNP. The warmer SSTs in the Indian Ocean may also be responsible for the anomalous easterlies and resultant less rainfall over the South Asian monsoon region. The precipitation changes forced by the SST trend are similar in the maritime continent but show an apparent difference over East Asia, in comparison with the observed rainfall trend over lands. The possible reasons for this difference are discussed.

  16. The impact of childhood sickness on adult socioeconomic outcomes: Evidence from late 19th century America

    PubMed Central

    Warren, John Robert; Knies, Laurie; Haas, Steven; Hernandez, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    We use family fixed-effects models to estimate the impact of childhood health on adult literacy, labor force outcomes, and marital status among pairs of white brothers observed as children in the 1880 U.S. Census and then as adults in the 1900–1930 Censuses. Given our focus on the 19th century, we observed a wider array of infectious, chronic, and traumatic health problems than is observed using data that are more recent; our results thus provide some insights into circumstances in modern developing countries where similar health problems are more frequently observed. Compared to their healthy siblings, sick brothers were less likely to be located (and thus more likely to be dead) 20–50 years after their 1880 enumeration. Sick brothers were also less likely to be literate, to have ever been married, and to have reported an occupation. However, among those with occupations, sick and healthy brothers tended to do similar kinds of work. We discuss the implications of our results for research on the impact of childhood health on socioeconomic outcomes in developed and developing countries. PMID:22809795

  17. The Zimba, the Portuguese, and other cannibals in late sixteenth-century Southeast Africa.

    PubMed

    Allina, Eric

    2011-01-01

    This article argues that Portuguese accounts of cannibalism in sixteenth-century southeast Africa reflect important but mostly unrecognised elements of the region's political and cultural history. The article analyses descriptions of the Zimba cannibals in Ethiopia Oriental, written by the Portuguese priest Joo dos Santos. Dos Santos's evidence figures significantly in scholarship for this period, and while many historians include his colourful descriptions of cannibalism, none has taken them seriously, largely dismissing them as a product of European myth-making. In focusing on the question of cannibalism, the article asks not whether the Zimba ate human flesh, nor why they might have, but how dos Santos came to believe that they did. Early modern European cultural outlooks had a role in producing such accounts, but the argument here focuses on how claims of cannibalism reflected African, rather than European, perspectives. Such claims were a vernacular expression of beliefs about, and critiques of, political power in the threatening and unsettled political environment of the time. In transmitting descriptions of cannibalism from African informants, dos Santos acted as an unwitting vehicle for this vernacular critique, conveying its meaning quite imperfectly to his readers. PMID:22026025

  18. The effect of aerosols and sea surface temperature on China's climate over the late twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Focusing on China in the second half of the twentieth century, we examine the relative role of aerosols and prescribed, observation based sea surface temperatures (SSTs) for the evolution of surface solar radiation (SSR), surface air temperature (SAT), and precipitation in ensembles of transient (1870 - 2005) sensitivity experiments with the global climate model ECHAM5-HAM. Observations and simulations with transient SSTs and aerosol emissions agree reasonably well in eastern China in terms of SSR dimming (-6 +/- 2 W/m2/decade, 1960 - 2000), statistically non-significant JJA SAT trend (1950 - 2000), and drying in JJA from 1950 to 1990 (-2.5% to -3.5% per decade, essentially via reduction of convective precipitation). Other major observed features are not reproduce by the model, e.g. precipitation increase in the 1990s in the Yangtze valley, the strong warming in winter in northern parts of China and Mongolia, or SSR dimming in western China. For the model results, SO2 emissions are more relevant than emissions of black and organic carbon. Aerosol effects are less pronounced at higher model resolution. Transient SSTs are found to be crucial for decadal scale SAT variability over land, especially the strong warming in the 1990s, and, via SST forced reduction of cloud cover, for the ceasing of SSR dimming around the year 2000. Unforced cloud variability leads to relevant scatter (up to +/- 2 W/m2/decade) of modeled SSR trends at individual observation sites.

  19. The late medieval kidney--nephrology in and about the fourteenth century.

    PubMed

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2012-01-01

    The Late Medieval Period was a decisive period in the history of medicine. It was then that medical education was integrated into the universities that were coming into existence and when medicine made its transition from a menial trade to a regulated profession with a statutory basis of learning and graduation. It was also then that the necessities of understanding the fabric of the body was realized; for the first time in history, the study of anatomy and of human dissection were incorporated into the medical curriculum. This was a defining change whose subsequent expansion and evolution would bring about the study of function (physiology) and changes in disease (pathology). Few advances were made in the study of the kidney, which was considered part of the venous circulation, whose function was subservient to that of nutrition in eliminating excess fluid. Uroscopy flourished and reached unrealistic levels of dominance in the diagnosis, treatment, and prognostication of any and all diseases, especially in the hands of quacks and charlatans. Alchemy, a mysterious pseudo-science, blossomed into a discipline that nurtured experimentation and laid the rudimentary foundations of scientific study, chemistry, and pharmacology. It was also then that surgery took form as a specialty that actually provided much of the medical care of the period including that of the principal diseases of the kidney, obstruction and calculi, and thereby laid the foundations of what in time would become urology. PMID:22681599

  20. The late medieval kidney--nephrology in and about the fourteenth century.

    PubMed

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2012-01-01

    The Late Medieval Period was a decisive period in the history of medicine. It was then that medical education was integrated into the universities that were coming into existence and when medicine made its transition from a menial trade to a regulated profession with a statutory basis of learning and graduation. It was also then that the necessities of understanding the fabric of the body was realized; for the first time in history, the study of anatomy and of human dissection were incorporated into the medical curriculum. This was a defining change whose subsequent expansion and evolution would bring about the study of function (physiology) and changes in disease (pathology). Few advances were made in the study of the kidney, which was considered part of the venous circulation, whose function was subservient to that of nutrition in eliminating excess fluid. Uroscopy flourished and reached unrealistic levels of dominance in the diagnosis, treatment, and prognostication of any and all diseases, especially in the hands of quacks and charlatans. Alchemy, a mysterious pseudo-science, blossomed into a discipline that nurtured experimentation and laid the rudimentary foundations of scientific study, chemistry, and pharmacology. It was also then that surgery took form as a specialty that actually provided much of the medical care of the period including that of the principal diseases of the kidney, obstruction and calculi, and thereby laid the foundations of what in time would become urology.

  1. Evidence for an increase in the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere in the late twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newland, Mike; Martinerie, Patricia; Witrant, Emmanuel; Helmig, Detlev; Worton, David; Hogan, Chris; Sturges, Bill; Reeves, Claire

    2016-04-01

    The hydroxyl radical, OH, is the dominant sink for the majority of trace gases in the troposphere. Thus, it plays a major role in controlling atmospheric chemical composition. However despite this importance there remains much uncertainty as to whether concentrations of OH have changed in the background atmosphere in recent decades. It has previously been reported that recent levels of OH in the troposphere (1997-2008) are well buffered against changes in atmospheric composition (Montzka et al., 2011). We present two independent records that suggest that there was a significant increase in concentrations of the OH radical in the northern hemisphere during the last two decades of the twentieth century. Measurements from Greenland firn air of the changing ratios of n-butane, iso-butane, n-pentane and iso-pentane were compared using a photochemical clock method. Using these changing ratios we calculate an increase in the chemical processing of the air (i.e. [OH].t) between 1980 and 2000. Assuming t to be constant this provides a semi-quantitative historic record of OH concentrations. Furthermore, measurements of three alkyl nitrates (also from Greenland firn air), secondary oxidation products of the alkanes, suggest an increase in the [NO]/[HO2] ratio in the background atmosphere. This could be indicative of increasing NOx concentrations during this period, which would be consistent with increasing [OH]. These two records are further corroborated by comparison with the long term trend in increasing ozone mixing ratios from background European sites. Knowledge of historic changes to the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere is fundamental to understanding the atmospheric records of trace gases and to determining historic trace gas emissions using top-down approaches. The results presented here have profound implications for our understanding of atmospheric composition in the past, the present and for predicting the future evolution of the atmosphere.

  2. Astrometry and early astrophysics at Kuffner Observatory in the late 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habison, Peter

    The astronomer and mathematician Norbert Herz encouraged Moriz von Kuffner, owner of the beer brewery in Ottakring, to finance a private scientific observatory in the western parts of Vienna. In the years 1884-87 the Kuffner Observatory was built at the Gallitzinberg in Wien-Ottakring. It was an example of enlighted patronage and noted at the time for its rapid acquisition of new instruments and by increasing international recognition. It contained the largest heliometer in the world and the largest meridian circle in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire. Of the many scientists who worked here we mention Leo de Ball, Gustav Eberhard, Johannes Hartmann and we should not forget Karl Schwarzschild. Here in Vienna he published papers on celestial mechanics, measuring techniques, optics and his fundamental papers concerning photographic photometry, in particular the quantitative determination of the departure of the reciprocity law. The telescope and the associated camera with which he carried out his measurements are still in existence at the observatory. The observatory houses important astronomical instruments from the 19th century. All telescopes were made by Repsold und Söhne in Hamburg, and Steinheil in Munich. These two German companies were best renowned for quality and precision in high standard astronomical instruments. The Great Refractor (270/3500 mm) is still the third largest refractor in Austria. It was installed at the observatory in 1886 and was used together with the Schwarzschild Refractor for early astrophysical work including photography. It is this double refractor, where Schwarzschild carried out his measurements on photographic photometry. The Meridian Circle (132/1500 mm) was the largest meridian passage instrument of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Today it is the largest meridian circle in Austria and still one of the largest in Europe. The telescope is equipped with one of the first impersonal micrometers of that time. First observations were carried

  3. Proceedings of the 18th annual meeting of Japanese Society for Biological Sciences in Space.

    PubMed

    2004-11-01

    This issue contains the proceedings from the 18th annual meeting of the Japanese Society for Biological Sciences in Space, which was held at Fujita Health University, September 30-October 2, 2004. This includes papers from seven symposia: Present Status of the ISS Centrifuge and Its Scientific Goal, Strategy of Frontier Organisms--Plant Growth and Gravi-reception System, Animal Experiment in Space--Scientific Needs and Concerns, Scientific Significance of Biological Effects of Space Radiation, Adaptation of Animal Cells Against Gravity: Dynamics of Proteins and Fiber System, Growth and Gravity--How Has Gravity Associated Homeostasis Evolved and Developed?, and Tenth Anniversary of IML-2 and Its Follow-on Studies. In addition to the symposia papers, 26 general science papers from the annual meeting are included. PMID:15887354

  4. Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, RR

    2004-11-02

    The 18th Annual conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on June 2 through June 4, 2004. The meeting was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research Materials Program (ARM). The objective of the ARM Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications, as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The management of the program has been decentralized to the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The research is performed by staff members at ORNL and by researchers at other national laboratories, universities, and in private industry. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) structural, ceramics, (2) new alloys and coatings, (3) functional materials, and (4) technology development and transfer.

  5. Preface of the 18th International Conference on Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, April S.; Ptak, Aaron J.

    2015-09-01

    The first International Conference on Molecular Beam Epitaxy (IC-MBE) was held in Paris in 1978, chaired by Alfred Y. Cho. Every other year since, with the exception of a four-year break after the initial meeting, the IC-MBE has been held in European, Asian, and North American venues. The 18th and latest IC-MBE was held in Flagstaff, Arizona, USA, September 7-12, 2014, and was chaired by Yong-Hang Zhang (Arizona State University). MBE is an advanced crystal growth method that benefits areas from the study of fundamental physics, all the way through the production of devices used in countless fields. IC-MBE brings together researchers from all over the world, and is the premier forum for scientific and technological exchange among researchers investigating all types of materials growth using the MBE technique.

  6. The 18th European symposium on quantitative structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Tsantili-Kakoulidou, Anna; Agrafiotis, Dimitris K

    2011-04-01

    The 18th European Symposium on Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) took place in Rhodes, Greece, on 19 - 24 September 2010. It was organized by the Hellenic Society of Medicinal Chemistry and the Cheminformatics and QSAR Society, and co-sponsored by the European Federation of Medicinal Chemistry. The conference was thematically dedicated to discovery informatics and drug design and addressed the impact of informatics in all its variants (chemoinformatics, bioinformatics, pharmacoinformatics) on drug discovery in the broader context of biological complexity. The latest scientific and technological advances in QSAR as tools for the discovery of new, safer and more efficacious drugs were discussed during the meeting. This paper highlights the most important outcomes of the symposium, commenting briefly on some of the key presentations.

  7. Classroom Wall Charts and Biblical History: A Study of Educational Technology in Elementary Schools in Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evertsson, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the emergence of classroom wall charts as a teaching technology in Swedish elementary schools in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, using Biblical history teaching as an example. There has been some work done internationally on wall charts as an instructional technology, but few studies have looked at their…

  8. Videotape Highlights from Before It's Too Late: A Report to the Nation from the National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21st Century. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This 9-minute videotape highlights "Before It's Too Late," the centerpiece report of the National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21st Century. The Commission was charged with creating a plan to improve the quality of mathematics and science instruction in K-12 classrooms nationwide. The report, released in September 2000,…

  9. Forming, transfer and globalization of medical-pharmaceutical knowledge in South East Asian missions (17th to 18th c.) - historical dimensions and modern perspectives.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    From the 17th to the 18th centuries, missionaries in Southeast Asia dedicated themselves to providing and establishing a professional medical-pharmaceutical supply for the local population and therefore explored the genuine Materia medica for easily available and affordable remedies, especially medicinal plants. In characteristic medical-pharmaceutical compendia, which can be classified as missionary pharmacopoeias, they laid down their knowledge to advise others and to guarantee a professional health care. As their knowledge often resulted from an exchange with indigenous communities, these compendia provide essential information about traditional plant uses of Southeast Asian people. Individual missionaries such as the Jesuit Georg Joseph Kamel (1661-1706) not only strove to explore medicinal plants but performed botanical studies and even composed comprehensive herbals. The Jesuit missionaries in particular played roles in both the order's own global network of transfer of medicinal drugs and knowledge about the application, and within the contemporary local and European scientific networks which included, for example, the famous Royal Society of London. The results of their studies were distributed all over the world, were introduced into the practical Materia medica of other regions, and contributed significantly to the academization of knowledge. In our article we will explain the different intentions and methods of exploring, the resulting works and the consequences for the forming of the pharmaceutical and scientific knowledge. Finally, we will show the options which the works of the missionaries can offer for the saving of traditional ethnopharmacological knowledge and for the development of modern phytotherapeutics and pharmaceutical supply. The publication is based on a comprehensive study on the phenomenon of missionary pharmacy which has been published as a book in 2011 (Anagnostou, 2011a) and shows now the potential of historical medical

  10. Forming, transfer and globalization of medical-pharmaceutical knowledge in South East Asian missions (17th to 18th c.) - historical dimensions and modern perspectives.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    From the 17th to the 18th centuries, missionaries in Southeast Asia dedicated themselves to providing and establishing a professional medical-pharmaceutical supply for the local population and therefore explored the genuine Materia medica for easily available and affordable remedies, especially medicinal plants. In characteristic medical-pharmaceutical compendia, which can be classified as missionary pharmacopoeias, they laid down their knowledge to advise others and to guarantee a professional health care. As their knowledge often resulted from an exchange with indigenous communities, these compendia provide essential information about traditional plant uses of Southeast Asian people. Individual missionaries such as the Jesuit Georg Joseph Kamel (1661-1706) not only strove to explore medicinal plants but performed botanical studies and even composed comprehensive herbals. The Jesuit missionaries in particular played roles in both the order's own global network of transfer of medicinal drugs and knowledge about the application, and within the contemporary local and European scientific networks which included, for example, the famous Royal Society of London. The results of their studies were distributed all over the world, were introduced into the practical Materia medica of other regions, and contributed significantly to the academization of knowledge. In our article we will explain the different intentions and methods of exploring, the resulting works and the consequences for the forming of the pharmaceutical and scientific knowledge. Finally, we will show the options which the works of the missionaries can offer for the saving of traditional ethnopharmacological knowledge and for the development of modern phytotherapeutics and pharmaceutical supply. The publication is based on a comprehensive study on the phenomenon of missionary pharmacy which has been published as a book in 2011 (Anagnostou, 2011a) and shows now the potential of historical medical

  11. Campus Activism in the 21st Century: A Historical Framing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadhurst, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter frames campus activism by introducing the historical movements that have been important for higher education since the 18th century to the present and exploring the connections and shared characteristics among these various movements.

  12. [SANITATION AND SCHOOL HYGIENE IN THE SCHOOL INSTITUTTIONS OF THE TOBOLSK PROVINCE IN THE LATE XIX CENTURY].

    PubMed

    Valitov, A A; Tomilov, I S; Fedotova, D Yu

    2016-01-01

    In the article there is considered the history of the development ofsanitary and hygienic standards in school institutions of Tobolsk province in the late XIX century. In comparative terms there is characterized the presented in that period the legal framework regulating of abidance by hygienic and sanitary standards in educational institutions. There was executed an careful analysis of hygienic conditions on the example of the Tobolsk male gymnasium with a comparison of similar conditions in another Siberian educational/childcare institution--the Yenisei female progymnasium. The main sources in the study were reports of educators: I. Gursky--about hygienic living conditions of the inmates of the Tobolsk gymnasium and P.M. Golovachev--about sanitary conditions in the Yenisei female gymnasium. Contemporaries paid a great attention to such health and safety standards as heating, ventilation, lighting, capacity of classrooms and boarding facilities, the violation of which led to a deterioration in the health of students and the growth of the epidemics in mention educational institutions. PMID:27266029

  13. Rethinking the history of female circumcision and clitoridectomy: American medicine and female sexuality in the late nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Sarah W

    2008-07-01

    During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, there was one kind of female orgasm and it was clitoral; there was also only one kind of healthy sexual instinct for a woman and it was for penetrative sex with her husband. When a woman behaved outside of this normality-by masturbating or by not responding to her husband's affections-her sexual instinct was seen as disordered. If healthy women, then, were believed only to be sexual within the marital embrace, what better way to explain these errant behaviors than by blaming the clitoris, an organ seen as key to female sexual instinct? Doctors corrected a clitoris in an unhealthy state using one of four surgeries-removing smegma or adhesions between the clitoris and its hood, removing the hood (circumcision), or removing the clitoris (clitoridectomy)-in order to correct a woman's sexual instinct in an unhealthy state. Their approach to clitoral surgery, at least as revealed in published medical works, was a cautious one that respected the importance of clitoral stimulation for healthy sexuality while simultaneously recognizing its role as cause and symptom in cases of insanity that were tied to masturbation.

  14. Science, suffrage, and experimentation: Mary Putnam Jacobi and the controversy over vivisection in late nineteenth-century America.

    PubMed

    Bittel, Carla Jean

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the medical activism of the New York physician Mary Putnam Jacobi (1842-1906), to illustrate the problems of gender and science at the center of the vivisection debate in late nineteenth-century America. In the post-Civil War era, individuals both inside and outside the medical community considered vivisection to be a controversial practice. Physicians divided over the value of live animal experimentation, while reformers and activists campaigned against it. Jacobi stepped into the center of the controversy and tried to use her public defense of experimentation to the advantage of women in the medical profession. Her advocacy of vivisection was part of her broader effort to reform medical education, especially at women's institutions. It was also a political strategy aimed at associating women with scientific practices to advance a women's rights agenda. Her work demonstrates how debates over women in medicine and science in medicine, suffrage, and experimentation overlapped at a critical moment of historical transition. PMID:16327083

  15. Marie Rozette and her world: class, ethnicity, gender, and race in late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Allen, Richard B

    2011-01-01

    In 1790, Marie Rozette, a freedwoman of Indian origin on Mauritius, executed a series of notarial acts which revealed that she possessed a small fortune in cash assets as well as slaves and substantial landed property in one of the island’s rural districts. The life of this former slave between 1776, when she first appears in the archival record, and her death in 1804 provides a vantage point from which to gain a subaltern perspective on aspects of Mascarene social and economic history, as well as developments in the wider Indian Ocean world during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Marie Rozette’s life history challenges the notion that free persons of color in Mauritius were little more than an “unappropriated” people, and invites us to consider how supposedly marginalized individuals were able to cross various socio-economic and cultural boundaries. More specifically, her life affords an opportunity to consider the ways in which class, ethnicity, and gender, as well as race, interacted to create a distinctive Creole society in Mauritius, the nature and dynamics of which bear directly on our knowledge and understanding of the free colored experience elsewhere in the European colonial slave plantation world.

  16. A Role for Historical Experiments: Capturing the Spirit of the Itinerant Lecturers of the 18th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Don; Stinner, Art

    2007-01-01

    Gerald Rutherford (1964), one of the original authors of the Harvard Project Physics course which emphasized the history of science, expressed a view of inquiry which advocated the historical re-constructions of significant experiments. To implement this view we examine two modes of historical re-constructions; Heering's ("Paper…

  17. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry characterization of the varnish and glue of an ancient 18th century double bass.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Francesco; Orecchio, Santino; Cicero, Maria Grazia; Di Stefano, Cosimo

    2007-04-20

    A GC-MS investigation is conducted on the double bass "Panormus", property of Conservatorio di Musica "Vincenzo Bellini" in Palermo. The most important components of the varnish (fatty acids) and of the glue (proteinaceous amino acids), with which the musical instrument was treated in the past, are determined. The analyses are carried out by prior derivatization of fatty acids by acidic methanol and of amino acids by acidic methanol and trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA). Analytes identification is achieved by direct comparison with several reference materials and the use of a digitized library.

  18. Spatial-temporal analysis on climate variation in early Qing dynasty (17th -18th century) using China's chronological records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kuan-Hui Elaine; Wang, Pao-Kuan; Fan, I.-Chun; Liao, Yi-Chun; Liao, Hsiung-Ming; Pai, Pi-Ling

    2016-04-01

    Global climate change in the form of extreme, variation, and short- or mid-term fluctuation is now widely conceived to challenge the survival of the human beings and the societies. Meanwhile, improving present and future climate modeling needs a comprehensive understanding of the past climate patterns. Although historical climate modeling has gained substantive progress in recent years based on the new findings from dynamical meteorology, phenology, or paleobiology, less known are the mid- to short-term variations or lower-frequency variabilities at different temporal scale and their regional expressions. Enabling accurate historical climate modeling would heavily rely on the robustness of the dataset that could carry specific time, location, and meteorological information in the continuous temporal and spatial chains. This study thus presents an important methodological innovation to reconstruct historical climate modeling at multiple temporal and spatial scales through building a historical climate dataset, based on the Chinese chronicles compiled in a Zhang (2004) edited Compendium of Chinese Meteorological Records of the Last 3,000 Years since Zhou Dynasty (1100BC). The dataset reserves the most delicate meteorological data with accurate time, location, meteorological event, duration, and other phonological, social and economic impact information, and is carefully digitalized, coded, and geo-referenced on the Geographical Information System based maps according to Tan's (1982) historical atlas in China. The research project, beginning in January 2015, is a collaborative work among scholars across meteorology, geography, and historical linguistics disciplines. The present research findings derived from the early 100+ years of the Qing dynasty include the following. First, the analysis is based on the sampling size, denoted as cities/counties, n=1398 across the Mainland China in the observation period. Second, the frequencies of precipitation, cold-warm temperature, flood and drought with an index of social unrest are counted in an interval of a year, five years, ten years, and twenty years to gain their running mean(s) for every cites/counties to depict their temporal variations. Third, the cities and counties are divided into seven zones based on their meteorological and geographical characteristics, in order to interpret the regional expressions of the climate variations. Finally, the Ordinary Least Square regression model is used to estimate the coefficients among precipitation, temperature, flood and drought. Significantly, it is found that in general all these indices fluctuated in past 100+ years. However, the occurrence of drought and flood all have significant correlation with lower (colder) temperature (P=0.00) and also with precipitation (P<0.05). This implies that cold temperature tends to have higher meteorological extremes, and both flood and drought can occur approximately in the same year with abundant precipitation at different time. Among seven geographical zones, North China is found more vulnerable to the temperature changes considering these extreme weathers. Temperature change in Central and South China however are less significant. Central China on the other hand is more sensitive to the precipitation that are both correlated with drought and flood.

  19. The Editorial Policy as a Mirror of Petrine Reforms: Textbooks and Their Translators in Early 18th Century Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouzevitch, Irina

    2006-01-01

    Peter I's editorial policy appears as a starting point in the birth of secular Russian textbooks. Since the printing production was then organized on a massive scale as a response to the needs of European-like modernization, it should be safely suggested that nearly "all" books produced during this pioneering period focused teaching objectives. To…

  20. A 18^th century thermometer recipe: The begin of experimental physics courses in Guadalajara, M'exico?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Alba Martinez, Durruty Jesus

    2007-03-01

    As a part of the Special Funds Collection of the Jalisco's State Public Library ``Juan Jos'e Arreola'' is a physics course manuscript attributed to Francisco Javier Clavigero s.j. (1731-1787), teacher at the Jesuit Colegio de Santo Tom'as (a college-level institution in Guadalajara before the university opening), inside of the vellum bounded volume is a unbounded folio containing instructions on how to build a thermometer. In this work are discussed some evidences of the belonging of such folio to the manuscript in spite of their differences (it is written in Spanish not in Latin as the whole), we also describe the process to construct the thermometer and how could be the experimental part of the physics course. Also is briefly exposed the importance of the educational role of Clavigero as a builder of the concept of mexicanity.

  1. Medical electricity and madness in the 18th century: the legacies of Benjamin Franklin and Jan Ingenhousz.

    PubMed

    Beaudreau, Sherry Ann; Finger, Stanley

    2006-01-01

    Benjamin Franklin had at least two accidents that resulted in electricity passing through his brain. In addition, he witnessed a patient's similar accident and performed an experiment that showed how humans could endure shocks to the head without serious ill effects, other than amnesia. Jan Ingenhousz, Franklin's Dutch-born medical correspondent better known for his discovery of photosynthesis, also had a serious accident that sent electricity though his head and, in a letter to Franklin, he described how he felt unusually elated the next day. During the 1780s, Franklin and Ingenhousz encouraged leading French and English electrical "operators" to try shocking the heads of melancholic and other deranged patients in their wards. Although they did not state that they were responding to Ingenhousz's and Franklin's suggestions, Birch, Aldini, and Gale soon did precisely what Ingenhousz and Franklin had suggested. These practitioners did not appear to induce convulsions in their mentally ill patients, but they still reported notable successes.

  2. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry characterization of the varnish and glue of an ancient 18th century double bass.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Francesco; Orecchio, Santino; Cicero, Maria Grazia; Di Stefano, Cosimo

    2007-04-20

    A GC-MS investigation is conducted on the double bass "Panormus", property of Conservatorio di Musica "Vincenzo Bellini" in Palermo. The most important components of the varnish (fatty acids) and of the glue (proteinaceous amino acids), with which the musical instrument was treated in the past, are determined. The analyses are carried out by prior derivatization of fatty acids by acidic methanol and of amino acids by acidic methanol and trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA). Analytes identification is achieved by direct comparison with several reference materials and the use of a digitized library. PMID:17376455

  3. [Folk medicine veterinary science in the level of paterfamilias literature of the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Krüger, H

    1993-06-01

    Paterfamilial literature in Germany marked the emergence of a literary category, with its householder writings being precursors of some of a farm management theory. Its pamphlets on veterinary medicine reflected latest knowledge in its time in farming. A number of economy housebooks is presented together with the authors in an attempt to give a somewhat closer account of this literature category in populist veterinary medicine. PMID:8339711

  4. Parameterization of 18th January 2011 earthquake in Dalbadin Region, Southwest Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafiq-Ur-Rehman; Azeem, Tahir; Abd el-aal, Abd el-aziz Khairy; Nasir, Asma

    2013-12-01

    An earthquake of magnitude 7.3 Mw occurred on 18th January 2011 in Southwestern Pakistan, Baluchistan province (Dalbadin Region). The area has complex tectonics due to interaction of Indian, Eurasian and Arabian plates. Both thrust and strike slip earthquakes are dominant in this region with minor, localized normal faulting events. This earthquake under consideration (Dalbadin Earthquake) posed constraints in depth and focal parameters due to lack of data for evaluation of parameters from Pakistan, Iran or Afghanistan region. Normal faulting mechanism has been proposed by many researchers for this earthquake. In the present study the earthquake was relocated using the technique of travel time residuals. Relocated coordinates and depth were utilized to calculate the focal mechanism solution with outcome of a dominant strike slip mechanism, which is contrary to normal faulting. Relocated coordinates and resulting mechanism are more reliable than many reporting agencies as evaluation in this study is augmented by data from local seismic monitoring network of Pakistan. The tectonics in the area is governed by active subduction along the Makran Subduction Zone. This particular earthquake has strike slip mechanism due to breaking of subducting oceanic plate. This earthquake is located where oceanic lithosphere is subducting along with relative movements between Lut and Helmand blocks. Magnitude of this event i.e. Mw = 7.3, re evaluated depth and a previous study of mechanism of earthquake in same region (Shafiq et al., 2011) also supports the strike slip movement.

  5. The Asian summer monsoon: an intercomparison of CMIP5 vs. CMIP3 simulations of the late 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperber, K. R.; Annamalai, H.; Kang, I.-S.; Kitoh, A.; Moise, A.; Turner, A.; Wang, B.; Zhou, T.

    2013-11-01

    The boreal summer Asian monsoon has been evaluated in 25 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project-5 (CMIP5) and 22 CMIP3 GCM simulations of the late twentieth Century. Diagnostics and skill metrics have been calculated to assess the time-mean, climatological annual cycle, interannual variability, and intraseasonal variability. Progress has been made in modeling these aspects of the monsoon, though there is no single model that best represents all of these aspects of the monsoon. The CMIP5 multi-model mean (MMM) is more skillful than the CMIP3 MMM for all diagnostics in terms of the skill of simulating pattern correlations with respect to observations. Additionally, for rainfall/convection the MMM outperforms the individual models for the time mean, the interannual variability of the East Asian monsoon, and intraseasonal variability. The pattern correlation of the time (pentad) of monsoon peak and withdrawal is better simulated than that of monsoon onset. The onset of the monsoon over India is typically too late in the models. The extension of the monsoon over eastern China, Korea, and Japan is underestimated, while it is overestimated over the subtropical western/central Pacific Ocean. The anti-correlation between anomalies of all-India rainfall and Niño3.4 sea surface temperature is overly strong in CMIP3 and typically too weak in CMIP5. For both the ENSO-monsoon teleconnection and the East Asian zonal wind-rainfall teleconnection, the MMM interannual rainfall anomalies are weak compared to observations. Though simulation of intraseasonal variability remains problematic, several models show improved skill at representing the northward propagation of convection and the development of the tilted band of convection that extends from India to the equatorial west Pacific. The MMM also well represents the space-time evolution of intraseasonal outgoing longwave radiation anomalies. Caution is necessary when using GPCP and CMAP rainfall to validate (1) the time

  6. Floods of the Lower Tisza from the late 17th century onwards: frequency, magnitude, seasonality and great flood events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The present paper is based on a recently developed database including contemporary original, administrative, legal and private source materials (published and archival) as well as media reports related to the floods occurred on the lower sections of the Tisza river in Hungary, with special emphasis on the area of Szeged town. The study area is well-represented by contemporary source evidence from the late 17th century onwards, when the town and its broader area was reoccupied from the Ottoman Turkish Empire. Concerning the applied source materials, the main bases of investigation are the administrative (archival) sources such as town council protocols of Szeged and county meeting protocols of Csanád and Csongrád Counties. In these (legal-)administrative documents damaging events (natural/environmental hazards) were systematically recorded. Moreover, other source types such as taxation-related damage accounts as well as private and official reports, letters and correspondence (published, unpublished) were also included. Concerning published evidence, a most important source is flood reports in contemporary newspapers as well as town chronicles and other contemporary narratives. In the presentation the main focus is on the analysis of flood-rich flood-poor periods of the last ca. 330 years; moreover, the seasonality distribution as well as the magnitude of Tisza flood events are also discussed. Another important aim of the poster is to provide a short overview, in the form of case studies, on the greatest flood events (e.g. duration, magnitude, damages, multi-annual consequences), and their further impacts on the urban and countryside development as well as on (changes in) flood defence strategies. In this respect, especially two flood events, the great (1815-)1816 and the catastrophic 1879 flood (shortly with causes and consequences) - that practically erased Szeged town from the ground - are presented in more detail.

  7. Synthesis of calcium antimonate nano-crystals by the 18th dynasty Egyptian glassmakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahlil, S.; Biron, I.; Cotte, M.; Susini, J.; Menguy, N.

    2010-01-01

    During the 18th Egyptian dynasty (1570-1292 B.C.), opaque white, blue and turquoise glasses were opacified by calcium antimonate crystals dispersed in a vitreous matrix. The technological processes as well as the antimony sources used to manufacture these crystals remain unknown. Our results shed a new light on glassmaking history: contrary to what was thought, we demonstrate that Egyptian glassmakers did not use in situ crystallization but first synthesized calcium antimonate opacifiers, which do not exist in nature, and then added them to a glass. Furthermore, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for the first time in the study of Egyptian opaque glasses, we show that these opacifiers were nano-crystals. Prior to this research, such a process for glassmaking has not been suggested for any kind of ancient opaque glass production. Studying various preparation methods for calcium antimonate, we propose that Egyptian craftsmen could have produced Ca2Sb2O7 by using mixtures of Sb2O3 or Sb2O5 with calcium carbonates (atomic ratio Sb/Ca=1) heat treated between 1000 and 1100°C. We developed an original strategy focused on the investigation of the crystals and the vitreous matrices using an appropriate suite of high-sensitivity and high-resolution micro- and nano-analytical techniques (scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), TEM). Synchrotron-based micro X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (μ-XANES) proved to be very well suited to the selective measure of the antimony oxidation state in the vitreous matrix. This work is the starting point for a complete reassessment not only of ancient Egyptian glass studies but more generally of high-temperature technologies used throughout antiquity.

  8. When Schools Stay Open Late: The National Evaluation of the 21st Century Community Learning Centers Program. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James-Burdumy, Susanne; Dynarski, Mark; Moore, Mary; Deke, John; Mansfield, Wendy; Pistorino, Carol; Warner, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    The 21st Century Community Learning Centers program has supported after-school programs since 1998. Research on the effects of after-school programs has been inconclusive, leading to an ongoing debate about the effects of after-school programs. To examine the implementation of the 21st Century Community Learning Centers after-school program and…

  9. Seismotectonics and seismic quietness of the Oranie region (Western Algeria): The Mascara earthquake of August 18th 1994, Mw = 5.7, Ms = 6.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayadi, A.; Ousadou-Ayadi, F.; Bourouis, S.; Benhallou, H.

    The plate dynamics in the central western Mediterranean region is characterised by a collision between the Eurasian and African plates. In response to this dynamics, many systems of faults and folds having a NE-SW and E-W trending have been generated along the Tellian Atlas of Algeria. The Oranie region (north western Algeria) has experienced some significant earthquakes in the last centuries, the most important one is that of Oran city on February 9th 1790, Io = XI which destroyed the town completely and caused the loss of many lives. Since 1790 no other event was so disastrous except that of August 18th 1994, Mw = 5.7, which struck Mascara province (Algeria) at 01 h 13 mn GMT. Since the beginning of this century the region has been dominated by a seismic quietness. Thus, no event with magnitude larger than 5.5 have occurred in this area. In relation with this recent event, a seismotectonic framework summarising the tectonic, seismicity and focal solution results is presented. The Maximum Observed Intensities Map (MOI) made for Algeria (Bezzeghoud et al., 1996) is also used to show that the Mascara region is located in an VIII-X intensity zone, which explain partially the casualties caused by the 18/08/1994 (Mw = 5.7) earthquake. This earthquake is not anomalous compared to historical records but is unusual compared to recorded seismicity of this century. The seismotectonic map made in this study and also the review of the focal solutions given by the EMSC, Harvard, and other authors shows that our event is probably associated with a source belonging to a system of faults located in the vicinity of the village of Hacine where the maximum damage was observed.

  10. In Search of an Audience: Popular Pharmacies and the Limits of Literate Medicine in Late Seventeenth- and Early Eighteenth-Century Russia.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Clare

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the question of the limits of literate medicine in Europe, through an examination of the Russian literate medical world of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. Russian courtly medicine had been dominated by Western Europeans from the 1480s, but in the early eighteenth century new licensing arrangements solidified the presence of these foreigners in the wider Russian medical world. Foreign medical practitioners took advantage of this development, aiming works at an increasingly large proportion of Russian literate society. These works, along with satirical and religious works emulating or deriding medical texts, show how by the 1720s the limits of literate medicine in Russia lay not at the edges of official court medicine, but rather at the edges of literate society.

  11. Popular culture and sporting life in the rural margins of late eighteenth-century England: the world of Robert Anderson, "The Cumberland Bard".

    PubMed

    Huggins, Mike

    2012-01-01

    This study sets out to extend and challenge existing historiography on late eighteenth century British popular culture, customary sports, class and cultural identity, focusing upon the rural geo-political borderland of England. It suggests that prevailing class-based and more London-biased studies need to be balanced with more regionalist-based work, and shows the importance of northern regional leisure variants. The textual and historical analysis draws largely on the published works of a neglected working-class dialect poet, Robert Anderson, living and working in Cumberland, arguing that he represented a strain of ''bardic regionalism,'' a variant of Katie Trumpener’s ''bardic nationalism.'' PMID:22400156

  12. Popular culture and sporting life in the rural margins of late eighteenth-century England: the world of Robert Anderson, "The Cumberland Bard".

    PubMed

    Huggins, Mike

    2012-01-01

    This study sets out to extend and challenge existing historiography on late eighteenth century British popular culture, customary sports, class and cultural identity, focusing upon the rural geo-political borderland of England. It suggests that prevailing class-based and more London-biased studies need to be balanced with more regionalist-based work, and shows the importance of northern regional leisure variants. The textual and historical analysis draws largely on the published works of a neglected working-class dialect poet, Robert Anderson, living and working in Cumberland, arguing that he represented a strain of ''bardic regionalism,'' a variant of Katie Trumpener’s ''bardic nationalism.''

  13. The Eclipse of the Sun: Sun-dials, Clocks and Natural Time in the Late Seventeenth Century.

    PubMed

    Turner, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The Sun, in the early seventeenth century was, as it always had been, the ultimate arbiter of time-measurement In the last quarter of the century however this role was called into question as the new precision of post-Huygenian clocks revealed that natural time and the artificial mean time of the clock were not the same. Initially the question was little understood by the general public. The paper examines some early attempts to explain why "Sun-time" in 1700 was no longer "true-time."

  14. In a Class of Their Own? Swedish Women School Teachers and the Fertility Transition in the Late Nineteenth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackinnon, Alison

    2003-01-01

    When Egil Johansson began his work in the parishes of northern Sweden, women's history, in common with the history of literacy, was in its infancy. Demographers did not ask questions of their sources specifically about gender relations. In the succeeding quarter century women's historians have begun to ask key questions about processes such as…

  15. When Elementary Schools Stay Open Late: Results from the National Evaluation of the 21St Century Community Learning Centers Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James-Burdumy, Susanne; Dynarski, Mark; Deke, John

    2007-01-01

    This article presents evidence from a national evaluation of the effects of 21st Century Community Learning Center after-school programs. The study was conducted in 12 school districts and 26 after-school centers, at which 2,308 elementary school students who were interested in attending a center were randomly assigned either to the treatment or…

  16. Some Thoughts on the Race Against Time and Inherent Vice: Preservation Program Development in Late 20th Century America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roosa, Mark

    This paper traces the roots of the current library preservation movement and its evolution during the second half of the 20th century. It also looks at some of the contemporary shifts in thinking about preservation and changes in practice that are being explored by libraries. Finally the paper draws some conclusions as to the scope of programs in…

  17. American veterinary history: before the nineteenth century. 1940.

    PubMed

    Bierer, Bert W

    2014-11-01

    With the development of our present day domesticated animals in America (during the 16th and 17th centuries), it was not long before animal diseases became troublesome and destructive (especially during the latter half of the 18th century). Though veterinary medicine became rather firmly established in many European countries (including England) during the latter half of the 18th century, veterinary medicine was relatively nonexistent in America, with only self-styled animal doctors and farriers (with their empirical and often destructive remedies).

  18. Integrating Women into U.S. History: A Sourcebook. Part I: Women in the 18th and 19th Centuries. Part II: Women in the 20th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, D'Ann; And Others

    This sourcebook, in two parts, aims at supplementing the limited material dealing with women's history normally found in junior and senior high school U.S. history textbooks. The lessons were developed by teachers at an intensive summer institute dealing with women's issues. The teachers and their colleagues field-tested the lessons and revised…

  19. Identifications of ancient Egyptian royal mummies from the 18th Dynasty reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Habicht, M E; Bouwman, A S; Rühli, F J

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, ancient Egyptian Royal mummies have drawn the attention both of the general public and scientists. Many royal mummies from the New Kingdom have survived. The discoveries of the bodies of these ancient rulers have always sparked much attention, yet not all identifications are clear even nowadays. This study presents a meta-analysis to demonstrate the difficulties in identifying ancient Egyptian royal mummies. Various methods and pitfalls in the identification of the Pharaohs are reassessed since new scientific methods can be used, such as ancient DNA-profiling and CT-scanning. While the ancestors of Tutankhamun have been identified, some identities are still highly controversial (e.g., the mystery of the KV-55 skeleton, recently most likely identified as the genetic father of Tutankhamun). The meta-analysis confirms the suggested identity of some mummies (e.g., Amenhotep III, Thutmosis IV, and Queen Tjye).

  20. ‘Looking as Little Like Patients as Persons Well Could’: Hypnotism, Medicine and the Problem of the Suggestible Subject in Late Nineteenth-Century Britain

    PubMed Central

    Chettiar, Teri

    2012-01-01

    During the late nineteenth century, many British physicians rigorously experimented with hypnosis as a therapeutic practice. Despite mounting evidence attesting to its wide-ranging therapeutic uses publicised in the 1880s and 1890s, medical hypnosis remained highly controversial. After a decade and a half of extensive medical discussion and debate surrounding the adoption of hypnosis by mainstream medical professionals – including a thorough inquiry organised by the British Medical Association – it was decisively excluded from serious medical consideration by 1900. This essay examines the complex question of why hypnosis was excluded from professional medical practice by the end of the nineteenth century. Objections to its medical adoption rarely took issue with its supposed effectiveness in producing genuine therapeutic and anaesthetic results. Instead, critics’ objections were centred upon a host of social and moral concerns regarding the patient’s state of suggestibility and weakened ‘will-power’ while under the physician’s hypnotic ‘spell’. The problematic question of precisely how far hypnotic ‘rapport’ and suggestibility might depart from the Victorian liberal ideal of rational individual autonomy lay at the heart of these concerns. As this essay demonstrates, the hypnotism debate was characterised by a tension between physicians’ attempts to balance their commitment to restore patients to health and pervasive middle-class concerns about the rapid and ongoing changes transforming British society at the turn of the century. PMID:23002303

  1. [The delayed emergence of the printing chronograph in French observatories (late 19th - early 20th centuries].

    PubMed

    Lamy, Jérôme; Soulu, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Western observatories became scientific factories from the mid-19th century. Astrometry symbolized the transition to an industrious economy of scientific practices. The printing chronograph, which reduced the personal equations of the observers, was, first in the United States, then in England, the symbolic instrument of this transformation. In France, the initiatives of the astronomer Liais were prototypical. In the practices of the Hendaye Observatory, and thanks to the abbé Verschaffel, the printing chronograph made its definitive entry in French observatories at the beginning of the 20th century. Excessive centralization of French astronomy, the authoritarianism of Urbain Le Verrier, the director of the Paris Observatory, and the poor market for scientific instruments explain why the printing chronograph took root, belatedly, in France.

  2. Eight Sages over Five Centuries Share Oxygen's Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severinghaus, John W.

    2016-01-01

    During the last century, historians have discovered that between the 13th and 18th centuries, at least six sages discovered that the air we breathe contains something that we need and use. Ibn al-Nafis (1213-1288) in Cairo and Michael Servetus (1511-1553) in France accurately described the pulmonary circulation and its effect on blood color.…

  3. A Portuguese manor in rural Brazil; or The saga of the enlightened Dom Frei Cipriano and the garden of the former episcopal palace in the late eighteenth century.

    PubMed

    Maia, Moacir Rodrigo de Castro

    2009-01-01

    This is a reconstruction of the career of the Most Reverend Dom Frei Cipriano de São José and the historical garden he built for his palace in Mariana, Minas Gerais, in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The grounds, which, like most of their counterparts in Minas Gerais, contained an orchard and kitchen garden, underwent a major reform to fit the mold of the classical European garden. Orderly and showing aesthetic concern, they were an admirable space at the end of the colonial period, representing as they did the enlightened metropolitan elite's growing interest in natural history and botany. A variety of documental sources were used to reconstruct the history of the grounds and the career of the person behind their design, the enlightened Dom Frei Cipriano de São José. PMID:21461511

  4. [Santa Casa de Misericórdia and hygienist policies in Belém do Pará in the late nineteenth century].

    PubMed

    Miranda, Cybelle Salvador; Beltrão, Jane Felipe; Henrique, Márcio Couto; Bessa, Brena Tavares

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the relationship between hygienist policies in effect in Belém in the late nineteenth century and the expansion of activities of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia do Pará. Considered one of the first hospital institutions in the former Grão-Pará Province, in addition to its own hospital, the Brotherhood administered several other health facilities in the capital, and the study of its physical displacement made it possible to "map" three health centers in Belém: Pioneer, Expansion and the Santa Casa, which reinforce the growth vectors of the city. The expansion of its activities is configured as the expansion of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia to serve the underprivileged and sick, preceding the establishment of a public health system in Pará.

  5. Propaganda, Public Information, and Prospecting: Explaining the Irrational Exuberance of Central Place Foragers During a Late Nineteenth Century Colorado Silver Rush.

    PubMed

    Glover, Susan M

    2009-10-01

    Traditionally, models of resource extraction assume individuals act as if they form strategies based on complete information. In reality, gathering information about environmental parameters may be costly. An efficient information gathering strategy is to observe the foraging behavior of others, termed public information. However, media can exploit this strategy by appearing to supply accurate information while actually shaping information to manipulate people to behave in ways that benefit the media or their clients. Here, I use Central Place Foraging (CPF) models to investigate how newspaper propaganda shaped ore foraging strategies of late nineteenth-century Colorado silver prospectors. Data show that optimistic values of silver ore published in local newspapers led prospectors to place mines at a much greater distance than was profitable. Models assuming perfect information neglect the possibility of misinformation among investors, and may underestimate the extent and degree of human impacts on areas of resource extraction.

  6. Ergotism in Norway. Part 1: The symptoms and their interpretation from the late Iron Age to the seventeenth century.

    PubMed

    Alm, Torbjørn; Elvevåg, Brita

    2013-03-01

    Ergotism is a horrendous disease with grotesque symptoms caused by ingesting specific ergot alkaloids. Mass poisoning episodes are attributable to consumption of grain - usually rye - infected with the fungus Claviceps purpurea. By focusing on possible cases of ergotism, we re-examine Norwegian history from the sagas through to the end of the seventeenth century. Our review - not intended to be exhaustive, or ex post facto to assign medical or psychiatric labels - draws attention to the very real possibility that many remarkable medical cases may have been the result of the ingestion of highly poisonous and psychoactive food substances. Where possible we highlight explanations given at the time - often rooted in religion or demonology - to explain the disease. PMID:24572795

  7. The role of deep processes in late 20th century subsidence of New Orleans and coastal areas of southern Louisiana and Mississippi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokka, Roy K.

    2011-06-01

    Geodetic leveling observations from Biloxi, MS, to New Orleans, LA, and water level gauge measurements in the New Orleans-Lake Pontchartrain area were analyzed to infer late 20th century vertical motions. These data were used to test the validity of previous subsidence rate measurements and the models that predict the location and causes of subsidence. Water gauges attached to bridge foundations and benchmarks affixed to deep rods that penetrate Holocene strata subsided as much as 0.8 m locally between 1955 and 1995. The observed deep-seated subsidence far exceeds model predictions and demonstrates that shallow processes such as compaction and consolidation of Holocene sediments are inadequate by themselves to explain late 20th century subsidence. Deep-seated subsidence occurring east and north of the normal faults marking the Gulf of Mexico basin margin can be explained by local groundwater withdrawal, and regional tectonic loading of the lithosphere by the modern Mississippi River delta (MRD). Sharp changes in subsidence coincide with strands of the basin margin normal faults. Displacements are consistent with activity and show motions consonant with fault creep. Deep subsidence of the region to the south, including New Orleans, can be explained by a combination of groundwater withdrawal from shallow upper Pleistocene aquifers, the aforementioned lithospheric loading, and perhaps, nongroundwater-related faulting. Subsidence due to groundwater extraction from aquifers ˜160 to 200 m deep dominated urbanized areas and is likely responsible for helping to lower local flood protection structures and bridges by as much as ˜0.8 m.

  8. Frequency and patterning of bone trauma in the late medieval population (13th-16th century) from Dugopolje, southern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Novak, Mario; Slaus, Mario

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to test the hypothesis of an increased level of interpersonal violence in Dugopolje during the late medieval period as testified by written sources. In order to accomplish this, an analysis and comparison of frequencies and patterning of long bone and craniofacial fractures between sex and age categories in the Dugopolje skeletal sample was performed. In total 209 excellently preserved adult skeletons were analysed: 111 males and 98 females. The total long bone fracture frequency is 1.5% (29/1910) with a significantly higher frequency in males compared to females. Most of the long bone injuries occurred as a result of accidents, probably due to rugged mountainous terrain, while a certain portion of trauma resulted from deliberate violence. Significantly higher fracture frequencies in males could be a result of a strict sexual division of labour where males performed more physically demanding and risky tasks, as witnessed by historical sources. 26 out of 119 complete adult crania (21.8%) exhibit skeletal trauma with significantly higher frequencies in males. Perimortem trauma was observed in one individual while antemortem healed sharp force lesions were registered in five individuals (all males). The predominance of frontal craniofacial injuries, as well as the presence ofperimortem trauma and sharp force lesions, suggests the presence of deliberate violence in this community. Although the indicators of deliberate violence were recorded predominantly in males, suggesting that intentional violence in Dugopolje was exclusively males' prerogative, the presence of nasal fracture in a female skeleton might point to a male towards female violence. Presented bioarchaeological data are in accordance with the written documents thus corroborating the claims of an increased level of deliberate interpersonal violence in the late medieval population from Dugopolje.

  9. Real-World Vehicle Emissions: A Summary of the 18th Coordinating Research Council On-Road Vehicle Emissions Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Cadle, S. H.; Ayala, A.; Black, K. N.; Graze, R. R.; Koupal, J.; Minassian, F.; Murray, H. B.; Natarajan, M.; Tennant, C. J.; Lawson, D. R.

    2009-02-01

    The Coordinating Research Council (CRC) convened its 18th On-Road Vehicle Emissions Workshop March 31-April 2, 2008, with 104 presentations describing the most recent mobile source-related emissions research. In this paper we summarize the presentations from researchers whose efforts are improving our understanding of the contribution of mobile sources to air quality. Participants in the workshop discussed emission models and emissions inventories, results from gas- and particle-phase emissions studies from spark-ignition and diesel-powered vehicles (with an emphasis in this workshop on particle emissions), effects of fuels on emissions, evaluation of in-use emission-control programs, and efforts to improve our capabilities in performing on-board emissions measurements, as well as topics for future research.

  10. 'No "Sane" Person Would Have Any Idea': Patients' Involvement in Late Nineteenth-century British Asylum Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Chaney, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    In his 1895 textbook, Mental Physiology, Bethlem Royal Hospital physician Theo Hyslop acknowledged the assistance of three fellow hospital residents. One was a junior colleague. The other two were both patients: Walter Abraham Haigh and Henry Francis Harding. Haigh was also thanked in former superintendent George Savage's book Insanity and Allied Neuroses (1884). In neither instance were the patients identified as such. This begs the question: what role did Haigh and Harding play in asylum theory and practice? And how did these two men interpret their experiences, both within and outside the asylum? By focusing on Haigh and Harding's unusual status, this paper argues that the notion of nineteenth-century 'asylum patient' needs to be investigated by paying close attention to specific national and institutional circumstances. Exploring Haigh and Harding's active engagement with their physicians provides insight into this lesser-known aspect of psychiatry's history. Their experience suggests that, in some instances, representations of madness at that period were the product of a two-way process of negotiation between alienist and patient. Patients, in other words, were not always mere victims of 'psychiatric power'; they participated in the construction and circulation of medical notions by serving as active intermediaries between medical and lay perceptions of madness.

  11. The "Abyssal Society". François-Alphonse Forel and the Case of Deep Fauna in Late 19th Century.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Ichthyological investigations and technological advancements, such as the laying of submarine telegraph cables, promoted new dredging methods in the second half of the 19th century. In contrast to the idea of a lifeless deep ocean (Edward Forbes' azoic hypothesis), the discovery of deep water fauna and the challenge of defining its systematics opened up new theoretical perspectives. In this frame, which was already marked by the impact of Darwin's theory, naturalistic surveys in freshwater environments in western Switzerland intertwined with those of oceanographic expeditions. The study of the fauna in the depths of subalpine lakes by the Swiss savant François-Alphonse Forel was one of the most striking examples of this turning point, because the relatively recently evolution of its freshwater fauna allowed him to investigate: (a) the role of isolation, (b) the progressive differentiation of species from a common ancestor, and (c) the constitution of a species-specific category in form transition, from a genealogical viewpoint to an ecological one. PMID:27356339

  12. Mechanism, vitalism and organicism in late nineteenth and twentieth-century biology: the importance of historical context.

    PubMed

    Allen, Garland E

    2005-06-01

    The term 'mechanism' has been used in two quite different ways in the history of biology. Operative, or explanatory mechanism refers to the step-by-step description or explanation of how components in a system interact to yield a particular outcome (as in the 'mechanism of enzyme action' or the 'mechanism of synaptic transmission'). Philosophical Mechanism, on the other hand, refers to a broad view of organisms as material entities, functioning in ways similar to machines--that is, carrying out a variety of activities based on known chemical and physical processes. In the early twentieth century philosophical Mechanism became the foundation of a 'new biology' that sought to establish the life sciences on the same solid and rigorous foundation as the physical sciences, including a strong emphasis on experimentation. In the context of the times this campaign was particularly aimed at combating the reintroduction of more holistic, non-mechanical approaches into the life sciences (organicism, vitalism). In so doing, Mechanists failed to see some of the strong points of non-vitalistic holistic thinking. The two approaches are illustrated in the work of Jacques Loeb and Hans Spemann.

  13. The "Abyssal Society". François-Alphonse Forel and the Case of Deep Fauna in Late 19th Century.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Ichthyological investigations and technological advancements, such as the laying of submarine telegraph cables, promoted new dredging methods in the second half of the 19th century. In contrast to the idea of a lifeless deep ocean (Edward Forbes' azoic hypothesis), the discovery of deep water fauna and the challenge of defining its systematics opened up new theoretical perspectives. In this frame, which was already marked by the impact of Darwin's theory, naturalistic surveys in freshwater environments in western Switzerland intertwined with those of oceanographic expeditions. The study of the fauna in the depths of subalpine lakes by the Swiss savant François-Alphonse Forel was one of the most striking examples of this turning point, because the relatively recently evolution of its freshwater fauna allowed him to investigate: (a) the role of isolation, (b) the progressive differentiation of species from a common ancestor, and (c) the constitution of a species-specific category in form transition, from a genealogical viewpoint to an ecological one.

  14. [An unrivalled physician? Family strategies for child care in the late 19th century South Tyrolean countryside].

    PubMed

    Unterkircher, Alois

    2012-01-01

    Who was responsible for the treatment of sick children in the countryside during the second half of the 19th century? This paper investigates the medical complaint accusing the rural population of only reluctantly bringing their sick offspring to academic physicians. The following analyses the role Franz v. Ottenthal (1818-1899), a 'representative' of a private rural medical practice, played in the specialised medical market attending to childhood diseases. An exemplary survey of Ottenthal's medical records for patients from the age of one to 14 years throughout the 1890s has shown that children contributed a relevant percentage of the whole of the physician's patient distribution. It may therefore be assumed that Ottenthal knew how to successfully merchandise his specific therapies. On the demand side, however, parents of sick children were not solely reliant upon this physician. Evidence from the medical records provides information as to when parents regarded medical self-help as no longer supporting the recovery of their children, the cures of lay healers failed, or cases when parents were not satisfied with the therapeutic treatments other physicians had to offer and therefore consulted Ottenthal. PMID:23320379

  15. Late 20th Century benthic foraminiferal distribution in Central San Francisco Bay, California: Influence of the Trochammina hadai invasion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGann, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    Samples collected from 1965 onward were also compared with those from 1998 to investigate how the distribution of benthic foraminifera in Central Bay has changed over the latter half of the 20th Century, particularly in response to the invasion by Trochammina hadai. In 1998, T. hadai was recovered at 46 of 55 sites in Central Bay, comprising from 0.3 to 97% (mean = 23%) of the foraminiferal fauna. With the species’ affiliation for shallow environments, it is not unexpected that it dominated the fauna of the Shallow Subtidal Biofacies (68-97%, mean = 77%) and was also a significant component of the Intermediate Subtidal Biofacies (7-51%, averaging 28%). In the deeper waters west of Alcatraz Island, the abundance of T. hadai was significantly less (mean = 8%), most likely reflecting allochthonous specimens that were the result of post-mortem transport. A cluster analysis clearly distinguishes pre- and post-invasion biofacies, illustrating how dominant T. hadai has become in Central Bay.

  16. 'No "Sane" Person Would Have Any Idea': Patients' Involvement in Late Nineteenth-century British Asylum Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Chaney, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    In his 1895 textbook, Mental Physiology, Bethlem Royal Hospital physician Theo Hyslop acknowledged the assistance of three fellow hospital residents. One was a junior colleague. The other two were both patients: Walter Abraham Haigh and Henry Francis Harding. Haigh was also thanked in former superintendent George Savage's book Insanity and Allied Neuroses (1884). In neither instance were the patients identified as such. This begs the question: what role did Haigh and Harding play in asylum theory and practice? And how did these two men interpret their experiences, both within and outside the asylum? By focusing on Haigh and Harding's unusual status, this paper argues that the notion of nineteenth-century 'asylum patient' needs to be investigated by paying close attention to specific national and institutional circumstances. Exploring Haigh and Harding's active engagement with their physicians provides insight into this lesser-known aspect of psychiatry's history. Their experience suggests that, in some instances, representations of madness at that period were the product of a two-way process of negotiation between alienist and patient. Patients, in other words, were not always mere victims of 'psychiatric power'; they participated in the construction and circulation of medical notions by serving as active intermediaries between medical and lay perceptions of madness. PMID:26651187

  17. The role of vertical land movements on late 19th century sea level rise at Cuxhaven, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehüser, Sebastian; Jensen, Jürgen; Wahl, Thomas; Dangendorf, Sönke; Hofstede, Jacobus

    2015-04-01

    Tide gauges, located along the world's coastlines, represent one of the most important data sources with information about sea level change back into the 17th century, bridging the gap between paleo proxies and modern remote sensing data sources. While the worldwide coverage of tide gauges has increased considerably since the mid-20th century, there are only a few gauges available providing information about regional sea level changes before 1900. Furthermore, these tide gauge measurements are often contaminated by local vertical land movements (VLM) resulting from tectonic processes or local anthropogenic interventions. Such non-climatic effects need to be removed from the raw data to uncover climate signals, which are important, for instance, for answering the question whether and when sea level started to accelerate from the nearly constant rates over the past 2000 years. Here we focus on one of these long tide gauge records: Cuxhaven, which is located in the German Bight and provides uninterrupted digital time series of tidal high and low water levels since 1843. The record has been extensively studied during the past decades with respect to regional and global sea level rise. However, a question that still remains is the role of local subsidence before 1900 at the lighthouse of Cuxhaven, located close to the tide gauge. In 1855 Lentz installed a granite height mark at the lighthouse, which was later used as a proxy for VLMs of the tide gauge itself. The height of the control mark was derived by a levelling between Hamburg and Cuxhaven. These levellings were repeated five times between 1855 and 1900 and later evaluated by Siefert and Lassen (1985) with respect to the role of local subsidence. Based on a linear regression of individual levellings Siefert and Lassen (1985) concluded that the lighthouse subsided by an average rate of 2.8 mm/yr (1855-1875: 4.2 mm/yr; 1876-1890: 2 mm/yr; 1890-1900: 1.2 mm/yr). However, due to the massive uncertainties of these early

  18. Dynamics of the lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin, China, since late nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lijuan; Gao, Changjun; Zhao, Xinsheng; Ma, Qiongfang; Zhang, Manyin; Li, Wei; Song, Hongtao; Wang, Yifei; Li, Shengnan; Zhang, Yan

    2013-05-01

    The middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin have the most representative and largest concentration of freshwater lakes in China. However, the size and number of these lakes have changed considerably over the past century due to the natural and anthropogenic impact. The lakes, larger than 10 km(2) in size, were chosen from relief maps and remotely sensed images in 1875, 1950, 1970, 1990, 2000, and 2008 to study the dynamics of lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin and to examine the causes and consequences of these changes. Results indicated that there was a dramatic reduction in lake areas, which decreased by 7,841.2 km(2) (42.64 %) during the study period (1875-2008), and the number of lakes in this region changed moderately. Meanwhile, a large number of lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin were directly converted into paddy fields, ponds, building lands, or other land-use types over the study period. Therefore, all kinds of lake reclamation should be identified as the major driving factors for the loss of lake in this region. Furthermore, flooding, soil erosion, and sedimentation were also the main factors which triggered lake changes in different periods. Some wetland conservation and restoration projects have been implemented since the 1970s, but they have not reversed the lake degradation. These findings were of great importance to managers involved in making policy for the conservation of lake ecosystems and the utilization of lake resources.

  19. A new database of cloudiness for Italy from instrumental time series since the late 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manara, Veronica; Brunetti, Michele; Maugeri, Maurizio; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo

    2015-04-01

    Italy has a very important role in the development of meteorological observations. Consequently, a heritage of data of enormous value has been accumulated in Italy over the last three centuries. However, only a small fraction of Italian data is available in computer readable form and the available records mainly concern temperature, precipitation and pressure. Within this context, we set up a project to recover as much as possible cloudiness Italian records. The goal is to consider total cloud cover (TCC), low and middle cloud cover, and cloud types. The data source we are using include the former national central office for meteorology (now CRA-CMA), the national air force meteorological and climatological service and some of the oldest Italian observatories as Milan, Rome, Turin and Venice. The database contains sub-daily (from 3 to 8 observations per day for each station) information about TCC but also about the amount and the type of low, middle and high cloud in the sky. The oldest records start at about 1858 and about 30 records start in the 1880s. Currently quality check and test for temporal homogeneity is in progress. Then the monthly records will be completed by means of the neighboring records and averaged in order to get national and regional records for Italy and its main climatic areas. This new dataset will be presented and the results of the first analyses will be discussed. The study of cloudiness records for Italy is important also to better understand the behavior of sunshine duration, which shows a rather peculiar behaviour, especially in northern Italy. In this area, in fact, we observe a statistically significant increasing tendency during the period 1936-2103, that most publications do not report, as a consequence of a strong increase starting from the 1980 and a less evident decrease in the previous period.

  20. Natural history museum collections provide information on phenological change in British butterflies since the late-nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Stephen J; Self, Angela; Toloni, Flavia; Sparks, Tim

    2014-10-01

    Museum collections have the potential to provide valuable information on the phenological response of organisms to climate change. This is particularly useful for those species for which few data otherwise exist, but also to extend time series to the period before other observational data are available. To test this potential, we analysed data from 2,630 specimens of four species of British butterflies (Anthocharis cardamines, Hamearis lucina, Polyommatus bellargus and Pyrgus malvae), collected from 1876 to 1999 and stored in the Natural History Museum, London, UK (NHM). In A. cardamines, first-generation P. bellargus and P. malvae, we found that there was a strong significant negative relationship between spring temperature and 10th percentile collection dates, which approximates mean first appearance date, and median collection date, which approximates mean flight date. In all four species, there was a significant negative relationship between the 10th percentile collection date and the length of the collection period, which approximates flight period. In second-generation P. bellargus, these phenological measurements were correlated with summer temperature. We found that the rates of phenological response to temperature, based on NHM data, were similar to, or somewhat greater than, those reported for other organisms based on observational data covering the last 40 years. The lower rate of phenological response, and the significant influence of February rather than March or April temperatures, in recent decades compared with data from earlier in the twentieth century may indicate that early emerging British butterfly species are currently approaching the limits of phenological advancement in response to recent climate warming.

  1. [Scholarly life in the late 17th century: the Giessen professor of medicine Michael Bernhard Valentini (1657-1729)].

    PubMed

    Enke, Ulrike

    2007-01-01

    Towards the end of the 17th century the university of Giessen was--compared to, for example, Leipzig or the newly founded university of Halle--a rather small university in terms of student numbers. Situated in a provincial town of about 5,000 inhabitants and far away from the capital, Darmstadt, the university was a firmly denominational, i.e. orthodox Lutheran, counter-foundation against the neighbouring university of Marburg in Calvinist Hesse-Kassel. This paper describes under what circumstances Michael Bernhard Valentini (1657-1729), a typical and well-known scholar in his time, became successful and influential in the early Enlightenment. Born in 1657 as the son of a university servant (Pedell) and therefore underprivileged, he succeeded in becoming dean of the medical faculty and eventually rector of Giessen University. He was professor of Physica naturalis as well as of medicine and gained importance and influence by establishing experimental physics in Giessen. Numerous publications, not only in medicine but also in natural history and about curiosities, attracted the attention of many scientific societies whose membership he obtained. Valentini had studied philosophy and medicine in Giessen at a time when the curricula in medicine and natural philosophy were still taught in the traditional scholastic manner. After having worked as a medical practitioner, he made an educational tour through Western Europe in 1686, during which he met Robert Boyle in London. In 1687 Valentini became professor of physics in Giessen. In the same year, he bought several physical instruments--including an air pump from the Musschenbroek workshop in Leiden, at that time a centre of technical and scientific innovation. Thanks to Valentini Giessen became the third university in Germany (after Altdorf and Marburg) that offered the "new" experimental physics in its curriculum. PMID:18196757

  2. [Changes of medico-pharmaceutical profession and private practice from the late 19th century to the early 20th century: ebb and flow of western pharmacies and clinics attached to pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Lee, Heung-Ki

    2010-12-31

    This article examined i) how traditional medico-pharmaceutical custom from the late 19th century influenced such changes, ii) how medical laws of Daehan Empire and early colonial period influenced the differentiation of medico-pharmaceutical profession, and iii) what the responses of medico-pharmaceutical professionals were like, and arrived at following conclusions. First, in late Chosun, there was a nationwide spread of pharmacies (medicine room, medicine store) as general medical institutions in charge of prescription and medication as well as diagnosis. Therefore, Koreans' perception of Western medicine was not very different from that of traditional pharmacy. Second, Western pharmacies were established by various entities including oriental doctors, Western doctors and drug manufacturers.Their business ranged from medical consultation, prescription, medication and drug manufacture. This was in a way the extension of traditional medico-pharmaceutical custom, which did not draw a sharp line between medical and pharmaceutical practices. Also, regulations on medical and pharmaceutical business of Daehan Empire did not distinguish oriental and Western medicine. Third, clinics attached to pharmacy began to emerge after 1908, as some Western pharmacies that had grown their business based on selling medicine began to hire doctors trained in Western medicine. This trend resulted from Government General's control over medico-pharmaceutical business that began in 1908, following a large-scale dismissal of army surgeons trained in medical schools in 1907. Fourth, as specialization increased within medico-pharmaceutical business following the colonial medical law in early 1910s, such comprehensive business practices as Western pharmacy disappeared and existing businesses were differentiated into dealers of medical ingredients, drug manufacturer, patent medicine businessmen and herbalists. And private practice gradually became the general trend by establishment of medical

  3. The Forced Surrender of Infants Born to Unwed Mothers in Southern Italy. A Case Study of Late Nineteenth Century Practices in the Town of Forio d'Ischia.

    PubMed

    Imperato, Pascal James

    2015-10-01

    For many centuries, unwed mothers in southern Italy were forced to surrender their infants because of a number of social, religious, economic, and political pressures. This study focuses on the policies and practices that were in place in southern Italy regarding illegitimate infants in the late nineteenth century. A detailed analysis of the policies and practices present in the town of Forio d'Ischia during the 20-year period 1880-1899 is also presented. During these two decades, there were 37 illegitimate live births representing 0.70% of the 5249 live births recorded in this town. Although small in number, these illegitimate births, referred to as spuri in Italian, from the Latin spurius, meaning bastard, were managed by standard predetermined procedures. These included anonymity for the parents, the transfer of such infants to an official town receiver of foundlings, and their transport to Naples' orphanage, the Real Casa Santa dell'Annunziata. This orphanage maintained fairly detailed records about the children who were delivered to it. After a few days at the orphanage, infants were often entrusted to the care of external wet nurses, preferably outside of Naples. This was done in the belief that infant survival was better assured in more rural environments. The case of an illegitimate infant, Antonino Spinalbese, is presented in detail. Born on 14 February 1882 in the town of Forio d'Ischia, he was brought to the orphanage 4 days later. Following a two-day stay at the orphanage, he was entrusted to an external wet nurse, Michele Mondella, and her husband, Ciro Fiscale di Felice, a mariner in the town of Torre del Greco. The available evidence indicates that Antonino Spinalbese became a mariner like his stepfather. As a crew member of the passenger ship, Vulcano, he made three trips from Naples to New York City in 1922 and 1923. PMID:26233712

  4. Glycomic profile of the human parotid gland between 18th and 26th week of fetal development.

    PubMed

    Rêgo, Moacyr J B M; Silva Filho, Antônio F; Sobral, Ana P V; Beltrão, Eduardo I C

    2016-01-01

    The formation of new and functional structural components of several organs, such as parotid glands, can be influenced by the glycocode. This study analyzed the glycobiology of parotid salivary gland tissue during fetal development using specific biochemical probes (lectins and antibodies). Eleven parotid gland samples from human fetuses were obtained from spontaneous abortions at 14-28 weeks of gestation, and tissue sections were analyzed for lectin histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. From the 18th to 26th week, Canavalia ensiformis agglutinin, wheat germ agglutinin, Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I, peanut agglutinin, Sambucus nigra agglutinin, and Vicia villosa agglutinin lectin staining were predominantly observed in the apical and/or basement membranes of the ducts and tubulo-acinar units. Moreover, the presence of galectin-1 was found in the membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus of both structures. Conversely, Gal-3 and mucin-1 were restricted to the glandular ducts. The lectin staining pattern changed during the weeks evaluated. Nevertheless, the carbohydrate subcellular localization represented a key factor in the investigation of structural distribution profiles and possible roles of these glycans in initial parotid gland development. These findings are defined by their high biological value and provide an important base for the development of subsequent studies. (J Oral Sci 58, 353-360, 2016). PMID:27665974

  5. Shedding New Light on the 18th Dynasty Mummies of the Royal Architect Kha and His Spouse Merit.

    PubMed

    Bianucci, Raffaella; Habicht, Michael E; Buckley, Stephen; Fletcher, Joann; Seiler, Roger; Öhrström, Lena M; Vassilika, Eleni; Böni, Thomas; Rühli, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    The mummies of Kha and his wife Merit were found intact in an undisturbed tomb in western Thebes near the ancient workers' village of Deir el-Medina. Previous MDCT (this abbreviation needs spelling out) investigations showed that the bodies of Kha and Merit did not undergo classical royal 18th Dynasty artificial mummification, which included removal of the internal organs. It was, therefore, concluded that the retention of the viscera in the body, combined with an absence of canopic jars in the burial chamber, meant the couple underwent a short and shoddy funerary procedure, despite their relative wealth at death. Nevertheless, all internal organs - brain, ocular bulbs/ocular nerves, thoracic and abdominal organs - showed a very good state of preservation, which contradicts the previous interpretation above. In order to better understand the type of mummification used to embalm these bodies, both wrapped mummies were reinvestigated using new generation X-ray imaging and chemical microanalyses Here we provide evidence that both individuals underwent a relatively high quality of mummification, fundamentally contradicting previous understanding. Elucidated "recipes", whose components had anti-bacterial and anti-insecticidal properties, were used to treat their bodies. The time and effort undoubtedly employed to embalm both Kha and Merit and the use of imported costly resins, notably Pistacia, do not support the previously held view that the two individuals were poorly mummified. Despite a lack of evisceration, the approach clearly allowed their in situ preservation as well as affording a fairly successful mummification.

  6. The initial giant umbrella cloud of the May 18th, 1980, explosive eruption of Mount St. Helens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparks, R.S.J.; Moore, J.G.; Rice, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    The initial eruption column of May 18th, 1980 reached nearly 30 km altitude and released 1017 joules of thermal energy into the atmosphere in only a few minutes. Ascent of the cloud resulted in forced intrusion of a giant umbrella-shaped cloud between altitudes of 10 and 20 km at radial horizontal velocities initially in excess of 50 m/s. The mushroom cloud expanded 15 km upwind, forming a stagnation point where the radial expansion velocity and wind velocity were equal. The cloud was initiated when the pyroclastic blast flow became buoyant. The flow reduced its density as it moved away from the volcano by decompression, by sedimentation, and by mixing with and heating the surrounding air. Observations indicate that much of the flow, covering an area of 600 km2, became buoyant within 1.5 minutes and abruptly ascended to form the giant cloud. Calculations are presented for the amount of air that must have been entrained into the flow to make it buoyant. Assuming an initial temperature of 450??C and a magmatic origin for the explosion, these calculations indicate that the flow became buoyant when its temperature was approximately 150??C and the flow consisted of a mixture of 3.25 ?? 1011 kg of pyroclasts and 5.0 ?? 1011 kg of air. If sedimentation is considered, these figures reduce to 1.1 ?? 1011 kg of pyroclasts and 1.0 ?? 1011 kg of air. ?? 1986.

  7. Shedding New Light on the 18th Dynasty Mummies of the Royal Architect Kha and His Spouse Merit

    PubMed Central

    Bianucci, Raffaella; Habicht, Michael E.; Buckley, Stephen; Fletcher, Joann; Seiler, Roger; Öhrström, Lena M.; Vassilika, Eleni; Böni, Thomas; Rühli, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    The mummies of Kha and his wife Merit were found intact in an undisturbed tomb in western Thebes near the ancient workers’ village of Deir el-Medina. Previous MDCT (this abbreviation needs spelling out) investigations showed that the bodies of Kha and Merit did not undergo classical royal 18th Dynasty artificial mummification, which included removal of the internal organs. It was, therefore, concluded that the retention of the viscera in the body, combined with an absence of canopic jars in the burial chamber, meant the couple underwent a short and shoddy funerary procedure, despite their relative wealth at death. Nevertheless, all internal organs - brain, ocular bulbs/ocular nerves, thoracic and abdominal organs - showed a very good state of preservation, which contradicts the previous interpretation above. In order to better understand the type of mummification used to embalm these bodies, both wrapped mummies were reinvestigated using new generation X-ray imaging and chemical microanalyses Here we provide evidence that both individuals underwent a relatively high quality of mummification, fundamentally contradicting previous understanding. Elucidated “recipes”, whose components had anti-bacterial and anti-insecticidal properties, were used to treat their bodies. The time and effort undoubtedly employed to embalm both Kha and Merit and the use of imported costly resins, notably Pistacia, do not support the previously held view that the two individuals were poorly mummified. Despite a lack of evisceration, the approach clearly allowed their in situ preservation as well as affording a fairly successful mummification. PMID:26200778

  8. Shedding New Light on the 18th Dynasty Mummies of the Royal Architect Kha and His Spouse Merit.

    PubMed

    Bianucci, Raffaella; Habicht, Michael E; Buckley, Stephen; Fletcher, Joann; Seiler, Roger; Öhrström, Lena M; Vassilika, Eleni; Böni, Thomas; Rühli, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    The mummies of Kha and his wife Merit were found intact in an undisturbed tomb in western Thebes near the ancient workers' village of Deir el-Medina. Previous MDCT (this abbreviation needs spelling out) investigations showed that the bodies of Kha and Merit did not undergo classical royal 18th Dynasty artificial mummification, which included removal of the internal organs. It was, therefore, concluded that the retention of the viscera in the body, combined with an absence of canopic jars in the burial chamber, meant the couple underwent a short and shoddy funerary procedure, despite their relative wealth at death. Nevertheless, all internal organs - brain, ocular bulbs/ocular nerves, thoracic and abdominal organs - showed a very good state of preservation, which contradicts the previous interpretation above. In order to better understand the type of mummification used to embalm these bodies, both wrapped mummies were reinvestigated using new generation X-ray imaging and chemical microanalyses Here we provide evidence that both individuals underwent a relatively high quality of mummification, fundamentally contradicting previous understanding. Elucidated "recipes", whose components had anti-bacterial and anti-insecticidal properties, were used to treat their bodies. The time and effort undoubtedly employed to embalm both Kha and Merit and the use of imported costly resins, notably Pistacia, do not support the previously held view that the two individuals were poorly mummified. Despite a lack of evisceration, the approach clearly allowed their in situ preservation as well as affording a fairly successful mummification. PMID:26200778

  9. Possible impacts of early-11th-, middle-12th-, and late-13th-century droughts on western Native Americans and the Mississippian Cahokians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.V.; Berry, M.S.; Jolie, E.A.; Spangler, J.D.; Stahle, D.W.; Hattori, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    One or more of three intense and persistent droughts impacted some Native American cultures in the early-11th, middle-12th and late-13th centuries, including the Anasazi, Fremont, Lovelock, and Mississippian (Cahokian) prehistorical cultures. Tree-ring-based reconstructions of precipitation and temperature indicate that warm drought periods occurred between AD 990 and 1060, AD 1135 and 1170, and AD 1276 and 1297. These droughts occurred during minima in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and may have been associated with positive values of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Each of the Native American cultures was supported, to a greater or lesser degree, by precipitation-dependent resources. Both the Four Corners region and Cahokia were sites of intense growth between about AD 1050 and 1130, and by AD 1150, cultures in both regions were undergoing stress. By AD 1300 the Anasazi and Fremont cultures had collapsed and their residual populations had either left their homelands or withered. In the case of Fremont populations, the AD 990-1060 drought may have had the greatest impact. This drought also may have affected the Anasazi, for it was at the end of this drought that some people from Chaco migrated to the San Juan River valley and founded the Salmon Ruin great house. Detailed data do not exist on the number of Lovelock habitation sites or populations over time; however, Lovelock populations appear to have retreated from the western Great Basin to California by AD 1300 or shortly thereafter.

  10. English Translations Of The First Clinical Reports On Narcolepsy And Cataplexy By Westphal And Gélineau In The Late 19th Century, With Commentary

    PubMed Central

    Schenck, Carlos H.; Bassetti, Claudio L.; Arnulf, Isabelle; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To publish the first English translations, with commentary, of the original reports describing narcolepsy and cataplexy by Westphal in German (1877) and by Gélineau in French (1880). Methods: A professional translation service translated the 2 reports from either German or French to English, with each translation then being slightly edited by one of the authors. All authors then provided commentary. Results: Both Westphal and Gélineau correctly identified and described the new clinical entities of cataplexy and narcolepsy, with recurrent, self-limited sleep attacks and/or cataplectic attacks affecting 2 otherwise healthy people. Narcolepsy was named by Gélineau (and cataplexy was named by Henneberg in 1916). The evidence in both cases is sufficiently convincing to conclude that they were likely each HLA-DQB1*0602 positive and hypocretin deficient. Conclusions: The original descriptions of narcolepsy and cataplexy are now available in English, allowing for extensive clinical and historical commentary. Citations: Schenck CH; Bassetti CL; Arnulf I et al. English translations of the first clinical reports on narcolepsy and cataplexy by Westphal and Gélineau in the late 19th century, with commentary. J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(3):301–311 PMID:17561602

  11. Quantification of the Early Small-Scale Fishery in the North-Eastern Baltic Sea in the Late 17th Century

    PubMed Central

    Verliin, Aare; Ojaveer, Henn; Kaju, Katre; Tammiksaar, Erki

    2013-01-01

    Historical perspectives on fisheries and related human behaviour provide valuable information on fishery resources and their exploitation, helping to more appropriately set management targets and determine relevant reference levels. In this study we analyse historical fisheries and fish trade at the north-eastern Baltic Sea coast in the late 17th century. Local consumption and export together amounted to the annual removal of about 200 tonnes of fish from the nearby sea and freshwater bodies. The fishery was very diverse and exploited altogether one cyclostome and 17 fish species with over 90% of the catch being consumed locally. The exported fish consisted almost entirely of high-valued species with Stockholm (Sweden) being the most important export destination. Due to rich political history and natural features of the region, we suggest that the documented evidence of this small-scale fishery should be considered as the first quantitative summary of exploitation of aquatic living resources in the region and can provide a background for future analyses. PMID:23861914

  12. Veterinary entomology, colonial science and the challenge of tick-borne diseases in South Africa during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

    PubMed

    Brown, K

    2008-12-01

    This article provides an historical overview of developments in veterinary entomology during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. During that period state employed entomologists and veterinary scientists discovered that ticks were responsible for transmitting a number of livestock diseases in South Africa. Diseases such as heartwater, redwater and gallsickness were endemic to the country. They had a detrimental effect on pastoral output, which was a mainstay of the national economy. Then in 1902 the decimating cattle disease East Coast fever arrived making the search for cures or preventatives all the more urgent. Vaccine technologies against tick-borne diseases remained elusive overall and on the basis of scientific knowledge, the South African state recommended regularly dipping animals in chemical solutions to destroy the ticks. Dipping along with quarantines and culls resulted in the eradication of East Coast fever from South Africa in the early 1950s. However, from the 1930s some ticks evolved a resistance to the chemical dips meaning that diseases like redwater were unlikely to be eliminated by that means. Scientists toiled to improve upon existing dipping technologies and also carried out ecological surveys to enhance their ability to predict outbreaks. Over the longer term dipping was not a panacea and ticks continue to present a major challenge to pastoral farming.

  13. Possible impacts of early-11th-, middle-12th-, and late-13th-century droughts on western Native Americans and the Mississippian Cahokians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Larry V.; Berry, Michael S.; Jolie, Edward A.; Spangler, Jerry D.; Stahle, David W.; Hattori, Eugene M.

    2007-02-01

    One or more of three intense and persistent droughts impacted some Native American cultures in the early-11th, middle-12th and late-13th centuries, including the Anasazi, Fremont, Lovelock, and Mississippian (Cahokian) prehistorical cultures. Tree-ring-based reconstructions of precipitation and temperature indicate that warm drought periods occurred between AD 990 and 1060, AD 1135 and 1170, and AD 1276 and 1297. These droughts occurred during minima in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and may have been associated with positive values of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Each of the Native American cultures was supported, to a greater or lesser degree, by precipitation-dependent resources. Both the Four Corners region and Cahokia were sites of intense growth between about AD 1050 and 1130, and by AD 1150, cultures in both regions were undergoing stress. By AD 1300 the Anasazi and Fremont cultures had collapsed and their residual populations had either left their homelands or withered. In the case of Fremont populations, the AD 990-1060 drought may have had the greatest impact. This drought also may have affected the Anasazi, for it was at the end of this drought that some people from Chaco migrated to the San Juan River valley and founded the Salmon Ruin great house. Detailed data do not exist on the number of Lovelock habitation sites or populations over time; however, Lovelock populations appear to have retreated from the western Great Basin to California by AD 1300 or shortly thereafter.

  14. Broken ribs: paleopathological analysis of costal fractures in the human identified skeletal collection from the Museu Bocage, Lisbon, Portugal (late 19th to middle 20th centuries).

    PubMed

    Matos, Vítor

    2009-09-01

    Although rarely reported in the anthropological literature, rib fractures are commonly found during the analysis of human skeletal remains of past and modern populations. This lack of published data precludes comparison between studies and restricts an accurate understanding either of the mechanisms involved in thoracic injuries or their impact on past societies. The present study aimed: 1) to report rib fracture prevalence in 197 individuals, 109 males, and 88 females, with ages at death ranging from 13 to 88 years old, from the Human Identified Skeletal Collection, Museu Bocage, Portugal (late 19th-middle 20th centuries); 2) to test the hypothesis that a higher prevalence of rib stress fractures existed in the 133 individuals who died from respiratory diseases, in a period before antibiotics. The macroscopic analysis revealed 23.9% (n = 47) of individuals with broken ribs. 2.6% (n = 124) out of 4,726 ribs observed were affected. Males presented more rib fractures, and a significantly higher prevalence was noted for older individuals. Fractures were more frequently unilateral (n = 34), left sided (n = 19) and mainly located on the shaft of ribs from the middle thoracic wall. Nineteen individuals presented adjacent fractured ribs. Individuals who died from pulmonary diseases were not preferentially affected. However, a higher mean rate of fractures was found in those who died from pneumonia, a scenario still common nowadays. Since rib involvement in chest wall injury and its related outcomes are important issues both for paleopathology and forensic anthropology, further investigations are warranted.

  15. Teaching of Psychology: Ideas and Innovations. Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Undergraduate Teaching of Psychology (18th, Monticello, New York, March 24-26, 2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Patricia A., Ed.; Zaromatidis, Katherine, Ed.; Levine, Judith R., Ed.; Indenbaum, Gene, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This document includes the proceedings and papers of the 18th Annual Conference on Undergraduate Teaching of Psychology, which was held on March 24-26, 2004 in Monticello, NY. The conference, which dealt with ideas and innovations in the teaching of psychology, was sponsored by the Psychology Department of the Farmingdale State University. The…

  16. Satirizing Women's Speech in Eighteenth-Century England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Stephen H.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the 18th-century rhetorical convention of misogynist satire and how it shaped attitudes toward women speakers. Focuses not so much on the formal properties of the satire but on its convention and content as modes of insinuation. Surveys prominent journals, newspapers, magazines, and reviews of the period. (TB)

  17. Political Life in Eighteenth-Century Virginia. Essays from Colonial Williamsburg. The Foundations of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jack P.

    This book explores the history of the Virginia colony from the early 18th century to the time of the signing of the Declaration of Independence. Virginia, the oldest and most prosperous of Great Britain's North American colonies, assumed a leading role in the political life of the colonies. Some in 17th century Virginia had seen political…

  18. As the Europeans Saw Them: The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century, Social Studies Unit, Book II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnow, Patricia H., Comp.

    This booklet is intended for use as reading material for the social studies unit, The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century. Excerpts from journals of seven 18th-century explorers or travelers describe the inhabitants of the Aleutian Islands. The accounts have been translated from original notes kept by members of the Russian navy, ship commanders, a…

  19. Early 19th Century Music Pedagogy--German and English Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southcott, Jane E.

    2007-01-01

    Calls to improve congregational psalmody in 18th century England strongly influenced early music pedagogy. In the first decades of the 19th century English music educators, concerned with psalmody and music in charitable schools, looked to Germany for models of successful practice. The Musikalisches Schulgesangbuch (1826) by Carl Gotthelf Gläser…

  20. The effect of aerosols and sea surface temperature on China's climate in the late twentieth century from ensembles of global climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folini, D.; Wild, M.

    2015-03-01

    Over the late twentieth century, China has seen a strong increase in aerosol emissions, whose quantitative role for observed changes in surface solar radiation (SSR), surface air temperature (SAT), and precipitation remains debated. We use ensembles of transient sensitivity experiments with the global climate model ECHAM5 from the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany, combined with the Hamburg Aerosol Module to examine the effect of aerosols and prescribed, observation-based sea surface temperatures (SSTs) on the above variables. Observations and control experiments agree reasonably well in eastern China in terms of SSR dimming (-6 ± 2 W/m2/decade, 1960-2000; stronger than in models of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5, CMIP5), statistically nonsignificant summer SAT trend (1950-2005), and drying in summer from 1950 to 1990 (-2.5% to -3.5% per decade, essentially via reduction of convective precipitation). Other observed features are not reproduced by the model, e.g., precipitation increase in the 1990s in the Yangtze River valley or, from the 1960s onward, the strong winter warming in northern China and Mongolia and SSR dimming in western China. Aerosol effects are stronger for sulfur dioxide than for black and organic carbon and are more pronounced at lower model resolution. Transient SSTs are crucial for decadal-scale SAT variability over land, especially the strong warming in the 1990s, and, via SST forced reduction of cloud cover, for the ceasing of SSR dimming around the year 2000. Unforced cloud variability leads to relevant scatter (up to ±2 W/m2/decade) of modeled SSR trends at individual observation sites.

  1. Richard Bradley: a unified, living agent theory of the cause of infectious diseases of plants, animals, and humans in the first decades of the 18th century.

    PubMed

    Santer, Melvin

    2009-01-01

    During the years 1714 to 1721, Richard Bradley, who was later to become the first Professor of Botany at Cambridge University, proposed a unified, unique, living agent theory of the cause of infectious diseases of plants and animals and the plague of humans. Bradley's agents included microscopic organisms, revealed by the studies of Robert Hooke and Antony van Leeuwenhoek. His theory derived from his experimental studies of plants and their diseases and from microscopic observation of animalcules in different naturally occurring and artificial environments. He concluded that there was a microscopic world of "insects" that lived and reproduced under the appropriate conditions, and that infectious diseases of plants were caused by such "insects." Since there are structural and functional similarities between plants and animals, Bradley concluded that microscopic organisms caused human and animal infectious diseases as well. However, his living agent cause of infectious diseases was not accepted by the contemporary scientific society. PMID:19855125

  2. The garden as a laboratory: the role of domestic gardens as places of scientific exploration in the long 18th century.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Clare

    2014-06-01

    Le jardin comme laboratoire: le rôle des jardins domestiques comme place d’exploration scientifique au cours du XVIII(e) siècleLes jardins du XVIII(e) siècle ont traditionnellement été considérés comme des espaces conçus pour le loisir, et comme représentations du goût, du pouvoir et du statut politiques. Cet article explore au contraire le concept de jardin en tant qu’espace dynamique où peuvent s’exercer expérimentation scientifique et pratique médicale. Cet article rapporte l’étude pilote de deux exemples: les paysages conçus pour la résidence du John Hunter à Earls Court, à Londres, et le jardin de la maison de Edward Jenner à Berkeley, Gloucestershire. Les méthodologies sur l’histoire du jardin ont été mises en place afin d’évaluer à quel point ces jardins domestiques peuvent être considérés comme espaces d’expérimentation.

  3. The history of botany in Moscow and Russia in the 18th and early 19th centuries in the context of the Linnaean Collection at Moscow University (MW).

    PubMed

    Sokoloff, Dmitry D; Balandin, Sergey A; Gubanov, Ivan A; Jarvis, Charles E; Majorov, Sergey R; Simonov, Sergey S

    2002-01-01

    The Herbarium of Moscow State University, Russia, possesses a relatively small (63 specimens), but historically interesting, collection of herbarium specimens linked with Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778). Some of these originally formed part of Linnaeus' own herbarium while others, although never his property, were nevertheless studied by him and may be original material for the typification of his plant names. This paper discusses the broad historical background to the gathering of these specimens, their study by Linnaeus and their subsequent fate. Specimens linked with Linnaeus have been encountered in each of the four largest historical collections of the Herbarium of Moscow State University, i. e., in the herbaria of J. F. Ehrhart, G. F. Hoffmann, C. B. von Trinius and C. L. Goldbach. Ehrhart's General Herbarium contains 31 sheets, which were more or less certainly collected or studied by Linnaeus. Ehrhart, a pupil of Linnaeus, received some specimens directly from the latter, while others came to him from Linnaeus filius, A. Dahl, and P. J. Bergius. Ehrhart's collections were purchased by G. F. Hoffmann, later, the first head of the Department of Botany at Moscow University, who took them to Russia. Hoffmann's General Herbarium contains three specimens that may be connected with Linnaeus. They were received from C. P. Thunberg, J. A. Murray, and an unknown person, respectively. At least five specimens from Trinius' collection, although certainly never seen by Linnaeus, are probable duplicates of material that was studied by him. Some of them are almost certainly iso-lectotypes of Linnaean names. Finally, 24 specimens linked with Linnaeus were found in Goldbach's herbarium. The majority of them were collected in the Lower Volga Region by J. Lerche and during the Second Kamchatka Expedition (Great Northern Expedition) by J. G. Gmelin and G. W. Steller.

  4. An investigation of age-related changes at the acetabulum in 18th-19th century AD adult skeletons from Christ Church Spitalfields, London.

    PubMed

    Mays, S

    2012-12-01

    The age-markers described at the adult acetabulum by Rissech et al. (J Forensic Sci 51 (2006) 213-229) were scored in the Spitalfields collection of skeletons of documented age and sex (N = 161). The purpose of the work was as a contribution to the evaluation of the general utility of these markers for estimating age at death. To this end, their relationship both with age, and with some other factors, was investigated. The latter comprised sex, general tendency toward bone formation in periarticular soft tissue (as measured by the occurrence of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis), and occupation (as documented for some of the males). Of the seven Rissech et al. variables, only four were found to show a statistically significant relationship with age. The correlation between a composite score derived from a linear combination of these four variables, and age was similar to or greater than correlations between age and composite scores based on other age indicators reported in the literature for Spitalfields. Male acetabula aged at a greater rate than those of females. There was no relationship with the occurrence of DISH, but for occupation, those in nonmanual professions showed greater acetabular scores-for-age than those in manual trades.

  5. [Vampires in the village Žrnovo on the island of Korčula: following an archival document from the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Coralic, Lovorka; Dugac, Zeljko; Sardelic, Sani

    2011-01-01

    The main interest of this essay is the analysis of the document from the State Archive in Venice (file: Capi del Consiglio de' Dieci: Lettere di Rettori e di altre cariche) which is connected with the episode from 1748 when the inhabitants of the village žrnove on the island of Korčula in Croatia opened tombs on the local cemetery in the fear of the vampires treating. This essay try to show some social circumstances connected with this event as well as a local vernacular tradition concerning superstitions.

  6. Wood Densitometry in 17th and 18th Century Dutch, German, Austrian and French Violins, Compared to Classical Cremonese and Modern Violins

    PubMed Central

    Stoel, Berend C.; Borman, Terry M.; de Jongh, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Classical violins produced by makers such as Antonio Stradivari and Guarneri del Gesu have long been considered the epitome of the luthier's art and the expressive tool of choice for the most celebrated violinists. It has been speculated these makers had access to wood that was unique in some way and that this was responsible for their acclaimed tonal characteristics. In an attempt to discern whether the above conjecture is true, we analyzed 17 modern and classical Dutch, German, Austrian and French violins by wood densitometry using computed tomography and correlated these results with our previous study of modern and Cremonese violins; in all studying 30 instruments of the violin family. In order to make this comparison possible we developed methods to cross calibrate results from different CT manufacturers using calibration wood pieces. We found no significant differences in median densities between modern and classical violins, or between classical violins from different origins. These results suggest that it is unlikely classical Cremonese makers had access to wood with significantly different wood density characteristics than that available to contemporaneous or modern makers. PMID:23071602

  7. [Vampires in the village Žrnovo on the island of Korčula: following an archival document from the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Coralic, Lovorka; Dugac, Zeljko; Sardelic, Sani

    2011-01-01

    The main interest of this essay is the analysis of the document from the State Archive in Venice (file: Capi del Consiglio de' Dieci: Lettere di Rettori e di altre cariche) which is connected with the episode from 1748 when the inhabitants of the village žrnove on the island of Korčula in Croatia opened tombs on the local cemetery in the fear of the vampires treating. This essay try to show some social circumstances connected with this event as well as a local vernacular tradition concerning superstitions. PMID:22047480

  8. Richard Bradley: a unified, living agent theory of the cause of infectious diseases of plants, animals, and humans in the first decades of the 18th century.

    PubMed

    Santer, Melvin

    2009-01-01

    During the years 1714 to 1721, Richard Bradley, who was later to become the first Professor of Botany at Cambridge University, proposed a unified, unique, living agent theory of the cause of infectious diseases of plants and animals and the plague of humans. Bradley's agents included microscopic organisms, revealed by the studies of Robert Hooke and Antony van Leeuwenhoek. His theory derived from his experimental studies of plants and their diseases and from microscopic observation of animalcules in different naturally occurring and artificial environments. He concluded that there was a microscopic world of "insects" that lived and reproduced under the appropriate conditions, and that infectious diseases of plants were caused by such "insects." Since there are structural and functional similarities between plants and animals, Bradley concluded that microscopic organisms caused human and animal infectious diseases as well. However, his living agent cause of infectious diseases was not accepted by the contemporary scientific society.

  9. [High prevalence of antiHTLV-1 antibodies in the Boni, an ethnic group of African origin isolated in French Guiana since the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Gessain, A; Calender, A; Strobel, M; Lefait-Robin, R; de Thé, G

    1984-01-01

    Antibodies to HTLV-1 (ELISA test using disrupted virus) were studied in different ethnic groups in French Guiana, including 135 blood donors from Cayenne, 97 Boni Blacks and 57 Wayana Indians from Maripasoula area, and 57 Hmong from Cacao village. We observed significant differences between Boni Blacks and Wayana Indians, having respectively 10.3% versus 0% of high antibody titers. The Hmong, recent refugees from Kampuchea, exhibited an intermediate level (3.5%) of infection. These results favour an African origin of HTLV-1 and raise, for the Hmong, the question of an infection acquired in Guiana.

  10. [The participation of German pharmacists in the chemical revolution at the turn of the 18th to the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Friedrich, C; Behnsen, S

    1990-02-01

    Between 1775 and about 1800 the Phlogiston theory was replaced by the Oxygen theory. Both systems are presented briefly. Pharmacists on both sides were involved in the scientific discussions of the Chemical Revolution in Germany. Their contribution is appreciated. Finally the peculiarities of this paradigm exchange are described. PMID:2187203

  11. Spatial trends in S and Cl in ash leachates of the May 18th, 1980 eruption of Mt. St Helens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayris, Paul M.; Delmelle, Pierre; Durant, Adam J.; Damby, David E.; Maters, Elena C.

    2014-05-01

    It has long been known that surficial deposits of salts and acids on volcanic ash particles derive from interactions of ash with sulphur and halide species within the eruption plume and volcanic cloud. These compounds are mobilised as ash particles are wetted, and beneficial or detrimental environmental and health impacts may be induced where the most concentrated solutions are produced. However, limited mechanistic understanding of gas-ash interactions currently precludes prediction of the spatial distribution or variation in leachate chemistry and concentration following an eruption. Sampling and leachate analysis of freshly-fallen ash therefore offers the sole method by which such variations can be observed. Previous ash leachate studies often involve a limited number of ash samples, and utilise a 'one-dimensional' analysis that considers variation in terms of absolute distance from the source volcano. Here, we demonstrate that extensive sampling and a 'two-dimensional' analysis can uncover more complex spatial trends. We compiled over 358 leachate compositions from the May 18th 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Of the water-extracted leachates, only 95 compositions from ash sampled at 45 localities between 35 and 1129 km from the volcano are sufficiently documented to be retrospectively comparable. To consider the effects of intra-deposit variability, we calculated average concentrations of leachate data within 11×22 km grid cells across the region, and defined a data quality parameter to reflect confidence in the derived values. To investigate any dependence of leachate composition on the grain size distribution, we generated an interpolated map of geometric specific surface area variation across the deposit, normalising ash leachate data to the calculated specific surface area at the corresponding sampling location. The data treatment identifies S and Cl enrichments in proximal blast deposits; relatively constant Cl concentrations across the ashfall deposits

  12. 18th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Workshop Proceedings, 3-6 August 2008, Vail, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B. L.

    2008-09-01

    The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 18th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells & Modules: Materials and Processes, held in Vail, CO, August 3-6, 2008. This meeting provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The theme of this year's meeting was 'New Directions for Rapidly Growing Silicon Technologies.'

  13. History of the Balkans: Twentieth Century. Volume 2. The Joint Committee on Eastern Europe Publication Series. No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelavich, Barbara

    Principal issues in the 20th century development of the Balkan Peninsula are discussed in this introductory history text. Three themes--national rivalries, great power interference, and the economic, social, and political problems of modernization--are given special emphasis. An overview of 18th and 19th century history precedes the two major…

  14. [Problems arising from the professionalization of nursing in the German Empire in the late 19th and early 20th century compared to the USA. A contribution to the current discussion].

    PubMed

    Hähner-Rombach, Sylvelyn

    2012-01-01

    The process of professionalization in Germany was hindered by several factors: the tradition of denominational nursing, the increasing segregation in the field of nursing, the resistance against nurses' professionalization, the late and sporadic institutionalization of nursing schools, and the classification of nursing as "ärztlicher Heilhilfsberuf". On the basis of these five influencing factors this paper will discuss the development in Germany in comparison to the USA at the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The aim is to explain the differences in the process of professionalization in the German Reich and the USA which are rooted in that period.

  15. Overview of the needs and realities for developing new and improved vaccines in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Hilleman, Maurice R

    2002-01-01

    The science of present day vaccinology is based on the pioneering discoveries of the late 18th and late 19th centuries and the technologic breakthroughs of the past 60 years. The driving force for the development of new vaccines resides in technologic feasibility, public need and economic incentive for translating the basic knowledge into a product. Past efforts by government to define which particular vaccines to develop were mostly irrelevant to the realistic choices which were made. There is a vast array of viral, bacterial, parasitic and fungal disease agents against which preventative vaccines may be developed, and to this may be added cancer and certain amyloidoses such as Alzheimer's and 'mad cow' diseases. The proven past for vaccines has relied on live, killed, protein and polysaccharide antigens plus the single example of recombinant-expressed hepatitis B vaccine. The validity of redirection of vaccinology to exploration of simplified vaccines such as recombinant vectored and DNA preparations and reductionist vaccines based on peptides of contrived epitope composition remains to be proved. Reductionism imposes vastly increased complexity and difficulty on vaccine development and might not be capable of achievement. The challenge in the 21st century will involve new and uncertain pathways toward worthwhile accomplishments. PMID:12566702

  16. When Schools Stay Open Late: The National Evaluation of the 21st Century Community Learning Centers Program. New Findings. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynarski, Mark; Moore, Mary; James-Burdumy, Susanne; Rosenberg, Linda; Deke, John; Mansfield, Wendy

    2004-01-01

    In 1999, the U.S. Department of Education contracted with Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., and Decision Information Resources, Inc., to evaluate the 21st Century Community Learning Centers program. The evaluation team collected student outcome data in five areas: (1) after-school supervision; (2) location; (3) activities; (4) academic…

  17. Southeast Asian Mega-Droughts of the Past 5 Centuries from Tree Rings and Historical Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, B. M.

    2007-12-01

    The need for understanding the natural range of climate variability in the monsoon regions of Asia - among the worldês most heavily populated and most dependent on agriculture - is critical for making sound planning decisions in the face of expected hydrological changes associated with global climate change. As part of a US National Science Foundation-funded project (Tree Ring Reconstructions of Asian Monsoon Climate Variability) we have produced climate-responsive tree-ring records from tropical Asia that span the past five centuries. We find compelling evidence for 18th century decadal-scale summer monsoon droughts that span from India to Vietnam. Historical records corroborate that periods of severe drought occurred across much of the region during this time, while speleothem and coral records suggest multiple decadal-scale droughts for much of the Little Ice Age period in India, and elevated Sea Surface Temperature (SST) during the 18th century for much of the tropical Pacific, respectively. Tropical Pacific SST anomalies are seen as one key component to monsoon variability over the study region, with El Ni?o and La Ni?a like conditions resulting in rainfall reductions and increases, respectively, with corresponding opposite-sign anomalies across much of western North America. Persistent anomaly trends in the SST fields can result in the kinds of decadal-scale variability our studies suggest, although this is not the entire story. We explore the role of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), first defined in 1999 as a Pacific-wide measure of variability that is physically distinct from both the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the El Ni?o Southern Oscillation (ENSO), in contributing to protracted -mega-droughts" in the region related to weakening monsoon strength, as suggested by recent research. Interestingly, near-millennium-aged conifers from Vietnam and Laos have been located and much longer records are now being constructed. Of great interest is

  18. Ankylosing spondylitis or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis in royal Egyptian mummies of 18th -20th Dynasties? CT and archaeology studies.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Sahar N; Hawass, Zahi

    2014-12-01

    Objective. To study the computed tomography(CT) images of royal Ancient Egyptian mummies dated to the 18th to early 20th Dynasties for the claimed diagnoses of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) and to correlate the findings with the archaeology literature.Methods. We studied the CT images of 13 royal Ancient Egyptian mummies (1492–1153 BC) for evidence of AS and DISH and correlated our findings with the archaeology literature.Results. The findings of the CT scans excluded the diagnosis of AS, based on the absence of sacroiliac joint erosions or fusion of the facet joints. Four mummies fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for DISH:Amenhotep III (18th Dynasty), Ramesses II, his son Merenptah, and Ramesses III (19th to early 20th Dynasties).The diagnosis of DISH, a commonly a symptomatic disease of old age, in the 4 pharaohs is in concordance with their longevity and active lifestyles.Conclusion. CT findings excluded the diagnosis of AS in the studied royal Ancient Egyptian mummies and brought into question the antiquity of the disease. The CT features of DISH during this ancient period were similar to those commonly seen in modern populations,and it is likely that they will also be similar in the future.The affection of Ramesses II and his son Merenptah supports familial clustering of DISH. The process of mummification may induce changes in the spine that should be considered during investigations of disease in ancient mummies.

  19. The Lady Hastings' Charity Schools: Accounting for Eighteenth-Century Rural Philanthropy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Mae

    1997-01-01

    Describes the philanthropic activities of Lady Elizabeth Hastings and the local provision of rural charity schools in 18th-century England. Covers Hastings' background, her establishment of girls' charity schools, charity-school curricula, the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge, and charity-school teachers. Evaluates Hastings'…

  20. Floral Resources in Makushin Bay: The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century, Social Studies Unit, Book III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnow, Patricia H.

    This booklet illustrates the major plant resources in Makushin Bay and explains how each plant was used by the 18th-century Aleuts in their daily lives. Seventeen plants are illustrated and identified by their common names and, for many, the Latin names are mentioned, also. The plants represent a variety of habitats that include sandy areas;…

  1. The Criminal Corpse, Anatomists and the Criminal Law: Parliamentary Attempts to Extend the Dissection of Offenders in Late Eighteenth-Century England

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    In the later eighteenth century two schemes were introduced in Parliament for extending the practice of handing over the bodies of executed offenders to anatomists for dissection. Both measures were motivated by the needs of anatomy — including the improvement of surgical skill, the development of medical teaching in the provinces, and for conducting public anatomical demonstrations. Yet both failed to pass into law due to concerns about the possibly damaging effects in terms of criminal justice. Through a detailed analysis of the origins and progress of these two parliamentary measures — a moment when the competing claims of anatomy and criminal justice vied for supremacy over the criminal corpse — the following article sheds light on judicial attitudes to dissection as a method of punishment and adds to our understanding of why the dread of dissection would come to fall upon the dead poor (rather than executed offenders) in the nineteenth century. PMID:25821241

  2. Development of brewing science in (and since) the late 19th century: molecular profiles of 110-130year old beers.

    PubMed

    Walther, Andrea; Ravasio, Davide; Qin, Fen; Wendland, Jürgen; Meier, Sebastian

    2015-09-15

    The 19th century witnessed many advances in scientific enzymology and microbiology that laid the foundations for modern biotechnological industries. In the current study, we analyze the content of original lager beer samples from the 1880s, 1890s and 1900s with emphasis on the carbohydrate content and composition. The historic samples include the oldest samples brewed with pure Saccharomyces carlsbergensis yeast strains. While no detailed record of beer pasteurization at the time is available, historic samples indicate a gradual improvement of bottled beer handling from the 1880s to the 1900s, with decreasing contamination by enzymatic and microbial activities over this time span. Samples are sufficiently well preserved to allow comparisons to present-day references, thus yielding molecular signatures of the effects of 20th century science on beer production. Opposite to rather stable carbohydrate profiles, some aldehydes reach up to 40-fold higher levels in the historic samples as compared to present-day references.

  3. The American College of nuclear physicians 18th annual meeting and scientific sessions DOE day: Substance abuse and nuclear medicine abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Despite the enormous personal and social cost Of substance abuse, there is very little knowledge with respect to the mechanisms by which these drugs produce addiction as well as to the mechanisms of toxicity. Similarly, there is a lack of effective therapeutic intervention to treat the drug abusers. In this respect, nuclear medicine could contribute significantly by helping to gather information using brain imaging techniques about mechanisms of drug addiction which, in turn, could help design better therapeutic interventions, and by helping in the evaluation and diagnosis of organ toxicity from the use of drugs of abuse. This volume contains six short descriptions of presentations made at the 18th Meeting of the American College of Nuclear Physicians -- DOE Day: Substance Abuse and Nuclear Medicine.

  4. Can't a mother sing the blues? Postpartum depression and the construction of motherhood in late 20th-century America.

    PubMed

    Held, Lisa; Rutherford, Alexandra

    2012-05-01

    Popular depictions of 20th-century American motherhood have typically emphasized the joy and fulfillment that a new mother can expect to experience on her child's arrival. But starting in the 1950s, discussions of the "baby blues" began to appear in the popular press. How did articles about the baby blues, and then postpartum depression, challenge these rosy depictions? In this article, we examine portrayals of postpartum distress in popular magazines and advice books during the second half of the 20th century to examine how the unsettling pairing of distress and motherhood was culturally negotiated in these decades. We show that these portrayals revealed a persistent reluctance to situate motherhood itself as the cause of serious emotional distress and a consistent focus on changing mothers to adapt to their role rather than changing the parameters of the role itself. Regardless of whether these messages actually helped or hindered new mothers themselves, we suggest that they reflected the rarely challenged assumption that motherhood and distress should not mix.

  5. The identification of the pigments used to paint statues of Feixiange Cliff in China in late 19th century by micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Pu-jun; Huang, Wei; Jianhua-Wang; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Xiao-ling

    2010-11-01

    The application of micro-Raman spectroscopy (μ-RS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) to the research of pigments collected from Statues of Feixiange Cliff No. 67 and No. 69 niche of Tang Dynasty in China is reported. Five kinds of pigments were found in the experimental data, including black (carbon), white (gypsum + quartz), blue (lapis lazuli) and green (Paris green + Barium sulphate). After synthesized in 1814, Paris green was reported for a large import as a light and bright green pigment to paint architectures in China from the late 19th century. The analyzed blue pigment demonstrated the similar Raman spectra to the Lâjvardina blue glazed ceramics, which indicated lapis lazuli was an artificial product. This confirmed the painting of Feixiange Cliff in the early Republic of China as the historical record, and also reveals that some pigments were imported from abroad.

  6. Experimental study on the effect of wavelength and fluence in the laser cleaning of silvering in late Roman coins (Mid 3rd/4th century AD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachou-Mogire, C.; Drakaki, E.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Zergioti, I.; Boukos, N.

    2007-03-01

    The political problems in Late Roman Empire caused significant changes in the coin technology. The silver content dropped severely and a new technology, in all the mints operating around the Empire, was introduced. For the production of these coins, copper based quaternary alloys were used and their surface was covered by a silver amalgam plating layer. Hoards of these coins have been recovered in thousands from across the Empire, however, their treatment has been problematic. Both mechanical and chemical cleaning results in the damage or the complete destruction of the thin silver layer. The use of laser technology in the cleaning of works of art has a wide range of applications which includes metallic objects. The main aim of this work was to investigate the use of lasers in the cleaning of the thin silver plating layers found in late Roman coins. The optimisation of laser parameters was achieved through comparative cleaning tests by employing Nd:YAG (532 nm and 266 nm) laser systems. The cleaning results on the plated areas were characterised by optical microscopy, and SEM-EDX analysis. Following a systematic investigation and many cleaning trials on two different wavelengths and fluence values, optimum irradiation parameters were thoroughly demonstrated. Microscopic observations of the cleaned areas evidenced complete removal of the encrustation and high selectivity of the laser cleaning. Neither thermal or mechanical injuries, nor cuprite blackening were observed on the cleaned surfaces at the optimum laser cleaning technique, using 532 nm of the Nd: YAG laser.

  7. Léon Marillier and the veridical hallucination in late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century French psychology and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Le Maléfan, Pascal; Sommer, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Recent research on the professionalization of psychology at the end of the nineteenth century shows how objects of knowledge which appear illegitimate to us today shaped the institutionalization of disciplines. The veridical or telepathic hallucination was one of these objects, constituting a field both of division and exchange between nascent psychology and disciplines known as 'psychic sciences' in France, and 'psychical research' in the Anglo-American context. In France, Leon Marillier (1862-1901) was the main protagonist in discussions concerning the concept of the veridical hallucination, which gave rise to criticisms by mental specialists and psychopathologists. After all, not only were these hallucinations supposed to occur in healthy subjects, but they also failed to correspond to the Esquirolian definition of hallucinations through being corroborated by their representation of external, objective events.

  8. Impacts of past climate and sea level change on Everglades wetlands: placing a century of anthropogenic change into a late-Holocene context

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willard, D.A.; Bernhardt, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    We synthesize existing evidence on the ecological history of the Florida Everglades since its inception ~7 ka (calibrated kiloannum) and evaluate the relative impacts of sea level rise, climate variability, and human alteration of Everglades hydrology on wetland plant communities. Initial freshwater peat accumulation began between 6 and 7 ka on the platform underlying modern Florida Bay when sea level was ~6.2 m below its current position. By 5 ka, sawgrass and waterlily peats covered the area bounded by Lake Okeechobee to the north and the Florida Keys to the south. Slower rates of relative sea level rise ~3 ka stabilized the south Florida coastline and initiated transitions from freshwater to mangrove peats near the coast. Hydrologic changes in freshwater marshes also are indicated ~3 ka. During the last ~2 ka, the Everglades wetland was affected by a series of hydrologic fluctuations related to regional to global-scale fluctuations in climate and sea level. Pollen evidence indicates that regional-scale droughts lasting two to four centuries occurred ~1 ka and ~0.4 ka, altering wetland community composition and triggering development of characteristic Everglades habitats such as sawgrass ridges and tree islands. Intercalation of mangrove peats with estuarine muds ~1 ka indicates a temporary slowing or stillstand of sea level. Although sustained droughts and Holocene sea level rise played large roles in structuring the greater Everglades ecosystem, twentieth century reductions in freshwater flow, compartmentalization of the wetland, and accelerated rates of sea level rise had unprecedented impacts on oxidation and subsidence of organic soils, changes/loss of key Everglades habitats, and altered distribution of coastal vegetation.

  9. Inter-annual Tropospheric Aerosol Variability in Late Twentieth Century and its Impact on Tropical Atlantic and West African Climate by Direct and Semi-direct Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Katherine J; Hack, James J; Truesdale, John; Mahajan, Salil; Lamarque, J-F

    2012-01-01

    A new high-resolution (0.9$^{\\circ}$x1.25$^{\\circ}$ in the horizontal) global tropospheric aerosol dataset with monthly resolution is generated using the finite-volume configuration of Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) coupled to a bulk aerosol model and forced with recent estimates of surface emissions for the latter part of twentieth century. The surface emissions dataset is constructed from Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) decadal-resolution surface emissions dataset to include REanalysis of TROpospheric chemical composition (RETRO) wildfire monthly emissions dataset. Experiments forced with the new tropospheric aerosol dataset and conducted using the spectral configuration of CAM4 with a T85 truncation (1.4$^{\\circ}$x1.4$^{\\circ}$) with prescribed twentieth century observed sea surface temperature, sea-ice and greenhouse gases reveal that variations in tropospheric aerosol levels can induce significant regional climate variability on the inter-annual timescales. Regression analyses over tropical Atlantic and Africa reveal that increasing dust aerosols can cool the North African landmass and shift convection southwards from West Africa into the Gulf of Guinea in the spring season in the simulations. Further, we find that increasing carbonaceous aerosols emanating from the southwestern African savannas can cool the region significantly and increase the marine stratocumulus cloud cover over the southeast tropical Atlantic ocean by aerosol-induced diabatic heating of the free troposphere above the low clouds. Experiments conducted with CAM4 coupled to a slab ocean model suggest that present day aerosols can shift the ITCZ southwards over the tropical Atlantic and can reduce the ocean mixed layer temperature beneath the increased marine stratocumulus clouds in the southeastern tropical Atlantic.

  10. Century scale climatic rhythms in the equatorial Indian Ocean during the late Quaternary: Faunal and geochemical proxies from the Maldivian Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, S.; Gupta, A. K.

    2012-04-01

    The equatorial Indian Ocean is swept by the Indian Ocean equatorial westerlies (IEW) which are strong during monsoon transitions in April-May and October-November, driving Eastward Equatorial Current (EEC) in the upper ocean. This study is based on the biogenic sediments from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 716A, recovered beneath the narrow equatorial track (7 Degree North to 7 Degree South) along which the IEW prevail. We analyzed 300 Kyr record of benthic and planktic foraminifera, pteropods combined with stable isotope values measured on planktic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber from 451 core samples to understand paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic changes in the equatorial Indian Ocean during the late Quaternary (~450 - 150 Kyrs). Factor and cluster analyses of the 53 highest-ranked benthic foraminiferal species enabled to identify five biofacies, indicating varied nature of deep-sea environments during the late Quaternary, with a major shift across the middle Brunhes epoch (across Marine Isotope Stage 9 and 8). Biofacies Robulus nicobarensis - Trifarina reussi (Rn-Tr), Uvigerina porrecta - Reussella simplex (Upo-Rs) and Cymbaloporetta squammosa - Bolivinita sp. (Cs-Bsp) document high organic flux with low oxygen paleoenvironment dominating before the mid-Brunhes event, similar to Globigerina bulloides population, while benthic foraminiferal biofacies Hoeglundina elegans - Miliolinella subrotunda (He-Ms) and Uvigerina peregrina - Quinqueloculina seminulum (Upe-Qs) record high seasonality in food supply with well-oxygenated deep water after ~300 Kyr. These changes are also visible in planktic foraminifera and pteropod record. In the present day, the strength of the IEW is inversely related to the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). The IEW weakened across MIS 9/8 during which time the IOD strengthened, causing heavy rains and floods over the equatorial East Africa and deficient rainfall over Australasia. The proxy response changed from low to high frequency cycles

  11. Deaths in childbed from the eighteenth century to 1935.

    PubMed

    Loudon, I

    1986-01-01

    The history of maternal deaths in England from the earliest records in the 1700s to 1935, concentrating on the influence of medical practice, is recounted. The rate lay between 4 and 5 per 1000 until 1935, with the advent of sulfa antibiotics to prevent puerperal infections. The practice of midwifery by men began in the early 17th century in Britain, but attendance at normal labors by medical practitioners, that is, surgeon-apothecaries, did not become common, and then only in urban areas, until 1730. The use of forceps became widely known about that time, and lying-in hospitals were begun. Obstetrics was held in contempt by professionally educated and registered physicians and apothecaries, however, because of the immodesty and messiness of the work and the long hours involved. Estimates of maternal mortality, from the 1st recorded unselected series, in the late 18th century range from 5-29/1000. Some of the high figures are from specialists in obstetrics, who treated complicated cases. From these data the maternal death rate was estimated at about 25/1000 among unassisted women. Some institutions achieved results better than the national average in the 1920s, suggesting that by the end of the 18th century, a fairly good understanding of childbirth had been reached. At that time the overall forceps rate was conservative, less than 1% compared to 15% now. Use of the perforator, hook and crochet, and manual dilatation of the cervix had been abandoned. In the 19th century, lying-in hospitals became more common and their death rates were higher, probably due to less conservative methods, up to as high as 85/1000, until the advent of antisepsis in 1880. Nevertheless, hospital births were the minority, amounting to 15% in 1927, 54% in 1946, 87% in 1970, 98.8% in 1980. Sepsis, due to casual use of sterile technique, remained the cause of half the total deaths until 1937. It is difficult to assess the contribution of toxemia or obstructed labor in maternal deaths. Rickets

  12. The early vs the late 20th century Arctic warming: The role of energy and aerosol fluxes in reanalysis driven datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegmann, Martin; Broennimann, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    During the last two decades, the Arctic was put into the scientific focus as one of the most impacted regions worldwide concerning anthropogenic global warming. However, the warming between 1920 and 1940 proofs the importance of internal variability on yearly and decadal scale. Therefore, it is important to further investigate the role of external and internal forcings on the Arctic climate attribute process and causes leading to changes in the Arctic climate regime (Serreze & Barry 2009). Although much research effort was spent to understand the links and influences of and on the Arctic climate, there is still a need for further insights concerning this topic. Especially the results and discussion about anthropogenic global warming and Arctic amplification put the Arctic into the public and academic focus (Serreze & Barry 2011). However, the early 20th century Arctic warming, although discovered immediately, was scientifically forgotten until recently (Delworth & Knutson 2000, Bengtsson et al 2004, Grant et al 2009, Bekryaev et al 2010). The comparison of this earlier Arctic warming and the recent warming period grants a chance to deepen knowledge about the drivers of Arctic climate and can be used to evaluate the anthropogenic impact. The authors use the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) dataset and a nudged, reanalysis-driven Aerosol Global Circulation Model (A-GCM) to investigate the impact of atmospheric energy and aerosol fluxes into the Arctic during the 20th century. The 20CR dataset covers the period of 1871 - 2010 with a temporal resolution of 6hr and a spatial resolution of 2° x 2°. For the first time, this dataset (and ist 56 ensemble member) is used to compute the atmospheric energy flux, consisting of sensble heat, latent heat, potential energy and kinetic energy. The values are integrated around 70° N and between 1000 - 100 hPa. Aerosol fluxes for the same domain but for the years 1957 - 2000 are calculated based on the A-GCM nudged to the ECMWF

  13. ‘No “Sane” Person Would Have Any Idea’: Patients’ Involvement in Late Nineteenth-century British Asylum Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Chaney, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    In his 1895 textbook, Mental Physiology, Bethlem Royal Hospital physician Theo Hyslop acknowledged the assistance of three fellow hospital residents. One was a junior colleague. The other two were both patients: Walter Abraham Haigh and Henry Francis Harding. Haigh was also thanked in former superintendent George Savage’s book Insanity and Allied Neuroses (1884). In neither instance were the patients identified as such. This begs the question: what role did Haigh and Harding play in asylum theory and practice? And how did these two men interpret their experiences, both within and outside the asylum? By focusing on Haigh and Harding’s unusual status, this paper argues that the notion of nineteenth-century ‘asylum patient’ needs to be investigated by paying close attention to specific national and institutional circumstances. Exploring Haigh and Harding’s active engagement with their physicians provides insight into this lesser-known aspect of psychiatry’s history. Their experience suggests that, in some instances, representations of madness at that period were the product of a two-way process of negotiation between alienist and patient. Patients, in other words, were not always mere victims of ‘psychiatric power’; they participated in the construction and circulation of medical notions by serving as active intermediaries between medical and lay perceptions of madness. PMID:26651187

  14. Paleosols and climate in the southeast of the Central Russian Upland during the Middle and Late Bronze ages (the 25th-15th Centuries BC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkin, V. A.; Borisov, A. V.; Udal'Tsov, S. N.

    2010-01-01

    Paleosol studies of kurgans dating back to the Middle and Late Bronze ages (the Catacomb, Pokrovskaya, and Srubnaya cultural epochs; 4500-3500 BP) have been performed within the dry steppe zone in the southeast of the Central Russian Upland. The studied kurgans occupy the upper parts of local interfluves differing in the lithology of their upper horizons. The specificity of the Middle Holocene pedogenesis as related to the local lithologic and geomorphic conditions has been characterized. During the past 4500 years, local soils have been subjected to evolutionary changes related to climatic fluctuations. These changes manifested themselves at the subtype level with substitution of dark chestnut soils for chestnut soils. The climatic conditions during the Catacomb and Pokrovskaya cultural epochs (4.5-3.8 ka BP) were more arid than those at present. The maximum aridization of the climate took place at the end of the third and the first quarter of the second millennia BC. Detailed descriptions of the morphology of kurgan bodies and buried paleosols make it possible to hypothesize about the seasons of the kurgan construction and the technology of this work.

  15. Bone fractures as indicators of intentional violence in the eastern Adriatic from the antique to the late medieval period (2nd-16th century AD).

    PubMed

    Slaus, Mario; Novak, Mario; Bedić, Zeljka; Strinović, Davor

    2012-09-01

    To test the historically documented hypothesis of a general increase in deliberate violence in the eastern Adriatic from the antique (AN; 2nd-6th c.) through the early medieval (EM; 7th-11th c.) to the late-medieval period (LM; 12th-16th c.), an analysis of the frequency and patterning of bone trauma was conducted in three skeletal series from these time periods. A total of 1,125 adult skeletons-346 from the AN, 313 from the EM, and 466 from the LM series-were analyzed. To differentiate between intentional violence and accidental injuries, data for trauma frequencies were collected for the complete skeleton, individual long bones, and the craniofacial region as well as by type of injury (perimortem vs. antemortem). The results of our analyses show a significant temporal increase in total fracture frequencies when calculated by skeleton as well as of individuals exhibiting one skeletal indicator of deliberate violence (sharp force lesions, craniofacial injuries, "parry" fractures, or perimortem trauma). No significant temporal increases were, however, noted in the frequencies of craniofacial trauma, "parry" fractures, perimortem injuries, or of individuals exhibiting multiple skeletal indicators of intentional violence. Cumulatively, these data suggest that the temporal increase in total fracture frequencies recorded in the eastern Adriatic was caused by a combination of factors that included not only an increase of intentional violence but also a significant change in lifestyle that accompanied the transition from a relatively affluent AN urban lifestyle to a more primitive rural medieval way of life.

  16. Area, volume and mass changes of southeast Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, from the Little Ice Age maximum in the late 19th century to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannesdóttir, H.; Björnsson, H.; Pálsson, F.; Aðalgeirsdóttir, G.; Guðmundsson, S.

    2014-09-01

    Area and volume changes and the average geodetic mass balance of the non-surging outlet glaciers of southeast Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, during different time periods between ~1890 and 2010, are derived from a multi-temporal glacier inventory. A series of digital elevation models (DEMs) (∼1890, 1904, 1936, 1945, 1989, 2002, 2010) have been compiled from glacial geomorphological features, historical photographs, maps, aerial images, DGPS measurements and a LiDAR survey. Given the mapped bedrock topography we estimate relative volume changes since the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA) ~1890. The variable dynamic response of the outlets, assumed to have experienced similar climate forcing, is related to their different hypsometry, bedrock topography, and the presence of proglacial lakes. In the post-LIA period the glacierized area decreased by 164 km2 and the glaciers had lost 10-30% of their ~1890 area by 2010. The glacier surface lowered by 150-270 m near the terminus and the outlet glaciers collectively lost 60 ± 8 km3 of ice, which is equivalent to 0.154 ± 0.02 mm of sea level rise. The relative volume loss of individual glaciers was in the range of 15-50%, corresponding to a geodetic mass balance between -0.70 and -0.32 m w.e. a-1. The rate of mass loss was most negative in the period 2002-2010, on average -1.34 ± 0.12 m w.e. a-1, which lists among the most negative mass balance values recorded worldwide in the early 21st century. From the data set of volume and area of the outlets, spanning the 120 years post-LIA period, we evaluate the parameters of a volume-area power law scaling relationship.

  17. Area, Volume and Mass Changes of Southeast Vatnajökull Ice Cap, Iceland, from the Little Ice Age Maximum in the Late 19th Century to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannesdóttir, H.; Bjornsson, H.; Pálsson, F.; Adalgeirsdottir, G.; Gudmundsson, S.

    2014-12-01

    Areal and volume changes and the average geodetic mass balance of the non-surging outlet glaciers of southeast Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, during different time periods between 1890 and 2010, are derived from a multi-temporal glacier inventory. A series of digital elevation models (DEMs) (1890, 1904, 1936, 1945, 1989, 2002, 2010) have been compiled from geomorphological features, historical photographs, maps, aerial images, DGPS measurements and a LiDAR survey. Given the mapped bedrock topography, relative volume changes since the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA) 1890 have been estimated. The variable dynamic response of the outlet glaciers to assumed similar climate forcing, is related to their different hypsometry, bedrock topography, and the presence of proglacial lakes. In the post-LIA period the glacierized area decreased by 164 km2 and the glaciers had lost 10-30% of their 1890 area by 2010. The glacier surface lowered by 150-270 m near the terminus and the outlet glaciers collectively lost 60±8 km3 of ice, which is equivalent to 0.154 mm of sea level rise. The relative volume loss of individual glaciers was in the range of 15-50%, corresponding to a geodetic mass balance between -0.70 and -0.32 m w.e. a-1. The rate of mass loss was most negative in 2002-2010, on average -1.34 m w.e. a-1, which lists among the most negative mass balance values recorded worldwide in the early 21st century. From the data set of volume and area of the outlet glaciers, spanning the whole 120 year post-LIA period, we estimate the parameters of a volume area power-law scaling relationship.

  18. Future change of climate in South America in the late twenty-first century: intercomparison of scenarios from three regional climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marengo, Jose A.; Ambrizzi, Tercio; Da Rocha, Rosmeri P.; Alves, Lincoln M.; Cuadra, Santiago V.; Valverde, Maria C.; Torres, Roger R.; Santos, Daniel C.; Ferraz, Simone E. T.

    2010-11-01

    Regional climate change projections for the last half of the twenty-first century have been produced for South America, as part of the CREAS (Cenarios REgionalizados de Clima Futuro da America do Sul) regional project. Three regional climate models RCMs (Eta CCS, RegCM3 and HadRM3P) were nested within the HadAM3P global model. The simulations cover a 30-year period representing present climate (1961-1990) and projections for the IPCC A2 high emission scenario for 2071-2100. The focus was on the changes in the mean circulation and surface variables, in particular, surface air temperature and precipitation. There is a consistent pattern of changes in circulation, rainfall and temperatures as depicted by the three models. The HadRM3P shows intensification and a more southward position of the subtropical Pacific high, while a pattern of intensification/weakening during summer/winter is projected by the Eta CCS/RegCM3. There is a tendency for a weakening of the subtropical westerly jet from the Eta CCS and HadRM3P, consistent with other studies. There are indications that regions such of Northeast Brazil and central-eastern and southern Amazonia may experience rainfall deficiency in the future, while the Northwest coast of Peru-Ecuador and northern Argentina may experience rainfall excesses in a warmer future, and these changes may vary with the seasons. The three models show warming in the A2 scenario stronger in the tropical region, especially in the 5°N-15°S band, both in summer and especially in winter, reaching up to 6-8°C warmer than in the present. In southern South America, the warming in summer varies between 2 and 4°C and in winter between 3 and 5°C in the same region from the 3 models. These changes are consistent with changes in low level circulation from the models, and they are comparable with changes in rainfall and temperature extremes reported elsewhere. In summary, some aspects of projected future climate change are quite robust across this set of

  19. Eighteenth-century forms of quasicrystals.

    PubMed

    Pina, Carlos M; López-Acevedo, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    A careful inspection of the drawings and baked clay models created by the mineralogist Romé de L'Isle in the 18th century has revealed the existence of a number of intriguing forms with pentagonal symmetries. These forms cannot be classified in any of the 32 crystal classes. They can thus be considered the first crystallographic descriptions of polyhedral forms found in quasicrystals two centuries later. This paper presents a symmetry analysis of the fascinating drawings and clay models with pentagonal symmetries described in the book Cristallographie published in 1783 by Romé de L'Isle, as well as a comparison with quasicrystals recently synthesized. The paper also briefly discusses what could induce Romé de L'Isle to consider forms with pentagonal symmetries as plausible crystal forms. PMID:26697870

  20. [The influence of anatomical treaties on the works of Wendel Dietterlin and his successors in the second half of the 16th century].

    PubMed

    Gampp, Axel

    2011-01-01

    In 1543 in Basel, Johannes Oporinus published one of the most famous treatises in the history of anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica by Andreas Vesalius. The book was an immediate success all over Europe, especially in the Upper Rhine region. In Strasbourg, Walter Ryff (Gualterius Rivius) was responsible for an early copy; others followed, as for example Felix Platter in Basel in 1581. One of the novelties of all these books consisted in the fact that for the first time the human body was dissected into its smallest units. Anatomical elements such as the opened thorax, the vertebral column, the kidney sectionned, or the laryngeal cartilages apparently stimulated an artist of the late 16th century in the same geographical region: Wendel Dietterlin (c.1550-1599) who principally worked in Strasbourg and introduced these elements into his treatise on architecture as architectural ornaments. This seems to be the first instance of a transfer of motifs from human anatomy to architecture. From this time on, the transfer reappeared in some works until William Hogarth's era in the 18th century. PMID:22400472

  1. "...A Place to which Idle Vagrants May Be Sent." The First Phase of Child Migration During the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coldrey, Barry M.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the first phase of juvenile emigration from Britain to the Americas in the 17th and 18th centuries. Finds eerie parallels with the last phase of this British social policy in the 1960s as has been discussed in the media during recent years. (SD)

  2. Papers and Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Midwest History of Education Society (18th, Chicago, Illinois, October 29-30, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkowski, Edward, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    The papers of this proceedings are organized into four parts : religion and education; the politics of urban education; issues in minority education; and concepts of childhood. The first paper in part 1 "I will Declare What He Hath Done for My Soul: Female Conversion Narratives in the Early Nineteenth Century" (V. L. Brereton) explores the…

  3. Floods of the Maros river in the early modern and modern period (16th-20th centuries)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    In the poster presentation a series of historical and recent floods of the Maros river, with special emphasis on the flood events occurred on the lower sections, are presented. Similar to the Hungarian flood databases of the Middle-Danube and Lower-Tisza, the main sources of investigations are the institutional (legal-administrative) documentary evidence (e.g. Szeged and Makó town council protocols and related administrative documentation, Csanád County meeting protocols) mainly from the late 17th-early 18th century onwards. However, in case of the Maros river there is an increased importance of narrative sources, with special emphasis on the early modern period (16th-17th century): in this case the (mainly Transylvanian) narratives (chronicles, diaries, memoires etc.) written by aristocrats, other noblemen and town citizens have particular importance. In the presentation the frequency of detected flood events, from the mid-16th century onwards (with an outlook on sporadic medieval evidence), is provided; moreover, a 3-scaled magnitude classification and a seasonality analysis are also presented. Floods of the Maros river, especially those of the lower river sections, often cannot be understood and discussed without the floods of the (Lower-)Tisza; thus, a comparison of the two flood series are also a subject of discussion. Unlike the Lower-Tisza, the Maros is prone to winter and early spring ice jam floods: since the floods that belonged to this type (similar to those of the Middle-Danube at Budapest) were the most destructive among the flood events of the river, this flood type, and the greatest flood events (e.g. 1751-1752, 1784) are also presented in more detail.

  4. Temperature changes in Poland from the 16th to the 20th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybylak, Rajmund; Majorowicz, Jacek; Wójcik, Gabriel; Zielski, Andrzej; Choryczewski, Waldemar; Marciniak, Kazimierz; Nowosad, Wiesaw; Oliski, Piotr; Syta, Krzysztof

    2005-05-01

    A standardized tree-ring width chronology of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) along with different types of documentary evidence (e.g. annals, chronicles, diaries, private correspondence, records of public administration, early newspapers) have been used to reconstruct air temperature in Poland. The ground surface temperature (GST) history has been reconstructed based on the continuous temperature logs from 13 wells, using a new method developed recently by Harris and Chapman (1998; Journal of Geophysical Research 103: 7371-7383) which is compared with the functional space inversion (FSI) method applied to all available Polish temperature-depth profiles analysed before.Response function calculations conducted for trees growing in Poland (except in mountainous regions) reveal a statistically significant correlation between the annual ring widths of the Scots pine and the monthly mean air temperatures, particularly from February and March, but also from January and April. Therefore, it was only possible to reconstruct the mean January-April air temperature.The following periods featured a warm late winter/early spring: 1530-90, 1656-70 (the warmest period), 1820-50, 1910-40, and after 1985. On the other hand, a cold January-April occurred in the following periods: 1600-50, 1760-75, 1800-15, 1880-1900, and 1950-80.Reconstructions of thermal conditions using documentary evidence were carried out for winter (December-February) and summer (June-August) from 1501 to 1840 and, therefore, their results cannot be directly compared with reconstructions based on tree-ring widths. Winter temperatures in this period were colder than air temperature in the 20th century. On the other hand, historical summers were generally warmer than those occurring in the 20th century. Such situations dominated in the 16th and 17th centuries, as well as at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries. Throughout almost the entire period from 1501 to 1840, the thermal continentality of the climate

  5. Response of a benthic suspension feeder ( Crassostrea virginica Gmelin) to three centuries of anthropogenic eutrophication in Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Michael X.; Miller, Henry M.

    2005-03-01

    Biogenic reefs built by oysters and other suspension feeders are vital components of estuarine ecosystems. By consuming phytoplankton, suspension feeders act to suppress accumulation of organic matter in the water column. Nutrient loading increases the rate of primary production, thereby causing eutrophication. As suspension feeders consume more organic matter from increasing abundance of phytoplankton, their rate of growth should also increase if they are food limited. We show here that the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin), from St. Mary's and Patuxent rivers, Chesapeake Bay, grew faster during anthropogenic eutrophication relative to C. virginica before eutrophication. Growth of shell height, shell thickness and adductor muscle increased after eutrophication began in the late 18th century. After 1860, growth decreased, perhaps reflecting the negative effects of hypoxia, harmful algal blooms, disease and fishing on oyster growth. These results are consistent with the view that an increasing supply of phytoplankton resulting from eutrophication enhanced growth of C. virginica between 1760 and 1860, before oyster reefs were degraded by destructive fishing practices between 1870 and 1930. Alternative factors, such as changes in water temperature, salinity, and fishing are less likely to be responsible for this pattern. These results have implications for restoration of oyster reefs in order to mitigate the effects of eutrophication in estuaries, as well as the paleoecological relationship between suspension feeders and paleoproductivity.

  6. Clear cutting (10-13th century) and deep stable economy (18-19th century) as responsible interventions for sand drifting and plaggic deposition in cultural landscapes on aeolian sands (SE-Netherlands).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mourik, Jan; Vera, Hein; Wallinga, Jakob

    2013-04-01

    landscapes, characterized by deflation plains (gleyic arenosols) and complexes of inland dunes (haplic arenosols). Clear cutting was responsible for the mediaeval first large scale expansion of drift sand landscapes. In such driftsand landscapes, the majority of the podzolic soils in coversand has been truncated by aeolian erosion. Only on scattered sheltered sites in the landscape, palaeopodzols were buried under mono or polycyclic driftsand deposits. They are now the valuable soil archives for palaeoecological research. During the 18th century, the population growth and regional economic activity stimulated the agricultural productivity. Farmers introduced the innovative 'deep stable' technique to increase the production of fertilizers. Farmers started sod digging, including the top of the Ah horizon of the humus forms. This consequently promoted heath degradation and sand drifting, resulting in the extension of driftsand landscapes. Deep stable economy and sod digging was responsible for the 18th century second large scale expansion of drift sand landscapes. During the 19th century, farmers tried to find alternative fertilizers and authorities initiated reforestation projects. The invention of chemical fertilizers at the end of the 19th century marked the end of the period of heath management and plaggic agriculture. The heath was no longer used for the harvesting of plaggic matter and new land management practices were introduced. Heath was reclaimed to new arable land or reforested with Scotch pine. Geomorphological features as inland dunes and plaggic covers survived in the landscape and are now included in the geological inheritance.

  7. Toward a late Holocene glacial chronology for the eastern Nyainqêntanglha Range, southeastern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loibl, David; Hochreuther, Philipp; Schulte, Philipp; Hülle, Daniela; Zhu, Haifeng; Bräuning, Achim; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Monsoonal-affected temperate glaciers in the eastern Nyainqêntanglha Range, southeastern Tibet, are highly sensitive to climate change. Knowledge about their late Holocene dynamics is still, however, widely lacking. The few studies on glacial chronology which are available for this region tend to mainly focus on dating results without sufficiently considering the geomorphological setting, often leading to misinterpretations in this complex high mountain environment. In this study, two selected glacier forelands are investigated using a multi-proxy approach encompassing detailed geomorphological mapping, dendrochronology, sedimentology, and optically stimulated luminescence as well as radiocarbon dating. The starting point was the creation of a consistent morphosequence which was validated by remote sensing of further glacier forelands from the wider region. Similarities and differences between the investigated settings were analyzed in detail to identify the relevant morphological and topoclimatic forcing mechanisms. We found evidence of climatic events affecting the whole region during the Little Ice Age, resulting in similar configurations and numbers of moraines. The geomorphological settings of the glacier forelands are, however, remarkably different, making investigations of the landform and sediment configuration an indispensable condition for their interpretation. Subsequently, constraints from different methods of relative and numerical dating were evaluated critically and included into a conceptual chronosequence if applicable. Our results suggest that the late Holocene maximum glacier advance comprised several successive advances from mid-17th to mid-18th century. None of our observations supports an earlier Neoglacial advance reaching further than the LIA maximum. After the LIA maximum, continued retreat that was only interrupted by short phases of stability followed, as evidenced by 2-3 recessional moraines in the investigated settings.

  8. Late Babylonian Astrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, John M.

    The last five centuries BC saw the development of several new forms of astrology in Babylonia. Key to these new astrological techniques was the invention of the zodiac in about 400 BC. These new forms of astrology include personal horoscopes, astral medicine, and the exploitation of geometrical relationships between the position of heavenly bodies. Several Late Babylonian astrological doctrines were later adopted within Greek astrology.

  9. Two Centuries of Soil Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    Narrates U.S. soil conservation history since the late eighteenth century. Discusses early practices such as contour plowing. Profiles individuals who promoted soil conservation and were largely responsible for the creation of the Soil Conservation Service. Explains the causes of erosion and how soil conservation districts help farmers prevent…

  10. Life history of the individuals buried in the St. Benedict Cemetery (Prague, 15th-18th centuries): insights from (14)C dating and stable isotope (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, δ(18)O) analysis.

    PubMed

    Salesse, Kevin; Dufour, Élise; Castex, Dominique; Velemínský, Petr; Santos, Frédéric; Kuchařová, Hedvika; Jun, Libor; Brůžek, Jaroslav

    2013-06-01

    Funerary practices and bioarchaeological (sex and age) data suggest that a mortality crisis linked to an epidemic episode occurred during the fifth phase of the St. Benedict cemetery in Prague (Czech Republic). To identify this mass mortality episode, we reconstructed individual life histories (dietary and mobility factors), assessed the population's biological homogeneity, and proposed a new chronology through stable isotope analysis (δ(13)C, δ(18)O and δ(15)N) and direct radiocarbon dating. Stable isotope analysis was conducted on the bone and tooth enamel (collagen and carbonate) of 19 individuals from three multiple graves (MG) and 12 individuals from individual graves (IG). The δ(15)N values of collagen and the difference between the δ(13)C values of collagen and bone carbonate could indicate that the IG individuals had a richer protein diet than the MG individuals or different food resources. The human bone and enamel carbonate and δ(18)O values suggest that the majority of individuals from MG and all individuals from IG spent most of their lives outside of the Bohemian region. Variations in δ(18)O values also indicate that all individuals experienced residential mobility during their lives. The stable isotope results, biological (age and sex) data and eight (14)C dates clearly differentiate the MG and IG groups. The present work provides evidence for the reuse of the St. Benedict cemetery to bury soldiers despite the funeral protest ban (1635 AD). The Siege of Prague (1742 AD) by French-Bavarian-Saxon armies is identified as the cause of the St. Benedict mass mortality event.

  11. Life history of the individuals buried in the St. Benedict Cemetery (Prague, 15th-18th centuries): insights from (14)C dating and stable isotope (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, δ(18)O) analysis.

    PubMed

    Salesse, Kevin; Dufour, Élise; Castex, Dominique; Velemínský, Petr; Santos, Frédéric; Kuchařová, Hedvika; Jun, Libor; Brůžek, Jaroslav

    2013-06-01

    Funerary practices and bioarchaeological (sex and age) data suggest that a mortality crisis linked to an epidemic episode occurred during the fifth phase of the St. Benedict cemetery in Prague (Czech Republic). To identify this mass mortality episode, we reconstructed individual life histories (dietary and mobility factors), assessed the population's biological homogeneity, and proposed a new chronology through stable isotope analysis (δ(13)C, δ(18)O and δ(15)N) and direct radiocarbon dating. Stable isotope analysis was conducted on the bone and tooth enamel (collagen and carbonate) of 19 individuals from three multiple graves (MG) and 12 individuals from individual graves (IG). The δ(15)N values of collagen and the difference between the δ(13)C values of collagen and bone carbonate could indicate that the IG individuals had a richer protein diet than the MG individuals or different food resources. The human bone and enamel carbonate and δ(18)O values suggest that the majority of individuals from MG and all individuals from IG spent most of their lives outside of the Bohemian region. Variations in δ(18)O values also indicate that all individuals experienced residential mobility during their lives. The stable isotope results, biological (age and sex) data and eight (14)C dates clearly differentiate the MG and IG groups. The present work provides evidence for the reuse of the St. Benedict cemetery to bury soldiers despite the funeral protest ban (1635 AD). The Siege of Prague (1742 AD) by French-Bavarian-Saxon armies is identified as the cause of the St. Benedict mass mortality event. PMID:23588853

  12. [Medicine and natural sciences in the Dessau cultural district of the 18th century. On the 250th anniversary of the birth of Leopold Friedrich Franz (1740-1817) of Anhalt-Dessau].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, W

    1990-08-01

    The 250th anniversary of the birthday of Prince Leopold Friedrich Franz of Anhalt-Dessau gives occasion to the appreciation of the progressive achievements of this representative of an enlightened absolutism, taking into particular consideration medicine and natural sciences. Under his reign a public health was established which was exemplarily organized by Dessau community physicians, the benefit of which the whole population of the country enjoyed.

  13. Coming Together: Preparing for Rural Special Education in the 21st Century. Conference Proceedings of the American Council on Rural Special Education (18th, Charleston, South Carolina, March 25-28, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Diane, Ed.

    This proceedings contains 64 papers on rural special education. Papers present promising practices in rural special education, discussions of theory and research, research findings, program descriptions, and topics of current concern. The papers are organized in order of presentation, and are categorized in a topical index under the following…

  14. [Medicine and natural sciences in the Dessau cultural district of the 18th century. On the 250th anniversary of the birth of Leopold Friedrich Franz (1740-1817) of Anhalt-Dessau].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, W

    1990-08-01

    The 250th anniversary of the birthday of Prince Leopold Friedrich Franz of Anhalt-Dessau gives occasion to the appreciation of the progressive achievements of this representative of an enlightened absolutism, taking into particular consideration medicine and natural sciences. Under his reign a public health was established which was exemplarily organized by Dessau community physicians, the benefit of which the whole population of the country enjoyed. PMID:2247994

  15. [The union of three families of apothecaries in Paris in the 17th and 18th centuries--The apothecaries François Pihoué, François Regnault, Henry Charas and Marie Fourneau].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2015-06-01

    The family network started with Marie Fourneau, daughter of the apothecary Jacques Fourneau, married successively two apothecaries first François Pihoué and then François Regnault and whose only daughter Marie Anne married the apothecary Henry Charas grandson of the famous apothecary Moyse Charas.

  16. News and Views: Gemini hits 1000 papers; Comet Elenin? Forget it! Sellers launches course; Merry Christmas from 18th-century Lapland; ET: where are they all hiding? SETI in the city; Complex organic molecules may not mean life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    No-one has yet found artefacts from an alien civilization, but have we looked hard enough? Astronomers seeking signs of extraterrestrial intelligence have suggested a novel approach: look for alien cities. The search for signs of life in the universe has included the detection of complex organic molecules, seen as a step on the way to living things. But now analysis of spectral signatures known as Unidentified Infrared Emission features found in stars, interstellar space and galaxies suggest that complex organic molecules can be made in stars in a matter of weeks without the presence of life.

  17. [The union of three families of apothecaries in Paris in the 17th and 18th centuries--The apothecaries François Pihoué, François Regnault, Henry Charas and Marie Fourneau].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2015-06-01

    The family network started with Marie Fourneau, daughter of the apothecary Jacques Fourneau, married successively two apothecaries first François Pihoué and then François Regnault and whose only daughter Marie Anne married the apothecary Henry Charas grandson of the famous apothecary Moyse Charas. PMID:26189312

  18. An Odyssey into the New Millennium: Rediscover 21st Century Business & Marketing Education. Proceedings of the Annual Atlantic Coast Business & Marketing Education Conference (18th, Raleigh, North Carolina, February 15-17, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Sheila, Ed.

    The following 13 papers on business and marketing education are included in this document: "Internet Marketing" (Herb Brown, Jerry Kandies); "Disk This . . . Paper Flow on the Go!" (Mary Evans, Wilbur Whitley); "Production and Evaluation of On-Line Tutorials" (Margie Gallagher, Evelyn Farrior, Jane Geissler); "Basic Skills Needed for Entry-Level…

  19. Credentialing Kepler: Transits in the Seventeenth Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, O.

    2005-08-01

    Kepler's successful prediction of the 1631 transit of Mercury spurred an interest in his decidedly user-unfriendly Rudolfine Tables. Because his Ephemerides went only to 1636, he did not draw attention to the 1639 transit of Venus, although the tables actually predicted the phenomenon, and the observation by Horrocks again proved the superiority of Kepler's work. By mid-century alternative user-friendly versions of the Rudolfine Tables were published by V. Renieri in Italy, J.B. Morin in France, Maria Cunitia in Germany, and (in a more modified form) by J. Shakerley in England. Transits of Mercury were observed in 1651 (by Shakerley in Surat, India), 1661, 1667, 1690, and 1697, giving astronomers opportunities to compare the predictions from these tables as well as those of Lansbergen (which were a variant of the Copernican Prutenic Tables). Because of the subsequent interest in transits for determining the length of the astronomical unit, the 18th-century French astronomer J-N. Delisle compiled for these early transits extensive systematic records, which are now preserved at the Paris Observatory. By his day, however, the as-yet-unpublished tables of Edmond Halley gave the most successful predictions, and Delisle showed little interest in further credentialing the Rudolfine Tables, a process that had already taken place in the previous century.

  20. [Eighteenth century calendars as a source of Polish medical history].

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, W

    1996-01-01

    The general decline of science which took place in the first half of the 18th century was a cause of a huge quantity of calendars editing. Calendars substituted for the former scientific literature. Up to 1763 over 800 calendars appeared. A half of them was published in Cracov. Those calendars differed from the contemporary ones. Apart from dates, they included not only basic information in history, geography agriculture economy but, not seldom, medicine as well. Most often they were written by university professors with a few physicians among them. Obviously, the level of the presented medical knowledge was very low. There wenadductions to astrology, wizardry and Provinience. But some diagnoses and therapeutic advice being a kind of doctor's manual, useful to so-called domestic medicine are still worth of the attention. First of all, phytotherapy chapter based on the folk empiricism, was the most rational. Thought 18th century calendars did not have much in common with real medicine, they make an interesting source to search for history of the Polish medicine of the Saxon times. PMID:9245110

  1. The Environmental History of Cetaceans in Portugal: Ten Centuries of Whale and Dolphin Records

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Cristina; Sousa, Andreia

    2011-01-01

    The history between cetaceans and humans is documented throughout time not only in reports, descriptions, and tales but also in legal documents, laws and regulations, and tithes. This wealth of information comes from the easy spotting and identification of individuals due to their large size, surface breathing, and conspicuous above water behaviour. This work is based on historical sources and accounts accounting for cetacean presence for the period between the 12th and 17th centuries, as well as scientific articles, newspapers, illustrations, maps, non-published scientific reports, and other grey literature from the 18th century onwards. Information on whale use in Portugal's mainland has been found since as early as the 12th century and has continued to be created throughout time. No certainty can be given for medieval and earlier events, but both scavenging of stranded whales or use of captured ones may have happened. There is an increasing number of accounts of sighted, stranded, used, or captured cetaceans throughout centuries which is clearly associated with a growing effort towards the study of these animals. Scientific Latin species denominations only started to be registered from the 18th century onwards, as a consequence of the evolution of natural sciences in Portugal and increasing interest from zoologists. After the 19th century, a larger number of observations were recorded, and from the 20th century to the present day, regular scientific records have been collected. Research on the environmental history of cetaceans in Portugal shows a several-centuries-old exploitation of whales and dolphins, as resources mainly for human consumption, followed in later centuries by descriptions of natural history documenting strandings and at sea encounters. Most cetaceans species currently thought to be present in Portuguese mainland waters were at some point historically recorded. PMID:21931627

  2. The environmental history of cetaceans in Portugal: ten centuries of whale and dolphin records.

    PubMed

    Brito, Cristina; Sousa, Andreia

    2011-01-01

    The history between cetaceans and humans is documented throughout time not only in reports, descriptions, and tales but also in legal documents, laws and regulations, and tithes. This wealth of information comes from the easy spotting and identification of individuals due to their large size, surface breathing, and conspicuous above water behaviour. This work is based on historical sources and accounts accounting for cetacean presence for the period between the 12th and 17th centuries, as well as scientific articles, newspapers, illustrations, maps, non-published scientific reports, and other grey literature from the 18th century onwards. Information on whale use in Portugal's mainland has been found since as early as the 12th century and has continued to be created throughout time. No certainty can be given for medieval and earlier events, but both scavenging of stranded whales or use of captured ones may have happened. There is an increasing number of accounts of sighted, stranded, used, or captured cetaceans throughout centuries which is clearly associated with a growing effort towards the study of these animals. Scientific Latin species denominations only started to be registered from the 18th century onwards, as a consequence of the evolution of natural sciences in Portugal and increasing interest from zoologists. After the 19th century, a larger number of observations were recorded, and from the 20th century to the present day, regular scientific records have been collected. Research on the environmental history of cetaceans in Portugal shows a several-centuries-old exploitation of whales and dolphins, as resources mainly for human consumption, followed in later centuries by descriptions of natural history documenting strandings and at sea encounters. Most cetaceans species currently thought to be present in Portuguese mainland waters were at some point historically recorded.

  3. A Retrospective and Prospective Look at the "Happy English Child"--The Applicability of Postcolonial Theory to the British Government's Education Policy in Ireland in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Relihan, Martina

    2005-01-01

    This paper looks at traditional nationalist and revisionist schools of historiography in relation to the British government's educational policy in Ireland following the establishment of the national school system in 1831 until the beginning of the twentieth century. It contrasts this with the postcolonial historiographical approach. It also looks…

  4. Tick-borne encephalitis-still on the map: Report of the 18th annual meeting of the international scientific working group on tick-borne encephalitis (ISW-TBE).

    PubMed

    Kunze, Ursula

    2016-07-01

    The 18th meeting of the International Scientific Working Group on Tick-Borne Encephalitis (ISW-TBE)-a group of neurologists, general practitioners, clinicians, travel physicians, virologists, pediatricians and epidemiologists-was held under the title 'Tick-borne encephalitis-still on the map'. The conference agenda was divided into six sessions: 'National Implementation of EU notifiable disease status', 'Virology', 'Epidemiology and Risk areas & Poster Walk Epidemiological Update', 'Clinic', 'Environmental Factors' and 'New Findings and Diagnosis'. Key topics such as 'TBE as a notifiable disease-results of the third European survey', 'TBE vaccines over the years', 'Overview of flaviviruses', 'TBE virus phylogenetics', 'Current epidemiological developments and investigations', 'Clinical aspects', 'TBE in veterinary medicine', 'Laboratory diagnostic', 'Occupational risk', 'Allergy, obesity, and vaccination' were presented and extensively discussed.

  5. century drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-11-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twenty-first century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman-Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  6. Late paternities.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jean

    2007-06-01

    Late paternities are frequent. Very often these couples ask for medically assisted procreation. In general, it is considered that the couple should not be treated differently from the couple where the father is younger. Recent studies show a certain number of specific risks linked to the late paternities. Doctors and society do not act in the same way towards men and women: a 'sensible age' for women to no longer attempt pregnancy has been set in many countries at 42 years of age, whereas men aged 80 can benefit from IVF attempts and be reimbursed by the state or insurance companies. This is an obvious inequity. PMID:17579995

  7. Island Universes, Novae and Supernovae. A Great Debate of the XX Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigatto, L.

    2005-12-01

    The concept of island universes as very great stellar structures, was conceived in the 18th century. This fascinating idea started to be taken into consideration as soon as great telescopes permitted to observe and classify numerous and different--shape nebulae, especially spirals, in which novae were discovered. In 1920, a public debate concerning the scale of the universe, took place in Washington: Heber D. Curtis and Harlow Shapley presented their different opinion on this subject. Since that time, a new view of the universe and its dimension started to be considered.

  8. 18th Annual Residence Hall Construction Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2007-01-01

    It is said that "home is where the heart is." Many colleges and universities are keeping that in mind as they continue to invest in building residential facilities to attract students to on-campus living. Residence hall construction at the nation's higher-education institutions remains strong, as the benefits to students, parents, and the college…

  9. 18th Annual School Construction Report, 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The bottom line on school construction in 2012 is that total spending edged up slightly from the previous year, (to $12.9 billion from $12.2 billion), but the spending for new schools declined from $6.9 billion to $6.177 billion. The increase in overall spending was attributable to more spending for additions and a major increase in spending for…

  10. The 18th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Topics concerning aerospace mechanisms, their functional performance, and design specifications are presented. Discussed subjects include the design and development of release mechanisms, actuators, linear driver/rate controllers, antenna and appendage deployment systems, position control systems, and tracking mechanisms for antennas and solar arrays. Engine design, spaceborne experiments, and large space structure technology are also examined.

  11. [Sociological aspects of late fatherhood].

    PubMed

    Bessin, M

    2006-09-01

    Starting from a sociological research on late parenthood, the article shows quantitative and qualitative lessons on the subject--in particular concerning the fathers' perspective. Late parenthood has declined over the 20th Century, to increase again since 1980. The further exploitation of the survey EHF 99 shows the processes and the socio-demographic of late fatherhood, over three generations. This phenomenon is tightly related to the multiple descents and family recombinings. We also observe in these configurations major age differences between spouses and late relationship. The social bipolarity of this phenomenon appears clearly as far as late motherhood is concerned, but is less clear concerning fatherhood, since more blue collars and non qualified men are concerned. This difference is due to the important role played by migrants in this phenomenon. A qualitative survey conducted on the basis of biographic interviews has underlined the gendered logics of late family founding. These logics are linked to the discrepancies due to man/woman differences regarding their respective calendar of fertility and to their attitude towards work. The interviews which provide an analysis of the biographical processes of late parenthood are organised according to postponement or renewal logics, in the form of refoundation or repetition. They are linked to self-introspection and to the negotiations at work within a couple.

  12. Eighteenth century Yersinia pestis genomes reveal the long-term persistence of an historical plague focus.

    PubMed

    Bos, Kirsten I; Herbig, Alexander; Sahl, Jason; Waglechner, Nicholas; Fourment, Mathieu; Forrest, Stephen A; Klunk, Jennifer; Schuenemann, Verena J; Poinar, Debi; Kuch, Melanie; Golding, G Brian; Dutour, Olivier; Keim, Paul; Wagner, David M; Holmes, Edward C; Krause, Johannes; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2016-01-01

    The 14th-18th century pandemic of Yersinia pestis caused devastating disease outbreaks in Europe for almost 400 years. The reasons for plague's persistence and abrupt disappearance in Europe are poorly understood, but could have been due to either the presence of now-extinct plague foci in Europe itself, or successive disease introductions from other locations. Here we present five Y. pestis genomes from one of the last European outbreaks of plague, from 1722 in Marseille, France. The lineage identified has not been found in any extant Y. pestis foci sampled to date, and has its ancestry in strains obtained from victims of the 14th century Black Death. These data suggest the existence of a previously uncharacterized historical plague focus that persisted for at least three centuries. We propose that this disease source may have been responsible for the many resurgences of plague in Europe following the Black Death. PMID:26795402

  13. Solar cycle length and 20th Century northern hemisphere warming: Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damon, Paul E.; Peristykh, Alexei N.

    It has been suggested that the length of the solar cycle (SCL) is related to solar forcing of global climate change [Friis-Christensen and Lassen, 1991]. Although no physical mechanism had been proposed, the relation seemed to be supported by interesting correlations with several paleoclimate records and, separately, with the 20th century Northern Hemisphere instrumental record. Actually, what has been correlated is the quasi-sinusoidal Gleissberg cycle which is slightly greater in the 18th century than in the 20th century. Using the pre-industrial record as a boundary condition, the SCL-temperature correlation corresponds to an estimated 25% of global warming to 1980 and 15% to 1997.

  14. Epilepsy and insanity during the early 19th century. A conceptual history.

    PubMed

    Berrios, G E

    1984-09-01

    During the first half of the 19th century, epilepsy and the insanities were considered as closely related "neurotic" disorders. Under the influence of factors such as the decline of the 18th-century Cullean concept of neurosis, the development of the new descriptive psychopathology, the introduction of statistics, and the availability of longitudinal observations of hospitalized cohorts, epilepsy was redefined as a "neurological" disease by the 1850s. The reaction of psychiatry to the exclusion of the mental disorder as a defining feature of epilepsy manifested itself in the creation of the "masked epilepsy" concept. This notion is behind the later development of categories such as "borderland" and "equivalent," which are still of some relevance to 20th-century views of epilepsy.

  15. History of vaccination.

    PubMed

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2014-08-26

    Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before.

  16. Global Trends in Language Learning in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Today's language classroom is vastly different from that of the mid- to late 20th century. The study is a meta-analysis of recent research which provided the means to identify current and emerging trends in the field. Informed by this research, some identified trends that are shaping the 21st century language classroom are outdated practices such…

  17. Developmental biology in Geneva: a three century-long tradition.

    PubMed

    Buscaglia, Marino; Duboule, Denis

    2002-01-01

    It was in the first half of the 18th century when life sciences started to flourish in the independent republic of Geneva. However, it is difficult to identify a genuine school of developmental biologists during that era. Nevertheless, several prominent scientists over the past two and a half centuries have established and maintained a strong tradition of studies in embryological development and reproduction. In this short historical account, we briefly pay tribute to these famous forerunners, by emphasizing both the originality and quality of their work, as well as the many accompanying conceptual and methodological advances. We start with Abraham Trembley (1710-1784) and the discovery of Hydra and of regeneration, and with Charles Bonnet (1720-1793) who, amongst other contributions, first observed parthenogenetic development. In the 19th century, Carl Vogt (1817-1895) and Edouard Claparède (1832-1871) were well-known scientists in this field of research, whereas Hermann Fol (1845-1892) can be considered as one of the pioneers, if not the founder, of causal embryology, through his experiments on lateral asymmetry in manipulated chicken. More recently, Emile Guyénot (1885-1963) and Kitty Ponse (1897-1982) perpetuated this tradition, which is well alive nowadays in the city of Calvin. PMID:11902688

  18. Nostalgia in the Army (17th-19th Centuries).

    PubMed

    Battesti, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    People died from nostalgia in the army in the 17th-19th centuries. The term 'nostalgia', created by the doctor Johannes Hofer (1669-1752), from Mulhouse, came from the Germanic Heimweh, or 'homesickness'. It affected the young people enrolled in the army, such as Swiss mercenaries. Longing for their native land, they were consumed by an ongoing desire to return home. If it was impossible to do so, they sank into 'a sadness accompanied with insomnia, anorexia and other unpleasant symptoms' that could lead to death. Nostalgia became classified as a disease during the last quarter of the 18th century and ravaged the French army during the Revolution and the Napoleonic wars. However, as soon as the wars ended, it ceased to exist in the army (except the colonial army). It was removed from the nosology in the first half of the 19th century. Rapidly explained as an example of a misdiagnosis or a confusion between 'connection and cause', nostalgia needs to be assessed in regard to the medical debate between 'alienists' and 'organicists'. Creating much concern, nostalgia needs to be considered in the historical context of a society destabilized by modernity, with some individuals uprooted by the sudden transition from civil society to military life. It raises questions about the role that the army played in the creation of the French national union. Nostalgia may have also covered psychic traumatisms later designated as combat fatigue, war neurosis, or post-traumatic stress disorder.

  19. Nostalgia in the Army (17th-19th Centuries).

    PubMed

    Battesti, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    People died from nostalgia in the army in the 17th-19th centuries. The term 'nostalgia', created by the doctor Johannes Hofer (1669-1752), from Mulhouse, came from the Germanic Heimweh, or 'homesickness'. It affected the young people enrolled in the army, such as Swiss mercenaries. Longing for their native land, they were consumed by an ongoing desire to return home. If it was impossible to do so, they sank into 'a sadness accompanied with insomnia, anorexia and other unpleasant symptoms' that could lead to death. Nostalgia became classified as a disease during the last quarter of the 18th century and ravaged the French army during the Revolution and the Napoleonic wars. However, as soon as the wars ended, it ceased to exist in the army (except the colonial army). It was removed from the nosology in the first half of the 19th century. Rapidly explained as an example of a misdiagnosis or a confusion between 'connection and cause', nostalgia needs to be assessed in regard to the medical debate between 'alienists' and 'organicists'. Creating much concern, nostalgia needs to be considered in the historical context of a society destabilized by modernity, with some individuals uprooted by the sudden transition from civil society to military life. It raises questions about the role that the army played in the creation of the French national union. Nostalgia may have also covered psychic traumatisms later designated as combat fatigue, war neurosis, or post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:27035922

  20. Developmental biology in Geneva: a three century-long tradition.

    PubMed

    Buscaglia, Marino; Duboule, Denis

    2002-01-01

    It was in the first half of the 18th century when life sciences started to flourish in the independent republic of Geneva. However, it is difficult to identify a genuine school of developmental biologists during that era. Nevertheless, several prominent scientists over the past two and a half centuries have established and maintained a strong tradition of studies in embryological development and reproduction. In this short historical account, we briefly pay tribute to these famous forerunners, by emphasizing both the originality and quality of their work, as well as the many accompanying conceptual and methodological advances. We start with Abraham Trembley (1710-1784) and the discovery of Hydra and of regeneration, and with Charles Bonnet (1720-1793) who, amongst other contributions, first observed parthenogenetic development. In the 19th century, Carl Vogt (1817-1895) and Edouard Claparède (1832-1871) were well-known scientists in this field of research, whereas Hermann Fol (1845-1892) can be considered as one of the pioneers, if not the founder, of causal embryology, through his experiments on lateral asymmetry in manipulated chicken. More recently, Emile Guyénot (1885-1963) and Kitty Ponse (1897-1982) perpetuated this tradition, which is well alive nowadays in the city of Calvin.

  1. Evaluation of the 2012 18th Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology and 22nd CityMatCH MCH Urban Leadership Conference: six month impact on science, program, and policy.

    PubMed

    Arellano, Danielle E; Goodman, David A; Howlette, Travis; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Law, Mark; Phillips, Donna; Jones, Jessica; Brantley, Mary D; Fitzgerald, Maureen

    2014-09-01

    The 18th Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology and 22nd CityMatCH MCH Urban Leadership Conference took place in December 2012, covering MCH science, program, and policy issues. Assessing the impact of the Conference on attendees' work 6 months post-Conference provides information critical to understanding the impact and the use of new partnerships, knowledge, and skills gained during the Conference. Evaluation assessments, which included collection of quantitative and qualitative data, were administered at two time points: at Conference registration and 6 months post-Conference. The evaluation files were merged using computer IP address, linking responses from each assessment. Percentages of attendees reporting Conference impacts were calculated from quantitative data, and common themes and supporting examples were identified from qualitative data. Online registration was completed by 650 individuals. Of registrants, 30 % responded to the 6 month post-Conference assessment. Between registration and 6 month post-Conference evaluation, the distribution of respondents did not significantly differ by organizational affiliation. In the 6 months following the Conference, 65 % of respondents reported pursuing a networking interaction; 96 % shared knowledge from the Conference with co-workers and others in their agency; and 74 % utilized knowledge from the Conference to translate data into public health action. The Conference produced far-reaching impacts among Conference attendees. The Conference served as a platform for networking, knowledge sharing, and attaining skills that advance the work of attendees, with the potential of impacting organizational and workforce capacity. Increasing capacity could improve MCH programs, policies, and services, ultimately impacting the health of women, infants, and children. PMID:25107597

  2. Evaluation of the 2012 18th Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology and 22nd CityMatCH MCH Urban Leadership Conference: six month impact on science, program, and policy.

    PubMed

    Arellano, Danielle E; Goodman, David A; Howlette, Travis; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Law, Mark; Phillips, Donna; Jones, Jessica; Brantley, Mary D; Fitzgerald, Maureen

    2014-09-01

    The 18th Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology and 22nd CityMatCH MCH Urban Leadership Conference took place in December 2012, covering MCH science, program, and policy issues. Assessing the impact of the Conference on attendees' work 6 months post-Conference provides information critical to understanding the impact and the use of new partnerships, knowledge, and skills gained during the Conference. Evaluation assessments, which included collection of quantitative and qualitative data, were administered at two time points: at Conference registration and 6 months post-Conference. The evaluation files were merged using computer IP address, linking responses from each assessment. Percentages of attendees reporting Conference impacts were calculated from quantitative data, and common themes and supporting examples were identified from qualitative data. Online registration was completed by 650 individuals. Of registrants, 30 % responded to the 6 month post-Conference assessment. Between registration and 6 month post-Conference evaluation, the distribution of respondents did not significantly differ by organizational affiliation. In the 6 months following the Conference, 65 % of respondents reported pursuing a networking interaction; 96 % shared knowledge from the Conference with co-workers and others in their agency; and 74 % utilized knowledge from the Conference to translate data into public health action. The Conference produced far-reaching impacts among Conference attendees. The Conference served as a platform for networking, knowledge sharing, and attaining skills that advance the work of attendees, with the potential of impacting organizational and workforce capacity. Increasing capacity could improve MCH programs, policies, and services, ultimately impacting the health of women, infants, and children.

  3. [The emergence of the Québec asylum in the 19th century.].

    PubMed

    Paradis, A

    1977-01-01

    This team of five philosophers analyses the 18th and 19th century Quebec discourse on the subject of insanity. The 18th century saw the insane excluded from social contact with the state recognizing only their indigence. They were relegated either to the "Loges", designed to expiate their sins since insanity was linked to an abuse of mind and body, or to prison for appropriate punishment, since madness was considered to lead to crime. But economic pressures produced by the growing number in indigents, including the mentally ill, led to the creation of the Beauport asylum in 1845. The authors then describe how the urban insane, marginal to both the French Canadian and English Canadian communities* were placed in private institutions and subjected to a system of profit maximization controlled by bourgeois physicians. This situation increased the distance between proprietors and occupants, and accounts for the lack of original discourse on the subject of insanity. In addition, the reasoning of the alienist physicians was without scientific foundation, taking root rather in the dominant industrial capitalist ideology. As for the content of the discourse, the Beauport physicians borrowed from moral treatment and restraint system notions, giving them a certain Quebec character.

  4. First steps of vulagarization of science in the late ninetheen century: The Yearbook of the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional de Chapultepec, Mexico during the period of Mr. Angel Anguiano (1878-1889)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zueck, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    Since the founding of the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional de Chapultepec in 1878 during the presidential term of General Porfirio Diaz, begins the publication of the Yearbook of the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional de Chapultepec (from now on OAN) in a period when the positivist paradigm based on will boost science as a means of national progress. Here we describe the actions taken by the observatory's director and editor of the publication, the engineer Angel Anguiano, to initiate and successfully carry out the exchange of scientific publications and / or dissemination through the exchange of the Yearbook of the OAN, both nationally and internationally. The importance of conferences to which he attended started the sharing printed information relating to subjects such as astronomy, meteorology, cartography and geography. The Yearbook was intended to publish two or three months before the beginning of each year and according to the editor would serve to popularize science, making its contents available to anyone with basic knowledge of geometry or for amateur astronomers. I find that the yearbook was the publication that was released to the observatory in the country and abroad, but was sent to distant places where no one speaks or reads Spanish. I think that the content of articles published in, did not respond and objective and informative to the public as mentioned by, because at the late 1800s, 90% of the inhabitants of the Mexican Republic were illiterate and lived in rural areas. The access to the Bulletin was the Mexican intellectual elite grouped into societies, astronomical or meteorological observatories and another wealthy person individually. The same happened abroad. The collection of data from reports to the Secretaria de Fomento, that was the government agency that funds money destined to different scientific institutions founded during this period were published in the Yearbook, the oficios that sent the OAN over a hundred sites in the world

  5. Boerhaave: Three Chairs to Oblivion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Alfred

    1971-01-01

    Describes Boerhaave's contributions to botany, physiology, medical education, and chemistry from the late 17th to the early 18th centuries; his influence on other academics in Europe and North America is also discussed. (AL)

  6. Review article of the current state of glaciers in the tropical Andes: a multi-century perspective on glacier evolution and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabatel, A.; Francou, B.; Soruco, A.; Gomez, J.; Cáceres, B.; Ceballos, J. L.; Basantes, R.; Vuille, M.; Sicart, J.-E.; Huggel, C.; Scheel, M.; Lejeune, Y.; Arnaud, Y.; Collet, M.; Condom, T.; Consoli, G.; Favier, V.; Jomelli, V.; Galarraga, R.; Ginot, P.; Maisincho, L.; Mendoza, J.; Ménégoz, M.; Ramirez, E.; Ribstein, P.; Suarez, W.; Villacis, M.; Wagnon, P.

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide the community with a comprehensive overview of the studies of glaciers in the tropical Andes conducted in recent decades leading to the current status of the glaciers in the context of climate change. In terms of changes in surface area and length, we show that the glacier retreat in the tropical Andes over the last three decades is unprecedented since the maximum extension of the LIA (mid 17th-early 18th century). In terms of changes in mass balance, although there have been some sporadic gains on several glaciers, we show that the trend has been quite negative over the past 50 yr, with a mean mass balance deficit for glaciers in the tropical Andes that is slightly more negative than the computed global average. A break point in the trend appeared in the late 1970s with mean annual mass balance per year decreasing from -0.2 m w.e. in the period 1964-1975 to -0.76 m w.e. in the period 1976-2010. In addition, even if glaciers are currently retreating everywhere in the tropical Andes, it should be noted that as a percentage, this is much more pronounced on small glaciers at low altitudes that do not have a permanent accumulation zone, and which could disappear in the coming years/decades. Monthly mass balance measurements performed in Bolivia, Ecuador and Colombia showed that variability of the surface temperature of the Pacific Ocean is the main factor governing variability of the mass balance variability at the interannual to decadal time scale. Precipitation did not display a significant trend in the tropical Andes in the 20th century, and consequently cannot explain the glacier recession. On the other hand, temperature increased at a significant rate of 0.10 °C decade-1 in the last 70 yr. The higher frequency of El Niño events and changes in its spatial and temporal occurrence since the late 1970s together with a warming troposphere over the tropical Andes may thus explain much of the recent dramatic shrinkage of glaciers in

  7. Did we finally slay the evil dragon of cigarette smoking in the late 20th century?: unfortunately, the answer is no - the dragon is still alive and well in the 21st century and living in the third world. Shame on us!

    PubMed

    Hurt, Richard D; Murphy, Joseph G; Dunn, William F

    2014-12-01

    If cigarettes were introduced as a new consumer product today, it is unlikely they would receive government regulatory approval. Cigarettes have proven biologic toxicities (carcinogenesis, atherogenesis, teratogenesis) and well-established causal links to human disease. Things were very different in 1913 when the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company introduced the first modern cigarette, the iconic Camel. By the early 1950s, definitive scientific reports linked cigarettes and human disease, but it was more than a half century later (2006) that cigarette manufacturers were found guilty by a federal court of deceptive product marketing regarding the health hazards of tobacco use. In the United States, cigarette smoking remains a major but slowly declining problem. But in developing countries, cigarette use is expanding tremendously. In global terms, the epidemic of smoking-caused disease is projected to increase rapidly in coming decades, not decline. Society may have begun to slowly win the smoking battle in the developed world, but we are resoundingly losing the global war on smoking. All is not lost! There is some good news! The 2003 Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, supported strongly by the American College of Chest Physicians, is the first global public health treaty of the new millennium. Many developed societies have begun planning to rid their countries of cigarettes in what is called the Endgame Strategy, and now is the time for the international medical community to help change tobacco policy to a worldwide endgame approach to rid all humanity of smoking-related diseases. PMID:25451345

  8. Did we finally slay the evil dragon of cigarette smoking in the late 20th century?: unfortunately, the answer is no - the dragon is still alive and well in the 21st century and living in the third world. Shame on us!

    PubMed

    Hurt, Richard D; Murphy, Joseph G; Dunn, William F

    2014-12-01

    If cigarettes were introduced as a new consumer product today, it is unlikely they would receive government regulatory approval. Cigarettes have proven biologic toxicities (carcinogenesis, atherogenesis, teratogenesis) and well-established causal links to human disease. Things were very different in 1913 when the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company introduced the first modern cigarette, the iconic Camel. By the early 1950s, definitive scientific reports linked cigarettes and human disease, but it was more than a half century later (2006) that cigarette manufacturers were found guilty by a federal court of deceptive product marketing regarding the health hazards of tobacco use. In the United States, cigarette smoking remains a major but slowly declining problem. But in developing countries, cigarette use is expanding tremendously. In global terms, the epidemic of smoking-caused disease is projected to increase rapidly in coming decades, not decline. Society may have begun to slowly win the smoking battle in the developed world, but we are resoundingly losing the global war on smoking. All is not lost! There is some good news! The 2003 Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, supported strongly by the American College of Chest Physicians, is the first global public health treaty of the new millennium. Many developed societies have begun planning to rid their countries of cigarettes in what is called the Endgame Strategy, and now is the time for the international medical community to help change tobacco policy to a worldwide endgame approach to rid all humanity of smoking-related diseases.

  9. The early days of late blight

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale DNA sequencing of samples of foliage collected in the 19th century from plants infected with late blight has shown that the potato famines of the 1840s were triggered by a single clonal lineage of Phytophthora infestans, called HERB-1, which persisted for at least 50 years. PMID:23795302

  10. Psychological symptoms and medical responses in nineteenth-century India.

    PubMed

    Radhika, P; Murthy, Pratima; Sarin, Alok; Jain, Sanjeev

    2015-03-01

    The article documents medical approaches to mental illness in mid- to late-nineteenth-century India through examining the Indian Medical Gazette and other medical accounts. By the late nineteenth century, psychiatry in Europe moved from discussions around asylum-based care to a nuanced and informed debate about the nature of mental symptoms. This included ideas on phrenology and craniometry, biological and psycho-social causes, physical and drug treatments, many of which travelled to India. Simultaneously, indigenous socio-medical ideas were being debated. From the early to the mid-nineteenth century, not much distinction was made between the Western and the native 'mind', and consequently the diagnosis and investigation of mental symptoms did not differ. However, by the late nineteenth century Western medicine considered the 'Western mind' as more civilized and sophisticated than the 'native mind. PMID:25698688

  11. Geochronology of initial soils in Late-Holocene polycyclic drift-sand deposits (Weerterbergen, S.E. Netherlands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van mourik, J. M.; Wallinga, J.

    2012-04-01

    Late glacial aeolian coversand dominates the surface geology of the eastern part of the province Noord-Brabant (Netherlands). During prehistoric and early historic time, forest grazing, wood cutting and shifting cultivation gradually transformed natural forest into heath land. During the 11th - 13th century, commercial clear cutting of forests caused sand drifting. Farmers protected the heath against drift sand and continued till 1750 AD with shallow stable management. In the course of the 18th century deep stable management was introduced and farmers started with sod digging on the heath to increase the total amount of manure. Sod digging resulted in a second period of extension of driftsand landscapes with characteristic 'cultural' landforms and soils. Polycyclic driftsand deposits are paleoecological records of alternating instable (sand drifting) and stable (soil formation) phases in landscape development. Interpretation of paleoecological information, derived from these records, requires accurate knowledge of the geochronology. Radiocarbon dating, applied on extracted soil organic matter from humic buried AE horizons is not reliable. Calibrated 14C ages of seven selected buried 'micropodzols' range from 340 - 1950 AD. To understand the geochronology of polycyclic sequences, we applied soil micromorphology to improve our knowledge about the organic matrix of micropodzols and OSL dating. Micromorphological analysis of thin sections of micropodzols provide more information about the composition of SOM of the humic horizons. SOM consists of post sedimentary compounds, related to soil formation. We can identify soil fungi, fragmented litter and fecal pellets as the results of litter decomposition. But SOM contains also sin sedimentary compounds, related to sand drifting. We can identify transported and rounded organic aggregates, mineral grains with organic cutans and charcoal fragments, originating from eroded (older) soil horizons. Consequently, the 14C dates of

  12. Austrian pharmacy in the 18 and 19th century.

    PubMed

    Kletter, Christa

    2010-01-01

    This overview reflects the extensive changes in the health care system which had significant effects on the apothecaryâs profession and education. In the 18(th) century Maria Theresia assigned Gerard van Swieten to modernize the medical curriculum and to work out reforms for health care. The resulting sanitary bill released in 1770 and amended in 1773 became effective for the whole empire and influenced greatly the apothecaryâs profession. The Viennese Medical Faculty continued to be the supervisory body for the apothecaries, a situation which prolonged the conflicts between the faculty and the apothecaries. The financial and social distress prevalent in the 19(th) century also affected the apothecary business and led to a crisis of the profession. Furthermore, the apothecariesâ missing influence over the sanitary authorities delayed the release of a badly needed new apothecary bill until 1906. The introduction of a specific pharmaceutical curriculum at the university in 1853 was a great step forward to improve the pharmaceutical education. Nevertheless, the secondary school exam was not compulsory for the studies until 1920 and, therefore, the graduates were not on a par with other university graduates before that date. Women, except nuns, were not allowed to work as pharmacists until 1900. PMID:21179353

  13. [Marriage and Migratory Characteristic of Circassians (Late 20th Century)].

    PubMed

    El'chinova, G I; Makaov, A Kh; Revazova, Yu A; Gavrilina, S G; Rusakova, A V; Zinchenko, R A; Ginter, E K

    2016-03-01

    This paper analyzes 2052 marriage records for 1990-2000 in the Khabezsky district of Karachay-Cherkessia. The main marriage and migration characteristics of Circassians are studied: index of endogamy, ethnic mar- riage assortativity, intensity of metisation, and Malecot's parameters of isolation by distance.

  14. Late 20th Century increase in South Pole snow accumulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosley-Thompson, E.; Paskievitch, J.F.; Gow, A.J.; Thompson, L.G.

    1999-01-01

    A compilation of the 37-year history of net accumulation at the South Pole [Mosley-Thompson et al., 1995] suggests an increase in net annual accumulation since 1965. This record is sporadic and its quality is compromised by spatially restricted observations and nonsystematic measurement procedures. Results from a new, spatially extensive network of 236 accumulation poles document that the current 5-year (1992-1997) average annual net accumulation at the South Pole is 84.5??8.9 mm water equivalent (w.e.). This accumulation rate reflects a 30% increase since the 1960s when the best, although not optimal, records indicate that it was 65 mm w.e. Identification of two prominent beta radioactivity horizons (1954/1955 and 1964/1965) in six firn cores confirms an increase in accumulation since 1965. Viewed from a longer perspective of accumulation provided by ice cores and a snow mine study, the net accumulation of the 30-year period, 1965-1994, is the highest 30-year average of this millennium. Limited data suggest this recent accumulation increase extends beyond the South Pole region and may be characteristic of the high East Antarctic Plateau. Enhanced accumulation over the polar ice sheets has been identified as a potential early indicator of warmer sea surface temperatures and may offset a portion of the current rise in global sea level. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Routes towards an abstract thermodynamics in the late nineteenth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordoni, Stefano

    2013-12-01

    Two different traditions of research emerged from Rudolf Clausius's version of thermodynamics. While James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann pursued the integration of thermodynamics with the kinetic theory of gases, others relied on a macroscopic and more abstract approach that set aside specific mechanical models. This second approach blossomed in about two decades in different countries of Europe and in the United States. François Massieu, Josiah Willard Gibbs, Hermann Helmholtz, and then Pierre Duhem explored the connections between the contents of thermodynamics and the formal structures of analytical mechanics. Others like the young Max Planck and Arthur von Oettingen pursued a sort of formal symmetry between thermal and mechanical variables. In the British Isles, Joseph John Thomson developed a dynamical approach to physics and chemistry, making use of the tools of abstract mechanics without excluding microscopic motions. Some developments were logically interconnected, as it was for Massieu's, Gibbs's, Helmholtz's, and Duhem's, even though they occurred in a largely independent manner. Duhem put forward the most original and most systematic reinterpretation of thermodynamics, which involved a bold upgrading of analytical mechanics and a bold mathematical unification of physics and chemistry. A strong commitment to unification was one of the hallmarks of all these theoretical researches.

  16. [Recording instruments in the physiology of the late nineteenth century].

    PubMed

    Pareti, Germana

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at describing the revolution in sensorial physiology resulting from the introduction of electrical recording instruments such as the string galvanometer and especially the capillary electrometer by Edgar Douglas Adrian in Cambridge. The contributions in the field of vacuum-tube methods completed the development and the progress in the analysis of the action potential of nerve. PMID:16285083

  17. [Marriage and Migratory Characteristic of Circassians (Late 20th Century)].

    PubMed

    El'chinova, G I; Makaov, A Kh; Revazova, Yu A; Gavrilina, S G; Rusakova, A V; Zinchenko, R A; Ginter, E K

    2016-03-01

    This paper analyzes 2052 marriage records for 1990-2000 in the Khabezsky district of Karachay-Cherkessia. The main marriage and migration characteristics of Circassians are studied: index of endogamy, ethnic mar- riage assortativity, intensity of metisation, and Malecot's parameters of isolation by distance. PMID:27281859

  18. The influence of Late Pleistocene geomorphological inheritance and Holocene hydromorphic regimes on floodwater farming in the Talgar catchment, southeast Kazakhstan, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macklin, Mark G.; Panyushkina, Irina P.; Toonen, Willem H. J.; Chang, Claudia; Tourtellotte, Perry A.; Duller, Geoff A. T.; Wang, Hong; Prins, Maarten A.

    2015-12-01

    In comparison to Southwest Asia and the Indian subcontinent, the relationship between Holocene river dynamics, climate change and floodwater farming in Central Asia is significantly under researched. To address this, a multi-disciplinary research project was begun in 2011 centred on the Talgar catchment, a south-bank tributary of the Ili River, southeast Kazakhstan. Building on archaeological excavations and surveys conducted over the past 20 years, we have undertaken investigations of Holocene human adaptations to changing hydromorphic regimes in the Tien Shan piedmont region, Central Asia. Fluvial geochronologies have been reconstructed over the last 20,000 years using Optically Stimulated Luminescence and 14C dating, and are compared with human settlement histories from the Eneolithic to the medieval period. Phases of Late Pleistocene and Holocene river aggradation at c. 17,400-6420, 4130-2880 and 910-500 cal. BC and between the mid-18th and early 20th centuries were coeval with cooler and wetter neoglacial episodes. Entrenchment and floodplain soil development (c. 2880-2490 cal. BC and cal. AD 1300-1640) coincided with warmer and drier conditions. Prior to the modern period, floodwater farming in the Talgar River reached its height in the late Iron Age (400 cal. BC - cal. AD 1) with more than 70 settlement sites and 700 burial mounds. This period of agricultural expansion corresponds to a phase of reduced flooding, river stability and glacier retreat in the Tien Shan Mountains. Late Iron age agriculturists appear to have been opportunistic by exploiting a phase of moderate flows within an alluvial fan environment, which contained a series of partially entrenched distributary channels that could be easily 'engineered' to facilitate floodwater farming. Holocene climate change was therefore not a proximate cause for the development and demise of this relatively short-lived (c. 200 years) period of Iron Age farming. River dynamics in the Tien Shan piedmont are

  19. Twentieth century sea level: an enigma.

    PubMed

    Munk, Walter

    2002-05-14

    Changes in sea level (relative to the moving crust) are associated with changes in ocean volume (mostly thermal expansion) and in ocean mass (melting and continental storage): zeta(t) = zeta(steric)(t) + zeta(eustatic)(t). Recent compilations of global ocean temperatures by Levitus and coworkers are in accord with coupled ocean/atmosphere modeling of greenhouse warming; they yield an increase in 20th century ocean heat content by 2 x 10(23) J (compared to 0.1 x 10(23) J of atmospheric storage), which corresponds to zeta(greenhouse)(2000) = 3 cm. The greenhouse-related rate is accelerating, with a present value zeta(greenhouse)(2000) approximately 6 cm/century. Tide records going back to the 19th century show no measurable acceleration throughout the late 19th and first half of the 20th century; we take zeta(historic) = 18 cm/century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change attributes about 6 cm/century to melting and other eustatic processes, leaving a residual of 12 cm of 20th century rise to be accounted for. The Levitus compilation has virtually foreclosed the attribution of the residual rise to ocean warming (notwithstanding our ignorance of the abyssal and Southern Oceans): the historic rise started too early, has too linear a trend, and is too large. Melting of polar ice sheets at the upper limit of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates could close the gap, but severe limits are imposed by the observed perturbations in Earth rotation. Among possible resolutions of the enigma are: a substantial reduction from traditional estimates (including ours) of 1.5-2 mm/y global sea level rise; a substantial increase in the estimates of 20th century ocean heat storage; and a substantial change in the interpretation of the astronomic record.

  20. 21st Century Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Terrence

    2009-01-01

    Bethpage Union Free School District in New York is a high-performing district by almost any current accountability measure. Yet administrators and teachers worried that they were not doing enough to prepare their students as critical thinkers for the 21st century. Inspired by the curriculum framework of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, the…

  1. MBA: The First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Carter A.

    This book traces the development of the curriculum, the objectives, the popularity, and the reputation of graduate business programs during the 20th century, the first century of the MBA degree. The chapters are: (1) "Getting Started: Before 1910"; (2) "1910-1918: Searching for a Curriculum"; (3) "1919-1922: Explosive Growth, Descriptive Era"; (4)…

  2. Ageing in the United States at the end of the century.

    PubMed

    Bengtson, V L; Mills, T L; Parrott, T M

    1995-12-01

    "The belief that America is a ¿young' nation is widely held by many individuals in the United States. Historically, individualism, self-reliance, and an orientation towards youth have been cherished values reflecting...our national heritage and tradition dating from the 18th through the mid-20th century. However, America is no longer a ¿young' nation. Rather, we are an ¿aging' population, as we show in our analysis of demographic transitions reviewed in this paper. The phenomenon of ¿cultural (or structural) lag' is discussed in two different contexts: first--the context of the aging family; and second--the context of ethnic/racial minority groups. Finally, some of the relevant public policy responses to aging are described. We look at government programs in four major categories, namely, (1) income; (2) health care; (3) social services; and (4) housing."

  3. Comet of the Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaaf, Fred; Ottewell, G.

    The present century has been a disappointing one for comets, but past centuries often featured spectacular, unforgettable comet shows that dominated the night (and even daytime) sky for months: comets that outshone Venus or even the Moon, whose spectacular tails stretched more than halfway across the sky or were weirdly split, and whose apparition was held responsible for everything from wars to unusually good wine vintages. Published to coincide with the first naked-eye appearance of Comet Hale-Bopp, perhaps our own comet of the century, this book is an irresistible guide to comet facts and lore throughout history.

  4. Immanuel Kant, his philosophy and medicine.

    PubMed

    Wiesing, Urban

    2008-06-01

    The article examines the statements made by Immanuel Kant with reference to medicine as well as the impact of his philosophy on medicine. It describes the initial reaction of Kantian philosophy on medicine in the late 18th and early 19th century and its influence in the late 20th century. PMID:17712609

  5. Geochemical and sedimentological evidence of varying intense hurricane activity and precipitation patterns from the Caribbean during the late Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodruff, J. D.; Donnelly, J. P.; Tierney, J.; Scileppi, E.; Giosan, L.

    2005-12-01

    Coastal lagoons are relatively unique systems because they have the potential for recording both marine and terrestrial paleo-climate signals. An analysis of sediment cores collected from a backbarrier lagoon in the Northeastern Caribbean (Laguna Playa Grande, Vieques, Puerto Rico) reveal paleoclimatic records of intense hurricane activity, sea-level elevation, and shifts in regional precipitation and vegetation. Coarse-grain laminae preserved within the 5000 year fine-grained sedimentary record at the site consist of beach and nearshore sediments and provide evidence of past intense hurricane strikes. Sediment ages based on C-14 dating indicate a relatively constant long-term sedimentation rate in the basin appears to be in steady state with sea-level rise. X-ray fluorescences (XRF) analyses of surficial terrestrial and barrier-beach samples show that they are distinct in their elemental composition with terrestrial samples containing high concentrations of Fe, Ti and Mn, while Ca and Sr dominate the composition for samples collected from the barrier beach. XRF scans of cores collected from the lagoon indicate that the observed coarse-grain strata contain high concentrations of Ca and Sr confirming the seaward origin of this material, while fine-grained sediments are high in Fe, Ti and Mn indicating its terrestrial source. A transition from high to low intense hurricane activity occurred at the site approximately 1250 yr BP. XRF results reveal a dramatic increase in the concentration of terrestrial elements (Ti, Fe and Mn) throughout the basin after this 1250 yr BP horizon indicating an abrupt transition from a more arid to a more humid local climate. An additional increase in Ti, Fe and Mn concentrations is observed within sediments deposited in the 18th century A.D. and is most likely associated with anthropogenic land-use changes. The earlier 1250 yr BP transition from low to high precipitation is consistent with records from other sites within the Caribbean

  6. Maidens of Miletos and Newspaper Coverage of Suicide: Examining Late Nineteenth and Late Twentieth Century Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olasky, Marvin N.

    Recognizing that writing suicide stories is hard for reporters, a study examined 1,010 suicide stories from the 1879-1900 era published in 12 newspapers from around the United States to determine how American journalists at other times carried out similar assignments. The newspapers examined were the Atlanta "Constitution," Arkansas "Gazette,"…

  7. News Conference: Take a hold of Hands-on Science Meeting: Prize-winning physics-education talks are a highlight of the DPG spring meeting in Jena Event: Abstracts flow in for ICPE-EPEC 2013 Schools: A new Schools Physics Partnership in Oxfordshire Conference: 18th MPTL is forum for multimedia in education Meeting: Pursuing playful science with Science on Stage Forthcoming events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-03-01

    Conference: Take a hold of Hands-on Science Meeting: Prize-winning physics-education talks are a highlight of the DPG spring meeting in Jena Event: Abstracts flow in for ICPE-EPEC 2013 Schools: A new Schools Physics Partnership in Oxfordshire Conference: 18th MPTL is forum for multimedia in education Meeting: Pursuing playful science with Science on Stage Forthcoming events

  8. What was Glaucoma Called Before the 20th Century?

    PubMed Central

    Leffler, Christopher T.; Schwartz, Stephen G.; Giliberti, Francesca M.; Young, Matthew T.; Bermudez, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma involves a characteristic optic neuropathy, often with elevated intraocular pressure. Before 1850, poor vision with a normal eye appearance, as occurs in primary open-angle glaucoma, was termed amaurosis, gutta serena, or black cataract. Few observers noted palpable hardness of the eye in amaurosis. On the other hand, angle-closure glaucoma can produce a green or gray pupil, and therefore was called, variously, glaucoma (derived from the Greek for glaucous, a nonspecific term connoting blue, green, or light gray) and viriditate oculi. Angle closure, with palpable hardness of the eye, mydriasis, and anterior prominence of the lens, was described in greater detail in the 18th and 19th centuries. The introduction of the ophthalmoscope in 1850 permitted the visualization of the excavated optic neuropathy in eyes with a normal or with a dilated greenish-gray pupil. Physicians developed a better appreciation of the role of intraocular pressure in both conditions, which became subsumed under the rubric “glaucoma”. PMID:26483611

  9. Width of late Quaternary deformation of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden strike-slip fault zone in Haiti and the Jamaica Passage and implications for accumulated stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, P.; Bachhuber, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    The devastating Haiti earthquake of January 12, 2010, is now known to have occurred on multiple rupture planes with most of the seismic energy release along a north-dipping thrust fault located from 0.5 to 15 km north of the main late Quaternary trace of the EPGFZ. Two alternative views of this rupture are that this north-dipping thrust is unrelated to the main trace of the fault - which showed no rupture during the event - or this north-dipping thrust is part of its larger, subsurface “flower zone” of deformation poorly understood because we have no seismic reflection images crossing the EGPFZ in epicentral area of the 2010 earthquake. The significance of distinguishing these two views of fault behavior relates to whether centuries of accumulated stress were not released on the main trace of the EPGFZ (first model) or whether some accumulated stress was released on the low-angle thrust as part of a broad and linked “flower zone” of deformation parallel to the EPGFZ (second model). In this talk we review observations on the width of the EPGFZ deformation to support the latter view that the EPGFZ is in fact a broad zone of deformation commensurate with its tectonic role as a major, active plate boundary fault. Three areas of broad late Quaternary tectonic deformation varying from transpressional to transtensional in structural style are examined using DEM, imagery, surface geologic maps, and aftershock locations. The Cul-de-Sac basin of Haiti is the xx-km-wide, fault bounded alluvial plain upon which the city of Port-au-Prince was constructed in the early 18th century. Merged DEM and geologic map data from the Cul-de-Sac plain show that an en echelon array of large, open folds deforming uplifted and deeply dissected Plio-Pleistocene fans can be traced 3 to 7 km north of the main trace of the EPGFZ. Map studies show that west-northwest-striking, sub-parallel reverse-oblique/strike-slip faults can be mapped transecting the folds at distances of 3 to 5 km north

  10. Nineteenth Century Origins of the Modern Picture Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Ann A.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the origins of the modern children's picture book, describing in particular the contributions of three great children's book illustrators of the late 19th-century (Randolph Caldecott, Walter Crane, and Kate Greenaway), as well as the genius of Beatrix Potter, whose work shows the form recognized today as the children's book. Offers six…

  11. Concerns--High Sea Levels and Temperatures Seen Next Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Paul R.

    1984-01-01

    A National Research Council committee recently concluded that atmospheric carbon dioxide levels will "most likely" double by late in the next century, causing an increase in the earth's average temperature. Effects of the increase on sea levels, global climate, and other parameters are discussed. (JN)

  12. Space Station in the 21st century - A social perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluth, B. J.

    1986-01-01

    A human factors and sociological consideration of Space Station crew facilities and interactions is presented which attempts to place the experiences of astronaut communities in the larger context of late 20th century industrial, economic, and cultural trends. Attention is given to the relationship of Space Station communities to 'Information Society' - related historical developments.

  13. New research themes after a century of rangeland science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rangeland science profession in the United States has its roots in the widespread overgrazing and concurrent severe droughts of the late 19th Century. These drivers contributed to rangeland resource degradation especially in the American Southwest. Experimental stations like those established ea...

  14. A new neuropsychology for the XXI century.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2013-12-01

    Regardless of the significant interest in comparing neuropsychological syndromes across cultures, little interest is observed in comparing these syndromes across time. Most of the neuropsychological syndromes were described during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century (e.g., aphasia, alexia, agraphia, acalculia, etc.). However, living conditions have so dramatically changed during the last 100 years that those classical neuropsychological syndromes have to be re-stated and reconsidered; eventually, new syndromes could be proposed. In this paper, an analysis of the impact of the new living conditions in spoken language, written language, numerical abilities, memory, spatial orientation, people recognition, and executive functions is presented. It is concluded that it is time to re-analyze and re-interpret the classical neuropsychological syndromes; and develop new assessment procedures, more in accordance with the twenty-first century living conditions.

  15. Blackness and Whiteness as Historical Forces in the 20th Century United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greason, Walter

    2009-01-01

    At the core of the epistemology of black identity in the 20th century United States is the assertion that freedom is a human right, not a privilege to be earned. By the late 19th century, an ideology of racial uplift had emerged that revolved around four concepts--compassion, service, education, and a commitment to social and economic justice for…

  16. From Senescence to Senility: The Transformation of Senile Old Age in the Nineteenth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, Carole

    1985-01-01

    Presents a historical perspective on the meaning of senility, representing a significant change in beliefs about the nature of old age. Before the nineteenth century, to be senile meant simply to be old. By the late nineteenth century, old age was assumed to be synonymous with debilitating illness. (JAC)

  17. A Portrait of the PETE Major: Re-Touched for the Early Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullick, Bryan A.; Lux, Karen M.; Belcher, Donald G.; Davies, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    Background: The literature on those who choose to become PE teachers received healthy attention in the late twentieth century but has been largely ignored since. Querying those PETE majors in first decade of the new century enables PETE faculty to have updated and pertinent knowledge of their charges. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to…

  18. Eight sages over five centuries share oxygen's discovery.

    PubMed

    Severinghaus, John W

    2016-09-01

    During the last century, historians have discovered that between the 13th and 18th centuries, at least six sages discovered that the air we breathe contains something that we need and use. Ibn al-Nafis (1213-1288) in Cairo and Michael Servetus (1511-1553) in France accurately described the pulmonary circulation and its effect on blood color. Michael Sendivogius (1566-1636) in Poland called a part of air "the food of life" and identified it as the gas made by heating saltpetre. John Mayow (1641-1679) in Oxford found that one-fifth of air was a special gas he called "spiritus nitro aereus." Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1742-1786) in Uppsala generated a gas he named "fire air" by heating several metal calcs. He asked Lavoisier how it fit the phlogiston theory. Lavoisier never answered. In 1744, Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) in England discovered how to make part of air by heating red calc of mercury. He found it brightened a flame and supported life in a mouse in a sealed bottle. He called it "dephlogisticated air." He published and personally told Lavoisier and other chemists about it. Lavoisier never thanked him. After 9 years of generating and studying its chemistry, he couldn't understand whether it was a new element. He still named it "principe oxigene." He was still not able to disprove phlogiston. Henry Cavendish (1731-1810) made an inflammable gas in 1766. He and Priestley noted that its flame made a dew. Cavendish proved the dew was pure water and published this in 1778, but all scientists called it impossible to make water, an element. In 1783, on June 24th, Lavoisier was urged to try it, and, when water appeared, he realized that water was not an element but a compound of two gases, proving that oxygen was an element. He then demolished phlogiston and began the new chemistry revolution.

  19. Eight sages over five centuries share oxygen's discovery.

    PubMed

    Severinghaus, John W

    2016-09-01

    During the last century, historians have discovered that between the 13th and 18th centuries, at least six sages discovered that the air we breathe contains something that we need and use. Ibn al-Nafis (1213-1288) in Cairo and Michael Servetus (1511-1553) in France accurately described the pulmonary circulation and its effect on blood color. Michael Sendivogius (1566-1636) in Poland called a part of air "the food of life" and identified it as the gas made by heating saltpetre. John Mayow (1641-1679) in Oxford found that one-fifth of air was a special gas he called "spiritus nitro aereus." Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1742-1786) in Uppsala generated a gas he named "fire air" by heating several metal calcs. He asked Lavoisier how it fit the phlogiston theory. Lavoisier never answered. In 1744, Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) in England discovered how to make part of air by heating red calc of mercury. He found it brightened a flame and supported life in a mouse in a sealed bottle. He called it "dephlogisticated air." He published and personally told Lavoisier and other chemists about it. Lavoisier never thanked him. After 9 years of generating and studying its chemistry, he couldn't understand whether it was a new element. He still named it "principe oxigene." He was still not able to disprove phlogiston. Henry Cavendish (1731-1810) made an inflammable gas in 1766. He and Priestley noted that its flame made a dew. Cavendish proved the dew was pure water and published this in 1778, but all scientists called it impossible to make water, an element. In 1783, on June 24th, Lavoisier was urged to try it, and, when water appeared, he realized that water was not an element but a compound of two gases, proving that oxygen was an element. He then demolished phlogiston and began the new chemistry revolution. PMID:27458241

  20. International dimensions of higher education in nursing in Canada: tapping the wisdom of the 20th century while embracing possibilities for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, Linda D; Paul, Pauline; Burgess-Pinto, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    New focus on the internationalization of universities occurred in the late 20th century and higher education in nursing has been quick to embrace the opportunities. In this manuscript, writers provide a brief overview of the nursing and more general literature from the late 20th century relating to key dimensions of internationalization, as well as present data from a survey conducted in 1995-96 of the international activities and dimensions at Canadian faculties/schools of nursing. While it is clear that nurses in Canadian universities were engaged in significant international endeavours in the 20th century, the literature and our experience suggest that the extent of such activity has increased substantially in recent years. Discussion centres on examination of how knowledge generated in the 20th century can inform current internationalization initiatives and on identification of key questions that merit consideration as we move forward in the 21st century.

  1. International dimensions of higher education in nursing in Canada: tapping the wisdom of the 20th century while embracing possibilities for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, Linda D; Paul, Pauline; Burgess-Pinto, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    New focus on the internationalization of universities occurred in the late 20th century and higher education in nursing has been quick to embrace the opportunities. In this manuscript, writers provide a brief overview of the nursing and more general literature from the late 20th century relating to key dimensions of internationalization, as well as present data from a survey conducted in 1995-96 of the international activities and dimensions at Canadian faculties/schools of nursing. While it is clear that nurses in Canadian universities were engaged in significant international endeavours in the 20th century, the literature and our experience suggest that the extent of such activity has increased substantially in recent years. Discussion centres on examination of how knowledge generated in the 20th century can inform current internationalization initiatives and on identification of key questions that merit consideration as we move forward in the 21st century. PMID:17402933

  2. Eighteenth century Yersinia pestis genomes reveal the long-term persistence of an historical plague focus

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Kirsten I; Herbig, Alexander; Sahl, Jason; Waglechner, Nicholas; Fourment, Mathieu; Forrest, Stephen A; Klunk, Jennifer; Schuenemann, Verena J; Poinar, Debi; Kuch, Melanie; Golding, G Brian; Dutour, Olivier; Keim, Paul; Wagner, David M; Holmes, Edward C; Krause, Johannes; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2016-01-01

    The 14th–18th century pandemic of Yersinia pestis caused devastating disease outbreaks in Europe for almost 400 years. The reasons for plague’s persistence and abrupt disappearance in Europe are poorly understood, but could have been due to either the presence of now-extinct plague foci in Europe itself, or successive disease introductions from other locations. Here we present five Y. pestis genomes from one of the last European outbreaks of plague, from 1722 in Marseille, France. The lineage identified has not been found in any extant Y. pestis foci sampled to date, and has its ancestry in strains obtained from victims of the 14th century Black Death. These data suggest the existence of a previously uncharacterized historical plague focus that persisted for at least three centuries. We propose that this disease source may have been responsible for the many resurgences of plague in Europe following the Black Death. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12994.001 PMID:26795402

  3. The Chemical Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, Ralph E.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses present and future problems of producing clean energy. Graphically presents the changing patterns of fuel use in the United States over the past century, and predicts population growth and energy sources and consumption up to the year 2100 for the United States and the world. (JR)

  4. The century for cytopathology.

    PubMed

    Naylor, B

    2000-01-01

    By the end of the 19th century, exfoliated cancer cells had been described in all of the types of specimen in which we find them today. However, it was not until Drs. Papanicolaou and Traut published their account of the diagnosis of uterine cancer from exfoliated cells (1941 and 1943) that cytopathology acquired the momentum to develop into the powerful presence that it has in human medicine today. These and the subsequent publications by Papanicolaou stimulated the development and application of cytopathology worldwide, resulting in abundant literature on the subject and a galaxy of outstanding practitioners. The 1980s saw the development and widespread use of aspiration cytology. This was followed in the 1990s by the development of automated screening systems, marking the latest stage in the evolution of cytopathology. These and other events and achievements in cytopathology, from its meager beginnings in the early 20th century to its worldwide use and acceptance today, mark this century as the "century for cytopathology."

  5. Suidas (tenth century)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Greek encyclopedist. In the course of reading Suidas's Lexicon, EDMOND HALLEY mistakenly connected the naming of the Saros cycle of 223 synodic months by the tenth century Greek lexicographer Suidas with the eclipse cycle of the same period. The solar eclipse cycle is thus now known by the name that Suidas used for another phenomenon. Halley's mistake accounts for the historical confusion that th...

  6. [Discovery of blood cells in the 17th century].

    PubMed

    Doubek, M

    2001-07-01

    Landmark works of the 17th century concerning observations of blood cells are quoted in the article. "Simple" and successively "compound" microscopes made their appearance in the late 16th century and early 17th century. In 1656, Frenchman Pierre Borel, physician-in-ordinary to the King Louis XIV, who first applied the microscope to medicine described a type of "worn" found in human blood. In 1657, Athanasius Kircher, a Jesuit priest and scientist from Germany, examined blood from plague victims, and described "worms" of plague. In 1661, 1664 and 1665, the blood cells were discerned by Marcello Malpighi. In 1678, the red blood corpuscles was described by Jan Swammerdam of Amsterdam, a Dutch naturalist and physician. The first complete account of the red cells was made by Anthony van Leeuwenhoek of Delft in the last quarter of the 17th century.

  7. Johann Gottfried Köhler - inspector at the Mathematical-Physical Salon in Dresden - an active observer of the starry sky in the last quarter of the 18th century (German Title: Johann Gottfried Köhler - Inspektor am Mathematisch-Physikalischen Salon Dresden - aktiver Beobachter des gestirnten Himmels im letzten Viertel des 18. Jahrhunderts )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillinger, Klaus

    In 1777, J. G. Köhler, an academician trained in mathematics and the sciences and with a deep interest in astronomy, was appointed inspector of the Mathematical-Physical Salon. He was lucky to find, in the person of the Saxonian electoral prince and later king, August the Righteous, a ruler who was open-minded to science, and thus he could combine his private interests with those of the sovereign. While the files of the Mathematical-Physical Salon from his time were lost during World War II, his actions can be reconstructed from a few archival sources and notes in the diaries of his successors. The Saxonian residence did not have an astronomical observatory. Köhler used the instruments from the collection of the Mathematical-Physical Salon for numerous celestial observations. He was in close contact with a number of other astronomers like Bode and Zach. They took care of his results, sometimes after editing them. Time determinations based on longitude and latitude determinations, as well as other astronomical observations, led to the development of a time service, which was carried out for about 150 years. Köhler himself constructed the clocks. Because of his responsibilities as an inspector, as well as due to local and material constraints, he was not able to carry out systematic and reproducible measurements over a long time span. His improvement of the circular micrometer and his stop-down photometer are of special interest. He also had considerable talent in drawing, as is shown in his drawings of lunar mountains. A number of instruments used by Köhler are still to be found in the Mathematical-Physical Salon.

  8. Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710) and astronomy in Berlin in the 18th century. Contributions of the colloquium held in Berlin-Treptow on March 6, 2010 (German Title: Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710) und die Berliner Astronomie im 18. Jahrhundert.) Beiträge des Kolloquiums am 6. März 2010 in Berlin-Treptow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Jürgen

    2010-12-01

    The contributions of this volume are dedicated to Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710), the first Berlin astronomer, on the occasion of the 300th anniversary of his death. They deal with the astronomy of his times and developments in later times, which are connected to his work. The papers deal with the following topics: The instrumental equipment of Berlin Observatory at the time of G. Kirch and its modernisation up to around 1780; the instruments of Johann Makob Marioni's Viennese observatory around 1730; the heraldic celestial globe by Kirch's teacher Erhard Weigel. In addition, they deal with Kirch's share in the propagation of ideas of the Enlightenment, and with the Berlin meteorological record and its consequences for the investigation of anthropogenous climatic changes. They also deal with astronomical topics in the exchange of letters between Leonhard Euler and Daniel Bernoulli, and with the Berlin "Astronomisches Jahrbuch", which is based on Kirch's activities, as a biographical source.

  9. Nineteenth century French rose (Rosa sp.) germplasm shows a shift over time from a European to an Asian genetic background.

    PubMed

    Liorzou, Mathilde; Pernet, Alix; Li, Shubin; Chastellier, Annie; Thouroude, Tatiana; Michel, Gilles; Malécot, Valéry; Gaillard, Sylvain; Briée, Céline; Foucher, Fabrice; Oghina-Pavie, Cristiana; Clotault, Jérémy; Grapin, Agnès

    2016-08-01

    Hybridization with introduced genetic resources is commonly practiced in ornamental plant breeding to introgress desired traits. The 19th century was a golden age for rose breeding in France. The objective here was to study the evolution of rose genetic diversity over this period, which included the introduction of Asian genotypes into Europe. A large sample of 1228 garden roses encompassing the conserved diversity cultivated during the 18th and 19th centuries was genotyped with 32 microsatellite primer pairs. Its genetic diversity and structure were clarified. Wide diversity structured in 16 genetic groups was observed. Genetic differentiation was detected between ancient European and Asian accessions, and a temporal shift from a European to an Asian genetic background was observed in cultivated European hybrids during the 19th century. Frequent crosses with Asian roses throughout the 19th century and/or selection for Asiatic traits may have induced this shift. In addition, the consistency of the results with respect to a horticultural classification is discussed. Some horticultural groups, defined according to phenotype and/or knowledge of their pedigree, seem to be genetically more consistent than others, highlighting the difficulty of classifying cultivated plants. Therefore, the horticultural classification is probably more appropriate for commercial purposes rather than genetic relatedness, especially to define preservation and breeding strategies.

  10. Nineteenth century French rose (Rosa sp.) germplasm shows a shift over time from a European to an Asian genetic background

    PubMed Central

    Liorzou, Mathilde; Pernet, Alix; Li, Shubin; Chastellier, Annie; Thouroude, Tatiana; Michel, Gilles; Malécot, Valéry; Gaillard, Sylvain; Briée, Céline; Foucher, Fabrice; Oghina-Pavie, Cristiana; Clotault, Jérémy; Grapin, Agnès

    2016-01-01

    Hybridization with introduced genetic resources is commonly practiced in ornamental plant breeding to introgress desired traits. The 19th century was a golden age for rose breeding in France. The objective here was to study the evolution of rose genetic diversity over this period, which included the introduction of Asian genotypes into Europe. A large sample of 1228 garden roses encompassing the conserved diversity cultivated during the 18th and 19th centuries was genotyped with 32 microsatellite primer pairs. Its genetic diversity and structure were clarified. Wide diversity structured in 16 genetic groups was observed. Genetic differentiation was detected between ancient European and Asian accessions, and a temporal shift from a European to an Asian genetic background was observed in cultivated European hybrids during the 19th century. Frequent crosses with Asian roses throughout the 19th century and/or selection for Asiatic traits may have induced this shift. In addition, the consistency of the results with respect to a horticultural classification is discussed. Some horticultural groups, defined according to phenotype and/or knowledge of their pedigree, seem to be genetically more consistent than others, highlighting the difficulty of classifying cultivated plants. Therefore, the horticultural classification is probably more appropriate for commercial purposes rather than genetic relatedness, especially to define preservation and breeding strategies. PMID:27406785

  11. Identifying 21st Century Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Robert

    2012-01-01

    What are the capabilities necessary to meet 21st century challenges? Much of the literature on 21st century skills focuses on skills necessary to meet those challenges associated with future work in a globalised world. The result is a limited characterisation of those capabilities necessary to address 21st century social, health and particularly…

  12. Hybrids, pure cultures, and pure lines: from nineteenth-century biology to twentieth-century genetics.

    PubMed

    Müller-Wille, Staffan

    2007-12-01

    Prompted by recent recognitions of the omnipresence of horizontal gene transfer among microbial species and the associated emphasis on exchange, rather than isolation, as the driving force of evolution, this essay will reflect on hybridization as one of the central concerns of nineteenth-century biology. I will argue that an emphasis on horizontal exchange was already endorsed by 'biology' when it came into being around 1800 and was brought to full fruition with the emergence of genetics in 1900. The true revolution in nineteenth-century life sciences, I maintain, consisted in a fundamental shift in ontology, which eroded the boundaries between individual and species, and allowed biologists to move up and down the scale of organic complexity. Life became a property extending both 'downwards', to the parts that organisms were composed of, as well as 'upwards', to the collective entities constituted by the relations of exchange and interaction that organisms engage in to reproduce. This mode of thinking was crystallized by Gregor Mendel and consolidated in the late nineteenth-century conjunction of biochemistry, microbiology and breeding in agro-industrial settings. This conjunction and its implications are especially exemplified by Wilhelm Johannsen's and Martinus Beijerinck's work on pure lines and cultures. An understanding of the subsequent constraints imposed by the evolutionary synthesis of the twentieth century on models of genetic systems may require us to rethink the history of biology and displace Darwin's theory of natural selection from that history's centre. PMID:18053934

  13. [From spermatic animalcules to sperm cells: the reconceptualization of generation in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Vienne, Florence

    2009-09-01

    At the end of the 18th and still at the beginning of the 19th century most naturalists considered spermatic animalcules to be parasites of the seminal fluid that played no role in procreation. This view was progressively questioned by 19th century physiologists. They gradually redefined the spermatic animals as (cellular) products of the male organism, as agents of fertilization and bearers of the male heredity material. This article discusses this change from two different perspectives: on a microhistorical level, it analyzes the experimental research of the naturalist Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-1799) and of the physiologist Albert Kölliker (1817-1905) in order to show how spermatozoa were turned into a new epistemic object of biology--the sperm cell. Further, it asks how the role of the reconceptualization of spermatic animalcules affected the long-term transformations that gave rise of our modern understanding of heredity, generation and the sexed body. By combining these two perspectives, the article aims to connect historiographies that are often kept separate: the macrohistorical narratives about gender and the body in the modern age and the microhistorical studies of biomedical practices and objects.

  14. On the development of German beating-reed organ pipes during the 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braasch, Jonas

    2001-05-01

    In the 19th century organ literature, it is often claimed that German organ builders generally adapted the way of building their beating-reed pipes after being influenced by new developments from England and France. To investigate whether this hypothesis is true or false, the reed-pipe sounds of several German historic organs and an English organ by Henry Willis were measured and analyzed. The outcome of the analysis, however, cannot confirm the given hypothesis. Organ builders of the 18th century, such as Gottfried Silbermann for example, were already able to build beating-reed pipes similar in sound to the pipes that are used nowadays in Germany. It is noteworthy that Silbermann used closed shallots in some of his stops, although they are thought to be one of the main inventions in the English and French organ reforms. The use of higher wind pressures, which is also a main part of this reform, on the other hand, never became a common standard in Germany, as was the case for France and Great Britain.

  15. a GIS of SARDINIA'S Coastal Defense System (xvi - XVIII Century)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidda, M.; Musa, C.; Vacca, G.

    2015-06-01

    The use of GIS as a tool for archival, analysis and representation of geographic information has become significantly popular in many scientific fields that are directly concerned with the "territory" as their object of study. The field of application of GIS, however, has expanded also in other areas, such as those related to humanities and architecture, in which the territory is studied in an "indirect" mode because it constitutes a kind of substrate on which to develop a specific spatial analysis for particular purposes. Among these areas are to be included certainly archeology and restoration, fields in which the GIS has become a useful tool for historical studies. In this work we present a GIS developed for the study of the historical and territorial coastal defense system of Sardinia (16th - 18th century), in order to respond to the need to store, analyze and efficiently manage the information regarding cultural heritage and landscape heritage such as that consisting of the coastal defensive towers of Sardinia. This defensive system, in fact, was composed by over 100 towers positioned around the entire coastal perimeter of Sardinia, of which more than 90 still exist today. Their position was planned on the basis of the following criteria: - Warning the neighboring towers about the sighting of enemy ships - Protecting coasts located near the towns - Monitoring the water sources near the coast - Allowing for the full visibility of the coasts of any morphology With this study we also verified, through the use of high resolution and high accuracy DTM (LiDAR) and the topographic databases, whether the positioning criteria specified in the design of the system were respected and effective.

  16. Late-term abortion.

    PubMed

    Epner, J E; Jonas, H S; Seckinger, D L

    1998-08-26

    Recent proposed federal legislation banning certain abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, would modify the US Criminal Code such that physicians performing these procedures would be liable for monetary and statutory damages. Clarification of medical procedures is important because some of the procedures used to induce abortion prior to viability are identical or similar to postviability procedures. This article reviews the scientific and medical information on late-term abortion and late-term abortion techniques and includes data on the prevalence of late-term abortion, abortion-related mortality and morbidity rates, and legal issues regarding fetal viability and the balance of maternal and fetal interests. According to enacted American Medical Association (AMA) policy, the use of appropriate medical terminology is critical in defining late-term abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, which is a variant of but distinct from dilatation and evacuation. The AMA recommends that the intact dilatation and extraction procedure not be used unless alternative procedures pose materially greater risk to the woman and that abortions not be performed in the third trimester except in cases of serious fetal anomalies incompatible with life. Major medical societies are urged to collaborate on clinical guidelines on late-term abortion techniques and circumstances that conform to standards of good medical practice. More research on the advantages and disadvantages of specific abortion procedures would help physicians make informed choices about specific abortion procedures. Expanded ongoing data surveillance systems estimating the prevalence of abortion are also needed. PMID:9728645

  17. Late-term abortion.

    PubMed

    Epner, J E; Jonas, H S; Seckinger, D L

    1998-08-26

    Recent proposed federal legislation banning certain abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, would modify the US Criminal Code such that physicians performing these procedures would be liable for monetary and statutory damages. Clarification of medical procedures is important because some of the procedures used to induce abortion prior to viability are identical or similar to postviability procedures. This article reviews the scientific and medical information on late-term abortion and late-term abortion techniques and includes data on the prevalence of late-term abortion, abortion-related mortality and morbidity rates, and legal issues regarding fetal viability and the balance of maternal and fetal interests. According to enacted American Medical Association (AMA) policy, the use of appropriate medical terminology is critical in defining late-term abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, which is a variant of but distinct from dilatation and evacuation. The AMA recommends that the intact dilatation and extraction procedure not be used unless alternative procedures pose materially greater risk to the woman and that abortions not be performed in the third trimester except in cases of serious fetal anomalies incompatible with life. Major medical societies are urged to collaborate on clinical guidelines on late-term abortion techniques and circumstances that conform to standards of good medical practice. More research on the advantages and disadvantages of specific abortion procedures would help physicians make informed choices about specific abortion procedures. Expanded ongoing data surveillance systems estimating the prevalence of abortion are also needed.

  18. The management century.

    PubMed

    Kiechel, Walter

    2012-11-01

    In 1886, addressing the nascent American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Henry R. Towne proposed that "the management of works" be considered a modern art--thereby heralding the Management Century, when management as we know it came into being and shaped the world in which we work. Kiechel, a past editorial director of Harvard Business Publishing, elucidates the three eras that punctuate this period: the years leading up to World War II, during which scientific exactitude gave wings to a new managerial elite; the early postwar decades, managerialism's apogee of self-confidence and a time when wartime principles of strategy were adapted, sometimes ruthlessly, to the running of companies; and the 1980s to the present, years that saw fast-moving changes, disequilibrium, and a servitude to market forces but also ushered in globalism, unprecedented innovation, and heightened expectations about how workers are to be treated. Along the way he examines the contributions of thinkers such as Frederick Taylor, Elton Mayo, Peter Drucker, and Michael Porter. What lies ahead? Perhaps the biggest challenge facing the 21st-century company, Kiechel posits, is to truly free the spark of human imagination from the organization's tidal pull toward the status quo. There's almost always a better way, he concludes--and management will continue to seek it. PMID:23155998

  19. Educating Students for Their Future Not Our Past: A Challenge for Teachers of Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter

    All have benefited from the industrial revolution which began in the 18th century and saw the gradual replacement of manual labor by machine. In the late 20th century, another revolution has been brought about by the rapid development of increasingly cheap and powerful computer-based technologies. Whereas the industrial revolution occurred through…

  20. How Cruel Were the Spaniards?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engstrand, Iris H. W.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses whether or not the Spaniards were cruel by discussing such issues as the Spanish conquistadors of the 16th century, the presence of the Spaniards in New Mexico and California, the missionaries, and the Spanish naturalists of the late 18th century. Explains that some people protected and helped the Native Americans. (CMK)

  1. The Identity of American Catholic Higher Education: A Historical Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    American Catholic higher education has faced and overcome challenges, both from American higher education and Vatican Church officials, in its long and rich history. Georgetown College's founding in 1789 was the first of several Catholic higher education institutions created in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The 20th century brought the…

  2. Foreword: 18th Aps-Sccm and 24th Airapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Gilbert; Moore, David S.; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2014-05-01

    This second joint conference between the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter and the International Association for the Advancement of High Pressure Science and Technology (AIRAPT) demonstrates that static and dynamic compression of condensed matter continues to be a vibrant field of science and engineering. It is also by its nature an interdisciplinary field, incorporating chemistry, materials science, solid mechanics, plasma physics, and condensed matter physics, and utilizes theoretical, computational, and experimental tools. Recent years have brought about many advances in loading platforms, diagnostics, and computations that are leading to the emergence of many new avenues of research. These advances are also breathing new life into traditional topics such as equations of state, phase transformations, and chemistry at extreme conditions. The plenary lectures by Gennady Kanel, Karl Syassen, David Ceperley, Jon Eggert, Duck Young Kim, and Richard Kraus spanned the disciplines of static and dynamic high pressure physics and illustrated the breadth of the field. They also showed that interesting and important problems remain for researchers of the future to solve. The main guiding principal in the organization of this conference was to intertwine static and dynamical experimental alongside computational and theoretical studies of similar materials. To achieve this goal, we arranged the conference to include static, dynamic, and computational components in the same sessions, quite often taking presenters out of their comfort zone. The three special sessions on Deep Carbon Budget (organized by Giulia Galli and Rus Hemley), High Energy Density Materials (organized by Raymond Jeanloz and Jon Eggert), and Dynamic Response of Materials (organized by Yogendra Gupta and John Sarrao) furthered this guiding principal. We also endeavored to represent the breadth of static and dynamic high pressure science and technology, notably beyond that done at national laboratories. To this end, a significant fraction of the plenary, invited and contributed presentations showcased work done in academia, defense laboratories and industry, as well as internationally. Although travel distance and visa issues always present difficulties, the conference had strong representation from a record number of international participants, including sizable groups from Russia and China (thanks to Tony Zocher and Frank Cherne), as well as Japan, the United Kingdom, France, Canada, Germany, Israel, and Italy. It is our sincere hope that international interactions that occurred at the conference will lead to further collaborations in the future. Finally, we strived to increase student participation at the conference. Through the leadership of Scott Alexander and his committee, a new all-day student symposium was held the day before the main conference, with only student attendees and presenters, in order to acclimate the students to conference participation and help them network with their peers. In cooperation with the APS Topical Group and the AIRAPT and with additional support from DTRA and the AWE, the conference was able to provide financial assistance to a large number of students to attend the conference and present their research. This aid helped increase the number of student attendees significantly over previous conferences. Finally, the conference sponsored a networking lunch for students and representatives from a number of laboratories and other institutions, which was well attended. Seattle proved itself to be an excellent venue for the conference. The international flavor of the city provided ample dining options and numerous activity choices outside of the conference sessions. The major international airport made travel as easy as possible, as Seattle is a convenient central location for attendees from Europe and Asia. The conference was truly a team effort with critical contributions from many individuals. We deeply appreciate their contributions to the success of the conference and the publication of these proceedings. Gilbert (RIP) Collins David S Moore Choong-Shik Yoo

  3. The 18th Annual Condensed Matter Physics Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplin, Don; Hutchinson, Wayne; Yazidjoglou, Nick; Stewart, Glen

    The Handbook contains abstracts of oral and poster presentations covering various aspects of condensed matter physics such as magnetism, superconductivity, semiconductor materials and their properties, as well as the use of nuclear techniques in studies of these materials. 162 contributions have been considered to be in the INIS subject scope and were indexed separately.

  4. The role of biophysical indicators in the reconstruction of long-term late-spring - summer temperatures for the region of Western Hungary and Eastern Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea; Wilson, Rob; Holawe, Franz; Strömmer, Elisabeth; Bariska, István.

    2010-05-01

    We present an almost 500-year May-July temperature reconstruction based on 24 biophysical series. 19 are vine-related series from Kőszeg, Szombathely and Sopron in Western Hungary (11 series, from 1580s onwards), Vienna, Klosterneuburg, Perchtoldsdorf (7 series; at present from 1520s onwards) in Eastern Austria and Bratislava in Western Slovakia (1 series, from 1770s onwards). At present, the first, largest group is the vine related indicators, where dates of blossoming (1 series), beginning of grape ripening (3 series), dates of full ripening (2 series), beginning of grapevine harvest (8 series), starting dates of pressing out the juice (1 series: at present 1520s onwards), starting dates of tax-collection (after the pressed juice: 1 series) and wine quality indices (3 series: from 1580s onwards) are also included. The second main group of 4 indicators applied in the analysis are grain-harvest related indicators from Western Hungary, such as dates for estimation of harvesting-shares which are strongly dependant on the beginning of grain harvesting (at present 2 series: from 1640s onwards) and dates of grain tax collection (2 series: from 1560s onwards). A third group, still in development, is mainly related to more natural vegetation, and is strongly dependent on the full ripening of oak acorns: the starting dates of woodland pasture (at present 1 series: from 1770s onwards). The above-mentioned historical series correlate well, over the 18th-19th century period, with Vienna May-July measured temperature (Böhm, et. al. 2009). The complicated nature of these historical data is described (e.g. with respect to the normality of the data distribution), and we present methods to transform and composite the data into a homogenous, homoscedastic time-series that can be used for proxy based calibration. Finally, a preliminary May-July temperature reconstruction is derived using modified dendrochronological methods. (see Leijonhufvud et al. 2009) The Kőszeg, Szombathely

  5. A Sociological Look at Biofuels: Ethanol in the Early Decades of the Twentieth Century and Lessons for Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carolan, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a broad sociological understanding of why biofuels lost out to leaded gasoline as the fuel par excellence of the twentieth century, while drawing comparisons with biofuels today. It begins by briefly discussing the fuel-scape in the United States in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, examining the farm…

  6. A New Teacher for a New Nation? Teacher Education, "English", and Schooling in Early Twentieth-Century Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Bill; Reid, Jo-Anne

    2012-01-01

    The late nineteenth-century expansion of public schooling in Australia from an initial focus on the elementary phase to post-primary provision, and then to a more systematic secondary education over the early to mid-twentieth century, went hand in hand with the emergence of new populations of children and young people--a new constituency. In turn,…

  7. Human Values and the Market: The Case of Life Insurance and Death in 19th-Century America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelizer, Viviana A.

    1978-01-01

    Explores the development of life insurance programs in the United States during the nineteenth century and traces social attitudes about life insurance from rejection to acceptance. Historical data indicate that life insurance emerged in the late nineteenth century as a form of ritual with which to face death. (Author/DB)

  8. Late Mitochondrial Acquisition, Really?

    PubMed Central

    Degli Esposti, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a timely critique of a recent Nature paper by Pittis and Gabaldón that has suggested a late origin of mitochondria in eukaryote evolution. It shows that the inferred ancestry of many mitochondrial proteins has been incorrectly assigned by Pittis and Gabaldón to bacteria other than the aerobic proteobacteria from which the ancestor of mitochondria originates, thereby questioning the validity of their suggestion that mitochondrial acquisition may be a late event in eukaryote evolution. The analysis and approach presented here may guide future studies to resolve the true ancestry of mitochondria. PMID:27289097

  9. Lateness to School Remediation Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugwuegbulam, Charles N.; Ibrahim, Haj. Naheed

    2015-01-01

    Primary and secondary school in Nigeria encourage punctuality to school yet a good number of the learners came late to school. This is especially true in the case of day students. Learners who come late to school are usually punished in one way or the other yet the lateness to school phenomenon still persist. Lateness to school behaviour affects…

  10. Turning points in twentieth-century American psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Sabshin, M

    1990-10-01

    The author examines four major turning points in twentieth-century American psychiatry, emphasizing the movement during the post-World War II period toward a psychotherapeutic/psychoanalytic approach and the emergence of biological psychiatry, neuroscience, and logical positivism during the 1970s and 1980s. He discusses the impact of Adolf Meyer during the mid-twentieth century and his ongoing influence. The final turning point involves a prediction of a late twentieth-century change, including new directions in nosology, emphasis on combined pharmacotherapeutic/psychotherapeutic treatments, efforts to create alternatives to full inpatient care, better outcome data for psychiatric treatments, and beginning resolution of major boundary problems of current practice. PMID:2205113

  11. From Galvani to patch clamp: the development of electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Verkhratsky, Alexei; Krishtal, O A; Petersen, Ole H

    2006-12-01

    The development of electrophysiology is traced from the early beginnings represented by the work of the Dutch microscopist, Jan Swammerdam, in the 17th century through the first notion of an aqueous transmembrane pore as a substrate of excitability made by Luigi Galvani in late 18th century to the invention late in the 20th century of the patch-clamp technique by Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann.

  12. From Galvani to patch clamp: the development of electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Verkhratsky, Alexei; Krishtal, O A; Petersen, Ole H

    2006-12-01

    The development of electrophysiology is traced from the early beginnings represented by the work of the Dutch microscopist, Jan Swammerdam, in the 17th century through the first notion of an aqueous transmembrane pore as a substrate of excitability made by Luigi Galvani in late 18th century to the invention late in the 20th century of the patch-clamp technique by Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann. PMID:17072639

  13. A century of editors.

    PubMed

    Riley, R W

    1983-07-01

    They are unalike and far apart, these 13 past editors of The Journal. Between Nathan S. Davis's first issue and William R. Barclay's retirement, there was almost a century of change in medicine, society, the American Medical Association, prose style, and editorial needs. During these years, the editors ranged from the brilliant organizers John B. Hamilton and George H. Simmons to the diligent John H. Hollister and the devoted Johnson F. Hammond. There were editors with the hot determination of James C. Culbertson, John H. Talbott, and Robert H. Moser, and there were those with the cool precision of Austin Smith and Hugh H. Hussey. They varied from Morris Fishbein, who wrote and spoke "with the grade of an eagle in its unhindered soar," to Truman W. Miller, who wrote scarcely a word. Here, briefly, they are together.

  14. Physician professionalism for a new century.

    PubMed

    Holsinger, James W; Beaton, Benjamin

    2006-07-01

    During the past 50 years, physicians have become increasingly dissatisfied with certain aspects of their profession. Dissatisfaction has intensified with the advent of managed care in the late 20th century, the medical liability crisis, and the growing divergence between the professional and personal expectations placed upon physicians and their practical ability to meet these expectations. These and other factors have encroached on physician autonomy, the formerly ascendant professional value within medicine. As the underlying values and practical realities of the broader American health care system have changed, the professional values and practices of physicians have failed to adapt correspondingly, resulting in a "professionalism gap" that contributes to physician dissatisfaction. To improve the outlook and efficacy of modern American physicians, the profession must adopt a new values framework that conforms to today's health care system. This means foregoing the 20th century's preferred "independent physician" model in favor of a new professional structure based on teamwork and collaboration. Convincing established physicians to embrace such a model will be difficult, but opportunities exist for significant progress among a new generation of physicians accustomed to the realities of managed care, flexible practice models, and health information technology. The teaching of clinical anatomy, given its incorporation of student collaboration at the earliest stages of medical education, offers a prime opportunity to introduce this generation to a reinvigorated code of professionalism that should reduce physician dissatisfaction and benefit society.

  15. 21st Century Skills Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) has forged alliances with key national organizations representing the core academic subjects, including Social Studies, English, Math, Science, Geography, World Languages and the Arts. These collaborations have resulted in the development of 21st Century Skills Maps that illustrate the essential…

  16. A century of smoke.

    PubMed

    Yach, D; Wipfli, H

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco kills 5 million people annually. By the mid 2020s, that figure will increase to about 10 million a year, with most of the deaths occurring in developing countries. This review explains how early technological and regulatory developments contributed to the epidemic, reveals the efforts of the tobacco industry to conceal its products' harmfulness, and stresses the role of the globalization of trade and marketing as a means of increasing consumption world-wide. The results of tens of thousands of studies published globally over the past 50 years point to an association between smoking and lung cancer and other adverse health effects, and the non-smoker's rights movement has exposed the wide-spread perils of 'secondhand' smoke. Yet, the tobacco industry continues its global expansion, and consumers in low- and middle-income countries are especially susceptible to its marketing tactics. This review ends by emphasising the need for a global public-health response, and identifies the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control as a significant effort. It stresses the need for accelerated action and innovative tobacco-control efforts, if the projected death toll is to be reduced in this century.

  17. The Cosmic Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longair, Malcolm S.

    2006-06-01

    Part I. Stars and Stellar Evolution up to the Second World War: 1. The legacy of the nineteenth century; 2. The classification of stellar spectra; 3. Stellar structure and evolution; 4. The end points of stellar evolution; Part II. The Large-Scale Structure of the Universe, 1900-1939: 5. The Galaxy and the nature of spiral nebulae; 6. The origins of astrophysical cosmology; Part III. The Opening up of the Electromagnetic Spectrum: 7. The opening up of the electromagnetic spectrum and the new astronomies; Part IV. The Astrophysics of Stars and Galaxies since 1945: 8. Stars and stellar evolution; 9. The physics of the interstellar medium; 10. The physics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies; 11. High-energy astrophysics; Part V. Astrophysical Cosmology since 1945: 12. Astrophysical cosmology; 13. The determination of cosmological parameters; 14. The evolution of galaxies and active galaxies with cosmic epoch; 15. The origin of galaxies and the large-scale structure of the Universe; 16. The very early Universe; References; Name index; Object index; Subject index.

  18. The Cosmic Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longair, Malcolm S.

    2013-04-01

    Part I. Stars and Stellar Evolution up to the Second World War: 1. The legacy of the nineteenth century; 2. The classification of stellar spectra; 3. Stellar structure and evolution; 4. The end points of stellar evolution; Part II. The Large-Scale Structure of the Universe, 1900-1939: 5. The Galaxy and the nature of spiral nebulae; 6. The origins of astrophysical cosmology; Part III. The Opening up of the Electromagnetic Spectrum: 7. The opening up of the electromagnetic spectrum and the new astronomies; Part IV. The Astrophysics of Stars and Galaxies since 1945: 8. Stars and stellar evolution; 9. The physics of the interstellar medium; 10. The physics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies; 11. High-energy astrophysics; Part V. Astrophysical Cosmology since 1945: 12. Astrophysical cosmology; 13. The determination of cosmological parameters; 14. The evolution of galaxies and active galaxies with cosmic epoch; 15. The origin of galaxies and the large-scale structure of the Universe; 16. The very early Universe; References; Name index; Object index; Subject index.

  19. Coping – Late Side Effects

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer treatment can cause late side effects that may not show up for months or years after treatment. These late effects may include heart and lung problems, bone loss, eye and hearing changes, lymphedema, and other problems

  20. Sixteenth Century Astronomical Telescopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, P. D.

    2001-12-01

    Ophelia in Shakespeare's Hamlet is named for the ``moist star" which in mythology is the partner of Hamlet's royal Sun. Together the couple seem destined to rule on earth just as their celestial counterparts rule the heavens, but the tragedy is that they are afflicted, just as the Sun and Moon are blemished. In 1.3 Laertes lectures Ophelia on love and chastity, describing first Cytherean phases (crescent to gibbous) and then Lunar craters. Spots mar the Sun (1.1, 3.1). Also reported are Jupiter's Red Spot (3.4) and the resolution of the Milky Way into stars (2.2). These interpretations are well-founded and support the cosmic allegory. Observations must have been made with optical aid, probably the perspective glass of Leonard Digges, father of Thomas Digges. Notably absent from Hamlet is mention of the Galilean moons, owing perhaps to the narrow field-of-view of the telescope. That discovery is later celebrated in Cymbeline, published soon after Galileo's Siderius Nuncius in 1610. In 5.4 of Cymbeline the four ghosts dance ``in imitation of planetary motions" and at Jupiter's behest place a book on the chest of Posthumus Leonatus. His name identifies the Digges father and son as the source of data in Hamlet since Jupiter's moons were discovered after the deaths of Leonard (``leon+hart") and Thomas (the ``lion's whelp"). Lines in 5.4 urge us not to read more into the book than is contained between its covers; this is understandable because Hamlet had already reported the other data in support of heliocentricism and the cosmic model discussed and depicted by Thomas Digges in 1576. I conclude therefore that astronomical telescopy began in England before the last quarter of the sixteenth century.

  1. Late embryogenesis abundant proteins

    PubMed Central

    Olvera-Carrillo, Yadira; Reyes, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins accumulate at the onset of seed desiccation and in response to water deficit in vegetative plant tissues. The typical LEA proteins are highly hydrophilic and intrinsically unstructured. They have been classified in different families, each one showing distinctive conserved motifs. In this manuscript we present and discuss some of the recent findings regarding their role in plant adaptation to water deficit, as well as those concerning to their possible function, and how it can be related to their intrinsic structural flexibility. PMID:21447997

  2. Late Holocene coastal stratigraphy of Sitkinak Island reveals Aleutian-Alaska megathrust earthquakes and tsunamis southwest of Kodiak Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, A. R.; Briggs, R. W.; Kemp, A.; Haeussler, P. J.; Engelhart, S. E.; Dura, T.; Angster, S. J.; Bradley, L.

    2012-12-01

    Uncertainty in earthquake and tsunami prehistory of the Aleutian-Alaska megathrust westward of central Kodiak Island limit assessments of southern Alaska's earthquake hazard and forecasts of potentially damaging tsunamis along much of North America's west coast. Sitkinak Island, one of the Trinity Islands off the southwest tip of Kodiak Island, lies at the western end of the rupture zone of the 1964 Mw9.2 earthquake. Plafker reports that a rancher on the north coast of Sitkinak Island observed ~0.6 m of shoreline uplift immediately following the 1964 earthquake, and the island is now subsiding at about 3 mm/yr (PBO GPS). Although a high tsunami in 1788 caused the relocation of the first Russian settlement on southwestern Kodiak Island, the eastern extent of the megathrust rupture accompanying the tsunami is uncertain. Interpretation of GPS observations from the Shumagin Islands, 380 km southwest of Kodiak Island, suggests an entirely to partially creeping megathrust in that region. Here we report the first stratigraphic evidence of tsunami inundation and land-level change during prehistoric earthquakes west of central Kodiak Island. Beneath tidal and freshwater marshes around a lagoon on the south coast of Sitkinak Island, 27 cores and tidal outcrops reveal the deposits of four to six tsunamis in 2200 years and two to four abrupt changes in lithology that may correspond with coseismic uplift and subsidence over the past millennia. A 2- to 45-mm-thick bed of clean to peaty sand in sequences of tidal sediment and freshwater peat, identified in more than one-half the cores as far inland as 1.5 km, was probably deposited by the 1788 tsunami. A 14C age on Scirpus seeds, double 137Cs peaks at 2 cm and 7 cm depths (Chernobyl and 1963?), a consistent decline in 210Pb values, and our assumption of an exponential compaction rate for freshwater peat, point to a late 18th century age for the sand bed. Initial 14C ages suggest that two similar extensive sandy beds, identified

  3. Avoidance of late abortion.

    PubMed

    1979-11-24

    Induced abortion is now a common procedure in the United States and Britain. Methods for performing induced abortion are reviewed. Menstrual regulation, aspiration with a hand-held syringe and a flexible cannula within 6 weeks of the last period, is not often practiced in Britain. Several developing countries are using this simple technique to advantage. Vacuum aspiration in the 1st 12 weeks of pregnancy is the main method being used everywhere for 1st trimester procedures. Mortality rates with this method are low and, in well-organized clinics with experienced personnel, the rates can be reduced even further. It is agreed that 2nd trimester procedures are more complex, both physically and emotionally. In the last several years, dilatation and evacuation (D&E) has increased in popularity for 2nd trimester procedures. Dilation of the cervix is generally accomplished with laminaria, evacuation of the uterus with forceps, and then suction curettage applied. This procedure has replaced intraamniotic infusion, hysterotomy, and hysterectomy as the most commonly - practiced method, despite its need for special surgical skills and good clinical backup. Follow-up of abortions is difficult. Different long-term effects have been noted with different abortion procedures. Early abortion seems to have only a modest effect, if that. Whether late abortion has long-lasting effects remains open to question. Late abortion should be avoided.

  4. Paleoparasitological results from XVIII century human remains from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Taglioretti, Veronica; Fugassa, Martín Horacio; Dias, Ondemar; Neto, Jandira; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2013-03-01

    Paleoparasitological studies of the Brazilian colonial period are scarce. A paleoparasitological analysis was performed on human remains from the archeological site Praça XV Cemetery in Rio de Janeiro, dating from the early 18th to 19th Centuries. The samples were obtained from the Institute of the Brazilian Archaeology collection, and showed evidence of washing and brushing. Sediments were extracted from sacral foramina by scraping. Sediments from skulls were used as negative paleoparasitological controls. Spontaneous sedimentation method was performed prior to microscopic analysis. The results revealed that 8 of 10 individuals were infected with intestinal helminths and/or protozoa. Eggs of the nematodes Trichuris sp. and Ascaris sp. as well as a single taeniid egg were found. Protozoa cysts suggestive of Entamoeba sp. were also observed. Trichuris sp. was the most frequent and abundant parasite, found in 70% of individuals (26 eggs). The study showed the importance of analysis of sediment from human remains preserved in museum or scientific collections, even those subjected to a curating procedure. The levels of infection revealed here should be considered underestimations. This is the first paleoparasitological study from Rio de Janeiro city for the Brazilian colonial period and the first report of human Taenia sp. in the New World.

  5. The social bases of declining infant mortality: lessons from a nineteenth-century Italian town.

    PubMed

    Hogan, D P; Kertzer, D I

    1987-05-01

    A detailed study of the factors associated with the decline of infant mortality in the town of Casalecchio di Reno, near Bologna, Italy, from 1865-1921 was generated from household tax records, birth and death registers, census data, and a variety of scholarly sources. Infant mortality had been 400/1000 in 17th century, fell to about 250 in the mid 18th, to 186 from 1865-1880, to 100 in 1900, and 75 in 1910. Infant mortality was lower among merchant and sharecropper families who had decent housing, food and water, higher among daily wage workers who lived in filthy crowded apartments on marginal incomes, and much higher among women who worked in emerging textile factories who could not breastfeed and used animal milk (682/1000 in 1903). Results are expressed in terms of probability of an infant death for specific demographic or maternal characteristics. Infant deaths among wage working women began to fall after 1902 when the government regulated child and female labor, requiring post-partum leave and time to breastfeed. The fact that factory workers were literate and urbanized did not help their children survive until they received better water, sewage systems, free medical care, and better housing. Thus, infant mortality varied in subgroups, was not necessarily lower in "modern" urban classes, and its fall depended on direct government intervention.

  6. Luigi Galvani and animal electricity: two centuries after the foundation of electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Piccolino, M

    1997-10-01

    Luigi Galvani and his famous experiments on frogs carried out in the second half of the 18th century belong more to legend than to the history of science. Galvani not only laid the foundations of a new science, electrophysiology, but also opened the way for the invention of the electric battery, and thus for the development of the physical investigations of electricity. However, in spite of the widespread celebration of his work, Galvani's scientific endeavours have been largely misrepresented in the history of science. The scholar of Bologna has a stereotyped image as an 'occasional' scientist, who started his studies by chance, largely ignored the scientific theories of his time and wandered aimlessly in mental elaborations until the physicist of Pavia, Alessandro Volta, entered the field, correctly interpreted Galvani's results and eventually developed the electric battery. With the present understanding of electrical phenomena in excitable membranes, it is now time to reconsider the real matter raised by Galvani's discoveries and by his hypothesis of an intrinsic 'animal electricity', and to make a clearer evaluation of a revolutionary phase of scientific progress.

  7. Treatment of kidney diseases in the thermal springs of Pithecusa during the XVIII Century.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Elisabetta; Ricciardi, Carlo Alberto; Ricciardi, Biagio

    2016-02-01

    The island of Pithecusa (Ischia) is a volcanic island in the Tyrrhenian Sea in the north end of the Gulf of Naples at about 30 kilometers from the same city. Pithecusa is very popular for its hot springs which even the ancients used. This report aims to analyze the renal therapeutic benefits of the Pithacusa thermal mineral spring through a review of two different manuscripts: i) "Di Napoli il seno cratero"(The gulf of Naples) of Domenico Antonio Parrino (1642-1708) and ii) "De' rimedi naturali che sono nell'isola di Pithecusa oggi detta Ischia"(On the natural cures of the island of Pithecusa known today as Ischia)of Giulio Iasolino (1583-1622). These two manuscripts published during the 18th century and both manuscripts highlight the thermal virtues of the thermal springs of Pithecusa. In the past natural remedies were important in the treatment of different diseases including that of thermal springs dating back to ancient Rome. Thermal springs were used to treat spasms, skin diseases, hair loss and various renal ailments. Both manuscripts describe the thermal springs in Ischia and their therapeutic benefits in medical diseases. PMID:26913894

  8. Luigi Galvani and animal electricity: two centuries after the foundation of electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Piccolino, M

    1997-10-01

    Luigi Galvani and his famous experiments on frogs carried out in the second half of the 18th century belong more to legend than to the history of science. Galvani not only laid the foundations of a new science, electrophysiology, but also opened the way for the invention of the electric battery, and thus for the development of the physical investigations of electricity. However, in spite of the widespread celebration of his work, Galvani's scientific endeavours have been largely misrepresented in the history of science. The scholar of Bologna has a stereotyped image as an 'occasional' scientist, who started his studies by chance, largely ignored the scientific theories of his time and wandered aimlessly in mental elaborations until the physicist of Pavia, Alessandro Volta, entered the field, correctly interpreted Galvani's results and eventually developed the electric battery. With the present understanding of electrical phenomena in excitable membranes, it is now time to reconsider the real matter raised by Galvani's discoveries and by his hypothesis of an intrinsic 'animal electricity', and to make a clearer evaluation of a revolutionary phase of scientific progress. PMID:9347609

  9. [Malaria in Pula in the seventies of the 19th century and the epidemic in 1879].

    PubMed

    Cigui, Rino

    2012-01-01

    Malaria played a leading role in the complex Istrian sanitary history. From the beginning of the 18th century, wars, famine, and epidemics depopulated large areas and favoured the spread of the diseases. Socioeconomic structures were also affected, generating a drop in cultivation of the fields, end of drainage works, and later, abandonment of farmed land because of the formation of palustrine stagnant water and decay of traditional sanitary regulations. The dissolution of Benedictine monasteries also played an important role in the spread of malaria. Working on tillage, drainage and cultivation, the Benedictines not only radically changed the Istrian landscape, reducing the impact and spread of infectious diseases but, through a wise land administration, they also succeeded in creating food supplies for famine periods, which were so frequent in the region. Southern Istria and the town of Pula in particular, were the most affected by the disease. Owing to severe famine that hit Istria in 1879, malaria assumed epidemic proportions, causing widespread malnutrition and physiological weakness on the population, which favoured the propagation of infectious agents. PMID:23094841

  10. On the Late Invention of the Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, Kenneth

    2012-03-01

    The invention of the gyroscope is usually attributed to the French physicist Jean-Bernard-Leon Foucault in 1852. He certainly invented the word and also used his gyroscope to demonstrate the rotation of the Earth. However, the gyroscope was actually invented around 1812 by German physicist Johann Bohnenberger who called his device simply the ``machine''. Several others, including American physicist Walter R. Johnson (who called his apparatus the ``rotascope''), independently invented the gyroscope in the 1830's. Each of these devices employed a central object (sphere or disc) that could spin freely on a shaft. This was placed between three independent gimbals, which could also move freely. Bohnenberger's ``machine'' has much the same appearance as an armillary sphere. Such devices had been produced for at least the preceding three centuries. They were used to display the movements of various celestial bodies. However, armillary spheres are only simulations of celestial appearances, not actual demonstrations of physical phenomena. Gimbal systems similar to those found in gyroscopes were used on ships to level oil lamps from at least the sixteenth century and the ideas behind armillary spheres date back at least a millennium before that. So why was the gyroscope invented so late? Some possible reasons will be presented for the long delay between the development of the individual underlying components and the eventual appearance of the gyroscope in its modern form.

  11. Coping with copper: legacy effect of copper on potential activity of soil bacteria following a century of exposure.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Inês; Jacquiod, Samuel; Brejnrod, Asker; Holm, Peter E; Johansen, Anders; Brandt, Kristian K; Priemé, Anders; Sørensen, Søren J

    2016-11-01

    Copper has been intensively used in industry and agriculture since mid-18(th) century and is currently accumulating in soils. We investigated the diversity of potential active bacteria by 16S rRNA gene transcript amplicon sequencing in a temperate grassland soil subjected to century-long exposure to normal (∼15 mg kg(-1)), high (∼450 mg kg(-1)) or extremely high (∼4500 mg kg(-1)) copper levels. Results showed that bioavailable copper had pronounced impacts on the structure of the transcriptionally active bacterial community, overruling other environmental factors (e.g. season and pH). As copper concentration increased, bacterial richness and evenness were negatively impacted, while distinct communities with an enhanced relative abundance of Nitrospira and Acidobacteria members and a lower representation of Verrucomicrobia, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were selected. Our analysis showed the presence of six functional response groups (FRGs), each consisting of bacterial taxa with similar tolerance response to copper. Furthermore, the use of FRGs revealed that specific taxa like the genus Nitrospira and several Acidobacteria groups could accurately predict the copper legacy burden in our system, suggesting a potential promising role as bioindicators of copper contamination in soils. PMID:27543319

  12. [Emancipation of the works of artists with psychiatric illness - Artistic reflections from the twentieth century and the Art Brut].

    PubMed

    Plesznivy, Edit

    2015-01-01

    The study presents the emancipation of the artworks of psychiatric patients through the review of four centuries, focusing on some of the most important medical cultural and art historical stages of the period between the 18th and the 21st century, which is a particularly relevant era in this regard. It touches on the collections linked to psychiatrists and hospitals that were formed primarily on the basis of the researches that were analyzing the connection between creativity and mental illness. After that, the study discusses the ever-changing attitudes and preferences of artists' and major artistic movements towards psychosis and the pictorial world of the psychotic. With great care, it analyses the aesthetic category of the art brut, which is connected to the French painter Jean Dubuffet and was born in the middle of the 1940s, and the relationship between contemporary art and art brut. In connection with some of the most significant art brut collections and exhibitions, the works of a few classical and contemporary art brut artists are also discussed (Adolf Wolfli, Louis Soutter, Aloise Corbaz, August Walla ).

  13. Dendrochronology and late Holocene history of Bering piedmont glacier, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiles, G.C.; Post, A.; Muller, E.H.; Molnia, B.F.

    1999-01-01

    Fluctuations of the piedmont lobe of Bering Glacier and its sublobe Steller Glacier over the past two millennia are reconstructed using 34 radiocarbon dates and tree-ring data from 16 sites across the glaciers' forelands. The general sequence of glacial activity is consistent with well-dated fluctuations of tidewater and land-terminating glaciers elsewhere along the Gulf of Alaska. Extensive forested areas along 25 km of the Bering ice margin were inundated by glacio-lacustrine and glacio-fluvial sediments during a probable ice advance shortly before 500 cal yr A.D. Regrowth of forests followed the retreating ice as early as the 7th century A.D., with frequent interruptions of tree growth due to outwash aggradation. Forests overrun by ice and buried in outwash indicate readvance about 1080 cal yr A.D. Retreat followed, with ice-free conditions maintained along the distal portions of the forefield until the early 17th century after which the ice advanced to within a few kilometers of its outer Neoglacial moraine. Ice reached this position after the mid-17th century and prior to 200 yr ago. Since the early 20th century, glacial retreat has been punctuated by periodic surges. The record from forests overrun by the nonsurging Steller Lobe shows that this western ice margin was advancing by 1250 A.D., reaching near its outer moraine after 1420 cal yr A.D. Since the late 19th century, the lobe has dominantly retreated.

  14. The 8th Century Megadrought Across North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahle, D. W.; Therrell, M. D.; Cleaveland, M. K.; Fye, F. K.; Cook, E. R.; Grissino-Mayer, H. D.; Acuna-Soto, R.

    2002-12-01

    Tree-ring data suggest that the 8th and 16th century megadroughts may have been the most severe and sustained droughts to impact North America in the past 1500 years. The 16th century megadrought may have persisted for up to 40 years, and extended from the tropics to the boreal forest and from the Pacific to Atlantic coasts. Evidence for the 8th century drought is sparse, but tree-ring and lake sediment data indicate that this drought extended from the northern Great Plains, across the southwestern United States, and into central Mexico and the Yucatan peninsula. Tree-ring data from Colorado and New Mexico document severe drought from A.D. 735-765, and may provide accurate and precise dating for the onset of the epic droughts reconstructed during the late first millennium A.D. with sedimentary data from Elk Lake, Minnesota; Moon Lake, South Dakota; La Piscina de Yuriria, Guanajuato; and Lake Chichancanab, Yucatan. If these chronological refinements are correct, then the sedimentary records suggest much greater persistence to the 8th century megadrought than indicated by the very high resolution tree-ring data, and a strong second pulse of prolonged drought late in the first millennium. Analyses of instrumental precipitation and drought indices during the 20th century, along with tree-ring reconstructions of climate in Mexico and the Southwest, indicate that annual and decadal droughts can both simultaneously impact the entire region from New Mexico and Texas down into central Mexico. The intensity and large-scale impact of drought across this region seem to be greatest when La Nina conditions and the low phase of the North Pacific oscillation prevail. The tree-ring dated 8th century megadrought occurred near the decline of the Classic Period civilizations at Teotihuacan in central Mexico and in the Mayan region of the Yucatan. The 8th century megadrought may have interacted with anthropogenic environmental degradation, epidemic disease, and social upheaval to

  15. Rethinking Business Models for 21st Century Higher Education: A European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichy, Jessica; Enström, Rickard

    2015-01-01

    The late 20th century was an era of social, economic, technological, and political change, resulting in significant shifts in the perception of enlightenment, knowledge, and education. The impact of these changes have become quite apparent in higher education where there is now mounting pressure for faculty to deliver high quality education to an…

  16. Circuit Chautauqua: From Rural Education to Popular Entertainment in Early Twentieth Century America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, John Edward

    In 1874, Methodist minister John Vincent began a Sunday school retreat on the shores of Lake Chautauqua, New York, the mission of which was education. Initial offerings such as Bible reading, biblical geography, and public oration were supplemented with general education and entertainment activities. In the late 19th century, the Chautauqua…

  17. The 'range problem' after a century of rangeland science: New research themes for altered landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rangeland science profession in the United States has its roots in the widespread overgrazing and concurrent severe droughts of the late 19th Century. These drivers contributed to rangeland resource degradation especially in the American Southwest—what E. O. Wooton (1908) called "The Range Probl...

  18. Cultural Narratives of Academic Leadership at the Dawn of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langland, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on what's being written about "leadership" at this moment--from the late 90s through the first decade of the 21st century. These narratives have a short shelf life, an appropriate metaphor because, like goods in a produce market, they spoil relatively quickly. And each appears to offer a definitive assessment of…

  19. Why Men Left: Reconsidering the Feminization of Teaching in the Nineteenth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, the author provides a critique of sources relevant to the feminization of teaching in the United States from the mid- to late-nineteenth century. Sources covering topics such as the American Civil War, labor market forces, increasing urbanization, educational reform, and regional differences, and how they affected the feminization…

  20. Collecting among the Menomini: Cultural Assault in Twentieth-Century Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, David R. M.

    2010-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century through the early 1930s a succession of collectors, ethnologists, and other scholars scoured the Menominee Reservation for data and items of material culture, which they presented to the American public through both publication and display. They did this with the cautious aid of Menominees they hired to provide…