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Sample records for late lumen loss

  1. Evolution of angiographic restenosis rate and late lumen loss after intracoronary beta radiation for in-stent restenotic lesions.

    PubMed

    Schiele, Thomas M; Pöllinger, Barbara; Kantlehner, Ralf; Rieber, Johannes; König, Andreas; Seelig, Viktória; Krötz, Florian; Sohn, Hae-Young; Siebert, Uwe; Dühmke, Eckhart; Theisen, Karl; Klauss, Volker

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the time course of angiographic restenosis rate and late loss after successful percutaneous coronary intervention and vascular brachytherapy with beta-irradiation using strontium-90/yttrium-90 in 98 patients who were prospectively enrolled into a quantitative angiographic and clinical follow-up protocol at 6, 12, and 24 months after the index procedure, regardless of their symptom status. Actuarial restenosis rates measured 11.2 +/- 5% at 6 months of follow-up, 24.5 +/- 5% at 12 months, and 28.5 +/- 6% at 24 months, respectively. Late loss of the stent segment during the first 6 months measured 0.38 +/- 0.40 mm (6 to 12 months: 0.25 +/- 0.38 mm; 12 to 24 months: 0.16 +/- 0.32 mm), of the injured segment 0.27 +/- 0.21 mm (6 to 12 months: 0.21 +/- 0.26 mm; 12 to 24 months: 0.13 +/- 0.24 mm), of the irradiated segment 0.18 +/- 0.29 mm (6 to 12 months: 0.19 +/- 0.31 mm; 12 to 24 months: 0.11 +/- 0.27 mm), and of the analysis segment 0.18 +/- 0.36 mm (6 to 12 months: 0.17 +/- 0.29 mm; 12 to 24 months: 0.11 +/- 0.20 mm). Restenosis after angioplasty and beta-irradiation of in-stent restenotic lesions is not complete within 6 months but is sustained with a gradual decrease over 24 months.

  2. Late Double-Barrel Lumen Following Successful CTO-PCI Using the Crossboss Stingray System.

    PubMed

    Roy, James; Rees, David; Ramsay, David; Weaver, James

    2017-02-01

    There remains limited randomized controlled trials on long-term clinical outcomes after chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention (CTO-PCI). New techniques involving dissection of the subintimal space and reentry into the true lumen increase success rates in CTO-PCI. However, their longer-term safety and efficacy remain unknown and poorly studied. We present a case of double-lumen formation seen at 1 year post CTO-PCI using subintimal dissection reentry with late restoration of major side branches.

  3. Lumen Maintenance and Light Loss Factors: Consequences of Current Design Practices for LED's

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, Michael P.

    2013-09-17

    Synopsis: Light loss factors are used to help lighting systems meet quantitative design criteria throughout the life of the installation, but they also influence energy use. As the light sources currently being specified continue to evolve, it is necessary to reevaluate the methods used in calculating light loss factors, as well as carefully consider the consequences of different product performance attributes. Because of the unique operating characteristics of LEDs and lack of a comprehensive lifetime rating—as well as the problematic relationship between lifetime and lumen maintenance—determining an appropriate lamp lumen depreciation (LLD) factor for LED products is difficult. As a result, a unique solution has been advocated: when quantity of light is an important design consideration, the IES recommends using an LLD of not greater than 0.70. This method deviates from the typical practice for conventional sources of using the ratio of mean to initial lumen output, and can misrepresent actual performance, increase energy use, and inhibit comparisons between products. This paper discusses the complications related to LLD and LEDs, compares the performance of conventional and LED products, and examines alternatives to a maximum LLD of 0.70 for LEDs.

  4. Late-onset Visual Loss in Osteopetrosis

    PubMed Central

    Wangai, Abdul-Majid; Waa, Sheila; Wangai, Maryam; Amayo, Erastus; Olunya, Oluoch

    2011-01-01

    Late-onset visual loss is a complication of nerve entrapment and increased intracranial pressure. We hereby describe the first case in Eastern Africa. A 23 year-old lady presented with sudden blindness, headaches and body weakness. She had previously had treatment for multiple unexplained fractures. Findings of optic nerve entrapment explained this blindness. This case highlights the need to have a high index of suspicion in cases of unexplained fractures with late-onset blindness. PMID:22087385

  5. Usual Dose of Simvastatin Does Not Inhibit Plaque Progression and Lumen Loss at the Peri-Stent Reference Segments after Bare-Metal Stent Implantation: A Serial Intravascular Ultrasound Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Young Joon; Choi, Yun Ha; Ma, Eun Hye; Ko, Jum Suk; Lee, Min Goo; Park, Keun Ho; Sim, Doo Sun; Yoon, Nam Sik; Youn, Hyun Ju; Kim, Kye Hun; Park, Hyung Wook; Kim, Ju Han; Ahn, Youngkeun; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Park, Jong Chun; Kang, Jung Chaee

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a usual dose of simvastatin (20 mg/day) on plaque regression and vascular remodeling at the peri-stent reference segments after bare-metal stent implantation. Methods We retrospectively investigated serial intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) findings in 380 peri-stent reference segments (184 proximal and 196 distal to the stent) in 196 patients (simvastatin group, n = 132 vs. non-statin group, n = 64). Quantitative volumetric IVUS analysis was performed in 5-mm vessel segments proximal and distal to the stent. Results IVUS follow-up was performed at a mean of 9.4 months after stenting (range, 5 to 19 months). No significant differences were observed in the changes in mean plaque plus media (P&M) area, mean lumen area, and mean external elastic membrane (EEM) area from post-stenting to follow-up at both proximal and distal edges between the simvastatin and non-statin group. Although lumen loss within the first 3 mm from each stent edge was primarily due to an increase in P&M area rather than a change in EEM area, and lumen loss beyond 3 mm from each stent edge was due to a combination of increased P&M area and decreased EEM area, no significant differences in changes were observed in P&M, EEM, and lumen area at every 1-mm subsegment between the simvastatin and non-statin group. Conclusions A usual dose of simvastatin does not inhibit plaque progression and lumen loss and does not affect vascular remodeling in peri-stent reference segments in patients undergoing bare-metal stent implantation. PMID:21179272

  6. Cortical visual loss in posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in late postpartum eclampsia: case series.

    PubMed

    Karuppannasamy, Divya; Vikrant, K; Raghuram, A; Kumaar, T M Sathish

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of visual disturbances in patients with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) associated with late postpartum eclampsia. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of late postpartum eclampsia patients with features of PRES for the presence of visual disturbances and location of radiological abnormalities. We found a higher prevalence of cortical visual loss in patients with PRES associated with late postpartum eclampsia. Bilateral symmetrical vasogenic edema of the parieto-occipital lobe was the most common magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormality noted. No significant differences were observed in the extent of edema in patients with and without visual loss.

  7. Quality of life and anxiety in pregnancies after late pregnancy loss: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Hunfeld, J A; Agterberg, G; Wladimiroff, J W; Passchier, J

    1996-09-01

    Pregnant women with (n = 24) and without (n = 26) a previous pregnancy loss (> 16 weeks) due to congenital anomalies were compared on quality of life and anxiety. Pregnant women with a previous loss were divided into those with and those without a normal livebirth since the loss [cases+ (n = 6) and cases- (n = 18), respectively]. Psychological measurements were carried out before and after an ultrasound scan in the second trimester of the pregnancy. Women with a previous loss who had not delivered a healthy infant between the loss and the present pregnancy showed a lower quality of life as revealed by feelings of social isolation, negative emotional reactions, and pain than the other groups. In addition, they showed more pregnancy-related anxiety. The negative emotions were particularly present just before the anomaly scan. Feelings of social isolation, negative emotional reactions, pain, and pregnancy-related anxiety were significantly positively related to trait anxiety, irrespective of having experienced late pregnancy loss. The implications of this study are that the referring gynaecologist, physician, or midwife should be aware of the strong emotions and major concerns of women in a pregnancy subsequent to a late pregnancy loss. In addition, they should offer these women the opportunity to express their emotional distress.

  8. Molecular regulation of lumen morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Datta, Anirban; Bryant, David M; Mostov, Keith E

    2011-02-08

    The asymmetric polarization of cells allows specialized functions to be performed at discrete subcellular locales. Spatiotemporal coordination of polarization between groups of cells allowed the evolution of metazoa. For instance, coordinated apical-basal polarization of epithelial and endothelial cells allows transport of nutrients and metabolites across cell barriers and tissue microenvironments. The defining feature of such tissues is the presence of a central, interconnected luminal network. Although tubular networks are present in seemingly different organ systems, such as the kidney, lung, and blood vessels, common underlying principles govern their formation. Recent studies using in vivo and in vitro models of lumen formation have shed new light on the molecular networks regulating this fundamental process. We here discuss progress in understanding common design principles underpinning de novo lumen formation and expansion.

  9. BOREAS: Mass Loss Rate of a Cool, Late-type Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranmer, Steven R.; Saar, Steven H.

    2011-08-01

    The basic mechanisms responsible for producing winds from cool, late-type stars are still largely unknown. We take inspiration from recent progress in understanding solar wind acceleration to develop a physically motivated model of the time-steady mass loss rates of cool main-sequence stars and evolved giants. This model follows the energy flux of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence from a subsurface convection zone to its eventual dissipation and escape through open magnetic flux tubes. We show how Alfven waves and turbulence can produce winds in either a hot corona or a cool extended chromosphere, and we specify the conditions that determine whether or not coronal heating occurs. These models do not utilize arbitrary normalization factors, but instead predict the mass loss rate directly from a star's fundamental properties. We take account of stellar magnetic activity by extending standard age-activity-rotation indicators to include the evolution of the filling factor of strong photospheric magnetic fields. We compared the predicted mass loss rates with observed values for 47 stars and found significantly better agreement than was obtained from the popular scaling laws of Reimers, Schroeder, and Cuntz. The algorithm used to compute cool-star mass loss rates is provided as a self-contained and efficient IDL computer code. We anticipate that the results from this kind of model can be incorporated straightforwardly into stellar evolution calculations and population synthesis techniques.

  10. On the method of lumens

    PubMed Central

    Shera, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Parent and Allen [(2007). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 122, 918–931] introduced the “method of lumens” to compute the plane-wave reflectance in a duct terminated with a nonuniform impedance. The method involves splitting the duct into multiple, fictitious subducts (lumens), solving for the reflectance in each subduct, and then combining the results. The method of lumens has considerable intuitive appeal and is easily implemented in the time domain. Previously applied only in a complex acoustical setting where proper evaluation is difficult (i.e., in a model of the ear canal and tympanic membrane), the method is tested here by using it to compute the reflectance from an area constriction in an infinite lossless duct considered in the long-wavelength limit. Neither the original formulation of the method—shown here to violate energy conservation except when the termination impedance is uniform—nor a reformulation consistent with basic physical constraints yields the correct solution to this textbook problem in acoustics. The results are generalized and the nature of the errors illuminated. PMID:25480060

  11. SPH Simulations of Volatiles Loss from Icy Satellites During a Late Heavy Bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movshovitz, N.; Nimmo, F.; Korycansky, D.; Asphaug, E. I.; Owen, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    The present day ice-to-silicate ratio in satellites of the outer solar system can be used to constrain dynamical models of solar system formation [1]. The reason is that a period of intense impact activity after formation of the planets, implied by some dynamical models [2,3,4], could have resulted in significant mass loss, of ice preferentially, from these satellites. The location of Jovian and Saturnian satellites inside the gravity well of these giant planets implies high impact velocities, perhaps as high as 30 km/s [5]. Combined with small satellite masses, a Late Heavy Bombardment may well lead to a significant fraction of a satellite's mass ejected. In a previous study, Nimmo and Korycansky [1] calculate, using a scaling law for vaporization of ice from craters [6], the total expected ice loss from satellites of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus. They find that many satellites should have lost significant fractions (>10%) of their water ice. As many of these satellites do not appear to be significantly depleted in volatiles, this raises questions about the timing or intensity of a late heavy bombardment. (See also [4]). But this conclusion depends on some key assumptions regarding the distribution of impactor sizes and velocities, and, critically, the expected mass loss during a single impact. Here we compare predictions of impact-driven mass loss using direct hydrodynamical simulations of the relevant impact events, with the scaling law originally developed for cratering by small impactors [6]. The main advantage of this approach is that we can consider impacts between comparably sized bodies, where a cratering scaling law does not strictly apply. Another advantage of a direct hydro simulation is that we can track escaping mass, rather than vapor production. This is most significant for lower velocity impacts, typical of accretion [7,8]. This method should also be less sensitive to the choice of equation of state. To resolve preferential ice loss during impacts

  12. Chronic Aortic Dissection: Stenting of Aortic True Lumen Obliteration with Late Dynamic Variations of Both Lumens

    SciTech Connect

    Nyman, Ulf; Ivancev, Krasnodar; Gottsaeter, Anders; Lindblad, Bengt; Lindh, Mats; Uher, Petr

    1999-03-15

    Percutaneous endovascular techniques were used to treat an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) associated with pancreatic transplantation. A pancreatic transplant superior mesenteric artery-to-superior mesenteric-vein AVF was successfully embolized while flow to the pancreas transplant was preserved. The embolization was aided by the use of Guglielmi detachable coils and a detachable balloon. No complications were encountered. At 23 months follow-up, the patient is doing well with no recurrence.

  13. FUV Spectra of Evolved Late-K and M Stars: Mass Loss Revisited and Stellar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Graham M.

    2002-01-01

    This is the final report for the FUSE Cycle 1 program A100: FUV Spectra of Evolved Late-K and M Stars: Mass Loss revisited and Stellar Activity. Targets alpha TrA (K3 II) and gamma Cru (M3 III) were originally assigned 25 ksec each, to be observed in the medium aperture. Once the in-flight performance and telescope alignment problems were known, the observations were reprogrammed to optimized the scientific return of the program. Alpha TrA was scheduled for 25 ksec observations in both the medium and large apertures. The principle aim of this program was to measure the stellar FUV line and continuum emission, in order to estimate the photoionization radiation field and to determine the level of stellar activity through the fluxes in the collisionally excited high temperature diagnostics: C III 977Angstroms and O VI 1032,1038Angstrom doublet. The medium aperture observations were obtained successfully while the large aperture observations were thought by Johns Hopkins University (JHU)to be lost to satellite problems. There was insufficient signal-to- noise in the medium aperture short wavelength Sic channels to do quantitative science.

  14. Modelling Wheat Growth and Yield Losses from Late Epidemics of Foliar Diseases using Loss of Green Leaf Area per Layer and Pre-anthesis Reserves

    PubMed Central

    Bancal, Marie-Odile; Robert, Corinne; Ney, Bertrand

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Crop protection strategies, based on preventing quantitative crop losses rather than pest outbreaks, are being developed as a promising way to reduce fungicide use. The Bastiaans' model was applied to winter wheat crops (Triticum aestivum) affected by leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) and Septoria tritici blotch (STB; Mycosphaerella graminicola) under a range of crop management conditions. This study examined (a) whether green leaf area per layer accurately accounts for growth loss; and (b) whether from growth loss it is possible to derive yield loss accurately and simply. Methods Over 5 years of field experiments, numerous green leaf area dynamics were analysed during the post-anthesis period on wheat crops using natural aerial epidemics of leaf rust and STB. Key Results When radiation use efficiency (RUE) was derived from bulk green leaf area index (GLAI), RUEbulk was hardly accurate and exhibited large variations among diseased wheat crops, thus extending outside the biological range. In contrast, when RUE was derived from GLAI loss per layer, RUElayer was a more accurate calculation and fell within the biological range. In one situation out of 13, no significant shift in the RUElayer of diseased crops vs. healthy crops was observed. A single linear relationship linked yield to post-anthesis accumulated growth for all treatments. Its slope, not different from 1, suggests that the allocation of post-anthesis photosynthates to grains was not affected by the late occurring diseases under study. The mobilization of pre-anthesis reserves completely accounted for the intercept value. Conclusions The results strongly suggest that a simple model based on green leaf area per layer and pre-anthesis reserves can predict both growth and yield of wheat suffering from late epidemics of foliar diseases over a range of crop practices. It could help in better understanding how crop structure and reserve management contribute to tolerance of wheat genotypes to

  15. Loss of alleles from the distal short arm of chromosome 1 occurs late in melanoma tumor progression

    SciTech Connect

    Dracopoli, N.C.; Harnett, P.; Bale, S.J.; Stanger, B.Z.; Tucker, M.A.; Housman, D.E.; Kefford, R.F. )

    1989-06-01

    The gene for familial malignant melanoma and its precursor lesion, the dysplastic nevus, has been assigned to a region of the distal short arm of chromosome 1, which is frequently involved in karyotypic abnormalities in melanoma cells. The authors have examined loci on chromosome 1p for loss-of-constitutional heterozygosity in 35 melanomas and 21 melanoma cell lines to analyze the role of these abnormalities in melanocyte transformation. Loss-of-heterozygosity at loci on chromosome 1p was identified in 15/35 (43%) melanomas and 11/21 (52%) melanoma cell lines. Analysis of multiple metastases derived from the same patient and of melanoma and lymphoblastoid samples from a family with hereditary melanoma showed that the loss-of-heterozygosity at loci on distal 1p is a late event in tumor progression, rather than the second mutation that would occur if melanoma were due to a cellular recessive mechanism. Comparisons with neuroblastoma and multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN2) suggest that the frequent 1p loss-of-heterozygosity in these malignancies is a common late event of neuroectodermal tumor progression.

  16. Spousal loss and health in late life: moving beyond emotional trauma

    PubMed Central

    Das, Aniruddha

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study queries the linkage of older adults’ spousal loss to multiple dimensions of their health. Methods Data are from the 2005-2006 National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, nationally representative of U.S. adults ages 57-85. Analyses examine associations of spousal loss and time since loss with multiple health dimensions. Results Spousal loss is linked to a system of mental, social, behavioral, and biological issues, consistent with a stress-induced weathering process. Biological problems are more uniformly associated with women’s than men’s loss. While emotional sequelae may partially subside with time, a range of other outcomes remain worse even among individuals a decade or more past loss, than those with current partners. Discussion Older adults’ spousal loss influences multiple dimensions of their health. Gender differences in biological linkages suggest women’s greater physiological vulnerability to this weathering event. Effects of loss are long-term rather than transient, especially with biological conditions. PMID:23271727

  17. Repulsion by Slit and Roundabout prevents Shotgun/E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion during Drosophila heart tube lumen formation.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Martínez, Edgardo; Soplop, Nadine H; Patel, Rajesh; Kramer, Sunita G

    2008-07-28

    During Drosophila melanogaster heart development, a lumen forms between apical surfaces of contralateral cardioblasts (CBs). We show that Slit and its receptor Roundabout (Robo) are required at CB apical domains for lumen formation. Mislocalization of Slit outside the apical domain causes ectopic lumen formation and the mislocalization of cell junction proteins, E-cadherin (E-Cad) and Enabled, without disrupting overall CB cell polarity. Ectopic lumen formation is suppressed in robo mutants, which indicates robo's requirement for this process. Genetic evidence suggests that Robo and Shotgun (Shg)/E-Cad function together in modulating CB adhesion. robo and shg/E-Cad transheterozygotes have lumen defects. In robo loss-of-function or shg/E-Cad gain-of-function embryos, lumen formation is blocked because of inappropriate CB adhesion and an accumulation of E-Cad at the apical membrane. In contrast, shg/E-Cad loss-of-function or robo gain-of-function blocks lumen formation due to a loss of CB adhesion. Our data show that Slit and Robo pathways function in lumen formation as a repulsive signal to antagonize E-Cad-mediated cell adhesion.

  18. Treatment of a Persistent False Lumen with Aneurysm Formation Following Surgical Repair of Type A Dissection

    SciTech Connect

    Jeganathan, Reubendra Kennedy, Peter; MacGowan, Simon

    2007-06-15

    We describe the case of a 68-year-old man who developed aneurysmal dilatation of the proximal descending thoracic aorta 8 years after repair of a type A dissection. The aneurysm was due to an anastomotic leak at the distal end of the previous repair in the ascending aorta with antegrade perfusion of the false lumen. Surgical repair of the anastomotic leak partially obliterated the false lumen and computed tomography scan demonstrated thrombosis in a large proportion of the false lumen aneurysm. Follow-up with surveillance scans showed persistent filling of this aneurysm due to retrograde flow of blood within the false lumen. Coil embolization of the false lumen within the thoracic aorta was performed which successfully thrombosed the aneurysm with a reduction in diameter. Late aneurysm formation may complicate type A dissection repairs during follow-up due to a persistent false lumen, especially if there is an anastomotic leak. This case report describes a strategy to deal with this difficult clinical problem.

  19. Evolved Late-Type Star FUV Spectra: Mass Loss and Fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Graham M.

    2005-01-01

    This proposal was for a detailed analysis of the far ultraviolet (FUV) photoionizing radiation that provides crucial input physics for mass loss studies, e.g., observations of the flux below 10448, allow us to constrain the Ca II/Ca III balance and make significant progress beyond previous optical studies on stellar mass loss and circumstellar photochemistry. Our targets selection provided good spectral-type coverage required to help unravel the Ca II/Ca III balance as the mass-loss rates increase by over three orders of magnitude from K5 III to M5 III. We also explored the relationship between the FUV radiation field and other UV diagnostics to allow us to empirically estimate the FUV radiation field for the vast majority of stars which are too faint to be observed with FUSE, and to improve upon their uncertain mass-loss rates.

  20. Aerial photographs reveal late-20th-century dynamic ice loss in northwestern Greenland.

    PubMed

    Kjær, Kurt H; Khan, Shfaqat A; Korsgaard, Niels J; Wahr, John; Bamber, Jonathan L; Hurkmans, Ruud; van den Broeke, Michiel; Timm, Lars H; Kjeldsen, Kristian K; Bjørk, Anders A; Larsen, Nicolaj K; Jørgensen, Lars Tyge; Færch-Jensen, Anders; Willerslev, Eske

    2012-08-03

    Global warming is predicted to have a profound impact on the Greenland Ice Sheet and its contribution to global sea-level rise. Recent mass loss in the northwest of Greenland has been substantial. Using aerial photographs, we produced digital elevation models and extended the time record of recent observed marginal dynamic thinning back to the mid-1980s. We reveal two independent dynamic ice loss events on the northwestern Greenland Ice Sheet margin: from 1985 to 1993 and 2005 to 2010, which were separated by limited mass changes. Our results suggest that the ice mass changes in this sector were primarily caused by short-lived dynamic ice loss events rather than changes in the surface mass balance. This finding challenges predictions about the future response of the Greenland Ice Sheet to increasing global temperatures.

  1. Psychosocial Adaptations to Dual Sensory Loss in Middle and Late Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Mark; Bally, Scott J.

    2007-01-01

    Concurrent losses of hearing and vision function, or dual sensory loss, affect a large number of individuals of all ages and particularly older adults. Dual sensory loss may present at any age as a result of genetic defect, accident, injury, disease, or environmental insult; however, most persons develop this condition as a result of age-related disease processes that rarely result in total deafness or blindness. This condition has wide-ranging implications for physical and psychological functioning and quality of life. In this article, we review the prevalence and causes of dual impairment and its effects on functioning for both individuals affected and their families. We examine psychosocial coping and adaptation to this condition using biopsychosocial–spiritual and ecological models and discuss various strategies for coping and adaptation. The impact of larger societal forces on psychosocial adaptation is presented, followed by recommendations for how rehabilitation and other professionals can meet the challenge of dual sensory loss that awaits us with the aging of the population. PMID:18003870

  2. Impact-driven ice loss in outer Solar System satellites: Consequences for the Late Heavy Bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmo, F.; Korycansky, D. G.

    2012-05-01

    We use recent hydrodynamical results (Kraus, R.G., Senft, L.G., Stewart, S.S. [2011]. Icarus, 214, 724-738) for the production of water vapor by hypervelocity impacts on ice targets to assess which present-day major satellites of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus would have lost mass due to impact vaporization during an era of massive bombardment similar to the Late Heavy Bombardment in the inner Solar System. Using impactor populations suggested by recent work (Charnoz, S., Morbidelli, A., Dones, L., Salmon, J. [2009]. Icarus, 199, 413-428; Barr, A.C., Canup, R.M. [2010]. Nat. Geosci., 3, 164-167), we find that several satellites would have lost all their HO; we suggest that the most likely resolution of this paradox is that either the LHB delivered ≈10 times less mass to the outer Solar System than predicted by the standard Nice Model, or that the inner satellites formed after the LHB.

  3. Small mammal diversity loss in response to late-Pleistocene climatic change.

    PubMed

    Blois, Jessica L; McGuire, Jenny L; Hadly, Elizabeth A

    2010-06-10

    Communities have been shaped in numerous ways by past climatic change; this process continues today. At the end of the Pleistocene epoch about 11,700 years ago, North American communities were substantially altered by the interplay of two events. The climate shifted from the cold, arid Last Glacial Maximum to the warm, mesic Holocene interglacial, causing many mammal species to shift their geographic distributions substantially. Populations were further stressed as humans arrived on the continent. The resulting megafaunal extinction event, in which 70 of the roughly 220 largest mammals in North America (32%) became extinct, has received much attention. However, responses of small mammals to events at the end of the Pleistocene have been much less studied, despite the sensitivity of these animals to current and future environmental change. Here we examine community changes in small mammals in northern California during the last 'natural' global warming event at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition and show that even though no small mammals in the local community became extinct, species losses and gains, combined with changes in abundance, caused declines in both the evenness and richness of communities. Modern mammalian communities are thus depauperate not only as a result of megafaunal extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene but also because of diversity loss among small mammals. Our results suggest that across future landscapes there will be some unanticipated effects of global change on diversity: restructuring of small mammal communities, significant loss of richness, and perhaps the rising dominance of native 'weedy' species.

  4. The loss of late successional species has a disproportionate impact on terrestrial carbon storage in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, D. J.; McLachlan, J. S.; Rocha, A. V.; Peters, J.; Dawson, A.; Raiho, A.; Blakely, B.; Heilman, K.; Paciorek, C. J.; Read, Q.; Feng, X.; Cogbill, C. V.; Goring, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Annually, terrestrial vegetation absorbs more than 10 times the amount of carbon released by human activities, but the degree to which this contributed to net removal of carbon from the atmosphere depends on how much carbon uptake is allocated to long-lived pools. A significant fraction of carbon taken up by forests is allocated to wood where it is effectively removed from the atmosphere for the duration of the tree's life. In this study we derive forest biomass for the Upper Midwest USA from historical records of tree distribution and size and compare it to published values for old growth forests and also modern forest biomass in the same region. Our estimates of pre-settlement biomass are lower than small scale studies in the published literature. Despite this, we find substantial losses in forest biomass since European settlement, often associated with the loss of large, long lived conifers. The mean life span of tree species in pre-industrial forests was greater than on the modern landscape and that this change is strongly influenced by the loss of long lived, late successional tree species like Tsuga canadensis. Regrowth of forest cleared during the expansion of Europeans across the North American continent had led to net carbon sequestration over the past century. However, because land use change and subsequent land use policies have not permitted the recovery of long lived, late successional species, it is unclear whether pre-industrial forest carbon stocks will recover. Figure: Maps showing the biomass-weighted mean of maximum potential tree lifespan across the study area. The upper panel is pre-settlement forests, with biomass estimates output from an observation informed statistical reconstruction, and the right panel is the same analysis for modern forests.

  5. Rapid Ice Loss at Vatnajokull,Iceland Since Late 1990s Constrained by Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, W.; Amelung, F.; Dixon, T. H.; Wdowinski, S.

    2012-12-01

    Synthetic aperture radar interferometry time series is applied over Vatnajokull, Iceland by using 15 years ERS data. Ice loss at Vatnajokull accelerates since late 1990s especially after 21th century. Clear uplift signal due to ice mass loss is detected. The rebound signal is generally linear and increases a little bit after 2000. The relative annual velocity (GPS station 7485 as reference) is about 12 mm/yr at the ice cap edge, which matches the previous studies using GPS. The standard deviation compared to 11 GPS stations in this area is about 2 mm/yr. A relative-value modeling method ignoring the effect of viscous flow is chosen assuming elastic half space earth. The final ice loss estimation - 83 cm/yr - matches the climatology model with ground observations. Small Baseline Subsets is applied for time series analysis. Orbit error coupling with long wavelength phase trend due to horizontal plate motion is removed based on a second polynomial model. For simplicity, we do not consider atmospheric delay in this area because of no complex topography and small-scale turbulence is eliminated well after long-term average when calculating the annual mean velocity. Some unwrapping error still exits because of low coherence. Other uncertainties can be the basic assumption of ice loss pattern and spatial variation of the elastic parameters. It is the first time we apply InSAR time series for ice mass balance study and provide detailed error and uncertainty analysis. The successful of this application proves InSAR as an option for mass balance study and it is also important for validation of different ice loss estimation techniques.

  6. [Late effects of low-voltage electricity accidents. Rotator cuff tendinitis, hearing loss and neuropsychological dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Veiersted, K B; Goffeng, L O; Tynes, T

    1997-09-30

    This article describes the symptomatology of three patients following electrical accidents. The flow of the current was from hand to hand, voltage was 220/380 V, and duration was at least a few seconds for all patients. The development of symptoms was the same, and may be explained as a thermal effect of electricity on the tissue. Initially the patients experienced transient confusion, followed by stiff muscles after 1 to 3 days, and then pain in the muscle attachments and joints close to path of the current. This pain increased slowly during the first two weeks. Recovery was gradual, but often incomplete. The case notes showed that electrical accidents may be followed by chronic rotator cuff tendinitis. The clinical examination also revealed a hearing loss at about 2,000 Hz and above 4,000 Hz. The neuropsychological testing indicated a diffuse impaired function in only one patient.

  7. Lumen irregularity dominates the relationship between mechanical stress condition, fibrous-cap thickness, and lumen curvature in carotid atherosclerotic plaque.

    PubMed

    Teng, Zhongzhao; Sadat, Umar; Ji, Guangyu; Zhu, Chengcheng; Young, Victoria E; Graves, Martin J; Gillard, Jonathan H

    2011-03-01

    High mechanical stress condition over the fibrous cap (FC) has been widely accepted as a contributor to plaque rupture. The relationships between the stress, lumen curvature, and FC thickness have not been explored in detail. In this study, we investigate lumen irregularity-dependent relationships between mechanical stress conditions, local FC thickness (LT(FC)), and lumen curvature (LC(lumen)). Magnetic resonance imaging slices of carotid plaque from 100 patients with delineated atherosclerotic components were used. Two-dimensional structure-only finite element simulations were performed for the mechanical analysis, and maximum principal stress (stress-P₁) at all integral nodes along the lumen was obtained. LT(FC) and LC(lumen) were computed using the segmented contour. The lumen irregularity (L-δir) was defined as the difference between the largest and the smallest lumen curvature. The results indicated that the relationship between stress-P₁, LT(FC), and LC(lumen) is largely dependent on L-δir. When L-δir ≥ .31 (irregular lumen), stress-P₁ strongly correlated with lumen curvature and had a weak/no correlation with local FC thickness, and in 73.4% of magnetic resonance (MR) slices, the critical stress (maximum of stress-P₁ over the diseased region) was found at the site where the lumen curvature was large. When L-δir ≤ 0.28 (relatively round lumen), stress-P₁ showed a strong correlation with local FC thickness but weak/no correlation with lumen curvature, and in 71.7% of MR slices, the critical stress was located at the site of minimum FC thickness. Using lumen irregularity as a method of identifying vulnerable plaque sites by referring to the lumen shape is a novel and simple method, which can be used for mechanics-based plaque vulnerability assessment.

  8. Longitudinal study of striatal activation to reward and loss anticipation from mid-adolescence into late adolescence/early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lamm, C; Benson, B E; Guyer, A E; Perez-Edgar, K; Fox, N A; Pine, D S; Ernst, M

    2014-08-01

    Adolescent risk-taking behavior has been associated with age-related changes in striatal activation to incentives. Previous cross-sectional studies have shown both increased and decreased striatal activation to incentives for adolescents compared to adults. The monetary incentive delay (MID) task, designed to assess functional brain activation in anticipation of reward, has been used extensively to examine striatal activation in both adult and adolescent populations. The current study used this task with a longitudinal approach across mid-adolescence and late adolescence/early adulthood. Twenty-two participants (13 male) were studied using the MID task at two time-points, once in mid-adolescence (mean age=16.11; SD=1.44) and a second time in late adolescence/early adulthood (mean age=20.14; SD=.67). Results revealed greater striatal activation with increased age in high- compared to low-incentive contexts (incentive magnitude), for gain as well as for loss trials (incentive valence). Results extend cross-sectional findings and show reduced striatal engagement in adolescence compared to adulthood during preparation for action in an incentive context.

  9. Target genes of myostatin loss-of-function in muscles of late bovine fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Cassar-Malek, Isabelle; Passelaigue, Florent; Bernard, Carine; Léger, Jean; Hocquette, Jean-François

    2007-01-01

    Background Myostatin, a muscle-specific member of the Transforming Growth Factor beta family, negatively regulates muscle development. Double-muscled (DM) cattle have a loss-of-function mutation in their myostatin gene responsible for the hypermuscular phenotype. Thus, these animals are a good model for understanding the mechanisms underpinning muscular hypertrophy. In order to identify individual genes or networks that may be myostatin targets, we looked for genes that were differentially expressed between DM and normal (NM) animals (n = 3 per group) in the semitendinosus muscle (hypertrophied in DM animals) at 260 days of fetal development (when the biochemical differentiation of muscle is intensive). A heterologous microarray (human and murine oligonucleotide sequences) of around 6,000 genes expressed in muscle was used. Results Many genes were found to be differentially expressed according to genetic type (some with a more than 5-fold change), and according to the presence of one or two functional myostatin allele(s). They belonged to various functional categories. The genes down-regulated in DM fetuses were mainly those encoding extracellular matrix proteins, slow contractile proteins and ribosomal proteins. The genes up-regulated in DM fetuses were mainly involved in the regulation of transcription, cell cycle/apoptosis, translation or DNA metabolism. These data highlight features indicating that DM muscle is shifted towards a more glycolytic metabolism, and has an altered extracellular matrix composition (e.g. down-regulation of COL1A1 and COL1A2, and up-regulation of COL4A2) and decreased adipocyte differentiation (down-regulation of C1QTNF3). The altered gene expression in the three major muscle compartments (fibers, connective tissue and intramuscular adipose tissue) is consistent with the well-known characteristics of DM cattle. In addition, novel potential targets of the myostatin gene were identified (MB, PLN, troponins, ZFHX1B). Conclusion Thus, the

  10. The importance of being a lumen

    PubMed Central

    Bischel, Lauren L.; Sung, Kyung E.; Jiménez-Torres, José A.; Mader, Brianah; Keely, Patricia J.; Beebe, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in tissue engineering and microtechnology have enabled researchers to more easily generate in vitro tissue models that mimic the tissue geometry and spatial organization found in vivo (e.g., vessel or mammary duct models with tubular structures). However, the widespread adoption of these models for biological studies has been slow, in part due to the lack of direct comparisons between existing 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional cell culture models and new organotypic models that better replicate tissue structure. Using previously developed vessel and mammary duct models with 3-dimensional lumen structures, we have begun to explore this question. In a direct comparison between these next generation organotypic models and more traditional methods, we observed differences in the levels of several secreted growth factors and cytokines. In addition, endothelial vessel geometry profoundly affects the phenotypic behavior of carcinoma cells, suggesting that more traditional in vitro assays may not capture in vivo events. Here, we seek to review and add to the increasing evidence supporting the hypothesis that using cell culture models with more relevant tissue structure influences cell fate and behavior, potentially increasing the relevance of biological findings.—Bischel, L. L., Sung, K. E., Jiménez-Torres, J. A., Mader, B., Keely, P. J., Beebe, D. J. The importance of being a lumen. PMID:25077562

  11. Loss of the RNA-binding protein TACO1 causes late-onset mitochondrial dysfunction in mice

    PubMed Central

    Richman, Tara R.; Spåhr, Henrik; Ermer, Judith A.; Davies, Stefan M. K.; Viola, Helena M.; Bates, Kristyn A.; Papadimitriou, John; Hool, Livia C.; Rodger, Jennifer; Larsson, Nils-Göran; Rackham, Oliver; Filipovska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    The recognition and translation of mammalian mitochondrial mRNAs are poorly understood. To gain further insights into these processes in vivo, we characterized mice with a missense mutation that causes loss of the translational activator of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (TACO1). We report that TACO1 is not required for embryonic survival, although the mutant mice have substantially reduced COXI protein, causing an isolated complex IV deficiency. We show that TACO1 specifically binds the mt-Co1 mRNA and is required for translation of COXI through its association with the mitochondrial ribosome. We determined the atomic structure of TACO1, revealing three domains in the shape of a hook with a tunnel between domains 1 and 3. Mutations in the positively charged domain 1 reduce RNA binding by TACO1. The Taco1 mutant mice develop a late-onset visual impairment, motor dysfunction and cardiac hypertrophy and thus provide a useful model for future treatment trials for mitochondrial disease. PMID:27319982

  12. Alk1 controls arterial endothelial cell migration in lumenized vessels.

    PubMed

    Rochon, Elizabeth R; Menon, Prahlad G; Roman, Beth L

    2016-07-15

    Heterozygous loss of the arterial-specific TGFβ type I receptor, activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1; ACVRL1), causes hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). HHT is characterized by development of fragile, direct connections between arteries and veins, or arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). However, how decreased ALK1 signaling leads to AVMs is unknown. To understand the cellular mis-steps that cause AVMs, we assessed endothelial cell behavior in alk1-deficient zebrafish embryos, which develop cranial AVMs. Our data demonstrate that alk1 loss has no effect on arterial endothelial cell proliferation but alters arterial endothelial cell migration within lumenized vessels. In wild-type embryos, alk1-positive cranial arterial endothelial cells generally migrate towards the heart, against the direction of blood flow, with some cells incorporating into endocardium. In alk1-deficient embryos, migration against flow is dampened and migration in the direction of flow is enhanced. Altered migration results in decreased endothelial cell number in arterial segments proximal to the heart and increased endothelial cell number in arterial segments distal to the heart. We speculate that the consequent increase in distal arterial caliber and hemodynamic load precipitates the flow-dependent development of downstream AVMs.

  13. Understanding the roles of the thylakoid lumen in photosynthesis regulation

    PubMed Central

    Järvi, Sari; Gollan, Peter J.; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2013-01-01

    It has been known for a long time that the thylakoid lumen provides the environment for oxygen evolution, plastocyanin-mediated electron transfer, and photoprotection. More recently lumenal proteins have been revealed to play roles in numerous processes, most often linked with regulating thylakoid biogenesis and the activity and turnover of photosynthetic protein complexes, especially the photosystem II and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase-like complexes. Still, the functions of the majority of lumenal proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana are unknown. Interestingly, while the thylakoid lumen proteome of at least 80 proteins contains several large protein families, individual members of many protein families have highly divergent roles. This is indicative of evolutionary pressure leading to neofunctionalization of lumenal proteins, emphasizing the important role of the thylakoid lumen for photosynthetic electron transfer and ultimately for plant fitness. Furthermore, the involvement of anterograde and retrograde signaling networks that regulate the expression and activity of lumen proteins is increasingly pertinent. Recent studies have also highlighted the importance of thiol/disulfide modulation in controlling the functions of many lumenal proteins and photosynthetic regulation pathways. PMID:24198822

  14. De Novo Donor-Specific HLA Antibodies Developing Early or Late after Transplant Are Associated with the Same Risk of Graft Damage and Loss in Nonsensitized Kidney Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Cioni, Michela; Nocera, Arcangelo; Innocente, Annalisa; Tagliamacco, Augusto; Trivelli, Antonella; Basso, Sabrina; Quartuccio, Giuseppe; Fontana, Iris; Magnasco, Alberto; Drago, Francesca; Gurrado, Antonella; Guido, Ilaria; Compagno, Francesca; Garibotto, Giacomo; Klersy, Catherine; Verrina, Enrico; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco; Cardillo, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    De novo posttransplant donor-specific HLA-antibody (dnDSA) detection is now recognized as a tool to identify patients at risk for antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and graft loss. It is still unclear whether the time interval from transplant to DSA occurrence influences graft damage. Utilizing sera collected longitudinally, we evaluated 114 consecutive primary pediatric kidney recipients grafted between 2002 and 2013 for dnDSA occurrence by Luminex platform. dnDSAs occurred in 39 patients at a median time of 24.6 months. In 15 patients, dnDSAs developed within 1 year (early-onset group), while the other 24 seroconverted after the first posttransplant year (late-onset group). The two groups were comparable when considering patient- and transplant-related factors, as well as DSA biological properties, including C1q and C3d complement-binding ability. Only recipient age at transplant significantly differed in the two cohorts, with younger patients showing earlier dnDSA development. Late AMR was diagnosed in 47% of the early group and in 58% of the late group. Graft loss occurred in 3/15 (20%) and 4/24 (17%) patients in early- and late-onset groups, respectively (p = ns). In our pediatric kidney recipients, dnDSAs predict AMR and graft loss irrespective of the time elapsed between transplantation and antibody occurrence. PMID:28367453

  15. Polarized protein transport and lumen formation during epithelial tissue morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Blasky, Alex J; Mangan, Anthony; Prekeris, Rytis

    2015-01-01

    One of the major challenges in biology is to explain how complex tissues and organs arise from the collective action of individual polarized cells. The best-studied model of this process is the cross talk between individual epithelial cells during their polarization to form the multicellular epithelial lumen during tissue morphogenesis. Multiple mechanisms of apical lumen formation have been proposed. Some epithelial lumens form from preexisting polarized epithelial structures. However, de novo lumen formation from nonpolarized cells has recently emerged as an important driver of epithelial tissue morphogenesis, especially during the formation of small epithelial tubule networks. In this review, we discuss the latest findings regarding the mechanisms and regulation of de novo lumen formation in vitro and in vivo.

  16. Polarized Protein Transport and Lumen Formation During Epithelial Tissue Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Blasky, Alex J.; Mangan, Anthony; Prekeris, Rytis

    2015-01-01

    One of the major challenges in biology is to explain how complex tissues and organs arise from the collective action of individual polarized cells. The best-studied model of this process is the cross talk between individual epithelial cells during their polarization to form the multicellular epithelial lumen during tissue morphogenesis. Multiple mechanisms of apical lumen formation have been proposed. Some epithelial lumens form from preexisting polarized epithelial structures. However, de novo lumen formation from nonpolarized cells has recently emerged as an important driver of epithelial tissue morphogenesis, especially during the formation of small epithelial tubule networks. In this review, we discuss the latest findings regarding the mechanisms and regulation of de novo lumen formation in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26359775

  17. Loss of FANCC function is associated with failure to inhibit late firing replication origins after DNA cross-linking

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, Randall A.; Gingras, Helene; Hockenbery, David M. . E-mail: dhockenb@fhcrc.org

    2007-07-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) cells are abnormally sensitive to DNA cross-linking agents with increased levels of apoptosis and chromosomal instability. Defects in eight FA complementation groups inhibit monoubiquitination of FANCD2, and subsequent recruitment of FANCD2 to DNA damage and S-phase-associated nuclear foci. The specific functional defect in repair or response to DNA damage in FA cells remains unknown. Damage-resistant DNA synthesis is present 2.5-5 h after cross-linker treatment of FANCC, FANCA and FANCD2-deficient cells. Analysis of the size distribution of labeled DNA replication strands revealed that diepoxybutane treatment suppressed labeling of early but not late-firing replicons in FANCC-deficient cells. In contrast, normal responses to ionizing radiation were observed in FANCC-deficient cells. Absence of this late S-phase response in FANCC-deficient cells leads to activation of secondary checkpoint responses.

  18. Long-term outcome of cardiac allograft vasculopathy treated by transmyocardial laser revascularization: early rewards, late losses.

    PubMed

    Mehra, M R; Uber, P A; Prasad, A K; Park, M H; Scott, R L; McFadden, P M; Van Meter, C H

    2000-08-01

    Transmyocardial laser revascularization (TLR) was initially touted as a promising therapeutic alternative for tackling the growing problem of cardiac allograft vasculopathy in late heart transplant survivors. We first described 4- and 8-week observations of application of this surgical technique, in which we professed enthusiasm for TLR in providing symptomatic relief and in reducing ischemic burden. In this report, we present the long-term (24-month) impact of TLR on clinical outcome, channel patency, and recrudescence of ischemic burden. In the long term, surgical TLR provides neither consistent symptomatic improvement nor an ameliorative effect on the natural history of cardiac allograft vasculopathy.

  19. Early and Late Loss of the Cytoskeletal Scaffolding Protein, Ankyrin G Reveals its Role in Maturation and Maintenance of Nodes of Ranvier in Myelinated Axons.

    PubMed

    Saifetiarova, Julia; Taylor, Anna M; Bhat, Manzoor A

    2017-02-01

    The mechanisms that govern node of Ranvier organization, stability and long-term maintenance remain to be fully elucidated. One of the molecular components of the node is the cytoskeletal scaffolding protein, Ankyrin G (AnkG), which interacts with multiple members of the nodal complex. The role of AnkG in nodal organization and maintenance is still not clearly defined, as to whether AnkG functions as an initial nodal organizer or whether it functions as a nodal stabilizer after the nodal complex has been assembled. Using a mouse model system, we report here that perinatal and juvenile neuronal ablation of AnkG has differential consequences on nodal stability. Early loss of AnkG creates immature nodes with abnormal morphology, which undergo accelerated destabilization within a month, resulting in rapid NaV channel and βIV Spectrin loss with reduced effects on Neurofascin 186. On the other hand, late ablation of AnkG from established nodal complexes leads to slow but progressive nodal destabilization over 10 months, primarily affecting βIV Spectrin, followed by NaV channels, with modest impact on Neurofascin 186. We also show that Ankyrin R and βI Spectrin are not sufficient to prevent nodal disorganization after AnkG ablation. Additionally, nodal disorganization in both early and late AnkG mutants is accompanied by axonal pathology and neurological dysfunction. Together, our results suggest that AnkG plays an indispensable role in maturation and long-term stabilization of the newly assembled nodal complex, and that loss of AnkG after nodal stabilization does not lead to rapid nodal disassembly but loss of specific nodal components in a time-dependent manner.

  20. Evaluation of an improved technique for lumen path definition and lumen segmentation of atherosclerotic vessels in CT angiography.

    PubMed

    van Velsen, Evert F S; Niessen, Wiro J; de Weert, Thomas T; de Monyé, Cécile; van der Lugt, Aad; Meijering, Erik; Stokking, Rik

    2007-07-01

    Vessel image analysis is crucial when considering therapeutical options for (cardio-) vascular diseases. Our method, VAMPIRE (Vascular Analysis using Multiscale Paths Inferred from Ridges and Edges), involves two parts: a user defines a start- and endpoint upon which a lumen path is automatically defined, and which is used for initialization; the automatic segmentation of the vessel lumen on computed tomographic angiography (CTA) images. Both parts are based on the detection of vessel-like structures by analyzing intensity, edge, and ridge information. A multi-observer evaluation study was performed to compare VAMPIRE with a conventional method on the CTA data of 15 patients with carotid artery stenosis. In addition to the start- and endpoint, the two radiologists required on average 2.5 (SD: 1.9) additional points to define a lumen path when using the conventional method, and 0.1 (SD: 0.3) when using VAMPIRE. The segmentation results were quantitatively evaluated using Similarity Indices, which were slightly lower between VAMPIRE and the two radiologists (respectively 0.90 and 0.88) compared with the Similarity Index between the radiologists (0.92). The evaluation shows that the improved definition of a lumen path requires minimal user interaction, and that using this path as initialization leads to good automatic lumen segmentation results.

  1. Determinants of loss of mammal species during the Late Quaternary 'megafauna' extinctions: life history and ecology, but not body size.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, C N

    2002-01-01

    Extinctions of megafauna species during the Late Quaternary dramatically reduced the global diversity of mammals. There is intense debate over the causes of these extinctions, especially regarding the extent to which humans were involved. Most previous analyses of this question have focused on chronologies of extinction and on the archaeological evidence for human-megafauna interaction. Here, I take an alternative approach: comparison of the biological traits of extinct species with those of survivors. I use this to demonstrate two general features of the selectivity of Late Quaternary mammal extinctions in Australia, Eurasia, the Americas and Madagascar. First, large size was not directly related to risk of extinction; rather, species with slow reproductive rates were at high risk regardless of their body size. This finding rejects the 'blitzkrieg' model of overkill, in which extinctions were completed during brief intervals of selective hunting of large-bodied prey. Second, species that survived despite having low reproductive rates typically occurred in closed habitats and many were arboreal or nocturnal. Such traits would have reduced their exposure to direct interaction with people. Therefore, although this analysis rejects blitzkrieg as a general scenario for the mammal megafauna extinctions, it is consistent with extinctions being due to interaction with human populations. PMID:12427315

  2. A Novel Asp121Asn Mutation of Myelin Protein Zero Is Associated with Late-Onset Axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease, Hearing Loss and Pupil Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xiaohui; Gu, Weihong; Hao, Ying; Wang, Renbin; Wen, Hong; Sun, Shaojie; Jiao, Jinsong; Fan, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Myelin protein zero (MPZ) is a major component of compact myelin in peripheral nerves. Mutations in MPZ have been associated with different Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMT) phenotypes (CMT1B, CMT2I/J, CMTDI), Dejerine–Sottas syndrome, and congenital hypomyelination neuropathy. Here, we report phenotypic variability in a four-generation Chinese family with the MPZ mutation Asp121Asn. Genetic testing was performed on nine family members and 200 controls. Clinical, electrophysiological and skeletal muscle MRI assessments were available for review in six family members. A novel heterozygous missense mutation, Asp121Asn, was observed in five affected members of the family. Unaffected relatives and 200 normal controls were without the mutation. Four of the affected members of the family displayed late-onset, predominantly axonal sensory and motor neuropathy, pupil abnormalities, and progressive sensorineural hearing loss. One young affected member presented with Argyll–Robertson pupils and diminished deep tendon reflexes in the lower limbs. The MPZ mutation Asp121Asn may be associated with late-onset axonal neuropathy, early onset hearing loss and pupil abnormalities. Our report expands the number and phenotypic spectrum of MPZ mutations. PMID:27774063

  3. The Neutrino Energy Loss of Nuclides by K-shell Continuum State Electron Capture at the Late Stage of Stellar Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J. J.; Lin, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the Weinberg-Salam theory and taken into consideration of the Coulomb effect on electron gas, the neutrino energy loss rates by K-shell continuum state electron capture are discussed for ^{12}C, ^{16}O, ^{20}Ne, ^{24}Mg, ^{28}Si and ^{56}Fe under the condition of complete ionization and at the late stage of stellar evolution. Our results are compared with those of Beaudet, Petrosian and Salpeter (BPS). It is shown that at relatively high temperatures (e.g., {T_9 = 0.1} and {T_9 = 1}, T_9 represents the temperature in units of 10^9 K), our results agree well with BPS's. However, at relatively low temperatures (e.g., {T_9 = 0.01} and {T_9 = 0.001}), the neutrino energy loss rates of BPS for ^{16}O, ^{20}Ne, ^{24}Mg and ^{28}Si are higher than our results by 10˜ 70 times, and even by 2 orders of magnitude for nuclide ^{12}C. Our results may be of great importance in the research of late stellar evolution, especially for the cooling mechanism of white dwarf, during which the nucleus collapsed to the stage with a relatively low temperature and intermediate density.

  4. Staccato/Unc-13-4 controls secretory lysosome-mediated lumen fusion during epithelial tube anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Caviglia, Sara; Brankatschk, Marko; Fischer, Elisabeth J; Eaton, Suzanne; Luschnig, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    A crucial yet ill-defined step during the development of tubular networks, such as the vasculature, is the formation of connections (anastomoses) between pre-existing lumenized tubes. By studying tracheal tube anastomosis in Drosophila melanogaster, we uncovered a key role of secretory lysosome-related organelle (LRO) trafficking in lumen fusion. We identified the conserved calcium-binding protein Unc-13-4/Staccato (Stac) and the GTPase Rab39 as critical regulators of this process. Stac and Rab39 accumulate on dynamic vesicles, which form exclusively in fusion tip cells, move in a dynein-dependent manner, and contain late-endosomal, lysosomal, and SNARE components characteristic of LROs. The GTPase Arl3 is necessary and sufficient for Stac LRO formation and promotes Stac-dependent intracellular fusion of juxtaposed apical plasma membranes, thereby forming a transcellular lumen. Concomitantly, calcium is released locally from ER exit sites and apical membrane-associated calcium increases. We propose that calcium-dependent focused activation of LRO exocytosis restricts lumen fusion to appropriate domains within tip cells.

  5. Reducing nitrogen losses through ammonia volatilization and surface runoff to improve apparent nitrogen recovery of double cropping of late rice using controlled release urea.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengfei; Lu, Jianwei; Hou, Wenfeng; Pan, Yonghui; Wang, Yang; Khan, Muhammad Rizwan; Ren, Tao; Cong, Rihuan; Li, Xiaokun

    2017-03-22

    Controlled release fertilizer can reduce nitrogen losses to the environment while increasing grain yield and improving apparent nitrogen recovery (ANR) of rice. However, few studies have evaluated the comparative efficacy of different polymer-coated urea products on nitrogen (N) losses, ANR, and N uptake of rice. A 2-year field experiment was conducted to compare the effects of three different types of polymer-coated urea fertilizer on nitrogen losses through NH3 volatilization and surface runoff to the environment, ANR, grain yield, and N uptake as compared to conventional urea of rice. Six treatments including (1) control with 0 kg N ha(-1) (CK), (2) basal application of urea (Ub), (3) split application (Us) of urea (50% at transplanting, 25% at tillering, and 25% at panicle stages), (4) CRU-1 (polyurethane-coated urea), (5) CRU-2 (degradable polymer-coated urea), and (6) CRU-3 (water-based polymer-coated urea) all applied at 165 kg N ha(-1). It was found that CRU-2 resulted in the highest grain yield and panicle numbers among the N fertilization treatments in 2013 and 2014. Applying CRU could help increase N uptake in rice, reduce N losses through NH3 volatilization and surface runoff, and hence improve ANR. Its single dose can meet the nutrient demand of the rice plant. Controlled release urea could be adopted as an effective mitigation alternative to retard N losses through NH3 volatilization and surface runoff while improving ANR of double cropping of late rice.

  6. Effects of cumulative stressful and acute variation episodes of farm climate conditions on late embryo/early fetal loss in high producing dairy cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santolaria, Pilar; López-Gatius, Fernando; García-Ispierto, Irina; Bech-Sàbat, Gregori; Angulo, Eduardo; Carretero, Teresa; Sánchez-Nadal, Jóse Antonio; Yániz, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible relationships between farm climate conditions, recorded from day 0 to day 40 post-artificial insemination (AI), and late embryo/early fetal loss in high producing dairy cows. Pregnancy was diagnosed by rectal ultrasonography between 28 and 34 days post-AI. Fetal loss was registered when a further 80- to 86-day diagnosis proved negative. Climate variables such as air temperature and relative humidity (RH) were monitored in the cubicles area for each 30-min period. Temperature-humidity indices (THI); cumulative stressful values and episodes of acute change (defined as the mean daily value 1.2 times higher or lower than the mean daily values of the 10 previous days) of the climate variables were calculated. The data were derived from 759 cows in one herd. A total of 692 pregnancies (91.2%) carried singletons and 67 (8.8%) carried twins. No triplets were recorded. Pregnancy loss was recorded in 6.7% (51/759) of pregnancies: 5.6% (39/692) in single and 17.9% (12/67) in twin pregnancies. Using logistic regression procedures, a one-unit increase in the daily cumulative number of hours for the THI values higher than 85 during days 11-20 of gestation caused a 1.57-fold increase in the pregnancy loss, whereas the likelihood of fetal loss increased by a factor of 1.16 for each additional episode of acute variation for the maximum THI values during gestation days 0-40. THI values higher than 85 and episodes of acute variation for the maximum THI values were only recorded during the warm and cool periods, respectively. The presence of twins led to a 3.98-fold increase in pregnancy loss. In conclusion, our findings show that cumulative stressful and episodes of acute variation of climatic conditions can compromise the success of gestation during both the cool and warm periods of the year. Twin pregnancy was confirmed as a main factor associated with pregnancy loss.

  7. Clinical outcomes, toxicity, and cosmesis in breast cancer patients with close skin spacing treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using multi-lumen/catheter applicators

    PubMed Central

    Akhtari, Mani; Abboud, Mirna; Szeja, Sean; Pino, Ramiro; Lewis, Gary D.; Bass, Barbara L.; Miltenburg, Darlene M.; Butler, E. Brian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using a single-lumen device is associated with better cosmetic outcomes if the spacing between the applicator and skin is > 7 mm. However, there are no reports addressing the late toxicity and clinical outcomes in patients treated with single-entry multi-lumen/catheter applicators who had close skin spacing (7 mm or less). We undertook this study to report clinical outcome, acute and late toxicity as well as cosmesis of early stage breast cancer patients with close skin spacing treated with APBI using multi-lumen or multi-catheter devices. Material and methods This is a retrospective study of all breast cancer patients who had undergone APBI using single-entry multi-lumen/catheter devices in a single institution between 2008 to 2012. The study was limited to those with ≤ 7 mm spacing between the device and skin. Results We identified 37 patients and 38 lesions with skin spacing of ≤ 7 mm. Seven lesions (18%) had spacing of ≤ 3 mm. Median follow-up was 47.5 months. There was one case of ipsilateral breast recurrence and one ipsilateral axillary recurrence. Based on RTOG criteria, 22 treated lesions experienced grade 1 and 9 lesions experienced grade 2 toxicity. Twenty-one lesions experienced late grade 1 toxicity. One patient had to undergo mastectomy due to mastitis. Twenty-four treated breasts showed excellent and 11 had good cosmetic outcome. Overall cosmesis trended towards a significant correlation with skin spacing. However, all patients with ≤ 3 mm skin spacing experienced acute and late toxicities. Conclusions Accelerated partial breast irradiation can be safely performed in patients with skin spacing of ≤ 7 mm using single-entry multi-lumen/catheter applicators with excellent cosmetic outcomes and an acceptable toxicity profile. However, skin spacing of ≤ 3 mm is associated with acute and late toxicity and should be avoided if possible. PMID:28115955

  8. Evaluation framework for carotid bifurcation lumen segmentation and stenosis grading.

    PubMed

    Hameeteman, K; Zuluaga, M A; Freiman, M; Joskowicz, L; Cuisenaire, O; Valencia, L Flórez; Gülsün, M A; Krissian, K; Mille, J; Wong, W C K; Orkisz, M; Tek, H; Hoyos, M Hernández; Benmansour, F; Chung, A C S; Rozie, S; van Gils, M; van den Borne, L; Sosna, J; Berman, P; Cohen, N; Douek, P C; Sánchez, I; Aissat, M; Schaap, M; Metz, C T; Krestin, G P; van der Lugt, A; Niessen, W J; van Walsum, T

    2011-08-01

    This paper describes an evaluation framework that allows a standardized and objective quantitative comparison of carotid artery lumen segmentation and stenosis grading algorithms. We describe the data repository comprising 56 multi-center, multi-vendor CTA datasets, their acquisition, the creation of the reference standard and the evaluation measures. This framework has been introduced at the MICCAI 2009 workshop 3D Segmentation in the Clinic: A Grand Challenge III, and we compare the results of eight teams that participated. These results show that automated segmentation of the vessel lumen is possible with a precision that is comparable to manual annotation. The framework is open for new submissions through the website http://cls2009.bigr.nl.

  9. Distinct roles of cadherin-6 and E-cadherin in tubulogenesis and lumen formation.

    PubMed

    Jia, Liwei; Liu, Fengming; Hansen, Steen H; Ter Beest, Martin B A; Zegers, Mirjam M P

    2011-06-15

    Classic cadherins are important regulators of tissue morphogenesis. The predominant cadherin in epithelial cells, E-cadherin, has been extensively studied because of its critical role in normal epithelial development and carcinogenesis. Epithelial cells may also coexpress other cadherins, but their roles are less clear. The Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line has been a popular mammalian model to investigate the role of E-cadherin in epithelial polarization and tubulogenesis. However, MDCK cells also express relatively high levels of cadherin-6, and it is unclear whether the functions of this cadherin are redundant to those of E-cadherin. We investigate the specific roles of both cadherins using a knockdown approach. Although we find that both cadherins are able to form adherens junctions at the basolateral surface, we show that they have specific and mutually exclusive roles in epithelial morphogenesis. Specifically, we find that cadherin-6 functions as an inhibitor of tubulogenesis, whereas E-cadherin is required for lumen formation. Ablation of cadherin-6 leads to the spontaneous formation of tubules, which depends on increased phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity. In contrast, loss of E-cadherin inhibits lumen formation by a mechanism independent of PI3K.

  10. Dynamic control of protein diffusion within the granal thylakoid lumen

    PubMed Central

    Kirchhoff, Helmut; Hall, Chris; Wood, Magnus; Herbstová, Miroslava; Tsabari, Onie; Nevo, Reinat; Charuvi, Dana; Shimoni, Eyal; Reich, Ziv

    2011-01-01

    The machinery that conducts the light-driven reactions of oxygenic photosynthesis is hosted within specialized paired membranes called thylakoids. In higher plants, the thylakoids are segregated into two morphological and functional domains called grana and stroma lamellae. A large fraction of the luminal volume of the granal thylakoids is occupied by the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II. Electron microscopy data we obtained on dark- and light-adapted Arabidopsis thylakoids indicate that the granal thylakoid lumen significantly expands in the light. Models generated for the organization of the oxygen-evolving complex within the granal lumen predict that the light-induced expansion greatly alleviates restrictions imposed on protein diffusion in this compartment in the dark. Experiments monitoring the redox kinetics of the luminal electron carrier plastocyanin support this prediction. The impact of the increase in protein mobility within the granal luminal compartment in the light on photosynthetic electron transport rates and processes associated with the repair of photodamaged photosystem II complexes is discussed. PMID:22128333

  11. Dynamic control of protein diffusion within the granal thylakoid lumen.

    PubMed

    Kirchhoff, Helmut; Hall, Chris; Wood, Magnus; Herbstová, Miroslava; Tsabari, Onie; Nevo, Reinat; Charuvi, Dana; Shimoni, Eyal; Reich, Ziv

    2011-12-13

    The machinery that conducts the light-driven reactions of oxygenic photosynthesis is hosted within specialized paired membranes called thylakoids. In higher plants, the thylakoids are segregated into two morphological and functional domains called grana and stroma lamellae. A large fraction of the luminal volume of the granal thylakoids is occupied by the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II. Electron microscopy data we obtained on dark- and light-adapted Arabidopsis thylakoids indicate that the granal thylakoid lumen significantly expands in the light. Models generated for the organization of the oxygen-evolving complex within the granal lumen predict that the light-induced expansion greatly alleviates restrictions imposed on protein diffusion in this compartment in the dark. Experiments monitoring the redox kinetics of the luminal electron carrier plastocyanin support this prediction. The impact of the increase in protein mobility within the granal luminal compartment in the light on photosynthetic electron transport rates and processes associated with the repair of photodamaged photosystem II complexes is discussed.

  12. Lumenal protein within secretory granules affects fusion pore expansion.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Annita Ngatchou; Anantharam, Arun; Bittner, Mary A; Axelrod, Daniel; Holz, Ronald W

    2014-07-01

    It is often assumed that upon fusion of the secretory granule membrane with the plasma membrane, lumenal contents are rapidly discharged and dispersed into the extracellular medium. Although this is the case for low-molecular-weight neurotransmitters and some proteins, there are numerous examples of the dispersal of a protein being delayed for many seconds after fusion. We have investigated the role of fusion-pore expansion in determining the contrasting discharge rates of fluorescent-tagged neuropeptide-Y (NPY) (within 200 ms) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) (over many seconds) in adrenal chromaffin cells. The endogenous proteins are expressed in separate chromaffin cell subpopulations. Fusion pore expansion was measured by two independent methods, orientation of a fluorescent probe within the plasma membrane using polarized total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and amperometry of released catecholamine. Together, they probe the continuum of the fusion-pore duration, from milliseconds to many seconds after fusion. Polarized total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy revealed that 71% of the fusion events of tPA-cer-containing granules maintained curvature for >10 s, with approximately half of the structures likely connected to the plasma membrane by a short narrow neck. Such events were not commonly observed upon fusion of NPY-cer-containing granules. Amperometry revealed that the expression of tPA-green fluorescent protein (GFP) prolonged the duration of the prespike foot ∼2.5-fold compared to NPY-GFP-expressing cells and nontransfected cells, indicating that expansion of the initial fusion pore in tPA granules was delayed. The t1/2 of the main catecholamine spike was also increased, consistent with a prolonged delay of fusion-pore expansion. tPA added extracellularly bound to the lumenal surface of fused granules. We propose that tPA within the granule lumen controls its own discharge. Its intrinsic biochemistry determines not only

  13. Vascular access for extracorporeal circulation. Resistance in double lumen cannulas.

    PubMed

    Stroud, C C; Meyer, S L; Bawkon, M C; Smith, H G; Klein, M D

    1991-01-01

    Double lumen catheters (DLCs) currently are being used for vascular access with extracorporeal circulation. Blood flow studies were done on various DLCs connected to a circuit made of polyvinyl chloride tubing. Sheep's blood was used with all catheters at flows of 200 and 400 ml/min. The inlet and outlet pressures were measured and resistances calculated. Modified versions of the Shiley and Kendall catheters, also were tested. In both catheters, resistance was reduced with the use of perfusion adaptors. Flow through catheters, with a diameter that exceeded the Luer fitting dimension, was compromised. The modified Shiley and unmodified Kendall catheters had the lowest resistance to flow, and they thus are best suited for extracorporeal circulation.

  14. Fast Computation of Hemodynamic Sensitivity to Lumen Segmentation Uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, Sethuraman; Grady, Leo; Taylor, Charles A

    2015-12-01

    Patient-specific blood flow modeling combining imaging data and computational fluid dynamics can aid in the assessment of coronary artery disease. Accurate coronary segmentation and realistic physiologic modeling of boundary conditions are important steps to ensure a high diagnostic performance. Segmentation of the coronary arteries can be constructed by a combination of automated algorithms with human review and editing. However, blood pressure and flow are not impacted equally by different local sections of the coronary artery tree. Focusing human review and editing towards regions that will most affect the subsequent simulations can significantly accelerate the review process. We define geometric sensitivity as the standard deviation in hemodynamics-derived metrics due to uncertainty in lumen segmentation. We develop a machine learning framework for estimating the geometric sensitivity in real time. Features used include geometric and clinical variables, and reduced-order models. We develop an anisotropic kernel regression method for assessment of lumen narrowing score, which is used as a feature in the machine learning algorithm. A multi-resolution sensitivity algorithm is introduced to hierarchically refine regions of high sensitivity so that we can quantify sensitivities to a desired spatial resolution. We show that the mean absolute error of the machine learning algorithm compared to 3D simulations is less than 0.01. We further demonstrate that sensitivity is not predicted simply by anatomic reduction but also encodes information about hemodynamics which in turn depends on downstream boundary conditions. This sensitivity approach can be extended to other systems such as cerebral flow, electro-mechanical simulations, etc.

  15. Coping – Late Side Effects

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer treatment can cause late side effects that may not show up for months or years after treatment. These late effects may include heart and lung problems, bone loss, eye and hearing changes, lymphedema, and other problems

  16. Radial intensity projection for lumen: application to CT angiographic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokubun, Hiroto; Miyazaki, Osamu; Hayashi, Hiromitsu

    2006-03-01

    For the diagnosis of lumen, such as plaque in the coronary and polyp in the colon, it is important to create the cross sectional image of tubular organ on the basis of luminal centerline (i.e., Curved Planar Reformation: CPR). However, since each CPR image has the only limited angle information, it may overlook objects of diagnostic importance. To overcome this limitation and improve diagnostic accuracy we have developed a method called Radial Intensity Projection for lumen (RIP) to create an image based on luminal centerline that integrates all directional information. RIP is executed as follows. At first image processing is performed on array of pixel in the orthogonal direction to a luminal centerline. Secondly, this image processing is performed repeatedly in the angle direction along a luminal centerline. Finally, RIP image, which incorporates all directional information based on luminal centerline, is created. In addition to developing the RIP method for the diagnosis of soft plaque, which is considered as one of the main causes of myocardial infarction, we have also developed the profile step imaging method (PSI). This is an algorithm for visualizing a level gradient point in the radial direction, paying attention to the fact that the gradient approaches zero at the region of soft plaque. We applied RIP method to the clinical image data of a coronary angiography, which has been scanned with the multi slice CT scanner. Using RIP method, it is possible to check the existence of calcified plaque present in the surrounding of a vessel wall without changing the view angle. We have also applied PSI method to the clinical image of a coronary angiography with a soft plaque. The PSI image overlaid on RIP image enables us to verify the high possibility of existing soft plaque. Moreover, the perspectively mapped RIP image to a half pipe object allows us to grasp the orientation of plaque more easily. RIP method is also effective for extended organs, such as peripheral

  17. Development of a Double Lumen Cannula for a Percutaneous RVAD

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongfang; Jones, Cameron; Ballard-Croft, Cherry; Zhao, Ju; Zhao, Guangfeng; Topaz, Stephen; Zwischenberger, Joseph B.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives were to design/fabricate a double lumen cannula (DLC) for a percutaneous RVAD (pRVAD), and to test the feasibility/performance of this pRVAD system. A 27 Fr DLC prototype was made and tested in 6 adult sheep. The pRVAD DLC was inserted into the right jugular vein, advanced through the superior vena cava (SVC)-right atrium (RA)-right ventricle (RV), and ended in the pulmonary artery (PA). A CentriMag pump and optional gas exchanger were connected to the DLC. Blood was withdrawn from RA, pumped through gas exchanger, and perfused PA. Maximal pumping flow was maintained for 2 hours. The pRVAD DLC was successfully deployed in all 6 sheep. In first 3 sheep, maximal average pumping flow was below 3 l/min because the DLC was advanced too far with drainage opening against RA side wall. In last 3 sheep with well positioned DLC, average maximal flow was above 3.5 l/min. The gas exchanger provided up to 230 ml/min CO2 removal and 174 ml/min O2 transfer. Our DLC-based pRVAD system is feasible for percutaneous right heart and respiratory assistance through a single cannulation. The pRVAD DLC can easily be placed prophylactically during LVAD implantation and removed as needed without additional open chest procedures. PMID:25851314

  18. Esophagogastric junction distensibility assessed using the functional lumen imaging probe

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Joan W; Rubenstein, Joel H

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess reference values in the literature for esophageal distensibility and cross-sectional area in healthy and diseased subjects measured by the functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP). METHODS Systematic search and review of articles in Medline and Embase pertaining to the use of FLIP in the esophagus was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Cross-sectional area and distensibility at the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) were abstracted for normal subjects, achalasia, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients, stratified by balloon length and volume of inflation. RESULTS Six achalasia studies (n = 154), 3 GERD (n = 52), and 5 studies including healthy controls (n = 98) were included in the systematic review. Normative data varied widely amongst studies of healthy volunteers. In contrast, studies in achalasia patients uniformly demonstrated low point estimates in distensibility ≤ 1.6 mm2/mmHg prior to treatment that increased to ≥ 3.4 mm2/mmHg following treatment at 40mL bag volume. In GERD patients, distensibility fell to the range of untreated achalasia (≤ 2.85 mm2/mmHg) following fundoplication. CONCLUSION FLIP may be a useful tool in assessment of treatment efficacy in achalasia. The drastic drop in EGJ distensibility after fundoplication suggests that FLIP measurements need to be interpreted in the context of esophageal body motility and highlights the importance of pre-operative screening for dysmotility. Future studies using standardized FLIP protocol and balloon size are needed. PMID:28275309

  19. [Bronchial injury due to double-lumen endobronchial tube].

    PubMed

    Nagahiro, I; Miyamoto, M; Sugiyama, H; Nouso, H; Kawai, T; Toda, K; Nobuhisa, T; Endo, Y; Watanabe, T; Matsumoto, Y; Kai, K; Sato, S

    2011-05-01

    A 68-years-old and 148 cm tall female with lung cancer was operated on a left lower lobectomy via posterolateral thoracotomy. A 35 Fr double-lumen endobronchial tube was smoothly inserted and the tip was placed in the left main bronchus whose position was confirmed by fiberoptic bronchoscope. After lobectomy and lymph node dissection were completed, 1-lung ventilation was terminated, the left chest cavity was filled with saline, and an air-leak test was performed. Immediately after the initiation of bilateral lung ventilation, massive air-leak was observed in the left hilar region and the saline in the chest regurgitated into the airway, and she fell into critical ventilatory insufficiency. After sucking the saline in the chest, thorough observation revealed a 3 cm-long rupture of the membranous portion of the left main bronchus. The rupture was manually occluded and ventilatory insufficiency was avoided, then the tip of the endobronchial tube was re-inserted into the right main bronchus and right single lung ventilation was initiated. The rupture was closed by a 4-0 polydioxanone (PDS) running suture with no coverage. The patient was extubated immediately after the operation. Ten days later, she had a tiny bronchial fistula, and it was cured by chest drainage only, and she discharged home on the 48th postoperative day.

  20. A model for cyst lumen expansion and size regulation via fluid secretion.

    PubMed

    Gin, Elan; Tanaka, Elly M; Brusch, Lutz

    2010-06-07

    Many internal epithelial organs derive from cysts, which are tissues comprised of bent epithelial cell layers enclosing a lumen. Ion accumulation in the lumen drives water influx and consequently water accumulation and cyst expansion. Lumen-size recognition is important for the regulation of organ size. When lumen size and cyst size are not controlled, diseases can result; for instance, renal failure of the kidney. We develop a mechanistic mathematical model of lumen expansion in order to investigate the mechanisms for saturation of cyst growth. We include fluid accumulation in the lumen, osmotic and elastic pressure, ion transport and stretch-induced cell division. We find that the lumen volume increases in two phases: first, due to fluid accumulation stretching the cells, then in the second phase, the volume increase follows the increase in cell number until proliferation ceases as stretch forces relax. The model is quantitatively fitted to published data of in vitro cyst growth and predicts steady state lumen size as a function of the model parameters.

  1. Micropatterned Endotracheal Tubes Reduce Secretion-Related Lumen Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Mann, Ethan E; Magin, Chelsea M; Mettetal, M Ryan; May, Rhea M; Henry, MiKayla M; DeLoid, Heather; Prater, Justin; Sullivan, Lauren; Thomas, John G; Twite, Mark D; Parker, Albert E; Brennan, Anthony B; Reddy, Shravanthi T

    2016-12-01

    Tracheal intubation disrupts physiological homeostasis of secretion production and clearance, resulting in secretion accumulation within endotracheal tubes (ETTs). Novel in vitro and in vivo models were developed to specifically recapitulate the clinical manifestations of ETT occlusion. The novel Sharklet™ micropatterned ETT was evaluated, using these models, for the ability to reduce the accumulation of both bacterial biofilm and airway mucus compared to a standard care ETT. Novel ETTs with micropattern on the inner and outer surfaces were placed adjacent to standard care ETTs in in vitro biofilm and airway patency (AP) models. The primary outcome for the biofilm model was to compare commercially-available ETTs (standard care and silver-coated) to micropatterned for quantity of biofilm accumulation. The AP model's primary outcome was to evaluate accumulation of artificial airway mucus. A 24-h ovine mechanical ventilation model evaluated the primary outcome of relative quantity of airway secretion accumulation in the ETTs tested. The secondary outcome was measuring the effect of secretion accumulation in the ETTs on airway resistance. Micropatterned ETTs significantly reduced biofilm by 71% (p = 0.016) compared to smooth ETTs. Moreover, micropatterned ETTs reduced lumen occlusion, in the AP model, as measured by cross-sectional area, in distal (85%, p = 0.005), middle (84%, p = 0.001) and proximal (81%, p = 0.002) sections compared to standard care ETTs. Micropatterned ETTs reduced the volume of secretion accumulation in a sheep model of occlusion by 61% (p < 0.001) after 24 h of mechanical ventilation. Importantly, micropatterned ETTs reduced the rise in ventilation peak inspiratory pressures over time by as much as 49% (p = 0.005) compared to standard care ETTs. Micropatterned ETTs, demonstrated here to reduce bacterial contamination and mucus occlusion, will have the capacity to limit complications occurring during mechanical ventilation and

  2. Miniaturized Self-Expanding Drug-Eluting Stent in Small Coronary Arteries: Late Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Flavio Roberto Azevedo; Mattos, Luiz Alberto Piva e; Abizaid, Alexandre; Abizaid, Andrea S.; Costa, J. Ribamar; Costa, Ricardo; Staico, Rodolfo; Botelho, Roberto; Sousa, J. Eduardo; Sousa, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Background Small vessels represent a risk factor for restenosis in percutaneous coronary angioplasty (PCA). The Sparrow® self-expanding drug-eluting stent, which has a lower profile than the current systems, has never been tested in this scenario. Objectives To evaluate the late effectiveness of the Sparrow® drug-eluting stent, regarding in-stent late lumen loss (LLL). Methods Patients with ischemia, symptomatic or documented, were submitted to PCA in vessels with reference diameter < 2.75 mm, divided into two groups regarding Sparrow® stent type: group 1: Sparrow® drug-eluting stent (DES), group 2: Sparrow® bare metal stent (BMS). Clinical follow-up duration was 12 months. Evaluation using quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) was performed immediately and at 8 months. A decrease of over 65% of in-stent LLL with DES was estimated to calculate sample size. IBM® SPSS software, release 19 (Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used for the statistical analysis. Results A total of 24 patients were randomized, 12 in each group. The DES and BMS groups were similar in age (63.25 ± 10.01 vs. 64.58 ± 11.54, p = 0.765), male gender (58.3% vs. 33.3%, p = 0.412), risk factors and all angiographs aspects. Immediate results were satisfactory in both groups. At 8 months in-stent late lumen loss was significantly lower in DES than in BMS group (DES vs. BMS 0.25 ± 0.16 0.97 ± 0.76, p = 0.008). Conclusion In small-vessel PCA, the Sparrow® DES determined significant reduction in in-stent LLL, when compared to Sparrow® BMS. PMID:24100691

  3. Fibre wall and lumen fractions drive wood density variation across 24 Australian angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Ziemińska, Kasia; Butler, Don W.; Gleason, Sean M.; Wright, Ian J.; Westoby, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Wood density is considered a key plant trait, affecting mechanical and physiological performance, yet its biological meaning is still rather unclear. Accordingly we investigated the anatomical underpinnings of wood density in trees and shrubs. We measured wood density and anatomical traits in distal stems 4–10 mm diameter under bark in 24 Australian species. Proportions of wood components that are functionally distinct were analysed, including fibre wall and lumen, vessel wall and lumen, and axial and ray parenchyma. Wood density was mainly driven by the density of wood outside vessel lumens (densityNV) rather than by vessel lumen fraction. In turn, densityNV variation was chiefly affected by fibre wall and lumen fractions. Considerable anatomical variation was observed at a given densityNV, especially among medium-densityNV species (0.60–0.85 g cm−3); this range of medium densityNV roughly translates to 0.50–0.75 g cm−3 of overall density. The anatomy of these species formed a continuum from low fibre lumen and medium parenchyma fractions to medium fibre lumen and low parenchyma fractions. Our data suggest that wood density is an emergent property influenced by a complex anatomy rather than an unambiguous functional trait, particularly in medium-density species. With much anatomical variation, they likely represent a wide range of ecological strategies.

  4. Lumen Maintenance Testing of the Philips 60-Watt Replacement Lamp L Prize Entry

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Kelly L.; Hafen, Ryan P.; Hathaway, John E.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes testing conducted to evaluate the Philips' L Prize award winning 60-watt LED replacement product's ability to meet the lifetime/lumen maintenance requirement of the competition, which was: "having 70 percent of the lumen value under subparagraph (A) [producing a luminous flux greater than 900 lumens] exceeding 25,000 hours under typical conditions expected in residential use." A custom test apparatus was designed and constructed for this testing and a statistical approach was developed for use in evaluating the test results. This will be the only publicly available, third-party data set of long-term LED product operation.

  5. Peri/Epicellular Protein Disulfide Isomerase Sustains Vascular Lumen Caliber Through an Anticonstrictive Remodeling Effect.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Leonardo Y; Araújo, Haniel A; Hironaka, Gustavo K; Araujo, Thaís L S; Takimura, Celso K; Rodriguez, Andres I; Casagrande, Annelise S; Gutierrez, Paulo S; Lemos-Neto, Pedro Alves; Laurindo, Francisco R M

    2016-03-01

    Whole-vessel remodeling critically determines lumen caliber in vascular (patho)physiology, and it is reportedly redox-dependent. We hypothesized that the cell-surface pool of the endoplasmic reticulum redox chaperone protein disulfide isomerase-A1 (peri/epicellular=pecPDI), which is known to support thrombosis, also regulates disease-associated vascular architecture. In human coronary atheromas, PDI expression inversely correlated with constrictive remodeling and plaque stability. In a rabbit iliac artery overdistension model, there was unusually high PDI upregulation (≈25-fold versus basal, 14 days postinjury), involving both intracellular and pecPDI. PecPDI neutralization with distinct anti-PDI antibodies did not enhance endoplasmic reticulum stress or apoptosis. In vivo pecPDI neutralization with PDI antibody-containing perivascular gel from days 12 to 14 post injury promoted 25% decrease in the maximally dilated arteriographic vascular caliber. There was corresponding whole-vessel circumference loss using optical coherence tomography without change in neointima, which indicates constrictive remodeling. This was accompanied by decreased hydrogen peroxide generation. Constrictive remodeling was corroborated by marked changes in collagen organization, that is, switching from circumferential to radial fiber orientation and to a more rigid fiber type. The cytoskeleton architecture was also disrupted; there was a loss of stress fiber coherent organization and a switch from thin to medium thickness actin fibers, all leading to impaired viscoelastic ductility. Total and PDI-associated expressions of β1-integrin, and levels of reduced cell-surface β1-integrin, were diminished after PDI antibody treatment, implicating β1-integrin as a likely pecPDI target during vessel repair. Indeed, focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation, a downstream β1-integrin effector, was decreased by PDI antibody. Thus, the upregulated pecPDI pool tunes matrix/cytoskeleton reshaping to

  6. An integrin-ILK-microtubule network orients cell polarity and lumen formation in glandular epithelium.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Nasreen; Streuli, Charles H

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular matrix has a crucial role in determining the spatial orientation of epithelial polarity and the formation of lumens in glandular tissues; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. By using Cre–Lox deletion we show that β1 integrins are required for normal mammary gland morphogenesis and lumen formation, both in vivo and in a three-dimensional primary culture model in which epithelial cells directly contact a basement membrane. Downstream of basement membrane β1 integrins, Rac1 is not involved; however, ILK is needed to polarize microtubule plus ends at the basolateral membrane and disrupting each of these components prevents lumen formation. The integrin–microtubule axis is necessary for the endocytic removal of apical proteins from the basement-membrane–cell interface and for internal Golgi positioning. We propose that this integrin signalling network controls the delivery of apical components to the correct surface and thereby governs the orientation of polarity and development of lumens.

  7. Automatic lumen contour detection in intravascular OCT images using Otsu binarization and intensity curve.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Min; Lee, Seung Hwan; Lee, Chungkeun; Ha, Jong-Won; Yoon, Young-Ro

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an automatic method for the detection of lumen contours in intravascular OCT images with guide wire shadow artifacts. This algorithm is divided into five main procedures: pre-processing, an Otsu binarization approach, an intensity curve approach, a lumen contour position correction, and image reconstruction and contour extraction. The 30 IVOCT images from six anonymous patients were used to verify this method and we obtained 99.2% sensitivity and 99.7% specificity with this algorithm.

  8. Re-entry into the true lumen from the subintimal space.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Peter A; Caps, Michael T; Nelken, Nicolas

    2013-08-01

    Endovascular reconstruction of the femoral and popliteal arteries is replacing femoral-popliteal bypass. This is made possible by subintimal recanalization to manage long chronic total occlusions. Re-entry into the true lumen is the most challenging step in this process. This article summarizes the techniques for re-entry into the true lumen in the superficial femoral and above- and below-the-knee popliteal arteries.

  9. Developmental changes in personal goal orientation from young to late adulthood: from striving for gains to maintenance and prevention of losses.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Natalie C; Freund, Alexandra M; Baltes, Paul B

    2006-12-01

    Using a multimethod approach, the authors conducted 4 studies to test life span hypotheses about goal orientations across adulthood. Confirming expectations, in Studies 1 and 2 younger adults reported a primary growth orientation in their goals, whereas older adults reported a stronger orientation toward maintenance and loss prevention. Orientation toward prevention of loss correlated negatively with well-being in younger adults. In older adults, orientation toward maintenance was positively associated with well-being. Studies 3 and 4 extend findings of a self-reported shift in goal orientation to the level of behavioral choice involving cognitive and physical fitness goals. Studies 3 and 4 also examine the role of expected resource demands. The shift in goal orientation is discussed as an adaptive mechanism to manage changing opportunities and constraints across adulthood.

  10. Antioxidant defenses in caterpillars: role of the ascorbate-recycling system in the midgut lumen.

    PubMed

    Barbehenn, R V; Bumgarner, S L; Roosen, E F; Martin, M M

    2001-04-01

    This study demonstrates that an ascorbate-recycling system in the midgut lumen can act as an effective antioxidant defense in caterpillars that feed on prooxidant-rich foods. In tannin-sensitive larvae of the forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria (Lasiocampidae), ingested tannic acid is oxidized in the midgut lumen, generating significant quantities of peroxides, including hydrogen peroxide, which readily diffuses across cell membranes and is a powerful cytotoxin. By contrast, in the tannin-tolerant larvae of the white-marked tussock moth, Orgyia leucostigma (Lymantriidae), tannic acid oxidation and the generation of peroxides are suppressed. The superior defense of O. leucostigma against oxidative stress imposed by the oxidation of ingested polyphenols can be explained by the presence of higher concentrations of ascorbate and glutathione in the midgut lumen. In O. leucostigma at least 50% of the ingested ascorbate present in the anterior midgut is still present in the posterior midgut, whereas in M. disstria, only 10% of the ascorbate is present in the posterior half of the midgut. We propose that the maintenance of higher levels of ascorbate in the midgut lumen of O. leucostigma than in M. disstria is explained by the secretion of glutathione into the midgut lumen by O. leucostigma, thereby forming a complete ascorbate-recycling system. The concentration of glutathione in the midgut lumen of O. leucostigma is 3.5-fold higher than in M. disstria and more than double the concentration in the diet. Our results emphasize the importance of a defensive strategy in herbivorous insects based on the maintenance of conditions in the gut lumen that reduce or eliminate the potential prooxidant behavior of ingested phenols.

  11. Anion translocation through an Slc26 transporter mediates lumen expansion during tubulogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wei; Nies, Florian; Feuer, Anja; Bočina, Ivana; Oliver, Dominik; Jiang, Di

    2013-01-01

    Lumen formation is a critical event in biological tube formation, yet its molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Specifically, how lumen expansion is coordinated with other processes of tubulogenesis is not well known, and the role of membrane transporters in tubulogenesis during development has not been adequately addressed. Here we identify a solute carrier 26 (Slc26) family protein as an essential regulator of tubulogenesis using the notochord of the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis as a model. Ci-Slc26aα is indispensable for lumen formation and expansion, but not for apical/luminal membrane formation and lumen connection. Ci-Slc26aα acts as an anion transporter, mediating the electrogenic exchange of sulfate or oxalate for chloride or bicarbonate and electroneutral chloride:bicarbonate exchange. Mutant rescue assays show that this transport activity is essential for Ci-Slc26aα’s in vivo function. Our work reveals the consequences and relationships of several key processes in lumen formation, and establishes an in vivo assay for studying the molecular basis of the transport properties of SLC26 family transporters and their related diseases. PMID:23980138

  12. Modeling disease using three dimensional cell culture: multi-lumen and inverted cyst phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Monteleon, Christine L; D'Souza-Schorey, Crislyn

    2012-06-01

    Three-dimensional cell culture provides a unique system to investigate intrinsic mechanisms and micro environmental cues involved in the morphogenesis of epithelial glandular architectures. While this culture system allows insight into normal tissue development, it is also is readily amenable to manipulations that permit cellular modeling of various disease states. Here, we discuss a range of cellular and genetic alterations that result in two distinct cyst phenotypes, the multi-lumen cyst and the inverted cyst, both of which involve defects in cell polarity and lumen formation. Multi-lumen cyst formation results from disturbances in the mechanisms that regulate cell polarity, apical assembly, and the rate of lumen clearance. In the inverted cyst, the apical domain is oriented adjacent to the matrix, markedly affecting the morphogenic cues the matrix provides for cystogenesis. Both of these abnormal glandular phenotypes are highly reminiscent of histological patterns used to classify a number of diseases. A better understanding of the causes of multi-lumen and inverted cysts will provide insights into the origin and progression of epithelial diseases, potentially leading to the development of new therapies.

  13. Long-term lumen depreciation behavior and failure modes of multi-die array LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayawardena, Asiri; Marcus, Daniel; Prugue, Ximena; Narendran, Nadarajah

    2013-09-01

    One of the main advantages of multi-die array light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is their high flux density. However, a challenge for using such a product in lighting fixture applications is the heat density and the need for thermal management to keep the junction temperatures of all the dies low for long-term reliable performance. Ten multi-die LED array samples for each product from four different manufacturers were subjected to lumen maintenance testing (as described in IES-LM-80-08), and their resulting lumen depreciation and failure modes were studied. The products were tested at the maximum case (or pin) temperature reported by the respective manufacturer by appropriately powering the LEDs. In addition, three samples for each product from two different manufacturers were subjected to rapid thermal cycling, and the resulting lumen depreciation and failure modes were studied. The results showed that the exponential lumen decay model using long-term lumen maintenance data as recommended in IES TM-21 does not fit for all package types. The failure of a string of dies and single die failure in a string were observed in some of the packages.

  14. Interaction between FIP5 and SNX18 regulates epithelial lumen formation

    PubMed Central

    Willenborg, Carly; Jing, Jian; Wu, Christine; Matern, Hugo; Schaack, Jerome; Burden, Jemima

    2011-01-01

    During the morphogenesis of the epithelial lumen, apical proteins are thought to be transported via endocytic compartments to the site of the forming lumen, although the machinery mediating this transport remains to be elucidated. Rab11 GTPase and its binding protein, FIP5, are important regulators of polarized endocytic transport. In this study, we identify sorting nexin 18 as a novel FIP5-interacting protein and characterize the role of FIP5 and SNX18 in epithelial lumen morphogenesis. We show that FIP5 mediates the transport of apical proteins from apical endosomes to the apical plasma membrane and, along with SNX18, is required for the early stages of apical lumen formation. Furthermore, both proteins bind lipids, and FIP5 promotes the capacity of SNX18 to tubulate membranes, which implies a role for FIP5 and SNX18 in endocytic carrier formation and/or scission. In summary, the present findings support the hypothesis that this FIP5-SNX18 complex plays a pivotal role in the polarized transport of apical proteins during apical lumen initiation in epithelial cells. PMID:21969467

  15. Job Loss, Unemployment and the Incidence of Hazardous Drinking during the Late 2000s Recession in Europe among Adults Aged 50–64 Years

    PubMed Central

    Bosque-Prous, Marina; Espelt, Albert; Sordo, Luis; Guitart, Anna M.; Brugal, M. Teresa; Bravo, Maria J.

    2015-01-01

    Background To estimate the incidence of hazardous drinking in middle-aged people during an economic recession and ascertain whether individual job loss and contextual changes in unemployment influence the incidence rate in that period. Methods Longitudinal study based on two waves of the SHARE project (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe). Individuals aged 50–64 years from 11 European countries, who were not hazardous drinkers at baseline (n = 7,615), were selected for this study. We estimated the cumulative incidence of hazardous drinking (≥40g and ≥20g of pure alcohol on average in men and women, respectively) between 2006 and 2012. Furthermore, in the statistical analysis, multilevel Poisson regression models with robust variance were fitted and obtained Risk Ratios (RR) and their 95% Confidence Intervals (95%CI). Results Over a 6-year period, 505 subjects became hazardous drinkers, with cumulative incidence of 6.6 per 100 persons between 2006 and 2012 (95%CI:6.1–7.2). Age [RR = 1.02 (95%CI:1.00–1.04)] and becoming unemployed [RR = 1.55 (95%CI:1.08–2.23)] were independently associated with higher risk of becoming a hazardous drinker. Conversely, having poorer self-perceived health was associated with lower risk of becoming a hazardous drinker [RR = 0.75 (95%CI:0.60–0.95)]. At country-level, an increase in the unemployment rate during the study period [RR = 1.32 (95%CI:1.17–1.50)] and greater increases in the household disposable income [RR = 0.97 (95%CI:0.95–0.99)] were associated with risk of becoming a hazardous drinker. Conclusions Job loss among middle-aged individuals during the economic recession was positively associated with becoming a hazardous drinker. Changes in country-level variables were also related to this drinking pattern. PMID:26445239

  16. Uplift rates from a new high-density GPS network in Palmer Land indicate significant late Holocene ice loss in the southwestern Weddell Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolstencroft, Martin; King, Matt A.; Whitehouse, Pippa L.; Bentley, Michael J.; Nield, Grace A.; King, Edward C.; McMillan, Malcolm; Shepherd, Andrew; Barletta, Valentina; Bordoni, Andrea; Riva, Riccardo E. M.; Didova, Olga; Gunter, Brian C.

    2015-10-01

    The measurement of ongoing ice-mass loss and associated melt water contribution to sea-level change from regions such as West Antarctica is dependent on a combination of remote sensing methods. A key method, the measurement of changes in Earth's gravity via the GRACE satellite mission, requires a potentially large correction to account for the isostatic response of the solid Earth to ice-load changes since the Last Glacial Maximum. In this study, we combine glacial isostatic adjustment modelling with a new GPS dataset of solid Earth deformation for the southern Antarctic Peninsula to test the current understanding of ice history in this region. A sufficiently complete history of past ice-load change is required for glacial isostatic adjustment models to accurately predict the spatial variation of ongoing solid Earth deformation, once the independently-constrained effects of present-day ice mass loss have been accounted for. Comparisons between the GPS data and glacial isostatic adjustment model predictions reveal a substantial misfit. The misfit is localized on the southwestern Weddell Sea, where current ice models under-predict uplift rates by approximately 2 mm yr-1. This under-prediction suggests that either the retreat of the ice sheet grounding line in this region occurred significantly later in the Holocene than currently assumed, or that the region previously hosted more ice than currently assumed. This finding demonstrates the need for further fieldwork to obtain direct constraints on the timing of Holocene grounding line retreat in the southwestern Weddell Sea and that GRACE estimates of ice sheet mass balance will be unreliable in this region until this is resolved.

  17. SHIP2 Regulates Lumen Generation, Cell Division, and Ciliogenesis through the Control of Basolateral to Apical Lumen Localization of Aurora A and HEF 1.

    PubMed

    Hamze-Komaiha, Ola; Sarr, Sokavuth; Arlot-Bonnemains, Yannick; Samuel, Didier; Gassama-Diagne, Ama

    2016-12-06

    Lumen formation during epithelial morphogenesis requires the creation of a luminal space at cell interfaces named apical membrane-initiation sites (AMISs). This is dependent upon integrated signaling from mechanical and biochemical cues, vesicle trafficking, cell division, and processes tightly coupled to ciliogenesis. Deciphering relationships between polarity determinants and lumen or cilia generation remains a fundamental issue. Here, we report that Src homology 2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase 2 (SHIP2), a basolateral determinant of polarity, regulates RhoA-dependent actin contractility and cell division to form AMISs. SHIP2 regulates mitotic spindle alignment. SHIP2 is expressed in G1 phase, whereas Aurora A kinase is enriched in mitosis. SHIP2 binds Aurora A kinase and the scaffolding protein HEF1 and promotes their basolateral localization at the expense of their luminal expression connected with cilia resorption. Furthermore, SHIP2 expression increases cilia length. Thus, our findings offer new insight into the relationships among basolateral proteins, lumen generation, and ciliogenesis.

  18. Automatic Lumen Detection on Longitudinal Ultrasound B-Mode Images of the Carotid Using Phase Symmetry

    PubMed Central

    Rouco, José; Azevedo, Elsa; Campilho, Aurélio

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a method that improves the performance of previous approaches for the automatic detection of the common carotid artery (CCA) lumen centerline on longitudinal B-mode ultrasound images. We propose to detect several lumen centerline candidates using local symmetry analysis based on local phase information of dark structures at an appropriate scale. These candidates are analyzed with selection mechanisms that use symmetry, contrast or intensity features in combination with position-based heuristics. Several experimental results are provided to evaluate the robustness and performance of the proposed method in comparison with previous approaches. These results lead to the conclusion that our proposal is robust to noise, lumen artifacts, contrast variations and that is able to deal with the presence of CCA-like structures, significantly improving the performance of our previous approach, from 87.5%±0.7% of correct detections to 98.3%±0.3% in a set of 200 images. PMID:27005631

  19. Enlargement of halloysite clay nanotube lumen by selective etching of aluminum oxide.

    PubMed

    Abdullayev, Elshad; Joshi, Anupam; Wei, Wenbo; Zhao, Yafei; Lvov, Yuri

    2012-08-28

    Halloysite clay tubes have 50 nm diameter and chemically different inner and outer walls (inner surface of aluminum oxide and outer surface of silica). Due to this different chemistry, the selective etching of alumina from inside the tube was realized, while preserving their external diameter (lumen diameter changed from 15 to 25 nm). This increases 2-3 times the tube lumen capacity for loading and further sustained release of active chemical agents such as metals, corrosion inhibitors, and drugs. In particular, halloysite loading efficiency for the benzotriazole increased 4 times by selective etching of 60% alumina within the tubes' lumens. Specific surface area of the tubes increased over 6 times, from 40 to 250 m(2)/g, upon acid treatment.

  20. Biomimetic dopamine derivative for selective polymer modification of halloysite nanotube lumen.

    PubMed

    Yah, Weng On; Xu, Hang; Soejima, Hiroe; Ma, Wei; Lvov, Yuri; Takahara, Atsushi

    2012-07-25

    We demonstrate the use of a catecholic anchor (Dopa) for selective modification of the inner surface of an halloysite clay nanotube. Aqueous Dopa binds to alumina at the tube lumen and does not bind the silica surface under the same conditions. Selectivity of surface modification was evidenced using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and (13)C solid state NMR spectroscopy. Surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) was performed through selectively adsorbed Dopa to graft a layer of polymer brush into the nanotube lumen.

  1. Bcl-2 expression during T-cell development: early loss and late return occur at specific stages of commitment to differentiation and survival.

    PubMed Central

    Gratiot-Deans, J; Merino, R; Nuñez, G; Turka, L A

    1994-01-01

    During T-cell development CD3-CD4-CD8- (double-negative) thymocytes proliferative and produce an enormous number of CD3loCD4+CD8+ (double-positive) thymocytes which are destined to die intrathymically unless rescued by positive selection. Those which survive become mature CD3hiCD4/8+ (single-positive) cells and are the precursor of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The product of the bcl-2 protooncogene has been implicated in preventing programmed cell death and is required for prolonged lymphocyte survival following maturation. Previously we and others have reported that Bcl-2 protein expression is biphasic, being high in proliferating double-negative stem cells, low in all double-positive thymocytes except for 1-5% of these cells, and restored in mature, single-positive thymocytes. However, it remained unclear which signaling and selection events regulate Bcl-2 during T-cell maturation. Now we have utilized four-color flow cytometry in normal and genetically altered mice for a detailed analysis of Bcl-2 expression as it relates to T-cell receptor (TCR) expression and positive selection. These studies show that (i) expression of a transgenic TCR in double-negative thymocytes does not lead to premature loss of Bcl-2; thus, Bcl-2 downregulation is not solely due to TCR expression; (ii) Bcl-2 expression is lost at the early transitional CD3-/loCD4-CD8+ stage, prior to expression of CD4; (iii) the Bcl-2+ double-positive thymocytes are those which have undergone positive selection; and (iv) upregulation of Bcl-2 during positive selection requires participation of the CD4 or CD8 co-receptor. These results demonstrate that Bcl-2 and TCR expression are regulated independently during T-cell development, and suggest a role for the CD4 or CD8 co-receptor in Bcl-2 induction during positive selection. Images PMID:7938012

  2. Central Functions of the Lumenal and Peripheral Thylakoid Proteome of Arabidopsis Determined by Experimentation and Genome-Wide Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Peltier, Jean-Benoît; Emanuelsson, Olof; Kalume, Dário E.; Ytterberg, Jimmy; Friso, Giulia; Rudella, Andrea; Liberles, David A.; Söderberg, Linda; Roepstorff, Peter; von Heijne, Gunnar; van Wijk, Klaas J.

    2002-01-01

    Experimental proteome analysis was combined with a genome-wide prediction screen to characterize the protein content of the thylakoid lumen of Arabidopsis chloroplasts. Soluble thylakoid proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis and identified by mass spectrometry. The identities of 81 proteins were established, and N termini were sequenced to validate localization prediction. Gene annotation of the identified proteins was corrected by experimental data, and an interesting case of alternative splicing was discovered. Expression of a surprising number of paralogs was detected. Expression of five isomerases of different classes suggests strong (un)folding activity in the thylakoid lumen. These isomerases possibly are connected to a network of peripheral and lumenal proteins involved in antioxidative response, including peroxiredoxins, m-type thioredoxins, and a lumenal ascorbate peroxidase. Characteristics of the experimentally identified lumenal proteins and their orthologs were used for a genome-wide prediction of the lumenal proteome. Lumenal proteins with a typical twin-arginine translocation motif were predicted with good accuracy and sensitivity and included additional isomerases and proteases. Thus, prime functions of the lumenal proteome include assistance in the folding and proteolysis of thylakoid proteins as well as protection against oxidative stress. Many of the predicted lumenal proteins must be present at concentrations at least 10,000-fold lower than proteins of the photosynthetic apparatus. PMID:11826309

  3. Automatic Lumen Segmentation in Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Images Using Level Set

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Kang; Qin, Xianjing; Yin, Qinye; Li, Jianan; Zhao, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Automatic lumen segmentation from intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) images is an important and fundamental work for diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery disease. However, it is a very challenging task due to irregular lumen caused by unstable plaque and bifurcation vessel, guide wire shadow, and blood artifacts. To address these problems, this paper presents a novel automatic level set based segmentation algorithm which is very competent for irregular lumen challenge. Before applying the level set model, a narrow image smooth filter is proposed to reduce the effect of artifacts and prevent the leakage of level set meanwhile. Moreover, a divide-and-conquer strategy is proposed to deal with the guide wire shadow. With our proposed method, the influence of irregular lumen, guide wire shadow, and blood artifacts can be appreciably reduced. Finally, the experimental results showed that the proposed method is robust and accurate by evaluating 880 images from 5 different patients and the average DSC value was 98.1% ± 1.1%. PMID:28270857

  4. Analysis of proteome dynamics inside the silk gland lumen of Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zhaoming; Zhao, Ping; Zhang, Yan; Song, Qianru; Zhang, Xiaolu; Guo, Pengchao; Wang, Dandan; Xia, Qingyou

    2016-01-01

    The silk gland is the only organ where silk proteins are synthesized and secreted in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Silk proteins are stored in the lumen of the silk gland for around eight days during the fifth instar. Determining their dynamic changes is helpful for clarifying the secretion mechanism of silk proteins. Here, we identified the proteome in the silk gland lumen using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, and demonstrated its changes during two key stages. From day 5 of the fifth instar to day 1 of wandering, the abundances of fibroins, sericins, seroins, and proteins of unknown functions increased significantly in different compartments of the silk gland lumen. As a result, these accumulated proteins constituted the major cocoon components. In contrast, the abundances of enzymes and extracellular matrix proteins decreased in the silk gland lumen, suggesting that they were not the structural constituents of silk. Twenty-five enzymes may be involved in the regulation of hormone metabolism for proper silk gland function. In addition, the metabolism of other non-proteinous components such as chitin and pigment were also discussed in this study. PMID:27102218

  5. Automatic segmentation of the lumen of the carotid artery in ultrasound B-mode images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, André M. F.; Tavares, Jão. Manuel R. S.; Sousa, Luísa; Santos, Rosa; Castro, Pedro; Azevedo, Elsa

    2013-02-01

    A new algorithm is proposed for the segmentation of the lumen and bifurcation boundaries of the carotid artery in B-mode ultrasound images. It uses the hipoechogenic characteristics of the lumen for the identification of the carotid boundaries and the echogenic characteristics for the identification of the bifurcation boundaries. The image to be segmented is processed with the application of an anisotropic diffusion filter for speckle removal and morphologic operators are employed in the detection of the artery. The obtained information is then used in the definition of two initial contours, one corresponding to the lumen and the other to the bifurcation boundaries, for the posterior application of the Chan-vese level set segmentation model. A set of longitudinal B-mode images of the common carotid artery (CCA) was acquired with a GE Healthcare Vivid-e ultrasound system (GE Healthcare, United Kingdom). All the acquired images include a part of the CCA and of the bifurcation that separates the CCA into the internal and external carotid arteries. In order to achieve the uppermost robustness in the imaging acquisition process, i.e., images with high contrast and low speckle noise, the scanner was adjusted differently for each acquisition and according to the medical exam. The obtained results prove that we were able to successfully apply a carotid segmentation technique based on cervical ultrasonography. The main advantage of the new segmentation method relies on the automatic identification of the carotid lumen, overcoming the limitations of the traditional methods.

  6. Automatic segmentation algorithm for the extraction of lumen region and boundary from endoscopic images.

    PubMed

    Tian, H; Srikanthan, T; Vijayan Asari, K

    2001-01-01

    A new segmentation algorithm for lumen region detection and boundary extraction from gastro-intestinal (GI) images is presented. The proposed algorithm consists of two steps. First, a preliminary region of interest (ROI) representing the GI lumen is segmented by an adaptive progressive thresholding (APT) technique. Then, an adaptive filter, the Iris filter, is applied to the ROI to determine the actual region. It has been observed that the combined APT-Iris filter technique can enhance and detect the unclear boundaries in the lumen region of GI images and thus produces a more accurate lumen region, compared with the existing techniques. Experiments are carried out to determine the maximum error on the extracted boundary with respect to an expert-annotated boundary technique. Investigations show that, based on the experimental results obtained from 50 endoscopic images, the maximum error is reduced by up to 72 pixels for a 256 x 256 image representation compared with other existing techniques. In addition, a new boundary extraction algorithm, based on a heuristic search on the neighbourhood pixels, is employed to obtain a connected single pixel width outer boundary using two preferential sequence windows. Experimental results are also presented to justify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  7. Multiple endothelial cells constitute the tip of developing blood vessels and polarize to promote lumen formation.

    PubMed

    Pelton, John C; Wright, Catherine E; Leitges, Michael; Bautch, Victoria L

    2014-11-01

    Blood vessel polarization in the apical-basal axis is important for directed secretion of proteins and lumen formation; yet, when and how polarization occurs in the context of angiogenic sprouting is not well understood. Here, we describe a novel topology for endothelial cells at the tip of angiogenic sprouts in several mammalian vascular beds. Two cells that extend filopodia and have significant overlap in space and time were present at vessel tips, both in vitro and in vivo. The cell overlap is more extensive than predicted for tip cell switching, and it sets up a longitudinal cell-cell border that is a site of apical polarization and lumen formation, presumably via a cord-hollowing mechanism. The extent of cell overlap at the tip is reduced in mice lacking aPKCζ, and this is accompanied by reduced distal extension of both the apical border and patent lumens. Thus, at least two polarized cells occupy the distal tip of blood vessel sprouts, and topology, polarization and lumenization along the longitudinal border of these cells are influenced by aPKCζ.

  8. Multiple endothelial cells constitute the tip of developing blood vessels and polarize to promote lumen formation

    PubMed Central

    Pelton, John C.; Wright, Catherine E.; Leitges, Michael; Bautch, Victoria L.

    2014-01-01

    Blood vessel polarization in the apical-basal axis is important for directed secretion of proteins and lumen formation; yet, when and how polarization occurs in the context of angiogenic sprouting is not well understood. Here, we describe a novel topology for endothelial cells at the tip of angiogenic sprouts in several mammalian vascular beds. Two cells that extend filopodia and have significant overlap in space and time were present at vessel tips, both in vitro and in vivo. The cell overlap is more extensive than predicted for tip cell switching, and it sets up a longitudinal cell-cell border that is a site of apical polarization and lumen formation, presumably via a cord-hollowing mechanism. The extent of cell overlap at the tip is reduced in mice lacking aPKCζ, and this is accompanied by reduced distal extension of both the apical border and patent lumens. Thus, at least two polarized cells occupy the distal tip of blood vessel sprouts, and topology, polarization and lumenization along the longitudinal border of these cells are influenced by aPKCζ. PMID:25336741

  9. Visualizing surface area and volume of lumens in three dimensions using images from histological sections

    PubMed Central

    LIVINGSTON, DAVID P.; TUONG, TAN D.; KISSLING, GRACE E.; CULLEN, JOHN M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Visualizing the interior (lumen) of a tubular structure within tissue can provide a unique perspective on anatomical organization of the tissue. Portal tracts of the liver contain several vessels and ducts in various patterns of intertwining branches and are an example of such spaces. An inexpensive method, using light microscopy and a sample of conventionally stained canine livers, was used to colorize and allow visualization of the lumens of vessels within the portal tract in three dimensions. When the colour of the background was digitally cleared and the lumen filled with a solid colour, it was possible to measure areas and volumes of the portal vein, arteries, bile ducts and lymphatics. Significant differences between vessels and ducts across lobes and gender in control samples are discussed. Differences were also found between control and mixed breed dogs and between controls and a dog that died of accidental traumatic haemorrhage. These differences are discussed in relation to visualizing lumens using images generated from a light microscope. Vessels in plants such as xylem and continuously formed spaces resulting from ice formation are other examples where this technique could be applied. PMID:25204459

  10. Bim Regulation of Lumen Formation in Cultured Mammary Epithelial Acini Is Targeted by Oncogenes

    PubMed Central

    Reginato, Mauricio J.; Mills, Kenna R.; Becker, Esther B. E.; Lynch, Danielle K.; Bonni, Azad; Muthuswamy, Senthil K.; Brugge, Joan S.

    2005-01-01

    Epithelial cells organize into cyst-like structures that contain a spherical monolayer of cells that enclose a central lumen. Using a three-dimensional basement membrane culture model in which mammary epithelial cells form hollow, acinus-like structures, we previously demonstrated that lumen formation is achieved, in part, through apoptosis of centrally localized cells. We demonstrate that the proapoptotic protein Bim may selectively trigger apoptosis of the centrally localized acinar cells, leading to temporally controlled lumen formation. Bim is not detectable during early stages of three-dimensional mammary acinar morphogenesis and is then highly upregulated in all cells of acini, coincident with detection of apoptosis in the centrally localized acinar cells. Inhibition of Bim expression by RNA interference transiently blocks luminal apoptosis and delays lumen formation. Oncogenes that induce acinar luminal filling, such as ErbB2 and v-Src, suppress expression of Bim through a pathway dependent on Erk-mitogen-activated protein kinase; however, HPV 16 E7, an oncogene that stimulates cell proliferation but not luminal filling, is unable to reduce Bim expression. Thus, Bim is a critical regulator of luminal apoptosis during mammary acinar morphogenesis in vitro and may be an important target of oncogenes that disrupt glandular epithelial architecture. PMID:15899862

  11. The alternative splicing factor Nova2 regulates vascular development and lumen formation

    PubMed Central

    Giampietro, Costanza; Deflorian, Gianluca; Gallo, Stefania; Di Matteo, Anna; Pradella, Davide; Bonomi, Serena; Belloni, Elisa; Nyqvist, Daniel; Quaranta, Valeria; Confalonieri, Stefano; Bertalot, Giovanni; Orsenigo, Fabrizio; Pisati, Federica; Ferrero, Elisabetta; Biamonti, Giuseppe; Fredrickx, Evelien; Taveggia, Carla; Wyatt, Chris D. R.; Irimia, Manuel; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Blencowe, Benjamin J.; Dejana, Elisabetta; Ghigna, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Vascular lumen formation is a fundamental step during angiogenesis; yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that neural and vascular systems share common anatomical, functional and molecular similarities. Here we show that the organization of endothelial lumen is controlled at the post-transcriptional level by the alternative splicing (AS) regulator Nova2, which was previously considered to be neural cell-specific. Nova2 is expressed during angiogenesis and its depletion disrupts vascular lumen formation in vivo. Similarly, Nova2 depletion in cultured endothelial cells (ECs) impairs the apical distribution and the downstream signalling of the Par polarity complex, resulting in altered EC polarity, a process required for vascular lumen formation. These defects are linked to AS changes of Nova2 target exons affecting the Par complex and its regulators. Collectively, our results reveal that Nova2 functions as an AS regulator in angiogenesis and is a novel member of the ‘angioneurins' family. PMID:26446569

  12. Pak1 regulates the orientation of apical polarization and lumen formation by distinct pathways.

    PubMed

    deLeon, Orlando; Puglise, Jason M; Liu, Fengming; Smits, Jos; ter Beest, Martin B; Zegers, Mirjam M

    2012-01-01

    The development of the basic architecture of branching tubules enclosing a central lumen that characterizes most epithelial organs crucially depends on the apico-basolateral polarization of epithelial cells. Signals from the extracellular matrix control the orientation of the apical surface, so that it faces the lumen interior, opposite to cell-matrix adhesion sites. This orientation of the apical surface is thought to be intrinsically linked to the formation of single lumens. We previously demonstrated in three-dimensional cyst cultures of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells that signaling by β1 integrins regulates the orientation of the apical surface, via a mechanism that depends on the activity of the small GTPase Rac1. Here, we investigated whether the Rac1 effector Pak1 is a downstream effector in this pathway. Expression of constitutive active Pak1 phenocopies the effect of β1 integrin inhibition in that it misorients the apical surface and induces a multilumen phenotype. The misorientation of apical surfaces depends on the interaction of active Pak1 with PIX proteins and is linked to defects in basement membrane assembly. In contrast, the multilumen phenotype was independent of PIX and the basement membrane. Therefore, Pak1 likely regulates apical polarization and lumen formation by two distinct pathways.

  13. Pak1 Regulates the Orientation of Apical Polarization and Lumen Formation by Distinct Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Jos; ter Beest, Martin B.; Zegers, Mirjam M.

    2012-01-01

    The development of the basic architecture of branching tubules enclosing a central lumen that characterizes most epithelial organs crucially depends on the apico-basolateral polarization of epithelial cells. Signals from the extracellular matrix control the orientation of the apical surface, so that it faces the lumen interior, opposite to cell-matrix adhesion sites. This orientation of the apical surface is thought to be intrinsically linked to the formation of single lumens. We previously demonstrated in three-dimensional cyst cultures of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells that signaling by β1 integrins regulates the orientation of the apical surface, via a mechanism that depends on the activity of the small GTPase Rac1. Here, we investigated whether the Rac1 effector Pak1 is a downstream effector in this pathway. Expression of constitutive active Pak1 phenocopies the effect of β1 integrin inhibition in that it misorients the apical surface and induces a multilumen phenotype. The misorientation of apical surfaces depends on the interaction of active Pak1 with PIX proteins and is linked to defects in basement membrane assembly. In contrast, the multilumen phenotype was independent of PIX and the basement membrane. Therefore, Pak1 likely regulates apical polarization and lumen formation by two distinct pathways. PMID:22815903

  14. Double-lumen, silicone rubber, indwelling venous catheters. A new modality for angioaccess.

    PubMed

    Schanzer, H; Kaplan, S; Bosch, J; Glabman, S; Burrows, L

    1986-02-01

    This report presents our experience using double-lumen, silicone rubber, indwelling central venous catheters with a subcutaneous Dacron cuff as access for hemodialysis. Twenty-seven catheters were placed in 27 patients through venous cutdowns. A 10-cm subcutaneous tunnel was created leaving the Dacron cuff 2 cm from the external exit. Sixteen Raaf catheters (lumen diameter [LD], 1 mm), three double-lumen Hickman catheters (LD, 1.6 mm) and eight HemoCath catheters (LD, 2 mm) were used. The tip of the catheter was positioned fluoroscopically in either the superior vena cava or the right atrium. One hundred fifty-nine treatments were done with the Raaf catheters (mean blood flow [MBF], 188.1 +/- 26.4 mL/min); two of these catheters became obstructed and could not be used further. Three double-lumen Hickman catheters were used in 12 hemodialysis treatments (MBF, 216.3 +/- 27.1 mL/min). One hundred fifty-five treatments were done using the HemoCath catheters (MBF, 236.7 +/- 5.5 mL/min). The degree of recirculation of these catheters was 8.56% +/- 4.34%. The major advantages of this modality include simplicity of introduction, lack of serious complications, no sacrifice of major arteries, no need for venipuncture, and potential use in either short- or long-term hemodialysis.

  15. An artificial neural network method for lumen and media-adventitia border detection in IVUS.

    PubMed

    Su, Shengran; Hu, Zhenghui; Lin, Qiang; Hau, William Kongto; Gao, Zhifan; Zhang, Heye

    2016-11-17

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) has been well recognized as one powerful imaging technique to evaluate the stenosis inside the coronary arteries. The detection of lumen border and media-adventitia (MA) border in IVUS images is the key procedure to determine the plaque burden inside the coronary arteries, but this detection could be burdensome to the doctor because of large volume of the IVUS images. In this paper, we use the artificial neural network (ANN) method as the feature learning algorithm for the detection of the lumen and MA borders in IVUS images. Two types of imaging information including spatial, neighboring features were used as the input data to the ANN method, and then the different vascular layers were distinguished accordingly through two sparse auto-encoders and one softmax classifier. Another ANN was used to optimize the result of the first network. In the end, the active contour model was applied to smooth the lumen and MA borders detected by the ANN method. The performance of our approach was compared with the manual drawing method performed by two IVUS experts on 461 IVUS images from four subjects. Results showed that our approach had a high correlation and good agreement with the manual drawing results. The detection error of the ANN method close to the error between two groups of manual drawing result. All these results indicated that our proposed approach could efficiently and accurately handle the detection of lumen and MA borders in the IVUS images.

  16. Minimization of lumen depreciation in LED lamps using thermal transient behavior analysis and design optimizations.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Nisa

    2016-02-10

    We expansively investigate thermal behaviors of various general-purpose light-emitting diode (LED) lamps and apply our measured results, validated by simulation, to establish lamp design rules for optimizing their optical and thermal properties. These design rules provide the means to minimize lumen depreciation over time by minimizing the periods for lamps to reach thermal steady-state while maintaining their high luminous efficacy and omnidirectional light distribution capability. While it is well known that minimizing the junction temperature of an LED leads to a longer lifetime and an increased lumen output, our study demonstrates, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that it is also important to minimize the time it takes to reach thermal equilibrium because doing so minimizes lumen depreciation and enhances light output and color stability during operation. Specifically, we have found that, in addition to inadequate heat-sink fin areas for a lamp configuration, LEDs mounted on multiple boards, as opposed to a single board, lead to longer periods for reaching thermal equilibrium contributing to larger lumen depreciation.

  17. Analysis of proteome dynamics inside the silk gland lumen of Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhaoming; Zhao, Ping; Zhang, Yan; Song, Qianru; Zhang, Xiaolu; Guo, Pengchao; Wang, Dandan; Xia, Qingyou

    2016-04-22

    The silk gland is the only organ where silk proteins are synthesized and secreted in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Silk proteins are stored in the lumen of the silk gland for around eight days during the fifth instar. Determining their dynamic changes is helpful for clarifying the secretion mechanism of silk proteins. Here, we identified the proteome in the silk gland lumen using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and demonstrated its changes during two key stages. From day 5 of the fifth instar to day 1 of wandering, the abundances of fibroins, sericins, seroins, and proteins of unknown functions increased significantly in different compartments of the silk gland lumen. As a result, these accumulated proteins constituted the major cocoon components. In contrast, the abundances of enzymes and extracellular matrix proteins decreased in the silk gland lumen, suggesting that they were not the structural constituents of silk. Twenty-five enzymes may be involved in the regulation of hormone metabolism for proper silk gland function. In addition, the metabolism of other non-proteinous components such as chitin and pigment were also discussed in this study.

  18. Pulmonary effects of expiratory-assisted small-lumen ventilation during upper airway obstruction in pigs.

    PubMed

    Ziebart, A; Garcia-Bardon, A; Kamuf, J; Thomas, R; Liu, T; Schad, A; Duenges, B; David, M; Hartmann, E K

    2015-10-01

    Novel devices for small-lumen ventilation may enable effective inspiration and expiratory ventilation assistance despite airway obstruction. In this study, we investigated a porcine model of complete upper airway obstruction. After ethical approval, we randomly assigned 13 anaesthetised pigs either to small-lumen ventilation following airway obstruction (n = 8) for 30 min, or to volume-controlled ventilation (sham setting, n = 5). Small-lumen ventilation enabled adequate gas exchange over 30 min. One animal died as a result of a tension pneumothorax in this setting. Redistribution of ventilation from dorsal to central compartments and significant impairment of the distribution of ventilation/perfusion occurred. Histopathology demonstrated considerable lung injury, predominantly through differences in the dorsal dependent lung regions. Small-lumen ventilation maintained adequate gas exchange in a porcine airway obstruction model. The use of this technique for 30 min by inexperienced clinicians was associated with considerable end-expiratory collapse leading to lung injury, and may also carry the risk of severe injury.

  19. Physiological properties of the gut lumen of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea): adaptive to digesting lignocellulose?

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Martin; Brune, Andreas

    2005-05-01

    Since any given trait of an organism is considered to represent either an adaptation to the environment or a phylogenetic constraint, most physiological gut characteristics should be adaptive in terms of optimizing digestion and utilization of the respective food source. Among the Crustacea, the taxon Oniscidea (Isopoda) is the only suborder that includes, and essentially consists of, species inhabiting terrestrial environments, feeding on food sources different from those of most other Crustacea (i.e., terrestrial leaf litter). Microelectrodes were used to assay physiological characteristics of the gut lumen from representatives of four families of terrestrial isopods: Trichoniscus pusillus (Trichoniscidae), Oniscus asellus (Oniscidae), Porcellio scaber (Porcellionidae), and Trachelipus rathkii (Trachelipodidae). Microsensor measurements of oxygen pressure (Clark-type oxygen microelectrodes) revealed that O2-consuming processes inside the gut lumen created steep radial oxygen gradients. Although all guts were oxic in the periphery, the radial center of the posterior hindgut was micro-oxic or even anoxic in the adults of the larger species. The entire gut lumen of all examined species was strongly oxidizing (Pt microelectrodes; apparent redox potential, Eh: +600-700 mV). Such conditions would allow for the coexistence of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, with both oxidative and fermentative activities contributing to digestion. Although bacterial O2 consumption was also observed in the midgut glands (hepatopancreas), they remained entirely oxic, probably owing to their large surface-to-volume ratio and high oxygen fluxes across the hepatopancreatic epithelium into the gland lumen. Measurements with pH microelectrodes (LIX-type) showed a slight pH gradient from acidic conditions in the anterior hindgut to neutral conditions in the posterior hindgut of O. asellus, P. scaber and T. rathkii. By contrast, the pH in the hindgut lumen of T. pusillus was almost

  20. Ezetimibe Promotes Brush Border Membrane-to-Lumen Cholesterol Efflux in the Small Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Takanari; Inoue, Ikuo; Takenaka, Yasuhiro; Ono, Hiraku; Katayama, Shigehiro; Awata, Takuya; Murakoshi, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    Ezetimibe inhibits Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1), an apical membrane cholesterol transporter of enterocytes, thereby reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption. This treatment also increases extrahepatic reverse cholesterol transport via an undefined mechanism. To explore this, we employed a trans-intestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) assay, which directly detects circulation-to-intestinal lumen 3H-cholesterol transit in a cannulated jejunal segment, and found an increase of TICE by 45%. To examine whether such increase in efflux occurs at the intestinal brush border membrane(BBM)-level, we performed luminal perfusion assays, similar to TICE but the jejunal wall was labelled with orally-given 3H-cholesterol, and determined elevated BBM-to-lumen cholesterol efflux by 3.5-fold with ezetimibe. Such increased efflux probably promotes circulation-to-lumen cholesterol transit eventually; thus increases TICE. Next, we wondered how inhibition of NPC1L1, an influx transporter, resulted in increased efflux. When we traced orally-given 3H-cholesterol in mice, we found that lumen-to-BBM 3H-cholesterol transit was rapid and less sensitive to ezetimibe treatment. Comparison of the efflux and fractional cholesterol absorption revealed an inverse correlation, indicating the efflux as an opposite-regulatory factor for cholesterol absorption efficiency and counteracting to the naturally-occurring rapid cholesterol influx to the BBM. These suggest that the ezetimibe-stimulated increased efflux is crucial in reducing cholesterol absorption. Ezetimibe-induced increase in cholesterol efflux was approximately 2.5-fold greater in mice having endogenous ATP-binding cassette G5/G8 heterodimer, the major sterol efflux transporter of enterocytes, than the knockout counterparts, suggesting that the heterodimer confers additional rapid BBM-to-lumen cholesterol efflux in response to NPC1L1 inhibition. The observed framework for intestinal cholesterol fluxes may provide ways to modulate the flux

  1. Dosimetric considerations and early clinical experience of accelerated partial breast irradiation using multi-lumen applicators in the setting of breast augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Akhtari, Mani; Pino, Ramiro; Scarboro, Sarah B.; Bass, Barbara L.; Miltenburg, Darlene M.; Butler, E. Brian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is an accepted treatment option in breast-conserving therapy for early stage breast cancer. However, data regarding outcomes of patients treated with multi-lumen catheter systems who have existing breast implants is limited. The purpose of this study was to report treatment parameters, outcomes, and possible dosimetric correlation with cosmetic outcome for this population of patients at our institution. Material and methods We report the treatment and outcome of seven consecutive patients with existing breast implants and early stage breast cancer who were treated between 2009 and 2013 using APBI following lumpectomy. All patients were treated twice per day for five days to a total dose of 34 Gy using a high-dose-rate 192Ir source. Cosmetic outcomes were evaluated using the Harvard breast cosmesis scale, and late toxicities were reported using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) late radiation morbidity schema. Results After a mean follow-up of 32 months, all patients have remained cancer free. Six out of seven patients had an excellent or good cosmetic outcome. There were no grade 3 or 4 late toxicities. The average total breast implant volume was 279.3 cc, received an average mean dose of 12.1 Gy, and a maximum dose of 234.1 Gy. The average percentage of breast implant volume receiving 50%, 75%, 100%, 150%, and 200% of the prescribed dose was 15.6%, 7.03%, 4.6%, 1.58%, and 0.46%, respectively. Absolute volume of breast implants receiving more than 50% of prescribed dose correlated with worse cosmetic outcomes. Conclusions Accelerated partial breast irradiation using a multi-lumen applicator in patients with existing breast implants can safely be performed with promising early clinical results. The presence of the implant did not compromise the ability to achieve dosimetric criteria; however, dose to the implant and the irradiated implant volume may be related with worse cosmetic outcomes. PMID:26816499

  2. Initial experience with dual-lumen balloon catheter injection for preoperative Onyx embolization of skull base paragangliomas.

    PubMed

    Ladner, Travis R; He, Lucy; Davis, Brandon J; Yang, George L; Wanna, George B; Mocco, J

    2016-06-01

    OBJECT Paragangliomas are highly vascular head and neck tumors for which preoperative embolization is often considered to facilitate resection. The authors evaluated their initial experience using a dual-lumen balloon to facilitate preoperative embolization in 5 consecutive patients who underwent preoperative transarterial Onyx embolization assisted by the Scepter dual-lumen balloon catheter between 2012 and 2014. OBJECT The authors reviewed the demographic and clinical records of 5 patients who underwent Scepter-assisted Onyx embolization of a paraganglioma followed by resection between 2012 and 2014. Descriptive statistics of clinical outcomes were assessed. RESULTS Five patients (4 with a jugular and 1 with a vagal paraganglioma) were identified. Three paragangliomas were embolized in a single session, and each of the other 2 were completed in 3 staged sessions. The mean volume of Onyx used was 14.3 ml (range 6-30 ml). Twenty-seven vessels were selectively catheterized for embolization. All patients required selective embolization via multiple vessels. Two patients required sacrifice of parent vessels (1 petrocavernous internal carotid artery and 1 vertebral artery) after successful balloon test occlusion. One patient underwent embolization with Onyx-18 alone, 2 with Onyx-34 alone, and 1 with Onyx-18 and -34. In each case, migration of Onyx was achieved within the tumor parenchyma. The mean time between embolization and resection was 3.8 days (range 1-8 days). Gross-total resection was achieved in 3 (60%) patients, and the other 2 patients had minimal residual tumor. The mean estimated blood loss during the resections was 556 ml (range 200-850 ml). The mean postoperative hematocrit level change was -17.3%. Two patients required blood transfusions. One patient, who underwent extensive tumor penetration with Onyx, developed a temporary partial cranial nerve VII palsy that resolved to House-Brackmann Grade I (out of VI) at the 6-month follow-up. One patient

  3. Misoprostol in the intestinal lumen protects against radiation injury of the mucosa of the small bowel

    SciTech Connect

    Delaney, J.P.; Bonsack, M.E.; Felemovicius, I. )

    1994-03-01

    Systemically administered misoprostol, a PGE analog, has been shown to be an intestinal radioprotector. The purpose of this study was to determine if administration of misoprostol into the intestinal lumen can also reduce the severity of acute radiation enteritis. The rat small bowel was operatively exteriorized and segmented by means of suture ties. The remainder of the intestine and the rat were shielded in a lead box. Misoprostol was introduced into the lumen in various doses. After 30 min exposure to misoprostol, the isolated, exteriorized, segmented bowel was subjected to 11 Gy X irradiation. Five days later the animals were sacrificed and the intestines harvested for evaluation. Surviving crypt numbers per circumference and mucosal height were the criteria used for quantification of damage. Mucosa exposed to misoprostol at the time of radiation delivery showed significantly increased crypt numbers and mucosal height compared to adjacent saline-filled intestine. 24 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Regulating Ion Transport in Peptide Nanotubes by Tailoring the Nanotube Lumen Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Luis; Benjamin, Ari; Sullivan, Matthew; Keten, Sinan

    2015-05-07

    We use atomistic nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to demonstrate how specific ionic flux in peptide nanotubes can be regulated by tailoring the lumen chemistry through single amino acid substitutions. By varying the size and polarity of the functional group inserted into the nanotube interior, we are able to adjust the Na(+) flux by over an order of magnitude. Cl(-) is consistently denied passage. Bulky, nonpolar groups encourage interactions between the Na(+) and the peptide backbone carbonyl groups, disrupting the Na(+) solvation shell and slowing the transport of Na(+). Small groups have the opposite effect and accelerate flow. These results suggest that relative ion flux and selectivity can be precisely regulated in subnanometer pores by molecularly defining the lumen according to biological principles.

  5. Intraoperative transillumination with water-filling of lumen for localizing lesions in occult small bowel bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiangheng; Cao, Yuning; Yang, Daogui; Li, Senlin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Occult small bowel bleeding is always difficult to locate by either radiological examination or endoscopy. When the site of bleeding cannot be found by nonsurgical measures, exploratory laparotomy becomes necessary. Patient concerns: A 63-year-old woman with a half-month history of occult gastrointestinal bleeding failed to many conservative therapies. Interventions: Intraoperative transillumination with water-filling of lumen was performed. Diagnoses: Small bowel bleeding was diagnosed intraoperatively. Outcomes: Segmental resection of the diseased small bowel with side-to-side anastomosis was performed while the histology showed no significant abnormality. Lessons: The technique of intraoperative transillumination with water-filling of lumen allows simple, accurate, and rapid localization of lesions in occult small bowel bleeding and facilitates precise and definitive surgery. PMID:28151907

  6. Incorporating mobile nanospheres in the lumen of hybrid microcapsules for enhanced enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiafu; Zhang, Xiaoman; Zhang, Shaohua; Wang, Xiaoli; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2013-11-13

    Physical encapsulation of enzymes in microcapsules, as a mild, controllable method, has been widely utilized for enzyme immobilization. However, this method often suffers from the big mass transfer resistance from the capsule lumen. In this study, a novel biocatalysis system with enhanced catalytic activity is constructed through coencapsulating enzymes and nanospheres in the lumen of protamine/silica hybrid microcapsules, which are synthesized through the synergy of biomimetic silicification and layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. When utilized as the host for catalase (CAT) encapsulation, the hybrid microcapsules maintain high mechanical stability, high enzyme loading, and low enzyme leaching. Particularly, because of the existence of mobile nanospheres, the mass transfer resistance in the microcapsules is significantly reduced because of the vigorous agitation, thus acquiring an enhanced catalytic activity. Our strategy may also find applications in drug delivery and biosensor fields.

  7. Hymenolepis diminuta and H. nana: cross immunity against the lumen phase in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Ito, A; Onitake, K

    1987-08-01

    When BALB/c mice initially given cysticercoids of Hymenolepis diminuta orally (Day 0) were challenged with eggs or cysticercoids of H. nana, almost all the mice became completely resistant to H. nana challenges from Day 30 onward, and no luminal adults of H. nana were established. There was a tendency for the number of tissue cysticercoids recovered 4 days after egg challenge in immunized mice to be much less than that in control mice (P less than 0.001, Student's t test). However, when these cysticercoids recovered from immune group mice were inoculated into uninfected mice, they matured in the lumen. Thus, the cross immunity to H. nana challenge evoked by an initial prepatent infection with H. diminuta appeared to be directed not against the tissue phase but against the lumen phase of H. nana. When BALB/c mice initially given eggs of H. nana were challenged with H. diminuta, they became resistant to H. diminuta from Day 15 onward. When the mice given eggs of H. nana were treated with a cestocide, praziquantel, at the beginning of the expected luminal development of H. nana and experienced a tissue phase only before challenge with H. diminuta, they showed no resistance to H. diminuta. Thus, the cross immunity to H. diminuta challenge evoked by an initial patent infection with H. nana appeared to be due to the immunogens of the lumen phase of H. nana but not those of the tissue phase. The cross immunity may be, therefore, essentially evoked by the lumen phase of these two phylogenetically closely related species and not by or against the tissue phase of H. nana.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. The Fast and Easy Way for Double-Lumen Tube Intubation: Individual Angle-Modification

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jeong Jin; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kang, Se Hee; Kim, Eunhee; Lee, Sangmin M.; Cho, Jong Ho; Kim, Hong Kwan

    2016-01-01

    To find the faster and easier way than the existing intubating technique for double-lumen tube, we modified the angle of double-lumen tube according to an individual’s upper airway anatomy and compared the time needed and the number of attempts for successful intubation between individually angle-modified and non-modified double-lumen tubes. Adult patients undergoing elective thoracic surgery were randomly allocated in either non-angle-modified (Group N, n = 54) or angle-modified (Group M, n = 54) groups. During mask ventilation in the sniffing position, angle-modification was performed in Group M as follows: the distal tip of the tube was placed at the level of the cricoid cartilage and the shaft was bent at the intersection of the oral and pharyngeal axes estimated from the patient’s surface anatomy. The time needed and the number of attempts for successful intubation and Cormack and Lehane (C-L) grade were recorded. Overall median intubation time (sec) was significantly shorter in Group M than in Group N [10.2 vs. 15.1, P<0.001]. In addition, Group M showed the shorter median intubation time (sec) in C-L grades I-III [8.2 vs. 11.1 in C-L grade I, (P = 0.003), 10.3 vs. 15.3 in II, (P = 0.001), and 11.8 vs. 27.9 in III, (P<0.001), respectively]. Moreover, all intubation was successfully performed at the first attempt in patients with C-L grades I-III in Group M (P = 0.027). Our study showed an individual angle-modification would be useful for the fast and easy intubation of double-lumen tube in patients with C-L grades I-III. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02190032 PMID:27537372

  9. Automatic coronary lumen segmentation with partial volume modeling improves lesions' hemodynamic significance assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freiman, M.; Lamash, Y.; Gilboa, G.; Nickisch, H.; Prevrhal, S.; Schmitt, H.; Vembar, M.; Goshen, L.

    2016-03-01

    The determination of hemodynamic significance of coronary artery lesions from cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) based on blood flow simulations has the potential to improve CCTA's specificity, thus resulting in improved clinical decision making. Accurate coronary lumen segmentation required for flow simulation is challenging due to several factors. Specifically, the partial-volume effect (PVE) in small-diameter lumina may result in overestimation of the lumen diameter that can lead to an erroneous hemodynamic significance assessment. In this work, we present a coronary artery segmentation algorithm tailored specifically for flow simulations by accounting for the PVE. Our algorithm detects lumen regions that may be subject to the PVE by analyzing the intensity values along the coronary centerline and integrates this information into a machine-learning based graph min-cut segmentation framework to obtain accurate coronary lumen segmentations. We demonstrate the improvement in hemodynamic significance assessment achieved by accounting for the PVE in the automatic segmentation of 91 coronary artery lesions from 85 patients. We compare hemodynamic significance assessments by means of fractional flow reserve (FFR) resulting from simulations on 3D models generated by our segmentation algorithm with and without accounting for the PVE. By accounting for the PVE we improved the area under the ROC curve for detecting hemodynamically significant CAD by 29% (N=91, 0.85 vs. 0.66, p<0.05, Delong's test) with invasive FFR threshold of 0.8 as the reference standard. Our algorithm has the potential to facilitate non-invasive hemodynamic significance assessment of coronary lesions.

  10. Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, Michael P.

    2014-12-01

    The lumen depreciation and color shift of 38 different lamps (32 LED, 2 CFL, 1 ceramic metal halide [CMH], 3 halogen) were monitored in a specially developed automated long-term test apparatus (ALTA2) for nearly 14,000 hours. Five samples of each lamp model were tested, with measurements recorded on a weekly basis. The lamps were operated continuously at a target ambient temperature between 44°C and 45°C.

  11. Burkholderia pseudomallei kills Caenorhabditis elegans through virulence mechanisms distinct from intestinal lumen colonization

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Soon-Keat; Lim, Tian-Yeh; Lee, Song-Hua; Nathan, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is hypersusceptible to Burkholderia pseudomallei infection. However, the virulence mechanisms underlying rapid lethality of C. elegans upon B. pseudomallei infection remain poorly defined. To probe the host-pathogen interaction, we constructed GFP-tagged B. pseudomallei and followed bacterial accumulation within the C. elegans intestinal lumen. Contrary to slow-killing by most bacterial pathogens, B. pseudomallei caused fairly limited intestinal lumen colonization throughout the period of observation. Using grinder-defective mutant worms that allow the entry of intact bacteria also did not result in full intestinal lumen colonization. In addition, we observed a significant decline in C. elegans defecation and pharyngeal pumping rates upon B. pseudomallei infection. The decline in defecation rates ruled out the contribution of defecation to the limited B. pseudomallei colonization. We also demonstrated that the limited intestinal lumen colonization was not attributed to slowed host feeding as bacterial loads did not change significantly when feeding was stimulated by exogenous serotonin. Both these observations confirm that B. pseudomallei is a poor colonizer of the C. elegans intestine. To explore the possibility of toxin-mediated killing, we examined the transcription of the C. elegans ABC transporter gene, pgp-5, upon B. pseudomallei infection of the ppgp-5::gfp reporter strain. Expression of pgp-5 was highly induced, notably in the pharynx and intestine, compared with Escherichia coli-fed worms, suggesting that the host actively thwarted the pathogenic assaults during infection. Collectively, our findings propose that B. pseudomallei specifically and continuously secretes toxins to overcome C. elegans immune responses. PMID:23076282

  12. The uterine lumen of the pregnant guinea-pig contains a large macrophage population.

    PubMed

    Sype, W; Lentfer, K; Kimberly, D J; Smith, M K; Van Meter, L; Thornburg, K L

    1989-01-01

    Cellular constituents of the uterine lumen were investigated. Fourteen pregnant sows of 40 + days' gestation were anaesthetized and naturally occurring peritoneal fluid was collected. A uterine horn was delivered and 0.25 ml Gey's solution injected into the uterine lumen to collect free cells. The fluid was aspirated into a syringe and the cells extracted, counted and prepared for phagocytosis experiments and microscopy. The cells were stained with alpha-naphthyl-acetate-esterase (ANAE) to determine the fraction that was non-specific esterase-positive, a feature of mononuclear phagocytes. Differential cells counts were also made. Both uterine and peritoneal compartments yielded large numbers of cells (greater than 10(6)/ml). Peritoneal fluid cells were 47 +/- 6 per cent (SD) macrophages and 49 +/- 6 per cent eosinophils (the remainder being 'other' cells); 47 +/- 6 per cent also stained positively for ANAE. Uterine cells were 78 +/- 12 per cent macrophages, the remainder being mostly lymphocytes (18 +/- 11 per cent); 85 +/- 13 per cent stained positively with ANAE. Electron microscopy of the uterine cells confirmed that most had morphology consistent with being mononuclear phagocytes. Uterine and peritoneal cells phagocytized carbon particles and yeast cells when incubated at 37 degrees C. The origin and role of this macrophage population is unknown but uterine lumenal macrophages may be present to remove antigen-antibody complexes thus facilitating uptake of maternally derived IgG by the fetal yolk sac.

  13. VE-cadherin interacts with cell polarity protein Pals1 to regulate vascular lumen formation.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Benjamin F; Steinbacher, Tim; Hartmann, Christian; Kummer, Daniel; Pajonczyk, Denise; Mirzapourshafiyi, Fatemeh; Nakayama, Masanori; Weide, Thomas; Gerke, Volker; Ebnet, Klaus

    2016-09-15

    Blood vessel tubulogenesis requires the formation of stable cell-to-cell contacts and the establishment of apicobasal polarity of vascular endothelial cells. Cell polarity is regulated by highly conserved cell polarity protein complexes such as the Par3-aPKC-Par6 complex and the CRB3-Pals1-PATJ complex, which are expressed by many different cell types and regulate various aspects of cell polarity. Here we describe a functional interaction of VE-cadherin with the cell polarity protein Pals1. Pals1 directly interacts with VE-cadherin through a membrane-proximal motif in the cytoplasmic domain of VE-cadherin. VE-cadherin clusters Pals1 at cell-cell junctions. Mutating the Pals1-binding motif in VE-cadherin abrogates the ability of VE-cadherin to regulate apicobasal polarity and vascular lumen formation. In a similar way, deletion of the Par3-binding motif at the C-terminus of VE-cadherin impairs apicobasal polarity and vascular lumen formation. Our findings indicate that the biological activity of VE-cadherin in regulating endothelial polarity and vascular lumen formation is mediated through its interaction with the two cell polarity proteins Pals1 and Par3.

  14. Automatic detection of the carotid lumen axis in B-mode ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Rui; Silva, Jorge; Campilho, Aurélio

    2014-07-01

    A new approach is introduced for the automatic detection of the lumen axis of the common carotid artery in B-mode ultrasound images. The image is smoothed using a Gaussian filter and then a dynamic programming scheme extracts the dominant paths of local minima of the intensity and the dominant paths of local maxima of the gradient magnitude with the gradient pointing downwards. Since these paths are possible estimates of the lumen axis and the far wall of a blood vessel, respectively, they are grouped together into pairs. Then, a pattern of two features is computed from each pair of paths and used as input to a linear discriminant classifier in order to select the pair of paths that correspond to the common carotid artery. The estimated lumen axis is the path of local minima of the intensity that belongs to the selected pair of paths. The proposed method is suited to real time processing, no user interaction is required and the number of parameters is minimal and easy to determine. The validation was performed using two datasets, with a total of 199 images, and has shown a success rate of 99.5% (100% if only the carotid regions for which a ground truth is available are considered). The datasets have a large diversity of images, including cases of arteries with plaque and images with heavy noise, text or other graphical markings inside the artery region.

  15. VE-cadherin interacts with cell polarity protein Pals1 to regulate vascular lumen formation

    PubMed Central

    Brinkmann, Benjamin F.; Steinbacher, Tim; Hartmann, Christian; Kummer, Daniel; Pajonczyk, Denise; Mirzapourshafiyi, Fatemeh; Nakayama, Masanori; Weide, Thomas; Gerke, Volker; Ebnet, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Blood vessel tubulogenesis requires the formation of stable cell-to-cell contacts and the establishment of apicobasal polarity of vascular endothelial cells. Cell polarity is regulated by highly conserved cell polarity protein complexes such as the Par3-aPKC-Par6 complex and the CRB3-Pals1-PATJ complex, which are expressed by many different cell types and regulate various aspects of cell polarity. Here we describe a functional interaction of VE-cadherin with the cell polarity protein Pals1. Pals1 directly interacts with VE-cadherin through a membrane-proximal motif in the cytoplasmic domain of VE-cadherin. VE-cadherin clusters Pals1 at cell–cell junctions. Mutating the Pals1-binding motif in VE-cadherin abrogates the ability of VE-cadherin to regulate apicobasal polarity and vascular lumen formation. In a similar way, deletion of the Par3-binding motif at the C-terminus of VE-cadherin impairs apicobasal polarity and vascular lumen formation. Our findings indicate that the biological activity of VE-cadherin in regulating endothelial polarity and vascular lumen formation is mediated through its interaction with the two cell polarity proteins Pals1 and Par3. PMID:27466317

  16. Short communication: Repeat breeder cows with fluid in the uterine lumen had poorer fertility.

    PubMed

    Jaureguiberry, M; Giuliodori, M J; Mang, A V; Madoz, L V; Pothmann, H; Drillich, M; de la Sota, R L

    2017-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to test the association between the presence of fluid in uterine lumen and the fertility of repeat breeder cows (RBC). Grazing Holstein cows that were clinically normal and were not pregnant after at least 3 consecutive inseminations were defined as RBC and included in the study (n = 358). A cut-point ≥2 mm of uterine lumen visible by ultrasonography was used as indicative of the presence of fluid in the uterus. The effect of this fluid on the fertility of RBC was assessed by mixed logistic regression. Twenty percent of the RBC had ≥2 mm of fluid in their uterus, and this finding was associated with a marked reduction in the odds of conception (odds ratio = 0.46). Additional intrauterine sampling revealed that 24.0% of RBC showed signs of subclinical endometritis [≥5% neutrophils in endometrial cytology (SCE)]. However, we found no agreement between the finding of uterine fluid and the diagnosis of SCE (kappa coefficient = 0.03, 95% confidence interval = -0.07 to 0.14). In conclusion, the presence of fluid (≥2 mm) in uterine lumen, detected by ultrasonography, was associated with lower fertility in RBC, but was not related to the diagnosis of SCE. Thus, ultrasonographic evaluation is an important tool to assist in assessment of RBC.

  17. A physics-based intravascular ultrasound image reconstruction method for lumen segmentation.

    PubMed

    Mendizabal-Ruiz, Gerardo; Kakadiaris, Ioannis A

    2016-08-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) refers to the medical imaging technique consisting of a miniaturized ultrasound transducer located at the tip of a catheter that can be introduced in the blood vessels providing high-resolution, cross-sectional images of their interior. Current methods for the generation of an IVUS image reconstruction from radio frequency (RF) data do not account for the physics involved in the interaction between the IVUS ultrasound signal and the tissues of the vessel. In this paper, we present a novel method to generate an IVUS image reconstruction based on the use of a scattering model that considers the tissues of the vessel as a distribution of three-dimensional point scatterers. We evaluated the impact of employing the proposed IVUS image reconstruction method in the segmentation of the lumen/wall interface on 40MHz IVUS data using an existing automatic lumen segmentation method. We compared the results with those obtained using the B-mode reconstruction on 600 randomly selected frames from twelve pullback sequences acquired from rabbit aortas and different arteries of swine. Our results indicate the feasibility of employing the proposed IVUS image reconstruction for the segmentation of the lumen.

  18. Theoretical studies of the infrared emission from circumstellar dust shells: the infrared characteristics of circumstellar silicates and the mass-loss rate of oxygen-rich late-type giants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, W. A.; Tielens, A. G.; Allamandola, L. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1989-01-01

    We have modeled the infrared emission of spherically symmetric, circumstellar dust shells with the aim of deriving the infrared absorption properties of circumstellar silicate grains and the mass-loss rates of the central stars. As a basis for our numerical studies, a simple semianalytical formula has been derived that illustrates the essential characteristics of the infrared emission of such dust shells. A numerical radiative transfer program has been developed and applied to dust shells around oxygen-rich late-type giants. Free parameters in such models include the absorption properties and density distribution of the dust. An approximate, analytical expression is derived for the density distribution of circumstellar dust driven outward by radiation pressure from a central source. A large grid of models has been calculated to study the influence of the free parameters on the emergent spectrum. These results form the basis for a comparison with near-infrared observations. Observational studies have revealed a correlation between the near-infrared color temperature, Tc, and the strength of the 10 micrometers emission or absorption feature, A10. This relationship, which essentially measures the near-infrared optical depth in terms of the 10 micrometers optical depth, is discussed. Theoretical A10-Tc relations have been calculated and compared to the observations. The results show that this relation is a sensitive way to determine the ratio of the near-infrared to 10 micrometers absorption efficiency of circumstellar silicates. These results as well as previous studies show that the near-infrared absorption efficiency of circumstellar silicate grains is much higher than expected from terrestrial minerals. We suggest that this enhanced absorption is due to the presence of ferrous iron (Fe2+) color centers dissolved in the circumstellar silicates. By using the derived value for the ratio of the near-infrared to 10 micrometers absorption efficiency, the observed A10-Tc

  19. IL-17A promotes protective IgA responses and expression of other potential effectors against the lumen-dwelling enteric parasite Giardia.

    PubMed

    Dann, Sara M; Manthey, Carolin F; Le, Christine; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Gima, Lauren; Abrahim, Andrew; Cao, Anthony T; Hanson, Elaine M; Kolls, Jay K; Raz, Eyal; Cong, Yingzi; Eckmann, Lars

    2015-09-01

    Giardia lamblia is a leading protozoan cause of diarrheal disease worldwide. It colonizes the lumen and epithelial surface of the small intestine, but does not invade the mucosa. Acute infection causes only minimal mucosal inflammation. Effective immune defenses exist, yet their identity and mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Interleukin (IL)-17A has emerged as an important cytokine involved in inflammation and antimicrobial defense against bacterial pathogens at mucosal surfaces. In this study, we demonstrate that IL-17A has a crucial function in host defense against Giardia infection. Using murine infection models with G. muris and G. lamblia, we observed marked and selective induction of intestinal IL-17A with peak expression after 2 weeks. Th17 cells in the lamina propria and innate immune cells in the epithelial compartment of the small intestine were responsible for the IL-17A response. Experiments in gene-targeted mice revealed that the cytokine, and its cognate receptor IL-17RA, were required for eradication of the parasite. The actions of the cytokine were mediated by hematopoietic cells, and were required for the transport of IgA into the intestinal lumen, since IL-17A deficiency led to marked reduction of fecal IgA levels, as well as for increased intestinal expression of several other potential effectors, including β-defensin 1 and resistin-like molecule β. In contrast, intestinal hypermotility, another major antigiardial defense mechanism, was not impacted by IL-17A loss. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that IL-17A and IL-17 receptor signaling are essential for intestinal defense against the important lumen-dwelling intestinal parasite Giardia.

  20. Improved Hemocompatibility of Multilumen Catheters via Nitric Oxide (NO) Release from S-Nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) Composite Filled Lumen.

    PubMed

    Brisbois, Elizabeth J; Kim, Maria; Wang, Xuewei; Mohammed, Azmath; Major, Terry C; Wu, Jianfeng; Brownstein, Jessica; Xi, Chuanwu; Handa, Hitesh; Bartlett, Robert H; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2016-11-02

    Blood-contacting devices, such as intravascular catheters, suffer from challenges related to thrombus formation and infection. Nitric oxide (NO) is an endogenous antiplatelet and antimicrobial agent. Exogenous release of NO from various polymer matrices has been shown to reduce thrombosis and infection of/on implantable medical devices. However, the clinical applications of such materials have been hindered due to factors such as NO donor leaching and thermal instability. In this study, a novel approach is demonstrated in which one lumen of commercial dual lumen catheters is dedicated to the NO release chemistry, allowing the other lumen to be available for clinical vascular access. A composite consisting of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) is used to fill the NO-releasing lumen of commercial 7 French silicone catheters. Physiological levels of NO are released from the SNAP-PEG catheters for up to 14 d, as measured by chemiluminescence NO analyzer (in PBS buffer at 37 °C). PEG facilitates the NO release from SNAP within the lumen by increasing the water absorption and slowly dissolving the solid SNAP-PEG composite. In a CDC biofilm bioreactor, the SNAP-PEG catheters are found to reduce >97% bacterial adhesion as compared to the PEG controls for single bacterial species including E. coli and S. aureus. SNAP-PEG and PEG control catheters were implanted in rabbit veins for 7 h (single lumen) and 11 d (dual lumen) to evaluate their hemocompatibility properties. Significant reductions in thrombus formation on the SNAP-PEG vs PEG controls were observed, with ca. 85% reduction for 7 h single lumen catheters and ca. 55% reduction for 11 d dual lumen catheters.

  1. [Rupture of left main bronchus due to a left double-lumen tube in patient with a history of radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Bilbao Ares, A; Romero Menchaca, O; Ramírez Gil, E; Castañeda Pascual, M; Guelbenzu Zazpe, J; Salvador Bravo, M

    2015-04-01

    Airway injury caused by double-lumen tubes is a rare but potentially serious complication. We describe the case of a patient who had a bronchial rupture during one-lung ventilation with left double-lumen tube, complicated with a secondary cardiac arrest. She had a full recovery without sequelae. Underlying causes of the patient were a history of radiotherapy, and a possible overinflation of bronchial cuff, that it could contribute to the development of this complication. The possible airway injury should be considered by all practitioners who employ double-lumen tubes for the care of their patients.

  2. Late results.

    PubMed

    Daly, B D

    1999-08-01

    Pneumonectomy is performed for a number of benign and malignant conditions. It is most commonly performed for lung cancer. Adjuvant and neoadjuvant protocols have increased the number of these operations being performed and the long-term results are improving. Pneumonectomy may also be performed for metastases to lung and for mesothelioma with encouraging results. Some bronchial adenomas require pneumonectomy. Treatment of resistant mycobacteria or the complications of tuberculosis frequently require pneumonectomy. Late bronchopleural fistulae, esophagopleural fistulae, and empyema may occur.

  3. A lumenal domain-dependent pathway for sorting to intralumenal vesicles of multivesicular endosomes involved in organelle morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Theos, Alexander C; Truschel, Steven T; Tenza, Daniele; Hurbain, Ilse; Harper, Dawn C; Berson, Joanne F; Thomas, Penelope C; Raposo, Graça; Marks, Michael S

    2006-03-01

    Cargo partitioning into intralumenal vesicles (ILVs) of multivesicular endosomes underlies such cellular processes as receptor downregulation, viral budding, and biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles such as melanosomes. We show that the melanosomal protein Pmel17 is sorted into ILVs by a mechanism that is dependent upon lumenal determinants and conserved in non-pigment cells. Pmel17 targeting to ILVs does not require its native cytoplasmic domain or cytoplasmic residues targeted by ubiquitylation and, unlike sorting of ubiquitylated cargo, is insensitive to functional inhibition of Hrs and ESCRT complexes. Chimeric protein and deletion analyses indicate that two N-terminal lumenal subdomains are necessary and sufficient for ILV targeting. Pmel17 fibril formation, which occurs during melanosome maturation in melanocytes, requires a third lumenal subdomain and proteolytic processing that itself requires ILV localization. These results establish an Hrs- and perhaps ESCRT-independent pathway of ILV sorting by lumenal determinants and a requirement for ILV sorting in fibril formation.

  4. Contura Multi-Lumen Balloon Breast Brachytherapy Catheter: Comparative Dosimetric Findings of a Phase 4 Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, Douglas W.; Vicini, Frank A.; Julian, Thomas B.; Cuttino, Laurie W.; Mukhopadhyay, Nitai D.

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Final dosimetric findings of a completed, multi-institutional phase 4 registry trial using the Contura Multi-Lumen Balloon (MLB) breast brachytherapy catheter to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in patients with early-stage breast cancer are presented. Methods and Materials: Three dosimetric plans with identical target coverage were generated for each patient for comparison: multilumen multidwell (MLMD); central-lumen multidwell (CLMD); and central-lumen single-dwell (CLSD) loading of the Contura catheter. For this study, a successful treatment plan achieved ideal dosimetric goals and included the following: ≥95% of the prescribed dose (PD) covering ≥95% of the target volume (TV); maximum skin dose ≤125% of the PD; maximum rib dose ≤145% of the PD; and V150 ≤50 cc and V200 ≤10 cc. Results: Between January 2008 and February 2011, 23 institutions participated. A total of 318 patients were available for dosimetric review. Using the Contura MLB, all dosimetric criteria were met in 78.93% of cases planned with MLMD versus 55.38% with the CLMD versus 37.66% with the CLSD (P≤.0001). Evaluating all patients with the full range of skin to balloon distance represented, median maximum skin dose was reduced by 12% and median maximum rib dose by 13.9% when using MLMD-based dosimetric plans compared to CLSD. The dosimetric benefit of MLMD was further demonstrated in the subgroup of patients where skin thickness was <5 mm, where MLMD use allowed a 38% reduction in median maximum skin dose over CLSD. For patients with rib distance <5 mm, the median maximum rib dose reduction was 27%. Conclusions: Use of the Contura MLB catheter produced statistically significant improvements in dosimetric capabilities between CLSD and CLMD treatments. This device approach demonstrates the ability not only to overcome the barriers of limited skin thickness and close rib proximity, but to consistently achieve a higher standard of dosimetric planning goals.

  5. The microbiota mediates pathogen clearance from the gut lumen after non-typhoidal Salmonella diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Endt, Kathrin; Stecher, Bärbel; Chaffron, Samuel; Slack, Emma; Tchitchek, Nicolas; Benecke, Arndt; Van Maele, Laurye; Sirard, Jean-Claude; Mueller, Andreas J; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Macpherson, Andrew J; Strugnell, Richard; von Mering, Christian; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2010-09-09

    Many enteropathogenic bacteria target the mammalian gut. The mechanisms protecting the host from infection are poorly understood. We have studied the protective functions of secretory antibodies (sIgA) and the microbiota, using a mouse model for S. typhimurium diarrhea. This pathogen is a common cause of diarrhea in humans world-wide. S. typhimurium (S. tm(att), sseD) causes a self-limiting gut infection in streptomycin-treated mice. After 40 days, all animals had overcome the disease, developed a sIgA response, and most had cleared the pathogen from the gut lumen. sIgA limited pathogen access to the mucosal surface and protected from gut inflammation in challenge infections. This protection was O-antigen specific, as demonstrated with pathogens lacking the S. typhimurium O-antigen (wbaP, S. enteritidis) and sIgA-deficient mice (TCRβ(-/-)δ(-/-), J(H) (-/-), IgA(-/-), pIgR(-/-)). Surprisingly, sIgA-deficiency did not affect the kinetics of pathogen clearance from the gut lumen. Instead, this was mediated by the microbiota. This was confirmed using 'L-mice' which harbor a low complexity gut flora, lack colonization resistance and develop a normal sIgA response, but fail to clear S. tm(att) from the gut lumen. In these mice, pathogen clearance was achieved by transferring a normal complex microbiota. Thus, besides colonization resistance ( = pathogen blockage by an intact microbiota), the microbiota mediates a second, novel protective function, i.e. pathogen clearance. Here, the normal microbiota re-grows from a state of depletion and disturbed composition and gradually clears even very high pathogen loads from the gut lumen, a site inaccessible to most "classical" immune effector mechanisms. In conclusion, sIgA and microbiota serve complementary protective functions. The microbiota confers colonization resistance and mediates pathogen clearance in primary infections, while sIgA protects from disease if the host re-encounters the same pathogen. This has

  6. A new fluorescence-based method to monitor the pH in the thylakoid lumen using GFP variants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong; Pu, Xiaojun; Wang, Lu; Liu, Li; Theg, Steven M

    2016-12-08

    The ΔpH-dependent/Tat pathway is unique for using only the proton motive force for driving proteins transport across the thylakoid membrane in chloroplasts. 9-aminoacridine fluorescence quenching is widely used to monitor the ΔpH developed across the thylakoid membrane in the light. However, this method suffers from limited sensitivity to low ΔpH values and to spurious fluorescence signals due to membrane binding. In order to develop a more sensitive method for monitoring the real pH of the thylakoid lumen without these problems we transformed Arabidopsis thaliana with a ratiometric pH-sensitive GFP variant (termed pHluorin) targeted to the lumen by the prOE17 transit peptide. Positive transgenic plants displayed localization of pHluorin in the chloroplast by confocal microscopy, and fractionation experiments revealed that it is in the lumen. The pHluorin signal was the strongest in very young plants and diminished as the plants matured. The pHluorin released from the lumen displayed the expected fluorescence intensity changes in response to pH titration. The fluorescence signal in isolated chloroplasts responded to illumination in a manner consistent with light-dependent lumen acidification. Future experiments will exploit the use of this new pH-indicating probe of the thylakoid lumen to examine the influence of the thylakoid ΔpH on ATP synthesis and protein transport.

  7. In Vitro Budding of Intralumenal Vesicles into Late Endosomes Is Regulated by Alix and Tsg101

    PubMed Central

    Falguières, Thomas; Luyet, Pierre-Philippe; Bissig, Christin; Scott, Cameron C.; Velluz, Marie-Claire

    2008-01-01

    Endosomes along the degradation pathway leading to lysosomes accumulate membranes in their lumen and thus exhibit a characteristic multivesicular appearance. These lumenal membranes typically incorporate down-regulated EGF receptor destined for degradation, but the mechanisms that control their formation remain poorly characterized. Here, we describe a novel quantitative biochemical assay that reconstitutes the formation of lumenal vesicles within late endosomes in vitro. Vesicle budding into the endosome lumen was time-, temperature-, pH-, and energy-dependent and required cytosolic factors and endosome membrane components. Our light and electron microscopy analysis showed that the compartment supporting the budding process was accessible to endocytosed bulk tracers and EGF receptor. We also found that the EGF receptor became protected against trypsin in our assay, indicating that it was sorted into the intraendosomal vesicles that were formed in vitro. Our data show that the formation of intralumenal vesicles is ESCRT-dependent, because the process was inhibited by the K173Q dominant negative mutant of hVps4. Moreover, we find that the ESCRT-I subunit Tsg101 and its partner Alix control intralumenal vesicle formation, by acting as positive and negative regulators, respectively. We conclude that budding of the limiting membrane toward the late endosome lumen, which leads to the formation of intraendosomal vesicles, is controlled by the positive and negative functions of Tsg101 and Alix, respectively. PMID:18768755

  8. SAS-6 assembly templated by the lumen of cartwheel-less centrioles precedes centriole duplication.

    PubMed

    Fong, Chii Shyang; Kim, Minhee; Yang, T Tony; Liao, Jung-Chi; Tsou, Meng-Fu Bryan

    2014-07-28

    Centrioles are 9-fold symmetric structures duplicating once per cell cycle. Duplication involves self-oligomerization of the centriolar protein SAS-6, but how the 9-fold symmetry is invariantly established remains unclear. Here, we found that SAS-6 assembly can be shaped by preexisting (or mother) centrioles. During S phase, SAS-6 molecules are first recruited to the proximal lumen of the mother centriole, adopting a cartwheel-like organization through interactions with the luminal wall, rather than via their self-oligomerization activity. The removal or release of luminal SAS-6 requires Plk4 and the cartwheel protein STIL. Abolishing either the recruitment or the removal of luminal SAS-6 hinders SAS-6 (or centriole) assembly at the outside wall of mother centrioles. After duplication, the lumen of engaged mother centrioles becomes inaccessible to SAS-6, correlating with a block for reduplication. These results lead to a proposed model that centrioles may duplicate via a template-based process to preserve their geometry and copy number.

  9. Cingulin and actin mediate midbody-dependent apical lumen formation during polarization of epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Mangan, Anthony J.; Sietsema, Daniel V.; Li, Dongying; Moore, Jeffrey K.; Citi, Sandra; Prekeris, Rytis

    2016-01-01

    Coordinated polarization of epithelial cells is a key step during morphogenesis that leads to the formation of an apical lumen. Rab11 and its interacting protein FIP5 are necessary for the targeting of apical endosomes to the midbody and apical membrane initiation site (AMIS) during lumenogenesis. However, the machinery that mediates AMIS establishment and FIP5-endosome targeting remains unknown. Here we identify a FIP5-interacting protein, Cingulin, which localizes to the AMIS and functions as a tether mediating FIP5-endosome targeting. We analysed the machinery mediating AMIS recruitment to the midbody and determined that both branched actin and microtubules are required for establishing the site of the nascent lumen. We demonstrate that the Rac1-WAVE/Scar complex mediates Cingulin recruitment to the AMIS by inducing branched actin formation, and that Cingulin directly binds to microtubule C-terminal tails through electrostatic interactions. We propose a new mechanism for apical endosome targeting and AMIS formation around the midbody during epithelial lumenogenesis. PMID:27484926

  10. Changes in pulmonary arterial wall mechanical properties and lumenal architecture with induced vascular remodeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molthen, Robert C.; Heinrich, Amy E.; Haworth, Steven T.; Dawson, Christopher A.

    2004-04-01

    To explore and quantify pulmonary arterial remodeling we used various methods including micro-CT, high-resolution 3-dimensional x-ray imaging, to examine the structure and function of intact pulmonary vessels in isolated rat lungs. The rat is commonly used as an animal model for studies of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and the accompanying vascular remodeling, where vascular remodeling has been defined primarily by changes in the vessel wall composition in response to hypertension inducing stimuli such as chronic hypoxic exposure (CHE) or monocrotaline (MCT) injection. Little information has been provided as to how such changes affect the vessel wall mechanical properties or the lumenal architecture of the pulmonary arterial system that actually account for the hemodynamic consequences of the remodeling. In addition, although the link between primary forms of pulmonary hypertension and inherited genetics is well established, the role that genetic coding plays in hemodynamics and vascular remodeling is not. Therefore, we are utilizing Fawn-Hooded (FH), Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Brown Norway (BN)rat strains along with unique imaging methods to parameterize both vessel distensibility and lumenal morphometry using a principal pulmonary arterial pathway analysis based on self-consistency. We have found for the hypoxia model, in addition to decreased body weight, increased hematocrit, increased right ventricular hypertrophy, the distensibility of the pulmonary arteries is shown to decrease significantly in the presence of remodeling.

  11. "Nonclassical" secretion of annexin A2 to the lumenal side of the enterocyte brush border membrane.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, E Michael; van Deurs, Bo; Hansen, Gert H

    2003-12-16

    Annexin A2 is a member of the annexin family of Ca(2+)-dependent lipid binding proteins and believed to be engaged in membrane transport processes in a number of cell types. In small intestinal enterocytes, we localized annexin A2 to the brush border region, where it was found mainly on the lumenal side of the microvilli, showing an apical secretion by a "nonclassical" mechanism. In addition, annexin A2 was associated with surface-connected, deep apical tubules in the apical terminal web region and with an underlying pleiomorphic, tubulo-vesicular compartment (subapical compartment/multivesicular bodies). By subcellular fractionation, the 36 kDa full-length form of annexin A2 was approximately equally distributed between the Mg(2+)-precipitated fraction (containing intracellular and basolateral membranes) and the microvillar membrane fraction. In addition, a 33 kDa molecular form of annexin A2 was seen in the latter fraction that could be generated from the full-length annexin A2 by digestion with trypsin. Taken together, the results suggest that annexin A2 acts in exocytic apical membrane trafficking and is proteolytically cleaved in situ by pancreatic proteinases once it has become externalized to the lumenal side of the brush border membrane. On the basis of its well-known membrane fusogenic properties, we propose a model for the nonclassical membrane translocation of annexin A2.

  12. Molecular basis for endothelial lumen formation and tubulogenesis during vasculogenesis and angiogenic sprouting

    PubMed Central

    Davis, George E.; Stratman, Amber N.; Sacharidou, Anastasia; Koh, Wonshill

    2013-01-01

    Many studies reveal a fundamental role for extracellular matrix-mediated signaling through integrins and Rho GTPases as well as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the molecular control of vascular tube morphogenesis in three-dimensional (3D) tissue environments. Recent work has defined an EC lumen signaling complex of proteins that controls these vascular morphogenic events. These findings reveal a signaling interdependence between Cdc42 and MT1-MMP to control the 3D matrix-specific process of EC tubulogenesis. The EC tube formation process results in the creation of a network of proteolytically-generated vascular guidance tunnels in 3D matrices that are utilized to remodel EC-lined tubes through EC motility and could facilitate processes such as flow-induced remodeling and arteriovenous EC sorting and differentiation. Within vascular guidance tunnels, key dynamic interactions occur between endothelial cells (ECs) and pericytes to affect vessel remodeling, diameter, and vascular basement membrane matrix assembly, a fundamental process necessary for endothelial tube maturation and stabilization. Thus, the EC lumen and tube formation mechanism coordinates the concomitant establishment of a network of vascular tubes within tunnel spaces to allow for flow responsiveness, EC-mural cell interactions, and vascular extracellular matrix assembly to control the development of the functional microcirculation. PMID:21482411

  13. Videolaryngoscopes for placement of double lumen tubes: Is it time to say goodbye to direct view?

    PubMed Central

    El-Tahan, MR

    2016-01-01

    The advances in thoracic procedures require optimum lung separation to provide adequate room for surgical access. This can be achieved using either a double-lumen tube (DLT) or a bronchial blocker (BB). Most thoracic anesthesiologists prefer the use of DLT. However, lung separation in patients with potential difficult airway can be achieved using either BB through a single lumen tube or placement of a DLT over a tube exchanger or a fiberoptic bronchoscope. Numerous videolaryngoscopes (VL) have been introduced offering both optical and video options to visualize the glottis. Many studies reported improved glottis visualization and easier DLT intubation in patients with normal and potential difficult airway. However, these studies have a wide diversity of outcomes, which may be attributed to the differences in their designs and the prior experience of the operators in using the different devices. In the present review, we present the main outcomes of the available publications, which have addressed the use of VL-guided DLT intubation. Currently, there is enough evidence supporting using VL for DLT intubation in patients with predicted and unanticipated difficult airway. In conclusion, the use of VL could offer an effective method of DLT placement for lung separation in patients with the potential difficult airway. PMID:27051377

  14. Combined coronary lumen and vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging with i-T2prep: influence of nitroglycerin.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Tarique; Henningsson, Markus; Butzbach, Britta; Lossnitzer, Dirk; Greil, Gerald F; Andia, Marcelo E; Botnar, Rene M

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that sublingual nitroglycerin (NTG) improves image quality of coronary lumen magnetic resonance angiography. Our aim was to investigate the influence of NTG on coronary lumen and vessel wall image quality using a combined, single sequence approach (i-T2prep), which is able to image both within the known time frame of action of NTG. Ten healthy volunteers underwent right coronary artery lumen and vessel wall imaging using the i-T2prep sequence before and after administration of NTG. Image quality was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. Diameter, length and wall thickness were also measured using dedicated semi-automatic software. NTG induced coronary vasodilatation (lumen diameter increased from 2.16 ± 0.32 to 2.52 ± 0.59 mm; p = 0.036). As a result, visualized lumen length (9.8 ± 2.6 to 11.4 ± 3.3 cm; p = 0.025) and qualitative lumen image quality (median 3 (interquartile range 2-3.25) vs. median 3 (interquartile range 3-4); p = 0.046) both improved. Vessel wall imaging also demonstrated a significant improvement in vessel wall sharpness after NTG (24.8 vs. 27.3 %; p = 0.036). This study demonstrates the benefits of NTG for coronary lumen and vessel wall imaging using a combined sequence, i-T2prep. The methodology described here has great potential for future pathophysiological studies.

  15. Dual-Lumen Chest Port Infection Rates in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bos, Aaron Ahmed, Osman; Jilani, Danial; Giger, Maryellen; Funaki, Brian S.; Zangan, Steven M.

    2015-06-15

    PurposeThe aim of this study was to investigate dual-lumen chest port infection rates in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) compared to those with other malignancies (non-HNC).Materials and MethodsAn IRB-approved retrospective study was performed on 1,094 consecutive chest ports placed over a 2-year period. Patients with poor follow-up (n = 53), no oncologic history (n = 13), or single-lumen ports (n = 183) were excluded yielding a study population of 845 patients. The electronic medical records were queried for demographic information, data regarding ports and infections, and imaging review.ResultsHNC patients experienced more infections (42 vs. 30), an increased infection rate per 1,000 catheter days (0.68 vs. 0.21), and more early infections within 30 days compared to non-HNC patients (10 vs. 6) (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.02, respectively). An existing tracheostomy at the time of port placement was associated with infection in the HNC group (p = 0.02) but was not an independent risk factor for infection in the study population overall (p = 0.06). There was a significant difference in age, male gender, and right-sided ports between the HNC and non-HNC groups (p < 0.01, p < 0.001, and p = 0.01), although these were not found to be independent risk factors for infection (p = 0.32, p = 0.76, p = 0.16).ConclusionHNC patients are at increased risk for infection of dual-lumen chest ports placed via a jugular approach compared to patients with other malignancies. Tracheostomy is associated with infection in HNC patients but is not an independent risk factor for infection in the oncologic population as a whole.

  16. Sarcoplasmic reticulum lumenal Ca2+ has access to cytosolic activation and inactivation sites of skeletal muscle Ca2+ release channel.

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, A; Meissner, G

    1996-01-01

    The effects of sarcoplasmic reticulum lumenal (trans) Ca2+ on cytosolic (cis) ATP-activated rabbit skeletal muscle Ca2+ release channels (ryanodine receptors) were examined using the planar lipid bilayer method. Single channels were recorded in symmetric 0.25 M KCl media with K+ as the major current carrier. With nanomolar [Ca2+] in both bilayer chambers, the addition of 2 mM cytosolic ATP greatly increased the number of short channel openings. As lumenal [Ca2+] was increased from < 0.1 microM to approximately 250 microM, increasing channel activities and events with long open time constants were seen at negative holding potentials. Channel activity remained low at positive holding potentials. Further increase in lumenal [Ca2+] to 1, 5, and 10 mM resulted in a decrease in channel activities at negative holding potentials and increased activities at positive holding potentials. A voltage-dependent activation by 50 microM lumenal Ca2+ was also observed when the channel was minimally activated by < 1 microM cytosolic Ca2+ in the absence of ATP. With microM cytosolic Ca2+ in the presence or absence of 2 mM ATP, single-channel activities showed no or only a weak voltage dependence. Other divalent cations (Mg2+, Ba2+) could not replace lumenal Ca2+. On the contrary, cytosolic ATP-activated channel activities were decreased as lumenal Ca2+ fluxes were reduced by the addition of 1-5 mM BaCl2 or MgCl2 to the lumenal side, which contained 50 microM Ca2+. An increase in [KCl] from 0.25 M to 1 M also reduced single-channel activities. Addition of the "fast" Ca2+ buffer 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethanetetraacetic acid (BAPTA) to the cls chamber increased cytosolic ATP-, lumenal Ca(2+)-activated channel activities to a nearly maximum level. These results suggested that lumenal Ca2+ flowing through the skeletal muscle Ca2+ release channel may regulate channel activity by having access to cytosolic Ca2+ activation and Ca2+ inactivation sites that are located in "BAPTA

  17. Measurement of ciliary flow generated on the surface of tracheal lumen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyota, Koki; Ueno, Hironori; Ishikawa, Takuji; Numayama-Tsuruta, Keiko; Imai, Yohsuke; Omori, Toshihiro; Yamaguchi, Takami

    2012-11-01

    Although we consistently take air with virus and bacteria, these harmful substances are trapped on the surface of tracheal lumen and transported toward larynx from the trachea and bronchi by effective ciliary motion and swallowed it (clearance function). However, the 3-dimensional flow field generated by inhomogeneously distributed ciliary cells are largely unknown. In this study, we first succeeded to measure the ciliated cells' density by staining actin of the epithelial cells and tubulin of the cilia, respectively. Second, we analyzed the ciliary motion by labeling the tip of cilia with fluorescent particles, and tracking their movements to understand the mechanism of the flow generation. Last, in order to clarify the flow field induced by the ciliary motion, we measured the motion of tracer particles on the surface of tracheal epithelial cells by a confocal micro-PTV system. The results show that the mean velocity and the velocity disturbance decayed rapidly as the height from the epithelial cells were increased.

  18. Emerging Roles of the Endolumenal Functional Lumen Imaging Probe in Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ata-Lawenko, Rona M; Lee, Yeong Yeh

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal sphincters play a vital role in gut function and motility by separating the gut into functional segments. Traditionally, function of sphincters including the esophagogastric junction is studied using endoscopy and manometry. However, due to its dynamic biomechanical properties, data on distensibility and compliance may provide a more accurate representation of the sphincter function. The endolumenal functional lumen imaging probe (EndoFLIP) system uses a multi-detector impedance planimetry system to provide data on tissue distensibility and geometric changes in the sphincter as measured through resistance to volumetric distention with real-time images. With the advent of EndoFLIP studies, esophagogastric junction dysfunction and other disorders of the stomach and bowels may be better evaluated. It may be utilized as a tool in predicting effectiveness of endoscopic and surgical treatments as well as patient outcomes. PMID:28013295

  19. An anterior mediastinal mass: delayed airway compression and using a double lumen tube for airway patency.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeounghyuk; Rim, Yong Chul; In, Junyong

    2014-06-01

    Perioperative management of patients with an anterior mediastinal mass is difficult. We present a 35-year-old woman who showed delayed compression of the carina and left main bronchus despite no preoperative respiratory signs, symptoms, or radiologic findings due to an anterior mediastinal mass and uneventful stepwise induction of general anesthesia. Even use of a fiberoptic bronchoscope (FB) after induction of anesthesia was not helpful to predict delayed compression of the airway. Therefore, the anesthesiologist and the cardiothoracic surgeon must prepare for unexpected delayed compression of the airway, even in low risk patients who are asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic without postural symptoms or radiographic evidence of significant compression of structures. We also describe successful management for the compressed carina and left main bronchus with a double lumen tube (DLT) as a stent during surgery. FB guided DLT intubation is a possible solution to maintain airway patency.

  20. The Vital Dye CDr10b Labels the Zebrafish Mid-Intestine and Lumen.

    PubMed

    Sander, Veronika; Patke, Shantanu; Lee, Jung Y; Chang, Young-Tae; Davidson, Alan J

    2017-03-13

    We describe the use of the fluorescent reporter compound CDr10b to label mid-intestinal structures in zebrafish larvae after simple immersion. CDr10b is deposited into the gut where it initially fills the lumen and is excreted. Using laser-mediated injury of the intestine, we show that CDr10b provides a useful readout of the integrity and repair of the epithelial cell barrier. In addition, CDr10b specifically labels the absorptive mid-intestine segment that is analogous to the mammalian small intestine. By perturbing retinoic acid signaling, which regulates the size of the mid-intestine segment, we show that CDr10b is a valuable tool to rapidly assess developmental malformations of the intestine in live animals.

  1. Peptidases Compartmentalized to the Ascaris suum Intestinal Lumen and Apical Intestinal Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    The nematode intestine is a tissue of interest for developing new methods of therapy and control of parasitic nematodes. However, biological details of intestinal cell functions remain obscure, as do the proteins and molecular functions located on the apical intestinal membrane (AIM), and within the intestinal lumen (IL) of nematodes. Accordingly, methods were developed to gain a comprehensive identification of peptidases that function in the intestinal tract of adult female Ascaris suum. Peptidase activity was detected in multiple fractions of the A. suum intestine under pH conditions ranging from 5.0 to 8.0. Peptidase class inhibitors were used to characterize these activities. The fractions included whole lysates, membrane enriched fractions, and physiological- and 4 molar urea-perfusates of the intestinal lumen. Concanavalin A (ConA) was confirmed to bind to the AIM, and intestinal proteins affinity isolated on ConA-beads were compared to proteins from membrane and perfusate fractions by mass spectrometry. Twenty-nine predicted peptidases were identified including aspartic, cysteine, and serine peptidases, and an unexpectedly high number (16) of metallopeptidases. Many of these proteins co-localized to multiple fractions, providing independent support for localization to specific intestinal compartments, including the IL and AIM. This unique perfusion model produced the most comprehensive view of likely digestive peptidases that function in these intestinal compartments of A. suum, or any nematode. This model offers a means to directly determine functions of these proteins in the A. suum intestine and, more generally, deduce the wide array functions that exist in these cellular compartments of the nematode intestine. PMID:25569475

  2. Description of a new technique for repairing chronic type B dissections that involve visceral branches being fed by both true and false lumen by using both lumens as conduits

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Joe; Remund, Tyler; Pohlson, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Here we present three cases performed using a novel technique where aortic flow is compartmentalized proximal to the target vessels through a physician-modified endograft. The visceral segment is then further compartmentalized by the use of another physician modified endograft. By compartmentalizing the flow proximal to the visceral segment, both the true lumen and false lumen can be used as conduits for coextensive bridging stent grafts. Overall, patients have tolerated this procedure extremely well, and while further study and follow-up must be conducted, this procedure could offer a reasonable long-term solution to thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms complicated by dissection. PMID:25972031

  3. Multiplexin promotes heart but not aorta morphogenesis by polarized enhancement of slit/robo activity at the heart lumen.

    PubMed

    Harpaz, Nofar; Ordan, Elly; Ocorr, Karen; Bodmer, Rolf; Volk, Talila

    2013-06-01

    The Drosophila heart tube represents a structure that similarly to vertebrates' primary heart tube exhibits a large lumen; the mechanisms promoting heart tube morphology in both Drosophila and vertebrates are poorly understood. We identified Multiplexin (Mp), the Drosophila orthologue of mammalian Collagen-XV/XVIII, and the only structural heart-specific protein described so far in Drosophila, as necessary and sufficient for shaping the heart tube lumen, but not that of the aorta. Mp is expressed specifically at the stage of heart tube closure, in a polarized fashion, uniquely along the cardioblasts luminal membrane, and its absence results in an extremely small heart tube lumen. Importantly, Mp forms a protein complex with Slit, and interacts genetically with both slit and robo in the formation of the heart tube. Overexpression of Mp in cardioblasts promotes a large heart lumen in a Slit-dependent manner. Moreover, Mp alters Slit distribution, and promotes the formation of multiple Slit endocytic vesicles, similarly to the effect of overexpression of Robo in these cells. Our data are consistent with Mp-dependent enhancement of Slit/Robo activity and signaling, presumably by affecting Slit protein stabilization, specifically at the lumen side of the heart tube. This activity results with a Slit-dependent, local reduction of F-actin levels at the heart luminal membrane, necessary for forming the large heart tube lumen. Consequently, lack of Mp results in decreased diastolic capacity, leading to reduced heart contractility, as measured in live fly hearts. In summary, these findings show that the polarized localization of Mp controls the direction, timing, and presumably the extent of Slit/Robo activity and signaling at the luminal membrane of the heart cardioblasts. This regulation is essential for the morphogenetic changes that sculpt the heart tube in Drosophila, and possibly in forming the vertebrates primary heart tube.

  4. Influence of False Lumen Status on the Prognosis of Acute Type A Aortic Dissection without Urgent Surgical Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Hideki; Suzuki, Susumu; Ota, Tomoyuki; Oshima, Hideki; Usui, Akihiko; Komori, Kimihiro; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Recently, much attention has been focused on partial thrombosis of the false lumen in patients with acute aortic dissection. However, its effect on clinical outcomes in these patients, especially in case of acute type A aortic dissection, has not been clearly elucidated. This study evaluated the influence of the false lumen status, including partial thrombosis, on short-term clinical outcomes in acute type A aortic dissection patients without urgent surgical treatment. Methods: Sixty-two patients (29 males, mean age 73 ± 13 years) with acute type A aortic dissection who did not receive urgent surgical treatment at four hospitals were enrolled. Patients were divided into three groups based on the false lumen status on enhanced computed tomography image (complete thrombosis, n = 28; partial thrombosis, n = 27; patent, n = 7). Patients with partial thrombosis were further divided into two groups (thrombus-dominant, n = 15; flow-dominant, n = 12). Results: The short-term mortality rate (in-hospital and 30-day) was significantly higher in patients with a patent false lumen, while no significant difference was seen between the other two groups. Patients with flow-dominant partial thrombosis had significantly higher short-term mortality rate than those with thrombus-dominant partial thrombosis (in-hospital, p = 0.001 and 30-day, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The short-term mortality rate in acute type A aortic dissection patients without urgent surgical treatment was lower in patients with partial thrombosis of the false lumen than in those with a patent false lumen. Furthermore, patients with flow-dominant partial thrombosis had higher mortality rate than those with thrombus-dominant partial thrombosis. PMID:27466158

  5. Endovascular treatment of a traumatic dural arteriovenous fistula of the superior sagittal sinus using dual lumen balloon microcatheter

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Yihao; Niu, Yin; Zhu, Gang; Chen, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVFs) induced by trauma in the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) are rare and difficult to treat because of their unique midline location, multiplicity of arterial feeders, and critical venous drainage. We report a case of an endovascular treatment using dual lumen balloon microcatheter on a patient with post-traumatic SSS DAVF. By the use of dual lumen Scepter balloon microcatheter, proximal Onyx reflux was prevented. In this case, complete embolization of the DAVFs was achieved and the outcome of the patient was fairly good. PMID:27094527

  6. CALiPER Exploratory Study: Accounting for Uncertainty in Lumen Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, Rolf; Paget, Maria L.; Richman, Eric E.

    2011-03-31

    With a well-defined and shared understanding of uncertainty in lumen measurements, testing laboratories can better evaluate their processes, contributing to greater consistency and credibility of lighting testing a key component of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Commercially Available LED Product Evaluation and Reporting (CALiPER) program. Reliable lighting testing is a crucial underlying factor contributing toward the success of many energy-efficient lighting efforts, such as the DOE GATEWAY demonstrations, Lighting Facts Label, ENERGY STAR® energy efficient lighting programs, and many others. Uncertainty in measurements is inherent to all testing methodologies, including photometric and other lighting-related testing. Uncertainty exists for all equipment, processes, and systems of measurement in individual as well as combined ways. A major issue with testing and the resulting accuracy of the tests is the uncertainty of the complete process. Individual equipment uncertainties are typically identified, but their relative value in practice and their combined value with other equipment and processes in the same test are elusive concepts, particularly for complex types of testing such as photometry. The total combined uncertainty of a measurement result is important for repeatable and comparative measurements for light emitting diode (LED) products in comparison with other technologies as well as competing products. This study provides a detailed and step-by-step method for determining uncertainty in lumen measurements, working closely with related standards efforts and key industry experts. This report uses the structure proposed in the Guide to Uncertainty Measurements (GUM) for evaluating and expressing uncertainty in measurements. The steps of the procedure are described and a spreadsheet format adapted for integrating sphere and goniophotometric uncertainty measurements is provided for entering parameters, ordering the information, calculating intermediate

  7. A Rac/Cdc42 exchange factor complex promotes formation of lateral filopodia and blood vessel lumen morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Sabu; Scarcia, Margherita; Bagshaw, Richard D.; McMahon, Kathryn; Grant, Gary; Harvey, Tracey; Yeo, Maggie; Esteves, Filomena O.G.; Thygesen, Helene H.; Jones, Pamela F.; Speirs, Valerie; Hanby, Andrew M.; Selby, Peter J.; Lorger, Mihaela; Dear, T. Neil; Pawson, Tony; Marshall, Christopher J.; Mavria, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    During angiogenesis, Rho-GTPases influence endothelial cell migration and cell–cell adhesion; however it is not known whether they control formation of vessel lumens, which are essential for blood flow. Here, using an organotypic system that recapitulates distinct stages of VEGF-dependent angiogenesis, we show that lumen formation requires early cytoskeletal remodelling and lateral cell–cell contacts, mediated through the RAC1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) DOCK4 (dedicator of cytokinesis 4). DOCK4 signalling is necessary for lateral filopodial protrusions and tubule remodelling prior to lumen formation, whereas proximal, tip filopodia persist in the absence of DOCK4. VEGF-dependent Rac activation via DOCK4 is necessary for CDC42 activation to signal filopodia formation and depends on the activation of RHOG through the RHOG GEF, SGEF. VEGF promotes interaction of DOCK4 with the CDC42 GEF DOCK9. These studies identify a novel Rho-family GTPase activation cascade for the formation of endothelial cell filopodial protrusions necessary for tubule remodelling, thereby influencing subsequent stages of lumen morphogenesis. PMID:26129894

  8. A Rac/Cdc42 exchange factor complex promotes formation of lateral filopodia and blood vessel lumen morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Sabu; Scarcia, Margherita; Bagshaw, Richard D; McMahon, Kathryn; Grant, Gary; Harvey, Tracey; Yeo, Maggie; Esteves, Filomena O G; Thygesen, Helene H; Jones, Pamela F; Speirs, Valerie; Hanby, Andrew M; Selby, Peter J; Lorger, Mihaela; Dear, T Neil; Pawson, Tony; Marshall, Christopher J; Mavria, Georgia

    2015-07-01

    During angiogenesis, Rho-GTPases influence endothelial cell migration and cell-cell adhesion; however it is not known whether they control formation of vessel lumens, which are essential for blood flow. Here, using an organotypic system that recapitulates distinct stages of VEGF-dependent angiogenesis, we show that lumen formation requires early cytoskeletal remodelling and lateral cell-cell contacts, mediated through the RAC1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) DOCK4 (dedicator of cytokinesis 4). DOCK4 signalling is necessary for lateral filopodial protrusions and tubule remodelling prior to lumen formation, whereas proximal, tip filopodia persist in the absence of DOCK4. VEGF-dependent Rac activation via DOCK4 is necessary for CDC42 activation to signal filopodia formation and depends on the activation of RHOG through the RHOG GEF, SGEF. VEGF promotes interaction of DOCK4 with the CDC42 GEF DOCK9. These studies identify a novel Rho-family GTPase activation cascade for the formation of endothelial cell filopodial protrusions necessary for tubule remodelling, thereby influencing subsequent stages of lumen morphogenesis.

  9. Upregulation of TSHR, TTF-1, and PAX8 in Nodular Goiter Is Associated with Iodine Deficiency in the Follicular Lumen

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lijun; Liang, Bo; Cai, Huiyao; Cai, Qingyan; Shi, Yaxiong

    2016-01-01

    Objective. It has been testified that iodine regulates thyroid function by controlling thyroid-restricted genes expression and is closely related to diffuse goiter and thyroid dysfunction. However, the effects of follicular lumen iodine, the main form of iodine reserve in the body, on thyroid-restricted genes in nodular goiter are poorly understood. In this study, correlations between follicular lumen iodine and the expressions of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), its transcription factors TTF-1, and PAX8 in nodular goiter were investigated. Patients. In this study, 30 resection specimens clinically histopathologically confirmed to have nodular goiter and 30 normal thyroid specimens from adjacent tissues of nodular goiter are used. Measurement. Western blot immunohistochemistry was performed to assay TSHR, TTF-1, and PAX8 in thyrocytes of nodular goiter as well as in extranodular normal thyroid tissues. Meanwhile, follicular lumen iodine of both nodular goiter and extranodular normal thyroid tissues was detected as well. Results. The TSHR, TTF-1, and PAX8 in nodular goiter were significantly higher than those in the controls. The iodine content in nodular goiter was significantly lower than those in control tissues. Conclusion. Upregulation of TSHR, TTF-1, and PAX8 is associated with low follicular lumen iodine content in nodular goiter. PMID:27525008

  10. Novel Use of a Uniquely Designed, Lumen-Apposing, Metal Stent in Benign Gastric Outlet Obstruction in Two Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pathirana, Induruwa; Magulick, John; Domanski, Jeremy; Okoh, Emuejevoke; Womeldorph, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Current guidelines recommend management of benign gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) with serial dilations. Self-expanding metal stents are effective, but their use is complicated by high rates of migration. We present two cases from our institution where a uniquely designed, lumen-apposing metal stent (LAMS) was successfully used to alleviate benign GOO without stent migration. PMID:28184377

  11. Infrared Observations of Late Type Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, K. M.

    1977-01-01

    Substantive mass loss resulting in appreciable circumstellar dust envelopes is common in late-type stars. The evolutionary history and physical state of a cool star determine the chemistry within the outer stellar atmosphere mirrored by the molecular and particulate material present in the envelope. The observational consequences of this debris determined by moderate spectral resolution infrared spectrophotometry are reviewed. Significant information is provided by observations of the emergent energy flux of both the cool stellar photosphere and of the circumstellar dust envelope. The observation suggests that mass-loss occurs to some degree throughout late stellar evolutionary phases and that occasional periods of high mass loss are not uncommon.

  12. Phosphorylation of CEACAM1 Molecule by Calmodulin Kinase IID in a Three-dimensional Model of Mammary Gland Lumen Formation*

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tung; Chen, Charng-Jui; Shively, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule-1 (CEACAM1), a transmembrane protein, expressed on normal breast epithelial cells is down-regulated in breast cancer. Phosphorylation of Thr-457 on the short cytoplasmic domain isoform (CEACAM1-SF) that is predominant in normal epithelial cells is required for lumen formation in a three-dimensional model that involves apoptosis of the central acinar cells. Calmodulin kinase IID (CaMKIID) was selected as a candidate for the kinase required for Thr-457 phosphorylation from a gene chip analysis comparing genes up-regulated in MCF7 cells expressing wild type CEACAM1-SF compared with the T457A-mutated gene (Chen, C. J., Kirshner, J., Sherman, M. A., Hu, W., Nguyen, T., and Shively, J. E. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282, 5749–5760). Up-regulation of CaMKIID during lumen formation was confirmed by analysis of mRNA and protein levels. CaMKIID was able to phosphorylate a synthetic peptide corresponding to the cytoplasmic domain of CEACAM1-SF and was covalently bound to biotinylated and T457C-modified peptide in the presence of a kinase trap previously described by Shokat and co-workers (Maly, D. J., Allen, J. A., and Shokat, K. M. (2004) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 9160–9161). When cell lysates from wild type-transfected MCF7 cells undergoing lumen formation were incubated with the peptide and kinase trap, a cross-linked band corresponding to CaMKIID was observed. When these cells were treated with an RNAi that inhibits CaMKIID expression, lumen formation was blocked by over 90%. We conclude that CaMKIID specifically phosphorylates Thr-457 on CEACAM1-SF, which in turn regulates the process of lumen formation via apoptosis of the central acinar cells. PMID:24302721

  13. Influence of a Double-Lumen Extension Tube on Drug Delivery: Examples of Isosorbide Dinitrate and Diazepam

    PubMed Central

    Maiguy-Foinard, Aurélie; Blanchemain, Nicolas; Barthélémy, Christine; Odou, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Plastic materials such as polyurethane (PUR), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) are widely used in double-lumen extension tubing. The purposes of our study were to 1) compare in vitro drug delivery through the double extension tubes available on the market 2) assess the plastic properties of PUR in infusion devices and their impact on drug delivery. Methods The study compared eight double-lumen extension tubes in PUR, co-extruded (PE/PVC) plastic and plasticised PVC from different manufacturers. Isosorbide dinitrate and diazepam were used as model compounds to evaluate their sorption on the internal surface of the infusion device. Control experiments were performed using norepinephrine known not to absorb to plastics. Drug concentrations delivered at the egress of extension tubes were determined over time by an analytical spectrophotometric UV-Vis method. The main characteristics of plastics were also determined. Results Significant differences in the sorption phenomenon were observed among the eight double-lumen extension tubes and between pairs of extension tubes. Mean concentrations of isosorbide dinitrate delivered at the egress of double-lumen extension tubes after a 150-minute infusion (mean values ± standard deviation in percentage of the initial concentrations in the prepared syringes) ranged between 80.53 ± 1.66 (one of the PUR tubes) and 92.84 ± 2.73 (PE/PVC tube). The same parameters measured during diazepam infusion ranged between 48.58 ± 2.88 (one of the PUR tubes) and 85.06 ± 3.94 (PE/PVC tube). The double-lumen extension tubes in PUR were either thermosetting (resin) or thermoplastic according to reference. Conclusions Clinicians must be aware of potential drug interactions with extension tube materials and so must consider their nature as well as the sterilisation method used before selecting an infusion device. PMID:27153224

  14. Improving accuracy in coronary lumen segmentation via explicit calcium exclusion, learning-based ray detection and surface optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugauer, Felix; Zhang, Jingdan; Zheng, Yefeng; Hornegger, Joachim; Kelm, B. Michael

    2014-03-01

    Invasive cardiac angiography (catheterization) is still the standard in clinical practice for diagnosing coronary artery disease (CAD) but it involves a high amount of risk and cost. New generations of CT scanners can acquire high-quality images of coronary arteries which allow for an accurate identification and delineation of stenoses. Recently, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation has been applied to coronary blood flow using geometric lumen models extracted from CT angiography (CTA). The computed pressure drop at stenoses proved to be indicative for ischemia-causing lesions, leading to non-invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) derived from CTA. Since the diagnostic value of non-invasive procedures for diagnosing CAD relies on an accurate extraction of the lumen, a precise segmentation of the coronary arteries is crucial. As manual segmentation is tedious, time-consuming and subjective, automatic procedures are desirable. We present a novel fully-automatic method to accurately segment the lumen of coronary arteries in the presence of calcified and non-calcified plaque. Our segmentation framework is based on three main steps: boundary detection, calcium exclusion and surface optimization. A learning-based boundary detector enables a robust lumen contour detection via dense ray-casting. The exclusion of calcified plaque is assured through a novel calcium exclusion technique which allows us to accurately capture stenoses of diseased arteries. The boundary detection results are incorporated into a closed set formulation whose minimization yields an optimized lumen surface. On standardized tests with clinical data, a segmentation accuracy is achieved which is comparable to clinical experts and superior to current automatic methods.

  15. Rap1 integrates tissue polarity, lumen formation, and tumorigenicpotential in human breast epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, Masahiko; Nelson, Celeste M.; Myers, Connie A.; Bissell,Mina J.

    2006-09-29

    Maintenance of apico-basal polarity in normal breast epithelial acini requires a balance between cell proliferation, cell death, and proper cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix signaling. Aberrations in any of these processes can disrupt tissue architecture and initiate tumor formation. Here we show that the small GTPase Rap1 is a crucial element in organizing acinar structure and inducing lumen formation. Rap1 activity in malignant HMT-3522 T4-2 cells is appreciably higher than in S1 cells, their non-malignant counterparts. Expression of dominant-negative Rap1 resulted in phenotypic reversion of T4-2 cells, led to formation of acinar structures with correct apico-basal polarity, and dramatically reduced tumor incidence despite the persistence of genomic abnormalities. The resulting acini contained prominent central lumina not observed when other reverting agents were used. Conversely, expression of dominant-active Rap1 in T4-2 cells inhibited phenotypic reversion and led to increased invasiveness and tumorigenicity. Thus, Rap1 acts as a central regulator of breast architecture, with normal levels of activation instructing apical polarity during acinar morphogenesis, and increased activation inducing tumor formation and progression to malignancy.

  16. Intracellular lumen formation in Drosophila proceeds via a novel subcellular compartment.

    PubMed

    Nikolova, Linda S; Metzstein, Mark M

    2015-11-15

    Cellular tubes have diverse morphologies, including multicellular, unicellular and subcellular architectures. Subcellular tubes are found prominently within the vertebrate vasculature, the insect breathing system and the nematode excretory apparatus, but how such tubes form is poorly understood. To characterize the cellular mechanisms of subcellular tube formation, we have refined methods of high pressure freezing/freeze substitution to prepare Drosophila larvae for transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis. Using our methods, we have found that subcellular tube formation may proceed through a previously undescribed multimembrane intermediate composed of vesicles bound within a novel subcellular compartment. We have also developed correlative light/TEM procedures to identify labeled cells in TEM-fixed larval samples. Using this technique, we have found that Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) and the V-ATPase regulator Rabconnectin-3 are required for subcellular tube formation, probably in a step resolving the intermediate compartment into a mature lumen. In general, our ultrastructural analysis methods could be useful for a wide range of cellular investigations in Drosophila larvae.

  17. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided gastrojejunostomy with a lumen-apposing metal stent: a multicenter, international experience

    PubMed Central

    Tyberg, Amy; Perez-Miranda, Manuel; Sanchez-Ocaña, Ramon; Peñas, Irene; de la Serna, Carlos; Shah, Janak; Binmoeller, Kenneth; Gaidhane, Monica; Grimm, Ian; Baron, Todd; Kahaleh, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Surgical gastrojejunostomy and enteral self-expanding metal stents are efficacious for the management of gastric outlet obstruction but limited by high complication rates and short-term efficacy. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided gastrojejunostomy (EUS-GJ) is a novel alternative option. Patients and methods: Patients who underwent EUS-GJ between March 2014 and September 2015 as part of a prospective multicenter registry at four academic centers in two countries were included. Technical success was defined as successful placement of a gastrojejunal lumen-apposing metal stent. Clinical success was defined as the ability of the patient to tolerate an oral diet. Post-procedural adverse events were recorded. Results: The study included 26 patients, of whom 11 (42 %) were male. Technical success was achieved in 24 patients (92 %). Clinical success was achieved in 22 patients (85 %). Of the 4 patients in whom clinical success was not achieved, 2 had persistent nausea and vomiting despite a patent EUS-GJ and required enteral feeding for nutrition, 1 died before the initiation of an oral diet, and 1 underwent surgery for suspected perforation. Adverse events, including peritonitis, bleeding, and surgery, occurred in 3 patients (11.5 %). Conclusion: EUS-GJ is an emerging procedure that has efficacy and safety comparable with those of current therapies and should hold a place as a new minimally invasive option for patients with gastric outlet obstruction. Clinical trial identification number: NCT01522573 PMID:27004243

  18. Loss of catheter locking solution caused by fluid density.

    PubMed

    Polaschegg, Hans-Dietrich

    2005-01-01

    The avoidance of clotting in catheter lumina between treatments usually entails locking with an anticoagulant solution such as heparin. In a previous work, it was shown that approximately 20% of locking solution flows from the catheter during instillation of the lock equal in volume to the lumen volume. Furthermore, the locking solution may spill into the blood stream under the influence of gravity. This work investigates the influence of density and viscosity of the locking solution on the volume and speed of locking solution loss from the catheter lumen. A large fraction of the catheter locking solution spills under the influence of gravity if the locking solution's density is higher than the fluid it spills to (blood). Locking solution lost is replaced by blood. Viscosity delays this process, but at 90 minutes after injection, the loss is completed even when highly viscous lock solutions are used. Slow administration of the lock has negligible influence upon the dynamics of the loss.

  19. Computer modeling of gastric parietal cell: significance of canalicular space, gland lumen, and variable canalicular [K+].

    PubMed

    Crothers, James M; Forte, John G; Machen, Terry E

    2016-05-01

    A computer model, constructed for evaluation of integrated functioning of cellular components involved in acid secretion by the gastric parietal cell, has provided new interpretations of older experimental evidence, showing the functional significance of a canalicular space separated from a mucosal bath by a gland lumen and also shedding light on basolateral Cl(-) transport. The model shows 1) changes in levels of parietal cell secretion (with stimulation or H-K-ATPase inhibitors) result mainly from changes in electrochemical driving forces for apical K(+) and Cl(-) efflux, as canalicular [K(+)] ([K(+)]can) increases or decreases with changes in apical H(+)/K(+) exchange rate; 2) H-K-ATPase inhibition in frog gastric mucosa would increase [K(+)]can similarly with low or high mucosal [K(+)], depolarizing apical membrane voltage similarly, so electrogenic H(+) pumping is not indicated by inhibition causing similar increase in transepithelial potential difference (Vt) with 4 and 80 mM mucosal K(+); 3) decreased H(+) secretion during strongly mucosal-positive voltage clamping is consistent with an electroneutral H-K-ATPase being inhibited by greatly decreased [K(+)]can (Michaelis-Menten mechanism); 4) slow initial change ("long time-constant transient") in current or Vt with clamping of Vt or current involves slow change in [K(+)]can; 5) the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) symporter (NKCC) is likely to have a significant role in Cl(-) influx, despite evidence that it is not necessary for acid secretion; and 6) relative contributions of Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger (AE2) and NKCC to Cl(-) influx would differ greatly between resting and stimulated states, possibly explaining reported differences in physiological characteristics of stimulated open-circuit Cl(-) secretion (≈H(+)) and resting short-circuit Cl(-) secretion (>H(+)).

  20. Conductance catheter measurements of lumen area of stenotic coronary arteries: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyo Won; Farren, Neil D; Zhang, Zhen-Du; Huo, Yunlong; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2011-09-01

    An injection of saline solution is required for the measurement of vessel lumen area using a conductance catheter. The injection of room temperature saline to displace blood in a vessel inevitably involves mass and heat transport and electric field conductance. The objective of the present study is to understand the accuracy of conductance method based on the phenomena associated with the saline injection into a stenotic blood vessel. Computational fluid dynamics were performed to simulate flow and its relation to transport and electric field in a stenotic artery for two different sized conductance catheters (0.9 and 0.35 mm diameter) over a range of occlusions [56-84% cross-sectional area (CSA) stenosis]. The results suggest that the performance of conductance catheter is dependent on catheter size and severity of stenosis more significantly for 0.9 mm than for 0.35 mm catheter. Specifically, the time of detection of 95% of injected saline solution at the detection electrodes was shown to range from 0.67 to 3.7 s and 0.82 to 0.94 s for 0.9 mm and 0.35 mm catheter, respectively. The results also suggest that the detection electrodes of conductance catheter should be placed outside of flow recirculation region distal to the stenosis to minimize the detection time. Finally, the simulations show that the accuracy in distal CSA measurements, however, is not significantly altered by whether the position of detection electrodes is inside or outside of recirculation zone (error was within 12% regardless of detection electrodes position). The results were experimentally validated for one lesion geometry and the simulation results are within 8% of actual measurements. The simulation of conductance catheter injection method may lead to further optimization of device and method for accurate sizing of diseased coronary arteries, which has clinical relevance to percutaneous intervention.

  1. McGrath Series 5 videolaryngoscope vs Airtraq DL videolaryngoscope for double-lumen tube intubation

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Li; Liao, Mingfeng; Li, Li; Qian, Wei; Hu, Rong; Chen, Kun; Zhang, Chuanhan; Yao, Wenlong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Many studies have shown Airtraq videolaryngoscope provided faster tracheal intubation and a higher success rate than other videolaryngoscopes. Recently, different types of videolaryngoscopes have been reported for use in double-lumen tube (DLT) intubation. However, the advantages and disadvantages between them remain undetermined for DLT intubation. In this study, we compared the Airtraq DL videolaryngoscope with the McGrath Series 5 videolaryngoscope for DLT intubation by experienced anesthesiologists. Methods: Ninety patients with expected normal airways were randomly allocated to either the Airtraq or McGrath group. The primary outcome was DLT intubation time. The secondary outcomes were glottic view, success rate, subjective ease of intubation (100-mm visual analog scale, 0 = easy; 100 = difficult), incidence of DLT malposition, and postoperative intubation-related complication. Results: The airway characteristics were comparable between the 2 groups. Cormack and Lehane grades significantly improved with the use of the McGrath and Airtraq videolaryngoscopes, compared with the Macintosh laryngoscope. The intubation success rate on the first attempt was 93% in the Airtraq group and 95% in the McGrath group (P > 0.05). The intubation time in the McGrath group is longer than that in the Airtraq group (39.9 [9.1]s vs 28.6 [13.6]s, P < 0.05). But intubation difficulty score, the incidence of DLT malposition and intubation-related complication were comparable between groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: When using videolaryngoscopes for DLT intubation, the Airtraq DL is superior to the McGrath Series 5 in intubation time, but it does not decrease intubation difficulty. PMID:28002347

  2. The Functional Lumen Imaging Probe Detects Esophageal Contractility not Observed with Manometry in Patients with Achalasia

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Dustin A.; Lin, Zhiyue; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Sternbach, Joel; Donnan, Erica N.; Friesen, Laurel; Listernick, Zoe; Mogni, Benjamin; Pandolfino, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims The functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) could improve characterization of achalasia subtypes by detecting non-occlusive esophageal contractions not observed with standard manometry. We aimed to evaluate for esophageal contractions during volumetric distention in patients with achalasia using FLIP topography. Methods Fifty one treatment-naïve patients with achalasia, defined and sub-classified by high-resolution esophageal pressure topography, and 10 asymptomatic individuals (controls) were evaluated with the FLIP during endoscopy. During stepwise distension, simultaneous intra-bag pressures and 16 channels of cross-sectional areas were measured; data were exported to software that generated FLIP topography plots. Esophageal contractility was identified by noting periods of reduced luminal diameter. Esophageal contractions were further characterized by propagation direction, repetitiveness, and based on whether they were occluding or non-occluding. Results Esophageal contractility was detected in all 10 controls: 8/10 had repetitive, antegrade, contractions and 9/10 had occluding contractions. Contractility was detected in 27% (4/15) of patients with type I achalasia and 65% (18/26, including 9 with occluding contractions) of patients with type II achalasia. Contractility was detected in all 10 patients with type III achalasia; 8 of these patients had a pattern of contractility not observed in controls (repetitive, retrograde contractions). Conclusions Esophageal contractility not observed with manometry can be detected in patients with achalasia using FLIP topography. The presence and patterns of contractility detected with FLIP topography may represent variations in pathophysiology, such as mechanisms of pan-esophageal pressurization in patients with type II achalasia. These findings could have implications for additional sub-classification to supplement prediction of the achalasia disease course. PMID:26278501

  3. Pannexin 1 channels mediate the release of ATP into the lumen of the rat urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Beckel, Jonathan M; Daugherty, Stephanie L; Tyagi, Pradeep; Wolf-Johnston, Amanda S; Birder, Lori A; Mitchell, Claire H; de Groat, William C

    2015-01-01

    ATP is released from the bladder epithelium, also termed the urothelium, in response to mechanical or chemical stimuli. Although numerous studies have described the contribution of this release to the development of various bladder disorders, little information exists regarding the mechanisms of release. In the present study, we examined the role of pannexin channels in mechanically-induced ATP release from the urothelium. PCR confirmed the presence of pannexin 1 and 2 mRNA in rat urothelial tissue, whereas immunofluorescence experiments localized pannexin 1 to all three layers of the urothelium. During continuous bladder cystometry in anaesthetized rats, inhibition of pannexin 1 channels using carbenoxolone (CBX) or Brilliant Blue FCF (BB-FCF) (1–100 μm, intravesically), or by using intravesical small interfering RNA, increased the interval between voiding contractions. Intravenous administration of BB-FCF (1–100 μg kg−1) did not alter bladder activity. CBX or BB-FCF (100 μm intravesically) also decreased basal ATP concentrations in the perfusate from non-distended bladders and inhibited increases in ATP concentrations in response to bladder distension (15 and 30 cmH2O pressure). Intravesical perfusion of the ATP diphosphohydrolase apyrase (2 U ml−1), or the ATPase inhibitor ARL67156 (10 μm) increased or decreased reflex bladder activity, respectively. Intravesical instillation of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) (Escherichia coli 055:B5, 100 μg ml−1) increased ATP concentrations in the bladder perfusate, and also increased voiding frequency; these effects were suppressed by BB-FCF. These data indicate that pannexin channels contribute to distension- or LPS-evoked ATP release into the lumen of the bladder and that luminal release can modulate voiding function. PMID:25630792

  4. Optimal prediction of carotid intraplaque hemorrhage using clinical and lumen imaging markers

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Michael S.; Hinckley, Peter J.; Treiman, Scott M.; Kim, Seong-Eun; Stoddard, Gregory J.; Parker, Dennis L.; Treiman, Gerald S.; McNally, J. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Purpose MRI detects intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) with high accuracy using the magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo (MPRAGE) sequence. Still, MRI is not readily available for all patients, and many receive CTA instead. Our goal was to determine essential clinical and lumen imaging predictors of IPH as indicators of its presence and clues to its pathogenesis. Methods In this retrospective cross sectional study, patients undergoing stroke workup with MRI/MRA underwent carotid IPH imaging. A total of 726 carotid plaques were analyzed, excluding vessels with non-carotid stroke sources (420), occlusions (7), or near-occlusions (3). Potential carotid imaging predictors of IPH included percent diameter and mm stenosis, plaque thickness, ulceration, and intraluminal thrombus. Clinical predictors were recorded and a multivariable logistic regression model was fitted. Backward-elimination was used to determine essential IPH predictors with a threshold two-sided p<.10. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was also performed. Results Predictors of carotid IPH included plaque thickness (odds ratio, OR=2.20, p<.001), mm stenosis (OR=0.46, p<.001), ulceration (OR=4.25, p=.020), age (OR=1.11, p=.001) and male sex (OR=3.23, p=.077). The final model discriminatory value was excellent (area under the curve, AUC=0.932). This was significantly higher than models using only plaque thickness (AUC=0.881), mm stenosis (AUC=0.830) or ulceration (AUC=0.715) p<.001. Conclusions Optimal discrimination of carotid IPH requires information on plaque thickness, mm stenosis, ulceration, age and male sex. These factors predict IPH with high discriminatory power, and may provide clues to the pathogenesis of IPH. This model could be used to predict the presence of IPH when MRI is contraindicated. PMID:26338923

  5. Mass loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Leo

    1987-01-01

    Observational evidence for mass loss from cool stars is reviewed. Spectra line profiles are used for the derivation of mass-loss rates with the aid of the equation of continuity. This equation implies steady mass loss with spherical symmetry. Data from binary stars, Mira variables, and red giants in globular clusters are examined. Silicate emission is discussed as a useful indicator of mass loss in the middle infrared spectra. The use of thermal millimeter-wave radiation, Very Large Array (VLA) measurement of radio emission, and OH/IR masers are discussed as a tool for mass loss measurement. Evidence for nonsteady mass loss is also reviewed.

  6. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... thyroid disease , can interfere with hair production and cause hair loss. People with lupus can also lose hair. The hormone imbalance that happens in polycystic ovary syndrome can cause hair loss in teen girls as well as ...

  7. Percutaneous Selective Embolectomy using a Fogarty Thru-Lumen Catheter for Pancreas Graft Thrombosis: A Case Report

    SciTech Connect

    Izaki, Kenta Yamaguchi, Masato; Matsumoto, Ippei; Shinzeki, Makoto; Ku, Yonson; Sugimura, Kazuro; Sugimoto, Koji

    2011-06-15

    A 57-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus underwent simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation. The pancreaticoduodenal graft was implanted in the right iliac fossa. The donor's portal vein was anastomosed to the recipient's inferior vena cava (IVC). Seven days after the surgery, a thrombus was detected in the graft veins. Percutaneous thrombolysis was immediately performed; however, venous congestion was still present. We therefore attempted selective embolectomy using a Fogarty Thru-Lumen Catheter. Thrombi were directed from the graft veins toward the IVC and captured in the IVC filter with complete elimination of the thrombus without any major complications. We present our technique for the successful treatment of pancreas graft thrombosis within a short time period by percutaneous selective embolectomy using a Fogarty Thru-Lumen Catheter.

  8. Microsomal triacylglycerol transfer protein (MTP) is required to expand tracheal lumen in Drosophila in a cell-autonomous manner.

    PubMed

    Baer, Magdalena M; Palm, Wilhelm; Eaton, Suzanne; Leptin, Maria; Affolter, Markus

    2012-12-15

    The Drosophila tracheal system is a useful model for dissecting the molecular mechanisms controlling the assembly and expansion of tubular organs. We have identified microsomal triacylglycerol transfer protein (MTP) as a new player involved in the lumen expansion in unicellular tubes. MTP is an endoplasmic reticulum resident protein that can transfer triglycerides and phospholipids between membranes in vitro. MTP lipid transfer activity is crucial for the assembly and secretion of apoB family lipoproteins, which are carriers of lipids between different tissues. Here we describe an unexpected role of MTP in tracheal development, which we postulate to be independent of its known function in lipoprotein secretion. We propose that, in tracheal cells, MTP is involved in regulation of de novo apical membrane delivery to the existing lumen and thus promotes proper expansion of the larval tracheal system.

  9. Endosonography-guided drainage of malignant fluid collections using lumen-apposing, fully covered self-expanding metal stents.

    PubMed

    Musumba, Crispin; Tutticci, Nicholas; Nanda, Kavinderjit; Kwan, Vu

    2014-08-01

    Endosonography (EUS)-guided drainage of paragastric fluid collections using fully covered self-expanding metal stents (FCSEMS) is now a well-established procedure. Recently, new and specially designed lumen-apposing, fully-covered metal cystgastrostomy stents have been employed for this indication. In this case series, the use of these new stents for the drainage of malignant fluid collections in three symptomatic patients is described. Cases included a large pancreatic pseudocyst, secondary to underlying acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and two large collections of loculated ascites due to metastatic ovarian and cervical cancer, respectively. Technical success in inserting the new stents was achieved in all three patients, and resulted in symptomatic relief. There were no clinically significant complications directly attributed to the stents. These new lumen-apposing cystgastrostomy stents may provide a viable, minimally invasive, and effective alternative for drainage of malignant fluid collections, either for definitive treatment or for palliation of symptoms.

  10. Fluid dynamic study in a femoral artery branch casting of man with upstream main lumen curvature for steady flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y. I.; Back, L. H.; Back, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    An in-vitro, steady flow investigation was conducted in a hollow, transparent vascular replica of the profunda femoris branch of man for a range of physiological flow conditions. The replica casting tested was obtained from a human cadaver and indicated some plague formation along the main lumen and branch. The flow visualization observations and measured pressure distributions indicated the highly three-dimensional flow characteristics with arterial curvature and branching, and the important role of centrifugal effects in fluid transport mechanisms.

  11. Fluid dynamic study in a femoral artery branch casting of man with upstream main lumen curvature for steady flow.

    PubMed

    Back, M R; Cho, Y I; Back, L H

    1985-08-01

    An in-vitro, steady flow investigation was conducted in a hollow, transparent vascular replica of the profunda femoris branch of man for a range of physiological flow conditions. The replica casting tested was obtained from a human cadaver and indicated some plaque formation along the main lumen and branch. The flow visualization observations and measured pressure distributions indicated the highly three-dimensional flow characteristics with arterial curvature and branching, and the important role of centrifugal effects in fluid transport mechanisms.

  12. Carcinoma cells induce lumen filling and EMT in epithelial cells through soluble E-cadherin-mediated activation of EGFR

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Pratima U.; D'Ambrosio, Julia; Inge, Landon J.; Mason, Robert W.; Rajasekaran, Ayyappan K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In epithelial cancers, carcinoma cells coexist with normal cells. Although it is known that the tumor microenvironment (TME) plays a pivotal role in cancer progression, it is not completely understood how the tumor influences adjacent normal epithelial cells. In this study, a three-dimensional co-culture system comprising non-transformed epithelial cells (MDCK) and transformed carcinoma cells (MSV-MDCK) was used to demonstrate that carcinoma cells sequentially induce preneoplastic lumen filling and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in epithelial cysts. MMP-9 secreted by carcinoma cells cleaves cellular E-cadherin (encoded by CDH1) from epithelial cells to generate soluble E-cadherin (sE-cad), a pro-oncogenic protein. We show that sE-cad induces EGFR activation, resulting in lumen filling in MDCK cysts. Long-term sE-cad treatment induced EMT. sE-cad caused lumen filling by induction of the ERK signaling pathway and triggered EMT through the sustained activation of the AKT pathway. Although it is known that sE-cad induces MMP-9 release and consequent EGFR activation in tumor cells, our results, for the first time, demonstrate that carcinoma cells can induce sE-cad shedding in adjacent epithelial cells, which leads to EGFR activation and the eventual transdifferentiation of the normal epithelial cells. PMID:26483386

  13. Detailing intra-lesional venous lumen shrinking in multiple sclerosis investigated by sFLAIR MRI at 7-T.

    PubMed

    Müller, Katharina; Kuchling, Joseph; Dörr, Jan; Harms, Lutz; Ruprecht, Klemens; Niendorf, Thoralf; Wuerfel, Jens; Paul, Friedemann; Sinnecker, Tim

    2014-10-01

    Intra-lesional venous lumen shrinking detectable by MRI was suggested as an in vivo marker of inflammation in multiple sclerosis (MS). In our study mean diameters of pre-, post- and intra-lesional venous sections were determined in 49 patients with MS or clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) using a pixel-wise analysis on susceptibility-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (sFLAIR) images and T2*-weighted (T2*w) imaging at 7 Tesla (T). We observed post-to-intra-lesional venous lumen shrinking on T2*w images (p = 0.036) in an analysis of 338 venous sections. Pre-to-intra-lesional venous lumen reduction was only detectable in less than 50% of lesions and failed statistical significance when analysing T2*w (p = 0.325) and sFLAIR images (p = 0.258). In conclusion, thinning of intra-lesional veins in MS is--if detectable at all--probably less severe than previously reported, and affects only a minority of MS lesions.

  14. Rab35 GTPase couples cell division with initiation of epithelial apico-basal polarity and lumen opening

    PubMed Central

    Klinkert, Kerstin; Rocancourt, Murielle; Houdusse, Anne; Echard, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Establishment and maintenance of apico-basal polarity in epithelial organs must be tightly coupled with cell division, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Using 3D cultures of renal MDCK cells (cysts), we found that the Rab35 GTPase plays a crucial role in polarity initiation and apical lumen positioning during the first cell division of cyst development. At the molecular level, Rab35 physically couples cytokinesis with the initiation of apico-basal polarity by tethering intracellular vesicles containing key apical determinants at the cleavage site. These vesicles transport aPKC, Cdc42, Crumbs3 and the lumen-promoting factor Podocalyxin, and are tethered through a direct interaction between Rab35 and the cytoplasmic tail of Podocalyxin. Consequently, Rab35 inactivation leads to complete inversion of apico-basal polarity in 3D cysts. This novel and unconventional mode of Rab-dependent vesicle targeting provides a simple mechanism for triggering both initiation of apico-basal polarity and lumen opening at the centre of cysts. PMID:27040773

  15. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase p110δ promotes lumen formation through enhancement of apico-basal polarity and basal membrane organization

    PubMed Central

    Sar, Sokhavuth; Komaiha, Ola Hamze; Moyano, Romina; Rayal, Amel; Samuel, Didier; Shewan, Annette; Vanhaesebroeck, Bart; Mostov, Keith; Gassama-Diagne, Ama

    2016-01-01

    Signaling triggered by adhesion to the extracellular matrix plays a key role in the spatial orientation of epithelial polarity and formation of lumens in glandular tissues. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling in particular is known to influence the polarization process during epithelial cell morphogenesis. Here, using Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells grown in 3D culture, we show that the p110δ isoform of phosphoinositide 3-kinase colocalizes with focal adhesion proteins at the basal surface of polarized cells. Pharmacological, siRNA- or kinase-dead mediated inhibition of p110δ impair the early stages of lumen formation, resulting in inverted polarized cysts, with no laminin or type IV collagen assembly at cell/extracellular matrix contacts. p110δ also regulates the organization of focal adhesions and membrane localization of dystroglycan. Thus, we uncover a previously unrecognized role for p110δ in epithelial cells in the orientation of the apico-basal axis and lumen formation. PMID:25583025

  16. Evaluation of the conformity of assistential practice in the maintenance of the temporary double-lumen dialysis catheter1

    PubMed Central

    Rosetti, Késia Alves Gomes; Tronchin, Daisy Maria Rizatto

    2014-01-01

    Objective to evaluate the conformity of the assistential practice in the maintenance of the temporary double-lumen catheter for hemodialysis, by means of the use of the process indicator, in the University Hospital of the University of São Paulo. Method a quantitative, exploratory-descriptive and observational study. The sample was made up of 155 observations of persons with temporary double-lumen catheters, in the period March - November 2011, using the Indicator of the Maintenance of the Temporary Double Lumen Catheter for Hemodialysis. Results the rate of general conformity of the assistential practice corresponded to 65.8%. Of the practice's 13 components, 9 (69.2%) attained 100% conformity. The hygienization of hands by the professionals and the use of a mask by the patients during the disconnection from the hemodialysis had the worst rates (83.9%). Conclusion although the actions evaluated are implemented in the unit, it is necessary to propose and apply educational strategies with the health team, as well as to institute periodical assessments, so as to raise the conformity rates, ensuring the quality of the hemodialysis services. PMID:24553713

  17. A simple blind placement of the left-sided double-lumen tubes

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Zhi Jun; Shen, Qi Ying; Lu, Yao; Li, Yuan Hai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract One-lung ventilation (OLV) has been commonly provided by using a double-lumen tube (DLT). Previous reports have indicated the high incidence of inappropriate DLT positioning in conventional maneuvers. After obtaining approval from the medical ethics committee of First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University and written consent from patients, 88 adult patients belonging to American society of anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status grade I or II, and undergoing elective thoracic surgery requiring a left-side DLT for OLV were enrolled in this prospective, single-blind, randomized controlled study. Patients were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 groups: simple maneuver group or conventional maneuver group. The simple maneuver is a method that relies on partially inflating the bronchial balloon and recreating the effect of a carinal hook on the DLTs to give an idea of orientation and depth. After the induction of anesthesia the patients were intubated with a left-sided Robertshaw DLT using one of the 2 intubation techniques. After intubation of each DLT, an anesthesiologist used flexible bronchoscopy to evaluate the patient while the patient lay in a supine position. The number of optimal position and the time required to place DLT in correct position were recorded. Time for the intubation of DLT took 100 ± 16.2 seconds (mean ± SD) in simple maneuver group and 95.1 ± 20.8 seconds in conventional maneuver group. The difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.221). Time for fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB) took 22 ± 4.8 seconds in simple maneuver group and was statistically faster than that in conventional maneuver group (43.6 ± 23.7 seconds, P < 0.001). Nearly 98% of the 44 intubations in simple maneuver group were considered as in optimal position while only 52% of the 44 intubations in conventional maneuver group were in optimal position, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). This

  18. ERα-mediated repression of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression by glucocorticoids reveals a crucial role for TNFα and IL1α in lumen formation and maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Eritja, Nuria; Mirantes, Cristina; Llobet, David; Masip, Gemma; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Dolcet, Xavi

    2012-01-01

    Most glandular tissues comprise polarized epithelial cells organized around a single central lumen. Although there is active research investigating the molecular networks involved in the regulation of lumenogenesis, little is known about the extracellular factors that influence lumen formation and maintenance. Using a three-dimensional culture system of epithelial endometrial cells, we have revealed a new role for pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα and IL1α in the formation and, more importantly, maintenance of a single central lumen. We also studied the mechanism by which glucocorticoids repress TNFα and IL1α expression. Interestingly, regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and subsequent lumen formation is mediated by estrogen receptor α (ERα) but not by the glucocorticoid receptor. Finally, we investigated the signaling pathways involved in the regulation of lumen formation by pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our results demonstrate that activation of the ERK/MAPK signaling pathway, but not the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, is important for the formation and maintenance of a single central lumen. In summary, our results suggest a novel role for ERα-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in lumen formation and maintenance. PMID:22328525

  19. Multi-purpose silastic dual-lumen central venous catheters for both collection and transplantation of hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, H M; Trehan, S; Miller, R; Fox, R M; Creger, R J; Raaf, J H

    2000-04-01

    Autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) transplantation frequently requires sequential placement and use of two separate central venous catheters: (1) a short-term, large-bore, stiff device inserted for leukapheresis, and after removal of that device, (2) a long-term, multi-lumen, flexible, Silastic catheter for administration of high-dose chemotherapy, re-infusion of hematopoietic cells, and intensive supportive care. We reviewed our recent experience with two dual-lumen, large-bore, Silastic multi-purpose ('hybrid') catheters, each of which can be used as a single device for both leukapheresis and long-term supportive care throughout the transplant process. Quinton-Raaf PermCath and Bard-Hickman hemodialysis/apheresis dual-lumen catheters were used as the sole venous access device in 112 consecutive patients who underwent autologous PBPC collection and transplantation. The catheter exit site was monitored three times a week, and lumen patency was assessed using clinical and radiologic techniques. Catheters were removed prematurely for persistent thrombus, positive blood cultures despite appropriate antibiotics, or mechanical dysfunction. There were no intra-operative or immediate post-operative complications relating to insertion. Thirty-two patients experienced catheter occlusion necessitating urokinase instillation. Persistent occlusive problems were noted in 16 patients, and in 10 patients the catheter had to be removed. Two exit site infections and 17 bacteremias occurred. Catheters had to be removed for persistent infection in two subjects and for mechanical problems in five others. Cost analysis comparing the hybrid catheters alone vs conventional devices revealed a charge of $4230 in patients with hybrid catheters vs. $7530 in those requiring a temporary non-Silastic dialysis catheter in addition to a flexible, long-term Silastic catheter. Hybrid, Silastic, dual-lumen, large-bore central venous catheters are safe, cost-effective and convenient

  20. IV Administered Gadodiamide Enters the Lumen of the Prostatic Glands: X-Ray Fluorescence Microscopy Examination of a Mouse Model

    DOE PAGES

    Mustafi, Devkumar; Gleber, Sophie-Charlotte; Ward, Jesse; ...

    2015-09-01

    In our objective, we descibe how dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) has become a standard component of multiparametric protocols for MRI examination of the prostate, and its use is incorporated into current guidelines for prostate MRI examination. Analysis of DCE-MRI data for the prostate is usually based on the distribution of gadolinium-based agents, such as gadodiamide, into two well-mixed compartments, and it assumes that gadodiamide does not enter into the glandular lumen. However, this assumption has not been directly tested. The purpose of this study was to use x-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) imaging in situ to measure the concentration of gadodiamidemore » in the epithelia and lumens of the prostate of healthy mice after IV injection of the contrast agent. For our materials and methods, six C57Bl6 male mice (age, 28 weeks) were sacrificed 10 minutes after IV injection of gadodiamide (0.13 mmol/kg), and three mice were sacrificed after saline injection. Prostate tissue samples obtained from each mouse were harvested and frozen; 7-μm-thick slices were sectioned for XFM imaging, and adjacent 5-μm-thick slices were sectioned for H and E staining. Elemental concentrations were determined from XFM images. Our results show mean (± SD) baseline concentration of gadolinium of 0.01 ± 0.01 mM was determined from XFM measurements of prostatic tissue samples when no gadodiamide was administered, and it was used to determine the measurement error. When gadodiamide was added, the mean concentrations of gadolinium in the epithelia and lumens in 32 prostatic glands from six mice were 1.00 ± 0.13 and 0.36 ± 0.09 mM, respectively. In conclusion, our data suggest that IV administration of gadodiamide results in uptake of contrast agent by the glandular lumens of the mouse prostate. We were able to quantitatively determine gadodiamide distributions in mouse prostatic epithelia and lumens.« less

  1. IV Administered Gadodiamide Enters the Lumen of the Prostatic Glands: X-Ray Fluorescence Microscopy Examination of a Mouse Model

    SciTech Connect

    Mustafi, Devkumar; Gleber, Sophie-Charlotte; Ward, Jesse; Dougherty, Urszula; Zamora, Marta; Markiewicz, Erica; Binder, David C.; Antic, Tatjana; Vogt, Stefan; Karczmar, Gregory S.; Oto, Aytekin

    2015-09-01

    In our objective, we descibe how dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) has become a standard component of multiparametric protocols for MRI examination of the prostate, and its use is incorporated into current guidelines for prostate MRI examination. Analysis of DCE-MRI data for the prostate is usually based on the distribution of gadolinium-based agents, such as gadodiamide, into two well-mixed compartments, and it assumes that gadodiamide does not enter into the glandular lumen. However, this assumption has not been directly tested. The purpose of this study was to use x-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) imaging in situ to measure the concentration of gadodiamide in the epithelia and lumens of the prostate of healthy mice after IV injection of the contrast agent. For our materials and methods, six C57Bl6 male mice (age, 28 weeks) were sacrificed 10 minutes after IV injection of gadodiamide (0.13 mmol/kg), and three mice were sacrificed after saline injection. Prostate tissue samples obtained from each mouse were harvested and frozen; 7-μm-thick slices were sectioned for XFM imaging, and adjacent 5-μm-thick slices were sectioned for H and E staining. Elemental concentrations were determined from XFM images. Our results show mean (± SD) baseline concentration of gadolinium of 0.01 ± 0.01 mM was determined from XFM measurements of prostatic tissue samples when no gadodiamide was administered, and it was used to determine the measurement error. When gadodiamide was added, the mean concentrations of gadolinium in the epithelia and lumens in 32 prostatic glands from six mice were 1.00 ± 0.13 and 0.36 ± 0.09 mM, respectively. In conclusion, our data suggest that IV administration of gadodiamide results in uptake of contrast agent by the glandular lumens of the mouse prostate. We were able to quantitatively determine gadodiamide distributions in mouse prostatic epithelia and lumens.

  2. Degree of bioresorbable vascular scaffold expansion modulates loss of essential function

    PubMed Central

    Ferdous, Jahid; Kolachalama, Vijaya B.; Kolandaivelu, Kumaran; Shazly, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    Drug-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BVSs) have the potential to restore lumen patency, enable recovery of the native vascular environment, and circumvent late complications associated with permanent endovascular devices. To ensure therapeutic effects persist for sufficient times prior to scaffold resorption and resultant functional loss, many factors dictating BVS performance must be identified, characterized and optimized. While some factors relate to BVS design and manufacturing, others depend on device deployment and intrinsic vascular properties. Importantly, these factors interact and cannot be considered in isolation. The objective of this study is to quantify the extent to which degree of radial expansion modulates BVS performance, specifically in the context of modifying device erosion kinetics and evolution of structural mechanics and local drug elution. We systematically varied degree of radial expansion in model BVS constructs composed of poly DL-lactide-glycolide and generated in-vitro metrics of device microstructure, degradation, erosion, mechanics and drug release. Experimental data permitted development of computational models that predicted transient concentrations of scaffold-derived soluble species and drug in the arterial wall, thus enabling speculation on the short- and long-term effects of differential expansion. We demonstrate degree of expansion significantly affects scaffold properties critical to functionality, underscoring its relevance in BVS design and optimization. PMID:26277377

  3. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss in teens: Illnesses or medical conditions. Endocrine (hormonal) conditions, such as uncontrolled diabetes or thyroid disease , can interfere with hair production and cause hair loss. People with lupus can also lose hair. The hormone imbalance that happens in polycystic ovary syndrome can cause ...

  4. Pregnancy Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... and painful this loss can be. You might wonder if you'll ever have a baby to hold and call your own. But surviving the emotional impact of pregnancy loss is possible. And many women go on to have successful pregnancies. Expand all | ...

  5. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-12-31

    This CALiPER report examines lumen depreciation and color shift of 17 different A lamps in steady-state conditions (15 LED, 1 CFL, 1 halogen). The goal of this investigation was to examine the long-term performance of complete LED lamps relative to benchmark halogen and CFL lamps—in this case, A lamps emitting approximately 800 lumens operated continuously at a relatively high ambient temperature of 45°C.

  6. Accurate lumen diameter measurement in curved vessels in carotid ultrasound: an iterative scale-space and spatial transformation approach.

    PubMed

    Krishna Kumar, P; Araki, Tadashi; Rajan, Jeny; Saba, Luca; Lavra, Francesco; Ikeda, Nobutaka; Sharma, Aditya M; Shafique, Shoaib; Nicolaides, Andrew; Laird, John R; Gupta, Ajay; Suri, Jasjit S

    2016-12-10

    Monitoring of cerebrovascular diseases via carotid ultrasound has started to become a routine. The measurement of image-based lumen diameter (LD) or inter-adventitial diameter (IAD) is a promising approach for quantification of the degree of stenosis. The manual measurements of LD/IAD are not reliable, subjective and slow. The curvature associated with the vessels along with non-uniformity in the plaque growth poses further challenges. This study uses a novel and generalized approach for automated LD and IAD measurement based on a combination of spatial transformation and scale-space. In this iterative procedure, the scale-space is first used to get the lumen axis which is then used with spatial image transformation paradigm to get a transformed image. The scale-space is then reapplied to retrieve the lumen region and boundary in the transformed framework. Then, inverse transformation is applied to display the results in original image framework. Two hundred and two patients' left and right common carotid artery (404 carotid images) B-mode ultrasound images were retrospectively analyzed. The validation of our algorithm has done against the two manual expert tracings. The coefficient of correlation between the two manual tracings for LD was 0.98 (p < 0.0001) and 0.99 (p < 0.0001), respectively. The precision of merit between the manual expert tracings and the automated system was 97.7 and 98.7%, respectively. The experimental analysis demonstrated superior performance of the proposed method over conventional approaches. Several statistical tests demonstrated the stability and reliability of the automated system.

  7. Prediction of Lumen Output and Chromaticity Shift in LEDs Using Kalman Filter and Extended Kalman Filter Based Models

    SciTech Connect

    Lall, Pradeep; Wei, Junchao; Davis, J Lynn

    2014-06-24

    Abstract— Solid-state lighting (SSL) luminaires containing light emitting diodes (LEDs) have the potential of seeing excessive temperatures when being transported across country or being stored in non-climate controlled warehouses. They are also being used in outdoor applications in desert environments that see little or no humidity but will experience extremely high temperatures during the day. This makes it important to increase our understanding of what effects high temperature exposure for a prolonged period of time will have on the usability and survivability of these devices. Traditional light sources “burn out” at end-of-life. For an incandescent bulb, the lamp life is defined by B50 life. However, the LEDs have no filament to “burn”. The LEDs continually degrade and the light output decreases eventually below useful levels causing failure. Presently, the TM-21 test standard is used to predict the L70 life of LEDs from LM-80 test data. Several failure mechanisms may be active in a LED at a single time causing lumen depreciation. The underlying TM-21 Model may not capture the failure physics in presence of multiple failure mechanisms. Correlation of lumen maintenance with underlying physics of degradation at system-level is needed. In this paper, Kalman Filter (KF) and Extended Kalman Filters (EKF) have been used to develop a 70-percent Lumen Maintenance Life Prediction Model for LEDs used in SSL luminaires. Ten-thousand hour LM-80 test data for various LEDs have been used for model development. System state at each future time has been computed based on the state space at preceding time step, system dynamics matrix, control vector, control matrix, measurement matrix, measured vector, process noise and measurement noise. The future state of the lumen depreciation has been estimated based on a second order Kalman Filter model and a Bayesian Framework. Life prediction of L70 life for the LEDs used in SSL luminaires from KF and EKF based models have

  8. [Temporary vascular access for extra-renal detoxification: utilization of tunneled silicone double-lumen catheters by the percutaneous route].

    PubMed

    Jean, G; Chazot, C; Vanel, T

    1994-01-01

    Femoral or subclavian central venous catheters are commonly used for temporary vascular access in haemodialysis. We used 36 tunnelized siliconed double lumen catheter (Quinton Permcath or Hickman Bard), most of them in right internal jugular percutaneously. Indication for this catheter were acute or chronic renal failure, plasma exchange, rescue of arterio venous fistula or peritoneal dialysis. Insertion incidents were minors (local haematoma), mean functional time was 51 days. Catheters were changed in 5 cases of infection, 3 cases of obstruction and in 2 accidental remove. Insertion facility, low morbidity, potentially long time use, high blood flow rate with low recirculation argue for this expensive material.

  9. Memory loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003257.htm Memory loss To use the sharing features on this ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  10. Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... topic was provided by the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Topic last reviewed: December ... a total loss of hearing. It can be hereditary or it can result from disease, trauma, certain ...

  11. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well- ...

  12. Par1b links lumen polarity with LGN–NuMA positioning for distinct epithelial cell division phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Lázaro-Diéguez, Francisco; Cohen, David; Fernandez, Dawn; Hodgson, Louis; van IJzendoorn, Sven C.D.

    2013-01-01

    Columnar epithelia establish their luminal domains and their mitotic spindles parallel to the basal surface and undergo symmetric cell divisions in which the cleavage furrow bisects the apical domain. Hepatocyte lumina interrupt the lateral domain of neighboring cells perpendicular to two basal domains and their cleavage furrow rarely bifurcates the luminal domains. We determine that the serine/threonine kinase Par1b defines lumen position in concert with the position of the astral microtubule anchoring complex LGN–NuMA to yield the distinct epithelial division phenotypes. Par1b signaling via the extracellular matrix (ECM) in polarizing cells determined RhoA/Rho-kinase activity at cell–cell contact sites. Columnar MDCK and Par1b-depleted hepatocytic HepG2 cells featured high RhoA activity that correlated with robust LGN–NuMA recruitment to the metaphase cortex, spindle alignment with the substratum, and columnar organization. Reduced RhoA activity at the metaphase cortex in HepG2 cells and Par1b-overexpressing MDCK cells correlated with a single or no LGN–NuMA crescent, tilted spindles, and the development of lateral lumen polarity. PMID:24165937

  13. Late-life attachment.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Mélanie; Rahioui, Hassan

    2017-03-01

    Old age is likely to cause a crisis in one's life because of the vulnerabilities it brings up, acting as stressful elements disrupting the elder's feeling of security. It leads to the activation of what is called his attachment system, consisting in attachment styles and interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. To recover a higher sense of safety, the elder would refer to his attachment figures, that is to say closed people paying attention to him, showing towards him availability and consideration. However older adults particularly see their tolerance threshold lowered, regarding an accumulation of losses (true or symbolic) and stressful events within their lifetime. In a psychological and organic exhaustion phenomenon, the risk is to wear out the interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. These are as much vulnerabilities that may increase psychiatric decompensation, including depression. To resolve the tension of this period and to found a necessary secure feeling, the elder will have to redesign the attachment links previously settled and proceed to adjustments to this new context. The need of relational closeness comes back in the elders' attachment behaviour, counting on attachment figures not only to help their loneliness or dependency, but essentially to support them in a narcissist and affective way. That is why attachment theory enlightens the late life period, such as the new challenges older adults have to face. Many studies recognize its value in understanding the transition to old age, but without proposing conceptualization. We aim first to focus on attachment conception to say how much it is relevant with elderly, and then to describe specific terms of attachment within this population in order to better understand those patients. To finish, we must think about new therapeutic proposals taking into consideration the attachment perspective for a better understanding of old age transition.

  14. Coping and Late-Deafness: An Examination of Two Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Jill M.; Kashubeck-West, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the psychometric properties of two measures of coping in a sample of individuals with acquired hearing loss, specifically late-deafness. Methods: Using a quantitative descriptive design, coping of participants (N = 277) with late-deafness was measured to examine the reliability and validity of the Ways of Coping Questionnaire…

  15. Some properties of the walls of metaxylem vessels of maize roots, including tests of the wettability of their lumenal wall surfaces

    PubMed Central

    McCully, Margaret; Canny, Martin; Baker, Adam; Miller, Celia

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Since the proposal of the cohesion theory there has been a paradox that the lumenal surface of vessels is rich in hydrophobic lignin, while tension in the rising sap requires adhesion to a hydrophilic surface. This study sought to characterize the strength of that adhesion in maize (Zea mays), the wettability of the vessel surface, and to reconcile this with its histochemical and physical nature. Methods Wettability was assessed by emptying the maize root vessels of sap, perfusing them with either water or oil, and examining the adhesion (as revealed by contact angles) of the two liquids to vessel walls by cryo-scanning electron microscopy. The phobicity of the lumenal surface was also assessed histochemically with hydrophilic and hydrophobic probes. Key Results Pit borders in the lumen-facing vessel wall surface were wetted by both sap/water and oil. The attraction for oil was weaker: water could replace oil but not vice versa. Pit apertures repelled oil and were strongly stained by hydrophilic probes. Pit chambers were probably hydrophilic. Oil never entered the pits. When vessels were emptied and cryo-fixed immediately, pit chambers facing away from the vessels were always sap-filled. Pit chambers facing vessel lumens were either sap- or gas-filled. Sap from adjoining tracheary elements entering empty vessels accumulated on the lumenal surface in hemispherical drops, which spread out with decreasing contact angles to fill the lumen. Conclusions The vessel lumenal surface has a dual nature, namely a mosaic of hydrophilic and hydrophobic patches at the micrometre scale, with hydrophilic predominating. A key role is shown, for the first time, of overarching borders of pits in determining the dual nature of the surface. In gas-filled (embolized) vessels they are hydrophobic. When wetted by sap (vessels refilling or full) they are hydrophilic. A hypothesis is proposed to explain the switch between the two states. PMID:24709790

  16. The folding state of the lumenal loop determines the thermal stability of light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein.

    PubMed

    Mick, Vera; Geister, Sonja; Paulsen, Harald

    2004-11-23

    The major light-harvesting protein of photosystem II (LHCIIb) is the most abundant chlorophyll-binding protein in the thylakoid membrane. It contains three membrane-spanning alpha helices; the first and third one closely interact with each other to form a super helix, and all three helices bind most of the pigment cofactors. The protein loop domains connecting the alpha helices also play an important role in stabilizing the LHCIIb structure. Single amino acid exchanges in either loop were found to be sufficient to significantly destabilize the complex assembled in vitro [Heinemann, B., and Paulsen, H. (1999) Biochemistry 38, 14088-14093. Mick, V., Eggert, K., Heinemann, B., Geister, S., and Paulsen, H (2004) Biochemistry 43, 5467-5473]. This work presents an analysis of such point mutations in the lumenal loop with regard to the extent and nature of their effect on LHCIIb stability to obtain detailed information on the contribution of this loop to stabilizing the complex. Most of the mutant proteins yielded pigment-protein complexes if their reconstitution and/or isolation was performed under mild conditions; however, the yields were significantly different. Several mutations in the vicinity of W97 in the N-proximal section of the loop gave low reconstitution yields even under very mild conditions. This confirms our earlier notion that W97 may be of particular relevance in stabilizing LHCIIb. The same amino acid exchanges accelerated thermal complex dissociation in the absence of lithium dodecyl sulfate (LDS) and raised the accessibility of the lumenal loop to protease; both effects were well correlated with the reduction in reconstitution yields. We conclude that a detachment of the lumenal loop is a possible first step in the dissociation of LHCIIb. Dramatically reduced complex yields in the presence but not in the absence of LDS were observed for some but not all mutants, particularly those near the C-proximal end of the loop. We conclude that complex

  17. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... certain diseases, such as thyroid problems, diabetes, or lupus. If you take certain medicines or have chemotherapy for cancer, you may also lose your hair. Other causes are stress, a low protein diet, a family history, or poor nutrition. Treatment for hair loss depends ...

  18. Limb Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... limb. Learning how to use it takes time. Physical therapy can help you adapt. Recovery from the loss of a limb can be hard. Sadness, anger, and frustration are common. If you are having a tough time, talk to your doctor. Treatment with medicine or counseling can help.

  19. A Novel Device for True Lumen Re-Entry After Subintimal Recanalization of Superficial Femoral Arteries: First-in-Man Experience and Technical Description

    SciTech Connect

    Airoldi, Flavio Faglia, Ezio Losa, Sergio Tavano, Davide; Latib, Azeem; Mantero, Manuela Lanza, Gaetano Clerici, Giacomo

    2011-02-15

    Subintimal angioplasty (SAP) is frequently performed for the treatment of critical limb ischemia (CLI) and has been recognized as an effective technique for these patients. Nevertheless, this approach is limited by the lack of controlled re-entry into the true lumen of the target vessel. We describe a novel device for true lumen re-entry after subintimal recanalization of superficial femoral arteries (SFA). We report our experience with six patients treated between April 2009 and January 2010 with a novel system designed to facilitate true lumen re-entry. The device was advanced by ipsilateral antegrade approach through a 6-French sheath. Successful reaccess into the true lumen was obtained in five of six patients without complications. The patient in whom the reaccess to the true lumen was not possible underwent successful bypass surgery. At 30 days follow-up, the SFA was patent in all patients according to echo-Doppler examination. Our preliminary experience indicates that this novel re-entry device increases the success rate of percutaneous revascularization of chronically occluded SFA.

  20. An automated method for lumen and media-adventitia border detection in a sequence of IVUS frames.

    PubMed

    Plissiti, Marina E; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I; Michalis, Lampros K; Bozios, George E

    2004-06-01

    In this paper, we present a method for the automated detection of lumen and media-adventitia border in sequential intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) frames. The method is based on the use of deformable models. The energy function is appropriately modified and minimized using a Hopfield neural network. Proper modifications in the definition of the bias of the neurons have been introduced to incorporate image characteristics. A simulated annealing scheme is included to ensure convergence at a global minimum. The method overcomes distortions in the expected image pattern, due to the presence of calcium, employing a specialized structure of the neural network and boundary correction schemas which are based on a priori knowledge about the vessel geometry. The proposed method is evaluated using sequences of IVUS frames from 18 arterial segments, some of them indicating calcified regions. The obtained results demonstrate that our method is statistically accurate, reproducible, and capable to identify the regions of interest in sequences of IVUS frames.

  1. PTEN induces apoptosis and cavitation via HIF-2-dependent Bnip3 upregulation during epithelial lumen formation

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Y; Liu, J; Saadat, S; Tian, X; Han, Y; Fong, G-H; Pandolfi, P P; Lee, L Y; Li, S

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) dephosphorylates PIP3 and antagonizes the prosurvival PI3K-Akt pathway. Targeted deletion of PTEN in mice led to early embryonic lethality. To elucidate its role in embryonic epithelial morphogenesis and the underlying mechanisms, we used embryonic stem cell-derived embryoid body (EB), an epithelial cyst structurally similar to the periimplantation embryo. PTEN is upregulated during EB morphogenesis in parallel with apoptosis of core cells, which mediates EB cavitation. Genetic ablation of PTEN causes Akt overactivation, apoptosis resistance and cavitation blockade. However, rescue experiments using mutant PTEN and pharmacological inhibition of Akt suggest that the phosphatase activity of PTEN and Akt are not involved in apoptosis-mediated cavitation. Instead, hypoxia-induced upregulation of Bnip3, a proapoptotic BH3-only protein, mediates PTEN-dependent apoptosis and cavitation. PTEN inactivation inhibits hypoxia- and reactive oxygen species-induced Bnip3 elevation. Overexpression of Bnip3 in PTEN-null EBs rescues apoptosis of the core cells. Mechanistically, suppression of Bnip3 following PTEN loss is likely due to reduction of hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α) because forced expression of an oxygen-stable HIF-2α mutant rescues Bnip3 expression and apoptosis. Lastly, we show that HIF-2α is upregulated by PTEN at both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Ablation of prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing protein 2 (PHD2) in normal EBs or inhibition of PHD activities in PTEN-null EBs stabilizes HIF-2α and induces Bnip3 and caspase-3 activation. Altogether, these results suggest that PTEN is required for apoptosis-mediated cavitation during epithelial morphogenesis by regulating the expression of HIF-2α and Bnip3. PMID:25394489

  2. Structural and functional assays of AtTLP18.3 identify its novel acid phosphatase activity in thylakoid lumen.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsin-Yi; Liu, Mao-Sen; Lin, Tsan-Piao; Cheng, Yi-Sheng

    2011-11-01

    The membrane protein AtTLP18.3 of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains a domain of unknown function, DUF477; it forms a polysome with photosynthetic apparatuses in the thylakoid lumen. To explore the molecular function of AtTLP18.3, we resolved its crystal structures with residues 83 to 260, the DUF477 only, and performed a series of biochemical analyses to discover its function. The gene expression of AtTLP18.3 followed a circadian rhythm. X-ray crystallography revealed the folding of AtTLP18.3 as a three-layer sandwich with three α-helices in the upper layer, four β-sheets in the middle layer, and two α-helices in the lower layer, which resembles a Rossmann fold. Structural comparison suggested that AtTLP18.3 might be a phosphatase. The enzymatic activity of AtTLP18.3 was further confirmed by phosphatase assay with various substrates (e.g. p-nitrophenyl phosphate, 6,8-difluoro-4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate, O-phospho-L-serine, and several synthetic phosphopeptides). Furthermore, we obtained the structure of AtTLP18.3 in complex with O-phospho-L-serine to identify the binding site of AtTLP18.3. Our structural and biochemical studies revealed that AtTLP18.3 has the molecular function of a novel acid phosphatase in the thylakoid lumen. DUF477 is accordingly renamed the thylakoid acid phosphatase domain.

  3. Subintimal TRAnscatheter Withdrawal (STRAW) of hematomas compressing the distal true lumen: a novel technique to facilitate distal reentry during recanalization of chronic total occlusion (CTO).

    PubMed

    Smith, Elliot J; Di Mario, Carlo; Spratt, James C; Hanratty, Colm G; de Silva, Ranil; Lindsay, Alistair C; Grantham, J Aaron

    2015-01-01

    The development of a large hematoma impairing visualization of the distal true lumen is a recognized complication of antegrade recanalization of chronic total occlusions, often forcing the operator to abort the procedure or switch to a retrograde approach. We describe a novel technique utilizing an over-the-wire balloon inflated in the proximal occluded vessel to block inflow and allow aspiration of the blood from the subintimal space. This decompressed the true lumen, restored distal visualization, and allowed successful reentry using a dedicated technology. Utilization of this novel technique may rescue antegrade recanalization attempts complicated by large subintimal hematomas.

  4. Impaired small-bowel barrier integrity in the presence of lumenal pancreatic digestive enzymes leads to circulatory shock.

    PubMed

    Kistler, Erik B; Alsaigh, Tom; Chang, Marisol; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W

    2012-08-01

    In bowel ischemia, impaired mucosal integrity may allow intestinal pancreatic enzyme products to become systemic and precipitate irreversible shock and death. This can be attenuated by pancreatic enzyme inhibition in the small-bowel lumen. It is unresolved, however, whether ischemically mediated mucosal disruption is the key event allowing pancreatic enzyme products systemic access and whether intestinal digestive enzyme activity in concert with increased mucosal permeability leads to shock in the absence of ischemia. To test this possibility, the small intestinal lumen of nonischemic rats was perfused for 2 h with either digestive enzymes, a mucin disruption strategy (i.e., mucolytics) designed to increase mucosal permeability, or both, and animals were observed for shock. Digestive enzymes perfused included trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, amylase, and lipase. Control (n = 6) and experimental animals perfused with pancreatic enzymes only (n = 6) or single enzymes (n = 3 for each of the five enzyme groups) maintained stable hemodynamics. After mucin disruption using a combination of enteral N-acetylcysteine, atropine, and increased flow rates, rats (n = 6) developed mild hypotension (P < 0.001 compared with groups perfused with pancreatic enzymes only after 90 min) and increased intestinal permeability to intralumenally perfused fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 20 kd (P < 0.05) compared with control and enzyme-only groups, but there were no deaths. All animals perfused with both digestive enzymes and subjected to mucin disruption (n = 6) developed hypotension and increased intestinal permeability (P < 0.001 after 90 min). Pancreatic enzymes were measured in the intestinal wall of both groups subjected to mucin disruption, but not in the enzyme-only or control groups. Depletion of plasma protease inhibitors was found only in animals perfused with pancreatic enzymes plus mucin disruption, implicating increased permeability and intralumenal pancreatic enzyme egress

  5. The lumenal loop M672-P707 of the Menkes protein (ATP7A) transfers copper to peptidylglycine monooxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Otoikhian, Adenike; Barry, Amanda N.; Mayfield, Mary; Nilges, Mark; Huang, Yiping; Lutsenko, Svetlana; Blackburn, Ninian

    2012-05-14

    Copper transfer to cuproproteins located in vesicular compartments of the secretory pathway depends on activity of the copper translocating ATPase (ATP7A or ATP7B) but the mechanism of transfer is largely unexplored. Copper-ATPase ATP7A is unique in having a sequence rich in histidine and methionine residues located on the lumenal side of the membrane. The corresponding fragment binds Cu(I) when expressed as a chimera with a scaffold protein, and mutations or deletions of His and/or Met residues in its sequence inhibit dephosphorylation of the ATPase, a catalytic step associated with copper release. Here we present evidence for a potential role of this lumenal region of ATP7A in copper transfer to cuproenzymes. Both Cu(II) and Cu(I) forms were investigated since the form in which copper is transferred to acceptor proteins is currently unknown. Analysis of Cu(II) using EPR demonstrated that at Cu:P ratios below 1:1, 15N-substituted protein had Cu(II) bound by 4 His residues, but this coordination changed as the Cu(II) to protein ratio increased towards 2:1. XAS confirmed this coordination via analysis of the intensity of outer-shell scattering from imidazole residues. The Cu(II) complexes could be reduced to their Cu(I) counterparts by ascorbate, but here again, as shown by EXAFS and XANES spectroscopy, the coordination was dependent on copper loading. At low copper Cu(I) was bound by a mixed ligand set of His + Met while at higher ratios His coordination predominated. The copper-loaded loop was able to transfer either Cu(II) or Cu(I) to peptidylglycine monooxygenase in the presence of chelating resin, generating catalytically active enzyme in a process that appeared to involve direct interaction between the two partners. The variation of coordination with copper loading suggests copper-dependent conformational change which in turn could act as a signal for regulating copper release by the ATPase pump.

  6. CALiPER Report 20.4: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-12-30

    This CALiPER report focuses on lumen maintenance, chromaticity maintenance, and catastrophic failure in 32 of the Series 20 LED PAR38 lamps and 8 benchmark lamps, which were monitored for nearly 14,000 hours at ambient temperatures between 44°C and 45°C.

  7. Vascular lumen simulation and highly-sensitive nitric oxide detection using three-dimensional gelatin chip coupled to TiC/C nanowire arrays microelectrode.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin-Mei; Wang, Xue-Ying; Hu, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Rong-Sheng; Huang, Ying; Chen, Shi-Jing; Huang, Wei-Hua; Huo, Kai-Fu; Chu, Paul K

    2012-11-07

    Reproducing the physiological environment of blood vessels for the in vitro investigation of endothelial cell functions is very challenging. Here, we describe a vascular-like structure based on a three-dimensional (3D) gelatin chip with good compatibility and permeability which is also cost-effective and easy to produce. The controllable lumen diameter and wall thickness enable close mimicking of blood vessels in vitro. The 3D gelatin matrix between adjacent lumens is capable of generating soluble-factor gradients inside, and diffusion of molecules with different molecular weights through the matrix is studied. The cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells proliferate on the gelatin lumen linings to form a vascular lumen. The hemodynamic behavior including adhesion, alignment of endothelial cells (ECs) under shear stress and pulsatile stretch is studied. Furthermore, a microelectrode comprising TiC/C nanowire arrays is fabricated to detect nitric oxide with sub-nM detection limits and NO generation from the cultured ECs is monitored in real time. This vascular model reproduces the surrounding parenchyma of endothelial cells and mimics the hemodynamics inside blood vessels very well, thereby enabling potential direct investigation of hemodynamics, angiogenesis, and tumor metastasis in vitro.

  8. Ultrastructural features of the differentiating thyroid primordium in the sand lizard (Lacerta agilis L.) from the differentiation of the cellular cords to the formation of the follicular lumen.

    PubMed

    Rupik, Weronika; Kowalska, Magdalena; Swadźba, Elwira; Maślak, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The differentiation of the thyroid primordium of lacertilian species is poorly understood. The present study reports on the ultrastructural analysis of the developing thyroid primordium in the sand lizard (Lacerta agilis) during the early stages of differentiation. The early thyroid primordium of sand lizard embryos was composed of cellular cords that contained single cells with a giant lipid droplet, which were eliminated by specific autophagy (lipophagy). The follicular lumens at the periphery of the primordium differentiated even before the division of the cellular cords. When the single cells within the cords started to die through paraptosis, the adjacent cells started to polarise and junctional complexes began to form around them. After polarisation and clearing up after the formation of the lumens, the cellular cords divided into definitive follicles. The cellular cords in the central part of the primordium started to differentiate later than those at the periphery. The cellular cords divided into presumptive follicles first and only later differentiated into definitive follicles. During this process, a population of centrally located cells was removed through apoptosis to form the lumen. Although the follicular lumen in sand lizard embryos is differentiated by cavitation similar to that in the grass snake, there were very important differences during the early stages of the differentiation of the cellular cords and the formation of the thyroid follicles.

  9. A novel multi-functional chloroplast protein: identification of a 40 kDa immunophilin-like protein located in the thylakoid lumen.

    PubMed Central

    Fulgosi, H; Vener, A V; Altschmied, L; Herrmann, R G; Andersson, B

    1998-01-01

    We describe the identification of the first immunophilin associated with the photosynthetic membrane of chloroplasts. This complex 40 kDa immunophilin, designated TLP40 (thylakoid lumen PPIase), located in the lumen of the thylakoids, was found to play a dual role in photosynthesis involving both biogenesis and intraorganelle signalling. It originates in a single-copy nuclear gene, is made as a precursor of 49.2 kDa with a bipartite lumenal targeting transit peptide, and is characterized by a structure including a cyclophilin-like C-terminal segment of 20 kDa, a predicted N-terminal leucine zipper and a potential phosphatase-binding domain. It can exist in different oligomeric conformations and attach to the inner membrane surface. It is confined predominantly to the non-appressed thylakoid regions, the site of protein integration into the photosynthetic membrane. The isolated protein possesses peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase protein folding activity characteristic of immunophilins, but is not inhibited by cyclosporin A. TLP40 also exerts an effect on dephosphorylation of several key proteins of photosystem II, probably as a constituent of a transmembrane signal transduction chain. This first evidence for a direct role of immunophilins in a photoautotrophic process suggests that light-mediated protein phosphorylation in photosynthetic membranes and the role of the thylakoid lumen are substantially more complex than anticipated. PMID:9501079

  10. LATE ACUTE REJECTION IN LIVER TRANSPLANT: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    NACIF, Lucas Souto; PINHEIRO, Rafael Soares; PÉCORA, Rafael Antônio de Arruda; DUCATTI, Liliana; ROCHA-SANTOS, Vinicius; ANDRAUS, Wellington; D'ALBUQUERQUE, Luiz Carneiro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Late acute rejection leads to worse patient and graft survival after liver transplantation. Aim: To analyze the reported results published in recent years by leading transplant centers in evaluating late acute rejection and update the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of liver transplantation. Method: Systematic literature review through Medline-PubMed database with headings related to late acute rejection in articles published until November 2013 was done. Were analyzed demographics, immunosuppression, rejection, infection and graft and patient survival rates. Results: Late acute rejection in liver transplantation showed poor results mainly regarding patient and graft survival. Almost all of these cohort studies were retrospective and descriptive. The incidence of late acute rejection varied from 7-40% in these studies. Late acute rejection was one cause for graft loss and resulted in different outcomes with worse patient and graft survival after liver transplant. Late acute rejection has been variably defined and may be a cause of chronic rejection with worse prognosis. Late acute rejection occurs during a period in which the goal is to maintain lower immunosuppression after liver transplantation. Conclusion: The current articles show the importance of late acute rejection. The real benefit is based on early diagnosis and adequate treatment at the onset until late follow up after liver transplantation. PMID:26537150

  11. Antithrombotic therapy for pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Paulien G; Goddijn, Mariëtte; Middeldorp, Saskia

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although an association between thrombophilia and pregnancy loss has been observed in many studies, little is known about the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this association. Considering the association between thrombophilia and pregnancy loss, the efficacy of antithrombotic therapy for women with pregnancy loss (with or without thrombophilia) has been studied for the past 30 years. METHODS We performed a comprehensive review of the literature on the strength of the association between thrombophilia and pregnancy loss, the pathophysiological mechanisms and the efficacy of antithrombotic therapy to increase the chance of live birth. RESULTS The association between pregnancy loss and thrombophilia varies according to the type of thrombophilia (e.g. antiphospholipid syndrome versus forms of inherited thrombophilia) and according to the type of pregnancy loss (single versus recurrent pregnancy loss and early versus late pregnancy loss). Thrombophilia may induce thrombosis in decidual vessels or impair placentation through hypercoagulability and inflammation, but these hypotheses need further verification. For women with antiphospholipid syndrome, evidence from small-sized trials suggests a beneficial effect of antithrombotic therapy but additional randomized controlled trials are essential to confirm this. Whether antithrombotic therapy increases the chance of live birth in women with inherited thrombophilia is unknown. Recent randomized controlled trials have consistently shown that antithrombotic therapy does not increase the chance of live birth in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage. CONCLUSIONS There are large gaps in knowledge and a lack of evidence for treatment of women with pregnancy loss with thrombophilia. To provide a solid base for clinical practice, further studies on the role of coagulation in reproduction, as well as international collaborations in randomized controlled trials of antithrombotic therapy in women with pregnancy

  12. Lateness to School Remediation Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugwuegbulam, Charles N.; Ibrahim, Haj. Naheed

    2015-01-01

    Primary and secondary school in Nigeria encourage punctuality to school yet a good number of the learners came late to school. This is especially true in the case of day students. Learners who come late to school are usually punished in one way or the other yet the lateness to school phenomenon still persist. Lateness to school behaviour affects…

  13. Late Mitochondrial Acquisition, Really?

    PubMed Central

    Degli Esposti, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a timely critique of a recent Nature paper by Pittis and Gabaldón that has suggested a late origin of mitochondria in eukaryote evolution. It shows that the inferred ancestry of many mitochondrial proteins has been incorrectly assigned by Pittis and Gabaldón to bacteria other than the aerobic proteobacteria from which the ancestor of mitochondria originates, thereby questioning the validity of their suggestion that mitochondrial acquisition may be a late event in eukaryote evolution. The analysis and approach presented here may guide future studies to resolve the true ancestry of mitochondria. PMID:27289097

  14. Laser-driven short-duration heating angioplasty: chronic artery lumen patency and histology in porcine iliac artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazaki, Natsumi; Kunio, Mie; Naruse, Sho; Arai, Tsunenori; Sakurada, Masami

    2012-02-01

    We proposed a short-duration heating balloon angioplasty. We designed a prototype short-duration heating balloon catheter that can heat artery media to 60-70°C within 15-25 s with a combination of laser-driven heat generation and continuous fluid irrigation in the balloon. The purpose of this study was to investigate chronic artery lumen patency as well as histological alteration of artery wall after the short-duration heating balloon dilatation with porcine healthy iliac artery. The short-term heating balloon dilated sites were angiographically patent in acute (1 hour) and in chronic phases (1 and 4 weeks). One week after the dilatation, smooth muscle cells (SMCs) density in the artery media measured from H&E-stained specimens was approx. 20% lower than that in the reference artery. One and four weeks after the dilatations, normal structure of artery adventitia was maintained without any incidence of thermal injury. Normal lamellar structure of the artery media was also maintained. We found that the localized heating restricted to artery media by the short-duration heating could maintain adventitial function and artery normal structure in chronic phase.

  15. Non-cuffed dual lumen catheters in the external jugular veins versus other central veins for hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Moini, Majid; Rasouli, Mohammad R; Kenari, Mohammad Mahmoodzadeh; Mahmoodi, Hamid Reza

    2009-01-01

    To compare prospective between insertion of non-cuffed dual lumen catheter in the external jugular vein and other central veins for hemodialysis (HD), we studied 68 chronic dialysis patients randomly allocated into two groups: one with external jugular vein catheterization as access for HD and another with other central venous catheterization, internal jugular or subclavian vein. Our results showed there were no significant differences regarding successful cannulation, com-plications, total numbers of dialysis, development of pain and infection at the site of cannulation, patency rate of the catheters, and efficacy of hemodialysis between both groups. In addition, the patency of the catheter in the external jugular vein was not affected by previous cannulation of other central veins. In contrast, there was a significant correlation between numbers of attempts for cannulation in both groups and development of hematoma and infection, (p< 0.05). In conclusion, our results showed that the external jugular vein may be an alternative for other central veins for insertion of temporary non-cuffed hemodialysis catheter.

  16. Treatment of malignant biliary obstruction by endoscopic implantation of iridium 192 using a new double lumen endoprosthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, J.H.; Lichtenstein, J.L.; Pullano, W.E.; Ramsey, W.H.; Rosenbaum, A.; Halpern, G.; Nonkin, R.; Jacob, H.

    1988-07-01

    Iridium 192 seeds contained in a ribbon were preloaded into a new double lumen 11 Fr endoprosthesis which was then inserted into malignant strictures of the bile duct and ampulla and left in place for 48 hours until 5000 rads were delivered to the tumor. The procedure was carried out in 14 patients (7 women, 7 men; mean age, 63.2 years; range, 46 to 86 years). Six patients were treated for cholangiocarcinomas, four with pancreatic carcinomas, and four with ampullary carcinomas. No complications occurred. The mean survival of the group was 7 months (range, 3 days to 27 months). This new technique provides both intraluminal brachytherapy and biliary drainage and is inserted intraduodenally across the papilla of Vater avoiding puncture of the liver and external hardware required by the percutaneous technique and hardware necessitated with a nasobiliary tube. Following removal of the iridium prosthesis, a large caliber endoprosthesis is inserted for continued decompression. Because of proven efficacy of endoprostheses, this new technique should be considered when intraluminal irradiation is indicated.

  17. An Assessment of the Intestinal Lumen as a Site for Intervention in Reducing Body Burdens of Organochlorine Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Jandacek, Ronald J.; Genuis, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Many individuals maintain a persistent body burden of organochlorine compounds (OCs) as well as other lipophilic compounds, largely as a result of airborne and dietary exposures. Ingested OCs are typically absorbed from the small intestine along with dietary lipids. Once in the body, stored OCs can mobilize from adipose tissue storage sites and, along with circulating OCs, are delivered into the small intestine via hepatic processing and biliary transport. Retained OCs are also transported into both the large and small intestinal lumen via non-biliary mechanisms involving both secretion and desquamation from enterocytes. OCs and some other toxicants can be reabsorbed from the intestine, however, they take part in enterohepatic circulation(EHC). While dietary fat facilitates the absorption of OCs from the small intestine, it has little effect on OCs within the large intestine. Non-absorbable dietary fats and fat absorption inhibitors, however, can reduce the re-absorption of OCs and other lipophiles involved in EHC and may enhance the secretion of these compounds into the large intestine—thereby hastening their elimination. Clinical studies are currently underway to determine the efficacy of using non-absorbable fats and inhibitors of fat absorption in facilitating the elimination of persistent body burdens of OCs and other lipophilic human contaminants. PMID:23476122

  18. An endogenous superantigen in the rat gut lumen as a model to study the role of human protein-Fv.

    PubMed

    Guihard, A I; Pires, R; Bouvet, J P

    1997-01-01

    Protein-Fv (pFv) is a human B superantigen which can bind the variable domain (VH) of the heavy chain of immunoglobulins (Igs) and enhance the effector functions of secretory antibodies in the gut lumen. This study describes a rat molecule related to pFv by a similar specificity to the human VH3 domain. Investigation of the content of different gut segments shows that the rat pFv is usually hidden by its binding to local Igs to form macromolecular complexes similar to the immune fortresses described in normal humans. Furthermore, the pFv level generally increases from the jejunum to the colon in parallel with the decreasing water dilution, and finally a discontinuous presence can occur along the digestive tract. Detection of this molecule in the fetus proves its non-microbial origin. Variations of the release of pFv, according to the breeding and to littermating, suggest the influence of external factors. This animal model allows the development of a study of the functions of pFv in vivo using a current laboratory species and has already provided evidence that the synthesis of this important molecule of the secretory immune system is regulated by environmental factors.

  19. Clues to the mechanism of cholesterol transfer from the structure of NPC1 middle lumenal domain bound to NPC2

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaochun; Saha, Piyali; Li, Jian; Blobel, Günter; Pfeffer, Suzanne R.

    2016-01-01

    Export of LDL-derived cholesterol from lysosomes requires the cooperation of the integral membrane protein Niemann–Pick C1 (NPC1) and a soluble protein, Niemann–Pick C2 (NPC2). Mutations in the genes encoding these proteins lead to Niemann–Pick disease type C (NPC). NPC2 binds to NPC1’s second (middle), lumenally oriented domain (MLD) and transfers cholesterol to NPC1’s N-terminal domain (NTD). Here, we report the 2.4-Å resolution crystal structure of a complex of human NPC1–MLD and NPC2 bearing bound cholesterol-3-O-sulfate. NPC1–MLD uses two protruding loops to bind NPC2, analogous to its interaction with the primed Ebola virus glycoprotein. Docking of the NPC1–NPC2 complex onto the full-length NPC1 structure reveals a direct cholesterol transfer tunnel between NPC2 and NTD cholesterol binding pockets, supporting the “hydrophobic hand-off” cholesterol transfer model. PMID:27551080

  20. High-resolution computed tomography bronchial lumen to pulmonary artery diameter ratio in anesthetized ventilated cats with normal lungs.

    PubMed

    Reid, Lauren E; Dillon, A Ray; Hathcock, John T; Brown, Lawrence A; Tillson, Michael; Wooldridge, Anne A

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution computed tomography (CT) is the preferred noninvasive tool for diagnosing bronchiectasis in people. A criterion for evaluating dilation of the bronchus is the bronchial lumen to pulmonary artery diameter (bronchoarterial ratio [BA ratio]). A ratio of > 1.0 in humans or > 2.0 in dogs has been suggested as a threshold for identifying bronchiectasis. The purpose of this study was to establish the BA ratio in normal cats. Fourteen specific pathogen-free cats were selected for analysis of thoracic CT images. The BA ratios of the lobar bronchi of the left cranial (cranial and caudal parts), right cranial, right middle, left caudal, and right caudal lung lobes were measured. The mean of the mean BA ratio of all lung lobes was 0.71 +/- 0.05. Individual BA ratios ranged from 0.5 to 1.11. Comparing individual lobes for each cat, there was no significant difference (P = 0.145) in mean BA ratio between lung lobes. A mean BA ratio for these normal cats was 0.71 +/- 0.1, which suggests an upper cut-off normal value > 0.91 (mean +/- 2 standard deviations) between normal and abnormal cats.

  1. An endosomal beta COP is involved in the pH-dependent formation of transport vesicles destined for late endosomes

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we show that beta COP is present on endosomes and is required for the formation of vesicles which mediate transport from early to late endosomes. Both the association of beta COP to endosomal membranes as well as transport vesicle formation depend on the lumenal pH. We find that epsilon COP, but not gamma COP, is also associated to endosomes, and that this association is also lumenal pH dependent. Our data, thus, indicate that a subset of COPs is part of the mechanism regulating endosomal membrane transport, and that membrane association of these COPs is controlled by the acidic properties of early endosomes, presumably via a trans-membrane pH sensor. PMID:8601610

  2. The psychosocial impact of late-stage Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Calne, Susan M

    2003-12-01

    The late stage of Parkinson's disease (PD) can be protracted with inexorable changes in physical and mental health, loss of autonomy and self-esteem, altered relationships, and social isolation. Severely affected patients (Hoehn & Yahr stage 4-5) present a challenge to nurses who care for them; addressing their needs takes time and patience. Changes in mental status have profound implications for the welfare of the late-stage PD patient as well as of the caregiver(s). Depression and dementia in patients with PD are two factors that interfere with the ability to deliver effective care in late-stage PD as they lead to loss of initiative and cooperation. Primary caregivers often have their own medical problems, with limited stamina and support; relationships may change, leading to sadness or conflict. Nurses can be powerful advocates for the physical and mental health of both the patient with late-stage Parkinson's disease and the primary caregiver.

  3. Selection of an Appropriate Left-sided Double-lumen Tube Size for One-lung Ventilation among Asians

    PubMed Central

    Ideris, Siti Salwani; Che Hassan, Muhamad Rahimi; Abdul Rahman, Mohd. Ramzisham; Ooi, Joanna Su Min

    2017-01-01

    Context: Selecting an appropriate size double-lumen tube (DLT) for one-lung ventilation has always been a challenge as most choose it based on experience or using the existing guidelines based on gender and height. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine if the appropriate choice of this tube could be based on the patients’ height, weight, tracheal diameter (TD), or the left main stem bronchus diameter (LMBD) and also to determine the relationship between height and depth of insertion among Asians. Subjects and Methods: This was a retrospective review of 179 patients who were intubated with a left-sided DLT and also had a posterior-anterior view of a digital chest radiograph for tracheal and left main bronchus diameter measurements. Additional data collected included patients’ demographics and DLT size used. Results: There were 123 (68.7%) males and 56 (31.3%) females with an overall mean age of 33.3 ± 16.3 years. Majority of the males (48.8%) used a size 39 Fr while females (46.4%) used a 35 Fr. There were weak correlations between DLT size with height (male: R2 = 0.222; female: R2 = 0.193), DLT size with weight (male: R2 = 0.109; female: R2 = 0.211), DLT size with TD (male: R2 = 0.027); female: R2 = 0.016), and DLT size with LMBD (male: R2 = 0.222; female: R2 = 0.193). There was a good correlation between depth of DLT inserted with patient's height for both genders. Conclusion: The appropriate size of the left-sided DLT could not be predicted based on patients’ height, weight, tracheal or left main bronchus diameter alone in Asians; however, the depth of insertion of the tube was dependent on the height in both genders. PMID:28074791

  4. Plastic Response of Tracheids in Pinus pinaster in a Water-Limited Environment: Adjusting Lumen Size instead of Wall Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Ana; Nabais, Cristina; Vieira, Joana; Rossi, Sergio; Campelo, Filipe

    2015-01-01

    The formation of wood results from cambial activity and its anatomical properties reflect the variability of environmental conditions during the growing season. Recently, it was found that wood density variations in conifers growing under cold-limited environment result from the adjustment of cell wall thickness (CWT) to temperature. Additionally, it is known that intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) are formed in response to precipitation after the summer drought. Although IADFs are frequent in Mediterranean conifers no study has yet been conducted to determine if these structures result from the adjustment of lumen diameter (LD) or CWT to soil water availability. Our main objective is to investigate the intra-ring variation of wood anatomical features (LD and CWT) in Pinus pinaster Ait. growing under a water-limited environment. We compared the tracheidograms of LD and CWT for the years 2010–2013 in P. pinaster growing in the west coast of Portugal. Our results suggest a close association between LD and soil moisture content along the growing season, reinforcing the role of water availability in determining tracheid size. Compared with CWT, LD showed a higher intra- and inter-annual variability suggesting its strong adjustment value to variations in water availability. The formation of a latewood IADF appears to be predisposed by higher rates of cell production in spring and triggered by early autumn precipitation. Our findings reinforce the crucial role of water availability on cambial activity and wood formation in Mediterranean conifers, and emphasize the high plasticity of wood anatomical features under Mediterranean climate. PMID:26305893

  5. Use of a dual lumen port for automated red cell exchange in adults with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Anuj; Jawa, Zeeshan; Koch, Kathryn L; Rankin, Amy B; Xiang, Qun; Padmanabhan, Anand; Karafin, Matthew S; Field, Joshua J

    2015-12-01

    Red cell exchange (RCE) is a common procedure in adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). Implantable dual lumen Vortex (DLV) ports can be used for RCE in patients with poor peripheral venous access. We performed a retrospective cohort study of RCE procedures performed in adults with SCD. The main objective of the study was to compare the inlet speed, duration of procedures and rate of complications performed through DLV ports to those performed through temporary central venous and peripheral catheters. Twenty-nine adults with SCD underwent a total of 318 RCE procedures. Twenty adults had DLV ports placed and 218 procedures were performed using DLV ports. Mean length of follow-up after DLV port placement was 397 ± 263 days. Six DLV ports were removed due to infection and 1 for malfunction after a mean of 171 ± 120 days. Compared to temporary central venous and peripheral catheters, DLV port procedures had a greater rate of procedural complications, a longer duration, and a lower inlet speed (all P < 0.01). When accounting for the maximum allowable inlet speed to avoid citrate toxicity, 40% of DLV port procedures were greater than 10% below maximum speed, compared to 7 and 14% of procedures performed through temporary central venous and peripheral catheters (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, DLV ports can be used for RCE in adults with SCD, albeit with more procedural complications and longer duration. The smaller internal diameter and longer catheter of DLV ports compared to temporary central venous catheters likely accounts for the differences noted.

  6. C-terminal, endoplasmic reticulum-lumenal domain of prosurfactant protein C - structural features and membrane interactions.

    PubMed

    Casals, Cristina; Johansson, Hanna; Saenz, Alejandra; Gustafsson, Magnus; Alfonso, Carlos; Nordling, Kerstin; Johansson, Jan

    2008-02-01

    Surfactant protein C (SP-C) constitutes the transmembrane part of prosurfactant protein C (proSP-C) and is alpha-helical in its native state. The C-terminal part of proSP-C (CTC) is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen and binds to misfolded (beta-strand) SP-C, thereby preventing its aggregation and amyloid fibril formation. In this study, we investigated the structure of recombinant human CTC and the effects of CTC-membrane interaction on protein structure. CTC forms noncovalent trimers and supratrimeric oligomers. It contains two intrachain disulfide bridges, and its secondary structure is significantly affected by urea or heat only after disulfide reduction. The postulated Brichos domain of CTC, with homologs found in proteins associated with amyloid and proliferative disease, is up to 1000-fold more protected from limited proteolysis than the rest of CTC. The protein exposes hydrophobic surfaces, as determined by CTC binding to the environment-sensitive fluorescent probe 1,1'-bis(4-anilino-5,5'-naphthalenesulfonate). Fluorescence energy transfer experiments further reveal close proximity between bound 1,1'-bis(4-anilino-5,5'-naphthalenesulfonate) and tyrosine residues in CTC, some of which are conserved in all Brichos domains. CTC binds to unilamellar phospholipid vesicles with low micromolar dissociation constants, and differential scanning calorimetry and CD analyses indicate that membrane-bound CTC is less structurally ordered than the unbound protein. The exposed hydrophobic surfaces and the structural disordering that result from interactions with phospholipid membranes suggest a mechanism whereby CTC binds to misfolded SP-C in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane.

  7. The effect of serum on the secretion of radiolabeled mucous macromolecules into the lumen of the cat trachea

    SciTech Connect

    Peatfield, A.C.; Hall, R.L.; Richardson, P.S.; Jeffery, P.K.

    1982-02-01

    We studied the effect of placing serum within a segment of trachea on secretion into its lumen in the cat. A segment of cervical trachea was isolated from the rest of the airway in situ. Secretions were radiolabeled biosynthetically by the administration of two radiolabeled precursors: (35S)sodium sulphate and (3H)glucose. Autologous serum placed in the segment at a dilution of 1 in 8 increased the output of radiolabeled macromolecules: (35S) by 80% and (3H) by 159% (p less than 0.001). At a dilution of 1 in 24, serum still increased the output of both isotopes. At dilutions of 1 in 48 and 1 in 80 the increases were significant for (35S) but not for (3H). Heating the serum to 90 degrees C diminished its effects. Fractionating the serum by dialysis and gel filtration showed that the components of molecular weight less than about 13,000 daltons had no effect on secretion, whereas three higher molecular weight fractions all increased secretion. Two alien proteins (horseradish peroxidase and bovine serum albumin) stimulated secretion but a large molecular weight carbohydrate (carboxymethyl cellulose) did not. Atropine and propranolol, at doses that greatly reduced the effect of parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve activity, did not diminish the effects of serum, which therefore appeared to be independent of nerve activity. Gel filtration of the secretions elicited by serum showed that the predominant component was excluded even by Sepharose CL-2B and thus had a high molecular weight. We conclude that there are several components of serum that promote the secretion of mucus glycoproteins into the cat trachea. The relevance of these findings to diseases of human airways is considered.

  8. Plastic Response of Tracheids in Pinus pinaster in a Water-Limited Environment: Adjusting Lumen Size instead of Wall Thickness.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ana; Nabais, Cristina; Vieira, Joana; Rossi, Sergio; Campelo, Filipe

    2015-01-01

    The formation of wood results from cambial activity and its anatomical properties reflect the variability of environmental conditions during the growing season. Recently, it was found that wood density variations in conifers growing under cold-limited environment result from the adjustment of cell wall thickness (CWT) to temperature. Additionally, it is known that intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) are formed in response to precipitation after the summer drought. Although IADFs are frequent in Mediterranean conifers no study has yet been conducted to determine if these structures result from the adjustment of lumen diameter (LD) or CWT to soil water availability. Our main objective is to investigate the intra-ring variation of wood anatomical features (LD and CWT) in Pinus pinaster Ait. growing under a water-limited environment. We compared the tracheidograms of LD and CWT for the years 2010-2013 in P. pinaster growing in the west coast of Portugal. Our results suggest a close association between LD and soil moisture content along the growing season, reinforcing the role of water availability in determining tracheid size. Compared with CWT, LD showed a higher intra- and inter-annual variability suggesting its strong adjustment value to variations in water availability. The formation of a latewood IADF appears to be predisposed by higher rates of cell production in spring and triggered by early autumn precipitation. Our findings reinforce the crucial role of water availability on cambial activity and wood formation in Mediterranean conifers, and emphasize the high plasticity of wood anatomical features under Mediterranean climate.

  9. Late Babylonian Astrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, John M.

    The last five centuries BC saw the development of several new forms of astrology in Babylonia. Key to these new astrological techniques was the invention of the zodiac in about 400 BC. These new forms of astrology include personal horoscopes, astral medicine, and the exploitation of geometrical relationships between the position of heavenly bodies. Several Late Babylonian astrological doctrines were later adopted within Greek astrology.

  10. DOE Final report [A genetic analysis of the lumenal proteins of the PSII O{sub 2} evolving complex of cyanobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Louis A.

    2001-03-01

    The primary objectives of this proposal were a better understanding of the structure and function of the Mn-stabilizing (MSP) in two cyanobacteria, Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 and Cyanothece sp. ATCC51142. In addition, the author was interested in analysis of the other cyanobacteria lumenal PSII proteins, cyt c{sub 550} and the 12 kDa protein. The experimentation involved analysis of targeted random mutagenesis of the genes encoding the three proteins, especially in psbO, the gene encoding MSP. This required mutant screening with a digital imaging spectrometer. Knockout mutants of the other two lumenal proteins in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 were also constructed. In addition, photosynthetic O{sub 2} evolution in Cyanothece sp. ATCC51142, a nitrogen-fixing strain that regulates the activity of nitrogenase and photosynthesis in a temporal fashion, was analyzed.

  11. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study RRL3.2 Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, Michael P.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.; Tucker, Joseph C.

    2014-12-01

    The lumen depreciation and color shift of 17 different A lamps (15 LED, 1 CFL, 1 halogen) was monitored in the automated long-term test apparatus (ALTA) for more than 7,500 hours. Ten samples of each lamp model were tested, with measurements recorded on a weekly basis. The lamps were operated continuously at an ambient temperature of 45°C (-1°C). Importantly, the steady-state test conditions were not optimized for inducing catastrophic failure for any of the lamp technologies—to which thermal cycling is a strong contributor— and are not typical of normal use patterns—which usually include off periods where the lamp cools down. Further, the test conditions differ from those used in standardized long-term test methods (i.e., IES LM-80, IES LM-84), so the results should not be directly compared. On the other hand, the test conditions are similar to those used by ENERGY STAR (when elevated temperature testing is called for). Likewise, the conditions and assumptions used by manufacturers to generated lifetime claims may vary; the CALiPER long-term data is informative, but cannot necessarily be used to discredit manufacturer claims. The test method used for this investigation should be interpreted as one more focused on the long-term effects of elevated temperature operation, at an ambient temperature that is not uncommon in luminaires. On average, the lumen maintenance of the LED lamps monitored in the ALTA was better than benchmark lamps, but there was considerable variation from lamp model to lamp model. While three lamp models had average lumen maintenance above 99% at the end of the study period, two products had average lumen maintenance below 65%, constituting a parametric failure. These two products, along with a third, also exhibited substantial color shift, another form of parametric failure. While none of the LED lamps exhibited catastrophic failure—and all of the benchmarks did—the early degradation of performance is concerning, especially with a

  12. A six-month evaluation of the VivaSight™ video double-lumen endotracheal tube after introduction into thoracic anaesthetic practice at a single institution.

    PubMed

    Rapchuk, I L; Kunju, Sam; Smith, I J; Faulke, D J

    2017-03-01

    For a six-month period, all airway options used for non-emergent patients undergoing thoracic surgery requiring one-lung ventilation at a single institution were assessed after introduction of the VivaSight™ double-lumen endotracheal tube (VivaSight-DL), a novel double-lumen tube with an integrated camera. This device displays a continuous view of the position of the tube relative to the carina. A total of 72 patients had lung separation with the VivaSight-DL. Lung separation was achieved on first attempt without additional manipulation in 85% of cases. In only three cases (4%) was a fibreoptic bronchoscope required, in each instance to reposition the tube after intraoperative dislodgement. The VivaSight-DL represents a novel method of one-lung ventilation allowing rapid identification of intraoperative airway problems and reducing the need for fibreoptic bronchoscopy.

  13. A new approach to the assessment of lumen visibility of coronary artery stent at various heart rates using 64-slice MDCT

    PubMed Central

    Groen, J. M.; van Ooijen, P. M. A.; Oudkerk, M.

    2007-01-01

    Coronary artery stent lumen visibility was assessed as a function of cardiac movement and temporal resolution with an automated objective method using an anthropomorphic moving heart phantom. Nine different coronary stents filled with contrast fluid and surrounded by fat were scanned using 64-slice multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) at 50–100 beats/min with the moving heart phantom. Image quality was assessed by measuring in-stent CT attenuation and by a dedicated tool in the longitudinal and axial plane. Images were scored by CT attenuation and lumen visibility and compared with theoretical scoring to analyse the effect of multi-segment reconstruction (MSR). An average increase in CT attenuation of 144 ± 59 HU and average diminished lumen visibility of 29 ± 12% was observed at higher heart rates in both planes. A negative correlation between image quality and heart rate was non-significant for the majority of measurements (P > 0.06). No improvement of image quality was observed in using MSR. In conclusion, in-stent CT attenuation increases and lumen visibility decreases at increasing heart rate. Results obtained with the automated tool show similar behaviour compared with attenuation measurements. Cardiac movement during data acquisition causes approximately twice as much blurring compared with the influence of temporal resolution on image quality. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00330-007-0568-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:17429648

  14. Peritoneoscintigraphy in detection of improper placement of peritoneal catheter into bowel lumen prior to chromic phosphate P-32 therapy. A case report

    SciTech Connect

    Neutze, J.; Van Nostrand, D.; Major, W.

    1985-11-01

    Radionuclide peritoneoscintigraphy has been used prior to chromic phosphate P-32 (P-32CP) intraperitoneal therapy to assure proper placement of the catheter in the peritoneal cavity, to exclude loculation, and to predict inadequate distribution of P-32CP. This is a case report of the detection of a peritoneal catheter improperly placed into the bowel lumen by pretherapy radionuclide peritoneoscintigraphy, and this case demonstrates the distinguishing characteristics of the radiocolloid distribution secondary to an intraluminal injection relative to an intraperitoneal injection.

  15. Evaluation of the CEL-100 videolaryngoscope(TM) for double-lumen tracheal tube insertion after failure using the Macintosh laryngoscope.

    PubMed

    Lin, W Q; Quan, S B; Liu, W J; Zhang, T H; Li, H T; Zhong, Z J; Cao, L H

    2012-11-01

    We prospectively evaluated the CEL-100 videolaryngoscope(TM) for insertion of double-lumen tracheal tubes in 48 consecutive patients who had been found to have an unanticipated Cormack and Lehane grade 3 (n=43) and grade 4 (n=5) laryngeal view and in whom two attempts at tracheal intubation using the Macintosh laryngoscope had failed. When the CEL-100 was subsequently employed, the glottic view improved in 45 (94%) patients. The view improved by one grade in 15 (31%) patients and by two grades in 30 (63%) patients, compared with the Macintosh blade (p<0.001). Double-lumen tracheal tube insertion was successful when using the CEL-100 in 43 out of 48 patients (90%; 95% CI 81-98%). This occurred on the first attempt in 27 (56%) patients, 14 (29%) on the second and two (4%) on the third. We conclude that the CEL-100 videolaryngoscope is an effective device in this context, and we therefore propose that this device can be used in circumstances when double-lumen tube insertion proves difficult.

  16. Modeling of the N-terminal Section and the Lumenal Loop of Trimeric Light Harvesting Complex II (LHCII) by Using EPR*

    PubMed Central

    Fehr, Niklas; Dietz, Carsten; Polyhach, Yevhen; von Hagens, Tona; Jeschke, Gunnar; Paulsen, Harald

    2015-01-01

    The major light harvesting complex II (LHCII) of green plants plays a key role in the absorption of sunlight, the regulation of photosynthesis, and in preventing photodamage by excess light. The latter two functions are thought to involve the lumenal loop and the N-terminal domain. Their structure and mobility in an aqueous environment are only partially known. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been used to measure the structure of these hydrophilic protein domains in detergent-solubilized LHCII. A new technique is introduced to prepare LHCII trimers in which only one monomer is spin-labeled. These heterogeneous trimers allow to measure intra-molecular distances within one LHCII monomer in the context of a trimer by using double electron-electron resonance (DEER). These data together with data from electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) allowed to model the N-terminal protein section, which has not been resolved in current crystal structures, and the lumenal loop domain. The N-terminal domain covers only a restricted area above the superhelix in LHCII, which is consistent with the “Velcro” hypothesis to explain thylakoid grana stacking (Standfuss, J., van Terwisscha Scheltinga, A. C., Lamborghini, M., and Kühlbrandt, W. (2005) EMBO J. 24, 919–928). The conformation of the lumenal loop domain is surprisingly different between LHCII monomers and trimers but not between complexes with and without neoxanthin bound. PMID:26316535

  17. Ookinete destruction within the mosquito midgut lumen explains Anopheles albimanus refractoriness to Plasmodium falciparum (3D7A) oocyst infection.

    PubMed

    Baton, Luke A; Ranford-Cartwright, Lisa C

    2012-01-01

    A are destroyed within the bloodmeal of A. albimanus and that the midgut lumen, rather than the midgut epithelium, is the site of mosquito refractoriness in this particular malaria parasite-mosquito vector combination.

  18. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Martínez, Francisco M

    2009-03-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a clinical problem that is becoming more common in women. Female alopecia with androgen increase is called female androgenetic alopecia (FAGA) and without androgen increase is called female pattern hair loss. The clinical picture of typical FAGA begins with a specific "diffuse loss of hair from the parietal or frontovertical areas with an intact frontal hairline." Ludwig called this process "rarefaction." In Ludwig's classification of hair loss in women, progressive type of FAGA, 3 patterns were described: grade I or minimal, grade II or moderate, and grade III or severe. Ludwig also described female androgenetic alopecia with male pattern (FAGA.M) that should be subclassified according to Ebling's or Hamilton-Norwood's classification. FAGA.M may be present in 4 conditions: persistent adrenarche syndrome, alopecia caused by an adrenal or an ovarian tumor, posthysterectomy, and as an involutive alopecia. A more recent classification (Olsen's classification of FPHL) proposes 2 types: early- and late-onset with or without excess of androgens in each. The diagnosis of FPHL is made by clinical history, clinical examination, wash test, dermoscopy, trichoscan, trichograms and laboratory test, especially androgenic determinations. Topical treatment of FPHL is with minoxidil, 2-5% twice daily. When FPHL is associated with high levels of androgens, systemic antiandrogenic therapy is needed. Persistent adrenarche syndrome (adrenal SAHA) and alopecia of adrenal hyperandrogenism is treated with adrenal suppression and antiandrogens. Adrenal suppression is achieved with glucocorticosteroids. Antiandrogens therapy includes cyproterone acetate, drospirenone, spironolactone, flutamide, and finasteride. Excess release of ovarian androgens (ovarian SAHA) and alopecia of ovarian hyperandrogenism is treated with ovarian suppression and antiandrogens. Ovarian suppression includes the use of contraceptives containing an estrogen, ethinylestradiol, and a

  19. Prevalence and factors associated with late HIV diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Dai, Se-Ying; Liu, Jin-Ji; Fan, Yin-Guang; Shan, Gui-Su; Zhang, Hong-Bo; Li, Ming-Qiang; Ye, Dong-Qing

    2015-06-01

    While highly active antiretroviral therapy has been successful in delaying progression into AIDS, late HIV diagnosis remains a major contributor to the mortality and morbidity of AIDS. An epidemiological study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and factors of late diagnosis and the characteristics of those individuals with late diagnosis in Liuzhou city. Patients with late diagnosis were defined as either those who were diagnosed with AIDS at the time of HIV diagnosis or as those who developed AIDS no more than 1 year after HIV diagnosis. Of 899 participants, 72.6% had a late diagnosis. Common characteristics of those who experienced late diagnosis included older participants, those who were unexpectedly diagnosed while seeking other medical attention, participants who believed they could not acquire HIV from their regular heterosexual partners, those who never considered getting tested for HIV, and patients with unexplained weight loss, angular cheilitis, or prolonged fever prior to HIV diagnosis. On the other hand, those participants who were diagnosed via testing at compulsory rehabilitation centers and those whose annual household income was greater than 30,000 Yuan were less likely to be diagnosed late. These results suggested that late HIV diagnosis is common in Liuzhou city, and it is essential to promote appropriate strategies to detect HIV infections earlier. Strategies that require HIV/AIDS patients to notify their spouse/sexual-partners about their HIV-positive results within one month and start provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling in medical facilities are beneficial to earlier HIV diagnosis.

  20. The Endoplasmic Reticulum Lumenal Domain of the Adenovirus Type 2 E3-19K Protein Binds to Peptide-Filled and Peptide-Deficient HLA-A*1101 Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong; Stafford, Walter F.; Bouvier, Marlene

    2005-01-01

    E3-19K is a type I membrane glycoprotein expressed by adenoviruses (Ads) to modulate host antiviral immune responses. We have developed an expression system for the endoplasmic reticulum lumenal domain (residues 1 to 100) of Ad type 2 E3-19K tagged with a C-terminal His6 sequence in baculovirus-infected insect cells. In this system, recombinant E3-19K is secreted into the culture medium. A characterization of soluble E3-19K by analytical ultracentrifugation and circular dichroism showed that the protein is monomeric and adopts a stable and correctly folded tertiary structure. Using a gel mobility shift assay and analytical ultracentrifugation, we showed that soluble E3-19K associates with soluble peptide-filled and peptide-deficient HLA-A*1101 molecules. This is the first example of a viral immunomodulatory protein that interacts with conformationally distinct forms of class I major histocompatibility complex molecules. The E3-19K/HLA-A*1101 complexes formed in a 1:1 stoichiometry with equilibrium dissociation constants (Kd) of 50 ± 10 nM for peptide-filled molecules and of about 10 μM for peptide-deficient molecules. A temperature-dependent proteolysis study revealed that the association of E3-19K with peptide-deficient HLA-A*1101 molecules stabilizes the binding groove. Importantly, our studies showed that peptide-deficient HLA-A*1101 molecules sequestered by E3-19K are capable of binding antigenic peptides and maturing into peptide-filled molecules. This firmly establishes that E3-19K does not block binding of antigenic peptides. Together, our results suggest that Ads have evolved to exploit the late and early stages of the class I antigen presentation pathway. PMID:16227254

  1. The endoplasmic reticulum lumenal domain of the adenovirus type 2 E3-19K protein binds to peptide-filled and peptide-deficient HLA-A*1101 molecules.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Stafford, Walter F; Bouvier, Marlene

    2005-11-01

    E3-19K is a type I membrane glycoprotein expressed by adenoviruses (Ads) to modulate host antiviral immune responses. We have developed an expression system for the endoplasmic reticulum lumenal domain (residues 1 to 100) of Ad type 2 E3-19K tagged with a C-terminal His6 sequence in baculovirus-infected insect cells. In this system, recombinant E3-19K is secreted into the culture medium. A characterization of soluble E3-19K by analytical ultracentrifugation and circular dichroism showed that the protein is monomeric and adopts a stable and correctly folded tertiary structure. Using a gel mobility shift assay and analytical ultracentrifugation, we showed that soluble E3-19K associates with soluble peptide-filled and peptide-deficient HLA-A*1101 molecules. This is the first example of a viral immunomodulatory protein that interacts with conformationally distinct forms of class I major histocompatibility complex molecules. The E3-19K/HLA-A*1101 complexes formed in a 1:1 stoichiometry with equilibrium dissociation constants (Kd) of 50 +/- 10 nM for peptide-filled molecules and of about 10 microM for peptide-deficient molecules. A temperature-dependent proteolysis study revealed that the association of E3-19K with peptide-deficient HLA-A*1101 molecules stabilizes the binding groove. Importantly, our studies showed that peptide-deficient HLA-A*1101 molecules sequestered by E3-19K are capable of binding antigenic peptides and maturing into peptide-filled molecules. This firmly establishes that E3-19K does not block binding of antigenic peptides. Together, our results suggest that Ads have evolved to exploit the late and early stages of the class I antigen presentation pathway.

  2. 7 CFR 1437.103 - Late-planted acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CCC, may be eligible for reduced coverage. (b) Multiple-planted crops, crops with a growing period of 60 calendar days or less, value-loss crops, and fall season small grain crops intended only for grain are not eligible for reduced coverage under late planting provisions. (c) For crops with a...

  3. 7 CFR 1437.103 - Late-planted acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CCC, may be eligible for reduced coverage. (b) Multiple-planted crops, crops with a growing period of 60 calendar days or less, value-loss crops, and fall season small grain crops intended only for grain are not eligible for reduced coverage under late planting provisions. (c) For crops with a...

  4. 7 CFR 1437.103 - Late-planted acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CCC, may be eligible for reduced coverage. (b) Multiple-planted crops, crops with a growing period of 60 calendar days or less, value-loss crops, and fall season small grain crops intended only for grain are not eligible for reduced coverage under late planting provisions. (c) For crops with a...

  5. 7 CFR 1437.103 - Late-planted acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CCC, may be eligible for reduced coverage. (b) Multiple-planted crops, crops with a growing period of 60 calendar days or less, value-loss crops, and fall season small grain crops intended only for grain are not eligible for reduced coverage under late planting provisions. (c) For crops with a...

  6. 7 CFR 1437.103 - Late-planted acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CCC, may be eligible for reduced coverage. (b) Multiple-planted crops, crops with a growing period of 60 calendar days or less, value-loss crops, and fall season small grain crops intended only for grain are not eligible for reduced coverage under late planting provisions. (c) For crops with a...

  7. Hearing Loss in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, John W.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses hearing loss in adults. It begins with an explanation of the anatomy of the ear and then explains the three types of hearing loss: conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss, and mixed conductive-sensorineural hearing loss. Tinnitus, hearing aids, and cochlear implants are also addressed. (CR)

  8. Never too late.

    PubMed

    1996-11-01

    Motivated by the belief that education has been central to Japan's economic success, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) promotes universal access to quality basic education. In developing countries, school children rarely learn science through experiments. A new JICA training course, the Science Experiment in Primary Education, involved teacher trainers from Bangladesh, Myanmar, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Physics, chemistry, biology, geology, and astronomy experiments that require simple, inexpensive materials were taught. Another JICA project in Satkhira, Bangladesh, sought to raise the economic status of women enrolled in a dressmaking program through a year-long evening literacy class at three sites. Elementary school diplomas (available with proof to a local teacher of basic literacy and minimal arithmetic skills) are required in Bangladesh to apply for nongovernmental organization-initiated vocational schools and loans to start businesses in areas such as dressmaking, agriculture, and livestock raising. By late 1993, the female literacy program had expanded to 18 villages.

  9. Deletion mutation analysis of the adenovirus type 2 E3-gp19K protein: identification of sequences within the endoplasmic reticulum lumenal domain that are required for class I antigen binding and protection from adenovirus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Hermiston, T W; Tripp, R A; Sparer, T; Gooding, L R; Wold, W S

    1993-01-01

    Adenovirus E3-gp19K is a transmembrane glycoprotein, localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which forms a complex with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigens and retains them in the ER, thereby preventing cytolysis by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). The ER lumenal domain of gp19K, residues 1 to 107, is known to be sufficient for binding to class I antigens; the transmembrane and cytoplasmic ER retention domains are located at residues ca. 108 to 127 and 128 to 142, respectively. To identify more precisely which gp19K regions are involved in binding to class I antigens, we constructed 13 in-frame virus deletion mutants (4 to 12 amino acids deleted) in the ER lumenal domain of gp19K, and we analyzed the ability of the mutant proteins to form a complex with class I antigens, retain them in the ER, and prevent cytolysis by adenovirus-specific CTL. All mutant proteins except one (residues 102 to 107 deleted) were defective for these properties, indicating that the ability of gp19K to bind to class I antigens is highly sensitive to mutation. All mutant proteins were stable and were retained in the ER. Sequence comparisons among adenovirus serotypes reveal that the ER lumenal domain of gp19K consists of a variable region (residues 1 to 76) and a conserved region (residues 77 to 98). We show, using the mutant proteins, that the gp19K-specific monoclonal antibody Tw1.3 recognizes a noncontiguous epitope in the variable region and that disruption of the variable region by deletion destroys the epitope. The monoclonal antibody and class I antigen binding results, together with the serotype sequence comparisons, are consistent with the idea that the ER lumenal domain of gp19K has three subdomains that we have termed the ER lumenal variable domain (residues 1 to ca. 77 to 83), the ER lumenal conserved domain (residues ca. 84 to 98), and the ER lumenal spacer domain (residues 99 to 107). We suggest that the ER lumenal variable domain of gp19K has a specific

  10. VERY LATE PHOTOMETRY OF SN 2011fe

    SciTech Connect

    Kerzendorf, W. E.; Taubenberger, S.; Seitenzahl, I. R.; Ruiter, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Type Ia supernova SN 2011fe is one of the closest supernovae of the past decades. Due to its proximity and low dust extinction, this object provides a very rare opportunity to study the extremely late time evolution (>900 days) of thermonuclear supernovae. In this Letter, we present our photometric data of SN 2011fe taken at an unprecedented late epoch of ≈930 days with GMOS-N mounted on the Gemini North telescope (g = 23.43 ± 0.28, r = 24.14 ± 0.14, i = 23.91 ± 0.18, and z = 23.90 ± 0.17) to study the energy production and retention in the ejecta of SN 2011fe. Together with previous measurements by other groups, our result suggests that the optical supernova light curve can still be explained by the full thermalization of the decay positrons of {sup 56}Co. This is in spite of theoretical predicted effects (e.g., infrared catastrophe, positron escape, and dust) that advocate a substantial energy redistribution and/or loss via various processes that result in a more rapid dimming at these very late epochs.

  11. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Weight Loss Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Weight Loss Surgery A A ... Risks and Side Effects? What Is Weight Loss Surgery? For some people, being overweight is about more ...

  12. Early Pregnancy Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... is called early pregnancy loss , miscarriage , or spontaneous abortion . How common is early pregnancy loss? Early pregnancy ... testes that can fertilize a female egg. Spontaneous Abortion: The medical term for early pregnancy loss. Trimester: ...

  13. The intestine is a site of passage for potato leafroll virus from the gut lumen into the haemocoel in the aphid vector, Myzus persicae Sulz.

    PubMed

    Garret, A; Kerlan, C; Thomas, D

    1993-01-01

    Four detection techniques, three of which gave reliable identification of the virus particles, were used to locate potato leafroll virus (PLRV) in the alimentary canal of its main aphid vector, Myzus persicae Sulz: immunofluorescence on cryostat sections, conventional transmission electron microscopy on ultrathin sections and immune electron microscopy with gold labeling, either prior to or after fixation-embedding. Each method clearly showed the presence of the virus in the intestine epithelium and its absence in cells of the other parts of the alimentary canal. Under the experimental conditions used, the intestinal cells seemed to be the pathway for PLRV transport from the gut lumen into the haemocoel. Electron microscopy examinations showed many virus particles close to the apical plasmalemma of the epithelial cells in the gut lumen of the intestine. Other particles were seen in shallow pit-like regions or surrounded by coated vesicles in the apical part of these cells. Thus the virus particles seemed to enter the epithelial cells of the intestine by a mechanism of endocytosis. In the cytoplasm of these cells, virions were also frequently observed in isolated--or more often aggregated--tubular vesicles. The latter could be involved in PLRV transport through the cell since they were observed fusing with different cell organelles. A few viral particles were also detected in lysosomes as well as in multivesicular bodies. Virus particles were observed between the plasmalemma and basal lamina of the intestine cells but not in the haemocoel, where probably they were quickly dispersed. Our results are discussed in relation to other reports which have shown hindgut and stomach as sites of passage from the gut lumen into the aphid's body cavity for PLRV and other circulative viruses.

  14. Concentration polarization effects on the macromolecular transport in the presence of non-uniform magnetic field: A numerical study using a lumen-wall model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadpourfard, M.; Aminfar, H.; Khajeh, K.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, the concentration polarization phenomena in a two dimensional tube under steady state conditions containing ferrofluid (blood and 4 vol% Fe3O4) is reported in the presence of non-uniform magnetic field. Lumen-wall model has been used for solving the mass transport equation. Hemodynamics parameters such as flow rate, viscosity, wall shear stress (WSS) and the macromolecules surface concentration which accumulate on the blood vessel wall, influenced the formation and progression of atherosclerosis disease. Effective parameters on the low density lipoprotein (LDL) surface concentration (LSC) such as: the wall filtration velocity, inlet Reynolds number and WSS under applied non-uniform magnetic field have been examined.

  15. Case Report: Double lumen tube insertion in a morbidly obese patient through the non-channelled blade of the King Vision (™) videolaryngoscope.

    PubMed

    El-Tahan, Mohamed; Doyle, D John; Khidr, Alaa M; Hassieb, Ahmed G

    2014-01-01

    We describe the insertion of the double lumen endobronchial tube (DLT) using a non-channeled standard blade of the King Vision (TM) videolaryngoscope for one lung ventilation (OLV) in a morbidly obese patient with a predicted difficult airway, severe restrictive pulmonary function, asthma, and hypertension. The patient was scheduled for a video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy. The stylet of the DLT was bent to fit the natural curve of the #3 non-channeled blade of the King Vision (™) videolaryngoscope. We conclude that the use of King Vision (™) videolaryngoscope could offer an effective method of DLT placement for OLV.

  16. Case Report: Double lumen tube insertion in a morbidly obese patient through the non-channelled blade of the King Vision ™ videolaryngoscope

    PubMed Central

    El-Tahan, Mohamed; Doyle, D. John; Khidr, Alaa M; Hassieb, Ahmed G

    2014-01-01

    We describe the insertion of the double lumen endobronchial tube (DLT) using a non-channeled standard blade of the King Vision TM videolaryngoscope for one lung ventilation (OLV) in a morbidly obese patient with a predicted difficult airway, severe restrictive pulmonary function, asthma, and hypertension. The patient was scheduled for a video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy. The stylet of the DLT was bent to fit the natural curve of the #3 non-channeled blade of the King Vision ™ videolaryngoscope. We conclude that the use of King Vision ™ videolaryngoscope could offer an effective method of DLT placement for OLV. PMID:25309730

  17. Late, Late-Onset Group B Streptococcus Cellulitis With Bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Yokouchi, Yukako; Katsumori, Hiroshi; Koike, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) infection remains a leading cause of serious neonatal and early infantile infection. As the infection often presents with nonspecific symptoms, and is associated with underlying bacteremia, prompt investigation and treatment is required. We report a case of late, late-onset GBS infection with bacteremia in a 94-day-old boy experiencing cellulitis of the left hand. Although late-onset disease or late, late-onset disease has been reported to be common among infants with underlying conditions such as premature birth, immunocompromised status, trauma, or among those using medical devices, no such underlying medical condition predisposed this infant to invasive GBS infection. Recent reports including the present case underscore the risk of GBS infection among previously healthy infants beyond the neonatal period. Thus, clinicians should especially be aware of unusual presentations of GBS invasive disease with bacteremia.

  18. Late-season corn measurements to assess soil residual nitrate and nitrogen management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of corn (Zea mays L.) nitrogen (N) management and soil residual nitrate (NO3-N) late in the growing season could provide important management information for subsequent small grain crops and about potential NO3-N loss. Our objective was to evaluate the ability of several late-season corn...

  19. Survival potential of Phytophthora infestans in relation to environmental factors and late blight occurrence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato is an important crop globally and late blight (Phytophthora infestans) often results in severe crop loss. The cost for late blight control can be in excess of $210 million in the United States. We utilized a non-parametric density distribution analysis of local temperature (Temp) and relative...

  20. Modeling late Paleozoic glaciation

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, T.J.; Baum, S.K. )

    1992-06-01

    Late Paleozoic glaciation on Gondwana is associated with changes in geography, solar luminosity, and estimated CO{sub 2} levels. To assess the relative importance of these boundary conditions, the authors conducted a suite of climate model simulations for the periods before, during, and after peak mid-Carboniferous ({approximately}300 Ma) glaciation (340, 300, and 255 and 225 Ma, respectively). Orbital insolation values favorable for glaciation and interglaciation were used for each time interval. Results indicate that changes in geography cause significant changes in snow area, but the temporal trend is not consistent with the geologic record for glaciation. Combined CO{sub 2}-plus-geography changes yield the best agreement with observations. In addition, interglacial orbital configurations result in almost ice-free conditions for the glacial interval at 300 Ma, at a time of low CO{sub 2}. The large simulated glacial-interglacial snowline fluctuations for Permian-Carboniferous time may explain cyclothem fluctuations at these times. Overall, results support the importance of the CO{sub 2} paradigm, but also indicate that a fuller understanding of past climate change requires consideration of paleogeographic, luminosity, and orbital insolation changes.

  1. Illusory Late Heavy Bombardments

    PubMed Central

    Boehnke, Patrick; Harrison, T. Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB), a hypothesized impact spike at ∼3.9 Ga, is one of the major scientific concepts to emerge from Apollo-era lunar exploration. A significant portion of the evidence for the existence of the LHB comes from histograms of 40Ar/39Ar “plateau” ages (i.e., regions selected on the basis of apparent isochroneity). However, due to lunar magmatism and overprinting from subsequent impact events, virtually all Apollo-era samples show evidence for 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum disturbances, leaving open the possibility that partial 40Ar* resetting could bias interpretation of bombardment histories due to plateaus yielding misleadingly young ages. We examine this possibility through a physical model of 40Ar* diffusion in Apollo samples and test the uniqueness of the impact histories obtained by inverting plateau age histograms. Our results show that plateau histograms tend to yield age peaks, even in those cases where the input impact curve did not contain such a spike, in part due to the episodic nature of lunar crust or parent body formation. Restated, monotonically declining impact histories yield apparent age peaks that could be misinterpreted as LHB-type events. We further conclude that the assignment of apparent 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages bears an undesirably high degree of subjectivity. When compounded by inappropriate interpretations of histograms constructed from plateau ages, interpretation of apparent, but illusory, impact spikes is likely. PMID:27621460

  2. Illusory Late Heavy Bombardments.

    PubMed

    Boehnke, Patrick; Harrison, T Mark

    2016-09-27

    The Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB), a hypothesized impact spike at ∼3.9 Ga, is one of the major scientific concepts to emerge from Apollo-era lunar exploration. A significant portion of the evidence for the existence of the LHB comes from histograms of (40)Ar/(39)Ar "plateau" ages (i.e., regions selected on the basis of apparent isochroneity). However, due to lunar magmatism and overprinting from subsequent impact events, virtually all Apollo-era samples show evidence for (40)Ar/(39)Ar age spectrum disturbances, leaving open the possibility that partial (40)Ar* resetting could bias interpretation of bombardment histories due to plateaus yielding misleadingly young ages. We examine this possibility through a physical model of (40)Ar* diffusion in Apollo samples and test the uniqueness of the impact histories obtained by inverting plateau age histograms. Our results show that plateau histograms tend to yield age peaks, even in those cases where the input impact curve did not contain such a spike, in part due to the episodic nature of lunar crust or parent body formation. Restated, monotonically declining impact histories yield apparent age peaks that could be misinterpreted as LHB-type events. We further conclude that the assignment of apparent (40)Ar/(39)Ar plateau ages bears an undesirably high degree of subjectivity. When compounded by inappropriate interpretations of histograms constructed from plateau ages, interpretation of apparent, but illusory, impact spikes is likely.

  3. Managing the chronically late patient.

    PubMed

    Baum, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Every practice has patients who are chronically late. This wrecks havoc with your schedule and makes you less productive. Patients can be trained to respect your time and arrive in the office on time. This article discusses several approaches to managing the chronically late patient.

  4. Anxiety disorders in late life.

    PubMed Central

    Flint, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and treatment of anxiety disorders in late life. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiologic and comorbidity data are derived from well designed random-sample community surveys. There are virtually no controlled data specific to treatment of anxiety in the elderly. Guidelines for treating anxiety disorders in late life, therefore, must be extrapolated from results of randomized controlled trials conducted in younger patients. MAIN MESSAGE: Generalized anxiety disorder and agoraphobia account for most cases of anxiety disorder in late life. Late-onset generalized anxiety is usually associated with depressive illness and, in this situation, the primary pharmacologic treatment is antidepressant medication. Most elderly people with agoraphobia do not give a history of panic attacks; exposure therapy is the preferred treatment for agoraphobia without panic. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians need to make more use of antidepressant medication and behavioural therapy and less use of benzodiazepines in treating anxiety disorders in late life. PMID:10587775

  5. Quantitative proteomics of fractionated membrane and lumen exosome proteins from isogenic metastatic and nonmetastatic bladder cancer cells reveal differential expression of EMT factors.

    PubMed

    Jeppesen, Dennis Kjølhede; Nawrocki, Arkadiusz; Jensen, Steffen Grann; Thorsen, Kasper; Whitehead, Bradley; Howard, Kenneth A; Dyrskjøt, Lars; Ørntoft, Torben Falck; Larsen, Martin R; Ostenfeld, Marie Stampe

    2014-03-01

    Cancer cells secrete soluble factors and various extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, into their tissue microenvironment. The secretion of exosomes is speculated to facilitate local invasion and metastatic spread. Here, we used an in vivo metastasis model of human bladder carcinoma cell line T24 without metastatic capacity and its two isogenic derivate cell lines SLT4 and FL3, which form metastases in the lungs and liver of mice, respectively. Cultivation in CLAD1000 bioreactors rather than conventional culture flasks resulted in a 13- to 16-fold increased exosome yield and facilitated quantitative proteomics of fractionated exosomes. Exosomes from T24, SLT4, and FL3 cells were partitioned into membrane and luminal fractions and changes in protein abundance related to the gain of metastatic capacity were identified by quantitative iTRAQ proteomics. We identified several proteins linked to epithelial-mesenchymal transition, including increased abundance of vimentin and hepatoma-derived growth factor in the membrane, and casein kinase II α and annexin A2 in the lumen of exosomes, respectively, from metastatic cells. The change in exosome protein abundance correlated little, although significant for FL3 versus T24, with changes in cellular mRNA expression. Our proteomic approach may help identification of proteins in the membrane and lumen of exosomes potentially involved in the metastatic process.

  6. A randomised trial comparing the CEL-100 videolaryngoscope(TM) with the Macintosh laryngoscope blade for insertion of double-lumen tubes.

    PubMed

    Lin, W; Li, H; Liu, W; Cao, L; Tan, H; Zhong, Z

    2012-07-01

    We performed a randomised trial comparing the CEL-100 videolaryngoscope(TM) with the Macintosh laryngoscope blade in 170 patients undergoing double-lumen tube placement for thoracic surgery. Compared with the Macintosh laryngoscope blade, use of the CEL-100 resulted in significantly more patients with a Cormack and Lehane Grade-1 laryngeal view (90.4% vs 61.0%, p < 0.001), a higher rate of successful intubation on the first attempt (92.8% vs 79.3%, p = 0.012), a lower median (IQR [range]) intubation difficulty score (0 (0-0 [0-60]) vs 15 (0-30 [0-80]), p < 0.001), a higher incidence of correct positioning of the tube (90.3% vs 79.2%, p = 0.041) and significantly fewer patients requiring external laryngeal pressure (19.3% vs 32.9%, p = 0.046). Median (IQR [range]) time to successful intubation was 45 (38-55 [22-132]) s with the CEL-100 compared with 51 (40-61 [30-160] s using the Macintosh laryngoscope blade. We conclude that the CEL-100 videolaryngoscope is superior to the Macintosh laryngoscope blade for double-lumen tube insertion.

  7. Study of the Mn-binding sites in photosystem II using antibodies raised against lumenal regions of the D1 and D2 reaction center proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Dalmasso, E.A.

    1992-04-01

    The experiments discussed in this thesis focus on identifying the protein segments or specific amino acids which provide ligands to the Mn cluster of photosystem II (PS II). This Mn cluster plays a central role in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PS II. The Mn cluster is thought to be bound by lumenal regions of the PS II reaction center proteins known as D1 and D2. First, several peptides were synthesized which correspond to specific lumenal segments of the D1 and D2 proteins. Next, polyclonal antibodies were successfully elicited using three of these peptides. The peptides recognized by these antibodies correspond to protein segments of the spinach reaction center proteins: Ile-321 to Ala-344 of D1 (D1-a), Asp-319 to Arg-334 of D1 (D1-b), and Val-300 to Asn-319 of D2 (D2-a). These antibodies were then used in assays which were developed to structurally or functionally probe the potential Mn-binding regions of the D1 and D2 proteins.

  8. Mass loss from warm giants: Magnetic effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullan, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    Among warm giant stars, rapid mass loss sets in along a well defined velocity dividing line (VDL). Hot corona also disappear close to the VDL and thermal pressure cannot drive the observed rapid mass loss in these stars. The VDL may be associated with magnetic fields changing from closed to open. Such a change is consistent with the lack of X-rays from late-type giants. A magnetic transition locus based on Pneuman's work on helmet streamer stability agrees well with the empirical VDL. The change from closed to open fields not only makes rapid mass loss possible, but also contributes to energizing the mass loss in the form of discrete bubbles.

  9. [Prevalence of early and late dumping after gastric bypass].

    PubMed

    Héraïef, R; Giusti, V

    2014-03-26

    Gastric bypass surgery is an effective treatment of obesity, bringing a significant weight loss and a major improvement of carbohydrate profile. However, in some patients, a deregulation in carbohydrate metabolism between insulin secretion and sensitivity is observed, whereupon early and late dumping happen. Their prevalence isn't well studied, although it seems that 10 to 20% of patients are affected. We've studied a cohort of 70 patients who undergone gastric bypass surgery at the CHUV. 18 (25.7%) patients have a positive anamnesis for early dumping and 10 (14.3%) for late dumping, being it superior as what is described in the literature.

  10. Late Blooming or Language Problem?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Late Blooming or Language Problem? Parents are smart. They listen to their ... or not their child is developing speech and language at a normal rate. If parents think that ...

  11. Vaginal bleeding in late pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000627.htm Vaginal bleeding in late pregnancy To use the sharing ... JavaScript. One out of 10 women will have vaginal bleeding during their 3rd trimester. At times, it ...

  12. Living with hearing loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000360.htm Living with hearing loss To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. If you are living with hearing loss, you know that it takes extra effort to ...

  13. Photovoltaic array loss mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Charles

    1986-10-01

    Loss mechanisms which come into play when solar cell modules are mounted in arrays are identified. Losses can occur either from a reduction in the array electrical performance or with nonoptimal extraction of power from the array. Electrical performance degradation is caused by electrical mismatch, transmission losses from cell surface soiling and steep angle of reflectance, and electrical losses from field wiring resistance and the voltage drop across blocking diodes. The second type of loss, concerned with the operating points of the array, can involve nonoptimal load impedance and limiting the operating envelope of the array to specific ranges of voltage and current. Each of the loss mechanisms are discussed and average energy losses expected from soiling, steep reflectance angles and circuit losses are calculated.

  14. Genetics of Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Latin America Information For... Media Policy Makers Genetics of Hearing Loss Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... of hearing loss in babies is due to genetic causes. There are also a number of things ...

  15. Managing Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... a total loss of hearing. It can be hereditary or it can result from disease, trauma, certain ... build-up, fluid, or a punctured eardrum. Medical treatment or surgery can usually restore conductive hearing loss. ...

  16. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious medical problems. Weight loss surgery (also called bariatric surgery) can help very obese people lose weight. But ... Gastric banding is the simplest of the three weight loss surgeries. People who get it might not lose as ...

  17. Late effects from hadron therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chang, Polly Y.

    2004-06-01

    Successful cancer patient survival and local tumor control from hadron radiotherapy warrant a discussion of potential secondary late effects from the radiation. The study of late-appearing clinical effects from particle beams of protons, carbon, or heavier ions is a relatively new field with few data. However, new clinical information is available from pioneer hadron radiotherapy programs in the USA, Japan, Germany and Switzerland. This paper will review available data on late tissue effects from particle radiation exposures, and discuss its importance to the future of hadron therapy. Potential late radiation effects are associated with irradiated normal tissue volumes at risk that in many cases can be reduced with hadron therapy. However, normal tissues present within hadron treatment volumes can demonstrate enhanced responses compared to conventional modes of therapy. Late endpoints of concern include induction of secondary cancers, cataract, fibrosis, neurodegeneration, vascular damage, and immunological, endocrine and hereditary effects. Low-dose tissue effects at tumor margins need further study, and there is need for more acute molecular studies underlying late effects of hadron therapy.

  18. Vision loss and hearing loss in painting and musical composition.

    PubMed

    Marmor, Michael F

    2014-07-01

    This article considers the impact of vision and hearing loss on great painters and musical composers. The visual work of Mary Cassatt, Georgia O'Keeffe, Edgar Degas, and Claude Monet all showed alterations as their vision failed. In contrast, Gabriel Fauré, Bedřich Smetana, and Ludwig von Beethoven wrote many of their best compositions while totally deaf, and Georg Friedrich Handel and Frederick Delius struggled to compose late in life when they lost their vision (although their hearing remained excellent). There are 2 major distinctions between the role of vision and hearing for these artistic disciplines. First, there is a surrogate means of "hearing" music, through the musical score, which allows composers to write and edit music while totally deaf. The greatest problem with deafness for a skilled composer is interference from internal noise (tinnitus). There is no surrogate for vision to allow a painter to work when the subject is a blur or the colors on the canvas cannot be distinguished. Second, although the appreciation of art is visual and that of music is auditory, the transcription of both art and musical composition is visual. Thus, visual loss does pose a problem for a composer accustomed to working with good sight, because it disrupts habitual methods of writing and editing music.

  19. Canine hearing loss management.

    PubMed

    Scheifele, Lesa; Clark, John Greer; Scheifele, Peter M

    2012-11-01

    Dog owners and handlers are naturally concerned when suspicion of hearing loss arises for their dogs. Questions frequently asked of the veterinarian center on warning signs of canine hearing loss and what can be done for the dog if hearing loss is confirmed. This article addresses warning signs of canine hearing loss, communication training and safety awareness issues, and the feasibility of hearing aid amplification for dogs.

  20. Microbialite resurgence after the Late Ordovician extinction.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Peter M; Harris, Mark T

    2004-07-01

    Microbialites, including biogenic stromatolites, thrombolites and dendrolites, were formed by various microbial mats that trapped and bound sediments or formed the locus of mineral precipitation. Microbialites were common and diverse during the Proterozoic, but declined in abundance and morphological diversity when multicellular life diversified during the Cambrian Radiation. A second decline occurred during the Ordovician Radiation of marine animals, and from then until the present microbialites have been confined largely to high-stress environments where multicellular organisms are rare. The microbialite declines in the Phanerozoic are attributed to disruption of the mats by animals. A resurgence of stromatolite abundance and size during reduced animal diversity after the Permian extinction has been documented anecdotally. Here we show, with statistical support, that a microbialite resurgence also occurred after the Late Ordovician extinction event in western North America. The resurgences were associated with loss of mat-inhibiting animals, providing insights into shallow-water community structures after extinction events.

  1. Contralateral intramammary silicone lymphadenitis in a patient with an intact standard dual-lumen breast implant in the opposite reconstructed breast.

    PubMed

    Collado-Mesa, Fernando; Yepes, Monica; Doshi, Purvi; Umar, Saleem A; Net, Jose

    2013-11-01

    Silicone lymphadenopathy is a recognized complication of silicone gel implant rupture; the ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes are most commonly involved. We report imaging findings on a range of different imaging modalities and biopsy results in a case of biopsy-proven silicone lymphadenitis involving contralateral intramammary and axillary lymph nodes in a patient with an intact standard dual-lumen breast implant in the opposite reconstructed breast. This case demonstrates that in a patient with disrupted lymph drainage due to prior mastectomy and axillary node dissection for breast cancer treatment, silicone particles can migrate in a retrograde fashion via the ipsilateral internal mammary lymph nodes and reach not only the contralateral axilla but also the outer quadrants of the contralateral breast, even in the presence of an intact breast implant.

  2. Endovascular balloon-assisted embolization of high-flow peripheral vascular lesions using dual-lumen coaxial balloon microcatheter and Onyx: initial experience.

    PubMed

    Jagadeesan, Bharathi D; Mortazavi, Shabnam; Hunter, David W; Duran-Castro, Olga L; Snyder, Gregory B; Siedel, Glen F; Golzarian, Jafar

    2014-04-01

    Balloon-assisted embolization performed by delivering Onyx ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer through a dual-lumen coaxial balloon microcatheter is a new technique for the management of peripheral vascular lesions. This technique does not require an initial reflux of Onyx to form around the tip of the microcatheter before antegrade flow of Onyx can commence. In a series of four patients who were treated with the use of this technique, the absence of significant reflux of Onyx was noted, as were excellent navigability and easy retrieval of the balloon microcatheter. However, in one patient, there was inadvertent adverse embolization of a digital artery, which was not caused by reflux of Onyx but could still be related to balloon inflation.

  3. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  4. Hearing loss in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckey, J. C. Jr; Musiek, F. E.; Kline-Schoder, R.; Clark, J. C.; Hart, S.; Havelka, J.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Temporary and, in some cases, permanent hearing loss has been documented after long-duration spaceflights. METHODS: We examined all existing published data on hearing loss after space missions to characterize the losses. RESULTS: Data from Russian missions suggest that the hearing loss, when it occurs, affects mainly mid to high frequencies and that using hearing protection often might prevent the loss. Several significant questions remain about hearing loss in space. While the hearing loss has been presumed to be noise-induced, no clear link has been established between noise exposure and hearing loss during spaceflight. In one documented case of temporary hearing loss from the Shuttle-Mir program, the pattern of loss was atypical for a noise-induced loss. Continuous noise levels that have been measured on the Mir and previous space stations, while above engineering standards, are not at levels usually associated with hearing loss in ground-based studies (which have usually been limited to 8-10 h exposure periods). Attempts to measure hearing in space using threshold-based audiograms have been unsuccessful in both the American and Russian programs due to noise interference with the measurements. CONCLUSIONS: The existing data highlight the need for reliable monitoring of both hearing and noise in long-duration spaceflight.

  5. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Tosti, A; Piraccini, B M; Sisti, A; Duque-Estrada, B

    2009-10-01

    Hair loss in women is a very common clinical complaint, and is usually associated with severe emotional distress. In this article, the authors review the most common clinical causes of hair loss in women, and emphasize the role of hormonal changes in the regulation of hair loss and hair growth.

  6. Hearing loss - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss. Two common tests are used to screen newborn infants for hearing loss: Auditory brain stem response (ABR) ... Over 30 states in the United States require newborn hearing screenings. Treating hearing loss early can allow many infants to develop normal language skills without delay. In ...

  7. Intra-channel stent release technique for fluoroless endoscopic ultrasound-guided lumen-apposing metal stent placement: changing the paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Anderloni, Andrea; Attili, Fabia; Carrara, Silvia; Galasso, Domenico; Di Leo, Milena; Costamagna, Guido; Repici, Alessandro; Kunda, Rastislav; Larghi, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Background Recently, a novel lumen-apposing fully covered self-expanding metal stent (LA-FCSEMS) mounted on an electrocautery-enhanced delivery system has been developed to perform endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided transluminal drainage. From early experience, however, release of the proximal flange of the stent has mostly been done using endoscopic view guidance to ensure proper positioning. Aim We describe a new technique that we have named the Intra-Channel Stent Release Technique (ICSRT) to perform stent placement under complete EUS control, without the use of either fluoroscopic or endoscopic views. Material and methods Data on all consecutive patients who underwent EUS-guided drainage using the new ICSRT between June 2014 and April 2016 were retrospectively retrieved from two institution databases. All EUS procedures were performed by experienced endoscopists with the patient under conscious or deep sedation. The total procedure and stent deployment time, and adverse events related to stent positioning with the ICSRT were evaluated. Results One hundred consecutive patients (51 women; mean age ± SD, 66 ± 15.2 years, range 34 – 95) underwent EUS-guided transluminal drainage with the Hot AXIOS™ device using the new ICSRT. The procedure was technically successful in all but one patient (1 %). The mean total procedural time was 21.9 minutes (range 7 – 50), while the mean time for stent placement was 3.2 minutes (range 1 – 15). No major adverse events occurred. Discussion The ICSRT has been used to deploy the newly developed lumen-apposing FCSEMS under complete EUS guidance without fluoroscopic and/or endoscopic assistance. The technique appears to be safe and highly effective and should be learned by all interventional endosonographers in order to be able to perform drainage in all clinical scenarios.

  8. Five-Lumen Antibiotic-Impregnated Femoral Central Venous Catheters in Severely Burned Patients: An Investigation of Device Utility and Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection Rates.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Bruce C; Mian, Mohammad A H; Mullins, Robert F; Hassan, Zaheed; Shaver, Joseph R; Johnston, Krystal K

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) rate in a severely burned patient population, many of whom required prolonged use of central venous catheters (CVCs). Between January 2008 and June 2012, 151 patients underwent placement of 455 five-lumen minocycline/rifampin-impregnated CVCs. CRBSI was defined as at least one blood culture (>100,000 colonies) and one simultaneous roll-plate CVC tip culture (>15 colony forming units) positive for the same organism. Most patients had accidental burns (81.5%) with a mean TBSA of 50%. A mean of three catheters were inserted per patient (range, 1-25). CVCs were inserted in the femoral vein (91.2%), subclavian vein (5.3%), and internal jugular vein (3.3%). Mean overall catheter indwell time was 8 days (range, 0-39 days). The overall rate of CRBSI per 1000 catheter days was 11.2; patients with a TBSA >60% experienced significantly higher rates of CRBSI than patients with a TBSA ≤60% (16.2 vs 7.3, P = .01). CVCs placed through burned skin were four times more likely to be associated with CRBSI than CVCs placed through intact skin. The most common infectious organism was Acinetobacter baumannii. Deep venous thrombosis developed in eleven patients (7%). The overall rate of CRBSI was 11.2, consistent with published rates of CRBSI in burn patients. Thus, femoral placement of 5-lumen CVCs did not result in increased CRBSI rates. These data support the safety of femoral CVC placement in burn patients, contrary to the Centers for Disease Control recommendation to avoid femoral CVC insertion.

  9. Automated airway evaluation system for multi-slice computed tomography using airway lumen diameter, airway wall thickness and broncho-arterial ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odry, Benjamin L.; Kiraly, Atilla P.; Novak, Carol L.; Naidich, David P.; Lerallut, Jean-Francois

    2006-03-01

    Pulmonary diseases such as bronchiectasis, asthma, and emphysema are characterized by abnormalities in airway dimensions. Multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) has become one of the primary means to depict these abnormalities, as the availability of high-resolution near-isotropic data makes it possible to evaluate airways at oblique angles to the scanner plane. However, currently, clinical evaluation of airways is typically limited to subjective visual inspection only: systematic evaluation of the airways to take advantage of high-resolution data has not proved practical without automation. We present an automated method to quantitatively evaluate airway lumen diameter, wall thickness and broncho-arterial ratios. In addition, our method provides 3D visualization of these values, graphically illustrating the location and extent of disease. Our algorithm begins by automatic airway segmentation to extract paths to the distal airways, and to create a map of airway diameters. Normally, airway diameters decrease as paths progress distally; failure to taper indicates abnormal dilatation. Our approach monitors airway lumen diameters along each airway path in order to detect abnormal profiles, allowing even subtle degrees of pathologic dilatation to be identified. Our method also systematically computes the broncho-arterial ratio at every terminal branch of the tree model, as a ratio above 1 indicates potentially abnormal bronchial dilatation. Finally, the airway wall thickness is computed at corresponding locations. These measurements are used to highlight abnormal branches for closer inspection, and can be summed to compute a quantitative global score for the entire airway tree, allowing reproducible longitudinal assessment of disease severity. Preliminary tests on patients diagnosed with bronchiectasis demonstrated rapid identification of lack of tapering, which also was confirmed by corresponding demonstration of elevated broncho-arterial ratios.

  10. The 1.7 Å resolution structure of At2g44920, a pentapeptide-repeat protein in the thylakoid lumen of Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, Shuisong; McGookey, Michael E.; Tinch, Stuart L.; Jones, Alisha N.; Jayaraman, Seetharaman; Tong, Liang; Kennedy, Michael A.

    2012-01-09

    At2g44920 belongs to a diverse family (Pfam PF00805) of pentapeptide-repeat proteins (PRPs) that are present in all known organisms except yeast. PRPs contain at least eight tandem-repeating sequences of five amino acids with an approximate consensus sequence (STAV)(D/N)(L/F)(S/T/R)(X). Recent crystal structures show that PRPs adopt a highly regular four-sided right-handed {beta}-helical structure consisting mainly of type II and type IV {beta}-turns, sometimes referred to as a repeated five-residue (or Rfr) fold. Among sequenced genomes, PRP genes are most abundant in cyanobacteria, leading to speculation that PRPs play an important role in the unique lifestyle of photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Despite the recent structural characterization of several cyanobacterial PRPs, most of their functions remain unknown. Plants, whose chloroplasts are of cyanobacterial origin, have only four PRP genes in their genomes. At2g44920 is one of three PRPs located in the thylakoid lumen. Here, the crystal structure of a double methionine mutant of residues 81-224 of At2g44920, the naturally processed fragment of one of its full-length isoforms, is reported at 1.7 {angstrom} resolution. The structure of At2g44920 consists of the characteristic Rfr fold with five uninterrupted coils made up of 25 pentapeptide repeats and {alpha}-helical elements capping both termini. A disulfide bridge links the two {alpha}-helices with a conserved loop between the helical elements at its C-terminus. This structure represents the first structure of a PRP protein whose subcellular location has been experimentally confirmed to be the thylakoid lumen in a plant species.

  11. Estradiol receptor binding to the epithelium of uterine lumen and glands: region- and time-related changes during preimplantation and periimplantation periods studied by autoradiography.

    PubMed

    Zorn, Telma M T; Soto-Suazo, Mauricio; Pellegrini, Cleusa R; Oliveira, José G; Stumpf, Walter E

    2003-07-01

    The presence and changes of estradiol nuclear binding and related functions in uterine luminal and glandular epithelium were studied before and after blastocyst implantation using receptor autoradiography with (3)H-estradiol-17beta in association with (3)H-thymidine incorporation and immunocytochemical binding of antibody to estrogen receptor ER-alpha. (3)H-estradiol nuclear binding is present but variable during days 1.5-7.5 of pregnancy. Sites of strong nuclear binding of (3)H-estradiol exhibit strong immunocytochemical staining with ER-alpha antibody. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of autoradiograms reveal that there is a general increase of nuclear (3)H-estradiol binding during the first 3 days after fertilization in both luminal and glandular epithelium. The binding of estradiol is stronger in glandular epithelium from day 2.5 to day 7.5, paralleled by a rise in (3)H-thymidine incorporation on day 2.5. By comparison, in the epithelium of the uterine lumen (3)H-estradiol nuclear binding is low, but relatively high in epithelial cells at lateral branching of the lumen where the increase in (3)H-estradiol binding corresponds to an increased labeling index with (3)H-thymidine. A highly differentiated binding of (3)H-estradiol to luminal and glandular epithelium was demonstrated with region- and time-specific changes of related effects on cell proliferation, differentiation, and secretion, probably involving involution and remodeling. The strong (3)H-estradiol binding to glandular epithelium suggests that estradiol exerts pronounced effects on glandular activities in the periimplantation period.

  12. The Major Leukocyte Chemotactic and Activating Factors in the Mouse Gut Lumen are not N-formylpeptide Receptor 1 (Fpr1) Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Ojode, Teresa; Schneider, Erich H.; Tiffany, H. Lee; Yung, Sunny; Gao, Ji-Liang; Murphy, Philip M.

    2013-01-01

    Cultured bacteria release N-formylpeptides, which are potent chemoattractants for phagocytic leukocytes acting at G protein-coupled receptors FPR1 and FPR2. However, the distribution and immunologic activity of these molecules at mucosal surfaces, where large numbers of bacteria are separated from the immune system by epithelium, remain undefined. To investigate this for the gut, we tested leukocyte responses to cell-free gut luminal contents from C57Bl/6 mice fed a chow diet. Small and large intestine contents were able to compete with labeled N-formylpeptide for binding to FPR1, indicating the presence of FPR1 ligands in the gut lumen. Material from both small and large intestine induced robust calcium flux responses by primary FPR1+ leukocytes (mouse bone marrow cells and splenocytes, and human peripheral blood neutrophils and mononuclear cells), as well as chemotactic responses by both mouse bone marrow cells and human peripheral blood neutrophils. However, unlike defined N-formylpeptides, calcium flux responses induced by gut luminal contents were insensitive both to pertussis toxin treatment of leukocytes and to proteinase K digestion of the samples. Moreover, the gut samples were fully active on neutrophils from mice lacking Fpr1, and the kinetics of the calcium flux response differed markedly for neutrophils and PBMCs. The active factor(s) could be dialyzed using a 3.5 kD pore size membrane. Thus, mouse intestinal lumen contains small, potent and highly efficacious leukocyte chemotactic and activating factors that may be distinct for neutrophils and PBMCs and distinct from Fpr1 agonists. PMID:22722599

  13. Endovascular Balloon-Assisted Embolization of Intracranial and Cervical Arteriovenous Malformations Using Dual Lumen Co-axial Balloon Microcatheters and Onyx: Initial Experience.

    PubMed

    Jagadeesan, Bharathi D; Grigoryan, Mikayel; Hassan, Ameer E; Grande, Andrew W; Tummala, Ramachandra P

    2013-02-25

    BACKGROUND:: Ethylene vinyl alcohol co-polymer (Onyx) is widely used for the embolization of arteriovenous malformations of the brain, head, and neck. Balloon-assisted Onyx embolization may provide additional unique advantages in the treatment of AVMs when compared to traditional catheter-based techniques. OBJECTIVE:: To report our initial experience in performing balloon-assisted AVM embolization for brain and neck AVMs using the new Scepter-C and Scepter-XC co-axial dual lumen balloon microcatheters. METHODS:: Balloon-assisted trans-arterial embolization was carried out in a series of seven patients with AVMs (4 with brain AVMs, one with a dural AVF, and two with neck AVMs) using Onyx delivered through the lumen of Scepter-C or Scepter XC co-axial balloon microcatheters. Following the initial balloon-catheter navigation into a feeding artery and the subsequent inflation of the balloon, the embolization was performed using Onyx 18, Onyx 34, or both. RESULTS:: A total of twelve embolization sessions were performed via 17 arterial feeders in these 7 patients. In one patient, there was an arterial perforation from inflation of the balloon; in all others, the embolization goals were successfully achieved with no adverse events. CONCLUSION:: The balloon microcatheters showed excellent navigability, and there were no problems with retrieval or with the repeated inflation and deflation of the balloons. A proximal Onyx plug, which is crucial in many AVM embolizations, was not necessary with this technique. Additionally, fluoroscopy and procedural times seemed lower with this technique compared to conventional embolization methods.

  14. The Greatest Generation Meets Its Greatest Challenge: Vision Loss and Depression in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Coleen

    2005-01-01

    Having lived through the Great Depression and World War II, older adults now face the challenge of vision loss in record numbers. Depression is closely associated with functional loss and social isolation in late-life vision loss. The principles of assisting those who are aging will also benefit those who are aging with a visual impairment. They…

  15. Mass loss in red giants and supergiants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanner, F.

    1975-01-01

    The circumstellar envelopes surrounding late-type giants and supergiants were studied using high resolution, photoelectric scans of strong optical resonance lines. A method for extracting the circumstellar from the stellar components of the lines allowed a quantitative determination of the physical conditions in the envelopes and the rates of mass loss at various positions in the red giant region of the HR diagram. The observed strengthening of the circumstellar spectrum with increasing luminosity and later spectral type is probably caused by an increase in the mass of the envelopes. The mass loss rate for individual stars is proportional to the visual luminosity; high rates for the supergiants suggest that mass loss is important in their evolution. The bulk of the mass return to the interstellar medium in the red giant region comes from the normal giants, at a rate comparable to that of planetary nebulae.

  16. Ecological impacts of the late Quaternary megaherbivore extinctions.

    PubMed

    Gill, Jacquelyn L

    2014-03-01

    As a result of the late Quaternary megafaunal extinctions (50,000-10,000 before present (BP)), most continents today are depauperate of megaherbivores. These extinctions were time-transgressive, size- and taxonomically selective, and were caused by climate change, human hunting, or both. The surviving megaherbivores often act as ecological keystones, which was likely true in the past. In spite of this and extensive research on the causes of the Late Quaternary Extinctions, the long-term ecological consequences of the loss of the Pleistocene megafauna remained unknown until recently, due to difficulties in linking changes in flora and fauna in paleorecords. The quantification of Sporormiella and other dung fungi have recently allowed for explicit tests of the ecological consequences of megafaunal extirpations in the fossil pollen record. In this paper, I review the impacts of the loss of keystone megaherbivores on vegetation in several paleorecords. A growing number of studies support the hypothesis that the loss of the Pleistocene megafauna resulted in cascading effects on plant community composition, vegetation structure and ecosystem function, including increased fire activity, novel communities and shifts in biomes. Holocene biota thus exist outside the broader evolutionary context of the Cenozoic, and the Late Quaternary Extinctions represent a regime shift for surviving plant and animal species.

  17. Complicated grief in late life

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Complicated grief (CG) is a syndrome that affects 10% to 20% of grievers regardless of age, although proportionally more will face the death of loved ones in late life, CG is characterized by preoccupying and disabling symptoms that can persist for decades such as an inability to accept the death, intense yearning or avoidance, frequent reveries, deep sadness, crying, somatic distress, social withdrawal, and suicidal ideation. This syndrome is distinct from major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, but CG maybe comorbid with each. This communication will focus on the impact of CG in late life (over age 60) and will include a case vignette for illustrating complicated grief therapy. PMID:22754292

  18. Late-Notice HIE Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hejduk, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Provide a response to MOWG action item 1410-01: Analyze close approaches which have required mission team action on short notice. Determine why the approaches were identified later in the process than most other events. Method: Performed an analysis to determine whether there is any correlation between late notice event identification and space weather, sparse tracking, or high drag objects, which would allow preventive action to be taken Examined specific late notice events identified by missions as problematic to try to identify root cause and attempt to relate them to the correlation analysis.

  19. Late Silurian plutons in Yucatan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, M. B.; Walker, J. Douglas

    1996-08-01

    U-Pb measurements of zircons from two composite plutons in the Maya Mountains of the Yucatan Block (Belize) give Late Silurian ages. Zircons from one of the five compositional phases of the Mountain Pine Ridge pluton yield an age of 418±3.6 Ma. A second compositional phase gives a minimum age of 404 Ma, and zircons from a third phase, although plagued with high common Pb, yield ages consistent with the other two. Zircons from one compositional phase of the Hummingbird-Mullins River pluton indicate an age of about 410-420 Ma. These data demonstrate that two of the three Maya Mountains plutons residing among the strata of the Late Pennsylvanian through Permian Santa Rosa Group are older than that sedimentation. Although the third pluton was not dated, both the similarity of sedimentary facies patterns adjacent to it to those adjacent to one of the plutons dated as Late Silurian and a published single Rb-Sr age of 428 ± 41 Ma suggest this third pluton also was emergent during Santa Rosa deposition. Thus the new U/Pb dates and other data suggest that all three Maya Mountains plutons pre-date Late Carboniferous sedimentation and that none intrude the Santa Rosa Group. Although very uniform ages of about 230 Ma amongst all plutons, derived from abundant earlier dating by the K-Ar system, led to the conclusion that intrusion mostly had occurred in the Late Triassic, the U-Pb ages (obtained from the same sites as the K-Ar dates) demonstrate that the K-Ar ages do not derive from a Late Triassic intrusive episode. The K-Ar dates probably are a signature of the rifting associated with Pangean breakup and formation of the Gulf of Mexico. In a reconstructed Pangea, the position of the Maya Mountains Late Silurian plutons suggests that the Late Silurian Acadian-Caledonian orogen of eastern North America extended through the region of the future Gulf of Mexico. Finally, the U-Pb ages of the Maya Mountains plutons are the same as those of a group of shocked zircons found in the

  20. Functional Visual Loss

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Beau B; Newman, Nancy J

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Neurologists frequently evaluate patients complaining of vision loss, especially when the patient has been examined by an ophthalmologist who has found no ocular disease. A significant proportion of patients presenting to the neurologist with visual complaints will have non-organic or functional visual loss. While there are examination techniques which can aid in the detection and diagnosis of functional visual loss, the frequency with which functional visual loss occurs concomitantly with organic disease warrants substantial caution on the part of the clinician. Furthermore, purely functional visual loss is never a diagnosis of exclusion, and must be supported by positive findings on examination that demonstrate normal visual function. The relationship of true psychological disease and functional visual loss is unclear and most patients respond well to simple reassurance. PMID:20638000

  1. Pregnancy Loss and Miscarriage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Condition Information What are common symptoms? How many people are ... Pregnancy Loss: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is pregnancy ...

  2. A science of loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Jon; Tschakert, Petra; Head, Lesley; Adger, W. Neil

    2016-11-01

    Avoiding losses from climate change requires socially engaged research that explains what people value highly, how climate change imperils these phenomena, and strategies for embracing and managing grief.

  3. [Hearing loss in adults].

    PubMed

    Eshraghi, Adrien A; Frachet, Bruno; Van De Water, Tom R; Eter, Elias

    2009-05-20

    The management of hearing loss in adults depends of etiology and its severity. It can be as simple as treating an external otitis, removing an impacted cerumen or a more complex one such as a surgery for otosclerosis. The hearing loss is managed mainly by new advances in hearing aids technology and implantable hearing devices which include BAHA, middle ear implant and cochlear implants. The research is focused on developing new molecules for intracochlear drug therapy to treat noise induced hearing loss, drug ototoxicity as well as hearing loss related to cochlear implant insertion trauma. Antioxidant molecules, molecules against apoptosis are at this time the most promising molecules than need further investigations.

  4. Mechanism Research on Melting Loss of Coppery Tuyere Small Sleeve in Blast Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Jian-Liang; Ning, Xiao-Jun; Wei, Guang-Yun; Chen, Yu-Ting

    2016-01-01

    The tuyere small sleeve in blast furnace works under poor conditions. The abnormal damage of it will severely affect the performance of the blast furnace, thus it should be replaced during the damping down period. So it is of great significance that we study and reduce the burnout of tuyere small sleeve. Melting loss is one case of its burnout. This paper studied the reasons of tuyere small sleeve's melting loss, through computational simulation and microscopic analysis of the melting section. The research shows that the temperature of coppery tuyere small sleeve is well distributed when there is no limescale in the lumen, and the temperature increases with the thickness of limescale. In addition, the interruption of circulating water does great harm to the tuyere small sleeve. The melting loss of tuyere small sleeve is caused by iron-slag erosion, with the occurrence of the melt metallurgical bonding and diffusion metallurgical combination.

  5. Early and Late Retirement Exits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brougham, Ruby R.; Walsh, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study proposes that personal need fulfillment (relatedness, generativity, identity, growth, and finances) predicts early and late retirement intentions. The personal needs of 160 full-time older employees were measured by personal goals, job satisfactions, job characteristics, and intrinsic motivation. Results suggest that the personal…

  6. Late Pleistocene and Holocene mammal extinctions on continental Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faith, J. Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the cause of late Quaternary mammal extinctions is the subject of intense debate spanning the fields of archeology and paleontology. In the global context, the losses on continental Africa have received little attention and are poorly understood. This study aims to inspire new discussion of African extinctions through a review of the extinct species and the chronology and possible causes of those extinctions. There are at least 24 large mammal (> 5 kg) species known to have disappeared from continental Africa during the late Pleistocene or Holocene, indicating a much greater taxonomic breadth than previously recognized. Among the better sampled taxa, these losses are restricted to the terminal Pleistocene and early Holocene, between 13,000 and 6000 yrs ago. The African extinctions preferentially affected species that are grazers or prefer grasslands. Where good terrestrial paleoenvironmental records are present, extinctions are associated with changes in the availability, productivity, or structure of grassland habitats, suggesting that environmental changes played a decisive role in the losses. In the broader evolutionary context, these extinctions represent recent examples of selective taxonomic winnowing characterized by the loss of grassland specialists and the establishment of large mammal communities composed of more ecologically flexible taxa over the last million years. There is little reason to believe that humans played an important role in African extinctions.

  7. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    MedlinePlus

    ... los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Help! It's Hair Loss! KidsHealth > For Kids > Help! It's Hair Loss! Print A A A What's in ... part above the skin, is dead. (That's why it doesn't hurt to get a haircut!) This ...

  8. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Help! It's Hair Loss! KidsHealth > For Kids > Help! It's Hair Loss! A A A What's in ... a better look at what's going on to help decide what to do next. For a fungal ...

  9. Hearing Loss in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hearing loss can affect a child’s ability to develop communication, language, and social skills. The earlier children with hearing loss start getting services, the more likely they are ...

  10. Understanding Grief & Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Judith

    1995-01-01

    Although death is the one certainty in life, death or the grieving process is rarely discussed. Grief includes physical, emotional, spiritual, and psychological reactions to loss, and is not limited to feelings about death. Grief can be the response to loss of home or country, separation or displacement, and changes resulting from new life stages.…

  11. Hearing Loss and Cytomegalovirus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Melvin

    1997-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus is the most common cause of congenital virally induced hearing loss. Maternal infection is most often asymptomatic as is the infection in the newborn. Hearing loss occurs in both clinically apparent infection and in the asymptomatic infection. Current methods of detection, treatment, and prevention and research efforts are…

  12. Hereditary Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, LenhAnh P.; Grundfast, Kenneth M.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses inheritance patterns in hearing loss, epidemiology, clues to genetic causes, locating genes that cause hereditary disorders, genes related to hearing loss disorders in individuals with Usher syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome, Treacher-Collins syndrome, Branchio-oto-renal and Pendred syndromes, and the significance of finding…

  13. Hearing loss and music

    MedlinePlus

    ... repeated exposure to loud noise and music can cause hearing loss. Decibels of Sound and Hearing Loss The decibel (dB) is a ... can make you unaware of the pain louder sounds can cause. Rest your ears for 24 hours after exposure ...

  14. Understanding Rural Population Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGranahan, David A.; Beale, Calvin L.

    2002-01-01

    A quarter of nonmetro counties lost population in the 1990s, but population loss was not related to poverty rate or low educational levels, perhaps because low-skill workers can no longer expect better wages in urban areas. Population loss was related to low population density and remoteness (which decrease access to services), lack of natural…

  15. Common Weight Loss Challenges

    MedlinePlus

    ... to lose that we’ve been talking about weight-loss surgery. Is that something we should consider?” Although the ... have the operation should not be made hastily. Weight-loss surgery is only advisable for extremely overweight adolescents for ...

  16. Common hair loss disorders.

    PubMed

    Springer, Karyn; Brown, Matthew; Stulberg, Daniel L

    2003-07-01

    Hair loss (alopecia) affects men and women of all ages and often significantly affects social and psychologic well-being. Although alopecia has several causes, a careful history, dose attention to the appearance of the hair loss, and a few simple studies can quickly narrow the potential diagnoses. Androgenetic alopecia, one of the most common forms of hair loss, usually has a specific pattern of temporal-frontal loss in men and central thinning in women. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved topical minoxidil to treat men and women, with the addition of finasteride for men. Telogen effluvium is characterized by the loss of "handfuls" of hair, often following emotional or physical stressors. Alopecia areata, trichotillomania, traction alopecia, and tinea capitis have unique features on examination that aid in diagnosis. Treatment for these disorders and telogen effluvium focuses on resolution of the underlying cause.

  17. Acute loss of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Tristán, Bekinschtein; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Manes, Facundo

    2015-01-01

    Acute loss of consciousness poses a fascinating scenario for theoretical and clinical research. This chapter introduces a simple yet powerful framework to investigate altered states of consciousness. We then explore the different disorders of consciousness that result from acute brain injury, and techniques used in the acute phase to predict clinical outcome in different patient populations in light of models of acute loss of consciousness. We further delve into post-traumatic amnesia as a model for predicting cognitive sequels following acute loss of consciousness. We approach the study of acute loss of consciousness from a theoretical and clinical perspective to conclude that clinicians in acute care centers must incorporate new measurements and techniques besides the classic coma scales in order to assess their patients with loss of consciousness.

  18. [Inner Ear Hearing Loss].

    PubMed

    Hesse, G

    2016-06-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most dominant handicaps in modern societies, which additionally very often is not realized or not admitted. About one quarter of the general population suffers from inner ear hearing loss and is therefore restricted in communicational skills. Demographic factors like increasing age play an important role as well as environmental influences and an increasing sound and noise exposure especially in leisure activities. Thus borders between a "classical" presbyacusis - if it ever existed - and envirionmentally induced hearing loss disappear. Today restrictions in hearing ability develop earlier in age but at the same time they are detected and diagnosed earlier. This paper can eventually enlighten the wide field of inner ear hearing loss only fragmentarily; therefore mainly new research, findings and developments are reviewed. The first part discusses new aspects of diagnostics of inner ear hearing loss and different etiologies.

  19. Magnetic Resonance Studies of Proton Loss from Carotenoid Radical Cations

    SciTech Connect

    Kispert, Lowell D; Focsan, A Ligia; Konovalova, Tatyana A; Lawrence, Jesse; Bowman, Michael K; Dixon, David A; Molnar, Peter; Deli, Jozsef

    2007-06-11

    Carotenoids, intrinsic components of reaction centers and pigment-protein complexes in photosynthetic membranes, play a photoprotective role and serve as a secondary electron donor. Before optimum use of carotenoids can be made in artificial photosynthetic systems, their robust nature in living materials requires extensive characterization of their electron transfer, radical trapping ability, stability, structure in and on various hosts, and photochemical behavior. Pulsed ENDOR and 2D-HYSCORE studies combined with DFT calculations reveal that photo-oxidation of natural zeaxanthin (I) and violaxanthin (II) on silica-alumina produces not only the carotenoid radical cations (Car•+) but also neutral radicals (#Car•) by proton loss from the methyl groups at positions 5 or 5', and possibly 9 or 9' and 13 or 13'. Notably, the proton loss favored in I at the 5 position by DFT calculations, is unfavorable in II due to the epoxide at the 5, 6 position. DFT calculations predict the isotropic methyl proton couplings of 8-10 MHz for Car•+ which agree with the ENDOR for carotenoid α-conjugated radical cations. Large α-proton hyperfine coupling constants (>10 MHz) determined from HYSCORE are assigned from the DFT calculations to neutral carotenoid radicals. Proton loss upon photolysis was also examined as a function of carotenoid polarity [Lycopene (III) versus 8'-apo-β-caroten-8'-al (IV)]; hydrogen bonding [Lutein (V) versus III]; host [silica-alumina versus MCM-41 molecular sieve]; and substituted metal in MCM-41. Loss of H+ from the 5(5'), 9(9') or 13(13') methyl positions has importance in photoprotection. Photoprotection involves nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) in which 1Ch1* decays via energy transfer to the carotenoid which returns to the ground state by thermal dissipation; or via electron transfer to form a charge transfer state (I •+…Chl•-), lower in energy than 1Chl*. Formation of I •+ results in bond lengthening, a mechanism for nonradiative energy

  20. Diunsaturated Aldehyde, trans,trans-2,4-Decadienal in the Intestinal Lumen Suppresses Gastric Emptying through Serotonin Signaling in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hira, Tohru; Yahagi, Asuka; Nishimura, Saki; Sakaino, Masayoshi; Yamashita, Takatoshi; Hara, Hiroshi

    2015-09-23

    We recently demonstrated that a diunsaturated aldehyde, trans,trans-2,4-decadienal (2,4-decadienal), potently stimulated secretion of cholecystokinin in the enteroendocrine cell line. Gut hormones such as cholecystokinin and serotonin play critical roles in reducing postprandial gastric emptying. In the present study, we first demonstrated that oral administration of 2,4-decadienal (50-100 mg/kg) reduced gastric emptying rate in rats, assessed by both the acetaminophen absorption test and the phenol red recovery method. In contrast, saturated aldehyde, alcohol, and fatty acids having the same chain length as 2,4-decadienal did not affect the gastric emptying rate. Duodenal administration of 2,4-decadienal potently reduced gastric emptying rate, but intraperitoneal administration did not. Furthermore, the gastric inhibitory effect of 2,4-decadienal was attenuated by treatment with a serotonin receptor antagonist. These results demonstrated that 2,4-decadienal in the small intestinal lumen has a potent inhibitory effect on gastric emptying, possibly through stimulation of the serotonin-producing enteroendocrine cells.

  1. Evaluation of an asymmetric stent patch design for a patient specific intracranial aneurysm using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) calculations in the computed tomography (CT) derived lumen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minsuok; Ionita, Ciprian; Tranquebar, Rekha; Hoffmann, Kenneth R.; Taulbee, Dale B.; Meng, Hui; Rudin, Stephen

    2006-03-01

    Stenting may provide a new, less invasive therapeutic option for cerebral aneurysms. However, a conventional porous stent may be insufficient in modifying the blood flow for clinical aneurysms. We designed an asymmetric stent consisting of a low porosity patch welded onto a porous stent for an anterior cerebral artery aneurysm of a specific patient geometry to block the strong inflow jet. To evaluate the effect of the patch on aneurysmal flow dynamics, we "virtually" implanted it into the patient's aneurysm geometry and performed Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis. The patch was computationally deformed to fit into the vessel lumen segmented from the patient CT reconstructions. After the flow calculations, a patch with the same design was fabricated using laser cutting techniques and welded onto a commercial porous stent, creating a patient-specific asymmetric stent. This stent was implanted into a phantom, which was imaged with X-ray angiography. The hemodynamics of untreated and stented aneurysms were compared both computationally and experimentally. It was found from CFD of the patient aneurysm that the asymmetric stent effectively blocked the strong inflow jet into the aneurysm and eliminated the flow impingement on the aneurysm wall at the dome. The impact zone with elevated wall shear stress was eliminated, the aneurysmal flow activity was substantially reduced, and the flow was considerably reduced. Experimental observations corresponded well qualitatively with the CFD results. The demonstrated asymmetric stent could lead to a new minimally invasive image guided intervention to reduce aneurysm growth and rupture.

  2. ATP synthase repression in tobacco restricts photosynthetic electron transport, CO2 assimilation, and plant growth by overacidification of the thylakoid lumen.

    PubMed

    Rott, Markus; Martins, Nádia F; Thiele, Wolfram; Lein, Wolfgang; Bock, Ralph; Kramer, David M; Schöttler, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants strictly adjust the contents of both ATP synthase and cytochrome b(6)f complex to the metabolic demand for ATP and NADPH. While the cytochrome b(6)f complex catalyzes the rate-limiting step of photosynthetic electron flux and thereby controls assimilation, the functional significance of the ATP synthase adjustment is unknown. Here, we reduced ATP synthase accumulation by an antisense approach directed against the essential nuclear-encoded γ-subunit (AtpC) and by the introduction of point mutations into the translation initiation codon of the plastid-encoded atpB gene (encoding the essential β-subunit) via chloroplast transformation. Both strategies yielded transformants with ATP synthase contents ranging from 100 to <10% of wild-type levels. While the accumulation of the components of the linear electron transport chain was largely unaltered, linear electron flux was strongly inhibited due to decreased rates of plastoquinol reoxidation at the cytochrome b(6)f complex (photosynthetic control). Also, nonphotochemical quenching was triggered at very low light intensities, strongly reducing the quantum efficiency of CO(2) fixation. We show evidence that this is due to an increased steady state proton motive force, resulting in strong lumen overacidification, which in turn represses photosynthesis due to photosynthetic control and dissipation of excitation energy in the antenna bed.

  3. Reactive oxygen species derived from xanthine oxidase interrupt dimerization of breast cancer resistance protein, resulting in suppression of uric acid excretion to the intestinal lumen.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Jiro; Kuwayama, Kaori; Sasaki, Shunichi; Kaneko, Chihiro; Koizumi, Takahiro; Yabe, Keisuke; Tsujimoto, Takashi; Takeno, Reiko; Takaya, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Hiroaki; Iseki, Ken

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of hyperuricemia/gout increases with aging. However, the effect of aging on function for excretion of uric acid to out of the body has not been clarified. We found that ileal uric acid clearance in middle-aged rats (11-12 months) was decreased compared with that in young rats (2 months). In middle-aged rats, xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in the ileum was significantly higher than that in young rats. Inosine-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are derived from XO, also decreased ileal uric acid clearance. ROS derived from XO decreased the active homodimer level of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), which is a uric acid efflux transporter, in the ileum. Pre-administration of allopurinol recovered the BCRP homodimer level, resulting in the recovering ileal uric acid clearance. Moreover, we investigated the effects of ROS derived from XO on BCRP homodimer level directly in Caco-2 cells using hypoxanthine. Treatment with hypoxanthine decreased BCRP homodimer level. Treatment with hypoxanthine induced mitochondrial dysfunction, suggesting that the decreasing BCRP homodimer level might be caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. In conclusion, ROS derived from XO decrease BCRP homodimer level, resulting in suppression of function for uric acid excretion to the ileal lumen. ROS derived from XO may cause the suppression of function of the ileum for the excretion of uric acid with aging. The results of our study provide a new insight into the causes of increasing hyperuricemia/gout prevalence with aging.

  4. Double-lumen central venous catheters impregnated with chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine to prevent catheter colonisation in the intensive care unit setting: a prospective randomised study.

    PubMed

    Camargo, L F A; Marra, A R; Büchele, G L; Sogayar, A M C; Cal, R G R; de Sousa, J M A; Silva, E; Knobel, E; Edmond, M B

    2009-07-01

    Antimicrobial- and antiseptic-impregnated catheters are strategies recommended to prevent central venous catheter (CVC) colonisation. Few data regarding chlorhexidine/silver sulfadiazine-impregnated catheters in intensive care unit (ICU) patients have been reported. We performed a prospective, randomised study comparing the colonisation rates of chlorhexidine/silver sulfadiazine-impregnated CVCs (group 1) against standard CVCs (group 2). In order to assess catheter colonisation rates, a 4cm segment from the tips of aseptically removed catheters was cultured by the roll-plate method. In all, 109 patients were enrolled with successful catheter insertion, 51 of them in group 1 and 58 in group 2. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with regards to age, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, ICU admission diagnosis, infection risk, catheter insertion sites or catheter length of stay. The colonisation rates were 29.4% (15 catheters) for group 1 and 34.5% (20 catheters) for group 2 (P=0.50). Double-lumen CVCs impregnated with chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine were not effective in reducing the incidence of catheter colonisation in ICU patients.

  5. Non-Newtonian effects of blood on LDL transport inside the arterial lumen and across multi-layered arterial wall with and without stenosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deyranlou, Amin; Niazmand, Hamid; Sadeghi, Mahmood-Reza; Mesri, Yaser

    2016-06-01

    Blood non-Newtonian behavior on low-density lipoproteins (LDL) accumulation is analyzed numerically, while fluid-multilayered arteries are adopted for nonstenotic and 30%-60% symmetrical stenosed models. Present model considers non-Newtonian effects inside the lumen and within arterial layers simultaneously, which has not been examined in previous studies. Navier-Stokes equations are solved along with the mass transport convection-diffusion equations and Darcy’s model for species transport inside the luminal flow and across wall layers, respectively. Carreau model for the luminal flow and the modified Darcy equation for the power-law fluid within arterial layers are employed to model blood rheological characteristics, appropriately. Results indicate that in large arteries with relatively high Reynolds number Newtonian model estimates LDL concentration patterns well enough, however, this model seriously incompetent for regions with low WSS. Moreover, Newtonian model for plasma underestimates LDL concentration especially on luminal surface and across arterial wall. Therefore, applying non-Newtonian model seems essential for reaching to a more accurate estimation of LDL distribution in the artery. Finally, blood flow inside constricted arteries demonstrates that LDL concentration patterns along the stenoses inside the luminal flow and across arterial layers are strongly influenced as compared to the nonstenotic arteries. Additionally, among four stenosis severity grades, 40% stenosis is prone to more LDL accumulation along the post-stenotic regions.

  6. Confocal observation of hydrophilic and lipophilic photosensitizers in endothelial cells, lumen of the vessels, interstitium, and tumor cells using the chicken chorioallantoic membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueck, Angelika C.; Akguen, Nermin; Heckelsmiller, K.; Beck, Gerd C.; Genze, Felicitas; Steiner, Rudolf W.

    1998-05-01

    The dynamic behavior of lipophilic and hydrophilic sensitizers in cell cultures and non animal in vivo systems with varying incubation but also during the photodynamic therapy will be summarized within the presentation. As an appropriate in vivo system we used the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of fertilized eggs, which served as a substrate for tumor cells. Because the CAM is a transparent membrane it is possible to view individual blood vessels and to examine tumor cells as well as structural changes of the supplying vasculature. To adapt this system to high magnification microscopy, we established a new technique for in vivo observation of the CAM tissue. This technique enables online investigations of alterations at cellular level induced by drugs with confocal laser scanning microscopy. The localization of the drugs with clinical importance was observed after different application times in the lumen of the vessels, the endothelial cells and the tumor cells. In addition light induced subcellular Ca2+-changes were observed and correlated with the photodynamic process.

  7. Anoctamin 6 is localized in the primary cilium of renal tubular cells and is involved in apoptosis-dependent cyst lumen formation

    PubMed Central

    Forschbach, V; Goppelt-Struebe, M; Kunzelmann, K; Schreiber, R; Piedagnel, R; Kraus, A; Eckardt, K-U; Buchholz, B

    2015-01-01

    Primary cilia are antenna-like structures projected from the apical surface of various mammalian cells including renal tubular cells. Functional or structural defects of the cilium lead to systemic disorders comprising polycystic kidneys as a key feature. Here we show that anoctamin 6 (ANO6), a member of the anoctamin chloride channel family, is localized in the primary cilium of renal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. ANO6 was not essential for cilia formation and had no effect on in vitro cyst expansion. However, knockdown of ANO6 impaired cyst lumen formation of MDCK cells in three-dimensional culture. In the absence of ANO6, apoptosis was reduced and epithelial cells were incompletely removed from the center of cell aggregates, which form in the early phase of cystogenesis. In line with these data, we show that ANO6 is highly expressed in apoptotic cyst epithelial cells of human polycystic kidneys. These data identify ANO6 as a cilium-associated protein and suggest its functional relevance in cyst formation. PMID:26448322

  8. Congenital hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Korver, Anna M H; Smith, Richard J H; Van Camp, Guy; Schleiss, Mark R; Bitner-Glindzicz, Maria A K; Lustig, Lawrence R; Usami, Shin-Ichi; Boudewyns, An N

    2017-01-12

    Congenital hearing loss (hearing loss that is present at birth) is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions in children. In the majority of developed countries, neonatal hearing screening programmes enable early detection; early intervention will prevent delays in speech and language development and has long-lasting beneficial effects on social and emotional development and quality of life. A diagnosis of hearing loss is usually followed by a search for an underlying aetiology. Congenital hearing loss might be attributed to environmental and prenatal factors, which prevail in low-income settings; congenital infections, particularly cytomegalovirus infection, are also a common risk factor for hearing loss. Genetic causes probably account for the majority of cases in developed countries; mutations can affect any component of the hearing pathway, in particular, inner ear homeostasis (endolymph production and maintenance) and mechano-electrical transduction (the conversion of a mechanical stimulus into electrochemical activity). Once the underlying cause of hearing loss is established, it might direct therapeutic decision making and guide prevention and (genetic) counselling. Management options include specific antimicrobial therapies, surgical treatment of craniofacial abnormalities and implantable or non-implantable hearing devices. An improved understanding of the pathophysiology and molecular mechanisms that underlie hearing loss and increased awareness of recent advances in genetic testing will promote the development of new treatment and screening strategies.

  9. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Stew, B T; Fishpool, S J C; Williams, H

    2012-02-01

    Sudden onset sensorineural hearing loss is a medical emergency that continues to be poorly understood despite being recognized in the literature since 1944 (De Kleyn, 1944). A commonly used criterion to qualify for this diagnosis is a sensorineural hearing loss over three contiguous pure-tone frequencies of 30 dB or more that develops within 72 hours. The vast majority of cases are unilateral and the estimated annual incidence is 20 per 100 000 persons (Nosrati-Zarenoe et al, 2007). A cause for the hearing loss is only identified in up to 10% of cases but 50% of patients will improve spontaneously (Penido et al, 2009).

  10. Late colonization of Easter Island.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Terry L; Lipo, Carl P

    2006-03-17

    Easter Island (Rapa Nui) provides a model of human-induced environmental degradation. A reliable chronology is central to understanding the cultural, ecological, and demographic processes involved. Radiocarbon dates for the earliest stratigraphic layers at Anakena, Easter Island, and analysis of previous radiocarbon dates imply that the island was colonized late, about 1200 A.D. Substantial ecological impacts and major cultural investments in monumental architecture and statuary thus began soon after initial settlement.

  11. Monomelic amyotrophy with late progression.

    PubMed

    Rowin, J; Meriggioli, M N; Cochran, E J

    2001-04-01

    Monomelic amyotrophy is a sporadic juvenile-onset disease that presents with gradual onset of weakness and atrophy in the hand muscles unilaterally. Generally, this disease is considered a 'benign' and non-progressive motor neuron disease, which stabilizes within five years of onset. We discuss a case that illustrates that monomelic amyotrophy may rarely exhibit late clinical progression to the lower extremities after a prolonged period of disease stability.

  12. The late-M dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessell, M. S.

    1991-02-01

    Far-red spectra and VRIJHK photometry have been obtained for a sample of late-M dwarfs selected on the basis of large reduced red magnitudes from the LHS Catalog. Half of the stars in the three faintest 1 mag bins are late-M stars, the other red stars are metallic-hydride subdwarfs. Relations between various colors for the late-M dwarfs are investigated. Of all the colors I - K most reliably correlates with spectral type. FeH bands near 9900 A are clearly seen in the spectra of all dwarf stars later than M5. Two stars cooler than VB10, and similar in temperature to LHS2924 have been identified; both have H-alpha in emission and appear variable in magnitude and R - I color; one is a flare star. The other stars are of earlier spectral type and resemble W359 and VB8. The observed MI, I - K main sequence is in good agreement with the IG theoretical main sequence of Stringfellow, and the faintest stars could be about 0.09 solar mass red dwarfs or lower mass brown dwarfs.

  13. Iron losses in sweat

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, M.; Magnusson, B.; Persson, H.; Hallberg, L.

    1986-03-01

    The losses of iron in whole body cell-free sweat were determined in eleven healthy men. A new experimental design was used with a very careful cleaning procedure of the skin and repeated consecutive sampling periods of sweat in a sauna. The purpose was to achieve a steady state of sweat iron losses with minimal influence from iron originating from desquamated cells and iron contaminating the skin. A steady state was reached in the third sauna period (second sweat sampling period). Iron loss was directly related to the volume of sweat lost and amounted to 22.5 micrograms iron/l sweat. The findings indicate that iron is a physiological constituent of sweat and derived not only from contamination. Present results imply that variations in the amount of sweat lost will have only a marginal effect on the variation in total body iron losses.

  14. Medications for Memory Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... memory loss, confusion, and problems with thinking and reasoning) of Alzheimer's disease. There is also a medication ... the latest Alzheimer's medications available today, and the clinical trials that may bring us closer to new ...

  15. Muscle function loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Paralytic shellfish poisoning Periodic paralysis Focal nerve injury Polio Spinal cord injury Stroke Home Care Sudden loss ... Barré syndrome Muscle cramps Poisoning - fish and shellfish Polio Stroke Review Date 2/27/2016 Updated by: ...

  16. Vision Loss, Sudden

    MedlinePlus

    ... detail. Blindness can occur under the following circumstances: Light cannot reach the retina. Damage to the cornea ... which causes loss of clarity of the lens Light rays do not focus on the retina clearly. ...

  17. What's Hearing Loss?

    MedlinePlus

    ... regular school, or be part of a regular classroom. Depending on how severe their hearing loss is, ... read along to follow the action. Technology is changing all the time, and you will probably see ...

  18. Bone Loss in IBD

    MedlinePlus

    ... individuals who have used corticosteroids for some time. VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY Vitamin D is necessary for the absorption of calcium. ... small bowel involvement—are at increased risk for vitamin D deficiency. This, in turn, may result in bone loss ...

  19. Coping with Memory Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... either using computerized axial tomography (CAT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) – can help to identify strokes and tumors, which can sometimes cause memory loss. “The goal is to rule out factors ...

  20. What causes bone loss?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Any treatment or condition that causes calcium or vitamin D to be poorly absorbed can also lead to weak bones. Some of these are: Gastric bypass (weight-loss surgery) Cystic fibrosis Other conditions that ...

  1. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... New Program Application Process Resident Awards AOCD Residency Leadership Award A.P. Ulbrich Resident Research Award Daniel ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Female Pattern Hair Loss Share | The most common type ...

  2. Prizes for weight loss.

    PubMed Central

    Englberger, L.

    1999-01-01

    A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health. PMID:10063662

  3. Occupational hearing loss

    MedlinePlus

    Over time, repeated exposure to loud noise and music can cause hearing loss. Sounds above 80 decibels ( ... Airline ground maintenance Construction Farming Jobs involving loud music or machinery Military jobs that involve combat, aircraft ...

  4. Living with Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Living with Hearing Loss Past Issues / Fall 2008 ... the United States suffer some form of disordered communication. The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication ...

  5. Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Maggie; Heman-Ackah, Selena E.; Shaikh, Jamil A.

    2011-01-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is commonly encountered in audiologic and otolaryngologic practice. SSNHL is most commonly defined as sensorineural hearing loss of 30dB or greater over at least three contiguous audiometric frequencies occurring within a 72-hr period. Although the differential for SSNHL is vast, for the majority of patients an etiologic factor is not identified. Treatment for SSNHL of known etiology is directed toward that agent, with poor hearing outcomes characteristic for discoverable etiologies that cause inner ear hair cell loss. Steroid therapy is the current mainstay of treatment of idiopathic SSNHL in the United States. The prognosis for hearing recovery for idiopathic SSNHL is dependent on a number of factors including the severity of hearing loss, age, presence of vertigo, and shape of the audiogram. PMID:21606048

  6. What's Hearing Loss?

    MedlinePlus

    ... pathologists to help them develop their hearing and speaking skills. Some people with hearing loss may need to use special techniques like these to communicate: speechreading (also ... without speaking. Remember: American Sign Language (ASL) is different from ...

  7. Blindness and vision loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye ( chemical burns or sports injuries) Diabetes Glaucoma Macular degeneration The type of partial vision loss may differ, ... tunnel vision and missing areas of vision With macular degeneration, the side vision is normal but the central ...

  8. Financial loss and suicide.

    PubMed

    Pridmore, Saxby; Reddy, Anil

    2012-04-01

    The current Western psychiatric wisdom states that suicide is always or almost always associated with mental disorder. Careful Asian studies are casting doubt on this conclusion. Using information from the public record (newspapers, coroner's reports, and various web-based sources), we sought evidence that, in the absence of mental disorder, suicide may be associated with major financial loss. Reports of 15 individuals who completed suicide following major financial loss were identified, thus an association between these events is supported.

  9. Heat Loss Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Infrared scanning devices are being used to produce images that show, by color or black-and-white shading differences, which buildings and homes are losing heat to the outdoors, and how much. Heat loss surveys done by Texas Instruments, Daedalus Enterprises, Inc. and other companies have growing acceptance of their services among industrial firms, utilities, local governments, and state and federal agencies interested in promoting heat loss awareness and inspiring corrective actions.

  10. Hearing Loss: Hearing Augmentation.

    PubMed

    Atcherson, Samuel R; Moreland, Christopher; Zazove, Philip; McKee, Michael M

    2015-07-01

    Etiologies of hearing loss vary. When hearing loss is diagnosed, referral to an otology subspecialist, audiology subspecialist, or hearing aid dispenser to discuss treatment options is appropriate. Conventional hearing aids provide increased sound pressure in the ear canal for detection of sounds that might otherwise be soft or inaudible. Hearing aids can be used for sensorineural, conductive, or mixed hearing loss by patients with a wide range of hearing loss severity. The most common type of hearing loss is high-frequency, which affects audibility and perception of speech consonants, but not vowels. As the severity of hearing loss increases, the benefit of hearing aids for speech perception decreases. Implantable devices such as cochlear implants, middle ear implants, and bone-anchored implants can benefit specific patient groups. Hearing assistive technology devices provide auditory, visual, or tactile information to augment hearing and increase environmental awareness of sounds. Hearing assistive devices include wireless assistive listening device systems, closed captioning, hearing aid-compatible telephones, and other devices. For some patients, financial barriers and health insurance issues limit acquisition of hearing aids, implantable devices, and hearing assistive devices. Physicians should be aware that for some patients and families, hearing augmentation may not be desired for cultural reasons.

  11. Information about the Late Effects of Polio

    MedlinePlus

    ... not included. Contact info@post-polio.org. Remember POLIO? Polio (poliomyelitis or infantile paralysis) triggers memories of ... Have you heard about the LATE EFFECTS OF POLIO? In the late 1970s, survivors of polio reported ...

  12. An In-vitro Comparison of Force Loss of Orthodontic Non-Latex Elastics

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Shiva; Tabatabaie, Atusa Rahnama; Hajizadeh, Fatemeh; Ardekani, Alireza Haerian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The amount and consistency of the applied forces to the tooth are important factors in tooth movements; therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the initial force and the force loss of three brands of elastics in 24 hours. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro study sixty non-latex elastics (3/16 medium) from three companies (Forestadent, Dentaurum and Ortho Technology) were randomly selected. Two static tests were performed, the first in a dry environment to evaluate the initial force and the other performed in a wet environment (artificial saliva) to evaluate the force loss in 24 hours. The Universal testing machine measured the forces after stretching the elastics to three times the lumen diameter. Data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA, One-way ANOVA, Tukey-HSD, Paired samples test, and one sample test. Results: The difference between the brands was significant (p=0.002). Force loss was observed in all samples; 4–7.5% force loss occurred after one hour and 19–38% force loss occurred after 24 hours. The average initial force of Forestadent and Ortho Technology was significantly higher than marketed forces (p<0.001), but the initial force of Dentaurum elastics was similar to the marketed force. Conclusion: The force loss over 24 hours time period was Forestadent>Dentaurum>Ortho-Technology. According to the initial force and force loss percentage it is suggested to replace the non-latex elastics several times a day. PMID:24910671

  13. Late blight – Is resistance futile?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article will provide an overview of late blight resistance research that has been done within the USDA/ARS and the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The article is meant to be an informative look at the history of late blight resistance and the ability of the late blight pathogen to overcome res...

  14. Diagnostic Performance of Intravascular Ultrasound-Derived Minimal Lumen Area to Predict Functionally Significant Non-Left Main Coronary Artery Disease: a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ho-Cheol; Bae, Jong Seok; Jin, Han-Young; Seo, Jeong-Sook; Yang, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Kyeong; Cho, Kyoung-Im; Kim, Bo-Hyun; Park, Yong Hyun; Je, Hyung-Gon; Kim, Dong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention frequently results in unnecessary stenting due to the low positive predictive value of IVUS-derived minimal lumen area (MLA) for identification of functionally significant coronary stenosis. We appraised the diagnostic accuracy of IVUS-derived MLA compared with the fractional flow reserve (FFR) to assess intermediate coronary stenosis. Subjects and Methods We searched MEDLINE and Cochrane databases for studies using IVUS and FFR methods to establish the best MLA cut-off values to predict significant non-left main coronary artery stenosis. Summary estimates were obtained using a random-effects model. Results The 17 studies used in our analysis enrolled 3920 patients with 4267 lesions. The weighted overall mean MLA cut-off value was 2.58 mm2. The pooled MLA sensitivity that predicted functionally significant coronary stenosis was 0.75 (confidence interval [CI]: 0.72 to 0.77) and the specificity was 0.66 (CI: 0.64 to 0.68). The positive likelihood ratio (LR) was 2.33 (CI: 2.06 to 2.63) and LR (-) was 0.33 (CI: 0.26 to 0.42). The pooled diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) was 7.53 (CI: 5.26 to 10.76) and the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve for all the trials was 0.782 with a Q point of 0.720. Meta-regression analysis demonstrated that an FFR cut-off point of 0.75 was associated with a four times higher diagnostic accuracy compared to that of 0.80 (relative DOR: 3.92; 95% CI: 1.25 to 12.34). Conclusion IVUS-derived MLA has limited diagnostic accuracy and needs careful interpretation to correlate with functionally significant non-left main coronary artery stenosis. PMID:27721852

  15. Optimal effect-site concentration of remifentanil for preventing cough during removal of the double-lumen endotracheal tube from sevoflurane-remifentanil anesthesia: A prospective clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sook Young; Yoo, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Yeop; Kim, Dae Hee; Lee, Jung Dong; Rho, Go Un; Park, Hyungbae; Park, Sung Yong

    2016-06-01

    Opioids are used as a treatment for coughing. Recent studies have reported an antitussive effect of remifentanil during recovery from general anesthesia by suppressed coughing. The coughing reflex may differ throughout the respiratory tract from the larynx to the bronchi. But the proper dose of remifentanil to prevent cough during double-lumen tube (DLT) extubation is unknown.Twenty-five ASA physical status 1 and 2 patients, 20 to 65 years of age who were undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic lung surgery requiring 1-lung ventilation were enrolled. The effective effect-site concentration (Ce) of remifentanil for 50% and 95% of patients (EC50 and EC95) for preventing cough was determined using the isotonic regression method with a bootstrapping approach, following the Dixon up-and-down method. Recovery profiles and hemodynamic values after anesthesia were compared between patients with cough and patients without cough.EC50 and EC95 of remifentanil was 1.670 ng/mL [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.393-1.806] and 2.275 ng/mL (95% CI 1.950-2.263), respectively. There were no differences in recovery profiles and hemodynamic values after anesthesia between patients with/without cough. No patients suffered respiratory complications during the emergence period.Remifentanil can be a safe and reliable method of cough prevention during emergence from sevoflurane anesthesia after thoracic surgery requiring DLT. EC50 and EC95 of remifentanil that suppresses coughing is 1.670 and 2.275 ng/mL, respectively.

  16. Two pathways for importing GDP-fucose into the endoplasmic reticulum lumen function redundantly in the O-fucosylation of Notch in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Hiroyuki O; Ayukawa, Tomonori; Nakayama, Minoru; Higashi, Shunsuke; Kamiyama, Shin; Nishihara, Shoko; Aoki, Kazuhisa; Ishida, Nobuhiro; Sanai, Yutaka; Matsuno, Kenji

    2010-02-05

    Notch is a transmembrane receptor that shares homology with proteins containing epidermal growth factor-like repeats and mediates the cell-cell interactions necessary for many cell fate decisions. In Drosophila, O-fucosyltransferase 1 catalyzes the O-fucosylation of these epidermal growth factor-like repeats. This O-fucose elongates, resulting in an O-linked tetrasaccharide that regulates the signaling activities of Notch. Fucosyltransferases utilize GDP-fucose, which is synthesized in the cytosol, but fucosylation occurs in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi. Therefore, GDP-fucose uptake into the ER and Golgi is essential for fucosylation. However, although GDP-fucose biosynthesis is well understood, the mechanisms and intracellular routes of GDP-fucose transportation remain unclear. Our previous study on the Drosophila Golgi GDP-fucose transporter (Gfr), which specifically localizes to the Golgi, suggested that another GDP-fucose transporter(s) exists in Drosophila. Here, we identified Efr (ER GDP-fucose transporter), a GDP-fucose transporter that localizes specifically to the ER. Efr is a multifunctional nucleotide sugar transporter involved in the biosynthesis of heparan sulfate-glycosaminoglycan chains and the O-fucosylation of Notch. Comparison of the fucosylation defects in the N-glycans in Gfr and Efr mutants revealed that Gfr and Efr made distinct contributions to this modification; Gfr but not Efr was crucial for the fucosylation of N-glycans. We also found that Gfr and Efr function redundantly in the O-fucosylation of Notch, although they had different localizations and nucleotide sugar transportation specificities. These results indicate that two pathways for the nucleotide sugar supply, involving two nucleotide sugar transporters with distinct characteristics and distributions, contribute to the O-fucosylation of Notch.

  17. False Lumen Flow Patterns and their Relation with Morphological and Biomechanical Characteristics of Chronic Aortic Dissections. Computational Model Compared with Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Segers, Patrick; Pineda, Victor; Cuellar, Hug; García-Dorado, David; Evangelista, Arturo

    2017-01-01

    Aortic wall stiffness, tear size and location and the presence of abdominal side branches arising from the false lumen (FL) are key properties potentially involved in FL enlargement in chronic aortic dissections (ADs). We hypothesize that temporal variations on FL flow patterns, as measured in a cross-section by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI), could be used to infer integrated information on these features. In 33 patients with chronic descending AD, instantaneous flow profiles were quantified in the FL at diaphragm level by PC-MRI. We used a lumped-parameter model to assess the changes in flow profiles induced by wall stiffness, tear size/location, and the presence of abdominal side branches arising from the FL. Four characteristic FL flow patterns were identified in 31/33 patients (94%) based on the direction of flow in systole and diastole: BA = systolic biphasic flow and primarily diastolic antegrade flow (n = 6); BR = systolic biphasic flow and primarily diastolic retrograde flow (n = 14); MA = systolic monophasic flow and primarily diastolic antegrade flow (n = 9); MR = systolic monophasic flow and primarily diastolic retrograde flow (n = 2). In the computational model, the temporal variation of flow directions within the FL was highly dependent on the position of assessment along the aorta. FL flow patterns (especially at the level of the diaphragm) showed their characteristic patterns due to variations in the cumulative size and the spatial distribution of the communicating tears, and the incidence of visceral side branches originating from the FL. Changes in wall stiffness did not change the temporal variation of the flows whereas it importantly determined intraluminal pressures. FL flow patterns implicitly codify morphological information on key determinants of aortic expansion in ADs. This data might be taken into consideration in the imaging protocol to define the predictive value of FL flows. PMID:28125720

  18. Prostaglandin F2 alpha as the luteolysin in swine: VI. Hormonal regulation of the movement of exogenous PGF2 alpha from the uterine lumen into the vasculature.

    PubMed

    Marengo, S R; Bazer, F W; Thatcher, W W; Wilcox, C J; Wetteman, R P

    1986-03-01

    To test the endocrine-exocrine theory of maternal recognition of pregnancy in the pig 16 gilts were assigned randomly to a 2 X 2 factorial involving pretreatment with sesame oil (SO) or estradiol valerate (5 mg; EV) injected on Days 11 through 14 of the estrous cycle and an intrauterine injection of saline (5 ml; SA) or prostaglandin F2 alpha (50 micrograms; PGF) on Day 14. Peripheral blood samples were collected for 120 min postinjection and analyzed for 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-PGF2 alpha (PGFM). PGFM concentrations were lower in EV than SO gilts (438 vs. 844 pg/ml; p less than 0.05). There was heterogeneity of regression between EV and SO gilts (p less than 0.01), with EV gilts having a slower release of PGF from the uterine lumen into the vasculature. Prostaglandin F2 alpha did not increase mean PGFM concentrations (p greater than 0.10), but resulted in an altered temporal pattern of PGFM (p less than 0.05) compared to SA gilts. There was an interaction between the two treatments over time, with EV-PGF gilts demonstrating a slower, more gradual release of PGFM than SO-PGF gilts. To test whether prostaglandins of the E series were involved in this mechanism, gilts were assigned to two 4 X 4 latin squares balanced for residual effects and treated with saline or flunixen meglumine (Banamine). Each gilt was treated with four PGE:PGF infusion sequences (SEQ) in each uterine horn: phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; PBS-SEQ), PGE1 (50 micrograms), PGE2 (50 micrograms), and PGE1 (25 micrograms) + PGE2 (25 micrograms) (PGE-SEQ), with each infusion followed 15 min later by PGF (25 micrograms).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Detection and Specific Enumeration of Multi-Strain Probiotics in the Lumen Contents and Mucus Layers of the Rat Intestine After Oral Administration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Ji; Orlovich, David A; Tagg, John R; Fawcett, J Paul

    2009-12-01

    Although the detection of viable probiotic bacteria following their ingestion and passage through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has been well documented, their mucosal attachment in vivo is more difficult to assess. In this study, we investigated the survival and mucosal attachment of multi-strain probiotics transiting the rat GIT. Rats were administered a commercial mixture of the intestinal probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus LA742, Lactobacillus rhamnosus L2H and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 and the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 every 12 h for 3 days. Intestinal contents, mucus and faeces were tested 6 h, 3 days and 7 days after the last dose by strain-specific enumeration on selective media and by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. At 6 h, viable cells and DNA corresponding to all four probiotics were detected in the faeces and in both the lumen contents and mucus layers of the ileum and colon. Viable probiotic cells of B. lactis and L. rhamnosus were detected for 7 days and L. acidophilus for 3 days after the last dose. B. lactis and L. rhamnosus persisted in the ileal mucus and colon contents, whereas the retention of L. acidophilus appeared to be relatively higher in colonic mucus. No viable cells of S. salivarius K12 were detected in any of the samples at either day 3 or 7. The study demonstrates that probiotic strains of intestinal origin but not of oral origin exhibit temporary colonisation of the rat GIT and that these strains may have differing relative affinities for colonic and ileal mucosa.

  20. Constraints and Facilitators to Friendships in Late Late Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Colleen L.; Troll, Lillian E.

    1994-01-01

    Analyzed friendship patterns of individuals aged 85+ years, 77% of whom were women. Despite high levels of disability and loss of age peers, majority were in frequent contact with friends and still had close friend. Over 31 months, predictors of friendship involvement changed. At Time 1, mood was most important; at Time 3, increased disability was…

  1. Chorioamnionitis and mid-trimester pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Ugwumadu, Austin

    2010-01-01

    Mid-trimester pregnancy loss defined as miscarriage at 14-23 weeks' gestation and preterm birth between 24 and 28 weeks are in essence clinical manifestations of the same disease process. The pathogenic and socio-biologic risk factors are the same, but the timing of onset of uterine activity and cervical dilatation may be delayed in the case of preterm birth. The overwhelming majority of cases are associated with ascending infection from the lower genital tract. Women with a prior history of late miscarriage are at increased risk of preterm delivery and vice versa. The risk of preterm delivery in women with prior mid-trimester pregnancy loss approximates the same recurrence risk documented for women with a previous history of preterm delivery, suggesting that mid-trimester miscarriage represents the lower end of the spectrum of preterm birth. There are many causes of mid-trimester pregnancy loss including abnormal placentation, immunological interactions, thrombophilias, cervical insufficiency and upper genital tract anomalies to name a few. This paper, however, will focus on the role of chorioamnionitis in the pathogenesis of mid-trimester pregnancy loss and the value of current interventions to reduce recurrence.

  2. Losses in Ferroelectric Materials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Shujun; Jiang, Wenhua; Cao, Wenwu

    2015-03-01

    Ferroelectric materials are the best dielectric and piezoelectric materials known today. Since the discovery of barium titanate in the 1940s, lead zirconate titanate ceramics in the 1950s and relaxor-PT single crystals (such as lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate and lead zinc niobate-lead titanate) in the 1980s and 1990s, perovskite ferroelectric materials have been the dominating piezoelectric materials for electromechanical devices, and are widely used in sensors, actuators and ultrasonic transducers. Energy losses (or energy dissipation) in ferroelectrics are one of the most critical issues for high power devices, such as therapeutic ultrasonic transducers, large displacement actuators, SONAR projectors, and high frequency medical imaging transducers. The losses of ferroelectric materials have three distinct types, i.e., elastic, piezoelectric and dielectric losses. People have been investigating the mechanisms of these losses and are trying hard to control and minimize them so as to reduce performance degradation in electromechanical devices. There are impressive progresses made in the past several decades on this topic, but some confusions still exist. Therefore, a systematic review to define related concepts and clear up confusions is urgently in need. With this objective in mind, we provide here a comprehensive review on the energy losses in ferroelectrics, including related mechanisms, characterization techniques and collections of published data on many ferroelectric materials to provide a useful resource for interested scientists and engineers to design electromechanical devices and to gain a global perspective on the complex physical phenomena involved. More importantly, based on the analysis of available information, we proposed a general theoretical model to describe the inherent relationships among elastic, dielectric, piezoelectric and mechanical losses. For multi-domain ferroelectric single crystals and ceramics, intrinsic and extrinsic energy

  3. Losses in Ferroelectric Materials

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Shujun; Jiang, Wenhua; Cao, Wenwu

    2015-01-01

    Ferroelectric materials are the best dielectric and piezoelectric materials known today. Since the discovery of barium titanate in the 1940s, lead zirconate titanate ceramics in the 1950s and relaxor-PT single crystals (such as lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate and lead zinc niobate-lead titanate) in the 1980s and 1990s, perovskite ferroelectric materials have been the dominating piezoelectric materials for electromechanical devices, and are widely used in sensors, actuators and ultrasonic transducers. Energy losses (or energy dissipation) in ferroelectrics are one of the most critical issues for high power devices, such as therapeutic ultrasonic transducers, large displacement actuators, SONAR projectors, and high frequency medical imaging transducers. The losses of ferroelectric materials have three distinct types, i.e., elastic, piezoelectric and dielectric losses. People have been investigating the mechanisms of these losses and are trying hard to control and minimize them so as to reduce performance degradation in electromechanical devices. There are impressive progresses made in the past several decades on this topic, but some confusions still exist. Therefore, a systematic review to define related concepts and clear up confusions is urgently in need. With this objective in mind, we provide here a comprehensive review on the energy losses in ferroelectrics, including related mechanisms, characterization techniques and collections of published data on many ferroelectric materials to provide a useful resource for interested scientists and engineers to design electromechanical devices and to gain a global perspective on the complex physical phenomena involved. More importantly, based on the analysis of available information, we proposed a general theoretical model to describe the inherent relationships among elastic, dielectric, piezoelectric and mechanical losses. For multi-domain ferroelectric single crystals and ceramics, intrinsic and extrinsic energy

  4. Fluid-loss control

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, C.W.; Trittipo, B.L. ); Hutchinson, B.H. )

    1989-08-01

    Acid fluid loss is extremely difficult to control and is generally considered to be the major factor limiting the effectiveness of acid fracturing treatments. Chemical erosion of fracture faces and the development of wormholes are largely responsible for the reduced efficiency of acid fracturing fluids. The creation of acid wormholes increases the effective area from which leakoff occurs, thus reducing the acid hydraulic efficiency. Once wormholes form, most acid fluid loss originates from these wormholes rather than penetrating uniformly into the fracture face. Methods of acid fluid-loss control are discussed and evaluated with an improved fluid-loss test procedure. This procedure uses limestone cores of sufficient length to contain wormhole growth. Studies demonstrate that if wormhole growth can be controlled, acid fluid loss approaches that of nonreactive fluids. An improved acid fracturing fluid having unique rheological characteristics is described. This acid has a low initial viscosity but temporarily becomes extremely viscous during leakoff. This high leakoff viscosity blocks wormhole development and prevents acid entry into natural fractures. After the treatment, spent-acid viscosity declines rapidly to ensure easier cleanup.

  5. Soft coincidence in late acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Campo, Sergio del; Herrera, Ramon; Pavon, Diego

    2005-06-15

    We study the coincidence problem of late cosmic acceleration by assuming that the present ratio between dark matter and dark energy is a slowly varying function of the scale factor. As the dark energy component we consider two different candidates, first a quintessence scalar field, and then a tachyon field. In either case analytical solutions for the scale factor, the field, and the potential are derived. Both models show a good fit to the recent magnitude-redshift supernovae data. However, the likelihood contours disfavor the tachyon field model as it seems to prefer a excessively high value for the matter component.

  6. Congenital sensorineural hearing loss

    SciTech Connect

    Mafee, M.F.; Selis, J.E.; Yannias, D.A.; Valvassori, G.E.; Pruzansky, S.; Applebaum, E.L.; Capek, V.

    1984-02-01

    The ears of 47 selected patients with congenital sensorineural hearing loss were examined with complex-motion tomography. The patients were divided into 3 general categories: those with a recognized syndrome, those with sensorineural hearing loss unrelated to any known syndrome, and those with microtia. A great variety of inner ear anomalies was detected, but rarely were these characteristic of a particular clinical entity. The most common finding was the Mondini malformation or one of its variants. Isolated dysplasia of the internal auditory canal or the vestibular aqueduct may be responsible for sensorineural hearing loss in some patients. Patients with microtia may also have severe inner ear abnormalities despite the fact that the outer and inner ears develop embryologically from completely separate systems.

  7. Sleep Loss and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Norah S.; Meier-Ewert, Hans K.; Haack, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Controlled, experimental studies on the effects of acute sleep loss in humans have shown that mediators of inflammation are altered by sleep loss. Elevations in these mediators have been found to occur in healthy, rigorously screened individuals undergoing experimental vigils of more than 24 hours, and have also been seen in response to various durations of sleep restricted to between 25 and 50% of a normal 8 hour sleep amount. While these altered profiles represent small changes, such sub-clinical shifts in basal inflammatory cytokines are known to be associated with the future development of metabolic syndrome disease in healthy, asymptomatic individuals. Although the mechanism of this altered inflammatory status in humans undergoing experimental sleep loss is unknown, it is likely that autonomic activation and metabolic changes play key roles. PMID:21112025

  8. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  9. Financial Loss and Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Saxby, Pridmore; Anil, Reddy

    2012-01-01

    The current Western psychiatric wisdom states that suicide is always or almost always associated with mental disorder. Careful Asian studies are casting doubt on this conclusion. Using information from the public record (newspapers, coroner’s reports, and various web-based sources), we sought evidence that, in the absence of mental disorder, suicide may be associated with major financial loss. Reports of 15 individuals who completed suicide following major financial loss were identified, thus an association between these events is supported. PMID:22973140

  10. [Left pulmonary agenesis diagnosed late].

    PubMed

    Deleanu, Oana; Pătraşcu, Natalia; Nebunoiu, Ana-Maria; Vintilă, V; Ulmeanu, Ruxandra; Mihălţan, F D

    2010-01-01

    We present the case of a 51 years old female-patient, with severe dextroscoliosis, having like unique symptom progressive dyspnea. The blood samples reveals polycythemia, the radiological exam shows the opacification of 2/3 of the left thorax, the absence of the lung structure in the other 1/3, the deviation of the mediastinum, and dextroscoliosis; the computed tomography reveals the absence of the left lung artery and the left airways, compensatory hyperinflation of the right lung and dilatation of the trunk and right pulmonary artery; the bronchoscopy does not visualize the carina or the left main bronchus, typical for pulmonary agenesis. Echocardiography confirmed the absence of left pulmonary artery and shows mild pulmonary hypertension (systolic pressure in the pulmonary artery of 33 mmHg) with dilatation of the right cavities, but good cinetics. We face a case of pulmonary agenesis lately diagnosed, with modest functional cardiologic implications, limited therapeutic options and good survival, justified by the late appearance of the pulmonary hypertension of low severity and without worsening in time.

  11. Spontaneous Late Intraocular Lens and Capsule Tension Ring Dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Koçak Altıntaş, Ayşe Gül; Omay, Aslıhan Esra; Çelik, Selda

    2017-01-01

    In this report, three cases with pseudoexfoliation (PEX) and advanced age with spontaneous intraocular lens (IOL) and capsule tension ring (CTR) dislocation were presented. All of our cases experienced progressive vision loss without an episode of strenuous physical activity, trauma, or any other ocular disease. Spontaneous dislocation was observed 2.5 to 8 years after uneventful phacosurgery. Each patient underwent complete IOL and CTR removal combined with anterior chamber IOL implantation. No complications were noticed during follow-up. As a result, capsule tension ring does not prevent late IOL dislocation after uncomplicated phacosurgery in the presence of PEX. Therefore, close follow-up is essential for patients with PEX.

  12. Diet for rapid weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... diet; VLCD; Low-calorie diet; LCD; Very low energy diet; Weight loss - rapid weight loss; Overweight - rapid ... AM, Aveyard P. Clinical effectiveness of very-low-energy diets in the management of weight loss: a ...

  13. Method of evaluating fluid loss in subsurface fracturing operations

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.S.; McMechan, D.E.; McDaniel, B.M.

    1993-08-31

    A method is described for evaluating characteristics of a subsurface formation fracturing program, comprising the steps of: pumping fluid into said formation for a first pumping time; shutting in said formation for a first shut-in time to establish a first set of pressure decline data; determining a fluid efficiency for said formation from said first pumping time and said first shut-in time; pumping fluid into said formation for a second pumping time to reopen said fracture; shutting in said formation for a second shut-in time to determine a second set of pressure decline data; determining a late time fluid loss coefficient in response to said second set of pressure decline data; determining an early time fluid loss coefficient in response to formation and fracturing fluid parameters; utilizing said determined early time fluid loss coefficient and said late time fluid loss coefficient to estimate a maximum spurt time; functionally relating said estimated spurt time to said determined early time fluid loss coefficient to estimate a spurt volume for said formation; and functionally relating said determined early time fluid loss coefficient and said established spurt time to said determined fluid efficiency in a balance relationship to establish a margin of error in said balance relationship; and iteratively changing said first-determined spurt time in response to said established margin of error, and interatively re-determining said spurt volume until a predetermined tolerance in said balance relationship is achieved.

  14. Late veneer and late accretion to the terrestrial planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasser, R.; Mojzsis, S. J.; Werner, S. C.; Matsumura, S.; Ida, S.

    2016-12-01

    It is generally accepted that silicate-metal ('rocky') planet formation relies on coagulation from a mixture of sub-Mars sized planetary embryos and (smaller) planetesimals that dynamically emerge from the evolving circum-solar disc in the first few million years of our Solar System. Once the planets have, for the most part, assembled after a giant impact phase, they continue to be bombarded by a multitude of planetesimals left over from accretion. Here we place limits on the mass and evolution of these planetesimals based on constraints from the highly siderophile element (HSE) budget of the Moon. Outcomes from a combination of N-body and Monte Carlo simulations of planet formation lead us to four key conclusions about the nature of this early epoch. First, matching the terrestrial to lunar HSE ratio requires either that the late veneer on Earth consisted of a single lunar-size impactor striking the Earth before 4.45 Ga, or that it originated from the impact that created the Moon. An added complication is that analysis of lunar samples indicates the Moon does not preserve convincing evidence for a late veneer like Earth. Second, the expected chondritic veneer component on Mars is 0.06 weight percent. Third, the flux of terrestrial impactors must have been low (≲10-6 M⊕ Myr-1) to avoid wholesale melting of Earth's crust after 4.4 Ga, and to simultaneously match the number of observed lunar basins. This conclusion leads to an Hadean eon which is more clement than assumed previously. Last, after the terrestrial planets had fully formed, the mass in remnant planetesimals was ∼10-3 M⊕, lower by at least an order of magnitude than most previous models suggest. Our dynamically and geochemically self-consistent scenario requires that future N-body simulations of rocky planet formation either directly incorporate collisional grinding or rely on pebble accretion.

  15. Diagnosis of Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Federation of the Deaf, Rome (Italy).

    Seven conference papers from the U.S.S.R., India, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia consider the diagnosis of hearing loss. They are "Examination of Hearing of Children, Aged from 2 to 5, by Means of Playing Audiometry" by A. P. Kossacheva, "A Study of the Etiology and Pattern of Deafness in a School for the Deaf in Madras,…

  16. Deafness and Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This brief overview provides information on the definition, incidence, and characteristics of children with hearing impairments and deafness. The federal definitions of hearing impairment and deafness are provided. The different types of hearing loss are noted, including: (1) conductive (caused by diseases or obstructions in the outer or middle…

  17. Involuntary weight loss.

    PubMed

    Wong, Christopher J

    2014-05-01

    Involuntary weight loss remains an important and challenging clinical problem, with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Because of the frequency of finding a serious underlying diagnosis, clinicians must be thorough in assessment, keeping in mind a broad range of possible causes. Although prediction scores exist, they have not been broadly validated; therefore, clinical judgment remains ever essential.

  18. Loss and damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huq, Saleemul; Roberts, Erin; Fenton, Adrian

    2013-11-01

    Loss and damage is a relative newcomer to the climate change agenda. It has the potential to reinvigorate existing mitigation and adaptation efforts, but this will ultimately require leadership from developed countries and enhanced understanding of several key issues, such as limits to adaptation.

  19. Medicines and Bone Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... studies also show that drinking a lot of alcohol might weaken bones. Questions to ask your doctor • Do any of my medicines cause bone loss? • Are there different medicines I can take? • Do I need a bone density test? • What should I do to protect my ...

  20. Weight-loss medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... term use. All other drugs are approved for short-term use of no more than a few weeks. Be sure you understand the side effects of weight-loss medicines. Side effects can include: Increase in blood pressure Problems sleeping, headache, nervousness, and palpitations Nausea, constipation, and dry ...

  1. Select nutrients in the ovine uterine lumen. VII. Effects of arginine, leucine, glutamine, and glucose on trophectoderm cell signaling, proliferation, and migration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Young; Burghardt, Robert C; Wu, Guoyao; Johnson, Greg A; Spencer, Thomas E; Bazer, Fuller W

    2011-01-01

    Histotroph is required for survival and development of ovine conceptuses (embryo and extraembryonic membranes). Results from our laboratory indicate that arginine (Arg), leucine (Leu), glutamine (Gln), and glucose increase in the uterine lumen between Days 10 and 15 of pregnancy, coincident with increases in expression of amino acid and glucose transporters by uterine epithelia as well as trophectoderm and yolk sac of conceptuses and elongation of the conceptus trophectoderm. Therefore, we hypothesized that Arg, Leu, Gln, and glucose have differential effects on hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and differentiated functions of trophectoderm cells that are critical to conceptus development. Primary ovine trophectoderm (oTr) cells isolated from Day 15 conceptuses were serum-starved for 24 h in a customized medium, deprived of select nutrients, and then treated with either Arg, Leu, Gln, or glucose. Western blot analyses of whole oTr cell extracts revealed that Arg, Leu, and glucose, but not Gln, increased phosphorylated AKT1 by 2.8-, 2.5-, and 1.8-fold, respectively, within 15 min, and the increase was maintained to 60 min. Arg, Leu, and glucose also stimulated increases in phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6K (pRPS6K) by 4.2-, 4.7-, and 2.3-fold, respectively, within 15 min, as well as increases in phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (pRPS6) between 0 and 30 min posttreatment, that were sustained to 60 min. When oTr cells were treated with Arg, pRPS6K protein increased in nuclei, but this was not observed in nuclei of oTr cells treated with Leu and glucose. Immunocytochemical analyses also revealed abundant amounts of pRPS6 protein in the cytoplasm of oTr cells treated with Arg, Leu, and glucose. Furthermore, Arg and Leu increased proliferation and migration of oTr cells. Collectively, these results indicate that Arg, Leu, and glucose, but not Gln, in histotroph coordinately activate AKT1-mechanistic target of rapamycin and RPS6K-RPS6 cell signaling pathways to stimulate

  2. Subunit III of the chloroplast ATP-synthase can form a Ca(2+)-binding site on the lumenal side of the thylakoid membrane.

    PubMed

    Zakharov, S D; Ewy, R G; Dilley, R A

    1993-12-20

    the subunit III, it does seem clear that the Ca(2+)-binding site can form on the lumenal side of the membrane in the functional CFo structure.

  3. Comparison of a tube-holder (Rescuefix) versus tape-tying for minimizing double-lumen tube displacement during lateral positioning in thoracic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Sung Hye; Kang, Su Hwang; Kim, Jong Hae; Ryu, Taeha; Kim, Baek Jin; Jung, Jin Yong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Double-lumen endotracheal tubes (DLTs) are often displaced during change from the supine to the lateral decubitus position. The aim of this study was to determine whether Rescuefix, a recently developed tube-holder device, is more effective than the traditional tape-tying method for tube security during lateral positioning. Methods: Patients were randomly assigned to a Rescuefix (R) group (n = 22) or a tape (T) group (n = 22). After intubation with a left-sided DLT and adjustment of the appropriate DLT position using a fiberoptic bronchoscope, the DLT was fixed firmly at the side of the mouth by either Rescuefix or Durapore tape. “Tracheal depth” (from the tracheal carina to the elbow connector of the DLT) and “bronchial depth” (from the left bronchial carina to the elbow connector of the DLT) were measured in the supine position using the fiberoptic bronchoscope. After positional change, tracheal and bronchial depths were measured as described above. As the primary endpoint, displacement of the DLT during positional change was evaluated by obtaining the difference in depths measured when the patient was in the supine and lateral decubitus positions. In addition, after lateral positioning of the patient, any requirement for repositioning the DLT was recorded. Results: After lateral positioning, there were no significant differences in changes in tracheal and bronchial depths between the groups (tracheal depth 6.1 ± 4.4 mm [R group] and 9.1 ± 5.6 mm [T group], P = 0.058; bronchial depth 6.5 ± 4.4 mm [R group], and 8.5 ± 4.6 mm [T group], P = 0.132). Although the amount of change in tracheal and bronchial depths was not different between the groups, the need to reposition the DLT was significantly lower in the R group than in the T group (32% vs 68%, P = 0.016). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that use of Rescuefix did not reduce the amount of DLT displacement, but it did significantly

  4. Effect of late gestation bodyweight change and condition score on progeny feedlot performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inadequate nutrient intake during late gestation can cause cow BW loss and influence cow reproductive performance and subsequent productivity of steer progeny. Therefore, a 7-yr study with a 3 × 3 arrangement of treatments was conducted at Corona Range and Livestock Research Center, Corona, NM to e...

  5. Crop damage caused by Powdery Mildew on Hop and its relationship to late season management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew of hop (Podosphaera macularis) may cause economic loss due to reductions in cone yield and quality. Quantitative estimates of crop damage from powdery mildew remain poorly characterised, especially the effect of late season disease management on crop yield and quality. Field studies i...

  6. AN ANALYSIS OF LATE-SERAL FOREST CONNECTIVITY IN WESTERN OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Habitat loss and fragmentation due to timber harvest in western Oregon has put wildlife species reliant on late-seral forest under demographic pressure as available habitat shrinks and local populations become isolated. Few studies have examined the effects of habitat removal an...

  7. Late Glacial and Late Holocene Paleohydrology of Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aichner, B.; Feakins, S. J.; Mischke, S.; Herzschuh, U.; Liu, X.; Rajabov, I.; Wang, Y.; Heinecke, L.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study is to deepen the understanding of past climatological, ecological and hydrological changes in Central Asia, by means of organic geochemical proxies and in close cooperation with other work groups providing biological and sedimentological data. We analysed an 8 m sediment core from Lake Karakuli, a small open freshwater lake situated at an altitude of 3,657 m between the massifs of Muztagh Ata (7,546 m) and Kongur Shan (7,719 m) in western China. Additional work is in progress on a 12 m core derived from Lake Karakul in Tajikistan, a large closed saline lake situated in a tectonic graben structure at an altitude of 3,928 m. The distance between the two lakes is 130 km and basal ages of the cores are ca. 4.7 ka BP (China) and ca. 27 ka BP (Tajikistan). The lake catchments may be classified as alpine steppe to alpine deserts with mean annual temperature of ca. 0 °C and mean annual precipitation of ca. 100 mm, respectively. Summer precipitation, associated with the Indian monsoon, accounts for <30% of the annual total, whereas most precipitation is supplied by mid-latitude Westerlies between March and May. In the small Chinese lake long-chain fatty acids (FAs) were mainly attributed to terrestrial sources by compound-specific carbon isotopic analyses. In contrast δ13C values up to -14‰ for abundant mid-chain FAs suggest aquatic origins in the large Lake Karakul. Hydrogen isotopic variability is ca. 15‰ in the mid-Holocene record and ca. 60‰ in the first data derived from the Late Glacial record. In the latter, the most pronounced change from higher to lower δD-values of aquatic biomarkers is tentatively interpreted as change from arid to more humid conditions at the Late Glacial to Holocene transition. Since in Central Asia isotopic variability of precipitation mainly correlates with temperature, we interpret high resolution δD data of terrestrial long-chain FAs in the younger core to mainly reflect mid-Holocene temperature variations

  8. Scopophilia and object loss.

    PubMed

    Almansi, R J

    1979-10-01

    The study of a case of voyeuristic perversion and of some previously published cases of simple scopophilia suggests that fear of object loss early in life may be an important factor predisposing one to a propensity for voyeurism. The increased need to maintain visual contact with the object and to incorporate it visually leads to a hypercathexis of the visual function which is at the base of voyeurism. This need later becomes sexualized, while still retaining its pregenital connotations. Although object loss was apparently significant in the case of the patient described in this paper, it is not necessarily a factor in all cases of perverse voyeurism and, when present, may be considered as only one element in its pathogenesis.

  9. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Benjamin E; Agrup, Charlotte; Haskard, Dorian O; Luxon, Linda M

    2010-04-03

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is usually unilateral and can be associated with tinnitus and vertigo. In most cases the cause is not identified, although various infective, vascular, and immune causes have been proposed. A careful examination is needed to exclude life threatening or treatable causes such as vascular events and malignant diseases, and patients should be referred urgently for further assessment. About half of patients completely recover, usually in about 2 weeks. Many treatments are used, including corticosteroids, antiviral drugs, and vasoactive and oxygen-based treatments. Although no treatment is proven, we recommend a short course of oral high-dose corticosteroids. There is much to learn about pathogenesis of sudden sensorineural hearing loss, and more clinical trials are needed to establish evidence-based management.

  10. Loss parameter calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.M.

    1995-07-01

    Sands and Rees propose an electronic bench measurement of the impulse energy loss of a stored particle bunch to vacuum-chamber components. The components act as the outer conductor of a coaxial line with a thin wire as center conductor. Short pulses are then transmitted through this coaxial system to simulate relativistic particle bunches. Their proposal has since been implemented by several investigators and has become a well-known technique. They derive a first-order approximation to the loss parameter {kappa} for use in these measurements. The purpose of this note is to point out that exact expression for {kappa} is as simple as its first-order approximation and to recommend its use even when {kappa} is small.

  11. Individual Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Dau, Torsten; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Andersen, Ture; Poulsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that hearing loss does not only lead to a reduction of hearing sensitivity. Large individual differences are typically observed among listeners with hearing impairment in a wide range of suprathreshold auditory measures. In many cases, audiometric thresholds cannot fully account for such individual differences, which make it challenging to find adequate compensation strategies in hearing devices. How to characterize, model, and compensate for individual hearing loss were the main topics of the fifth International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research (ISAAR), held in Nyborg, Denmark, in August 2015. The following collection of papers results from some of the work that was presented and discussed at the symposium. PMID:27566802

  12. Evolutionary transition of dental formula in Late Cretaceous eutherian mammals.

    PubMed

    Averianov, Alexander O; Archibald, J David

    2015-10-01

    Kulbeckia kulbecke, stem placental mammal from the Late Cretaceous of Uzbekistan, shows a transitional stage of evolution in the dental formula from five to four premolars. A non-replaced dP3/dp3 may occur as individual variation. In other specimens, the lower premolars are crowded with no space for development of dp3. As is evident from the CT scanning of one juvenile specimen, the development of dp3 started in a late ontogenetic stage and was confined to the pulp cavity of the developing p2. This dp3 would have been resorbed in a later ontogenetic stage, as the roots of p2 formed. The initial stage of reduction of the third premolar can be traced to stem therians (Juramaia and Eomaia), which have both dP3 and P3 present in the adult dentition. Further delay in the development of dP3/dp3 led to the loss of the permanent P3/p3 (a possible synapomorphy for Eutheria). The dP3/dp3 was present during most of the adult stages in the Late Cretaceous stem placentals Zhelestidae and Gypsonictops. This tooth is totally absent in basal taxa of Placentalia, which normally have at most four premolars.

  13. Gas hydrate contribution to Late Permian global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majorowicz, J.; Grasby, S. E.; Safanda, J.; Beauchamp, B.

    2014-05-01

    Rapid gas hydrate release (the “clathrate gun” hypothesis) has been invoked as a cause for the rapid global warming and associated negative carbon isotope excursion observed during the Latest Permian Extinction (LPE). We modeled the stability of gas hydrates through a warming Middle to Late Permian world, considering three settings for methane reservoirs: 1) terrestrial hydrates, 2) hydrates on exposed continental shelves during glacial sea level drop, and 3) hydrates in deep marine settings. Model results show that terrestrial hydrates would rapidly destabilize over ∼400 ky after deglaciation for moderate heatflow (40 mW/m2), and more rapidly for higher heat flow values. Exposed continental shelves would lose hydrates even more rapidly, after being flooded due to loss of ice storage on land. These two major hydrate reservoirs would thus have destabilized during the Middle to Late Permian climate warming, well prior to the LPE event. However, they may have contributed to the >2‰ negative C-isotopic shift during the late Middle Permian. Deep marine hydrates would have remained stable until LPE time. Rapid warming of deep marine waters during this time could have triggered destabilization of this reservoir, however given the configuration of one super continent, Pangea, hydrate bearing continental slopes would have been less extensive than modern day. This suggests that any potential gas hydrate release would have had only a minor contributing impact to the runaway greenhouse during the Latest Permian extinction.

  14. Evolutionary transition of dental formula in Late Cretaceous eutherian mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averianov, Alexander O.; Archibald, J. David

    2015-10-01

    Kulbeckia kulbecke, stem placental mammal from the Late Cretaceous of Uzbekistan, shows a transitional stage of evolution in the dental formula from five to four premolars. A non-replaced dP3/dp3 may occur as individual variation. In other specimens, the lower premolars are crowded with no space for development of dp3. As is evident from the CT scanning of one juvenile specimen, the development of dp3 started in a late ontogenetic stage and was confined to the pulp cavity of the developing p2. This dp3 would have been resorbed in a later ontogenetic stage, as the roots of p2 formed. The initial stage of reduction of the third premolar can be traced to stem therians ( Juramaia and Eomaia), which have both dP3 and P3 present in the adult dentition. Further delay in the development of dP3/dp3 led to the loss of the permanent P3/p3 (a possible synapomorphy for Eutheria). The dP3/dp3 was present during most of the adult stages in the Late Cretaceous stem placentals Zhelestidae and Gypsonictops. This tooth is totally absent in basal taxa of Placentalia, which normally have at most four premolars.

  15. Mate loss in winter and mallard reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lercel, Barbara A.; Kaminski, Richard M.; Cox, Robert R.

    1999-01-01

    Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) frequently pair during winter, and duck hunting seasons have been extended until the end of January in several southern states in the Mississippi Flyway. Therefore, we simulated dissolution of pair bonds from natural or hunting mortality by removing mates of wild-strain, captive, yearling female mallards in late January 1996 and early February 1997 to test if mate loss in winter would affect subsequent pair formation and reproductive performance. Most (97%) widowed females paired again. Nesting and incubation frequencies, nest-initiation date, days between first and second nests, and egg mass did not differ (P > 0.126) between widowed and control (i.e., no mate loss experienced) females in 1996 and 1997. In 1997, widowed females laid 1.91 fewer eggs in first nests (P = 0.014) and 3.75 fewer viable eggs in second nests (P = 0.056). Computer simulations with a mallard productivity model (incorporating default parameters [i.e., average environmental conditions]) indicated that the observed decreased clutch size of first nests, fewer viable eggs in second nests, and these factors combined had potential to decrease recruitment rates of yearling female mallards 9%, 12%, and 20%. Our results indicate that winter mate loss could reduce reproductive performance by yearling female mallards in some years. We suggest caution regarding extending duck hunting seasons in winter without concurrent evaluations of harvest and demographics of mallard and other duck populations.

  16. Late Reduction Textures in Almahata Sitta Ureilite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrin, J. S.; Le, L.; Zolensky, M. E.; Ito, M.; Jenniskens, P.; Shaddad, M. H.

    2009-01-01

    The Almahata Sitta ureilite, derived from asteroid 2008 TC3, consists of many individual fragments recovered from the Nubian dessert strewn field [1]. Like most ureilites, it contains abundant carbon and exhibits examples of disequilibrium textures that record a late reduction event accompanied by rapid cooling (tens of degC/h) from high temperatures (1150-1300 C). Variations in Fe/Mg of silicate minerals are accompanied by variations in Fe/Mn, indicating loss of Fe into metal [2]. In coarser-grained fragments of Almahata Sitta, olivine exhibits irregular high mg# rims in contact with networks of interstitial metal 5- 20 microns in typical thickness. This is a common ureilite texture thought to be driven by the reaction of graphite to a CO gas phase and the concurrent reduction of FeO in olivine to Fe metal, with excess silica going primarily into pyroxene (2MgFeSiO4 + C approaches MgSiO4 + MgSiO3 + 2Fe + CO) [3, see also 4,5,6]. Other fragments of Almahata Sitta exhibit anomalous textures such as fine grain size, high porosity, and abundant graphite. Within these fragments pyroxene locally exhibits high-mg# rims in contact with metal and a discreet silica phase, suggesting that the reduction mechanism MgFeSi2O6 + C approaches MgSiO3 + Fe + SiO2 + CO. Metals in Almahata Sitta are particularly unaltered in comparison to ureilite finds. Variations in minor and trace element composition of this metal might partly result from localized dilution as iron is supplied by reduction of silicates.

  17. Suicide and euthanasia in late life.

    PubMed

    De Leo, Diego; Spathonis, Kym

    2003-04-01

    Epidemiological studies of suicide in the elderly indicate that, in the last few decades, there has been a relevant increase in suicide rates in old age in a number of Asian and Latin nations, with an almost parallel decrease in Anglo-Saxon counties. Mental disorders, particularly depression, physical illness, personality traits such as hostility, hopelessness, the inability to verbally express psychological pain and dependency on others, recent life events and losses are all factors that may contribute to suicide in later life. Compared with suicide in other age groups, mors voluntaris in late life is associated with the use of highly lethal methods, less ambivalence and impulsivity, and more determination and intent to die. Accordingly, elderly suicidal individuals are more likely than younger subjects to complete rather than attempt suicide. Some evidence suggests also that the characteristics of elderly individuals who attempt suicide may not overlap with those who complete suicide. Death thoughts and suicidal ideations are relatively rare among mentally healthy elderly adults, and are less predominant in this age bracket. However, whether elderly suicidal behaviour exists along a continuum, progressing in severity from death thoughts and suicidal ideation to suicide attempts and completed suicide, remains unclear. Assisted suicide and euthanasia in the elderly have been associated with the desire to escape chronic physical pain and suffering caused by terminal illness, and to relieve mental anguish and feelings of hopelessness, depression and extreme "tiredness of life." The role of the family and those treating chronically ill members is crucial in the final stages of life, particularly when autonomy and the ability of the elderly individual to make end-of-life decisions are compromised. The main aspects associated with these controversial phenomena, particularly from a transcultural perspective, are reviewed in this article.

  18. Risk factors for sensorineural hearing loss in children.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Trinidad-Ramos, Germán; Sequí-Canet, José Miguel; Alzina De Aguilar, Valentín; Jáudenes-Casaubón, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, tremendous progress has been made very rapidly in the development of Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) systems as a major public health initiative. The percentage of infants screened annually in Spain has increased significantly since the EHDI systems have expanded to all autonomic regions. Historically, high risk indicators have been used for the identification of infants who should receive audiological evaluation but who live in geographic locations where universal hearing screening is not yet available, to help identify infants who pass neonatal screening but are at risk of developing delayed-onset hearing loss and to identify infants who may have passed neonatal screening but have mild forms of permanent hearing loss. In this review, the standard risk factors for hearing loss are analysed and the risk factors known to be associated with late onset or progressive hearing loss are identified. The recommendation for infants with a risk factor that may be considered as low risk is to perform at least one audiology assessment by 24-30 months. In contrast, for an infant with risk factors known to be associated with late onset or progressive hearing loss (such as cytomegalovirus infection or family history), early and more frequent assessment is appropriate. All infants should have an objective standardised screening of global development with a validated assessment tool at 9, 18 and 24-30 months of age or at any time if the health care professional or the family is concerned.

  19. Block loss for ATM video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Sze K.; Leon-Garcia, Alberto

    1993-10-01

    In BISDN, the asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) requires all information to be represented as a sequence of standard data units called cells. Cell los is inherent in ATM networks due to the cell header corruption and buffer overflow in the network. Several studies have shown that cell losses are bursty for an ATM network. In this work, we encoded real video sequences with a variable bit-rate (VBR) version of the H.261 video encoder in order for us to determine the relationship between blocks in a video frame and the number of ATM cells generated. We then considered the impact of bursty cell losses on image block loss probability. Block loss distributions are given at different codec and channel parameters. We also obtained block loss results using a cell loss correction scheme. Three sequences were analyzed to obtain the cumulative block loss probability distribution. Similar maximum and minimum block loss probability values were obtained for each sequence. The block loss probability distribution varies according to the amount and type of motion present in each sequence. We show that the block loss is confined to one group of blocks (GOB). The maximum block loss probability can be two orders of magnitude larger than the channel cell loss probability. By using the cell loss correction scheme, block loss was reduced to a level equivalent to reducing cell loss probability by five orders of magnitude.

  20. Loss-Aversion or Loss-Attention: The Impact of Losses on Cognitive Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yechiam, Eldad; Hochman, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Losses were found to improve cognitive performance, and this has been commonly explained by increased weighting of losses compared to gains (i.e., loss aversion). We examine whether effects of losses on performance could be modulated by two alternative processes: an attentional effect leading to increased sensitivity to task incentives; and a…

  1. Assessing the record and causes of Late Triassic extinctions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanner, L.H.; Lucas, S.G.; Chapman, M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Accelerated biotic turnover during the Late Triassic has led to the perception of an end-Triassic mass extinction event, now regarded as one of the "big five" extinctions. Close examination of the fossil record reveals that many groups thought to be affected severely by this event, such as ammonoids, bivalves and conodonts, instead were in decline throughout the Late Triassic, and that other groups were relatively unaffected or subject to only regional effects. Explanations for the biotic turnover have included both gradualistic and catastrophic mechanisms. Regression during the Rhaetian, with consequent habitat loss, is compatible with the disappearance of some marine faunal groups, but may be regional, not global in scale, and cannot explain apparent synchronous decline in the terrestrial realm. Gradual, widespread aridification of the Pangaean supercontinent could explain a decline in terrestrial diversity during the Late Triassic. Although evidence for an impact precisely at the boundary is lacking, the presence of impact structures with Late Triassic ages suggests the possibility of bolide impact-induced environmental degradation prior to the end-Triassic. Widespread eruptions of flood basalts of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) were synchronous with or slightly postdate the system boundary; emissions of CO2 and SO2 during these eruptions were substantial, but the contradictory evidence for the environmental effects of outgassing of these lavas remains to be resolved. A substantial excursion in the marine carbon-isotope record of both carbonate and organic matter suggests a significant disturbance of the global carbon cycle at the system boundary. Release of methane hydrates from seafloor sediments is a possible cause for this isotope excursion, although the triggering mechanism and climatic effects of such a release remain uncertain. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Early and late abortion methods.

    PubMed

    van Lith, D A; Wittman, R; Keith, L G

    1984-12-01

    This chapter provides a detailed description of 1st and 2nd trimester abortion techniques. In general, low morbidity is facilitated by preoperative diagnosis and evaluation, operator skill, sterile technique, avoidance of trauma, completeness of evacuation, and postoperative care. The 1st trimester technique used by the authors involves predilatation with laminaria, paracervical and intracervical blocks (anesthetic solution, 1% lignocaine with adrenaline), dilatation with either the Hawkin Ambler type or half-sized Pratt dilator, and evacuation with the van Lith or Karman type suction cannula. For 2nd trimester pregnancy termination, the authors use aspirotomy, a technique that combines the classic dilatation and evacuation method with suction curettage. An ergometrine maleate preparation is administered at the start of the procedure to produce sustained contraction of the uterine wall, decrease the chance of perforation, and accelerate the emptying process. Adrenaline in 1% lignocaine is used as a local anesthetic solution. A specially designed crushing forceps decreases the cervical dilatation required. Also presented is a technique for late 2nd trimester (16-20 weeks gestation) abortion that involves prostaglandins or the Finks dilatation and evacuation technique. The complication rate in the authors' unit for 3500 2nd trimester terminations was less than 0.5% but rose after 17 weeks of gestation.

  3. Very late relapse of medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Cieślak, Ewa; Kepka, Lucyna; Fijuth, Jacek; Marchel, Andrzej; Kroh, Halina

    2004-01-01

    A case of 47-year-old woman with a local relapse of medulloblastoma 23 years after initial presentation is reported. At the age of 24, the patient underwent resection of medulloblastoma of the right cerebellar lobe, followed by the craniospinal orthovoltage irradiation (3600 R to the brain, and 3000 R to the spinal cord). At the 21st year of follow-up, a second cancer originating in the thyroid gland was diagnosed. Thyroidectomy followed by 131-iodotherapy for the papillary cancer was performed. Two years later she was operated for the recurrence of medulloblastoma at the former site. The patient was unfit for chemotherapy due to poor bone marrow reserve following the previous treatment. The reirradiation of the posterior cranial fossa was performed postoperatively. The patient was given 45 Gy in 25 fractions to the recurred tumour volume with 2 cm margin within 41 days. The treatment was performed by 6 MV photons with conformal technique and noncoplanar beams arrangement. The patient is disease free 15 months after relapse of medulloblastoma. The following problems are discussed: late relapse of medulloblastoma, secondary cancers after craniospinal irradiation, and retreatment of CNS tumours.

  4. Polar Ozone Losses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Since the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole, a great deal of attention has been focused on the polar regions to both identify the chemistry and physics of the large losses, and to provide an understanding of the future of polar ozone. In this review talk, I will discuss the secular trends of ozone in both the Antarctic and Arctic regions, and I will review some of the principal research results of the last few years. In particular, I will emphasize some of the results from the SOLVE-THESEO 2000 campaign that occurred over the course of the winter of 1999-2000.

  5. 30 CFR 218.54 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Late payments. 218.54 Section 218.54 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT COLLECTION OF MONIES AND PROVISION FOR GEOTHERMAL CREDITS AND INCENTIVES Oil and Gas, General § 218.54 Late...

  6. Cycads: Fossil evidence of late paleozoic origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mamay, S.H.

    1969-01-01

    Plant fossils from Lower Permian strata of the southwestern United States have been interpreted as cycadalean megasporophylls. They are evidently descended from spermopterid elements of the Pennsylvanian Taeniopteris complex; thus the known fossil history of the cycads is extended from the Late Triassic into the late Paleozoic. Possible implications of the Permian fossils toward evolution of the angiosperm carpel are considered.

  7. 12 CFR 706.4 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Late charges. 706.4 Section 706.4 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES § 706.4 Late charges. (a) In connection with collecting a debt arising out of...

  8. 12 CFR 706.4 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Late charges. 706.4 Section 706.4 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES § 706.4 Late charges. (a) In connection with collecting a debt arising out of...

  9. 12 CFR 706.4 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Late charges. 706.4 Section 706.4 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES § 706.4 Late charges. (a) In connection with collecting a debt arising out of...

  10. 12 CFR 706.4 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Late charges. 706.4 Section 706.4 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES § 706.4 Late charges. (a) In connection with collecting a debt arising out of...

  11. 40 CFR 209.16 - Late intervention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Late intervention. 209.16 Section 209.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS... Hearings for Orders Issued Under Section 11(d) of the Noise Control Act § 209.16 Late...

  12. Cycads: fossil evidence of late paleozoic origin.

    PubMed

    Mamay, S H

    1969-04-18

    Plant fossils from Lower Permian strata of the southwestern United States have been interpreted as cycadalean megasporophylls. They are evidently descended from spermopterid elements of the Pennsylvanian Taeniopteris complex; thus the known fossil history of the cycads is extended from the Late Triassic into the late Paleozoic. Possible implications of the Permian fossils toward evolution of the angiosperm carpel are considered.

  13. 37 CFR 385.4 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 385.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS RATES AND TERMS... AND DISTRIBUTING OF PHYSICAL AND DIGITAL PHONORECORDS Physical Phonorecord Deliveries, Permanent Digital Downloads and Ringtones § 385.4 Late payments. A Licensee shall pay a late fee of 1.5% per...

  14. Late-onset offending: fact or fiction.

    PubMed

    Wiecko, Filip M

    2014-01-01

    This research focuses on a detailed exploration of late-onset offending. Using the National Youth Survey, this work seeks to answer three questions. First, is late-onset offending a real phenomenon? Second, if late onset does exist, is the evidence for it conditioned by how we define crime and delinquency? Finally, is late-onset offending an artifact of measurement methodology? Most literature evidencing late onset relies on official police contact and arrest data. Propensity or control theories in general posit that late onset should not exist. Propensity, namely self-control, should be instilled early in life and if absent, results in early initiation into crime and delinquency. Research in developmental psychology seems to support this notion. The findings from this study indicate that late-onset offending is almost nonexistent when self-reported measures are used leading one to conclude that contemporary evidence for late-onset is heavily conditioned by how we measure crime and delinquency. A comprehensive discussion includes future directions for research, and implications for theory development and methodology.

  15. Late Registration: May It Rest in Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Banion, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Almost every institution of higher education engages in late registration. But evidence is mounting that the practice, originally intended to keep the doors of opportunity open for students as long as possible, wreaks havoc on the ability of colleges to achieve the goals of the emerging completion agenda. Despite best intentions, late registration…

  16. The role of intraorganellar Ca(2+) in late endosome-lysosome heterotypic fusion and in the reformation of lysosomes from hybrid organelles.

    PubMed

    Pryor, P R; Mullock, B M; Bright, N A; Gray, S R; Luzio, J P

    2000-05-29

    We have investigated the requirement for Ca(2+) in the fusion and content mixing of rat hepatocyte late endosomes and lysosomes in a cell-free system. Fusion to form hybrid organelles was inhibited by 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA), but not by EGTA, and this inhibition was reversed by adding additional Ca(2+). Fusion was also inhibited by methyl ester of EGTA (EGTA-AM), a membrane permeable, hydrolyzable ester of EGTA, and pretreatment of organelles with EGTA-AM showed that the chelation of lumenal Ca(2+) reduced the amount of fusion. The requirement for Ca(2+) for fusion was a later event than the requirement for a rab protein since the system became resistant to inhibition by GDP dissociation inhibitor at earlier times than it became resistant to BAPTA. We have developed a cell-free assay to study the reformation of lysosomes from late endosome-lysosome hybrid organelles that were isolated from the rat liver. The recovery of electron dense lysosomes was shown to require ATP and was inhibited by bafilomycin and EGTA-AM. The data support a model in which endocytosed Ca(2+) plays a role in the fusion of late endosomes and lysosomes, the reformation of lysosomes, and the dynamic equilibrium of organelles in the late endocytic pathway.

  17. Dealing with our losses.

    PubMed

    Mount, B M

    1986-07-01

    The repeated losses experienced by a clinical oncologist may constitute a significant source of personal stress. Studies documenting high stress levels on oncology services and the prevalence among physicians of alcoholism, cirrhosis, suicide, and marital discord lend urgency to the need to examine etiologic factors, clinical manifestations, and strategies for the management of job-related stress. Significant etiologic factors include death as an existential fact emphasizing our finite nature, the cumulative grief associated with repeated unresolved losses, the pressure of a health care system fueled by the medical information explosion, the inability to achieve the idealistic goals embraced by holistic medical care, stresses inherent in working as a "team," and an undermined context of meaning as an outcome of treatment failures. Clinical manifestations of stress are reviewed as an aid to early diagnosis. Strategies useful in the prevention and management of stress include the encouragement of increased awareness of stress in self and colleagues, the clarification of appropriate goals and priorities, encouragement of appropriate limit setting, the mobilization of collaborative input, the clarification of team roles and organizational patterns, the establishment of team support meetings and favorable working conditions, exercise, and the clarification and working through of previously unresolved personal psychodynamic issues. Differences between the work-related stress involved in clinical oncology as compared with hospice care are examined.

  18. REVIEW paper: mare reproductive loss syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, M M; Bernard, W V; Riddle, T W; Latimer, C R; Fitzgerald, T D; Harrison, L R

    2008-09-01

    An epidemic of early fetal loss (EFL), late fetal loss (LFL), fibrinous pericarditis, and unilateral uveitis which occurred during the spring of 2001, are together now known as the mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS). A similar epidemic with less intensity was reported during the same period of time from southern Ohio, West Virginia, and Tennessee. The same syndrome with lesser intensity recurred in 2002. The estimated economic loss from the syndrome in 2001 and 2002 together was approximately $500 million. Both EFL and LFL were characterized by the absence of specific clinical signs in aborting mares. Nonhemolytic Streptococcus spp. and Actinobacillus spp. accounted for 65% of the organisms isolated from fetuses submitted for a postmortem during the MRLS period in 2001 and 2002. The pathologic findings in fetoplacental units of LFL included bronchopneumonia and funisitis, and there were no findings in EFL. Epidemiologic studies conducted in 2001 suggested an association between the presences of eastern tent caterpillars (ETC) in pastures with MRLS. Experimental studies in pregnant mares by exposure to ETC, or administration by stomach tube or with feed material, reproduced EFL and LFL. Similar experimental studies in mouse, rats, and goats with ETC were unsuccessful. Currently, 2 hypotheses are proposed for MRLS. One hypothesis proposes that an ETC-related toxin with secondary opportunistic bacterial invasion of the fetus leads to MRLS. The second hypothesis suggests that a breach of gastrointestinal mucosal integrity by hairs of ETC leads to a bacteremia and results in MRLS. In 2004, a similar equine abortion storm was reported from Australia and caterpillar exposure was identified as a risk factor for the abortion. In 2006, the syndrome was observed in Florida and New Jersey.

  19. Human cortex development: estimates of neuronal numbers indicate major loss late during gestation.

    PubMed

    Rabinowicz, T; de Courten-Myers, G M; Petetot, J M; Xi, G; de los Reyes, E

    1996-03-01

    This morphometric study explores temporal and topographic changes in the estimated neuronal number in human neocortex during the latter half of gestation and early infancy. Neuronal estimates are calculated from standardized measurements of cortical layer thickness and neuronal density in 6 neocortical regions in 9 human brains ranging from 17 weeks of gestation to 13 weeks postnatally. Layer thickness increases linearly with age while the average neuronal density first increases, then reaches a maximum at 20 weeks of gestation, and progressively declines. The sum of layer thickness times layer density estimates the number of neurons in a cortical column with a fixed surface area and a length that is equal to the cortical thickness. To derive an estimate of potentially overproduced neurons, the number of neurons in each cortical column was corrected for surface growth and for cortex gyration. These data show that a large percent of cortical neurons present at 20 weeks of gestation are used to populate the expanding cortex. Nevertheless, the growth-corrected data suggest that a substantial overproduction and secondary reduction of cortical neurons takes place mainly during the last quarter of gestation. The corrected mean number of neurons reaches a maximum at 28 weeks of gestation and then declines by approximately 70% to achieve a stable number of neurons around birth. This estimated number of neurons is significantly higher at 28 to 32 weeks of gestation than at 17 to 20 gestational weeks and at 0 to 13 postnatal weeks. These data imply that physiologic neuronal death (apoptosis) may play a major role in early human cortex development.

  20. Targeted loss of SHP1 in murine thymocytes dampens TCR signaling late in selection.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Ryan J; Morris, Anna B; Neeld, Dennis K; Evavold, Brian D

    2016-09-01

    SHP1 is a tyrosine phosphatase critical to proximal regulation of TCR signaling. Here, analysis of CD4-Cre SHP1(fl/fl) conditional knockout thymocytes using CD53, TCRβ, CD69, CD4, and CD8α expression demonstrates the importance of SHP1 in the survival of post selection (CD53(+) ), single-positive thymocytes. Using Ca(2+) flux to assess the intensity of TCR signaling demonstrated that SHP1 dampens the signal strength of these same mature, postselection thymocytes. Consistent with its dampening effect, TCR signal strength was also probed functionally using peptides that can mediate selection of the OT-I TCR, to reveal increased negative selection mediated by lower-affinity ligand in the absence of SHP1. Our data show that SHP1 is required for the survival of mature thymocytes and the generation of the functional T-cell repertoire, as its absence leads to a reduction in the numbers of CD4(+) and CD8(+) naïve T cells in the peripheral lymphoid compartments.

  1. Loss of vascular fibrinolytic activity following irradiation of the liver - an aspect of late radiation damage

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, B.W.; Bicher, H.I.; Johnson, R.J.

    1983-09-01

    The vascular fibrinolytic activity, known to originate from the endothelium, was studied histochemically by fibrinolysis autography in liver samples from beagles exposed to radiation treatment. Eighteen to thirty months prior to sacrifice, six dogs received x irradiation (4600 rad in 5 weeks) and three dogs received x irradiation plus aspirin (1 g/kg). Two dogs served as untreated controls. Control livers showed extensive fibrinolytic activity related to large and small vascular structures. The vascular fibrinolytic activity had been lost from all vessels except the major portal branches in five irradiated livers and was severaly diminished in three. One irradiated liver appeared to possess normal fibrinolytic activity.

  2. Use of a dual lumen cannula for venovenous extra corporeal membrane oxygenation in a patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome and a previously inserted inferior vena cava filter: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Palizas Jr., Fernando; García, Christian Casabella; Norese, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is used in refractory hypoxemia in many clinical settings. Thoracic trauma patients usually develop acute respiratory distress syndrome. Due to high risk of bleeding, thrombotic complications present in this context are particularly difficult to manage and usually require insertion of an inferior vena cava filter to prevent embolism from the distal veins to the pulmonary circulation. Here, we present a case of a thoracic trauma patient with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation via a right internal jugular double lumen cannula due to a previously inserted inferior vena cava filter caused by distal bilateral calf muscle vein deep vein thrombosis. PMID:27096680

  3. When bad things happen to good fish: the loss of hemoglobin and myoglobin expression in Antarctic icefishes.

    PubMed

    Sidell, Bruce D; O'Brien, Kristin M

    2006-05-01

    The Antarctic icefishes (Family Channichthyidae) provide excellent examples of unique traits that can arise in a chronically cold and isolated environment. Their loss of hemoglobin (Hb) expression, and in some cases, loss of myoglobin (Mb) expression, has taught us much about the function of these proteins. Although absences of the proteins are fixed traits in icefishes, the losses do not appear to be of adaptive value. Contrary to some suggestions, loss of Hb has led to higher energetic costs for circulating blood, and losses of Mb have reduced cardiac performance. Moreover, losses of Hb and Mb have resulted in extensive modifications to the cardiovascular system to ensure adequate oxygen delivery to working muscles. Recent studies suggest that losses of Hb and Mb, and their associated nitric oxide (NO)-oxygenase activities, may have accelerated the development and evolution of these cardiovascular modifications. The high levels of NO that should occur in the absence of Hb and Mb have been shown in other animal groups to lead to an increase in tissue vascularization, an increase in the lumenal diameter of blood vessels, and an increase in mitochondrial densities. These characteristics are all hallmark traits of Antarctic icefishes. Homeostatic feedback mechanisms thus may have accelerated evolution of the pronounced cardiovascular traits of Antarctic icefishes.

  4. Coping with cancer -- hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000914.htm Coping with cancer - hair loss To use the sharing features on this ... lose your hair. Why Cancer Treatments can Cause Hair Loss Many chemotherapy drugs attack fast-growing cells. ...

  5. Could Anemia Cause Hearing Loss?

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_162793.html Could Anemia Cause Hearing Loss? Iron deficiency might keep ear cells from getting oxygen ... HealthDay News) -- Hearing loss may be linked to iron deficiency anemia -- a combination of low levels of ...

  6. Pregnancy Loss: How to Cope

    MedlinePlus

    ... J, et al. A national survey on public perceptions of miscarriage. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2015;125:1313. Kropmans ... mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/pregnancy-loss-miscarriage/in-depth/pregnancy-loss/art-20047983 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal ...

  7. Loss of a child - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Child death - resources; Resources - loss of a child ... The following organizations are good resources for information on the loss of a child: The Compassionate Friends -- www.compassionatefriends.org Bereaved Parents of the USA -- www.bereavedparentsusa. ...

  8. [Hereditary hearing loss: Part 2: Syndromic forms of hearing loss].

    PubMed

    Burke, W F; Lenarz, T; Maier, H

    2014-10-01

    Syndromic hearing loss is responsible for approximately 30% of cases of inherited hearing loss. The syndromic form can be differentiated from nonsyndromic hearing loss by the presence of associated symptoms in other organ systems. While for many forms of syndromic hearing loss the individual genes responsible have been identified, the etiology of other associated symptoms remains unclear. The role of the ENT physician is to select appropriate clinical and genetic diagnostic tools based on the presentation of the patient and to subsequently initiate and perform the required hearing loss therapy.

  9. 757 Path Loss Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, Kent; Huffman, Mitch; Eppic, Brian; White, Harrison

    2005-01-01

    Path Loss Measurements were obtained on three (3) GPS equipped 757 aircraft. Systems measured were Marker Beacon, LOC, VOR, VHF (3), Glide Slope, ATC (2), DME (2), TCAS, and GPS. This data will provide the basis for assessing the EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) safety margins of comm/nav (communication and navigation) systems to portable electronic device emissions. These Portable Electronic Devices (PEDs) include all devices operated in or around the aircraft by crews, passengers, servicing personnel, as well as the general public in the airport terminals. EMI assessment capability is an important step in determining if one system-wide PED EMI policy is appropriate. This data may also be used comparatively with theoretical analysis and computer modeling data sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and others.

  10. Late-Glacial to Late-holocene Shifts in Global Precipitation Delta(sup 18)O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasechko, S.; Lechler, A.; Pausata, F.S.R.; Fawcett, P.J.; Gleeson, T.; Cendon, D.I.; Galewsky, J.; LeGrande, A. N.; Risi, C.; Sharp, Z. D.; Welker, J. M.; Werner, M.; Yoshimura, K.

    2015-01-01

    Reconstructions of Quaternary climate are often based on the isotopic content of paleo-precipitation preserved in proxy records. While many paleo-precipitation isotope records are available, few studies have synthesized these dispersed records to explore spatial patterns of late-glacial precipitation delta(sup 18)O. Here we present a synthesis of 86 globally distributed groundwater (n 59), cave calcite (n 15) and ice core (n 12) isotope records spanning the late-glacial (defined as 50,000 to 20,000 years ago) to the late-Holocene (within the past 5000 years). We show that precipitation delta(sup 18)O changes from the late-glacial to the late-Holocene range from -7.1% (delta(sup 18)O(late-Holocene) > delta(sup 18)O(late-glacial) to +1.7% (delta(sup 18)O(late-glacial) > delta(sup 18)O(late-Holocene), with the majority (77) of records having lower late-glacial delta(sup 18)O than late-Holocene delta(sup 18)O values. High-magnitude, negative precipitation delta(sup 18)O shifts are common at high latitudes, high altitudes and continental interiors.

  11. Hypnotherapy in Weight Loss Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Gordon; Friesen, John

    1986-01-01

    Investigated effects of hypnosis as a treatment for weight loss among women. The primary hypothesis that hypnosis is an effective treatment for weight loss was confirmed, but seven concomitant variables and the use of audiotapes were not significant contributors to weight loss. (Author/ABB)

  12. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Balance › Breast Cancer and Bone Loss Fact Sheet Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  13. Polarization losses in reflector antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safak, M.; Yazgan, E.

    1985-08-01

    Various definitions for polarization-loss efficiency of Cassegrainian and front-fed reflectors are compared. The effects of flare angle, feed taper and the feed pattern asymmetry on the polarization-loss efficiency are investigated. The definitions based on aperture fields are shown to be inadequate and far fields must be used for calculating the polarization losses.

  14. Cholesterol and late-life cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Peter

    2012-01-01

    High cholesterol levels are a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but their role in dementia and cognitive decline is less clear. This review highlights current knowledge on the role of cholesterol in late-life cognitive function, cognitive decline, and dementia. When measured in midlife, high cholesterol levels associate with an increased risk of late-life dementia and cognitive decline. However, when measured in late-life, high cholesterol levels show no association with cognitive function, or even show an inverse relation. Although statin treatment has been shown to associate with a lower risk of dementia and cognitive decline in observational studies, randomized controlled trials show no beneficial effect of statin treatment on late-life cognitive function. Lowering cholesterol levels may impair brain function, since cholesterol is essential for synapse formation and maturation and plays an important role in the regulation of signal transduction through its function as a component of the cell membrane. However, membrane cholesterol also plays a role in the formation and aggregation of amyloid-β. Factors that influence cholesterol metabolism, such as dietary intake, are shown to play a role in late-life cognitive function and the risk of dementia. In conclusion, cholesterol associates with late-life cognitive function, but the association is strongly age-dependent. There is no evidence that treatment with statins in late-life has a beneficial effect on cognitive function.

  15. Late Cenozoic intraplate faulting in eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaahmadi, Abbas; Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2014-12-01

    The intensity and tectonic origin of late Cenozoic intraplate deformation in eastern Australia is relatively poorly understood. Here we show that Cenozoic volcanic rocks in southeast Queensland have been deformed by numerous faults. Using gridded aeromagnetic data and field observations, structural investigations were conducted on these faults. Results show that faults have mainly undergone strike-slip movement with a reverse component, displacing Cenozoic volcanic rocks ranging in ages from ˜31 to ˜21 Ma. These ages imply that faulting must have occurred after the late Oligocene. Late Cenozoic deformation has mostly occurred due to the reactivation of major faults, which were active during episodes of basin formation in the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous and later during the opening of the Tasman and Coral Seas from the Late Cretaceous to the early Eocene. The wrench reactivation of major faults in the late Cenozoic also gave rise to the occurrence of brittle subsidiary reverse strike-slip faults that affected Cenozoic volcanic rocks. Intraplate transpressional deformation possibly resulted from far-field stresses transmitted from the collisional zones at the northeast and southeast boundaries of the Australian plate during the late Oligocene-early Miocene and from the late Miocene to the Pliocene. These events have resulted in the hitherto unrecognized reactivation of faults in eastern Australia.

  16. Alleles that modulate late life hearing in genetically heterogeneous mice

    PubMed Central

    Schacht, Jochen; Altschuler, Richard; Burke, David T.; Chen, Shu; Dolan, David; Galecki, Andrzej T.; Kohrman, David; Miller, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    A genetically heterogeneous population of mice was tested for hearing at 8, 18 and 22 months by auditory brainstem response (ABR), and genotyped at 128 markers to identify loci that modulate late life hearing loss. Half of the test mice were exposed to noise for 2 hr at age 20 months. Polymorphisms affecting hearing at 18 months were noted on chromosomes 2, 3, 7, 10, and 15. Most of these loci had effects only on responses to 48 kHz stimuli, but a subset also influenced the ABR at lower frequencies. Loci on chromosomes 4, 10, 12, and 14 had significant effects on hearing at 22 months in noise-exposed mice, and loci on chromosomes 10 and 11 had effects on mice not exposed to noise. Outer hair cell loss was modulated by polymorphisms on chromosomes 10, 11, 12, 17, and 19. Resistance to age-related hearing loss is thus modulated by a set of genetic effects, some age-specific, some frequency specific, some dependent on prior exposure to noise, and some of which compromise survival of cochlear hair cells. PMID:22305187

  17. Early and Late Responses to Ion Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Reinhard; Ling, Ted

    Early and late responses to ion beam therapy (IBT) are the result of complex interactions between host, dose volume, and radiobiological factors. Our understanding of these early and late tissue responses has improved greatly with the accumulation of laboratory and clinical experience with proton and heavy ion irradiation. With photon therapy becoming increasingly conformal, many concepts developed for 3D conformal radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy with photons are also applicable to IBT. This chapter reviews basic concepts and experimental data of early and late tissue responses to protons and ions.

  18. Signal losses with real-time three-dimensional power Doppler imaging.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Damien; Fenech, Marianne; Qin, Zhao; Soulez, Gilles; Cloutier, Guy

    2007-10-01

    Power Doppler imaging (PDI) has been shown to be influenced by the wall filter when assessing arterial stenoses. Real-time 3-D Doppler imaging may likely become a widespread practice in the near future, but how the wall filter could affect PDI during the cardiac cycle has not been investigated. The objective of the study was to demonstrate that the wall filter may produce unexpected major signal losses in real-time 3-D PDI. To test our hypothesis, we first validated binary images obtained from analytical simulations with in vitro PDI acquisitions performed in a tube under pulsatile flow conditions. We then simulated PDI images in the presence of a severe stenosis, considering physiological conditions by finite element modeling. Power Doppler imaging simulations revealed important signal losses within the lumen area at different instants of the flow cycle, and there was a very good concordance between measured and predicted PDI binary images in the tube. Our results show that the wall filter may induce severe PDI signal losses that could negatively influence the assessment of vascular stenosis. Clinicians should therefore be aware of this cause of signal loss to properly interpret power Doppler angiographic images.

  19. Earthquake Loss Estimation Uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolova, Nina; Bonnin, Jean; Larionov, Valery; Ugarov, Aleksander

    2013-04-01

    The paper addresses the reliability issues of strong earthquakes loss assessment following strong earthquakes with worldwide Systems' application in emergency mode. Timely and correct action just after an event can result in significant benefits in saving lives. In this case the information about possible damage and expected number of casualties is very critical for taking decision about search, rescue operations and offering humanitarian assistance. Such rough information may be provided by, first of all, global systems, in emergency mode. The experience of earthquakes disasters in different earthquake-prone countries shows that the officials who are in charge of emergency response at national and international levels are often lacking prompt and reliable information on the disaster scope. Uncertainties on the parameters used in the estimation process are numerous and large: knowledge about physical phenomena and uncertainties on the parameters used to describe them; global adequacy of modeling techniques to the actual physical phenomena; actual distribution of population at risk at the very time of the shaking (with respect to immediate threat: buildings or the like); knowledge about the source of shaking, etc. Needless to be a sharp specialist to understand, for example, that the way a given building responds to a given shaking obeys mechanical laws which are poorly known (if not out of the reach of engineers for a large portion of the building stock); if a carefully engineered modern building is approximately predictable, this is far not the case for older buildings which make up the bulk of inhabited buildings. The way population, inside the buildings at the time of shaking, is affected by the physical damage caused to the buildings is not precisely known, by far. The paper analyzes the influence of uncertainties in strong event parameters determination by Alert Seismological Surveys, of simulation models used at all stages from, estimating shaking intensity

  20. Examination of Proposed Criteria for Complicated Grief in People Confronted with Violent or Non-Violent Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boelen, Paul A.; van den Bout, Jan

    2007-01-01

    In the late 1990s, a panel of experts proposed criteria for complicated grief (CG) and found these to have satisfactory operating characteristics. The present study aimed to replicate that finding in 4 groups of mourners divided by cause of loss and time from loss. Data were available from 1,052 bereaved individuals. All had completed the revised…

  1. Mathematical and numerical models for transfer of low-density lipoproteins through the arterial walls: a new methodology for the model set up with applications to the study of disturbed lumenal flow.

    PubMed

    Prosi, M; Zunino, P; Perktold, K; Quarteroni, A

    2005-04-01

    In this work we introduce and discuss several mathematical models, based on partial differential equations, devised to study the coupled transport of macromolecules as low-density lipoproteins in the blood stream and in the arterial walls. These models are accurate provided that a suitable set of physical parameters characterizing the physical properties of the molecules and of the wall layers are available. Here we turn our attention on this aspect, and propose a new methodology to compute the physical parameters needed for the model set up, starting from available in vivo measurements. Then, we focus on the study of the accumulation of low-density lipoproteins in vascular districts featuring a highly disturbed flow. Our results demonstrate that mathematical models whose set up procedure benefits from an experimental feedback provide reliable information not only qualitatively, but also quantitatively. Their application to geometrically perturbed vascular districts (as for example a severe stenosis) shows that geometrical parameters such as curvature and variations of the lumenal section strongly influence the accumulation of low-density lipoproteins within the wall. For instance, in a stenotic segment with 75% area constriction, the LDL concentration at the lumenal side of the wall is about 10% higher than for the undisturbed segment.

  2. Pregnancy losses in cattle: potential for improvement.

    PubMed

    Diskin, M G; Waters, S M; Parr, M H; Kenny, D A

    2016-01-01

    For heifers, beef and moderate-yielding dairy cows, it appears that the fertilisation rate generally lies between 90% and 100%. For high-producing dairy cows, there is a less substantive body of literature, but it would appear that the fertilisation rate is somewhat lower and possibly more variable. In cattle, the major component of embryo loss occurs in the first 16 days following breeding (Day 0), with emerging evidence of greater losses before Day 8 in high-producing dairy cows. In cattle, late embryo mortality causes serious economic losses because it is often recognised too late to rebreed females. Systemic concentrations of progesterone during both the cycle preceding and following insemination affect embryo survival, with evidence of either excessive or insufficient concentrations being negatively associated with survival rate. The application of direct progesterone supplementation or treatments to increase endogenous output of progesterone to increase embryo survival cannot be recommended at this time. Energy balance and dry matter intake during the first 4 weeks after calving are critically important in determining pregnancies per AI when cows are inseminated at 70-100 days after calving. Level of concentrate supplementation of cows at pasture during the breeding period has minimal effects on conception rates, although sudden reductions in dietary intake should be avoided. For all systems of milk production, more balanced breeding strategies with greater emphasis on fertility and feed intake and/or energy must be developed. There is genetic variability within the Holstein breed for fertility traits, which can be exploited. Genomic technology will not only provide scientists with an improved understanding of the underlying biological processes involved in fertilisation and the establishment of pregnancy, but also, in the future, could identify genes responsible for improved embryo survival. Such information could be incorporated into breeding objectives in

  3. Nitrogen loss from Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shematovich, V. I.; Johnson, R. E.; Michael, M.; Luhmann, J. G.

    2003-08-01

    Dissociation and dissociative ionization of molecular nitrogen by solar UV radiation and by photoelectrons and sputtering by the magnetospheric ions and pickup ions are the main sources of translationally excited (hot) nitrogen atoms and molecules in the upper atmosphere of Titan. As Titan does not posses an intrinsic magnetic field, Saturn's magnetospheric ions can penetrate Titan's exobase and sputter atoms and molecules from it. The sputtering of nitrogen from Titan's upper atmosphere by the corotating nitrogen ions and by photodissociation was addressed earlier [Lammer and Bauer, 1993; Shematovich et al., 2001]. Here penetration of slowed and deflected magnetospheric N+ and carbon-containing pickup ions is described using a Monte Carlo model. The interaction of these ions with the atmospheric neutrals leads to the production of fast neutrals that collide with other atmospheric neutrals producing heating and ejection of atoms and molecules. Results from Brecht et al. [2000] are used to estimate the net flux and energy spectra of the magnetospheric and pickup ions onto the exobase. Sputtering is primarily responsible for any ejected molecular nitrogen, and, for the ion fluxes used, we show that the total sputtering contribution is comparable to or larger than the dissociation contribution giving a total loss rate of ~3.6 × 1025 nitrogen neutrals per second.

  4. Vertigo and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Newman-Toker, David E; Della Santina, Charles C; Blitz, Ari M

    2016-01-01

    Symptoms referable to disorders affecting the inner ear and vestibulocochlear nerve (eighth cranial nerve) include dizziness, vertigo, tinnitus, and hearing loss, in various combinations. Similar symptoms may occur with involvement of the central nervous system, principally the brainstem and cerebellum, to which the vestibular and auditory systems are connected. Imaging choices should be tailored to patient symptoms and the clinical context. Computed tomography (CT) should be used primarily to assess bony structures. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be used primarily to assess soft-tissue structures. Vascular imaging by angiography or venography should be obtained when vascular lesions are suspected. No imaging should be obtained in patients with typical presentations of common peripheral vestibular or auditory disorders. In current clinical practice, neuroimaging is often overused, especially CT in the assessment of acute dizziness and vertigo in the emergency department. Despite low sensitivity for ischemic strokes, CT is often used to rule out neurologic causes. When ischemic stroke is the principal concern in acute vestibular presentations, imaging should almost always be by MRI with diffusion-weighted images, rather than CT. In this chapter, we describe recommended strategies for audiovestibular imaging based on patient symptoms and signs.

  5. Late Amazonian Glaciations in Utopia Planitia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinski, G. R.; Capitan, R. D.; Kerrigan, M.; Barry, N.; Blain, S.

    2012-03-01

    We present evidence from western Utopia Planitia, including lineated valley fill and lobate debris aprons, for widespread glaciations over a large expanse of the northern plains and dichotomy boundary during Late Amazonian times.

  6. 24 CFR 200.88 - Late charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement Generally... Requirements for Existing Projects Mortgage Provisions § 200.88 Late charge. The mortgage may provide for...

  7. 24 CFR 200.88 - Late charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement Generally... Requirements for Existing Projects Mortgage Provisions § 200.88 Late charge. The mortgage may provide for...

  8. Palaeoclimate: CO2 and late Palaeozoic glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Timothy S.

    2016-11-01

    Large glacial-interglacial fluctuations occurred during the late Palaeozoic. Geochemical and fossil data show these cycles were marked by coincident shifts in the carbon cycle and terrestrial biosphere.

  9. Late extrusion of alloplastic orbital floor implants.

    PubMed

    Brown, A E; Banks, P

    1993-06-01

    Complications following the use of alloplastic orbital floor implants are well documented but it is not widely recognised that these can occur many years after initial treatment. Three patients who presented with late extrusion of an implant through the facial skin are reported. This complication occurred 10, 16 and 17 years respectively after treatment of the orbital floor fracture. The tissue reaction to silicone rubber and Teflon inplants is reviewed and the possible cause for this late complication is discussed.

  10. Late effects of blood and marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Lee, Stephanie J

    2017-04-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation is a curative treatment for a variety of hematologic diseases. Advances in transplantation technology have reduced early transplant-related mortality and expanded application of transplantation to older patients and to a wider variety of diseases. Management of late effects after transplantation is increasingly important for a growing number of long-term survivors that is estimated to be half a million worldwide. Many studies have shown that transplant survivors suffer from significant late effects that adversely affect morbidity, mortality, working status and quality of life. Late effects include diseases of the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and endocrine systems, dysfunction of the thyroid gland, gonads, liver and kidneys, infertility, iron overload, bone diseases, infection, solid cancer, and neuropsychological effects. The leading causes of late mortality include recurrent malignancy, lung diseases, infection, secondary cancers and chronic graft-versus-host disease. The aim of this review is to facilitate better care of adult transplant survivors by summarizing accumulated evidence, new insights, and practical information about individual late effects. Further research is needed to understand the biology of late effects allowing better prevention and treatment strategies to be developed.

  11. Late onset cerebellar cortical degeneration in a koala.

    PubMed

    Kuwamura, M; Murai, F; Nishioka, S; Aoki, M; Ohashi, F; Yamate, J; Kotani, T; Summers, B A

    2009-08-01

    A 10-year-old male koala started to fall from the tree while sleeping. Subsequently, the koala often fell down while walking and showed a gait abnormality, abnormal nystagmus and hypersalivation. At 12 years of age, the koala became ataxic and seemed blind. At 13 years of age, the koala exhibited signs of dysstasia and was euthanased. Necropsy revealed marked symmetrical atrophy of the cerebellum. Histopathologically, a severe loss of Purkinje and granule cells was evident in the cerebellum, while the molecular layer was more cellular than normal with cells resembling small neurons, which were positively stained with parvalbumin immunohistochemistry. Reactive Bergmann glial cells (astrocytes) were present adjacent to the depleted Purkinje cell zone. The very late onset and slow progression of the cerebellar cortical degeneration in this case is particularly interesting and appears to be the first report in the koala.

  12. Palaeolimnological evidence of late-Holocene settlement and abandonment in the Mirador Basin, Peten, Guatemala

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wahl, D.; Byrne, R.; Schreiner, T.; Hansen, R.

    2007-01-01

    Pollen, loss on ignition and magnetic susceptibility analyses provide a high-resolution palaeoenvironmental record from Lago Puerto Arturo, Peten, Guatemala. The presence of Zea pollen -2650 BC provides a latest date for the arrival of maize agriculture to the region. The following 3600 years are marked by significant opening of the forest and episodic pulses of erosion. During the early Preclassic, around 1450 BC, all proxies indicate an abrupt increase in human activity, coincident with archaeological evidence of early settlement. Three discrete periods of decreased human activity are indicated by cessations of landscape disturbance. Such decreased human activity likely reflects periodic local population decline. These events coincide with times of cultural transition in the Maya lowlands and correspond to the terminal phases of the middle Preclassic, late Preclassic and late Classic periods. There is no evidence for human activity in the area following the late Classic abandonment. ?? 2007 SAGE Publications.

  13. Treatment with acarbose in severe hypoglycaemia due to late dumping syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congcong; Pang, Shuguang; Jiang, Qiang; Duan, Guanglan; Sun, Yongmei; Li, Mei

    2013-12-01

    Dumping syndrome is a serious complication that may occur after gastric surgery in approximately 10% of patients in the 1990s. With the increasing number of patients undergoing bariatric surgery, the incidence of dumping syndrome is likely to increase in recent years. It is necessary for clinicians to recognize the syndrome and master its management. We present a case of recurrent loss of consciousness, which was finally accurately diagnosed as late dumping syndrome twelve years after subtotal gastrectomy and successfully treated with acarbose. A 66-year old lean male was found unconscious repeatedly within one year, oral glucose tolerance tests performed before and after acarbose treatment verified the diagnosis of late dumping syndrome. Hypoglycaemia can damage the body in acute and chronic form. Acarbose can be used as a successful treatment modality for reactive hypoglycaemia due to late dumping syndrome by influencing the release of hormone.

  14. Losses in radial inflow turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khalil, I. M.; Tabakoff, W.; Hamed, A.

    1976-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine experimentally and theoretically the losses in radial inflow turbine nozzles. Extensive experimental data was obtained to investigate the flow behavior in a full-scale radial turbine stator annulus. A theoretical model to predict the losses in both the vaned and vaneless regions of the nozzle was developed. In this analysis, the interaction effects between the stator and the rotor are not considered. It was found that the losses incurred due to the end wall boundary layers can be significant, especially if they are characterized by a strong crossflow. The losses estimated using the analytical study are compared with the experimentally determined values.

  15. Understanding quality-of-life while living with late-stage lung cancer: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Adorno, Gail; Brownell, Gracie

    2014-01-01

    U.S. Veterans have a higher prevalence of advanced lung cancer and poorer survival outcomes compared to the general population; yet, no studies exist which specifically explore the psychosocial and existential quality-of-life (QOL) of late-stage lung cancer among this population. This article presents the perspectives of older veterans (N = 12) living with late-stage lung cancer who were receiving chemotherapy, routine hospice care, or both concurrently. Based on individual interviews, themes associated with loss of functionality, close relationships, and communicative acts contributed to veterans' perceptions of diminished or enhanced QOL while living with advanced disease. An overarching theme, loss of the person I know myself to be, suggests that personhood is an important concept to consider in QOL assessment. While findings suggest that the experiences of older Veterans with late-stage lung cancer are similar to other populations of lung cancer patients, and persons with incurable cancer in general, further research regarding the influence of veteran identity at end-of-life is warranted. Further research is needed which explores the influence of a whole person approach to QOL during life-limiting illness and end-of-life decision-making, particularly while receiving late-stage cancer-directed therapy.

  16. Shear Stress, Energy Losses, and Costs: A Resolved Dilemma of Pulsatile Cardiac Assist Devices

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Dai, Gang; Carbognani, Daniel; Yang, Daya; Wu, Guifu; Wang, Qinmei; Chachques, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac assist devices (CAD) cause endothelial dysfunction with considerable morbidity. Employment of pulsatile CAD remains controversial due to inadequate perfusion curves and costs. Alternatively, we are proposing a new concept of pulsatile CAD based on a fundamental revision of the entire circulatory system in correspondence with the physiopathology and law of physics. It concerns a double lumen disposable tube device that could be adapted to conventional cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and/or CAD, for inducing a homogenous, downstream pulsatile perfusion mode with lower energy losses. In this study, the device's prototypes were tested in a simulated conventional pediatric CPB circuit for energy losses and as a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) in ischemic piglets model for endothelial shear stress (ESS) evaluations. In conclusion and according to the study results the pulsatile tube was successfully capable of transforming a conventional CPB and/or CAD steady flow into a pulsatile perfusion mode, with nearly physiologic pulse pressure and lower energy losses. This represents a cost-effective promising method with low mortality and morbidity, especially in fragile cardiac patients. PMID:24511541

  17. Efficacy of fungicide combinations, phosphoric acid, and plant extract from stinging nettle on potato late blight management and tuber yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans is a major constraint to potato production. Inadequate management of the disease has often resulted in heavy losses in various production regions. We assessed the efficacy of fungicides, phosphoric acid, and stinging nettle plant extract combinations for...

  18. Aircraft Loss of Control Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control has become the leading cause of jet fatalities worldwide. Aside from their frequency of occurrence, accidents resulting from loss of aircraft control seize the public s attention by yielding large numbers of fatalities in a single event. In response to the rising threat to aviation safety, NASA's Aviation Safety Program has conducted a study of the loss of control problem. This study gathered four types of information pertaining to loss of control accidents: (1) statistical data; (2) individual accident reports that cite loss of control as a contributing factor; (3) previous meta-analyses of loss of control accidents; and (4) inputs solicited from aircraft manufacturers, air carriers, researchers, and other industry stakeholders. Using these information resources, the study team identified causal factors that were cited in the greatest number of loss of control accidents, and which were emphasized most by industry stakeholders. For each causal factor that was linked to loss of control, the team solicited ideas about what solutions are required and future research efforts that could potentially help avoid their occurrence or mitigate their consequences when they occurred in flight.

  19. Energy losses in photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anis, Wagdy R.; Nour, M. Abdulsadek

    1994-10-01

    The maximum power generated by photovoltaic (PV) arrays is not fully used. During summer, the main cause for the energy loss is the system design that necessitates an oversizing of the PV array to supply the load during the winter season when the solar energy is limited. Other reasons that cause energy loss are: the mismatch between the array and the load or battery, the loss in the batteries, and the loss due to the PV array disconnect. The array disconnect loss takes place during summer season when the battery is fully charged. To avoid the disconnect loss, a novel battery voltage regulator (BVR) is used. This supplies the load directly from the array when the battery is fully charged. Energy losses have been analyzed and divided into fundamental (unavoidable) and non-fundamental losses. Both conventional (using a conventional BVR) and new (using a novel BVR) PV systems are studied. A load that consumes constant power for 24 h a day through the year is considered. The climatic condition of Cairo city is taken as the test case.

  20. The Stigma of Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallhagen, Margaret I.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To explore dimensions of stigma experienced by older adults with hearing loss and those with whom they frequently communicate to target interventions promoting engagement and positive aging. Design and Methods: This longitudinal qualitative study conducted interviews over 1 year with dyads where one partner had hearing loss. Participants…

  1. Genes and Syndromic Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keats, Bronya J. B.

    2002-01-01

    This article provides a description of the human genome and patterns of inheritance and discusses genes that are associated with some of the syndromes for which hearing loss is a common finding, including: Waardenburg, Stickler, Jervell and Lange-Neilsen, Usher, Alport, mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, and sensorineural hearing loss. (Contains…

  2. The Loss of Language Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Richard D., Ed.; Freed, Barbara F., Ed.

    Papers are presented on the loss of language skills by those who have studied and then discontinued the use of a second language. The scope of the papers is summarized and dimensions of language attrition research is briefly discussed. Theoretical aspects of psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics with special relevance to language loss are…

  3. Precursors and Correlates of Anxiety Trajectories from Late Childhood to Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letcher, Primrose; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana; Toumbourou, John W.

    2012-01-01

    The present research employed a prospective, multi-informant design to examine precursors and correlates of differing anxiety profiles from late childhood to late adolescence. The sample consisted of 626 boys and 667 girls who are participants in the Australian Temperament Project, a large, longitudinal, community-based study that has followed…

  4. Loss of Notch signalling induced by Dll4 causes arterial calibre reduction by increasing endothelial cell response to angiogenic stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Benedito, Rui; Trindade, Alexandre; Hirashima, Masanori; Henrique, Domingos; da Costa, Luis Lopes; Rossant, Janet; Gill, Parkash S; Duarte, António

    2008-01-01

    Background In the vascular system, Notch receptors and ligands are expressed mainly on arteries, with Delta-like 4 (Dll4) being the only ligand known to be expressed early during the development of arterial endothelial cells and capillaries. Dll4 null embryos die very early in development with severely reduced arterial calibre and lumen and loss of arterial cell identity. Results The current detailed analysis of these mutants shows that the arterial defect precedes the initiation of blood flow and that the arterial Dll4-/- endothelial cells proliferate and migrate more actively. Dll4-/- mutants reveal a defective basement membrane around the forming aorta and increased endothelial cell migration from the dorsal aorta to peripheral regions, which constitute the main causes of arterial lumen reduction in these embryos. The increased proliferation and migration of Dll4-/- endothelial cells was found to coincide with increased expression of the receptors VEGFR-2 and Robo4 and with downregulation of the TGF-β accessory receptor Endoglin. Conclusion Together, these results strongly suggest that Notch signalling can increase arterial stability and calibre by decreasing the response of arterial endothelial cells to local gradients of pro-angiogenic factors like VEGF. PMID:19087347

  5. Momentum and energy balance in late-type stellar winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macgregor, K. B.

    1981-01-01

    Observations at ultraviolet and X-ray wavelengths indicate that the classical picture of a static stellar atmosphere containing a radiative equilibrium temperature distribution is inapplicable to the majority of late type stars. Mass loss and the presence of atmospheric regions characterized by gas temperatures in excess of the stellar effective temperature appear to be almost ubiquitous throughout the HR diagram. Evidence pertaining to the thermal and dynamical structure of the outer envelopes of cool stars is summarized. These results are compared with the predictions of several theoretical models which were proposed to account for mass loss from latetype stars. Models in which the outflow is thermally radiatively, or wave driven are considered for identification of the physical processes responsible for the observed wind properties. The observed variation of both the wind, thermal and dynamical structure as one proceeds from the supergiant branch toward the main sequence in the cool portion of the HR diagram give consideration to potential mechanisms for heating and cooling the flow from low gravity stars.

  6. Double-lumen catheter in the right jugular vein induces two sub-endothelial abscesses in an unusual place, the transition between the superior vena cava and the right atrium: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Endocarditis is a type of infection that is common in internal medicine wards and in haemodialysis clinics. The location that is most affected are the heart valves. Herein, we report a case of an uncommon abscess, a sub-endothelial abscess between the transition of the superior vena cava and the right atrium. There were several emboli to the lung and foot, and the agent was related to Staphylococcus aureus and a double-lumen catheter. Usually, this type of abscess is located in valves, either the tricuspid valve if related to catheters or injection drug use or the mitral valve if related to other causes. An exhaustive review was made, but we found no information about the location of this abscess and the rarity of the event motivating the report of infection. PMID:25110520

  7. Race nonspecific resistance for potato late blight.

    PubMed

    Staples, Richard C

    2004-01-01

    The late blight fungus (Phytophthora infestans) rots susceptible species of potato plants. None of the major varieties of potato (Solanum tuberosum) grown in the USA is resistant to US-8, the most prevalent genotype of the fungus. Now, Junqi Song, James Bradeen and colleagues have cloned the RB gene from the wild diploid potato species, Solanum bulbocastanum, using a map-based approach in combination with long-range PCR. Transgenic plants containing the gene, normally fully susceptible, displayed broad-spectrum late blight resistance.

  8. Eating Disorders in Late-life

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Antonina; Luca, Maria; Calandra2, Carmela

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders are a heterogeneous group of complex psychiatric disorders characterized by abnormal eating behaviours that lead to a high rate of morbidity, or even death, if underestimated and untreated. The main disorders enlisted in the chapter of the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders-5 dedicated to “Feeding and Eating Disorders” are: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Even though these abnormal behaviours are mostly diagnosed during childhood, interesting cases of late-life eating disorders have been reported in literature. In this review, these eating disorders are discussed, with particular attention to the diagnosis and management of those cases occurring in late-life. PMID:25657852

  9. Late infection in Dacron arterial grafts.

    PubMed

    Harvey, D R; Bliss, B P

    1975-06-01

    We report a series of cases of late infection in Dacron arterial grafts. Late infection is defined as that presenting de novo 6 months or more after the patient's discharge from hospital with a clean healed wound. One hundred and ten patients were followed up and 6 cases of this type of infection occurred. The diagnosis was made on clinical grounds and usually pain, suppuration in the line of graft, or graft exposure were the presenting features. Secondary haemorrhage, common in early infection, did not occur. Conservative management failed in most cases and removal of the infected graft was necessary. The difficult problems associated with revascularization are discussed.

  10. Weight loss maintenance: A review on dietary related strategies

    PubMed Central

    Soeliman, Fatemeh Azizi; Azadbakht, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Background: Weight regain after weight loss is a common problem for all those obese or overweight who have had a recent weight loss. Different cures such as diet therapy, behavioral therapy, exercise or a mixture of them have been advised as solutions. The purpose of this review is to find the best diet or eating pattern to maintain a recent weight loss. Materials and Methods: We searched in PubMed and SCOPUS by using the following key words: Overweight, obesity, weight maintenance, weight regain, and diet therapy. Finally, we assessed 26 articles in the present article. Results: Meal replacement, low carbohydrate-low glycemic index (GI) diet, high protein intake, and moderate fat consumption have shown some positive effects on weight maintenance. However, the results are controversial. A Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-type diet seems helpful for weight maintenance although the need for more study has remained. Some special behaviors were associated with less weight regain, such as, not being awake late at night, drinking lower amount of sugar-sweetened beverages, and following a healthy pattern. Some special foods have been suggested for weight maintenance. However, the roles of specific foods are not confirmed. Conclusion: Healthy diets recommend low carbohydrate, low GI, and moderate fat foods, but it is not clear whether they are useful in preventing weight gain. It seems that consuming fewer calories helps people to keep weight loss. Further research to find strategies in obesity management focusing on successful maintenance of weight loss is needed. PMID:24949037

  11. Archean inheritance in zircon from late Paleozoic granites from the Avalon zone of southeastern New England: an African connection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zartman, R.E.; Don, Hermes O.

    1987-01-01

    In southeastern New England the Narragansett Pier Granite locally intrudes Carboniferous metasedimentary rocks of the Narragansett basin, and yields a monazite UPb Permian emplacement age of 273 ?? 2 Ma. Zircon from the Narragansett Pier Granite contains a minor but detectable amount of an older, inherited component, and shows modern loss of lead. Zircon from the late-stage, aplitic Westerly Granite exhibits a more pronounced lead inheritance -permitting the inherited component to be identified as Late Archean. Such old relict zircon has not been previously recognized in Proterozoic to Paleozoic igneous rocks in New England, and may be restricted to late Paleozoic rocks of the Avalon zone. We suggest that the Archean crustal component reflects an African connection, in which old Archean crust was underplated to the Avalon zone microplate in the late Paleozoic during collision of Gondwanaland with Avalonia. ?? 1987.

  12. Trends in global earthquake loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnst, Isabel; Wenzel, Friedemann; Daniell, James

    2016-04-01

    Based on the CATDAT damage and loss database we analyse global trends of earthquake losses (in current values) and fatalities for the period between 1900 and 2015 from a statistical perspective. For this time period the data are complete for magnitudes above 6. First, we study the basic statistics of losses and find that losses below 10 bl. US satisfy approximately a power law with an exponent of 1.7 for the cumulative distribution. Higher loss values are modelled with the General Pareto Distribution (GPD). The 'transition' between power law and GPD is determined with the Mean Excess Function. We split the data set into a period of pre 1955 and post 1955 loss data as in those periods the exposure is significantly different due to population growth. The Annual Average Loss (AAL) for direct damage for events below 10 bl. US differs by a factor of 6, whereas the incorporation of the extreme loss events increases the AAL from 25 bl. US/yr to 30 bl. US/yr. Annual Average Deaths (AAD) show little (30%) difference for events below 6.000 fatalities and AAD values of 19.000 and 26.000 deaths per year if extreme values are incorporated. With data on the global Gross Domestic Product (GDP) that reflects the annual expenditures (consumption, investment, government spending) and on capital stock we relate losses to the economic capacity of societies and find that GDP (in real terms) grows much faster than losses so that the latter one play a decreasing role given the growing prosperity of mankind. This reasoning does not necessarily apply on a regional scale. Main conclusions of the analysis are that (a) a correct projection of historic loss values to nowadays US values is critical; (b) extreme value analysis is mandatory; (c) growing exposure is reflected in the AAL and AAD results for the periods pre and post 1955 events; (d) scaling loss values with global GDP data indicates that the relative size - from a global perspective - of losses decreases rapidly over time.

  13. Pediatric Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Kizilay, Ahmet; Koca, Çiğdem Firat

    2016-06-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is defined as sudden unilateral or bilateral sensorineural hearing loss with at least 30 dB decrease in threshold in 3 contiguous test frequencies occurring over 72 hours or less. It is rare among children. The mechanism of the process and prognosis of the disorder remains unclear. The current incidence of sudden sensorineural hearing loss among pediatric population is unknown. The authors carried out a retrospective chart analysis of patients under 15 years of age from 2004 to 2015, who consulted to the Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery Department of Inonu University Medical Faculty. Age, sex, number of affected ear and side, audiometric evaluations, medical follow-up, treatment method, duration of treatment recovery, associated complaints; tinnitus and/or vertigo, presence of mumps disease were recorded for each patient. A 4-frequency pure-tone average (500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz) was calculated for each ear. Complete recovery, defined as some hearing level compared with the nonaffected ear, was observed in 3 patients (21.4 %) and there was no partial hearing recovery. The hearing loss of 11 patient remained unchanged after prednisolone treatment. Two of the 11 patients had bilaterally total sensorineural hearing loss and evaluated as appropriate for cochlear implantation. Sex of patient and laterality of hearing loss were not correlated with hearing recovery. Sensorineural hearing loss among pediatrics has been the issue of otolaryngologists. The incidence, etiology, and treatment methods should be more studied.

  14. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Late Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calamari, John E.; Pontarelli, Noelle K.; Armstrong, Kerrie M.; Salstrom, Seoka A.

    2012-01-01

    Although obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has received increasing attention, the study and treatment of OCD in late life has been neglected. The obsessions and compulsions seen with older adults do not appear to differ from the symptoms experienced by other age groups, although developmental issues might influence symptom focus (e.g., memory…

  15. Successful School Principalship in Late-Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulford, Bill; Edmunds, Bill; Ewington, John; Kendall, Lawrie; Kendall, Diana; Silins, Halia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Who are late-career school principals? Do they continue to make a positive contribution to their schools? Do they feel tired and trapped or do they maintain their commitment to education and young people? The purpose of this paper is to explore these issues, employing the results of a survey on successful school principalship with the…

  16. Fast Mapping in Late-Talking Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weismer, Susan Ellis; Venker, Courtney E.; Evans, Julia L.; Moyle, Maura Jones

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated fast mapping in late-talking (LT) toddlers and toddlers with normal language (NL) development matched on age, nonverbal cognition, and maternal education. The fast-mapping task included novel object labels and familiar words. The LT group scored significantly lower than the NL group on novel word comprehension and…

  17. 30 CFR 870.21 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Late payments. 870.21 Section 870.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE... Treasury's Web site. (b) We will charge interest on unpaid reclamation fees from the 31st day following...

  18. 50 CFR 600.1015 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Late charges. 600.1015 Section 600.1015 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Fishing Capacity Reduction Framework § 600.1015...

  19. 50 CFR 600.1015 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Late charges. 600.1015 Section 600.1015 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Fishing Capacity Reduction Framework § 600.1015...

  20. 50 CFR 600.1015 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Late charges. 600.1015 Section 600.1015 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Fishing Capacity Reduction Framework § 600.1015...

  1. 50 CFR 600.1015 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Late charges. 600.1015 Section 600.1015 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... one and one-half (1.5) percent per month, or the maximum rate permitted by state law, for the...

  2. 50 CFR 600.1015 - Late charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Late charges. 600.1015 Section 600.1015 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... one and one-half (1.5) percent per month, or the maximum rate permitted by state law, for the...

  3. Systemic Therapies for Late-stage Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Peter W.; Friedlander, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Late-stage melanoma is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Classic treatment methods relied on cytotoxic chemotherapy, which is limited by low response rates and significant adverse effects. Recent advances in immunogenetics have led to the advent of important new systemictreatments.Thisarticle reviews the latest therapy options for advanced melanoma. PMID:27847547

  4. 7 CFR 925.141 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Late payments. 925.141 Section 925.141 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  5. 7 CFR 925.141 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Late payments. 925.141 Section 925.141 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  6. 7 CFR 925.141 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Late payments. 925.141 Section 925.141 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  7. 7 CFR 925.141 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Late payments. 925.141 Section 925.141 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  8. 7 CFR 925.141 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Late payments. 925.141 Section 925.141 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  9. Late Quaternary mammalian zoogeography of eastern Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, R. Lee; Livingston, Stephanie D.

    1983-11-01

    The late Quaternary mammalian zoogeographic history of eastern Washington as revealed by archaeological and paleontological research conforms to a set of past environmental conditions inferred from botanical data. During the relatively cool and moist late Pleistocene and early Holocene, Cervus cf. elaphus, Ovis canadensis, Vulpes vulpes, Martes americana, Alopex lagopus, and perhaps Rangifer sp., taxa with ecological preferences for mesic steppe habitats, were present in the now xeric Columbia Basin. As the climate became progressively warmer and drier during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene, Antilocapra americana, Onychomys leucogaster, Spermophilus townsendii, and Neotoma cinerea, taxa with ecological preferences for xeric steppe habitats, appear in the Columbia Basin. Bison sp. and Taxidea taxus may have been present in eastern Washington for the last 20,000 yr. Middle and late Holocene records for Oreamnos americanus, Spermophilus columbianus, S. townsendii, Lagurus curtatus, and Urocyon cinereoargenteus in central eastern Washington suggest fluctuations in the ranges of these taxa that conform to a middle Holocene period of less effective precipitation and a ca. 3500-yr-old period of more effective precipitation before essentially modern environmental conditions prevailed.

  10. Late Quaternary stratigraphic charcoal records from Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burney, David A.

    1987-09-01

    The classic view regarding the cause of the extinction of at least 17 species of large mammals, birds, and reptiles in Madagascar during the late Holocene implicates human use of fire to modify the environment. However, analysis of the charcoal stratigraphy of three sediment cores from Madagascar shows that late Pleistocene and early- to mid-Holocene sediments deposited prior to human settlement often contain more charcoal than postsettlement and modern sediments. This observation, which is confirmed by independent measurements from direct assay and palynological counting techniques, suggests that widely held but previously untested beliefs concerning the importance of anthropogenic fires in late Holocene environmental changes and megafaunal extinctions of Madagascar may be based on an overly simplified version of actual prehistoric conditions. Moderate to low charcoal values characterized only the late Holocene millennia immediately prior to the presumed time of arrival of the first settlers. Human settlement is probably indicated in the stratigraphy by the sharp rise in charcoal content observed beginning ca. 1500 yr B.P. Fire appears to be a significant natural component of prehuman environments in Madagascar, but some factor, probably climate, has modulated the extent of natural burning.

  11. Late glacial aridity in southern Rocky Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, O.K.; Pitblado, B.L.

    1995-09-01

    While the slopes of the present-day Colorado Rocky Mountains are characterized by large stands of subalpine and montane conifers, the Rockies of the late glacial looked dramatically different. Specifically, pollen records suggest that during the late glacial, Artemisia and Gramineae predominated throughout the mountains of Colorado. At some point between 11,000 and 10,000 B.P., however, both Artemisia and grasses underwent a dramatic decline, which can be identified in virtually every pollen diagram produced for Colorado mountain sites, including Como Lake (Sangre de Cristo Mountains), Copley Lake and Splains; Gulch (near Crested Butte), Molas Lake (San Juan Mountains), and Redrock Lake (Boulder County). Moreover, the same pattern seems to hold for pollen spectra derived for areas adjacent to Colorado, including at sites in the Chuska Mountains of New Mexico and in eastern Wyoming. The implications of this consistent finding are compelling. The closest modem analogues to the Artemisia- and Gramineae-dominated late-glacial Colorado Rockies are found in the relatively arid northern Great Basin, which suggests that annual precipitation was much lower in the late-glacial southern Rocky Mountains than it was throughout the Holocene.

  12. Vocabulary of Toddlers Who Are Late Talkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Shafer, Valerie L.; Fahey, Katlin J.; Kaden, Elyssa R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand vocabulary characteristics in toddlers who are late talkers (LT) as compared with age-matched (AM) and vocabulary-matched (VM) peers. The semantic categories (e.g., animals, foods, toys) and the percentage of nouns, verbs, and closed-class words in the vocabularies of 36 toddlers (12 LT, 12 AM, 12 VM)…

  13. 7 CFR 920.112 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Late payments. 920.112 Section 920.112 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN...

  14. 7 CFR 920.112 - Late payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Late payments. 920.112 Section 920.112 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN...

  15. The late maintenance of hippocampal LTP: requirements, phases, 'synaptic tagging', 'late-associativity' and implications.

    PubMed

    Reymann, Klaus G; Frey, Julietta U

    2007-01-01

    Our review focuses on the mechanisms which enable the late maintenance of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP; >3h), a phenomenon which is thought to underlie prolonged memory. About 20 years ago we showed for the first time that the maintenance of LTP - like memory storage--depends on intact protein synthesis and thus, consists of at least two temporal phases. Here we concentrate on mechanisms required for the induction of the transient early-LTP and of the protein synthesis-dependent late-LTP. Our group has shown that the induction of late-LTP requires the associative activation of heterosynaptic inputs, i.e. the synergistic activation of glutamatergic and modulatory, reinforcing inputs within specific, effective time windows. The induction of late-LTP is characterized by novel, late-associative properties such as 'synaptic tagging' and 'late-associative reinforcement'. Both phenomena require the associative setting of synaptic tags as well as the availability of plasticity-related proteins (PRPs) and they are restricted to functional dendritic compartments, in general. 'Synaptic tagging' guarantees input specificity and thus the specific processing of afferent signals for the establishment of late-LTP. 'Late-associative reinforcement' describes a process where early-LTP by the co-activation of modulatory inputs can be transformed into late-LTP in activated synapses where a tag is set. Recent evidence from behavioral experiments, which studied processes of emotional and cognitive reinforcement of LTP, point to the physiological relevance of the above mechanisms during cellular and system's memory formation.

  16. Characterization of Mre11 Loss Following HSV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Devon A.; Bachenheimer, Steven L.

    2008-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus induces the activation of the cellular DNA double strand break response pathway dependent upon initiation of viral DNA replication. The MRN complex, consisting of Mre11, Rad50 and Nbs1, is an essential component of the DNA double strand break response and other reports have documented its presence at sites of viral DNA replication, interaction with ICP8, and its contribution to efficient viral DNA replication. During our characterization of the DSB response following infection of normal human fibroblasts and telomerase-immortalized keratinocytes, we observed the loss of Mre11 protein at late times following infection. The loss was not dependent upon ICP0, the proteasome, or lysosomal protease activity. Like activation of the DSB response pathway, Mre11 loss was prevented under conditions which inhibited viral DNA replication. Analysis of a series of mutant viruses with defects in cleavage and packaging (UL6, UL15, UL17, UL25, UL28, UL32) of viral DNA or in the maturational protease (UL26), failed to identify a viral gene product necessary for Mre11 loss. Inactivation of ATM, a key effector kinase in the DNA double strand break response, had no effect on Mre11 loss and only a moderate effect on HSV yield. Finally, treatment of uninfected cells with the topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin, to induce generation of free DNA ends, also resulted in Mre11 loss. These results suggest that Mre11 loss following infection is caused by the generation of free DNA ends during or following viral DNA replication. PMID:18177684

  17. Evidence for Arctic Ozone Depletion in Late February and early March 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, G. L.; Zurek, R. W.; Froidevaux, L.; Waters, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    Significant chemical ozone (O3 ) loss in the 1993-94 Arctic winter occurred mainly during an unusually late cold spell of approximately 10 days in late Feb/early Mar. Over the 30 d period studied (including the cold spell), observed vortex-averaged O3 at 465 K (approximately 40 hPa) decreased by approximately 10%. New three-dimensional, diabatic trajectory calculations show that this observed decrease represents only about half of the net chemical loss (approximately 20%) during the 30 day period. The resupply of lower stratospheric O3 by transport in Feb 1994 was considerably greater than in 1993, when transport masked only about a quarter of the chemical loss in Feb/Mar. The net estimated chemical loss over 30 days in 1994 was comparable to that over the same 30 days in 1993, but mainly occurred at a faster rate during the brief cold spell. These results highlight the impact of Arctic interannual variability on the relative roles of chemistry and dynamics in O3 evolution during recent Arctic winters.

  18. Dielectric loss in microstrip lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, T. L.; Tseng, B.

    1976-01-01

    A technique is presented for calculating dielectric loss in microstrip lines. Numerical results for several different substrates are included. These are compared with other available results and experimental data.

  19. Sudden hearing loss in children.

    PubMed

    Ječmenica, Jovana; Bajec-Opančina, Aleksandra

    2014-08-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) is defined as a unilateral or bilateral sensorineural hearing loss with at least 30 dB decrease in threshold in 3 contiguous test frequencies occurring over 72 hours or less. It is very rare in children. Sudden hearing loss is a symptom that suggests that there is a problem in the inner ear, surrounding structures, or the whole organism. The etiology and development of this disorder are still not fully understood. The literature contains numerous models of the pathogenesis of SSHL, with childhood SSHL having certain peculiarities. In practical terms, the multifactorial nature of SSHL is important in the choice of diagnostic methods and treatment methods. It is important to determine the cause and effect relationship between the underlying disease and hearing loss.

  20. Loss and damage post Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petherick, Anna

    2016-08-01

    The Paris Agreement gave the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage a permanent and potentially prominent place in climate negotiations, but beyond that its impact remains wide open for interpretation.