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Sample records for late lumen loss

  1. Mechanisms of late lumen loss after antiproliferative percutaneous coronary intervention using beta-irradiation in a porcine model of restenosis.

    PubMed

    Deiner, Carolin; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Rauch, Ursula; Rosenthal, Peter; Pauschinger, Matthias; Schwimmbeck, Peter L; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Pels, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    The short-term results for the prevention of coronary restenosis after intravascular brachytherapy (IVBT) and use of drug-eluting stents (DESs) are excellent. The long-term results either lack or present with late complications (e.g., late thrombosis and late catch-up phenomenon leading to late restenosis even years after the initial procedure). Both IVBT and DESs mediate their potent antirestenotic effects via a cytostatic mechanism, but the cardiovascular pathology at late time points after the use of these antiproliferative therapies is incompletely understood. This study investigated the long-term effects of antiproliferative beta-irradiation in a clinically relevant porcine coronary model to address the pathophysiology of late coronary restenosis after antiproliferative vascular interventions. We performed percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) in two major coronary arteries in 12 domestic crossbred pigs. One of the two balloon-injured segments was randomly assigned to receive immediate beta-irradiation (PTCA+IVBT group) using a noncentered delivery catheter (20 Gy; Novoste Beta-Cath System, Novoste, Norcross, GA, USA). The animals were sacrificed after 14 days (n=6) or 3 months (n=6). The luminal area in the PTCA+IVBT group decreased significantly 3 months after the intervention as compared with that in the PTCA group (PTCA 3.45+/-0.46 mm2 vs. PTCA+IVBT 1.22+/-0.26 mm2; P=.0017). This lumen loss was primarily due to shrinkage of the external elastic lamina area (negative arterial remodeling; PTCA 5.22+/-0.27 mm2 vs. PTCA+IVBT 3.42+/-0.45 mm2; P=.0064), which was accompanied by an increase in the adventitial area (PTCA 3.07+/-0.2 mm2 vs. PTCA+IVBT 5.41+/-0.5 mm2; P=.0049). The application of antiproliferative radiation in a porcine coronary model caused an early beneficial effect (reduction of intimal-medial lesion and luminal gain) that was followed by a late lumen loss primarily due to negative arterial remodeling. This mechanism may in part

  2. Nf-kappab and AP-1 activation is associated with late lumen loss after porcine coronary angioplasty and antiproliferative beta-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Deiner, Carolin; Shagdarsuren, Erdenechimeg; Schwimmbeck, Peter L; Rosenthal, Peter; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Rauch, Ursula; Pauschinger, Matthias; Dietz, Rainer; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Dechend, Ralf; Pels, Klaus

    2007-07-01

    Despite the success of antiproliferative therapies, restenosis remains a common problem after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). Longer-term clinical results of brachytherapy (intracoronary radiation), the lack of long-term clinical results after implantation of drug eluting stents, and the occurrence of late thrombosis after both procedures leave room for skepticism. Neointimal proliferation is not substantially inhibited at late time points after brachytherapy, and late lumen loss with a "catch-up" proliferation can occur. We hypothesized that the transcription factors nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-kappaB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) are involved in these processes. We addressed the role of these mediators in a porcine model of coronary restenosis. Thirty-nine pigs underwent PTCA in two major coronary arteries. One of the two balloon-injured arteries was randomly assigned to receive immediate 20 Gy beta-irradiation (Brachy group) using a noncentered source train ((90)Sr/Y Beta-Cath, Novoste). Animals were sacrificed after 1 day, 14 days, or 28 days. Proliferating cells were labeled prior to euthanasia. At late time points, lumen area was significantly smaller and the inflammatory response was more pronounced in the Brachy group than in the PTCA group. These findings coincided with sustained activation of MMP-9 and transcription factors like NF-kappaB and AP-1. Initially, cell proliferation was reduced in the Brachy group; however, at late time points, differences between the two treatment groups were no longer significant. Brachytherapy initially inhibits cell proliferation; however, cellular and molecular inflammatory processes (e.g. activation of NF-kappaB) are enhanced within the arterial wall. This proinflammatory side effect may be responsible for the observed delayed proliferation and the resulting lumen loss.

  3. Evolution of angiographic restenosis rate and late lumen loss after intracoronary beta radiation for in-stent restenotic lesions.

    PubMed

    Schiele, Thomas M; Pöllinger, Barbara; Kantlehner, Ralf; Rieber, Johannes; König, Andreas; Seelig, Viktória; Krötz, Florian; Sohn, Hae-Young; Siebert, Uwe; Dühmke, Eckhart; Theisen, Karl; Klauss, Volker

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the time course of angiographic restenosis rate and late loss after successful percutaneous coronary intervention and vascular brachytherapy with beta-irradiation using strontium-90/yttrium-90 in 98 patients who were prospectively enrolled into a quantitative angiographic and clinical follow-up protocol at 6, 12, and 24 months after the index procedure, regardless of their symptom status. Actuarial restenosis rates measured 11.2 +/- 5% at 6 months of follow-up, 24.5 +/- 5% at 12 months, and 28.5 +/- 6% at 24 months, respectively. Late loss of the stent segment during the first 6 months measured 0.38 +/- 0.40 mm (6 to 12 months: 0.25 +/- 0.38 mm; 12 to 24 months: 0.16 +/- 0.32 mm), of the injured segment 0.27 +/- 0.21 mm (6 to 12 months: 0.21 +/- 0.26 mm; 12 to 24 months: 0.13 +/- 0.24 mm), of the irradiated segment 0.18 +/- 0.29 mm (6 to 12 months: 0.19 +/- 0.31 mm; 12 to 24 months: 0.11 +/- 0.27 mm), and of the analysis segment 0.18 +/- 0.36 mm (6 to 12 months: 0.17 +/- 0.29 mm; 12 to 24 months: 0.11 +/- 0.20 mm). Restenosis after angioplasty and beta-irradiation of in-stent restenotic lesions is not complete within 6 months but is sustained with a gradual decrease over 24 months.

  4. Late Double-Barrel Lumen Following Successful CTO-PCI Using the Crossboss Stingray System.

    PubMed

    Roy, James; Rees, David; Ramsay, David; Weaver, James

    2017-02-01

    There remains limited randomized controlled trials on long-term clinical outcomes after chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention (CTO-PCI). New techniques involving dissection of the subintimal space and reentry into the true lumen increase success rates in CTO-PCI. However, their longer-term safety and efficacy remain unknown and poorly studied. We present a case of double-lumen formation seen at 1 year post CTO-PCI using subintimal dissection reentry with late restoration of major side branches.

  5. Lumen Maintenance and Light Loss Factors: Consequences of Current Design Practices for LED's

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, Michael P.

    2013-09-17

    Synopsis: Light loss factors are used to help lighting systems meet quantitative design criteria throughout the life of the installation, but they also influence energy use. As the light sources currently being specified continue to evolve, it is necessary to reevaluate the methods used in calculating light loss factors, as well as carefully consider the consequences of different product performance attributes. Because of the unique operating characteristics of LEDs and lack of a comprehensive lifetime rating—as well as the problematic relationship between lifetime and lumen maintenance—determining an appropriate lamp lumen depreciation (LLD) factor for LED products is difficult. As a result, a unique solution has been advocated: when quantity of light is an important design consideration, the IES recommends using an LLD of not greater than 0.70. This method deviates from the typical practice for conventional sources of using the ratio of mean to initial lumen output, and can misrepresent actual performance, increase energy use, and inhibit comparisons between products. This paper discusses the complications related to LLD and LEDs, compares the performance of conventional and LED products, and examines alternatives to a maximum LLD of 0.70 for LEDs.

  6. The relationship between lumenal and limiting membranes in swollen late endocytic compartments formed after wortmannin treatment or sucrose accumulation.

    PubMed

    Bright, N A; Lindsay, M R; Stewart, A; Luzio, J P

    2001-09-01

    Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy were used to evaluate the formation of swollen endosomes in NRK cells after treatment with wortmannin or sucrose and to study the relationship between lumenal and limiting membrane. Both treatments resulted in the formation of two populations of swollen late endocytic vacuoles, positive for lysosomal glycoproteins or cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptors, but those induced by wortmannin were characterised by time-dependent accumulation of lumenal vesicles, whereas those induced by sucrose uptake did not accumulate lumenal vesicles. In both cases, the distribution of the late endosomal marker, lysobisphosphatidic acid, remained unchanged and was present within the lumen of the swollen vacuoles. Consumption of plasma membrane and peripheral early endosomes, and the appearance of transferrin receptors in swollen late endosomes, indicated that continued membrane influx from early endocytic compartments, together with inhibition of membrane traffic out of the swollen compartments, is sufficient to account for the observed phenotype of cells treated with wortmannin. The accumulation of organelles with the characteristic morphology of endocytic carrier vesicles in cells that have taken up sucrose offers an explanation for the paucity of lumenal vesicles in swollen sucrosomes. Our data suggest that in fibroblast cells the swollen endosome phenotype induced by wortmannin is a consequence of endocytic membrane influx, coupled with the failure to recycle membrane to other cellular destinations, and not the inhibition of multivesicular body biogenesis.

  7. Late-onset Visual Loss in Osteopetrosis

    PubMed Central

    Wangai, Abdul-Majid; Waa, Sheila; Wangai, Maryam; Amayo, Erastus; Olunya, Oluoch

    2011-01-01

    Late-onset visual loss is a complication of nerve entrapment and increased intracranial pressure. We hereby describe the first case in Eastern Africa. A 23 year-old lady presented with sudden blindness, headaches and body weakness. She had previously had treatment for multiple unexplained fractures. Findings of optic nerve entrapment explained this blindness. This case highlights the need to have a high index of suspicion in cases of unexplained fractures with late-onset blindness. PMID:22087385

  8. Restrained expectations in late pregnancy following loss.

    PubMed

    Côté-Arsenault, Denise; Donato, Kara L

    2007-01-01

    To describe women's late pregnancy after loss experiences (from 25 weeks gestation to birth), document the timing and frequency of their common discomforts and events, and explore changes in these experiences over time. A longitudinal, qualitative study of pregnancy calendar entries and field notes. Prenatal care providers and community canvassing in Central New York and the Internet. Pregnant women (N= 69) with a history of perinatal loss. Women's pregnancy calendar entries and field notes. Thematic data analysis yielded two main themes and several subthemes: (a) Precarious Pregnancy Security with subthemes of Informed Awareness and Varying Emotions and (b) Prudent Baby Preparations with subthemes of Physical, Social, and Emotional Preparation. Women reported an increased sense of security about the pregnancy and baby over time but this security was easily shaken. For women with a history of later or multiple loss, anxiety may remain high or increase as the due date approaches. Fetal movement is the most common barometer of fetal well-being during this part of pregnancy. With a better understanding of pregnancy after loss, clinicians can have a positive impact on women's prenatal experiences.

  9. Adventitial VEGF165 gene transfer prevents lumen loss through induction of positive arterial remodeling after PTCA in porcine coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Deiner, Carolin; Schwimmbeck, Peter Lothar; Koehler, Ina Sabine; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Noutsias, Michel; Nikol, Sigrid; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Pels, Klaus

    2006-11-01

    Negative arterial remodeling still plays an important role in the pathogenesis of coronary restenosis even in the era of interventional stenting (e.g. arterial narrowing occurs proximal and distal of a stented segment). Previous studies suggest that increased angiogenesis and inhibited regression of injury-induced adventitial microvessels prevents negative remodeling. We have examined the effect of local vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF(165)) gene transfer on adventitial microvessel angiogenesis/regression and arterial remodeling after coronary angioplasty. Twenty pigs underwent angioplasty, each one in two major coronary arteries, followed by plasmid liposome gene transfer with either VEGF(165) or control gene LacZ (50 microg DNA with 50 microg of Lipofectine) into the (peri)adventitial space using a needle injection catheter. Arteries were examined at days 1, 7, 14, and 28. Local delivery of VEGF(165) gene into the outer compartments of balloon-injured porcine coronary arteries reduced lumen area loss due to distinct positive remodeling (arterial enlargement). Prevention of adventitial microvessel regression, enhanced adventitial elastin accumulation, reduced adventitial myofibroblast numbers, and a pronounced adventitial inflammatory response considered as a part of arterial healing seem to be the main VEGF-mediated mechanisms indicating the therapeutic potential of VEGF for restenosis prevention.

  10. The Grief of Late Pregnancy Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunfeld, J. A. M.; Wladimiroff, J. W.; Passchier, J.

    1997-01-01

    Women (N=46) with ultrasound-diagnosed lethal fetal anomaly in late pregnancy were studied. Psychological instability, general psychological distress, depression, and despair were measured over four years and related to normal versus "neurotic" personality dispositions. Findings are presented; the need for medical intervention, emotional support,…

  11. The Grief of Late Pregnancy Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunfeld, J. A. M.; Wladimiroff, J. W.; Passchier, J.

    1997-01-01

    Women (N=46) with ultrasound-diagnosed lethal fetal anomaly in late pregnancy were studied. Psychological instability, general psychological distress, depression, and despair were measured over four years and related to normal versus "neurotic" personality dispositions. Findings are presented; the need for medical intervention, emotional support,…

  12. Loss of the apical V-ATPase a-subunit VHA-6 prevents acidification of the intestinal lumen during a rhythmic behavior in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Allman, Erik; Johnson, David

    2009-01-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, oscillations of intestinal pH contribute to the rhythmic defecation behavior, but the acid-base transport mechanisms that facilitate proton movement are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that VHA-6, an intestine-specific a-subunit of the H+-K+-ATPase complex (V-ATPase), resides in the apical membrane of the intestinal epithelial cells and is required for luminal acidification. Disruption of the vha-6 gene led to early developmental arrest; the arrest phenotype could be complemented by expression of a fluorescently labeled vha-6 transgene. To study the contribution of vha-6 to pH homeostasis in larval worms, we used a partial reduction of function through postembryonic single-generation RNA interference. We demonstrate that the inability to fully acidify the intestinal lumen coincides with a defect in pH recovery of the intestinal epithelial cells, suggesting that VHA-6 is essential for proton pumping following defecation. Moreover, intestinal dipeptide accumulation and fat storage are compromised by the loss of VHA-6, suggesting that luminal acidification promotes nutrient uptake in worms, as well as in mammals. Since acidified intracellular vesicles and autofluorescent storage granules are indistinguishable between the vha-6 mutant and controls, it is likely that the nutrient-restricted phenotype is due to a loss of plasma membrane V-ATPase activity specifically. These data establish a simple genetic model for proton pump-driven acidification. Since defecation occurs at 45-s intervals in worms, this model represents an opportunity to study acute regulation of V-ATPase activity on a short time scale and may be useful in the study of alternative treatments for acid-peptic disorders. PMID:19741196

  13. Usual Dose of Simvastatin Does Not Inhibit Plaque Progression and Lumen Loss at the Peri-Stent Reference Segments after Bare-Metal Stent Implantation: A Serial Intravascular Ultrasound Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Young Joon; Choi, Yun Ha; Ma, Eun Hye; Ko, Jum Suk; Lee, Min Goo; Park, Keun Ho; Sim, Doo Sun; Yoon, Nam Sik; Youn, Hyun Ju; Kim, Kye Hun; Park, Hyung Wook; Kim, Ju Han; Ahn, Youngkeun; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Park, Jong Chun; Kang, Jung Chaee

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a usual dose of simvastatin (20 mg/day) on plaque regression and vascular remodeling at the peri-stent reference segments after bare-metal stent implantation. Methods We retrospectively investigated serial intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) findings in 380 peri-stent reference segments (184 proximal and 196 distal to the stent) in 196 patients (simvastatin group, n = 132 vs. non-statin group, n = 64). Quantitative volumetric IVUS analysis was performed in 5-mm vessel segments proximal and distal to the stent. Results IVUS follow-up was performed at a mean of 9.4 months after stenting (range, 5 to 19 months). No significant differences were observed in the changes in mean plaque plus media (P&M) area, mean lumen area, and mean external elastic membrane (EEM) area from post-stenting to follow-up at both proximal and distal edges between the simvastatin and non-statin group. Although lumen loss within the first 3 mm from each stent edge was primarily due to an increase in P&M area rather than a change in EEM area, and lumen loss beyond 3 mm from each stent edge was due to a combination of increased P&M area and decreased EEM area, no significant differences in changes were observed in P&M, EEM, and lumen area at every 1-mm subsegment between the simvastatin and non-statin group. Conclusions A usual dose of simvastatin does not inhibit plaque progression and lumen loss and does not affect vascular remodeling in peri-stent reference segments in patients undergoing bare-metal stent implantation. PMID:21179272

  14. Appetite Loss and Neurocognitive Deficits in Late-Life Depression

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Guy G.; McQuoid, Douglas R.; Steffens, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Examine association of appetite loss symptoms to neurocognitive performance in late-life depression (LLD). Methods Cross-sectional data from individuals aged 60+ with Major Depressive Disorder (N =322). Participants received clinical assessment of depression and neuropsychological testing. Factor analysis was used to characterize depression symptom factors, and composite scales were developed for episodic memory, psychomotor executive functions, verbal fluency, and working memory span. Results Factor analysis produced a five-factor solution: (1) Anhedonia/Sadness, (2) Suicidality/Guilt, (3) Appetite/Weight Loss, (4) Sleep Disturbance, and (5) Anxiety/Tension. In separate multivariate models for each neurocognitive domain and including all 5 depression factors, higher appetite-loss-related symptoms were associated with lower performance in episodic memory, psychomotor executive functions, and verbal fluency; results were significant with covariates of age, education, race, sex, age of depression onset, and illness burden. No other depression factors were associated with neurocognitive performance in these models. In an additional set of models, the Appetite factor mediated the association between global depression severity and neurocognitive performance. Discussion A factor of appetite and weight loss symptoms in LLD was uniquely associated with neurocognitive performance, in contrast to lack of association among other depression symptom factors. Conclusion Cognitive deficits are a major adverse outcome of LLD, and prominent appetite loss during acute depression may be a marker for these deficits, independent of overall depression severity. Research is needed to understand the mechanisms that may explain this association, and how it is related to the cognitive and symptomatic course of LLD. PMID:25315155

  15. Chapter 16 Lumen Modification

    Treesearch

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Roger M. Rowell

    2012-01-01

    When wood is vacuum impregnated with liquid vinyl monomers that do not swell wood, and then in situ polymerized either by chemical catalyst-heat, or gamma radiation, the polymer is located almost solely in the lumens of the wood. Figure 16.1 is a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrograph of unmodified wood showing open cells that are...

  16. Vascular Lumen Formation

    PubMed Central

    Lammert, Eckhard; Axnick, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The vascular system developed early in evolution. It is required in large multicellular organisms for the transport of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products to and from tissues. The vascular system is composed of hollow tubes, which have a high level of complexity in vertebrates. Vasculogenesis describes the de novo formation of blood vessels, e.g., aorta formation in vertebrate embryogenesis. In contrast, angiogenesis is the formation of blood vessels from preexisting ones, e.g., sprouting of intersomitic blood vessels from the aorta. Importantly, the lumen of all blood vessels in vertebrates is lined and formed by endothelial cells. In both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, lumen formation takes place in a cord of endothelial cells. It involves a complex molecular mechanism composed of endothelial cell repulsion at the cell–cell contacts within the endothelial cell cords, junctional rearrangement, and endothelial cell shape change. As the vascular system also participates in the course of many diseases, such as cancer, stroke, and myocardial infarction, it is important to understand and make use of the molecular mechanisms of blood vessel formation to better understand and manipulate the pathomechanisms involved. PMID:22474612

  17. Aerobic Marine Habitat Loss During the Late Permian Extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penn, J. L.; Deutsch, C.; Payne, J.; Sperling, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid climate change at the end of the Permian is thought to have triggered the most severe mass extinction in Earth's history, but the precise mechanism of biodiversity loss is unknown. Geological evidence points to lethally hot equatorial temperatures and an expansion of anoxic ocean waters as likely culprits. However, previous climate model simulations of the warm Early Triassic exhibit weak tropical warming, and anoxic conditions require a massive and unconstrained increase in the ocean nutrient reservoir. Reconciling model predictions with the geologic record remains a key challenge to identifying the kill-mechanism, which must also take into account the role of animal physiology. Here we apply a recently developed index for the metabolic scope of marine animals to the first global climate simulations of the Permian-Triassic transition to quantify the effects of ocean warming and oxygen (O2) depletion on aerobic habitat availability. Forcing with extreme CO2 concentrations warms the surface ocean by over 10oC, consistent with paleoproxies for upper ocean temperature change. Warming depletes global O2, with greatest losses occuring in tropical deep waters as a result of their reduced ventilation. Together warming and deoxygenation would have constricted the occurrence of marine habitat by 80% globally, by decreasing the metabolic index of the Permian ocean. These changes are most pronounced in the tropics where the fossil record suggests recovery was severely inhibited. Fossil deposits also record changes in animal body size across the extinction. We find that adaptation via body size reductions can compensate for increasing hypoxia at high latitudes, and even prevent extinction there, but cannot maintain the habitability of the tropics.

  18. Measuring Meaning: Searching for and Making Sense of Spousal Loss in Late-Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Rachel A.; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Despite much recent theorizing, evidence regarding the temporal relationship of sense-making to adjustment following bereavement remains relatively sparse. This study examined the role of searching for and making sense of loss in late-life spousal bereavement, using prospective, longitudinal data from the Changing Lives of Older Couples (CLOC)…

  19. Measuring Meaning: Searching for and Making Sense of Spousal Loss in Late-Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Rachel A.; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Despite much recent theorizing, evidence regarding the temporal relationship of sense-making to adjustment following bereavement remains relatively sparse. This study examined the role of searching for and making sense of loss in late-life spousal bereavement, using prospective, longitudinal data from the Changing Lives of Older Couples (CLOC)…

  20. Quality of life and anxiety in pregnancies after late pregnancy loss: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Hunfeld, J A; Agterberg, G; Wladimiroff, J W; Passchier, J

    1996-09-01

    Pregnant women with (n = 24) and without (n = 26) a previous pregnancy loss (> 16 weeks) due to congenital anomalies were compared on quality of life and anxiety. Pregnant women with a previous loss were divided into those with and those without a normal livebirth since the loss [cases+ (n = 6) and cases- (n = 18), respectively]. Psychological measurements were carried out before and after an ultrasound scan in the second trimester of the pregnancy. Women with a previous loss who had not delivered a healthy infant between the loss and the present pregnancy showed a lower quality of life as revealed by feelings of social isolation, negative emotional reactions, and pain than the other groups. In addition, they showed more pregnancy-related anxiety. The negative emotions were particularly present just before the anomaly scan. Feelings of social isolation, negative emotional reactions, pain, and pregnancy-related anxiety were significantly positively related to trait anxiety, irrespective of having experienced late pregnancy loss. The implications of this study are that the referring gynaecologist, physician, or midwife should be aware of the strong emotions and major concerns of women in a pregnancy subsequent to a late pregnancy loss. In addition, they should offer these women the opportunity to express their emotional distress.

  1. Early Subchondral Bone Loss at Arthritis Onset Predicted Late Arthritis Severity in a Rat Arthritis Model.

    PubMed

    Courbon, Guillaume; Cleret, Damien; Linossier, Marie-Thérèse; Vico, Laurence; Marotte, Hubert

    2017-06-01

    Synovitis is usually observed before loss of articular function in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition to the synovium and according to the "Inside-Outside" theory, bone compartment is also involved in RA pathogenesis. Then, we investigated time dependent articular bone loss and prediction of early bone loss to late arthritis severity on the rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) model. Lewis female rats were longitudinally monitored from arthritis induction (day 0), with early (day 10) and late (day 17) steps. Trabecular and cortical microarchitecture parameters of four ankle bones were assessed by microcomputed tomography. Gene expression was determined at sacrifice. Arthritis occurred at day 10 in AIA rats. At this time, bone erosions were detected on four ankle bones, with cortical porosity increase (+67%) and trabecular alterations including bone volume fraction (BV/TV: -13%), and trabecular thickness decrease. Navicular bone assessment was the most reproducible and sensitive. Furthermore, strong correlations were observed between bone alterations at day 10 and arthritis severity or bone loss at day 17, including predictability of day 10 BV/TV to day 17 articular index (R(2)  = 0.76). Finally, gene expression at day 17 confirmed massive osteoclast activation and interestingly provided insights on strong activation of bone formation inhibitor markers at the joint level. In rat AIA, bone loss was already observed at synovitis onset and was predicted late arthritis severity. Our results reinforced the key role of subchondral bone in arthritis pathogenesis, in favour to the "Inside-Outside" theory. Mechanisms of bone loss in rat AIA involved resorption activation and formation inhibition changes. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1318-1325, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. What is the essential physics of mass loss from late-type stars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    1987-01-01

    A review is given of the data concerning mass loss from late-type stars. The major classes of mass-loss mechanisms (thermally-driven winds, radiatively-driven winds, and wave-driven winds) are discussed, and the empirical mass-loss rates and other data are compared with theoretical predictions for any of these mechanisms acting alone. It is likely that several mechanisms act together to produce the large mass-loss rates in the Mira and nonpulsating M supergiants. Studies of the solar atmosphere suggest that thermal bifurcation driven by molecular condensation instabilities may play a critical role in cooling the atmospheres of luminous cool stars and forming siicate dust. It is possible that several metastable modes of atmospheric structure may exist for a given set of stellar parameters.

  3. Association between visual acuity loss and optical coherence tomography findings in patients with late solar retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Gulkilik, Gokhan; Taskapili, Muhittin; Kocabora, Selim; Demirci, Goktug; Muftuoglu, Gul I

    2009-02-01

    To describe optical coherence tomography findings in patients with late solar retinopathy and their association with visual loss. Twenty-one eyes of 21 patients who had a history of watching a solar eclipse in 1999 with or without visual loss were evaluated with colored and red-free fundus photography and optical coherence tomography analysis using the macular thickness protocol. Ten of the eyes (47.6%) had no visual acuity loss and 11 eyes (52.4%) had visual acuities ranging from 0.3 to 0.8. There was a strong correlation between central foveal thickness and visual acuity. Empty spaces involving the full thickness of the photoreceptor layer band of the entire fovea were observed in 10 eyes and found to be associated with visual acuity loss. Signal defects in the outer and inner segments of the photoreceptors were identified in 12 and 15 eyes, respectively, and were not associated with visual acuity loss. Decreased central foveal thickness and full-thickness empty spaces beneath the fovea in optical coherence tomography analysis can be associated with permanent visual acuity loss in patients with a history of watching a solar eclipse.

  4. Molecular regulation of lumen morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Datta, Anirban; Bryant, David M; Mostov, Keith E

    2011-02-08

    The asymmetric polarization of cells allows specialized functions to be performed at discrete subcellular locales. Spatiotemporal coordination of polarization between groups of cells allowed the evolution of metazoa. For instance, coordinated apical-basal polarization of epithelial and endothelial cells allows transport of nutrients and metabolites across cell barriers and tissue microenvironments. The defining feature of such tissues is the presence of a central, interconnected luminal network. Although tubular networks are present in seemingly different organ systems, such as the kidney, lung, and blood vessels, common underlying principles govern their formation. Recent studies using in vivo and in vitro models of lumen formation have shed new light on the molecular networks regulating this fundamental process. We here discuss progress in understanding common design principles underpinning de novo lumen formation and expansion.

  5. Loss and rebuilding: A qualitative study of late diagnosis of cleft palate.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Stephanie; Blackhurst, Maria; Scahill, Rachael; Callery, Peter

    2015-10-01

    To explore the experiences of parents whose child received a late diagnosis of cleft palate (>24 hr after birth). Parents of 17 children and three nurses specialised in cleft care (specialist nurses) took part in a qualitative, semi-structured interview. Framework analysis was applied to data. Loss and rebuilding was an overarching concept-from the crescendo leading up to the bombshell of diagnosis, followed by the aftermath of dealing with the child's long-term condition. Specialist nurses can help parents to trust healthcare professionals and to feel confident in their ability to nurture by listening, informing, and supporting. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Measuring Meaning: Searching For and Making Sense of Spousal Loss in Late-Life

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Rachel A.; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Despite much recent theorizing, evidence regarding the temporal relationship of sense-making to adjustment following bereavement remains relatively sparse. This study examined the role of searching for and making sense of loss in late-life spousal bereavement, using prospective, longitudinal data from the Changing Lives of Older Couples1 (CLOC) project (N=250). Searching at 6 and 18 months post-loss predicted both contemporaneous and subsequent grief. Sense-making was not related to grief for this sample. In contrast, sense-making at 6 months and 18 months predicted positive affect at 48 months, while searching had no prospective effect on this outcome. Searching at 6 months predicted depression at 18 months. Results are interpreted in terms of meaning-oriented theories of bereavement and processes promoting both adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. PMID:24482851

  7. Measuring meaning: searching for and making sense of spousal loss in late-life.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Rachel A; Neimeyer, Robert A

    2010-10-01

    Despite much recent theorizing, evidence regarding the temporal relationship of sense-making to adjustment following bereavement remains relatively sparse. This study examined the role of searching for and making sense of loss in late-life spousal bereavement, using prospective, longitudinal data from the Changing Lives of Older Couples (CLOC) project (N = 250). Searching at 6 and 18 months post-loss predicted both contemporaneous and subsequent grief. Sense-making was not related to grief for this sample. In contrast, sense-making at 6 months and 18 months predicted positive affect at 48 months, although searching had no prospective effect on this outcome. Searching at 6 months predicted depression at 18 months. Results are interpreted in terms of meaning-oriented theories of bereavement and processes promoting both adaptive and maladaptive outcomes.

  8. BOREAS: Mass Loss Rate of a Cool, Late-type Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranmer, Steven R.; Saar, Steven H.

    2011-08-01

    The basic mechanisms responsible for producing winds from cool, late-type stars are still largely unknown. We take inspiration from recent progress in understanding solar wind acceleration to develop a physically motivated model of the time-steady mass loss rates of cool main-sequence stars and evolved giants. This model follows the energy flux of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence from a subsurface convection zone to its eventual dissipation and escape through open magnetic flux tubes. We show how Alfven waves and turbulence can produce winds in either a hot corona or a cool extended chromosphere, and we specify the conditions that determine whether or not coronal heating occurs. These models do not utilize arbitrary normalization factors, but instead predict the mass loss rate directly from a star's fundamental properties. We take account of stellar magnetic activity by extending standard age-activity-rotation indicators to include the evolution of the filling factor of strong photospheric magnetic fields. We compared the predicted mass loss rates with observed values for 47 stars and found significantly better agreement than was obtained from the popular scaling laws of Reimers, Schroeder, and Cuntz. The algorithm used to compute cool-star mass loss rates is provided as a self-contained and efficient IDL computer code. We anticipate that the results from this kind of model can be incorporated straightforwardly into stellar evolution calculations and population synthesis techniques.

  9. On the method of lumens

    PubMed Central

    Shera, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Parent and Allen [(2007). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 122, 918–931] introduced the “method of lumens” to compute the plane-wave reflectance in a duct terminated with a nonuniform impedance. The method involves splitting the duct into multiple, fictitious subducts (lumens), solving for the reflectance in each subduct, and then combining the results. The method of lumens has considerable intuitive appeal and is easily implemented in the time domain. Previously applied only in a complex acoustical setting where proper evaluation is difficult (i.e., in a model of the ear canal and tympanic membrane), the method is tested here by using it to compute the reflectance from an area constriction in an infinite lossless duct considered in the long-wavelength limit. Neither the original formulation of the method—shown here to violate energy conservation except when the termination impedance is uniform—nor a reformulation consistent with basic physical constraints yields the correct solution to this textbook problem in acoustics. The results are generalized and the nature of the errors illuminated. PMID:25480060

  10. Fossil plant relative abundances indicate sudden loss of Late Triassic biodiversity in East Greenland.

    PubMed

    McElwain, Jennifer C; Wagner, Peter J; Hesselbo, Stephen P

    2009-06-19

    The pace of Late Triassic (LT) biodiversity loss is uncertain, yet it could help to decipher causal mechanisms of mass extinction. We investigated relative abundance distributions (RADs) of six LT plant assemblages from the Kap Stewart Group, East Greenland, to determine the pace of collapse of LT primary productivity. RADs displayed not simply decreases in the number of taxa, but decreases in the number of common taxa. Likelihood tests rejected a hypothesis of continuously declining diversity. Instead, the RAD shift occurred over the upper two-to-four fossil plant assemblages and most likely over the last three (final 13 meters), coinciding with increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and global warming. Thus, although the LT event did not induce mass extinction of plant families, it accompanied major and abrupt change in their ecology and diversity.

  11. The "myth" of loss of angiogenesis in systemic sclerosis: a pivotal early pathogenetic process or just a late unavoidable event?

    PubMed

    Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Manetti, Mirko; Bruni, Cosimo; Chora, Ines; Bellando-Randone, Silvia; Lepri, Gemma; De Paulis, Amato; Guiducci, Serena

    2017-07-06

    Systemic sclerosis is considered a disease dominated by a "loss of angiogenesis", although in its early phases evidence indicates a disturbed angiogenic response only. In fact, microvascular changes are primarily due to endothelial cell injury, triggering downstream significant enlargement of the capillary in an inflammatory environment, followed by capillary rupture (microhemorrhages). Subsequent pro-angiogenic efforts lead to an aberrant angiogenesis and, eventually, to a total loss of vessel repair and regeneration (loss of angiogenesis). This clearly suggests that the pathogenetic process has a steady progression: from an early excessive pro-angiogenesis, to an aberrant microvascular regeneration, then ending with a late loss of angiogenesis. Herein, we suggest the loss of angiogenesis should not be considered as an overall "myth" characterizing systemic sclerosis but as a very late event of the vascular pathogenesis. Future research should be oriented essentially on the earlier phases dominated by excessive pro-angiogenesis and microvascular aberration.

  12. SPH Simulations of Volatiles Loss from Icy Satellites During a Late Heavy Bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movshovitz, N.; Nimmo, F.; Korycansky, D.; Asphaug, E. I.; Owen, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    The present day ice-to-silicate ratio in satellites of the outer solar system can be used to constrain dynamical models of solar system formation [1]. The reason is that a period of intense impact activity after formation of the planets, implied by some dynamical models [2,3,4], could have resulted in significant mass loss, of ice preferentially, from these satellites. The location of Jovian and Saturnian satellites inside the gravity well of these giant planets implies high impact velocities, perhaps as high as 30 km/s [5]. Combined with small satellite masses, a Late Heavy Bombardment may well lead to a significant fraction of a satellite's mass ejected. In a previous study, Nimmo and Korycansky [1] calculate, using a scaling law for vaporization of ice from craters [6], the total expected ice loss from satellites of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus. They find that many satellites should have lost significant fractions (>10%) of their water ice. As many of these satellites do not appear to be significantly depleted in volatiles, this raises questions about the timing or intensity of a late heavy bombardment. (See also [4]). But this conclusion depends on some key assumptions regarding the distribution of impactor sizes and velocities, and, critically, the expected mass loss during a single impact. Here we compare predictions of impact-driven mass loss using direct hydrodynamical simulations of the relevant impact events, with the scaling law originally developed for cratering by small impactors [6]. The main advantage of this approach is that we can consider impacts between comparably sized bodies, where a cratering scaling law does not strictly apply. Another advantage of a direct hydro simulation is that we can track escaping mass, rather than vapor production. This is most significant for lower velocity impacts, typical of accretion [7,8]. This method should also be less sensitive to the choice of equation of state. To resolve preferential ice loss during impacts

  13. FUV Spectra of Evolved Late-K and M Stars: Mass Loss Revisited and Stellar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Graham M.

    2002-01-01

    This is the final report for the FUSE Cycle 1 program A100: FUV Spectra of Evolved Late-K and M Stars: Mass Loss revisited and Stellar Activity. Targets alpha TrA (K3 II) and gamma Cru (M3 III) were originally assigned 25 ksec each, to be observed in the medium aperture. Once the in-flight performance and telescope alignment problems were known, the observations were reprogrammed to optimized the scientific return of the program. Alpha TrA was scheduled for 25 ksec observations in both the medium and large apertures. The principle aim of this program was to measure the stellar FUV line and continuum emission, in order to estimate the photoionization radiation field and to determine the level of stellar activity through the fluxes in the collisionally excited high temperature diagnostics: C III 977Angstroms and O VI 1032,1038Angstrom doublet. The medium aperture observations were obtained successfully while the large aperture observations were thought by Johns Hopkins University (JHU)to be lost to satellite problems. There was insufficient signal-to- noise in the medium aperture short wavelength Sic channels to do quantitative science.

  14. FUV Spectra of Evolved Late-K and M Stars: Mass Loss Revisited and Stellar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Graham M.

    2002-01-01

    This is the final report for the FUSE Cycle 1 program A100: FUV Spectra of Evolved Late-K and M Stars: Mass Loss revisited and Stellar Activity. Targets alpha TrA (K3 II) and gamma Cru (M3 III) were originally assigned 25 ksec each, to be observed in the medium aperture. Once the in-flight performance and telescope alignment problems were known, the observations were reprogrammed to optimized the scientific return of the program. Alpha TrA was scheduled for 25 ksec observations in both the medium and large apertures. The principle aim of this program was to measure the stellar FUV line and continuum emission, in order to estimate the photoionization radiation field and to determine the level of stellar activity through the fluxes in the collisionally excited high temperature diagnostics: C III 977Angstroms and O VI 1032,1038Angstrom doublet. The medium aperture observations were obtained successfully while the large aperture observations were thought by Johns Hopkins University (JHU)to be lost to satellite problems. There was insufficient signal-to- noise in the medium aperture short wavelength Sic channels to do quantitative science.

  15. Chronic Aortic Dissection: Stenting of Aortic True Lumen Obliteration with Late Dynamic Variations of Both Lumens

    SciTech Connect

    Nyman, Ulf; Ivancev, Krasnodar; Gottsaeter, Anders; Lindblad, Bengt; Lindh, Mats; Uher, Petr

    1999-03-15

    Percutaneous endovascular techniques were used to treat an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) associated with pancreatic transplantation. A pancreatic transplant superior mesenteric artery-to-superior mesenteric-vein AVF was successfully embolized while flow to the pancreas transplant was preserved. The embolization was aided by the use of Guglielmi detachable coils and a detachable balloon. No complications were encountered. At 23 months follow-up, the patient is doing well with no recurrence.

  16. Predictors of patent false lumen of the aortic arch after hemiarch replacement.

    PubMed

    Uchino, Gaku; Ohashi, Takeki; Iida, Hiroshi; Tadakoshi, Masao; Kageyama, Souichirou; Furui, Masato; Kodani, Noriko

    2016-12-01

    Hemiarch replacement for acute type A aortic dissection is less invasive than total arch replacement but involves increased risk of late aortic arch dilation because of patent false lumen of the aortic arch. If we can predict this risk, it may be a valuable prognostic indicator for selecting surgical procedures for acute type A aortic dissection. We reviewed our surgical experience to predict patent false lumen. From January 2009 to November 2014, we performed 108 hemiarch replacement procedures for acute type A aortic dissection that had patent false lumen of the ascending aortic arch. We identified 56 patients who had preoperative and postoperative contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Patients' preoperative characteristics, preoperative and postoperative contrast-enhanced computed tomography findings, intraoperative findings and postoperative course were investigated. Of the 56 patients, 32 (57.1 %) were men and their mean age at surgery was 63.7 ± 11.8 years. Overall in-hospital mortality rate was 7.1 % (4 patients). According to postoperative imaging findings, 56 patients were classified into two groups: group A (39 patients), with patent false lumen, and group B (17 patients), with thrombosed false lumen. Logistic regression analysis revealed that brachiocephalic artery dissection and no tear resection contributed to postoperative patent false lumen of the aortic arch more strongly than did other factors. Brachiocephalic artery dissection and no tear resection are potential predictors of patent false lumen of the aortic arch after hemiarch replacement.

  17. Quantitative measurements of menstrual blood loss in ovulatory and anovulatory cycles in middle- and late-reproductive age and the menopausal transition.

    PubMed

    Hale, Georgina E; Manconi, Frank; Luscombe, Georgina; Fraser, Ian S

    2010-02-01

    To measure menstrual blood loss before and during the menopausal transition and to explore the relationships between menstrual blood loss and menstrual cycle irregularity and reproductive hormone levels. Two consecutive menstrual blood loss measurements were performed in 77 healthy women aged 21-55 years, classified as midreproductive age (n=21, control group), late-reproductive age (n=17), early-menopausal transition (n=16), and late-menopausal transition (n=23). Serum hormone levels (estradiol [E2], progesterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and inhibins) were measured three times per week from the start of one menstrual period to the end of the subsequent menstrual period. There were nine, one, zero, and two anovulatory cycles captured in the late-menopausal transition, early-menopausal transition, late-reproductive age, and midreproductive age groups, respectively. The median (range) menstrual blood loss values after ovulatory cycles were 30 (142), 33 (147), 55.7 (105), and 68.9 (234) mL in the midreproductive age, late-reproductive age, early-menopausal transition, and late-menopausal transition groups, respectively. After anovulatory cycles in the late-menopausal transition group, menstrual blood loss was only 11.8 (97) mL. In the late-menopausal transition group, menstrual blood loss after an ovulatory cycle was significantly higher than when occurring after an anovulatory cycle (P=.008, Kruskal-Wallis). The highest menstrual blood loss measurements were in women in the late-menopausal transition group who experienced ovulatory cycles with abnormally high E2 levels and disturbed E2 secretion patterns. The onset of variability in menstrual blood loss was associated with the onset of irregular cycles. Excessive menstrual blood loss (greater than 250 mL) was associated with ovulatory cycles with high E2 levels and late menopausal transition. III.

  18. Modelling Wheat Growth and Yield Losses from Late Epidemics of Foliar Diseases using Loss of Green Leaf Area per Layer and Pre-anthesis Reserves

    PubMed Central

    Bancal, Marie-Odile; Robert, Corinne; Ney, Bertrand

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Crop protection strategies, based on preventing quantitative crop losses rather than pest outbreaks, are being developed as a promising way to reduce fungicide use. The Bastiaans' model was applied to winter wheat crops (Triticum aestivum) affected by leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) and Septoria tritici blotch (STB; Mycosphaerella graminicola) under a range of crop management conditions. This study examined (a) whether green leaf area per layer accurately accounts for growth loss; and (b) whether from growth loss it is possible to derive yield loss accurately and simply. Methods Over 5 years of field experiments, numerous green leaf area dynamics were analysed during the post-anthesis period on wheat crops using natural aerial epidemics of leaf rust and STB. Key Results When radiation use efficiency (RUE) was derived from bulk green leaf area index (GLAI), RUEbulk was hardly accurate and exhibited large variations among diseased wheat crops, thus extending outside the biological range. In contrast, when RUE was derived from GLAI loss per layer, RUElayer was a more accurate calculation and fell within the biological range. In one situation out of 13, no significant shift in the RUElayer of diseased crops vs. healthy crops was observed. A single linear relationship linked yield to post-anthesis accumulated growth for all treatments. Its slope, not different from 1, suggests that the allocation of post-anthesis photosynthates to grains was not affected by the late occurring diseases under study. The mobilization of pre-anthesis reserves completely accounted for the intercept value. Conclusions The results strongly suggest that a simple model based on green leaf area per layer and pre-anthesis reserves can predict both growth and yield of wheat suffering from late epidemics of foliar diseases over a range of crop practices. It could help in better understanding how crop structure and reserve management contribute to tolerance of wheat genotypes to

  19. Loss of alleles from the distal short arm of chromosome 1 occurs late in melanoma tumor progression

    SciTech Connect

    Dracopoli, N.C.; Harnett, P.; Bale, S.J.; Stanger, B.Z.; Tucker, M.A.; Housman, D.E.; Kefford, R.F. )

    1989-06-01

    The gene for familial malignant melanoma and its precursor lesion, the dysplastic nevus, has been assigned to a region of the distal short arm of chromosome 1, which is frequently involved in karyotypic abnormalities in melanoma cells. The authors have examined loci on chromosome 1p for loss-of-constitutional heterozygosity in 35 melanomas and 21 melanoma cell lines to analyze the role of these abnormalities in melanocyte transformation. Loss-of-heterozygosity at loci on chromosome 1p was identified in 15/35 (43%) melanomas and 11/21 (52%) melanoma cell lines. Analysis of multiple metastases derived from the same patient and of melanoma and lymphoblastoid samples from a family with hereditary melanoma showed that the loss-of-heterozygosity at loci on distal 1p is a late event in tumor progression, rather than the second mutation that would occur if melanoma were due to a cellular recessive mechanism. Comparisons with neuroblastoma and multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN2) suggest that the frequent 1p loss-of-heterozygosity in these malignancies is a common late event of neuroectodermal tumor progression.

  20. Longitudinal Development of Phonology and Morphology in Children with Late-Identified Mild-Moderate Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Mary Pat; McCleary, Elizabeth; Putman, Coille; Tyler-Krings, Amy; Hoover, Brenda; Stelmachowicz, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Objective Studies of language development in children with mild-moderate hearing loss are relatively rare. Longitudinal studies of children with late-identified hearing loss have not been conducted, and they are relevant for determining how a period of unaided mild-moderate hearing loss impacts development. In recent years, newborn hearing screening programs have effectively reduced the ages of identification for most children with permanent hearing loss. However, some children continue to be identified late and research is needed to guide management decisions. Further, studies of this group may help to discern if language normalizes following intervention, and/or if certain aspects of language might be vulnerable to persistent delays. The current study examines the impact of late identification and reduced audibility on speech and language outcomes via a longitudinal study of four children with mild-moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Design Longitudinal outcomes of four children with late-identified mild-moderate sensorinueral hearing loss were studied using standardized measures and language sampling procedures, from at or near the point of identification (28 – 41 months) through 84 months of age. The children with hearing loss were compared to ten age-matched children with normal hearing on a majority of the measures through 60 months of age. Spontaneous language samples were collected from mother-child interaction sessions, recorded at consistent intervals in a laboratory-based play setting. Transcripts were analyzed using computer-based procedures (Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts) and the Index of Productive Syntax. Possible influences of audibility were explored by examining the onset and productive use of a set of verb tense markers, and by monitoring the children’s accuracy in use of morphological endings. Phonological samples at baseline were transcribed and analyzed using Computerized Profiling. Results At entry to the study, the four

  1. Longitudinal development of phonology and morphology in children with late-identified mild-moderate sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Mary Pat; McCleary, Elizabeth; Putman, Coille; Tyler-Krings, Amy; Hoover, Brenda; Stelmachowicz, Patricia

    2010-10-01

    Studies of language development in children with mild-moderate hearing loss are relatively rare. Longitudinal studies of children with late-identified hearing loss are relevant for determining how a period of unaided mild-moderate hearing loss impacts development. In recent years, newborn hearing screening programs have effectively reduced the ages of identification for most children with permanent hearing loss. However, some children continue to be identified late, and research is needed to guide management decisions. Furthermore, studies of this group may help to discern whether language normalizes after intervention and/or whether certain aspects of language might be vulnerable to persistent delays. The current study examines the impact of late identification and reduced audibility on speech and language outcomes via a longitudinal study of four children with mild-moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Longitudinal outcomes of four children with late-identified mild-moderate sensorineural hearing loss were studied using standardized measures and language sampling procedures from at or near the point of identification (28 to 41 mos) through 84 mos of age. The children with hearing loss were compared with 10 age-matched children with normal hearing on a majority of the measures through 60 mos of age. Spontaneous language samples were collected from mother-child interaction sessions recorded at consistent intervals in a laboratory-based play setting. Transcripts were analyzed using computer-based procedures (Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts) and the Index of Productive Syntax. Possible influences of audibility were explored by examining the onset and productive use of a set of verb tense markers and by monitoring the children's accuracy in the use of morphological endings. Phonological samples at baseline were transcribed and analyzed using Computerized Profiling. At entry to the study, the four children with hearing loss demonstrated language delays with

  2. [Is diagnosis of persistent pediatric hearing loss still made too late?].

    PubMed

    Finckh-Krämer, U; Spormann-Lagodzinski, M E; Nubel, K; Hess, M; Gross, M

    1998-06-01

    Since 1994, the German Registry for hearing Loss in Children has registered data of 1500 children and by now can present results concerning the age at diagnosis of permanent hearing loss in children in Germany. The mean age at diagnosis is still very high. There is a strong correlation between age at diagnosis and degree of hearing loss, i.e., severe and profound hearing loss, is diagnosed distinctly earlier than mild and moderate hearing loss. On average, mild hearing loss is diagnosed with 6.2 years, moderate h.l. with 4.4 years, severe hearing loss with 2.5 years and profound hearing loss with 1.9 years. This corresponds with the results of regional German studies. At least regionally, in other European countries the age at diagnosis is known to be distinctly lower. In 36% of the children registered in Germany the delay between first suspicion and diagnosis of permanent hearing loss is 1 year or more.

  3. Spousal loss and health in late life: moving beyond emotional trauma

    PubMed Central

    Das, Aniruddha

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study queries the linkage of older adults’ spousal loss to multiple dimensions of their health. Methods Data are from the 2005-2006 National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, nationally representative of U.S. adults ages 57-85. Analyses examine associations of spousal loss and time since loss with multiple health dimensions. Results Spousal loss is linked to a system of mental, social, behavioral, and biological issues, consistent with a stress-induced weathering process. Biological problems are more uniformly associated with women’s than men’s loss. While emotional sequelae may partially subside with time, a range of other outcomes remain worse even among individuals a decade or more past loss, than those with current partners. Discussion Older adults’ spousal loss influences multiple dimensions of their health. Gender differences in biological linkages suggest women’s greater physiological vulnerability to this weathering event. Effects of loss are long-term rather than transient, especially with biological conditions. PMID:23271727

  4. Evolved Late-Type Star FUV Spectra: Mass Loss and Fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Graham M.

    2005-01-01

    This proposal was for a detailed analysis of the far ultraviolet (FUV) photoionizing radiation that provides crucial input physics for mass loss studies, e.g., observations of the flux below 10448, allow us to constrain the Ca II/Ca III balance and make significant progress beyond previous optical studies on stellar mass loss and circumstellar photochemistry. Our targets selection provided good spectral-type coverage required to help unravel the Ca II/Ca III balance as the mass-loss rates increase by over three orders of magnitude from K5 III to M5 III. We also explored the relationship between the FUV radiation field and other UV diagnostics to allow us to empirically estimate the FUV radiation field for the vast majority of stars which are too faint to be observed with FUSE, and to improve upon their uncertain mass-loss rates.

  5. Repulsion by Slit and Roundabout prevents Shotgun/E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion during Drosophila heart tube lumen formation.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Martínez, Edgardo; Soplop, Nadine H; Patel, Rajesh; Kramer, Sunita G

    2008-07-28

    During Drosophila melanogaster heart development, a lumen forms between apical surfaces of contralateral cardioblasts (CBs). We show that Slit and its receptor Roundabout (Robo) are required at CB apical domains for lumen formation. Mislocalization of Slit outside the apical domain causes ectopic lumen formation and the mislocalization of cell junction proteins, E-cadherin (E-Cad) and Enabled, without disrupting overall CB cell polarity. Ectopic lumen formation is suppressed in robo mutants, which indicates robo's requirement for this process. Genetic evidence suggests that Robo and Shotgun (Shg)/E-Cad function together in modulating CB adhesion. robo and shg/E-Cad transheterozygotes have lumen defects. In robo loss-of-function or shg/E-Cad gain-of-function embryos, lumen formation is blocked because of inappropriate CB adhesion and an accumulation of E-Cad at the apical membrane. In contrast, shg/E-Cad loss-of-function or robo gain-of-function blocks lumen formation due to a loss of CB adhesion. Our data show that Slit and Robo pathways function in lumen formation as a repulsive signal to antagonize E-Cad-mediated cell adhesion.

  6. Treatment of a Persistent False Lumen with Aneurysm Formation Following Surgical Repair of Type A Dissection

    SciTech Connect

    Jeganathan, Reubendra Kennedy, Peter; MacGowan, Simon

    2007-06-15

    We describe the case of a 68-year-old man who developed aneurysmal dilatation of the proximal descending thoracic aorta 8 years after repair of a type A dissection. The aneurysm was due to an anastomotic leak at the distal end of the previous repair in the ascending aorta with antegrade perfusion of the false lumen. Surgical repair of the anastomotic leak partially obliterated the false lumen and computed tomography scan demonstrated thrombosis in a large proportion of the false lumen aneurysm. Follow-up with surveillance scans showed persistent filling of this aneurysm due to retrograde flow of blood within the false lumen. Coil embolization of the false lumen within the thoracic aorta was performed which successfully thrombosed the aneurysm with a reduction in diameter. Late aneurysm formation may complicate type A dissection repairs during follow-up due to a persistent false lumen, especially if there is an anastomotic leak. This case report describes a strategy to deal with this difficult clinical problem.

  7. Utility of genetic testing for the detection of late-onset hearing loss in neonates.

    PubMed

    Lim, B Gail; Clark, Reese H; Kelleher, Amy S; Lin, Zhili; Spitzer, Alan R

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the utility of molecular testing in the detection of potentially important causes of delayed hearing loss missed by current audiometric screening at birth. We enrolled infants who had received a newborn audiometric hearing screen and a filter paper blood collection for state newborn screening. A central laboratory ran the SoundGene® panel. Of 3,681 infants studied, 35 (0.95%) had a positive SoundGene panel, 16 had mitochondrial mutations, 9 had Pendred mutations, 5 were cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA positive, 2 had connexin mutations, and 3 had a combination of different mutations. Infants with an abnormal SoundGene panel were at increased risk for hearing loss compared to neonates without mutations. Three (8.6%) of the 35 subjects had persistent hearing loss compared to 5 (0.21%) of 2,398 subjects with no report of mutation (p < .01). Of 3,681 infants studied, 8 (0.22%) had persistent hearing loss: 5 (62.5%) had abnormal newborn audiometric screens, 2 (25%) had an abnormal SoundGene panel (1 was CMV positive, 1 had a mitochondrial mutation), and 1 (12.5%) had no identifiable risk factors. A positive SoundGene panel identifies infants who are not identified by audiometric testing and may be at risk for hearing loss.

  8. Aerial photographs reveal late-20th-century dynamic ice loss in northwestern Greenland.

    PubMed

    Kjær, Kurt H; Khan, Shfaqat A; Korsgaard, Niels J; Wahr, John; Bamber, Jonathan L; Hurkmans, Ruud; van den Broeke, Michiel; Timm, Lars H; Kjeldsen, Kristian K; Bjørk, Anders A; Larsen, Nicolaj K; Jørgensen, Lars Tyge; Færch-Jensen, Anders; Willerslev, Eske

    2012-08-03

    Global warming is predicted to have a profound impact on the Greenland Ice Sheet and its contribution to global sea-level rise. Recent mass loss in the northwest of Greenland has been substantial. Using aerial photographs, we produced digital elevation models and extended the time record of recent observed marginal dynamic thinning back to the mid-1980s. We reveal two independent dynamic ice loss events on the northwestern Greenland Ice Sheet margin: from 1985 to 1993 and 2005 to 2010, which were separated by limited mass changes. Our results suggest that the ice mass changes in this sector were primarily caused by short-lived dynamic ice loss events rather than changes in the surface mass balance. This finding challenges predictions about the future response of the Greenland Ice Sheet to increasing global temperatures.

  9. Case Studies Illustrating Focal Alzheimer's, Fluent Aphasia, Late-Onset Memory Loss, and Rapid Dementia.

    PubMed

    Camsari, Gamze Balci; Murray, Melissa E; Graff-Radford, Neill R

    2016-08-01

    Many dementia subtypes have more shared signs and symptoms than defining ones. We review 8 cases with 4 overlapping syndromes and demonstrate how to distinguish the cases. These include focal cortical presentations of Alzheimer's disease (AD; posterior cortical atrophy and corticobasal syndrome [CBS]), fluent aphasia (semantic dementia and logopenic aphasia), late-onset slowly progressive dementia (hippocampal sclerosis and limbic predominant AD) and rapidly progressive dementia (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and limbic encephalitis). Recognizing the different syndromes can help the clinician to improve their diagnostic skills, leading to improved patient outcomes by early and accurate diagnosis, prompt treatment, and appropriate counseling and guidance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychosocial Adaptations to Dual Sensory Loss in Middle and Late Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Mark; Bally, Scott J.

    2007-01-01

    Concurrent losses of hearing and vision function, or dual sensory loss, affect a large number of individuals of all ages and particularly older adults. Dual sensory loss may present at any age as a result of genetic defect, accident, injury, disease, or environmental insult; however, most persons develop this condition as a result of age-related disease processes that rarely result in total deafness or blindness. This condition has wide-ranging implications for physical and psychological functioning and quality of life. In this article, we review the prevalence and causes of dual impairment and its effects on functioning for both individuals affected and their families. We examine psychosocial coping and adaptation to this condition using biopsychosocial–spiritual and ecological models and discuss various strategies for coping and adaptation. The impact of larger societal forces on psychosocial adaptation is presented, followed by recommendations for how rehabilitation and other professionals can meet the challenge of dual sensory loss that awaits us with the aging of the population. PMID:18003870

  11. [Impact of Patent False Lumen at the Descending Aorta after Total Aortic Replacement for Acute type A Aortic Dissection].

    PubMed

    Mogi, Kenji; Sakurai, Manabu; Nomura, Anan; Wakabayashi, Yutaka; Fujii, Masahiko; Takahara, Yoshiharu

    2016-04-01

    Acute type A aortic dissection remains one of the most challenging diseases facing cardiovascular surgeons. It is associated with high mortality and morbidity. However, prevention of disease process progression in the residual dissected aorta is an important aspect of the patient's long-term outcome. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of patent false lumen at the descending aorta after total arch replacement for acute type A aortic dissection. Between December 1994 and August 2014, a total of 145 patients underwent total arch replacement for acute type A aortic dissection. The hospital mortality was 5.5%.Of these 145 patients, 33 had patent false lumen at the descending aorta after surgery, and 94 had thrombosed false lumen. The perioperative variables and late results were statistically analyzed. The incidence of residual thoracic patent false lumen was 26.0%.No significant difference was observed in the cumulative survival rate between groups. The patent false lumen group was associated with significant higher risk of the descending aortic event than the thrombosed group. By multivariate analysis, younger age and non-resection of the primary tear were significant prospective factors for the patent false lumen at the descending aorta. The patent false lumen at the descending aorta was associated with the late aortic critical events after total arch replacement for aortic dissection.

  12. Impact-driven ice loss in outer Solar System satellites: Consequences for the Late Heavy Bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmo, F.; Korycansky, D. G.

    2012-05-01

    We use recent hydrodynamical results (Kraus, R.G., Senft, L.G., Stewart, S.S. [2011]. Icarus, 214, 724-738) for the production of water vapor by hypervelocity impacts on ice targets to assess which present-day major satellites of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus would have lost mass due to impact vaporization during an era of massive bombardment similar to the Late Heavy Bombardment in the inner Solar System. Using impactor populations suggested by recent work (Charnoz, S., Morbidelli, A., Dones, L., Salmon, J. [2009]. Icarus, 199, 413-428; Barr, A.C., Canup, R.M. [2010]. Nat. Geosci., 3, 164-167), we find that several satellites would have lost all their HO; we suggest that the most likely resolution of this paradox is that either the LHB delivered ≈10 times less mass to the outer Solar System than predicted by the standard Nice Model, or that the inner satellites formed after the LHB.

  13. Stellar model chromospheres. VI - Empirical estimates of the chromospheric radiative losses of late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, J. L.; Ayres, T. R.

    1978-01-01

    A method is developed for estimating the nonradiative heating of stellar chromospheres by measuring the net radiative losses in strong Fraunhofer line cores. This method is applied to observations of the Mg II resonance lines in a sample of 32 stars including the sun. At most a small dependence of chromospheric nonradiative heating on stellar surface gravity is found, which is contrary to the large effect predicted by recent calculations based on acoustic-heating theories.

  14. Small mammal diversity loss in response to late-Pleistocene climatic change.

    PubMed

    Blois, Jessica L; McGuire, Jenny L; Hadly, Elizabeth A

    2010-06-10

    Communities have been shaped in numerous ways by past climatic change; this process continues today. At the end of the Pleistocene epoch about 11,700 years ago, North American communities were substantially altered by the interplay of two events. The climate shifted from the cold, arid Last Glacial Maximum to the warm, mesic Holocene interglacial, causing many mammal species to shift their geographic distributions substantially. Populations were further stressed as humans arrived on the continent. The resulting megafaunal extinction event, in which 70 of the roughly 220 largest mammals in North America (32%) became extinct, has received much attention. However, responses of small mammals to events at the end of the Pleistocene have been much less studied, despite the sensitivity of these animals to current and future environmental change. Here we examine community changes in small mammals in northern California during the last 'natural' global warming event at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition and show that even though no small mammals in the local community became extinct, species losses and gains, combined with changes in abundance, caused declines in both the evenness and richness of communities. Modern mammalian communities are thus depauperate not only as a result of megafaunal extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene but also because of diversity loss among small mammals. Our results suggest that across future landscapes there will be some unanticipated effects of global change on diversity: restructuring of small mammal communities, significant loss of richness, and perhaps the rising dominance of native 'weedy' species.

  15. The loss of late successional species has a disproportionate impact on terrestrial carbon storage in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, D. J.; McLachlan, J. S.; Rocha, A. V.; Peters, J.; Dawson, A.; Raiho, A.; Blakely, B.; Heilman, K.; Paciorek, C. J.; Read, Q.; Feng, X.; Cogbill, C. V.; Goring, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Annually, terrestrial vegetation absorbs more than 10 times the amount of carbon released by human activities, but the degree to which this contributed to net removal of carbon from the atmosphere depends on how much carbon uptake is allocated to long-lived pools. A significant fraction of carbon taken up by forests is allocated to wood where it is effectively removed from the atmosphere for the duration of the tree's life. In this study we derive forest biomass for the Upper Midwest USA from historical records of tree distribution and size and compare it to published values for old growth forests and also modern forest biomass in the same region. Our estimates of pre-settlement biomass are lower than small scale studies in the published literature. Despite this, we find substantial losses in forest biomass since European settlement, often associated with the loss of large, long lived conifers. The mean life span of tree species in pre-industrial forests was greater than on the modern landscape and that this change is strongly influenced by the loss of long lived, late successional tree species like Tsuga canadensis. Regrowth of forest cleared during the expansion of Europeans across the North American continent had led to net carbon sequestration over the past century. However, because land use change and subsequent land use policies have not permitted the recovery of long lived, late successional species, it is unclear whether pre-industrial forest carbon stocks will recover. Figure: Maps showing the biomass-weighted mean of maximum potential tree lifespan across the study area. The upper panel is pre-settlement forests, with biomass estimates output from an observation informed statistical reconstruction, and the right panel is the same analysis for modern forests.

  16. Rapid Ice Loss at Vatnajokull,Iceland Since Late 1990s Constrained by Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, W.; Amelung, F.; Dixon, T. H.; Wdowinski, S.

    2012-12-01

    Synthetic aperture radar interferometry time series is applied over Vatnajokull, Iceland by using 15 years ERS data. Ice loss at Vatnajokull accelerates since late 1990s especially after 21th century. Clear uplift signal due to ice mass loss is detected. The rebound signal is generally linear and increases a little bit after 2000. The relative annual velocity (GPS station 7485 as reference) is about 12 mm/yr at the ice cap edge, which matches the previous studies using GPS. The standard deviation compared to 11 GPS stations in this area is about 2 mm/yr. A relative-value modeling method ignoring the effect of viscous flow is chosen assuming elastic half space earth. The final ice loss estimation - 83 cm/yr - matches the climatology model with ground observations. Small Baseline Subsets is applied for time series analysis. Orbit error coupling with long wavelength phase trend due to horizontal plate motion is removed based on a second polynomial model. For simplicity, we do not consider atmospheric delay in this area because of no complex topography and small-scale turbulence is eliminated well after long-term average when calculating the annual mean velocity. Some unwrapping error still exits because of low coherence. Other uncertainties can be the basic assumption of ice loss pattern and spatial variation of the elastic parameters. It is the first time we apply InSAR time series for ice mass balance study and provide detailed error and uncertainty analysis. The successful of this application proves InSAR as an option for mass balance study and it is also important for validation of different ice loss estimation techniques.

  17. Kinetics of onset of mouse sperm acrosome reaction induced by solubilized zona pellucida: fluorimetric determination of loss of pH gradient between acrosomal lumen and medium monitored by dapoxyl (2-aminoethyl) sulfonamide and of intracellular Ca(2+) changes monitored by fluo-3.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, P L; Storey, B T

    2000-03-01

    The onset of the zona pellucida-induced acrosome reaction in mouse sperm is marked by loss of the pH gradient existing in acrosome-intact sperm between the acidic acrosomal lumen and the suspending medium, due to pore formation between outer acrosomal and plasma membranes. In earlier work, it was shown that this pH gradient loss occurred in single sperm bound to structurally intact zonae pellucidae with a half-time of 2.1 min; the extended kinetics of this loss determined in a sperm population bound to intact zonae was due to a 180-min range of variable lag times. We hypothesized that this lag time range was due to steric constraints imposed by the three-dimensional structure of the structurally intact zona pellucida, and that this constraint should be removed in solubilized zonae. The fluorescent probe, Dapoxyl(TM) (2-aminoethyl)sulfonamide (DAES) allowed a test of this hypothesis in a population of sperm cells. It is a weak base that is non-fluorescent in aqueous solution, but which accumulates in the acidic acrosomal compartment due to the pH gradient with highly enhanced fluorescence; loss of the pH gradient leads to a decrease in fluorescence. The half-time for DAES fluorescence loss in a population of capacitated, acrosome-intact sperm in response to solubilized zona pellucida protein was 2.13 +/- 0.10 min (SEM, n = 9). The agreement between single cell and cell population kinetics validates the hypothesis of steric constraint in the structurally intact zona pellucida. The change in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in response to solubilized zona pellucida, as monitored with fluo-3, was a rapid increase, followed by a decrease, with a half-time of 0.85 +/- 0.09 min (SEM, n = 6) to a steady state level higher than the initial level, indicating this Ca(2+) transient as the precursor reaction to onset of the zona-induced acrosome reaction. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. [Late effects of low-voltage electricity accidents. Rotator cuff tendinitis, hearing loss and neuropsychological dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Veiersted, K B; Goffeng, L O; Tynes, T

    1997-09-30

    This article describes the symptomatology of three patients following electrical accidents. The flow of the current was from hand to hand, voltage was 220/380 V, and duration was at least a few seconds for all patients. The development of symptoms was the same, and may be explained as a thermal effect of electricity on the tissue. Initially the patients experienced transient confusion, followed by stiff muscles after 1 to 3 days, and then pain in the muscle attachments and joints close to path of the current. This pain increased slowly during the first two weeks. Recovery was gradual, but often incomplete. The case notes showed that electrical accidents may be followed by chronic rotator cuff tendinitis. The clinical examination also revealed a hearing loss at about 2,000 Hz and above 4,000 Hz. The neuropsychological testing indicated a diffuse impaired function in only one patient.

  19. Rho GTPase controls Drosophila salivary gland lumen size through regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and Moesin

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Na; Bagumian, Gaiana; Galiano, Michael; Myat, Monn Monn

    2011-01-01

    Generation and maintenance of proper lumen size is important for tubular organ function. We report on a novel role for the Drosophila Rho1 GTPase in control of salivary gland lumen size through regulation of cell rearrangement, apical domain elongation and cell shape change. We show that Rho1 controls cell rearrangement and apical domain elongation by promoting actin polymerization and regulating F-actin distribution at the apical and basolateral membranes through Rho kinase. Loss of Rho1 resulted in reduction of F-actin at the basolateral membrane and enrichment of apical F-actin, the latter accompanied by enrichment of apical phosphorylated Moesin. Reducing cofilin levels in Rho1 mutant salivary gland cells restored proper distribution of F-actin and phosphorylated Moesin and rescued the cell rearrangement and apical domain elongation defects of Rho1 mutant glands. In support of a role for Rho1-dependent actin polymerization in regulation of gland lumen size, loss of profilin phenocopied the Rho1 lumen size defects to a large extent. We also show that Ribbon, a BTB domain-containing transcription factor functions with Rho1 in limiting apical phosphorylated Moesin for apical domain elongation. Our studies reveal a novel mechanism for controlling salivary gland lumen size, namely through Rho1-dependent actin polymerization and distribution and downregulation of apical phosphorylated Moesin. PMID:22071107

  20. Longitudinal study of striatal activation to reward and loss anticipation from mid-adolescence into late adolescence/early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lamm, C; Benson, B E; Guyer, A E; Perez-Edgar, K; Fox, N A; Pine, D S; Ernst, M

    2014-08-01

    Adolescent risk-taking behavior has been associated with age-related changes in striatal activation to incentives. Previous cross-sectional studies have shown both increased and decreased striatal activation to incentives for adolescents compared to adults. The monetary incentive delay (MID) task, designed to assess functional brain activation in anticipation of reward, has been used extensively to examine striatal activation in both adult and adolescent populations. The current study used this task with a longitudinal approach across mid-adolescence and late adolescence/early adulthood. Twenty-two participants (13 male) were studied using the MID task at two time-points, once in mid-adolescence (mean age=16.11; SD=1.44) and a second time in late adolescence/early adulthood (mean age=20.14; SD=.67). Results revealed greater striatal activation with increased age in high- compared to low-incentive contexts (incentive magnitude), for gain as well as for loss trials (incentive valence). Results extend cross-sectional findings and show reduced striatal engagement in adolescence compared to adulthood during preparation for action in an incentive context.

  1. Target genes of myostatin loss-of-function in muscles of late bovine fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Cassar-Malek, Isabelle; Passelaigue, Florent; Bernard, Carine; Léger, Jean; Hocquette, Jean-François

    2007-01-01

    Background Myostatin, a muscle-specific member of the Transforming Growth Factor beta family, negatively regulates muscle development. Double-muscled (DM) cattle have a loss-of-function mutation in their myostatin gene responsible for the hypermuscular phenotype. Thus, these animals are a good model for understanding the mechanisms underpinning muscular hypertrophy. In order to identify individual genes or networks that may be myostatin targets, we looked for genes that were differentially expressed between DM and normal (NM) animals (n = 3 per group) in the semitendinosus muscle (hypertrophied in DM animals) at 260 days of fetal development (when the biochemical differentiation of muscle is intensive). A heterologous microarray (human and murine oligonucleotide sequences) of around 6,000 genes expressed in muscle was used. Results Many genes were found to be differentially expressed according to genetic type (some with a more than 5-fold change), and according to the presence of one or two functional myostatin allele(s). They belonged to various functional categories. The genes down-regulated in DM fetuses were mainly those encoding extracellular matrix proteins, slow contractile proteins and ribosomal proteins. The genes up-regulated in DM fetuses were mainly involved in the regulation of transcription, cell cycle/apoptosis, translation or DNA metabolism. These data highlight features indicating that DM muscle is shifted towards a more glycolytic metabolism, and has an altered extracellular matrix composition (e.g. down-regulation of COL1A1 and COL1A2, and up-regulation of COL4A2) and decreased adipocyte differentiation (down-regulation of C1QTNF3). The altered gene expression in the three major muscle compartments (fibers, connective tissue and intramuscular adipose tissue) is consistent with the well-known characteristics of DM cattle. In addition, novel potential targets of the myostatin gene were identified (MB, PLN, troponins, ZFHX1B). Conclusion Thus, the

  2. Lumen irregularity dominates the relationship between mechanical stress condition, fibrous-cap thickness, and lumen curvature in carotid atherosclerotic plaque.

    PubMed

    Teng, Zhongzhao; Sadat, Umar; Ji, Guangyu; Zhu, Chengcheng; Young, Victoria E; Graves, Martin J; Gillard, Jonathan H

    2011-03-01

    High mechanical stress condition over the fibrous cap (FC) has been widely accepted as a contributor to plaque rupture. The relationships between the stress, lumen curvature, and FC thickness have not been explored in detail. In this study, we investigate lumen irregularity-dependent relationships between mechanical stress conditions, local FC thickness (LT(FC)), and lumen curvature (LC(lumen)). Magnetic resonance imaging slices of carotid plaque from 100 patients with delineated atherosclerotic components were used. Two-dimensional structure-only finite element simulations were performed for the mechanical analysis, and maximum principal stress (stress-P₁) at all integral nodes along the lumen was obtained. LT(FC) and LC(lumen) were computed using the segmented contour. The lumen irregularity (L-δir) was defined as the difference between the largest and the smallest lumen curvature. The results indicated that the relationship between stress-P₁, LT(FC), and LC(lumen) is largely dependent on L-δir. When L-δir ≥ .31 (irregular lumen), stress-P₁ strongly correlated with lumen curvature and had a weak/no correlation with local FC thickness, and in 73.4% of magnetic resonance (MR) slices, the critical stress (maximum of stress-P₁ over the diseased region) was found at the site where the lumen curvature was large. When L-δir ≤ 0.28 (relatively round lumen), stress-P₁ showed a strong correlation with local FC thickness but weak/no correlation with lumen curvature, and in 71.7% of MR slices, the critical stress was located at the site of minimum FC thickness. Using lumen irregularity as a method of identifying vulnerable plaque sites by referring to the lumen shape is a novel and simple method, which can be used for mechanics-based plaque vulnerability assessment.

  3. The importance of being a lumen

    PubMed Central

    Bischel, Lauren L.; Sung, Kyung E.; Jiménez-Torres, José A.; Mader, Brianah; Keely, Patricia J.; Beebe, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in tissue engineering and microtechnology have enabled researchers to more easily generate in vitro tissue models that mimic the tissue geometry and spatial organization found in vivo (e.g., vessel or mammary duct models with tubular structures). However, the widespread adoption of these models for biological studies has been slow, in part due to the lack of direct comparisons between existing 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional cell culture models and new organotypic models that better replicate tissue structure. Using previously developed vessel and mammary duct models with 3-dimensional lumen structures, we have begun to explore this question. In a direct comparison between these next generation organotypic models and more traditional methods, we observed differences in the levels of several secreted growth factors and cytokines. In addition, endothelial vessel geometry profoundly affects the phenotypic behavior of carcinoma cells, suggesting that more traditional in vitro assays may not capture in vivo events. Here, we seek to review and add to the increasing evidence supporting the hypothesis that using cell culture models with more relevant tissue structure influences cell fate and behavior, potentially increasing the relevance of biological findings.—Bischel, L. L., Sung, K. E., Jiménez-Torres, J. A., Mader, B., Keely, P. J., Beebe, D. J. The importance of being a lumen. PMID:25077562

  4. Loss of the RNA-binding protein TACO1 causes late-onset mitochondrial dysfunction in mice

    PubMed Central

    Richman, Tara R.; Spåhr, Henrik; Ermer, Judith A.; Davies, Stefan M. K.; Viola, Helena M.; Bates, Kristyn A.; Papadimitriou, John; Hool, Livia C.; Rodger, Jennifer; Larsson, Nils-Göran; Rackham, Oliver; Filipovska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    The recognition and translation of mammalian mitochondrial mRNAs are poorly understood. To gain further insights into these processes in vivo, we characterized mice with a missense mutation that causes loss of the translational activator of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (TACO1). We report that TACO1 is not required for embryonic survival, although the mutant mice have substantially reduced COXI protein, causing an isolated complex IV deficiency. We show that TACO1 specifically binds the mt-Co1 mRNA and is required for translation of COXI through its association with the mitochondrial ribosome. We determined the atomic structure of TACO1, revealing three domains in the shape of a hook with a tunnel between domains 1 and 3. Mutations in the positively charged domain 1 reduce RNA binding by TACO1. The Taco1 mutant mice develop a late-onset visual impairment, motor dysfunction and cardiac hypertrophy and thus provide a useful model for future treatment trials for mitochondrial disease. PMID:27319982

  5. [Clinical relevance of the early and the late acoustically evoked potentials at Menières disease and at sudden hearing loss (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Zöllner, C; Karnahl, T

    1978-11-22

    At some patients suffering from Menières disease or sudden hearing loss the brainstem potentials and the late auditory potential N1 were registered. It could be shown that an exact differential diagnosis between these both illnesses was not possible by means of these acoustically evoked potentials. Furthermore it was not possible by means of these potentials to predict an improvement of hearing at patients with sudden hearing loss. Finally the potentials showed an increasing of their latencies which was greater at patients with sudden hearing loss than at patients with Menières disease.

  6. De Novo Donor-Specific HLA Antibodies Developing Early or Late after Transplant Are Associated with the Same Risk of Graft Damage and Loss in Nonsensitized Kidney Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Cioni, Michela; Nocera, Arcangelo; Innocente, Annalisa; Tagliamacco, Augusto; Trivelli, Antonella; Basso, Sabrina; Quartuccio, Giuseppe; Fontana, Iris; Magnasco, Alberto; Drago, Francesca; Gurrado, Antonella; Guido, Ilaria; Compagno, Francesca; Garibotto, Giacomo; Klersy, Catherine; Verrina, Enrico; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco; Cardillo, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    De novo posttransplant donor-specific HLA-antibody (dnDSA) detection is now recognized as a tool to identify patients at risk for antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and graft loss. It is still unclear whether the time interval from transplant to DSA occurrence influences graft damage. Utilizing sera collected longitudinally, we evaluated 114 consecutive primary pediatric kidney recipients grafted between 2002 and 2013 for dnDSA occurrence by Luminex platform. dnDSAs occurred in 39 patients at a median time of 24.6 months. In 15 patients, dnDSAs developed within 1 year (early-onset group), while the other 24 seroconverted after the first posttransplant year (late-onset group). The two groups were comparable when considering patient- and transplant-related factors, as well as DSA biological properties, including C1q and C3d complement-binding ability. Only recipient age at transplant significantly differed in the two cohorts, with younger patients showing earlier dnDSA development. Late AMR was diagnosed in 47% of the early group and in 58% of the late group. Graft loss occurred in 3/15 (20%) and 4/24 (17%) patients in early- and late-onset groups, respectively (p = ns). In our pediatric kidney recipients, dnDSAs predict AMR and graft loss irrespective of the time elapsed between transplantation and antibody occurrence. PMID:28367453

  7. De Novo Donor-Specific HLA Antibodies Developing Early or Late after Transplant Are Associated with the Same Risk of Graft Damage and Loss in Nonsensitized Kidney Recipients.

    PubMed

    Cioni, Michela; Nocera, Arcangelo; Innocente, Annalisa; Tagliamacco, Augusto; Trivelli, Antonella; Basso, Sabrina; Quartuccio, Giuseppe; Fontana, Iris; Magnasco, Alberto; Drago, Francesca; Gurrado, Antonella; Guido, Ilaria; Compagno, Francesca; Garibotto, Giacomo; Klersy, Catherine; Verrina, Enrico; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco; Cardillo, Massimo; Comoli, Patrizia; Ginevri, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    De novo posttransplant donor-specific HLA-antibody (dnDSA) detection is now recognized as a tool to identify patients at risk for antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and graft loss. It is still unclear whether the time interval from transplant to DSA occurrence influences graft damage. Utilizing sera collected longitudinally, we evaluated 114 consecutive primary pediatric kidney recipients grafted between 2002 and 2013 for dnDSA occurrence by Luminex platform. dnDSAs occurred in 39 patients at a median time of 24.6 months. In 15 patients, dnDSAs developed within 1 year (early-onset group), while the other 24 seroconverted after the first posttransplant year (late-onset group). The two groups were comparable when considering patient- and transplant-related factors, as well as DSA biological properties, including C1q and C3d complement-binding ability. Only recipient age at transplant significantly differed in the two cohorts, with younger patients showing earlier dnDSA development. Late AMR was diagnosed in 47% of the early group and in 58% of the late group. Graft loss occurred in 3/15 (20%) and 4/24 (17%) patients in early- and late-onset groups, respectively (p = ns). In our pediatric kidney recipients, dnDSAs predict AMR and graft loss irrespective of the time elapsed between transplantation and antibody occurrence.

  8. Alk1 controls arterial endothelial cell migration in lumenized vessels.

    PubMed

    Rochon, Elizabeth R; Menon, Prahlad G; Roman, Beth L

    2016-07-15

    Heterozygous loss of the arterial-specific TGFβ type I receptor, activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1; ACVRL1), causes hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). HHT is characterized by development of fragile, direct connections between arteries and veins, or arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). However, how decreased ALK1 signaling leads to AVMs is unknown. To understand the cellular mis-steps that cause AVMs, we assessed endothelial cell behavior in alk1-deficient zebrafish embryos, which develop cranial AVMs. Our data demonstrate that alk1 loss has no effect on arterial endothelial cell proliferation but alters arterial endothelial cell migration within lumenized vessels. In wild-type embryos, alk1-positive cranial arterial endothelial cells generally migrate towards the heart, against the direction of blood flow, with some cells incorporating into endocardium. In alk1-deficient embryos, migration against flow is dampened and migration in the direction of flow is enhanced. Altered migration results in decreased endothelial cell number in arterial segments proximal to the heart and increased endothelial cell number in arterial segments distal to the heart. We speculate that the consequent increase in distal arterial caliber and hemodynamic load precipitates the flow-dependent development of downstream AVMs.

  9. Understanding the roles of the thylakoid lumen in photosynthesis regulation

    PubMed Central

    Järvi, Sari; Gollan, Peter J.; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2013-01-01

    It has been known for a long time that the thylakoid lumen provides the environment for oxygen evolution, plastocyanin-mediated electron transfer, and photoprotection. More recently lumenal proteins have been revealed to play roles in numerous processes, most often linked with regulating thylakoid biogenesis and the activity and turnover of photosynthetic protein complexes, especially the photosystem II and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase-like complexes. Still, the functions of the majority of lumenal proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana are unknown. Interestingly, while the thylakoid lumen proteome of at least 80 proteins contains several large protein families, individual members of many protein families have highly divergent roles. This is indicative of evolutionary pressure leading to neofunctionalization of lumenal proteins, emphasizing the important role of the thylakoid lumen for photosynthetic electron transfer and ultimately for plant fitness. Furthermore, the involvement of anterograde and retrograde signaling networks that regulate the expression and activity of lumen proteins is increasingly pertinent. Recent studies have also highlighted the importance of thiol/disulfide modulation in controlling the functions of many lumenal proteins and photosynthetic regulation pathways. PMID:24198822

  10. Polarized protein transport and lumen formation during epithelial tissue morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Blasky, Alex J; Mangan, Anthony; Prekeris, Rytis

    2015-01-01

    One of the major challenges in biology is to explain how complex tissues and organs arise from the collective action of individual polarized cells. The best-studied model of this process is the cross talk between individual epithelial cells during their polarization to form the multicellular epithelial lumen during tissue morphogenesis. Multiple mechanisms of apical lumen formation have been proposed. Some epithelial lumens form from preexisting polarized epithelial structures. However, de novo lumen formation from nonpolarized cells has recently emerged as an important driver of epithelial tissue morphogenesis, especially during the formation of small epithelial tubule networks. In this review, we discuss the latest findings regarding the mechanisms and regulation of de novo lumen formation in vitro and in vivo.

  11. Polarized Protein Transport and Lumen Formation During Epithelial Tissue Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Blasky, Alex J.; Mangan, Anthony; Prekeris, Rytis

    2015-01-01

    One of the major challenges in biology is to explain how complex tissues and organs arise from the collective action of individual polarized cells. The best-studied model of this process is the cross talk between individual epithelial cells during their polarization to form the multicellular epithelial lumen during tissue morphogenesis. Multiple mechanisms of apical lumen formation have been proposed. Some epithelial lumens form from preexisting polarized epithelial structures. However, de novo lumen formation from nonpolarized cells has recently emerged as an important driver of epithelial tissue morphogenesis, especially during the formation of small epithelial tubule networks. In this review, we discuss the latest findings regarding the mechanisms and regulation of de novo lumen formation in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26359775

  12. Racial differences in periodontal disease and 10-year self-reported tooth loss among late middle-aged and older adults: the dental ARIC study.

    PubMed

    Naorungroj, S; Slade, G D; Divaris, K; Heiss, G; Offenbacher, S; Beck, J D

    2017-06-06

    To investigate racial differences in the associations between periodontitis and 10-year self-reported incident tooth loss in a biracial, community-based cohort of US late middle-aged and older adults. Subjects were 3,466 dentate men and women aged 53-74 who underwent dental examinations from 1996 to1998. In 2012-2013, telephone interviewers asked participants about tooth loss in the preceding 10 years. Separate multivariable ordinal logistic regression models were used to calculate proportional odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) as estimates of association between periodontitis and tooth loss for Whites and African-Americans (AAs). The majority of participants were White (85 percent) and female (57 percent) with 23 teeth on average at enrollment. Approximately half the Whites (56 percent) and AAs (49 percent) had periodontitis. At follow-up, approximately 44 percent of AAs and 38 percent of Whites reported having lost ≥1 tooth. In multivariable models, severe periodontitis (OR = 3.03; 95% CI = 2.42-3.80) and moderate periodontitis (OR = 1.64; 95% CI= 1.39-1.94) were significant risk factors of incident tooth loss among Whites. For AAs, severe but not moderate periodontitis increased the odds of incident tooth loss (OR = 2.22; 95% CI = 1.37-3.59). In the final model, education was inversely associated with incident tooth loss among AAs, while lower income was associated with greater odds of tooth loss among Whites. In this population-based cohort, there is racial heterogeneity in the association between periodontitis and tooth loss. Interventions to reduce the impact of periodontitis on tooth loss need to consider these differences. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  13. Responses to Financial Loss During the Great Recession: An Examination of Sense of Control in Late Midlife.

    PubMed

    Mejía, Shannon T; Settersten, Richard A; Odden, Michelle C; Hooker, Karen

    2016-07-01

    The "Great Recession" shocked the primary institutions that help individuals and families meet their needs and plan for the future. This study examines middle-aged adults' experiences of financial loss and considers how socioeconomic and interpersonal resources facilitate or hinder maintaining a sense of control in the face of economic uncertainty. Using the 2006 and 2010 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, change in income and wealth, giving help to and receiving help from others, household complexity, and sense of control were measured among middle-aged adults (n = 3,850; age = 51-60 years). Socioeconomic resources predicted both the level of and change in the engagement of interpersonal resources prior to and during the Great Recession. Experiences of financial loss were associated with increased engagement of interpersonal resources and decreased sense of control. The effect of financial loss was dampened by education. Sense of control increased with giving help and decreased with household complexity. Findings suggest that, across socioeconomic strata, proportional loss in financial resources resulted in a loss in sense of control. However, responses to financial loss differed by socioeconomic status, which differentiated the ability to maintain a sense of control following financial loss. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Loss of FANCC function is associated with failure to inhibit late firing replication origins after DNA cross-linking

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, Randall A.; Gingras, Helene; Hockenbery, David M. . E-mail: dhockenb@fhcrc.org

    2007-07-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) cells are abnormally sensitive to DNA cross-linking agents with increased levels of apoptosis and chromosomal instability. Defects in eight FA complementation groups inhibit monoubiquitination of FANCD2, and subsequent recruitment of FANCD2 to DNA damage and S-phase-associated nuclear foci. The specific functional defect in repair or response to DNA damage in FA cells remains unknown. Damage-resistant DNA synthesis is present 2.5-5 h after cross-linker treatment of FANCC, FANCA and FANCD2-deficient cells. Analysis of the size distribution of labeled DNA replication strands revealed that diepoxybutane treatment suppressed labeling of early but not late-firing replicons in FANCC-deficient cells. In contrast, normal responses to ionizing radiation were observed in FANCC-deficient cells. Absence of this late S-phase response in FANCC-deficient cells leads to activation of secondary checkpoint responses.

  15. Long-term outcome of cardiac allograft vasculopathy treated by transmyocardial laser revascularization: early rewards, late losses.

    PubMed

    Mehra, M R; Uber, P A; Prasad, A K; Park, M H; Scott, R L; McFadden, P M; Van Meter, C H

    2000-08-01

    Transmyocardial laser revascularization (TLR) was initially touted as a promising therapeutic alternative for tackling the growing problem of cardiac allograft vasculopathy in late heart transplant survivors. We first described 4- and 8-week observations of application of this surgical technique, in which we professed enthusiasm for TLR in providing symptomatic relief and in reducing ischemic burden. In this report, we present the long-term (24-month) impact of TLR on clinical outcome, channel patency, and recrudescence of ischemic burden. In the long term, surgical TLR provides neither consistent symptomatic improvement nor an ameliorative effect on the natural history of cardiac allograft vasculopathy.

  16. Early and Late Loss of the Cytoskeletal Scaffolding Protein, Ankyrin G Reveals its Role in Maturation and Maintenance of Nodes of Ranvier in Myelinated Axons.

    PubMed

    Saifetiarova, Julia; Taylor, Anna M; Bhat, Manzoor A

    2017-02-01

    The mechanisms that govern node of Ranvier organization, stability and long-term maintenance remain to be fully elucidated. One of the molecular components of the node is the cytoskeletal scaffolding protein, Ankyrin G (AnkG), which interacts with multiple members of the nodal complex. The role of AnkG in nodal organization and maintenance is still not clearly defined, as to whether AnkG functions as an initial nodal organizer or whether it functions as a nodal stabilizer after the nodal complex has been assembled. Using a mouse model system, we report here that perinatal and juvenile neuronal ablation of AnkG has differential consequences on nodal stability. Early loss of AnkG creates immature nodes with abnormal morphology, which undergo accelerated destabilization within a month, resulting in rapid NaV channel and βIV Spectrin loss with reduced effects on Neurofascin 186. On the other hand, late ablation of AnkG from established nodal complexes leads to slow but progressive nodal destabilization over 10 months, primarily affecting βIV Spectrin, followed by NaV channels, with modest impact on Neurofascin 186. We also show that Ankyrin R and βI Spectrin are not sufficient to prevent nodal disorganization after AnkG ablation. Additionally, nodal disorganization in both early and late AnkG mutants is accompanied by axonal pathology and neurological dysfunction. Together, our results suggest that AnkG plays an indispensable role in maturation and long-term stabilization of the newly assembled nodal complex, and that loss of AnkG after nodal stabilization does not lead to rapid nodal disassembly but loss of specific nodal components in a time-dependent manner.

  17. Fully automated lumen segmentation of intracoronary optical coherence tomography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanasiou, L. S.; Rikhtegar, Farhad; Galon, Micheli Zanotti; Lopes, Augusto Celso; Lemos, Pedro Alves; Edelman, Elazer R.

    2017-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides high-resolution cross-sectional images of arterial luminal morphology. Traditionally lumen segmentation of OCT images is performed manually by expert observers; a laborious, time consuming effort, sensitive to inter-observer variability process. Although several automated methods have been developed, the majority cannot be applied in real time because of processing demands. To address these limitations we propose a new method for rapid image segmentation of arterial lumen borders using OCT images that involves the following steps: 1) OCT image acquisition using the raw OCT data, 2) reconstruction of longitudinal cross-section (LOCS) images from four different acquisition angles, 3) segmentation of the LOCS images and 4) lumen contour construction in each 2D cross-sectional image. The efficiency of the developed method was evaluated using 613 annotated images from 10 OCT pullbacks acquired from 10 patients at the time of coronary arterial interventions. High Pearson's correlation coefficient was obtained when lumen areas detected by the method were compared to areas annotated by experts (r=0.98, R2=0.96); Bland-Altman analysis showed no significant bias with good limits of agreement. The proposed methodology permits reliable border detection especially in lumen areas having artifacts and is faster than traditional techniques making it capable of being used in real time applications. The method is likely to assist in a number of research and clinical applications - further testing in an expanded clinical arena will more fully define the limits and potential of this approach.

  18. Determinants of loss of mammal species during the Late Quaternary 'megafauna' extinctions: life history and ecology, but not body size.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, C N

    2002-01-01

    Extinctions of megafauna species during the Late Quaternary dramatically reduced the global diversity of mammals. There is intense debate over the causes of these extinctions, especially regarding the extent to which humans were involved. Most previous analyses of this question have focused on chronologies of extinction and on the archaeological evidence for human-megafauna interaction. Here, I take an alternative approach: comparison of the biological traits of extinct species with those of survivors. I use this to demonstrate two general features of the selectivity of Late Quaternary mammal extinctions in Australia, Eurasia, the Americas and Madagascar. First, large size was not directly related to risk of extinction; rather, species with slow reproductive rates were at high risk regardless of their body size. This finding rejects the 'blitzkrieg' model of overkill, in which extinctions were completed during brief intervals of selective hunting of large-bodied prey. Second, species that survived despite having low reproductive rates typically occurred in closed habitats and many were arboreal or nocturnal. Such traits would have reduced their exposure to direct interaction with people. Therefore, although this analysis rejects blitzkrieg as a general scenario for the mammal megafauna extinctions, it is consistent with extinctions being due to interaction with human populations. PMID:12427315

  19. A Novel Asp121Asn Mutation of Myelin Protein Zero Is Associated with Late-Onset Axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease, Hearing Loss and Pupil Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaohui; Gu, Weihong; Hao, Ying; Wang, Renbin; Wen, Hong; Sun, Shaojie; Jiao, Jinsong; Fan, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Myelin protein zero (MPZ) is a major component of compact myelin in peripheral nerves. Mutations in MPZ have been associated with different Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) phenotypes (CMT1B, CMT2I/J, CMTDI), Dejerine-Sottas syndrome, and congenital hypomyelination neuropathy. Here, we report phenotypic variability in a four-generation Chinese family with the MPZ mutation Asp121Asn. Genetic testing was performed on nine family members and 200 controls. Clinical, electrophysiological and skeletal muscle MRI assessments were available for review in six family members. A novel heterozygous missense mutation, Asp121Asn, was observed in five affected members of the family. Unaffected relatives and 200 normal controls were without the mutation. Four of the affected members of the family displayed late-onset, predominantly axonal sensory and motor neuropathy, pupil abnormalities, and progressive sensorineural hearing loss. One young affected member presented with Argyll-Robertson pupils and diminished deep tendon reflexes in the lower limbs. The MPZ mutation Asp121Asn may be associated with late-onset axonal neuropathy, early onset hearing loss and pupil abnormalities. Our report expands the number and phenotypic spectrum of MPZ mutations.

  20. A Novel Asp121Asn Mutation of Myelin Protein Zero Is Associated with Late-Onset Axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease, Hearing Loss and Pupil Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xiaohui; Gu, Weihong; Hao, Ying; Wang, Renbin; Wen, Hong; Sun, Shaojie; Jiao, Jinsong; Fan, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Myelin protein zero (MPZ) is a major component of compact myelin in peripheral nerves. Mutations in MPZ have been associated with different Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMT) phenotypes (CMT1B, CMT2I/J, CMTDI), Dejerine–Sottas syndrome, and congenital hypomyelination neuropathy. Here, we report phenotypic variability in a four-generation Chinese family with the MPZ mutation Asp121Asn. Genetic testing was performed on nine family members and 200 controls. Clinical, electrophysiological and skeletal muscle MRI assessments were available for review in six family members. A novel heterozygous missense mutation, Asp121Asn, was observed in five affected members of the family. Unaffected relatives and 200 normal controls were without the mutation. Four of the affected members of the family displayed late-onset, predominantly axonal sensory and motor neuropathy, pupil abnormalities, and progressive sensorineural hearing loss. One young affected member presented with Argyll–Robertson pupils and diminished deep tendon reflexes in the lower limbs. The MPZ mutation Asp121Asn may be associated with late-onset axonal neuropathy, early onset hearing loss and pupil abnormalities. Our report expands the number and phenotypic spectrum of MPZ mutations. PMID:27774063

  1. The Neutrino Energy Loss of Nuclides by K-shell Continuum State Electron Capture at the Late Stage of Stellar Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J. J.; Lin, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the Weinberg-Salam theory and taken into consideration of the Coulomb effect on electron gas, the neutrino energy loss rates by K-shell continuum state electron capture are discussed for ^{12}C, ^{16}O, ^{20}Ne, ^{24}Mg, ^{28}Si and ^{56}Fe under the condition of complete ionization and at the late stage of stellar evolution. Our results are compared with those of Beaudet, Petrosian and Salpeter (BPS). It is shown that at relatively high temperatures (e.g., {T_9 = 0.1} and {T_9 = 1}, T_9 represents the temperature in units of 10^9 K), our results agree well with BPS's. However, at relatively low temperatures (e.g., {T_9 = 0.01} and {T_9 = 0.001}), the neutrino energy loss rates of BPS for ^{16}O, ^{20}Ne, ^{24}Mg and ^{28}Si are higher than our results by 10˜ 70 times, and even by 2 orders of magnitude for nuclide ^{12}C. Our results may be of great importance in the research of late stellar evolution, especially for the cooling mechanism of white dwarf, during which the nucleus collapsed to the stage with a relatively low temperature and intermediate density.

  2. The impact of late career job loss on myocardial infarction and stroke: a 10 year follow up using the health and retirement survey

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, W T; Teng, H M; Falba, T A; Kasl, S V; Krumholz, H M; Bradley, E H

    2006-01-01

    Background Involuntary job loss is a major life event associated with social, economic, behavioural, and health outcomes, for which older workers are at elevated risk. Objective To assess the 10 year risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke associated with involuntary job loss among workers over 50 years of age. Methods Analysing data from the nationally representative US Health and Retirement Survey (HRS), Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to estimate whether workers who suffered involuntary job loss were at higher risk for subsequent MI and stroke than individuals who continued to work. The sample included 4301 individuals who were employed at the 1992 study baseline. Results Over the 10 year study frame, 582 individuals (13.5% of the sample) experienced involuntary job loss. After controlling for established predictors of the outcomes, displaced workers had a more than twofold increase in the risk of subsequent MI (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.48; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.49 to 4.14) and stroke (HR = 2.43; 95% CI = 1.18 to 4.98) relative to working persons. Conclusion Results suggest that the true costs of late career unemployment exceed financial deprivation, and include substantial health consequences. Physicians who treat individuals who lose jobs as they near retirement should consider the loss of employment a potential risk factor for adverse vascular health changes. Policy makers and programme planners should also be aware of the risks of job loss, so that programmatic interventions can be designed and implemented to ease the multiple burdens of joblessness. PMID:16798871

  3. Late subsequent ocular morbidity in retinopathy of prematurity patients, with emphasis on visual loss caused by insidious 'involutive' pathology: an observational series.

    PubMed

    Fledelius, Hans C; Jensen, Hanne

    2011-06-01

    This paper discusses late complications in eyes of surviving premature infants typically occurring years into the steady state attained after the initial ophthalmic events associated with preterm birth. The study focuses on insidious visual loss, as well as eventual vitreoretinal and anterior segment disorders. We carried out a retrospective uncontrolled study of a case series (n = 31) of late complications to early ocular changes associated with very preterm delivery. The birth years of our subjects extended back to 1941, but only 15 more recent cases fulfilled contemporary criteria for a diagnosis of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Fourteen cases involved vitreoretinal pathology (median observation time 14 years, range 6-46 years) with late detachment and/or vitreous haemorrhage. Twelve cases primarily involved anterior segment pathology (median observation time 37 years, range 7-58 years). Eyes in the latter category often showed features of early arrested growth and anterior traction, which, in four eyes, eventually led to enucleation or exenteration as a result of a blind and painful terminal state. The last five cases (observation periods 22-38 years) were labelled 'miscellaneous'. Among the 31 patients, we identified a subgroup in which insidious visual loss was a common feature (n = 20). Initially, some of these cases showed evidence of cicatricial ROP and low vision from early in life. Others retained useful vision and did not present obvious ocular incidents related to the actual visual acuity decline. Based on a variety of clinical ophthalmic preterm appearances, we propose the hypothesis that, in addition to increased structural vulnerability, a reduced functional reserve may pave the way for further abiotrophy or involution over time. This may manifest as reduced resistance to later ophthalmic events, such as disease or trauma, or simply the impact of age. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Acta Ophthalmol.

  4. Evaluation of an improved technique for lumen path definition and lumen segmentation of atherosclerotic vessels in CT angiography.

    PubMed

    van Velsen, Evert F S; Niessen, Wiro J; de Weert, Thomas T; de Monyé, Cécile; van der Lugt, Aad; Meijering, Erik; Stokking, Rik

    2007-07-01

    Vessel image analysis is crucial when considering therapeutical options for (cardio-) vascular diseases. Our method, VAMPIRE (Vascular Analysis using Multiscale Paths Inferred from Ridges and Edges), involves two parts: a user defines a start- and endpoint upon which a lumen path is automatically defined, and which is used for initialization; the automatic segmentation of the vessel lumen on computed tomographic angiography (CTA) images. Both parts are based on the detection of vessel-like structures by analyzing intensity, edge, and ridge information. A multi-observer evaluation study was performed to compare VAMPIRE with a conventional method on the CTA data of 15 patients with carotid artery stenosis. In addition to the start- and endpoint, the two radiologists required on average 2.5 (SD: 1.9) additional points to define a lumen path when using the conventional method, and 0.1 (SD: 0.3) when using VAMPIRE. The segmentation results were quantitatively evaluated using Similarity Indices, which were slightly lower between VAMPIRE and the two radiologists (respectively 0.90 and 0.88) compared with the Similarity Index between the radiologists (0.92). The evaluation shows that the improved definition of a lumen path requires minimal user interaction, and that using this path as initialization leads to good automatic lumen segmentation results.

  5. Ultrasound settings significantly alter arterial lumen and wall thickness measurements

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Kathleen; Reed, Christopher J; Green, Daniel J; Hankey, Graeme J; Arnolda, Leonard F

    2008-01-01

    Background Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and carotid intima-medial thickness (CIMT), measured by ultrasound, are widely used to test the efficacy of cardioprotective interventions. Although assessment methods vary, automated edge-detecting image analysis software is routinely used to measure changes in FMD and CIMT. We aimed to quantify the effect that commonly adjusted ultrasound settings have on arterial lumen and wall thickness measurements made with CIMT measurement software. Methods We constructed phantom arteries from a tissue-mimicking agar compound and scanned them in a water bath with a 10 MHz multi-frequency linear-array probe attached to a high-resolution ultrasound machine. B-mode images of the phantoms were recorded with dynamic range (DR) and gain set at five decibel (dB) increments from 40 dB to 60 dB and -10 dB to +10 dB respectively. Lumen diameter and wall-thickness were measured off-line using CIMT measurement software. Results Lumen measurements: there was a strong linear relationship between DR and gain and measured lumen diameter. For a given gain level, a 5 dB increase in DR reduced the measured lumen diameter by 0.02 ± 0.004 mm (p < 0.001). For a given DR level, a 5 dB increase in gain reduced measured lumen diameter by 0.04 ± 0.004 mm (p < 0.001). A 5 mm increase in distance between the ultrasound probe and the artery reduced measured lumen diameter by 0.04 ± 0.03 mm (p < 0.001) CIMT measurements: For a fixed gain level, a 5 dB increase in DR increased measured wall thickness by 0.003 ± 0.002 mm (p < 0.001). The effects of increasing gain were not consistent and appeared to vary depending on the distance between the artery and the ultrasound probe and the thickness of the artery wall. Conclusion DR, gain and probe distance significantly alter lumen diameter and CIMT measurements made using image analysis software. When CIMT and FMD are used to test the efficacy of cardioprotective interventions, the DR, gain and probe position used to

  6. Protection of thylakoids against combined light and drought by a lumenal substance in the resurrection plant Haberlea rhodopensis.

    PubMed

    Georgieva, Katya; Sárvári, Eva; Keresztes, Aron

    2010-01-01

    Haberlea rhodopensis is a perennial, herbaceous, saxicolous, poikilohydric flowering plant that is able to survive desiccation to air-dried state under irradiance below 30 micromol m-2 s-1. However, desiccation at irradiance of 350 micromol m-2 s-1 induced irreversible changes in the photosynthetic apparatus, and mature leaves did not recover after rehydration. The aim here was to establish the causes and mechanisms of irreversible damage of the photosynthetic apparatus due to dehydration at high irradiance, and to elucidate the mechanisms determining recovery. Changes in chloroplast structure, CO2 assimilation, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, fluorescence imaging and the polypeptide patterns during desiccation of Haberlea under medium (100 micromol m-2 s-1; ML) irradiance were compared with those under low (30 micromol m-2 s-1; LL) irradiance. Well-watered plants (control) at 100 micromol m-2 s-1 were not damaged. Plants desiccated at LL or ML had similar rates of water loss. Dehydration at ML decreased the quantum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry, and particularly the CO2 assimilation rate, more rapidly than at LL. Dehydration induced accumulation of stress proteins in leaves under both LL and ML. Photosynthetic activity and polypeptide composition were completely restored in LL plants after 1 week of rehydration, but changes persisted under ML conditions. Electron microscopy of structural changes in the chloroplast showed that the thylakoid lumen is filled with an electron-dense substance (dense luminal substance, DLS), while the thylakoid membranes are lightly stained. Upon dehydration and rehydration the DLS thinned and disappeared, the time course largely depending on the illumination: whereas DLS persisted during desiccation and started to disappear during late recovery under LL, it disappeared from the onset of dehydration and later was completely lost under ML. Accumulation of DLS (possibly phenolics) in the thylakoid lumen is demonstrated

  7. Staccato/Unc-13-4 controls secretory lysosome-mediated lumen fusion during epithelial tube anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Caviglia, Sara; Brankatschk, Marko; Fischer, Elisabeth J; Eaton, Suzanne; Luschnig, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    A crucial yet ill-defined step during the development of tubular networks, such as the vasculature, is the formation of connections (anastomoses) between pre-existing lumenized tubes. By studying tracheal tube anastomosis in Drosophila melanogaster, we uncovered a key role of secretory lysosome-related organelle (LRO) trafficking in lumen fusion. We identified the conserved calcium-binding protein Unc-13-4/Staccato (Stac) and the GTPase Rab39 as critical regulators of this process. Stac and Rab39 accumulate on dynamic vesicles, which form exclusively in fusion tip cells, move in a dynein-dependent manner, and contain late-endosomal, lysosomal, and SNARE components characteristic of LROs. The GTPase Arl3 is necessary and sufficient for Stac LRO formation and promotes Stac-dependent intracellular fusion of juxtaposed apical plasma membranes, thereby forming a transcellular lumen. Concomitantly, calcium is released locally from ER exit sites and apical membrane-associated calcium increases. We propose that calcium-dependent focused activation of LRO exocytosis restricts lumen fusion to appropriate domains within tip cells.

  8. Reducing nitrogen losses through ammonia volatilization and surface runoff to improve apparent nitrogen recovery of double cropping of late rice using controlled release urea.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengfei; Lu, Jianwei; Hou, Wenfeng; Pan, Yonghui; Wang, Yang; Khan, Muhammad Rizwan; Ren, Tao; Cong, Rihuan; Li, Xiaokun

    2017-04-01

    Controlled release fertilizer can reduce nitrogen losses to the environment while increasing grain yield and improving apparent nitrogen recovery (ANR) of rice. However, few studies have evaluated the comparative efficacy of different polymer-coated urea products on nitrogen (N) losses, ANR, and N uptake of rice. A 2-year field experiment was conducted to compare the effects of three different types of polymer-coated urea fertilizer on nitrogen losses through NH3 volatilization and surface runoff to the environment, ANR, grain yield, and N uptake as compared to conventional urea of rice. Six treatments including (1) control with 0 kg N ha(-1) (CK), (2) basal application of urea (Ub), (3) split application (Us) of urea (50% at transplanting, 25% at tillering, and 25% at panicle stages), (4) CRU-1 (polyurethane-coated urea), (5) CRU-2 (degradable polymer-coated urea), and (6) CRU-3 (water-based polymer-coated urea) all applied at 165 kg N ha(-1). It was found that CRU-2 resulted in the highest grain yield and panicle numbers among the N fertilization treatments in 2013 and 2014. Applying CRU could help increase N uptake in rice, reduce N losses through NH3 volatilization and surface runoff, and hence improve ANR. Its single dose can meet the nutrient demand of the rice plant. Controlled release urea could be adopted as an effective mitigation alternative to retard N losses through NH3 volatilization and surface runoff while improving ANR of double cropping of late rice.

  9. 21 CFR 880.5570 - Hypodermic single lumen needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hypodermic single lumen needle. 880.5570 Section 880.5570 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... surface of the skin. The device consists of a metal tube that is sharpened at one end and at the other end...

  10. 21 CFR 880.5570 - Hypodermic single lumen needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hypodermic single lumen needle. 880.5570 Section 880.5570 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... surface of the skin. The device consists of a metal tube that is sharpened at one end and at the other end...

  11. The Interaction Between Late-Stage Stellar Mass Loss and the Hot Interstellar Medium in Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parriott, Joel Richard

    Stellar mass loss is thought to be the dominant source of hot gas in elliptical galaxies, but calculations have yet to accurately treat the processes by which this mass loss enters the interstellar medium. The details of this interaction have direct implications for resolving several important disagreements between X-ray observations and the standard cooling flow model, and we suggest a mechanism for the interaction which could help to mitigate these disagreements. We test this new picture by conducting a series of highly accurate two dimensional numerical hydrodynamic simulations of the complex interaction between the stellar ejecta and the surrounding hot medium. We develop a distributed memory parallel processing version of the original Piecewise Parabolic Method (PPM) serial code using a portable message passing standard (MPI). Performance tests of this code on a Cray T3E and IBM SP2 show it to have a parallel efficiency of 80%-90% at N=32 processors despite its heavy data communication load. The results of our simulations, which sample a representative phase-space of the ambient gas density (n~10-3 cm-3) and the stellar velocity through this ambient medium (σ1D~200 km/s), show a reduction in the heating efficiency compared to the standard model. In this model, there is a 100% efficient and instantaneous thermalization of the stellar mass loss, to the local velocity dispersion temperature, by the contact discontinuity and bow shock established as the hot gas flows past the stellar outflow. We find that these shocks are not the primary heating mechanism; rather, the ambient flow imparts momentum to the stellar ejecta to push it into a wake behind the star, which is where the bulk of the heating is done by large amplitude Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in the flow that mix the cold (T<105 K) stellar material with the hotter (T=3×106 K) ambient gas. Although this mixing is sufficient to eventually heat and merge all of the ejecta in the adiabatic case, the

  12. An efficiency-decay model for Lumen maintenance

    DOE PAGES

    Bobashev, Georgiy; Baldasaro, Nicholas G.; Mills, Karmann C.; ...

    2016-08-25

    Proposed is a multicomponent model for the estimation of light-emitting diode (LED) lumen maintenance using test data that were acquired in accordance with the test standards of the Illumination Engineering Society of North America, i.e., LM-80-08. Lumen maintenance data acquired with this test do not always follow exponential decay, particularly data collected in the first 1000 h or under low-stress (e.g., low temperature) conditions. This deviation from true exponential behavior makes it difficult to use the full data set in models for the estimation of lumen maintenance decay coefficient. As a result, critical information that is relevant to the earlymore » life or low-stress operation of LED light sources may be missed. We present an efficiency-decay model approach, where all lumen maintenance data can be used to provide an alternative estimate of the decay rate constant. The approach considers a combined model wherein one part describes an initial “break-in” period and another part describes the decay in lumen maintenance. During the break-in period, several mechanisms within the LED can act to produce a small (typically <; 10%) increase in luminous flux. The effect of the break-in period and its longevity is more likely to be present at low-ambient temperatures and currents, where the discrepancy between a standard TM-21 approach and our proposed model is the largest. For high temperatures and currents, the difference between the estimates becomes nonsubstantial. Finally, our approach makes use of all the collected data and avoids producing unrealistic estimates of the decay coefficient.« less

  13. Effects of cumulative stressful and acute variation episodes of farm climate conditions on late embryo/early fetal loss in high producing dairy cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santolaria, Pilar; López-Gatius, Fernando; García-Ispierto, Irina; Bech-Sàbat, Gregori; Angulo, Eduardo; Carretero, Teresa; Sánchez-Nadal, Jóse Antonio; Yániz, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible relationships between farm climate conditions, recorded from day 0 to day 40 post-artificial insemination (AI), and late embryo/early fetal loss in high producing dairy cows. Pregnancy was diagnosed by rectal ultrasonography between 28 and 34 days post-AI. Fetal loss was registered when a further 80- to 86-day diagnosis proved negative. Climate variables such as air temperature and relative humidity (RH) were monitored in the cubicles area for each 30-min period. Temperature-humidity indices (THI); cumulative stressful values and episodes of acute change (defined as the mean daily value 1.2 times higher or lower than the mean daily values of the 10 previous days) of the climate variables were calculated. The data were derived from 759 cows in one herd. A total of 692 pregnancies (91.2%) carried singletons and 67 (8.8%) carried twins. No triplets were recorded. Pregnancy loss was recorded in 6.7% (51/759) of pregnancies: 5.6% (39/692) in single and 17.9% (12/67) in twin pregnancies. Using logistic regression procedures, a one-unit increase in the daily cumulative number of hours for the THI values higher than 85 during days 11-20 of gestation caused a 1.57-fold increase in the pregnancy loss, whereas the likelihood of fetal loss increased by a factor of 1.16 for each additional episode of acute variation for the maximum THI values during gestation days 0-40. THI values higher than 85 and episodes of acute variation for the maximum THI values were only recorded during the warm and cool periods, respectively. The presence of twins led to a 3.98-fold increase in pregnancy loss. In conclusion, our findings show that cumulative stressful and episodes of acute variation of climatic conditions can compromise the success of gestation during both the cool and warm periods of the year. Twin pregnancy was confirmed as a main factor associated with pregnancy loss.

  14. Effects of cumulative stressful and acute variation episodes of farm climate conditions on late embryo/early fetal loss in high producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Santolaria, Pilar; López-Gatius, Fernando; García-Ispierto, Irina; Bech-Sàbat, Gregori; Angulo, Eduardo; Carretero, Teresa; Sánchez-Nadal, Jóse Antonio; Yániz, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible relationships between farm climate conditions, recorded from day 0 to day 40 post-artificial insemination (AI), and late embryo/early fetal loss in high producing dairy cows. Pregnancy was diagnosed by rectal ultrasonography between 28 and 34 days post-AI. Fetal loss was registered when a further 80- to 86-day diagnosis proved negative. Climate variables such as air temperature and relative humidity (RH) were monitored in the cubicles area for each 30-min period. Temperature-humidity indices (THI); cumulative stressful values and episodes of acute change (defined as the mean daily value 1.2 times higher or lower than the mean daily values of the 10 previous days) of the climate variables were calculated. The data were derived from 759 cows in one herd. A total of 692 pregnancies (91.2%) carried singletons and 67 (8.8%) carried twins. No triplets were recorded. Pregnancy loss was recorded in 6.7% (51/759) of pregnancies: 5.6% (39/692) in single and 17.9% (12/67) in twin pregnancies. Using logistic regression procedures, a one-unit increase in the daily cumulative number of hours for the THI values higher than 85 during days 11-20 of gestation caused a 1.57-fold increase in the pregnancy loss, whereas the likelihood of fetal loss increased by a factor of 1.16 for each additional episode of acute variation for the maximum THI values during gestation days 0-40. THI values higher than 85 and episodes of acute variation for the maximum THI values were only recorded during the warm and cool periods, respectively. The presence of twins led to a 3.98-fold increase in pregnancy loss. In conclusion, our findings show that cumulative stressful and episodes of acute variation of climatic conditions can compromise the success of gestation during both the cool and warm periods of the year. Twin pregnancy was confirmed as a main factor associated with pregnancy loss.

  15. Clinical outcomes, toxicity, and cosmesis in breast cancer patients with close skin spacing treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using multi-lumen/catheter applicators.

    PubMed

    Akhtari, Mani; Abboud, Mirna; Szeja, Sean; Pino, Ramiro; Lewis, Gary D; Bass, Barbara L; Miltenburg, Darlene M; Butler, E Brian; Teh, Bin S

    2016-12-01

    Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using a single-lumen device is associated with better cosmetic outcomes if the spacing between the applicator and skin is > 7 mm. However, there are no reports addressing the late toxicity and clinical outcomes in patients treated with single-entry multi-lumen/catheter applicators who had close skin spacing (7 mm or less). We undertook this study to report clinical outcome, acute and late toxicity as well as cosmesis of early stage breast cancer patients with close skin spacing treated with APBI using multi-lumen or multi-catheter devices. This is a retrospective study of all breast cancer patients who had undergone APBI using single-entry multi-lumen/catheter devices in a single institution between 2008 to 2012. The study was limited to those with ≤ 7 mm spacing between the device and skin. We identified 37 patients and 38 lesions with skin spacing of ≤ 7 mm. Seven lesions (18%) had spacing of ≤ 3 mm. Median follow-up was 47.5 months. There was one case of ipsilateral breast recurrence and one ipsilateral axillary recurrence. Based on RTOG criteria, 22 treated lesions experienced grade 1 and 9 lesions experienced grade 2 toxicity. Twenty-one lesions experienced late grade 1 toxicity. One patient had to undergo mastectomy due to mastitis. Twenty-four treated breasts showed excellent and 11 had good cosmetic outcome. Overall cosmesis trended towards a significant correlation with skin spacing. However, all patients with ≤ 3 mm skin spacing experienced acute and late toxicities. Accelerated partial breast irradiation can be safely performed in patients with skin spacing of ≤ 7 mm using single-entry multi-lumen/catheter applicators with excellent cosmetic outcomes and an acceptable toxicity profile. However, skin spacing of ≤ 3 mm is associated with acute and late toxicity and should be avoided if possible.

  16. Clinical outcomes, toxicity, and cosmesis in breast cancer patients with close skin spacing treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using multi-lumen/catheter applicators

    PubMed Central

    Akhtari, Mani; Abboud, Mirna; Szeja, Sean; Pino, Ramiro; Lewis, Gary D.; Bass, Barbara L.; Miltenburg, Darlene M.; Butler, E. Brian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using a single-lumen device is associated with better cosmetic outcomes if the spacing between the applicator and skin is > 7 mm. However, there are no reports addressing the late toxicity and clinical outcomes in patients treated with single-entry multi-lumen/catheter applicators who had close skin spacing (7 mm or less). We undertook this study to report clinical outcome, acute and late toxicity as well as cosmesis of early stage breast cancer patients with close skin spacing treated with APBI using multi-lumen or multi-catheter devices. Material and methods This is a retrospective study of all breast cancer patients who had undergone APBI using single-entry multi-lumen/catheter devices in a single institution between 2008 to 2012. The study was limited to those with ≤ 7 mm spacing between the device and skin. Results We identified 37 patients and 38 lesions with skin spacing of ≤ 7 mm. Seven lesions (18%) had spacing of ≤ 3 mm. Median follow-up was 47.5 months. There was one case of ipsilateral breast recurrence and one ipsilateral axillary recurrence. Based on RTOG criteria, 22 treated lesions experienced grade 1 and 9 lesions experienced grade 2 toxicity. Twenty-one lesions experienced late grade 1 toxicity. One patient had to undergo mastectomy due to mastitis. Twenty-four treated breasts showed excellent and 11 had good cosmetic outcome. Overall cosmesis trended towards a significant correlation with skin spacing. However, all patients with ≤ 3 mm skin spacing experienced acute and late toxicities. Conclusions Accelerated partial breast irradiation can be safely performed in patients with skin spacing of ≤ 7 mm using single-entry multi-lumen/catheter applicators with excellent cosmetic outcomes and an acceptable toxicity profile. However, skin spacing of ≤ 3 mm is associated with acute and late toxicity and should be avoided if possible. PMID:28115955

  17. Double lumen port access in patients receiving allogeneic blood stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Platzbecker, U; Illmer, T; Schaich, M; Freiberg-Richter, J; Helwig, A; Plettig, R; Jenke, A; Ehninger, G; Bornhäuser, M

    2001-12-01

    We performed a prospective trial investigating the feasibility of a double lumen port access in 26 patients with hematological malignancies or solid tumors receiving either standard conditioning (n = 9, median age 49 years (range 19-65)) or dose-reduced conditioning (n = 17, median age 56 years (range 35-66)) followed by allogeneic blood stem cell transplantation. The port system was implanted within 3 months (n = 20, range 7-91 days) before transplantation or as indicated at different time points after transplantation (n = 6, range 28-680 days). Most infusions, including the graft itself and all blood drawings, were performed via the port. Over a cumulative duration of 5622 days (1310 days after standard conditioning (range 56-349) and 4431 days after dose-reduced conditioning (range 49-489)) two port systems of patients receiving standard conditioning were removed due to early postimplantation pocket infection on day 6 and 8 after insertion, respectively. In the dose-reduced conditioning group only one late removal (day 287) of a port was required. Most of the patients in both groups reported less pain and a higher degree of comfort compared to peripheral or central venipuncture. The use of double lumen port access during conditioning and in an outpatient setting after allogeneic hemopoietic stem cell transplantation is feasible and advantageous for both patient and medical staff. Implantation several weeks before the start of conditioning might help in avoiding early infectious complications after conventional myeloablative conditioning.

  18. Prolonged fasting in patients with chronic pain syndromes leads to late mood-enhancement not related to weight loss and fasting-induced leptin depletion.

    PubMed

    Michalsen, Andreas; Kuhlmann, Martin K; Lüdtke, Rainer; Bäcker, Marcus; Langhorst, Jost; Dobos, Gustav J

    2006-01-01

    Periods of fasting are practiced worldwide on a cultural/religious background, and related mood-enhancing effects are postulated. We aimed to assess the effect of fasting on mood and to explore the interaction with neuroendocrine activation and leptin depletion in a controlled explorative study on consecutive inpatients (BMI < 35 kg/m2) of a nutritional ward. 36 subjects (38.9 +/- 7.0 years; 29 female, BMI 26.7 +/- 4.1 kg/m2) participated in an 8-day modified fast (300 kcal/day), 19 patients (38.1 +/- 5.9 years; 18 female, 23.5 +/- 4.1 kg/m2) received a mild low calorie diet. Measurements included daily ratings of mood (VAS), weight and levels of leptin and cortisol at four time-points of the 2-week study period. Weight loss was 4.8 +/- 1.2 and 1.6 +/- 0.9 kg in fasters and controls, respectively. Fasters showed a more pronounced decrease of leptin (58% vs. 20%; P < 0.001) and a 17% increase of cortisol levels (P < 0.001). Mood ratings increased significantly in the late phase of fasting (P < 0.01) but were not related to weight-loss, leptin-depletion or cortisol increase. Our findings suggest that fasting induces specific mood-enhancement. The physiological mediator appears to be neither leptin nor cortisol, the role of other mechanisms has to be further studied.

  19. Middle to late Holocene flood activity estimated from loss on ignition of peat in the Ishikari lowland, northern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Yuji; Hori, Kazuaki; Momohara, Arata

    2017-06-01

    Reconstruction of the magnitude and frequency of past floods is important for assessments of flood risk. However, there have been few reconstructions of past flood activity based on long-term continuous records from a single fluvial system and thus suitable for comparison with other paleoclimate proxies. Consequently, the influence of climate change on flood activity remains unclear. Floodplain peat beds can be preserved for long periods of geologic time; they also contain both clastic sediments from overbank flooding and organic material produced in situ, both of which are important inputs for geologic reconstructions. In this study, we examined 24 cores from the Ishikari lowland, northern Japan, to find out if temporal changes of loss on ignition (LOI) of peat can provide a record of flood magnitude and frequency and to investigate the influence of regional climate change on flood activity. Our plant macrofossil analyses, the distribution of characteristic LOI depth profiles, and sedimentary facies suggest that the LOI of peat increases when the magnitude and frequency of floods decreases, which in turn suggests that temporal changes of LOI in peat might be useful as a proxy for past flood activity. Our results indicate that increases in the LOI of peat deposited near the Ishikari River at ca. 5500-5000 and 4000-3500 cal BP may correspond to weakened activities of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Furthermore, our analyses show that an increase in flood activity of the Ishikari River during 1400-1300 cal BP may be related to a decrease in ENSO activity. However, temporal changes of the LOI of peat formed near a tributary of the Ishikari River did not correlate with these climate changes. Our results suggest that the past flood activity of rivers with large watersheds reflects regional climate change, because the extensive precipitation that induces flooding of such rivers is generally associated with regional climate

  20. Evaluation framework for carotid bifurcation lumen segmentation and stenosis grading.

    PubMed

    Hameeteman, K; Zuluaga, M A; Freiman, M; Joskowicz, L; Cuisenaire, O; Valencia, L Flórez; Gülsün, M A; Krissian, K; Mille, J; Wong, W C K; Orkisz, M; Tek, H; Hoyos, M Hernández; Benmansour, F; Chung, A C S; Rozie, S; van Gils, M; van den Borne, L; Sosna, J; Berman, P; Cohen, N; Douek, P C; Sánchez, I; Aissat, M; Schaap, M; Metz, C T; Krestin, G P; van der Lugt, A; Niessen, W J; van Walsum, T

    2011-08-01

    This paper describes an evaluation framework that allows a standardized and objective quantitative comparison of carotid artery lumen segmentation and stenosis grading algorithms. We describe the data repository comprising 56 multi-center, multi-vendor CTA datasets, their acquisition, the creation of the reference standard and the evaluation measures. This framework has been introduced at the MICCAI 2009 workshop 3D Segmentation in the Clinic: A Grand Challenge III, and we compare the results of eight teams that participated. These results show that automated segmentation of the vessel lumen is possible with a precision that is comparable to manual annotation. The framework is open for new submissions through the website http://cls2009.bigr.nl.

  1. Automated coronary CT angiography plaque-lumen segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, Harvey E.; Krishnan, Karthik; Napel, Sandy; Rubin, Geoffrey D.; Turner, Wesley D.; Avila, Ricardo S.

    2009-02-01

    We are investigating the feasibility of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system to assist radiologists in diagnosing coronary artery disease in ECG gated cardiac multi-detector CT scans having calcified plaque. Coronary artery stenosis analysis is challenging if calcified plaque or the iodinated blood pool hides viable lumen. The research described herein provides an improved presentation to the radiologist by removing obscuring calcified plaque and blood pool. The algorithm derives a Gaussian estimate of the point spread function (PSF) of the scanner responsible for plaque blooming by fitting measured CTA image profiles. An initial estimate of the extent of calcified plaque is obtained from the image evidence using a simple threshold. The Gaussian PSF estimate is then convolved with the initial plaque estimate to obtain an estimate of the extent of the blooming artifact and this plaque blooming image is subtracted from the CT image to obtain an image largely free of obscuring plaque. In a separate step, the obscuring blood pool is suppressed using morphological operations and adaptive region growing. After processing by our algorithm, we are able to project the segmented plaque-free lumen to form synthetic angiograms free from obstruction. We can also analyze the coronary arteries with vessel tracking and centerline extraction to produce cross sectional images for measuring lumen stenosis. As an additional aid to radiologists, we also produce plots of calcified plaque and lumen cross-sectional area along selected blood vessels. The method was validated using digital phantoms and actual patient data, including in one case, a validation against the results of a catheter angiogram.

  2. Good stability but high periprosthetic bone mineral loss and late-occurring periprosthetic fractures with use of uncemented tapered femoral stems in patients with a femoral neck fracture

    PubMed Central

    Sjöö, Helene; Kelly-Pettersson, Paula; Bodén, Henrik; Eisler, Thomas; Stark, André; Muren, Olle

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose We previously evaluated a new uncemented femoral stem designed for elderly patients with a femoral neck fracture and found stable implant fixation and good clinical results up to 2 years postoperatively, despite substantial periprosthetic bone mineral loss. We now present the medium-term follow-up results from this study. Patients and methods In this observational prospective cohort study, we included 50 patients (mean age 81 (70–92) years) with a femoral neck fracture. All patients underwent surgery with a cemented cup and an uncemented stem specifically designed for fracture treatment. Outcome variables were migration of the stem measured with radiostereometry (RSA) and periprosthetic change in bone mineral density (BMD), measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Hip function and health-related quality of life were assessed using the Harris hip score (HHS) and the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D). DXA and RSA data were collected at regular intervals up to 4 years, and data concerning reoperations and hip-related complications were collected during a mean follow-up time of 5 (0.2–7.5) years. Results At 5 years, 19 patients had either passed away or were unavailable for further participation and 31 could be followed up. Of the original 50 patients, 6 patients had suffered a periprosthetic fracture, all of them sustained after the 2-year follow-up. In 19 patients, we obtained complete RSA and DXA data and no component had migrated after the 2-year follow-up. We also found a continuous total periprosthetic bone loss amounting to a median of –19% (–39 to 2). No changes in HHS or EQ-5D were observed during the follow-up period. Interpretation In this medium-term follow-up, the stem remained firmly fixed in bone despite considerable periprosthetic bone mineral loss. However, this bone loss might explain the high number of late-occurring periprosthetic fractures. Based on these results, we would not recommend uncemented femoral stems for the

  3. Distinct roles of cadherin-6 and E-cadherin in tubulogenesis and lumen formation.

    PubMed

    Jia, Liwei; Liu, Fengming; Hansen, Steen H; Ter Beest, Martin B A; Zegers, Mirjam M P

    2011-06-15

    Classic cadherins are important regulators of tissue morphogenesis. The predominant cadherin in epithelial cells, E-cadherin, has been extensively studied because of its critical role in normal epithelial development and carcinogenesis. Epithelial cells may also coexpress other cadherins, but their roles are less clear. The Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line has been a popular mammalian model to investigate the role of E-cadherin in epithelial polarization and tubulogenesis. However, MDCK cells also express relatively high levels of cadherin-6, and it is unclear whether the functions of this cadherin are redundant to those of E-cadherin. We investigate the specific roles of both cadherins using a knockdown approach. Although we find that both cadherins are able to form adherens junctions at the basolateral surface, we show that they have specific and mutually exclusive roles in epithelial morphogenesis. Specifically, we find that cadherin-6 functions as an inhibitor of tubulogenesis, whereas E-cadherin is required for lumen formation. Ablation of cadherin-6 leads to the spontaneous formation of tubules, which depends on increased phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity. In contrast, loss of E-cadherin inhibits lumen formation by a mechanism independent of PI3K.

  4. Reliability of blood test results in samples obtained using a 2-mL discard volume from the proximal lumen of a triple-lumen central venous catheter in the critically ill patient.

    PubMed

    Villalta-García, Pedro; López-Herránz, Marta; Mazo-Pascual, Salvador; Honrubia-Fernández, Teresa; Jáñez-Escalada, Luis; Fernández-Pérez, Cristina

    2017-09-01

    Intensive care patients require a high frequency of blood testing, which results in a significant amount of blood loss. When blood is obtained from a central venous catheter (CVC), a large volume is usually discarded to obtain an unaltered sample for testing. To determine the reliability of complete blood test results in blood samples obtained from the proximal lumen of a triple-lumen CVC using a 2-mL discard volume DESIGN: Observational study with the prospective collection of data METHODS: The subjects enrolled were all patients with a subclavian triple-lumen CVC, older than 17 years and consecutively admitted to intensive care over a 2-year period. In each of the 54 participants, one blood sample was drawn from the proximal lumen of the catheter, discarding 1·61 mL of blood plus 0·39 mL of catheter deadspace (2 mL) and without interrupting infusion in the middle and distal lumens. A second sample was then obtained by direct venous puncture. The reliability of blood test results was determined by comparing sets of variables recorded for the two sampling methods through intraclass correlation coefficients in the Bland-Altman method. Inter-method reliability for the variables examined was excellent, >0·75; range (0·868-0·998). Mean differences between the two sample types for the variables most often determined in critically ill patients were leukocytes: 0·200 × 10(3) /µL, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0·025 to 0·375); erythrocytes: 0·045 × 10(6) /uL, 95% CI (-0·003 to 0·094); sodium: 0·074 mEq/L, 95% CI (-0·369 to 0·517); potassium: -0·002mEq/L, 95% CI (-0·065 to 0·061) and glucose: 2·426 mg/dL, 95% CI (0·498-4·354). The sampling method proposed minimizes blood loss while offering reliable blood test results. The main benefit of the method proposed is reduced blood loss, improving the care of a critically ill patient. © 2015 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  5. Neurotrophin releasing single and multiple lumen nerve conduits.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; De Laporte, Laura; Rives, Christopher B; Jang, Jae-Hyung; Lin, Wei-Chun; Shull, Kenneth R; Shea, Lonnie D

    2005-06-02

    Tissue engineering strategies for nerve repair employ polymer conduits termed guidance channels and bridges to promote regeneration for peripheral nerve injury and spinal cord injury, respectively. An approach for fabrication of nerve conduits with single and multiple lumens capable of controlled release of neurotrophic factors was developed. These conduits were fabricated from a mixture of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) microspheres and porogen (NaCl) that was loaded into a mold and processed by gas foaming. The porosity and mechanical properties of the constructs were regulated by the ratio of porogen to polymer microsphere. The neurotrophin, nerve growth factor (NGF), was incorporated into the conduit by either mixing the protein with microspheres or encapsulating the protein within microspheres prior to gas foaming. A sustained release was observed for at least 42 days, with the release rate controlled by method of incorporation and polymer molecular weight. Released NGF retained its bioactivity, as demonstrated by its ability to stimulate neurite outgrowth from primary dorsal root ganglion (DRG). In vivo results indicate that conduits retain their original architecture, and allow for cellular infiltration into the channels. Polymer conduits with controllable lumen diameters and protein release may enhance nerve regeneration by guiding and stimulating neurite outgrowth.

  6. Dynamic control of protein diffusion within the granal thylakoid lumen

    PubMed Central

    Kirchhoff, Helmut; Hall, Chris; Wood, Magnus; Herbstová, Miroslava; Tsabari, Onie; Nevo, Reinat; Charuvi, Dana; Shimoni, Eyal; Reich, Ziv

    2011-01-01

    The machinery that conducts the light-driven reactions of oxygenic photosynthesis is hosted within specialized paired membranes called thylakoids. In higher plants, the thylakoids are segregated into two morphological and functional domains called grana and stroma lamellae. A large fraction of the luminal volume of the granal thylakoids is occupied by the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II. Electron microscopy data we obtained on dark- and light-adapted Arabidopsis thylakoids indicate that the granal thylakoid lumen significantly expands in the light. Models generated for the organization of the oxygen-evolving complex within the granal lumen predict that the light-induced expansion greatly alleviates restrictions imposed on protein diffusion in this compartment in the dark. Experiments monitoring the redox kinetics of the luminal electron carrier plastocyanin support this prediction. The impact of the increase in protein mobility within the granal luminal compartment in the light on photosynthetic electron transport rates and processes associated with the repair of photodamaged photosystem II complexes is discussed. PMID:22128333

  7. Dynamic control of protein diffusion within the granal thylakoid lumen.

    PubMed

    Kirchhoff, Helmut; Hall, Chris; Wood, Magnus; Herbstová, Miroslava; Tsabari, Onie; Nevo, Reinat; Charuvi, Dana; Shimoni, Eyal; Reich, Ziv

    2011-12-13

    The machinery that conducts the light-driven reactions of oxygenic photosynthesis is hosted within specialized paired membranes called thylakoids. In higher plants, the thylakoids are segregated into two morphological and functional domains called grana and stroma lamellae. A large fraction of the luminal volume of the granal thylakoids is occupied by the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II. Electron microscopy data we obtained on dark- and light-adapted Arabidopsis thylakoids indicate that the granal thylakoid lumen significantly expands in the light. Models generated for the organization of the oxygen-evolving complex within the granal lumen predict that the light-induced expansion greatly alleviates restrictions imposed on protein diffusion in this compartment in the dark. Experiments monitoring the redox kinetics of the luminal electron carrier plastocyanin support this prediction. The impact of the increase in protein mobility within the granal luminal compartment in the light on photosynthetic electron transport rates and processes associated with the repair of photodamaged photosystem II complexes is discussed.

  8. Trapping characteristic of halloysite lumen for methyl orange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Yan, Hua; Pei, Zhenzhao; Wu, Junyong; Li, Rongrong; Jin, Yanxian; Zhao, Jie

    2015-08-01

    The interaction of clay minerals and dyes is an area of great interest especially in the development of novel adsorbents. In this report, we demonstrated interaction of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) and an anionic dye, methyl orange (MO), through a electrostatic attraction. Halloysite lumen has a trapping characteristic for methyl orange, which is mainly determined by the positively charged nature of the inner surface of HNTs. XRD results confirmed that intercalation of methyl orange into HNTs did not occur. SEM-EDS and photostability results showed that MO molecules were primarily in HNTs lumen. Adsorption isotherm studies revealed an interesting phenomenon, i.e., a sudden increase of adsorption capacity occurred in the initial dye concentration of about 75 mg/L, which was just the dye concentration corresponding to the onset of dye oligomer formation. This suggested dye aggregation state had a decisive influence to the adsorption behavior of MO on the halloysite. BET results demonstrated at low and high dye concentrations, single MO molecule and aggregation of several dimers through hydrophobic interaction, interacted with Al-OH2+ sites on the inner wall, respectively. Desorption experiments showed that MO in HNTs can be completely removed with deionized water, indicating halloysite is a low-cost and efficient adsorbent for anionic dye.

  9. Lumen claims of the STERRAD 100NX sterilizer: testing performance limits when processing equipment containing long, narrow lumens.

    PubMed

    Diab-Elschahawi, Magda; Blacky, Alexander; Bachhofner, Nicole; Koller, Walter

    2011-11-01

    According to manufacturers information, the STERRAD 100NX sterilizer-a low temperature H(2)O(2) gas plasma sterilizer-can adequately process single channel stainless steel lumens with an inside diameter of 0.7 mm or larger and a maximum length of 500 mm using standard cycle sterilizing conditions. The aim of this study was to qualify the performance of this H(2)O(2) gas plasma sterilizer under different experimental settings representing worst case conditions. Inoculated carriers were placed at the midpoint position of specified lumens and then submitted to flex scope sterilizing conditions. To simulate insufficient cleaning or crystalline residues, we added organic and inorganic challenges to our inoculated carriers. For experiments done with unchallenged carriers, quantitative analysis reached a log(10) reduction rate of ≥5.71, whereas qualitative results showed no growth in 24 out of 30 biologic indicators tested using flex scope half cycle conditions. Any additional kind of challenge significantly impaired the sterilization outcome. The findings of our current study emphasize the importance of a thorough validated cleaning of medical devices as well as timing for cleaning and decontamination before being exposed to the H(2)O(2) sterilization process and, furthermore, the need for strict adherence to manufacturer's recommendations. Copyright © 2011 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Coping – Late Side Effects

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer treatment can cause late side effects that may not show up for months or years after treatment. These late effects may include heart and lung problems, bone loss, eye and hearing changes, lymphedema, and other problems

  11. Lumenal protein within secretory granules affects fusion pore expansion.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Annita Ngatchou; Anantharam, Arun; Bittner, Mary A; Axelrod, Daniel; Holz, Ronald W

    2014-07-01

    It is often assumed that upon fusion of the secretory granule membrane with the plasma membrane, lumenal contents are rapidly discharged and dispersed into the extracellular medium. Although this is the case for low-molecular-weight neurotransmitters and some proteins, there are numerous examples of the dispersal of a protein being delayed for many seconds after fusion. We have investigated the role of fusion-pore expansion in determining the contrasting discharge rates of fluorescent-tagged neuropeptide-Y (NPY) (within 200 ms) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) (over many seconds) in adrenal chromaffin cells. The endogenous proteins are expressed in separate chromaffin cell subpopulations. Fusion pore expansion was measured by two independent methods, orientation of a fluorescent probe within the plasma membrane using polarized total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and amperometry of released catecholamine. Together, they probe the continuum of the fusion-pore duration, from milliseconds to many seconds after fusion. Polarized total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy revealed that 71% of the fusion events of tPA-cer-containing granules maintained curvature for >10 s, with approximately half of the structures likely connected to the plasma membrane by a short narrow neck. Such events were not commonly observed upon fusion of NPY-cer-containing granules. Amperometry revealed that the expression of tPA-green fluorescent protein (GFP) prolonged the duration of the prespike foot ∼2.5-fold compared to NPY-GFP-expressing cells and nontransfected cells, indicating that expansion of the initial fusion pore in tPA granules was delayed. The t1/2 of the main catecholamine spike was also increased, consistent with a prolonged delay of fusion-pore expansion. tPA added extracellularly bound to the lumenal surface of fused granules. We propose that tPA within the granule lumen controls its own discharge. Its intrinsic biochemistry determines not only

  12. A holey pursuit: lumen formation in the developing kidney.

    PubMed

    Marciano, Denise K

    2017-01-01

    The formation of polarized epithelial tubules is a hallmark of kidney development. One of the fundamental principles in tubulogenesis is that epithelia coordinate the polarity of individual cells with the surrounding cells and matrix. A central feature in this process is the segregation of membranes into spatially and functionally distinct apical and basolateral domains, and the generation of a luminal space at the apical surface. This review examines our current understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie the establishment of apical-basal polarity and lumen formation in developing renal epithelia, including the roles of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and polarity complexes. We highlight growing evidence from animal models, and correlate these findings with models of tubulogenesis from other organ systems, and from in vitro studies.

  13. Fast Computation of Hemodynamic Sensitivity to Lumen Segmentation Uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, Sethuraman; Grady, Leo; Taylor, Charles A

    2015-12-01

    Patient-specific blood flow modeling combining imaging data and computational fluid dynamics can aid in the assessment of coronary artery disease. Accurate coronary segmentation and realistic physiologic modeling of boundary conditions are important steps to ensure a high diagnostic performance. Segmentation of the coronary arteries can be constructed by a combination of automated algorithms with human review and editing. However, blood pressure and flow are not impacted equally by different local sections of the coronary artery tree. Focusing human review and editing towards regions that will most affect the subsequent simulations can significantly accelerate the review process. We define geometric sensitivity as the standard deviation in hemodynamics-derived metrics due to uncertainty in lumen segmentation. We develop a machine learning framework for estimating the geometric sensitivity in real time. Features used include geometric and clinical variables, and reduced-order models. We develop an anisotropic kernel regression method for assessment of lumen narrowing score, which is used as a feature in the machine learning algorithm. A multi-resolution sensitivity algorithm is introduced to hierarchically refine regions of high sensitivity so that we can quantify sensitivities to a desired spatial resolution. We show that the mean absolute error of the machine learning algorithm compared to 3D simulations is less than 0.01. We further demonstrate that sensitivity is not predicted simply by anatomic reduction but also encodes information about hemodynamics which in turn depends on downstream boundary conditions. This sensitivity approach can be extended to other systems such as cerebral flow, electro-mechanical simulations, etc.

  14. Differences between lumen targeting domains of chloroplast transit peptides determine pathway specificity for thylakoid transport.

    PubMed

    Henry, R; Kapazoglou, A; McCaffery, M; Cline, K

    1994-04-08

    Nuclear encoded thylakoid lumen proteins are imported into the chloroplast storma and further directed across thylakoid membranes by lumen targeting domains. Recently, we showed that there are two protein-specific pathways for transport into the lumen. This was unexpected in that lumen targeting domains have similar properties, all containing bacterial signal peptide motifs. Nevertheless, sequence homology analysis suggests that pathway specificity is determined by elements in the lumen targeting domain. To test this, we constructed and analyzed chimeric proteins in which transit peptides from proteins transported by one pathway were fused to the mature domains of proteins directed by the other. We also investigated the transport characteristics of a previously unexamined protein whose pathway was predicted by sequence similarity analysis. Our results confirm that lumen targeting domains contain pathway sorting elements and further indicate that distinct energy and stroma requirements for transport are pathway characteristics, unrelated to the passenger protein. These findings suggest the operation of two mechanistically different translocators.

  15. Radial intensity projection for lumen: application to CT angiographic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokubun, Hiroto; Miyazaki, Osamu; Hayashi, Hiromitsu

    2006-03-01

    For the diagnosis of lumen, such as plaque in the coronary and polyp in the colon, it is important to create the cross sectional image of tubular organ on the basis of luminal centerline (i.e., Curved Planar Reformation: CPR). However, since each CPR image has the only limited angle information, it may overlook objects of diagnostic importance. To overcome this limitation and improve diagnostic accuracy we have developed a method called Radial Intensity Projection for lumen (RIP) to create an image based on luminal centerline that integrates all directional information. RIP is executed as follows. At first image processing is performed on array of pixel in the orthogonal direction to a luminal centerline. Secondly, this image processing is performed repeatedly in the angle direction along a luminal centerline. Finally, RIP image, which incorporates all directional information based on luminal centerline, is created. In addition to developing the RIP method for the diagnosis of soft plaque, which is considered as one of the main causes of myocardial infarction, we have also developed the profile step imaging method (PSI). This is an algorithm for visualizing a level gradient point in the radial direction, paying attention to the fact that the gradient approaches zero at the region of soft plaque. We applied RIP method to the clinical image data of a coronary angiography, which has been scanned with the multi slice CT scanner. Using RIP method, it is possible to check the existence of calcified plaque present in the surrounding of a vessel wall without changing the view angle. We have also applied PSI method to the clinical image of a coronary angiography with a soft plaque. The PSI image overlaid on RIP image enables us to verify the high possibility of existing soft plaque. Moreover, the perspectively mapped RIP image to a half pipe object allows us to grasp the orientation of plaque more easily. RIP method is also effective for extended organs, such as peripheral

  16. Relationship between media-to-lumen ratio of subcutaneous small arteries and wall-to-lumen ratio of retinal arterioles evaluated noninvasively by scanning laser Doppler flowmetry.

    PubMed

    Rizzoni, Damiano; Porteri, Enzo; Duse, Sarah; De Ciuceis, Carolina; Rosei, Claudia Agabiti; La Boria, Elisa; Semeraro, Francesco; Costagliola, Ciro; Sebastiani, Adolfo; Danzi, Paola; Tiberio, Guido A M; Giulini, Stefano M; Docchio, Franco; Sansoni, Giovanna; Sarkar, Annamaria; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti

    2012-06-01

    Structural alterations of subcutaneous small resistance arteries, as indicated by an increased media-to-lumen ratio, are frequently present in hypertensive and/or diabetic patients, and may represent the earliest alteration observed. Furthermore, media-to-lumen ratio of small arteries evaluated by micromyography has a strong prognostic significance; however, its extensive evaluation is limited by the invasivity of the assessment, since a biopsy of subcutaneous fat is needed. Noninvasive measurement of wall-to-lumen of retinal arterioles using scanning laser Doppler flowmetry (SLDF) has recently been introduced. However, this new technique has not yet been compared to micromyographic measurement, generally considered the gold standard approach. We investigated 40 individuals and patients, 24 of them were hypertensive patients and 16 normotensive individuals. All patients underwent a biopsy of subcutaneous fat during an elective surgical intervention. Subcutaneous small resistance arteries were dissected and mounted on a wire myograph, and media-to-lumen ratio was measured. In addition, an evaluation of wall-to-lumen ratio of retinal arterioles by SLDF was performed (Heidelberg Retina Flowmeter, Heidelberg Engineering). A close correlation was observed between media-to-lumen ratio of subcutaneous small arteries and wall-to-lumen ratio of retinal arterioles (r = 0.76, P < 0.001; P < 0.001, r(2) = 0.57). A noninvasive and easily repeatable procedure (intraobserver and interobserver variation coefficient <13%) such as an evaluation of the arterioles in the fundus oculi by SLDF may provide similar information regarding microvascular morphology compared with an invasive, accurate and prognostically relevant micromyographic measurement of media-to-lumen ratio of subcutaneous small arteries.

  17. Onyx Embolization for Isolated Type Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Using a Dual-Lumen Balloon Catheter.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Woo; Kim, Byung Moon; Park, Keun Young; Kim, Dong Joon; Kim, Dong Ik

    2016-05-01

    Utilization of a dual-lumen balloon may improve Onyx penetration into isolated dural arteriovenous fistulas (i-DAVFs). To compare the results of Onyx embolization using a dual-lumen balloon with those using a non-balloon catheter for i-DAVFs. Twenty-nine patients underwent Onyx embolization for i-DAVFs using a non-balloon (n = 14) or a dual-lumen balloon catheter (n = 15). Since its introduction, a dual-lumen balloon catheter has been preferred. We compared the dual-lumen balloon group with the non-balloon catheter group regarding angiographic outcome, treatment-related complications, total procedural time, Onyx injection time, and the number of feeders requiring embolization. The dual-lumen balloon group showed complete occlusion of i-DAVFs in 13 and near-complete in 2 patients, while the non-balloon group showed complete occlusion in 5, near-complete in 5, and incomplete in 4 patients (P < .05). Treatment-related complications occurred in 2 patients: 1 in the non-balloon group and 1 in the dual-lumen balloon group. The mean total procedural time was 62 ± 32 minutes in the dual-lumen balloon and 171 ± 88 minutes in the non-balloon group (P < .05). The mean Onyx injection time was 10 ± 6 minutes in the dual-lumen balloon and 49 ± 32 minutes in the non-balloon group (P < .05). The median number of feeders requiring embolization was 1 (range, 1-3) in the dual-lumen balloon and 2 (range, 1-4) in the non-balloon group (P < .05). Utilization of a dual-lumen balloon catheter for Onyx embolization of i-DAVF seemed to significantly increase the immediate complete occlusion rate and decrease total procedural time, Onyx injection time, and number of feeders requiring embolization.

  18. Relationship between lumen diameter and length sterilized in the 125L ozone sterilizer.

    PubMed

    Dufresne, Sylvie; Leblond, Hélène; Chaunet, Marc

    2008-05-01

    A safe alternative to ethylene oxide for reprocessing heat-sensitive lumen medical devices, such as endoscopes, is needed. The effectiveness of a new, safe, low-cost, and environmentally friendly low-temperature sterilization process using ozone was assessed. Rigid lumen devices were used to assess the maximum length of lumens of different internal diameters that can be sterilized in the TSO(3) model 125L ozone sterilizer. Two inoculation techniques were used. An inoculated wire was placed inside lumens with internal diameters of 0.8 mm and larger, whereas lumens with an internal diameter of 0.5 mm were inoculated directly. Lumens with internal diameters of 0.5 mm, 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm, and 4 mm with lengths varying between 45 and 70 cm can be sterilized with ozone. Calculation of the log reduction value for each size demonstrated the achievement of a sterility assurance level of 10(-6). Experimental results demonstrated a linear relationship (with r(2) = 0.990) between the length of lumen that can be sterilized in the 125L ozone sterilizer and its internal diameter. Effective sterilization of an ACMI ureteroscope that is more challenging in terms of sterilant penetration in a small lumen (0.8 mm) compared with the stated lumen claims confirms that the relationship can conservatively be used to predict the length of a lumen device that can be sterilized in the 125L ozone sterilizer for a given diameter. Intermediate sizes of lumen devices that can be sterilized in the 125L ozone sterilizer can be interpolated from the linear relationship between diameter and length found in the present study.

  19. [Bronchial injury due to double-lumen endobronchial tube].

    PubMed

    Nagahiro, I; Miyamoto, M; Sugiyama, H; Nouso, H; Kawai, T; Toda, K; Nobuhisa, T; Endo, Y; Watanabe, T; Matsumoto, Y; Kai, K; Sato, S

    2011-05-01

    A 68-years-old and 148 cm tall female with lung cancer was operated on a left lower lobectomy via posterolateral thoracotomy. A 35 Fr double-lumen endobronchial tube was smoothly inserted and the tip was placed in the left main bronchus whose position was confirmed by fiberoptic bronchoscope. After lobectomy and lymph node dissection were completed, 1-lung ventilation was terminated, the left chest cavity was filled with saline, and an air-leak test was performed. Immediately after the initiation of bilateral lung ventilation, massive air-leak was observed in the left hilar region and the saline in the chest regurgitated into the airway, and she fell into critical ventilatory insufficiency. After sucking the saline in the chest, thorough observation revealed a 3 cm-long rupture of the membranous portion of the left main bronchus. The rupture was manually occluded and ventilatory insufficiency was avoided, then the tip of the endobronchial tube was re-inserted into the right main bronchus and right single lung ventilation was initiated. The rupture was closed by a 4-0 polydioxanone (PDS) running suture with no coverage. The patient was extubated immediately after the operation. Ten days later, she had a tiny bronchial fistula, and it was cured by chest drainage only, and she discharged home on the 48th postoperative day.

  20. Development of a Double Lumen Cannula for a Percutaneous RVAD

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongfang; Jones, Cameron; Ballard-Croft, Cherry; Zhao, Ju; Zhao, Guangfeng; Topaz, Stephen; Zwischenberger, Joseph B.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives were to design/fabricate a double lumen cannula (DLC) for a percutaneous RVAD (pRVAD), and to test the feasibility/performance of this pRVAD system. A 27 Fr DLC prototype was made and tested in 6 adult sheep. The pRVAD DLC was inserted into the right jugular vein, advanced through the superior vena cava (SVC)-right atrium (RA)-right ventricle (RV), and ended in the pulmonary artery (PA). A CentriMag pump and optional gas exchanger were connected to the DLC. Blood was withdrawn from RA, pumped through gas exchanger, and perfused PA. Maximal pumping flow was maintained for 2 hours. The pRVAD DLC was successfully deployed in all 6 sheep. In first 3 sheep, maximal average pumping flow was below 3 l/min because the DLC was advanced too far with drainage opening against RA side wall. In last 3 sheep with well positioned DLC, average maximal flow was above 3.5 l/min. The gas exchanger provided up to 230 ml/min CO2 removal and 174 ml/min O2 transfer. Our DLC-based pRVAD system is feasible for percutaneous right heart and respiratory assistance through a single cannulation. The pRVAD DLC can easily be placed prophylactically during LVAD implantation and removed as needed without additional open chest procedures. PMID:25851314

  1. Esophagogastric junction distensibility assessed using the functional lumen imaging probe

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Joan W; Rubenstein, Joel H

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess reference values in the literature for esophageal distensibility and cross-sectional area in healthy and diseased subjects measured by the functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP). METHODS Systematic search and review of articles in Medline and Embase pertaining to the use of FLIP in the esophagus was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Cross-sectional area and distensibility at the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) were abstracted for normal subjects, achalasia, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients, stratified by balloon length and volume of inflation. RESULTS Six achalasia studies (n = 154), 3 GERD (n = 52), and 5 studies including healthy controls (n = 98) were included in the systematic review. Normative data varied widely amongst studies of healthy volunteers. In contrast, studies in achalasia patients uniformly demonstrated low point estimates in distensibility ≤ 1.6 mm2/mmHg prior to treatment that increased to ≥ 3.4 mm2/mmHg following treatment at 40mL bag volume. In GERD patients, distensibility fell to the range of untreated achalasia (≤ 2.85 mm2/mmHg) following fundoplication. CONCLUSION FLIP may be a useful tool in assessment of treatment efficacy in achalasia. The drastic drop in EGJ distensibility after fundoplication suggests that FLIP measurements need to be interpreted in the context of esophageal body motility and highlights the importance of pre-operative screening for dysmotility. Future studies using standardized FLIP protocol and balloon size are needed. PMID:28275309

  2. A model for cyst lumen expansion and size regulation via fluid secretion.

    PubMed

    Gin, Elan; Tanaka, Elly M; Brusch, Lutz

    2010-06-07

    Many internal epithelial organs derive from cysts, which are tissues comprised of bent epithelial cell layers enclosing a lumen. Ion accumulation in the lumen drives water influx and consequently water accumulation and cyst expansion. Lumen-size recognition is important for the regulation of organ size. When lumen size and cyst size are not controlled, diseases can result; for instance, renal failure of the kidney. We develop a mechanistic mathematical model of lumen expansion in order to investigate the mechanisms for saturation of cyst growth. We include fluid accumulation in the lumen, osmotic and elastic pressure, ion transport and stretch-induced cell division. We find that the lumen volume increases in two phases: first, due to fluid accumulation stretching the cells, then in the second phase, the volume increase follows the increase in cell number until proliferation ceases as stretch forces relax. The model is quantitatively fitted to published data of in vitro cyst growth and predicts steady state lumen size as a function of the model parameters.

  3. Rac1 GTPase acts downstream of αPS1βPS integrin to control collective migration and lumen size in the Drosophila salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Pirraglia, Carolyn; Walters, Jenna; Ahn, Nancy; Myat, Monn Monn

    2013-05-01

    During collective migration of the Drosophila embryonic salivary gland, the distal gland cells mediate integrin-based contacts with surrounding tissues while proximal gland cells change shape and rearrange. Here, we show that αPS1βPS integrin controls salivary gland migration through Rac1 GTPase which downregulates E-cadherin in proximal and distal gland cells, and promotes extension of actin-rich basal membrane protrusions in the distal cells. In embryos mutant for multiple edematous wings (mew), which encodes the αPS1 subunit of the αPS1βPS integrin heterodimer, or rac1 and rac2 GTPases, salivary gland cells failed to migrate, to downregulate E-cadherin and to extend basal membrane protrusions. Selective inhibition of Rac1 in just the proximal or distal gland cells demonstrate that proximal gland cells play an active role in the collective migration of the whole gland and that continued migration of the distal cells depends on the proximal cells. Loss of rac1rac2 also affected gland lumen length and width whereas, loss of mew affected lumen length only. Activation of rac1 in mew mutant embryos significantly rescued the gland migration, lumen length and basal membrane protrusion defects and partially rescued the E-cadherin defects. Independent of mew, Rac regulates cell shape change and rearrangement in the proximal gland, which is important for migration and lumen width. Our studies shed novel insight into a Rac1-mediated link between integrin and cadherin adhesion proteins in vivo, control of lumen length and width and how activities of proximal and distal gland cells are coordinated to result in the collective migration of the entire salivary gland. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Rac1 GTPase acts downstream of αPS1βPS integrin to control collective migration and lumen size in the Drosophila salivary gland

    PubMed Central

    Pirraglia, Carolyn; Walters, Jenna; Ahn, Nancy; Myat, Monn Monn

    2013-01-01

    During collective migration of the Drosophila embryonic salivary gland, the distal gland cells mediate integrin-based contacts with surrounding tissues while proximal gland cells change shape and rearrange. Here, we show that αPS1βPS integrin controls salivary gland migration through Rac1 GTPase which downregulates E-cadherin in proximal and distal gland cells, and promotes extension of actin-rich basal membrane protrusions in the distal cells. In embryos mutant for multiple edematous wings(mew), which encodes the αPS1 subunit of the αPS1βPS integrin heterodimer, or rac1 and rac2 GTPases, salivary gland cells failed to migrate, to downregulate E-cadherin and to extend basal membrane protrusions. Selective inhibition of Rac1 in just the proximal or distal gland cells demonstrate that proximal gland cells play an active role in the collective migration of the whole gland and that continued migration of the distal cells depends on the proximal cells. Loss of rac1rac2 also affected gland lumen length and width whereas, loss of mew affected lumen length only. Activation of rac1 in mew mutant embryos significantly rescued the gland migration, lumen length and basal membrane protrusion defects and partially rescued the E-cadherin defects. Independent of mew, Rac regulates cell shape change and rearrangement in the proximal gland, which is important for migration and lumen width. Our studies shed novel insight into a Rac1-mediated link between integrin and cadherin adhesion proteins in vivo, control of lumen length and width and how activities of proximal and distal gland cells are coordinated to result in the collective migration of the entire salivary gland. PMID:23500171

  5. Miniaturized Self-Expanding Drug-Eluting Stent in Small Coronary Arteries: Late Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Flavio Roberto Azevedo; Mattos, Luiz Alberto Piva e; Abizaid, Alexandre; Abizaid, Andrea S.; Costa, J. Ribamar; Costa, Ricardo; Staico, Rodolfo; Botelho, Roberto; Sousa, J. Eduardo; Sousa, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Background Small vessels represent a risk factor for restenosis in percutaneous coronary angioplasty (PCA). The Sparrow® self-expanding drug-eluting stent, which has a lower profile than the current systems, has never been tested in this scenario. Objectives To evaluate the late effectiveness of the Sparrow® drug-eluting stent, regarding in-stent late lumen loss (LLL). Methods Patients with ischemia, symptomatic or documented, were submitted to PCA in vessels with reference diameter < 2.75 mm, divided into two groups regarding Sparrow® stent type: group 1: Sparrow® drug-eluting stent (DES), group 2: Sparrow® bare metal stent (BMS). Clinical follow-up duration was 12 months. Evaluation using quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) was performed immediately and at 8 months. A decrease of over 65% of in-stent LLL with DES was estimated to calculate sample size. IBM® SPSS software, release 19 (Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used for the statistical analysis. Results A total of 24 patients were randomized, 12 in each group. The DES and BMS groups were similar in age (63.25 ± 10.01 vs. 64.58 ± 11.54, p = 0.765), male gender (58.3% vs. 33.3%, p = 0.412), risk factors and all angiographs aspects. Immediate results were satisfactory in both groups. At 8 months in-stent late lumen loss was significantly lower in DES than in BMS group (DES vs. BMS 0.25 ± 0.16 0.97 ± 0.76, p = 0.008). Conclusion In small-vessel PCA, the Sparrow® DES determined significant reduction in in-stent LLL, when compared to Sparrow® BMS. PMID:24100691

  6. Distal landing zone open fenestration facilitates endovascular elephant trunk completion and false lumen thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Roselli, Eric E; Sepulveda, Edgardo; Pujara, Akshat C; Idrees, Jahanzaib; Nowicki, Edward

    2011-12-01

    Controversy surrounds the endovascular treatment of chronic dissection because of inconsistent remodeling of the aorta. The purpose of this study was to assess efficacy and safety of a novel technique for repairing aneurysmal change associated with chronic descending aortic dissection. From July 2007 to April 2011, 24 patients with descending aortic aneurysmal change, consequent to previously repaired ascending aortic dissection or medically treated descending dissection, underwent combined open first-stage elephant trunk (ET) insertion and fenestration of the descending aorta intimal flap. Second-stage ET endovascular completion was performed with the index operation in 4 patients and later in 20 patients (median, 62 days). Repair was elective in 14 patients and urgent in 10 patients. Concomitant procedures were aortic valve replacement in 3 patients and coronary revascularization in 3 patients, and 16 procedures were reoperations. Chart review and analysis of 3-dimensional computed tomography (CT) scans were performed. Imaging follow-up was complete in 89% of patients during a median of 18 months (interquartile range [IQR], 10 to 28 months). Technical success was achieved in all patients. Moderate reduction in aortic size occurred in most patients, with no retrograde false lumen flow. Late reintervention was required in 5 patients: endovascular for distal type I endoleak in 2 patients, type II endoleak in 1 patient, pseudoaneurysm of the abdominal aorta in 1 patient, and 1 open repair for aneurysm of the untreated distal segment in 1 patient. One patient died of pulmonary embolism on postoperative day 19 after 1-stage repair (4.0%) and 1 patient (4%) had a transient stroke, but there was no renal failure, respiratory failure, or permanent spinal cord injury. Median length of stay was 13 days (IQR, 8 to 16 days) after first-stage ET and 8 days (IQR, 5 to 12 days) after endovascular ET completion. One patient died during a mean of 23 ± 11 months of follow-up. Open

  7. Effects of rumen-protected methionine on plasma amino acid concentrations during a period of weight loss for late gestating beef heifers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study determined changes in plasma amino acid concentration in late-gestating (beginning 58 ± 1.02 d prior to calving), primiparous, winter-grazing range heifers receiving wheat middling based supplement without (CON) or with rumen-protected methionine (MET) to provide 15 g DL- MET each day. Pl...

  8. Micropatterned Endotracheal Tubes Reduce Secretion-Related Lumen Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Mann, Ethan E; Magin, Chelsea M; Mettetal, M Ryan; May, Rhea M; Henry, MiKayla M; DeLoid, Heather; Prater, Justin; Sullivan, Lauren; Thomas, John G; Twite, Mark D; Parker, Albert E; Brennan, Anthony B; Reddy, Shravanthi T

    2016-12-01

    Tracheal intubation disrupts physiological homeostasis of secretion production and clearance, resulting in secretion accumulation within endotracheal tubes (ETTs). Novel in vitro and in vivo models were developed to specifically recapitulate the clinical manifestations of ETT occlusion. The novel Sharklet™ micropatterned ETT was evaluated, using these models, for the ability to reduce the accumulation of both bacterial biofilm and airway mucus compared to a standard care ETT. Novel ETTs with micropattern on the inner and outer surfaces were placed adjacent to standard care ETTs in in vitro biofilm and airway patency (AP) models. The primary outcome for the biofilm model was to compare commercially-available ETTs (standard care and silver-coated) to micropatterned for quantity of biofilm accumulation. The AP model's primary outcome was to evaluate accumulation of artificial airway mucus. A 24-h ovine mechanical ventilation model evaluated the primary outcome of relative quantity of airway secretion accumulation in the ETTs tested. The secondary outcome was measuring the effect of secretion accumulation in the ETTs on airway resistance. Micropatterned ETTs significantly reduced biofilm by 71% (p = 0.016) compared to smooth ETTs. Moreover, micropatterned ETTs reduced lumen occlusion, in the AP model, as measured by cross-sectional area, in distal (85%, p = 0.005), middle (84%, p = 0.001) and proximal (81%, p = 0.002) sections compared to standard care ETTs. Micropatterned ETTs reduced the volume of secretion accumulation in a sheep model of occlusion by 61% (p < 0.001) after 24 h of mechanical ventilation. Importantly, micropatterned ETTs reduced the rise in ventilation peak inspiratory pressures over time by as much as 49% (p = 0.005) compared to standard care ETTs. Micropatterned ETTs, demonstrated here to reduce bacterial contamination and mucus occlusion, will have the capacity to limit complications occurring during mechanical ventilation and

  9. High lumenal chloride in the lysosome is critical for lysosome function

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Kasturi; Leung, KaHo; Krishnan, Yamuna

    2017-01-01

    Lysosomes are organelles responsible for the breakdown and recycling of cellular machinery. Dysfunctional lysosomes give rise to lysosomal storage disorders as well as common neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we use a DNA-based, fluorescent chloride reporter to measure lysosomal chloride in Caenorhabditis elegans as well as murine and human cell culture models of lysosomal diseases. We find that the lysosome is highly enriched in chloride, and that chloride reduction correlates directly with a loss in the degradative function of the lysosome. In nematodes and mammalian cell culture models of diverse lysosomal disorders, where previously only lysosomal pH dysregulation has been described, massive reduction of lumenal chloride is observed that is ~103 fold greater than the accompanying pH change. Reducing chloride within the lysosome impacts Ca2+ release from the lysosome and impedes the activity of specific lysosomal enzymes indicating a broader role for chloride in lysosomal function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.28862.001 PMID:28742019

  10. Fibre wall and lumen fractions drive wood density variation across 24 Australian angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Ziemińska, Kasia; Butler, Don W.; Gleason, Sean M.; Wright, Ian J.; Westoby, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Wood density is considered a key plant trait, affecting mechanical and physiological performance, yet its biological meaning is still rather unclear. Accordingly we investigated the anatomical underpinnings of wood density in trees and shrubs. We measured wood density and anatomical traits in distal stems 4–10 mm diameter under bark in 24 Australian species. Proportions of wood components that are functionally distinct were analysed, including fibre wall and lumen, vessel wall and lumen, and axial and ray parenchyma. Wood density was mainly driven by the density of wood outside vessel lumens (densityNV) rather than by vessel lumen fraction. In turn, densityNV variation was chiefly affected by fibre wall and lumen fractions. Considerable anatomical variation was observed at a given densityNV, especially among medium-densityNV species (0.60–0.85 g cm−3); this range of medium densityNV roughly translates to 0.50–0.75 g cm−3 of overall density. The anatomy of these species formed a continuum from low fibre lumen and medium parenchyma fractions to medium fibre lumen and low parenchyma fractions. Our data suggest that wood density is an emergent property influenced by a complex anatomy rather than an unambiguous functional trait, particularly in medium-density species. With much anatomical variation, they likely represent a wide range of ecological strategies.

  11. Coordinated control of lumen size and collective migration in the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Xu, Na; Myat, Monn Monn

    2012-01-01

    The Drosophila embryonic salivary gland is a powerful system to analyze the cellular and molecular mechanisms of tubulogenesis in vivo. The secretory portion of the salivary gland (referred to here as the salivary gland), is a pair of elongated epithelial tubes with a single central lumen, that is formed by the invagination and collective migration of gland cells from the ventral surface of the embryo. ( 1) (,) ( 2) As the salivary gland elongates during migration, the central lumen elongates and narrows at the proximal end. ( 3) A number of genes are known to regulate salivary gland migration and/or lumen size (Table 1); however, it is only recently that we have begun to analyze how control of salivary gland migration is coordinated with control of lumen size. To understand coordinated control of salivary gland migration and lumen size, we analyzed the role of the single Drosophila Rho GTPase, Rho1, in salivary gland tubulogenesis. In addition to the requirement of Rho1 in salivary gland invagination and migration (Xu et al., 2008), our recent studies show that Rho1 controls salivary gland lumen width and length during the migration process (Fig. 1). These studies reveal that Rho1-mediated processes at the proximal end of the migrating salivary gland, such as cell shape change, cell rearrangement and apical domain elongation, contribute to collective migration, and narrowing and elongation of the lumen. ( 4).

  12. Lumen Maintenance Testing of the Philips 60-Watt Replacement Lamp L Prize Entry

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Kelly L.; Hafen, Ryan P.; Hathaway, John E.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes testing conducted to evaluate the Philips' L Prize award winning 60-watt LED replacement product's ability to meet the lifetime/lumen maintenance requirement of the competition, which was: "having 70 percent of the lumen value under subparagraph (A) [producing a luminous flux greater than 900 lumens] exceeding 25,000 hours under typical conditions expected in residential use." A custom test apparatus was designed and constructed for this testing and a statistical approach was developed for use in evaluating the test results. This will be the only publicly available, third-party data set of long-term LED product operation.

  13. Peri/Epicellular Protein Disulfide Isomerase Sustains Vascular Lumen Caliber Through an Anticonstrictive Remodeling Effect.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Leonardo Y; Araújo, Haniel A; Hironaka, Gustavo K; Araujo, Thaís L S; Takimura, Celso K; Rodriguez, Andres I; Casagrande, Annelise S; Gutierrez, Paulo S; Lemos-Neto, Pedro Alves; Laurindo, Francisco R M

    2016-03-01

    Whole-vessel remodeling critically determines lumen caliber in vascular (patho)physiology, and it is reportedly redox-dependent. We hypothesized that the cell-surface pool of the endoplasmic reticulum redox chaperone protein disulfide isomerase-A1 (peri/epicellular=pecPDI), which is known to support thrombosis, also regulates disease-associated vascular architecture. In human coronary atheromas, PDI expression inversely correlated with constrictive remodeling and plaque stability. In a rabbit iliac artery overdistension model, there was unusually high PDI upregulation (≈25-fold versus basal, 14 days postinjury), involving both intracellular and pecPDI. PecPDI neutralization with distinct anti-PDI antibodies did not enhance endoplasmic reticulum stress or apoptosis. In vivo pecPDI neutralization with PDI antibody-containing perivascular gel from days 12 to 14 post injury promoted 25% decrease in the maximally dilated arteriographic vascular caliber. There was corresponding whole-vessel circumference loss using optical coherence tomography without change in neointima, which indicates constrictive remodeling. This was accompanied by decreased hydrogen peroxide generation. Constrictive remodeling was corroborated by marked changes in collagen organization, that is, switching from circumferential to radial fiber orientation and to a more rigid fiber type. The cytoskeleton architecture was also disrupted; there was a loss of stress fiber coherent organization and a switch from thin to medium thickness actin fibers, all leading to impaired viscoelastic ductility. Total and PDI-associated expressions of β1-integrin, and levels of reduced cell-surface β1-integrin, were diminished after PDI antibody treatment, implicating β1-integrin as a likely pecPDI target during vessel repair. Indeed, focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation, a downstream β1-integrin effector, was decreased by PDI antibody. Thus, the upregulated pecPDI pool tunes matrix/cytoskeleton reshaping to

  14. An integrin-ILK-microtubule network orients cell polarity and lumen formation in glandular epithelium.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Nasreen; Streuli, Charles H

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular matrix has a crucial role in determining the spatial orientation of epithelial polarity and the formation of lumens in glandular tissues; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. By using Cre–Lox deletion we show that β1 integrins are required for normal mammary gland morphogenesis and lumen formation, both in vivo and in a three-dimensional primary culture model in which epithelial cells directly contact a basement membrane. Downstream of basement membrane β1 integrins, Rac1 is not involved; however, ILK is needed to polarize microtubule plus ends at the basolateral membrane and disrupting each of these components prevents lumen formation. The integrin–microtubule axis is necessary for the endocytic removal of apical proteins from the basement-membrane–cell interface and for internal Golgi positioning. We propose that this integrin signalling network controls the delivery of apical components to the correct surface and thereby governs the orientation of polarity and development of lumens.

  15. Biogeography of the Intestinal Mucosal and Lumenal Microbiome in the Rhesus Macaque

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Koji; Oh, Keunyoung; Ren, Boyu; Tickle, Timothy L.; Franzosa, Eric A.; Wachtman, Lynn M.; Miller, Andrew D.; Westmoreland, Susan V.; Mansfield, Keith G.; Vallender, Eric J.; Miller, Gregory M.; Rowlett, James K.; Gevers, Dirk; Huttenhower, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Summary The gut microbiome is widely studied by fecal sampling, but the extent to which stool reflects the commensal composition at intestinal sites is poorly understood. We investigated this relationship in rhesus macaques by 16S sequencing feces and paired lumenal and mucosal samples from 10 sites distal to the jejunum. Stool composition correlated highly with the colonic lumen and mucosa, and moderately with the distal small intestine. The mucosal microbiota varied most based on location and was enriched in oxygen-tolerant taxa (e.g. Helicobacter, Treponema), while the lumenal microbiota showed inter-individual variation and obligate anaerobe enrichment (e.g. Firmicutes). This mucosal and lumenal community variability corresponded to functional differences, such as nutrient availability. Additionally, Helicobacter, Faecalibacterium, and Lactobacillus levels in stool were highly predictive of their abundance at most other gut sites. These results quantify the composition and biogeographic relationships between gut microbial communities in macaques and support fecal sampling for translational studies. PMID:25732063

  16. Effect of cortisone on capsular contracture in double-lumen breast implants: ten years' experience.

    PubMed

    Lemperle, G; Exner, K

    1993-01-01

    Two groups of patients are compared with respect to capsular contracture after insertion of silicone breast prostheses. Six hundred seventy four women received single-lumen gel prostheses and 700 received double-lumen prostheses with cortisone. The addition of 12.5 mg of prednisolone to double-lumen prostheses diminished capsular contracture (Baker II to IV) dramatically; in patients with simple augmentation from 19% to 4.9%, in patients with subcutaneous mastectomy from 54% to 14.9%, and in patients with breast reconstruction from 64% to 24.4%. The use of double-lumen implants has three distinct advantages: (1) There is no bleeding and therefore no contact of the body with the silicone gel. (2) There is no danger of ruptured implants, even if the outer shell shows leakage. (3) If prednisolone is administered, capsular contracture is prevented to a significant degree.

  17. Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium colonizing the lumen of the chicken intestine grows slowly and upregulates a unique set of virulence and metabolism genes.

    PubMed

    Harvey, P C; Watson, M; Hulme, S; Jones, M A; Lovell, M; Berchieri, A; Young, J; Bumstead, N; Barrow, P

    2011-10-01

    The pattern of global gene expression in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteria harvested from the chicken intestinal lumen (cecum) was compared with that of a late-log-phase LB broth culture using a whole-genome microarray. Levels of transcription, translation, and cell division in vivo were lower than those in vitro. S. Typhimurium appeared to be using carbon sources, such as propionate, 1,2-propanediol, and ethanolamine, in addition to melibiose and ascorbate, the latter possibly transformed to d-xylulose. Amino acid starvation appeared to be a factor during colonization. Bacteria in the lumen were non- or weakly motile and nonchemotactic but showed upregulation of a number of fimbrial and Salmonella pathogenicity island 3 (SPI-3) and 5 genes, suggesting a close physical association with the host during colonization. S. Typhimurium bacteria harvested from the cecal mucosa showed an expression profile similar to that of bacteria from the intestinal lumen, except that levels of transcription, translation, and cell division were higher and glucose may also have been used as a carbon source.

  18. Automatic lumen contour detection in intravascular OCT images using Otsu binarization and intensity curve.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Min; Lee, Seung Hwan; Lee, Chungkeun; Ha, Jong-Won; Yoon, Young-Ro

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an automatic method for the detection of lumen contours in intravascular OCT images with guide wire shadow artifacts. This algorithm is divided into five main procedures: pre-processing, an Otsu binarization approach, an intensity curve approach, a lumen contour position correction, and image reconstruction and contour extraction. The 30 IVOCT images from six anonymous patients were used to verify this method and we obtained 99.2% sensitivity and 99.7% specificity with this algorithm.

  19. Re-entry into the true lumen from the subintimal space.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Peter A; Caps, Michael T; Nelken, Nicolas

    2013-08-01

    Endovascular reconstruction of the femoral and popliteal arteries is replacing femoral-popliteal bypass. This is made possible by subintimal recanalization to manage long chronic total occlusions. Re-entry into the true lumen is the most challenging step in this process. This article summarizes the techniques for re-entry into the true lumen in the superficial femoral and above- and below-the-knee popliteal arteries.

  20. Numerical and experimental flow analysis of the Wang-Zwische double-lumen cannula.

    PubMed

    De Bartolo, Carmine; Nigro, Alessandra; Fragomeni, Gionata; Colacino, Francesco M; Wang, Dongfang; Jones, Cameron C; Zwischenberger, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    An experimental and numerical analysis was performed for the Wang-Zwische double-lumen cannula (DLC) (Avalon Elite). The aim of this work was to provide insight for future improvement by characterizing the fluid dynamic behavior of the novel catheter with metrics often associated with blood trauma. Pressure and flow distributions were measured on a steady-flow rig using a 50% glycerol-water mixture by imposing a 2 L/min flow rate across the drainage and infusion lumens. The fluid was modeled as Newtonian with density of 1050 kg/m³ and dynamic viscosity of 0.0035 kg/m·s. Reynolds numbers typical for transitional flow (Re = 2000-2500) were computed within the lumens because of the changing cross-sections of the cannula geometry. Numerical computations were performed using the steady three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations and the low-Reynolds k-ω turbulence model. Discretization of governing equations was based on a cell-centered finite volume method. Numerical results correlated well with global performance of the cannula, allowing evaluation of the geometry toward potential blood trauma. Peak wall shear stress (WSS) in the drainage lumen was higher than that of infusion lumen, mainly due to the presence of side holes. Furthermore, recirculation regions were predicted in transition tubing to connectors of both the drainage and the infusion lumens because of adverse pressure gradients caused by the sudden enlargement of the cannula geometry. In this three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study, we observed higher peak WSS values for the drainage lumen, which may potentially cause blood trauma. Furthermore, recirculation regions were predicted in the proximity of the exit sections of both the infusion and drainage lumens, which may contribute to thrombosis formation. This study provides insight for future DLC modifications in minimizing cannula-induced blood trauma and thrombogenicity in long-term applications.

  1. Developmental changes in personal goal orientation from young to late adulthood: from striving for gains to maintenance and prevention of losses.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Natalie C; Freund, Alexandra M; Baltes, Paul B

    2006-12-01

    Using a multimethod approach, the authors conducted 4 studies to test life span hypotheses about goal orientations across adulthood. Confirming expectations, in Studies 1 and 2 younger adults reported a primary growth orientation in their goals, whereas older adults reported a stronger orientation toward maintenance and loss prevention. Orientation toward prevention of loss correlated negatively with well-being in younger adults. In older adults, orientation toward maintenance was positively associated with well-being. Studies 3 and 4 extend findings of a self-reported shift in goal orientation to the level of behavioral choice involving cognitive and physical fitness goals. Studies 3 and 4 also examine the role of expected resource demands. The shift in goal orientation is discussed as an adaptive mechanism to manage changing opportunities and constraints across adulthood.

  2. ASTROPHYSICS AND COSMOLOGY RELATED TO PARTICLES AND NUCLEI: Plasma neutrino energy loss due to the axial-vector current at the late stages of stellar evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing-Jing

    2009-10-01

    Based on the Weinberg-Salam theory, the plasma neutrino energy loss rates of vector and axial-vector contributions are studied. A ratable factor of the rates from the axial-vector current relative to those of the total neutrino energy loss rates is accurately calculated. The results show that the ratable factor will reach a maximum of 0.95 or even more at relatively higher temperature and lower density (such as ρ/μe < 107 g/cm3). Thus the rates of the axial-vector contribution cannot be neglected. On the other hand, the rates of the axial-vector contribution are on the order of ~0.01% of the total vector contribution, which is in good agreement with Itoh's at relatively high density (such as ρ/μe < 107 g/cm3) and a temperature of T <= 1011 K.

  3. The diagnostic challenge of a tracheal tear with a double-lumen endobronchial tube: massive air leak developing from the mouth during mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Venkataramanappa, Vani; Boujoukos, Arthur J; Sakai, Tetsuro

    2011-02-01

    The case of a 78 year-old woman who underwent a right lower lobectomy using a 35-French, left-sided, double-lumen endobronchial tube (DLET) is presented. Multiple adjustments were needed for the DLET's proper placement. At the end of surgery, sudden loss of tidal volume with a large air leak from the patient's mouth was noted. Fiberoptic bronchoscopic examination through the DLET was negative. Rupture of the tracheal cuff was suspected, and the DLET was replaced with a single-lumen tube. In the intensive care unit, the massive air leak from the mouth recurred during mechanical ventilation. Nasal fiberoptic bronchoscopic examination showed a longitudinal laceration of the membranous portion of the trachea extending from the subglottic area to the orifice of the right bronchus. Surgical repair of the tear was performed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Technical Note: Measurement of common carotid artery lumen dynamics using black-blood MR cine imaging.

    PubMed

    Dai, Erpeng; Dong, Li; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Lyu; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Xihai; Wang, Jinnan; Yuan, Chun; Guo, Hua

    2017-03-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of measuring the common carotid artery (CCA) lumen dynamics using a black-blood cine (BB-cine) imaging method. Motion-sensitized driven-equilibrium (MSDE) prepared spoiled gradient sequence was used for the BB-cine imaging. CCAs of eleven healthy volunteers were studied using this method. Lumen dynamics, including lumen area evolution waveforms and distension values, were measured and evaluated by comparing this method with bright-blood cine (BrB-cine) imaging. Compared with the BrB-cine images, flow artifacts were effectively suppressed in the BB-cine images. BrB-cine images generally show larger lumen areas than BB-cine images. The lumen area waveforms and distension measurements from BB-cine imaging showed smaller variances among different subjects than BrB-cine imaging. The proposed BB-cine imaging technique can suppress the flow artifacts effectively and reduce the partial volume effects from the vessel wall. This might allow more accurate lumen dynamics measurements than traditional BrB-cine imaging, which may further be valuable for investigating biomechanical and functional properties of the cardiovascular system. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  5. A Role for the Lumenal Domain in Golgi Localization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Guanosine Diphosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Vowels, Jennifer J.; Payne, Gregory S.

    1998-01-01

    Integral membrane proteins (IMPs) contain localization signals necessary for targeting to their resident subcellular compartments. To define signals that mediate localization to the Golgi complex, we have analyzed a resident IMP of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Golgi complex, guanosine diphosphatase (GDPase). GDPase, which is necessary for Golgi-specific glycosylation reactions, is a type II IMP with a short amino-terminal cytoplasmic domain, a single transmembrane domain (TMD), and a large catalytic lumenal domain. Regions specifying Golgi localization were identified by analyzing recombinant proteins either lacking GDPase domains or containing corresponding domains from type II vacuolar IMPs. Neither deletion nor substitution of the GDPase cytoplasmic domain perturbed Golgi localization. Exchanging the GDPase TMD with vacuolar protein TMDs only marginally affected Golgi localization. Replacement of the lumenal domain resulted in mislocalization of the chimeric protein from the Golgi to the vacuole, but a similar substitution leaving 34 amino acids of the GDPase lumenal domain intact was properly localized. These results identify a major Golgi localization determinant in the membrane-adjacent lumenal region (stem) of GDPase. Although necessary, the stem domain is not sufficient to mediate localization; in addition, a membrane-anchoring domain and either the cytoplasmic or full-length lumenal domain must be present to maintain Golgi residence. The importance of lumenal domain sequences in GDPase Golgi localization and the requirement for multiple hydrophilic protein domains support a model for Golgi localization invoking protein–protein interactions rather than interactions between the TMD and the lipid bilayer. PMID:9614179

  6. Antioxidant defenses in caterpillars: role of the ascorbate-recycling system in the midgut lumen.

    PubMed

    Barbehenn, R V; Bumgarner, S L; Roosen, E F; Martin, M M

    2001-04-01

    This study demonstrates that an ascorbate-recycling system in the midgut lumen can act as an effective antioxidant defense in caterpillars that feed on prooxidant-rich foods. In tannin-sensitive larvae of the forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria (Lasiocampidae), ingested tannic acid is oxidized in the midgut lumen, generating significant quantities of peroxides, including hydrogen peroxide, which readily diffuses across cell membranes and is a powerful cytotoxin. By contrast, in the tannin-tolerant larvae of the white-marked tussock moth, Orgyia leucostigma (Lymantriidae), tannic acid oxidation and the generation of peroxides are suppressed. The superior defense of O. leucostigma against oxidative stress imposed by the oxidation of ingested polyphenols can be explained by the presence of higher concentrations of ascorbate and glutathione in the midgut lumen. In O. leucostigma at least 50% of the ingested ascorbate present in the anterior midgut is still present in the posterior midgut, whereas in M. disstria, only 10% of the ascorbate is present in the posterior half of the midgut. We propose that the maintenance of higher levels of ascorbate in the midgut lumen of O. leucostigma than in M. disstria is explained by the secretion of glutathione into the midgut lumen by O. leucostigma, thereby forming a complete ascorbate-recycling system. The concentration of glutathione in the midgut lumen of O. leucostigma is 3.5-fold higher than in M. disstria and more than double the concentration in the diet. Our results emphasize the importance of a defensive strategy in herbivorous insects based on the maintenance of conditions in the gut lumen that reduce or eliminate the potential prooxidant behavior of ingested phenols.

  7. Assessment of coronary stents by 64-slice computed tomography: in-stent lumen visibility and patency.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ling-Yan; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Zhang, Shu-Yang; Zhang, Zhu-Hua; Wang, Yi-Ning; Song, Lan; Zhang, Xiao-Na; Zhang, Yun-Qing

    2009-09-01

    To assess lumen visibility of coronary stents by 64-slice computed tomography (CT) coronary angiography, and determine the value of 64-slice CT in non-invasive detecting of in-stent restenosis after coronary artery stent implantation. Totally, 60 patients (54 males, aged 57.0+/-12.7 years) and 105 stents were investigated by 64-slice CT at a mean interval of 20.0+/-16.6 months after coronary stents implantation. Axial multi-planar reconstruction images of the stents and curved-planar reconstruction images through the median of the stents were reconstructed for evaluating stent image quality on a 5-point scale (1=excellent, 5=non-assessable), and stent lumen diameter was detected. Conventional coronary angiography was performed in 18 patients, and 32 stents were evaluated. Image quality was good to excellent on average (score 1.71+/-0.76). Stent image quality score was correlated to heart rate (r=0.281, P<0.01) and stent diameter (r=-0.480, P<0.001). All the stents were assessable in lumen visibility with an average visible lumen diameter percentage of 60.7%+/-13.6%. Visible lumen diameter percentage was correlated to heart rate (r=-0.193, P<0.05), stent diameter (r=0.403, P<0.001), and stent image quality score (r=-0.500, P<0.001). Visible lumen diameter percentage also varied depending on the stent type. In comparison with the conventional coronary angiography, 4 of 6 in-stent stenoses were correctly detected. The sensitivity and specificity for the detection of in-stent stenosis were 66.7% and 84.6%, respectively. Using a 64-slice CT, the stent lumen is partly visible in most of the stents. And 64-slice CT may be useful in the assessment of stent patency.

  8. ASTROPHYSICS AND COSMOLOGY RELATED TO PARTICLES AND NUCLEI: The competition of neutrino energy loss due to the pair, photo-, plasma process at the late stages of stellar evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing-Jing

    2009-01-01

    Based on the Weinberg-Salam theory, the competition of the Neutrino Energy Loss (NEL) rates due to the pair, photo- and plasma process are canvassed. The ratio factor C1, C2 and C3 which correspond the different contributions of the pair, photo- and plasma neutrino process to those of the total NEL rates are accurately taken into account. The ratio factors are very sensitive to the temperature and density. The ratio factor C2 always is lower than the ratio factor C1 and C3. The pair NEL process is the dominant contribution before the crossed point O(C1 = C3 = 0.45) and the plasma NEL process will be the main dominant contribution after the crossed point O. With increasing temperature, the crossed point O will move to the direction of higher density.

  9. Uplift rates from a new high-density GPS network in Palmer Land indicate significant late Holocene ice loss in the southwestern Weddell Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolstencroft, Martin; King, Matt A.; Whitehouse, Pippa L.; Bentley, Michael J.; Nield, Grace A.; King, Edward C.; McMillan, Malcolm; Shepherd, Andrew; Barletta, Valentina; Bordoni, Andrea; Riva, Riccardo E. M.; Didova, Olga; Gunter, Brian C.

    2015-10-01

    The measurement of ongoing ice-mass loss and associated melt water contribution to sea-level change from regions such as West Antarctica is dependent on a combination of remote sensing methods. A key method, the measurement of changes in Earth's gravity via the GRACE satellite mission, requires a potentially large correction to account for the isostatic response of the solid Earth to ice-load changes since the Last Glacial Maximum. In this study, we combine glacial isostatic adjustment modelling with a new GPS dataset of solid Earth deformation for the southern Antarctic Peninsula to test the current understanding of ice history in this region. A sufficiently complete history of past ice-load change is required for glacial isostatic adjustment models to accurately predict the spatial variation of ongoing solid Earth deformation, once the independently-constrained effects of present-day ice mass loss have been accounted for. Comparisons between the GPS data and glacial isostatic adjustment model predictions reveal a substantial misfit. The misfit is localized on the southwestern Weddell Sea, where current ice models under-predict uplift rates by approximately 2 mm yr-1. This under-prediction suggests that either the retreat of the ice sheet grounding line in this region occurred significantly later in the Holocene than currently assumed, or that the region previously hosted more ice than currently assumed. This finding demonstrates the need for further fieldwork to obtain direct constraints on the timing of Holocene grounding line retreat in the southwestern Weddell Sea and that GRACE estimates of ice sheet mass balance will be unreliable in this region until this is resolved.

  10. Job Loss, Unemployment and the Incidence of Hazardous Drinking during the Late 2000s Recession in Europe among Adults Aged 50-64 Years.

    PubMed

    Bosque-Prous, Marina; Espelt, Albert; Sordo, Luis; Guitart, Anna M; Brugal, M Teresa; Bravo, Maria J

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the incidence of hazardous drinking in middle-aged people during an economic recession and ascertain whether individual job loss and contextual changes in unemployment influence the incidence rate in that period. Longitudinal study based on two waves of the SHARE project (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe). Individuals aged 50-64 years from 11 European countries, who were not hazardous drinkers at baseline (n = 7,615), were selected for this study. We estimated the cumulative incidence of hazardous drinking (≥40g and ≥20g of pure alcohol on average in men and women, respectively) between 2006 and 2012. Furthermore, in the statistical analysis, multilevel Poisson regression models with robust variance were fitted and obtained Risk Ratios (RR) and their 95% Confidence Intervals (95%CI). Over a 6-year period, 505 subjects became hazardous drinkers, with cumulative incidence of 6.6 per 100 persons between 2006 and 2012 (95%CI:6.1-7.2). Age [RR = 1.02 (95%CI:1.00-1.04)] and becoming unemployed [RR = 1.55 (95%CI:1.08-2.23)] were independently associated with higher risk of becoming a hazardous drinker. Conversely, having poorer self-perceived health was associated with lower risk of becoming a hazardous drinker [RR = 0.75 (95%CI:0.60-0.95)]. At country-level, an increase in the unemployment rate during the study period [RR = 1.32 (95%CI:1.17-1.50)] and greater increases in the household disposable income [RR = 0.97 (95%CI:0.95-0.99)] were associated with risk of becoming a hazardous drinker. Job loss among middle-aged individuals during the economic recession was positively associated with becoming a hazardous drinker. Changes in country-level variables were also related to this drinking pattern.

  11. Job Loss, Unemployment and the Incidence of Hazardous Drinking during the Late 2000s Recession in Europe among Adults Aged 50–64 Years

    PubMed Central

    Bosque-Prous, Marina; Espelt, Albert; Sordo, Luis; Guitart, Anna M.; Brugal, M. Teresa; Bravo, Maria J.

    2015-01-01

    Background To estimate the incidence of hazardous drinking in middle-aged people during an economic recession and ascertain whether individual job loss and contextual changes in unemployment influence the incidence rate in that period. Methods Longitudinal study based on two waves of the SHARE project (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe). Individuals aged 50–64 years from 11 European countries, who were not hazardous drinkers at baseline (n = 7,615), were selected for this study. We estimated the cumulative incidence of hazardous drinking (≥40g and ≥20g of pure alcohol on average in men and women, respectively) between 2006 and 2012. Furthermore, in the statistical analysis, multilevel Poisson regression models with robust variance were fitted and obtained Risk Ratios (RR) and their 95% Confidence Intervals (95%CI). Results Over a 6-year period, 505 subjects became hazardous drinkers, with cumulative incidence of 6.6 per 100 persons between 2006 and 2012 (95%CI:6.1–7.2). Age [RR = 1.02 (95%CI:1.00–1.04)] and becoming unemployed [RR = 1.55 (95%CI:1.08–2.23)] were independently associated with higher risk of becoming a hazardous drinker. Conversely, having poorer self-perceived health was associated with lower risk of becoming a hazardous drinker [RR = 0.75 (95%CI:0.60–0.95)]. At country-level, an increase in the unemployment rate during the study period [RR = 1.32 (95%CI:1.17–1.50)] and greater increases in the household disposable income [RR = 0.97 (95%CI:0.95–0.99)] were associated with risk of becoming a hazardous drinker. Conclusions Job loss among middle-aged individuals during the economic recession was positively associated with becoming a hazardous drinker. Changes in country-level variables were also related to this drinking pattern. PMID:26445239

  12. Mechanism of microtubule lumen entry for the α-tubulin acetyltransferase enzyme αTAT1

    PubMed Central

    Coombes, Courtney; Yamamoto, Ami; McClellan, Mark; Reid, Taylor A.; Luxton, G. W. Gant; Alper, Joshua; Howard, Jonathon; Gardner, Melissa K.

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules are structural polymers inside of cells that are subject to posttranslational modifications. These posttranslational modifications create functionally distinct subsets of microtubule networks in the cell, and acetylation is the only modification that takes place in the hollow lumen of the microtubule. Although it is known that the α-tubulin acetyltransferase (αTAT1) is the primary enzyme responsible for microtubule acetylation, the mechanism for how αTAT1 enters the microtubule lumen to access its acetylation sites is not well understood. By performing biochemical assays, fluorescence and electron microscopy experiments, and computational simulations, we found that αTAT1 enters the microtubule lumen through the microtubule ends, and through bends or breaks in the lattice. Thus, microtubule structure is an important determinant in the acetylation process. In addition, once αTAT1 enters the microtubule lumen, the mobility of αTAT1 within the lumen is controlled by the affinity of αTAT1 for its acetylation sites, due to the rapid rebinding of αTAT1 onto highly concentrated α-tubulin acetylation sites. These results have important implications for how acetylation could gradually accumulate on stable subsets of microtubules inside of the cell. PMID:27803321

  13. Mechanism of microtubule lumen entry for the α-tubulin acetyltransferase enzyme αTAT1.

    PubMed

    Coombes, Courtney; Yamamoto, Ami; McClellan, Mark; Reid, Taylor A; Plooster, Melissa; Luxton, G W Gant; Alper, Joshua; Howard, Jonathon; Gardner, Melissa K

    2016-11-15

    Microtubules are structural polymers inside of cells that are subject to posttranslational modifications. These posttranslational modifications create functionally distinct subsets of microtubule networks in the cell, and acetylation is the only modification that takes place in the hollow lumen of the microtubule. Although it is known that the α-tubulin acetyltransferase (αTAT1) is the primary enzyme responsible for microtubule acetylation, the mechanism for how αTAT1 enters the microtubule lumen to access its acetylation sites is not well understood. By performing biochemical assays, fluorescence and electron microscopy experiments, and computational simulations, we found that αTAT1 enters the microtubule lumen through the microtubule ends, and through bends or breaks in the lattice. Thus, microtubule structure is an important determinant in the acetylation process. In addition, once αTAT1 enters the microtubule lumen, the mobility of αTAT1 within the lumen is controlled by the affinity of αTAT1 for its acetylation sites, due to the rapid rebinding of αTAT1 onto highly concentrated α-tubulin acetylation sites. These results have important implications for how acetylation could gradually accumulate on stable subsets of microtubules inside of the cell.

  14. Long-term lumen depreciation behavior and failure modes of multi-die array LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayawardena, Asiri; Marcus, Daniel; Prugue, Ximena; Narendran, Nadarajah

    2013-09-01

    One of the main advantages of multi-die array light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is their high flux density. However, a challenge for using such a product in lighting fixture applications is the heat density and the need for thermal management to keep the junction temperatures of all the dies low for long-term reliable performance. Ten multi-die LED array samples for each product from four different manufacturers were subjected to lumen maintenance testing (as described in IES-LM-80-08), and their resulting lumen depreciation and failure modes were studied. The products were tested at the maximum case (or pin) temperature reported by the respective manufacturer by appropriately powering the LEDs. In addition, three samples for each product from two different manufacturers were subjected to rapid thermal cycling, and the resulting lumen depreciation and failure modes were studied. The results showed that the exponential lumen decay model using long-term lumen maintenance data as recommended in IES TM-21 does not fit for all package types. The failure of a string of dies and single die failure in a string were observed in some of the packages.

  15. Lumen mass transfer in hollow-fiber membrane processes with constant external resistances

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Y.; Cabral, J.M.S.

    1997-08-01

    Membrane processes have recently become an accepted unit operation for a wide variety of separations in industry and in environmental applications. Hollow-fiber membrane processes with a constant external resistance having a constant or variable shell concentration resulting from an operational mode of cocurrent or countercurrent are studied. By solving numerically the continuity mass-conservation equation with the corresponding boundary conditions, the lumen laminar mass-transfer coefficients for both cases are correlated. The correlations greatly improve the calculating accuracy of the overall mass-transfer coefficient and can be used to obtain the lumen mixed-cup concentration by an algebraic equation substituting the partial differential equation. A separation factor m{prime} is introduced to characterize the effect of the operational mode. Calculation results demonstrate that the lumen mass-transfer coefficient is independent of the real lumen and shell concentrations, but it is greatly influenced by m{prime}. The countercurrent mode, compared to the cocurrent mode, provides not only a higher mean driving force, but a higher lumen mass-transfer coefficient. This conclusion is novel and valid for the tube-shell heat or mass-transfer processes and is supported by the experimental data in the literature and the authors` gas membrane separation experiments.

  16. 3D segmentation of the true and false lumens on CT aortic dissection images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetnaci, Nawel; Łubniewski, Paweł; Miguel, Bruno; Lohou, Christophe

    2013-03-01

    Our works are related to aortic dissections which are a medical emergency and can quickly lead to death. In this paper, we want to retrieve in CT images the false and the true lumens which are aortic dissection features. Our aim is to provide a 3D view of the lumens that we can difficultly obtain either by volume rendering or by another visualization tool which only directly gives the outer contour of the aorta; or by other segmentation methods because they mainly directly segment either only the outer contour of the aorta or other connected arteries and organs both. In our work, we need to segment the two lumens separately; this segmentation will allow us to: distinguish them automatically, facilitate the landing of the aortic prosthesis, propose a virtual 3d navigation and do quantitative analysis. We chose to segment these data by using a deformable model based on the fast marching method. In the classical fast marching approach, a speed function is used to control the front propagation of a deforming curve. The speed function is only based on the image gradient. In our CT images, due to the low resolution, with the fast marching the front propagates from a lumen to the other; therefore, the gradient data is insufficient to have accurate segmentation results. In the paper, we have adapted the fast marching method more particularly by modifying the speed function and we succeed in segmenting the two lumens separately.

  17. Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 regulates endothelial lumen formation during angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Popson, Stephanie A.; Ziegler, Mary E.; Chen, Xiaofang; Holderfield, Matthew T.; Shaaban, Cameron I.; Fong, Ashley H.; Welch-Reardon, Katrina M.; Papkoff, Jackie; Hughes, Christopher C. W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective It is well established that angiogenesis is a complex and coordinated multi-step process. However, there remains a lack of information about the genes that regulate individual stages of vessel formation. Here, we aimed to define the role of human interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) during blood vessel formation. Approach and Results We identified IFITM1 in a microarray screen for genes differentially regulated by endothelial cells (ECs) during an in vitro angiogenesis assay and found that IFITM1 expression was strongly induced as ECs sprouted and formed lumens. We showed by immunohistochemistry that human IFITM1 was expressed by stable blood vessels in multiple organs. siRNA-mediated knockdown of IFITM1 expression spared EC sprouting but completely disrupted lumen formation, both in vitro and in an in vivo xeno-transplant model. ECs lacking IFITM1 underwent early stages of lumenogenesis (i.e. intracellular vacuole formation) but failed to mature or expand lumens. Coimmunoprecipitation studies confirmed occludin as an IFITM1 binding partner in ECs and immunocytochemistry showed a lack of occludin at endothelial tight junctions in the absence of IFITM1. Finally, time-lapse video microscopy revealed that IFITM1 is required for the formation of stable cell-cell contacts during endothelial lumen formation. Conclusions IFITM1 is essential for the formation of functional blood vessels and stabilizes EC-EC interactions during endothelial lumen formation by regulating tight junction assembly. PMID:24603679

  18. Anion translocation through an Slc26 transporter mediates lumen expansion during tubulogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wei; Nies, Florian; Feuer, Anja; Bočina, Ivana; Oliver, Dominik; Jiang, Di

    2013-01-01

    Lumen formation is a critical event in biological tube formation, yet its molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Specifically, how lumen expansion is coordinated with other processes of tubulogenesis is not well known, and the role of membrane transporters in tubulogenesis during development has not been adequately addressed. Here we identify a solute carrier 26 (Slc26) family protein as an essential regulator of tubulogenesis using the notochord of the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis as a model. Ci-Slc26aα is indispensable for lumen formation and expansion, but not for apical/luminal membrane formation and lumen connection. Ci-Slc26aα acts as an anion transporter, mediating the electrogenic exchange of sulfate or oxalate for chloride or bicarbonate and electroneutral chloride:bicarbonate exchange. Mutant rescue assays show that this transport activity is essential for Ci-Slc26aα’s in vivo function. Our work reveals the consequences and relationships of several key processes in lumen formation, and establishes an in vivo assay for studying the molecular basis of the transport properties of SLC26 family transporters and their related diseases. PMID:23980138

  19. Modeling disease using three dimensional cell culture: multi-lumen and inverted cyst phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Monteleon, Christine L; D'Souza-Schorey, Crislyn

    2012-06-01

    Three-dimensional cell culture provides a unique system to investigate intrinsic mechanisms and micro environmental cues involved in the morphogenesis of epithelial glandular architectures. While this culture system allows insight into normal tissue development, it is also is readily amenable to manipulations that permit cellular modeling of various disease states. Here, we discuss a range of cellular and genetic alterations that result in two distinct cyst phenotypes, the multi-lumen cyst and the inverted cyst, both of which involve defects in cell polarity and lumen formation. Multi-lumen cyst formation results from disturbances in the mechanisms that regulate cell polarity, apical assembly, and the rate of lumen clearance. In the inverted cyst, the apical domain is oriented adjacent to the matrix, markedly affecting the morphogenic cues the matrix provides for cystogenesis. Both of these abnormal glandular phenotypes are highly reminiscent of histological patterns used to classify a number of diseases. A better understanding of the causes of multi-lumen and inverted cysts will provide insights into the origin and progression of epithelial diseases, potentially leading to the development of new therapies.

  20. Comparison of liquid chemical sterilization with peracetic acid and ethylene oxide sterilization for long narrow lumens.

    PubMed

    Alfa, M J; DeGagne, P; Olson, N; Hizon, R

    1998-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how well peracetic acid liquid chemical sterilization (LCPAS) killed test organisms in the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum and 0.65% salt challenge (RPMI-S) compared with a 100% ethylene oxide (ETO) sterilizer and an ETO hydrochlorofluorocarbon (ETO-HCFC) sterilization method with long (125 cm), narrow (3-mm internal diameter) flexible lumens as the test carrier. The inoculated lumens were dried overnight before processing. The test organisms included Mycobacterium chelonei, Enterococcus faecalis, and Bacillus subtilis. For all 3 organisms tested, the LCPAS process resulted in a 6 log10 reduction in bacterial load compared with a 2.5 log10 to 6 log10 reduction for the 100% ETO and ETO-HCFC sterilizers. Sterilization was achieved for 100%, 61%, and 67% of the lumen test carriers for the LCPAS, 100% ETO, and ETO-HCFC sterilizers, respectively. The data indicate that of the sterilization methods evaluated, LCPAS was the most effective for sterilizing narrow flexible lumens in the presence of residual inorganic and organic soil. This effectiveness was achieved through a combination of organism wash-off and peracetic acid sterilant killing of organisms. Salt was the major compounding factor for effective ETO gas sterilization, because carriers inoculated with organisms in 10% fetal bovine serum alone all were sterilized by both 100% ETO and ETO-HCFC sterilization methods. Our data support the critical need to ensure adequate precleaning of narrow flexible lumen endoscopes before any sterilization method.

  1. Interaction between FIP5 and SNX18 regulates epithelial lumen formation

    PubMed Central

    Willenborg, Carly; Jing, Jian; Wu, Christine; Matern, Hugo; Schaack, Jerome; Burden, Jemima

    2011-01-01

    During the morphogenesis of the epithelial lumen, apical proteins are thought to be transported via endocytic compartments to the site of the forming lumen, although the machinery mediating this transport remains to be elucidated. Rab11 GTPase and its binding protein, FIP5, are important regulators of polarized endocytic transport. In this study, we identify sorting nexin 18 as a novel FIP5-interacting protein and characterize the role of FIP5 and SNX18 in epithelial lumen morphogenesis. We show that FIP5 mediates the transport of apical proteins from apical endosomes to the apical plasma membrane and, along with SNX18, is required for the early stages of apical lumen formation. Furthermore, both proteins bind lipids, and FIP5 promotes the capacity of SNX18 to tubulate membranes, which implies a role for FIP5 and SNX18 in endocytic carrier formation and/or scission. In summary, the present findings support the hypothesis that this FIP5-SNX18 complex plays a pivotal role in the polarized transport of apical proteins during apical lumen initiation in epithelial cells. PMID:21969467

  2. Receptor guanylyl cyclase Gyc76C is required for invagination, collective migration and lumen shape in the Drosophila embryonic salivary gland

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Unisha; Myat, Monn Monn

    2013-01-01

    Summary The Drosophila embryonic salivary gland is formed by the invagination and collective migration of cells. Here, we report on a novel developmental role for receptor-type guanylyl cyclase at 76C, Gyc76C, in morphogenesis of the salivary gland. We demonstrate that Gyc76C and downstream cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1 (DG1) function in the gland and surrounding mesoderm to control invagination, collective migration and lumen shape. Loss of gyc76C resulted in glands that failed to invaginate, complete posterior migration and had branched lumens. Salivary gland migration defects of gyc76C mutant embryos were rescued by expression of wild-type gyc76C specifically in the gland or surrounding mesoderm, whereas invagination defects were rescued primarily by expression in the gland. In migrating salivary glands of gyc76C mutant embryos, integrin subunits localized normally to gland–mesoderm contact sites but talin localization in the surrounding circular visceral mesoderm and fat body was altered. The extracellular matrix protein, laminin, also failed to accumulate around the migrating salivary gland of gyc76C mutant embryos, and gyc76C and laminin genetically interacted in gland migration. Our studies suggest that gyc76C controls salivary gland invagination, collective migration and lumen shape, in part by regulating the localization of talin and the laminin matrix. PMID:23862019

  3. SHIP2 Regulates Lumen Generation, Cell Division, and Ciliogenesis through the Control of Basolateral to Apical Lumen Localization of Aurora A and HEF 1.

    PubMed

    Hamze-Komaiha, Ola; Sarr, Sokavuth; Arlot-Bonnemains, Yannick; Samuel, Didier; Gassama-Diagne, Ama

    2016-12-06

    Lumen formation during epithelial morphogenesis requires the creation of a luminal space at cell interfaces named apical membrane-initiation sites (AMISs). This is dependent upon integrated signaling from mechanical and biochemical cues, vesicle trafficking, cell division, and processes tightly coupled to ciliogenesis. Deciphering relationships between polarity determinants and lumen or cilia generation remains a fundamental issue. Here, we report that Src homology 2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase 2 (SHIP2), a basolateral determinant of polarity, regulates RhoA-dependent actin contractility and cell division to form AMISs. SHIP2 regulates mitotic spindle alignment. SHIP2 is expressed in G1 phase, whereas Aurora A kinase is enriched in mitosis. SHIP2 binds Aurora A kinase and the scaffolding protein HEF1 and promotes their basolateral localization at the expense of their luminal expression connected with cilia resorption. Furthermore, SHIP2 expression increases cilia length. Thus, our findings offer new insight into the relationships among basolateral proteins, lumen generation, and ciliogenesis.

  4. Automatic Lumen Detection on Longitudinal Ultrasound B-Mode Images of the Carotid Using Phase Symmetry

    PubMed Central

    Rouco, José; Azevedo, Elsa; Campilho, Aurélio

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a method that improves the performance of previous approaches for the automatic detection of the common carotid artery (CCA) lumen centerline on longitudinal B-mode ultrasound images. We propose to detect several lumen centerline candidates using local symmetry analysis based on local phase information of dark structures at an appropriate scale. These candidates are analyzed with selection mechanisms that use symmetry, contrast or intensity features in combination with position-based heuristics. Several experimental results are provided to evaluate the robustness and performance of the proposed method in comparison with previous approaches. These results lead to the conclusion that our proposal is robust to noise, lumen artifacts, contrast variations and that is able to deal with the presence of CCA-like structures, significantly improving the performance of our previous approach, from 87.5%±0.7% of correct detections to 98.3%±0.3% in a set of 200 images. PMID:27005631

  5. Enlargement of halloysite clay nanotube lumen by selective etching of aluminum oxide.

    PubMed

    Abdullayev, Elshad; Joshi, Anupam; Wei, Wenbo; Zhao, Yafei; Lvov, Yuri

    2012-08-28

    Halloysite clay tubes have 50 nm diameter and chemically different inner and outer walls (inner surface of aluminum oxide and outer surface of silica). Due to this different chemistry, the selective etching of alumina from inside the tube was realized, while preserving their external diameter (lumen diameter changed from 15 to 25 nm). This increases 2-3 times the tube lumen capacity for loading and further sustained release of active chemical agents such as metals, corrosion inhibitors, and drugs. In particular, halloysite loading efficiency for the benzotriazole increased 4 times by selective etching of 60% alumina within the tubes' lumens. Specific surface area of the tubes increased over 6 times, from 40 to 250 m(2)/g, upon acid treatment.

  6. Bcl-2 expression during T-cell development: early loss and late return occur at specific stages of commitment to differentiation and survival.

    PubMed Central

    Gratiot-Deans, J; Merino, R; Nuñez, G; Turka, L A

    1994-01-01

    During T-cell development CD3-CD4-CD8- (double-negative) thymocytes proliferative and produce an enormous number of CD3loCD4+CD8+ (double-positive) thymocytes which are destined to die intrathymically unless rescued by positive selection. Those which survive become mature CD3hiCD4/8+ (single-positive) cells and are the precursor of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The product of the bcl-2 protooncogene has been implicated in preventing programmed cell death and is required for prolonged lymphocyte survival following maturation. Previously we and others have reported that Bcl-2 protein expression is biphasic, being high in proliferating double-negative stem cells, low in all double-positive thymocytes except for 1-5% of these cells, and restored in mature, single-positive thymocytes. However, it remained unclear which signaling and selection events regulate Bcl-2 during T-cell maturation. Now we have utilized four-color flow cytometry in normal and genetically altered mice for a detailed analysis of Bcl-2 expression as it relates to T-cell receptor (TCR) expression and positive selection. These studies show that (i) expression of a transgenic TCR in double-negative thymocytes does not lead to premature loss of Bcl-2; thus, Bcl-2 downregulation is not solely due to TCR expression; (ii) Bcl-2 expression is lost at the early transitional CD3-/loCD4-CD8+ stage, prior to expression of CD4; (iii) the Bcl-2+ double-positive thymocytes are those which have undergone positive selection; and (iv) upregulation of Bcl-2 during positive selection requires participation of the CD4 or CD8 co-receptor. These results demonstrate that Bcl-2 and TCR expression are regulated independently during T-cell development, and suggest a role for the CD4 or CD8 co-receptor in Bcl-2 induction during positive selection. Images PMID:7938012

  7. Comparison of ergot alkaloid biosynthesis gene clusters in Claviceps species indicates loss of late pathway steps in evolution of C. fusiformis.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Nicole; Wilson, Ella V; Machado, Caroline; Schardl, Christopher L; Tudzynski, Paul

    2007-11-01

    The grass parasites Claviceps purpurea and Claviceps fusiformis produce ergot alkaloids (EA) in planta and in submerged culture. Whereas EA synthesis (EAS) in C. purpurea proceeds via clavine intermediates to lysergic acid and the complex ergopeptines, C. fusiformis produces only agroclavine and elymoclavine. In C. purpurea the EAS gene (EAS) cluster includes dmaW (encoding the first pathway step), cloA (elymoclavine oxidation to lysergic acid), and the lpsA/lpsB genes (ergopeptine formation). We analyzed the corresponding C. fusiformis EAS cluster to investigate the evolutionary basis for chemotypic differences between the Claviceps species. Other than three peptide synthetase genes (lpsC and the tandem paralogues lpsA1 and lpsA2), homologues of all C. purpurea EAS genes were identified in C. fusiformis, including homologues of lpsB and cloA, which in C. purpurea encode enzymes for steps after clavine synthesis. Rearrangement of the cluster was evident around lpsB, which is truncated in C. fusiformis. This and several frameshift mutations render CflpsB a pseudogene (CflpsB(Psi)). No obvious inactivating mutation was identified in CfcloA. All C. fusiformis EAS genes, including CflpsB(Psi) and CfcloA, were expressed in culture. Cross-complementation analyses demonstrated that CfcloA and CflpsB(Psi) were expressed in C. purpurea but did not encode functional enzymes. In contrast, CpcloA catalyzed lysergic acid biosynthesis in C. fusiformis, indicating that C. fusiformis terminates its EAS pathway at elymoclavine because the cloA gene product is inactive. We propose that the C. fusiformis EAS cluster evolved from a more complete cluster by loss of some lps genes and by rearrangements and mutations inactivating lpsB and cloA.

  8. Biomimetic dopamine derivative for selective polymer modification of halloysite nanotube lumen.

    PubMed

    Yah, Weng On; Xu, Hang; Soejima, Hiroe; Ma, Wei; Lvov, Yuri; Takahara, Atsushi

    2012-07-25

    We demonstrate the use of a catecholic anchor (Dopa) for selective modification of the inner surface of an halloysite clay nanotube. Aqueous Dopa binds to alumina at the tube lumen and does not bind the silica surface under the same conditions. Selectivity of surface modification was evidenced using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and (13)C solid state NMR spectroscopy. Surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) was performed through selectively adsorbed Dopa to graft a layer of polymer brush into the nanotube lumen.

  9. Engineered Microvessels with Strong Alignment and High Lumen Density Via Cell-Induced Fibrin Gel Compaction and Interstitial Flow

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Kristen T.; Dries-Devlin, Jessica L.

    2014-01-01

    The development of engineered microvessels with clinically relevant characteristics is a critical step toward the creation of engineered myocardium. Alignment is one such characteristic that must be achieved, as it both mimics native capillary beds and provides natural inlet and outlet sides for perfusion. A second characteristic that is currently deficient is cross-sectional lumen density, typically under 100 lumens/mm2; the equivalent value for human myocardium is 2000 lumens/mm2. Therefore, this study examined the effects of gel compaction and interstitial flow on microvessel alignment and lumen density. Strong microvessel alignment was achieved via mechanically constrained cell-induced fibrin gel compaction following vasculogenesis, and high lumen density (650 lumens/mm2) was achieved by the subsequent application of low levels of interstitial flow. Low interstitial flow also conferred microvessel barrier function. PMID:24083839

  10. Photosynthetic Adaptation to Length of Day Is Dependent on S-Sulfocysteine Synthase Activity in the Thylakoid Lumen1[W

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez, María Ángeles; Galmés, Jeroni; Moreno, Inmaculada; Mullineaux, Philip M.; Gotor, Cecilia; Romero, Luis C.

    2012-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) chloroplasts contain two O-acetyl-serine(thiol)lyase (OASTL) homologs, OAS-B, which is an authentic OASTL, and CS26, which has S-sulfocysteine synthase activity. In contrast with OAS-B, the loss of CS26 function resulted in dramatic phenotypic changes, which were dependent on the light treatment. We have performed a detailed characterization of the photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in cs26 plants compared with those of wild-type plants under short-day growth conditions (SD) and long-day growth conditions (LD). Under LD, the photosynthetic characterization, which was based on substomatal CO2 concentrations and CO2 concentration in the chloroplast curves, revealed significant reductions in most of the photosynthetic parameters for cs26, which were unchanged under SD. These parameters included net CO2 assimilation rate, mesophyll conductance, and mitochondrial respiration at darkness. The analysis also showed that cs26 under LD required more absorbed quanta per driven electron flux and fixed CO2. The nonphotochemical quenching values suggested that in cs26 plants, the excess electrons that are not used in photochemical reactions may form reactive oxygen species. A photoinhibitory effect was confirmed by the background fluorescence signal values under LD and SD, which were higher in young leaves compared with mature ones under SD. To hypothesize the role of CS26 in relation to the photosynthetic machinery, we addressed its location inside of the chloroplast. The activity determination and localization analyses that were performed using immunoblotting indicated the presence of an active CS26 enzyme exclusively in the thylakoid lumen. This finding was reinforced by the observation of marked alterations in many lumenal proteins in the cs26 mutant compared with the wild type. PMID:22829322

  11. Photosynthetic adaptation to length of day is dependent on S-sulfocysteine synthase activity in the thylakoid lumen.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, María Ángeles; Galmés, Jeroni; Moreno, Inmaculada; Mullineaux, Philip M; Gotor, Cecilia; Romero, Luis C

    2012-09-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) chloroplasts contain two O-acetyl-serine(thiol)lyase (OASTL) homologs, OAS-B, which is an authentic OASTL, and CS26, which has S-sulfocysteine synthase activity. In contrast with OAS-B, the loss of CS26 function resulted in dramatic phenotypic changes, which were dependent on the light treatment. We have performed a detailed characterization of the photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in cs26 plants compared with those of wild-type plants under short-day growth conditions (SD) and long-day growth conditions (LD). Under LD, the photosynthetic characterization, which was based on substomatal CO(2) concentrations and CO(2) concentration in the chloroplast curves, revealed significant reductions in most of the photosynthetic parameters for cs26, which were unchanged under SD. These parameters included net CO(2) assimilation rate, mesophyll conductance, and mitochondrial respiration at darkness. The analysis also showed that cs26 under LD required more absorbed quanta per driven electron flux and fixed CO(2). The nonphotochemical quenching values suggested that in cs26 plants, the excess electrons that are not used in photochemical reactions may form reactive oxygen species. A photoinhibitory effect was confirmed by the background fluorescence signal values under LD and SD, which were higher in young leaves compared with mature ones under SD. To hypothesize the role of CS26 in relation to the photosynthetic machinery, we addressed its location inside of the chloroplast. The activity determination and localization analyses that were performed using immunoblotting indicated the presence of an active CS26 enzyme exclusively in the thylakoid lumen. This finding was reinforced by the observation of marked alterations in many lumenal proteins in the cs26 mutant compared with the wild type.

  12. Light Induced Changes in Protein Expression and Uniform Regulation of Transcription in the Thylakoid Lumen of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Granlund, Irene; Kieselbach, Thomas; Schröder, Wolfgang P.

    2009-01-01

    In plants oxygenic photosynthesis is performed by large protein complexes found in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts. The soluble thylakoid lumen space is a narrow and compressed region within the thylakoid membrane which contains 80–200 proteins. Because the thylakoid lumen proteins are in close proximity to the protein complexes of photosynthesis, it is reasonable to assume that the lumen proteins are highly influenced by the presence of light. To identify light regulated proteins in the thylakoid lumen of Arabidopsis thaliana we developed a faster thylakoid preparation and combined this with difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) of dark-adapted and light-adapted lumen proteomes. The DIGE experiments revealed that 19 lumen proteins exhibit increased relative protein levels after eight hour light exposure. Among the proteins showing increased abundance were the PsbP and PsbQ subunits of Photosystem II, major plastocyanin and several other proteins of known or unknown function. In addition, co-expression analysis of publicly available transcriptomic data showed that the co-regulation of lumen protein expression is not limited to light but rather that lumen protein genes exhibit a high uniformity of expression. The large proportion of thylakoid lumen proteins displaying increased abundance in light-adapted plants, taken together with the observed uniform regulation of transcription, implies that the majority of thylakoid lumen proteins have functions that are related to photosynthetic activity. This is the first time that an analysis of the differences in protein level during a normal day/night cycle has been performed and it shows that even a normal cycle of light significantly influences the thylakoid lumen proteome. In this study we also show for the first time, using co-expression analysis, that the prevalent lumenal chloroplast proteins are very similarly regulated at the level of transcription. PMID:19461964

  13. Central Functions of the Lumenal and Peripheral Thylakoid Proteome of Arabidopsis Determined by Experimentation and Genome-Wide Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Peltier, Jean-Benoît; Emanuelsson, Olof; Kalume, Dário E.; Ytterberg, Jimmy; Friso, Giulia; Rudella, Andrea; Liberles, David A.; Söderberg, Linda; Roepstorff, Peter; von Heijne, Gunnar; van Wijk, Klaas J.

    2002-01-01

    Experimental proteome analysis was combined with a genome-wide prediction screen to characterize the protein content of the thylakoid lumen of Arabidopsis chloroplasts. Soluble thylakoid proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis and identified by mass spectrometry. The identities of 81 proteins were established, and N termini were sequenced to validate localization prediction. Gene annotation of the identified proteins was corrected by experimental data, and an interesting case of alternative splicing was discovered. Expression of a surprising number of paralogs was detected. Expression of five isomerases of different classes suggests strong (un)folding activity in the thylakoid lumen. These isomerases possibly are connected to a network of peripheral and lumenal proteins involved in antioxidative response, including peroxiredoxins, m-type thioredoxins, and a lumenal ascorbate peroxidase. Characteristics of the experimentally identified lumenal proteins and their orthologs were used for a genome-wide prediction of the lumenal proteome. Lumenal proteins with a typical twin-arginine translocation motif were predicted with good accuracy and sensitivity and included additional isomerases and proteases. Thus, prime functions of the lumenal proteome include assistance in the folding and proteolysis of thylakoid proteins as well as protection against oxidative stress. Many of the predicted lumenal proteins must be present at concentrations at least 10,000-fold lower than proteins of the photosynthetic apparatus. PMID:11826309

  14. Automatic segmentation of the lumen of the carotid artery in ultrasound B-mode images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, André M. F.; Tavares, Jão. Manuel R. S.; Sousa, Luísa; Santos, Rosa; Castro, Pedro; Azevedo, Elsa

    2013-02-01

    A new algorithm is proposed for the segmentation of the lumen and bifurcation boundaries of the carotid artery in B-mode ultrasound images. It uses the hipoechogenic characteristics of the lumen for the identification of the carotid boundaries and the echogenic characteristics for the identification of the bifurcation boundaries. The image to be segmented is processed with the application of an anisotropic diffusion filter for speckle removal and morphologic operators are employed in the detection of the artery. The obtained information is then used in the definition of two initial contours, one corresponding to the lumen and the other to the bifurcation boundaries, for the posterior application of the Chan-vese level set segmentation model. A set of longitudinal B-mode images of the common carotid artery (CCA) was acquired with a GE Healthcare Vivid-e ultrasound system (GE Healthcare, United Kingdom). All the acquired images include a part of the CCA and of the bifurcation that separates the CCA into the internal and external carotid arteries. In order to achieve the uppermost robustness in the imaging acquisition process, i.e., images with high contrast and low speckle noise, the scanner was adjusted differently for each acquisition and according to the medical exam. The obtained results prove that we were able to successfully apply a carotid segmentation technique based on cervical ultrasonography. The main advantage of the new segmentation method relies on the automatic identification of the carotid lumen, overcoming the limitations of the traditional methods.

  15. Analysis of proteome dynamics inside the silk gland lumen of Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zhaoming; Zhao, Ping; Zhang, Yan; Song, Qianru; Zhang, Xiaolu; Guo, Pengchao; Wang, Dandan; Xia, Qingyou

    2016-01-01

    The silk gland is the only organ where silk proteins are synthesized and secreted in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Silk proteins are stored in the lumen of the silk gland for around eight days during the fifth instar. Determining their dynamic changes is helpful for clarifying the secretion mechanism of silk proteins. Here, we identified the proteome in the silk gland lumen using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, and demonstrated its changes during two key stages. From day 5 of the fifth instar to day 1 of wandering, the abundances of fibroins, sericins, seroins, and proteins of unknown functions increased significantly in different compartments of the silk gland lumen. As a result, these accumulated proteins constituted the major cocoon components. In contrast, the abundances of enzymes and extracellular matrix proteins decreased in the silk gland lumen, suggesting that they were not the structural constituents of silk. Twenty-five enzymes may be involved in the regulation of hormone metabolism for proper silk gland function. In addition, the metabolism of other non-proteinous components such as chitin and pigment were also discussed in this study. PMID:27102218

  16. An artificial neural network method for lumen and media-adventitia border detection in IVUS.

    PubMed

    Su, Shengran; Hu, Zhenghui; Lin, Qiang; Hau, William Kongto; Gao, Zhifan; Zhang, Heye

    2016-11-17

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) has been well recognized as one powerful imaging technique to evaluate the stenosis inside the coronary arteries. The detection of lumen border and media-adventitia (MA) border in IVUS images is the key procedure to determine the plaque burden inside the coronary arteries, but this detection could be burdensome to the doctor because of large volume of the IVUS images. In this paper, we use the artificial neural network (ANN) method as the feature learning algorithm for the detection of the lumen and MA borders in IVUS images. Two types of imaging information including spatial, neighboring features were used as the input data to the ANN method, and then the different vascular layers were distinguished accordingly through two sparse auto-encoders and one softmax classifier. Another ANN was used to optimize the result of the first network. In the end, the active contour model was applied to smooth the lumen and MA borders detected by the ANN method. The performance of our approach was compared with the manual drawing method performed by two IVUS experts on 461 IVUS images from four subjects. Results showed that our approach had a high correlation and good agreement with the manual drawing results. The detection error of the ANN method close to the error between two groups of manual drawing result. All these results indicated that our proposed approach could efficiently and accurately handle the detection of lumen and MA borders in the IVUS images.

  17. Double-lumen, silicone rubber, indwelling venous catheters. A new modality for angioaccess.

    PubMed

    Schanzer, H; Kaplan, S; Bosch, J; Glabman, S; Burrows, L

    1986-02-01

    This report presents our experience using double-lumen, silicone rubber, indwelling central venous catheters with a subcutaneous Dacron cuff as access for hemodialysis. Twenty-seven catheters were placed in 27 patients through venous cutdowns. A 10-cm subcutaneous tunnel was created leaving the Dacron cuff 2 cm from the external exit. Sixteen Raaf catheters (lumen diameter [LD], 1 mm), three double-lumen Hickman catheters (LD, 1.6 mm) and eight HemoCath catheters (LD, 2 mm) were used. The tip of the catheter was positioned fluoroscopically in either the superior vena cava or the right atrium. One hundred fifty-nine treatments were done with the Raaf catheters (mean blood flow [MBF], 188.1 +/- 26.4 mL/min); two of these catheters became obstructed and could not be used further. Three double-lumen Hickman catheters were used in 12 hemodialysis treatments (MBF, 216.3 +/- 27.1 mL/min). One hundred fifty-five treatments were done using the HemoCath catheters (MBF, 236.7 +/- 5.5 mL/min). The degree of recirculation of these catheters was 8.56% +/- 4.34%. The major advantages of this modality include simplicity of introduction, lack of serious complications, no sacrifice of major arteries, no need for venipuncture, and potential use in either short- or long-term hemodialysis.

  18. Automatic Lumen Segmentation in Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Images Using Level Set

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Kang; Qin, Xianjing; Yin, Qinye; Li, Jianan; Zhao, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Automatic lumen segmentation from intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) images is an important and fundamental work for diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery disease. However, it is a very challenging task due to irregular lumen caused by unstable plaque and bifurcation vessel, guide wire shadow, and blood artifacts. To address these problems, this paper presents a novel automatic level set based segmentation algorithm which is very competent for irregular lumen challenge. Before applying the level set model, a narrow image smooth filter is proposed to reduce the effect of artifacts and prevent the leakage of level set meanwhile. Moreover, a divide-and-conquer strategy is proposed to deal with the guide wire shadow. With our proposed method, the influence of irregular lumen, guide wire shadow, and blood artifacts can be appreciably reduced. Finally, the experimental results showed that the proposed method is robust and accurate by evaluating 880 images from 5 different patients and the average DSC value was 98.1% ± 1.1%. PMID:28270857

  19. Minimization of lumen depreciation in LED lamps using thermal transient behavior analysis and design optimizations.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Nisa

    2016-02-10

    We expansively investigate thermal behaviors of various general-purpose light-emitting diode (LED) lamps and apply our measured results, validated by simulation, to establish lamp design rules for optimizing their optical and thermal properties. These design rules provide the means to minimize lumen depreciation over time by minimizing the periods for lamps to reach thermal steady-state while maintaining their high luminous efficacy and omnidirectional light distribution capability. While it is well known that minimizing the junction temperature of an LED leads to a longer lifetime and an increased lumen output, our study demonstrates, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that it is also important to minimize the time it takes to reach thermal equilibrium because doing so minimizes lumen depreciation and enhances light output and color stability during operation. Specifically, we have found that, in addition to inadequate heat-sink fin areas for a lamp configuration, LEDs mounted on multiple boards, as opposed to a single board, lead to longer periods for reaching thermal equilibrium contributing to larger lumen depreciation.

  20. Lumen-based detection of prostate cancer via convolutional neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Jin Tae; Hewitt, Stephen M.

    2017-03-01

    We present a deep learning approach for detecting prostate cancers. The approach consists of two steps. In the first step, we perform tissue segmentation that identifies lumens within digitized prostate tissue specimen images. Intensity- and texture-based image features are computed at five different scales, and a multiview boosting method is adopted to cooperatively combine the image features from differing scales and to identify lumens. In the second step, we utilize convolutional neural networks (CNN) to automatically extract high-level image features of lumens and to predict cancers. The segmented lumens are rescaled to reduce computational complexity and data augmentation by scaling, rotating, and flipping the rescaled image is applied to avoid overfitting. We evaluate the proposed method using two tissue microarrays (TMA) - TMA1 includes 162 tissue specimens (73 Benign and 89 Cancer) and TMA2 comprises 185 tissue specimens (70 Benign and 115 Cancer). In cross-validation on TMA1, the proposed method achieved an AUC of 0.95 (CI: 0.93-0.98). Trained on TMA1 and tested on TMA2, CNN obtained an AUC of 0.95 (CI: 0.92-0.98). This demonstrates that the proposed method can potentially improve prostate cancer pathology.

  1. Visualizing surface area and volume of lumens in three dimensions using images from histological sections

    PubMed Central

    LIVINGSTON, DAVID P.; TUONG, TAN D.; KISSLING, GRACE E.; CULLEN, JOHN M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Visualizing the interior (lumen) of a tubular structure within tissue can provide a unique perspective on anatomical organization of the tissue. Portal tracts of the liver contain several vessels and ducts in various patterns of intertwining branches and are an example of such spaces. An inexpensive method, using light microscopy and a sample of conventionally stained canine livers, was used to colorize and allow visualization of the lumens of vessels within the portal tract in three dimensions. When the colour of the background was digitally cleared and the lumen filled with a solid colour, it was possible to measure areas and volumes of the portal vein, arteries, bile ducts and lymphatics. Significant differences between vessels and ducts across lobes and gender in control samples are discussed. Differences were also found between control and mixed breed dogs and between controls and a dog that died of accidental traumatic haemorrhage. These differences are discussed in relation to visualizing lumens using images generated from a light microscope. Vessels in plants such as xylem and continuously formed spaces resulting from ice formation are other examples where this technique could be applied. PMID:25204459

  2. Multiple endothelial cells constitute the tip of developing blood vessels and polarize to promote lumen formation.

    PubMed

    Pelton, John C; Wright, Catherine E; Leitges, Michael; Bautch, Victoria L

    2014-11-01

    Blood vessel polarization in the apical-basal axis is important for directed secretion of proteins and lumen formation; yet, when and how polarization occurs in the context of angiogenic sprouting is not well understood. Here, we describe a novel topology for endothelial cells at the tip of angiogenic sprouts in several mammalian vascular beds. Two cells that extend filopodia and have significant overlap in space and time were present at vessel tips, both in vitro and in vivo. The cell overlap is more extensive than predicted for tip cell switching, and it sets up a longitudinal cell-cell border that is a site of apical polarization and lumen formation, presumably via a cord-hollowing mechanism. The extent of cell overlap at the tip is reduced in mice lacking aPKCζ, and this is accompanied by reduced distal extension of both the apical border and patent lumens. Thus, at least two polarized cells occupy the distal tip of blood vessel sprouts, and topology, polarization and lumenization along the longitudinal border of these cells are influenced by aPKCζ.

  3. Multiple endothelial cells constitute the tip of developing blood vessels and polarize to promote lumen formation

    PubMed Central

    Pelton, John C.; Wright, Catherine E.; Leitges, Michael; Bautch, Victoria L.

    2014-01-01

    Blood vessel polarization in the apical-basal axis is important for directed secretion of proteins and lumen formation; yet, when and how polarization occurs in the context of angiogenic sprouting is not well understood. Here, we describe a novel topology for endothelial cells at the tip of angiogenic sprouts in several mammalian vascular beds. Two cells that extend filopodia and have significant overlap in space and time were present at vessel tips, both in vitro and in vivo. The cell overlap is more extensive than predicted for tip cell switching, and it sets up a longitudinal cell-cell border that is a site of apical polarization and lumen formation, presumably via a cord-hollowing mechanism. The extent of cell overlap at the tip is reduced in mice lacking aPKCζ, and this is accompanied by reduced distal extension of both the apical border and patent lumens. Thus, at least two polarized cells occupy the distal tip of blood vessel sprouts, and topology, polarization and lumenization along the longitudinal border of these cells are influenced by aPKCζ. PMID:25336741

  4. Bim Regulation of Lumen Formation in Cultured Mammary Epithelial Acini Is Targeted by Oncogenes

    PubMed Central

    Reginato, Mauricio J.; Mills, Kenna R.; Becker, Esther B. E.; Lynch, Danielle K.; Bonni, Azad; Muthuswamy, Senthil K.; Brugge, Joan S.

    2005-01-01

    Epithelial cells organize into cyst-like structures that contain a spherical monolayer of cells that enclose a central lumen. Using a three-dimensional basement membrane culture model in which mammary epithelial cells form hollow, acinus-like structures, we previously demonstrated that lumen formation is achieved, in part, through apoptosis of centrally localized cells. We demonstrate that the proapoptotic protein Bim may selectively trigger apoptosis of the centrally localized acinar cells, leading to temporally controlled lumen formation. Bim is not detectable during early stages of three-dimensional mammary acinar morphogenesis and is then highly upregulated in all cells of acini, coincident with detection of apoptosis in the centrally localized acinar cells. Inhibition of Bim expression by RNA interference transiently blocks luminal apoptosis and delays lumen formation. Oncogenes that induce acinar luminal filling, such as ErbB2 and v-Src, suppress expression of Bim through a pathway dependent on Erk-mitogen-activated protein kinase; however, HPV 16 E7, an oncogene that stimulates cell proliferation but not luminal filling, is unable to reduce Bim expression. Thus, Bim is a critical regulator of luminal apoptosis during mammary acinar morphogenesis in vitro and may be an important target of oncogenes that disrupt glandular epithelial architecture. PMID:15899862

  5. Pak1 regulates the orientation of apical polarization and lumen formation by distinct pathways.

    PubMed

    deLeon, Orlando; Puglise, Jason M; Liu, Fengming; Smits, Jos; ter Beest, Martin B; Zegers, Mirjam M

    2012-01-01

    The development of the basic architecture of branching tubules enclosing a central lumen that characterizes most epithelial organs crucially depends on the apico-basolateral polarization of epithelial cells. Signals from the extracellular matrix control the orientation of the apical surface, so that it faces the lumen interior, opposite to cell-matrix adhesion sites. This orientation of the apical surface is thought to be intrinsically linked to the formation of single lumens. We previously demonstrated in three-dimensional cyst cultures of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells that signaling by β1 integrins regulates the orientation of the apical surface, via a mechanism that depends on the activity of the small GTPase Rac1. Here, we investigated whether the Rac1 effector Pak1 is a downstream effector in this pathway. Expression of constitutive active Pak1 phenocopies the effect of β1 integrin inhibition in that it misorients the apical surface and induces a multilumen phenotype. The misorientation of apical surfaces depends on the interaction of active Pak1 with PIX proteins and is linked to defects in basement membrane assembly. In contrast, the multilumen phenotype was independent of PIX and the basement membrane. Therefore, Pak1 likely regulates apical polarization and lumen formation by two distinct pathways.

  6. Pak1 Regulates the Orientation of Apical Polarization and Lumen Formation by Distinct Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Jos; ter Beest, Martin B.; Zegers, Mirjam M.

    2012-01-01

    The development of the basic architecture of branching tubules enclosing a central lumen that characterizes most epithelial organs crucially depends on the apico-basolateral polarization of epithelial cells. Signals from the extracellular matrix control the orientation of the apical surface, so that it faces the lumen interior, opposite to cell-matrix adhesion sites. This orientation of the apical surface is thought to be intrinsically linked to the formation of single lumens. We previously demonstrated in three-dimensional cyst cultures of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells that signaling by β1 integrins regulates the orientation of the apical surface, via a mechanism that depends on the activity of the small GTPase Rac1. Here, we investigated whether the Rac1 effector Pak1 is a downstream effector in this pathway. Expression of constitutive active Pak1 phenocopies the effect of β1 integrin inhibition in that it misorients the apical surface and induces a multilumen phenotype. The misorientation of apical surfaces depends on the interaction of active Pak1 with PIX proteins and is linked to defects in basement membrane assembly. In contrast, the multilumen phenotype was independent of PIX and the basement membrane. Therefore, Pak1 likely regulates apical polarization and lumen formation by two distinct pathways. PMID:22815903

  7. Tracheal laceration following double-lumen intubation during Ivor Lewis esophagogastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Barbetakis, Nikolaos; Samanidis, Georgios; Paliouras, Dimitrios; Tsilikas, Christodoulos

    2008-10-01

    A case of a 48-year-old man with an iatrogenic membranous tracheal wall rupture after double-lumen intubation during Ivor Lewis esophagogastrectomy is presented. Tracheal injury was successfully managed surgically with the use of a bovine pericardial patch and reinforcement with the gastric conduit which was moved toward the posterior wall of the membranous trachea sealing the wall laceration.

  8. The alternative splicing factor Nova2 regulates vascular development and lumen formation

    PubMed Central

    Giampietro, Costanza; Deflorian, Gianluca; Gallo, Stefania; Di Matteo, Anna; Pradella, Davide; Bonomi, Serena; Belloni, Elisa; Nyqvist, Daniel; Quaranta, Valeria; Confalonieri, Stefano; Bertalot, Giovanni; Orsenigo, Fabrizio; Pisati, Federica; Ferrero, Elisabetta; Biamonti, Giuseppe; Fredrickx, Evelien; Taveggia, Carla; Wyatt, Chris D. R.; Irimia, Manuel; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Blencowe, Benjamin J.; Dejana, Elisabetta; Ghigna, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Vascular lumen formation is a fundamental step during angiogenesis; yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that neural and vascular systems share common anatomical, functional and molecular similarities. Here we show that the organization of endothelial lumen is controlled at the post-transcriptional level by the alternative splicing (AS) regulator Nova2, which was previously considered to be neural cell-specific. Nova2 is expressed during angiogenesis and its depletion disrupts vascular lumen formation in vivo. Similarly, Nova2 depletion in cultured endothelial cells (ECs) impairs the apical distribution and the downstream signalling of the Par polarity complex, resulting in altered EC polarity, a process required for vascular lumen formation. These defects are linked to AS changes of Nova2 target exons affecting the Par complex and its regulators. Collectively, our results reveal that Nova2 functions as an AS regulator in angiogenesis and is a novel member of the ‘angioneurins' family. PMID:26446569

  9. Functional Colonography of Min Mice Using Dark Lumen Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI

    PubMed Central

    Quarles, C. Chad; Lepage, Martin; Gorden, D. Lee; Fingleton, Barbara; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Price, Ronald R.; Matrisian, Lynn M.; Gore, John C.; McIntyre, J. Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Dark lumen MRI colonography detects colonic polyps by minimization of the intestinal lumen signal intensity. Here we validate the use of perfluorinated oil as an intestinal-filling agent for dark lumen MRI studies in mice, enabling the physiological characterization of colonic polyps by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. In control and Min (multiple intestinal neoplasia) mice with and without pretreatment with oral dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), polyps as small as 0.94 mm diameter were consistently identified using standard 2D gradient echo imaging (voxel size, 0.23 × 0.16 × 0.5 mm). In serial studies, polyp growth rates were heterogeneous with an average ≈5% increase in polyp volume per day. In DSS-treated control mice the colon wall contrast agent extravasation rate constant, Ktrans, and extravascular extracellular space volume fraction, ve, values were measured for the first time and found to be 0.10 ± 0.03 min-1 and 0.23 ± 0.09, respectively. In DSS-treated Min mice, polyp Ktrans values (0.09 ± 0.04 min-1) were similar to those in the colon wall but the ve values were substantially lower (0.16 ± 0.03), suggesting increased cellular density. The functional dark-lumen colonography approach described herein provides new opportunities for the noninvasive assessment of gastrointestinal disease pathology and treatment response in mouse models. PMID:18727087

  10. Mirror-symmetric microtubule assembly and cell interactions drive lumen formation in the zebrafish neural rod

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Clare E; Ren, Xiaoyun; Ward, Laura C; Girdler, Gemma C; Araya, Claudio; Green, Mary J; Clark, Brian S; Link, Brian A; Clarke, Jonathan D W

    2013-01-01

    By analysing the cellular and subcellular events that occur in the centre of the developing zebrafish neural rod, we have uncovered a novel mechanism of cell polarisation during lumen formation. Cells from each side of the neural rod interdigitate across the tissue midline. This is necessary for localisation of apical junctional proteins to the region where cells intersect the tissue midline. Cells assemble a mirror-symmetric microtubule cytoskeleton around the tissue midline, which is necessary for the trafficking of proteins required for normal lumen formation, such as partitioning defective 3 and Rab11a to this point. This occurs in advance and is independent of the midline cell division that has been shown to have a powerful role in lumen organisation. To our knowledge, this is the first example of the initiation of apical polarisation part way along the length of a cell, rather than at a cell extremity. Although the midline division is not necessary for apical polarisation, it confers a morphogenetic advantage by efficiently eliminating cellular processes that would otherwise bridge the developing lumen. PMID:23202854

  11. Automatic segmentation algorithm for the extraction of lumen region and boundary from endoscopic images.

    PubMed

    Tian, H; Srikanthan, T; Vijayan Asari, K

    2001-01-01

    A new segmentation algorithm for lumen region detection and boundary extraction from gastro-intestinal (GI) images is presented. The proposed algorithm consists of two steps. First, a preliminary region of interest (ROI) representing the GI lumen is segmented by an adaptive progressive thresholding (APT) technique. Then, an adaptive filter, the Iris filter, is applied to the ROI to determine the actual region. It has been observed that the combined APT-Iris filter technique can enhance and detect the unclear boundaries in the lumen region of GI images and thus produces a more accurate lumen region, compared with the existing techniques. Experiments are carried out to determine the maximum error on the extracted boundary with respect to an expert-annotated boundary technique. Investigations show that, based on the experimental results obtained from 50 endoscopic images, the maximum error is reduced by up to 72 pixels for a 256 x 256 image representation compared with other existing techniques. In addition, a new boundary extraction algorithm, based on a heuristic search on the neighbourhood pixels, is employed to obtain a connected single pixel width outer boundary using two preferential sequence windows. Experimental results are also presented to justify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  12. Analysis of proteome dynamics inside the silk gland lumen of Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhaoming; Zhao, Ping; Zhang, Yan; Song, Qianru; Zhang, Xiaolu; Guo, Pengchao; Wang, Dandan; Xia, Qingyou

    2016-04-22

    The silk gland is the only organ where silk proteins are synthesized and secreted in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Silk proteins are stored in the lumen of the silk gland for around eight days during the fifth instar. Determining their dynamic changes is helpful for clarifying the secretion mechanism of silk proteins. Here, we identified the proteome in the silk gland lumen using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and demonstrated its changes during two key stages. From day 5 of the fifth instar to day 1 of wandering, the abundances of fibroins, sericins, seroins, and proteins of unknown functions increased significantly in different compartments of the silk gland lumen. As a result, these accumulated proteins constituted the major cocoon components. In contrast, the abundances of enzymes and extracellular matrix proteins decreased in the silk gland lumen, suggesting that they were not the structural constituents of silk. Twenty-five enzymes may be involved in the regulation of hormone metabolism for proper silk gland function. In addition, the metabolism of other non-proteinous components such as chitin and pigment were also discussed in this study.

  13. Sphincterotomy by triple lumen needle knife using guide wire in patients with Billroth II gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Park, Su Bum; Kim, Hyung Wook; Kang, Dae Hwan; Choi, Cheol Woong; Yoon, Ki Tae; Cho, Mong; Song, Byeong Jun

    2013-12-28

    To investigate the usefulness of a guide wire and triple lumen needle knife for removing stones in Billroth II (B-II) gastrectomy patients. Endoscopic sphincterotomy in patients with B-II gastrectomy is challenging. We used a new guide wire technique involving sphincterotomy by triple lumen needle knife through a forward-viewing endoscopy. This technique was performed in nine patients between August 2010 and June 2012. Sphincterotomy as described above was performed. Adequate sphincterotomy, successful stone removal, and complications were investigated prospectively. Sphincterotomy by triple lumen needle knife using guide wire was successful in all nine patients. Sphincterotomy started towards the 4-5 o'clock direction and continued to the upper margin of the papillary roof. Complete stone removal in one session was achieved in all patients. There were no procedure related complications, such as bleeding, pancreatitis, or perforation. In patients with B-II gastrectomy, guide wire using sphincterotomy by triple lumen needle knife through a forward-viewing endoscopy seems to be an effective and safe procedure for the removal of common bile duct stones.

  14. Pulmonary effects of expiratory-assisted small-lumen ventilation during upper airway obstruction in pigs.

    PubMed

    Ziebart, A; Garcia-Bardon, A; Kamuf, J; Thomas, R; Liu, T; Schad, A; Duenges, B; David, M; Hartmann, E K

    2015-10-01

    Novel devices for small-lumen ventilation may enable effective inspiration and expiratory ventilation assistance despite airway obstruction. In this study, we investigated a porcine model of complete upper airway obstruction. After ethical approval, we randomly assigned 13 anaesthetised pigs either to small-lumen ventilation following airway obstruction (n = 8) for 30 min, or to volume-controlled ventilation (sham setting, n = 5). Small-lumen ventilation enabled adequate gas exchange over 30 min. One animal died as a result of a tension pneumothorax in this setting. Redistribution of ventilation from dorsal to central compartments and significant impairment of the distribution of ventilation/perfusion occurred. Histopathology demonstrated considerable lung injury, predominantly through differences in the dorsal dependent lung regions. Small-lumen ventilation maintained adequate gas exchange in a porcine airway obstruction model. The use of this technique for 30 min by inexperienced clinicians was associated with considerable end-expiratory collapse leading to lung injury, and may also carry the risk of severe injury.

  15. Dosimetric considerations and early clinical experience of accelerated partial breast irradiation using multi-lumen applicators in the setting of breast augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Akhtari, Mani; Pino, Ramiro; Scarboro, Sarah B.; Bass, Barbara L.; Miltenburg, Darlene M.; Butler, E. Brian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is an accepted treatment option in breast-conserving therapy for early stage breast cancer. However, data regarding outcomes of patients treated with multi-lumen catheter systems who have existing breast implants is limited. The purpose of this study was to report treatment parameters, outcomes, and possible dosimetric correlation with cosmetic outcome for this population of patients at our institution. Material and methods We report the treatment and outcome of seven consecutive patients with existing breast implants and early stage breast cancer who were treated between 2009 and 2013 using APBI following lumpectomy. All patients were treated twice per day for five days to a total dose of 34 Gy using a high-dose-rate 192Ir source. Cosmetic outcomes were evaluated using the Harvard breast cosmesis scale, and late toxicities were reported using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) late radiation morbidity schema. Results After a mean follow-up of 32 months, all patients have remained cancer free. Six out of seven patients had an excellent or good cosmetic outcome. There were no grade 3 or 4 late toxicities. The average total breast implant volume was 279.3 cc, received an average mean dose of 12.1 Gy, and a maximum dose of 234.1 Gy. The average percentage of breast implant volume receiving 50%, 75%, 100%, 150%, and 200% of the prescribed dose was 15.6%, 7.03%, 4.6%, 1.58%, and 0.46%, respectively. Absolute volume of breast implants receiving more than 50% of prescribed dose correlated with worse cosmetic outcomes. Conclusions Accelerated partial breast irradiation using a multi-lumen applicator in patients with existing breast implants can safely be performed with promising early clinical results. The presence of the implant did not compromise the ability to achieve dosimetric criteria; however, dose to the implant and the irradiated implant volume may be related with worse cosmetic outcomes. PMID:26816499

  16. Ezetimibe Promotes Brush Border Membrane-to-Lumen Cholesterol Efflux in the Small Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Takanari; Inoue, Ikuo; Takenaka, Yasuhiro; Ono, Hiraku; Katayama, Shigehiro; Awata, Takuya; Murakoshi, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    Ezetimibe inhibits Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1), an apical membrane cholesterol transporter of enterocytes, thereby reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption. This treatment also increases extrahepatic reverse cholesterol transport via an undefined mechanism. To explore this, we employed a trans-intestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) assay, which directly detects circulation-to-intestinal lumen 3H-cholesterol transit in a cannulated jejunal segment, and found an increase of TICE by 45%. To examine whether such increase in efflux occurs at the intestinal brush border membrane(BBM)-level, we performed luminal perfusion assays, similar to TICE but the jejunal wall was labelled with orally-given 3H-cholesterol, and determined elevated BBM-to-lumen cholesterol efflux by 3.5-fold with ezetimibe. Such increased efflux probably promotes circulation-to-lumen cholesterol transit eventually; thus increases TICE. Next, we wondered how inhibition of NPC1L1, an influx transporter, resulted in increased efflux. When we traced orally-given 3H-cholesterol in mice, we found that lumen-to-BBM 3H-cholesterol transit was rapid and less sensitive to ezetimibe treatment. Comparison of the efflux and fractional cholesterol absorption revealed an inverse correlation, indicating the efflux as an opposite-regulatory factor for cholesterol absorption efficiency and counteracting to the naturally-occurring rapid cholesterol influx to the BBM. These suggest that the ezetimibe-stimulated increased efflux is crucial in reducing cholesterol absorption. Ezetimibe-induced increase in cholesterol efflux was approximately 2.5-fold greater in mice having endogenous ATP-binding cassette G5/G8 heterodimer, the major sterol efflux transporter of enterocytes, than the knockout counterparts, suggesting that the heterodimer confers additional rapid BBM-to-lumen cholesterol efflux in response to NPC1L1 inhibition. The observed framework for intestinal cholesterol fluxes may provide ways to modulate the flux

  17. Hospital-wide survey of the adequacy in the number of vascular catheters and catheter lumens.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Carretero, Alberto; Díaz, David; Fuentes, Cristina; González, José Ignacio; García-Reyne, Ana; Aguado, José María; López-Medrano, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Removal of unnecessary catheters has been proposed as an important measure to reduce catheter-related morbidity. Nevertheless, there is scarce information about the potential magnitude of such intervention. The present study was aimed at analyzing the appropriateness of use of vascular catheters and catheter lumens in the inpatient setting. Cross-sectional survey. The entire population of adult inpatients admitted to a 1368-bed tertiary-care hospital in a single day. We used a set of preestablished criteria to evaluate the appropriateness of use of vascular catheters and catheter lumens according to the number and administration regimen of intravenous drugs. Out of 834 patients, 575 (68.9%) had ≥1 vascular catheters in place on the day of the survey. The type and distribution of the 703 surveyed catheters were peripheral venous catheter, 80.6%; central venous catheter, 15.8%; and arterial catheter, 3.6%. We found an overall mean of 2.06 ± 0.82 lumens per catheter, with significant differences between intensive care units and conventional wards (P < 0.0001). Based on our criteria, 126 out of 575 patients (21.9%) had an inappropriate number of catheters (medical wards, 20.0%; surgical wards, 23.9%; intensive care units, 26.3%), and 631 out of 14248 nonarterial catheter lumens (43.6%) were considered unnecessary. Significant room exists for improving the adequacy of the number of vascular catheters and catheter lumens as a potentially useful tool for decreasing the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infection. © 2013 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  18. Lumen modifications

    Treesearch

    Rebecca E. Ibach; W. Dale Ellis

    2005-01-01

    Wood is used to produce many products (structural and nonstructural) for applications in which its natural properties are adequate. With the decrease of wood availability and the increase of less durable, younger and faster-growing trees, it is possible to modify wood in various ways to improve the properties, depending on the ultimate application. Wood- polymer...

  19. Stent Lumen Visibility in Single-energy CT Angiography: Does Tube Potential Matter?

    PubMed

    Boos, Johannes; Kröpil, Patric; Lanzman, Rotem Shlomo; Aissa, Joel; Schleich, Christoph; Antoch, Gerald; Thomas, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    There has been a trend toward lowering tube potential in computed tomography angiography (CTA) examinations to reduce radiation dose or contrast medium dose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of tube potential on peripheral artery in-stent lumen visibility in CTA examinations. Nine different peripheral artery stents were placed in a vessel phantom (inner diameter: 5 mm, surrounded by water) and scanned consecutively using a 128-row CT scanner with 70, 80, 100, 120, and 140 kV and two different concentrations of contrast medium to simulate contrast-enhanced blood. Medium-smooth and ultra-sharp reconstruction kernels with filtered back projection (B30f, B46f) and iterative reconstruction technique (I30f, I46f) were used. Visible in-stent lumen diameter and artifact width were evaluated using a semiautomatic software tool. All stents were scanned with digital angiography, which was regarded as the reference standard. Averaged over all stents, visible in-stent lumen diameter ranged from 1.30 ± 0.21 mm (CM2/70 kV/I30f) to 3.13 ± 0.32 mm (CM1/120 kV/I46f). In-stent lumen diameters were significantly higher for 120 and 140 kV compared to 70 kV (2.39 ± 0.73 and 2.39 ± 0.66 mm vs 1.99 ± 0.69 mm; P = 0.01 and P = 0.005). Ultra-sharp reconstruction kernels lead to significantly better in-stent lumen visibility than smooth reconstruction kernels (B46f: 2.74 ± 0.34 mm vs B30f: 1.57 ± 0.36 mm; P < 0.001, respectively). Furthermore, in-stent lumen visibility was improved for iterative reconstructions compared to filtered back projection (I46f: 2.93 ± 0.30 mm vs B46f: 2.74 ± 0.34 mm; P < 0.001). Contrast medium concentration did not influence in-stent lumen visibility. Despite all known benefits of low kV CTA protocols, the use of a very low tube potential may hamper in-stent lumen visibility. A sharp kernel may be of value when evaluating the inner lumen of vascular stents

  20. Initial experience with dual-lumen balloon catheter injection for preoperative Onyx embolization of skull base paragangliomas.

    PubMed

    Ladner, Travis R; He, Lucy; Davis, Brandon J; Yang, George L; Wanna, George B; Mocco, J

    2016-06-01

    OBJECT Paragangliomas are highly vascular head and neck tumors for which preoperative embolization is often considered to facilitate resection. The authors evaluated their initial experience using a dual-lumen balloon to facilitate preoperative embolization in 5 consecutive patients who underwent preoperative transarterial Onyx embolization assisted by the Scepter dual-lumen balloon catheter between 2012 and 2014. OBJECT The authors reviewed the demographic and clinical records of 5 patients who underwent Scepter-assisted Onyx embolization of a paraganglioma followed by resection between 2012 and 2014. Descriptive statistics of clinical outcomes were assessed. RESULTS Five patients (4 with a jugular and 1 with a vagal paraganglioma) were identified. Three paragangliomas were embolized in a single session, and each of the other 2 were completed in 3 staged sessions. The mean volume of Onyx used was 14.3 ml (range 6-30 ml). Twenty-seven vessels were selectively catheterized for embolization. All patients required selective embolization via multiple vessels. Two patients required sacrifice of parent vessels (1 petrocavernous internal carotid artery and 1 vertebral artery) after successful balloon test occlusion. One patient underwent embolization with Onyx-18 alone, 2 with Onyx-34 alone, and 1 with Onyx-18 and -34. In each case, migration of Onyx was achieved within the tumor parenchyma. The mean time between embolization and resection was 3.8 days (range 1-8 days). Gross-total resection was achieved in 3 (60%) patients, and the other 2 patients had minimal residual tumor. The mean estimated blood loss during the resections was 556 ml (range 200-850 ml). The mean postoperative hematocrit level change was -17.3%. Two patients required blood transfusions. One patient, who underwent extensive tumor penetration with Onyx, developed a temporary partial cranial nerve VII palsy that resolved to House-Brackmann Grade I (out of VI) at the 6-month follow-up. One patient

  1. Theoretical studies of the infrared emission from circumstellar dust shells: the infrared characteristics of circumstellar silicates and the mass-loss rate of oxygen-rich late-type giants.

    PubMed

    Schutte, W A; Tielens, A G

    1989-08-01

    We have modeled the infrared emission of spherically symmetric, circumstellar dust shells with the aim of deriving the infrared absorption properties of circumstellar silicate grains and the mass-loss rates of the central stars. As a basis for our numerical studies, a simple semianalytical formula has been derived that illustrates the essential characteristics of the infrared emission of such dust shells. A numerical radiative transfer program has been developed and applied to dust shells around oxygen-rich late-type giants. Free parameters in such models include the absorption properties and density distribution of the dust. An approximate, analytical expression is derived for the density distribution of circumstellar dust driven outward by radiation pressure from a central source. A large grid of models has been calculated to study the influence of the free parameters on the emergent spectrum. These results form the basis for a comparison with near-infrared observations. Observational studies have revealed a correlation between the near-infrared color temperature, Tc, and the strength of the 10 micrometers emission or absorption feature, A10. This relationship, which essentially measures the near-infrared optical depth in terms of the 10 micrometers optical depth, is discussed. Theoretical A10-Tc relations have been calculated and compared to the observations. The results show that this relation is a sensitive way to determine the ratio of the near-infrared to 10 micrometers absorption efficiency of circumstellar silicates. These results as well as previous studies show that the near-infrared absorption efficiency of circumstellar silicate grains is much higher than expected from terrestrial minerals. We suggest that this enhanced absorption is due to the presence of ferrous iron (Fe2+) color centers dissolved in the circumstellar silicates. By using the derived value for the ratio of the near-infrared to 10 micrometers absorption efficiency, the observed A10-Tc

  2. Theoretical studies of the infrared emission from circumstellar dust shells: the infrared characteristics of circumstellar silicates and the mass-loss rate of oxygen-rich late-type giants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, W. A.; Tielens, A. G.; Allamandola, L. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1989-01-01

    We have modeled the infrared emission of spherically symmetric, circumstellar dust shells with the aim of deriving the infrared absorption properties of circumstellar silicate grains and the mass-loss rates of the central stars. As a basis for our numerical studies, a simple semianalytical formula has been derived that illustrates the essential characteristics of the infrared emission of such dust shells. A numerical radiative transfer program has been developed and applied to dust shells around oxygen-rich late-type giants. Free parameters in such models include the absorption properties and density distribution of the dust. An approximate, analytical expression is derived for the density distribution of circumstellar dust driven outward by radiation pressure from a central source. A large grid of models has been calculated to study the influence of the free parameters on the emergent spectrum. These results form the basis for a comparison with near-infrared observations. Observational studies have revealed a correlation between the near-infrared color temperature, Tc, and the strength of the 10 micrometers emission or absorption feature, A10. This relationship, which essentially measures the near-infrared optical depth in terms of the 10 micrometers optical depth, is discussed. Theoretical A10-Tc relations have been calculated and compared to the observations. The results show that this relation is a sensitive way to determine the ratio of the near-infrared to 10 micrometers absorption efficiency of circumstellar silicates. These results as well as previous studies show that the near-infrared absorption efficiency of circumstellar silicate grains is much higher than expected from terrestrial minerals. We suggest that this enhanced absorption is due to the presence of ferrous iron (Fe2+) color centers dissolved in the circumstellar silicates. By using the derived value for the ratio of the near-infrared to 10 micrometers absorption efficiency, the observed A10-Tc

  3. Late-term clinical outcomes with zotarolimus- and sirolimus-eluting stents. 5-year follow-up of the ENDEAVOR III (A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Medtronic Endeavor Drug [ABT-578] Eluting Coronary Stent System Versus the Cypher Sirolimus-Eluting Coronary Stent System in De Novo Native Coronary Artery Lesions).

    PubMed

    Kandzari, David E; Mauri, Laura; Popma, Jeffrey J; Turco, Mark A; Gurbel, Paul A; Fitzgerald, Peter J; Leon, Martin B

    2011-05-01

    This study sought to compare late safety and efficacy outcomes following percutaneous coronary revascularization with zotarolimus-eluting stents (ZES) and sirolimus-eluting stents (SES). Despite higher late lumen loss and binary restenosis with ZES compared with SES, it is uncertain whether differences in early angiographic measures translate into more disparate late clinical events. Clinical outcomes were prospectively evaluated through 5 years in the ENDEAVOR III (A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Medtronic Endeavor Drug [ABT-578] Eluting Coronary Stent System Versus the Cypher Sirolimus-Eluting Coronary Stent System in De Novo Native Coronary Artery Lesions) that randomized 436 patients of relatively low anatomic and clinical risk to treatment with ZES (n = 323) or SES (n = 113) and evaluated a primary endpoint of 8-month angiographic late lumen loss. At 5 years (completeness of follow-up: 95.2%), pre-specified endpoints of all-cause mortality (5.2% vs. 13.0%, p = 0.02), myocardial infarction (1.0% vs. 4.6%, p = 0.03), and the composite event rates of cardiac death/myocardial infarction (1.3% vs. 6.5%, p = 0.009) and major adverse cardiac events (14.0% vs. 22.2%, p = 0.05) were significantly lower among patients treated with ZES. Rates of target lesion (8.1% ZES vs. 6.5% SES, p = 0.68) and target vessel revascularization were similar between treatment groups. Stent thrombosis was infrequent and similar in both groups (0.7% ZES vs. 0.9% SES, p = 1.0). Between 9 months and 5 years, progression of major adverse cardiac events was significantly more common with SES than with ZES (16.7% vs. 7.8%, p = 0.015). Despite initially higher angiographic late lumen loss, rates of clinical restenosis beyond the protocol-specified angiographic follow-up period remain stable with ZES compared with the rates for SES, resulting in similar late-term efficacy. Over 5 years, significant differences in death, myocardial infarction, and composite endpoints favored treatment with ZES

  4. Intraoperative transillumination with water-filling of lumen for localizing lesions in occult small bowel bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiangheng; Cao, Yuning; Yang, Daogui; Li, Senlin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Occult small bowel bleeding is always difficult to locate by either radiological examination or endoscopy. When the site of bleeding cannot be found by nonsurgical measures, exploratory laparotomy becomes necessary. Patient concerns: A 63-year-old woman with a half-month history of occult gastrointestinal bleeding failed to many conservative therapies. Interventions: Intraoperative transillumination with water-filling of lumen was performed. Diagnoses: Small bowel bleeding was diagnosed intraoperatively. Outcomes: Segmental resection of the diseased small bowel with side-to-side anastomosis was performed while the histology showed no significant abnormality. Lessons: The technique of intraoperative transillumination with water-filling of lumen allows simple, accurate, and rapid localization of lesions in occult small bowel bleeding and facilitates precise and definitive surgery. PMID:28151907

  5. Lethal pulmonary air embolism caused by the removal of a double-lumen hemodialysis catheter.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Hisashi; Maeda, Hideyuki; Kuroda, Ryohei; Komori, Masatomo; Nakajima, Makoto; Nara, Akina; Ito-Tsujimura, Takako; Shintani-Ishida, Kaori; Yahagi, Naoki; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2014-12-01

    Pulmonary air embolisms due to the removal of a central venous catheter are rare, but catheter removal is known to be a high risk factor for air embolism. In particular, the removal of a large catheter, such as a double-lumen hemodialysis catheter, can allow a large amount of air to enter into the bloodstream, which often results in sudden death. So, during catheter removal, special care should be taken to prevent air from entering blood vessels, for example, to ensure that the patient's head is tilted downward, that they have inhaled and are holding their breath, and that a covering gauze and inert ointment have been applied to the exit site. We report a lethal case of pulmonary air embolism caused by the removal of a double-lumen catheter from the right internal jugular vein of a patient who was sitting up and had not been instructed to hold their breath.

  6. Regulating Ion Transport in Peptide Nanotubes by Tailoring the Nanotube Lumen Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Luis; Benjamin, Ari; Sullivan, Matthew; Keten, Sinan

    2015-05-07

    We use atomistic nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to demonstrate how specific ionic flux in peptide nanotubes can be regulated by tailoring the lumen chemistry through single amino acid substitutions. By varying the size and polarity of the functional group inserted into the nanotube interior, we are able to adjust the Na(+) flux by over an order of magnitude. Cl(-) is consistently denied passage. Bulky, nonpolar groups encourage interactions between the Na(+) and the peptide backbone carbonyl groups, disrupting the Na(+) solvation shell and slowing the transport of Na(+). Small groups have the opposite effect and accelerate flow. These results suggest that relative ion flux and selectivity can be precisely regulated in subnanometer pores by molecularly defining the lumen according to biological principles.

  7. Misoprostol in the intestinal lumen protects against radiation injury of the mucosa of the small bowel

    SciTech Connect

    Delaney, J.P.; Bonsack, M.E.; Felemovicius, I. )

    1994-03-01

    Systemically administered misoprostol, a PGE analog, has been shown to be an intestinal radioprotector. The purpose of this study was to determine if administration of misoprostol into the intestinal lumen can also reduce the severity of acute radiation enteritis. The rat small bowel was operatively exteriorized and segmented by means of suture ties. The remainder of the intestine and the rat were shielded in a lead box. Misoprostol was introduced into the lumen in various doses. After 30 min exposure to misoprostol, the isolated, exteriorized, segmented bowel was subjected to 11 Gy X irradiation. Five days later the animals were sacrificed and the intestines harvested for evaluation. Surviving crypt numbers per circumference and mucosal height were the criteria used for quantification of damage. Mucosa exposed to misoprostol at the time of radiation delivery showed significantly increased crypt numbers and mucosal height compared to adjacent saline-filled intestine. 24 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Incorporating mobile nanospheres in the lumen of hybrid microcapsules for enhanced enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiafu; Zhang, Xiaoman; Zhang, Shaohua; Wang, Xiaoli; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2013-11-13

    Physical encapsulation of enzymes in microcapsules, as a mild, controllable method, has been widely utilized for enzyme immobilization. However, this method often suffers from the big mass transfer resistance from the capsule lumen. In this study, a novel biocatalysis system with enhanced catalytic activity is constructed through coencapsulating enzymes and nanospheres in the lumen of protamine/silica hybrid microcapsules, which are synthesized through the synergy of biomimetic silicification and layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. When utilized as the host for catalase (CAT) encapsulation, the hybrid microcapsules maintain high mechanical stability, high enzyme loading, and low enzyme leaching. Particularly, because of the existence of mobile nanospheres, the mass transfer resistance in the microcapsules is significantly reduced because of the vigorous agitation, thus acquiring an enhanced catalytic activity. Our strategy may also find applications in drug delivery and biosensor fields.

  9. Hymenolepis diminuta and H. nana: cross immunity against the lumen phase in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Ito, A; Onitake, K

    1987-08-01

    When BALB/c mice initially given cysticercoids of Hymenolepis diminuta orally (Day 0) were challenged with eggs or cysticercoids of H. nana, almost all the mice became completely resistant to H. nana challenges from Day 30 onward, and no luminal adults of H. nana were established. There was a tendency for the number of tissue cysticercoids recovered 4 days after egg challenge in immunized mice to be much less than that in control mice (P less than 0.001, Student's t test). However, when these cysticercoids recovered from immune group mice were inoculated into uninfected mice, they matured in the lumen. Thus, the cross immunity to H. nana challenge evoked by an initial prepatent infection with H. diminuta appeared to be directed not against the tissue phase but against the lumen phase of H. nana. When BALB/c mice initially given eggs of H. nana were challenged with H. diminuta, they became resistant to H. diminuta from Day 15 onward. When the mice given eggs of H. nana were treated with a cestocide, praziquantel, at the beginning of the expected luminal development of H. nana and experienced a tissue phase only before challenge with H. diminuta, they showed no resistance to H. diminuta. Thus, the cross immunity to H. diminuta challenge evoked by an initial patent infection with H. nana appeared to be due to the immunogens of the lumen phase of H. nana but not those of the tissue phase. The cross immunity may be, therefore, essentially evoked by the lumen phase of these two phylogenetically closely related species and not by or against the tissue phase of H. nana.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, Michael P.

    2014-12-01

    The lumen depreciation and color shift of 38 different lamps (32 LED, 2 CFL, 1 ceramic metal halide [CMH], 3 halogen) were monitored in a specially developed automated long-term test apparatus (ALTA2) for nearly 14,000 hours. Five samples of each lamp model were tested, with measurements recorded on a weekly basis. The lamps were operated continuously at a target ambient temperature between 44°C and 45°C.

  11. Burkholderia pseudomallei kills Caenorhabditis elegans through virulence mechanisms distinct from intestinal lumen colonization

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Soon-Keat; Lim, Tian-Yeh; Lee, Song-Hua; Nathan, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is hypersusceptible to Burkholderia pseudomallei infection. However, the virulence mechanisms underlying rapid lethality of C. elegans upon B. pseudomallei infection remain poorly defined. To probe the host-pathogen interaction, we constructed GFP-tagged B. pseudomallei and followed bacterial accumulation within the C. elegans intestinal lumen. Contrary to slow-killing by most bacterial pathogens, B. pseudomallei caused fairly limited intestinal lumen colonization throughout the period of observation. Using grinder-defective mutant worms that allow the entry of intact bacteria also did not result in full intestinal lumen colonization. In addition, we observed a significant decline in C. elegans defecation and pharyngeal pumping rates upon B. pseudomallei infection. The decline in defecation rates ruled out the contribution of defecation to the limited B. pseudomallei colonization. We also demonstrated that the limited intestinal lumen colonization was not attributed to slowed host feeding as bacterial loads did not change significantly when feeding was stimulated by exogenous serotonin. Both these observations confirm that B. pseudomallei is a poor colonizer of the C. elegans intestine. To explore the possibility of toxin-mediated killing, we examined the transcription of the C. elegans ABC transporter gene, pgp-5, upon B. pseudomallei infection of the ppgp-5::gfp reporter strain. Expression of pgp-5 was highly induced, notably in the pharynx and intestine, compared with Escherichia coli-fed worms, suggesting that the host actively thwarted the pathogenic assaults during infection. Collectively, our findings propose that B. pseudomallei specifically and continuously secretes toxins to overcome C. elegans immune responses. PMID:23076282

  12. Physical human lumen carotid reconstruction: life-size models by rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pili, Piero; Murgia, Fabrizio; Pusceddu, Gabriella; Franzoni, Gregorio; Tuveri, Massimiliano

    2003-05-01

    Rapid Prototyping (RP) is a technique used in industry for manufacturing prototypes. Its capability to physically reproduce geometrical complex shapes is getting increasing interest in many fields of medicine. In the field of vascular surgery, replicas of artery lumen have utility in complex cases or when standard imaging is felt to be equivocal. Replicas can also facilitate experimental studies of computational vascular fluid-dynamics permitting in-vitro reproductions of blood flow in living subjects before and after surgery. The VIrtual VAscular (VIVA) project at CRS4, developed a system able to process three-dimensional (3D) datasets extracted from a Computer Tomography (CT) apparatus, visualize them, reconstruct the geometry of arteries of specific patients, and simulate blood flow in them. In this paper, the applicability of RP techniques to VIVA's real size replicas of an autoptic carotid vessel lumen is presented and an overview of the RP based system developed is provided. The techniques used in our prototype are discussed and experimental results for the creation of a human carotid lumen replica are analyzed. We discuss in detail the pipeline of manufacturing process: 3D geometric reconstruction from segmented points, geometry tessellation, STL (Stereo Lithography format) conversion. Moreover we illustrate some technical details of the specific RP technique used to build the lumen replicas, which is called Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM), the materials used for prototypes, throughput time and costs of the FDM models realized. The system is totally based on open-source software. This enables us to control each step of the pipeline, from data acquisition to STL export file. In this context, we present main sources of error encountered during all manufacturing process stages.

  13. The Fast and Easy Way for Double-Lumen Tube Intubation: Individual Angle-Modification

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jeong Jin; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kang, Se Hee; Kim, Eunhee; Lee, Sangmin M.; Cho, Jong Ho; Kim, Hong Kwan

    2016-01-01

    To find the faster and easier way than the existing intubating technique for double-lumen tube, we modified the angle of double-lumen tube according to an individual’s upper airway anatomy and compared the time needed and the number of attempts for successful intubation between individually angle-modified and non-modified double-lumen tubes. Adult patients undergoing elective thoracic surgery were randomly allocated in either non-angle-modified (Group N, n = 54) or angle-modified (Group M, n = 54) groups. During mask ventilation in the sniffing position, angle-modification was performed in Group M as follows: the distal tip of the tube was placed at the level of the cricoid cartilage and the shaft was bent at the intersection of the oral and pharyngeal axes estimated from the patient’s surface anatomy. The time needed and the number of attempts for successful intubation and Cormack and Lehane (C-L) grade were recorded. Overall median intubation time (sec) was significantly shorter in Group M than in Group N [10.2 vs. 15.1, P<0.001]. In addition, Group M showed the shorter median intubation time (sec) in C-L grades I-III [8.2 vs. 11.1 in C-L grade I, (P = 0.003), 10.3 vs. 15.3 in II, (P = 0.001), and 11.8 vs. 27.9 in III, (P<0.001), respectively]. Moreover, all intubation was successfully performed at the first attempt in patients with C-L grades I-III in Group M (P = 0.027). Our study showed an individual angle-modification would be useful for the fast and easy intubation of double-lumen tube in patients with C-L grades I-III. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02190032 PMID:27537372

  14. Automatic coronary lumen segmentation with partial volume modeling improves lesions' hemodynamic significance assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freiman, M.; Lamash, Y.; Gilboa, G.; Nickisch, H.; Prevrhal, S.; Schmitt, H.; Vembar, M.; Goshen, L.

    2016-03-01

    The determination of hemodynamic significance of coronary artery lesions from cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) based on blood flow simulations has the potential to improve CCTA's specificity, thus resulting in improved clinical decision making. Accurate coronary lumen segmentation required for flow simulation is challenging due to several factors. Specifically, the partial-volume effect (PVE) in small-diameter lumina may result in overestimation of the lumen diameter that can lead to an erroneous hemodynamic significance assessment. In this work, we present a coronary artery segmentation algorithm tailored specifically for flow simulations by accounting for the PVE. Our algorithm detects lumen regions that may be subject to the PVE by analyzing the intensity values along the coronary centerline and integrates this information into a machine-learning based graph min-cut segmentation framework to obtain accurate coronary lumen segmentations. We demonstrate the improvement in hemodynamic significance assessment achieved by accounting for the PVE in the automatic segmentation of 91 coronary artery lesions from 85 patients. We compare hemodynamic significance assessments by means of fractional flow reserve (FFR) resulting from simulations on 3D models generated by our segmentation algorithm with and without accounting for the PVE. By accounting for the PVE we improved the area under the ROC curve for detecting hemodynamically significant CAD by 29% (N=91, 0.85 vs. 0.66, p<0.05, Delong's test) with invasive FFR threshold of 0.8 as the reference standard. Our algorithm has the potential to facilitate non-invasive hemodynamic significance assessment of coronary lesions.

  15. Short communication: Repeat breeder cows with fluid in the uterine lumen had poorer fertility.

    PubMed

    Jaureguiberry, M; Giuliodori, M J; Mang, A V; Madoz, L V; Pothmann, H; Drillich, M; de la Sota, R L

    2017-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to test the association between the presence of fluid in uterine lumen and the fertility of repeat breeder cows (RBC). Grazing Holstein cows that were clinically normal and were not pregnant after at least 3 consecutive inseminations were defined as RBC and included in the study (n = 358). A cut-point ≥2 mm of uterine lumen visible by ultrasonography was used as indicative of the presence of fluid in the uterus. The effect of this fluid on the fertility of RBC was assessed by mixed logistic regression. Twenty percent of the RBC had ≥2 mm of fluid in their uterus, and this finding was associated with a marked reduction in the odds of conception (odds ratio = 0.46). Additional intrauterine sampling revealed that 24.0% of RBC showed signs of subclinical endometritis [≥5% neutrophils in endometrial cytology (SCE)]. However, we found no agreement between the finding of uterine fluid and the diagnosis of SCE (kappa coefficient = 0.03, 95% confidence interval = -0.07 to 0.14). In conclusion, the presence of fluid (≥2 mm) in uterine lumen, detected by ultrasonography, was associated with lower fertility in RBC, but was not related to the diagnosis of SCE. Thus, ultrasonographic evaluation is an important tool to assist in assessment of RBC.

  16. Cytoplasmic lipid droplets are translocated into the lumen of the Chlamydia trachomatis parasitophorous vacuole

    PubMed Central

    Cocchiaro, Jordan L.; Kumar, Yadunanda; Fischer, Elizabeth R.; Hackstadt, Ted; Valdivia, Raphael H.

    2008-01-01

    The acquisition of host-derived lipids is essential for the pathogenesis of the obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis. Current models of chlamydial lipid acquisition center on the fusion of Golgi-derived exocytic vesicles and endosomal multivesicular bodies with the bacteria-containing parasitophorous vacuole (“inclusion”). In this study, we describe a mechanism of lipid acquisition and organelle subversion by C. trachomatis. We show by live cell fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy that lipid droplets (LDs), neutral lipid storage organelles, are translocated from the host cytoplasm into the inclusion lumen. LDs dock at the surface of the inclusion, penetrate the inclusion membrane and intimately associate with reticulate Bodies, the replicative form of Chlamydia. The inclusion membrane protein IncA, but not other inclusion membrane proteins, cofractionated with LDs and accumulated in the inclusion lumen. Therefore, we postulate that the translocation of LDs may occur at IncA-enriched subdomains of the inclusion membrane. Finally, the chlamydial protein Lda3 may participate in the cooption of these organelles by linking cytoplasmic LDs to inclusion membranes and promoting the removal of the LD protective coat protein, adipocyte differentiation related protein (ADRP). The wholesale transport of LDs into the lumen of a parasitophorous vacuole represents a unique mechanism of organelle sequestration and subversion by a bacterial pathogen. PMID:18591669

  17. The uterine lumen of the pregnant guinea-pig contains a large macrophage population.

    PubMed

    Sype, W; Lentfer, K; Kimberly, D J; Smith, M K; Van Meter, L; Thornburg, K L

    1989-01-01

    Cellular constituents of the uterine lumen were investigated. Fourteen pregnant sows of 40 + days' gestation were anaesthetized and naturally occurring peritoneal fluid was collected. A uterine horn was delivered and 0.25 ml Gey's solution injected into the uterine lumen to collect free cells. The fluid was aspirated into a syringe and the cells extracted, counted and prepared for phagocytosis experiments and microscopy. The cells were stained with alpha-naphthyl-acetate-esterase (ANAE) to determine the fraction that was non-specific esterase-positive, a feature of mononuclear phagocytes. Differential cells counts were also made. Both uterine and peritoneal compartments yielded large numbers of cells (greater than 10(6)/ml). Peritoneal fluid cells were 47 +/- 6 per cent (SD) macrophages and 49 +/- 6 per cent eosinophils (the remainder being 'other' cells); 47 +/- 6 per cent also stained positively for ANAE. Uterine cells were 78 +/- 12 per cent macrophages, the remainder being mostly lymphocytes (18 +/- 11 per cent); 85 +/- 13 per cent stained positively with ANAE. Electron microscopy of the uterine cells confirmed that most had morphology consistent with being mononuclear phagocytes. Uterine and peritoneal cells phagocytized carbon particles and yeast cells when incubated at 37 degrees C. The origin and role of this macrophage population is unknown but uterine lumenal macrophages may be present to remove antigen-antibody complexes thus facilitating uptake of maternally derived IgG by the fetal yolk sac.

  18. VE-cadherin interacts with cell polarity protein Pals1 to regulate vascular lumen formation.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Benjamin F; Steinbacher, Tim; Hartmann, Christian; Kummer, Daniel; Pajonczyk, Denise; Mirzapourshafiyi, Fatemeh; Nakayama, Masanori; Weide, Thomas; Gerke, Volker; Ebnet, Klaus

    2016-09-15

    Blood vessel tubulogenesis requires the formation of stable cell-to-cell contacts and the establishment of apicobasal polarity of vascular endothelial cells. Cell polarity is regulated by highly conserved cell polarity protein complexes such as the Par3-aPKC-Par6 complex and the CRB3-Pals1-PATJ complex, which are expressed by many different cell types and regulate various aspects of cell polarity. Here we describe a functional interaction of VE-cadherin with the cell polarity protein Pals1. Pals1 directly interacts with VE-cadherin through a membrane-proximal motif in the cytoplasmic domain of VE-cadherin. VE-cadherin clusters Pals1 at cell-cell junctions. Mutating the Pals1-binding motif in VE-cadherin abrogates the ability of VE-cadherin to regulate apicobasal polarity and vascular lumen formation. In a similar way, deletion of the Par3-binding motif at the C-terminus of VE-cadherin impairs apicobasal polarity and vascular lumen formation. Our findings indicate that the biological activity of VE-cadherin in regulating endothelial polarity and vascular lumen formation is mediated through its interaction with the two cell polarity proteins Pals1 and Par3.

  19. VE-cadherin interacts with cell polarity protein Pals1 to regulate vascular lumen formation

    PubMed Central

    Brinkmann, Benjamin F.; Steinbacher, Tim; Hartmann, Christian; Kummer, Daniel; Pajonczyk, Denise; Mirzapourshafiyi, Fatemeh; Nakayama, Masanori; Weide, Thomas; Gerke, Volker; Ebnet, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Blood vessel tubulogenesis requires the formation of stable cell-to-cell contacts and the establishment of apicobasal polarity of vascular endothelial cells. Cell polarity is regulated by highly conserved cell polarity protein complexes such as the Par3-aPKC-Par6 complex and the CRB3-Pals1-PATJ complex, which are expressed by many different cell types and regulate various aspects of cell polarity. Here we describe a functional interaction of VE-cadherin with the cell polarity protein Pals1. Pals1 directly interacts with VE-cadherin through a membrane-proximal motif in the cytoplasmic domain of VE-cadherin. VE-cadherin clusters Pals1 at cell–cell junctions. Mutating the Pals1-binding motif in VE-cadherin abrogates the ability of VE-cadherin to regulate apicobasal polarity and vascular lumen formation. In a similar way, deletion of the Par3-binding motif at the C-terminus of VE-cadherin impairs apicobasal polarity and vascular lumen formation. Our findings indicate that the biological activity of VE-cadherin in regulating endothelial polarity and vascular lumen formation is mediated through its interaction with the two cell polarity proteins Pals1 and Par3. PMID:27466317

  20. A physics-based intravascular ultrasound image reconstruction method for lumen segmentation.

    PubMed

    Mendizabal-Ruiz, Gerardo; Kakadiaris, Ioannis A

    2016-08-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) refers to the medical imaging technique consisting of a miniaturized ultrasound transducer located at the tip of a catheter that can be introduced in the blood vessels providing high-resolution, cross-sectional images of their interior. Current methods for the generation of an IVUS image reconstruction from radio frequency (RF) data do not account for the physics involved in the interaction between the IVUS ultrasound signal and the tissues of the vessel. In this paper, we present a novel method to generate an IVUS image reconstruction based on the use of a scattering model that considers the tissues of the vessel as a distribution of three-dimensional point scatterers. We evaluated the impact of employing the proposed IVUS image reconstruction method in the segmentation of the lumen/wall interface on 40MHz IVUS data using an existing automatic lumen segmentation method. We compared the results with those obtained using the B-mode reconstruction on 600 randomly selected frames from twelve pullback sequences acquired from rabbit aortas and different arteries of swine. Our results indicate the feasibility of employing the proposed IVUS image reconstruction for the segmentation of the lumen.

  1. Emergency Coronary Stenting with Wiktor Stent Ñ Immediate and Late Results.

    PubMed

    Bertrand; Legrand; Bilodeau; Martinez; Kulbertus

    1997-01-01

    In case of failed angioplasty, coronary stenting has gradually emerged as a non-surgical method to restore vessel patency and optimize coronary blood flow. There is still little clinical and angiographic information on the use of radiopaque single loose interdigitating wire stents in angioplasty complicated by threatened or acute closure. Seventy-one patients received Wiktor stents after threatened vessel closure in 53 cases and acute closure in 18 cases. Stent delivery was successful in 98%. In-hospital death occurred in 1 case (1.4%). Stents occlusion were faced in 10 cases (14%), of which 6 presented early and 4 late after the procedure. Urgent bypass surgery was needed in 9 cases (12%) and 7 patients (10%) developed acute myocardial infarction. Serious bleeding complications occurred in 7 cases (10%) and vascular repair was performed in 4 patients (5%). During a follow-up of 20 +/- 10 months, 2 patients died, no myocardial infarction was observed and recurrence of angina was noted in 17 patients (24%). Angiographic analysis showed an acute gain in minimal lumen diameter of 1.71 +/- 0.22 mm and a late loss of 0.63 +/- 0.17 mm. Angiographic restenosis (diameter stenosis > 50%) presented in 20% of patients. Therefore, Wiktor stenting yields similar results than currently used stents in acute closure and strictly defined threatened vessel closure following angioplasty.

  2. Late results.

    PubMed

    Daly, B D

    1999-08-01

    Pneumonectomy is performed for a number of benign and malignant conditions. It is most commonly performed for lung cancer. Adjuvant and neoadjuvant protocols have increased the number of these operations being performed and the long-term results are improving. Pneumonectomy may also be performed for metastases to lung and for mesothelioma with encouraging results. Some bronchial adenomas require pneumonectomy. Treatment of resistant mycobacteria or the complications of tuberculosis frequently require pneumonectomy. Late bronchopleural fistulae, esophagopleural fistulae, and empyema may occur.

  3. IL-17A promotes protective IgA responses and expression of other potential effectors against the lumen-dwelling enteric parasite Giardia.

    PubMed

    Dann, Sara M; Manthey, Carolin F; Le, Christine; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Gima, Lauren; Abrahim, Andrew; Cao, Anthony T; Hanson, Elaine M; Kolls, Jay K; Raz, Eyal; Cong, Yingzi; Eckmann, Lars

    2015-09-01

    Giardia lamblia is a leading protozoan cause of diarrheal disease worldwide. It colonizes the lumen and epithelial surface of the small intestine, but does not invade the mucosa. Acute infection causes only minimal mucosal inflammation. Effective immune defenses exist, yet their identity and mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Interleukin (IL)-17A has emerged as an important cytokine involved in inflammation and antimicrobial defense against bacterial pathogens at mucosal surfaces. In this study, we demonstrate that IL-17A has a crucial function in host defense against Giardia infection. Using murine infection models with G. muris and G. lamblia, we observed marked and selective induction of intestinal IL-17A with peak expression after 2 weeks. Th17 cells in the lamina propria and innate immune cells in the epithelial compartment of the small intestine were responsible for the IL-17A response. Experiments in gene-targeted mice revealed that the cytokine, and its cognate receptor IL-17RA, were required for eradication of the parasite. The actions of the cytokine were mediated by hematopoietic cells, and were required for the transport of IgA into the intestinal lumen, since IL-17A deficiency led to marked reduction of fecal IgA levels, as well as for increased intestinal expression of several other potential effectors, including β-defensin 1 and resistin-like molecule β. In contrast, intestinal hypermotility, another major antigiardial defense mechanism, was not impacted by IL-17A loss. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that IL-17A and IL-17 receptor signaling are essential for intestinal defense against the important lumen-dwelling intestinal parasite Giardia.

  4. Distal false lumen occlusion in aortic dissection with a homemade extra-large vascular plug: the candy-plug technique.

    PubMed

    Kölbel, Tilo; Lohrenz, Christina; Kieback, Arne; Diener, Holger; Debus, Eike Sebastian; Larena-Avellaneda, Axel

    2013-08-01

    To report a technique to create an extra-large vascular plug for occlusion of a large distal false lumen in chronic aortic dissection. The "candy-plug" technique is demonstrated in a 58-year-old multimorbid man with a history of complicated acute type B aortic dissection and a 9-cm chronic thoracic false lumen aneurysm. The patient underwent a staged repair with a cervical debranching procedure as a first step and a thoracic endovascular aortic repair from the innominate artery to the celiac artery as a second step. To occlude the large false lumen from a distal route, a stent-graft was modified on-table with a diameter-restricting suture, giving it a wrapped candy-like shape. This plug was deployed into the false lumen, and the remaining opening was occluded with a standard vascular plug. On 3-month follow-up imaging, the thoracic false lumen aneurysm remained completely thrombosed. The candy-plug technique can facilitate complete occlusion of chronic thoracic false lumen aneurysm by prohibiting distal false lumen backflow.

  5. The requirement for fibroblasts in angiogenesis: fibroblast-derived matrix proteins are essential for endothelial cell lumen formation

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Andrew C.; Nakatsu, Martin N.; Chou, Wayne; Gershon, Paul D.; Hughes, Christopher C. W.

    2011-01-01

    A role for fibroblasts in physiological and pathological angiogenesis is now well recognized; however, the precise mechanisms underlying their action have not been determined. Using an in vitro angiogenesis model in combination with a candidate gene approach, column chromatography, and mass spectrometry, we identify two classes of fibroblast-derived factors—one that supports vessel sprouting but not lumen formation, and one that promotes lumen formation. In the absence of fibroblasts a combination of angiopoietin-1, angiogenin, hepatocyte growth factor, transforming growth factor-α, and tumor necrosis factor drives robust endothelial cell (EC) sprouting; however, lumens fail to form. Subsequent addition of fibroblast-conditioned medium restores lumenogenesis. Using small interfering RNA–mediated knockdown, we show that five genes expressed in fibroblasts—collagen I, procollagen C endopeptidase enhancer 1, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, transforming growth factor-β–induced protein ig-h3, and insulin growth factor–binding protein 7—are necessary for lumen formation. Moreover, lumen formation can be rescued by addition of purified protein to knockdown cultures. Finally, using rheology, we demonstrate that the presence of these matricellular proteins results in significantly stiffer gels, which correlates with enhanced lumen formation. These findings highlight the critical role that fibroblast-derived extracellular matrix components play in EC lumen formation and provide potential insight into the role of fibroblasts in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:21865599

  6. Receptor-Type Guanylyl Cyclase at 76C (Gyc76C) Regulates De Novo Lumen Formation during Drosophila Tracheal Development.

    PubMed

    Myat, Monn Monn; Patel, Unisha

    2016-01-01

    Lumen formation and maintenance are important for the development and function of essential organs such as the lung, kidney and vasculature. In the Drosophila embryonic trachea, lumena form de novo to connect the different tracheal branches into an interconnected network of tubes. Here, we identify a novel role for the receptor type guanylyl cyclase at 76C (Gyc76C) in de novo lumen formation in the Drosophila trachea. We show that in embryos mutant for gyc76C or its downsteam effector protein kinase G (PKG) 1, tracheal lumena are disconnected. Dorsal trunk (DT) cells of gyc76C mutant embryos migrate to contact each other and complete the initial steps of lumen formation, such as the accumulation of E-cadherin (E-cad) and formation of an actin track at the site of lumen formation. However, the actin track and E-cad contact site of gyc76C mutant embryos did not mature to become a new lumen and DT lumena did not fuse. We also observed failure of the luminal protein Vermiform to be secreted into the site of new lumen formation in gyc76C mutant trachea. These DT lumen formation defects were accompanied by altered localization of the Arf-like 3 GTPase (Arl3), a known regulator of vesicle-vesicle and vesicle-membrane fusion. In addition to the DT lumen defect, lumena of gyc76C mutant terminal cells were shorter compared to wild-type cells. These studies show that Gyc76C and downstream PKG-dependent signaling regulate de novo lumen formation in the tracheal DT and terminal cells, most likely by affecting Arl3-mediated luminal secretion.

  7. Improved Hemocompatibility of Multilumen Catheters via Nitric Oxide (NO) Release from S-Nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) Composite Filled Lumen.

    PubMed

    Brisbois, Elizabeth J; Kim, Maria; Wang, Xuewei; Mohammed, Azmath; Major, Terry C; Wu, Jianfeng; Brownstein, Jessica; Xi, Chuanwu; Handa, Hitesh; Bartlett, Robert H; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2016-11-02

    Blood-contacting devices, such as intravascular catheters, suffer from challenges related to thrombus formation and infection. Nitric oxide (NO) is an endogenous antiplatelet and antimicrobial agent. Exogenous release of NO from various polymer matrices has been shown to reduce thrombosis and infection of/on implantable medical devices. However, the clinical applications of such materials have been hindered due to factors such as NO donor leaching and thermal instability. In this study, a novel approach is demonstrated in which one lumen of commercial dual lumen catheters is dedicated to the NO release chemistry, allowing the other lumen to be available for clinical vascular access. A composite consisting of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) is used to fill the NO-releasing lumen of commercial 7 French silicone catheters. Physiological levels of NO are released from the SNAP-PEG catheters for up to 14 d, as measured by chemiluminescence NO analyzer (in PBS buffer at 37 °C). PEG facilitates the NO release from SNAP within the lumen by increasing the water absorption and slowly dissolving the solid SNAP-PEG composite. In a CDC biofilm bioreactor, the SNAP-PEG catheters are found to reduce >97% bacterial adhesion as compared to the PEG controls for single bacterial species including E. coli and S. aureus. SNAP-PEG and PEG control catheters were implanted in rabbit veins for 7 h (single lumen) and 11 d (dual lumen) to evaluate their hemocompatibility properties. Significant reductions in thrombus formation on the SNAP-PEG vs PEG controls were observed, with ca. 85% reduction for 7 h single lumen catheters and ca. 55% reduction for 11 d dual lumen catheters.

  8. Oesophageal lumen pH in yearling horses and effects of management and administration of omeprazole.

    PubMed

    Wilson, C S; Brookes, V J; Hughes, K J; Trope, G D; Ip, H; Gunn, A J

    2017-05-01

    In human subjects, arytenoid chondritis can be caused by chemical trauma of mucosa attributable to gastro-oesophageal reflux. Although a similar process may be involved in the aetiopathogenesis of arytenoid chondritis in horses, the oesophageal lumen pH in this species is poorly understood. To determine if gastro-oesophageal reflux occurs in horses by characterising oesophageal lumen pH. Blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover, experimental study. Luminal oesophageal pH in six yearling horses was recorded over four 24 h periods using an ambulatory pH recorder attached to a catheter with two electrodes (proximal and distal) inserted into the oesophagus. Recordings of pH were made during three management protocols. Initially, horses grazed in a paddock (Protocol A). Horses were then moved to stables to simulate sale preparation of Thoroughbred yearlings, and were given either omeprazole (Protocol B) or placebo paste (Protocol C) orally once per day. Protocol A was repeated for each horse (after a 13 day washout period) between Protocols B and C. Summary statistics described pH range and frequency of pH changes. Associations with predictor variables were investigated using linear mixed-effects models. Data are presented as the mean ± s.d. Oesophageal lumen pH ranged from 4.90 to 9.70 (7.36 ± 0.27 and 7.18 ± 0.24 for the proximal and distal electrodes, respectively) and varied frequently (1.2 ± 0.9 changes/min and 0.8 ± 0.8 changes/min for the proximal and distal electrodes, respectively). Oesophageal lumen pH was associated with time since concentrate feeding, activity and time of day, but not with treatment of omeprazole. A small number of horses were used and measurement periods were limited. Gastro-oesophageal reflux occurs in clinically normal yearling horses. Although omeprazole had no detectable effect, oesophageal lumen pH recorded during this study did not fall within the therapeutic range of omeprazole. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  9. [Rupture of left main bronchus due to a left double-lumen tube in patient with a history of radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Bilbao Ares, A; Romero Menchaca, O; Ramírez Gil, E; Castañeda Pascual, M; Guelbenzu Zazpe, J; Salvador Bravo, M

    2015-04-01

    Airway injury caused by double-lumen tubes is a rare but potentially serious complication. We describe the case of a patient who had a bronchial rupture during one-lung ventilation with left double-lumen tube, complicated with a secondary cardiac arrest. She had a full recovery without sequelae. Underlying causes of the patient were a history of radiotherapy, and a possible overinflation of bronchial cuff, that it could contribute to the development of this complication. The possible airway injury should be considered by all practitioners who employ double-lumen tubes for the care of their patients.

  10. Minimizing bleeding complications in spinal tumor surgery with preoperative Onyx embolization via dual-lumen balloon catheter.

    PubMed

    Ladner, Travis R; He, Lucy; Lakomkin, Nikita; Davis, Brandon J; Cheng, Joseph S; Devin, Clinton J; Mocco, J

    2016-02-01

    Intraoperative bleeding is a significant risk in surgery for highly vascular spinal tumors, but preoperative embolization can safely decrease intraoperative blood loss in extrinsic spine tumors. Onyx, widely used for cerebrovascular embolization, has been increasingly used as an embolic agent for preoperative spinal tumor embolization. The Scepter catheter, a dual-lumen balloon catheter, may improve tumor parenchymal penetration without the danger and limitations of significant embolic reflux. This may reduce bleeding risk during spinal surgery. Eleven consecutive cases of preoperative Onyx embolization of extrinsic spinal tumors were identified, all of whom had subsequent spinal surgery. Demographic data and clinical variables were collected. Patients were divided into Scepter (n=6) and non-Scepter (n=5) groups. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare continuous outcome variables and the Fisher exact test was used to compare categorical variables. Estimated blood loss in the Scepter group was significantly lower than in the non-Scepter group (584±124 vs 2400±738 mL, p=0.004). The volume of intraoperative transfusion was also significantly lower (1.2±0.4 vs 5.8±1.7 units, p=0.004). There was no significant difference in the number of vessels embolized, vials of Onyx used, use of coiling adjunct, contrast load, radiation dose, or fluoroscopy time per pedicle (p>0.05). The addition of the Scepter catheter to preoperative Onyx embolization is safe and feasible. In this small series, the Scepter catheter was associated with a reduction of intraoperative bleeding by 76% and a 79% lower transfusion volume. This was not accompanied by any unwanted increase in vials of Onyx used, contrast load, radiation dose, or fluoroscopy time. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. In Vitro Budding of Intralumenal Vesicles into Late Endosomes Is Regulated by Alix and Tsg101

    PubMed Central

    Falguières, Thomas; Luyet, Pierre-Philippe; Bissig, Christin; Scott, Cameron C.; Velluz, Marie-Claire

    2008-01-01

    Endosomes along the degradation pathway leading to lysosomes accumulate membranes in their lumen and thus exhibit a characteristic multivesicular appearance. These lumenal membranes typically incorporate down-regulated EGF receptor destined for degradation, but the mechanisms that control their formation remain poorly characterized. Here, we describe a novel quantitative biochemical assay that reconstitutes the formation of lumenal vesicles within late endosomes in vitro. Vesicle budding into the endosome lumen was time-, temperature-, pH-, and energy-dependent and required cytosolic factors and endosome membrane components. Our light and electron microscopy analysis showed that the compartment supporting the budding process was accessible to endocytosed bulk tracers and EGF receptor. We also found that the EGF receptor became protected against trypsin in our assay, indicating that it was sorted into the intraendosomal vesicles that were formed in vitro. Our data show that the formation of intralumenal vesicles is ESCRT-dependent, because the process was inhibited by the K173Q dominant negative mutant of hVps4. Moreover, we find that the ESCRT-I subunit Tsg101 and its partner Alix control intralumenal vesicle formation, by acting as positive and negative regulators, respectively. We conclude that budding of the limiting membrane toward the late endosome lumen, which leads to the formation of intraendosomal vesicles, is controlled by the positive and negative functions of Tsg101 and Alix, respectively. PMID:18768755

  12. A lumenal domain-dependent pathway for sorting to intralumenal vesicles of multivesicular endosomes involved in organelle morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Theos, Alexander C; Truschel, Steven T; Tenza, Daniele; Hurbain, Ilse; Harper, Dawn C; Berson, Joanne F; Thomas, Penelope C; Raposo, Graça; Marks, Michael S

    2006-03-01

    Cargo partitioning into intralumenal vesicles (ILVs) of multivesicular endosomes underlies such cellular processes as receptor downregulation, viral budding, and biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles such as melanosomes. We show that the melanosomal protein Pmel17 is sorted into ILVs by a mechanism that is dependent upon lumenal determinants and conserved in non-pigment cells. Pmel17 targeting to ILVs does not require its native cytoplasmic domain or cytoplasmic residues targeted by ubiquitylation and, unlike sorting of ubiquitylated cargo, is insensitive to functional inhibition of Hrs and ESCRT complexes. Chimeric protein and deletion analyses indicate that two N-terminal lumenal subdomains are necessary and sufficient for ILV targeting. Pmel17 fibril formation, which occurs during melanosome maturation in melanocytes, requires a third lumenal subdomain and proteolytic processing that itself requires ILV localization. These results establish an Hrs- and perhaps ESCRT-independent pathway of ILV sorting by lumenal determinants and a requirement for ILV sorting in fibril formation.

  13. Onyx embolization using dual-lumen balloon catheter: initial experience and technical note.

    PubMed

    Paramasivam, Srinivasan; Niimi, Yasunari; Fifi, Johanna; Berenstein, Alejandro

    2013-10-01

    Onyx as an embolization agent for the management of vascular malformation is well established. We report our initial experience with dimethyl-sulphoxide (DMSO) compatible double lumen balloon catheters used for Onyx embolization. Between December 2011 and March 2013, we treated 22 patients aged between 1.5 to 70years with two types of DMSO compatible dual-lumen balloon catheters (Scepter C and Ascent) to treat dural arteriovenous fistulas, brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) with dural feeders, mandibular, facial, lingual, vertebral and paravertebral AVMs. The catheter has good navigability, compliant balloon on inflation formed a "plug" that has more resistance than Onyx plug enhancing better penetration. During injection, the balloon remained stable without spontaneous deflation or rupture and withstood the pressure build-up well. The retrieval of the catheter in most cases took less than a minute (19/28) while in five, it was less than five minutes and in the remaining four, it was longer that includes a trapped catheter on prolonged attempted retrieval resulted in an epidural hematoma, requiring emergent surgical evacuation. The fluoroscopy time is reduced, as we do not form a proximal onyx plug, the injection time is shorter along with easy and instantaneous removal of the catheter after balloon deflation in most cases. Dual-lumen balloon catheter Onyx embolization is a safe and effective technique. Currently, an important tool to circumvent some of the shortcomings associated with Onyx embolization. The catheter has good navigability, the balloon has stability, tolerance, enhances penetrability. It is easy to retrieve the microcatheter. With the experience gained, and with more compliant balloon catheters available, this technique can be applied to cerebral vessels in near future. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Contura Multi-Lumen Balloon Breast Brachytherapy Catheter: Comparative Dosimetric Findings of a Phase 4 Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, Douglas W.; Vicini, Frank A.; Julian, Thomas B.; Cuttino, Laurie W.; Mukhopadhyay, Nitai D.

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Final dosimetric findings of a completed, multi-institutional phase 4 registry trial using the Contura Multi-Lumen Balloon (MLB) breast brachytherapy catheter to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in patients with early-stage breast cancer are presented. Methods and Materials: Three dosimetric plans with identical target coverage were generated for each patient for comparison: multilumen multidwell (MLMD); central-lumen multidwell (CLMD); and central-lumen single-dwell (CLSD) loading of the Contura catheter. For this study, a successful treatment plan achieved ideal dosimetric goals and included the following: ≥95% of the prescribed dose (PD) covering ≥95% of the target volume (TV); maximum skin dose ≤125% of the PD; maximum rib dose ≤145% of the PD; and V150 ≤50 cc and V200 ≤10 cc. Results: Between January 2008 and February 2011, 23 institutions participated. A total of 318 patients were available for dosimetric review. Using the Contura MLB, all dosimetric criteria were met in 78.93% of cases planned with MLMD versus 55.38% with the CLMD versus 37.66% with the CLSD (P≤.0001). Evaluating all patients with the full range of skin to balloon distance represented, median maximum skin dose was reduced by 12% and median maximum rib dose by 13.9% when using MLMD-based dosimetric plans compared to CLSD. The dosimetric benefit of MLMD was further demonstrated in the subgroup of patients where skin thickness was <5 mm, where MLMD use allowed a 38% reduction in median maximum skin dose over CLSD. For patients with rib distance <5 mm, the median maximum rib dose reduction was 27%. Conclusions: Use of the Contura MLB catheter produced statistically significant improvements in dosimetric capabilities between CLSD and CLMD treatments. This device approach demonstrates the ability not only to overcome the barriers of limited skin thickness and close rib proximity, but to consistently achieve a higher standard of dosimetric planning goals.

  15. Thoracoscopy without lung isolation utilizing single lumen endotracheal tube intubation and carbon dioxide insufflation.

    PubMed

    Sancheti, Manu S; Dewan, Brendan P; Pickens, Allan; Fernandez, Felix G; Miller, Daniel L; Force, Seth D

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of performing thoracoscopy without lung isolation employing single lumen endotracheal tube (SLET) intubation and carbon dioxide insufflation. Eighty-two patients underwent a variety of thoracoscopic procedures without lung isolation using SLET intubation and carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation between January and December 2012. Sixty-five of these patients underwent wedge resections and were isolated for analysis. Operations were accomplished using percutaneously placed laparoscopic trocars and insufflation up to 15 mm Hg. Operative times, length of stay, and vital signs were compared with 52 patients who underwent thoracoscopic wedge resections with double lumen endotracheal tube (DLET) intubation. A retrospective analysis was performed on 65 patients (30 females, mean age 58) who underwent thoracoscopic wedge resections with SLET intubation compared with 52 patients undergoing the same procedure with DLET intubation. Operating room time (111 ± 4.74 minutes), time to incision (49 ± 1.91 minutes), and operative time (48 ± 2.89 minutes) were significantly decreased in the SLET group (p < 0.05). Intraoperative hemodynamic parameters showed no significant aberrations. Two postoperative complications (3.1%) were identified in the SLET group. Length of stay was similar (3 ± 0.49 days versus 3 ± 0.23 days). Single lumen endotracheal tube intubation is a feasible and safe airway management alternative for thoracoscopic procedures. This method resulted in shorter operative times, no aberrant hemodynamic shifts, low complication rates, and similar hospital stays as compared with traditional DLET intubation. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A new fluorescence-based method to monitor the pH in the thylakoid lumen using GFP variants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong; Pu, Xiaojun; Wang, Lu; Liu, Li; Theg, Steven M

    2016-12-08

    The ΔpH-dependent/Tat pathway is unique for using only the proton motive force for driving proteins transport across the thylakoid membrane in chloroplasts. 9-aminoacridine fluorescence quenching is widely used to monitor the ΔpH developed across the thylakoid membrane in the light. However, this method suffers from limited sensitivity to low ΔpH values and to spurious fluorescence signals due to membrane binding. In order to develop a more sensitive method for monitoring the real pH of the thylakoid lumen without these problems we transformed Arabidopsis thaliana with a ratiometric pH-sensitive GFP variant (termed pHluorin) targeted to the lumen by the prOE17 transit peptide. Positive transgenic plants displayed localization of pHluorin in the chloroplast by confocal microscopy, and fractionation experiments revealed that it is in the lumen. The pHluorin signal was the strongest in very young plants and diminished as the plants matured. The pHluorin released from the lumen displayed the expected fluorescence intensity changes in response to pH titration. The fluorescence signal in isolated chloroplasts responded to illumination in a manner consistent with light-dependent lumen acidification. Future experiments will exploit the use of this new pH-indicating probe of the thylakoid lumen to examine the influence of the thylakoid ΔpH on ATP synthesis and protein transport.

  17. Stopcock lumen contamination does not reflect the full burden of bacterial intravenous tubing contamination: analysis using a novel injection port.

    PubMed

    Muffly, Matthew K; Beach, Michael L; Tong, Yi Cai Isaac; Yeager, Mark P

    2010-11-01

    Prior clinical studies have used injection port lumen culture as a marker of intravenous (IV) fluid system contamination. We hypothesized that culturing injected saline (effluent) is a more sensitive method of detecting IV fluid system bacterial contamination than lumen culture. To test this hypothesis, we compared the incidence of lumen contamination with effluent contamination in a simulated setting. We also measured the effect of a novel injection port protective device (Port Guide; Matrix Tooling, Inc, Wood Dale, IL) on contamination. In this ex vivo study, 33 providers performed 5 injections of 1 mL sterile saline into each of 4 injection port designs: (1) stopcock, (2) stopcock with Port Guide, (3) stopcock with disinfectable needleless closed connector (DNCC), and (4) stopcock with DNCC and Port Guide. The primary outcome was the rate of effluent contamination with simultaneously contaminated injection port lumen. Bacterial organisms were recovered from the effluent in 17 of the 132 injection ports evaluated. Of those 17 injection ports with contaminated effluent, 4 injection port lumens were simultaneously contaminated (24%). Additionally, use of the stopcock with Port Guide significantly reduced effluent contamination. Effluent culture is a more sensitive marker of IV fluid system contamination than injection port lumen culture. A novel protective device on the stopcock (Port Guide) significantly reduced IV fluid system bacterial contamination. Copyright © 2010 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Branched stent-grafts deployed in the true and false lumen to exclude a post dissecting thoracoabdominal aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Bertoglio, Luca; Marone, Enrico M; Civilini, Efrem; Cambiaghi, Tommaso; Mascia, Daniele; Chiesa, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this case report was to present an endovascular treatment of a residual post-dissection Crawford type III thoracoabdominal aneurysm (TAA). A 60-year-old man, who had suffered from acute type B aortic dissection (TBAD) 8 years ago and had already been treated for both descending thoracic and infrarenal aortic aneurysm with open repair, presented with a 61mm post-dissection TAA. The aneurysm was successfully excluded with a staged fully endovascular procedure by employing two multibranched custom-made stent grafts deployed into the false lumen. The first stent-graft with a proximal monobranch was created to perfuse the right renal artery via the true lumen. The latter, with a triple branch design, was meant to perfuse the visceral arteries and left renal artery arising from the false lumen. Available branched custom-made stent-grafts for the treatment of degenerative TAA can be employed also in post TBAD aneurysms so as to simplify the procedure. The branched stent-grafts could be deployed within an enlarged false lumen provided that a suitable distal landing zone is available as well as that the visceral vessels can be perfused from the false lumen. A proximal branch for perfusing one of the lumens of the dissection from the proximal tear can be an alternative solution to creating neofenestrations.

  19. De novo lumen formation and elongation in the developing nephron: a central role for afadin in apical polarity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhufeng; Zimmerman, Susan; Brakeman, Paul R; Beaudoin, Gerard M; Reichardt, Louis F; Marciano, Denise K

    2013-04-01

    A fundamental process in biology is the de novo formation and morphogenesis of polarized tubules. Although these processes are essential for the formation of multiple metazoan organ systems, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate them. In this study, we have characterized several steps in tubule formation and morphogenesis using the mouse kidney as a model system. We report that kidney mesenchymal cells contain discrete Par3-expressing membrane microdomains that become restricted to an apical domain, coinciding with lumen formation. Once lumen formation has been initiated, elongation occurs by simultaneous extension and additional de novo lumen generation. We demonstrate that lumen formation and elongation require afadin, a nectin adaptor protein implicated in adherens junction formation. Mice that lack afadin in nephron precursors show evidence of Par3-expressing membrane microdomains, but fail to develop normal apical-basal polarity and generate a continuous lumen. Absence of afadin led to delayed and diminished integration of nectin complexes and failure to recruit R-cadherin. Furthermore, we demonstrate that afadin is required for Par complex formation. Together, these results suggest that afadin acts upstream of the Par complex to regulate the integration and/or coalescence of membrane microdomains, thereby establishing apical-basal polarity and lumen formation/elongation during kidney tubulogenesis.

  20. The Microbiota Mediates Pathogen Clearance from the Gut Lumen after Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Chaffron, Samuel; Slack, Emma; Tchitchek, Nicolas; Benecke, Arndt; Van Maele, Laurye; Sirard, Jean-Claude; Mueller, Andreas J.; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Macpherson, Andrew J.; Strugnell, Richard; von Mering, Christian; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2010-01-01

    Many enteropathogenic bacteria target the mammalian gut. The mechanisms protecting the host from infection are poorly understood. We have studied the protective functions of secretory antibodies (sIgA) and the microbiota, using a mouse model for S. typhimurium diarrhea. This pathogen is a common cause of diarrhea in humans world-wide. S. typhimurium (S. tm att, sseD) causes a self-limiting gut infection in streptomycin-treated mice. After 40 days, all animals had overcome the disease, developed a sIgA response, and most had cleared the pathogen from the gut lumen. sIgA limited pathogen access to the mucosal surface and protected from gut inflammation in challenge infections. This protection was O-antigen specific, as demonstrated with pathogens lacking the S. typhimurium O-antigen (wbaP, S. enteritidis) and sIgA-deficient mice (TCRβ−/−δ−/−, JH −/−, IgA−/−, pIgR−/−). Surprisingly, sIgA-deficiency did not affect the kinetics of pathogen clearance from the gut lumen. Instead, this was mediated by the microbiota. This was confirmed using ‘L-mice’ which harbor a low complexity gut flora, lack colonization resistance and develop a normal sIgA response, but fail to clear S. tm att from the gut lumen. In these mice, pathogen clearance was achieved by transferring a normal complex microbiota. Thus, besides colonization resistance ( = pathogen blockage by an intact microbiota), the microbiota mediates a second, novel protective function, i.e. pathogen clearance. Here, the normal microbiota re-grows from a state of depletion and disturbed composition and gradually clears even very high pathogen loads from the gut lumen, a site inaccessible to most “classical” immune effector mechanisms. In conclusion, sIgA and microbiota serve complementary protective functions. The microbiota confers colonization resistance and mediates pathogen clearance in primary infections, while sIgA protects from disease if the host re-encounters the same pathogen

  1. The Cohen flexitip endobronchial blocker: an alternative to a double lumen tube.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Edmond

    2005-12-01

    One-lung ventilation (OLV) is usually achieved by the use of a double-lumen tubes (DLTs). With increasing need for use of OLV for video-assisted thoracoscopic procedures, the limitations of traditional DLT's, including difficult insertion and positioning, have become evident. This has led to renewed interest in devising alternative methods of achieving lung separation, such as the Univent tube or Arndt endobronchial blocker. This report describes the technical features and clinical use of a new tip-deflecting endobronchial blocker.

  2. The microbiota mediates pathogen clearance from the gut lumen after non-typhoidal Salmonella diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Endt, Kathrin; Stecher, Bärbel; Chaffron, Samuel; Slack, Emma; Tchitchek, Nicolas; Benecke, Arndt; Van Maele, Laurye; Sirard, Jean-Claude; Mueller, Andreas J; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Macpherson, Andrew J; Strugnell, Richard; von Mering, Christian; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2010-09-09

    Many enteropathogenic bacteria target the mammalian gut. The mechanisms protecting the host from infection are poorly understood. We have studied the protective functions of secretory antibodies (sIgA) and the microbiota, using a mouse model for S. typhimurium diarrhea. This pathogen is a common cause of diarrhea in humans world-wide. S. typhimurium (S. tm(att), sseD) causes a self-limiting gut infection in streptomycin-treated mice. After 40 days, all animals had overcome the disease, developed a sIgA response, and most had cleared the pathogen from the gut lumen. sIgA limited pathogen access to the mucosal surface and protected from gut inflammation in challenge infections. This protection was O-antigen specific, as demonstrated with pathogens lacking the S. typhimurium O-antigen (wbaP, S. enteritidis) and sIgA-deficient mice (TCRβ(-/-)δ(-/-), J(H) (-/-), IgA(-/-), pIgR(-/-)). Surprisingly, sIgA-deficiency did not affect the kinetics of pathogen clearance from the gut lumen. Instead, this was mediated by the microbiota. This was confirmed using 'L-mice' which harbor a low complexity gut flora, lack colonization resistance and develop a normal sIgA response, but fail to clear S. tm(att) from the gut lumen. In these mice, pathogen clearance was achieved by transferring a normal complex microbiota. Thus, besides colonization resistance ( = pathogen blockage by an intact microbiota), the microbiota mediates a second, novel protective function, i.e. pathogen clearance. Here, the normal microbiota re-grows from a state of depletion and disturbed composition and gradually clears even very high pathogen loads from the gut lumen, a site inaccessible to most "classical" immune effector mechanisms. In conclusion, sIgA and microbiota serve complementary protective functions. The microbiota confers colonization resistance and mediates pathogen clearance in primary infections, while sIgA protects from disease if the host re-encounters the same pathogen. This has

  3. Meal-stimulated release of methionine-enkephalin into the canine jejunal lumen.

    PubMed Central

    Money, S R; Petroianu, A; Gintzler, A R; Jaffe, B M

    1988-01-01

    Application of enkephalins to the luminal surface of the bowel augments intestinal absorption. However, to date, endogenous enkephalins have not been demonstrated within intestinal luminal fluid. To determine whether enkephalins are present in the intestinal lumen, five adult dogs had 25-cm chronic jejunal Thiry-Vella loops constructed. Dogs were studied in the awake, fasted state. Jejunal loops were perfused with isoosmotic, neutral Krebs buffer containing protease inhibitors. After basal sampling, the dogs received a high fat meat meal. Collections were made during the meal and for 60 min postprandially. Luminal met-enkephalin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay and confirmed by HPLC. HPLC separation of luminal samples demonstrated two immunoreactive peaks which co-eluted with pure met-enkephalin and met-enkephalin-sulfoxide. Basal met-enkephalin outputs averaged 52 +/- 13 ng/min. The meal significantly increased mean luminal met-enkephalin output to 137 +/- 71 ng/min. During the initial 20-min postprandial period, output remained elevated (180 +/- 73 ng/min), after which it returned to basal levels. We conclude that met-enkephalin is present in the jejunal lumen, and that luminal release of this opioid is augmented by a meal. Images PMID:3343342

  4. Methods for analysis of apical lumen trafficking using micropatterned 3D systems.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Fraticelli, Alejo E; Martín-Belmonte, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial organs are made of interconnected branched networks of tubules, with a central lumen lined by a monolayer of epithelial cells. Certain epithelial cell lines can be converted into organotypic cultures by the addition of extracellular matrix components. When cultured in these conditions, epithelial cells reorient the axis of polarity, reorganize the membrane surfaces, and transport apical proteins to form the lumen in a process that recapitulates essential aspects of de novo apical membrane formation during epithelial organ morphogenesis. Micropatterns are a simple technique that allows cell culture in a controlled adhesive environment with extremely high precision, close to the nanometer scale. We have recently developed a method to culture MDCK cysts on micropatterns of different sizes and composition. Using this method we found that changes in micropattern shape and size can be used to modify cell contractility to understand its contribution to apical membrane formation. When imaging cysts on micropatterns the main advantage is that apical-directed vesicle trafficking is visualized in the x-y plane, which presents higher resolution on confocal microscopes. Thus, the use of micropatterns is an efficient setup to analyze polarized secretion with unprecedented higher resolution in both time and space. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Matrix density mediates polarization and lumen formation of endothelial sprouts in VEGF gradients.

    PubMed

    Shamloo, Amir; Heilshorn, Sarah C

    2010-11-21

    Endothelial cell (EC) sprouting morphogenesis is a critical step during angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from existing conduits. Here, three-dimensional sprouting morphogenesis was examined using in vitro microfluidic devices that enabled the separate and simultaneous tuning of biomechanical and soluble biochemical stimuli. Quantitative analysis of endothelial sprout formation demonstrated that the ability of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to regulate stable sprout formation was mediated by the density of the surrounding collagen/fibronectin matrix. The coordinated migration and proliferation of multiple ECs to form stable sprouts were enhanced at intermediate matrix densities (1.2-1.9 mg ml(-1)), while lower densities resulted in uncoordinated migration (0.3-0.7 mg ml(-1)) and higher densities resulted in broad cell clusters that did not elongate (2.7 mg ml(-1)). Within the permissive range of matrix biomechanics, higher density matrices resulted in shorter, thicker, and slower-growing sprouts. The sprouts in higher density matrices also were more likely to polarize towards higher VEGF concentrations, included more cells per cross-sectional area, and demonstrated more stable lumen formation compared to sprouts in lower density matrices. These results quantitatively demonstrate that matrix density mediates VEGF-induced sprout polarization and lumen formation, potentially by regulating the balance between EC migration rate and proliferation rate.

  6. Changes in pulmonary arterial wall mechanical properties and lumenal architecture with induced vascular remodeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molthen, Robert C.; Heinrich, Amy E.; Haworth, Steven T.; Dawson, Christopher A.

    2004-04-01

    To explore and quantify pulmonary arterial remodeling we used various methods including micro-CT, high-resolution 3-dimensional x-ray imaging, to examine the structure and function of intact pulmonary vessels in isolated rat lungs. The rat is commonly used as an animal model for studies of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and the accompanying vascular remodeling, where vascular remodeling has been defined primarily by changes in the vessel wall composition in response to hypertension inducing stimuli such as chronic hypoxic exposure (CHE) or monocrotaline (MCT) injection. Little information has been provided as to how such changes affect the vessel wall mechanical properties or the lumenal architecture of the pulmonary arterial system that actually account for the hemodynamic consequences of the remodeling. In addition, although the link between primary forms of pulmonary hypertension and inherited genetics is well established, the role that genetic coding plays in hemodynamics and vascular remodeling is not. Therefore, we are utilizing Fawn-Hooded (FH), Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Brown Norway (BN)rat strains along with unique imaging methods to parameterize both vessel distensibility and lumenal morphometry using a principal pulmonary arterial pathway analysis based on self-consistency. We have found for the hypoxia model, in addition to decreased body weight, increased hematocrit, increased right ventricular hypertrophy, the distensibility of the pulmonary arteries is shown to decrease significantly in the presence of remodeling.

  7. Joint segmentation of 3D femoral lumen and outer wall surfaces from MR images.

    PubMed

    Ukwatta, Eranga; Yuan, Jing; Qiu, Wu; Rajchl, Martin; Chiu, Bernard; Shavakh, Shadi; Xu, Jianrong; Fenster, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel algorithm to jointly delineate the femoral artery lumen and outer wall surfaces from 3D black-blood MR images, while enforcing the spatial consistency of the reoriented MR slices along the medial axis of the femoral artery. We demonstrate that the resulting optimization problem of the proposed segmentation can be solved globally and exactly by means of convex relaxation, for which we introduce a novel coupled continuous max-flow (CCOMF) model based on an Ishikawa-type flow configuration and show its duality to the studied convex relaxed optimization problem. Using the proposed CCMF model, the exactness and globalness of its dual convex relaxation problem is proven. Experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method yielded high accuracy (i.e. Dice similarity coefficient > 85%) for both the lumen and outer wall and high reproducibility (intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.95) for generating vessel wall area. The proposed method outperformed the previous method, in terms of computation time, by a factor of pproximately 20.

  8. Impact of surrounding tissue on conductance measurement of coronary and peripheral lumen area

    PubMed Central

    Won Choi, Hyo; Jansen, Benjamin; Zhang, Zhen-Du; Kassab, Ghassan S.

    2012-01-01

    Parallel conductance (electric current flow through surrounding tissue) is an important determinant of accurate measurements of arterial lumen diameter, using the conductance method. The present study is focused on the role of non-uniform geometrical/electrical configurations of surrounding tissue, which are a primary source of electric current leakage. Computational models were constructed to simulate the conductance catheter measurement with two different excitation electrodes spacings (i.e. 12 and 20 mm for coronary and peripheral sizing, respectively) for different vessel–tissue configurations: (i) blood vessel fully embedded in muscle tissue, (ii) blood vessel superficially embedded in muscle tissue, and (iii) blood vessel superficially embedded in muscle tissue with fat covering half of the arterial vessel (anterior portion). The simulations suggest that the parallel conductance and accuracy of measurement is dependent on the inhomogeneous/anisotropic configuration of surrounding tissue, including the asymmetric dimension and anisotropy in electrical conductivity of surrounding tissue. Specifically, the measurement was shown to be accurate as long as the vessel was superficial, regardless of the considerable total surrounding tissue dimension for coronary or peripheral arteries. Moreover, it was shown that the unfavourable impact of parallel conductance on the accuracy of conductance catheter measurement is decreased by the combination of a lower transverse electrical conductivity of surrounding muscle tissue, a smaller electrode spacing and a larger lumen diameter. The present findings confirm that the conductance catheter technique provides an accurate platform for sizing of clinically relevant (i.e. superficial and diseased) arteries. PMID:22718991

  9. Impact of surrounding tissue on conductance measurement of coronary and peripheral lumen area.

    PubMed

    Won Choi, Hyo; Jansen, Benjamin; Zhang, Zhen-Du; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2012-11-07

    Parallel conductance (electric current flow through surrounding tissue) is an important determinant of accurate measurements of arterial lumen diameter, using the conductance method. The present study is focused on the role of non-uniform geometrical/electrical configurations of surrounding tissue, which are a primary source of electric current leakage. Computational models were constructed to simulate the conductance catheter measurement with two different excitation electrodes spacings (i.e. 12 and 20 mm for coronary and peripheral sizing, respectively) for different vessel-tissue configurations: (i) blood vessel fully embedded in muscle tissue, (ii) blood vessel superficially embedded in muscle tissue, and (iii) blood vessel superficially embedded in muscle tissue with fat covering half of the arterial vessel (anterior portion). The simulations suggest that the parallel conductance and accuracy of measurement is dependent on the inhomogeneous/anisotropic configuration of surrounding tissue, including the asymmetric dimension and anisotropy in electrical conductivity of surrounding tissue. Specifically, the measurement was shown to be accurate as long as the vessel was superficial, regardless of the considerable total surrounding tissue dimension for coronary or peripheral arteries. Moreover, it was shown that the unfavourable impact of parallel conductance on the accuracy of conductance catheter measurement is decreased by the combination of a lower transverse electrical conductivity of surrounding muscle tissue, a smaller electrode spacing and a larger lumen diameter. The present findings confirm that the conductance catheter technique provides an accurate platform for sizing of clinically relevant (i.e. superficial and diseased) arteries.

  10. SAS-6 assembly templated by the lumen of cartwheel-less centrioles precedes centriole duplication.

    PubMed

    Fong, Chii Shyang; Kim, Minhee; Yang, T Tony; Liao, Jung-Chi; Tsou, Meng-Fu Bryan

    2014-07-28

    Centrioles are 9-fold symmetric structures duplicating once per cell cycle. Duplication involves self-oligomerization of the centriolar protein SAS-6, but how the 9-fold symmetry is invariantly established remains unclear. Here, we found that SAS-6 assembly can be shaped by preexisting (or mother) centrioles. During S phase, SAS-6 molecules are first recruited to the proximal lumen of the mother centriole, adopting a cartwheel-like organization through interactions with the luminal wall, rather than via their self-oligomerization activity. The removal or release of luminal SAS-6 requires Plk4 and the cartwheel protein STIL. Abolishing either the recruitment or the removal of luminal SAS-6 hinders SAS-6 (or centriole) assembly at the outside wall of mother centrioles. After duplication, the lumen of engaged mother centrioles becomes inaccessible to SAS-6, correlating with a block for reduplication. These results lead to a proposed model that centrioles may duplicate via a template-based process to preserve their geometry and copy number.

  11. Quantitative analysis for lumen and media-adventitia border detection in intravascular ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ling; Yu, Daoyin; Chen, Xiaodong; An, Zhiyong

    2008-12-01

    Therosclerosis causes partial or total obstruction of human arteries. Early quantitative analysis and accurate assessment of plaque position and volume are essential for the selection of the appropriate treatment. Several imaging techniques can be used for the estimation of the severity of the disease in vivo. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is a commonly used diagnostic tool, which provides real-time visualization of plaque morphology and detection of typical plaque components, such as calcium, quantification of plaque eccentricity and wall thickness. In this paper, we firstly used a spatio-temporal filter to reduce the effect of speckles and enhance the image. Then we translated the problem of image segmentation to the problem of the minimum resolution of energy function. using an improved deformable models, we detected the border of lumen and media-adventitia in sequential intravascular ultrasound frames, and optimized it by dynamic programming. Finally, through the identification of the internal and external elastic lamina and the plaque-lumen interface, we figured out the parameter of plaque load, maximal and minimal diameters of the internal and external elastic lamina and so on. The obtained results demonstrate that our method is statistically accurate, reproducible, and capable to identify the regions of interest in sequences of IVUS frames.

  12. Laminin-111 Peptides Conjugated to Fibrin Hydrogels Promote Formation of Lumen Containing Parotid Gland Cell Clusters.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kihoon; Jones, Joshua P; Lei, Pedro; Andreadis, Stelios T; Baker, Olga J

    2016-06-13

    Previous studies showed that mouse submandibular gland cells form three-dimensional structures when grown on Laminin-111 gels. The use of Laminin-111 for tissue bioengineering is complicated due to its lack of purity. By contrast, the use of synthetic peptides derived from Laminin-111 is beneficial due to their high purity and easy manipulation. Two Laminin-111 peptides have been identified for salivary cells: the A99 peptide corresponding to the α1 chain from Laminin-111 and the YIGSR peptide corresponding to the β1 chain from Laminin-111, which are important for cell adhesion and migration. We created three-dimensional salivary cell clusters using a modified fibrin hydrogel matrix containing immobilized Laminin-111 peptides. Results indicate that the YIGSR peptide improved morphology and lumen formation in rat parotid Par-C10 cells as compared to cells grown on unmodified fibrin hydrogel. Moreover, a combination of both peptides not only allowed the formation of functional three-dimensional salivary cell clusters but also increased attachment and number of cell clusters. In summary, we demonstrated that fibrin hydrogel decorated with Laminin-111 peptides supports attachment and differentiation of salivary gland cell clusters with mature lumens.

  13. Molecular basis for endothelial lumen formation and tubulogenesis during vasculogenesis and angiogenic sprouting

    PubMed Central

    Davis, George E.; Stratman, Amber N.; Sacharidou, Anastasia; Koh, Wonshill

    2013-01-01

    Many studies reveal a fundamental role for extracellular matrix-mediated signaling through integrins and Rho GTPases as well as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the molecular control of vascular tube morphogenesis in three-dimensional (3D) tissue environments. Recent work has defined an EC lumen signaling complex of proteins that controls these vascular morphogenic events. These findings reveal a signaling interdependence between Cdc42 and MT1-MMP to control the 3D matrix-specific process of EC tubulogenesis. The EC tube formation process results in the creation of a network of proteolytically-generated vascular guidance tunnels in 3D matrices that are utilized to remodel EC-lined tubes through EC motility and could facilitate processes such as flow-induced remodeling and arteriovenous EC sorting and differentiation. Within vascular guidance tunnels, key dynamic interactions occur between endothelial cells (ECs) and pericytes to affect vessel remodeling, diameter, and vascular basement membrane matrix assembly, a fundamental process necessary for endothelial tube maturation and stabilization. Thus, the EC lumen and tube formation mechanism coordinates the concomitant establishment of a network of vascular tubes within tunnel spaces to allow for flow responsiveness, EC-mural cell interactions, and vascular extracellular matrix assembly to control the development of the functional microcirculation. PMID:21482411

  14. Videolaryngoscopes for placement of double lumen tubes: Is it time to say goodbye to direct view?

    PubMed Central

    El-Tahan, MR

    2016-01-01

    The advances in thoracic procedures require optimum lung separation to provide adequate room for surgical access. This can be achieved using either a double-lumen tube (DLT) or a bronchial blocker (BB). Most thoracic anesthesiologists prefer the use of DLT. However, lung separation in patients with potential difficult airway can be achieved using either BB through a single lumen tube or placement of a DLT over a tube exchanger or a fiberoptic bronchoscope. Numerous videolaryngoscopes (VL) have been introduced offering both optical and video options to visualize the glottis. Many studies reported improved glottis visualization and easier DLT intubation in patients with normal and potential difficult airway. However, these studies have a wide diversity of outcomes, which may be attributed to the differences in their designs and the prior experience of the operators in using the different devices. In the present review, we present the main outcomes of the available publications, which have addressed the use of VL-guided DLT intubation. Currently, there is enough evidence supporting using VL for DLT intubation in patients with predicted and unanticipated difficult airway. In conclusion, the use of VL could offer an effective method of DLT placement for lung separation in patients with the potential difficult airway. PMID:27051377

  15. Cingulin and actin mediate midbody-dependent apical lumen formation during polarization of epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Mangan, Anthony J.; Sietsema, Daniel V.; Li, Dongying; Moore, Jeffrey K.; Citi, Sandra; Prekeris, Rytis

    2016-01-01

    Coordinated polarization of epithelial cells is a key step during morphogenesis that leads to the formation of an apical lumen. Rab11 and its interacting protein FIP5 are necessary for the targeting of apical endosomes to the midbody and apical membrane initiation site (AMIS) during lumenogenesis. However, the machinery that mediates AMIS establishment and FIP5-endosome targeting remains unknown. Here we identify a FIP5-interacting protein, Cingulin, which localizes to the AMIS and functions as a tether mediating FIP5-endosome targeting. We analysed the machinery mediating AMIS recruitment to the midbody and determined that both branched actin and microtubules are required for establishing the site of the nascent lumen. We demonstrate that the Rac1-WAVE/Scar complex mediates Cingulin recruitment to the AMIS by inducing branched actin formation, and that Cingulin directly binds to microtubule C-terminal tails through electrostatic interactions. We propose a new mechanism for apical endosome targeting and AMIS formation around the midbody during epithelial lumenogenesis. PMID:27484926

  16. Comparison between MDCT and Grayscale IVUS in a Quantitative Analysis of Coronary Lumen in Segments with or without Atherosclerotic Plaques.

    PubMed

    Falcão, João L A A; Falcão, Breno A A; Gurudevan, Swaminatha V; Campos, Carlos M; Silva, Expedito R; Kalil-Filho, Roberto; Rochitte, Carlos E; Shiozaki, Afonso A; Coelho-Filho, Otavio R; Lemos, Pedro A

    2015-01-27

    Background: The diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice MDCT in comparison with IVUS has been poorly described and is mainly restricted to reports analyzing segments with documented atherosclerotic plaques. Objectives: We compared 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with gray scale intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) for the evaluation of coronary lumen dimensions in the context of a comprehensive analysis, including segments with absent or mild disease. Methods: The 64-slice MDCT was performed within 72 h before the IVUS imaging, which was obtained for at least one coronary, regardless of the presence of luminal stenosis at angiography. A total of 21 patients were included, with 70 imaged vessels (total length 114.6 ± 38.3 mm per patient). A coronary plaque was diagnosed in segments with plaque burden > 40%. Results: At patient, vessel, and segment levels, average lumen area, minimal lumen area, and minimal lumen diameter were highly correlated between IVUS and 64-slice MDCT (p < 0.01). However, 64-slice MDCT tended to underestimate the lumen size with a relatively wide dispersion of the differences. The comparison between 64-slice MDCT and IVUS lumen measurements was not substantially affected by the presence or absence of an underlying plaque. In addition, 64-slice MDCT showed good global accuracy for the detection of IVUS parameters associated with flow-limiting lesions. Conclusions: In a comprehensive, multi-territory, and whole-artery analysis, the assessment of coronary lumen by 64-slice MDCT compared with coronary IVUS showed a good overall diagnostic ability, regardless of the presence or absence of underlying atherosclerotic plaques.

  17. Comparison between MDCT and Grayscale IVUS in a Quantitative Analysis of Coronary Lumen in Segments with or without Atherosclerotic Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Falcão, João L. A. A.; Falcão, Breno A. A.; Gurudevan, Swaminatha V.; Campos, Carlos M.; Silva, Expedito R.; Kalil-Filho, Roberto; Rochitte, Carlos E.; Shiozaki, Afonso A.; Coelho-Filho, Otavio R.; Lemos, Pedro A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice MDCT in comparison with IVUS has been poorly described and is mainly restricted to reports analyzing segments with documented atherosclerotic plaques. Objectives We compared 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with gray scale intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) for the evaluation of coronary lumen dimensions in the context of a comprehensive analysis, including segments with absent or mild disease. Methods The 64-slice MDCT was performed within 72 h before the IVUS imaging, which was obtained for at least one coronary, regardless of the presence of luminal stenosis at angiography. A total of 21 patients were included, with 70 imaged vessels (total length 114.6 ± 38.3 mm per patient). A coronary plaque was diagnosed in segments with plaque burden > 40%. Results At patient, vessel, and segment levels, average lumen area, minimal lumen area, and minimal lumen diameter were highly correlated between IVUS and 64-slice MDCT (p < 0.01). However, 64-slice MDCT tended to underestimate the lumen size with a relatively wide dispersion of the differences. The comparison between 64-slice MDCT and IVUS lumen measurements was not substantially affected by the presence or absence of an underlying plaque. In addition, 64-slice MDCT showed good global accuracy for the detection of IVUS parameters associated with flow-limiting lesions. Conclusions In a comprehensive, multi-territory, and whole-artery analysis, the assessment of coronary lumen by 64-slice MDCT compared with coronary IVUS showed a good overall diagnostic ability, regardless of the presence or absence of underlying atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:25993595

  18. Comparison between MDCT and Grayscale IVUS in a Quantitative Analysis of Coronary Lumen in Segments with or without Atherosclerotic Plaques.

    PubMed

    Falcão, João L A A; Falcão, Breno A A; Gurudevan, Swaminatha V; Campos, Carlos M; Silva, Expedito R; Kalil-Filho, Roberto; Rochitte, Carlos E; Shiozaki, Afonso A; Coelho-Filho, Otavio R; Lemos, Pedro A

    2015-04-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice MDCT in comparison with IVUS has been poorly described and is mainly restricted to reports analyzing segments with documented atherosclerotic plaques. We compared 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with gray scale intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) for the evaluation of coronary lumen dimensions in the context of a comprehensive analysis, including segments with absent or mild disease. The 64-slice MDCT was performed within 72 h before the IVUS imaging, which was obtained for at least one coronary, regardless of the presence of luminal stenosis at angiography. A total of 21 patients were included, with 70 imaged vessels (total length 114.6 ± 38.3 mm per patient). A coronary plaque was diagnosed in segments with plaque burden > 40%. At patient, vessel, and segment levels, average lumen area, minimal lumen area, and minimal lumen diameter were highly correlated between IVUS and 64-slice MDCT (p < 0.01). However, 64-slice MDCT tended to underestimate the lumen size with a relatively wide dispersion of the differences. The comparison between 64-slice MDCT and IVUS lumen measurements was not substantially affected by the presence or absence of an underlying plaque. In addition, 64-slice MDCT showed good global accuracy for the detection of IVUS parameters associated with flow-limiting lesions. In a comprehensive, multi-territory, and whole-artery analysis, the assessment of coronary lumen by 64-slice MDCT compared with coronary IVUS showed a good overall diagnostic ability, regardless of the presence or absence of underlying atherosclerotic plaques.

  19. Combined coronary lumen and vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging with i-T2prep: influence of nitroglycerin.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Tarique; Henningsson, Markus; Butzbach, Britta; Lossnitzer, Dirk; Greil, Gerald F; Andia, Marcelo E; Botnar, Rene M

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that sublingual nitroglycerin (NTG) improves image quality of coronary lumen magnetic resonance angiography. Our aim was to investigate the influence of NTG on coronary lumen and vessel wall image quality using a combined, single sequence approach (i-T2prep), which is able to image both within the known time frame of action of NTG. Ten healthy volunteers underwent right coronary artery lumen and vessel wall imaging using the i-T2prep sequence before and after administration of NTG. Image quality was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. Diameter, length and wall thickness were also measured using dedicated semi-automatic software. NTG induced coronary vasodilatation (lumen diameter increased from 2.16 ± 0.32 to 2.52 ± 0.59 mm; p = 0.036). As a result, visualized lumen length (9.8 ± 2.6 to 11.4 ± 3.3 cm; p = 0.025) and qualitative lumen image quality (median 3 (interquartile range 2-3.25) vs. median 3 (interquartile range 3-4); p = 0.046) both improved. Vessel wall imaging also demonstrated a significant improvement in vessel wall sharpness after NTG (24.8 vs. 27.3 %; p = 0.036). This study demonstrates the benefits of NTG for coronary lumen and vessel wall imaging using a combined sequence, i-T2prep. The methodology described here has great potential for future pathophysiological studies.

  20. Sarcoplasmic reticulum lumenal Ca2+ has access to cytosolic activation and inactivation sites of skeletal muscle Ca2+ release channel.

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, A; Meissner, G

    1996-01-01

    The effects of sarcoplasmic reticulum lumenal (trans) Ca2+ on cytosolic (cis) ATP-activated rabbit skeletal muscle Ca2+ release channels (ryanodine receptors) were examined using the planar lipid bilayer method. Single channels were recorded in symmetric 0.25 M KCl media with K+ as the major current carrier. With nanomolar [Ca2+] in both bilayer chambers, the addition of 2 mM cytosolic ATP greatly increased the number of short channel openings. As lumenal [Ca2+] was increased from < 0.1 microM to approximately 250 microM, increasing channel activities and events with long open time constants were seen at negative holding potentials. Channel activity remained low at positive holding potentials. Further increase in lumenal [Ca2+] to 1, 5, and 10 mM resulted in a decrease in channel activities at negative holding potentials and increased activities at positive holding potentials. A voltage-dependent activation by 50 microM lumenal Ca2+ was also observed when the channel was minimally activated by < 1 microM cytosolic Ca2+ in the absence of ATP. With microM cytosolic Ca2+ in the presence or absence of 2 mM ATP, single-channel activities showed no or only a weak voltage dependence. Other divalent cations (Mg2+, Ba2+) could not replace lumenal Ca2+. On the contrary, cytosolic ATP-activated channel activities were decreased as lumenal Ca2+ fluxes were reduced by the addition of 1-5 mM BaCl2 or MgCl2 to the lumenal side, which contained 50 microM Ca2+. An increase in [KCl] from 0.25 M to 1 M also reduced single-channel activities. Addition of the "fast" Ca2+ buffer 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethanetetraacetic acid (BAPTA) to the cls chamber increased cytosolic ATP-, lumenal Ca(2+)-activated channel activities to a nearly maximum level. These results suggested that lumenal Ca2+ flowing through the skeletal muscle Ca2+ release channel may regulate channel activity by having access to cytosolic Ca2+ activation and Ca2+ inactivation sites that are located in "BAPTA

  1. Dual-Lumen Chest Port Infection Rates in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bos, Aaron Ahmed, Osman; Jilani, Danial; Giger, Maryellen; Funaki, Brian S.; Zangan, Steven M.

    2015-06-15

    PurposeThe aim of this study was to investigate dual-lumen chest port infection rates in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) compared to those with other malignancies (non-HNC).Materials and MethodsAn IRB-approved retrospective study was performed on 1,094 consecutive chest ports placed over a 2-year period. Patients with poor follow-up (n = 53), no oncologic history (n = 13), or single-lumen ports (n = 183) were excluded yielding a study population of 845 patients. The electronic medical records were queried for demographic information, data regarding ports and infections, and imaging review.ResultsHNC patients experienced more infections (42 vs. 30), an increased infection rate per 1,000 catheter days (0.68 vs. 0.21), and more early infections within 30 days compared to non-HNC patients (10 vs. 6) (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.02, respectively). An existing tracheostomy at the time of port placement was associated with infection in the HNC group (p = 0.02) but was not an independent risk factor for infection in the study population overall (p = 0.06). There was a significant difference in age, male gender, and right-sided ports between the HNC and non-HNC groups (p < 0.01, p < 0.001, and p = 0.01), although these were not found to be independent risk factors for infection (p = 0.32, p = 0.76, p = 0.16).ConclusionHNC patients are at increased risk for infection of dual-lumen chest ports placed via a jugular approach compared to patients with other malignancies. Tracheostomy is associated with infection in HNC patients but is not an independent risk factor for infection in the oncologic population as a whole.

  2. Effective Bolus Dose of Sufentanil to Attenuate Cardiovascular Responses in Laryngoscopic Double-Lumen Endobronchial Intubation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Byung-Hee; Lee, Yong-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Background Sufentanil is a potent opioid analgesic frequently used in clinical anesthesia. Double-lumen endobronchial intubation induces profound cardiovascular responses in comparison with ordinary endotracheal intubation because of the larger tube diameter and direct irritation of the carina. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the effective bolus dose of sufentanil to attenuate hemodynamic changes in response to laryngoscopic double-lumen endobronchial intubation. Patients and Methods We randomly assigned 72 patients aged 18 - 65 years and with an American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status of 1 or 2 to one of four sufentanil dose groups: NS, S0.1, S0.2, or S0.3. The respective doses for the groups were as follows: normal saline, 0.1 mcg/kg of sufentanil, 0.2 mcg/kg of sufentanil, and 0.3 mcg/kg of sufentanil. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded during the pre-anesthesia period at baseline, pre-intubation, immediate post-intubation, and every minute during 5 minutes after intubation. Results Baseline mean arterial pressures in the NS, S0.1, S0.2, and S0.3 groups were 89.8 ± 12.1, 89.2 ± 10.9, 88.8 ± 13.6, and 90.7 ± 11.1, respectively. At immediate post-intubation, the mean arterial pressures in the NS, S0.1, S0.2, and S0.3 groups were 129.7 ± 14.7, 120.7 ± 14.2, 120.8 ± 17.2, and 96.7 ± 10.4, respectively. At immediate post-intubation, the mean arterial pressure in the NS, S0.1, and S0.2 groups significantly increased from baseline (P < 0.001), but the S0.3 group showed no difference. In the time point comparison at immediate post- intubation, the S0.3 group had a significantly lower mean arterial pressure than did the NS, S0.1, and S0.2 groups (P < 0.001). Conclusions We found that 0.3 mcg/kg of sufentanil attenuates cardiovascular responses to double-lumen endobronchial intubation without adverse effects. PMID:27252903

  3. [One layer sutures of digestive tract knotted in the lumen, in dogs: perforating stitch versus serosubmucosal suture].

    PubMed

    Azevedo, João Luiz Moreira Coutinho; Da Silva, Cássio Edvan Paulino; Azevedo, Otávio Cansanção; Simões, Manoel De Jesus

    2005-01-01

    To compare hand sewn digestive tract single layer anastomosis with knots tied in the lumen: total stitches versus serosubmucosal. Six mongrel dogs were submitted to laparotomy, each one with two transversal jejunum sections, 30 and 70 cm far from Treizt angle and suture, serosubmucosal and total stitches, both with knots tied in the lumen, over the mucosa, at the posterior wall. After slaughter (7th post-operative day) was evaluated the peritoneal adhesions at posterior wall. The macro and microscopic features was observed. Wilcox on rank sum test was applied for the histhometry. More profuse adhesions with the serosubmucosal stitches tied in the lumen with adherence tissue over the suture line, avoiding the serosa, within or without healing deformation of the suture lines, doing an anastomosis angle. There was good serosa reconstitution with total stitches. The epithelium was perfectly reconstituted at serosubmucosa, but not at total stitches, where was residual focus of acute inflammation. The reline and regeneration of wall components (except the serosa, whose regeneration was impaired by peritoneal adherences) were better with serosubmucosal then total stitches. The muscularis never regeneration in anyone suture. The polimorphonuclear cells, macrophages, fibroblasts, and collagen fibers was more numerous (statistical significance) at total stitches. Total stitches with knots tied in the lumen, at posterior wall, over the mucosa are safe full, despite of major inflammation. Serosubmucosal with knots tied in the lumen, at posterior wall, over the mucosa, allows peritoneal adherences formation, and should be avoided.

  4. Emerging Roles of the Endolumenal Functional Lumen Imaging Probe in Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ata-Lawenko, Rona M; Lee, Yeong Yeh

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal sphincters play a vital role in gut function and motility by separating the gut into functional segments. Traditionally, function of sphincters including the esophagogastric junction is studied using endoscopy and manometry. However, due to its dynamic biomechanical properties, data on distensibility and compliance may provide a more accurate representation of the sphincter function. The endolumenal functional lumen imaging probe (EndoFLIP) system uses a multi-detector impedance planimetry system to provide data on tissue distensibility and geometric changes in the sphincter as measured through resistance to volumetric distention with real-time images. With the advent of EndoFLIP studies, esophagogastric junction dysfunction and other disorders of the stomach and bowels may be better evaluated. It may be utilized as a tool in predicting effectiveness of endoscopic and surgical treatments as well as patient outcomes. PMID:28013295

  5. The Vital Dye CDr10b Labels the Zebrafish Mid-Intestine and Lumen.

    PubMed

    Sander, Veronika; Patke, Shantanu; Lee, Jung Y; Chang, Young-Tae; Davidson, Alan J

    2017-03-13

    We describe the use of the fluorescent reporter compound CDr10b to label mid-intestinal structures in zebrafish larvae after simple immersion. CDr10b is deposited into the gut where it initially fills the lumen and is excreted. Using laser-mediated injury of the intestine, we show that CDr10b provides a useful readout of the integrity and repair of the epithelial cell barrier. In addition, CDr10b specifically labels the absorptive mid-intestine segment that is analogous to the mammalian small intestine. By perturbing retinoic acid signaling, which regulates the size of the mid-intestine segment, we show that CDr10b is a valuable tool to rapidly assess developmental malformations of the intestine in live animals.

  6. An anterior mediastinal mass: delayed airway compression and using a double lumen tube for airway patency.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeounghyuk; Rim, Yong Chul; In, Junyong

    2014-06-01

    Perioperative management of patients with an anterior mediastinal mass is difficult. We present a 35-year-old woman who showed delayed compression of the carina and left main bronchus despite no preoperative respiratory signs, symptoms, or radiologic findings due to an anterior mediastinal mass and uneventful stepwise induction of general anesthesia. Even use of a fiberoptic bronchoscope (FB) after induction of anesthesia was not helpful to predict delayed compression of the airway. Therefore, the anesthesiologist and the cardiothoracic surgeon must prepare for unexpected delayed compression of the airway, even in low risk patients who are asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic without postural symptoms or radiographic evidence of significant compression of structures. We also describe successful management for the compressed carina and left main bronchus with a double lumen tube (DLT) as a stent during surgery. FB guided DLT intubation is a possible solution to maintain airway patency.

  7. Optimal interval for triple-lumen catheter changes: a decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Ritchey, N P; Caccamo, L P; Carter, K J; Castro, F; Erickson, B A; Johnson, W; Kessler, E; Ruiz, C A

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 53 university and community hospitals revealed that 73% of the institutions had no standard policy for the replacement of triple-lumen catheters (TLCs). Since the maintenance of a TLC in place for a prolonged period may lead to infectious complications, it appeared warranted that standards of management be developed. A decision-tree model was constructed for evaluating the optimal time for changing a TLC that would minimize infection. Cost estimates and health effects at three-, five-, and ten-day change intervals were considered for catheter insertion and complications resulting from such insertion. The results suggested that prophylactic catheter changes should occur no later than every five days, provided that there are no signs of infection. However, sensitivity analysis of several variables suggested that individual institutions should establish policy timing changes based upon careful interpretation of their own data. A model was developed to assist in determining the optimal time to change a TLC based upon such data.

  8. Measurement of ciliary flow generated on the surface of tracheal lumen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyota, Koki; Ueno, Hironori; Ishikawa, Takuji; Numayama-Tsuruta, Keiko; Imai, Yohsuke; Omori, Toshihiro; Yamaguchi, Takami

    2012-11-01

    Although we consistently take air with virus and bacteria, these harmful substances are trapped on the surface of tracheal lumen and transported toward larynx from the trachea and bronchi by effective ciliary motion and swallowed it (clearance function). However, the 3-dimensional flow field generated by inhomogeneously distributed ciliary cells are largely unknown. In this study, we first succeeded to measure the ciliated cells' density by staining actin of the epithelial cells and tubulin of the cilia, respectively. Second, we analyzed the ciliary motion by labeling the tip of cilia with fluorescent particles, and tracking their movements to understand the mechanism of the flow generation. Last, in order to clarify the flow field induced by the ciliary motion, we measured the motion of tracer particles on the surface of tracheal epithelial cells by a confocal micro-PTV system. The results show that the mean velocity and the velocity disturbance decayed rapidly as the height from the epithelial cells were increased.

  9. Description of a new technique for repairing chronic type B dissections that involve visceral branches being fed by both true and false lumen by using both lumens as conduits.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joe; Remund, Tyler; Pohlson, Katie; Kelly, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    Here we present three cases performed using a novel technique where aortic flow is compartmentalized proximal to the target vessels through a physician-modified endograft. The visceral segment is then further compartmentalized by the use of another physician modified endograft. By compartmentalizing the flow proximal to the visceral segment, both the true lumen and false lumen can be used as conduits for coextensive bridging stent grafts. Overall, patients have tolerated this procedure extremely well, and while further study and follow-up must be conducted, this procedure could offer a reasonable long-term solution to thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms complicated by dissection. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Description of a new technique for repairing chronic type B dissections that involve visceral branches being fed by both true and false lumen by using both lumens as conduits

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Joe; Remund, Tyler; Pohlson, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Here we present three cases performed using a novel technique where aortic flow is compartmentalized proximal to the target vessels through a physician-modified endograft. The visceral segment is then further compartmentalized by the use of another physician modified endograft. By compartmentalizing the flow proximal to the visceral segment, both the true lumen and false lumen can be used as conduits for coextensive bridging stent grafts. Overall, patients have tolerated this procedure extremely well, and while further study and follow-up must be conducted, this procedure could offer a reasonable long-term solution to thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms complicated by dissection. PMID:25972031

  11. [Comparison of Shikani optical stylet and Macintosh laryngoscope for double-lumen endotracheal tube intubation].

    PubMed

    Xu, Ting; Li, Min; Guo, Xiang-yang

    2015-10-18

    To compare the efficacy and safety of Shikani (S)optical stylet and Macintosh(M) laryngoscope for double-lumen endotracheal tube intubation. In the study, 60 patients undergoing elective thoracic surgery were randomly allocated to group S(n=30) and group M (n=30). After general anesthesia induction, the patients in group S and group M were intubated double-lumen endotracheal tube (DLT) by Shikani optical stylet (SOS) and macintosh laryngoscope respectively. Intubation time, intubation attempts, cuff broken and oral mucosal or dental injury were recorded; Blood pressure and heart rate at baseline (T0), at the time of intubaiton onset (T1), 1 minute after intubaiton (T2), 3 minutes after intubation (T3) and 5 minutes after intubation (T3) were also recorded; Hoarseness and throat sore of the patients 24 hours after surgery were evaluated. The intubaiton time with the SOS was faster than with the Macintosh [(37.4±9.7) s vs. (43.9±13.7) s, P=0.039] and the first attempt success rate (87% vs. 80%, P=0.488) did not differ between the groups; No tube cuff broke in both the groups; Group S had fewer patients who suffered oral mucosal or dental injury than group M (8 vs.2, P=0.038); The blood pressure and heart rate at T0,T1,T2,T3 and T4 did not differ between the groups; Throat sore (7 vs.10, P=0.390) and hoarseness (5 vs.7, P=0.519) incidence did not differ between the groups. By comparison of the Macintosh laryngoscope, the SOS provides faster DLT intubation and causes less oral Mucosal or dental injury.

  12. Bovine milk inhibits proteolytic degradation of epidermal growth factor in human gastric and duodenal lumen.

    PubMed

    Rao, R K; Baker, R D; Baker, S S

    1998-01-01

    Degradation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in human gastric and duodenal lumen was analyzed by incubating 125I-labeled or unlabeled human recombinant EGF with human gastric or duodenal luminal fluids in vitro. Degradation of EGF was assessed by measuring the generation of acid soluble radioactivity or by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Incubation with gastric luminal fluids resulted in a time- and dose-dependent degradation of labeled and unlabeled EGF at pH 2.5 but not at pH 7.5. Duodenal luminal fluids, on the other hand, degraded EGF at pH 7.5 but not at pH 2.5. The rate of degradation of unlabeled EGF in gastric luminal fluids was nearly 12-fold higher than the rate of degradation of labeled EGF, whereas only a slight difference in rates of degradation of labeled and unlabeled EGF was observed in duodenal luminal fluids. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis detected three major degradation products that eluted with retention time of 17.5 min, 20.0 min, and 22.5 min that was associated with a reduction of intact EGF (retention time 23.5 min). Defatted and decaseinated supernatant of bovine milk effectively inhibited the degradation of EGF in both gastric and duodenal luminal fluids. Dietary derived protease inhibitors, such as soya bean trypsin inhibitor, lima bean trypsin inhibitor, egg white protease inhibitor, and Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor prevented EGF degradation in duodenal luminal fluids but failed to inhibit EGF degradation in gastric luminal fluids. These results suggest that bovine milk may contain specific inhibitors that protect EGF from proteolytic degradation in human gastric lumen.

  13. Alkaline secretion by frog gastric glands measured with pH microelectrodes in the gland lumen.

    PubMed

    Debellis, L; Caroppo, R; Fromter, E; Curci, S

    1998-11-15

    1. In the present work we have measured the pH of the secreted fluid within the gland lumen of isolated but intact gastric mucosa of Rana esculenta. Tissues were mounted in a double chamber allowing continuous perfusion of the mucosal and serosal compartment, and the measurements were made with double-barrelled pH glass microelectrodes inserted into the glands from the serosal surface under microscopic inspection. 2. During inhibition of H+ secretion by cimetidine (100 microM) the luminal gland pH (pHgl) averaged 7.60 +/- 0.05 pH units (mean +/- s.e.m.; n = 35), a value significantly higher than bath solution pH (7.45 +/- 0.02; P < 0.001) and also higher than intracellular pH of oxyntopeptic cells (pHi), which averaged 7.53 +/- 0.06 (n = 18). 3. Stimulation of acid secretion with histamine (500 microM) reversibly decreased pHgl to values which could be as low as 2.5. Together with electrophysiological criteria this response was routinely used to verify the proper location of the microelectrode tip within the gland lumen. 4. Stimulation with carbachol (100 microM) or pentagastrin (50 microM) in the presence of cimetidine rapidly and reversibly increased pHgl by 0.10 +/- 0.01 pH units (n = 24; P < 0.001) and 0.09 +/- 0.02 pH units (n = 6; P < 0.05), respectively. 5. The observation that gastric gland fluid is more alkaline than the bath solutions and that carbachol or pentagastrin further alkalinize it strongly suggests that oxyntopeptic cells participate in gastric alkaline secretion at least under cholinergic stimulation.

  14. Analysis of the Intestinal Lumen Microbiota in an Animal Model of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wen; Gao, Renyuan; Guo, Bomin; Gao, Zhiguang; Yang, Yongzhi; Qin, Huanlong

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports have suggested that multiple factors such as host genetics, environment and diet can promote the progression of healthy mucosa towards sporadic colorectal carcinoma. Accumulating evidence has additionally associated intestinal bacteria with disease initiation and progression. In order to examine and analyze the composition of gut microbiota in the absence of confounding influences, we have established an animal model of 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon cancer. Using this model, we have performed pyrosequencing of the V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes in this study to determine the diversity and breadth of the intestinal microbial species. Our findings indicate that the microbial composition of the intestinal lumen differs significantly between control and tumor groups. The abundance of Firmicutes was elevated whereas the abundance of Bacteroidetes and Spirochetes was reduced in the lumen of CRC rats. Fusobacteria was not detected in any of the healthy rats and there was no significant difference in observed Proteobacteria species when comparing the bacterial communities between our two groups. Interestingly, the abundance of Proteobacteria was higher in CRC rats. At the genus level, Bacteroides exhibited a relatively higher abundance in CRC rats compared to controls (14.92% vs. 9.22%, p<0.001). Meanwhile, Prevotella (55.22% vs. 26.19%), Lactobacillus (3.71% vs. 2.32%) and Treponema (3.04% vs. 2.43%), were found to be significantly more abundant in healthy rats than CRC rats (p<0.001, respectively). We also demonstrate a significant reduction of butyrate-producing bacteria such as Roseburia and Eubacterium in the gut microbiota of CRC rats. Furthermore, a significant increase in Desulfovibrio, Erysipelotrichaceae and Fusobacterium was also observed in the tumor group. A decrease in probiotic species such as Ruminococcus and Lactobacillus was likewise observed in the tumor group. Collectively, we can conclude that a significant difference in

  15. Analysis of the intestinal lumen microbiota in an animal model of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qingchao; Jin, Zhiming; Wu, Wen; Gao, Renyuan; Guo, Bomin; Gao, Zhiguang; Yang, Yongzhi; Qin, Huanlong

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports have suggested that multiple factors such as host genetics, environment and diet can promote the progression of healthy mucosa towards sporadic colorectal carcinoma. Accumulating evidence has additionally associated intestinal bacteria with disease initiation and progression. In order to examine and analyze the composition of gut microbiota in the absence of confounding influences, we have established an animal model of 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon cancer. Using this model, we have performed pyrosequencing of the V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes in this study to determine the diversity and breadth of the intestinal microbial species. Our findings indicate that the microbial composition of the intestinal lumen differs significantly between control and tumor groups. The abundance of Firmicutes was elevated whereas the abundance of Bacteroidetes and Spirochetes was reduced in the lumen of CRC rats. Fusobacteria was not detected in any of the healthy rats and there was no significant difference in observed Proteobacteria species when comparing the bacterial communities between our two groups. Interestingly, the abundance of Proteobacteria was higher in CRC rats. At the genus level, Bacteroides exhibited a relatively higher abundance in CRC rats compared to controls (14.92% vs. 9.22%, p<0.001). Meanwhile, Prevotella (55.22% vs. 26.19%), Lactobacillus (3.71% vs. 2.32%) and Treponema (3.04% vs. 2.43%), were found to be significantly more abundant in healthy rats than CRC rats (p<0.001, respectively). We also demonstrate a significant reduction of butyrate-producing bacteria such as Roseburia and Eubacterium in the gut microbiota of CRC rats. Furthermore, a significant increase in Desulfovibrio, Erysipelotrichaceae and Fusobacterium was also observed in the tumor group. A decrease in probiotic species such as Ruminococcus and Lactobacillus was likewise observed in the tumor group. Collectively, we can conclude that a significant difference in

  16. Peptidases Compartmentalized to the Ascaris suum Intestinal Lumen and Apical Intestinal Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    The nematode intestine is a tissue of interest for developing new methods of therapy and control of parasitic nematodes. However, biological details of intestinal cell functions remain obscure, as do the proteins and molecular functions located on the apical intestinal membrane (AIM), and within the intestinal lumen (IL) of nematodes. Accordingly, methods were developed to gain a comprehensive identification of peptidases that function in the intestinal tract of adult female Ascaris suum. Peptidase activity was detected in multiple fractions of the A. suum intestine under pH conditions ranging from 5.0 to 8.0. Peptidase class inhibitors were used to characterize these activities. The fractions included whole lysates, membrane enriched fractions, and physiological- and 4 molar urea-perfusates of the intestinal lumen. Concanavalin A (ConA) was confirmed to bind to the AIM, and intestinal proteins affinity isolated on ConA-beads were compared to proteins from membrane and perfusate fractions by mass spectrometry. Twenty-nine predicted peptidases were identified including aspartic, cysteine, and serine peptidases, and an unexpectedly high number (16) of metallopeptidases. Many of these proteins co-localized to multiple fractions, providing independent support for localization to specific intestinal compartments, including the IL and AIM. This unique perfusion model produced the most comprehensive view of likely digestive peptidases that function in these intestinal compartments of A. suum, or any nematode. This model offers a means to directly determine functions of these proteins in the A. suum intestine and, more generally, deduce the wide array functions that exist in these cellular compartments of the nematode intestine. PMID:25569475

  17. Multiplexin promotes heart but not aorta morphogenesis by polarized enhancement of slit/robo activity at the heart lumen.

    PubMed

    Harpaz, Nofar; Ordan, Elly; Ocorr, Karen; Bodmer, Rolf; Volk, Talila

    2013-06-01

    The Drosophila heart tube represents a structure that similarly to vertebrates' primary heart tube exhibits a large lumen; the mechanisms promoting heart tube morphology in both Drosophila and vertebrates are poorly understood. We identified Multiplexin (Mp), the Drosophila orthologue of mammalian Collagen-XV/XVIII, and the only structural heart-specific protein described so far in Drosophila, as necessary and sufficient for shaping the heart tube lumen, but not that of the aorta. Mp is expressed specifically at the stage of heart tube closure, in a polarized fashion, uniquely along the cardioblasts luminal membrane, and its absence results in an extremely small heart tube lumen. Importantly, Mp forms a protein complex with Slit, and interacts genetically with both slit and robo in the formation of the heart tube. Overexpression of Mp in cardioblasts promotes a large heart lumen in a Slit-dependent manner. Moreover, Mp alters Slit distribution, and promotes the formation of multiple Slit endocytic vesicles, similarly to the effect of overexpression of Robo in these cells. Our data are consistent with Mp-dependent enhancement of Slit/Robo activity and signaling, presumably by affecting Slit protein stabilization, specifically at the lumen side of the heart tube. This activity results with a Slit-dependent, local reduction of F-actin levels at the heart luminal membrane, necessary for forming the large heart tube lumen. Consequently, lack of Mp results in decreased diastolic capacity, leading to reduced heart contractility, as measured in live fly hearts. In summary, these findings show that the polarized localization of Mp controls the direction, timing, and presumably the extent of Slit/Robo activity and signaling at the luminal membrane of the heart cardioblasts. This regulation is essential for the morphogenetic changes that sculpt the heart tube in Drosophila, and possibly in forming the vertebrates primary heart tube.

  18. Influence of False Lumen Status on the Prognosis of Acute Type A Aortic Dissection without Urgent Surgical Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Hideki; Suzuki, Susumu; Ota, Tomoyuki; Oshima, Hideki; Usui, Akihiko; Komori, Kimihiro; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Recently, much attention has been focused on partial thrombosis of the false lumen in patients with acute aortic dissection. However, its effect on clinical outcomes in these patients, especially in case of acute type A aortic dissection, has not been clearly elucidated. This study evaluated the influence of the false lumen status, including partial thrombosis, on short-term clinical outcomes in acute type A aortic dissection patients without urgent surgical treatment. Methods: Sixty-two patients (29 males, mean age 73 ± 13 years) with acute type A aortic dissection who did not receive urgent surgical treatment at four hospitals were enrolled. Patients were divided into three groups based on the false lumen status on enhanced computed tomography image (complete thrombosis, n = 28; partial thrombosis, n = 27; patent, n = 7). Patients with partial thrombosis were further divided into two groups (thrombus-dominant, n = 15; flow-dominant, n = 12). Results: The short-term mortality rate (in-hospital and 30-day) was significantly higher in patients with a patent false lumen, while no significant difference was seen between the other two groups. Patients with flow-dominant partial thrombosis had significantly higher short-term mortality rate than those with thrombus-dominant partial thrombosis (in-hospital, p = 0.001 and 30-day, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The short-term mortality rate in acute type A aortic dissection patients without urgent surgical treatment was lower in patients with partial thrombosis of the false lumen than in those with a patent false lumen. Furthermore, patients with flow-dominant partial thrombosis had higher mortality rate than those with thrombus-dominant partial thrombosis. PMID:27466158

  19. Endovascular treatment of a traumatic dural arteriovenous fistula of the superior sagittal sinus using dual lumen balloon microcatheter

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Yihao; Niu, Yin; Zhu, Gang; Chen, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVFs) induced by trauma in the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) are rare and difficult to treat because of their unique midline location, multiplicity of arterial feeders, and critical venous drainage. We report a case of an endovascular treatment using dual lumen balloon microcatheter on a patient with post-traumatic SSS DAVF. By the use of dual lumen Scepter balloon microcatheter, proximal Onyx reflux was prevented. In this case, complete embolization of the DAVFs was achieved and the outcome of the patient was fairly good. PMID:27094527

  20. Diameters and wall-to-lumen ratio of retinal arterioles in patients with retinal vein occlusion before and after treatment with dexamethasone intravitreal implants.

    PubMed

    Semeraro, Francesco; Russo, Andrea; Rizzoni, Damiano; Danzi, Paola; Morescalchi, Francesco; Costagliola, Ciro

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the diameters and wall-to-lumen ratio (WLR) of retinal arterioles in patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) before and after a 0.7 mg dexamethasone (DEX) intravitreal implant and compare it with a matched control group of normal eyes. This was a single-site, multi-investigator, prospective, open-label, observational study in 15 patients with vision loss due to branch or central RVO treated with a single injection of DEX implant. An age-matched control group of 16 normal eyes was recruited. External and internal arteriolar diameters, WLR, and wall thickness were assessed in vivo using scanning-laser Doppler flowmetry. Visual acuity (VA) and central macular thickness (CMT) were evaluated. Mean internal diameter showed a significant reduction in post-treatment RVO patients compared with pre-treatment RVO patients (56.0±18.0 μm vs. 67.9±16.9 μm, respectively; P=0.02). Mean WLR in pre-treatment RVO patients was 0.47±0.19, showing an increase to 0.63±0.23 3 months after treatment (P=0.037). No significant difference was found in arteriolar external diameter between normotensive, pre-treatment, and post-treatment subjects. Treatment with a DEX implant in RVO patients led to significant improvements in both VA and CMT. These changes were accompanied by reductions in arteriolar lumen diameter, which could contribute to decreased capillary leakage and macular swelling.

  1. Infrared Observations of Late Type Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, K. M.

    1977-01-01

    Substantive mass loss resulting in appreciable circumstellar dust envelopes is common in late-type stars. The evolutionary history and physical state of a cool star determine the chemistry within the outer stellar atmosphere mirrored by the molecular and particulate material present in the envelope. The observational consequences of this debris determined by moderate spectral resolution infrared spectrophotometry are reviewed. Significant information is provided by observations of the emergent energy flux of both the cool stellar photosphere and of the circumstellar dust envelope. The observation suggests that mass-loss occurs to some degree throughout late stellar evolutionary phases and that occasional periods of high mass loss are not uncommon.

  2. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Right Sport for You Healthy School Lunch Planner Hair Loss KidsHealth > For Teens > Hair Loss Print A A ... the underlying problem, if necessary. continue What Causes Hair Loss? Here are some of the things that can ...

  3. CALiPER Exploratory Study: Accounting for Uncertainty in Lumen Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, Rolf; Paget, Maria L.; Richman, Eric E.

    2011-03-31

    With a well-defined and shared understanding of uncertainty in lumen measurements, testing laboratories can better evaluate their processes, contributing to greater consistency and credibility of lighting testing a key component of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Commercially Available LED Product Evaluation and Reporting (CALiPER) program. Reliable lighting testing is a crucial underlying factor contributing toward the success of many energy-efficient lighting efforts, such as the DOE GATEWAY demonstrations, Lighting Facts Label, ENERGY STAR® energy efficient lighting programs, and many others. Uncertainty in measurements is inherent to all testing methodologies, including photometric and other lighting-related testing. Uncertainty exists for all equipment, processes, and systems of measurement in individual as well as combined ways. A major issue with testing and the resulting accuracy of the tests is the uncertainty of the complete process. Individual equipment uncertainties are typically identified, but their relative value in practice and their combined value with other equipment and processes in the same test are elusive concepts, particularly for complex types of testing such as photometry. The total combined uncertainty of a measurement result is important for repeatable and comparative measurements for light emitting diode (LED) products in comparison with other technologies as well as competing products. This study provides a detailed and step-by-step method for determining uncertainty in lumen measurements, working closely with related standards efforts and key industry experts. This report uses the structure proposed in the Guide to Uncertainty Measurements (GUM) for evaluating and expressing uncertainty in measurements. The steps of the procedure are described and a spreadsheet format adapted for integrating sphere and goniophotometric uncertainty measurements is provided for entering parameters, ordering the information, calculating intermediate

  4. Is the lumen diameter of peripheral arteries a good marker of the extent of coronary atherosclerosis?

    PubMed

    Mirek, Agnieszka M; Wolińska-Welcz, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The lumen diameter (LD) of the extracranial carotid arteries determined by B-mode ultrasound has been provedto be associated with most atherosclerotic risk factors and cardiovascular events. This raises the question as to whether LDmay also predict coronary artery disease. To elucidate whether LD of the common carotid and/or femoral artery could be a clinically useful marker of the extentof coronary atherosclerosis. A duplex ultrasonography and a quantitative coronary angiography were used to assess carotid, femoral and coronary atherosclerosis for 204 patients with angina pectoris. Intima-media thickness (IMT) and LD assessments were performed in peripheral arteries. We used three coronary angiographic scores: Vessel, Gensini and Extent. The following parameterswere recorded: gender, age, diagnoses of arterial hypertension and diabetes, history of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, smoking status, body mass index (BMI) and body surface area (BSA). Significant correlations between LD, IMT and coronary scores were found, but the strongest correlations were betweenLD of the common carotid arteries and angiographic scores. In the case of LD in all investigated arteries, and IMT ofthe right carotid and left femoral arteries, significantly higher values were observed for patients with three-vessel disease (3VD) than for patients without it. Univariate analysis showed the important role played by LD of the carotid arteries in predicting 3VD (OR = 2.7). We obtained two multivariate logistic regression models which could estimate the probability P of 3VD. The first model:logit P = 0.05 age + 0.94 RCCALD + 0.70 MI - 9.1; AUC=0.80 (0.03) is based on the value of the right common carotid artery lumen diameter (RCCALD), age and history of MI; the second oneis based on LD of the left common carotid artery, gender, age and previous MI. ROC analysis indicated the optimal cut-offvalue for prediction of 3VD (P = 0.36), with high sensitivity (80%) and specificity (70%) for the

  5. Single double-lumen venous-venous pump-driven extracorporeal lung membrane support.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Lorente, David; Go, Tetsuhiko; Jungebluth, Philipp; Rovira, Irene; Mata, Maite; Ayats, Maria Carme; Macchiarini, Paolo

    2010-09-01

    We sought to investigate the safety and feasibility of obtaining total respiratory support during 72 hours using a pump-driven (Levitronix CentriMag; Levitronix LLC, Waltham, Mass) venous-venous extracorporeal lung membrane (Novalung; Novalung GmbH, Hechingen, Germany) attached through a single double-lumen cannula (Novalung) into the femoral or jugular vein in pigs. Twelve pigs were initially mechanically ventilated for 2 hours (respiratory rate, 20-25 breaths/min; tidal volume, 10-12 mL/kg; fraction of inspired oxygen, 1.0; positive end-expiratory pressure, 5 cm H(2)O). Thereafter, the extracorporeal lung membrane was attached to the right femoral (n = 6, 26F) or jugular (n = 6, 22F) vein by using a single double-lumen cannula placed transcutaneously. Ventilatory settings were then reduced to near-apneic ventilation (respiratory rate, 4 breaths/min; tidal volume, 1-2 mL/kg; fraction of inspired oxygen, 0.21; positive end-expiratory pressure, 10 cm H(2)O), and pump flow was increased hourly until maximal efficacy. Blood gases and hemodynamics were measured hourly, and lung and plasma cytokine levels were measured every 4 hours. The device's mean blood flow was 2.16 +/- 0.43 L/min, permitting an oxygen transfer and carbon dioxide removal of 203.6 +/- 54.6 and 590.3 +/- 23.3 mL/min, respectively. Despite static ventilation, all pigs showed optimal respiratory support, with a PaO(2), PaCO(2), and mixed venous oxygen saturation of 226.2 +/- 56.4, 59.7 +/- 8.8, and 85.6 +/- 5.3 mm Hg, respectively. There were no significant inflammatory, cellular, or coagulatory responses; lung cytokine levels remained in the normal range. Route (femoral vs jugular) or size (22F vs 26F) of the cannula did not change hemodynamic or respiratory parameters significantly. This circuit provides total respiratory support over 72 hours without inducing significant hemodynamic, coagulatory, cellular, or inflammatory responses. 2010. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  6. Novel Use of a Uniquely Designed, Lumen-Apposing, Metal Stent in Benign Gastric Outlet Obstruction in Two Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pathirana, Induruwa; Magulick, John; Domanski, Jeremy; Okoh, Emuejevoke; Womeldorph, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Current guidelines recommend management of benign gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) with serial dilations. Self-expanding metal stents are effective, but their use is complicated by high rates of migration. We present two cases from our institution where a uniquely designed, lumen-apposing metal stent (LAMS) was successfully used to alleviate benign GOO without stent migration. PMID:28184377

  7. A Rac/Cdc42 exchange factor complex promotes formation of lateral filopodia and blood vessel lumen morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Sabu; Scarcia, Margherita; Bagshaw, Richard D; McMahon, Kathryn; Grant, Gary; Harvey, Tracey; Yeo, Maggie; Esteves, Filomena O G; Thygesen, Helene H; Jones, Pamela F; Speirs, Valerie; Hanby, Andrew M; Selby, Peter J; Lorger, Mihaela; Dear, T Neil; Pawson, Tony; Marshall, Christopher J; Mavria, Georgia

    2015-07-01

    During angiogenesis, Rho-GTPases influence endothelial cell migration and cell-cell adhesion; however it is not known whether they control formation of vessel lumens, which are essential for blood flow. Here, using an organotypic system that recapitulates distinct stages of VEGF-dependent angiogenesis, we show that lumen formation requires early cytoskeletal remodelling and lateral cell-cell contacts, mediated through the RAC1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) DOCK4 (dedicator of cytokinesis 4). DOCK4 signalling is necessary for lateral filopodial protrusions and tubule remodelling prior to lumen formation, whereas proximal, tip filopodia persist in the absence of DOCK4. VEGF-dependent Rac activation via DOCK4 is necessary for CDC42 activation to signal filopodia formation and depends on the activation of RHOG through the RHOG GEF, SGEF. VEGF promotes interaction of DOCK4 with the CDC42 GEF DOCK9. These studies identify a novel Rho-family GTPase activation cascade for the formation of endothelial cell filopodial protrusions necessary for tubule remodelling, thereby influencing subsequent stages of lumen morphogenesis.

  8. Upregulation of TSHR, TTF-1, and PAX8 in Nodular Goiter Is Associated with Iodine Deficiency in the Follicular Lumen

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lijun; Liang, Bo; Cai, Huiyao; Cai, Qingyan; Shi, Yaxiong

    2016-01-01

    Objective. It has been testified that iodine regulates thyroid function by controlling thyroid-restricted genes expression and is closely related to diffuse goiter and thyroid dysfunction. However, the effects of follicular lumen iodine, the main form of iodine reserve in the body, on thyroid-restricted genes in nodular goiter are poorly understood. In this study, correlations between follicular lumen iodine and the expressions of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), its transcription factors TTF-1, and PAX8 in nodular goiter were investigated. Patients. In this study, 30 resection specimens clinically histopathologically confirmed to have nodular goiter and 30 normal thyroid specimens from adjacent tissues of nodular goiter are used. Measurement. Western blot immunohistochemistry was performed to assay TSHR, TTF-1, and PAX8 in thyrocytes of nodular goiter as well as in extranodular normal thyroid tissues. Meanwhile, follicular lumen iodine of both nodular goiter and extranodular normal thyroid tissues was detected as well. Results. The TSHR, TTF-1, and PAX8 in nodular goiter were significantly higher than those in the controls. The iodine content in nodular goiter was significantly lower than those in control tissues. Conclusion. Upregulation of TSHR, TTF-1, and PAX8 is associated with low follicular lumen iodine content in nodular goiter. PMID:27525008

  9. A Rac/Cdc42 exchange factor complex promotes formation of lateral filopodia and blood vessel lumen morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Sabu; Scarcia, Margherita; Bagshaw, Richard D.; McMahon, Kathryn; Grant, Gary; Harvey, Tracey; Yeo, Maggie; Esteves, Filomena O.G.; Thygesen, Helene H.; Jones, Pamela F.; Speirs, Valerie; Hanby, Andrew M.; Selby, Peter J.; Lorger, Mihaela; Dear, T. Neil; Pawson, Tony; Marshall, Christopher J.; Mavria, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    During angiogenesis, Rho-GTPases influence endothelial cell migration and cell–cell adhesion; however it is not known whether they control formation of vessel lumens, which are essential for blood flow. Here, using an organotypic system that recapitulates distinct stages of VEGF-dependent angiogenesis, we show that lumen formation requires early cytoskeletal remodelling and lateral cell–cell contacts, mediated through the RAC1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) DOCK4 (dedicator of cytokinesis 4). DOCK4 signalling is necessary for lateral filopodial protrusions and tubule remodelling prior to lumen formation, whereas proximal, tip filopodia persist in the absence of DOCK4. VEGF-dependent Rac activation via DOCK4 is necessary for CDC42 activation to signal filopodia formation and depends on the activation of RHOG through the RHOG GEF, SGEF. VEGF promotes interaction of DOCK4 with the CDC42 GEF DOCK9. These studies identify a novel Rho-family GTPase activation cascade for the formation of endothelial cell filopodial protrusions necessary for tubule remodelling, thereby influencing subsequent stages of lumen morphogenesis. PMID:26129894

  10. IV Administered Gadodiamide Enters the Lumen of the Prostatic Glands: X-Ray Fluorescence Microscopy Examination of a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Mustafi, Devkumar; Gleber, Sophie-Charlotte; Ward, Jesse; Dougherty, Urszula; Zamora, Marta; Markiewicz, Erica; Binder, David C.; Antic, Tatjana; Vogt, Stefan; Karczmar, Gregory S.; Oto, Aytekin

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) has become a standard component of multiparametric protocols for MRI examination of the prostate, and its use is incorporated into current guidelines for prostate MRI examination. Analysis of DCE-MRI data for the prostate is usually based on the distribution of gadolinium-based agents, such as gadodiamide, into two well-mixed compartments, and it assumes that gadodiamide does not enter into the glandular lumen. However, this assumption has not been directly tested. The purpose of this study was to use x-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) imaging in situ to measure the concentration of gadodiamide in the epithelia and lumens of the prostate of healthy mice after IV injection of the contrast agent. MATERIALS AND METHODS Six C57Bl6 male mice (age, 28 weeks) were sacrificed 10 minutes after IV injection of gadodiamide (0.13 mmol/kg), and three mice were sacrificed after saline injection. Prostate tissue samples obtained from each mouse were harvested and frozen; 7-µm-thick slices were sectioned for XFM imaging, and adjacent 5-µm-thick slices were sectioned for H and E staining. Elemental concentrations were determined from XFM images. RESULTS A mean (± SD) baseline concentration of gadolinium of 0.01 ± 0.01 mM was determined from XFM measurements of prostatic tissue samples when no gadodiamide was administered, and it was used to determine the measurement error. When gadodiamide was added, the mean concentrations of gadolinium in the epithelia and lumens in 32 prostatic glands from six mice were 1.00 ± 0.13 and 0.36 ± 0.09 mM, respectively. CONCLUSION Our data suggest that IV administration of gadodiamide results in uptake of contrast agent by the glandular lumens of the mouse prostate. We were able to quantitatively determine gadodiamide distributions in mouse prostatic epithelia and lumens. PMID:26295667

  11. IV Administered Gadodiamide Enters the Lumen of the Prostatic Glands: X-Ray Fluorescence Microscopy Examination of a Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Mustafi, Devkumar; Gleber, Sophie-Charlotte; Ward, Jesse; Dougherty, Urszula; Zamora, Marta; Markiewicz, Erica; Binder, David C; Antic, Tatjana; Vogt, Stefan; Karczmar, Gregory S; Oto, Aytekin

    2015-09-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) has become a standard component of multiparametric protocols for MRI examination of the prostate, and its use is incorporated into current guidelines for prostate MRI examination. Analysis of DCE-MRI data for the prostate is usually based on the distribution of gadolinium-based agents, such as gadodiamide, into two well-mixed compartments, and it assumes that gadodiamide does not enter into the glandular lumen. However, this assumption has not been directly tested. The purpose of this study was to use x-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) imaging in situ to measure the concentration of gadodiamide in the epithelia and lumens of the prostate of healthy mice after IV injection of the contrast agent. Six C57Bl6 male mice (age, 28 weeks) were sacrificed 10 minutes after IV injection of gadodiamide (0.13 mmol/kg), and three mice were sacrificed after saline injection. Prostate tissue samples obtained from each mouse were harvested and frozen; 7-μm-thick slices were sectioned for XFM imaging, and adjacent 5-μm-thick slices were sectioned for H and E staining. Elemental concentrations were determined from XFM images. A mean (± SD) baseline concentration of gadolinium of 0.01 ± 0.01 mM was determined from XFM measurements of prostatic tissue samples when no gadodiamide was administered, and it was used to determine the measurement error. When gadodiamide was added, the mean concentrations of gadolinium in the epithelia and lumens in 32 prostatic glands from six mice were 1.00 ± 0.13 and 0.36 ± 0.09 mM, respectively. Our data suggest that IV administration of gadodiamide results in uptake of contrast agent by the glandular lumens of the mouse prostate. We were able to quantitatively determine gadodiamide distributions in mouse prostatic epithelia and lumens.

  12. Phosphorylation of CEACAM1 Molecule by Calmodulin Kinase IID in a Three-dimensional Model of Mammary Gland Lumen Formation*

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tung; Chen, Charng-Jui; Shively, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule-1 (CEACAM1), a transmembrane protein, expressed on normal breast epithelial cells is down-regulated in breast cancer. Phosphorylation of Thr-457 on the short cytoplasmic domain isoform (CEACAM1-SF) that is predominant in normal epithelial cells is required for lumen formation in a three-dimensional model that involves apoptosis of the central acinar cells. Calmodulin kinase IID (CaMKIID) was selected as a candidate for the kinase required for Thr-457 phosphorylation from a gene chip analysis comparing genes up-regulated in MCF7 cells expressing wild type CEACAM1-SF compared with the T457A-mutated gene (Chen, C. J., Kirshner, J., Sherman, M. A., Hu, W., Nguyen, T., and Shively, J. E. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282, 5749–5760). Up-regulation of CaMKIID during lumen formation was confirmed by analysis of mRNA and protein levels. CaMKIID was able to phosphorylate a synthetic peptide corresponding to the cytoplasmic domain of CEACAM1-SF and was covalently bound to biotinylated and T457C-modified peptide in the presence of a kinase trap previously described by Shokat and co-workers (Maly, D. J., Allen, J. A., and Shokat, K. M. (2004) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 9160–9161). When cell lysates from wild type-transfected MCF7 cells undergoing lumen formation were incubated with the peptide and kinase trap, a cross-linked band corresponding to CaMKIID was observed. When these cells were treated with an RNAi that inhibits CaMKIID expression, lumen formation was blocked by over 90%. We conclude that CaMKIID specifically phosphorylates Thr-457 on CEACAM1-SF, which in turn regulates the process of lumen formation via apoptosis of the central acinar cells. PMID:24302721

  13. Influence of a Double-Lumen Extension Tube on Drug Delivery: Examples of Isosorbide Dinitrate and Diazepam

    PubMed Central

    Maiguy-Foinard, Aurélie; Blanchemain, Nicolas; Barthélémy, Christine; Odou, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Plastic materials such as polyurethane (PUR), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) are widely used in double-lumen extension tubing. The purposes of our study were to 1) compare in vitro drug delivery through the double extension tubes available on the market 2) assess the plastic properties of PUR in infusion devices and their impact on drug delivery. Methods The study compared eight double-lumen extension tubes in PUR, co-extruded (PE/PVC) plastic and plasticised PVC from different manufacturers. Isosorbide dinitrate and diazepam were used as model compounds to evaluate their sorption on the internal surface of the infusion device. Control experiments were performed using norepinephrine known not to absorb to plastics. Drug concentrations delivered at the egress of extension tubes were determined over time by an analytical spectrophotometric UV-Vis method. The main characteristics of plastics were also determined. Results Significant differences in the sorption phenomenon were observed among the eight double-lumen extension tubes and between pairs of extension tubes. Mean concentrations of isosorbide dinitrate delivered at the egress of double-lumen extension tubes after a 150-minute infusion (mean values ± standard deviation in percentage of the initial concentrations in the prepared syringes) ranged between 80.53 ± 1.66 (one of the PUR tubes) and 92.84 ± 2.73 (PE/PVC tube). The same parameters measured during diazepam infusion ranged between 48.58 ± 2.88 (one of the PUR tubes) and 85.06 ± 3.94 (PE/PVC tube). The double-lumen extension tubes in PUR were either thermosetting (resin) or thermoplastic according to reference. Conclusions Clinicians must be aware of potential drug interactions with extension tube materials and so must consider their nature as well as the sterilisation method used before selecting an infusion device. PMID:27153224

  14. Improving accuracy in coronary lumen segmentation via explicit calcium exclusion, learning-based ray detection and surface optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugauer, Felix; Zhang, Jingdan; Zheng, Yefeng; Hornegger, Joachim; Kelm, B. Michael

    2014-03-01

    Invasive cardiac angiography (catheterization) is still the standard in clinical practice for diagnosing coronary artery disease (CAD) but it involves a high amount of risk and cost. New generations of CT scanners can acquire high-quality images of coronary arteries which allow for an accurate identification and delineation of stenoses. Recently, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation has been applied to coronary blood flow using geometric lumen models extracted from CT angiography (CTA). The computed pressure drop at stenoses proved to be indicative for ischemia-causing lesions, leading to non-invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) derived from CTA. Since the diagnostic value of non-invasive procedures for diagnosing CAD relies on an accurate extraction of the lumen, a precise segmentation of the coronary arteries is crucial. As manual segmentation is tedious, time-consuming and subjective, automatic procedures are desirable. We present a novel fully-automatic method to accurately segment the lumen of coronary arteries in the presence of calcified and non-calcified plaque. Our segmentation framework is based on three main steps: boundary detection, calcium exclusion and surface optimization. A learning-based boundary detector enables a robust lumen contour detection via dense ray-casting. The exclusion of calcified plaque is assured through a novel calcium exclusion technique which allows us to accurately capture stenoses of diseased arteries. The boundary detection results are incorporated into a closed set formulation whose minimization yields an optimized lumen surface. On standardized tests with clinical data, a segmentation accuracy is achieved which is comparable to clinical experts and superior to current automatic methods.

  15. Influence of cardiac motion on stent lumen visualization in third generation dual-source CT employing a pulsatile heart model.

    PubMed

    Petri, Nils; Gassenmaier, Tobias; Allmendinger, Thomas; Flohr, Thomas; Voelker, Wolfram; Bley, Thorsten A

    2017-02-01

    To detect an in-stent restenosis, an invasive coronary angiography is commonly performed. Owing to the risk associated with this procedure, a non-invasive method to detect or exclude an in-stent restenosis is desirable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of cardiac motion on stent lumen visibility in a third-generation dual-source CT scanner (SOMATOM Force; Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany), employing a pulsatile heart model (CoroSim(®); Mecora, Aachen, Germany). 13 coronary stents with a diameter of 3.0 mm were implanted in plastic tubes filled with a contrast medium and then fixed onto the pulsatile phantom heart model. The scans were performed while the heart model mimicked the heartbeat. Coronary stents were scanned in an orientation parallel to the scanner z-axis. The evaluation of the stents was performed by employing a medium sharp convolution kernel optimized for vascular imaging. The mean visible stent lumen was reduced from 65.6 ± 5.7% for the stents at rest to 60.8 ± 4.4% for the stents in motion (p-value: <0.001). While the difference in lumen visibility between stents in motion and at rest was significant, the use of this third-generation dual-source CT scanner enabled a high stent lumen visibility under the influence of cardiac motion. Whether this translates into a clinical setting has to be evaluated in further patient studies. Advances in knowledge: The employed modern CT scanner enables a high stent lumen visibility even under the influence of cardiac motion, which is important to detect or exclude an in-stent restenosis.

  16. A mathematical method for the 3D analysis of rotating deformable systems applied on lumen-forming MDCK cell aggregates.

    PubMed

    Marmaras, Anastasios; Berge, Ulrich; Ferrari, Aldo; Kurtcuoglu, Vartan; Poulikakos, Dimos; Kroschewski, Ruth

    2010-04-01

    Cell motility contributes to the formation of organs and tissues, into which multiple cells self-organize. However such mammalian cellular motilities are not characterized in a quantitative manner and the systemic consequences are thus unknown. A mathematical tool to decipher cell motility, accounting for changes in cell shape, within a three-dimensional (3D) cell system was missing. We report here such a tool, usable on segmented images reporting the outline of clusters (cells) and allowing the time-resolved 3D analysis of circular motility of these as parts of a system (cell aggregate). Our method can analyze circular motility in sub-cellular, cellular, multi-cellular, and also non-cellular systems for which time-resolved segmented cluster outlines are available. To exemplify, we characterized the circular motility of lumen-initiating MDCK cell aggregates, embedded in extracellular matrix. We show that the organization of the major surrounding matrix fibers was not significantly affected during this cohort rotation. Using our developed tool, we discovered two classes of circular motion, rotation and random walk, organized in three behavior patterns during lumen initiation. As rotational movements were more rapid than random walk and as both could continue during lumen initiation, we conclude that neither the class nor the rate of motion regulates lumen initiation. We thus reveal a high degree of plasticity during a developmentally critical cell polarization step, indicating that lumen initiation is a robust process. However, motility rates decreased with increasing cell number, previously shown to correlate with epithelial polarization, suggesting that migratory polarization is converted into epithelial polarization during aggregate development. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided gastrojejunostomy with a lumen-apposing metal stent: a multicenter, international experience

    PubMed Central

    Tyberg, Amy; Perez-Miranda, Manuel; Sanchez-Ocaña, Ramon; Peñas, Irene; de la Serna, Carlos; Shah, Janak; Binmoeller, Kenneth; Gaidhane, Monica; Grimm, Ian; Baron, Todd; Kahaleh, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Surgical gastrojejunostomy and enteral self-expanding metal stents are efficacious for the management of gastric outlet obstruction but limited by high complication rates and short-term efficacy. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided gastrojejunostomy (EUS-GJ) is a novel alternative option. Patients and methods: Patients who underwent EUS-GJ between March 2014 and September 2015 as part of a prospective multicenter registry at four academic centers in two countries were included. Technical success was defined as successful placement of a gastrojejunal lumen-apposing metal stent. Clinical success was defined as the ability of the patient to tolerate an oral diet. Post-procedural adverse events were recorded. Results: The study included 26 patients, of whom 11 (42 %) were male. Technical success was achieved in 24 patients (92 %). Clinical success was achieved in 22 patients (85 %). Of the 4 patients in whom clinical success was not achieved, 2 had persistent nausea and vomiting despite a patent EUS-GJ and required enteral feeding for nutrition, 1 died before the initiation of an oral diet, and 1 underwent surgery for suspected perforation. Adverse events, including peritonitis, bleeding, and surgery, occurred in 3 patients (11.5 %). Conclusion: EUS-GJ is an emerging procedure that has efficacy and safety comparable with those of current therapies and should hold a place as a new minimally invasive option for patients with gastric outlet obstruction. Clinical trial identification number: NCT01522573 PMID:27004243

  18. A corrosive oesophageal burn model in rats: Double-lumen central venous catheter usage.

    PubMed

    Bakan, Vedat; Ciralik, Harun; Kartal, Seyfi

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to create a new and less invasive experimental corrosive oesophageal burn model using a catheter without a gastric puncture (gastrotomy). We conducted the study with two groups composed of 8 male rats. The experimental oesophageal burn was established by the application of 10% sodium hydroxide to the distal oesophagus under a pressure of 20 cmH 2 O, via 5-F double-lumen central venous catheter without a gastrotomy. The control group was given 0.9% sodium chloride. All rats were killed 24 h after administration of NaOH or 0.9% NaCl. Histologic damage to oesophageal tissue was scored by a single pathologist blind to groups. The rats in the control group were observed to have no pathological changes. Corrosive oesophagitis (tissue congestion, oedema, inflammation, ulcer and necrosis) was observed in rats exposed to NaOH. We believe that an experimental corrosive oesophageal burn can safely be created under same hydrostatic pressure without a gastric puncture using this model.

  19. A corrosive oesophageal burn model in rats: Double-lumen central venous catheter usage

    PubMed Central

    Bakan, Vedat; Çıralık, Harun; Kartal, Seyfi

    2015-01-01

    Background: We aimed to create a new and less invasive experimental corrosive oesophageal burn model using a catheter without a gastric puncture (gastrotomy). Materials and Methods: We conducted the study with two groups composed of 8 male rats. The experimental oesophageal burn was established by the application of 10% sodium hydroxide to the distal oesophagus under a pressure of 20 cmH2O, via 5-F double-lumen central venous catheter without a gastrotomy. The control group was given 0.9% sodium chloride. All rats were killed 24 h after administration of NaOH or 0.9% NaCl. Histologic damage to oesophageal tissue was scored by a single pathologist blind to groups. Results: The rats in the control group were observed to have no pathological changes. Corrosive oesophagitis (tissue congestion, oedema, inflammation, ulcer and necrosis) was observed in rats exposed to NaOH. Conclusion: We believe that an experimental corrosive oesophageal burn can safely be created under same hydrostatic pressure without a gastric puncture using this model. PMID:26712289

  20. Dose Modification Factor Analysis of Multi-Lumen Brachytherapy Applicator with Monte Carlo Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Eric Alan

    Multi-lumen applicators like the Contura (SenoRx, Inc.) are used in partial breast irradiation (PBI) brachytherapy in instances where asymmetric dose distributions are desired, for example, when the applicator surface-to-skin thickness is small (<7mm). In these instances, the air outside the patient and the lung act as a poor scattering medium, scattering less dose back into the breast tissue which affects the dose distribution. Many commercial treatment planning systems do not correct for tissue heterogeneity, which results in inaccuracies in the planned dose distribution. This deviation has been quantified as the dose modification factor (DMF), equal to the ratio of the dose rate at 1cm beyond the applicator surface, with homogenous medium, to the dose rate at 1cm with heterogeneous medium. This investigation intends to model the Contura applicator with the Monte Carlo N-Particle code (MCNP, Los Alamos National Labs), determine a DMF through simulation, and correlate to previous measurements. Taking all geometrical considerations into account, an accurate model of the Contura balloon applicator was created in MCNP. This model was used to run simulations of symmetric and asymmetric plans. The dose modification factor was found to be dependent on the simulated water phantom geometry, with cuboid geometry yielding a max DMF of 1.0664. The same measurements taken using a spherical geometry water phantom gave a DMF of 1.1221. It was also seen that the difference in DMF between symmetric and asymmetric plans using the Contura applicator is minimal.

  1. Periodic venting of MABR lumen allows high removal rates and high gas-transfer efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Perez-Calleja, P; Aybar, M; Picioreanu, C; Esteban-Garcia, A L; Martin, K J; Nerenberg, R

    2017-09-15

    The membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) is a novel treatment technology that employs gas-supplying membranes to deliver oxygen directly to a biofilm growing on the membrane surface. When operated with closed-end membranes, the MABR provides 100-percent oxygen transfer efficiencies (OTE), resulting in significant energy savings. However, closed-end MABRs are more sensitive to back-diffusion of inert gases, such as nitrogen. Back-diffusion reduces the average oxygen transfer rates (OTR), consequently decreasing the average contaminant removal fluxes (J). We hypothesized that venting the membrane lumen periodically would increase the OTR and J. Using an experimental flow cell and mathematical modeling, we showed that back-diffusion gas profiles developed over relatively long timescales. Thus, very short ventings could re-establish uniform gas profiles for relatively long time periods. Using modeling, we systematically explored the effect of the venting interval (time between ventings). At moderate venting intervals, opening the membrane for 20 s every 30 min, the venting significantly increased the average OTR and J without substantially impacting the OTEs. When the interval was short enough, in this case shorter than 20 min, the OTR was actually higher than for continuous open-end operation. Our results show that periodic venting is a promising strategy to combine the advantages of open-end and closed end operation, maximizing both the OTR and OTE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Fluid Viscosity on the Cilia-Generated Flow on a Mouse Tracheal Lumen.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Kenji; Haga, Tomofumi; Numayama-Tsuruta, Keiko; Ueno, Hironori; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2017-04-01

    Mucous flow in a tracheal lumen is generated by the beat motion of ciliated cells to provide a clearance function by discharging harmful dust particles and viruses. Due to its physiological importance, the cilia-generated flow and the rheological properties of mucus have been investigated intensively. The effects of viscosity on the cilia-generated flow, however, have not been fully clarified. In this study, we measured bulk background velocity of ciliary flow using a micro particle tracking velocimetry method under various viscosity conditions in mice. The results showed that the flow velocity decreased as the increase with viscosity of ambient fluid. Moreover, no previous study has clarified the pump power generated by cilia, which provides important information with regard to understanding the molecular motor properties of cilia. Measurements of both the ciliary flow and the ciliary motion were conducted to determine the cilia pump power. Our results indicated that the cilia pump during the effective stroke did not drive the ciliary flow efficiently under high viscosity conditions; these findings are necessary to resolve the clearance function.

  3. Intracellular lumen formation in Drosophila proceeds via a novel subcellular compartment.

    PubMed

    Nikolova, Linda S; Metzstein, Mark M

    2015-11-15

    Cellular tubes have diverse morphologies, including multicellular, unicellular and subcellular architectures. Subcellular tubes are found prominently within the vertebrate vasculature, the insect breathing system and the nematode excretory apparatus, but how such tubes form is poorly understood. To characterize the cellular mechanisms of subcellular tube formation, we have refined methods of high pressure freezing/freeze substitution to prepare Drosophila larvae for transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis. Using our methods, we have found that subcellular tube formation may proceed through a previously undescribed multimembrane intermediate composed of vesicles bound within a novel subcellular compartment. We have also developed correlative light/TEM procedures to identify labeled cells in TEM-fixed larval samples. Using this technique, we have found that Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) and the V-ATPase regulator Rabconnectin-3 are required for subcellular tube formation, probably in a step resolving the intermediate compartment into a mature lumen. In general, our ultrastructural analysis methods could be useful for a wide range of cellular investigations in Drosophila larvae.

  4. Rap1 integrates tissue polarity, lumen formation, and tumorigenicpotential in human breast epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, Masahiko; Nelson, Celeste M.; Myers, Connie A.; Bissell,Mina J.

    2006-09-29

    Maintenance of apico-basal polarity in normal breast epithelial acini requires a balance between cell proliferation, cell death, and proper cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix signaling. Aberrations in any of these processes can disrupt tissue architecture and initiate tumor formation. Here we show that the small GTPase Rap1 is a crucial element in organizing acinar structure and inducing lumen formation. Rap1 activity in malignant HMT-3522 T4-2 cells is appreciably higher than in S1 cells, their non-malignant counterparts. Expression of dominant-negative Rap1 resulted in phenotypic reversion of T4-2 cells, led to formation of acinar structures with correct apico-basal polarity, and dramatically reduced tumor incidence despite the persistence of genomic abnormalities. The resulting acini contained prominent central lumina not observed when other reverting agents were used. Conversely, expression of dominant-active Rap1 in T4-2 cells inhibited phenotypic reversion and led to increased invasiveness and tumorigenicity. Thus, Rap1 acts as a central regulator of breast architecture, with normal levels of activation instructing apical polarity during acinar morphogenesis, and increased activation inducing tumor formation and progression to malignancy.

  5. Using digital photo technology to improve visualization of gastric lumen CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyrgioti, M.; Kyriakidis, A.; Chrysostomou, S.; Panaritis, V.

    2006-12-01

    In order to evaluate the gastric lumen CT images better, a new method is being applied to images using an Image Processing software. During a 12-month period, 69 patients with various gastric symptoms and 20 normal (as far as it concerns the upper gastrointestinal system) volunteers underwent computed tomography of the upper gastrointestinal system. Just before the examination the patients and the normal volunteers underwent preparation with 40 ml soda water and 10 ml gastrografin. All the CT images were digitized with an Olympus 3.2 Mpixel digital camera and further processed with an Image Processing software. The administration per os of gastrografin and soda water resulted in the distension of the stomach and consequently better visualization of all the anatomic parts. By using an Image Processing software in a PC, all the pathological and normal images of the stomach were better diagnostically estimated. We believe that the photo digital technology improves the diagnostic capacity not only of the CT image but also in MRI and probably many other imaging methods.

  6. Loss of catheter locking solution caused by fluid density.

    PubMed

    Polaschegg, Hans-Dietrich

    2005-01-01

    The avoidance of clotting in catheter lumina between treatments usually entails locking with an anticoagulant solution such as heparin. In a previous work, it was shown that approximately 20% of locking solution flows from the catheter during instillation of the lock equal in volume to the lumen volume. Furthermore, the locking solution may spill into the blood stream under the influence of gravity. This work investigates the influence of density and viscosity of the locking solution on the volume and speed of locking solution loss from the catheter lumen. A large fraction of the catheter locking solution spills under the influence of gravity if the locking solution's density is higher than the fluid it spills to (blood). Locking solution lost is replaced by blood. Viscosity delays this process, but at 90 minutes after injection, the loss is completed even when highly viscous lock solutions are used. Slow administration of the lock has negligible influence upon the dynamics of the loss.

  7. Mass loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Leo

    1987-01-01

    Observational evidence for mass loss from cool stars is reviewed. Spectra line profiles are used for the derivation of mass-loss rates with the aid of the equation of continuity. This equation implies steady mass loss with spherical symmetry. Data from binary stars, Mira variables, and red giants in globular clusters are examined. Silicate emission is discussed as a useful indicator of mass loss in the middle infrared spectra. The use of thermal millimeter-wave radiation, Very Large Array (VLA) measurement of radio emission, and OH/IR masers are discussed as a tool for mass loss measurement. Evidence for nonsteady mass loss is also reviewed.

  8. Optimal prediction of carotid intraplaque hemorrhage using clinical and lumen imaging markers

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Michael S.; Hinckley, Peter J.; Treiman, Scott M.; Kim, Seong-Eun; Stoddard, Gregory J.; Parker, Dennis L.; Treiman, Gerald S.; McNally, J. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Purpose MRI detects intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) with high accuracy using the magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo (MPRAGE) sequence. Still, MRI is not readily available for all patients, and many receive CTA instead. Our goal was to determine essential clinical and lumen imaging predictors of IPH as indicators of its presence and clues to its pathogenesis. Methods In this retrospective cross sectional study, patients undergoing stroke workup with MRI/MRA underwent carotid IPH imaging. A total of 726 carotid plaques were analyzed, excluding vessels with non-carotid stroke sources (420), occlusions (7), or near-occlusions (3). Potential carotid imaging predictors of IPH included percent diameter and mm stenosis, plaque thickness, ulceration, and intraluminal thrombus. Clinical predictors were recorded and a multivariable logistic regression model was fitted. Backward-elimination was used to determine essential IPH predictors with a threshold two-sided p<.10. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was also performed. Results Predictors of carotid IPH included plaque thickness (odds ratio, OR=2.20, p<.001), mm stenosis (OR=0.46, p<.001), ulceration (OR=4.25, p=.020), age (OR=1.11, p=.001) and male sex (OR=3.23, p=.077). The final model discriminatory value was excellent (area under the curve, AUC=0.932). This was significantly higher than models using only plaque thickness (AUC=0.881), mm stenosis (AUC=0.830) or ulceration (AUC=0.715) p<.001. Conclusions Optimal discrimination of carotid IPH requires information on plaque thickness, mm stenosis, ulceration, age and male sex. These factors predict IPH with high discriminatory power, and may provide clues to the pathogenesis of IPH. This model could be used to predict the presence of IPH when MRI is contraindicated. PMID:26338923

  9. Conductance catheter measurements of lumen area of stenotic coronary arteries: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyo Won; Farren, Neil D; Zhang, Zhen-Du; Huo, Yunlong; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2011-09-01

    An injection of saline solution is required for the measurement of vessel lumen area using a conductance catheter. The injection of room temperature saline to displace blood in a vessel inevitably involves mass and heat transport and electric field conductance. The objective of the present study is to understand the accuracy of conductance method based on the phenomena associated with the saline injection into a stenotic blood vessel. Computational fluid dynamics were performed to simulate flow and its relation to transport and electric field in a stenotic artery for two different sized conductance catheters (0.9 and 0.35 mm diameter) over a range of occlusions [56-84% cross-sectional area (CSA) stenosis]. The results suggest that the performance of conductance catheter is dependent on catheter size and severity of stenosis more significantly for 0.9 mm than for 0.35 mm catheter. Specifically, the time of detection of 95% of injected saline solution at the detection electrodes was shown to range from 0.67 to 3.7 s and 0.82 to 0.94 s for 0.9 mm and 0.35 mm catheter, respectively. The results also suggest that the detection electrodes of conductance catheter should be placed outside of flow recirculation region distal to the stenosis to minimize the detection time. Finally, the simulations show that the accuracy in distal CSA measurements, however, is not significantly altered by whether the position of detection electrodes is inside or outside of recirculation zone (error was within 12% regardless of detection electrodes position). The results were experimentally validated for one lesion geometry and the simulation results are within 8% of actual measurements. The simulation of conductance catheter injection method may lead to further optimization of device and method for accurate sizing of diseased coronary arteries, which has clinical relevance to percutaneous intervention.

  10. Computer modeling of gastric parietal cell: significance of canalicular space, gland lumen, and variable canalicular [K+

    PubMed Central

    Forte, John G.; Machen, Terry E.

    2016-01-01

    A computer model, constructed for evaluation of integrated functioning of cellular components involved in acid secretion by the gastric parietal cell, has provided new interpretations of older experimental evidence, showing the functional significance of a canalicular space separated from a mucosal bath by a gland lumen and also shedding light on basolateral Cl− transport. The model shows 1) changes in levels of parietal cell secretion (with stimulation or H-K-ATPase inhibitors) result mainly from changes in electrochemical driving forces for apical K+ and Cl− efflux, as canalicular [K+] ([K+]can) increases or decreases with changes in apical H+/K+ exchange rate; 2) H-K-ATPase inhibition in frog gastric mucosa would increase [K+]can similarly with low or high mucosal [K+], depolarizing apical membrane voltage similarly, so electrogenic H+ pumping is not indicated by inhibition causing similar increase in transepithelial potential difference (Vt) with 4 and 80 mM mucosal K+; 3) decreased H+ secretion during strongly mucosal-positive voltage clamping is consistent with an electroneutral H-K-ATPase being inhibited by greatly decreased [K+]can (Michaelis-Menten mechanism); 4) slow initial change (“long time-constant transient”) in current or Vt with clamping of Vt or current involves slow change in [K+]can; 5) the Na+-K+-2Cl− symporter (NKCC) is likely to have a significant role in Cl− influx, despite evidence that it is not necessary for acid secretion; and 6) relative contributions of Cl−/HCO3− exchanger (AE2) and NKCC to Cl− influx would differ greatly between resting and stimulated states, possibly explaining reported differences in physiological characteristics of stimulated open-circuit Cl− secretion (≈H+) and resting short-circuit Cl− secretion (>>H+). PMID:26847387

  11. The Functional Lumen Imaging Probe Detects Esophageal Contractility not Observed with Manometry in Patients with Achalasia

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Dustin A.; Lin, Zhiyue; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Sternbach, Joel; Donnan, Erica N.; Friesen, Laurel; Listernick, Zoe; Mogni, Benjamin; Pandolfino, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims The functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) could improve characterization of achalasia subtypes by detecting non-occlusive esophageal contractions not observed with standard manometry. We aimed to evaluate for esophageal contractions during volumetric distention in patients with achalasia using FLIP topography. Methods Fifty one treatment-naïve patients with achalasia, defined and sub-classified by high-resolution esophageal pressure topography, and 10 asymptomatic individuals (controls) were evaluated with the FLIP during endoscopy. During stepwise distension, simultaneous intra-bag pressures and 16 channels of cross-sectional areas were measured; data were exported to software that generated FLIP topography plots. Esophageal contractility was identified by noting periods of reduced luminal diameter. Esophageal contractions were further characterized by propagation direction, repetitiveness, and based on whether they were occluding or non-occluding. Results Esophageal contractility was detected in all 10 controls: 8/10 had repetitive, antegrade, contractions and 9/10 had occluding contractions. Contractility was detected in 27% (4/15) of patients with type I achalasia and 65% (18/26, including 9 with occluding contractions) of patients with type II achalasia. Contractility was detected in all 10 patients with type III achalasia; 8 of these patients had a pattern of contractility not observed in controls (repetitive, retrograde contractions). Conclusions Esophageal contractility not observed with manometry can be detected in patients with achalasia using FLIP topography. The presence and patterns of contractility detected with FLIP topography may represent variations in pathophysiology, such as mechanisms of pan-esophageal pressurization in patients with type II achalasia. These findings could have implications for additional sub-classification to supplement prediction of the achalasia disease course. PMID:26278501

  12. Pannexin 1 channels mediate the release of ATP into the lumen of the rat urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Beckel, Jonathan M; Daugherty, Stephanie L; Tyagi, Pradeep; Wolf-Johnston, Amanda S; Birder, Lori A; Mitchell, Claire H; de Groat, William C

    2015-01-01

    ATP is released from the bladder epithelium, also termed the urothelium, in response to mechanical or chemical stimuli. Although numerous studies have described the contribution of this release to the development of various bladder disorders, little information exists regarding the mechanisms of release. In the present study, we examined the role of pannexin channels in mechanically-induced ATP release from the urothelium. PCR confirmed the presence of pannexin 1 and 2 mRNA in rat urothelial tissue, whereas immunofluorescence experiments localized pannexin 1 to all three layers of the urothelium. During continuous bladder cystometry in anaesthetized rats, inhibition of pannexin 1 channels using carbenoxolone (CBX) or Brilliant Blue FCF (BB-FCF) (1–100 μm, intravesically), or by using intravesical small interfering RNA, increased the interval between voiding contractions. Intravenous administration of BB-FCF (1–100 μg kg−1) did not alter bladder activity. CBX or BB-FCF (100 μm intravesically) also decreased basal ATP concentrations in the perfusate from non-distended bladders and inhibited increases in ATP concentrations in response to bladder distension (15 and 30 cmH2O pressure). Intravesical perfusion of the ATP diphosphohydrolase apyrase (2 U ml−1), or the ATPase inhibitor ARL67156 (10 μm) increased or decreased reflex bladder activity, respectively. Intravesical instillation of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) (Escherichia coli 055:B5, 100 μg ml−1) increased ATP concentrations in the bladder perfusate, and also increased voiding frequency; these effects were suppressed by BB-FCF. These data indicate that pannexin channels contribute to distension- or LPS-evoked ATP release into the lumen of the bladder and that luminal release can modulate voiding function. PMID:25630792

  13. Wall-to-lumen ratio of intracranial arteries measured by indocyanine green angiography

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Daichi; Shojima, Masaaki; Yoshino, Masanori; Kin, Taichi; Imai, Hideaki; Nomura, Seiji; Saito, Toki; Nakatomi, Hirofumi; Oyama, Hiroshi; Saito, Nobuhito

    2016-01-01

    Background: The wall-to-lumen ratio (WLR) is an important parameter in vascular medicine because it indicates the character of vascular wall as well as the degree of stenosis. Despite the advances in medical imaging technologies, it is still difficult to measure the thin-walled normal intracranial arteries, and the reports on the WLR of normal intracranial artery are limited. It might be possible to calculate the WLR using the indocyanine green (ICG) angiography, which is used to observe intracranial vessels during microsurgery. Purpose: To evaluate the WLR of normal intracranial arteries using ICG angiography. Materials and Methods: From the three cases in which ICG angiography was recorded with a ruler during microsurgery, 20 measurement points were chosen for the analysis. The ICG was injected intravenously with a dose of 0.2 mg/kg, and the vessels were inspected at high magnification using an operating microscope equipped with near-infrared illumination system. The vessel outer diameter and the luminal diameter were measured using the images before and after the ICG arrival based on the pixel ratio method using a ruler as reference, respectively. The WLR was calculated as 0.5 × (vessel outer diameter − vessel luminal diameter). Results: The WLR (mean ± standard deviation) of normal intracranial arteries was 0.086 ± 0.022. The WLR tended to be high in small arteries. Conclusion: The WLR of normal intracranial arteries calculated using ICG angiography was consistent with the WLR reported in the previous reports based on human autopsy. PMID:27695538

  14. McGrath Series 5 videolaryngoscope vs Airtraq DL videolaryngoscope for double-lumen tube intubation

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Li; Liao, Mingfeng; Li, Li; Qian, Wei; Hu, Rong; Chen, Kun; Zhang, Chuanhan; Yao, Wenlong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Many studies have shown Airtraq videolaryngoscope provided faster tracheal intubation and a higher success rate than other videolaryngoscopes. Recently, different types of videolaryngoscopes have been reported for use in double-lumen tube (DLT) intubation. However, the advantages and disadvantages between them remain undetermined for DLT intubation. In this study, we compared the Airtraq DL videolaryngoscope with the McGrath Series 5 videolaryngoscope for DLT intubation by experienced anesthesiologists. Methods: Ninety patients with expected normal airways were randomly allocated to either the Airtraq or McGrath group. The primary outcome was DLT intubation time. The secondary outcomes were glottic view, success rate, subjective ease of intubation (100-mm visual analog scale, 0 = easy; 100 = difficult), incidence of DLT malposition, and postoperative intubation-related complication. Results: The airway characteristics were comparable between the 2 groups. Cormack and Lehane grades significantly improved with the use of the McGrath and Airtraq videolaryngoscopes, compared with the Macintosh laryngoscope. The intubation success rate on the first attempt was 93% in the Airtraq group and 95% in the McGrath group (P > 0.05). The intubation time in the McGrath group is longer than that in the Airtraq group (39.9 [9.1]s vs 28.6 [13.6]s, P < 0.05). But intubation difficulty score, the incidence of DLT malposition and intubation-related complication were comparable between groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: When using videolaryngoscopes for DLT intubation, the Airtraq DL is superior to the McGrath Series 5 in intubation time, but it does not decrease intubation difficulty. PMID:28002347

  15. Double-lumen tubes and auto-PEEP during one-lung ventilation.

    PubMed

    Spaeth, J; Ott, M; Karzai, W; Grimm, A; Wirth, S; Schumann, S; Loop, T

    2016-01-01

    Double-lumen tubes (DLT) are routinely used to enable one-lung-ventilation (OLV) during thoracic anaesthesia. The flow-dependent resistance of the DLT's bronchial limb may be high as a result of its narrow inner diameter and length, and thus potentially contribute to an unintended increase in positive end-expiratory pressure (auto-PEEP). We therefore studied the impact of adult sized DLTs on the dynamic auto-PEEP during OLV. In this prospective clinical study, dynamic auto-PEEP was determined in 72 patients undergoing thoracic surgery, with right- and left-sided DLTs of various sizes. During OLV, air trapping was provoked by increasing inspiration to expiration ratio from 1:2 to 2:1 (five steps). Based on measured flow rate, airway pressure (Paw) and bronchial pressure (Pbronch), the pressure gradient across the DLT (ΔPDLT) and the total auto-PEEP in the respiratory system (i.e. the lungs, the DLT and the ventilator circuit) were determined. Subsequently the DLT's share in total auto-PEEP was calculated. ΔPDLT was 2.3 (0.7) cm H2O over the entire breathing cycle. At the shortest expiratory time the mean total auto-PEEP was 2.9 (1.5) cm H2O (range 0-5.9 cm H2O). The DLT caused 27 to 31% of the total auto-PEEP. Size and side of the DLT's bronchial limb did not impact auto-PEEP significantly. Although the DLT contributes to the overall auto-PEEP, its contribution is small and independent of size and side of the DLT's bronchial limb. The choice of DLT does not influence the risk of auto-PEEP during OLV to a clinically relevant extent. DRKS00005648. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Video laryngoscopy versus direct laryngoscopy for double-lumen endotracheal tube intubation: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Purugganan, Ronaldo V; Jackson, Timothy A; Heir, Jagtar Singh; Wang, Hao; Cata, Juan P

    2012-10-01

    The authors hypothesized that video laryngoscopy (VL) facilitated double-lumen tube (DLT) insertion compared with direct laryngoscopy (DL). A retrospective analysis. An academic hospital. Patients older than 18 years of age undergoing thoracic surgery requiring DLT placement between 2005 and 2011. Patients without airway predictors of difficult intubation who were intubated under DL with Macintosh (DL-MAC, n = 40) or Miller (DL-MIL, n = 44) blades and VL with McGrath MAC (Aircraft Medical, Edinburgh, UK) and C-MAC (Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany) laryngoscopes (n = 46) were included in the study. Patients who were intubated with both VL devices were grouped into a VL group. Patients in all 3 groups had comparable preoperative demographics. Mallampati scores and ease of manual ventilation after the induction of anesthesia were also similar in all groups. The Cormack Lehane (C-L) grade views were significantly higher in patients in the DL-MAC than in the DL-MIL and VL groups (p < 0.006). The number of intubation attempts was similar in all 3 groups; however, the percentage of intubation reported to be difficult was higher in the DL-MAC than in the other 2 groups (p = 0.014). No damage to the airway was found in any of the groups. DLT placement using VL appeared to overcome some of the limitations of DL-MAC but was similar to DL-MIL. The authors speculated that the ease of placement was related to the improved visualization of the vocal cords because there was a significantly greater number of C-L views 3 and 4 in the DL-MAC group as compared with the VL and DL-MIL groups. Hence, the authors advocate using VL, particularly when the laryngoscopist is inexperienced using DL-MIL for DLT placement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Computer modeling of gastric parietal cell: significance of canalicular space, gland lumen, and variable canalicular [K+].

    PubMed

    Crothers, James M; Forte, John G; Machen, Terry E

    2016-05-01

    A computer model, constructed for evaluation of integrated functioning of cellular components involved in acid secretion by the gastric parietal cell, has provided new interpretations of older experimental evidence, showing the functional significance of a canalicular space separated from a mucosal bath by a gland lumen and also shedding light on basolateral Cl(-) transport. The model shows 1) changes in levels of parietal cell secretion (with stimulation or H-K-ATPase inhibitors) result mainly from changes in electrochemical driving forces for apical K(+) and Cl(-) efflux, as canalicular [K(+)] ([K(+)]can) increases or decreases with changes in apical H(+)/K(+) exchange rate; 2) H-K-ATPase inhibition in frog gastric mucosa would increase [K(+)]can similarly with low or high mucosal [K(+)], depolarizing apical membrane voltage similarly, so electrogenic H(+) pumping is not indicated by inhibition causing similar increase in transepithelial potential difference (Vt) with 4 and 80 mM mucosal K(+); 3) decreased H(+) secretion during strongly mucosal-positive voltage clamping is consistent with an electroneutral H-K-ATPase being inhibited by greatly decreased [K(+)]can (Michaelis-Menten mechanism); 4) slow initial change ("long time-constant transient") in current or Vt with clamping of Vt or current involves slow change in [K(+)]can; 5) the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) symporter (NKCC) is likely to have a significant role in Cl(-) influx, despite evidence that it is not necessary for acid secretion; and 6) relative contributions of Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger (AE2) and NKCC to Cl(-) influx would differ greatly between resting and stimulated states, possibly explaining reported differences in physiological characteristics of stimulated open-circuit Cl(-) secretion (≈H(+)) and resting short-circuit Cl(-) secretion (>H(+)).

  18. Communication of inwardly projecting neovessels with the lumen contributes to symptomatic intraplaque hemorrhage in carotid artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Horie, Nobutaka; Morofuji, Yoichi; Morikawa, Minoru; Tateishi, Yohei; Izumo, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Kentaro; Tsujino, Akira; Nagata, Izumi

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that plaque morphology can contribute to identification of patients at high risk of carotid artery atherosclerosis as well as the degree of stenosis in those with carotid atherosclerosis. Neovascularization of carotid plaques is associated with plaque vulnerability. However, the mechanism of neovascularization in intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) and its clinical contribution remain undetermined. In this study, the authors aimed to clarify the characteristics of neovessel appearance with a focus on inwardly projecting neovessels, which are reportedly important in plaque advancement. Consecutive patients with moderate to severe carotid atherosclerosis who underwent carotid endarterectomy were prospectively analyzed from 2010 to 2014. The neovessel appearance was categorized into 3 groups based on intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography: early appearance of neovessels from the endothelium (NVe), late appearance of neovessels from the vasa vasorum (NVv), and no appearance of vessels. Each neovessel pattern was evaluated with respect to clinical, radiological, and pathological findings including IPH, neovascularization, hemosiderin spots, and inflammation. Of 57 patients, 13 exhibited NVe, 33 exhibited NVv, and 11 exhibited no neovessels. Overall, the interobserver and intraobserver reproducibilities of neovessel appearance were substantial for ICG videoangiography (κ=0.76) and at 7 days postoperatively (κ=0.76). There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics among the 3 groups, with the exception of a higher percentage of symptomatic presentations in patients with NVe (artery-to-artery embolic infarction in 61.5% and transient ischemic attack in 23.1%). Moreover, patients with NVe exhibited larger infarctions than did those with NVv (9675.0±5601.9 mm3 vs 2306.6±856.9 mm3, respectively; p=0.04). Pathologically, patients with NVe had more severe IPH (47.2±8.3 mm2 vs 19.8±5.2 mm2, respectively; p<0

  19. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... thyroid disease , can interfere with hair production and cause hair loss. People with lupus can also lose hair. The hormone imbalance that happens in polycystic ovary syndrome can cause hair loss in teen girls as well as ...

  20. Percutaneous Selective Embolectomy using a Fogarty Thru-Lumen Catheter for Pancreas Graft Thrombosis: A Case Report

    SciTech Connect

    Izaki, Kenta Yamaguchi, Masato; Matsumoto, Ippei; Shinzeki, Makoto; Ku, Yonson; Sugimura, Kazuro; Sugimoto, Koji

    2011-06-15

    A 57-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus underwent simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation. The pancreaticoduodenal graft was implanted in the right iliac fossa. The donor's portal vein was anastomosed to the recipient's inferior vena cava (IVC). Seven days after the surgery, a thrombus was detected in the graft veins. Percutaneous thrombolysis was immediately performed; however, venous congestion was still present. We therefore attempted selective embolectomy using a Fogarty Thru-Lumen Catheter. Thrombi were directed from the graft veins toward the IVC and captured in the IVC filter with complete elimination of the thrombus without any major complications. We present our technique for the successful treatment of pancreas graft thrombosis within a short time period by percutaneous selective embolectomy using a Fogarty Thru-Lumen Catheter.

  1. Epithelial Sheet Folding Induces Lumen Formation by Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cells in a Collagen Gel

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Sumire; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Yamaguchi, Naoya; Ogata, Genki; Mizutani, Takeomi; Kawabata, Kazushige; Haga, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Lumen formation is important for morphogenesis; however, an unanswered question is whether it involves the collective migration of epithelial cells. Here, using a collagen gel overlay culture method, we show that Madin-Darby canine kidney cells migrated collectively and formed a luminal structure in a collagen gel. Immediately after the collagen gel overlay, an epithelial sheet folded from the periphery, migrated inwardly, and formed a luminal structure. The inhibition of integrin-β1 or Rac1 activity decreased the migration rate of the peripheral cells after the sheets folded. Moreover, lumen formation was perturbed by disruption of apical-basolateral polarity induced by transforming growth factor-β1. These results indicate that cell migration and cell polarity play an important role in folding. To further explore epithelial sheet folding, we developed a computer-simulated mechanical model based on the rigidity of the extracellular matrix. It indicated a soft substrate is required for the folding movement. PMID:25170757

  2. Epithelial sheet folding induces lumen formation by Madin-Darby canine kidney cells in a collagen gel.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Sumire; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Yamaguchi, Naoya; Ogata, Genki; Mizutani, Takeomi; Kawabata, Kazushige; Haga, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Lumen formation is important for morphogenesis; however, an unanswered question is whether it involves the collective migration of epithelial cells. Here, using a collagen gel overlay culture method, we show that Madin-Darby canine kidney cells migrated collectively and formed a luminal structure in a collagen gel. Immediately after the collagen gel overlay, an epithelial sheet folded from the periphery, migrated inwardly, and formed a luminal structure. The inhibition of integrin-β1 or Rac1 activity decreased the migration rate of the peripheral cells after the sheets folded. Moreover, lumen formation was perturbed by disruption of apical-basolateral polarity induced by transforming growth factor-β1. These results indicate that cell migration and cell polarity play an important role in folding. To further explore epithelial sheet folding, we developed a computer-simulated mechanical model based on the rigidity of the extracellular matrix. It indicated a soft substrate is required for the folding movement.

  3. Microsomal triacylglycerol transfer protein (MTP) is required to expand tracheal lumen in Drosophila in a cell-autonomous manner.

    PubMed

    Baer, Magdalena M; Palm, Wilhelm; Eaton, Suzanne; Leptin, Maria; Affolter, Markus

    2012-12-15

    The Drosophila tracheal system is a useful model for dissecting the molecular mechanisms controlling the assembly and expansion of tubular organs. We have identified microsomal triacylglycerol transfer protein (MTP) as a new player involved in the lumen expansion in unicellular tubes. MTP is an endoplasmic reticulum resident protein that can transfer triglycerides and phospholipids between membranes in vitro. MTP lipid transfer activity is crucial for the assembly and secretion of apoB family lipoproteins, which are carriers of lipids between different tissues. Here we describe an unexpected role of MTP in tracheal development, which we postulate to be independent of its known function in lipoprotein secretion. We propose that, in tracheal cells, MTP is involved in regulation of de novo apical membrane delivery to the existing lumen and thus promotes proper expansion of the larval tracheal system.

  4. Endosonography-guided drainage of malignant fluid collections using lumen-apposing, fully covered self-expanding metal stents.

    PubMed

    Musumba, Crispin; Tutticci, Nicholas; Nanda, Kavinderjit; Kwan, Vu

    2014-08-01

    Endosonography (EUS)-guided drainage of paragastric fluid collections using fully covered self-expanding metal stents (FCSEMS) is now a well-established procedure. Recently, new and specially designed lumen-apposing, fully-covered metal cystgastrostomy stents have been employed for this indication. In this case series, the use of these new stents for the drainage of malignant fluid collections in three symptomatic patients is described. Cases included a large pancreatic pseudocyst, secondary to underlying acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and two large collections of loculated ascites due to metastatic ovarian and cervical cancer, respectively. Technical success in inserting the new stents was achieved in all three patients, and resulted in symptomatic relief. There were no clinically significant complications directly attributed to the stents. These new lumen-apposing cystgastrostomy stents may provide a viable, minimally invasive, and effective alternative for drainage of malignant fluid collections, either for definitive treatment or for palliation of symptoms.

  5. Fluid dynamic study in a femoral artery branch casting of man with upstream main lumen curvature for steady flow.

    PubMed

    Back, M R; Cho, Y I; Back, L H

    1985-08-01

    An in-vitro, steady flow investigation was conducted in a hollow, transparent vascular replica of the profunda femoris branch of man for a range of physiological flow conditions. The replica casting tested was obtained from a human cadaver and indicated some plaque formation along the main lumen and branch. The flow visualization observations and measured pressure distributions indicated the highly three-dimensional flow characteristics with arterial curvature and branching, and the important role of centrifugal effects in fluid transport mechanisms.

  6. Fluid dynamic study in a femoral artery branch casting of man with upstream main lumen curvature for steady flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y. I.; Back, L. H.; Back, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    An in-vitro, steady flow investigation was conducted in a hollow, transparent vascular replica of the profunda femoris branch of man for a range of physiological flow conditions. The replica casting tested was obtained from a human cadaver and indicated some plague formation along the main lumen and branch. The flow visualization observations and measured pressure distributions indicated the highly three-dimensional flow characteristics with arterial curvature and branching, and the important role of centrifugal effects in fluid transport mechanisms.

  7. Lysine acetylation in the lumen of the ER: a novel and essential function under the control of the UPR.

    PubMed

    Pehar, Mariana; Puglielli, Luigi

    2013-03-01

    The N(ε)-amino group of lysine residues can be transiently modified by the addition of an acetyl group. Recognized functions of N(ε)-lysine acetylation include regulation of activity, molecular stabilization and conformational assembly of a protein. For more than forty years lysine acetylation was thought to occur only in the cytosol and nucleus. Targets included cytoskeletal-associated proteins as well as transcription factors, histone proteins and proteins involved in DNA recombination and repair. However, in 2007 we reported that a type I membrane protein involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease was transiently acetylated on the ε amino group of seven lysine residues while transiting along the secretory pathway. Surprisingly, the acetylation occurred in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forcing us to reconsider old paradigms. Indeed, if lysine acetylation can occur in the lumen of the ER, then all the essential biochemical elements of the reaction must be available in the lumen of the organelle. Follow-up studies revealed the existence of ER-based acetyl-CoA:lysine acetyltransferases as well as a membrane transporter that translocates acetyl-CoA from the cytosol into the ER lumen. Large-scale proteomics showed that the list of substrates of the ER-based acetylation machinery includes both transiting and resident proteins. Finally, genetic studies revealed that this machinery is tightly linked to human diseases. Here, we describe these exciting findings as well as recent biochemical and cellular advances, and discuss possible impact on both human physiology and pathology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanism of lumen gain with a novel rotational aspiration atherectomy system for peripheral arterial disease: examination by intravascular ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Ali H M; Ako, Junya; Waseda, Katsuhisa; Honda, Yasuhiro; Zeller, Thomas; Leon, Martin B; Fitzgerald, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanism of luminal gain with a novel atheroablation system (Pathway PV) for the treatment of peripheral artery disease using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). The atherectomy system is a rotational atherectomy device, which employs expandable rotating blades with ports that allow flushing and aspiration of the plaque material or thrombus. In this first-in-man clinical study, IVUS analysis was available in 6 patients with lower limb ischemia treated with this device. The treatment results were assessed using IVUS at pre and post atherectomy. Lumen beyond burr size (LBB) was defined as lumen gain divided by the estimated burr area determined by the burr-size. IVUS analysis was available in six patients (superficial femoral artery n=3, popliteal artery n=2, posterior tibial artery n=1). Atheroablation achieved a significant increase in lumen area (LA) (preintervention 3.9+/-0.4, postatheroablation 8.0+/-1.7 mm(2), P<.05), and significant reduction in plaque area (27.5+/-4.0, 23.7+/-3.1 mm(2), P=.001), while there was no change in the vessel area (31.3+/-4.2, 32.1+/-2.8 mm(2), P=.4). LBB was 57.4+/-51.3%. This novel rotational aspiration atherectomy device achieved significant luminal gain by debulking in the absence of vessel stretching. The LA was greater than burr-sized lumen expectancy at cross-sections along the treated segments, suggesting a complimentary role of aspiration in luminal gain in atherosclerotic peripheral artery lesions.

  9. [Research into estimating lumen center of dark region in colon image via cubic B-spline wavelet].

    PubMed

    Zhu, H Q; Lin, L M; Wei, J H

    2001-09-01

    In this paper, a new method is presented to detect the edge of a colonscope image using cublic B-spline wavelet. This method can make up for the shortcoming of traditional method, resulting from blue dark area in colonscope image through estimating the circle centers. These estimated circle centers which have arc-shaped edge lines are weighted to obtained the lumen centers. This center is used to navigate colon endoscope in colonscopic operation.

  10. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase p110δ promotes lumen formation through enhancement of apico-basal polarity and basal membrane organization

    PubMed Central

    Sar, Sokhavuth; Komaiha, Ola Hamze; Moyano, Romina; Rayal, Amel; Samuel, Didier; Shewan, Annette; Vanhaesebroeck, Bart; Mostov, Keith; Gassama-Diagne, Ama

    2016-01-01

    Signaling triggered by adhesion to the extracellular matrix plays a key role in the spatial orientation of epithelial polarity and formation of lumens in glandular tissues. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling in particular is known to influence the polarization process during epithelial cell morphogenesis. Here, using Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells grown in 3D culture, we show that the p110δ isoform of phosphoinositide 3-kinase colocalizes with focal adhesion proteins at the basal surface of polarized cells. Pharmacological, siRNA- or kinase-dead mediated inhibition of p110δ impair the early stages of lumen formation, resulting in inverted polarized cysts, with no laminin or type IV collagen assembly at cell/extracellular matrix contacts. p110δ also regulates the organization of focal adhesions and membrane localization of dystroglycan. Thus, we uncover a previously unrecognized role for p110δ in epithelial cells in the orientation of the apico-basal axis and lumen formation. PMID:25583025

  11. Rab35 GTPase couples cell division with initiation of epithelial apico-basal polarity and lumen opening

    PubMed Central

    Klinkert, Kerstin; Rocancourt, Murielle; Houdusse, Anne; Echard, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Establishment and maintenance of apico-basal polarity in epithelial organs must be tightly coupled with cell division, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Using 3D cultures of renal MDCK cells (cysts), we found that the Rab35 GTPase plays a crucial role in polarity initiation and apical lumen positioning during the first cell division of cyst development. At the molecular level, Rab35 physically couples cytokinesis with the initiation of apico-basal polarity by tethering intracellular vesicles containing key apical determinants at the cleavage site. These vesicles transport aPKC, Cdc42, Crumbs3 and the lumen-promoting factor Podocalyxin, and are tethered through a direct interaction between Rab35 and the cytoplasmic tail of Podocalyxin. Consequently, Rab35 inactivation leads to complete inversion of apico-basal polarity in 3D cysts. This novel and unconventional mode of Rab-dependent vesicle targeting provides a simple mechanism for triggering both initiation of apico-basal polarity and lumen opening at the centre of cysts. PMID:27040773

  12. Carcinoma cells induce lumen filling and EMT in epithelial cells through soluble E-cadherin-mediated activation of EGFR

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Pratima U.; D'Ambrosio, Julia; Inge, Landon J.; Mason, Robert W.; Rajasekaran, Ayyappan K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In epithelial cancers, carcinoma cells coexist with normal cells. Although it is known that the tumor microenvironment (TME) plays a pivotal role in cancer progression, it is not completely understood how the tumor influences adjacent normal epithelial cells. In this study, a three-dimensional co-culture system comprising non-transformed epithelial cells (MDCK) and transformed carcinoma cells (MSV-MDCK) was used to demonstrate that carcinoma cells sequentially induce preneoplastic lumen filling and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in epithelial cysts. MMP-9 secreted by carcinoma cells cleaves cellular E-cadherin (encoded by CDH1) from epithelial cells to generate soluble E-cadherin (sE-cad), a pro-oncogenic protein. We show that sE-cad induces EGFR activation, resulting in lumen filling in MDCK cysts. Long-term sE-cad treatment induced EMT. sE-cad caused lumen filling by induction of the ERK signaling pathway and triggered EMT through the sustained activation of the AKT pathway. Although it is known that sE-cad induces MMP-9 release and consequent EGFR activation in tumor cells, our results, for the first time, demonstrate that carcinoma cells can induce sE-cad shedding in adjacent epithelial cells, which leads to EGFR activation and the eventual transdifferentiation of the normal epithelial cells. PMID:26483386

  13. Regional blood flow analysis and its relationship with arterial branch lengths and lumen volume in the coronary arterial tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molloi, Sabee; Wong, Jerry T.

    2007-03-01

    The limitations of visually assessing coronary artery disease are well known. These limitations are particularly important in intermediate coronary lesions (30-70% diameter stenosis) where it is difficult to determine whether a particular lesion is the cause of ischaemia. Therefore, a functional measure of stenosis severity is needed. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the expected maximum coronary blood flow in an arterial tree is predictable from its sum of arterial branch lengths or lumen volume. Using a computer model of a porcine coronary artery tree, an analysis of blood flow distribution was conducted through a network of millions of vessels that included the entire coronary artery tree down to the first capillary branch. The flow simulation results show that there is a linear relationship between coronary blood flow and the sum of its arterial branch lengths. This relationship holds over the entire arterial tree. The flow simulation results also indicate that there is a \\frac34 power relation between coronary blood flow (Q) and the sum of its arterial lumen volume (V). Moreover, there is a linear relationship between normalized Q and normalized V raised to a power of \\frac34 over the entire arterial tree. These results indicate that measured arterial branch lengths or lumen volumes can be used to predict the expected maximum blood flow in an arterial tree. This theoretical maximum blood flow, in conjunction with an angiographically measured blood flow, can potentially be used to calculate fractional flow reserve based entirely on angiographic data.

  14. Rab35 GTPase couples cell division with initiation of epithelial apico-basal polarity and lumen opening.

    PubMed

    Klinkert, Kerstin; Rocancourt, Murielle; Houdusse, Anne; Echard, Arnaud

    2016-04-04

    Establishment and maintenance of apico-basal polarity in epithelial organs must be tightly coupled with cell division, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Using 3D cultures of renal MDCK cells (cysts), we found that the Rab35 GTPase plays a crucial role in polarity initiation and apical lumen positioning during the first cell division of cyst development. At the molecular level, Rab35 physically couples cytokinesis with the initiation of apico-basal polarity by tethering intracellular vesicles containing key apical determinants at the cleavage site. These vesicles transport aPKC, Cdc42, Crumbs3 and the lumen-promoting factor Podocalyxin, and are tethered through a direct interaction between Rab35 and the cytoplasmic tail of Podocalyxin. Consequently, Rab35 inactivation leads to complete inversion of apico-basal polarity in 3D cysts. This novel and unconventional mode of Rab-dependent vesicle targeting provides a simple mechanism for triggering both initiation of apico-basal polarity and lumen opening at the centre of cysts.

  15. Detailing intra-lesional venous lumen shrinking in multiple sclerosis investigated by sFLAIR MRI at 7-T.

    PubMed

    Müller, Katharina; Kuchling, Joseph; Dörr, Jan; Harms, Lutz; Ruprecht, Klemens; Niendorf, Thoralf; Wuerfel, Jens; Paul, Friedemann; Sinnecker, Tim

    2014-10-01

    Intra-lesional venous lumen shrinking detectable by MRI was suggested as an in vivo marker of inflammation in multiple sclerosis (MS). In our study mean diameters of pre-, post- and intra-lesional venous sections were determined in 49 patients with MS or clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) using a pixel-wise analysis on susceptibility-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (sFLAIR) images and T2*-weighted (T2*w) imaging at 7 Tesla (T). We observed post-to-intra-lesional venous lumen shrinking on T2*w images (p = 0.036) in an analysis of 338 venous sections. Pre-to-intra-lesional venous lumen reduction was only detectable in less than 50% of lesions and failed statistical significance when analysing T2*w (p = 0.325) and sFLAIR images (p = 0.258). In conclusion, thinning of intra-lesional veins in MS is--if detectable at all--probably less severe than previously reported, and affects only a minority of MS lesions.

  16. Evaluation of the conformity of assistential practice in the maintenance of the temporary double-lumen dialysis catheter1

    PubMed Central

    Rosetti, Késia Alves Gomes; Tronchin, Daisy Maria Rizatto

    2014-01-01

    Objective to evaluate the conformity of the assistential practice in the maintenance of the temporary double-lumen catheter for hemodialysis, by means of the use of the process indicator, in the University Hospital of the University of São Paulo. Method a quantitative, exploratory-descriptive and observational study. The sample was made up of 155 observations of persons with temporary double-lumen catheters, in the period March - November 2011, using the Indicator of the Maintenance of the Temporary Double Lumen Catheter for Hemodialysis. Results the rate of general conformity of the assistential practice corresponded to 65.8%. Of the practice's 13 components, 9 (69.2%) attained 100% conformity. The hygienization of hands by the professionals and the use of a mask by the patients during the disconnection from the hemodialysis had the worst rates (83.9%). Conclusion although the actions evaluated are implemented in the unit, it is necessary to propose and apply educational strategies with the health team, as well as to institute periodical assessments, so as to raise the conformity rates, ensuring the quality of the hemodialysis services. PMID:24553713

  17. The position- and lymphatic lumen-controlled tissue chambers to study live lymphatic vessels and surrounding tissues ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Maejima, Daisuke; Nagai, Takashi; Bridenbaugh, Eric A; Cromer, Walter E; Gashev, Anatoliy A

    2014-09-01

    Until now, there has been no tool available to provide lymphatic researchers the ability to perform experiments in tissue explants containing lymphatic vessels under tissue position- and lymphatic lumen-controlled conditions. In this article we provide technical details and description of the method of using the newly developed and implemented the position- and lymphatic lumen-controlled tissue chambers to study live lymphatic vessels and surrounding tissues ex vivo. In this study, we, for the first time, performed detailed comparative analysis of the contractile and pumping activity of rat mesenteric lymphatic vessels (MLVs) situated within tissue explants mounted in new tissue chambers and isolated, cannulated, and pressurized rat MLVs maintained in isolated vessel setups. We found no significant differences of the effects of both transmural pressure- and wall shear stress sensitivities of MLVs in tissue chambers and isolated MLVs. We conclude that this new experimental tool, a position- and lymphatic lumen-controlled tissue chamber, allows precise investigation of lymphatic function of MLVs interacting with elements of the tissue microenvironment. This method provides an important new set of experimental tools to investigate lymphatic function.

  18. Sucrose stimulates branching morphogenesis of embryonic mouse lung in vitro: a problem of osmotic balance between lumen fluid and culture medium.

    PubMed

    Nogawa, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Yoko

    2002-10-01

    In organ cultures of lung rudiments from 11-day mouse embryos, it was found that addition of sucrose to the culture medium stimulated branching morphogenesis and reduced lumen distension. Two possible roles of sucrose were postulated: one as a nutrient and another as a generator of osmotic pressure inducing osmosis of water from the lumen fluid to the culture medium across a simple columnar epithelial cell layer. To assess which was the case, branching morphogenesis was investigated in lung rudiments cultured in medium in which osmotic pressure was increased by the addition of lactose or NaCl rather than sucrose: similar acceleration of branching was observed in both. In another experiment, lumen fluid of cultured lung rudiments was mechanically drained each day, and significantly stimulated branching morphogenesis was observed even when sucrose was not added to the culture medium. Heparin is known to induce abnormal lumen distension and inhibits branching morphogenesis. Heparin-induced abnormal morphogenesis was prevented either by the addition of sucrose to the culture medium or by the mechanical drainage of lumen fluid. These results suggest that lumen distension caused by the accumulation of lumen fluid disrupts lung branching morphogenesis in vitro, even when the mechanism of branching morphogenesis is intact.

  19. ERα-mediated repression of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression by glucocorticoids reveals a crucial role for TNFα and IL1α in lumen formation and maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Eritja, Nuria; Mirantes, Cristina; Llobet, David; Masip, Gemma; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Dolcet, Xavi

    2012-01-01

    Most glandular tissues comprise polarized epithelial cells organized around a single central lumen. Although there is active research investigating the molecular networks involved in the regulation of lumenogenesis, little is known about the extracellular factors that influence lumen formation and maintenance. Using a three-dimensional culture system of epithelial endometrial cells, we have revealed a new role for pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα and IL1α in the formation and, more importantly, maintenance of a single central lumen. We also studied the mechanism by which glucocorticoids repress TNFα and IL1α expression. Interestingly, regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and subsequent lumen formation is mediated by estrogen receptor α (ERα) but not by the glucocorticoid receptor. Finally, we investigated the signaling pathways involved in the regulation of lumen formation by pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our results demonstrate that activation of the ERK/MAPK signaling pathway, but not the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, is important for the formation and maintenance of a single central lumen. In summary, our results suggest a novel role for ERα-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in lumen formation and maintenance. PMID:22328525

  20. Day to day treatment variations of accelerated partial breast brachytherapy using a multi-lumen balloon

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Keyur J.; Hong, Linda; Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Montgomery, Leslie L.; Bodner, William; Tomé, Wolfgang A.; Kalnicki, Shalom

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the variations of multi-lumen balloon (MLB)-based brachytherapy from simulation day to treatment day and their dosimetric impacts during accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Material and methods A total of 42 CT images scanned from seven patients were evaluated with regards to daily variation due to of: 1) internal uncertainty: size and shape of balloon, seroma volume; 2) geometrical uncertainty-random: length of each catheter was measured for each fraction (total 70); 3) geometrical uncertainty-systematic: virtual systematic errors were tested by offsetting dwell positions. The original plans (as group A) had a mean value of 96.8% on V95 of the PTV_Eval. Plans were rerun (as group B) such that the mean value of the V95 was relaxed to 90.4%. By applying the reference plan to each daily CT image, variations of target coverage under different sources of error were evaluated. Results Shape and size of the balloon had means of < 1 mm decreased in diameter and < 0.4 cm3 decreased in volume; the mean seroma volume increased by 0.2 cm3. This internal variation has a mean of < 1% difference for both V90 and V95. The geometrical uncertainty made a mean deviation of 2.7 mm per root of sum of square. It caused the degradations of V90 and V95 by mean values of 1.0% and 1.2%, respectively. A systematic error of 3 mm and 4 mm would degrade both of V90 and V95 by 4% and 6%, respectively. The degradations on target coverage of the plans in group A were statistically the same as those in group B. Conclusions Overall, APBI treatments with MLB based brachytherapy are precise from day to day. However, minor variation due to daily treatment uncertainties can still degrade tumor bed coverage to an unacceptable coverage when V95 of the original plan is close to 90%. PMID:24790624

  1. Predicting Optimal Insertion Depth of a Left-sided Double-Lumen Endobronchial Tube.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Lin; Cherng, Chen-Hwan

    2016-08-01

    Appropriate placement of the double-lumen endobronchial tube (DLT) is essential for one-lung ventilation. Several formulae based on body height (BH) have been used for estimating the optimal insertion depth of a left-sided DLT. In this study, the authors examined the following 5 formulae for accuracy of prediction: 0.11×BH+10.53 (cm) from Brodsky et al(1); 0.15×BH+3.96 (cm) from Bahk and Oh(2); 0.148×BH+3.8 (cm) from Chow et al;(3) 0.1×BH+12.5 (cm) from Takita et al(4); and 0.1977×BH - 4.2423 (cm) (authors' formula). Single-center, retrospective, observational study. University hospital. Anesthetic records of patients older than 20 years who received one-lung ventilation using a left-sided DLT were included. The patients' sex, age, body weight, BH, and the final correct insertion depth of the left-sided DLT after fiberscope verification were recorded. Linear regression and correlation were used to analyze the data. One hundred seventy anesthetic records were analyzed. The insertion depth was distributed normally in 4 groups with different BH intervals. The correlations between the correct insertion depth and all the lengths calculated using each formula were significant (p<0.001), with a similar high coefficient of determination (r = 0.809). The regression line derived from the authors' formula-0.1977×BH - 4.2423 (cm)-showed the most accuracy in predicting the correct insertion depth. The height-based formula of 170 - 29.5 - 5 - 1 (the insertion depth is 29.5 cm for patients who are 170 cm tall, and the insertion length is increased or decreased by 1 cm for every 5 cm increase or decrease in BH) modified by the equation of 0.1977×BH - 4.2423 is a useful tool to predict the optimal insertion depth in initially blind left-sided DLT insertion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A simple blind placement of the left-sided double-lumen tubes

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Zhi Jun; Shen, Qi Ying; Lu, Yao; Li, Yuan Hai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract One-lung ventilation (OLV) has been commonly provided by using a double-lumen tube (DLT). Previous reports have indicated the high incidence of inappropriate DLT positioning in conventional maneuvers. After obtaining approval from the medical ethics committee of First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University and written consent from patients, 88 adult patients belonging to American society of anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status grade I or II, and undergoing elective thoracic surgery requiring a left-side DLT for OLV were enrolled in this prospective, single-blind, randomized controlled study. Patients were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 groups: simple maneuver group or conventional maneuver group. The simple maneuver is a method that relies on partially inflating the bronchial balloon and recreating the effect of a carinal hook on the DLTs to give an idea of orientation and depth. After the induction of anesthesia the patients were intubated with a left-sided Robertshaw DLT using one of the 2 intubation techniques. After intubation of each DLT, an anesthesiologist used flexible bronchoscopy to evaluate the patient while the patient lay in a supine position. The number of optimal position and the time required to place DLT in correct position were recorded. Time for the intubation of DLT took 100 ± 16.2 seconds (mean ± SD) in simple maneuver group and 95.1 ± 20.8 seconds in conventional maneuver group. The difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.221). Time for fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB) took 22 ± 4.8 seconds in simple maneuver group and was statistically faster than that in conventional maneuver group (43.6 ± 23.7 seconds, P < 0.001). Nearly 98% of the 44 intubations in simple maneuver group were considered as in optimal position while only 52% of the 44 intubations in conventional maneuver group were in optimal position, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). This

  3. A Single-Lumen Central Venous Catheter for Continuous and Direct Intra-abdominal Pressure Measurement.

    PubMed

    van Waes, Oscar J F; Jaquet, Jean B; Hop, Wim C J; Morak, Marjolein J M; Ijzermans, Jan M; Koning, Jan

    2009-12-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Therefore, the need for a good diagnostic tool to predict intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and progression to ACS is paramount. Bladder pressure (BP) has been used for several years for intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) measurement but has the disadvantage that it is not a continuous measurement. In this study, a single-lumen central venous catheter (CVC) is placed through the abdominal wall into the abdominal cavity to continuously and directly monitor the intraabdominal pressure (CDIAP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of CDIAP to measure BP as a representative of the true IAP. Both BP and CDIAP were prospectively recorded on a variety of surgical patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) from March 2003 up to December 2004. At the end of the surgical procedure, the CVC was placed through the abdominal wall and connected to a pressure transducer. In addition, the BP was measured through the urine drainage port after clamping the catheter and filling the bladder with 50 ml of 0.9% saline. At least three paired measurements (BP and CDIAP) were performed for at least one day on the ICU in a standardized manner at preset time intervals on each patient. The paired measurements were compared using the Bland-Altman (B-A) method. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation. Over a period of 22 months (March 2003 until December 2004), 125 paired measurements of both BP and CDIAP were recorded on 25 patients. The mean age was 72.4 ± 6.6 years. Eighteen patients underwent central vascular surgery, and seven patients with peritonitis received laparotomy. The mean CDIAP was 11.4 ± 4.8 (range 2-30) mmHg, and the BP was 12.9 ± 5.3 (range 3-37) mmHg. The mean difference between CDIAP and BP was 1.6 ± 2.7 mmHg. There was an acceptable level of agreement (intraclass correlation 0.82) between IAP measured by BP and IAP measured via CDIAP. Continuous direct

  4. Colonoscopy with robotic steering and automated lumen centralization: a feasibility study in a colon model.

    PubMed

    Pullens, Hendrikus J M; van der Stap, Nanda; Rozeboom, Esther D; Schwartz, Matthijs P; van der Heijden, Ferdi; van Oijen, Martijn G H; Siersema, Peter D; Broeders, Ivo A M J

    2016-03-01

    We introduced a new platform for performing colonoscopy with robotic steering and automated lumen centralization (RS-ALC) and evaluated its technical feasibility. Expert endoscopists (n = 8) and endoscopy-naive novices (n = 10) used conventional steering and RS-ALC to perform colonoscopy in a validated colon model with simulated polyps (n = 21). The participants were randomized to which modality they were to use first. End points were the cecal intubation time, number of detected polyps, and subjective evaluation of the platform. Novices were able to intubate the cecum faster with RS-ALC (median 8 minutes [min] 56 seconds [s], interquartile range [IQR] 6  min 46  s - 16  min 34  s vs. median 11  min 47  s, IQR 8  min 19  s - 15  min 33  s, P = 0.65), whereas experts were faster with conventional steering (median 2  min 9  s, IQR 1  min 13 s - 7  min 28  s vs. median 13  min 1  s, IQR 5  min 9 s - 16  min 54  s, P = 0.12). Novices detected more polyps with RS-ALC (median 88.1 %, IQR 79.8 % - 95.2 % vs. median 78.6 %, IQR 75.0 % - 91.7 %, P = 0.17), whereas experts detected more polyps with conventional steering (median 80.9 %, IQR 76.2 % - 85.7 % vs. median 69.0 %, IQR 61.0 % - 75.0 %, P = 0.03). Novices were more positive than experts about the new platform (P = 0.02), noting an easier and faster introduction of the colonoscope with RS-ALC than with conventional steering. Colonoscopy with RS-ALC is technically feasible and appears to be easier and more intuitive than conventional steering for endoscopy-naive novices. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. A simple blind placement of the left-sided double-lumen tubes.

    PubMed

    Zong, Zhi Jun; Shen, Qi Ying; Lu, Yao; Li, Yuan Hai

    2016-11-01

    One-lung ventilation (OLV) has been commonly provided by using a double-lumen tube (DLT). Previous reports have indicated the high incidence of inappropriate DLT positioning in conventional maneuvers.After obtaining approval from the medical ethics committee of First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University and written consent from patients, 88 adult patients belonging to American society of anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status grade I or II, and undergoing elective thoracic surgery requiring a left-side DLT for OLV were enrolled in this prospective, single-blind, randomized controlled study. Patients were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 groups: simple maneuver group or conventional maneuver group. The simple maneuver is a method that relies on partially inflating the bronchial balloon and recreating the effect of a carinal hook on the DLTs to give an idea of orientation and depth. After the induction of anesthesia the patients were intubated with a left-sided Robertshaw DLT using one of the 2 intubation techniques. After intubation of each DLT, an anesthesiologist used flexible bronchoscopy to evaluate the patient while the patient lay in a supine position. The number of optimal position and the time required to place DLT in correct position were recorded.Time for the intubation of DLT took 100 ± 16.2 seconds (mean ± SD) in simple maneuver group and 95.1 ± 20.8 seconds in conventional maneuver group. The difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.221). Time for fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB) took 22 ± 4.8 seconds in simple maneuver group and was statistically faster than that in conventional maneuver group (43.6 ± 23.7 seconds, P < 0.001). Nearly 98% of the 44 intubations in simple maneuver group were considered as in optimal position while only 52% of the 44 intubations in conventional maneuver group were in optimal position, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001).This simple

  6. The Candy-Plug Technique: Technical Aspects and Early Results of a New Endovascular Method for False Lumen Occlusion in Chronic Aortic Dissection.

    PubMed

    Rohlffs, Fiona; Tsilimparis, Nikolaos; Fiorucci, Beatrice; Heidemann, Franziska; Debus, Eike Sebastian; Kölbel, Tilo

    2017-08-01

    To describe the technical aspects and early results of the Candy-Plug technique for endovascular false lumen occlusion in chronic aortic dissection. A retrospective single-center study analyzing 18 consecutive patients (mean age 63 years, range 44-76; 16 men) with thoracic false lumen aneurysm in chronic aortic dissection. All patients underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repair with false lumen occlusion using the Candy-Plug technique. Primary endpoints consisted of technical success (successful deployment) and clinical success (no false lumen backflow). Secondary endpoints included 30-day mortality and morbidity as well as aortic remodeling during follow-up. Technical success was 100%. Additional intraprocedural false lumen embolization at the Candy-Plug level was needed in 1 patient due to persisting false lumen backflow on the final angiogram (clinical success 94%). There were no intraprocedural complications. In the perioperative period, there were 3 minor complications: transient mild spinal cord ischemia, cervical hematoma after carotid-subclavian bypass, and a common femoral artery pseudoaneurysm. No deaths or reinterventions occurred. Complete distal false lumen occlusion was present on postoperative computed tomography in 15 patients, while 3 had minor contrast enhancement in the distal false lumen. Over a mean 9-month follow-up (range 0-26), 1 patient died due to rupture. Follow-up >6 months was available in 10 patients (mean 14.7 months, range 7-26): 7 patients showed aortic remodeling, while aneurysm size was stable in 3 patients. The Candy-Plug technique is a feasible endovascular method to achieve false lumen occlusion and aortic remodeling in chronic aortic dissection. It is associated with low morbidity and mortality due to its minimal invasiveness.

  7. Multi-purpose silastic dual-lumen central venous catheters for both collection and transplantation of hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, H M; Trehan, S; Miller, R; Fox, R M; Creger, R J; Raaf, J H

    2000-04-01

    Autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) transplantation frequently requires sequential placement and use of two separate central venous catheters: (1) a short-term, large-bore, stiff device inserted for leukapheresis, and after removal of that device, (2) a long-term, multi-lumen, flexible, Silastic catheter for administration of high-dose chemotherapy, re-infusion of hematopoietic cells, and intensive supportive care. We reviewed our recent experience with two dual-lumen, large-bore, Silastic multi-purpose ('hybrid') catheters, each of which can be used as a single device for both leukapheresis and long-term supportive care throughout the transplant process. Quinton-Raaf PermCath and Bard-Hickman hemodialysis/apheresis dual-lumen catheters were used as the sole venous access device in 112 consecutive patients who underwent autologous PBPC collection and transplantation. The catheter exit site was monitored three times a week, and lumen patency was assessed using clinical and radiologic techniques. Catheters were removed prematurely for persistent thrombus, positive blood cultures despite appropriate antibiotics, or mechanical dysfunction. There were no intra-operative or immediate post-operative complications relating to insertion. Thirty-two patients experienced catheter occlusion necessitating urokinase instillation. Persistent occlusive problems were noted in 16 patients, and in 10 patients the catheter had to be removed. Two exit site infections and 17 bacteremias occurred. Catheters had to be removed for persistent infection in two subjects and for mechanical problems in five others. Cost analysis comparing the hybrid catheters alone vs conventional devices revealed a charge of $4230 in patients with hybrid catheters vs. $7530 in those requiring a temporary non-Silastic dialysis catheter in addition to a flexible, long-term Silastic catheter. Hybrid, Silastic, dual-lumen, large-bore central venous catheters are safe, cost-effective and convenient

  8. IV Administered Gadodiamide Enters the Lumen of the Prostatic Glands: X-Ray Fluorescence Microscopy Examination of a Mouse Model

    DOE PAGES

    Mustafi, Devkumar; Gleber, Sophie-Charlotte; Ward, Jesse; ...

    2015-09-01

    In our objective, we descibe how dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) has become a standard component of multiparametric protocols for MRI examination of the prostate, and its use is incorporated into current guidelines for prostate MRI examination. Analysis of DCE-MRI data for the prostate is usually based on the distribution of gadolinium-based agents, such as gadodiamide, into two well-mixed compartments, and it assumes that gadodiamide does not enter into the glandular lumen. However, this assumption has not been directly tested. The purpose of this study was to use x-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) imaging in situ to measure the concentration of gadodiamidemore » in the epithelia and lumens of the prostate of healthy mice after IV injection of the contrast agent. For our materials and methods, six C57Bl6 male mice (age, 28 weeks) were sacrificed 10 minutes after IV injection of gadodiamide (0.13 mmol/kg), and three mice were sacrificed after saline injection. Prostate tissue samples obtained from each mouse were harvested and frozen; 7-μm-thick slices were sectioned for XFM imaging, and adjacent 5-μm-thick slices were sectioned for H and E staining. Elemental concentrations were determined from XFM images. Our results show mean (± SD) baseline concentration of gadolinium of 0.01 ± 0.01 mM was determined from XFM measurements of prostatic tissue samples when no gadodiamide was administered, and it was used to determine the measurement error. When gadodiamide was added, the mean concentrations of gadolinium in the epithelia and lumens in 32 prostatic glands from six mice were 1.00 ± 0.13 and 0.36 ± 0.09 mM, respectively. In conclusion, our data suggest that IV administration of gadodiamide results in uptake of contrast agent by the glandular lumens of the mouse prostate. We were able to quantitatively determine gadodiamide distributions in mouse prostatic epithelia and lumens.« less

  9. IV Administered Gadodiamide Enters the Lumen of the Prostatic Glands: X-Ray Fluorescence Microscopy Examination of a Mouse Model

    SciTech Connect

    Mustafi, Devkumar; Gleber, Sophie-Charlotte; Ward, Jesse; Dougherty, Urszula; Zamora, Marta; Markiewicz, Erica; Binder, David C.; Antic, Tatjana; Vogt, Stefan; Karczmar, Gregory S.; Oto, Aytekin

    2015-09-01

    In our objective, we descibe how dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) has become a standard component of multiparametric protocols for MRI examination of the prostate, and its use is incorporated into current guidelines for prostate MRI examination. Analysis of DCE-MRI data for the prostate is usually based on the distribution of gadolinium-based agents, such as gadodiamide, into two well-mixed compartments, and it assumes that gadodiamide does not enter into the glandular lumen. However, this assumption has not been directly tested. The purpose of this study was to use x-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) imaging in situ to measure the concentration of gadodiamide in the epithelia and lumens of the prostate of healthy mice after IV injection of the contrast agent. For our materials and methods, six C57Bl6 male mice (age, 28 weeks) were sacrificed 10 minutes after IV injection of gadodiamide (0.13 mmol/kg), and three mice were sacrificed after saline injection. Prostate tissue samples obtained from each mouse were harvested and frozen; 7-μm-thick slices were sectioned for XFM imaging, and adjacent 5-μm-thick slices were sectioned for H and E staining. Elemental concentrations were determined from XFM images. Our results show mean (± SD) baseline concentration of gadolinium of 0.01 ± 0.01 mM was determined from XFM measurements of prostatic tissue samples when no gadodiamide was administered, and it was used to determine the measurement error. When gadodiamide was added, the mean concentrations of gadolinium in the epithelia and lumens in 32 prostatic glands from six mice were 1.00 ± 0.13 and 0.36 ± 0.09 mM, respectively. In conclusion, our data suggest that IV administration of gadodiamide results in uptake of contrast agent by the glandular lumens of the mouse prostate. We were able to quantitatively determine gadodiamide distributions in mouse prostatic epithelia and lumens.

  10. Scribble is required for normal epithelial cell–cell contacts and lumen morphogenesis in the mammalian lung

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Laura L.; Schnatwinkel, Carsten; Hazelwood, Lee; Chessum, Lauren; Paudyal, Anju; Hilton, Helen; Romero, M. Rosario; Wilde, Jonathan; Bogani, Debora; Sanderson, Jeremy; Formstone, Caroline; Murdoch, Jennifer N.; Niswander, Lee A.; Greenfield, Andy; Dean, Charlotte H.

    2013-01-01

    During lung development, proper epithelial cell arrangements are critical for the formation of an arborized network of tubes. Each tube requires a lumen, the diameter of which must be tightly regulated to enable optimal lung function. Lung branching and lumen morphogenesis require close epithelial cell–cell contacts that are maintained as a result of adherens junctions, tight junctions and by intact apical–basal (A/B) polarity. However, the molecular mechanisms that maintain epithelial cohesion and lumen diameter in the mammalian lung are unknown. Here we show that Scribble, a protein implicated in planar cell polarity (PCP) signalling, is necessary for normal lung morphogenesis. Lungs of the Scrib mouse mutant Circletail (Crc) are abnormally shaped with fewer airways, and these airways often lack a visible, ‘open’ lumen. Mechanistically we show that Scrib genetically interacts with the core PCP gene Vangl2 in the developing lung and that the distribution of PCP pathway proteins and Rho mediated cytoskeletal modification is perturbed in ScribCrc/Crc lungs. However A/B polarity, which is disrupted in Drosophila Scrib mutants, is largely unaffected. Notably, we find that Scrib mediates functions not attributed to other PCP proteins in the lung. Specifically, Scrib localises to both adherens and tight junctions of lung epithelia and knockdown of Scrib in lung explants and organotypic cultures leads to reduced cohesion of lung epithelial cells. Live imaging of Scrib knockdown lungs shows that Scrib does not affect bud bifurcation, as previously shown for the PCP protein Celsr1, but is required to maintain epithelial cohesion. To understand the mechanism leading to reduced cell–cell association, we show that Scrib associates with β-catenin in embryonic lung and the sub-cellular distribution of adherens and tight junction proteins is perturbed in mutant lung epithelia. Our data reveal that Scrib is required for normal lung epithelial organisation and lumen

  11. Degree of bioresorbable vascular scaffold expansion modulates loss of essential function

    PubMed Central

    Ferdous, Jahid; Kolachalama, Vijaya B.; Kolandaivelu, Kumaran; Shazly, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    Drug-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BVSs) have the potential to restore lumen patency, enable recovery of the native vascular environment, and circumvent late complications associated with permanent endovascular devices. To ensure therapeutic effects persist for sufficient times prior to scaffold resorption and resultant functional loss, many factors dictating BVS performance must be identified, characterized and optimized. While some factors relate to BVS design and manufacturing, others depend on device deployment and intrinsic vascular properties. Importantly, these factors interact and cannot be considered in isolation. The objective of this study is to quantify the extent to which degree of radial expansion modulates BVS performance, specifically in the context of modifying device erosion kinetics and evolution of structural mechanics and local drug elution. We systematically varied degree of radial expansion in model BVS constructs composed of poly DL-lactide-glycolide and generated in-vitro metrics of device microstructure, degradation, erosion, mechanics and drug release. Experimental data permitted development of computational models that predicted transient concentrations of scaffold-derived soluble species and drug in the arterial wall, thus enabling speculation on the short- and long-term effects of differential expansion. We demonstrate degree of expansion significantly affects scaffold properties critical to functionality, underscoring its relevance in BVS design and optimization. PMID:26277377

  12. Pregnancy Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... and painful this loss can be. You might wonder if you'll ever have a baby to hold and call your own. But surviving the emotional impact of pregnancy loss is possible. And many women go on to have successful pregnancies. Expand all | ...

  13. Embolization of a spinal dural arteriovenous fistula with ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx) using a dual-lumen microballoon catheter and buddy wire technique

    PubMed Central

    Nakae, Ryuta; Nagaishi, Masaya; Hyodo, Akio; Suzuki, Kensuke

    2017-01-01

    Background: N-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) remains the standard embolic agent for spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) treatment. Treatment of SDAVF with ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx, ev3-Covidien, Irvine CA, USA) is currently not well established. Although several cases have reported the use of Onyx to embolize an intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula using a dual-lumen microballoon catheter, Onyx embolization of an SDAVF using a dual-lumen microballoon catheter has not been reported. Case Description: We treated a 57-year-old man with an SDAVF using a dual-lumen microballoon catheter and buddy wire technique to perform transarterial Onyx embolization via the left sixth intercostal artery. Conclusions: Onyx embolization using a dual-lumen microballoon catheter was effective. Furthermore, the buddy wire technique was useful for providing rigid support of the microcatheter in a narrow and tortuous intercostal artery. PMID:28840070

  14. Embolization of a spinal dural arteriovenous fistula with ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx) using a dual-lumen microballoon catheter and buddy wire technique.

    PubMed

    Nakae, Ryuta; Nagaishi, Masaya; Hyodo, Akio; Suzuki, Kensuke

    2017-01-01

    N-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) remains the standard embolic agent for spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) treatment. Treatment of SDAVF with ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx, ev3-Covidien, Irvine CA, USA) is currently not well established. Although several cases have reported the use of Onyx to embolize an intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula using a dual-lumen microballoon catheter, Onyx embolization of an SDAVF using a dual-lumen microballoon catheter has not been reported. We treated a 57-year-old man with an SDAVF using a dual-lumen microballoon catheter and buddy wire technique to perform transarterial Onyx embolization via the left sixth intercostal artery. Onyx embolization using a dual-lumen microballoon catheter was effective. Furthermore, the buddy wire technique was useful for providing rigid support of the microcatheter in a narrow and tortuous intercostal artery.

  15. Late recurrence of medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Brittney; Razzaqi, Faisal; Yu, Lolie; Craver, Randall

    2008-01-01

    We present a child with a cerebellar medulloblastoma, diagnosed at age three, treated with near total surgical resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, that recurred 13 years after the initial diagnosis. This late recurrence exceeds the typical 10-year survival statistics that are in common use, and exceeds the Collins rule. Continued follow-up of these children is justified to increase the likelihood of detecting these late recurrences early and to learn more about these late recurrences.

  16. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-12-31

    This CALiPER report examines lumen depreciation and color shift of 17 different A lamps in steady-state conditions (15 LED, 1 CFL, 1 halogen). The goal of this investigation was to examine the long-term performance of complete LED lamps relative to benchmark halogen and CFL lamps—in this case, A lamps emitting approximately 800 lumens operated continuously at a relatively high ambient temperature of 45°C.

  17. Late-life attachment.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Mélanie; Rahioui, Hassan

    2017-03-01

    Old age is likely to cause a crisis in one's life because of the vulnerabilities it brings up, acting as stressful elements disrupting the elder's feeling of security. It leads to the activation of what is called his attachment system, consisting in attachment styles and interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. To recover a higher sense of safety, the elder would refer to his attachment figures, that is to say closed people paying attention to him, showing towards him availability and consideration. However older adults particularly see their tolerance threshold lowered, regarding an accumulation of losses (true or symbolic) and stressful events within their lifetime. In a psychological and organic exhaustion phenomenon, the risk is to wear out the interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. These are as much vulnerabilities that may increase psychiatric decompensation, including depression. To resolve the tension of this period and to found a necessary secure feeling, the elder will have to redesign the attachment links previously settled and proceed to adjustments to this new context. The need of relational closeness comes back in the elders' attachment behaviour, counting on attachment figures not only to help their loneliness or dependency, but essentially to support them in a narcissist and affective way. That is why attachment theory enlightens the late life period, such as the new challenges older adults have to face. Many studies recognize its value in understanding the transition to old age, but without proposing conceptualization. We aim first to focus on attachment conception to say how much it is relevant with elderly, and then to describe specific terms of attachment within this population in order to better understand those patients. To finish, we must think about new therapeutic proposals taking into consideration the attachment perspective for a better understanding of old age transition.

  18. Balloon-augmented Onyx embolization of cerebral arteriovenous malformations using a dual-lumen balloon: a multicenter experience.

    PubMed

    Spiotta, Alejandro M; James, Robert F; Lowe, Stephen R; Vargas, Jan; Turk, Aquilla S; Chaudry, M Imran; Bhalla, Tarun; Janjua, Rashid M; Delaney, John J; Quintero-Wolfe, Stacey; Turner, Raymond D

    2015-10-01

    Conventional Onyx embolization of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) requires lengthy procedure and fluoroscopy times to form an adequate 'proximal plug' which allows forward nidal penetration while preventing reflux and non-targeted embolization. We review our experience with balloon-augmented Onyx embolization of cerebral AVMs using a dual-lumen balloon catheter technique designed to minimize these challenges. Retrospectively acquired data for all balloon-augmented cerebral AVM embolizations performed between 2011 and 2014 were obtained from four tertiary care centers. For each procedure, at least one Scepter C balloon catheter was advanced into the AVM arterial pedicle of interest and Onyx embolization was performed through the inner lumen after balloon inflation via the outer lumen. Twenty patients underwent embolization with the balloon-augmented technique over 24 discreet treatment episodes. There were 37 total arterial pedicles embolized with the balloon-augmented technique, a mean of 1.9 per patient (range 1-5). The treated AVMs were heterogeneous in their location and size (mean 3.3±1.6 cm). Mean fluoroscopy time for each procedure was 48±26 min (28 min per embolized pedicle). Two Scepter C balloon catheter-related complications (8.3% of embolization sessions, 5.4% of pedicles embolized) were observed: an intraprocedural rupture of a feeding pedicle and fracture and retention of a catheter fragment. This multicenter experience represents the largest reported series of balloon-augmented Onyx embolization of cerebral AVMs. The technique appears safe and effective in the treatment of AVMs, allowing more efficient and controlled injection of Onyx with a decreased risk of reflux and decreased fluoroscopy times. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Is quantitative coronary angiography reliable in assessing the lumen gain after treatment with the everolimus-eluting bioresorbable polylactide scaffold?

    PubMed

    Sotomi, Yohei; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Suwannasom, Pannipa; Tateishi, Hiroki; Tenekecioglu, Erhan; Zeng, Yaping; Cavalcante, Rafael; Jonker, Hans; Dijkstra, Jouke; Foin, Nicolas; Koon, Jaryl Ng Chen; Collet, Carlos; de Winter, Robbert J; Wykrzykowska, Joanna J; Stone, Gregg W; Popma, Jeffrey J; Kozuma, Ken; Tanabe, Kengo; Serruys, Patrick W; Kimura, Takeshi

    2016-10-10

    The current study aimed to assess the difference in lumen dimension measurements between optical coherence tomography (OCT) and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) in the polymeric bioresorbable scaffold and metallic stent. In the randomised ABSORB Japan trial, 87 lesions in the Absorb arm and 44 lesions in the XIENCE arm were analysed. Post-procedural OCT-QCA lumen dimensions were assessed in matched proximal/distal non-stented/non-scaffolded reference (n=199), scaffolded (n=145) and stented (n=75) cross-sections at the two device edges using the Bland-Altman method. In the non-stented/non-scaffolded reference segments, QCA systematically underestimated lumen diameter (LD) compared with OCT (accuracy, -0.26 mm; precision, 0.47 mm; 95% limits of agreement as a mean bias±1.96 standard deviation, -1.18-0.66 mm). When compared to OCT, QCA of the Absorb led to a more severe underestimation of the LD (-0.30 mm; 0.39 mm; -1.06-0.46 mm) than with the XIENCE (-0.14 mm; 0.31 mm; -0.75-0.46 mm). QCA underestimated LD by 9.1%, 4.9%, and 9.8% in the reference, stented, and scaffolded segments, respectively. The protrusion distance of struts was larger in the Absorb arm than in the XIENCE arm (135±27 µm vs. 18±26 µm, p<0.001), and may have contributed to the observed differences. In-device QCA measurement was differently affected by the presence of a metallic or polymeric scaffold, a fact that had a significant impact on the QCA assessment of acute gain and post-procedural minimum LD.

  20. Accurate lumen diameter measurement in curved vessels in carotid ultrasound: an iterative scale-space and spatial transformation approach.

    PubMed

    Krishna Kumar, P; Araki, Tadashi; Rajan, Jeny; Saba, Luca; Lavra, Francesco; Ikeda, Nobutaka; Sharma, Aditya M; Shafique, Shoaib; Nicolaides, Andrew; Laird, John R; Gupta, Ajay; Suri, Jasjit S

    2016-12-10

    Monitoring of cerebrovascular diseases via carotid ultrasound has started to become a routine. The measurement of image-based lumen diameter (LD) or inter-adventitial diameter (IAD) is a promising approach for quantification of the degree of stenosis. The manual measurements of LD/IAD are not reliable, subjective and slow. The curvature associated with the vessels along with non-uniformity in the plaque growth poses further challenges. This study uses a novel and generalized approach for automated LD and IAD measurement based on a combination of spatial transformation and scale-space. In this iterative procedure, the scale-space is first used to get the lumen axis which is then used with spatial image transformation paradigm to get a transformed image. The scale-space is then reapplied to retrieve the lumen region and boundary in the transformed framework. Then, inverse transformation is applied to display the results in original image framework. Two hundred and two patients' left and right common carotid artery (404 carotid images) B-mode ultrasound images were retrospectively analyzed. The validation of our algorithm has done against the two manual expert tracings. The coefficient of correlation between the two manual tracings for LD was 0.98 (p < 0.0001) and 0.99 (p < 0.0001), respectively. The precision of merit between the manual expert tracings and the automated system was 97.7 and 98.7%, respectively. The experimental analysis demonstrated superior performance of the proposed method over conventional approaches. Several statistical tests demonstrated the stability and reliability of the automated system.

  1. Salmonella induces flagellin- and MyD88-dependent migration of bacteria-capturing dendritic cells into the gut lumen.

    PubMed

    Arques, Juan L; Hautefort, Isabelle; Ivory, Kamal; Bertelli, Eugenio; Regoli, Marì; Clare, Simon; Hinton, Jay C D; Nicoletti, Claudio

    2009-08-01

    Intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) sample bacteria, such as Salmonella, by extending cellular processes into the lumen to capture bacteria and shuttle them across the epithelium; however, direct evidence of bacteria-loaded DCs travelling back into the tissue is lacking. We hypothesized that sampling is paralleled by migration of DCs into the lumen prior to or following the internalization of Salmonella. The small intestine and the colon of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were challenged with noninvasive Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344-DeltaSalmonella pathogenicity island (SPI) 1 or Escherichia coli DH5alpha by using isolated loops or oral administration by gavage. Transepithelial migration of DCs was documented by immunohistochemistry, microscopy, and flow cytometry. The role of flagellin was determined by using flagellin (DeltafliC DeltafljB)- and SPI1-SPI2 (DeltaSPI1 DeltassrA)-deficient Salmonella, flagellated E coli K12, and MyD88 mice. Salmonella DeltaSPI1 induced migration of CD11c(+)CX(3)CR1(+)MHCII(+)CD11b(-)CD8alpha(-) DCs into the small intestine, whereas flagellin- and SPI1-SPI2-deficient Salmonella, soluble flagellin, and E coli DH5alpha or flagellated K12, failed to do so. DC migration did not occur in the colon; it was not observed in MyD88 mice, and intraluminal DCs internalized Salmonella but did not cross the epithelium to return into tissues. Finally, DC migration was not linked to Salmonella-induced damage of the epithelium. DC-mediated sampling of Salmonella is accompanied by flagellin- and MyD88-dependent migration of Salmonella-capturing DCs into the intestinal lumen. We suggest that the rapid intraluminal migration of Salmonella-capturing DCs may play a role in the protection of the intestinal mucosa against bacterial infection.

  2. Hybrid Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Using Avalon Elite Double Lumen Cannula Ensures Adequate Heart/Brain Oxygen Supply.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ju; Wang, Dongfang; Ballard-Croft, Cherry; Wang, Jingkun; Hsu, Po-Lin; Bacchetta, Matthew; Zwischenberger, Joseph B

    2017-09-01

    Differential hypoxia exists in peripheral venoarterial (VA) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) patients with compromised lungs, causing hypoxic damage to heart or brain. We proposed an Avalon Elite (Maquet, Rastatt, Germany) double lumen cannula-based hybrid ECMO to add a venovenous (VV) blood flow into the pulmonary circulation onto the existing VA ECMO circuit to increase oxygen saturation in the left ventricle and ascending aorta, mitigating heart/brain hypoxia. This hybrid ECMO circuit consists of two cannulas (27F Avalon Elite double lumen cannula from the inferior vena cava to the superior vena cava to right atrium to inferior vena cava; 17F infusion cannula in femoral artery), a blood pump, and a gas exchanger. This hybrid ECMO circuit was tested in 7 adult sheep with simulated lung failure. Total ECMO blood flow (2.8 to 3.3 L/min) was split between VV and VA blood flow. The VV blood flow was adjusted from 0% to 50% of total ECMO flow by approximately 10% increments. In VA ECMO, simulated respiratory failure resulted in differential hypoxia (low oxygen level in left ventricle and high oxygen level in abdominal aorta). In hybrid ECMO, adding VV blood flow (10% to 50% of total ECMO flow) to the VA ECMO circuit progressively increased left ventricle blood oxygen saturation from 70% ± 8% at zero VV blood flow (pure VA ECMO) to 82% ± 6% at 300 mL/min VV blood flow, and 96% ± 6% at 1,700 mL/min VV blood flow. The Avalon Elite double-lumen cannula-based hybrid ECMO circuit is a simple circuit that provides efficient performance and flexible VA/VV blood distribution. In this hybrid ECMO circuit, incremental VV blood flow (10% to 50%) progressively increased left ventricular blood oxygen level, ensuring adequate heart and brain oxygen supply. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Na,K-ATPase β-subunit cis homo-oligomerization is necessary for epithelial lumen formation in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Barwe, Sonali P.; Skay, Anna; McSpadden, Ryan; Huynh, Thu P.; Langhans, Sigrid A.; Inge, Landon J.; Rajasekaran, Ayyappan K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Na,K-ATPase is a hetero-oligomer of an α- and a β-subunit. The α-subunit (Na,K-α) possesses the catalytic function, whereas the β-subunit (Na,K-β) has cell-cell adhesion function and is localized to the apical junctional complex in polarized epithelial cells. Earlier, we identified two distinct conserved motifs on the Na,K-β1 transmembrane domain that mediate protein-protein interactions: a glycine zipper motif involved in the cis homo-oligomerization of Na,K-β1 and a heptad repeat motif that is involved in the hetero-oligomeric interaction with Na,K-α1. We now provide evidence that knockdown of Na,K-β1 prevents lumen formation and induces activation of extracellular regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in MDCK cells grown in three-dimensional collagen cultures. These cells sustained cell proliferation in an ERK1/2-dependent manner and did not show contact inhibition at high cell densities, as revealed by parental MDCK cells. This phenotype could be rescued by wild-type Na,K-β1 or heptad repeat motif mutant of Na,K-β1, but not by the glycine zipper motif mutant that abrogates Na,K-β1 cis homo-oligomerization. These studies suggest that Na,K-β1 cis homo-oligomerization rather than hetero-oligomerization with Na,K-α1 is involved in epithelial lumen formation. The relevance of these findings to pre-neoplastic lumen filling in epithelial cancer is discussed. PMID:23077177

  4. Computed tomography airway lumen volumetry in patients with acromegaly: Association with growth hormone levels and lung function.

    PubMed

    Camilo, Gustavo Bittencourt; Carvalho, Alysson Roncally Silva; Guimarães, Alan Ranieri Medeiros; Kasuki, Leandro; Gadelha, Mônica Roberto; Mogami, Roberto; de Melo, Pedro Lopes; Lopes, Agnaldo José

    2017-10-01

    The segmentation and skeletonisation of images via computed tomography (CT) airway lumen volumetry provide a new perspective regarding the incorporation of this technique in medical practice. Our aim was to quantify morphological changes in the large airways of patients with acromegaly through CT and, secondarily, to correlate these findings with hormone levels and pulmonary function testing (PFT) parameters. This was a cross-sectional study in which 28 non-smoker patients with acromegaly and 15 control subjects underwent CT analysis of airway lumen volumetry with subsequent image segmentation and skeletonisation. Moreover, all participants were subjected to PFT. Compared with the controls, patients with acromegaly presented higher diameters in the trachea, right main bronchus and left main bronchus. The patients with acromegaly also showed a higher tracheal sinuosity index (the deviation of a line from the shortest path, calculated by dividing total length by shortest possible path) than the controls [1.06 (1.02-1.09) vs. 1.03 (1.02-1.04), P = 0.04], and tracheal stenosis was observed in 25% of these individuals. The tracheal area was correlated with the levels of growth hormone (rs  = 0.45, P = 0.02) and insulin-like growth factor type I (rs  = 0.38, P = 0.04). The ratio between the forced expiratory flow and forced inspiratory flow at 50% of the forced vital capacity was correlated with the tracheal area (rs  = 0.36, P = 0.02) and Δ tracheal diameters (rs  = 0.58, P < 0.0001). Patients with acromegaly exhibit tracheobronchomegaly and tracheal sinuosity/stenosis. Moreover, there are associations between the results of CT airway lumen volumetry, hormone levels and functional parameters of large airway obstruction. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  5. The plating of rat scar myofibroblasts on matrigel unmasks a novel phenotype; the self assembly of lumen-like structures.

    PubMed

    El-Helou, Viviane; Gosselin, Hugues; Villeneuve, Louis; Calderone, Angelino

    2012-07-01

    During tissue healing, the primary role of myofibroblasts involves the synthesis and deposition of collagen. However, it has also been reported that selective populations of myofibroblasts can acquire the phenotype and/or differentiate to other cells types. The present study tested the hypothesis that myofibroblasts isolated from the scar of the ischemically damaged rat heart can recapitulate an endothelial cell-like response when plated in a permissive in vitro environment. Scar myofibroblasts, neonatal and adult ventricular fibroblasts express smooth muscle α-actin, collagen α(1) type 1 and a panel of pro-fibrotic and pro-angiogenic peptide growth factor mRNAs. Myofibroblasts plated alone on matrigel led to the self assembly of lumen-like structures whereas neonatal and adult rat ventricular fibroblasts were unresponsive. Myofibroblasts labeled with the fluorescent cell tracker CM-DiI were injected in the viable myocardium of 3-day post-myocardial infarcted Sprague-Dawley rats and sacrificed 7 days later. Injected CM-DiI-labeled myofibroblasts were detected predominantly in the peri-infarct/infarct region, highlighting their migration to the damaged region. However, engrafted myofibroblasts in the peri-infarct/infarct region were unable to adopt an endothelial cell-like phenotype or lead to the de novo formation of CM-DiI-labeled blood vessels. The non-permissive nature of the infarct region may be attributed at least in part to the presence of growth-promoting stimuli as TGF-β and the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol inhibited the self assembly of lumen-like structures by myofibroblasts. Thus, when plated in a permissive in vitro environment, scar myofibroblasts can self assemble and form lumen-like structures providing an additional novel phenotype distinguishing this population from normal ventricular fibroblasts. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Mechanism of phosphorylation in the lumen of the Golgi apparatus. Translocation of adenosine 5'-triphosphate into Golgi vesicles from rat liver and mammary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Capasso, J.M.; Keenan, T.W.; Abeijon, C.; Hirschberg, C.B.

    1989-03-25

    The occurrence of phosphorylated secretory proteins such as caseins and vitellogenin and the recent characterization of phosphorylated proteoglycans, in the xylose and protein core, has raised the question of where in the cell and how this phosphorylation occurs. Previous studies have described a casein kinase activity in the lumen of the Golgi apparatus and this organelle as the site of xylose addition to the protein core of proteoglycans. We now report the translocation in vitro of ATP into the lumen of rat liver and mammary gland Golgi vesicles which are sealed and have the same membrane topographical orientation as in vivo. The entire ATP molecule was translocated into the lumen of the Golgi vesicles; this was established by using ATP radiolabeled with tritium in the adenine and gamma-/sup 32/P. Translocation was temperature dependent and saturable, with an apparent Km of 0.9 microM and Vmax of 58 pmol/mg protein/min. Preliminary evidence suggests that translocation of ATP into the vesicles' lumen is coupled to exit of AMP from the lumen. Following translocation of ATP into the lumen of the vesicles, proteins were phosphorylated.

  7. Candy-Plug Technique Using an Excluder Aortic Extender for Distal Occlusion of a Large False Lumen Aneurysm in Chronic Aortic Dissection.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Yukihisa; Nishimaki, Hiroshi; Chiba, Kiyoshi; Murakami, Kenji; Sakurai, Yuka; Fujiwara, Keishi; Miyairi, Takeshi; Nakajima, Yasuo

    2016-06-01

    To describe the candy-plug technique using an Excluder aortic extender for distal occlusion of a large false lumen aneurysm in chronic aortic dissection. A 60-year-old female patient with a history of chronic type B aortic dissection and high-dose steroid use for Churg-Strauss syndrome developed a large 6.2 cm maximum diameter false lumen aneurysm. She underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repair from the left common carotid artery to the descending aorta to cover the proximal entry at the level of distal arch, with coil embolization of the left subclavian artery. To occlude the large false lumen from the reentry just below the level of the left renal artery ostium, a modified 32×45-mm Excluder aortic extender was deployed in the false lumen through the reentry, and a 16-mm Amplatzer Vascular Plug I was deployed in the waist of the modified Excluder aortic extender for complete occlusion. No obvious technical complication was seen. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography at 1 and 14 months revealed no endoleaks and showed complete false lumen thrombosis. The candy-plug technique using the Excluder aortic extender is feasible for occlusion of a large false lumen aneurysm in chronic aortic dissection. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Coronary stent imaging with dual-source CT: assessment of lumen visibility using different convolution kernels and postprocessing filters.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Anne; Burg, Matthias C; Raupach, Rainer; Bunck, Alexander; Schuelke, Christoph; Maintz, David; Heindel, Walter; Seifarth, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Assesment of the coronary arteries after stent placement using coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) currently requires reconstruction of images with soft kernels for the assessment of atherosclerotic plaques and dedicated edge enhancing kernels for the evaluation of the stent lumen. To evaluate a two-dimensional filter tool that provides instant postprocessing of images reconstructed with soft kernels into edge-enhanced images and vice versa and thus may eliminate the need for two separate reconstrcutions for the assessment of coronary artery stents using CCTA. Twenty stents with a diameter of 3.0 mm placed in a vascular phantom were scanned with a dual-source CT using standard parameters. Images were reconstructed with a soft B30f and an edge-enhancing B46f kernel and postprocessed with the corresponding filter algorithm (F30 for B30f images; F46 for B46f images). The resulting four data-sets were evaluated for lumen visibility, intraluminal attenuation, and image noise by two independent readers. Results were validated in vivo against invasive coronary angiography in data-sets from patients with coronary artery stents. Average intraluminal attenuation was 552.6 HU, 527.3 HU, 207.9 HU, and 267.5 HU for B30f, F30, B46f, and F46 images, respectively (P < 0.0001). Average image noise was 11.3, 10.6, 19.2, and 15.0 HU, respectively (P < 0.0001). The visible stent diameter was significantly higher in the B46f (59.6%) and F46 images (54%) compared to the B30f (48.3%) and F30 (51.5%) images (P < 0.0001). In the patient study, lumen assessability was significantly better in B46f images than in F46 images. Sensitivity for stenosis detection was best in the original B46f images with a sensitivity of 67% and a specificity of 94%. The postprocessing filter reduces image noise, however currently it does not offer an alternative to image reconstruction using the edge-enhancing kernels for the evaluation of the stent lumen. © The Foundation Acta

  9. [Temporary vascular access for extra-renal detoxification: utilization of tunneled silicone double-lumen catheters by the percutaneous route].

    PubMed

    Jean, G; Chazot, C; Vanel, T

    1994-01-01

    Femoral or subclavian central venous catheters are commonly used for temporary vascular access in haemodialysis. We used 36 tunnelized siliconed double lumen catheter (Quinton Permcath or Hickman Bard), most of them in right internal jugular percutaneously. Indication for this catheter were acute or chronic renal failure, plasma exchange, rescue of arterio venous fistula or peritoneal dialysis. Insertion incidents were minors (local haematoma), mean functional time was 51 days. Catheters were changed in 5 cases of infection, 3 cases of obstruction and in 2 accidental remove. Insertion facility, low morbidity, potentially long time use, high blood flow rate with low recirculation argue for this expensive material.

  10. Prediction of Lumen Output and Chromaticity Shift in LEDs Using Kalman Filter and Extended Kalman Filter Based Models

    SciTech Connect

    Lall, Pradeep; Wei, Junchao; Davis, J Lynn

    2014-06-24

    Abstract— Solid-state lighting (SSL) luminaires containing light emitting diodes (LEDs) have the potential of seeing excessive temperatures when being transported across country or being stored in non-climate controlled warehouses. They are also being used in outdoor applications in desert environments that see little or no humidity but will experience extremely high temperatures during the day. This makes it important to increase our understanding of what effects high temperature exposure for a prolonged period of time will have on the usability and survivability of these devices. Traditional light sources “burn out” at end-of-life. For an incandescent bulb, the lamp life is defined by B50 life. However, the LEDs have no filament to “burn”. The LEDs continually degrade and the light output decreases eventually below useful levels causing failure. Presently, the TM-21 test standard is used to predict the L70 life of LEDs from LM-80 test data. Several failure mechanisms may be active in a LED at a single time causing lumen depreciation. The underlying TM-21 Model may not capture the failure physics in presence of multiple failure mechanisms. Correlation of lumen maintenance with underlying physics of degradation at system-level is needed. In this paper, Kalman Filter (KF) and Extended Kalman Filters (EKF) have been used to develop a 70-percent Lumen Maintenance Life Prediction Model for LEDs used in SSL luminaires. Ten-thousand hour LM-80 test data for various LEDs have been used for model development. System state at each future time has been computed based on the state space at preceding time step, system dynamics matrix, control vector, control matrix, measurement matrix, measured vector, process noise and measurement noise. The future state of the lumen depreciation has been estimated based on a second order Kalman Filter model and a Bayesian Framework. Life prediction of L70 life for the LEDs used in SSL luminaires from KF and EKF based models have

  11. Coping and Late-Deafness: An Examination of Two Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Jill M.; Kashubeck-West, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the psychometric properties of two measures of coping in a sample of individuals with acquired hearing loss, specifically late-deafness. Methods: Using a quantitative descriptive design, coping of participants (N = 277) with late-deafness was measured to examine the reliability and validity of the Ways of Coping Questionnaire…

  12. Coping and Late-Deafness: An Examination of Two Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Jill M.; Kashubeck-West, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the psychometric properties of two measures of coping in a sample of individuals with acquired hearing loss, specifically late-deafness. Methods: Using a quantitative descriptive design, coping of participants (N = 277) with late-deafness was measured to examine the reliability and validity of the Ways of Coping Questionnaire…

  13. Late preterm: obstetric management.

    PubMed

    Meloni, Alessandra; Antonelli, Antonello; Deiana, Sara; Rocca, Alessio; Atzei, Alessandra; Paoletti, Anna Maria; Melis, Gian Benedetto

    2010-10-01

    Late preterm is the recommended definition for infants born at 34 0/7 to 36 6/7 weeks' gestation after the onset of the mother's last menstrual period. Late-preterm infants are known to have greater mortality and morbidity when compared with term infants during the neonatal period. Obstetric management plays a substantial role in influencing neonatal outcomes. We conducted a retrospective study on late-preterm births based on data collected by regional certificates of birth attendance, comparing overall data with those relative to our Department, the aim of our study was to evaluate if obstetric management, related to different delivery settings, could influence the prevalence and the method of delivery in late preterm gestational age. Preterm births represent about 10% of 25,011 births in Sardinia, and 72.6% of them are late preterm. Elective cesarean section results significantly higher in late preterm than in term deliveries. In our Department, both late-preterm delivery rate and elective cesarean sections rate were lower if compared with country region data. Obstetric management strategies play an important role in delaying deliveries and reducing late-preterm birth rates.

  14. Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... topic was provided by the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Topic last reviewed: December ... a total loss of hearing. It can be hereditary or it can result from disease, trauma, certain ...

  15. Memory loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003257.htm Memory loss To use the sharing features on this ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  16. Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... earphone in your baby’s ear. The earphone is connected to a computer. Your baby’s provider sends a ... treatment can help children with hearing loss develop speech, language and social skills. Without early treatment, hearing ...

  17. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... of hair loss have found patients’ self-esteem, body image and self-confidence to be negatively affected. 1-2 Known psychosocial complications include depression, low self-esteem, altered self-image, and less frequent and enjoyable ...

  18. Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions Ask our ... experts Calculating your due date Ovulation calendar Order bereavement materials News Moms Need Blog News & Media News ...

  19. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... face and hands, and rapid heart rate (tachycardia). Finasteride (Propecia). This prescription drug is available only to ... taken daily in pill form. Many men taking finasteride experience a slowing of hair loss, and some ...

  20. Uncoupled redox systems in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. Pyridine nucleotides stay reduced in an oxidative environment.

    PubMed

    Piccirella, Simona; Czegle, Ibolya; Lizák, Beáta; Margittai, Eva; Senesi, Silvia; Papp, Eszter; Csala, Miklós; Fulceri, Rosella; Csermely, Péter; Mandl, József; Benedetti, Angelo; Bánhegyi, Gábor

    2006-02-24

    The redox state of the intraluminal pyridine nucleotide pool was investigated in rat liver microsomal vesicles. The vesicles showed cortisone reductase activity in the absence of added reductants, which was dependent on the integrity of the membrane. The intraluminal pyridine nucleotide pool could be oxidized by the addition of cortisone or metyrapone but not of glutathione. On the other hand, intraluminal pyridine nucleotides were slightly reduced by cortisol or glucose 6-phosphate, although glutathione was completely ineffective. Redox state of microsomal protein thiols/disulfides was not altered either by manipulations affecting the redox state of pyridine nucleotides or by the addition of NAD(P)+ or NAD(P)H. The uncoupling of the thiol/disulfide and NAD(P)+/NAD(P)H redox couples was not because of their subcompartmentation, because enzymes responsible for the intraluminal oxidoreduction of pyridine nucleotides were distributed equally in smooth and rough microsomal subfractions. Instead, the phenomenon can be explained by the negligible representation of glutathione reductase in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. The results demonstrated the separate existence of two redox systems in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen, which explains the contemporary functioning of oxidative folding and of powerful reductive reactions.

  1. Use of GlideScope for double lumen endotracheal tube insertion in an awake patient with difficult airway.

    PubMed

    Onrubia, X; Lluch-Oltra, A; Armero, R; Baldó, J

    2014-01-01

    There is scientific evidence that an anticipated difficult airway must be managed with the patient being awake. The GlideScope has been proven to be a useful device to intubate the trachea in some instances when difficult airway is present, and particularly in the awake patient. It has also been used for double lumen tube (DLT) in the anaesthetized patient, but its use with DLT in both circumstances, awake patients with difficult airway has not been described. GlideScope enabled us to achieve accurate local anesthetic spraying and a successful endotracheal intubation with a double lumen tube (DLT) in an awake patient with predicted difficult airway and bronchoaspiration risk. Different ways to resolve cases like this can be found in the anesthetic literature, but we think this could be another option to bear in mind. We also describe a new variation in the maneuver of introducing a DLT into the trachea under GlideScope view as DLT presents with some difficulties when introduced under normal circumstances. This option could add some risk for the patients when used in inexperienced hands and there is not sufficient scientific evidence in the literature to recommend it for all cases. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. A cationic lumen in the Wzx flippase mediates anionic O-antigen subunit translocation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Salim T; Fieldhouse, Robert J; Anderson, Erin M; Taylor, Véronique L; Keates, Robert A B; Ford, Robert C; Lam, Joseph S

    2012-01-01

    Heteropolymeric B-band O-antigen (O-Ag) biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 follows the Wzy-dependent pathway, beginning with translocation of undecaprenyl pyrophosphate-linked anionic O-Ag subunits (O units) from the inner to the outer leaflets of the inner membrane (IM). This translocation is mediated by the integral IM flippase Wzx. Through experimentally based and unbiased topological mapping, our group previously observed that Wzx possesses many charged and aromatic amino acid residues within its 12 transmembrane segments (TMS). Herein, site-directed mutagenesis targeting 102 residues was carried out on the TMS and loops of Wzx, followed by assessment of each construct's ability to restore B-band O-Ag production, identifying eight residues important for flippase function. The importance of various charged and aromatic residues was highlighted, predominantly within the TMS of the protein, revealing functional ‘hotspots’ within the flippase, particularly within TMS2 and TMS8. Construction of a tertiary structure homology model for Wzx indicated that TMS2 and TMS8 line a central cationic lumen. This is the first report to describe a charged flippase lumen for mediating anionic O-unit translocation across the hydrophobic IM. PMID:22554073

  3. Effects of cryopreservation on excretory function, cellular adhesion molecules and vessel lumen formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Guoping; Lai, Binbin; Hong, Huaxing; Lin, Peng; Chen, Weifu; Zhu, Zhong; Chen, Haixiao

    2017-01-01

    Cryopreservation is widely used in regenerative medicine for tissue preservation. In the present study, the effects of cryopreservation on excretory function, cellular adhesion molecules and vessel lumen formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were investigated. After 0, 4, 8, 12 or 24 weeks of cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen, the HUVECs were thawed. The excretory functions markers (endothelin-1, prostaglandin E1, von Willebrand factor and nitric oxide) of HUVECs were measured by ELISA assay. The expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in HUVECs was analyzed using flow cytometry. An angiogenesis assay was used to determine the angiogeneic capabilities of the thawed HUVECs. The results demonstrated that cryopreserved/thawed and recultivated HUVECs were unsuitable for tissue-engineered microvascular construction. Specifically, the excretory function of the cells was significantly decreased in the post-cryopreserved HUVECs at 24 weeks. In addition, the level of ICAM-1 in HUVECs was significantly upregulated from the fourth week of cryopreservation. Furthermore, the tube-like structure-forming potential was weakened with increasing cryopreservation duration, and the numbers of lumen and the length of the pipeline were decreased in the thawed HUVECs, in a time-dependent manner. In conclusion, the results of the present study revealed that prolonged cryopreservation may lead to HUVEC dysfunction and did not create stable cell lines for tissue-engineered microvascular construction. PMID:28586042

  4. A proton gradient is required for the transport of two lumenal oxygen-evolving proteins across the thylakoid membrane.

    PubMed

    Mould, R M; Robinson, C

    1991-07-05

    The 33- and 23-kDa proteins of the photosynthetic oxygen-evolving complex are synthesized in the cytosol as larger precursors and transported into the thylakoid lumen via stromal intermediate forms. We have investigated the energetics of protein transport across the thylakoid membrane using import assays that utilize either intact chloroplasts or isolated thylakoids. We have found that the light-driven import of the 23-kDa protein into isolated thylakoids is almost completely inhibited by electron transport inhibitors or by the ionophore nigericin but not by valinomycin. These compounds have similar effects in chloroplast import assays: precursors of both the 33- and 23-kDa proteins are imported and processed to intermediate forms in the stroma, but transport into the thylakoid lumen is blocked when electron transport is inhibited or nigericin is present. These results indicate that the transport of these proteins across the thylakoid membrane requires a protonmotive force and that the dominant component in this respect is the proton gradient and not the electrical potential.

  5. Par1b links lumen polarity with LGN–NuMA positioning for distinct epithelial cell division phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Lázaro-Diéguez, Francisco; Cohen, David; Fernandez, Dawn; Hodgson, Louis; van IJzendoorn, Sven C.D.

    2013-01-01

    Columnar epithelia establish their luminal domains and their mitotic spindles parallel to the basal surface and undergo symmetric cell divisions in which the cleavage furrow bisects the apical domain. Hepatocyte lumina interrupt the lateral domain of neighboring cells perpendicular to two basal domains and their cleavage furrow rarely bifurcates the luminal domains. We determine that the serine/threonine kinase Par1b defines lumen position in concert with the position of the astral microtubule anchoring complex LGN–NuMA to yield the distinct epithelial division phenotypes. Par1b signaling via the extracellular matrix (ECM) in polarizing cells determined RhoA/Rho-kinase activity at cell–cell contact sites. Columnar MDCK and Par1b-depleted hepatocytic HepG2 cells featured high RhoA activity that correlated with robust LGN–NuMA recruitment to the metaphase cortex, spindle alignment with the substratum, and columnar organization. Reduced RhoA activity at the metaphase cortex in HepG2 cells and Par1b-overexpressing MDCK cells correlated with a single or no LGN–NuMA crescent, tilted spindles, and the development of lateral lumen polarity. PMID:24165937

  6. Some properties of the walls of metaxylem vessels of maize roots, including tests of the wettability of their lumenal wall surfaces

    PubMed Central

    McCully, Margaret; Canny, Martin; Baker, Adam; Miller, Celia

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Since the proposal of the cohesion theory there has been a paradox that the lumenal surface of vessels is rich in hydrophobic lignin, while tension in the rising sap requires adhesion to a hydrophilic surface. This study sought to characterize the strength of that adhesion in maize (Zea mays), the wettability of the vessel surface, and to reconcile this with its histochemical and physical nature. Methods Wettability was assessed by emptying the maize root vessels of sap, perfusing them with either water or oil, and examining the adhesion (as revealed by contact angles) of the two liquids to vessel walls by cryo-scanning electron microscopy. The phobicity of the lumenal surface was also assessed histochemically with hydrophilic and hydrophobic probes. Key Results Pit borders in the lumen-facing vessel wall surface were wetted by both sap/water and oil. The attraction for oil was weaker: water could replace oil but not vice versa. Pit apertures repelled oil and were strongly stained by hydrophilic probes. Pit chambers were probably hydrophilic. Oil never entered the pits. When vessels were emptied and cryo-fixed immediately, pit chambers facing away from the vessels were always sap-filled. Pit chambers facing vessel lumens were either sap- or gas-filled. Sap from adjoining tracheary elements entering empty vessels accumulated on the lumenal surface in hemispherical drops, which spread out with decreasing contact angles to fill the lumen. Conclusions The vessel lumenal surface has a dual nature, namely a mosaic of hydrophilic and hydrophobic patches at the micrometre scale, with hydrophilic predominating. A key role is shown, for the first time, of overarching borders of pits in determining the dual nature of the surface. In gas-filled (embolized) vessels they are hydrophobic. When wetted by sap (vessels refilling or full) they are hydrophilic. A hypothesis is proposed to explain the switch between the two states. PMID:24709790

  7. Suicides in late life.

    PubMed

    Van Orden, Kimberly; Conwell, Yeates

    2011-06-01

    Suicide in late life is an enormous public health problem that will likely increase in severity as adults of the baby boom generation age. Data from psychological autopsy studies supplemented with recent studies of suicidal ideation and attempts point to a consistent set of risk factors for the spectrum of suicidal behaviors in late life (suicide ideation, attempts, and deaths). Clinicians should be vigilant for psychiatric illness (especially depression), physical illness, pain, functional impairment, and social disconnectedness. Recent advances in late-life suicide prevention have in common collaborative, multifaceted intervention designs. We suggest that one mechanism shared by all preventive interventions shown to reduce the incidence of late-life suicide is the promotion of connectedness. For the clinician working with older adults, our recommendation is to not only consider risk factors, such as depression, and implement appropriate treatments but to enhance social connectedness as well.

  8. Suicides in Late Life

    PubMed Central

    Van Orden, Kimberly; Conwell, Yeates

    2011-01-01

    Suicide in late life is an enormous public health problem that will likely increase in severity as adults of the baby boom generation age. Data from psychological autopsy studies supplemented with recent studies of suicidal ideation and attempts point to a consistent set of risk factors for the spectrum of suicidal behaviors in late life (suicide ideation, attempts, and deaths). Clinicians should be vigilant for psychiatric illness (especially depression), physical illness, pain, functional impairment, and social disconnectedness. Recent advances in late-life suicide prevention have in common collaborative, multifaceted intervention designs. We suggest that one mechanism shared by all preventive interventions shown to reduce the incidence of late-life suicide is the promotion of connectedness. For the clinician working with older adults, our recommendation is to not only consider risk factors, such as depression, and implement appropriate treatments but to enhance social connectedness as well. PMID:21369952

  9. The folding state of the lumenal loop determines the thermal stability of light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein.

    PubMed

    Mick, Vera; Geister, Sonja; Paulsen, Harald

    2004-11-23

    The major light-harvesting protein of photosystem II (LHCIIb) is the most abundant chlorophyll-binding protein in the thylakoid membrane. It contains three membrane-spanning alpha helices; the first and third one closely interact with each other to form a super helix, and all three helices bind most of the pigment cofactors. The protein loop domains connecting the alpha helices also play an important role in stabilizing the LHCIIb structure. Single amino acid exchanges in either loop were found to be sufficient to significantly destabilize the complex assembled in vitro [Heinemann, B., and Paulsen, H. (1999) Biochemistry 38, 14088-14093. Mick, V., Eggert, K., Heinemann, B., Geister, S., and Paulsen, H (2004) Biochemistry 43, 5467-5473]. This work presents an analysis of such point mutations in the lumenal loop with regard to the extent and nature of their effect on LHCIIb stability to obtain detailed information on the contribution of this loop to stabilizing the complex. Most of the mutant proteins yielded pigment-protein complexes if their reconstitution and/or isolation was performed under mild conditions; however, the yields were significantly different. Several mutations in the vicinity of W97 in the N-proximal section of the loop gave low reconstitution yields even under very mild conditions. This confirms our earlier notion that W97 may be of particular relevance in stabilizing LHCIIb. The same amino acid exchanges accelerated thermal complex dissociation in the absence of lithium dodecyl sulfate (LDS) and raised the accessibility of the lumenal loop to protease; both effects were well correlated with the reduction in reconstitution yields. We conclude that a detachment of the lumenal loop is a possible first step in the dissociation of LHCIIb. Dramatically reduced complex yields in the presence but not in the absence of LDS were observed for some but not all mutants, particularly those near the C-proximal end of the loop. We conclude that complex

  10. Automated detection of vessel lumen and stent struts in intravascular optical coherence tomography to evaluate stent apposition and neointimal coverage

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, Hyeong Soo; Kim, Chang-Soo; Yoo, Hongki E-mail: hyoo@hanyang.ac.kr; Lee, Jae Joong; Song, Joon Woo; Kim, Jin Won E-mail: hyoo@hanyang.ac.kr

    2016-04-15

    Purpose: Intravascular optical coherence tomography (IV-OCT) is a high-resolution imaging method used to visualize the microstructure of arterial walls in vivo. IV-OCT enables the clinician to clearly observe and accurately measure stent apposition and neointimal coverage of coronary stents, which are associated with side effects such as in-stent thrombosis. In this study, the authors present an algorithm for quantifying stent apposition and neointimal coverage by automatically detecting lumen contours and stent struts in IV-OCT images. Methods: The algorithm utilizes OCT intensity images and their first and second gradient images along the axial direction to detect lumen contours and stent strut candidates. These stent strut candidates are classified into true and false stent struts based on their features, using an artificial neural network with one hidden layer and ten nodes. After segmentation, either the protrusion distance (PD) or neointimal thickness (NT) for each strut is measured automatically. In randomly selected image sets covering a large variety of clinical scenarios, the results of the algorithm were compared to those of manual segmentation by IV-OCT readers. Results: Stent strut detection showed a 96.5% positive predictive value and a 92.9% true positive rate. In addition, case-by-case validation also showed comparable accuracy for most cases. High correlation coefficients (R > 0.99) were observed for PD and NT between the algorithmic and the manual results, showing little bias (0.20 and 0.46 μm, respectively) and a narrow range of limits of agreement (36 and 54 μm, respectively). In addition, the algorithm worked well in various clinical scenarios and even in cases with a low level of stent malapposition and neointimal coverage. Conclusions: The presented automatic algorithm enables robust and fast detection of lumen contours and stent struts and provides quantitative measurements of PD and NT. In addition, the algorithm was validated using

  11. A Novel Device for True Lumen Re-Entry After Subintimal Recanalization of Superficial Femoral Arteries: First-in-Man Experience and Technical Description

    SciTech Connect

    Airoldi, Flavio Faglia, Ezio Losa, Sergio Tavano, Davide; Latib, Azeem; Mantero, Manuela Lanza, Gaetano Clerici, Giacomo

    2011-02-15

    Subintimal angioplasty (SAP) is frequently performed for the treatment of critical limb ischemia (CLI) and has been recognized as an effective technique for these patients. Nevertheless, this approach is limited by the lack of controlled re-entry into the true lumen of the target vessel. We describe a novel device for true lumen re-entry after subintimal recanalization of superficial femoral arteries (SFA). We report our experience with six patients treated between April 2009 and January 2010 with a novel system designed to facilitate true lumen re-entry. The device was advanced by ipsilateral antegrade approach through a 6-French sheath. Successful reaccess into the true lumen was obtained in five of six patients without complications. The patient in whom the reaccess to the true lumen was not possible underwent successful bypass surgery. At 30 days follow-up, the SFA was patent in all patients according to echo-Doppler examination. Our preliminary experience indicates that this novel re-entry device increases the success rate of percutaneous revascularization of chronically occluded SFA.

  12. Limb Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... limb. Learning how to use it takes time. Physical therapy can help you adapt. Recovery from the loss of a limb can be hard. Sadness, anger, and frustration are common. If you are having a tough time, talk to your doctor. Treatment with medicine or counseling can help.

  13. [Hair loss].

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M

    2003-09-03

    Hair loss includes excessive shedding of hair (effluvium) and the alopecias, in which there is a decrease in the amount of hair. Both may occur diffusely, or in a circumscribed manner. The localization and pattern of circumscribed hair loss may give a clue to its cause. On the basis of morphologic criteria the alopecias are further classified into non-scarring and scarring types. Non-scarring alopecias (diffuse alopecia, androgenetic alopecia, alopecia areata) are essentially hair cycling disorders, while scarring alopecias result from irreversible destruction of the hair follicles with recognizable loss of follicular osita. Scalp biopsy should be an early step in the evaluation of any case of alopecia, in which scarring is suspected. Too little scalp hair is not a vital problem, but represents a major health care challenge. Only recently the psychological impact of hair loss has been appreciated by the medical community, though throughout history, too little hair has been a concern to mankind, and the object of cosmetic interest and quackery. Recent advances of the medical sciences have led to a better understanding of the underlying pathogenic processes and opened the venue to effective pharmacotherapy (minoxidil, finasteride) and technologies (autologous hair transplantation) for the treatment of the most common disorders. Together with the availability of such treatments, high technical standards for evaluating their efficacy have been developed and have become mandatory for appraisal of any hair growth promoting agent, both in clinical studies and in the individual patient.

  14. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... lupus. If you take certain medicines or have chemotherapy for cancer, you may also lose your hair. Other causes are stress, a low protein diet, a family history, or poor nutrition. Treatment for hair loss depends on the cause. In some cases, treating ...

  15. Femoral artery plaque characteristics, lower extremity collaterals, and mobility loss in peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Mary M; Carroll, Timothy; Carr, James; Yuan, Chun; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack M; Kibbe, Melina; Criqui, Michael H; Tian, Lu; Polonsky, Tamar; Zhao, Lihui; Gao, Ying; Hippe, Daniel S; Xu, Dongxiang; McCarthy, Walter; Kramer, Christopher M

    2017-09-01

    Little is known about the prognostic significance of specific characteristics of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measured plaque in the superficial femoral artery (SFA). Associations of MRI-measured plaque quantity, lumen area, and plaque composition in the SFA with subsequent mobility loss were studied in people with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). Participants with an ankle-brachial index (ABI) < 1.00 were identified from Chicago medical centers and underwent direct visualization of atherosclerotic plaque in the SFA using MRI. Participants were followed annually for up to 4 years. Mobility loss was defined as becoming unable to walk up and down a flight of stairs or walk one-quarter of a mile without assistance among participants without mobility impairment at baseline. Analyses adjusted for age, sex, race, comorbidities, ABI, physical activity, and other confounders. Of 308 PAD participants without baseline mobility impairment, 100 (32.5%) developed mobility loss during follow-up. Compared to the lowest mean plaque area tertile at baseline, participants in the highest (worst) plaque area tertile had a higher rate of mobility loss (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.14-3.79, p = 0.018). Compared to the highest mean lumen area tertile, the smallest (worst) mean lumen area tertile was associated with greater mobility loss (HR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.20-3.96, p = 0.011). Neither lipid rich necrotic core nor calcium in the SFA were associated with mobility loss. In conclusion, greater plaque quantity and smaller lumen area in the proximal SFA, but not lipid rich necrotic core or calcium, were associated with higher mobility loss in people with PAD.

  16. An automated method for lumen and media-adventitia border detection in a sequence of IVUS frames.

    PubMed

    Plissiti, Marina E; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I; Michalis, Lampros K; Bozios, George E

    2004-06-01

    In this paper, we present a method for the automated detection of lumen and media-adventitia border in sequential intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) frames. The method is based on the use of deformable models. The energy function is appropriately modified and minimized using a Hopfield neural network. Proper modifications in the definition of the bias of the neurons have been introduced to incorporate image characteristics. A simulated annealing scheme is included to ensure convergence at a global minimum. The method overcomes distortions in the expected image pattern, due to the presence of calcium, employing a specialized structure of the neural network and boundary correction schemas which are based on a priori knowledge about the vessel geometry. The proposed method is evaluated using sequences of IVUS frames from 18 arterial segments, some of them indicating calcified regions. The obtained results demonstrate that our method is statistically accurate, reproducible, and capable to identify the regions of interest in sequences of IVUS frames.

  17. Improving CCTA-based lesions' hemodynamic significance assessment by accounting for partial volume modeling in automatic coronary lumen segmentation.

    PubMed

    Freiman, Moti; Nickisch, Hannes; Prevrhal, Sven; Schmitt, Holger; Vembar, Mani; Maurovich-Horvat, Pál; Donnelly, Patrick; Goshen, Liran

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the potential added benefit of accounting for partial volume effects (PVE) in an automatic coronary lumen segmentation algorithm that is used to determine the hemodynamic significance of a coronary artery stenosis from coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Two sets of data were used in our work: (a) multivendor CCTA datasets of 18 subjects from the MICCAI 2012 challenge with automatically generated centerlines and 3 reference segmentations of 78 coronary segments and (b) additional CCTA datasets of 97 subjects with 132 coronary lesions that had invasive reference standard FFR measurements. We extracted the coronary artery centerlines for the 97 datasets by an automated software program followed by manual correction if required. An automatic machine-learning-based algorithm segmented the coronary tree with and without accounting for the PVE. We obtained CCTA-based FFR measurements using a flow simulation in the coronary trees that were generated by the automatic algorithm with and without accounting for PVE. We assessed the potential added value of PVE integration as a part of the automatic coronary lumen segmentation algorithm by means of segmentation accuracy using the MICCAI 2012 challenge framework and by means of flow simulation overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values, and the receiver operated characteristic (ROC) area under the curve. We also evaluated the potential benefit of accounting for PVE in automatic segmentation for flow simulation for lesions that were diagnosed as obstructive based on CCTA which could have indicated a need for an invasive exam and revascularization. Our segmentation algorithm improves the maximal surface distance error by ~39% compared to previously published method on the 18 datasets from the MICCAI 2012 challenge with comparable Dice and mean surface distance. Results with and without accounting for PVE were comparable. In contrast

  18. Positive Charges of Translocating Polypeptide Chain Retrieve an Upstream Marginal Hydrophobic Segment from the Endoplasmic Reticulum Lumen to the Translocon

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Hidenobu; Kida, Yuichiro; Hagiwara, Masatoshi; Morimoto, Fumiko

    2010-01-01

    Positively charged amino acid residues are well recognized topology determinants of membrane proteins. They contribute to the stop-translocation of a polypeptide translocating through the translocon and to determine the orientation of signal sequences penetrating the membrane. Here we analyzed the function of these positively charged residues during stop-translocation in vitro. Surprisingly, the positive charges facilitated membrane spanning of a marginally hydrophobic segment, even when separated from the hydrophobic segment by 70 residues. In this case, the hydrophobic segment was exposed to the lumen, and then the downstream positive charges triggered the segment to slide back into the membrane. The marginally hydrophobic segment spanned the membrane, but maintained access to the water environment. The positive charges not only fix the hydrophobic segment in the membrane at its flanking position, but also have a much more dynamic action than previously realized. PMID:20427573

  19. Lipid-core nanocapsules restrained the indomethacin ethyl ester hydrolysis in the gastrointestinal lumen and wall acting as mucoadhesive reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Cattani, Vitória Berg; Fiel, Luana Almeida; Jäger, Alessandro; Jäger, Eliézer; Colomé, Letícia Marques; Uchoa, Flavia; Stefani, Valter; Dalla Costa, Teresa; Guterres, Sivia Stanisçuaski; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin

    2010-01-31

    The aim of this work was to investigate if the indomethacin ethyl ester (IndOEt) released from lipid-core nanocapsules (NC) is converted into indomethacin (IndOH) in the intestine lumen, intestine wall or after the particles reach the blood stream. NC-IndOEt had monomodal size distribution (242 nm; PDI 0.2) and zeta potential of -11 mV. The everted rat gut sac model showed IndOEt passage of 0.16 micromol m(-2) through the serosal fluid (30 min). From 15 to 120 min, the IndOEt concentrations in the tissue increased from 6.13 to 27.47 micromol m(-2). No IndOH was formed ex vivo. A fluorescent-NC formulation was used to determine the copolymer bioadhesion (0.012 micromol m(-2)). After NC-IndOEt oral administration to rats, IndOEt and IndOH were detected in the gastrointestinal tract (contents and tissues). In the tissues, the IndOEt concentrations decreased from 459 to 5 microg g(-1) after scrapping, demonstrating the NC mucoadhesion. In plasma (peripheric and portal vein), in spleen and liver, exclusively IndOH was detected. In conclusion, after oral dosing of NC-IndOEt, IndOEt is converted into IndOH in the intestinal lumen and wall before reaching the blood stream. The complexity of a living system was not predicted by the ex vivo gut sac model. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship of wall-to-lumen ratio of retinal arterioles with clinic and 24-hour blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Salvetti, Massimo; Agabiti Rosei, Claudia; Paini, Anna; Aggiusti, Carlo; Cancarini, Anna; Duse, Sarah; Semeraro, Francesco; Rizzoni, Damiano; Agabiti Rosei, Enrico; Muiesan, Maria Lorenza

    2014-05-01

    Wall-to-lumen ratio of retinal arterioles might serve as an in vivo parameter of vascular damage. We analyzed the impact of brachial clinic blood pressure (BP), of central BP, and of 24-hour BP on wall-to-lumen ratio (WLR) of retinal arterioles. In 295 subjects (147 men; age range, 22-72 years; mean age, 54±7 years), WLR of retinal arterioles was assessed in vivo using scanning laser Doppler flowmetry. In addition, clinic and 24-hour BP values were measured. Central hemodynamics was assessed by pulse wave analysis. In treated patients with essential hypertension (n=100), a higher WLR (0.29±0.18 versus 0.23±0.13; P=0.009) was observed in comparison with normotensive individuals (n=119); no significant differences were observed between treated and untreated hypertensive patients (0.29±0.18 versus 0.28±0.18; P=0.7). WLR of retinal arterioles was significantly related to clinic systolic (r=0.18; P=0.002) and pulse pressure (r=0.20; P=0.001), to 24-hour systolic (r=0.25; P=0.0001) and pulse pressure (r=0.17; P=0.005), and to central systolic (r=0.16; P=0.006) and pulse pressure (r=0.18; P=0.002). Multiple regression analysis revealed that only mean systolic 24-hour BP was independently associated with an increased WLR of retinal arterioles. In this large group of hypertensive patients and normotensive individuals, 24-hour systolic BP seems to be the strongest determinant of increased WLR of retinal arterioles.

  1. PTEN induces apoptosis and cavitation via HIF-2-dependent Bnip3 upregulation during epithelial lumen formation

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Y; Liu, J; Saadat, S; Tian, X; Han, Y; Fong, G-H; Pandolfi, P P; Lee, L Y; Li, S

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) dephosphorylates PIP3 and antagonizes the prosurvival PI3K-Akt pathway. Targeted deletion of PTEN in mice led to early embryonic lethality. To elucidate its role in embryonic epithelial morphogenesis and the underlying mechanisms, we used embryonic stem cell-derived embryoid body (EB), an epithelial cyst structurally similar to the periimplantation embryo. PTEN is upregulated during EB morphogenesis in parallel with apoptosis of core cells, which mediates EB cavitation. Genetic ablation of PTEN causes Akt overactivation, apoptosis resistance and cavitation blockade. However, rescue experiments using mutant PTEN and pharmacological inhibition of Akt suggest that the phosphatase activity of PTEN and Akt are not involved in apoptosis-mediated cavitation. Instead, hypoxia-induced upregulation of Bnip3, a proapoptotic BH3-only protein, mediates PTEN-dependent apoptosis and cavitation. PTEN inactivation inhibits hypoxia- and reactive oxygen species-induced Bnip3 elevation. Overexpression of Bnip3 in PTEN-null EBs rescues apoptosis of the core cells. Mechanistically, suppression of Bnip3 following PTEN loss is likely due to reduction of hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α) because forced expression of an oxygen-stable HIF-2α mutant rescues Bnip3 expression and apoptosis. Lastly, we show that HIF-2α is upregulated by PTEN at both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Ablation of prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing protein 2 (PHD2) in normal EBs or inhibition of PHD activities in PTEN-null EBs stabilizes HIF-2α and induces Bnip3 and caspase-3 activation. Altogether, these results suggest that PTEN is required for apoptosis-mediated cavitation during epithelial morphogenesis by regulating the expression of HIF-2α and Bnip3. PMID:25394489

  2. Information loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unruh, William G.; Wald, Robert M.

    2017-09-01

    The complete gravitational collapse of a body in general relativity will result in the formation of a black hole. Although the black hole is classically stable, quantum particle creation processes will result in the emission of Hawking radiation to infinity and corresponding mass loss of the black hole, eventually resulting in the complete evaporation of the black hole. Semiclassical arguments strongly suggest that, in the process of black hole formation and evaporation, a pure quantum state will evolve to a mixed state, i.e. there will be ‘information loss’. There has been considerable controversy over this issue for more than 40 years. In this review, we present the arguments in favor of information loss, and analyze some of the counter-arguments and alternative possibilities.

  3. Off-resonance magnetic resonance angiography improves visualization of in-stent lumen in peripheral nitinol stents compared to conventional T1-weighted acquisitions: an in vitro comparison study.

    PubMed

    Gitsioudis, Gitsios; Fortner, Philipp; Stuber, Matthias; Missiou, Anna; Andre, Florian; Müller, Oliver J; Katus, Hugo A; Korosoglou, Grigorios

    2016-11-01

    To compare the value of inversion recovery with on-resonant water suppression (IRON) to conventional T1-weighted (T1w) MRA and computed tomography angiography (CTA) for visualization of peripheral nitinol stents. We visualized 14 different peripheral nitinol stents in vitro both using Gadolinium (Gd) and ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron nanoparticles (USPIOs) for conventional T1w and IRON-MRA using clinical grade 1.5T MR scanner and iodinated contrast material for CTA using a 256-slice CT scanner. Parameter assessment included signal- and contrast-to-noise ratio (S/CNR), relative in-stent signal and artificial lumen narrowing. X-ray angiography served as gold standard for diameter assessment. Gd-enhanced IRON-MRA exhibited highest in-stent SNR and CNR values compared to conventional T1w MRA (IRON (Gd/USPIO): SNR = 30 ± 3/21 ± 2, CNR = 23 ± 2/14 ± 1; T1w: SNR = 16 ± 1/14 ± 2, CNR = 12 ± 1/10 ± 1, all p < 0.05). Furthermore, IRON-MRA achieved highest relative in-stent signal both using Gd and USPIO (IRON (Gd/USPIO): 121 ± 8 %/103 ± 6 %; T1w: 73 ± 2 %/66 ± 4 %; CTA: 84 ± 6 %, all p < 0.05). However, artificial lumen narrowing appeared similar in all imaging protocols (IRON (Gd/USPIO): 21 ± 3 %/21 ± 2 %; T1w: 16 ± 4 %/17 ± 3 %; CTA: 19 ± 2 %, all p = NS). Finally, IRON-MRA provided improvement of the in-stent lumen visualization with an 'open-close-open' design, which revealed a complete in-stent signal loss in T1w MRA. IRON-MRA improves in-stent visualization in vitro compared to conventional T1w MRA and CTA. In light of the in vitro results with Gd-enhanced IRON-MRA, the clinical implementation of such an approach appears promising.

  4. Late-term abortion.

    PubMed

    Epner, J E; Jonas, H S; Seckinger, D L

    1998-08-26

    Recent proposed federal legislation banning certain abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, would modify the US Criminal Code such that physicians performing these procedures would be liable for monetary and statutory damages. Clarification of medical procedures is important because some of the procedures used to induce abortion prior to viability are identical or similar to postviability procedures. This article reviews the scientific and medical information on late-term abortion and late-term abortion techniques and includes data on the prevalence of late-term abortion, abortion-related mortality and morbidity rates, and legal issues regarding fetal viability and the balance of maternal and fetal interests. According to enacted American Medical Association (AMA) policy, the use of appropriate medical terminology is critical in defining late-term abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, which is a variant of but distinct from dilatation and evacuation. The AMA recommends that the intact dilatation and extraction procedure not be used unless alternative procedures pose materially greater risk to the woman and that abortions not be performed in the third trimester except in cases of serious fetal anomalies incompatible with life. Major medical societies are urged to collaborate on clinical guidelines on late-term abortion techniques and circumstances that conform to standards of good medical practice. More research on the advantages and disadvantages of specific abortion procedures would help physicians make informed choices about specific abortion procedures. Expanded ongoing data surveillance systems estimating the prevalence of abortion are also needed.

  5. Subintimal TRAnscatheter Withdrawal (STRAW) of hematomas compressing the distal true lumen: a novel technique to facilitate distal reentry during recanalization of chronic total occlusion (CTO).

    PubMed

    Smith, Elliot J; Di Mario, Carlo; Spratt, James C; Hanratty, Colm G; de Silva, Ranil; Lindsay, Alistair C; Grantham, J Aaron

    2015-01-01

    The development of a large hematoma impairing visualization of the distal true lumen is a recognized complication of antegrade recanalization of chronic total occlusions, often forcing the operator to abort the procedure or switch to a retrograde approach. We describe a novel technique utilizing an over-the-wire balloon inflated in the proximal occluded vessel to block inflow and allow aspiration of the blood from the subintimal space. This decompressed the true lumen, restored distal visualization, and allowed successful reentry using a dedicated technology. Utilization of this novel technique may rescue antegrade recanalization attempts complicated by large subintimal hematomas.

  6. LATE ACUTE REJECTION IN LIVER TRANSPLANT: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    NACIF, Lucas Souto; PINHEIRO, Rafael Soares; PÉCORA, Rafael Antônio de Arruda; DUCATTI, Liliana; ROCHA-SANTOS, Vinicius; ANDRAUS, Wellington; D'ALBUQUERQUE, Luiz Carneiro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Late acute rejection leads to worse patient and graft survival after liver transplantation. Aim: To analyze the reported results published in recent years by leading transplant centers in evaluating late acute rejection and update the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of liver transplantation. Method: Systematic literature review through Medline-PubMed database with headings related to late acute rejection in articles published until November 2013 was done. Were analyzed demographics, immunosuppression, rejection, infection and graft and patient survival rates. Results: Late acute rejection in liver transplantation showed poor results mainly regarding patient and graft survival. Almost all of these cohort studies were retrospective and descriptive. The incidence of late acute rejection varied from 7-40% in these studies. Late acute rejection was one cause for graft loss and resulted in different outcomes with worse patient and graft survival after liver transplant. Late acute rejection has been variably defined and may be a cause of chronic rejection with worse prognosis. Late acute rejection occurs during a period in which the goal is to maintain lower immunosuppression after liver transplantation. Conclusion: The current articles show the importance of late acute rejection. The real benefit is based on early diagnosis and adequate treatment at the onset until late follow up after liver transplantation. PMID:26537150

  7. Lateness to School Remediation Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugwuegbulam, Charles N.; Ibrahim, Haj. Naheed

    2015-01-01

    Primary and secondary school in Nigeria encourage punctuality to school yet a good number of the learners came late to school. This is especially true in the case of day students. Learners who come late to school are usually punished in one way or the other yet the lateness to school phenomenon still persist. Lateness to school behaviour affects…

  8. Late Mitochondrial Acquisition, Really?

    PubMed Central

    Degli Esposti, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a timely critique of a recent Nature paper by Pittis and Gabaldón that has suggested a late origin of mitochondria in eukaryote evolution. It shows that the inferred ancestry of many mitochondrial proteins has been incorrectly assigned by Pittis and Gabaldón to bacteria other than the aerobic proteobacteria from which the ancestor of mitochondria originates, thereby questioning the validity of their suggestion that mitochondrial acquisition may be a late event in eukaryote evolution. The analysis and approach presented here may guide future studies to resolve the true ancestry of mitochondria. PMID:27289097

  9. Automatic segmentation of coronary morphology using transmittance-based lumen intensity-enhanced intravascular optical coherence tomography images and applying a localized level-set-based active contour method.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Shiju; Adnan, Asif; Adlam, David

    2016-10-01

    Lumen segmentation from clinical intravascular optical coherence tomography (IV-OCT) images has clinical relevance as it provides a full three-dimensional perspective of diseased coronary artery sections. Inaccurate segmentation may occur when there are artifacts in the image, resulting from issues such as inadequate blood clearance. This study proposes a transmittance-based lumen intensity enhancement method that ensures only lumen regions are highlighted. A level-set-based active contour method that utilizes the local speckle distribution properties of the image is then employed to drive an image-specific active contour toward the true lumen boundaries. By utilizing local speckle properties, the intensity variation issues within the image are resolved. This combined approach has been successfully applied to challenging clinical IV-OCT datasets that contains multiple lumens, residual blood flow, and its shadowing artifact. A method to identify the guide-wire and interpolate the lost lumen segments has been implemented. This approach is fast and can be performed even when guide-wire boundaries are not easily identified. Lumen enhancement also makes it easy to identify vessel side branches. This automated approach is not only able to extract the arterial lumen, but also the smaller microvascular lumens that are associated with the vasa vasorum and with atherosclerotic plaque.

  10. IMPAIRED SMALL BOWEL BARRIER INTEGRITY IN THE PRESENCE OF LUMENAL PANCREATIC DIGESTIVE ENZYMES LEADS TO CIRCULATORY SHOCK

    PubMed Central

    Kistler, Erik B.; Alsaigh, Tom; Chang, Marisol; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W.

    2012-01-01

    In bowel ischemia, impaired mucosal integrity may allow intestinal pancreatic enzyme products to become systemic and precipitate irreversible shock and death. This can be attenuated by pancreatic enzyme inhibition in the small bowel lumen. It is unresolved, however, whether ischemically-mediated mucosal disruption is the key event allowing pancreatic enzyme products systemic access, and whether intestinal digestive enzyme activity in concert with increased mucosal permeability leads to shock in the absence of ischemia. To test this possibility, the small intestinal lumen of non-ischemic rats was perfused for two hours with either digestive enzymes, a mucin disruption strategy (i.e., mucolytics) designed to increase mucosal permeability, or both, and animals were observed for shock. Digestive enzymes perfused included trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, amylase and lipase. Control (n=6) and experimental animals perfused with pancreatic enzymes only (n=6) or single enzymes (n=3 for each of the five enzyme groups) maintained stable hemodynamics. After mucin disruption using a combination of enteral N-acetylcysteine, atropine, and increased flow rates, rats (n=6) developed mild hypotension (p<0.001 compared to groups perfused with pancreatic enzymes only after 90 minutes) and increased intestinal permeability to intralumenally perfused FITC-dextrans-20kD (p<0.05) compared to control and enzyme-only groups, but there were no deaths. All animals perfused with both digestive enzymes and subjected to mucin disruption (n=6) developed hypotension and increased intestinal permeability (p<0.001 after 90 minutes). Pancreatic enzymes were measured in the intestinal wall of both groups subjected to mucin disruption, but not in the enzyme-only or control groups. Depletion of plasma protease inhibitors was found only in animals perfused with pancreatic enzymes plus mucin disruption, implicating increased permeability and intralumenal pancreatic enzyme egress in this group. These

  11. Impaired small-bowel barrier integrity in the presence of lumenal pancreatic digestive enzymes leads to circulatory shock.

    PubMed

    Kistler, Erik B; Alsaigh, Tom; Chang, Marisol; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W

    2012-08-01

    In bowel ischemia, impaired mucosal integrity may allow intestinal pancreatic enzyme products to become systemic and precipitate irreversible shock and death. This can be attenuated by pancreatic enzyme inhibition in the small-bowel lumen. It is unresolved, however, whether ischemically mediated mucosal disruption is the key event allowing pancreatic enzyme products systemic access and whether intestinal digestive enzyme activity in concert with increased mucosal permeability leads to shock in the absence of ischemia. To test this possibility, the small intestinal lumen of nonischemic rats was perfused for 2 h with either digestive enzymes, a mucin disruption strategy (i.e., mucolytics) designed to increase mucosal permeability, or both, and animals were observed for shock. Digestive enzymes perfused included trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, amylase, and lipase. Control (n = 6) and experimental animals perfused with pancreatic enzymes only (n = 6) or single enzymes (n = 3 for each of the five enzyme groups) maintained stable hemodynamics. After mucin disruption using a combination of enteral N-acetylcysteine, atropine, and increased flow rates, rats (n = 6) developed mild hypotension (P < 0.001 compared with groups perfused with pancreatic enzymes only after 90 min) and increased intestinal permeability to intralumenally perfused fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 20 kd (P < 0.05) compared with control and enzyme-only groups, but there were no deaths. All animals perfused with both digestive enzymes and subjected to mucin disruption (n = 6) developed hypotension and increased intestinal permeability (P < 0.001 after 90 min). Pancreatic enzymes were measured in the intestinal wall of both groups subjected to mucin disruption, but not in the enzyme-only or control groups. Depletion of plasma protease inhibitors was found only in animals perfused with pancreatic enzymes plus mucin disruption, implicating increased permeability and intralumenal pancreatic enzyme egress

  12. The lumenal loop M672-P707 of the Menkes protein (ATP7A) transfers copper to peptidylglycine monooxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Otoikhian, Adenike; Barry, Amanda N.; Mayfield, Mary; Nilges, Mark; Huang, Yiping; Lutsenko, Svetlana; Blackburn, Ninian

    2012-05-14

    Copper transfer to cuproproteins located in vesicular compartments of the secretory pathway depends on activity of the copper translocating ATPase (ATP7A or ATP7B) but the mechanism of transfer is largely unexplored. Copper-ATPase ATP7A is unique in having a sequence rich in histidine and methionine residues located on the lumenal side of the membrane. The corresponding fragment binds Cu(I) when expressed as a chimera with a scaffold protein, and mutations or deletions of His and/or Met residues in its sequence inhibit dephosphorylation of the ATPase, a catalytic step associated with copper release. Here we present evidence for a potential role of this lumenal region of ATP7A in copper transfer to cuproenzymes. Both Cu(II) and Cu(I) forms were investigated since the form in which copper is transferred to acceptor proteins is currently unknown. Analysis of Cu(II) using EPR demonstrated that at Cu:P ratios below 1:1, 15N-substituted protein had Cu(II) bound by 4 His residues, but this coordination changed as the Cu(II) to protein ratio increased towards 2:1. XAS confirmed this coordination via analysis of the intensity of outer-shell scattering from imidazole residues. The Cu(II) complexes could be reduced to their Cu(I) counterparts by ascorbate, but here again, as shown by EXAFS and XANES spectroscopy, the coordination was dependent on copper loading. At low copper Cu(I) was bound by a mixed ligand set of His + Met while at higher ratios His coordination predominated. The copper-loaded loop was able to transfer either Cu(II) or Cu(I) to peptidylglycine monooxygenase in the presence of chelating resin, generating catalytically active enzyme in a process that appeared to involve direct interaction between the two partners. The variation of coordination with copper loading suggests copper-dependent conformational change which in turn could act as a signal for regulating copper release by the ATPase pump.

  13. Ultrastructural features of the differentiating thyroid primordium in the sand lizard (Lacerta agilis L.) from the differentiation of the cellular cords to the formation of the follicular lumen.

    PubMed

    Rupik, Weronika; Kowalska, Magdalena; Swadźba, Elwira; Maślak, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The differentiation of the thyroid primordium of lacertilian species is poorly understood. The present study reports on the ultrastructural analysis of the developing thyroid primordium in the sand lizard (Lacerta agilis) during the early stages of differentiation. The early thyroid primordium of sand lizard embryos was composed of cellular cords that contained single cells with a giant lipid droplet, which were eliminated by specific autophagy (lipophagy). The follicular lumens at the periphery of the primordium differentiated even before the division of the cellular cords. When the single cells within the cords started to die through paraptosis, the adjacent cells started to polarise and junctional complexes began to form around them. After polarisation and clearing up after the formation of the lumens, the cellular cords divided into definitive follicles. The cellular cords in the central part of the primordium started to differentiate later than those at the periphery. The cellular cords divided into presumptive follicles first and only later differentiated into definitive follicles. During this process, a population of centrally located cells was removed through apoptosis to form the lumen. Although the follicular lumen in sand lizard embryos is differentiated by cavitation similar to that in the grass snake, there were very important differences during the early stages of the differentiation of the cellular cords and the formation of the thyroid follicles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. A novel multi-functional chloroplast protein: identification of a 40 kDa immunophilin-like protein located in the thylakoid lumen.

    PubMed Central

    Fulgosi, H; Vener, A V; Altschmied, L; Herrmann, R G; Andersson, B

    1998-01-01

    We describe the identification of the first immunophilin associated with the photosynthetic membrane of chloroplasts. This complex 40 kDa immunophilin, designated TLP40 (thylakoid lumen PPIase), located in the lumen of the thylakoids, was found to play a dual role in photosynthesis involving both biogenesis and intraorganelle signalling. It originates in a single-copy nuclear gene, is made as a precursor of 49.2 kDa with a bipartite lumenal targeting transit peptide, and is characterized by a structure including a cyclophilin-like C-terminal segment of 20 kDa, a predicted N-terminal leucine zipper and a potential phosphatase-binding domain. It can exist in different oligomeric conformations and attach to the inner membrane surface. It is confined predominantly to the non-appressed thylakoid regions, the site of protein integration into the photosynthetic membrane. The isolated protein possesses peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase protein folding activity characteristic of immunophilins, but is not inhibited by cyclosporin A. TLP40 also exerts an effect on dephosphorylation of several key proteins of photosystem II, probably as a constituent of a transmembrane signal transduction chain. This first evidence for a direct role of immunophilins in a photoautotrophic process suggests that light-mediated protein phosphorylation in photosynthetic membranes and the role of the thylakoid lumen are substantially more complex than anticipated. PMID:9501079

  15. CALiPER Report 20.4: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-12-30

    This CALiPER report focuses on lumen maintenance, chromaticity maintenance, and catastrophic failure in 32 of the Series 20 LED PAR38 lamps and 8 benchmark lamps, which were monitored for nearly 14,000 hours at ambient temperatures between 44°C and 45°C.

  16. Vascular lumen simulation and highly-sensitive nitric oxide detection using three-dimensional gelatin chip coupled to TiC/C nanowire arrays microelectrode.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin-Mei; Wang, Xue-Ying; Hu, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Rong-Sheng; Huang, Ying; Chen, Shi-Jing; Huang, Wei-Hua; Huo, Kai-Fu; Chu, Paul K

    2012-11-07

    Reproducing the physiological environment of blood vessels for the in vitro investigation of endothelial cell functions is very challenging. Here, we describe a vascular-like structure based on a three-dimensional (3D) gelatin chip with good compatibility and permeability which is also cost-effective and easy to produce. The controllable lumen diameter and wall thickness enable close mimicking of blood vessels in vitro. The 3D gelatin matrix between adjacent lumens is capable of generating soluble-factor gradients inside, and diffusion of molecules with different molecular weights through the matrix is studied. The cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells proliferate on the gelatin lumen linings to form a vascular lumen. The hemodynamic behavior including adhesion, alignment of endothelial cells (ECs) under shear stress and pulsatile stretch is studied. Furthermore, a microelectrode comprising TiC/C nanowire arrays is fabricated to detect nitric oxide with sub-nM detection limits and NO generation from the cultured ECs is monitored in real time. This vascular model reproduces the surrounding parenchyma of endothelial cells and mimics the hemodynamics inside blood vessels very well, thereby enabling potential direct investigation of hemodynamics, angiogenesis, and tumor metastasis in vitro.

  17. Antithrombotic therapy for pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Paulien G; Goddijn, Mariëtte; Middeldorp, Saskia

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although an association between thrombophilia and pregnancy loss has been observed in many studies, little is known about the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this association. Considering the association between thrombophilia and pregnancy loss, the efficacy of antithrombotic therapy for women with pregnancy loss (with or without thrombophilia) has been studied for the past 30 years. METHODS We performed a comprehensive review of the literature on the strength of the association between thrombophilia and pregnancy loss, the pathophysiological mechanisms and the efficacy of antithrombotic therapy to increase the chance of live birth. RESULTS The association between pregnancy loss and thrombophilia varies according to the type of thrombophilia (e.g. antiphospholipid syndrome versus forms of inherited thrombophilia) and according to the type of pregnancy loss (single versus recurrent pregnancy loss and early versus late pregnancy loss). Thrombophilia may induce thrombosis in decidual vessels or impair placentation through hypercoagulability and inflammation, but these hypotheses need further verification. For women with antiphospholipid syndrome, evidence from small-sized trials suggests a beneficial effect of antithrombotic therapy but additional randomized controlled trials are essential to confirm this. Whether antithrombotic therapy increases the chance of live birth in women with inherited thrombophilia is unknown. Recent randomized controlled trials have consistently shown that antithrombotic therapy does not increase the chance of live birth in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage. CONCLUSIONS There are large gaps in knowledge and a lack of evidence for treatment of women with pregnancy loss with thrombophilia. To provide a solid base for clinical practice, further studies on the role of coagulation in reproduction, as well as international collaborations in randomized controlled trials of antithrombotic therapy in women with pregnancy

  18. The psychosocial impact of late-stage Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Calne, Susan M

    2003-12-01

    The late stage of Parkinson's disease (PD) can be protracted with inexorable changes in physical and mental health, loss of autonomy and self-esteem, altered relationships, and social isolation. Severely affected patients (Hoehn & Yahr stage 4-5) present a challenge to nurses who care for them; addressing their needs takes time and patience. Changes in mental status have profound implications for the welfare of the late-stage PD patient as well as of the caregiver(s). Depression and dementia in patients with PD are two factors that interfere with the ability to deliver effective care in late-stage PD as they lead to loss of initiative and cooperation. Primary caregivers often have their own medical problems, with limited stamina and support; relationships may change, leading to sadness or conflict. Nurses can be powerful advocates for the physical and mental health of both the patient with late-stage Parkinson's disease and the primary caregiver.

  19. Treatment of malignant biliary obstruction by endoscopic implantation of iridium 192 using a new double lumen endoprosthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, J.H.; Lichtenstein, J.L.; Pullano, W.E.; Ramsey, W.H.; Rosenbaum, A.; Halpern, G.; Nonkin, R.; Jacob, H.

    1988-07-01

    Iridium 192 seeds contained in a ribbon were preloaded into a new double lumen 11 Fr endoprosthesis which was then inserted into malignant strictures of the bile duct and ampulla and left in place for 48 hours until 5000 rads were delivered to the tumor. The procedure was carried out in 14 patients (7 women, 7 men; mean age, 63.2 years; range, 46 to 86 years). Six patients were treated for cholangiocarcinomas, four with pancreatic carcinomas, and four with ampullary carcinomas. No complications occurred. The mean survival of the group was 7 months (range, 3 days to 27 months). This new technique provides both intraluminal brachytherapy and biliary drainage and is inserted intraduodenally across the papilla of Vater avoiding puncture of the liver and external hardware required by the percutaneous technique and hardware necessitated with a nasobiliary tube. Following removal of the iridium prosthesis, a large caliber endoprosthesis is inserted for continued decompression. Because of proven efficacy of endoprostheses, this new technique should be considered when intraluminal irradiation is indicated.

  20. Clues to the mechanism of cholesterol transfer from the structure of NPC1 middle lumenal domain bound to NPC2

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaochun; Saha, Piyali; Li, Jian; Blobel, Günter; Pfeffer, Suzanne R.

    2016-01-01

    Export of LDL-derived cholesterol from lysosomes requires the cooperation of the integral membrane protein Niemann–Pick C1 (NPC1) and a soluble protein, Niemann–Pick C2 (NPC2). Mutations in the genes encoding these proteins lead to Niemann–Pick disease type C (NPC). NPC2 binds to NPC1’s second (middle), lumenally oriented domain (MLD) and transfers cholesterol to NPC1’s N-terminal domain (NTD). Here, we report the 2.4-Å resolution crystal structure of a complex of human NPC1–MLD and NPC2 bearing bound cholesterol-3-O-sulfate. NPC1–MLD uses two protruding loops to bind NPC2, analogous to its interaction with the primed Ebola virus glycoprotein. Docking of the NPC1–NPC2 complex onto the full-length NPC1 structure reveals a direct cholesterol transfer tunnel between NPC2 and NTD cholesterol binding pockets, supporting the “hydrophobic hand-off” cholesterol transfer model. PMID:27551080

  1. Evaluation of double-lumen endotracheal tube extubation force by extraction angle: a prospective randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kido, Haruki; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Imajo, Yukihiro; Ueno, Takeshi; Minami, Toshiaki

    2016-03-01

    Gentle and noninvasive double-lumen tracheal tube (DLT) extubation is important for both airway and circulatory management, especially after lung resection. We performed a prospective randomized clinical trial comparing DLT extubation force based on 2 different extraction angles. Randomized clinical trial. Operating room. Sixty adult patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia using DLT with ASA physical status 1 to 3. Sixty patients who underwent lung resection with a DLT were randomly assigned to extraction angles of 60° (30 patients) and 90° (30 patients) relative to the ground. Extubation forces and changes in vital signs were compared between groups. Results were analysed with the Mann-Whitney U test, non-paired t test, and χ(2) test. P<.05 was considered significant. Less extraction force was needed at 60° compared to 90° (90°, 13.9±2.3 N; 60°; 7.1±2.1 N; P<.001). The rate of increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (post-extubation/pre-extubation) was significantly smaller at 60° than at 90° (systolic blood pressure, P<.001; diastolic blood pressure, P=.002). Our findings suggest that DLT extubation at 60° requires less force than at 90° and was accompanied by a smaller increase in blood pressure. Thus, extraction at 60° may be less invasive and beneficial for patients undergoing DLT extubation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An Assessment of the Intestinal Lumen as a Site for Intervention in Reducing Body Burdens of Organochlorine Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Jandacek, Ronald J.; Genuis, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Many individuals maintain a persistent body burden of organochlorine compounds (OCs) as well as other lipophilic compounds, largely as a result of airborne and dietary exposures. Ingested OCs are typically absorbed from the small intestine along with dietary lipids. Once in the body, stored OCs can mobilize from adipose tissue storage sites and, along with circulating OCs, are delivered into the small intestine via hepatic processing and biliary transport. Retained OCs are also transported into both the large and small intestinal lumen via non-biliary mechanisms involving both secretion and desquamation from enterocytes. OCs and some other toxicants can be reabsorbed from the intestine, however, they take part in enterohepatic circulation(EHC). While dietary fat facilitates the absorption of OCs from the small intestine, it has little effect on OCs within the large intestine. Non-absorbable dietary fats and fat absorption inhibitors, however, can reduce the re-absorption of OCs and other lipophiles involved in EHC and may enhance the secretion of these compounds into the large intestine—thereby hastening their elimination. Clinical studies are currently underway to determine the efficacy of using non-absorbable fats and inhibitors of fat absorption in facilitating the elimination of persistent body burdens of OCs and other lipophilic human contaminants. PMID:23476122

  3. Non-cuffed dual lumen catheters in the external jugular veins versus other central veins for hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Moini, Majid; Rasouli, Mohammad R; Kenari, Mohammad Mahmoodzadeh; Mahmoodi, Hamid Reza

    2009-01-01

    To compare prospective between insertion of non-cuffed dual lumen catheter in the external jugular vein and other central veins for hemodialysis (HD), we studied 68 chronic dialysis patients randomly allocated into two groups: one with external jugular vein catheterization as access for HD and another with other central venous catheterization, internal jugular or subclavian vein. Our results showed there were no significant differences regarding successful cannulation, com-plications, total numbers of dialysis, development of pain and infection at the site of cannulation, patency rate of the catheters, and efficacy of hemodialysis between both groups. In addition, the patency of the catheter in the external jugular vein was not affected by previous cannulation of other central veins. In contrast, there was a significant correlation between numbers of attempts for cannulation in both groups and development of hematoma and infection, (p< 0.05). In conclusion, our results showed that the external jugular vein may be an alternative for other central veins for insertion of temporary non-cuffed hemodialysis catheter.

  4. An assessment of the intestinal lumen as a site for intervention in reducing body burdens of organochlorine compounds.

    PubMed

    Jandacek, Ronald J; Genuis, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Many individuals maintain a persistent body burden of organochlorine compounds (OCs) as well as other lipophilic compounds, largely as a result of airborne and dietary exposures. Ingested OCs are typically absorbed from the small intestine along with dietary lipids. Once in the body, stored OCs can mobilize from adipose tissue storage sites and, along with circulating OCs, are delivered into the small intestine via hepatic processing and biliary transport. Retained OCs are also transported into both the large and small intestinal lumen via non-biliary mechanisms involving both secretion and desquamation from enterocytes. OCs and some other toxicants can be reabsorbed from the intestine, however, they take part in enterohepatic circulation(EHC). While dietary fat facilitates the absorption of OCs from the small intestine, it has little effect on OCs within the large intestine. Non-absorbable dietary fats and fat absorption inhibitors, however, can reduce the re-absorption of OCs and other lipophiles involved in EHC and may enhance the secretion of these compounds into the large intestine--thereby hastening their elimination. Clinical studies are currently underway to determine the efficacy of using non-absorbable fats and inhibitors of fat absorption in facilitating the elimination of persistent body burdens of OCs and other lipophilic human contaminants.

  5. Laser-driven short-duration heating angioplasty: chronic artery lumen patency and histology in porcine iliac artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazaki, Natsumi; Kunio, Mie; Naruse, Sho; Arai, Tsunenori; Sakurada, Masami

    2012-02-01

    We proposed a short-duration heating balloon angioplasty. We designed a prototype short-duration heating balloon catheter that can heat artery media to 60-70°C within 15-25 s with a combination of laser-driven heat generation and continuous fluid irrigation in the balloon. The purpose of this study was to investigate chronic artery lumen patency as well as histological alteration of artery wall after the short-duration heating balloon dilatation with porcine healthy iliac artery. The short-term heating balloon dilated sites were angiographically patent in acute (1 hour) and in chronic phases (1 and 4 weeks). One week after the dilatation, smooth muscle cells (SMCs) density in the artery media measured from H&E-stained specimens was approx. 20% lower than that in the reference artery. One and four weeks after the dilatations, normal structure of artery adventitia was maintained without any incidence of thermal injury. Normal lamellar structure of the artery media was also maintained. We found that the localized heating restricted to artery media by the short-duration heating could maintain adventitial function and artery normal structure in chronic phase.

  6. A chloroplast thylakoid lumen protein is required for proper photosynthetic acclimation of plants under fluctuating light environments.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Last, Robert L

    2017-09-19

    Despite our increasingly sophisticated understanding of mechanisms ensuring efficient photosynthesis under laboratory-controlled light conditions, less is known about the regulation of photosynthesis under fluctuating light. This is important because-in nature-photosynthetic organisms experience rapid and extreme changes in sunlight, potentially causing deleterious effects on photosynthetic efficiency and productivity. Here we report that the chloroplast thylakoid lumenal protein MAINTENANCE OF PHOTOSYSTEM II UNDER HIGH LIGHT 2 (MPH2; encoded by At4g02530) is required for growth acclimation of Arabidopsis thaliana plants under controlled photoinhibitory light and fluctuating light environments. Evidence is presented that mph2 mutant light stress susceptibility results from a defect in photosystem II (PSII) repair, and our results are consistent with the hypothesis that MPH2 is involved in disassembling monomeric complexes during regeneration of dimeric functional PSII supercomplexes. Moreover, mph2-and previously characterized PSII repair-defective mutants-exhibited reduced growth under fluctuating light conditions, while PSII photoprotection-impaired mutants did not. These findings suggest that repair is not only required for PSII maintenance under static high-irradiance light conditions but is also a regulatory mechanism facilitating photosynthetic adaptation under fluctuating light environments. This work has implications for improvement of agricultural plant productivity through engineering PSII repair.

  7. High-resolution computed tomography bronchial lumen to pulmonary artery diameter ratio in anesthetized ventilated cats with normal lungs.

    PubMed

    Reid, Lauren E; Dillon, A Ray; Hathcock, John T; Brown, Lawrence A; Tillson, Michael; Wooldridge, Anne A

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution computed tomography (CT) is the preferred noninvasive tool for diagnosing bronchiectasis in people. A criterion for evaluating dilation of the bronchus is the bronchial lumen to pulmonary artery diameter (bronchoarterial ratio [BA ratio]). A ratio of > 1.0 in humans or > 2.0 in dogs has been suggested as a threshold for identifying bronchiectasis. The purpose of this study was to establish the BA ratio in normal cats. Fourteen specific pathogen-free cats were selected for analysis of thoracic CT images. The BA ratios of the lobar bronchi of the left cranial (cranial and caudal parts), right cranial, right middle, left caudal, and right caudal lung lobes were measured. The mean of the mean BA ratio of all lung lobes was 0.71 +/- 0.05. Individual BA ratios ranged from 0.5 to 1.11. Comparing individual lobes for each cat, there was no significant difference (P = 0.145) in mean BA ratio between lung lobes. A mean BA ratio for these normal cats was 0.71 +/- 0.1, which suggests an upper cut-off normal value > 0.91 (mean +/- 2 standard deviations) between normal and abnormal cats.

  8. An endogenous superantigen in the rat gut lumen as a model to study the role of human protein-Fv.

    PubMed

    Guihard, A I; Pires, R; Bouvet, J P

    1997-01-01

    Protein-Fv (pFv) is a human B superantigen which can bind the variable domain (VH) of the heavy chain of immunoglobulins (Igs) and enhance the effector functions of secretory antibodies in the gut lumen. This study describes a rat molecule related to pFv by a similar specificity to the human VH3 domain. Investigation of the content of different gut segments shows that the rat pFv is usually hidden by its binding to local Igs to form macromolecular complexes similar to the immune fortresses described in normal humans. Furthermore, the pFv level generally increases from the jejunum to the colon in parallel with the decreasing water dilution, and finally a discontinuous presence can occur along the digestive tract. Detection of this molecule in the fetus proves its non-microbial origin. Variations of the release of pFv, according to the breeding and to littermating, suggest the influence of external factors. This animal model allows the development of a study of the functions of pFv in vivo using a current laboratory species and has already provided evidence that the synthesis of this important molecule of the secretory immune system is regulated by environmental factors.

  9. Understanding Grief and Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss > Understanding Grief and Loss Request Permissions Understanding Grief and Loss Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... of grief and mourning after a loss. Common grief reactions Reactions to loss, called grief reactions, vary ...

  10. Late Babylonian Astrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, John M.

    The last five centuries BC saw the development of several new forms of astrology in Babylonia. Key to these new astrological techniques was the invention of the zodiac in about 400 BC. These new forms of astrology include personal horoscopes, astral medicine, and the exploitation of geometrical relationships between the position of heavenly bodies. Several Late Babylonian astrological doctrines were later adopted within Greek astrology.

  11. Plastic Response of Tracheids in Pinus pinaster in a Water-Limited Environment: Adjusting Lumen Size instead of Wall Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Ana; Nabais, Cristina; Vieira, Joana; Rossi, Sergio; Campelo, Filipe

    2015-01-01

    The formation of wood results from cambial activity and its anatomical properties reflect the variability of environmental conditions during the growing season. Recently, it was found that wood density variations in conifers growing under cold-limited environment result from the adjustment of cell wall thickness (CWT) to temperature. Additionally, it is known that intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) are formed in response to precipitation after the summer drought. Although IADFs are frequent in Mediterranean conifers no study has yet been conducted to determine if these structures result from the adjustment of lumen diameter (LD) or CWT to soil water availability. Our main objective is to investigate the intra-ring variation of wood anatomical features (LD and CWT) in Pinus pinaster Ait. growing under a water-limited environment. We compared the tracheidograms of LD and CWT for the years 2010–2013 in P. pinaster growing in the west coast of Portugal. Our results suggest a close association between LD and soil moisture content along the growing season, reinforcing the role of water availability in determining tracheid size. Compared with CWT, LD showed a higher intra- and inter-annual variability suggesting its strong adjustment value to variations in water availability. The formation of a latewood IADF appears to be predisposed by higher rates of cell production in spring and triggered by early autumn precipitation. Our findings reinforce the crucial role of water availability on cambial activity and wood formation in Mediterranean conifers, and emphasize the high plasticity of wood anatomical features under Mediterranean climate. PMID:26305893

  12. Plastic Response of Tracheids in Pinus pinaster in a Water-Limited Environment: Adjusting Lumen Size instead of Wall Thickness.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ana; Nabais, Cristina; Vieira, Joana; Rossi, Sergio; Campelo, Filipe

    2015-01-01

    The formation of wood results from cambial activity and its anatomical properties reflect the variability of environmental conditions during the growing season. Recently, it was found that wood density variations in conifers growing under cold-limited environment result from the adjustment of cell wall thickness (CWT) to temperature. Additionally, it is known that intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) are formed in response to precipitation after the summer drought. Although IADFs are frequent in Mediterranean conifers no study has yet been conducted to determine if these structures result from the adjustment of lumen diameter (LD) or CWT to soil water availability. Our main objective is to investigate the intra-ring variation of wood anatomical features (LD and CWT) in Pinus pinaster Ait. growing under a water-limited environment. We compared the tracheidograms of LD and CWT for the years 2010-2013 in P. pinaster growing in the west coast of Portugal. Our results suggest a close association between LD and soil moisture content along the growing season, reinforcing the role of water availability in determining tracheid size. Compared with CWT, LD showed a higher intra- and inter-annual variability suggesting its strong adjustment value to variations in water availability. The formation of a latewood IADF appears to be predisposed by higher rates of cell production in spring and triggered by early autumn precipitation. Our findings reinforce the crucial role of water availability on cambial activity and wood formation in Mediterranean conifers, and emphasize the high plasticity of wood anatomical features under Mediterranean climate.

  13. C-terminal, endoplasmic reticulum-lumenal domain of prosurfactant protein C - structural features and membrane interactions.

    PubMed

    Casals, Cristina; Johansson, Hanna; Saenz, Alejandra; Gustafsson, Magnus; Alfonso, Carlos; Nordling, Kerstin; Johansson, Jan

    2008-02-01

    Surfactant protein C (SP-C) constitutes the transmembrane part of prosurfactant protein C (proSP-C) and is alpha-helical in its native state. The C-terminal part of proSP-C (CTC) is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen and binds to misfolded (beta-strand) SP-C, thereby preventing its aggregation and amyloid fibril formation. In this study, we investigated the structure of recombinant human CTC and the effects of CTC-membrane interaction on protein structure. CTC forms noncovalent trimers and supratrimeric oligomers. It contains two intrachain disulfide bridges, and its secondary structure is significantly affected by urea or heat only after disulfide reduction. The postulated Brichos domain of CTC, with homologs found in proteins associated with amyloid and proliferative disease, is up to 1000-fold more protected from limited proteolysis than the rest of CTC. The protein exposes hydrophobic surfaces, as determined by CTC binding to the environment-sensitive fluorescent probe 1,1'-bis(4-anilino-5,5'-naphthalenesulfonate). Fluorescence energy transfer experiments further reveal close proximity between bound 1,1'-bis(4-anilino-5,5'-naphthalenesulfonate) and tyrosine residues in CTC, some of which are conserved in all Brichos domains. CTC binds to unilamellar phospholipid vesicles with low micromolar dissociation constants, and differential scanning calorimetry and CD analyses indicate that membrane-bound CTC is less structurally ordered than the unbound protein. The exposed hydrophobic surfaces and the structural disordering that result from interactions with phospholipid membranes suggest a mechanism whereby CTC binds to misfolded SP-C in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane.

  14. Cardiomyocyte VEGF Regulates Endothelial Cell GPIHBP1 to Relocate Lipoprotein Lipase to the Coronary Lumen During Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Amy Pei-Ling; Wan, Andrea; Lal, Nathaniel; Zhang, Dahai; Wang, Fulong; Vlodavsky, Israel; Hussein, Bahira; Rodrigues, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-mediated triglyceride hydrolysis is the major source of fatty acid for cardiac energy. LPL, synthesized in cardiomyocytes, is translocated across endothelial cells (EC) by its transporter glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein-binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1). Previously, we have reported an augmentation in coronary LPL, which was linked to an increased expression of GPIHBP1 following moderate diabetes mellitus. We examined the potential mechanism by which hyperglycemia amplifies GPIHBP1. Exposure of rat aortic EC to high glucose induced GPIHBP1 expression and amplified LPL shuttling across these cells. This effect coincided with an elevated secretion of heparanase. Incubation of EC with high glucose or latent heparanase resulted in secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Primary cardiomyocytes, being a rich source of VEGF, when cocultured with EC, restored EC GPIHBP1 that is lost because of cell passaging. Furthermore, recombinant VEGF induced EC GPIHBP1 mRNA and protein expression within 24 hours, an effect that could be prevented by a VEGF neutralizing antibody. This VEGF-induced increase in GPIHBP1 was through Notch signaling that encompassed Delta-like ligand 4 augmentation and nuclear translocation of the Notch intracellular domain. Finally, cardiomyocytes from severely diabetic animals exhibiting attenuation of VEGF were unable to increase EC GPIHBP1 expression and had lower LPL activity at the vascular lumen in perfused hearts. EC, as the first responders to hyperglycemia, can release heparanase to liberate myocyte VEGF. This growth factor, by activating EC Notch signaling, is responsible for facilitating GPIHBP1-mediated translocation of LPL across EC and regulating LPL-derived fatty acid delivery to the cardiomyocytes. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Increased yield pressure in the anal canal during sacral nerve stimulation: a pilot study with the functional lumen imaging probe.

    PubMed

    Haas, S; Liao, D; Gregersen, H; Lundby, L; Laurberg, S; Krogh, K

    2017-02-01

    Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is a well-established treatment for fecal incontinence but its mode of action remains obscure. Anal sphincter function is usually evaluated with manometry but resistance to distension may be a more appropriate parameter than luminal pressure. The functional lumen imaging probe allows detailed description of distension properties of the anal canal. Our objective in this study was to characterize the impact of SNS on distension properties of the anal canal in patients with idiopathic fecal incontinence. We studied 10 women (median age 64 [44-79] years) with idiopathic fecal incontinence at baseline and during SNS. The luminal geometry of the anal canal was examined with the FLIP at rest and during squeeze and the distensibility of the anal canal was investigated during filling of the bag. All patients were successfully treated with SNS and the mean Wexner Incontinence Score was reduced from 14.9 ± 4 to 7.1 ± 4.8 (P<.001). The pressure required to open the narrowest point of the anal canal during distension (yield pressure) increased from 14.5 ± 12.2 mmHg at baseline to 20.5 ± 13.3 mmHg during SNS (P<.01). The pressure-strain elastic modulus increased non-significantly from 2.2 ± 0.5 to 2.9 ± 1.6 kPa, indicating increased stiffness of the anal canal. The yield pressure and the resistance to distension increased in response to SNS for idiopathic fecal incontinence. This will inevitably increase the resistance to flow through the anal canal, which may contribute to the benefits of sacral nerve stimulation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Association of Cry1Ac Toxin Resistance in Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) with Increased Alkaline Phosphatase Levels in the Midgut Lumen

    PubMed Central

    Caccia, Silvia; Moar, William J.; Chandrashekhar, Jayadevi; Oppert, Cris; Anilkumar, Konasale J.; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2012-01-01

    Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin was characterized in a population of Helicoverpa zea larvae previously shown not to have an alteration in toxin binding as the primary resistance mechanism to this toxin. Cry1Ac-selected larvae (AR1) were resistant to protoxins and toxins of Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and the corresponding modified proteins lacking helix α-1 (Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod). When comparing brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) prepared from susceptible (LC) and AR1 larval midguts, there were only negligible differences in overall Cry1Ac toxin binding, though AR1 had 18% reversible binding, in contrast to LC, in which all binding was irreversible. However, no differences were detected in Cry1Ac-induced pore formation activity in BBMVs from both strains. Enzymatic activities of two putative Cry1Ac receptors (aminopeptidase N [APN] and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]) were significantly reduced (2-fold and 3-fold, respectively) in BBMVs from AR1 compared to LC larvae. These reductions corresponded to reduced protein levels in midgut luminal contents only in the case of ALP, with an almost 10-fold increase in specific ALP activity in midgut fluids from AR1 compared to LC larvae. Partially purified H. zea ALP bound Cry1Ac toxin in ligand blots and competed with Cry1Ac toxin for BBMV binding. Based on these results, we suggest the existence of at least one mechanism of resistance to Cry1A toxins in H. zea involving binding of Cry1Ac toxin to an ALP receptor in the larval midgut lumen of resistant larvae. PMID:22685140

  17. Thylakoid lumen carbonic anhydrase (CAH3) mutation suppresses air-Dier phenotype of LCIB mutant in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Duanmu, Deqiang; Wang, Yingjun; Spalding, Martin H

    2009-02-01

    An active CO2-concentrating mechanism is induced when Chlamydomonas reinhardtii acclimates to limiting inorganic carbon (Ci), either low-CO2 (L-CO2; air level; approximately 0.04% CO2) or very low-CO2 (VL-CO2; approximately 0.01% CO2) conditions. A mutant, ad1, which is defective in the limiting-CO2-inducible, plastid-localized LCIB, can grow in high-CO2 or VL-CO2 conditions but dies in L-CO2, indicating a deficiency in a L-CO2-specific Ci uptake and accumulation system. In this study, we identified two ad1 suppressors that can grow in L-CO2 but die in VL-CO2. Molecular analyses revealed that both suppressors have mutations in the CAH3 gene, which encodes a thylakoid lumen localized carbonic anhydrase. Photosynthetic rates of L-CO2-acclimated suppressors under acclimation CO2 concentrations were more than 2-fold higher than ad1, apparently resulting from a more than 20-fold increase in the intracellular concentration of Ci as measured by direct Ci uptake. However, photosynthetic rates of VL-CO2-acclimated cells under acclimation CO2 concentrations were too low to support growth in spite of a significantly elevated intracellular Ci concentration. We conclude that LCIB functions downstream of CAH3 in the CO2-concentrating mechanism and probably plays a role in trapping CO2 released by CAH3 dehydration of accumulated Ci. Apparently dehydration by the chloroplast stromal carbonic anhydrase CAH6 of the very high internal Ci caused by the defect in CAH3 provides Rubisco sufficient CO2 to support growth in L-CO2-acclimated cells, but not in VL-CO2-acclimated cells, even in the absence of LCIB.

  18. The effect of serum on the secretion of radiolabeled mucous macromolecules into the lumen of the cat trachea

    SciTech Connect

    Peatfield, A.C.; Hall, R.L.; Richardson, P.S.; Jeffery, P.K.

    1982-02-01

    We studied the effect of placing serum within a segment of trachea on secretion into its lumen in the cat. A segment of cervical trachea was isolated from the rest of the airway in situ. Secretions were radiolabeled biosynthetically by the administration of two radiolabeled precursors: (35S)sodium sulphate and (3H)glucose. Autologous serum placed in the segment at a dilution of 1 in 8 increased the output of radiolabeled macromolecules: (35S) by 80% and (3H) by 159% (p less than 0.001). At a dilution of 1 in 24, serum still increased the output of both isotopes. At dilutions of 1 in 48 and 1 in 80 the increases were significant for (35S) but not for (3H). Heating the serum to 90 degrees C diminished its effects. Fractionating the serum by dialysis and gel filtration showed that the components of molecular weight less than about 13,000 daltons had no effect on secretion, whereas three higher molecular weight fractions all increased secretion. Two alien proteins (horseradish peroxidase and bovine serum albumin) stimulated secretion but a large molecular weight carbohydrate (carboxymethyl cellulose) did not. Atropine and propranolol, at doses that greatly reduced the effect of parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve activity, did not diminish the effects of serum, which therefore appeared to be independent of nerve activity. Gel filtration of the secretions elicited by serum showed that the predominant component was excluded even by Sepharose CL-2B and thus had a high molecular weight. We conclude that there are several components of serum that promote the secretion of mucus glycoproteins into the cat trachea. The relevance of these findings to diseases of human airways is considered.

  19. Multi-contrast MRI registration of carotid arteries based on cross-sectional images and lumen boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yu-Xia; Zhang, Xi; Xu, Xiao-Pan; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Guo-Peng; Li, Bao-Juan; Chen, Hui-Jun; Lu, Hong-Bing

    2017-02-01

    Ischemic stroke has great correlation with carotid atherosclerosis and is mostly caused by vulnerable plaques. It's particularly important to analysis the components of plaques for the detection of vulnerable plaques. Recently plaque analysis based on multi-contrast magnetic resonance imaging has attracted great attention. Though multi-contrast MR imaging has potentials in enhanced demonstration of carotid wall, its performance is hampered by the misalignment of different imaging sequences. In this study, a coarse-to-fine registration strategy based on cross-sectional images and wall boundaries is proposed to solve the problem. It includes two steps: a rigid step using the iterative closest points to register the centerlines of carotid artery extracted from multi-contrast MR images, and a non-rigid step using the thin plate spline to register the lumen boundaries of carotid artery. In the rigid step, the centerline was extracted by tracking the crosssectional images along the vessel direction calculated by Hessian matrix. In the non-rigid step, a shape context descriptor is introduced to find corresponding points of two similar boundaries. In addition, the deterministic annealing technique is used to find a globally optimized solution. The proposed strategy was evaluated by newly developed three-dimensional, fast and high resolution multi-contrast black blood MR imaging. Quantitative validation indicated that after registration, the overlap of two boundaries from different sequences is 95%, and their mean surface distance is 0.12 mm. In conclusion, the proposed algorithm has improved the accuracy of registration effectively for further component analysis of carotid plaques.

  20. Use of a dual lumen port for automated red cell exchange in adults with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Anuj; Jawa, Zeeshan; Koch, Kathryn L; Rankin, Amy B; Xiang, Qun; Padmanabhan, Anand; Karafin, Matthew S; Field, Joshua J

    2015-12-01

    Red cell exchange (RCE) is a common procedure in adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). Implantable dual lumen Vortex (DLV) ports can be used for RCE in patients with poor peripheral venous access. We performed a retrospective cohort study of RCE procedures performed in adults with SCD. The main objective of the study was to compare the inlet speed, duration of procedures and rate of complications performed through DLV ports to those performed through temporary central venous and peripheral catheters. Twenty-nine adults with SCD underwent a total of 318 RCE procedures. Twenty adults had DLV ports placed and 218 procedures were performed using DLV ports. Mean length of follow-up after DLV port placement was 397 ± 263 days. Six DLV ports were removed due to infection and 1 for malfunction after a mean of 171 ± 120 days. Compared to temporary central venous and peripheral catheters, DLV port procedures had a greater rate of procedural complications, a longer duration, and a lower inlet speed (all P < 0.01). When accounting for the maximum allowable inlet speed to avoid citrate toxicity, 40% of DLV port procedures were greater than 10% below maximum speed, compared to 7 and 14% of procedures performed through temporary central venous and peripheral catheters (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, DLV ports can be used for RCE in adults with SCD, albeit with more procedural complications and longer duration. The smaller internal diameter and longer catheter of DLV ports compared to temporary central venous catheters likely accounts for the differences noted.

  1. Selection of an Appropriate Left-sided Double-lumen Tube Size for One-lung Ventilation among Asians

    PubMed Central

    Ideris, Siti Salwani; Che Hassan, Muhamad Rahimi; Abdul Rahman, Mohd. Ramzisham; Ooi, Joanna Su Min

    2017-01-01

    Context: Selecting an appropriate size double-lumen tube (DLT) for one-lung ventilation has always been a challenge as most choose it based on experience or using the existing guidelines based on gender and height. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine if the appropriate choice of this tube could be based on the patients’ height, weight, tracheal diameter (TD), or the left main stem bronchus diameter (LMBD) and also to determine the relationship between height and depth of insertion among Asians. Subjects and Methods: This was a retrospective review of 179 patients who were intubated with a left-sided DLT and also had a posterior-anterior view of a digital chest radiograph for tracheal and left main bronchus diameter measurements. Additional data collected included patients’ demographics and DLT size used. Results: There were 123 (68.7%) males and 56 (31.3%) females with an overall mean age of 33.3 ± 16.3 years. Majority of the males (48.8%) used a size 39 Fr while females (46.4%) used a 35 Fr. There were weak correlations between DLT size with height (male: R2 = 0.222; female: R2 = 0.193), DLT size with weight (male: R2 = 0.109; female: R2 = 0.211), DLT size with TD (male: R2 = 0.027); female: R2 = 0.016), and DLT size with LMBD (male: R2 = 0.222; female: R2 = 0.193). There was a good correlation between depth of DLT inserted with patient's height for both genders. Conclusion: The appropriate size of the left-sided DLT could not be predicted based on patients’ height, weight, tracheal or left main bronchus diameter alone in Asians; however, the depth of insertion of the tube was dependent on the height in both genders. PMID:28074791

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of the behaviour of oil-in-water emulsions in the gastric lumen of man.

    PubMed

    Marciani, Luca; Wickham, Martin S J; Bush, Debbie; Faulks, Richard; Wright, Jeff; Fillery-Travis, Annette J; Spiller, Robin C; Gowland, Penny A

    2006-02-01

    Pre-processed foods often contain a high percentage of lipid, present as emulsions stabilised with various surface-active agents. The acidic gastric environment can affect the behaviour of such emulsions, modifying the lipid spatial distribution and, in turn, the rate of gastric emptying and nutrient delivery to the gut. The aim of the present study was to use echo-planar magnetic resonance imaging (EPI) to determine the behaviour of model olive oil emulsions during gastric processing. Six healthy male volunteers were intubated nasogastrically on two separate occasions and fed 500 ml 15 % (w/w) olive oil-in-water, surfactant-stabilised emulsions designed to have identical droplet size distribution and which were either stable or unstable under gastric acid conditions. EPI was used to assess the oil fraction of the intragastric emulsions, gastric emptying and to visualise the spatial distribution of the oil at 10, 30 and 50 min postprandially. The in vivo imaging measurements of the oil volume fraction of the emulsions correlated well (r 0.66, acid-stable; r 0.52, acid-unstable) with that assayed in the gastric aspirates. Compared with the acid-stable emulsion, the acid-unstable emulsion in the gastric lumen rapidly separated into lipid-depleted 'aqueous' and lipid layers. Phase separation in the acid-unstable meal allowed the oil-depleted component to empty first and more rapidly than the stable emulsion as determined by the gastric emptying curves. These pilot data suggest that gastric processing and emptying of high-fat foods could be manipulated by careful choice of emulsifier.

  3. Late Washing efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, M.F.

    1992-08-31

    Interim Waste Technology has demonstrated the Late Washing concept on the Experimental Laboratory Filter (ELF) at TNX. In two tests, washing reduced the [NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}] from 0.08 M to approximately 0.01 M on slurries with 2 year equivalent radiation exposures and 9.5 wt. % solids. For both washes, the [NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}] decreased at rates near theoretical for a constant volume stirred vessel, indicating approximately l00% washing efficiency. Permeate flux was greater than 0.05 gpm/ft{sup 2} for both washes at a transmembrane pressure of 50 psi and flow velocity of 9 ft/sec.

  4. Prevalence and factors associated with late HIV diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Dai, Se-Ying; Liu, Jin-Ji; Fan, Yin-Guang; Shan, Gui-Su; Zhang, Hong-Bo; Li, Ming-Qiang; Ye, Dong-Qing

    2015-06-01

    While highly active antiretroviral therapy has been successful in delaying progression into AIDS, late HIV diagnosis remains a major contributor to the mortality and morbidity of AIDS. An epidemiological study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and factors of late diagnosis and the characteristics of those individuals with late diagnosis in Liuzhou city. Patients with late diagnosis were defined as either those who were diagnosed with AIDS at the time of HIV diagnosis or as those who developed AIDS no more than 1 year after HIV diagnosis. Of 899 participants, 72.6% had a late diagnosis. Common characteristics of those who experienced late diagnosis included older participants, those who were unexpectedly diagnosed while seeking other medical attention, participants who believed they could not acquire HIV from their regular heterosexual partners, those who never considered getting tested for HIV, and patients with unexplained weight loss, angular cheilitis, or prolonged fever prior to HIV diagnosis. On the other hand, those participants who were diagnosed via testing at compulsory rehabilitation centers and those whose annual household income was greater than 30,000 Yuan were less likely to be diagnosed late. These results suggested that late HIV diagnosis is common in Liuzhou city, and it is essential to promote appropriate strategies to detect HIV infections earlier. Strategies that require HIV/AIDS patients to notify their spouse/sexual-partners about their HIV-positive results within one month and start provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling in medical facilities are beneficial to earlier HIV diagnosis.

  5. DOE Final report [A genetic analysis of the lumenal proteins of the PSII O{sub 2} evolving complex of cyanobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Louis A.

    2001-03-01

    The primary objectives of this proposal were a better understanding of the structure and function of the Mn-stabilizing (MSP) in two cyanobacteria, Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 and Cyanothece sp. ATCC51142. In addition, the author was interested in analysis of the other cyanobacteria lumenal PSII proteins, cyt c{sub 550} and the 12 kDa protein. The experimentation involved analysis of targeted random mutagenesis of the genes encoding the three proteins, especially in psbO, the gene encoding MSP. This required mutant screening with a digital imaging spectrometer. Knockout mutants of the other two lumenal proteins in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 were also constructed. In addition, photosynthetic O{sub 2} evolution in Cyanothece sp. ATCC51142, a nitrogen-fixing strain that regulates the activity of nitrogenase and photosynthesis in a temporal fashion, was analyzed.

  6. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study RRL3.2 Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, Michael P.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.; Tucker, Joseph C.

    2014-12-01

    The lumen depreciation and color shift of 17 different A lamps (15 LED, 1 CFL, 1 halogen) was monitored in the automated long-term test apparatus (ALTA) for more than 7,500 hours. Ten samples of each lamp model were tested, with measurements recorded on a weekly basis. The lamps were operated continuously at an ambient temperature of 45°C (-1°C). Importantly, the steady-state test conditions were not optimized for inducing catastrophic failure for any of the lamp technologies—to which thermal cycling is a strong contributor— and are not typical of normal use patterns—which usually include off periods where the lamp cools down. Further, the test conditions differ from those used in standardized long-term test methods (i.e., IES LM-80, IES LM-84), so the results should not be directly compared. On the other hand, the test conditions are similar to those used by ENERGY STAR (when elevated temperature testing is called for). Likewise, the conditions and assumptions used by manufacturers to generated lifetime claims may vary; the CALiPER long-term data is informative, but cannot necessarily be used to discredit manufacturer claims. The test method used for this investigation should be interpreted as one more focused on the long-term effects of elevated temperature operation, at an ambient temperature that is not uncommon in luminaires. On average, the lumen maintenance of the LED lamps monitored in the ALTA was better than benchmark lamps, but there was considerable variation from lamp model to lamp model. While three lamp models had average lumen maintenance above 99% at the end of the study period, two products had average lumen maintenance below 65%, constituting a parametric failure. These two products, along with a third, also exhibited substantial color shift, another form of parametric failure. While none of the LED lamps exhibited catastrophic failure—and all of the benchmarks did—the early degradation of performance is concerning, especially with a

  7. Bi-caval dual lumen venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and high-frequency percussive ventilatory support for postintubation tracheal injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Julie C; Topjian, Alexis A; McInnes, Andrew D; Mattei, Peter; McCloskey, John J; Friess, Stuart H; Kilbaugh, Todd J

    2011-12-01

    Bi-caval dual lumen venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) as a nonoperative approach to postintubation tracheal injury has not been described. We report the case of a 7-year-old boy who sustained a postintubation tracheal injury, developed acute respiratory distress syndrome from aspiration and viral pneumonitis, and was supported on bi-caval dual lumen VV-ECMO for 16 days until the trachea healed without surgical repair. Before ECMO decannulation, high-frequency percussive ventilation using a volumetric diffusive respiration ventilator was used for lung recruitment and airway clearance without disruption of the healed trachea. The use of ECMO to allow for lower mean airway pressure during initial healing and high-frequency percussive ventilation for lung recruitment and secretion clearance is a promising strategy to allow nonoperative tracheal injury repair in critically ill patients with multiple comorbidities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A six-month evaluation of the VivaSight™ video double-lumen endotracheal tube after introduction into thoracic anaesthetic practice at a single institution.

    PubMed

    Rapchuk, I L; Kunju, Sam; Smith, I J; Faulke, D J

    2017-03-01

    For a six-month period, all airway options used for non-emergent patients undergoing thoracic surgery requiring one-lung ventilation at a single institution were assessed after introduction of the VivaSight™ double-lumen endotracheal tube (VivaSight-DL), a novel double-lumen tube with an integrated camera. This device displays a continuous view of the position of the tube relative to the carina. A total of 72 patients had lung separation with the VivaSight-DL. Lung separation was achieved on first attempt without additional manipulation in 85% of cases. In only three cases (4%) was a fibreoptic bronchoscope required, in each instance to reposition the tube after intraoperative dislodgement. The VivaSight-DL represents a novel method of one-lung ventilation allowing rapid identification of intraoperative airway problems and reducing the need for fibreoptic bronchoscopy.

  9. Balloon augmented Onyx embolization utilizing a dual lumen balloon catheter: utility in the treatment of a variety of head and neck lesions.

    PubMed

    Spiotta, Alejandro M; Miranpuri, Amrendra S; Vargas, Jan; Magarick, Jordan; Turner, Raymond D; Turk, Aquilla S; Chaudry, M Imran

    2014-09-01

    Endovascular embolization for tumors and vascular malformations has emerged as an important preoperative adjunct prior to resection. We describe the advantages of utilizing a recently released dual lumen balloon catheter for ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer, also known as Onyx (ev3, Irvine, California, USA), embolization for a variety of head and neck pathologies. A retrospective review of all cases utilizing the Scepter C balloon catheter (MicroVention Inc, Tustin, California, USA) for use in balloon augmented embolization was performed over a 4 month period from October 2012 to February 2013 at the Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA. Charts and angiographic images were reviewed. Representative cases involving diverse pathologies are summarized and illustrate the observed advantages of balloon augmented Onyx embolization with a dual lumen balloon catheter. Balloon augmented Onyx embolization utilizing a novel dual lumen balloon catheter was employed to treat both ruptured and unruptured arteriovenous malformations, intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulae, intracranial neoplasms, carotid body tumors, a thyroid mass, and an extracranial arteriovenous fistula. The dual lumen balloon catheter has several advantages for use with Onyx embolization over older devices, including more efficient proximal plug formation and enhanced navigability for placement deep within the pedicles. The balloon augmented Onyx embolization technique represents a valuable tool to add to the armamentarium of the neurointerventionalist to address a variety of head and neck lesions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Peritoneoscintigraphy in detection of improper placement of peritoneal catheter into bowel lumen prior to chromic phosphate P-32 therapy. A case report

    SciTech Connect

    Neutze, J.; Van Nostrand, D.; Major, W.

    1985-11-01

    Radionuclide peritoneoscintigraphy has been used prior to chromic phosphate P-32 (P-32CP) intraperitoneal therapy to assure proper placement of the catheter in the peritoneal cavity, to exclude loculation, and to predict inadequate distribution of P-32CP. This is a case report of the detection of a peritoneal catheter improperly placed into the bowel lumen by pretherapy radionuclide peritoneoscintigraphy, and this case demonstrates the distinguishing characteristics of the radiocolloid distribution secondary to an intraluminal injection relative to an intraperitoneal injection.

  11. Joint segmentation of lumen and outer wall from femoral artery MR images: Towards 3D imaging measurements of peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Ukwatta, Eranga; Yuan, Jing; Qiu, Wu; Rajchl, Martin; Chiu, Bernard; Fenster, Aaron

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) measurements of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) plaque burden extracted from fast black-blood magnetic resonance (MR) images have shown to be more predictive of clinical outcomes than PAD stenosis measurements. To this end, accurate segmentation of the femoral artery lumen and outer wall is required for generating volumetric measurements of PAD plaque burden. Here, we propose a semi-automated algorithm to jointly segment the femoral artery lumen and outer wall surfaces from 3D black-blood MR images, which are reoriented and reconstructed along the medial axis of the femoral artery to obtain improved spatial coherence between slices of the long, thin femoral artery and to reduce computation time. The developed segmentation algorithm enforces two priors in a global optimization manner: the spatial consistency between the adjacent 2D slices and the anatomical region order between the femoral artery lumen and outer wall surfaces. The formulated combinatorial optimization problem for segmentation is solved globally and exactly by means of convex relaxation using a coupled continuous max-flow (CCMF) model, which is a dual formulation to the convex relaxed optimization problem. In addition, the CCMF model directly derives an efficient duality-based algorithm based on the modern multiplier augmented optimization scheme, which has been implemented on a GPU for fast computation. The computed segmentations from the developed algorithm were compared to manual delineations from experts using 20 black-blood MR images. The developed algorithm yielded both high accuracy (Dice similarity coefficients ≥ 87% for both the lumen and outer wall surfaces) and high reproducibility (intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.95 for generating vessel wall area), while outperforming the state-of-the-art method in terms of computational time by a factor of ≈ 20. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A new approach to the assessment of lumen visibility of coronary artery stent at various heart rates using 64-slice MDCT

    PubMed Central

    Groen, J. M.; van Ooijen, P. M. A.; Oudkerk, M.

    2007-01-01

    Coronary artery stent lumen visibility was assessed as a function of cardiac movement and temporal resolution with an automated objective method using an anthropomorphic moving heart phantom. Nine different coronary stents filled with contrast fluid and surrounded by fat were scanned using 64-slice multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) at 50–100 beats/min with the moving heart phantom. Image quality was assessed by measuring in-stent CT attenuation and by a dedicated tool in the longitudinal and axial plane. Images were scored by CT attenuation and lumen visibility and compared with theoretical scoring to analyse the effect of multi-segment reconstruction (MSR). An average increase in CT attenuation of 144 ± 59 HU and average diminished lumen visibility of 29 ± 12% was observed at higher heart rates in both planes. A negative correlation between image quality and heart rate was non-significant for the majority of measurements (P > 0.06). No improvement of image quality was observed in using MSR. In conclusion, in-stent CT attenuation increases and lumen visibility decreases at increasing heart rate. Results obtained with the automated tool show similar behaviour compared with attenuation measurements. Cardiac movement during data acquisition causes approximately twice as much blurring compared with the influence of temporal resolution on image quality. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00330-007-0568-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:17429648

  13. Morphometric analysis in three-dimensional intracoronary ultrasound: an in vitro and in vivo study performed with a novel system for the contour detection of lumen and plaque.

    PubMed

    von Birgelen, C; Di Mario, C; Li, W; Schuurbiers, J C; Slager, C J; de Feyter, P J; Roelandt, J R; Serruys, P W

    1996-09-01

    Currently, automated systems for quantitative analysis by intracoronary ultrasound (ICUS) are restricted to the detection of the lumen. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy and reproducibility of a new semiautomated contour detection method, providing off-line identification of the intimal leading edge and external contour of the vessel in three-dimensional ICUS. The system allows cross-sectional and volumetric quantification of lumen and of plaque. It applies a minimum-cost algorithm and the concept that edge points derived from previously detected longitudinal contours guide and facilitate the contour detection in the cross-sectional images. A tubular phantom with segments of various luminal dimensions was examined in vitro during five catheter pull-backs (1 mm/sec), and subsequently 20 diseased human coronary arteries were studied in vivo with 2.9F 30 MHz mechanical ultrasound catheters (200 images per 20 mm segment). The ICUS measurements of phantom lumen area and volume revealed a high correlation with the true phantom areas and volumes (r = 0.99); relative mean differences were -0.65% to 3.86% for the areas and 0.25% to 1.72% for the volumes of the various segments. Intraob-server and interobserver comparisons showed high correlations (r = 0.95 to 0.98 for area and r = 0.99 for volume) and small mean relative differences (-0.87% to 1.08%), with SD of lumen, plaque, and total vessel measurements not exceeding 7.28%, 10.81%, and 4.44% (area) and 2.66%, 2.81%, and 0.67% (volume), respectively. Thus the proposed analysis system provided accurate measurements of phantom dimensions and can be used to perform highly reproducible area and volume measurements in three-dimensional ICUS in vivo.

  14. Evaluation of the CEL-100 videolaryngoscope(TM) for double-lumen tracheal tube insertion after failure using the Macintosh laryngoscope.

    PubMed

    Lin, W Q; Quan, S B; Liu, W J; Zhang, T H; Li, H T; Zhong, Z J; Cao, L H

    2012-11-01

    We prospectively evaluated the CEL-100 videolaryngoscope(TM) for insertion of double-lumen tracheal tubes in 48 consecutive patients who had been found to have an unanticipated Cormack and Lehane grade 3 (n=43) and grade 4 (n=5) laryngeal view and in whom two attempts at tracheal intubation using the Macintosh laryngoscope had failed. When the CEL-100 was subsequently employed, the glottic view improved in 45 (94%) patients. The view improved by one grade in 15 (31%) patients and by two grades in 30 (63%) patients, compared with the Macintosh blade (p<0.001). Double-lumen tracheal tube insertion was successful when using the CEL-100 in 43 out of 48 patients (90%; 95% CI 81-98%). This occurred on the first attempt in 27 (56%) patients, 14 (29%) on the second and two (4%) on the third. We conclude that the CEL-100 videolaryngoscope is an effective device in this context, and we therefore propose that this device can be used in circumstances when double-lumen tube insertion proves difficult.

  15. Modeling of the N-terminal Section and the Lumenal Loop of Trimeric Light Harvesting Complex II (LHCII) by Using EPR*

    PubMed Central

    Fehr, Niklas; Dietz, Carsten; Polyhach, Yevhen; von Hagens, Tona; Jeschke, Gunnar; Paulsen, Harald

    2015-01-01

    The major light harvesting complex II (LHCII) of green plants plays a key role in the absorption of sunlight, the regulation of photosynthesis, and in preventing photodamage by excess light. The latter two functions are thought to involve the lumenal loop and the N-terminal domain. Their structure and mobility in an aqueous environment are only partially known. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been used to measure the structure of these hydrophilic protein domains in detergent-solubilized LHCII. A new technique is introduced to prepare LHCII trimers in which only one monomer is spin-labeled. These heterogeneous trimers allow to measure intra-molecular distances within one LHCII monomer in the context of a trimer by using double electron-electron resonance (DEER). These data together with data from electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) allowed to model the N-terminal protein section, which has not been resolved in current crystal structures, and the lumenal loop domain. The N-terminal domain covers only a restricted area above the superhelix in LHCII, which is consistent with the “Velcro” hypothesis to explain thylakoid grana stacking (Standfuss, J., van Terwisscha Scheltinga, A. C., Lamborghini, M., and Kühlbrandt, W. (2005) EMBO J. 24, 919–928). The conformation of the lumenal loop domain is surprisingly different between LHCII monomers and trimers but not between complexes with and without neoxanthin bound. PMID:26316535

  16. [Comparison of two shaping methods for double-lumen endotracheal tube intubation by Shikani optical stylet laryngoscope].

    PubMed

    Xu, T; Li, M; Xu, M; Guo, X Y

    2016-12-18

    To compare the efficacy and safety of two different shaping methods for double-lumen endotracheal tube (DLT).DLT was shaped with the rod of a Shikani optical stylet (SOS) with the tracheal orifice aligned with the convex aspect of the distal curvature or the concave aspect of the distal curvature. Patients scheduled for elective thoracic surgery and required intubation with a left-sided DLT were enrolled in this study. They were randomized into two groups. They were intubated with a DLT, which was shaped with the rod of a SOS with its tracheal orifice aligned with the convex aspect of the distal curvature (group T) or the concave aspect of the distal curvature (group U). Time for SOS manipulation, intubation attempts, intubation resistance score, malposition of bronchial intubation, time for fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB) identification of bronchial placement, total intubation time and oral mucosal or dental injury were recorded. Hoarseness and throat sore of the patients were evaluated 1 hour and 24 hours after surgery. A total of 136 patients completed the study, with 68 in each group. Time for SOS manipulation was significantly shorter in group U [(35.1±6.1) s vs. 39.6±11.8) s, P=0.007]. First attempt success rate did not differ between the groups (92.6% vs.88.2%, P=0.561). Intubation resistance score was significantly lower in group U. Group T had fewer patients who suffered malposition of bronchial intubation than group U (4 vs.13, P=0.020) and cost less time for FOB identification of bronchial placement [(44.1±20.9) s vs.(53.6±29.2) s, P=0.032]. Total intubation time and the incidence of oral mucosal or dental injury did not differ between the groups. The severity and incidence of hoarseness were lower in group U than in group T 1 hour after surgery. The severity and incidence of sore throat were lower in group U than in group T 1 hour and 24 hours postoperatively. When lacing a left-sided DLT using a SOS, shaping the DLT with the tracheal orifice aligned

  17. Endoscopic Therapy With Lumen-apposing Metal Stents Is Safe and Effective for Patients With Pancreatic Walled-off Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Sharaiha, Reem Z; Tyberg, Amy; Khashab, Mouen A; Kumta, Nikhil A; Karia, Kunal; Nieto, Jose; Siddiqui, Uzma D; Waxman, Irving; Joshi, Virendra; Benias, Petros C; Darwin, Peter; DiMaio, Christopher J; Mulder, Christopher J; Friedland, Shai; Forcione, David G; Sejpal, Divyesh V; Gonda, Tamas A; Gress, Frank G; Gaidhane, Monica; Koons, Ann; DeFilippis, Ersilia M; Salgado, Sanjay; Weaver, Kristen R; Poneros, John M; Sethi, Amrita; Ho, Sammy; Kumbhari, Vivek; Singh, Vikesh K; Tieu, Alan H; Parra, Viviana; Likhitsup, Alisa; Womeldorph, Craig; Casey, Brenna; Jonnalagadda, Sreeni S; Desai, Amit P; Carr-Locke, David L; Kahaleh, Michel; Siddiqui, Ali A

    2016-12-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided transmural drainage and necrosectomy have become the standard treatment for patients with pancreatic walled-off necrosis (WON). Lumen-apposing metal stents (LAMS) have shown success in the management of pancreatic fluid collections. However, there are few data on their specific roles in management of WON. We investigated the efficacy and safety of LAMS in treatment of WON. We performed a retrospective multicenter case series of 124 patients with WON who underwent endoscopic transmural drainage by using LAMS at 17 tertiary care centers from January 2014 through May 2015. Patients underwent endoscopic ultrasound-guided cystogastrostomy or cystoenterostomy with placement of an LAMS into the WON collection. At the discretion of the endoscopist, we performed direct endoscopic necrosectomy, irrigation with hydrogen peroxide, and/or nasocystic drain placement. We performed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with pancreatic duct stent placement when indicated. Concomitant therapies included direct endoscopic debridement (n = 78), pancreatic duct stent placement for leak (n = 19), hydrogen peroxide-assisted necrosectomy (n = 38), and nasocystic irrigation (n = 22). We collected data for a median time of 4 months (range, 1-34 months) after the LAMS placement. The primary outcomes were rates of technical success (successful placement of the LAMS), clinical success (resolution of WON, on the basis of image analysis, without need for further intervention via surgery or interventional radiology), and adverse events. The median size of the WON was 9.5 cm (range, 4-30 cm). Eight patients had 2 LAMS placed for multiport access, all with technical success (100%). Clinical success was achieved in 107 patients (86.3%) after 3 months of follow-up. Thirteen patients required a percutaneous drain, and 3 required a surgical intervention to manage their WON. The stents remained patent in 94% of patients (117 of 124) and migrated in 5.6% of

  18. Ookinete destruction within the mosquito midgut lumen explains Anopheles albimanus refractoriness to Plasmodium falciparum (3D7A) oocyst infection.

    PubMed

    Baton, Luke A; Ranford-Cartwright, Lisa C

    2012-01-01

    A are destroyed within the bloodmeal of A. albimanus and that the midgut lumen, rather than the midgut epithelium, is the site of mosquito refractoriness in this particular malaria parasite-mosquito vector combination.

  19. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Martínez, Francisco M

    2009-03-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a clinical problem that is becoming more common in women. Female alopecia with androgen increase is called female androgenetic alopecia (FAGA) and without androgen increase is called female pattern hair loss. The clinical picture of typical FAGA begins with a specific "diffuse loss of hair from the parietal or frontovertical areas with an intact frontal hairline." Ludwig called this process "rarefaction." In Ludwig's classification of hair loss in women, progressive type of FAGA, 3 patterns were described: grade I or minimal, grade II or moderate, and grade III or severe. Ludwig also described female androgenetic alopecia with male pattern (FAGA.M) that should be subclassified according to Ebling's or Hamilton-Norwood's classification. FAGA.M may be present in 4 conditions: persistent adrenarche syndrome, alopecia caused by an adrenal or an ovarian tumor, posthysterectomy, and as an involutive alopecia. A more recent classification (Olsen's classification of FPHL) proposes 2 types: early- and late-onset with or without excess of androgens in each. The diagnosis of FPHL is made by clinical history, clinical examination, wash test, dermoscopy, trichoscan, trichograms and laboratory test, especially androgenic determinations. Topical treatment of FPHL is with minoxidil, 2-5% twice daily. When FPHL is associated with high levels of androgens, systemic antiandrogenic therapy is needed. Persistent adrenarche syndrome (adrenal SAHA) and alopecia of adrenal hyperandrogenism is treated with adrenal suppression and antiandrogens. Adrenal suppression is achieved with glucocorticosteroids. Antiandrogens therapy includes cyproterone acetate, drospirenone, spironolactone, flutamide, and finasteride. Excess release of ovarian androgens (ovarian SAHA) and alopecia of ovarian hyperandrogenism is treated with ovarian suppression and antiandrogens. Ovarian suppression includes the use of contraceptives containing an estrogen, ethinylestradiol, and a

  20. Never too late.

    PubMed

    1996-11-01

    Motivated by the belief that education has been central to Japan's economic success, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) promotes universal access to quality basic education. In developing countries, school children rarely learn science through experiments. A new JICA training course, the Science Experiment in Primary Education, involved teacher trainers from Bangladesh, Myanmar, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Physics, chemistry, biology, geology, and astronomy experiments that require simple, inexpensive materials were taught. Another JICA project in Satkhira, Bangladesh, sought to raise the economic status of women enrolled in a dressmaking program through a year-long evening literacy class at three sites. Elementary school diplomas (available with proof to a local teacher of basic literacy and minimal arithmetic skills) are required in Bangladesh to apply for nongovernmental organization-initiated vocational schools and loans to start businesses in areas such as dressmaking, agriculture, and livestock raising. By late 1993, the female literacy program had expanded to 18 villages.

  1. Long-term sustainability in Davis Late Successional Reserve

    Treesearch

    Jim Stone; Joan Kittrell

    2004-01-01

    A pilot watershed analysis along with the Davis Late Successional Reserve analysis in the range of the northern spotted owl identified potential loss of suitable habitat, reduction in the numbers of large trees, and lack of replacements for large trees. A variety of silvicultural thinning techniques has been used to address these important issues and to move toward a...

  2. 7 CFR 1437.103 - Late-planted acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CCC, may be eligible for reduced coverage. (b) Multiple-planted crops, crops with a growing period of 60 calendar days or less, value-loss crops, and fall season small grain crops intended only for grain are not eligible for reduced coverage under late planting provisions. (c) For crops with a...

  3. 7 CFR 1437.103 - Late-planted acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CCC, may be eligible for reduced coverage. (b) Multiple-planted crops, crops with a growing period of 60 calendar days or less, value-loss crops, and fall season small grain crops intended only for grain are not eligible for reduced coverage under late planting provisions. (c) For crops with a...

  4. 7 CFR 1437.103 - Late-planted acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CCC, may be eligible for reduced coverage. (b) Multiple-planted crops, crops with a growing period of 60 calendar days or less, value-loss crops, and fall season small grain crops intended only for grain are not eligible for reduced coverage under late planting provisions. (c) For crops with a...

  5. 7 CFR 1437.103 - Late-planted acreage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CCC, may be eligible for reduced coverage. (b) Multiple-planted crops, crops with a growing period of 60 calendar days or less, value-loss crops, and fall season small grain crops intended only for grain are not eligible for reduced coverage under late planting provisions. (c) For crops with a...

  6. Degree of bioresorbable vascular scaffold expansion modulates loss of essential function.

    PubMed

    Ferdous, Jahid; Kolachalama, Vijaya B; Kolandaivelu, Kumaran; Shazly, Tarek

    2015-10-01

    Drug-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BVSs) have the potential to restore lumen patency, enable recovery of the native vascular environment, and circumvent late complications associated with permanent endovascular devices. To ensure therapeutic effects persist for sufficient times prior to scaffold resorption and resultant functional loss, many factors dictating BVS performance must be identified, characterized and optimized. While some factors relate to BVS design and manufacturing, others depend on device deployment and intrinsic vascular properties. Importantly, these factors interact and cannot be considered in isolation. The objective of this study is to quantify the extent to which degree of radial expansion modulates BVS performance, specifically in the context of modifying device erosion kinetics and evolution of structural mechanics and local drug elution. We systematically varied degree of radial expansion in model BVS constructs composed of poly dl-lactide-glycolide and generated in vitro metrics of device microstructure, degradation, erosion, mechanics and drug release. Experimental data permitted development of computational models that predicted transient concentrations of scaffold-derived soluble species and drug in the arterial wall, thus enabling speculation on the short- and long-term effects of differential expansion. We demonstrate that degree of expansion significantly affects scaffold properties critical to functionality, underscoring its relevance in BVS design and optimization. Bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) therapy is beginning to transform the treatment of obstructive artery disease, owing to effective treatment of short term vessel closure while avoiding long term consequences such as in situ, late stent thrombosis - a fatal event associated with permanent i