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Sample records for late neandertal femur

  1. A late Neandertal femur from Les Rochers-de-Villeneuve, France

    PubMed Central

    Beauval, Cédric; Maureille, Bruno; Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François; Serre, David; Peressinotto, David; Bordes, Jean-Guillaume; Cochard, David; Couchoud, Isabelle; Dubrasquet, David; Laroulandie, Véronique; Lenoble, Arnaud; Mallye, Jean-Baptiste; Pasty, Sylvain; Primault, Jérôme; Rohland, Nadin; Pääbo, Svante; Trinkaus, Erik

    2005-01-01

    In 2002, a Neandertal partial femoral diaphysis was discovered at Les Rochers-de-Villeneuve (Vienne, France). Radiocarbon dated to ≈40,700 14C years before present, this specimen is one of the most recent Middle Paleolithic Neandertals. The diaphysis derives from an archeological level indicating alternating human and carnivore (mostly hyena) occupation of the cave, reinforcing the close proximity and probable competition of Middle Paleolithic humans with large carnivores for resources and space. Morphological aspects of the diaphysis and ancient DNA extracted from it indicate that it is aligned with the Neandertals and is distinct from early modern humans. However, its midshaft cortical bone distribution places it between other Middle Paleolithic Neandertals and the Châtelperronian Neandertal from La Roche-à-Pierrot, supporting a pattern of changing mobility patterns among late Middle Paleolithic Neandertals on the eve of modern human dispersals into Europe. PMID:15878988

  2. The shape of the Neandertal femur is primarily the consequence of a hyperpolar body form

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Timothy D.

    2003-01-01

    Neandertal femora are distinct from contemporaneous near-modern human femora. Traditionally, these contrasts in femoral shape have been explained as the result of the elevated activity levels and limited cultural abilities of Neandertals. More recently, however, researchers have realized that many of these femoral differences may be explained by the cold-adapted bodies of Neandertals vs. the warm-adapted bodies of near-modern humans. This study explicitly tests this proposed link between climate-induced body proportions and femoral shape by considering the entire hip as a unit by using geometric morphometric methods adapted to deal with articulated structures. Based on recent human patterns of variation, most contrasts in shape between the femora of Neandertals and near-modern humans seem to be secondary consequences of differences in climate-induced body proportions. These results, considered in light of hip mechanics during growth, highlight the importance of developmental and functional integration in determining skeletal form. PMID:12761384

  3. Late Neandertals in Southeastern Iberia: Sima de las Palomas del Cabezo Gordo, Murcia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Michael J.; Gibert, Josep; López, Mariano V.; Lombardi, A. Vincent; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro; Zapata, Josefina; Ortega, Jon; Higham, Thomas; Pike, Alistair; Schwenninger, Jean-Luc; Zilhão, João; Trinkaus, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Middle Paleolithic fossil human remains from the Sima de las Palomas in southeastern Iberia (dated to ≤43,000–40,000 calendar years before present) present a suite of derived Neandertal and/or retained ancestral morphological features in the mandibular symphysis, mandibular ramus, dental occlusal morphology, and distal hand phalanx. These traits are combined with variation in the mandibular corpus, discrete dental morphology, tooth root lengths, and anterior dental size that indicate a frequency difference with earlier Iberian and more northern European Neandertals. The Palomas Neandertals therefore confirm the late presence of Neandertals associated with the Iberian persistence of the Middle Paleolithic, but suggest microevolutionary processes and/or population contact with contemporaneous modern humans to the north. PMID:19074275

  4. Is the late Neandertal mandibular sample from Vindija Cave (Croatia) biased?

    PubMed

    Kesterke, Matthew J; Ahern, James C M

    2007-06-01

    The late Neandertal sample from Vindija (Croatia) has been described as transitional between the earlier Central European Neandertals from Krapina (Croatia) and modern humans. However, the morphological differences indicating this transition may rather be the result of different sex and/or age compositions between the samples. This study tests the hypothesis that the metric differences between the Krapina and Vindija mandibular samples are due to sample bias. Mandibles are the focus of this paper because past studies have posited this region as particularly indicative of the Vindija sample's transitional nature. The results indicate that the metric differences between the Krapina and Vindija mandibular samples are not due to sample bias. This conclusion is consistent with an earlier analysis of sample bias for the Vindija supraorbital sample.

  5. Neandertals revised

    PubMed Central

    Roebroeks, Wil; Soressi, Marie

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has seen a significant growth of our knowledge of the Neandertals, a population of Pleistocene hunter-gatherers who lived in (western) Eurasia between ∼400,000 and 40,000 y ago. Starting from a source population deep in the Middle Pleistocene, the hundreds of thousands of years of relative separation between African and Eurasian groups led to the emergence of different phenotypes in Late Pleistocene Europe and Africa. Both recently obtained genetic evidence and archeological data show that the biological and cultural gaps between these populations were probably smaller than previously thought. These data, reviewed here, falsify inferences to the effect that, compared with their near-modern contemporaries in Africa, Neandertals were outliers in terms of behavioral complexity. It is only around 40,000 y ago, tens of thousands of years after anatomically modern humans first left Africa and thousands of years after documented interbreeding between modern humans, Neandertals and Denisovans, that we see major changes in the archeological record, from western Eurasia to Southeast Asia, e.g., the emergence of representational imagery and the colonization of arctic areas and of greater Australia (Sahul). PMID:27274044

  6. Neandertals revised.

    PubMed

    Roebroeks, Wil; Soressi, Marie

    2016-06-01

    The last decade has seen a significant growth of our knowledge of the Neandertals, a population of Pleistocene hunter-gatherers who lived in (western) Eurasia between ∼400,000 and 40,000 y ago. Starting from a source population deep in the Middle Pleistocene, the hundreds of thousands of years of relative separation between African and Eurasian groups led to the emergence of different phenotypes in Late Pleistocene Europe and Africa. Both recently obtained genetic evidence and archeological data show that the biological and cultural gaps between these populations were probably smaller than previously thought. These data, reviewed here, falsify inferences to the effect that, compared with their near-modern contemporaries in Africa, Neandertals were outliers in terms of behavioral complexity. It is only around 40,000 y ago, tens of thousands of years after anatomically modern humans first left Africa and thousands of years after documented interbreeding between modern humans, Neandertals and Denisovans, that we see major changes in the archeological record, from western Eurasia to Southeast Asia, e.g., the emergence of representational imagery and the colonization of arctic areas and of greater Australia (Sahul). PMID:27274044

  7. New data on the late Neandertals: direct dating of the Belgian Spy fossils.

    PubMed

    Semal, Patrick; Rougier, Hélène; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Jungels, Cécile; Flas, Damien; Hauzeur, Anne; Maureille, Bruno; Germonpré, Mietje; Bocherens, Hervé; Pirson, Stéphane; Cammaert, Laurence; De Clerck, Nora; Hambucken, Anne; Higham, Thomas; Toussaint, Michel; van der Plicht, Johannes

    2009-04-01

    In Eurasia, the period between 40,000 and 30,000 BP saw the replacement of Neandertals by anatomically modern humans (AMH) during and after the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition. The human fossil record for this period is very poorly defined with no overlap between Neandertals and AMH on the basis of direct dates. Four new (14)C dates were obtained on the two adult Neandertals from Spy (Belgium). The results show that Neandertals survived to at least approximately 36,000 BP in Belgium and that the Spy fossils may be associated to the Lincombian-Ranisian-Jerzmanowician, a transitional techno-complex defined in northwest Europe and recognized in the Spy collections. The new data suggest that hypotheses other than Neandertal acculturation by AMH may be considered in this part of Europe.

  8. The late Neandertal supraorbital fossils from Vindija Cave, Croatia: a biased sample?

    PubMed

    Ahern, James C M; Lee, Sang-Hee; Hawks, John D

    2002-09-01

    The late Neandertal sample from Vindija (Croatia) has been described as transitional between the earlier Central European Neandertals from Krapina (Croatia) and modern humans. However, the morphological differences indicating this transition may rather be the result of different sex and/or age compositions between the samples. This study tests the hypothesis that the metric differences between the Krapina and Vindija supraorbital samples are due to sampling bias. We focus upon the supraorbital region because past studies have posited this region as particularly indicative of the Vindija sample's transitional nature. Furthermore, the supraorbital region varies significantly with both age and sex. We analyzed four chords and two derived indices of supraorbital torus form as defined by Smith & Ranyard (1980, Am. J. phys. Anthrop.93, pp. 589-610). For each variable, we analyzed relative sample bias of the Krapina and Vindija samples using three sampling methods. In order to test the hypothesis that the Vindija sample contains an over-representation of females and/or young while the Krapina sample is normal or also female/young biased, we determined the probability of drawing a sample of the same size as and with a mean equal to or less than Vindija's from a Krapina-based population. In order to test the hypothesis that the Vindija sample is female/young biased while the Krapina sample is male/old biased, we determined the probability of drawing a sample of the same size as and with a mean equal or less than Vindija's from a generated population whose mean is halfway between Krapina's and Vindija's. Finally, in order to test the hypothesis that the Vindija sample is normal while the Krapina sample contains an over-representation of males and/or old, we determined the probability of drawing a sample of the same size as and with a mean equal to or greater than Krapina's from a Vindija-based population. Unless we assume that the Vindija sample is female/young and the

  9. Neandertal clavicle length

    PubMed Central

    Trinkaus, Erik; Holliday, Trenton W.; Auerbach, Benjamin M.

    2014-01-01

    The Late Pleistocene archaic humans from western Eurasia (the Neandertals) have been described for a century as exhibiting absolutely and relatively long clavicles. This aspect of their body proportions has been used to distinguish them from modern humans, invoked to account for other aspects of their anatomy and genetics, used in assessments of their phylogenetic polarities, and used as evidence for Late Pleistocene population relationships. However, it has been unclear whether the usual scaling of Neandertal clavicular lengths to their associated humeral lengths reflects long clavicles, short humeri, or both. Neandertal clavicle lengths, along with those of early modern humans and latitudinally diverse recent humans, were compared with both humeral lengths and estimated body masses (based on femoral head diameters). The Neandertal do have long clavicles relative their humeri, even though they fall within the ranges of variation of early and recent humans. However, when scaled to body masses, their humeral lengths are relatively short, and their clavicular lengths are indistinguishable from those of Late Pleistocene and recent modern humans. The few sufficiently complete Early Pleistocene Homo clavicles seem to have relative lengths also well within recent human variation. Therefore, appropriately scaled clavicular length seems to have varied little through the genus Homo, and it should not be used to account for other aspects of Neandertal biology or their phylogenetic status. PMID:24616525

  10. Paleobiology and comparative morphology of a late Neandertal sample from El Sidrón, Asturias, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Rosas, Antonio; Martínez-Maza, Cayetana; Bastir, Markus; García-Tabernero, Antonio; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Huguet, Rosa; Ortiz, José Eugenio; Julià, Ramón; Soler, Vicente; de Torres, Trinidad; Martínez, Enrique; Cañaveras, Juan Carlos; Sánchez-Moral, Sergio; Cuezva, Soledad; Lario, Javier; Santamaría, David; de la Rasilla, Marco; Fortea, Javier

    2006-01-01

    Fossil evidence from the Iberian Peninsula is essential for understanding Neandertal evolution and history. Since 2000, a new sample ≈43,000 years old has been systematically recovered at the El Sidrón cave site (Asturias, Spain). Human remains almost exclusively compose the bone assemblage. All of the skeletal parts are preserved, and there is a moderate occurrence of Middle Paleolithic stone tools. A minimum number of eight individuals are represented, and ancient mtDNA has been extracted from dental and osteological remains. Paleobiology of the El Sidrón archaic humans fits the pattern found in other Neandertal samples: a high incidence of dental hypoplasia and interproximal grooves, yet no traumatic lesions are present. Moreover, unambiguous evidence of human-induced modifications has been found on the human remains. Morphologically, the El Sidrón humans show a large number of Neandertal lineage-derived features even though certain traits place the sample at the limits of Neandertal variation. Integrating the El Sidrón human mandibles into the larger Neandertal sample reveals a north–south geographic patterning, with southern Neandertals showing broader faces with increased lower facial heights. The large El Sidrón sample therefore augments the European evolutionary lineage fossil record and supports ecogeographical variability across Neandertal populations. PMID:17164326

  11. On some aspects of Neandertal zygomatic morphology.

    PubMed

    Janković, Ivor; Ahern, James C M; Smith, Fred H

    2016-04-01

    Neandertals are characterized by a series of well-documented facial characteristics, including midfacial prognathism, large nasal and orbital areas, and a marked supraorbital torus. We provide a comparative morphometric study of another part of this facial complex, the frontal process of the zygomatic. We find that European Neandertals have a distinctly columnar form of the frontal process not found in recent modern humans and most Pleistocene modern humans. Some purportedly modern specimens and specimens pre-dating Neandertals exhibit the same pattern as European Neandertals, while others exhibit the modern human pattern. The columnar form is likely a retention of the ancestral state in Neandertals and the other late Pleistocene specimens that exhibit it, but variation in the pattern seen in early modern humans reveals possible insights into late Pleistocene human evolution. PMID:26725403

  12. Neandertal cannibalism and Neandertal bones used as tools in Northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Rougier, Hélène; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Beauval, Cédric; Posth, Cosimo; Flas, Damien; Wißing, Christoph; Furtwängler, Anja; Germonpré, Mietje; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Semal, Patrick; van der Plicht, Johannes; Bocherens, Hervé; Krause, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Almost 150 years after the first identification of Neandertal skeletal material, the cognitive and symbolic abilities of these populations remain a subject of intense debate. We present 99 new Neandertal remains from the Troisième caverne of Goyet (Belgium) dated to 40,500-45,500 calBP. The remains were identified through a multidisciplinary study that combines morphometrics, taphonomy, stable isotopes, radiocarbon dating and genetic analyses. The Goyet Neandertal bones show distinctive anthropogenic modifications, which provides clear evidence for butchery activities as well as four bones having been used for retouching stone tools. In addition to being the first site to have yielded multiple Neandertal bones used as retouchers, Goyet not only provides the first unambiguous evidence of Neandertal cannibalism in Northern Europe, but also highlights considerable diversity in mortuary behaviour among the region's late Neandertal population in the period immediately preceding their disappearance. PMID:27381450

  13. Neandertal cannibalism and Neandertal bones used as tools in Northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Rougier, Hélène; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Beauval, Cédric; Posth, Cosimo; Flas, Damien; Wißing, Christoph; Furtwängler, Anja; Germonpré, Mietje; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Semal, Patrick; van der Plicht, Johannes; Bocherens, Hervé; Krause, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Almost 150 years after the first identification of Neandertal skeletal material, the cognitive and symbolic abilities of these populations remain a subject of intense debate. We present 99 new Neandertal remains from the Troisième caverne of Goyet (Belgium) dated to 40,500-45,500 calBP. The remains were identified through a multidisciplinary study that combines morphometrics, taphonomy, stable isotopes, radiocarbon dating and genetic analyses. The Goyet Neandertal bones show distinctive anthropogenic modifications, which provides clear evidence for butchery activities as well as four bones having been used for retouching stone tools. In addition to being the first site to have yielded multiple Neandertal bones used as retouchers, Goyet not only provides the first unambiguous evidence of Neandertal cannibalism in Northern Europe, but also highlights considerable diversity in mortuary behaviour among the region's late Neandertal population in the period immediately preceding their disappearance.

  14. Neandertal cannibalism and Neandertal bones used as tools in Northern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Rougier, Hélène; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Beauval, Cédric; Posth, Cosimo; Flas, Damien; Wißing, Christoph; Furtwängler, Anja; Germonpré, Mietje; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Semal, Patrick; van der Plicht, Johannes; Bocherens, Hervé; Krause, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Almost 150 years after the first identification of Neandertal skeletal material, the cognitive and symbolic abilities of these populations remain a subject of intense debate. We present 99 new Neandertal remains from the Troisième caverne of Goyet (Belgium) dated to 40,500–45,500 calBP. The remains were identified through a multidisciplinary study that combines morphometrics, taphonomy, stable isotopes, radiocarbon dating and genetic analyses. The Goyet Neandertal bones show distinctive anthropogenic modifications, which provides clear evidence for butchery activities as well as four bones having been used for retouching stone tools. In addition to being the first site to have yielded multiple Neandertal bones used as retouchers, Goyet not only provides the first unambiguous evidence of Neandertal cannibalism in Northern Europe, but also highlights considerable diversity in mortuary behaviour among the region’s late Neandertal population in the period immediately preceding their disappearance. PMID:27381450

  15. A Hominin Femur with Archaic Affinities from the Late Pleistocene of Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Curnoe, Darren; Ji, Xueping; Liu, Wu; Bao, Zhende; Taçon, Paul S C; Ren, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The number of Late Pleistocene hominin species and the timing of their extinction are issues receiving renewed attention following genomic evidence for interbreeding between the ancestors of some living humans and archaic taxa. Yet, major gaps in the fossil record and uncertainties surrounding the age of key fossils have meant that these questions remain poorly understood. Here we describe and compare a highly unusual femur from Late Pleistocene sediments at Maludong (Yunnan), Southwest China, recovered along with cranial remains that exhibit a mixture of anatomically modern human and archaic traits. Our studies show that the Maludong femur has affinities to archaic hominins, especially Lower Pleistocene femora. However, the scarcity of later Middle and Late Pleistocene archaic remains in East Asia makes an assessment of systematically relevant character states difficult, warranting caution in assigning the specimen to a species at this time. The Maludong fossil probably samples an archaic population that survived until around 14,000 years ago in the biogeographically complex region of Southwest China. PMID:26678851

  16. A Hominin Femur with Archaic Affinities from the Late Pleistocene of Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wu; Bao, Zhende; Taçon, Paul S. C.; Ren, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The number of Late Pleistocene hominin species and the timing of their extinction are issues receiving renewed attention following genomic evidence for interbreeding between the ancestors of some living humans and archaic taxa. Yet, major gaps in the fossil record and uncertainties surrounding the age of key fossils have meant that these questions remain poorly understood. Here we describe and compare a highly unusual femur from Late Pleistocene sediments at Maludong (Yunnan), Southwest China, recovered along with cranial remains that exhibit a mixture of anatomically modern human and archaic traits. Our studies show that the Maludong femur has affinities to archaic hominins, especially Lower Pleistocene femora. However, the scarcity of later Middle and Late Pleistocene archaic remains in East Asia makes an assessment of systematically relevant character states difficult, warranting caution in assigning the specimen to a species at this time. The Maludong fossil probably samples an archaic population that survived until around 14,000 years ago in the biogeographically complex region of Southwest China. PMID:26678851

  17. Early and late intramedullary nailing of femur fracture: A single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Alobaidi, Ahmad S.; Al-Hassani, Ammar; El-Menyar, Ayman; Abdelrahman, Husham; Tuma, Mazin; Al-Thani, Hassan; Aldosari, Mohammed A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Femur fracture (FF) is a common injury, and intramedullary nailing (IMN) is the standard surgical fixation. However, the time of intervention remains controversial. We aimed to describe the reamed IMN (rIMN) timing and hospital outcomes in trauma patients presenting with FF. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted for all patients admitted with FF and they underwent fixation at level 1 trauma unit between January 2010 and January 2012. Patients were divided into Group I with early rIMN (<12 h) and Group II with late rIMN (≥12 h). Patients’ demographics, clinical presentations, mechanism of injury, pulmonary complications, organ failure, length of stay, and mortality were described. Results: A total of 307 eligible patients with FF were identified (156 patients in Group I and 151 patients in Group II). Patients in Group II were older (36 ± 18 vs. 29 ± 9; P = 0.001) and had higher rate of polytrauma (35% vs. 18%, P = 0.001), head injury (5% vs. 12%, P = 0.68) and bilateral FF (10.7% vs. 5.1%; P = 0.07) in comparison to Group I. Group II had longer stay in Intensive Care Unit (7 [1–56] vs. 2 [1–17] days; P = 0.009) and hospital (13 [2–236] vs. 9 [1–367]; P = 0.001). There were no significant differences in outcomes between the two groups in terms of sepsis, renal failure, fat embolism, adult respiratory distress syndrome and death. Conclusions: Based on this analysis, we believe that early rIMN is safe in appropriately selected cases. In patients with traumatic FFs, early rIMN is associated with low hospital complications and shorter hospital stay. The rate of pulmonary complications is almost the same in the early and late group. Further prospective randomized studies with large sample size would be ideal using the information garnered from the present study. PMID:27722116

  18. Use of red ochre by early Neandertals.

    PubMed

    Roebroeks, Wil; Sier, Mark J; Nielsen, Trine Kellberg; De Loecker, Dimitri; Parés, Josep Maria; Arps, Charles E S; Mücher, Herman J

    2012-02-01

    The use of manganese and iron oxides by late Neandertals is well documented in Europe, especially for the period 60-40 kya. Such finds often have been interpreted as pigments even though their exact function is largely unknown. Here we report significantly older iron oxide finds that constitute the earliest documented use of red ochre by Neandertals. These finds were small concentrates of red material retrieved during excavations at Maastricht-Belvédère, The Netherlands. The excavations exposed a series of well-preserved flint artifact (and occasionally bone) scatters, formed in a river valley setting during a late Middle Pleistocene full interglacial period. Samples of the reddish material were submitted to various forms of analyses to study their physical properties. All analyses identified the red material as hematite. This is a nonlocal material that was imported to the site, possibly over dozens of kilometers. Identification of the Maastricht-Belvédère finds as hematite pushes the use of red ochre by (early) Neandertals back in time significantly, to minimally 200-250 kya (i.e., to the same time range as the early ochre use in the African record).

  19. Use of red ochre by early Neandertals.

    PubMed

    Roebroeks, Wil; Sier, Mark J; Nielsen, Trine Kellberg; De Loecker, Dimitri; Parés, Josep Maria; Arps, Charles E S; Mücher, Herman J

    2012-02-01

    The use of manganese and iron oxides by late Neandertals is well documented in Europe, especially for the period 60-40 kya. Such finds often have been interpreted as pigments even though their exact function is largely unknown. Here we report significantly older iron oxide finds that constitute the earliest documented use of red ochre by Neandertals. These finds were small concentrates of red material retrieved during excavations at Maastricht-Belvédère, The Netherlands. The excavations exposed a series of well-preserved flint artifact (and occasionally bone) scatters, formed in a river valley setting during a late Middle Pleistocene full interglacial period. Samples of the reddish material were submitted to various forms of analyses to study their physical properties. All analyses identified the red material as hematite. This is a nonlocal material that was imported to the site, possibly over dozens of kilometers. Identification of the Maastricht-Belvédère finds as hematite pushes the use of red ochre by (early) Neandertals back in time significantly, to minimally 200-250 kya (i.e., to the same time range as the early ochre use in the African record). PMID:22308348

  20. Late-diagnosed bilateral intertrochanteric femur fracture during an epileptic seizure.

    PubMed

    Copuroğlu, Cem; Ozcan, Mert; Dülger, Hakan; Yalnız, Erol

    2012-01-01

    Although spontaneous and simultaneous bilateral hip fractures without trauma are seen rarely, epileptic seizures may lead to these fractures. We present an 82-year-old female patient with poor bone quality and a 20-year history of epilepsy. She had been using anticonvulsant drugs for almost 20 years. Following a convulsive epileptic attack, bilateral intertrochanteric femur fractures occurred (causing bilateral hip pain), which was diagnosed on the 12th day. An earlier pelvic anteroposterior roentgenogram would be helpful for early diagnosis. It should not be forgotten that bone fractures may be observed without trauma in epilepsy patients.

  1. Late Neandertals and the intentional removal of feathers as evidenced from bird bone taphonomy at Fumane Cave 44 ky B.P., Italy

    PubMed Central

    Peresani, Marco; Fiore, Ivana; Gala, Monica; Romandini, Matteo; Tagliacozzo, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    A large and varied avifaunal bone assemblage from the final Mousterian levels of Grotta di Fumane, northern Italy, reveals unusual human modifications on species that are not clearly relatable to feeding or utilitarian uses (i.e., lammergeier, Eurasian black vulture, golden eagle, red-footed falcon, common wood pigeon, and Alpine chough). Cut, peeling, and scrape marks, as well as diagnostic fractures and a breakthrough, are observed exclusively on wings, indicating the intentional removal of large feathers by Neandertals. The species involved, the anatomical elements affected, and the unusual type and location of the human modifications indicate an activity linked to the symbolic sphere and the behavioral modernity of this European autochthonous population. PMID:21368129

  2. Neandertal birth canal shape and the evolution of human childbirth

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Timothy D.; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Childbirth is complicated in humans relative to other primates. Unlike the situation in great apes, human neonates are about the same size as the birth canal, making passage difficult. The birth mechanism (the series of rotations that the neonate must undergo to successfully negotiate its mother's birth canal) distinguishes humans not only from great apes, but also from lesser apes and monkeys. Tracing the evolution of human childbirth is difficult, because the pelvic skeleton, which forms the margins of the birth canal, tends to survive poorly in the fossil record. Only 3 female individuals preserve fairly complete birth canals, and they all date to earlier phases of human evolution. Here we present a virtual reconstruction of a female Neandertal pelvis from Tabun, Israel. The size of Tabun's reconstructed birth canal indicates that childbirth was about as difficult in Neandertals as in present-day humans, but the canal's shape indicates that Neandertals had a more primitive birth mechanism. A significant shift in childbirth apparently occurred quite late in human evolution, during the last few hundred thousand years. Such a late shift underscores the uniqueness of human childbirth and the divergent evolutionary trajectories of Neandertals and the lineage leading to present-day humans. PMID:19380728

  3. Locomotion and body proportions of the Saint-Césaire 1 Châtelperronian Neandertal

    PubMed Central

    Trinkaus, Erik; Ruff, Christopher B.; Churchill, Steven E.; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    1998-01-01

    The initial Upper Paleolithic (Châtelperronian) of western Europe was associated with late European Neandertals, best known through the Saint-Césaire 1 partial skeleton. Biomechanical cross-sectional analysis of the Saint-Césaire 1 femoral diaphysis at the subtrochanteric and midshaft levels, given the plasticity of mammalian diaphyseal cortical bone, provides insights into the habitual levels and patterns of loading on the lower limbs from body mass, proportions, and locomotion. The overall robustnesses of the femoral diaphyses of European Neandertals and early modern humans are similar once contrasts in body proportions are incorporated into the body size scaling. Saint-Césaire 1 matches these samples only if it is provided with Neandertal-like hyperarctic body proportions. And the rounded proximal femoral diaphysis of Saint-Césaire 1 is similar to those of earlier Neandertals, likely also reflecting similar cold-adapted broad pelvic regions. However, although morphologically similar to those of archaic Homo, the Saint-Césaire 1 femoral midshaft exhibits the anteroposterior reinforcement characteristic of early modern humans. Consequently, Saint-Césaire 1 appears as a morphological Neandertal with hyperarctic body proportions who nonetheless had shifted locomotor patterns to more closely resemble those of other Upper Paleolithic humans. PMID:9576971

  4. Cochlear labyrinth volume in Krapina Neandertals.

    PubMed

    Beals, Michaela E; Frayer, David W; Radovčić, Jakov; Hill, Cheryl A

    2016-01-01

    Research with extant primate taxa suggests that cochlear labyrinth volume is functionally related to the range of audible frequencies. Specifically, cochlear volume is negatively correlated with both the high and low frequency limits of hearing so that the smaller the cochlea, the higher the normal range of audible frequencies. The close anatomical relationship between the membranous cochlea and the bony cochlear labyrinth allows for the determination of cochlear size from fossil specimens. This study compares Krapina Neandertal cochlear volumes to extant taxa cochlear volumes. Cochlear volumes were acquired from high-resolution computed tomography scans of temporal bones of Krapina Neandertals, chimpanzees, gorillas, and modern humans. We find that Krapina Neandertals' cochlear volumes are similar to modern Homo sapiens and are significantly larger than chimpanzee and gorilla cochlear volumes. The measured cochlear volume in Krapina Neandertals suggests they had a range of audible frequencies similar to the modern human range. PMID:26603101

  5. Radiocarbon dates from the Grotte du Renne and Saint-Césaire support a Neandertal origin for the Châtelperronian.

    PubMed

    Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Talamo, Sahra; Julien, Michèle; David, Francine; Connet, Nelly; Bodu, Pierre; Vandermeersch, Bernard; Richards, Michael P

    2012-11-13

    The transition from the Middle Paleolithic (MP) to Upper Paleolithic (UP) is marked by the replacement of late Neandertals by modern humans in Europe between 50,000 and 40,000 y ago. Châtelperronian (CP) artifact assemblages found in central France and northern Spain date to this time period. So far, it is the only such assemblage type that has yielded Neandertal remains directly associated with UP style artifacts. CP assemblages also include body ornaments, otherwise virtually unknown in the Neandertal world. However, it has been argued that instead of the CP being manufactured by Neandertals, site formation processes and layer admixture resulted in the chance association of Neanderthal remains, CP assemblages, and body ornaments. Here, we report a series of accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dates on ultrafiltered bone collagen extracted from 40 well-preserved bone fragments from the late Mousterian, CP, and Protoaurignacian layers at the Grotte du Renne site (at Arcy-sur-Cure, France). Our radiocarbon results are inconsistent with the admixture hypothesis. Further, we report a direct date on the Neandertal CP skeleton from Saint-Césaire (France). This date corroborates the assignment of CP assemblages to the latest Neandertals of western Europe. Importantly, our results establish that the production of body ornaments in the CP postdates the arrival of modern humans in neighboring regions of Europe. This new behavior could therefore have been the result of cultural diffusion from modern to Neandertal groups.

  6. Radiocarbon dates from the Grotte du Renne and Saint-Césaire support a Neandertal origin for the Châtelperronian

    PubMed Central

    Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Talamo, Sahra; Julien, Michèle; David, Francine; Connet, Nelly; Bodu, Pierre; Vandermeersch, Bernard; Richards, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    The transition from the Middle Paleolithic (MP) to Upper Paleolithic (UP) is marked by the replacement of late Neandertals by modern humans in Europe between 50,000 and 40,000 y ago. Châtelperronian (CP) artifact assemblages found in central France and northern Spain date to this time period. So far, it is the only such assemblage type that has yielded Neandertal remains directly associated with UP style artifacts. CP assemblages also include body ornaments, otherwise virtually unknown in the Neandertal world. However, it has been argued that instead of the CP being manufactured by Neandertals, site formation processes and layer admixture resulted in the chance association of Neanderthal remains, CP assemblages, and body ornaments. Here, we report a series of accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dates on ultrafiltered bone collagen extracted from 40 well-preserved bone fragments from the late Mousterian, CP, and Protoaurignacian layers at the Grotte du Renne site (at Arcy-sur-Cure, France). Our radiocarbon results are inconsistent with the admixture hypothesis. Further, we report a direct date on the Neandertal CP skeleton from Saint-Césaire (France). This date corroborates the assignment of CP assemblages to the latest Neandertals of western Europe. Importantly, our results establish that the production of body ornaments in the CP postdates the arrival of modern humans in neighboring regions of Europe. This new behavior could therefore have been the result of cultural diffusion from modern to Neandertal groups. PMID:23112183

  7. Neandertal cold adaptation: physiological and energetic factors.

    PubMed

    Steegmann, A Theodore; Cerny, Frank J; Holliday, Trenton W

    2002-01-01

    European Neandertals employed a complex set of physiological cold defenses, homologous to those seen in contemporary humans and nonhuman primates. While Neandertal morphological patterns, such as foreshortened extremities and low relative surface-area, may have explained some of the variance in cold resistance, it is suggested the adaptive package was strongly dependent on a rich array of physiological defenses. A summary of the environmental cold conditions in which the Neandertals lived is presented, and a comparative ethnographic model from Tierra del Fuego is used. Muscle and subcutaneous fat are excellent "passive" insulators. Neandertals were quite muscular, but it is unlikely that they could maintain enough superficial body fat to offer much cold protection. A major, high-energy metabolic adaptation facilitated by modest amounts of highly thermogenic brown adipose tissue (BAT) is proposed. In addition, Neandertals would have been protected by general mammalian cold defenses based on systemic vasoconstriction and intensified by acclimatization, aerobic fitness, and localized cold--induced vasodilation. However, these defenses are energetically expensive. Based on contemporary data from circumpolar peoples, it is estimated that Neandertals required 3,360 to 4,480 kcal per day to support strenuous winter foraging and cold resistance costs. Several specific genetic cold adaptations are also proposed--heat shock protein (actually, stress shock protein), an ACP*1 locus somatic growth factor, and a specialized calcium metabolism not as yet understood. PMID:12203812

  8. The meaning of Neandertal skeletal morphology

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Timothy D.

    2009-01-01

    A procedure is outlined for distinguishing among competing hypotheses for fossil morphology and then used to evaluate current views on the meaning of Neandertal skeletal morphology. Three explanations have dominated debates about the meaning of Neandertal cranial features: climatic adaptation, anterior dental loading, and genetic drift. Neither climatic adaptation nor anterior dental loading are well supported, but genetic drift is consistent with the available evidence. Climatic adaptation and activity patterns are the most discussed explanations for Neandertal postcranial features. Robust empirical relationships between climate and body form in extant humans and other endotherms currently make climatic adaptation the most plausible explanation for the wide bodies and relatively short limbs of Neandertals, and many additional postcranial features are likely secondary consequences of these overall skeletal proportions. Activity patterns may explain certain Neandertal postcranial features, but unlike the situation for climate, relationships in extant humans between morphology and activities are typically not well established. For both the cranium and the postcranium, changes in diet or activity patterns may underlie why Neandertals and Pleistocene modern humans tend to be more robust than Holocene humans. PMID:19805258

  9. Revised direct radiocarbon dating of the Vindija G1 Upper Paleolithic Neandertals.

    PubMed

    Higham, Tom; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Karavanić, Ivor; Smith, Fred H; Trinkaus, Erik

    2006-01-17

    The 1998/1999 direct dating of two Neandertal specimens from level G(1) of Vindija Cave in Croatia to approximately 28,000 and approximately 29,000 radiocarbon ((14)C) years ago has led to interpretations concerning the late survival of Neandertals in south-central Europe, patterns of interaction between Neandertals and in-dispersing early modern humans in Europe, and complex biocultural scenarios for the earlier phases of the Upper Paleolithic. Given improvements, particularly in sample pretreatment techniques for bone radiocarbon samples, especially ultrafiltration of collagen samples, these Vindija G(1) Neandertal fossils are redated to approximately 32,000-33,000 (14)C years ago and possibly earlier. These results and the recent redating of a number of purportedly old modern human skeletal remains in Europe to younger time periods highlight the importance of fine chronological control when studying this biocultural time period and the tenuous nature of monolithic scenarios for the establishment of modern humans and earlier phases of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe.

  10. Revised direct radiocarbon dating of the Vindija G1 Upper Paleolithic Neandertals

    PubMed Central

    Higham, Tom; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Karavanić, Ivor; Smith, Fred H.; Trinkaus, Erik

    2006-01-01

    The 1998/1999 direct dating of two Neandertal specimens from level G1 of Vindija Cave in Croatia to ≈28,000 and ≈29,000 radiocarbon (14C) years ago has led to interpretations concerning the late survival of Neandertals in south-central Europe, patterns of interaction between Neandertals and in-dispersing early modern humans in Europe, and complex biocultural scenarios for the earlier phases of the Upper Paleolithic. Given improvements, particularly in sample pretreatment techniques for bone radiocarbon samples, especially ultrafiltration of collagen samples, these Vindija G1 Neandertal fossils are redated to ≈32,000–33,000 14C years ago and possibly earlier. These results and the recent redating of a number of purportedly old modern human skeletal remains in Europe to younger time periods highlight the importance of fine chronological control when studying this biocultural time period and the tenuous nature of monolithic scenarios for the establishment of modern humans and earlier phases of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe. PMID:16407102

  11. The Neandertal vertebral column 1: the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Been, Ella; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Stock, Jay T

    2013-06-01

    This paper provides a metric analysis of the Neandertal cervical spine in relation to modern human variation. All seven cervical vertebrae have been analysed. Metric data from eight Neandertal individuals are compared with a large sample of modern humans. The significance of morphometric differences is tested using both z-scores and two-tailed Wilcoxon signed rank tests. The results identify significant metric and morphological differences between Neandertals and modern humans in all seven cervical vertebrae. Neandertal vertebrae are mediolaterally wider and dorsoventrally longer than modern humans, due in part to longer and more horizontally oriented spinous processes. This suggests that Neandertal cervical morphology was more stable in both mid-sagittal and coronal planes. It is hypothesized that the differences in cranial size and shape in the Neandertal and modern human lineages from their Middle Pleistocene ancestors could account for some of the differences in the neck anatomy between these species. PMID:23541382

  12. The phenotypic legacy of admixture between modern humans and Neandertals.

    PubMed

    Simonti, Corinne N; Vernot, Benjamin; Bastarache, Lisa; Bottinger, Erwin; Carrell, David S; Chisholm, Rex L; Crosslin, David R; Hebbring, Scott J; Jarvik, Gail P; Kullo, Iftikhar J; Li, Rongling; Pathak, Jyotishman; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Roden, Dan M; Verma, Shefali S; Tromp, Gerard; Prato, Jeffrey D; Bush, William S; Akey, Joshua M; Denny, Joshua C; Capra, John A

    2016-02-12

    Many modern human genomes retain DNA inherited from interbreeding with archaic hominins, such as Neandertals, yet the influence of this admixture on human traits is largely unknown. We analyzed the contribution of common Neandertal variants to over 1000 electronic health record (EHR)-derived phenotypes in ~28,000 adults of European ancestry. We discovered and replicated associations of Neandertal alleles with neurological, psychiatric, immunological, and dermatological phenotypes. Neandertal alleles together explained a significant fraction of the variation in risk for depression and skin lesions resulting from sun exposure (actinic keratosis), and individual Neandertal alleles were significantly associated with specific human phenotypes, including hypercoagulation and tobacco use. Our results establish that archaic admixture influences disease risk in modern humans, provide hypotheses about the effects of hundreds of Neandertal haplotypes, and demonstrate the utility of EHR data in evolutionary analyses. PMID:26912863

  13. Neandertal faces were not long; modern human faces are short

    PubMed Central

    Trinkaus, Erik

    2003-01-01

    Neandertal faces have been described as being derived with respect to their overall length or degree of anterior projection. A comparison of cranial and mandibular indicators of lower facial projection across archaic and modern Homo indicates that Neandertal facial lengths on average are similar to those of preceding archaic Homo and principally contrast with those of recent humans. Neandertal facial length is not derived. The shortness of recent human facial skeletons is the evolutionarily derived condition. PMID:12815095

  14. Dynamics of genetic and morphological variability within Neandertals.

    PubMed

    Hawks, John

    2012-01-01

    Paleogenomics may suggest changes to the way anthropologists have discussed the dynamics and morphological diversity among Neandertals. Genetic comparisons show that later Neandertals had relatively low autosomal genetic variation compared to recent humans. The known mitochondrial sample from Neandertals covers a broader geographic and temporal range, and shows greater diversity. This review addresses how genetic data compare to morphological and archaeological evidence about Neandertal variation and dynamics. Traditional views emphasized the morphological differences between western and eastern Neandertal populations, and between early and later Neandertals. Genomes broadly support these groupings, without resolving the outstanding question of the affinities of specimens from southwest Asia. However, the pattern of genetic variation appears to reject a long, in situ transformation of Neandertal groups over time, suggesting instead a more rapid process of regional dispersal and partial population replacement. Archaeological indicators sample dynamics on a much finer timescale than morphological or genetic evidence, and point to dispersal and turnover among Neandertals on a regional scale. In this way, genetic evidence may provide a bridge between the timescales relevant to morphological and archaeological comparisons. New ways of looking at the morphology of Neandertals may yield a better picture of their interactions and movements. PMID:23274747

  15. Dynamics of genetic and morphological variability within Neandertals.

    PubMed

    Hawks, John

    2012-01-01

    Paleogenomics may suggest changes to the way anthropologists have discussed the dynamics and morphological diversity among Neandertals. Genetic comparisons show that later Neandertals had relatively low autosomal genetic variation compared to recent humans. The known mitochondrial sample from Neandertals covers a broader geographic and temporal range, and shows greater diversity. This review addresses how genetic data compare to morphological and archaeological evidence about Neandertal variation and dynamics. Traditional views emphasized the morphological differences between western and eastern Neandertal populations, and between early and later Neandertals. Genomes broadly support these groupings, without resolving the outstanding question of the affinities of specimens from southwest Asia. However, the pattern of genetic variation appears to reject a long, in situ transformation of Neandertal groups over time, suggesting instead a more rapid process of regional dispersal and partial population replacement. Archaeological indicators sample dynamics on a much finer timescale than morphological or genetic evidence, and point to dispersal and turnover among Neandertals on a regional scale. In this way, genetic evidence may provide a bridge between the timescales relevant to morphological and archaeological comparisons. New ways of looking at the morphology of Neandertals may yield a better picture of their interactions and movements.

  16. Comparative perspective on antemortem tooth loss in Neandertals.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Cassandra C; Weaver, Timothy D

    2016-03-01

    Neandertal specimens with severe antemortem (before death) tooth loss (AMTL) are sometimes interpreted as evidence for human-like behaviors in Neandertals, such as conspecific care or cooking, although it is uncertain whether AMTL frequencies in Neandertals are similar to those in modern humans and exceed those in non-human primates. This study characterizes AMTL (all tooth types) in Neandertals relative to recent human hunter-gatherers and several non-human primate taxa using binomial-normal regression models fit in a Bayesian framework to a sample of 25 Neandertals, 310 recent human hunter-gatherers, 61 chimpanzees, 38 orangutans, and 75 baboons. The probability that a tooth is lost antemortem is modeled to depend on tooth class, taxon, and estimated age at death. Neandertals have odds of AMTL above orangutans and baboons, similar to or somewhat lower than chimpanzees, and below recent humans, if we assume a human-like rate of senescence; or intermediate between chimpanzees and recent humans, if we assume a faster rate of senescence. These findings suggest that Neandertals can only be considered to have frequencies of AMTL above non-human primates if they had more rapid life histories than modern humans. Either Neandertals are not human-like in their life history or their frequency of AMTL. These interpretations are complicated, however, by the substantial inter-population variation in AMTL among recent humans, with some populations having odds of AMTL as low as in non-human primates. These results, together with theoretical considerations, suggest that only high frequencies of AMTL are diagnostic of behavior. Consequently, the behavioral implications of low frequencies of AMTL, such as those found in Neandertals, are ambiguous. Low frequencies in Neandertals could be because they had a low risk of AMTL rather than because they had high mortality from AMTL relative to an average modern human of similar age. PMID:26989018

  17. Evidence for a genetic discontinuity between Neandertals and 24,000-year-old anatomically modern Europeans.

    PubMed

    Caramelli, David; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Vernesi, Cristiano; Lari, Martina; Casoli, Antonella; Mallegni, Francesco; Chiarelli, Brunetto; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Barbujani, Guido; Bertorelle, Giorgio

    2003-05-27

    During the late Pleistocene, early anatomically modern humans coexisted in Europe with the anatomically archaic Neandertals for some thousand years. Under the recent variants of the multiregional model of human evolution, modern and archaic forms were different but related populations within a single evolving species, and both have contributed to the gene pool of current humans. Conversely, the Out-of-Africa model considers the transition between Neandertals and anatomically modern humans as the result of a demographic replacement, and hence it predicts a genetic discontinuity between them. Following the most stringent current standards for validation of ancient DNA sequences, we typed the mtDNA hypervariable region I of two anatomically modern Homo sapiens sapiens individuals of the Cro-Magnon type dated at about 23 and 25 thousand years ago. Here we show that the mtDNAs of these individuals fall well within the range of variation of today's humans, but differ sharply from the available sequences of the chronologically closer Neandertals. This discontinuity is difficult to reconcile with the hypothesis that both Neandertals and early anatomically modern humans contributed to the current European gene pool.

  18. Evidence for a genetic discontinuity between Neandertals and 24,000-year-old anatomically modern Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Caramelli, David; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Vernesi, Cristiano; Lari, Martina; Casoli, Antonella; Mallegni, Francesco; Chiarelli, Brunetto; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Barbujani, Guido; Bertorelle, Giorgio

    2003-01-01

    During the late Pleistocene, early anatomically modern humans coexisted in Europe with the anatomically archaic Neandertals for some thousand years. Under the recent variants of the multiregional model of human evolution, modern and archaic forms were different but related populations within a single evolving species, and both have contributed to the gene pool of current humans. Conversely, the Out-of-Africa model considers the transition between Neandertals and anatomically modern humans as the result of a demographic replacement, and hence it predicts a genetic discontinuity between them. Following the most stringent current standards for validation of ancient DNA sequences, we typed the mtDNA hypervariable region I of two anatomically modern Homo sapiens sapiens individuals of the Cro-Magnon type dated at about 23 and 25 thousand years ago. Here we show that the mtDNAs of these individuals fall well within the range of variation of today's humans, but differ sharply from the available sequences of the chronologically closer Neandertals. This discontinuity is difficult to reconcile with the hypothesis that both Neandertals and early anatomically modern humans contributed to the current European gene pool. PMID:12743370

  19. Evidence for a genetic discontinuity between Neandertals and 24,000-year-old anatomically modern Europeans.

    PubMed

    Caramelli, David; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Vernesi, Cristiano; Lari, Martina; Casoli, Antonella; Mallegni, Francesco; Chiarelli, Brunetto; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Barbujani, Guido; Bertorelle, Giorgio

    2003-05-27

    During the late Pleistocene, early anatomically modern humans coexisted in Europe with the anatomically archaic Neandertals for some thousand years. Under the recent variants of the multiregional model of human evolution, modern and archaic forms were different but related populations within a single evolving species, and both have contributed to the gene pool of current humans. Conversely, the Out-of-Africa model considers the transition between Neandertals and anatomically modern humans as the result of a demographic replacement, and hence it predicts a genetic discontinuity between them. Following the most stringent current standards for validation of ancient DNA sequences, we typed the mtDNA hypervariable region I of two anatomically modern Homo sapiens sapiens individuals of the Cro-Magnon type dated at about 23 and 25 thousand years ago. Here we show that the mtDNAs of these individuals fall well within the range of variation of today's humans, but differ sharply from the available sequences of the chronologically closer Neandertals. This discontinuity is difficult to reconcile with the hypothesis that both Neandertals and early anatomically modern humans contributed to the current European gene pool. PMID:12743370

  20. Climate-mediated shifts in Neandertal subsistence behaviors at Pech de l'Azé IV and Roc de Marsal (Dordogne Valley, France).

    PubMed

    Hodgkins, Jamie; Marean, Curtis W; Turq, Alain; Sandgathe, Dennis; McPherron, Shannon J P; Dibble, Harold

    2016-07-01

    Neandertals disappeared from Europe just after 40,000 years ago. Some hypotheses ascribe this to numerous population crashes associated with glacial cycles in the late Pleistocene. The goal of this paper is to test the hypothesis that glacial periods stressed Neandertal populations. If cold climates stressed Neandertals, their subsistence behaviors may have changed-requiring intensified use of prey through more extensive nutrient extraction from faunal carcasses. To test this, an analysis of Neandertal butchering was conducted on medium sized bovid/cervid remains composed of predominately red deer (Cervus elaphus), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), and roe deer (Capreolus caprelous) deposited during global warm and cold phases from two French sites: Pech de l'Azé IV (Pech IV, Bordes' excavation) and Roc de Marsal (RDM). Analysis of surface modification on high survival long bones and proximal and middle phalanges demonstrates that skeletal elements excavated from the cold levels (RDM Level 4, Pech IV Level I2) at each cave have more cut marks and percussion marks than elements from the warm levels (RDM Level 9, Pech IV Level Y-Z) after controlling for fragment size. At both sites, epiphyseal fragments are rare, and although this pattern can result from carnivore consumption, carnivore tooth marks are almost nonexistent (<0.1%). Alternatively, processing epiphyseal ends for bone grease may have been a Neandertal survival strategy, and epiphyses were more intensively percussed in cold levels than in warm levels at both RDM and Pech IV. The exploitation of low marrow yield elements such as phalanges does not show a consistent pattern relating to climate, but may have been a general Neandertal behavioral characteristic, suggesting that these hominids were regularly on the edge of sufficient nutrient availability even during interglacials. Overall, the faunal assemblages from Roc de Marsal and Pech IV provide some support for the hypothesis that Neandertals were processing

  1. Pediatric Thighbone (Femur) Fracture

    MedlinePlus

    ... fractures in infants under 1 year old is child abuse. Child abuse is also a leading cause of thighbone fracture ... contact sports • Being in a motor vehicle accident • Child abuse Types of Femur Fractures (Classification) Femur fractures vary ...

  2. Morphology and function of Neandertal and modern human ear ossicles

    PubMed Central

    David, Romain; Gunz, Philipp; Schmidt, Tobias; Spoor, Fred; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The diminutive middle ear ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes) housed in the tympanic cavity of the temporal bone play an important role in audition. The few known ossicles of Neandertals are distinctly different from those of anatomically modern humans (AMHs), despite the close relationship between both human species. Although not mutually exclusive, these differences may affect hearing capacity or could reflect covariation with the surrounding temporal bone. Until now, detailed comparisons were hampered by the small sample of Neandertal ossicles and the unavailability of methods combining analyses of ossicles with surrounding structures. Here, we present an analysis of the largest sample of Neandertal ossicles to date, including many previously unknown specimens, covering a wide geographic and temporal range. Microcomputed tomography scans and 3D geometric morphometrics were used to quantify shape and functional properties of the ossicles and the tympanic cavity and make comparisons with recent and extinct AMHs as well as African apes. We find striking morphological differences between ossicles of AMHs and Neandertals. Ossicles of both Neandertals and AMHs appear derived compared with the inferred ancestral morphology, albeit in different ways. Brain size increase evolved separately in AMHs and Neandertals, leading to differences in the tympanic cavity and, consequently, the shape and spatial configuration of the ossicles. Despite these different evolutionary trajectories, functional properties of the middle ear of AMHs and Neandertals are largely similar. The relevance of these functionally equivalent solutions is likely to conserve a similar auditory sensitivity level inherited from their last common ancestor. PMID:27671643

  3. Complex history of admixture between modern humans and Neandertals.

    PubMed

    Vernot, Benjamin; Akey, Joshua M

    2015-03-01

    Recent analyses have found that a substantial amount of the Neandertal genome persists in the genomes of contemporary non-African individuals. East Asians have, on average, higher levels of Neandertal ancestry than do Europeans, which might be due to differences in the efficiency of purifying selection, an additional pulse of introgression into East Asians, or other unexplored scenarios. To better define the scope of plausible models of archaic admixture between Neandertals and anatomically modern humans, we analyzed patterns of introgressed sequence in whole-genome data of 379 Europeans and 286 East Asians. We found that inferences of demographic history restricted to neutrally evolving genomic regions allowed a simple one-pulse model to be robustly rejected, suggesting that differences in selection cannot explain the differences in Neandertal ancestry. We show that two additional demographic models, involving either a second pulse of Neandertal gene flow into the ancestors of East Asians or a dilution of Neandertal lineages in Europeans by admixture with an unknown ancestral population, are consistent with the data. Thus, the history of admixture between modern humans and Neandertals is most likely more complex than previously thought.

  4. Complex history of admixture between modern humans and Neandertals.

    PubMed

    Vernot, Benjamin; Akey, Joshua M

    2015-03-01

    Recent analyses have found that a substantial amount of the Neandertal genome persists in the genomes of contemporary non-African individuals. East Asians have, on average, higher levels of Neandertal ancestry than do Europeans, which might be due to differences in the efficiency of purifying selection, an additional pulse of introgression into East Asians, or other unexplored scenarios. To better define the scope of plausible models of archaic admixture between Neandertals and anatomically modern humans, we analyzed patterns of introgressed sequence in whole-genome data of 379 Europeans and 286 East Asians. We found that inferences of demographic history restricted to neutrally evolving genomic regions allowed a simple one-pulse model to be robustly rejected, suggesting that differences in selection cannot explain the differences in Neandertal ancestry. We show that two additional demographic models, involving either a second pulse of Neandertal gene flow into the ancestors of East Asians or a dilution of Neandertal lineages in Europeans by admixture with an unknown ancestral population, are consistent with the data. Thus, the history of admixture between modern humans and Neandertals is most likely more complex than previously thought. PMID:25683119

  5. Neandertals made the first specialized bone tools in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Soressi, Marie; McPherron, Shannon P.; Lenoir, Michel; Dogandžić, Tamara; Goldberg, Paul; Jacobs, Zenobia; Maigrot, Yolaine; Martisius, Naomi L.; Miller, Christopher E.; Rendu, William; Richards, Michael; Skinner, Matthew M.; Steele, Teresa E.; Talamo, Sahra; Texier, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Modern humans replaced Neandertals ∼40,000 y ago. Close to the time of replacement, Neandertals show behaviors similar to those of the modern humans arriving into Europe, including the use of specialized bone tools, body ornaments, and small blades. It is highly debated whether these modern behaviors developed before or as a result of contact with modern humans. Here we report the identification of a type of specialized bone tool, lissoir, previously only associated with modern humans. The microwear preserved on one of these lissoir is consistent with the use of lissoir in modern times to obtain supple, lustrous, and more impermeable hides. These tools are from a Neandertal context proceeding the replacement period and are the oldest specialized bone tools in Europe. As such, they are either a demonstration of independent invention by Neandertals or an indication that modern humans started influencing European Neandertals much earlier than previously believed. Because these finds clearly predate the oldest known age for the use of similar objects in Europe by anatomically modern humans, they could also be evidence for cultural diffusion from Neandertals to modern humans. PMID:23940333

  6. The Divergence of Neandertal and Modern Human Y Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Fernando L; Poznik, G David; Castellano, Sergi; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2016-04-01

    Sequencing the genomes of extinct hominids has reshaped our understanding of modern human origins. Here, we analyze ∼120 kb of exome-captured Y-chromosome DNA from a Neandertal individual from El Sidrón, Spain. We investigate its divergence from orthologous chimpanzee and modern human sequences and find strong support for a model that places the Neandertal lineage as an outgroup to modern human Y chromosomes-including A00, the highly divergent basal haplogroup. We estimate that the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of Neandertal and modern human Y chromosomes is ∼588 thousand years ago (kya) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 447-806 kya). This is ∼2.1 (95% CI: 1.7-2.9) times longer than the TMRCA of A00 and other extant modern human Y-chromosome lineages. This estimate suggests that the Y-chromosome divergence mirrors the population divergence of Neandertals and modern human ancestors, and it refutes alternative scenarios of a relatively recent or super-archaic origin of Neandertal Y chromosomes. The fact that the Neandertal Y we describe has never been observed in modern humans suggests that the lineage is most likely extinct. We identify protein-coding differences between Neandertal and modern human Y chromosomes, including potentially damaging changes to PCDH11Y, TMSB4Y, USP9Y, and KDM5D. Three of these changes are missense mutations in genes that produce male-specific minor histocompatibility (H-Y) antigens. Antigens derived from KDM5D, for example, are thought to elicit a maternal immune response during gestation. It is possible that incompatibilities at one or more of these genes played a role in the reproductive isolation of the two groups.

  7. The Divergence of Neandertal and Modern Human Y Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Fernando L.; Poznik, G. David; Castellano, Sergi; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2016-01-01

    Sequencing the genomes of extinct hominids has reshaped our understanding of modern human origins. Here, we analyze ∼120 kb of exome-captured Y-chromosome DNA from a Neandertal individual from El Sidrón, Spain. We investigate its divergence from orthologous chimpanzee and modern human sequences and find strong support for a model that places the Neandertal lineage as an outgroup to modern human Y chromosomes—including A00, the highly divergent basal haplogroup. We estimate that the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of Neandertal and modern human Y chromosomes is ∼588 thousand years ago (kya) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 447–806 kya). This is ∼2.1 (95% CI: 1.7–2.9) times longer than the TMRCA of A00 and other extant modern human Y-chromosome lineages. This estimate suggests that the Y-chromosome divergence mirrors the population divergence of Neandertals and modern human ancestors, and it refutes alternative scenarios of a relatively recent or super-archaic origin of Neandertal Y chromosomes. The fact that the Neandertal Y we describe has never been observed in modern humans suggests that the lineage is most likely extinct. We identify protein-coding differences between Neandertal and modern human Y chromosomes, including potentially damaging changes to PCDH11Y, TMSB4Y, USP9Y, and KDM5D. Three of these changes are missense mutations in genes that produce male-specific minor histocompatibility (H-Y) antigens. Antigens derived from KDM5D, for example, are thought to elicit a maternal immune response during gestation. It is possible that incompatibilities at one or more of these genes played a role in the reproductive isolation of the two groups. PMID:27058445

  8. The Divergence of Neandertal and Modern Human Y Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Fernando L; Poznik, G David; Castellano, Sergi; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2016-04-01

    Sequencing the genomes of extinct hominids has reshaped our understanding of modern human origins. Here, we analyze ∼120 kb of exome-captured Y-chromosome DNA from a Neandertal individual from El Sidrón, Spain. We investigate its divergence from orthologous chimpanzee and modern human sequences and find strong support for a model that places the Neandertal lineage as an outgroup to modern human Y chromosomes-including A00, the highly divergent basal haplogroup. We estimate that the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of Neandertal and modern human Y chromosomes is ∼588 thousand years ago (kya) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 447-806 kya). This is ∼2.1 (95% CI: 1.7-2.9) times longer than the TMRCA of A00 and other extant modern human Y-chromosome lineages. This estimate suggests that the Y-chromosome divergence mirrors the population divergence of Neandertals and modern human ancestors, and it refutes alternative scenarios of a relatively recent or super-archaic origin of Neandertal Y chromosomes. The fact that the Neandertal Y we describe has never been observed in modern humans suggests that the lineage is most likely extinct. We identify protein-coding differences between Neandertal and modern human Y chromosomes, including potentially damaging changes to PCDH11Y, TMSB4Y, USP9Y, and KDM5D. Three of these changes are missense mutations in genes that produce male-specific minor histocompatibility (H-Y) antigens. Antigens derived from KDM5D, for example, are thought to elicit a maternal immune response during gestation. It is possible that incompatibilities at one or more of these genes played a role in the reproductive isolation of the two groups. PMID:27058445

  9. The Neandertals of northeastern Iberia: new remains from the Cova del Gegant (Sitges, Barcelona).

    PubMed

    Quam, Rolf; Sanz, Montserrat; Daura, Joan; Robson Brown, Kate; García-González, Rebeca; Rodríguez, Laura; Dawson, Heidi; Rodríguez, Rosa Flor; Gómez, Sandra; Villaescusa, Lucía; Rubio, Ángel; Yagüe, Almudena; Ortega Martínez, María Cruz; Fullola, Josep Maria; Zilhão, João; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-04-01

    The present study describes a new juvenile hominin mandible and teeth and a new juvenile humerus from level V of the GP2 gallery of Cova del Gegant (Spain). The mandible (Gegant-5) preserves a portion of the right mandibular corpus from the M1 distally to the socket for the dc mesially, and the age at death is estimated as 4.5-5.0 years. Gegant-5 shows a single mental foramen located under the dm1/dm2 interdental septum, a relatively posterior placement compared with recent hominins of a similar developmental age. The mental foramen in Gegant-5 is also placed within the lower half of the mandibular corpus, as in the previously described late adolescent/adult mandible (Gegant-1) from this same Middle Paleolithic site. The Gegant-5 canine shows pronounced marginal ridges, a distal accessory ridge, and a pronounced distolingual tubercle. The P3 shows a lingually-displaced protoconid cusp tip and a distal accessory ridge. The P4 shows a slightly asymmetrical crown outline, a continuous transverse crest, a mesially placed metaconid cusp tip, a slight distal accessory ridge, and an accessory lingual cusp. The M1 shows a Y5 pattern of cusp contact and a well-developed and deep anterior fovea bounded posteriorly by a continuous midtrigonid crest. Gegant-4 is the distal portion of a left humerus from a juvenile estimated to be between 5 and 7 years old at death. The specimen shows thick cortical bone. Although fragmentary, the constellation of morphological and metric features indicates Neandertal affinities for these specimens. Their spatial proximity at the site and similar ages at death suggest these remains may represent a single individual. The addition of these new specimens brings the total number of Neandertal remains from the Cova del Gegant to five, and this site documents the clearest evidence for Neandertal fossils associated with Middle Paleolithic stone tools in this region of the Iberian Peninsula.

  10. The Neandertals of northeastern Iberia: new remains from the Cova del Gegant (Sitges, Barcelona).

    PubMed

    Quam, Rolf; Sanz, Montserrat; Daura, Joan; Robson Brown, Kate; García-González, Rebeca; Rodríguez, Laura; Dawson, Heidi; Rodríguez, Rosa Flor; Gómez, Sandra; Villaescusa, Lucía; Rubio, Ángel; Yagüe, Almudena; Ortega Martínez, María Cruz; Fullola, Josep Maria; Zilhão, João; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-04-01

    The present study describes a new juvenile hominin mandible and teeth and a new juvenile humerus from level V of the GP2 gallery of Cova del Gegant (Spain). The mandible (Gegant-5) preserves a portion of the right mandibular corpus from the M1 distally to the socket for the dc mesially, and the age at death is estimated as 4.5-5.0 years. Gegant-5 shows a single mental foramen located under the dm1/dm2 interdental septum, a relatively posterior placement compared with recent hominins of a similar developmental age. The mental foramen in Gegant-5 is also placed within the lower half of the mandibular corpus, as in the previously described late adolescent/adult mandible (Gegant-1) from this same Middle Paleolithic site. The Gegant-5 canine shows pronounced marginal ridges, a distal accessory ridge, and a pronounced distolingual tubercle. The P3 shows a lingually-displaced protoconid cusp tip and a distal accessory ridge. The P4 shows a slightly asymmetrical crown outline, a continuous transverse crest, a mesially placed metaconid cusp tip, a slight distal accessory ridge, and an accessory lingual cusp. The M1 shows a Y5 pattern of cusp contact and a well-developed and deep anterior fovea bounded posteriorly by a continuous midtrigonid crest. Gegant-4 is the distal portion of a left humerus from a juvenile estimated to be between 5 and 7 years old at death. The specimen shows thick cortical bone. Although fragmentary, the constellation of morphological and metric features indicates Neandertal affinities for these specimens. Their spatial proximity at the site and similar ages at death suggest these remains may represent a single individual. The addition of these new specimens brings the total number of Neandertal remains from the Cova del Gegant to five, and this site documents the clearest evidence for Neandertal fossils associated with Middle Paleolithic stone tools in this region of the Iberian Peninsula. PMID:25766902

  11. Neandertal versus Modern Human Dietary Responses to Climatic Fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    El Zaatari, Sireen; Grine, Frederick E.; Ungar, Peter S.; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The Neandertal lineage developed successfully throughout western Eurasia and effectively survived the harsh and severely changing environments of the alternating glacial/interglacial cycles from the middle of the Pleistocene until Marine Isotope Stage 3. Yet, towards the end of this stage, at the time of deteriorating climatic conditions that eventually led to the Last Glacial Maximum, and soon after modern humans entered western Eurasia, the Neandertals disappeared. Western Eurasia was by then exclusively occupied by modern humans. We use occlusal molar microwear texture analysis to examine aspects of diet in western Eurasian Paleolithic hominins in relation to fluctuations in food supplies that resulted from the oscillating climatic conditions of the Pleistocene. There is demonstrable evidence for differences in behavior that distinguish Upper Paleolithic humans from members of the Neandertal lineage. Specifically, whereas the Neandertals altered their diets in response to changing paleoecological conditions, the diets of Upper Paleolithic humans seem to have been less affected by slight changes in vegetation/climatic conditions but were linked to changes in their technological complexes. The results of this study also indicate differences in resource exploitation strategies between these two hominin groups. We argue that these differences in subsistence strategies, if they had already been established at the time of the first contact between these two hominin taxa, may have given modern humans an advantage over the Neandertals, and may have contributed to the persistence of our species despite habitat-related changes in food availabilities associated with climate fluctuations. PMID:27119336

  12. Neandertal versus Modern Human Dietary Responses to Climatic Fluctuations.

    PubMed

    El Zaatari, Sireen; Grine, Frederick E; Ungar, Peter S; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The Neandertal lineage developed successfully throughout western Eurasia and effectively survived the harsh and severely changing environments of the alternating glacial/interglacial cycles from the middle of the Pleistocene until Marine Isotope Stage 3. Yet, towards the end of this stage, at the time of deteriorating climatic conditions that eventually led to the Last Glacial Maximum, and soon after modern humans entered western Eurasia, the Neandertals disappeared. Western Eurasia was by then exclusively occupied by modern humans. We use occlusal molar microwear texture analysis to examine aspects of diet in western Eurasian Paleolithic hominins in relation to fluctuations in food supplies that resulted from the oscillating climatic conditions of the Pleistocene. There is demonstrable evidence for differences in behavior that distinguish Upper Paleolithic humans from members of the Neandertal lineage. Specifically, whereas the Neandertals altered their diets in response to changing paleoecological conditions, the diets of Upper Paleolithic humans seem to have been less affected by slight changes in vegetation/climatic conditions but were linked to changes in their technological complexes. The results of this study also indicate differences in resource exploitation strategies between these two hominin groups. We argue that these differences in subsistence strategies, if they had already been established at the time of the first contact between these two hominin taxa, may have given modern humans an advantage over the Neandertals, and may have contributed to the persistence of our species despite habitat-related changes in food availabilities associated with climate fluctuations. PMID:27119336

  13. The false dichotomy: a refutation of the Neandertal indistinguishability claim.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Thomas; Overmann, Karenleigh; Coolidge, Frederick

    2016-06-20

    In the debate about the demise of the Neandertal, several scholars have claimed that humanity's nearest relatives were indistinguishable archaeologically, and thus behaviorally and cognitively, from contemporaneous Homo sapiens. They suggest that to hold otherwise is to characterize Neandertals as inferior to H. sapiens, a false dichotomy that excludes the possibility that the two human types simply differed in ways visible to natural selection, including their cognition. Support of the Neandertal indistinguishability claim requires ignoring the cranial differences between the two human types, which have implications for cognition and behavior. Further, support of the claim requires minimizing asymmetries in the quantity and degree of behavioral differences as attested by the archaeological record. The present paper reviews the evidence for cognitive and archaeological differences between the two human types in support of the excluded middle position.

  14. The Spy VI child: a newly discovered Neandertal infant.

    PubMed

    Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Rougier, Hélène; Maureille, Bruno; Higham, Thomas; van der Plicht, Johannes; De Clerck, Nora; Semal, Patrick

    2010-12-01

    Spy cave (Jemeppe-sur-Sambre, Belgium) is reputed for the two adult Neandertal individuals discovered in situ in 1886. Recent reassessment of the Spy collections has allowed direct radiocarbon dating of these individuals. The sorting of all of the faunal collections has also led to the discovery of the remains of a Neandertal child, Spy VI. This individual is represented by two mandibular corpus fragments. The left fragment is the most complete and both sides preserve the mental foramen. Four deciduous teeth are associated with these mandibular remains: three incisors and one canine. The lower left canine (Spy 645a) conjoins with the corresponding alveolar socket in the left part of the mandible. Following extant standards, the developmental stage of the preserved teeth indicate an age at death of about one and a half years. In addition to performing a classical morphometric comparative study of the mandible and teeth, we have evaluated the dental tissue proportions using high-resolution microtomographic techniques. Our results show that Spy VI generally falls within the Neandertal range of variation. However, this specimen also exhibits particular traits, notably in the dental internal structural organization, which reveals that variation in the immature Neandertal variation is larger than what was variation currently represented by the available fossil record. These observations demonstrate the need for investigating the frequency and expression of immature Neandertal traits in fossil anterior teeth, as well as their temporal and geographic variation. Direct radiocarbon dating of the Spy VI specimen has been conducted in two different laboratories. The results of Spy VI confirm the age previously determined for the two adults, making the Spy Neandertal remains the youngest ever directly dated in northwest Europe.

  15. A reassessment of the presumed Neandertal remains from San Bernardino Cave, Italy.

    PubMed

    Benazzi, Stefano; Peresani, Marco; Talamo, Sahra; Fu, Qiaomei; Mannino, Marcello A; Richards, Michael P; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    In 1986-1987, three human remains were unearthed from macro-unit II of San Bernardino Cave (Berici Hills, Veneto, Italy), a deposit containing a late Mousterian lithic assemblage. The human remains (a distal phalanx, a lower right third molar and a lower right second deciduous incisor) do not show diagnostic morphological features that could be used to determine whether they were from Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens. Despite being of small size, and thus more similar to recent H. sapiens, the specimens were attributed to Neandertals, primarily because they were found in Mousterian layers. We carried out a taxonomic reassessment of the lower right third molar (LRM3; San Bernardino 4) using digital morphometric analysis of the root, ancient DNA analysis, carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses, and direct accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating of dentine collagen. Mitochondrial DNA analysis and root morphology show that the molar belongs to a modern human and not to a Neandertal. Carbon 14 ((14)C) dating of the molar attributes it to the end of the Middle Ages (1420-1480 cal AD, 2 sigma). Carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses suggest that the individual in question had a diet similar to that of Medieval Italians. These results show that the molar, as well as the other two human remains, belong to recent H. sapiens and were introduced in the Mousterian levels post-depositionally.

  16. A reassessment of the presumed Neandertal remains from San Bernardino Cave, Italy.

    PubMed

    Benazzi, Stefano; Peresani, Marco; Talamo, Sahra; Fu, Qiaomei; Mannino, Marcello A; Richards, Michael P; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    In 1986-1987, three human remains were unearthed from macro-unit II of San Bernardino Cave (Berici Hills, Veneto, Italy), a deposit containing a late Mousterian lithic assemblage. The human remains (a distal phalanx, a lower right third molar and a lower right second deciduous incisor) do not show diagnostic morphological features that could be used to determine whether they were from Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens. Despite being of small size, and thus more similar to recent H. sapiens, the specimens were attributed to Neandertals, primarily because they were found in Mousterian layers. We carried out a taxonomic reassessment of the lower right third molar (LRM3; San Bernardino 4) using digital morphometric analysis of the root, ancient DNA analysis, carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses, and direct accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating of dentine collagen. Mitochondrial DNA analysis and root morphology show that the molar belongs to a modern human and not to a Neandertal. Carbon 14 ((14)C) dating of the molar attributes it to the end of the Middle Ages (1420-1480 cal AD, 2 sigma). Carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses suggest that the individual in question had a diet similar to that of Medieval Italians. These results show that the molar, as well as the other two human remains, belong to recent H. sapiens and were introduced in the Mousterian levels post-depositionally. PMID:24331083

  17. The vertebral column of the Regourdou 1 Neandertal.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Couture-Veschambre, Christine; Madelaine, Stéphane; Maureille, Bruno

    2013-06-01

    The Regourdou 1 partial skeleton was found in 1957 in level IV of the eponymous site located in Montignac-sur-Vézère (Dordogne, France) and until now it has been only partially published. The ongoing revision of the faunal remains from the site has yielded additional fossils that pertain to this skeleton. Here we study the vertebral column of this individual, providing for the first time detailed descriptions for all of the fossils and reassessing the anatomical position of all of the fragments. The vertebral column of Regourdou 1 is one of the most complete in the Neandertal fossil record with at least 20 pre-sacral vertebrae (seven cervicals, nine thoracic and four lumbars), a partial sacrum and a fragmentary first coccygeal vertebra. When compared with modern humans, the vertebrae of Regourdou 1 display significant metric differences, and fit well within the range of Neandertal variability. A preliminary analysis of the most complete thoracic vertebrae of this individual indicates that Neandertals displayed significant differences from modern humans in the thoracic spine, which adds to the differences already observed in the cervical and lumbar regions. Finally, we have also observed mild signs of osteoarthrosis, albeit to a lower degree of that present in other Neandertals such as La Chapelle-aux-Saints, La Ferrassie 1 or Shanidar 3. This is consistent with the younger adult age for Regourdou 1. PMID:23566460

  18. Anterior dental microwear texture analysis of the Krapina Neandertals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, Kristin; Ungar, Peter

    2012-12-01

    Some Neandertal anterior teeth show unusual and excessive gross wear, commonly explained by non-dietary anterior tooth use, or using the anterior dentition as a tool, clamp, or third hand. This alternate use is inferred from aboriginal arctic populations, who used their front teeth in this manner. Here we examine anterior dental microwear textures of the Krapina Neandertals to test this hypothesis and further analyze tooth use in these hominins. Microwear textures from 17 Krapina Dental People were collected by white-light confocal profilometry using a 100x objective lens. Four adjacent scans were generated, totaling an area of 204x276 μm, and were analyzed using Toothfrax and SFrax SSFA software packages. The Neandertals were compared to six bioarchaeological/ethnographic samples with reported variation in diet, abrasive load, and non-dietary anterior tooth use. Results indicate that Krapina anterior teeth lack extreme microwear textures expected of hominins exposed to heavy abrasives or those that regularly generated high stresses associated with intense use of the front teeth as tools. Krapina hominins have microwear attributes in common with Coast Tsimshian, Aleut, and Puye Pueblo samples. Collectively, this suggests that the Krapina Neandertals faced moderate abrasive loads and only periodically used their anterior teeth as tools for non-diet related behaviors.

  19. Functional morphology of the Neandertal scapular glenoid fossa.

    PubMed

    Macias, Marisa E; Churchill, Steven E

    2015-01-01

    Neandertals and Homo sapiens are known to differ in scapular glenoid fossa morphology. Functional explanations may be appropriate for certain aspects of glenoid fossa morphology; however, other factors--e.g., allometry, evolutionary development--must be addressed before functional morphology is considered. Using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics, shape of the scapular glenoid fossa was compared among Neandertals, early and recent modern humans, chimpanzees, orangutans, Australopithecus afarensis, and Au. sediba. Permutation analysis revealed that side, sex, and lifestyle did not correlate with shape. Of the features we found to differ between groups, anterior glenoid rim morphology and fossa curvature did not correlate with the aforementioned shape variables; thus, a functional explanation is appropriate for these components of glenoid fossa shape. Shared morphology among recent humans and chimpanzees (to the exclusion of Neandertals and orangutans) suggests independent forces contributing to these morphological configurations. Potential explanations include adaptations to habitual behavior and locomotor adaptations in the scapulae of recent humans and chimpanzees; these explanations are supported by clinical and experimental literature. The absence of these morphological features in Neandertals may support the lack of these selective forces on their scapular glenoid fossa morphology.

  20. No Evidence of Neandertal mtDNA Contribution to Early Modern Humans

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    The retrieval of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from four Neandertal fossils from Germany, Russia, and Croatia has demonstrated that these individuals carried closely related mtDNAs that are not found among current humans. However, these results do not definitively resolve the question of a possible Neandertal contribution to the gene pool of modern humans since such a contribution might have been erased by genetic drift or by the continuous influx of modern human DNA into the Neandertal gene pool. A further concern is that if some Neandertals carried mtDNA sequences similar to contemporaneous humans, such sequences may be erroneously regarded as modern contaminations when retrieved from fossils. Here we address these issues by the analysis of 24 Neandertal and 40 early modern human remains. The biomolecular preservation of four Neandertals and of five early modern humans was good enough to suggest the preservation of DNA. All four Neandertals yielded mtDNA sequences similar to those previously determined from Neandertal individuals, whereas none of the five early modern humans contained such mtDNA sequences. In combination with current mtDNA data, this excludes any large genetic contribution by Neandertals to early modern humans, but does not rule out the possibility of a smaller contribution. PMID:15024415

  1. Neandertal nasal structures and upper respiratory tract “specialization”

    PubMed Central

    Franciscus, Robert G.

    1999-01-01

    Schwartz and Tattersall [Schwartz, J. H. & Tattersall, I. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 10852–10854] have argued for a previously unrecognized suite of autapomorphies in the internal nasal region of Neandertals that make them unique, not only among hominids, but possibly among all other terrestrial mammals. These purported autapomorphies include (i) the development of an internal nasal margin bearing a well developed and vertically oriented medial projection; (ii) a pronounced medial swelling of the lateral nasal wall into the posterior nasal cavity; and (iii) the lack of an ossified roof over the lacrimal groove. In addition, Laitman et al. [Laitman, J. T., Reidenberg, J. S., Marquez, S. & Gannon, P. J. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 10543–10545] pointed to these features as evidence for upper respiratory tract specializations among the Neandertals, indicating potential differences in behavior compared with modern humans. Critically reviewing the anatomical basis for Schwartz and Tattersall’s contentions reveals several serious problems with their analysis, including (i) reliance on specimens with damaged, incomplete, or, in some cases, entirely absent relevant anatomy; (ii) failure to consider primary vs. secondary spatial consequences in nasal trait conceptualization; and (iii) failure to consider actual ranges of variation in these traits in both fossil and recent humans. Accordingly, the unique phylogenetic and adaptive “specializations” attributed to Neandertal internal nasal structures are unwarranted. PMID:9990106

  2. Genetic evidence for patrilocal mating behavior among Neandertal groups

    PubMed Central

    Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Rosas, Antonio; Estalrrich, Almudena; Gigli, Elena; Campos, Paula F.; García-Tabernero, Antonio; García-Vargas, Samuel; Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Ramírez, Oscar; Civit, Sergi; Bastir, Markus; Huguet, Rosa; Santamaría, David; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Willerslev, Eske; de la Rasilla, Marco

    2011-01-01

    The remains of 12 Neandertal individuals have been found at the El Sidrón site (Asturias, Spain), consisting of six adults, three adolescents, two juveniles, and one infant. Archaeological, paleontological, and geological evidence indicates that these individuals represent all or part of a contemporaneous social group of Neandertals, who died at around the same time and later were buried together as a result of a collapse of an underground karst. We sequenced phylogenetically informative positions of mtDNA hypervariable regions 1 and 2 from each of the remains. Our results show that the 12 individuals stem from three different maternal lineages, accounting for seven, four, and one individual(s), respectively. Using a Y-chromosome assay to confirm the morphological determination of sex for each individual, we found that, although the three adult males carried the same mtDNA lineage, each of the three adult females carried different mtDNA lineages. These findings provide evidence to indicate that Neandertal groups not only were small and characterized by low genetic diversity but also were likely to have practiced patrilocal mating behavior. PMID:21173265

  3. Genetic evidence for patrilocal mating behavior among Neandertal groups.

    PubMed

    Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Rosas, Antonio; Estalrrich, Almudena; Gigli, Elena; Campos, Paula F; García-Tabernero, Antonio; García-Vargas, Samuel; Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Ramírez, Oscar; Civit, Sergi; Bastir, Markus; Huguet, Rosa; Santamaría, David; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske; de la Rasilla, Marco

    2011-01-01

    The remains of 12 Neandertal individuals have been found at the El Sidrón site (Asturias, Spain), consisting of six adults, three adolescents, two juveniles, and one infant. Archaeological, paleontological, and geological evidence indicates that these individuals represent all or part of a contemporaneous social group of Neandertals, who died at around the same time and later were buried together as a result of a collapse of an underground karst. We sequenced phylogenetically informative positions of mtDNA hypervariable regions 1 and 2 from each of the remains. Our results show that the 12 individuals stem from three different maternal lineages, accounting for seven, four, and one individual(s), respectively. Using a Y-chromosome assay to confirm the morphological determination of sex for each individual, we found that, although the three adult males carried the same mtDNA lineage, each of the three adult females carried different mtDNA lineages. These findings provide evidence to indicate that Neandertal groups not only were small and characterized by low genetic diversity but also were likely to have practiced patrilocal mating behavior. PMID:21173265

  4. The Neandertal type site revisited: interdisciplinary investigations of skeletal remains from the Neander Valley, Germany.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Ralf W; Serre, David; Bonani, Georges; Feine, Susanne; Hillgruber, Felix; Krainitzki, Heike; Pääbo, Svante; Smith, Fred H

    2002-10-01

    The 1856 discovery of the Neandertal type specimen (Neandertal 1) in western Germany marked the beginning of human paleontology and initiated the longest-standing debate in the discipline: the role of Neandertals in human evolutionary history. We report excavations of cave sediments that were removed from the Feldhofer caves in 1856. These deposits have yielded over 60 human skeletal fragments, along with a large series of Paleolithic artifacts and faunal material. Our analysis of this material represents the first interdisciplinary analysis of Neandertal remains incorporating genetic, direct dating, and morphological dimensions simultaneously. Three of these skeletal fragments fit directly on Neandertal 1, whereas several others have distinctively Neandertal features. At least three individuals are represented in the skeletal sample. Radiocarbon dates for Neandertal 1, from which a mtDNA sequence was determined in 1997, and a second individual indicate an age of approximately 40,000 yr for both. mtDNA analysis on the same second individual yields a sequence that clusters with other published Neandertal sequences.

  5. The Neandertal type site revisited: Interdisciplinary investigations of skeletal remains from the Neander Valley, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Ralf W.; Serre, David; Bonani, Georges; Feine, Susanne; Hillgruber, Felix; Krainitzki, Heike; Pääbo, Svante; Smith, Fred H.

    2002-01-01

    The 1856 discovery of the Neandertal type specimen (Neandertal 1) in western Germany marked the beginning of human paleontology and initiated the longest-standing debate in the discipline: the role of Neandertals in human evolutionary history. We report excavations of cave sediments that were removed from the Feldhofer caves in 1856. These deposits have yielded over 60 human skeletal fragments, along with a large series of Paleolithic artifacts and faunal material. Our analysis of this material represents the first interdisciplinary analysis of Neandertal remains incorporating genetic, direct dating, and morphological dimensions simultaneously. Three of these skeletal fragments fit directly on Neandertal 1, whereas several others have distinctively Neandertal features. At least three individuals are represented in the skeletal sample. Radiocarbon dates for Neandertal 1, from which a mtDNA sequence was determined in 1997, and a second individual indicate an age of ≈40,000 yr for both. mtDNA analysis on the same second individual yields a sequence that clusters with other published Neandertal sequences. PMID:12232049

  6. Neonatal postcrania from Mezmaiskaya, Russia, and Le Moustier, France, and the development of Neandertal body form

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Timothy D.; Coqueugniot, Hélène; Golovanova, Liubov V.; Doronichev, Vladimir B.; Maureille, Bruno; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Neandertal and modern human adults differ in skeletal features of the cranium and postcranium, and it is clear that many of the cranial differences—although not all of them—are already present at the time of birth. We know less, however, about the developmental origins of the postcranial differences. Here, we address this deficiency with morphometric analyses of the postcrania of the two most complete Neandertal neonates—Mezmaiskaya 1 (from Russia) and Le Moustier 2 (from France)—and a recent human sample. We find that neonatal Neandertals already appear to possess the wide body, long pubis, and robust long bones of adult Neandertals. Taken together, current evidence indicates that skeletal differences between Neandertals and modern humans are largely established by the time of birth. PMID:27217565

  7. Hyperostosis frontalis interna in a Neandertal from Marillac (Charente, France).

    PubMed

    Garralda, María Dolores; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-02-01

    The site of Marillac (Charente, France) has yielded an important stratigraphic sequence containing numerous Neandertal remains (some of them with peri-mortem manipulations) from lithofacies 2 (Quina Mousterian). This level has been correlated with MIS 4 and is associated with a TL date of 57,600 ± 4600 years BP (before present). The study of one of the cranial fragments (Marillac 3) revealed a grade 2 or Type B Hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI), remodelling and altering the internal table of the thick frontal bone. This pathology has been analysed macroscopically together with radiography and sections made using a microscanner and a scanner. The development of the HFI is compared with published evidence for Sangiran 3 (Homo erectus), two other Neandertals (Forbes' Quarry and Shanidar 5), and several archaeological samples. Forbes' Quarry seems to display more advanced HFI than either Shanidar 5 or Marillac 3. The three Neandertals may be considered mature individuals (≥40 years) and it seems likely that the aetiology of this pathology may be associated with hormonal alterations, as has been suggested for past and extant populations. While the prevalence of HFI in contemporary post-menopausal women is well documented, the identification of HFI amongst males from several archaeological samples (Neanderthals, Ancient Egypt, Syrian Bronze Age or the Anasazi), with different stages of development, confirm that the pathology affected both sexes in past populations. Additional data and research are still needed to elucidate the etiopathogenesis of this illness and to better understand the relationship between environmental factors and their possible influences/consequences for the development of metabolic disorders in prehistoric populations. PMID:24491378

  8. Hyperostosis frontalis interna in a Neandertal from Marillac (Charente, France).

    PubMed

    Garralda, María Dolores; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-02-01

    The site of Marillac (Charente, France) has yielded an important stratigraphic sequence containing numerous Neandertal remains (some of them with peri-mortem manipulations) from lithofacies 2 (Quina Mousterian). This level has been correlated with MIS 4 and is associated with a TL date of 57,600 ± 4600 years BP (before present). The study of one of the cranial fragments (Marillac 3) revealed a grade 2 or Type B Hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI), remodelling and altering the internal table of the thick frontal bone. This pathology has been analysed macroscopically together with radiography and sections made using a microscanner and a scanner. The development of the HFI is compared with published evidence for Sangiran 3 (Homo erectus), two other Neandertals (Forbes' Quarry and Shanidar 5), and several archaeological samples. Forbes' Quarry seems to display more advanced HFI than either Shanidar 5 or Marillac 3. The three Neandertals may be considered mature individuals (≥40 years) and it seems likely that the aetiology of this pathology may be associated with hormonal alterations, as has been suggested for past and extant populations. While the prevalence of HFI in contemporary post-menopausal women is well documented, the identification of HFI amongst males from several archaeological samples (Neanderthals, Ancient Egypt, Syrian Bronze Age or the Anasazi), with different stages of development, confirm that the pathology affected both sexes in past populations. Additional data and research are still needed to elucidate the etiopathogenesis of this illness and to better understand the relationship between environmental factors and their possible influences/consequences for the development of metabolic disorders in prehistoric populations.

  9. Comment: low dental caries rate in Neandertals: the result of diet or the oral flora composition?

    PubMed

    Sołtysiak, Arkadiusz

    2012-04-01

    Dental caries is an infectious disease caused by oral acidophilic bacteria feeding on fermentable sugars, e.g. Streptococcus mutans. The frequency of dental caries in Neandertals was very low. This was usually explained as the result of a low-sugar diet. Recent research, however, revealed some regional differences between European and Near Eastern Neandertals, with the latter consuming considerable amounts of plants including highly cariogenic dates. This discovery, compared with the results of research on genetic diversity of S. mutans, may suggest that this species, and perhaps other most virulent species, were absent in the oral flora of Neandertals.

  10. European early modern humans and the fate of the Neandertals

    PubMed Central

    Trinkaus, Erik

    2007-01-01

    A consideration of the morphological aspects of the earliest modern humans in Europe (more than ≈33,000 B.P.) and the subsequent Gravettian human remains indicates that they possess an anatomical pattern congruent with the autapomorphic (derived) morphology of the earliest (Middle Paleolithic) African modern humans. However, they exhibit a variable suite of features that are either distinctive Neandertal traits and/or plesiomorphic (ancestral) aspects that had been lost among the African Middle Paleolithic modern humans. These features include aspects of neurocranial shape, basicranial external morphology, mandibular ramal and symphyseal form, dental morphology and size, and anteroposterior dental proportions, as well as aspects of the clavicles, scapulae, metacarpals, and appendicular proportions. The ubiquitous and variable presence of these morphological features in the European earlier modern human samples can only be parsimoniously explained as a product of modest levels of assimilation of Neandertals into early modern human populations as the latter dispersed across Europe. This interpretation is in agreement with current analyses of recent and past human molecular data. PMID:17452632

  11. Excavating Neandertal and Denisovan DNA from the genomes of Melanesian individuals.

    PubMed

    Vernot, Benjamin; Tucci, Serena; Kelso, Janet; Schraiber, Joshua G; Wolf, Aaron B; Gittelman, Rachel M; Dannemann, Michael; Grote, Steffi; McCoy, Rajiv C; Norton, Heather; Scheinfeldt, Laura B; Merriwether, David A; Koki, George; Friedlaender, Jonathan S; Wakefield, Jon; Pääbo, Svante; Akey, Joshua M

    2016-04-01

    Although Neandertal sequences that persist in the genomes of modern humans have been identified in Eurasians, comparable studies in people whose ancestors hybridized with both Neandertals and Denisovans are lacking. We developed an approach to identify DNA inherited from multiple archaic hominin ancestors and applied it to whole-genome sequences from 1523 geographically diverse individuals, including 35 previously unknown Island Melanesian genomes. In aggregate, we recovered 1.34 gigabases and 303 megabases of the Neandertal and Denisovan genome, respectively. We use these maps of archaic sequences to show that Neandertal admixture occurred multiple times in different non-African populations, characterize genomic regions that are significantly depleted of archaic sequences, and identify signatures of adaptive introgression. PMID:26989198

  12. Excavating Neandertal and Denisovan DNA from the genomes of Melanesian individuals.

    PubMed

    Vernot, Benjamin; Tucci, Serena; Kelso, Janet; Schraiber, Joshua G; Wolf, Aaron B; Gittelman, Rachel M; Dannemann, Michael; Grote, Steffi; McCoy, Rajiv C; Norton, Heather; Scheinfeldt, Laura B; Merriwether, David A; Koki, George; Friedlaender, Jonathan S; Wakefield, Jon; Pääbo, Svante; Akey, Joshua M

    2016-04-01

    Although Neandertal sequences that persist in the genomes of modern humans have been identified in Eurasians, comparable studies in people whose ancestors hybridized with both Neandertals and Denisovans are lacking. We developed an approach to identify DNA inherited from multiple archaic hominin ancestors and applied it to whole-genome sequences from 1523 geographically diverse individuals, including 35 previously unknown Island Melanesian genomes. In aggregate, we recovered 1.34 gigabases and 303 megabases of the Neandertal and Denisovan genome, respectively. We use these maps of archaic sequences to show that Neandertal admixture occurred multiple times in different non-African populations, characterize genomic regions that are significantly depleted of archaic sequences, and identify signatures of adaptive introgression.

  13. Dating the demise: neandertal extinction and the establishment of modern humans in the southern Caucasus.

    PubMed

    Adler, Daniel S; Bar-Yosef, Ofer; Belfer-Cohen, Anna; Tushabramishvili, Nicholas; Boaretto, E; Mercier, N; Valladas, H; Rink, W J

    2008-11-01

    This paper considers the recent radiometric dating (14C-AMS, TL, ESR) of 76 late Middle and early Upper Paleolithic samples from Ortvale Klde Rockshelter, located in the Republic of Georgia. We present a critical evaluation of each date based on its stratigraphic and archaeological context, its pretreatment and contamination history, and its resulting accuracy and precision, the goal being to establish a sound chronology for the site. Only by systematically identifying aberrant dates within a data set and isolating them from further analysis can we hope to understand cultural and biological phenomena on an accurate temporal scale. Based on the strict discard protocol outlined here, we omit 25% of the dated samples from the analysis. The remaining data speak to the lengthy tenure of Neandertals in the region, but also to their relatively rapid demise and the establishment of modern human populations approximately 38-34 ka 14C BP (42-39 kacalBP(Hulu)). We compare these chronometric data with those from the neighboring sites of Bronze and Dzudzuana caves, as well as Mezmaiskaya Cave, located in the northern Caucasus. While the lack of key contextual information limit our ability to subject these other data sets to the same critical evaluation procedure, they provide the first interregional temporal assessment of the Middle to Upper Paleolithic "transition," the results of which suggest an initial expansion of modern humans into the southern Caucasus followed by expansion along the Black Sea coast and into the northern Caucasus.

  14. Unconstrained cranial evolution in Neandertals and modern humans compared to common chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Timothy D; Stringer, Chris B

    2015-10-22

    A variety of lines of evidence support the idea that neutral evolutionary processes (genetic drift, mutation) have been important in generating cranial differences between Neandertals and modern humans. But how do Neandertals and modern humans compare with other species? And how do these comparisons illuminate the evolutionary processes underlying cranial diversification? To address these questions, we used 27 standard cranial measurements collected on 2524 recent modern humans, 20 Neandertals and 237 common chimpanzees to estimate split times between Neandertals and modern humans, and between Pan troglodytes verus and two other subspecies of common chimpanzee. Consistent with a neutral divergence, the Neandertal versus modern human split-time estimates based on cranial measurements are similar to those based on DNA sequences. By contrast, the common chimpanzee cranial estimates are much lower than DNA-sequence estimates. Apparently, cranial evolution has been unconstrained in Neandertals and modern humans compared with common chimpanzees. Based on these and additional analyses, it appears that cranial differentiation in common chimpanzees has been restricted by stabilizing natural selection. Alternatively, this restriction could be due to genetic and/or developmental constraints on the amount of within-group variance (relative to effective population size) available for genetic drift to act on. PMID:26468243

  15. Patterns of coding variation in the complete exomes of three Neandertals.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Sergi; Parra, Genís; Sánchez-Quinto, Federico A; Racimo, Fernando; Kuhlwilm, Martin; Kircher, Martin; Sawyer, Susanna; Fu, Qiaomei; Heinze, Anja; Nickel, Birgit; Dabney, Jesse; Siebauer, Michael; White, Louise; Burbano, Hernán A; Renaud, Gabriel; Stenzel, Udo; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; de la Rasilla, Marco; Rosas, Antonio; Rudan, Pavao; Brajković, Dejana; Kucan, Željko; Gušic, Ivan; Shunkov, Michael V; Derevianko, Anatoli P; Viola, Bence; Meyer, Matthias; Kelso, Janet; Andrés, Aida M; Pääbo, Svante

    2014-05-01

    We present the DNA sequence of 17,367 protein-coding genes in two Neandertals from Spain and Croatia and analyze them together with the genome sequence recently determined from a Neandertal from southern Siberia. Comparisons with present-day humans from Africa, Europe, and Asia reveal that genetic diversity among Neandertals was remarkably low, and that they carried a higher proportion of amino acid-changing (nonsynonymous) alleles inferred to alter protein structure or function than present-day humans. Thus, Neandertals across Eurasia had a smaller long-term effective population than present-day humans. We also identify amino acid substitutions in Neandertals and present-day humans that may underlie phenotypic differences between the two groups. We find that genes involved in skeletal morphology have changed more in the lineage leading to Neandertals than in the ancestral lineage common to archaic and modern humans, whereas genes involved in behavior and pigmentation have changed more on the modern human lineage. PMID:24753607

  16. Patterns of coding variation in the complete exomes of three Neandertals

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Sergi; Parra, Genís; Sánchez-Quinto, Federico A.; Racimo, Fernando; Kuhlwilm, Martin; Kircher, Martin; Sawyer, Susanna; Fu, Qiaomei; Heinze, Anja; Nickel, Birgit; Dabney, Jesse; Siebauer, Michael; White, Louise; Burbano, Hernán A.; Renaud, Gabriel; Stenzel, Udo; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; de la Rasilla, Marco; Rosas, Antonio; Rudan, Pavao; Brajković, Dejana; Kucan, Željko; Gušic, Ivan; Shunkov, Michael V.; Derevianko, Anatoli P.; Viola, Bence; Meyer, Matthias; Kelso, Janet; Andrés, Aida M.; Pääbo, Svante

    2014-01-01

    We present the DNA sequence of 17,367 protein-coding genes in two Neandertals from Spain and Croatia and analyze them together with the genome sequence recently determined from a Neandertal from southern Siberia. Comparisons with present-day humans from Africa, Europe, and Asia reveal that genetic diversity among Neandertals was remarkably low, and that they carried a higher proportion of amino acid-changing (nonsynonymous) alleles inferred to alter protein structure or function than present-day humans. Thus, Neandertals across Eurasia had a smaller long-term effective population than present-day humans. We also identify amino acid substitutions in Neandertals and present-day humans that may underlie phenotypic differences between the two groups. We find that genes involved in skeletal morphology have changed more in the lineage leading to Neandertals than in the ancestral lineage common to archaic and modern humans, whereas genes involved in behavior and pigmentation have changed more on the modern human lineage. PMID:24753607

  17. Neandertal Demise: An Archaeological Analysis of the Modern Human Superiority Complex

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Paola; Roebroeks, Wil

    2014-01-01

    Neandertals are the best-studied of all extinct hominins, with a rich fossil record sampling hundreds of individuals, roughly dating from between 350,000 and 40,000 years ago. Their distinct fossil remains have been retrieved from Portugal in the west to the Altai area in central Asia in the east and from below the waters of the North Sea in the north to a series of caves in Israel in the south. Having thrived in Eurasia for more than 300,000 years, Neandertals vanished from the record around 40,000 years ago, when modern humans entered Europe. Modern humans are usually seen as superior in a wide range of domains, including weaponry and subsistence strategies, which would have led to the demise of Neandertals. This systematic review of the archaeological records of Neandertals and their modern human contemporaries finds no support for such interpretations, as the Neandertal archaeological record is not different enough to explain the demise in terms of inferiority in archaeologically visible domains. Instead, current genetic data suggest that complex processes of interbreeding and assimilation may have been responsible for the disappearance of the specific Neandertal morphology from the fossil record. PMID:24789039

  18. Selection and reduced population size cannot explain higher amounts of Neandertal ancestry in East Asian than in European human populations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bernard Y; Lohmueller, Kirk E

    2015-03-01

    It has been hypothesized that the greater proportion of Neandertal ancestry in East Asians than in Europeans is due to the fact that purifying selection is less effective at removing weakly deleterious Neandertal alleles from East Asian populations. Using simulations of a broad range of models of selection and demography, we have shown that this hypothesis cannot account for the higher proportion of Neandertal ancestry in East Asians than in Europeans. Instead, more complex demographic scenarios, most likely involving multiple pulses of Neandertal admixture, are required to explain the data.

  19. Selection and Reduced Population Size Cannot Explain Higher Amounts of Neandertal Ancestry in East Asian than in European Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bernard Y.; Lohmueller, Kirk E.

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the greater proportion of Neandertal ancestry in East Asians than in Europeans is due to the fact that purifying selection is less effective at removing weakly deleterious Neandertal alleles from East Asian populations. Using simulations of a broad range of models of selection and demography, we have shown that this hypothesis cannot account for the higher proportion of Neandertal ancestry in East Asians than in Europeans. Instead, more complex demographic scenarios, most likely involving multiple pulses of Neandertal admixture, are required to explain the data. PMID:25683122

  20. Morphology, body proportions, and postcranial hypertrophy of a female Neandertal from the Sima de las Palomas, southeastern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Michael J.; Ortega, Jon; Parmová, Klara; López, Mariano V.; Trinkaus, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Considerations of Neandertal geographical variation have been hampered by the dearth of remains from Mediterranean Europe and the absence there of sufficiently complete associated postcrania. The 2006 and 2007 excavation of an articulated partial skeleton of a small adult female Neandertal at the Sima de las Palomas, Murcia, southeastern Spain (Sima de las Palomas 96) provides substantial and secure information on body proportions among southern European Neandertals, as well as further documenting the nature of Neandertal biology in southern Iberia. The remains exhibit a suite of cranial, mandibular, dental, and postcranial features, of both Neandertals and archaic Homo generally, that distinguish them from contemporary and subsequent early modern humans. Its lower limbs exhibit the robustness of later Pleistocene Homo generally, and its upper limbs conform to the pattern of elevated robustness of the Neandertals. Its body proportions, including relative clavicular length, distal limb segment lengths, and body mass to stature indicators, conform to the “cold-adapted” pattern of more northern Neandertals. Palomas 96 therefore documents the presence of a suite of “Neandertal” characteristics in southern Iberia and, along with its small body size, the more “Arctic” body proportions of other European Neandertals despite the warmer climate of southern Iberia during marine isotope stage 3. PMID:21646528

  1. Anterior tooth growth periods in Neandertals were comparable to those of modern humans

    PubMed Central

    Guatelli-Steinberg, Debbie; Reid, Donald J.; Bishop, Thomas A.; Larsen, Clark Spencer

    2005-01-01

    A longstanding controversy in paleoanthropology surrounds the question of whether Neandertals shared the prolonged growth periods of modern humans. To address this question, this investigation compares the duration of enamel formation in Neandertals with that of three comparative modern human groups. Because dental and somatic growth are correlated with each other, dental growth periods are indicative of overall periods of growth. Growth increments on the anterior teeth of Neandertals, modern Inuit, and modern people from Newcastle and southern Africa were counted and their means compared. In addition, potential variation in the time spans represented by growth increments was considered and incorporated into the analysis of enamel formation times. These analyses show that Neandertal imbricational enamel formation times, although likely to have been faster than those of the Inuit, are not likely to have been faster than those of the Newcastle sample and for some teeth are clearly slower than those of the southern African sample. Thus, Neandertal tooth growth and, by extension, somatic growth, appears to be encompassed within the modern human range of interpopulation variation. PMID:16183746

  2. Neandertal roots: Cranial and chronological evidence from Sima de los Huesos.

    PubMed

    Arsuaga, J L; Martínez, I; Arnold, L J; Aranburu, A; Gracia-Téllez, A; Sharp, W D; Quam, R M; Falguères, C; Pantoja-Pérez, A; Bischoff, J; Poza-Rey, E; Parés, J M; Carretero, J M; Demuro, M; Lorenzo, C; Sala, N; Martinón-Torres, M; García, N; Alcázar de Velasco, A; Cuenca-Bescós, G; Gómez-Olivencia, A; Moreno, D; Pablos, A; Shen, C-C; Rodríguez, L; Ortega, A I; García, R; Bonmatí, A; Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Carbonell, E

    2014-06-20

    Seventeen Middle Pleistocene crania from the Sima de los Huesos site (Atapuerca, Spain) are analyzed, including seven new specimens. This sample makes it possible to thoroughly characterize a Middle Pleistocene hominin paleodeme and to address hypotheses about the origin and evolution of the Neandertals. Using a variety of techniques, the hominin-bearing layer could be reassigned to a period around 430,000 years ago. The sample shows a consistent morphological pattern with derived Neandertal features present in the face and anterior vault, many of which are related to the masticatory apparatus. This suggests that facial modification was the first step in the evolution of the Neandertal lineage, pointing to a mosaic pattern of evolution, with different anatomical and functional modules evolving at different rates.

  3. Neandertal roots: Cranial and chronological evidence from Sima de los Huesos.

    PubMed

    Arsuaga, J L; Martínez, I; Arnold, L J; Aranburu, A; Gracia-Téllez, A; Sharp, W D; Quam, R M; Falguères, C; Pantoja-Pérez, A; Bischoff, J; Poza-Rey, E; Parés, J M; Carretero, J M; Demuro, M; Lorenzo, C; Sala, N; Martinón-Torres, M; García, N; Alcázar de Velasco, A; Cuenca-Bescós, G; Gómez-Olivencia, A; Moreno, D; Pablos, A; Shen, C-C; Rodríguez, L; Ortega, A I; García, R; Bonmatí, A; Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Carbonell, E

    2014-06-20

    Seventeen Middle Pleistocene crania from the Sima de los Huesos site (Atapuerca, Spain) are analyzed, including seven new specimens. This sample makes it possible to thoroughly characterize a Middle Pleistocene hominin paleodeme and to address hypotheses about the origin and evolution of the Neandertals. Using a variety of techniques, the hominin-bearing layer could be reassigned to a period around 430,000 years ago. The sample shows a consistent morphological pattern with derived Neandertal features present in the face and anterior vault, many of which are related to the masticatory apparatus. This suggests that facial modification was the first step in the evolution of the Neandertal lineage, pointing to a mosaic pattern of evolution, with different anatomical and functional modules evolving at different rates. PMID:24948730

  4. Archaeology. The makers of the Protoaurignacian and implications for Neandertal extinction.

    PubMed

    Benazzi, S; Slon, V; Talamo, S; Negrino, F; Peresani, M; Bailey, S E; Sawyer, S; Panetta, D; Vicino, G; Starnini, E; Mannino, M A; Salvadori, P A; Meyer, M; Pääbo, S; Hublin, J-J

    2015-05-15

    The Protoaurignacian culture is pivotal to the debate about the timing of the arrival of modern humans in western Europe and the demise of Neandertals. However, which group is responsible for this culture remains uncertain. We investigated dental remains associated with the Protoaurignacian. The lower deciduous incisor from Riparo Bombrini is modern human, based on its morphology. The upper deciduous incisor from Grotta di Fumane contains ancient mitochondrial DNA of a modern human type. These teeth are the oldest human remains in an Aurignacian-related archaeological context, confirming that by 41,000 calendar years before the present, modern humans bearing Protoaurignacian culture spread into southern Europe. Because the last Neandertals date to 41,030 to 39,260 calendar years before the present, we suggest that the Protoaurignacian triggered the demise of Neandertals in this area.

  5. Virtual ancestor reconstruction: Revealing the ancestor of modern humans and Neandertals.

    PubMed

    Mounier, Aurélien; Mirazón Lahr, Marta

    2016-02-01

    The timing and geographic origin of the common ancestor of modern humans and Neandertals remain controversial. A poor Pleistocene hominin fossil record and the evolutionary complexities introduced by dispersals and regionalisation of lineages have fuelled taxonomic uncertainty, while new ancient genomic data have raised completely new questions. Here, we use maximum likelihood and 3D geometric morphometric methods to predict possible morphologies of the last common ancestor of modern humans and Neandertals from a simplified, fully resolved phylogeny. We describe the fully rendered 3D shapes of the predicted ancestors of humans and Neandertals, and assess their similarity to individual fossils or populations of fossils of Pleistocene age. Our results support models of an Afro-European ancestral population in the Middle Pleistocene (Homo heidelbergensis sensu lato) and further predict an African origin for this ancestral population. PMID:26852813

  6. Neandertal origin of genetic variation at the cluster of OAS immunity genes.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Fernando L; Watkins, Joseph C; Hammer, Michael F

    2013-04-01

    Analyses of ancient DNA from extinct humans reveal signals of at least two independent hybridization events in the history of non-African populations. To date, there are very few examples of specific genetic variants that have been rigorously identified as introgressive. Here, we survey DNA sequence variation in the OAS gene cluster on chromosome 12 and provide strong evidence that a haplotype extending for ~185 kb introgressed from Neandertals. This haplotype is nearly restricted to Eurasians and is estimated to have diverged from the Neandertal sequence ~125 kya. Despite the potential for novel functional variation, the observed frequency of this haplotype is consistent with neutral introgression. This is the second locus in the human genome, after STAT2, carrying distinct haplotypes that appear to have introgressed separately from both Neandertals and Denisova. PMID:23315957

  7. The Roc de Marsal Neandertal child: a reassessment of its status as a deliberate burial.

    PubMed

    Sandgathe, Dennis M; Dibble, Harold L; Goldberg, Paul; McPherron, Shannon P

    2011-09-01

    Whether Neandertals buried their dead has considerable bearing on the debate concerning the nature of their cultural behavior. Among the claims for intentional Neandertal burial in Europe, the child from Roc de Marsal has long been one of the less contentious examples because its articulated skeleton was found in what has become widely accepted as an intentionally excavated pit. However, what is known about the context of the Roc de Marsal remains from the original descriptions, coupled with new stratigraphic, sedimentological, and archaeological data on the site from recent excavations, cast serious doubt on this interpretation.

  8. [Giant chondroblastoma of the femur].

    PubMed

    Zaspa, O A

    2014-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is a benign cartilaginous bone tumor. The large dimension and aggressive local spread of the tumor may create a diagnostic problem. A 24 x 17 x 15-cm chondroblastoma is described in a 50 year-old woman. The tumor of typical structure was located in the upper femur, growing into soft tissues and pelvic bones. Thirteen months following interilioabdominal exarticulation, the patient was found to have neither local recurrence nor distant metastases.

  9. [Giant chondroblastoma of the femur].

    PubMed

    Zaspa, O A

    2014-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is a benign cartilaginous bone tumor. The large dimension and aggressive local spread of the tumor may create a diagnostic problem. A 24 x 17 x 15-cm chondroblastoma is described in a 50 year-old woman. The tumor of typical structure was located in the upper femur, growing into soft tissues and pelvic bones. Thirteen months following interilioabdominal exarticulation, the patient was found to have neither local recurrence nor distant metastases. PMID:25842928

  10. [Application of the musculo-skeletal modelling software lhpFusionBox to a paleoanthropological problem: the Spyrou Neandertal moves!].

    PubMed

    Chapman, Tara; Semal, Patrick; Moiseev, Fedor; Louryan, Stéphane; Rooze, Marcel; Van Sint Jan, Serge

    2013-01-01

    LhpFusionBox is a program originally designed for biomechanical and clinical studies relating to the musculoskeletal system of anatomically modern humans (AMH). The program has recently been adapted for paleontological purposes and used to reconstruct and biomechanically analyse a fossil hominid. There is no complete Neandertal skeleton in the fossil record. The aim of the study was to reconstruct a complete three-dimensional (3D) model of a Neandertal using the relatively complete Spy II Neandertal and to conduct biomechanical feasibility studies on the knee and hamstring moment arms of the skeleton. Different Neandertal specimens were scaled to the size of Spy II to replace incomplete or missing bones. Biomechanical feasibility studies performed on the knee seem to show that Neandertal and AMHh gait is similar and Neandertals were shown to have larger moment arms in the hamstring muscles, which would have given them a mechanical advantage. The complete Neandertal was printed in 3D and used as the base to create the artistic model of "Spyrou" housed at l'Espace de l'Homme de Spy (EHoS) museum.

  11. Shanidar 3 Neandertal rib puncture wound and paleolithic weaponry.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Steven E; Franciscus, Robert G; McKean-Peraza, Hilary A; Daniel, Julie A; Warren, Brittany R

    2009-08-01

    Since its discovery and initial description in the 1960s, the penetrating lesion to the left ninth rib of the Shanidar 3 Neandertal has been a focus for discussion about interpersonal violence and weapon technology in the Middle Paleolithic. Recent experimental studies using lithic points on animal targets suggest that aspects of weapon system dynamics can be inferred from the form of the bony lesions they produce. Thus, to better understand the circumstances surrounding the traumatic injury suffered by Shanidar 3, we conducted controlled stabbing experiments with replicas of Mousterian and Levallois points directed against the thoraces of pig carcasses. Stabs were conducted under both high and low kinetic energy conditions, in an effort to replicate the usual impact forces associated with thrusting spear vs. long-range projectile weapon systems, respectively. Analysis of the lesions produced in the pig ribs, along with examination of goat ribs subjected primarily to high kinetic energy stabs from an independent experiment, revealed consistent differences in damage patterns between the two conditions. In the case of Shanidar 3, the lack of major involvement of more than one rib, the lack of fracturing of the affected and adjacent ribs, and the lack of bony defects associated with the lesion (such as wastage, hinging, and radiating fracture lines) suggests that the weapon that wounded him was carrying relatively low kinetic energy. While accidental injury or attack with a thrusting spear or knife cannot absolutely be ruled out, the position, angulation, and morphology of the lesion is most consistent with injury by a low-mass, low-kinetic energy projectile weapon. Given the potential temporal overlap of Shanidar 3 with early modern humans in western Asia, and the possibility that the latter were armed with projectile weapon systems, this case carries more than simple paleoforensic interest.

  12. Evidence for Neandertal jewelry: modified white-tailed eagle claws at Krapina.

    PubMed

    Radovčić, Davorka; Sršen, Ankica Oros; Radovčić, Jakov; Frayer, David W

    2015-01-01

    We describe eight, mostly complete white-tailed eagle (Haliaëtus [Haliaeetus] albicilla) talons from the Krapina Neandertal site in present-day Croatia, dating to approximately 130 kyrs ago. Four talons bear multiple, edge-smoothed cut marks; eight show polishing facets and/or abrasion. Three of the largest talons have small notches at roughly the same place along the plantar surface, interrupting the proximal margin of the talon blade. These features suggest they were part of a jewelry assemblage, --- the manipulations a consequence of mounting the talons in a necklace or bracelet. An associated phalanx articulates with one of the talons and has numerous cut marks, some of which are smoothed. These white-tailed eagle bones, discovered more than 100 years ago, all derive from a single level at Krapina and represent more talons than found in the entire European Mousterian period. Presence of eight talons indicates that the Krapina Neandertals acquired and curated eagle talons for some kind of symbolic purpose. Some have argued that Neandertals lacked symbolic ability or copied this behavior from modern humans. These remains clearly show that the Krapina Neandertals made jewelry well before the appearance of modern humans in Europe, extending ornament production and symbolic activity early into the European Mousterian.

  13. The Reality of Neandertal Symbolic Behavior at the Grotte du Renne, Arcy-sur-Cure, France

    PubMed Central

    Caron, François; d'Errico, Francesco; Del Moral, Pierre; Santos, Frédéric; Zilhão, João

    2011-01-01

    Background The question of whether symbolically mediated behavior is exclusive to modern humans or shared with anatomically archaic populations such as the Neandertals is hotly debated. At the Grotte du Renne, Arcy-sur-Cure, France, the Châtelperronian levels contain Neandertal remains and large numbers of personal ornaments, decorated bone tools and colorants, but it has been suggested that this association reflects intrusion of the symbolic artifacts from the overlying Protoaurignacian and/or of the Neandertal remains from the underlying Mousterian. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested these hypotheses against the horizontal and vertical distributions of the various categories of diagnostic finds and statistically assessed the probability that the Châtelperronian levels are of mixed composition. Our results reject that the associations result from large or small scale, localized or generalized post-depositional displacement, and they imply that incomplete sample decontamination is the parsimonious explanation for the stratigraphic anomalies seen in the radiocarbon dating of the sequence. Conclusions/Significance The symbolic artifacts in the Châtelperronian of the Grotte du Renne are indeed Neandertal material culture. PMID:21738702

  14. Evidence for Neandertal Jewelry: Modified White-Tailed Eagle Claws at Krapina

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We describe eight, mostly complete white-tailed eagle (Haliaëtus [Haliaeetus] albicilla) talons from the Krapina Neandertal site in present-day Croatia, dating to approximately 130 kyrs ago. Four talons bear multiple, edge-smoothed cut marks; eight show polishing facets and/or abrasion. Three of the largest talons have small notches at roughly the same place along the plantar surface, interrupting the proximal margin of the talon blade. These features suggest they were part of a jewelry assemblage, --- the manipulations a consequence of mounting the talons in a necklace or bracelet. An associated phalanx articulates with one of the talons and has numerous cut marks, some of which are smoothed. These white-tailed eagle bones, discovered more than 100 years ago, all derive from a single level at Krapina and represent more talons than found in the entire European Mousterian period. Presence of eight talons indicates that the Krapina Neandertals acquired and curated eagle talons for some kind of symbolic purpose. Some have argued that Neandertals lacked symbolic ability or copied this behavior from modern humans. These remains clearly show that the Krapina Neandertals made jewelry well before the appearance of modern humans in Europe, extending ornament production and symbolic activity early into the European Mousterian. PMID:25760648

  15. Balancing selection on a regulatory region exhibiting ancient variation that predates human-neandertal divergence.

    PubMed

    Gokcumen, Omer; Zhu, Qihui; Mulder, Lubbertus C F; Iskow, Rebecca C; Austermann, Christian; Scharer, Christopher D; Raj, Towfique; Boss, Jeremy M; Sunyaev, Shamil; Price, Alkes; Stranger, Barbara; Simon, Viviana; Lee, Charles

    2013-04-01

    Ancient population structure shaping contemporary genetic variation has been recently appreciated and has important implications regarding our understanding of the structure of modern human genomes. We identified a ∼36-kb DNA segment in the human genome that displays an ancient substructure. The variation at this locus exists primarily as two highly divergent haplogroups. One of these haplogroups (the NE1 haplogroup) aligns with the Neandertal haplotype and contains a 4.6-kb deletion polymorphism in perfect linkage disequilibrium with 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across diverse populations. The other haplogroup, which does not contain the 4.6-kb deletion, aligns with the chimpanzee haplotype and is likely ancestral. Africans have higher overall pairwise differences with the Neandertal haplotype than Eurasians do for this NE1 locus (p<10⁻¹⁵). Moreover, the nucleotide diversity at this locus is higher in Eurasians than in Africans. These results mimic signatures of recent Neandertal admixture contributing to this locus. However, an in-depth assessment of the variation in this region across multiple populations reveals that African NE1 haplotypes, albeit rare, harbor more sequence variation than NE1 haplotypes found in Europeans, indicating an ancient African origin of this haplogroup and refuting recent Neandertal admixture. Population genetic analyses of the SNPs within each of these haplogroups, along with genome-wide comparisons revealed significant FST (p = 0.00003) and positive Tajima's D (p = 0.00285) statistics, pointing to non-neutral evolution of this locus. The NE1 locus harbors no protein-coding genes, but contains transcribed sequences as well as sequences with putative regulatory function based on bioinformatic predictions and in vitro experiments. We postulate that the variation observed at this locus predates Human-Neandertal divergence and is evolving under balancing selection, especially among European populations. PMID

  16. Denisovans, Melanesians, Europeans, and Neandertals: The Confusion of DNA Assumptions and the Biological Species Concept.

    PubMed

    Caldararo, Niccolo

    2016-08-01

    A number of recent articles have appeared on the Denisova fossil remains and attempts to produce DNA sequences from them. One of these recently appeared in Science by Vernot et al. (Science 352:235-239, 2016). We would like to advance an alternative interpretation of the data presented. One concerns the problem of contamination/degradation of the determined DNA sequenced. Just as the publication of the first Neandertal sequence included an interpretation that argued that Neandertals had not contributed any genes to modern humans, the Denisovan interpretation has considerable influence on ideas regarding human evolution. The new papers, however, confuse established ideas concerning the nature of species, as well as the use of terms like premodern, Archaic Homo, and Homo heidelbergensis. Examination of these problems presents a solution by means of reinterpreting the results. Given the claims for gene transfer among a number of Mid Pleistocene hominids, it may be time to reexamine the idea of anagenesis in hominid evolution.

  17. Evidence supporting an intentional Neandertal burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints

    PubMed Central

    Rendu, William; Beauval, Cédric; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Balzeau, Antoine; Bismuth, Thierry; Bourguignon, Laurence; Delfour, Géraldine; Faivre, Jean-Philippe; Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François; Tavormina, Carlotta; Todisco, Dominique; Turq, Alain; Maureille, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The bouffia Bonneval at La Chapelle-aux-Saints is well known for the discovery of the first secure Neandertal burial in the early 20th century. However, the intentionality of the burial remains an issue of some debate. Here, we present the results of a 12-y fieldwork project, along with a taphonomic analysis of the human remains, designed to assess the funerary context of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neandertal. We have established the anthropogenic nature of the burial pit and underlined the taphonomic evidence of a rapid burial of the body. These multiple lines of evidence support the hypothesis of an intentional burial. Finally, the discovery of skeletal elements belonging to the original La Chapelle aux Saints 1 individual, two additional young individuals, and a second adult in the bouffia Bonneval highlights a more complex site-formation history than previously proposed. PMID:24344286

  18. A functional test of Neandertal and modern human mitochondrial targeting sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Gralle, Matthias; Schaefer, Ingo; Seibel, Peter; Paeaebo, Svante

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} Two mutations in mitochondrial targeting peptides occurred during human evolution, possibly after Neandertals split off from modern human lineage. {yields} The ancestral and modern human versions of these two targeting peptides were tested functionally for their effects on localization and cleavage rate. {yields} In spite of recent evolution, and to the contrary of other mutations in targeting peptides, these mutations had no visible effects. -- Abstract: Targeting of nuclear-encoded proteins to different organelles, such as mitochondria, is a process that can result in the redeployment of proteins to new intracellular destinations during evolution. With the sequencing of the Neandertal genome, it has become possible to identify amino acid substitutions that occurred on the modern human lineage since its separation from the Neandertal lineage. Here we analyze the function of two substitutions in mitochondrial targeting sequences that occurred and rose to high frequency recently during recent human evolution. The ancestral and modern versions of the two targeting sequences do not differ in the efficiency with which they direct a protein to the mitochondria, an observation compatible with the neutral theory of molecular evolution.

  19. On the antiquity of language: the reinterpretation of Neandertal linguistic capacities and its consequences

    PubMed Central

    Dediu, Dan; Levinson, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    It is usually assumed that modern language is a recent phenomenon, coinciding with the emergence of modern humans themselves. Many assume as well that this is the result of a single, sudden mutation giving rise to the full “modern package.” However, we argue here that recognizably modern language is likely an ancient feature of our genus pre-dating at least the common ancestor of modern humans and Neandertals about half a million years ago. To this end, we adduce a broad range of evidence from linguistics, genetics, paleontology, and archaeology clearly suggesting that Neandertals shared with us something like modern speech and language. This reassessment of the antiquity of modern language, from the usually quoted 50,000–100,000 years to half a million years, has profound consequences for our understanding of our own evolution in general and especially for the sciences of speech and language. As such, it argues against a saltationist scenario for the evolution of language, and toward a gradual process of culture-gene co-evolution extending to the present day. Another consequence is that the present-day linguistic diversity might better reflect the properties of the design space for language and not just the vagaries of history, and could also contain traces of the languages spoken by other human forms such as the Neandertals. PMID:23847571

  20. Brain, calvarium, cladistics: A new approach to an old question, who are modern humans and Neandertals?

    PubMed

    Mounier, Aurélien; Balzeau, Antoine; Caparros, Miguel; Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique

    2016-03-01

    The evolutionary history of the genus Homo is the focus of major research efforts in palaeoanthropology. However, the use of palaeoneurology to infer phylogenies of our genus is rare. Here we use cladistics to test the importance of the brain in differentiating and defining Neandertals and modern humans. The analysis is based on morphological data from the calvarium and endocast of Pleistocene fossils and results in a single most parsimonious cladogram. We demonstrate that the joint use of endocranial and calvarial features with cladistics provides a unique means to understand the evolution of the genus Homo. The main results of this study indicate that: (i) the endocranial features are more phylogenetically informative than the characters from the calvarium; (ii) the specific differentiation of Neandertals and modern humans is mostly supported by well-known calvarial autapomorphies; (iii) the endocranial anatomy of modern humans and Neandertals show strong similarities, which appeared in the fossil record with the last common ancestor of both species; and (iv) apart from encephalisation, human endocranial anatomy changed tremendously during the end of the Middle Pleistocene. This may be linked to major cultural and technological novelties that had happened by the end of the Middle Pleistocene (e.g., expansion of the Middle Stone Age (MSA) in Africa and Mousterian in Europe). The combined study of endocranial and exocranial anatomy offers opportunities to further understand human evolution and the implication for the phylogeny of our genus. PMID:26989014

  1. Maturational timing does not predict HSA estimated adult bone geometry at the proximal femur.

    PubMed

    Jackowski, Stefan A; Kontulainen, Saija A; Cooper, David M L; Lanovaz, Joel L; Baxter-Jones, Adam D G

    2011-12-01

    Late maturational timing is documented to be detrimental to bone strength primarily at the distal radius. Studies at the proximal femur have focused on bone mass and the results remain controversial. The purpose of this study was to examine the long term relationship between the onset of maturation and the development of estimated cross sectional area (CSA) and section modulus (Z) at the proximal femur. Two hundred and twenty six individuals (108 males and 118 females) from the Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (PBMAS) were classified into maturity groups based on age of attainment of peak height velocity. CSA and Z were serially assessed at the narrow neck (NN), intertrochanter (IT) and proximal shaft (S) sites using hip structural analysis (HSA). Multilevel models were constructed to examine the development of CSA and Z by maturity group. Cross sectional observations indicated that during adolescence, early maturing males had significantly greater CSA and Z than late maturing males at all sites of the proximal femur, while early maturing females had greater Z at the NN and S, and greater CSA at the NN, IT and S sites compared to late maturing females. When age, body size, body composition, physical activity and dietary intake were controlled no significant effects of maturational timing were found at the NN, IT or S regions (p>0.05) in either males or females. In this population of healthy individuals there appears to be no effect of the onset of maturation on estimated CSA and Z development at the proximal femur in both males and females. This may be a result of the proximal femur's loading environment. Future research is required to determine the role of loading on the relationship between maturational timing and bone structure and strength development at the proximal femur.

  2. Automated Acquisition of Proximal Femur Morphological Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabakovic, Slobodan; Zeljkovic, Milan; Milojevic, Zoran

    2014-10-01

    The success of the hip arthroplasty surgery largely depends on the endoprosthesis adjustment to the patient's femur. This implies that the position of the femoral bone in relation to the pelvis is preserved and that the endoprosthesis position ensures its longevity. Dimensions and body shape of the hip joint endoprosthesis and its position after the surgery depend on a number of geometrical parameters of the patient's femur. One of the most suitable methods for determination of these parameters involves 3D reconstruction of femur, based on diagnostic images, and subsequent determination of the required geometric parameters. In this paper, software for automated determination of geometric parameters of the femur is presented. Detailed software development procedure for the purpose of faster and more efficient design of the hip endoprosthesis that ensures patients' specific requirements is also offered

  3. Comments on Soltysiak's paper: "Comment: low dental caries rate in Neandertals: the result of diet or the oral flora compositions?".

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Jacek

    2012-08-01

    A low frequency of dental caries in Neandertal population is still puzzling. Many authors stress that the lower frequency of dental caries was related to a meat diet. However, a recent publication in HOMO - Journal Comparative Human Biology presented a new interpretation of dental caries in Neandertals. In this article, Soltysiak supports the thesis that the lower frequency of caries in the Neandertal population from the Near East could not be related to the low-sugar diet, but rather to the absence of cariogenic bacteria species (S. mutans). Although this hypothesis is interesting, I suspect it to be based on several erroneous assumptions, and a misunderstanding of caries as a disease. Although he stressed that the caries lesion is related to many different factors, in his argument he considers one of two alternatives "a low-sugar diet or a lack of cariogenic bacterial species".

  4. The Neandertal lower right deciduous second molar from Trou de l'Abîme at Couvin, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Michel; Olejniczak, Anthony J; El Zaatari, Sireen; Cattelain, Pierre; Flas, Damien; Letourneux, Claire; Pirson, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    A human lower right deciduous second molar was discovered in 1984 at the entrance of Trou de l'Abîme at Couvin (Belgium). In subsequent years the interpretation of this fossil remained difficult for various reasons: (1) the lack of taxonomically diagnostic elements which would support its attribution to either Homo (sapiens) neanderthalensis or H. s. sapiens; (2) the absence of any reliable chronostratigraphic interpretation of the sedimentary sequence of the site; (3) the contradiction between archaeological interpretations, which attributed the lithic industry to a transitional facies between the Middle and Early Upper Palaeolithic, and the radiocarbon date of 46,820+/-3,290BP obtained from animal bone remains associated with the tooth and the flint tools. Thanks to recent progress regarding these three aspects, the tooth from Trou de l'Abîme may now be studied in detail. Analyses of the morphology and enamel thickness of the fossil yielded diagnostic characters consistent with an attribution to Neandertals. Re-examination of the lithic industry of Couvin shows that it corresponds to the late Middle Palaeolithic rather than a transitional facies. Furthermore, a new analysis of the site stratigraphy indicates that the unit situated above the archaeological layer in which the tooth was found is probably a palaeosol of brown soil type. Comparison with the regional cave sequences as well as with the reference sequence from the Belgian loess belt tends to show that the most recent palaeosol of this type is dated between 42,000 and 40,000BP. This is consistent with both a recently obtained AMS result at 44,500BP and the published conventional date.

  5. La Ferrassie 8 Neandertal child reloaded: New remains and re-assessment of the original collection.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Balzeau, Antoine

    2015-05-01

    The first evidence of the partial infant Neandertal skeleton La Ferrassie 8 (LF8) was discovered in 1970, although most of the remains were found in 1973 as part of the 1968-1973 work at the site by H. Delporte. This individual and the other Neandertal children from La Ferrassie were published in the early 1980s by J.-L. Heim, and since then LF8 has been regarded as coming from a poorly documented excavation. The recent rediscovery of the box that contained the hominin bones given by Delporte to Heim in the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (MNHN) collection provided new fossils and helped to locate LF8 in the site: level M2 in square 1. Two visits to the Musée d'Archéologie nationale et Domaine national de Saint-Germain-en-Laye (MAN) yielded additional fossil remains from both the 1970 and 1973 excavations and resulted in the discovery of all of the notes from the excavation of H. Delporte between 1968 and 1973. Here the new fossil remains (47 after performing all possible refits), representing significant portions of the cranium, mandible, and vertebral column together with fragmentary hand and costal remains, are described. Unsurprisingly, the morphology of the bony labyrinth and of a complete stapes from the nearly complete left temporal show clear Neandertal affinities. Additionally, a complete reassessment of the original LF8 collection has resulted in the identification of several errors in the anatomical determination. Despite the significant increase in the anatomical representation of LF8, the skeletal remains are still limited to the head, thorax, pelvis, and four hand phalanges, with some very fragile elements relatively well preserved. Different hypotheses are proposed to explain this anatomical representation, which can be tested during future fieldwork.

  6. Stratigraphic context and direct dating of the Neandertal mandible from Cova del Gegant (Sitges, Barcelona).

    PubMed

    Daura, J; Sanz, M; Pike, A W G; Subirà, M E; Fornós, J J; Fullola, J M; Julià, R; Zilhão, J

    2010-07-01

    Stratigraphic study of the Cova del Gegant's sedimentary fill revealed different cycles of accumulation of typical interior cave and delta facies. A precise chronology for these deposits, the faunal remains and stone tools contained therein was obtained by radiocarbon, U-Th and OSL. Our results indicate that the Upper Pleistocene archaeological sequence dates between 49.3 +/- 1.8 ka BP, the U-Th age of the overlying flowstone, and 60.0 +/- 3.9 ka BP, the OSL age of the basal deposits. We have also directly dated the site's Neandertal mandible to 52.3 +/- 2.3 ka by U-Th.

  7. Handedness in Neandertals from the El Sidrón (Asturias, Spain): Evidence from Instrumental Striations with Ontogenetic Inferences

    PubMed Central

    Estalrrich, Almudena; Rosas, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The developed cognitive capabilities for Homo sapiens seems to be the result of a specialized and lateralized brain, and as a result of this, humans display the highest degree of manual specialization or handedness among the primates. Studies regarding its emergence and distribution within the genus Homo show that handedness is present very early. The mode in which it was articulated and spread across the different species during the course of human evolution could provide information about our own cognitive capacities. Here we report the manual laterality attributed to eleven 49,000 old Neandertal individuals from El Sidrón cave (Spain), through the study of instrumental or cultural striations on the anterior dentition. Our results show a predominant pattern addressed to right-handers. These results fit within the modern human handedness distribution pattern and provide indirect evidence for behavior and brain lateralization on Neandertals. They support the early establishment of handedness in our genus. Moreover, the individual identified as Juvenile 1 (6–8 years old at death), displays the same striation pattern as the adult Neandertals from the sample, and thereby the ontogenic development of manual laterality in that Neandertal population seems to be similar to that of living modern humans. PMID:23671635

  8. Encephalization and allometric trajectories in the genus Homo: Evidence from the Neandertal and modern lineages

    PubMed Central

    Bruner, Emiliano; Manzi, Giorgio; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2003-01-01

    The term “encephalization” is commonly used to describe an enlargement in brain size, considered as either absolute endocranial volumes or relative values in relation to body size. It is widely recognized that a considerable endocranial expansion occurred throughout the evolution of the genus Homo. This article aims to evaluate whether this phenomenon was the outcome of distinct evolutionary lineages, reaching similar brain expansions but through different trajectories. Endocranial morphology was studied in a sample of fossil hominines by multivariate approaches using both traditional metrics and geometric morphometrics. The analysis was focused on the transition from a generalized archaic pattern within the genus Homo to the modern morphology and compared with changes that occurred along the Neandertal lineage. The main result was the identification of two different evolutionary trajectories, in which a similar expansion in endocranial size has been reached by different changes in shape. Along the Neandertal lineage we observed maintenance of an “archaic” endocranial model, in which a large amount of variability is based on a single allometric trend. By contrast, when modern endocasts were compared with nonmodern ones, we found important differences apparently led by a parietal expansion. In this light, the origin of our species may have represented the opportunity to surpass the constraints imposed on encephalization by the ontogenetic pattern shared by nonmodern Homo representatives. PMID:14673084

  9. Denisovans, Melanesians, Europeans, and Neandertals: The Confusion of DNA Assumptions and the Biological Species Concept.

    PubMed

    Caldararo, Niccolo

    2016-08-01

    A number of recent articles have appeared on the Denisova fossil remains and attempts to produce DNA sequences from them. One of these recently appeared in Science by Vernot et al. (Science 352:235-239, 2016). We would like to advance an alternative interpretation of the data presented. One concerns the problem of contamination/degradation of the determined DNA sequenced. Just as the publication of the first Neandertal sequence included an interpretation that argued that Neandertals had not contributed any genes to modern humans, the Denisovan interpretation has considerable influence on ideas regarding human evolution. The new papers, however, confuse established ideas concerning the nature of species, as well as the use of terms like premodern, Archaic Homo, and Homo heidelbergensis. Examination of these problems presents a solution by means of reinterpreting the results. Given the claims for gene transfer among a number of Mid Pleistocene hominids, it may be time to reexamine the idea of anagenesis in hominid evolution. PMID:27517578

  10. Encephalization and allometric trajectories in the genus Homo: evidence from the Neandertal and modern lineages.

    PubMed

    Bruner, Emiliano; Manzi, Giorgio; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2003-12-23

    The term "encephalization" is commonly used to describe an enlargement in brain size, considered as either absolute endocranial volumes or relative values in relation to body size. It is widely recognized that a considerable endocranial expansion occurred throughout the evolution of the genus Homo. This article aims to evaluate whether this phenomenon was the outcome of distinct evolutionary lineages, reaching similar brain expansions but through different trajectories. Endocranial morphology was studied in a sample of fossil hominines by multivariate approaches using both traditional metrics and geometric morphometrics. The analysis was focused on the transition from a generalized archaic pattern within the genus Homo to the modern morphology and compared with changes that occurred along the Neandertal lineage. The main result was the identification of two different evolutionary trajectories, in which a similar expansion in endocranial size has been reached by different changes in shape. Along the Neandertal lineage we observed maintenance of an "archaic" endocranial model, in which a large amount of variability is based on a single allometric trend. By contrast, when modern endocasts were compared with nonmodern ones, we found important differences apparently led by a parietal expansion. In this light, the origin of our species may have represented the opportunity to surpass the constraints imposed on encephalization by the ontogenetic pattern shared by nonmodern Homo representatives.

  11. Symbolic use of marine shells and mineral pigments by Iberian Neandertals

    PubMed Central

    Zilhão, João; Angelucci, Diego E.; Badal-García, Ernestina; d’Errico, Francesco; Daniel, Floréal; Dayet, Laure; Douka, Katerina; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Martínez-Sánchez, María José; Montes-Bernárdez, Ricardo; Murcia-Mascarós, Sonia; Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Roldán-García, Clodoaldo; Vanhaeren, Marian; Villaverde, Valentín; Wood, Rachel; Zapata, Josefina

    2010-01-01

    Two sites of the Neandertal-associated Middle Paleolithic of Iberia, dated to as early as approximately 50,000 years ago, yielded perforated and pigment-stained marine shells. At Cueva de los Aviones, three umbo-perforated valves of Acanthocardia and Glycymeris were found alongside lumps of yellow and red colorants, and residues preserved inside a Spondylus shell consist of a red lepidocrocite base mixed with ground, dark red-to-black fragments of hematite and pyrite. A perforated Pecten shell, painted on its external, white side with an orange mix of goethite and hematite, was abandoned after breakage at Cueva Antón, 60 km inland. Comparable early modern human-associated material from Africa and the Near East is widely accepted as evidence for body ornamentation, implying behavioral modernity. The Iberian finds show that European Neandertals were no different from coeval Africans in this regard, countering genetic/cognitive explanations for the emergence of symbolism and strengthening demographic/social ones. PMID:20080653

  12. Fibrous Dysplasia in a 120,000+ Year Old Neandertal from Krapina, Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Monge, Janet; Kricun, Morrie; Radovčić, Jakov; Radovčić, Davorka; Mann, Alan; Frayer, David W.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the first definitive case of a fibrous dysplastic neoplasm in a Neandertal rib (120.71) from the site of Krapina in present-day Croatia. The tumor predates other evidence for these kinds of tumor by well over 100,000 years. Tumors of any sort are a rare occurrence in recent archaeological periods or in living primates, but especially in the human fossil record. Several studies have surveyed bone diseases in past human populations and living primates and fibrous dysplasias occur in a low incidence. Within the class of bone tumors of the rib, fibrous dysplasia is present in living humans at a higher frequency than other bone tumors. The bony features leading to our diagnosis are described in detail. In living humans effects of the neoplasm present a broad spectrum of symptoms, from asymptomatic to debilitating. Given the incomplete nature of this rib and the lack of associated skeletal elements, we resist commenting on the health effects the tumor had on the individual. Yet, the occurrence of this neoplasm shows that at least one Neandertal suffered a common bone tumor found in modern humans. PMID:23755126

  13. Proximal femur articulation in Pliocene hominids.

    PubMed

    Asfaw, B

    1985-12-01

    The supposed "nonhuman anthropoid"-type femur head articular surface described for the Pliocene hominid specimen A.L.288-1 ("Lucy") by Stern and Susman in 1983 is present in significant numbers of modern human femora. This nonmetric skeletal trait was also found to be sex-related in modern human samples examined.

  14. Open femur fracture secondary to hippopotamus bite.

    PubMed

    Lin, H H; Hulsey, R E

    1993-01-01

    The surgical treatment of a patient who sustained a grade IIIC open femur fracture as a result of a hippopotamus bite is described. We review the available literature on large wild animal attacks to humans. A standard protocol for management of open fractures was followed in this patient, and eventually led to a good result.

  15. Sexual dimorphism in the human bony pelvis, with a consideration of the Neandertal pelvis from Kebara Cave, Israel.

    PubMed

    Tague, R G

    1992-05-01

    Sexual dimorphism of the human pelvis is inferentially related to obstetrics. However, researchers disagree in the identification and obstetric significance of pelvic dimorphisms. This study addresses three issues. First, common patterns in dimorphism are identified by analysis of pelvimetrics from six independent samples (Whites and Blacks of known sex and four Amerindian samples of unknown sex). Second, an hypothesis is tested that the index of pelvic dimorphism (female mean x 100/male mean) is inversely related to pelvic variability. Third, the pelvic dimensions of the Neandertal male from Kebara cave, Israel are compared with those of the males in this study. The results show that the pelvic inlet is the plane of least dimorphism in humans. The reason that reports often differ in the identification of dimorphisms for this pelvic plane is that both the length of the pubis and the shape of the inlet are related to nutrition. The dimensions of the pelvis that are most dimorphic (that is, female larger than male) are the measures of posterior space, angulation of sacrum, biischial breadth, and subpubic angle. Interestingly, these dimensions are also the most variable. The hypothesis that variability and dimorphism are inversely related fails to be supported. The factors that influence pelvic variability are discussed. The Kebara 2 pelvis has a spacious inlet and a confined outlet relative to modern males, though the circumferences of both planes in the Neandertal are within the range of variation of modern males. The inference is that outlet circumference in Neandertal females is also small in size, but within the range of variation of modern females. Arguments that Neandertal newborns were larger in size than those of modern humans necessarily imply that birth was more difficult in Neandertals.

  16. The relevance of the first ribs of the El Sidrón site (Asturias, Spain) for the understanding of the Neandertal thorax.

    PubMed

    Bastir, Markus; García-Martínez, Daniel; Estalrrich, Almudena; García-Tabernero, Antonio; Huguet, Rosa; Ríos, Luis; Barash, Alon; Recheis, Wolfgang; de la Rasilla, Marco; Rosas, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    Reconstructing the morphology of the Neanderthal rib cage not only provides information about the general evolution of human body shape but also aids understanding of functional anatomy and energetics. Despite this paleobiological importance there is still debate about the nature and extent of variations in the size and shape of the Neandertal thorax. The El Sidrón Neandertals can be used to contribute to this debate, providing new costal remains ranging from fully preserved and undistorted ribs to highly fragmented elements. Six first ribs are particularly well preserved and offer the opportunity to analyze thorax morphology in Neandertals. The aims of this paper are to present this new material, to compare the ontogenetic trajectories of the first ribs between Neandertals and modern humans, and, using geometric morphometrics, to test the hypothesis of morphological integration between the first rib and overall thorax morphology. The first ribs of the El Sidrón adult Neandertals are smaller in centroid size and tend to be less curved when compared with those of modern humans, but are similar to Kebara 2. Our results further show that the straightening of the first ribs is significantly correlated with a straightening of the ribs of the upper thorax (R = 0.66; p < 0.0001) in modern humans, suggesting modularity in the upper and lower thorax units as reported in other hominins. It also supports the hypothesis that the upper thorax of Neandertals differs in shape from modern humans with more anteriorly projecting upper ribs during inspiration. These differences could have biomechanical consequences and account for stronger muscle attachments in Neandertals. Different upper thorax shape would also imply a different spatial arrangement of the shoulder girdle and articulation with the humerus (torsion) and its connection to the upper thorax. Future research should address these inferences in the context of Neandertal overall body morphology.

  17. Fractures of the Femur. End Results*

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    guidance [5]. We reproduce here an article in which Dr. Henderson reviewed 222 consecutive cases of femur fractures, 165 of which had been referred late because of complications of fractures treated elsewhere (clearly, by 1921, the Mayo Clinic was a referral source for others) [2]. Followup could not have been easy at a time when patients often came from a distance and travel was difficult, but it was described when available and in 40 of the 57 recent fractures, Henderson reported 87.5% were “cured.” Of the 165 old fractures, he was able to trace 143 (87%), a remarkable figure even today. He reported 90% of the femoral neck fractures were cured by various sorts of nonsurgical (6 patients) or surgical reconstructive (39 patients) means; 85% of the femoral shaft fractures were cured by either nonoperative (29 patients) or operative (69 patients) means. While he did not use the sort of outcomes we use today (the earliest orthopaedic outcome instruments were not introduced for four more decades: by Carroll B. Larson in 1963 [3] and William H. Harris in 1969 [1]), we can only presume Henderson meant union was achieved when patients were “cured” since nonunion or malunion would not have likely produced good results. That being the case, his rate of union was remarkable and would be enviable today in these sometimes difficult situations, attesting to his understanding of the individual situations and his skills. Melvin S. Henderson, MD is shown. Photograph is reproduced with permission and ©American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Fifty Years of Progress, 1983. References Harris WH. Traumatic arthritis of the hip after dislocation and acetabular fractures: treatment by mold arthroplasty: an end-result study using a new method of result evaluation. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1969;51:737–755. Henderson MS. Fractures of the femur: end results. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1921;3:520–528. Larson CB. Rating scale for hip disabilities. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1963;31:85–93. Mostofi

  18. A biomechanical comparison of composite femurs and cadaver femurs used in experiments on operated hip fractures.

    PubMed

    Basso, Trude; Klaksvik, Jomar; Syversen, Unni; Foss, Olav A

    2014-12-18

    Fourth generation composite femurs (4GCFs, models #3406 and #3403) simulate femurs of males <80 years with good bone quality. Since most hip fractures occur in old women with fragile bones, concern is raised regarding the use of standard 4GCFs in biomechanical experiments. In this study the stability of hip fracture fixations in 4GCFs was compared to human cadaver femurs (HCFs) selected to represent patients with hip fractures. Ten 4GCFs (Sawbones, Pacific Research Laboratories, Inc., Vashon, WA, USA) were compared to 24 HCFs from seven females and five males >60 years. Proximal femur anthropometric measurements were noted. Strain gauge rosettes were attached and femurs were mounted in a hip simulator applying a combined subject-specific axial load and torque. Baseline measurements of resistance to deformation were recorded. Standardized femoral neck fractures were surgically stabilized before the constructs were subjected to 20,000 load-cycles. An optical motion tracking system measured relative movements. Median (95% CI) head fragment migration was 0.8mm (0.4 to 1.1) in the 4GCF group versus 2.2mm (1.5 to 4.6) in the cadaver group (p=0.001). This difference in fracture stability could not be explained by observed differences in femoral anthropometry or potential overloading of 4GCFs. 4GCFs failed with fracture-patterns different from those observed in cadavers. To conclude, standard 4GCFs provide unrealistically stable bone-implant constructs and fail with fractures not observed in cadavers. Until a validated osteopenic or osteoporotic composite femur model is provided, standard 4GCFs should only be used when representing the biomechanical properties of young healthy femurs.

  19. Treatment Options for Distal Femur Fractures.

    PubMed

    von Keudell, Arvind; Shoji, Kristin; Nasr, Michael; Lucas, Robert; Dolan, Robert; Weaver, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    Despite advances in implant design, the management of distal femur fractures remains challenging. Fracture comminution and intra-articular extension can make it difficult to obtain an adequate reduction while preserving the soft tissue attachments to bone fragments to allow for bone healing. Many implant manufacturers have developed optimal anatomically contoured, distal femoral locking plates with percutaneous guides. This environment allows for the application of lateral locked plates in a biologically friendly manner. Although initial reports had high success rates, more recently a high rate of nonunion has been found, particularly in elderly patients. Limited literature is available for the treatment of patients with osteoporotic bone and associated ipsilateral total knee replacement and hip replacement. We present a patient with a distal femur fracture with significant comminution in the setting of an ipsilateral total hip replacement. PMID:27441931

  20. A Neandertal mandible from the Cova del Gegant (Sitges, Barcelona, Spain).

    PubMed

    Daura, J; Sanz, M; Subirá, M E; Quam, R; Fullola, J M; Arsuaga, J L

    2005-07-01

    A human mandible from the site of Cova del Gegant is described here for the first time and compared with other Middle and Upper Pleistocene representatives of the genus Homo from Europe and Southwest Asia. The specimen was recovered from sediments which also yielded Mousterian stone tools and Pleistocene fauna. The preserved morphology of the mandible, particularly in the region of the mental foramen, clearly aligns it with the Neandertals, making the Cova del Gegant the only known site in Catalonia documenting diagnostic human skeletal remains in association with Middle Paleolithic stone tools. This represents an important new addition to the human fossil record from the Iberian Peninsula and joins the Bañolas mandible in documenting the course of human evolution in the northern Mediterranean region of Spain.

  1. Reconstructing the DNA methylation maps of the Neandertal and the Denisovan.

    PubMed

    Gokhman, David; Lavi, Eitan; Prüfer, Kay; Fraga, Mario F; Riancho, José A; Kelso, Janet; Pääbo, Svante; Meshorer, Eran; Carmel, Liran

    2014-05-01

    Ancient DNA sequencing has recently provided high-coverage archaic human genomes. However, the evolution of epigenetic regulation along the human lineage remains largely unexplored. We reconstructed the full DNA methylation maps of the Neandertal and the Denisovan by harnessing the natural degradation processes of methylated and unmethylated cytosines. Comparing these ancient methylation maps to those of present-day humans, we identified ~2000 differentially methylated regions (DMRs). Particularly, we found substantial methylation changes in the HOXD cluster that may explain anatomical differences between archaic and present-day humans. Additionally, we found that DMRs are significantly more likely to be associated with diseases. This study provides insight into the epigenetic landscape of our closest evolutionary relatives and opens a window to explore the epigenomes of extinct species.

  2. First direct dating of a presumed Pleistocene hominid from China: AMS radiocarbon age of a femur from the Ordos Plateau.

    PubMed

    Keates, Susan G; Hodgins, Gregory W L; Kuzmin, Yaroslav V; Orlova, Lyobov A

    2007-07-01

    Human remains from the Xarusgol Valley, Ordos Plateau, northwestern China, have been considered to date to the Late Pleistocene. In order to ascertain their true age, direct AMS (14)C dating of a femur collected in the early 1920s was conducted. The results demonstrate that the femur is very young, with one sample of 'post-bomb' age and the other sample c. 200 years old. This first direct dating of a Chinese fossil hominid underscores the need to apply the same methodology to other Chinese modern human fossils currently believed to be of Pleistocene age.

  3. Home-range size in large-bodied carnivores as a model for predicting neandertal territory size.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Steven Emilio; Walker, Christopher Scott; Schwartz, Adam Michael

    2016-05-01

    Adult human foragers expend roughly 30-60 kcal per km in unburdened walking at optimal speeds.(1,2) In the context of foraging rounds and residential moves, they may routinely travel distances of 50-70 km per week, often while carrying loads.(3) Movement on the landscape, then, is arguably the single most expensive item in the activity budgets of hunter-gatherers. Mobility costs may have been greater still for Neandertals. They had stocky, short-limbed physiques that were energetically costly to move(4) and lived in relatively unproductive Pleistocene environments(5) that may have required greater movement to deal with problems of biodepletion and resource patchiness.(6) But just how mobile were the Neandertals? PMID:27312183

  4. Paleoclimate during Neandertal and anatomically modern human occupation at Amud and Qafzeh, Israel: the stable isotope data.

    PubMed

    Hallin, Kristin A; Schoeninger, Margaret J; Schwarcz, Henry P

    2012-01-01

    The δ(13)C(en) and δ(18)O(en) values of goat and gazelle enamel carbonate indicate that Neandertals at Amud Cave, Israel (53-70 ka) lived under different ecological conditions than did anatomically modern humans at Qafzeh Cave, Israel (approximately 92 ka). During the Last Glacial Period, Neandertals at Amud Cave lived under wetter conditions than those in the region today. Neither faunal species ate arid-adapted C(4) plants or drought-stressed C(3) plants. The variation in gazelle δ(18)O(en) values suggests multiple birth seasons, which today occur under wetter than normal conditions. The magnitude and pattern of intra-tooth variation in goat δ(18)O(en) values indicate that rain fell throughout the year unlike today. Anatomically modern humans encountered a Qafzeh Cave region that was more open and arid than Glacial Period Amud Cave, and more open than today's Upper Galilee region. Goat δ(13)C(en) values indicate feeding on varying amounts of C(4) plants throughout the year. The climate apparently ameliorated higher in the sequence; but habitats remained more open than at Amud Cave. Both gazelles and goats fed on C(3) plants in brushy habitats without any inclusion of C(4) plants. The magnitude of intra-tooth variation in goat δ(18)O(en) values, however, suggest that some rain fell throughout the year, and the relative representation of woodland dwelling species indicates the occurrence of woodlands in the region. Climate differences affecting the distribution of plants and animals appear to be the significant factor contributing to behavioral differences previously documented between Neandertals and anatomically modern humans in the region. Climate forcing probably affected the early appearances of anatomically modern humans, although not the disappearance of Neandertals from the Levant. PMID:22115545

  5. Paleoneurology of two new neandertal occipitals from El Sidrón (asturias, Spain) in the context of homo endocranial evolution.

    PubMed

    Peña-Melián, Angel; Rosas, Antonio; García-Tabernero, Antonio; Bastir, Markus; De La Rasilla, Marco

    2011-08-01

    The endocranial surface description and comparative analyses of two new neandertal occipital fragments (labelled SD-1149 and SD-370a) from the El Sidrón site (Asturias, Spain) reveal new aspects of neandertal brain morphological asymmetries. The dural sinus drainage pattern, as observed on the sagittal-transverse system, as well as the cerebral occipito-petalias, point out a slightly differential configuration of the neandertal brain when compared to other Homo species, especially H. sapiens. The neandertal dural sinus drainage pattern is organized in a more asymmetric mode, in such a way that the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) drains either to the right or to the left transverse sinuses, but in no case in a confluent mode (i.e. simultaneous continuation of SSS with both right (RTS) and left (LTS) transverse sinuses). Besides, the superior sagittal sinus shows an accentuated deviation from of the mid-sagittal plane in its way to the RTS in 35% of neandertals. This condition, which increases the asymmetry of the system, is almost nonexistent neither in the analyzed Homo fossil species sample nor in that of anatomically modern humans. Regarding the cerebral occipito-petalias, neandertals manifest one of the lowest percentages of left petalia of the Homo sample (including modern H. sapiens). As left occipito-petalia is the predominant pattern in hominins, it seems as if neandertals would have developed a different pattern of brain hemispheres asymmetry. Finally, the relief and position of the the cerebral sulci and gyri impressions observed in the El Sidrón occipital specimens look similar to those observed in modern H. sapiens.

  6. The shape of the distal femur: a palaeopathological comparison of eburnated and non-eburnated femora

    PubMed Central

    Shepstone, L.; Rogers, J.; Kirwan, J.; Silverman, B.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To determine the difference in shape of the distal femur, viewed axially in two dimensions, between eburnated and non-eburnated femora.
METHODS—A comparison of 52 non-eburnated and 16 eburnated femora drawn from a large archeological skeletal population. Eburnation was taken to indicate late stage osteoarthritis. Shape variability, based on landmarks, was quantified using a principal components analysis after a Procrustes alignment.
RESULTS—A statistically significant difference was found between the two groups. This was with respect to the patellar groove and the shape of the medial condyle. The latter difference is consistent with bone remodelling as a knee stabilising mechanism.
CONCLUSIONS—Anatomical shape can be quantified using an uncomplicated statistical technique. It was used to quantify the shape of the distal femur and demonstrate shape differences associated with osteoarthritis of the knee.

 Keywords: osteoarthritis; knee; bone remodelling PMID:10343520

  7. Cutmarked human remains bearing Neandertal features and modern human remains associated with the Aurignacian at Les Rois.

    PubMed

    Ramirez Rozzi, Fernando V; d'Errico, Francesco; Vanhaeren, Marian; Grootes, Pieter M; Kerautret, Bertrand; Dujardin, Véronique

    2009-01-01

    The view that Aurignacian technologies and their associated symbolic manifestations represent the archaeologicalproxy for the spread of Anatomically Modern Humans into Europe, is supported by few diagnostic human remains, including those from the Aurignacian site of Les Rois in south-western France. Here we reassess the taxonomic attribution of the human remains, their cultural affiliation, and provide five new radiocarbon dates for the site. Patterns of tooth growth along with the morphological and morphometric analysis of the human remains indicate that a juvenile mandible showing cutmarks presents some Neandertal features, whereas another mandible is attributed to Anatomically Modern Humans. Reappraisal of the archaeological sequence demonstrates that human remains derive from two layers dated to 28-30 kyr BP attributed to the Aurignacian, the only cultural tradition detected at the site. Three possible explanations may account for this unexpected evidence. The first one is that the Aurignacian was exclusively produced by AMH and that the child mandible from unit A2 represents evidence for consumption or, more likely, symbolic use of a Neandertal child by Aurignacian AMH The second possible explanation is that Aurignacian technologies were produced at Les Rois by human groups bearing both AMH and Neandertal features. Human remains from Les Rois would be in this case the first evidence of a biological contact between the two human groups. The third possibility is that all human remains from Les Rois represent an AMH population with conserved plesiomorphic characters suggesting a larger variation in modern humans from the Upper Palaeolithic.

  8. Division of labor by sex and age in Neandertals: an approach through the study of activity-related dental wear.

    PubMed

    Estalrrich, Almudena; Rosas, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    The analysis of activity-related dental wear patterns in prehistoric anatomically modern humans and modern hunter-gatherers has shown sex differences attributable to a gendered division of labor. Neandertals are known to have extensive anterior dental wear related to the use of their front teeth as a tool. In this study we analyze the i) cultural striations (scratches on the labial surface of the anterior teeth with a cut-mark morphology), and ii) dental chipping (ante-mortem microfracture involving enamel or both enamel and dentine) in 19 Neandertal individuals from the l'Hortus (France), Spy (Belgium), and El Sidrón (Spain) sites, and compare the characteristics of those traits with the age and sex estimation for the individuals and among samples. The study reveals that all individuals have cultural striations, but those detected on the adult females are longer than the striations found in adult males. Regarding the distribution of dental chipping, the prevalence of this trait is higher in the maxillary dentition of males whereas females have the majority of dental chipping on their mandibular teeth. The differences detected on the overall activity-related dental wear pattern denote a difference or a division of labor by age and sex in Neandertals while using the mouth as a third hand, i.e., in activities other than the provisioning of food, and provide new evidence for the lifestyle of this Pleistocene fossil human species. PMID:25681013

  9. Division of labor by sex and age in Neandertals: an approach through the study of activity-related dental wear.

    PubMed

    Estalrrich, Almudena; Rosas, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    The analysis of activity-related dental wear patterns in prehistoric anatomically modern humans and modern hunter-gatherers has shown sex differences attributable to a gendered division of labor. Neandertals are known to have extensive anterior dental wear related to the use of their front teeth as a tool. In this study we analyze the i) cultural striations (scratches on the labial surface of the anterior teeth with a cut-mark morphology), and ii) dental chipping (ante-mortem microfracture involving enamel or both enamel and dentine) in 19 Neandertal individuals from the l'Hortus (France), Spy (Belgium), and El Sidrón (Spain) sites, and compare the characteristics of those traits with the age and sex estimation for the individuals and among samples. The study reveals that all individuals have cultural striations, but those detected on the adult females are longer than the striations found in adult males. Regarding the distribution of dental chipping, the prevalence of this trait is higher in the maxillary dentition of males whereas females have the majority of dental chipping on their mandibular teeth. The differences detected on the overall activity-related dental wear pattern denote a difference or a division of labor by age and sex in Neandertals while using the mouth as a third hand, i.e., in activities other than the provisioning of food, and provide new evidence for the lifestyle of this Pleistocene fossil human species.

  10. Fractures of the femur in newborn calves

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, James G.; Dehghani, Seifola; Petrali, Elena H.

    1990-01-01

    A retrospective study of femoral fractures in 77 calves revealed that most occurred in the femoral shaft or in the proximal physis, with thin cortices and periosteal stripping significant problems in fractures of the femoral shaft. Most cases were related to forced extraction, with more left femurs being affected than right. The existence of concurrent disease reduced the success rate by 50% and, when significant additional trauma was present, no calves survived. When all cases were considered regardless of condition, the “longterm” success rate was 43%. PMID:17423560

  11. Femur Model Reconstruction Based on Reverse Engineering and Rapid Prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tongming; Zhang, Zheng; Ni, Hongjun; Deng, Jiawen; Huang, Mingyu

    Precise reconstruction of 3D models is fundamental and crucial to the researches of human femur. In this paper we present our approach towards tackling this problem. The surface of a human femur was scanned using a hand-held 3D laser scanner. The data obtained, in the form of point cloud, was then processed using the reverse engineering software Geomagic and the CAD/CAM software CimatronE to reconstruct a digital 3D model. The digital model was then used by the rapid prototyping machine to build a physical model of human femur using 3D printing. The geometric characteristics of the obtained physical model matched that of the original femur. The process of "physical object - 3D data - digital 3D model - physical model" presented in this paper provides a foundation of precise modeling for the digital manufacturing, virtual assembly, stress analysis, and simulated surgery of artificial bionic femurs.

  12. Genetic Adaptation and Neandertal Admixture Shaped the Immune System of Human Populations.

    PubMed

    Quach, Hélène; Rotival, Maxime; Pothlichet, Julien; Loh, Yong-Hwee Eddie; Dannemann, Michael; Zidane, Nora; Laval, Guillaume; Patin, Etienne; Harmant, Christine; Lopez, Marie; Deschamps, Matthieu; Naffakh, Nadia; Duffy, Darragh; Coen, Anja; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Clément, Frederic; Boland, Anne; Deleuze, Jean-François; Kelso, Janet; Albert, Matthew L; Quintana-Murci, Lluis

    2016-10-20

    Humans differ in the outcome that follows exposure to life-threatening pathogens, yet the extent of population differences in immune responses and their genetic and evolutionary determinants remain undefined. Here, we characterized, using RNA sequencing, the transcriptional response of primary monocytes from Africans and Europeans to bacterial and viral stimuli-ligands activating Toll-like receptor pathways (TLR1/2, TLR4, and TLR7/8) and influenza virus-and mapped expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). We identify numerous cis-eQTLs that contribute to the marked differences in immune responses detected within and between populations and a strong trans-eQTL hotspot at TLR1 that decreases expression of pro-inflammatory genes in Europeans only. We find that immune-responsive regulatory variants are enriched in population-specific signals of natural selection and show that admixture with Neandertals introduced regulatory variants into European genomes, affecting preferentially responses to viral challenges. Together, our study uncovers evolutionarily important determinants of differences in host immune responsiveness between human populations.

  13. Adult Neandertal clavicles from the El Sidrón site (Asturias, Spain) in the context of Homo pectoral girdle evolution.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Antonio; Rodriguez-Perez, Francisco Javier; Bastir, Markus; Estalrrich, Almudena; Huguet, Rosa; García-Tabernero, Antonio; Pastor, Juan Francisco; de la Rasilla, Marco

    2016-06-01

    We undertook a three-dimensional geometric morphometric (3DGM) analysis on 12 new Neandertal clavicle specimens from the El Sidrón site (Spain), dated to 49,000 years ago. The 3DGM methods were applied in a comparative framework in order to improve our understanding of trait polarity in features related to Homo pectoral girdle evolution, using other Neandertals, Homo sapiens, Pan, ATD6-50 (Homo antecessor), and KNM-WT 15000 (Homo ergaster/erectus) in the reference collection. Twenty-nine homologous landmarks were measured for each clavicle. Variation and morphological similarities were assessed through principal component analysis, conducted separately for the complete clavicle and the diaphysis. On average, Neandertal clavicles had significantly larger muscular entheses, double dorsal curvature, clavicle torsion, and cranial orientation of the acromial end than non-Neandertal clavicles; the El Sidrón clavicles fit this pattern. Variation within the samples was large, with extensive overlap between Homo species; only chimpanzee specimens clearly differed from the other specimens in morphometric terms. Taken together, our morphometric analyses are consistent with the following phylogenetic sequence. The primitive condition of the clavicle is manifest in the cranial orientation of both the acromial and sternal ends. The derived condition expressed in the H. sapiens + Neandertal clade is defined by caudal rotation of both the sternal and acromial ends, but with variation in the number of acromia remaining in a certain cranial orientation. Finally, the autapomorphic Neandertal condition is defined by secondarily acquired primitive cranial re-orientation of the acromial end, which varies from individual to individual. These results suggest that the pace of phylogenetic change in the pectoral girdle does not seem to follow that of other postcranial skeletal features. PMID:27260174

  14. Adult Neandertal clavicles from the El Sidrón site (Asturias, Spain) in the context of Homo pectoral girdle evolution.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Antonio; Rodriguez-Perez, Francisco Javier; Bastir, Markus; Estalrrich, Almudena; Huguet, Rosa; García-Tabernero, Antonio; Pastor, Juan Francisco; de la Rasilla, Marco

    2016-06-01

    We undertook a three-dimensional geometric morphometric (3DGM) analysis on 12 new Neandertal clavicle specimens from the El Sidrón site (Spain), dated to 49,000 years ago. The 3DGM methods were applied in a comparative framework in order to improve our understanding of trait polarity in features related to Homo pectoral girdle evolution, using other Neandertals, Homo sapiens, Pan, ATD6-50 (Homo antecessor), and KNM-WT 15000 (Homo ergaster/erectus) in the reference collection. Twenty-nine homologous landmarks were measured for each clavicle. Variation and morphological similarities were assessed through principal component analysis, conducted separately for the complete clavicle and the diaphysis. On average, Neandertal clavicles had significantly larger muscular entheses, double dorsal curvature, clavicle torsion, and cranial orientation of the acromial end than non-Neandertal clavicles; the El Sidrón clavicles fit this pattern. Variation within the samples was large, with extensive overlap between Homo species; only chimpanzee specimens clearly differed from the other specimens in morphometric terms. Taken together, our morphometric analyses are consistent with the following phylogenetic sequence. The primitive condition of the clavicle is manifest in the cranial orientation of both the acromial and sternal ends. The derived condition expressed in the H. sapiens + Neandertal clade is defined by caudal rotation of both the sternal and acromial ends, but with variation in the number of acromia remaining in a certain cranial orientation. Finally, the autapomorphic Neandertal condition is defined by secondarily acquired primitive cranial re-orientation of the acromial end, which varies from individual to individual. These results suggest that the pace of phylogenetic change in the pectoral girdle does not seem to follow that of other postcranial skeletal features.

  15. Direct radiocarbon dates for Vindija G1 and Velika Pećina Late Pleistocene hominid remains

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Fred H.; Trinkaus, Erik; Pettitt, Paul B.; Karavanić, Ivor; Paunović, Maja

    1999-01-01

    New accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dates taken directly on human remains from the Late Pleistocene sites of Vindija and Velika Pećina in the Hrvatsko Zagorje of Croatia are presented. Hominid specimens from both sites have played critical roles in the development of current perspectives on modern human evolutionary emergence in Europe. Dates of ≈28 thousand years (ka) before the present (B.P.) and ≈29 ka B.P. for two specimens from Vindija G1 establish them as the most recent dated Neandertals in the Eurasian range of these archaic humans. The human frontal bone from Velika Pećina, generally considered one of the earliest representatives of modern humans in Europe, dated to ≈5 ka B.P., rendering it no longer pertinent to discussions of modern human origins. Apart from invalidating the only radiometrically based example of temporal overlap between late Neandertal and early modern human fossil remains from within any region of Europe, these dates raise the question of when early modern humans first dispersed into Europe and have implications for the nature and geographic patterning of biological and cultural interactions between these populations and the Neandertals. PMID:10535913

  16. The Pech-de-l'Azé I Neandertal child: ESR, uranium-series, and AMS 14C dating of its MTA type B context.

    PubMed

    Soressi, M; Jones, H L; Rink, W J; Maureille, B; Tillier, A-M

    2007-04-01

    The Pech-de-l'Azé I skull and mandible are included in the juvenile Neandertal remains from Europe. However, some preserved features in the cranial skeleton seem to distinguish the specimen from other Neandertal children. Unfortunately, the stratigraphic position and dating of this child has never been clear. Our recent work on unpublished archives show that the Pech-de-l'Azé I Neandertal child was discovered at the bottom of layer 6, attributed to the Mousterian of Acheulean tradition type B. These skull and mandible are the first diagnostic human remains (aside from an isolated tooth) attributed to the Mousterian of Acheulian tradition (MTA) type B. Consequently, we confirm that Neandertals were the makers of this Mousterian industry, which is characterized by unusual high frequencies of Upper Paleolithic type tools, elongated blanks and blades. We were able to date the context of the hominid remains by dating layer 6 and the layers above and beneath it using ESR, coupled ESR/(230)Th/(234)U (coupled ESR/U-series), and AMS (14)C. Coupled ESR/U-series results on 16 mammalian teeth constrain the age of the uppermost layer 7 to 41-58ka, and layer 6 to 37-51ka. The wide spread in each age estimate results mainly from uncertainties in the gamma-dose rate. These ages are concordant with AMS (14)C ages of two bones coming from the top of layer 6, which provide dates of about 41.7-43.6ka cal BP. A combination of stratigraphic arguments and dating results for layers 6 and 7 show that the Neandertal child cannot be older than 51ka or younger than 41ka. The lowermost layer 4 is shown to be older than 43ka by the principle of superposition and ESR dating in the immediately overlying layer 5. This study shows that the MTA type B had been manufactured by Neandertals before the arrival of anatomically modern humans in the local region. Additionally, by providing a firm chronological framework for the specific morphometric the features of Pech-de-l'Azé I Neandertal child, this

  17. Anatomy-based 3D skeleton extraction from femur model.

    PubMed

    Gharenazifam, Mina; Arbabi, Ehsan

    2014-11-01

    Using 3D models of bones can highly improve accuracy and reliability of orthopaedic evaluation. However, it may impose excessive computational load. This article proposes a fully automatic method for extracting a compact model of the femur from its 3D model. The proposed method works by extracting a 3D skeleton based on the clinical parameters of the femur. Therefore, in addition to summarizing a 3D model of the bone, the extracted skeleton would preserve important clinical and anatomical information. The proposed method has been applied on 3D models of 10 femurs and the results have been evaluated for different resolutions of data.

  18. Possible Further Evidence of Low Genetic Diversity in the El Sidrón (Asturias, Spain) Neandertal Group: Congenital Clefts of the Atlas.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Luis; Rosas, Antonio; Estalrrich, Almudena; García-Tabernero, Antonio; Bastir, Markus; Huguet, Rosa; Pastor, Francisco; Sanchís-Gimeno, Juan Alberto; de la Rasilla, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We present here the first cases in Neandertals of congenital clefts of the arch of the atlas. Two atlases from El Sidrón, northern Spain, present respectively a defect of the posterior (frequency in extant modern human populations ranging from 0.73% to 3.84%), and anterior (frequency in extant modern human populations ranging from 0.087% to 0.1%) arch, a condition in most cases not associated with any clinical manifestation. The fact that two out of three observable atlases present a low frequency congenital condition, together with previously reported evidence of retained deciduous mandibular canine in two out of ten dentitions from El Sidrón, supports the previous observation based on genetic evidence that these Neandertals constituted a group with close genetic relations. Some have proposed for humans and other species that the presence of skeletal congenital conditions, although without clinical significance, could be used as a signal of endogamy or inbreeding. In the present case this interpretation would fit the general scenario of high incidence of rare conditions among Pleistocene humans and the specific scenariothat emerges from Neandertal paleogenetics, which points to long-term small and decreasing population size with reduced and isolated groups. Adverse environmental factors affecting early pregnancies would constitute an alternative, non-exclusive, explanation for a high incidence of congenital conditions. Further support or rejection of these interpretations will come from new genetic and skeletal evidence from Neandertal remains. PMID:26418427

  19. Possible Further Evidence of Low Genetic Diversity in the El Sidrón (Asturias, Spain) Neandertal Group: Congenital Clefts of the Atlas

    PubMed Central

    Ríos, Luis; Rosas, Antonio; Estalrrich, Almudena; García-Tabernero, Antonio; Bastir, Markus; Huguet, Rosa; Pastor, Francisco; Sanchís-Gimeno, Juan Alberto; de la Rasilla, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We present here the first cases in Neandertals of congenital clefts of the arch of the atlas. Two atlases from El Sidrón, northern Spain, present respectively a defect of the posterior (frequency in extant modern human populations ranging from 0.73% to 3.84%), and anterior (frequency in extant modern human populations ranging from 0.087% to 0.1%) arch, a condition in most cases not associated with any clinical manifestation. The fact that two out of three observable atlases present a low frequency congenital condition, together with previously reported evidence of retained deciduous mandibular canine in two out of ten dentitions from El Sidrón, supports the previous observation based on genetic evidence that these Neandertals constituted a group with close genetic relations. Some have proposed for humans and other species that the presence of skeletal congenital conditions, although without clinical significance, could be used as a signal of endogamy or inbreeding. In the present case this interpretation would fit the general scenario of high incidence of rare conditions among Pleistocene humans and the specific scenariothat emerges from Neandertal paleogenetics, which points to long-term small and decreasing population size with reduced and isolated groups. Adverse environmental factors affecting early pregnancies would constitute an alternative, non-exclusive, explanation for a high incidence of congenital conditions. Further support or rejection of these interpretations will come from new genetic and skeletal evidence from Neandertal remains. PMID:26418427

  20. Analysis of Aurignacian interstratification at the Châtelperronian-type site and implications for the behavioral modernity of Neandertals

    PubMed Central

    Zilhão, João; d’Errico, Francesco; Bordes, Jean-Guillaume; Lenoble, Arnaud; Texier, Jean-Pierre; Rigaud, Jean-Philippe

    2006-01-01

    The Châtelperronian is a Neandertal-associated archeological culture featuring ornaments and decorated bone tools. It is often suggested that such symbolic items do not imply that Neandertals had modern cognition and stand instead for influences received from coeval, nearby early modern humans represented by the Aurignacian culture, whose precocity would be proven by stratigraphy and radiocarbon dates. The Grotte des Fées at Châtelperron (France) is the remaining case of such a potential Châtelperronian–Aurignacian contemporaneity, but reanalysis shows that its stratification is poor and unclear, the bone assemblage is carnivore-accumulated, the putative interstratified Aurignacian lens in level B4 is made up for the most part of Châtelperronian material, the upper part of the sequence is entirely disturbed, and the few Aurignacian items in levels B4-5 represent isolated intrusions into otherwise in situ Châtelperronian deposits. As elsewhere in southwestern Europe, this evidence confirms that the Aurignacian postdates the Châtelperronian and that the latter’s cultural innovations are better explained as the Neandertals’ independent development of behavioral modernity. PMID:16894152

  1. Neandertal mobility and large-game hunting: the exploitation of reindeer during the Quina Mousterian at Chez-Pinaud Jonzac (Charente-Maritime, France).

    PubMed

    Niven, Laura; Steele, Teresa E; Rendu, William; Mallye, Jean-Baptiste; McPherron, Shannon P; Soressi, Marie; Jaubert, Jacques; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2012-10-01

    Neandertals were effective hunters of large ungulates throughout their geographic and temporal ranges. Equipped with this knowledge, researchers in paleoanthropology continue to seek insight on the relationships between hunting and subsistence strategies with other components of the Neandertals' niche, such as mobility, site use, and lithic technology. The Quina Mousterian deposits from the rockshelter site of Chez Pinaud Jonzac (Charente-Maritime, France; hereafter Jonzac) offer an excellent opportunity to pursue these issues. This paper focuses on the extensive and well-preserved skeletal remains of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) recovered from recent excavations of the site, representing at least 18 individuals that were hunted by Neandertals during the fall through winter. Our zooarchaeological results indicate that all ages of reindeer were hunted but adult individuals predominate. No bias is evident in the comparable frequencies of males and females. These prey were butchered on-site, with abundant evidence of meat filleting and marrow exploitation. In the excavated sample, the absence of hearths and the almost complete lack of burned bones or stones suggest that Neandertals were not using fire to assist with processing the reindeer carcasses. The zooarchaeological results presented here indicate that reindeer were hunted during a restricted window of time when they were seasonally abundant in the local area near Jonzac. Taken together with the lithic industry based on bifacial elements, the evidence is consistent with a pattern of site use by highly mobile hunter-gatherers making frequent, short-term visits. Ongoing research at Jonzac and other Quina Mousterian localities will contribute to a better understanding of Neandertal behavior during cold climate phases.

  2. Effect of Pentoxifylline Administration on an Experimental Rat Model of Femur Fracture Healing With Intramedullary Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Vashghani Farahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Masteri Farahani, Reza; Mostafavinia, Ataroalsadat; Abbasian, Mohammad Reza; Pouriran, Ramin; Noruzian, Mohammad; Ghoreishi, Seyed Kamran; Aryan, Arefe; Bayat, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Globally, musculoskeletal injuries comprise a major public health problem that contributes to a large burden of disability and suffering. Pentoxifylline (PTX) has been originally used as a hemorheologic drug to treat intermittent claudication. Previous test tube and in vivo studies reported the beneficial effects of PTX on bony tissue. Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the effects of different dosages of PTX on biomechanical properties that occur during the late phase of the fracture healing process following a complete femoral osteotomy in a rat model. We applied intramedullary pin fixation as the treatment of choice. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted at the Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. We used the simple random technique to divide 35 female rats into five groups. Group 1 received intraperitoneal (i.p.) PTX (50 mg/kg, once daily) injections, starting 15 days before surgery, and group 2, group 3, and group 4 received 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg i.p. PTX injections, respectively, once daily after surgery. All animals across groups received treatment for six weeks (until sacrificed). Complete surgical transverse osteotomy was performed in the right femur of all rats. At six weeks after surgery, the femurs were subjected to a three-point bending test. Results: Daily administration of 50 mg/kg PTX (groups 1 and 2) decreased the high stress load in repairing osteotomized femurs when compared with the control group. The highest dose of PTX (200 mg/kg) significantly increased the high stress load when compared with the control group (P = 0.030), group 1 (P = 0.023), group 2 (P = 0.008), and group 3 (P = 0.010), per the LSD findings. Conclusions: Treatment with 200 mg/kg PTX accelerated fracture healing when compared with the control group. PMID:26756019

  3. Proximal femur fractures: the pioneer era of 1818 to 1925.

    PubMed

    Bartonícek, Jan

    2004-02-01

    The foundations of the modern era of the treatment of proximal femur fractures were laid by Cooper who in 1819 published the first therapeutically oriented classification of these fractures. During the following 100 years the clinical diagnostics were further developed; five classifications of proximal femur fractures were formulated including the terminology used until now (peritrochanteric, intertrochanteric), and surgical treatment was started. The first attempt at internal fixation of the proximal femur in the 1850s was by Langenbeck. His patient died of sepsis. The first successful internal fixation of proximal femur fractures was done in 1875 by König. At the beginning of the twentieth century the method of surgical treatment for proximal femur fractures was improved by Lambotte, Delbet, and Putti. However, the time was not ready yet for this method of treatment. Only technologic progress (stainless steel, new technology), the additional development of anesthesia and asepsis, improvement of xray apparatus, and introduction of the traction table created the prerequisites for successful gradation of Smith-Petersen's method from 1925 to 1931, and which a few years later was used worldwide. PMID:15021169

  4. Trabecular bone ontogeny in the human proximal femur.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Timothy M; Krovitz, Gail E

    2006-12-01

    Ontogenetic changes in the human femur associated with the acquisition of bipedal locomotion, especially the development of the bicondylar angle, have been well documented. The purpose of this study is to quantify changes in the three-dimensional structure of trabecular bone in the human proximal femur in relation to changing functional and external loading patterns with age. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography scan data were collected for 15 juvenile femoral specimens ranging in age from prenatal to approximately nine years of age. Serial slices were collected for the entire proximal femur of each individual with voxel resolutions ranging from 0.017 to 0.046 mm depending on the size of the specimen. Spherical volumes of interest were defined within the proximal femur, and the bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, and fabric anisotropy were calculated in three dimensions. Bone volume fraction, trabecular number, and degree of anisotropy decrease between the age of 6 months and 12 months, with the lowest values for these parameters occurring in individuals near 12 months of age. By age 2-3 years, the bone volume, thickness, and degree of anisotropy increase slightly, and regions in the femoral neck become more anisotropic corresponding to the thickening of the inferior cortical bone of the neck. These results suggest that trabecular structure in the proximal femur reflects the shift in external loading patterns associated with the initiation of unassisted walking in infants.

  5. Trabecular architecture analysis in femur radiographic images using fractals.

    PubMed

    Udhayakumar, G; Sujatha, C M; Ramakrishnan, S

    2013-04-01

    Trabecular bone is a highly complex anisotropic material that exhibits varying magnitudes of strength in compression and tension. Analysis of the trabecular architectural alteration that manifest as loss of trabecular plates and connection has been shown to yield better estimation of bone strength. In this work, an attempt has been made toward the development of an automated system for investigation of trabecular femur bone architecture using fractal analysis. Conventional radiographic femur bone images recorded using standard protocols are used in this study. The compressive and tensile regions in the images are delineated using preprocessing procedures. The delineated images are analyzed using Higuchi's fractal method to quantify pattern heterogeneity and anisotropy of trabecular bone structure. The results show that the extracted fractal features are distinct for compressive and tensile regions of normal and abnormal human femur bone. As the strength of the bone depends on architectural variation in addition to bone mass, this study seems to be clinically useful.

  6. Fracture of human femur tissue monitored by acoustic emission sensors.

    PubMed

    Aggelis, Dimitrios G; Strantza, Maria; Louis, Olivia; Boulpaep, Frans; Polyzos, Demosthenes; van Hemelrijck, Danny

    2015-01-01

    The study describes the acoustic emission (AE) activity during human femur tissue fracture. The specimens were fractured in a bending-torsion loading pattern with concurrent monitoring by two AE sensors. The number of recorded signals correlates well with the applied load providing the onset of micro-fracture at approximately one sixth of the maximum load. Furthermore, waveform frequency content and rise time are related to the different modes of fracture (bending of femur neck or torsion of diaphysis). The importance of the study lies mainly in two disciplines. One is that, although femurs are typically subjects of surgical repair in humans, detailed monitoring of the fracture with AE will enrich the understanding of the process in ways that cannot be achieved using only the mechanical data. Additionally, from the point of view of monitoring techniques, applying sensors used for engineering materials and interpreting the obtained data pose additional difficulties due to the uniqueness of the bone structure.

  7. Fracture of Human Femur Tissue Monitored by Acoustic Emission Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Aggelis, Dimitrios. G.; Strantza, Maria; Louis, Olivia; Boulpaep, Frans; Polyzos, Demosthenes; van Hemelrijck, Danny

    2015-01-01

    The study describes the acoustic emission (AE) activity during human femur tissue fracture. The specimens were fractured in a bending-torsion loading pattern with concurrent monitoring by two AE sensors. The number of recorded signals correlates well with the applied load providing the onset of micro-fracture at approximately one sixth of the maximum load. Furthermore, waveform frequency content and rise time are related to the different modes of fracture (bending of femur neck or torsion of diaphysis). The importance of the study lies mainly in two disciplines. One is that, although femurs are typically subjects of surgical repair in humans, detailed monitoring of the fracture with AE will enrich the understanding of the process in ways that cannot be achieved using only the mechanical data. Additionally, from the point of view of monitoring techniques, applying sensors used for engineering materials and interpreting the obtained data pose additional difficulties due to the uniqueness of the bone structure. PMID:25763648

  8. Fracture of human femur tissue monitored by acoustic emission sensors.

    PubMed

    Aggelis, Dimitrios G; Strantza, Maria; Louis, Olivia; Boulpaep, Frans; Polyzos, Demosthenes; van Hemelrijck, Danny

    2015-01-01

    The study describes the acoustic emission (AE) activity during human femur tissue fracture. The specimens were fractured in a bending-torsion loading pattern with concurrent monitoring by two AE sensors. The number of recorded signals correlates well with the applied load providing the onset of micro-fracture at approximately one sixth of the maximum load. Furthermore, waveform frequency content and rise time are related to the different modes of fracture (bending of femur neck or torsion of diaphysis). The importance of the study lies mainly in two disciplines. One is that, although femurs are typically subjects of surgical repair in humans, detailed monitoring of the fracture with AE will enrich the understanding of the process in ways that cannot be achieved using only the mechanical data. Additionally, from the point of view of monitoring techniques, applying sensors used for engineering materials and interpreting the obtained data pose additional difficulties due to the uniqueness of the bone structure. PMID:25763648

  9. Femur Fractures in Professional Athletes: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Sikka, Robby; Fetzer, Gary; Hunkele, Thomas; Sugarman, Eric; Boyd, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To discuss return to play after femur fractures in several professional athletes. Background: Femur fractures are rare injuries and can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. No reports exist, to our knowledge, on return to play after treatment of isolated femur fractures in professional athletes. Return to play is expected in patients with femur fractures, but recovery can take more than 1 year, with an expected decrease in performance. Treatment: Four professional athletes sustained isolated femur fractures during regular-season games. Two athletes played hockey, 1 played football, and 1 played baseball. Three players were treated with anterograde intramedullary nails, and 1 was treated with retrograde nailing. All players missed the remainder of the season. At an average of 9.5 months (range, 7–13 months) from the time of injury, all athletes were able to return to play. One player required the removal of painful hardware, which delayed his return to sport. Final radiographs revealed that all fractures were well healed. No athletes had subjective complaints or concerns that performance was affected by the injury at an average final follow-up of 25 months (range, 22–29 months). Uniqueness: As the size and speed of players increase, on-field trauma may result in significant injury. All players returned to previous levels of performance or exceeded previous statistical performance levels. Conclusions: In professional athletes, return to play from isolated femur fractures treated with either an anterograde or retrograde intramedullary nail is possible within 1 year. Return to the previous level of performance is possible, and it is important to develop management protocols, including rehabilitation guidelines, for such injuries. However, return to play may be delayed by subsequent procedures, including hardware removal. PMID:25680071

  10. Proximal Periprosthetic Femur Fractures: Strategies for Internal Fixation.

    PubMed

    Moloney, Gele B; Toro, Jose B; Helfet, David L; Wellman, David S

    2016-01-01

    As the number of patients living with total hip arthroplasty continues to rise, there will be an increase in periprosthetic fractures requiring surgical treatment. Treatment of periprosthetic femur fractures below a well-fixed hip arthroplasty stem presents a unique set of challenges. A review of the existing literature on surgical technique, including plate selection and configuration, proximal fixation options, and use of allograft, can serve to guide treatment of these challenging injuries. While not conclusive, the literature supports using soft tissue preserving techniques, bicortical proximal fixation, and fixation spanning the length of the femur. PMID:27327912

  11. Assessment of femur geometrical parameters using EOS™ imaging technology in patients with atypical femur fractures; preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Morin, Suzanne N; Wall, Michelle; Belzile, Etienne L; Godbout, Benoit; Moser, Thomas P; Michou, Laëtitia; Ste-Marie, Louis-Georges; de Guise, Jacques A; Rahme, Elham; Brown, Jacques P

    2016-02-01

    Atypical femur fractures (AFF) arise in the subtrochanteric and diaphyseal regions. Because of this unique distribution, we hypothesized that patients with AFF demonstrate specific geometrical variations of their lower limb whereby baseline tensile forces applied to the lateral cortex are higher and might favor the appearance of these rare stress fractures, when exposed to bisphosphonates. Using the low irradiation 2D-3D X-ray scanner EOS™ imaging technology we aimed to characterize and compare femur geometric parameters between women who sustained bisphosphonate-associated AFF and those who had experienced similar duration of exposure to bisphosphonates but did not sustain fractures. Conditional logistic regression models were constructed to estimate the association between selected geometric parameters and the occurrence of AFF. We identified 16 Caucasian women with AFF and recruited 16 ethnicity-, sex-, age-, height- and cumulative bisphosphonate exposure-matched controls from local osteoporosis clinics. Compared to controls, those with AFF had more lateral femur bowing (-3.2° SD [3.4] versus -0.8° SD [1.9] p=0.02). In regression analysis, lateral femur bowing was associated with the risk of AFF (aOR 1.54; 95% CI 1.04-2.28, p=0.03). Women who sustained a subtrochanteric AFF demonstrated a lesser femoral neck shaft angle (varus geometry) than those with a fracture at a diaphyseal site (121.9 [3.6]° versus 127.6 [7.2]°, p=0.07), whereas femur bowing was more prominent in those with a diaphyseal fracture compared to those with a subtrochanteric fracture (-4.3 [3.2]° versus -0.9 [2.7]°, p=0.07). Our analyses support that subjects with AFF exhibit femoral geometry parameters that result in higher tensile mechanical load on the lateral femur. This may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of AFF and requires further evaluation in a larger size population.

  12. Assessment of femur geometrical parameters using EOS™ imaging technology in patients with atypical femur fractures; preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Morin, Suzanne N; Wall, Michelle; Belzile, Etienne L; Godbout, Benoit; Moser, Thomas P; Michou, Laëtitia; Ste-Marie, Louis-Georges; de Guise, Jacques A; Rahme, Elham; Brown, Jacques P

    2016-02-01

    Atypical femur fractures (AFF) arise in the subtrochanteric and diaphyseal regions. Because of this unique distribution, we hypothesized that patients with AFF demonstrate specific geometrical variations of their lower limb whereby baseline tensile forces applied to the lateral cortex are higher and might favor the appearance of these rare stress fractures, when exposed to bisphosphonates. Using the low irradiation 2D-3D X-ray scanner EOS™ imaging technology we aimed to characterize and compare femur geometric parameters between women who sustained bisphosphonate-associated AFF and those who had experienced similar duration of exposure to bisphosphonates but did not sustain fractures. Conditional logistic regression models were constructed to estimate the association between selected geometric parameters and the occurrence of AFF. We identified 16 Caucasian women with AFF and recruited 16 ethnicity-, sex-, age-, height- and cumulative bisphosphonate exposure-matched controls from local osteoporosis clinics. Compared to controls, those with AFF had more lateral femur bowing (-3.2° SD [3.4] versus -0.8° SD [1.9] p=0.02). In regression analysis, lateral femur bowing was associated with the risk of AFF (aOR 1.54; 95% CI 1.04-2.28, p=0.03). Women who sustained a subtrochanteric AFF demonstrated a lesser femoral neck shaft angle (varus geometry) than those with a fracture at a diaphyseal site (121.9 [3.6]° versus 127.6 [7.2]°, p=0.07), whereas femur bowing was more prominent in those with a diaphyseal fracture compared to those with a subtrochanteric fracture (-4.3 [3.2]° versus -0.9 [2.7]°, p=0.07). Our analyses support that subjects with AFF exhibit femoral geometry parameters that result in higher tensile mechanical load on the lateral femur. This may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of AFF and requires further evaluation in a larger size population. PMID:26541215

  13. The pelvis and femur of Ardipithecus ramidus: the emergence of upright walking.

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, C Owen; Suwa, Gen; Spurlock, Linda; Asfaw, Berhane; White, Tim D

    2009-10-01

    The femur and pelvis of Ardipithecus ramidus have characters indicative of both upright bipedal walking and movement in trees. Consequently, bipedality in Ar. ramidus was more primitive than in later Australopithecus. Compared with monkeys and Early Miocene apes such as Proconsul, the ilium in Ar. ramidus is mediolaterally expanded, and its sacroiliac joint is located more posteriorly. These changes are shared with some Middle and Late Miocene apes as well as with African apes and later hominids. However, in contrast to extant apes, bipedality in Ar. ramidus was facilitated by craniocaudal shortening of the ilium and enhanced lordotic recurvature of the lower spine. Given the predominant absence of derived traits in other skeletal regions of Ar. ramidus, including the forelimb, these adaptations were probably acquired shortly after divergence from our last common ancestor with chimpanzees. They therefore bear little or no functional relationship to the highly derived suspension, vertical climbing, knuckle-walking, and facultative bipedality of extant African apes.

  14. Case report 207: Giant cell reparative granuloma of left femur arising in polyostatic fibrous dysplasia

    SciTech Connect

    De Smet, A.A.; Travers, H.; Neff, J.R.

    1982-08-01

    Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of lytic lesions in the femur are discussed. Roentgenograms, a tomogram and pathological studies of a giant cell reparative granuloma of left femur arising in polyostotic fibrous dysplasia are presented.

  15. Automatic detection and measurement of femur length from fetal ultrasonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Prateep; Swamy, Gokul; Gupta, Madhumita; Patil, Uday; Krishnan, Kajoli Banerjee

    2010-03-01

    Femur bone length is used in the assessment of fetal development and in the prediction of gestational age (GA). In this paper, we present a completely automated two-step method for identifying fetal femur and measuring its length from 2D ultrasound images. The detection algorithm uses a normalized score premised on the distribution of anatomical shape, size and presentation of the femur bone in clinically acceptable scans. The measurement process utilizes a polynomial curve fitting technique to determine the end-points of the bone from a 1D profile that is most distal from the transducer surface. The method has been tested with manual measurements made on 90 third trimester femur images by two radiologists. The measurements made by the experts are strongly correlated (Pearson's coefficient = 0.95). Likewise, the algorithm estimate is strongly correlated with expert measurements (Pearson's coefficient = 0.92 and 0.94). Based on GA estimates and their bounds specified in Standard Obstetric Tables, the GA predictions from automated measurements are found to be within +/-2SD of GA estimates from both manual measurements in 89/90 cases and within +/-3SD in all 90 cases. The method presented in this paper can be adapted to perform automatic measurement of other fetal limbs.

  16. The Odocoileus virginianus Femur: Mechanical Behavior and Morphology.

    PubMed

    Hedgeland, Mark J; Libruk, Morgan A; Corbiere, Nicole C; Ciani, Mario J; Kuxhaus, Laurel

    2016-01-01

    Biomechanical research relies heavily on laboratory evaluation and testing with osseous animal structures. While many femora models are currently in use, including those of the European red deer (Cervus elaphus), the Odocoileus virginianus femur remains undocumented, despite its regional abundance in North America. The objective of this study was to compare biomechanical and morphological properties of the Odocoileus virginianus femur with those of the human and commonly used animal models. Sixteen pairs of fresh-frozen cervine femora (10 male, 6 female, aged 2.1 ± 0.9 years) were used for this study. Axial and torsional stiffnesses (whole bone) were calculated following compression and torsion to failure tests (at rates of 0.1 mm/sec and 0.2°/sec). Lengths, angles, femoral head diameter and position, periosteal and endosteal diaphyseal dimensions, and condylar dimensions were measured. The results show that the cervine femur is closer in length, axial and torsional stiffness, torsional strength, and overall morphology to the human femur than many other commonly used animal femora models; additional morphological measurements are comparable to many other species' femora. The distal bicondylar width of 59.3mm suggests that cervine femora may be excellent models for use in total knee replacement simulations. Furthermore, the cervine femoral head is more ovoid than other commonly-used models for hip research, making it a more suitable model for studies of hip implants. Thus, with further, more application-specific investigations, the cervine femur could be a suitable model for biomechanical research, including the study of ballistic injuries and orthopaedic device development. PMID:26757205

  17. The Odocoileus virginianus Femur: Mechanical Behavior and Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Corbiere, Nicole C.; Ciani, Mario J.; Kuxhaus, Laurel

    2016-01-01

    Biomechanical research relies heavily on laboratory evaluation and testing with osseous animal structures. While many femora models are currently in use, including those of the European red deer (Cervus elaphus), the Odocoileus virginianus femur remains undocumented, despite its regional abundance in North America. The objective of this study was to compare biomechanical and morphological properties of the Odocoileus virginianus femur with those of the human and commonly used animal models. Sixteen pairs of fresh-frozen cervine femora (10 male, 6 female, aged 2.1 ± 0.9 years) were used for this study. Axial and torsional stiffnesses (whole bone) were calculated following compression and torsion to failure tests (at rates of 0.1 mm/sec and 0.2°/sec). Lengths, angles, femoral head diameter and position, periosteal and endosteal diaphyseal dimensions, and condylar dimensions were measured. The results show that the cervine femur is closer in length, axial and torsional stiffness, torsional strength, and overall morphology to the human femur than many other commonly used animal femora models; additional morphological measurements are comparable to many other species’ femora. The distal bicondylar width of 59.3mm suggests that cervine femora may be excellent models for use in total knee replacement simulations. Furthermore, the cervine femoral head is more ovoid than other commonly-used models for hip research, making it a more suitable model for studies of hip implants. Thus, with further, more application-specific investigations, the cervine femur could be a suitable model for biomechanical research, including the study of ballistic injuries and orthopaedic device development. PMID:26757205

  18. The Odocoileus virginianus Femur: Mechanical Behavior and Morphology.

    PubMed

    Hedgeland, Mark J; Libruk, Morgan A; Corbiere, Nicole C; Ciani, Mario J; Kuxhaus, Laurel

    2016-01-01

    Biomechanical research relies heavily on laboratory evaluation and testing with osseous animal structures. While many femora models are currently in use, including those of the European red deer (Cervus elaphus), the Odocoileus virginianus femur remains undocumented, despite its regional abundance in North America. The objective of this study was to compare biomechanical and morphological properties of the Odocoileus virginianus femur with those of the human and commonly used animal models. Sixteen pairs of fresh-frozen cervine femora (10 male, 6 female, aged 2.1 ± 0.9 years) were used for this study. Axial and torsional stiffnesses (whole bone) were calculated following compression and torsion to failure tests (at rates of 0.1 mm/sec and 0.2°/sec). Lengths, angles, femoral head diameter and position, periosteal and endosteal diaphyseal dimensions, and condylar dimensions were measured. The results show that the cervine femur is closer in length, axial and torsional stiffness, torsional strength, and overall morphology to the human femur than many other commonly used animal femora models; additional morphological measurements are comparable to many other species' femora. The distal bicondylar width of 59.3mm suggests that cervine femora may be excellent models for use in total knee replacement simulations. Furthermore, the cervine femoral head is more ovoid than other commonly-used models for hip research, making it a more suitable model for studies of hip implants. Thus, with further, more application-specific investigations, the cervine femur could be a suitable model for biomechanical research, including the study of ballistic injuries and orthopaedic device development.

  19. An alternative model of vascularized bone marrow transplant: partial femur transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Wu; Chen, Chen; Su, Ying-Jun; Yan, Lun; Wang, Shi-Ping; Guo, Shu-Zhong

    2014-12-01

    The vascularized whole femur transplantation model is one of the commonly used vascularized bone marrow transplant models. It involves technical complexity and morbidities. To optimize this model, we took 2/3 femur as the carrier of bone marrow cells, and developed a vascularized partial femur model. Four experimental groups were carried out, namely, the syngeneic partial femur transplantation, allogeneic partial femur transplantation with or without cyclosporine A, and allogeneic whole femur transplantation with cyclosporine A. The results showed that the partial femur model was technically simpler and shortened the operative and ischemia time compared to the whole femur model. Gross and histologic appearance confirmed the viability of femur, and its bone marrow inside the bone could also maintain normal morphologically at 60-day posttransplant. Besides, donor multilineage chimerism could be continuously detected in immunosuppressed allogeneic partial femur recipients at 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 8-week posttransplant, and it showed no significant differences when compared with whole femur transplantation. Meanwhile, long-term engraftment of donor-origin cells was also confirmed in recipients' bone marrow, lymph nodes, and spleen, but not in thymus. Therefore, the vascularized partial femur can serve as a continuous resource of bone morrow cells and may provide a useful tool for the study of immune tolerance in vascularized composite allotransplantation.

  20. Is there any relation between distal parameters of the femur and its height and width?

    PubMed

    Yazar, Fatih; Imre, Nurcan; Battal, Bilal; Bilgic, Serkan; Tayfun, Cem

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the association whether the distal morphometry of femur had a relation with femur height or width. Sixty-six adult (35 right and 31 left) dry femurs from Caucasians were used in this study. Computed tomography (CT) imaging was applied to obtain measurement values of the femur. Femur height (413.29 ± 28.40 mm) and width (29.86 ± 2.72 mm) were all checked one by one to determine the correlation with the parameters obtained. Both values exposed high rates of correlation with height (26 ± 2.34 mm) and width (20.85 ± 2.76 mm) of femur notch; also, measures of epicondylar, bicondylar and condylar diameters of femur were obtained. Measures were checked if there was a correlation with femur height and width. Differences displayed in distal morphometry of femur according to race and sex are due to other morphometric measures of femur rather than race and sex. We believe that displaying the high rates of correlation of distal morphometry of femur with femur height and width will be the factor which determines the selection and production of prosthesis among the long or short individuals of folks. PMID:21739247

  1. Short adolescence in early hominids: infantile and adolescent growth of the human femur.

    PubMed

    Tardieu, C

    1998-10-01

    Did the first hominids have a short developmental period similar to that of the great apes or a longer period closer to that of modern humans? Evidence from studies on dental and facial growth favors the first point of view. Additional evidence presented in this report is provided by a morphogenetic analysis of the lower limb. Some morphological modifications undergone by the human femur during infantile and adolescent growth are shown to be excellent markers of different developmental stages. The angular remodelling of the femoral diaphysis, which results in femoral bicondylar angle, is a marker of infancy, while the reshaping of the distal femoral epiphysis is a marker of adolescence. This reshaping of the bony epiphysis consists of the strong projection of the external lip of the femoral trochlea, the increase of the radius of curvature of the external condyle, and the anteroposterior lengthening of the whole epiphysis. The growth spurt in linear dimensions of the femur, characteristic of human adolescence, is shown to be associated with qualitative changes of the distal femoral epiphysis engendered by the late closure of the distal epiphysis. The femur of the first hominids (Australopithecus afarensis) shows only features of infantile growth, whereas characters of both precocious and later growth are typical of later hominids (Homo). The absence of the derived epiphyseal features in Australopithecus would be linked to their early epiphyseal closure and short adolescent growth period; their presence in Homo would have been promoted by their delayed epiphyseal closure and prolonged adolescent growth period. The transition from Australopithecus to Homo appears to have involved a heterochronic process of time hypermorphosis (Gould, [1977], Ontogeny and Phylogeny [Cambridge: Harvard University Press]) in which the size of the femur increases, the epiphysis is modified, and the period of peripubertal growth is prolonged. The shape of the distal epiphyses of KNM

  2. Intraoperative Periprosthetic Femur Fracture: A Biomechanical Analysis of Cerclage Fixation.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Nicholas B; Charters, Michael A; Sikora-Klak, Jakub; Banglmaier, Richard F; Oravec, Daniel J; Silverton, Craig D

    2015-08-01

    Intraoperative periprosthetic femur fracture is a known complication of total hip arthroplasty (THA) and a variety of cerclage systems are available to manage these fractures. The purpose of this study was to examine the in situ biomechanical response of cerclage systems for fixation of periprosthetic femur fractures that occur during cementless THA. We compared cobalt chrome (CoCr) cables, synthetic cables, monofilament wires and hose clamps under axial compressive and torsional loading. Metallic constructs with a positive locking system performed the best, supporting the highest loads with minimal implant subsidence (both axial and angular) after loading. Overall, the CoCr cable and hose clamp had the highest construct stiffness and least reduction in stiffness with increased loading. They were not demonstrably different from each other.

  3. Xanthogranulomatous Osteomyelitis of Proximal Femur Masquerading as Benign Bone Tumor.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shailendra; Batra, Sahil; Maini, Lalit; Gautam, Virender Kumar

    2015-08-01

    We describe a case of xanthogranulomatous osteomyelitis (XO) of the proximal femur in a 65-year-old woman who presented with pain of 6 months' duration in the right hip. Plain radiographs showed a lytic well-defined lesion in the right peritrochanteric region suggestive of a benign neoplastic etiology. The gross and histopathologic examination of the curettage specimen was consistent with XO. Xanthogranulomatous osteomyelitis is a rare chronic inflammatory process that is characterized by the presence of a large number of lipid-containing macrophages with an admixture of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and neutrophils. Gross and radiologic examination of this entity can mimic malignancy, and differentiation should be confirmed by histopathologic evaluation. To the best of our knowledge, XO of the femur has not been reported in the English-language literature. The rarity of this condition and its resemblance to bone tumors form the basis of this case report. PMID:26251942

  4. Antegrade versus retrograde intramedullary nailing of proximal third femur fractures.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Kevin M; Ali, Ashley; Boudreau, John A; Cannada, Lisa K; Watson, John T

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to retrospectively review the results of proximal third femur fractures treated with retrograde nailing (RGN) and compare those results to a cohort from the same period treated with antegrade nailing (AGN). Adult patients with femur fractures within 10 cm of the lesser trochanter who were treated with intramedullary nails were reviewed. Two groups, patients treated with AGN (n = 35) and RGN (n = 34), were compiled. Demographic information, comorbidities, associated injuries, radiographic outcomes, complications, and secondary procedures were compared. There were two malunions in the AGN group and three in the RGN group. The AGN group had two nonunions while the RGN group had one. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that a higher body mass index (BMI) (p = .011) and a higher AO/OTA fracture classification (p = .019) were the only factors predictive of malunion. Regardless of starting point, there were no differences between groups in the number of secondary procedures, nonunions, malunions, or time until union.

  5. A method for sex estimation using the proximal femur.

    PubMed

    Curate, Francisco; Coelho, João; Gonçalves, David; Coelho, Catarina; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Navega, David; Cunha, Eugénia

    2016-09-01

    The assessment of sex is crucial to the establishment of a biological profile of an unidentified skeletal individual. The best methods currently available for the sexual diagnosis of human skeletal remains generally rely on the presence of well-preserved pelvic bones, which is not always the case. Postcranial elements, including the femur, have been used to accurately estimate sex in skeletal remains from forensic and bioarcheological settings. In this study, we present an approach to estimate sex using two measurements (femoral neck width [FNW] and femoral neck axis length [FNAL]) of the proximal femur. FNW and FNAL were obtained in a training sample (114 females and 138 males) from the Luís Lopes Collection (National History Museum of Lisbon). Logistic regression and the C4.5 algorithm were used to develop models to predict sex in unknown individuals. Proposed cross-validated models correctly predicted sex in 82.5-85.7% of the cases. The models were also evaluated in a test sample (96 females and 96 males) from the Coimbra Identified Skeletal Collection (University of Coimbra), resulting in a sex allocation accuracy of 80.1-86.2%. This study supports the relative value of the proximal femur to estimate sex in skeletal remains, especially when other exceedingly dimorphic skeletal elements are not accessible for analysis. PMID:27373600

  6. Robust femur condyle disambiguation on biplanar X-rays.

    PubMed

    Serrurier, Antoine; Quijano, Sergio; Nizard, Remy; Skalli, Wafa

    2012-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the skeleton from biplanar X-rays relies on scarce information digitalised by an operator on both frontal and lateral radiographs. In clinical routine, difficulties occur for non-skilled operators to discriminate the medial from the lateral femur condyle on the lateral view. Our study proposes an algorithm able to detect automatically a possible inversion of the two condyles by the operator at an early stage of the reconstruction process. It relies on the computation of two 3D femur surfaces, one directly from the operator digitalisation and the other from the same digitalisation with medial and lateral condyles automatically swapped. Pairs of virtual biplanar X-rays are computed for both reconstructions and the closest pair to the original X-rays is selected on the basis of similarity measures, pointing the correct 3D surface. The algorithm shows a success rate higher than 85% for both asymptomatic and pathological femurs whatever the initial condyle digitalisation of the operator, bringing automatically non-skilled operators acting in clinical routine to the level of skilled operators. This study validates moreover the proof-of-concept of automatic shape adjustments of a 3D surface on the basis of similarity measures in the process of 3D reconstruction from biplanar X-rays. PMID:22349135

  7. Preparation of the proximal femur in cementless total hip revision.

    PubMed

    Mallory, T H

    1988-10-01

    With an increased incidence of revision for the failed cemented total hip arthroplasty, techniques of revision surgery need meticulous attention to detail. Although the causes of the failed cemented total hip arthroplasty are many, they tend to follow characteristic patterns. The proximal femur can be exposed through an extensive muscle split incision, which offers a complete circumferential view of the femur. The cement removal is enhanced by controlled perforation using high-speed drills. Classification of bony deficits of the proximal femur can be divided into Type I, including intact cortex and medullary content; Type II, in which there is intact cortex but deficient medullary content; and Type III, in which deficits of both the cortex and medullary canal are present. Prosthetic selection is based on residual bone stock. In general, cementless fixation is advocated, with distal fixation using long-stem devices. Augmentation of bone deficits requires the use of segmental prosthetic replacement or fresh-frozen allografts. One hundred sixty patients were followed for two to six years. Satisfactory results have occurred in over 90% of the patients; better results are anticipated in patients with minimal bone deficits. Aseptic loosening requiring rerevision has occurred in 5% of the patient population. Understanding the dynamics of failure and the residual bone deficits allows one to manage the failed cemented total hip arthroplasty with greater efficiency and predictability. PMID:3416541

  8. A method for sex estimation using the proximal femur.

    PubMed

    Curate, Francisco; Coelho, João; Gonçalves, David; Coelho, Catarina; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Navega, David; Cunha, Eugénia

    2016-09-01

    The assessment of sex is crucial to the establishment of a biological profile of an unidentified skeletal individual. The best methods currently available for the sexual diagnosis of human skeletal remains generally rely on the presence of well-preserved pelvic bones, which is not always the case. Postcranial elements, including the femur, have been used to accurately estimate sex in skeletal remains from forensic and bioarcheological settings. In this study, we present an approach to estimate sex using two measurements (femoral neck width [FNW] and femoral neck axis length [FNAL]) of the proximal femur. FNW and FNAL were obtained in a training sample (114 females and 138 males) from the Luís Lopes Collection (National History Museum of Lisbon). Logistic regression and the C4.5 algorithm were used to develop models to predict sex in unknown individuals. Proposed cross-validated models correctly predicted sex in 82.5-85.7% of the cases. The models were also evaluated in a test sample (96 females and 96 males) from the Coimbra Identified Skeletal Collection (University of Coimbra), resulting in a sex allocation accuracy of 80.1-86.2%. This study supports the relative value of the proximal femur to estimate sex in skeletal remains, especially when other exceedingly dimorphic skeletal elements are not accessible for analysis.

  9. Proximal femur segmentation in conventional pelvic x ray

    SciTech Connect

    Pilgram, Roland; Walch, Claudia; Kuhn, Volker; Schubert, Rainer; Staudinger, Roland

    2008-06-15

    A solid and accurate proximal femur segmentation technique using the popular active shape model (ASM) is proposed. For generating an optimal shape prior, the minimum description length, based on 200 supervised manual segmented proximal femur shapes, is used. The segmentation is based on a coarse to fine scaling technique including a profile scale space method. The segmentation results are compared using an optimal defined initial pose and a pose based on a registration technique. Using ideal template initialization, 95% of the shapes have been recovered exactly (average point-to-point error {approx}13 pixels, average point-to-boundary error {approx}7 pixels). Using a template-based initialization based on a registration technique, a successful segmentation rate of {approx}89% is achieved, with an average point-to-point error {approx}12 pixels, and an average point-to-boundary error {approx}8 pixels. With an adequate template initialization and an improved ASM, this method seems to provide an accurate tool for segmentation of the proximal femur shapes on conventional hip overview x-ray images.

  10. Factors related to curved femur in elderly Japanese women

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchie, Hiroyuki; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Kasukawa, Yuji; Senma, Seietsu; Narita, Yuichiro; Miyamoto, Seiya; Hatakeyama, Yuji; Sasaki, Kana; Shimada, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple factors are involved in the development of atypical femoral fractures, and excessive curvature of the femur is thought to be one of them. However, the pathogenesis of femoral curvature is unknown. We evaluated the influence of factors related to bone metabolism and posture on the development of femoral curvature. Methods A total of 139 women participated in the present study. Curvatures were measured using antero-posterior and lateral radiography of the femur. We evaluated some bone and vitamin D metabolism markers in serum, the bone mineral density (BMD), lumbar spine alignment, and pelvic tilt. Results We divided the women into two groups, curved and non-curved groups, based on the average plus standard deviation as the cut-off between the groups. When univariate logistic regression analysis was performed to detect factors affecting femoral curvature, the following were identified as indices significantly affecting the curvature: age of the patients, serum concentrations of calcium, intact parathyroid hormone, pentosidine, homocysteine and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), and BMD of the proximal femur (P < 0.05) both in the lateral and anterior curvatures. When we used multivariate analyses to assess these factors, only 25(OH)D and age (lateral and anterior standardized odds ratio: 0.776 and 0.385, and 2.312 and 4.472, respectively) affected the femoral curvature (P < 0.05). Conclusion Femoral curvature is strongly influenced by age and serum vitamin D. PMID:27228191

  11. Late Pleistocene adult mortality patterns and modern human establishment

    PubMed Central

    Trinkaus, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The establishment of modern humans in the Late Pleistocene, subsequent to their emergence in eastern Africa, is likely to have involved substantial population increases, during their initial dispersal across southern Asia and their subsequent expansions throughout Africa and into more northern Eurasia. An assessment of younger (20–40 y) versus older (>40 y) adult mortality distributions for late archaic humans (principally Neandertals) and two samples of early modern humans (Middle Paleolithic and earlier Upper Paleolithic) provides little difference across the samples. All three Late Pleistocene samples have a dearth of older individuals compared with Holocene ethnographic/historical samples. They also lack older adults compared with Holocene paleodemographic profiles that have been critiqued for having too few older individuals for subsistence, social, and demographic viability. Although biased, probably through a combination of preservation, age assessment, and especially Pleistocene mobility requirements, these adult mortality distributions suggest low life expectancy and demographic instability across these Late Pleistocene human groups. They indicate only subtle and paleontologically invisible changes in human paleodemographics with the establishment of modern humans; they provide no support for a life history advantage among early modern humans. PMID:21220336

  12. [The ECMES [Centro-Medullary Elastic Stabilising Wiring) osteosynthesis method in limb fractures in children. Principle, application on the femur. Apropos of 250 fractures followed-up since 1979].

    PubMed

    Prévot, J; Lascombes, P; Ligier, J N

    The theoretical basis of this new technique were recalled: a closed operation respecting the conjugation cartilages. The material, composed of flexible wires of adequate diameter are bent and stabilised forming a non traumatic fixation which is inserted into the medullary canal of the fractured bone under fluoroscopic surveillance. The second part of this paper deals with the results of 250 fractures of the femur followed up since 1979. Late outcome in terms of complications and stimulation of the post-trauma growth, which is a problem in all forms of fractures in the child, especially of the femur, is presented. PMID:7729190

  13. Finite element analysis of the femur during stance phase of gait based on musculoskeletal model simulation.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kang, Dong-Won; Kim, Ju-Young; Yang, Seung-Tae; Kim, Dae-Hyeok; Choi, Jin-Seung; Tack, Gye-Rae

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the accuracy of the inputs required for finite element analysis, which is mainly used for the biomechanical analysis of bones, was improved. To ensure a muscle force and joint contact force similar to the actual values, a musculoskeletal model that was based on the actual gait experiment was used. Gait data were obtained from a healthy male adult aged 29 who had no history of musculoskeletal disease and walked normally (171 cm height and 72 kg weight), and were used as inputs for the musculoskeletal model simulation to determine the muscle force and joint contact force. Among the phases of gait, which is the most common activity in daily life, the stance phase is the most affected by the load. The results data were extracted from five events in the stance phase: heel contact (ST1), loading response (ST2), early mid-stance (ST2), late mid-stance (ST4), and terminal stance (ST5). The results were used as the inputs for the finite element model that was formed using 1.5mm intervals computed tomography (CT) images and the maximum Von-Mises stress and the maximum Von-Mises strain of the right femur were examined. The maximum stress and strain were lowest at the ST4. The maximum values for the femur occurred in the medial part and then in the lateral part after the mid-stance. In this study, the results of the musculoskeletal model simulation using the inverse-dynamic analysis were utilized to improve the accuracy of the inputs, which affected the finite element analysis results, and the possibility of the bone-specific analysis according to the lapse of time was examined.

  14. A geometric morphometrics comparative analysis of Neandertal humeri (epiphyses-fused) from the El Sidrón cave site (Asturias, Spain).

    PubMed

    Rosas, Antonio; Pérez-Criado, Laura; Bastir, Markus; Estalrrich, Almudena; Huguet, Rosa; García-Tabernero, Antonio; Pastor, Juan Francisco; de la Rasilla, Marco

    2015-05-01

    A new collection of 49,000 year old Neandertal fossil humeri from the El Sidrón cave site (Asturias, Spain) is presented. A total of 49 humeral remains were recovered, representing 10 left and 8 right humeri from adults, adolescents, and a juvenile (not included in the analyses). 3D geometric morphometric (GM) methods as well as classic anthropological variables were employed to conduct a broad comparative analysis by means of mean centroid size and shape comparisons, principal components analysis, and cluster studies. Due to the fragmentary nature of the fossils, comparisons were organized in independent analyses according to different humeral portions: distal epiphysis, diaphysis, proximal epiphysis, and the complete humerus. From a multivariate viewpoint, 3D-GM analyses revealed major differences among taxonomic groups, supporting the value of the humerus in systematic classification. Notably, the Australopithecus anamensis (KP-271) and Homo ergaster Nariokotome (KNM-WT 15000) distal humerus consistently clusters close to those of modern humans, which may imply a primitive condition for Homo sapiens morphology. Australopithecus specimens show a high degree of dispersion in the morphospace. The El Sidrón sample perfectly fits into the classic Neandertal pattern, previously described as having a relatively wide olecranon fossa, as well as thin lateral and medial distodorsal pillars. These characteristics were also typical of the Sima de los Huesos (Atapuerca) sample, African mid-Pleistocene Bodo specimen, and Lower Pleistocene TD6-Atapuerca remains and may be considered as a derived state. Finally, we hypothesize that most of the features thought to be different between Neandertals and modern humans might be associated with structural differences in the pectoral girdle and shoulder joint.

  15. Percutaneous Stabilization of Impending Pathological Fracture of the Proximal Femur

    SciTech Connect

    Deschamps, Frederic Farouil, Geoffroy Hakime, Antoine Teriitehau, Christophe Barah, Ali Baere, Thierry de

    2012-12-15

    Objective: Percutaneous osteosynthesis plus cementoplasty (POPC) is a minimally invasive technique that has never been reported before and that we have prospectively evaluated for patients with impending pathological fracture of the proximal femur. Methods: We performed POPC in 12 patients (3 males, 9 females) with metastasis of the proximal femur with a high risk of fracture (Mirels' score {>=}8) between February 2010 and July 2011. Patients were not candidates for standard surgical stabilization. We analyzed the feasibility, duration, and complication of the procedure, the risk of fracture, the decrease in pain (Visual Analog Scale, VAS), and length of stay in hospital. Data were prospectively collected in all patients. Results: The mean Mirels' score was 9.8 {+-} 1.2 (range, 8-11). The technical success was 100%. POPC was performed under general anesthesia (n = 6) or conscious sedation (n = 6). The mean duration was 110 {+-} 43 (range, 60-180) minutes. All patients stood up and walked the second day after the procedure. The average length of stay in the hospital was 4 {+-} 1.6 (range, 2-7) days. We experienced two hematomas in two patients and no thromboembolic complication. For symptomatic patients (n = 8), VAS decreased from 6.5/10 (range, 2-9) before treatment to 1/10 (range, 0-3) 1 month after. No fracture occurred after a median follow-up of 145 (range, 12-608) days. Conclusions: POPC for impending pathological fracture of the proximal femur seems to be a promising alternative for cancer patients who are not candidates for surgical stabilization. Further studies are required to confirm this preliminary experience.

  16. Long bone (humerus, femur, tibia) measuring procedure in cadavers.

    PubMed

    Menéndez Garmendia, Antinea; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge A; Hernández, Francisco; Wesp, Julie K; Sánchez-Mejorada, Gabriela

    2014-09-01

    In this work, we present a measuring methodology for long bones of the limbs (humerus, femur, and tibia) of human corpses. Measurements of cadaveric height and long bone lengths were conducted on 72 corpses (20 females and 52 males) from the School of Medicine at the National Autonomous University of Mexico. Additionally, these measurements were compared with those taken from dry bones of a subsample of individuals. Our results show marginal differences (TEM% = 0.59) between cadaveric and dry bone measurements, resulting from different osteometric technical procedures. This note outlines the measuring methodology, which will be subsequently used to create regression formulas for stature estimation.

  17. [Problems with treatment of trochanteric femur fractures at elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Zieńczuk, Witold; Cetnar, Tomasz; Kawik, Łukasz; Kotela, Ireneusz

    2010-01-01

    Authors analyzed patients complications with trochanteric fractures of femur treated in Department Orthopedic and Casualty of St. Lukas Hospital in Tarnów from 01.01.2008 to 31.12.2009 in this study. During this period were treated 167 patients. In most of cases operative treatment such as: Dynamic Hip Screw fixation, Gamma nailing, Ender's method and angle plate with screws were used. Prosthetic replacement was also used and 9 patients weren't operated because of coexisting pathological states. Basing on a done analyze of clinical material it was pronounced that independently from used surgical procedure regional and general complications are being occurred. PMID:20684339

  18. Knee loading stimulates cortical bone formation in murine femurs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ping; Su, Min; Tanaka, Shigeo M; Yokota, Hiroki

    2006-01-01

    Background Bone alters its architecture and mass in response to the mechanical environment, and thus varying loading modalities have been examined for studying load-driven bone formation. The current study aimed to evaluate the anabolic effects of knee loading on diaphyseal cortical bone in the femur. Methods Using a custom-made piezoelectric loader, 0.5-N loads were laterally applied to the left knee of C57/BL/6 mice at 5, 10, 15, and 20 Hz for 3 minutes per day for 3 consecutive days. Animals were sacrificed for examination 13 days after the last loading. The contralateral femur was used as a non-loading control, and the statistical significance of loading effects was evaluated with p < 0.05. Results Although diaphyseal strains were measured as small as 12 μstrains, bone histomorphometry clearly demonstrated frequency-dependent enhancement of bone formation. Compared to a non-loading control, bone formation on the periosteal surface was significantly enhanced. The loading at 15 Hz was most effective in elevating the mineralizing surface (1.7 x; p < 0.05), mineral apposition rate (1.4 x; p < 0.001), and bone formation rate (2.4 x; p < 0.01). The loading at 10 Hz elevated the mineralizing surface (1.4 x; p < 0.05), mineral apposition rate (1.3 x; p < 0.01), and bone formation rate (1.8 x; p < 0.05). The cross-sectional cortical area and the cortical thickness in the femoral diaphysis were significantly increased by loading at 10 Hz (both 9%) and 15 Hz (12% and 13%, respectively). Conclusion The results support the anabolic effects of knee loading on diaphyseal cortical bone in the femur with small in situ strain, and they extend our knowledge on the interplay between bone and joints. Strengthening the femur contributes to preventing femoral fractures, and the discovery about the described knee loading might provide a novel strategy to strengthen osteoporotic bones. Further analyses are required to understand the biophysical and molecular mechanism behind knee

  19. Introgression of Neandertal- and Denisovan-like Haplotypes Contributes to Adaptive Variation in Human Toll-like Receptors.

    PubMed

    Dannemann, Michael; Andrés, Aida M; Kelso, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens and the diseases they cause have been among the most important selective forces experienced by humans during their evolutionary history. Although adaptive alleles generally arise by mutation, introgression can also be a valuable source of beneficial alleles. Archaic humans, who lived in Europe and Western Asia for more than 200,000 years, were probably well adapted to this environment and its local pathogens. It is therefore conceivable that modern humans entering Europe and Western Asia who admixed with them obtained a substantial immune advantage from the introgression of archaic alleles. Here we document a cluster of three Toll-like receptors (TLR6-TLR1-TLR10) in modern humans that carries three distinct archaic haplotypes, indicating repeated introgression from archaic humans. Two of these haplotypes are most similar to the Neandertal genome, and the third haplotype is most similar to the Denisovan genome. The Toll-like receptors are key components of innate immunity and provide an important first line of immune defense against bacteria, fungi, and parasites. The unusually high allele frequencies and unexpected levels of population differentiation indicate that there has been local positive selection on multiple haplotypes at this locus. We show that the introgressed alleles have clear functional effects in modern humans; archaic-like alleles underlie differences in the expression of the TLR genes and are associated with increased [corrected] microbial resistance and increased allergic disease in large cohorts. This provides strong evidence for recurrent adaptive introgression at the TLR6-TLR1-TLR10 locus, resulting in differences in disease phenotypes in modern humans.

  20. Introgression of Neandertal- and Denisovan-like Haplotypes Contributes to Adaptive Variation in Human Toll-like Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Dannemann, Michael; Andrés, Aida M.; Kelso, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens and the diseases they cause have been among the most important selective forces experienced by humans during their evolutionary history. Although adaptive alleles generally arise by mutation, introgression can also be a valuable source of beneficial alleles. Archaic humans, who lived in Europe and Western Asia for more than 200,000 years, were probably well adapted to this environment and its local pathogens. It is therefore conceivable that modern humans entering Europe and Western Asia who admixed with them obtained a substantial immune advantage from the introgression of archaic alleles. Here we document a cluster of three Toll-like receptors (TLR6-TLR1-TLR10) in modern humans that carries three distinct archaic haplotypes, indicating repeated introgression from archaic humans. Two of these haplotypes are most similar to the Neandertal genome, and the third haplotype is most similar to the Denisovan genome. The Toll-like receptors are key components of innate immunity and provide an important first line of immune defense against bacteria, fungi, and parasites. The unusually high allele frequencies and unexpected levels of population differentiation indicate that there has been local positive selection on multiple haplotypes at this locus. We show that the introgressed alleles have clear functional effects in modern humans; archaic-like alleles underlie differences in the expression of the TLR genes and are associated with reduced microbial resistance and increased allergic disease in large cohorts. This provides strong evidence for recurrent adaptive introgression at the TLR6-TLR1-TLR10 locus, resulting in differences in disease phenotypes in modern humans. PMID:26748514

  1. Introgression of Neandertal- and Denisovan-like Haplotypes Contributes to Adaptive Variation in Human Toll-like Receptors.

    PubMed

    Dannemann, Michael; Andrés, Aida M; Kelso, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens and the diseases they cause have been among the most important selective forces experienced by humans during their evolutionary history. Although adaptive alleles generally arise by mutation, introgression can also be a valuable source of beneficial alleles. Archaic humans, who lived in Europe and Western Asia for more than 200,000 years, were probably well adapted to this environment and its local pathogens. It is therefore conceivable that modern humans entering Europe and Western Asia who admixed with them obtained a substantial immune advantage from the introgression of archaic alleles. Here we document a cluster of three Toll-like receptors (TLR6-TLR1-TLR10) in modern humans that carries three distinct archaic haplotypes, indicating repeated introgression from archaic humans. Two of these haplotypes are most similar to the Neandertal genome, and the third haplotype is most similar to the Denisovan genome. The Toll-like receptors are key components of innate immunity and provide an important first line of immune defense against bacteria, fungi, and parasites. The unusually high allele frequencies and unexpected levels of population differentiation indicate that there has been local positive selection on multiple haplotypes at this locus. We show that the introgressed alleles have clear functional effects in modern humans; archaic-like alleles underlie differences in the expression of the TLR genes and are associated with increased [corrected] microbial resistance and increased allergic disease in large cohorts. This provides strong evidence for recurrent adaptive introgression at the TLR6-TLR1-TLR10 locus, resulting in differences in disease phenotypes in modern humans. PMID:26748514

  2. Valgus osteotomy for nonunion and neglected neck of femur fractures

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Viju Daniel; Livingston, Abel; Boopalan, P R; Jepegnanam, Thilak S

    2016-01-01

    Nonunion neck of femur can be a difficult problem to treat, particularly in the young, and is associated with high complication rates of avascular necrosis due to the precarious blood supply and poor biomechanics. The various treatment options that have been described can be broadly divided according to the aim of improving either biology or biomechanics. Surgeries aimed at improving the biology, such as vascularized fibula grafting, have good success rates but require high levels of expertise and substantial resources. A popular surgical treatment aimed at improving the biomechanics-valgus intertrochanteric osteotomy-optimizes conditions for fracture healing by converting shear forces across the fracture site into compressive forces. Numerous variations of this surgical procedure have been developed and successfully applied in clinical practice. As a result, the proximal femoral orientation for obtaining a good functional outcome has evolved over the years, and the present concept of altering the proximal femoral anatomy as little as possible has arisen. This technical objective supports attaining union as well as a good functional outcome, since excessive valgus can lead to increased joint reaction forces. This review summarizes the historical and current literature on valgus intertrochanteric osteotomy treatment of nonunion neck of femur, with a focus on factors predictive of good functional outcome and potential pitfalls to be avoided as well as controversies surrounding this procedure. PMID:27190758

  3. Effects of Hip Geometry on Fracture Patterns of Proximal Femur

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Seyyed Morteza; Qoreishy, Mohamad; Keipourfard, Ali; Sajjadi, Mohammadreza Minator; Shokraneh, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Background: Some studies have previously shown that geometry of proximal femur can affect the probability of fracture and type of fracture. It happens since the geometry of the proximal femur determines how a force is applied to its different parts. In this study, we have compared proximal femur’s geometric characteristics in femoral neck (FNF), intertrochanteric (ITF) and Subtrochanteric (STF) fractures. Methods: In this study, 60 patients who had hip fractures were studied as case studies. They were divided into FNF, ITF and STF groups based on their fracture types (20 patients in each group). Patients were studied with x-ray radiography and CT scans. Radiological parameters including femoral neck length from lateral cortex to center of femoral head (FNL), diameter of femoral head (FHD), diameter of femoral neck (FND), femoral head neck offset (FHNO), neck-shaft angle (alpha), femoral neck anteversion (beta) were measured and compared in all three groups. Results: Amount of FNL was significantly higher in STF group compared to FNF (0.011) while ITF and STF as well as FNT and ITF did not show a significant different. Also, FND in FNF group was significantly lower than the other two groups, i.e. ITF and STF. In other cases there were no instances of significant statistical difference. Conclusion: Hip geometry can be used to identify individuals who are at the risk of fracture with special pattern. Also, it is important to have more studies in different populations and more in men. PMID:27517071

  4. Fat Embolism Syndrome After Femur Fracture Fixation: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Akoh, Craig C; Schick, Cameron; Otero, Jesse; Karam, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a multi-organ disorder with potentially serious sequelae that is commonly seen in the orthopaedic patient population after femur fractures. The major clinical features of FES include hypoxia, pulmonary dysfunction, mental status changes, petechiae, tachycardia, fever, thrombocytopenia, and anemia. Due to technological advances in supportive care and intramedullary reaming techniques, the incidence of FES has been reported as low as 0.5 percent. Here, we present a rare case of FES with cerebral manifestations. A previously healthy 24-year old nonsmoking male was admitted to our hospital after an unrestrained head-on motor vehicle collision. The patient's injuries included a left olecranon fracture and closed bilateral comminuted midshaft femur fractures. The patient went on to develop cerebral fat embolism syndrome (CFES) twelve hours after immediate bilateral intramedullary nail fixation. His symptoms included unresponsiveness, disconjugate gaze, seizures, respiratory distress, fever, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and visual changes. Head computed tomography and brain magnetic resonance imaging showed pathognomonic white-matter punctate lesions and watershed involvement. With early recognition and supportive therapy and seizure therapy, the patient went on to have complete resolution of symptoms without cognitive sequelae. PMID:25328460

  5. The management and outcome of open fractures of the femur sustained on the battlefield over a ten-year period.

    PubMed

    Bennett, P M; Sargeant, I D; Myatt, R W; Penn-Barwell, J G

    2015-06-01

    This is a retrospective study of survivors of recent conflicts with an open fracture of the femur. We analysed the records of 48 patients (48 fractures) and assessed the outcome. The median follow up for 47 patients (98%) was 37 months (interquartile range 19 to 53); 31 (66%) achieved union; 16 (34%) had a revision procedure, two of which were transfemoral amputation (4%). The New Injury Severity Score, the method of fixation, infection and the requirement for soft-tissue cover were not associated with a poor outcome. The degree of bone loss was strongly associated with a poor outcome (p = 0.00204). A total of four patients developed an infection; two with S. aureus, one with E. coli and one with A. baumannii. This study shows that, compared with historical experience, outcomes after open fractures of the femur sustained on the battlefield are good, with no mortality and low rates of infection and late amputation. The degree of bone loss is closely associated with a poor outcome. PMID:26033067

  6. [Non-arthrosic geodes in the femur head. Isolated or predominant geodes].

    PubMed

    Lequesne, M; Castaing, N; Lamotte, J

    1985-04-01

    The isolated or predominant geodes of the femoral head without signs of coxarthritis or coxitis, seem to form in response to: osteochondritis dissecans in 9 cases where the sequester was only visible in profile films or oblique images for 5 cases, and only at time of operation in 2 cases; incipient necrosis in 3 adult cases, not evidenced in frontal films and only seen in profile films with the patient under axial traction; femoral head dysmorphia in 6 cases among which were 4 polyepiphyseal dysplasias and 2 coxa plana without radiographically apparent sequesters; induced increased pressure caused by congenital subluxation or a major disorder of posture and locomotion of lower limbs in 3 cases. In 2 cases no classification could be assigned to isolated or predominant geodes of the femoral head in spite of anatomic examination. The diagnosis of these isolated or predominant geodes of the head of the femur necessitates excellent films made from different angles of view (profile, "false" profile, usual profile, sometimes oblique shots, tomograms) and often enough a biopsy which must be obtained directly through the joint, not transcervically through the neck if a reliable specimen is desired. The surgical treatment indicated is voiding and packing to a maximum the geodes possibly correcting the former increased pressure discordance. But, in lots of cases the intensity of pain and discomfort remains moderate for years, so indication for surgery arises late after onset.

  7. Geode of the femur: an uncommon manifestation potentially reflecting the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wonuk; Terk, Michael R; Hu, Bing; Garber, Elayne K; Weisman, Michael H

    2006-12-01

    Geodes are noted frequently in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but large geodes of the femur are uncommon. We describe a patient with RA and a large geode in his femur; histological findings were consistent with a rheumatoid nodule and chronically inflamed synovium. We review the literature of large femoral geodes and what this particular manifestation may reflect about the pathogenesis of RA.

  8. [Progress on tantalum rod implanting for the treatment of femur head necrosis].

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-kang; Ye, Fu-sheng; Tong, Pei-jian; Fan, Yan-hua; Li, Min; Ying, Hang; Xiao, Lu-wei

    2013-07-01

    Incorrect treatment for femur head necrosis can cause collapse of femoral head and tresult in severe harm for the patients (especially for the patient with middle-aged and young). The structure and mechanics characteristics of tantalum rod is similar to bone tissue, it higher strength and can adapt the internal environment of organism, so it has a large potency in treating femur head necrosis. Treatment of early femur head necrosis with tantalum rod implanting had alreadly widey applied at home and abroad, the method has the advantages of simple operation, little risk, less complication and beseems the patient with stage I - II of ARCO. But reasons that the difficult diagnosis of early femur head necrosis, localized effect of tantalum rod, different experience of medical worker,caused the contentions about effect of tantalum rod implanting. With development of science, tantalum rod implanting combined with correlative biotechnology should raise the effect in treating femur head necrosis.

  9. Analysis of the biocompatibility of ALCAP ceramics in rat femurs.

    PubMed

    Mattie, D R; Bajpai, P K

    1988-12-01

    Ceramics composed of aluminum, calcium, and phosphorus oxides (ALCAP) were tested for compatibility as bone replacement biomaterials. Implantation of ALCAP ceramics in rat femurs had no deleterious effect on body weights, organ/body weight ratios, muscle, bone, blood, and kidney function. Aluminum resorbed from ALCAP ceramic bone implants was excreted in the urine and was not deposited in adjacent muscle. Plasma levels of aluminum were not elevated in rats implanted with ALCAP ceramics. Alkaline phosphatase activity of excised implant sites indicated greater bone formation in ALCAP ceramic implants than in bone autografts. Radiographs and implant histology demonstrated excellent bone association with implants and ingrowth of new bone into ALCAP ceramic implants. ALCAP ceramics are biocompatible and suitable for reconstruction of bone.

  10. Stress Analysis of Human Femur under Different Loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghili, A. Latif; Hojjati, M. H.; Goudarzi, A. Moazemi; Rabiee, M.

    2011-12-01

    Stress fracture is a type of biomechanical failure of bone caused by loads during intense physical training. This failure is very important for aged persons and athletics. Because of cell death, in some cases after emergency surgery the injured person may suffer from lifelong disability. In this research, a three-dimensional finite element model of human femur has been created and analyzed under single, expanded and partial expanded loads. Analysis has been performed using commercially available software. The material is assumed to have isotropic elastic characteristics. The results indicated that the maximum stress occurred at the inferior root of the femoral neck. The magnitude of the strain shows good agreement with the published experimental results. This verifies the finite element modeling and the simplified model used.

  11. Epigenetic regulation during fetal femur development: DNA methylation matters.

    PubMed

    de Andrés, María C; Kingham, Emmajayne; Imagawa, Kei; Gonzalez, Antonio; Roach, Helmtrud I; Wilson, David I; Oreffo, Richard O C

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications are heritable changes in gene expression without changes in DNA sequence. DNA methylation has been implicated in the control of several cellular processes including differentiation, gene regulation, development, genomic imprinting and X-chromosome inactivation. Methylated cytosine residues at CpG dinucleotides are commonly associated with gene repression; conversely, strategic loss of methylation during development could lead to activation of lineage-specific genes. Evidence is emerging that bone development and growth are programmed; although, interestingly, bone is constantly remodelled throughout life. Using human embryonic stem cells, human fetal bone cells (HFBCs), adult chondrocytes and STRO-1(+) marrow stromal cells from human bone marrow, we have examined a spectrum of developmental stages of femur development and the role of DNA methylation therein. Using pyrosequencing methodology we analysed the status of methylation of genes implicated in bone biology; furthermore, we correlated these methylation levels with gene expression levels using qRT-PCR and protein distribution during fetal development evaluated using immunohistochemistry. We found that during fetal femur development DNA methylation inversely correlates with expression of genes including iNOS (NOS2) and COL9A1, but not catabolic genes including MMP13 and IL1B. Furthermore, significant demethylation was evident in the osteocalcin promoter between the fetal and adult developmental stages. Increased TET1 expression and decreased expression of DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) in adult chondrocytes compared to HFBCs could contribute to the loss of methylation observed during fetal development. HFBC multipotency confirms these cells to be an ideal developmental system for investigation of DNA methylation regulation. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate the role of epigenetic regulation, specifically DNA methylation, in bone development, informing and opening

  12. Surgical Treatment of Pathological Fractures Occurring at the Proximal Femur

    PubMed Central

    Choy, Won-Sik; Lee, Sang Ki; Yang, Dae Suk; Jeung, Sang Wook; Choi, Han Gyul; Park, Hyun Jong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the results of surgical treatment for pathological fractures at the proximal femur. Materials and Methods Nineteen patients with a pathological fracture were included. The mean age was 65.7 years old. The patients comprised 8 males and 11 females. Primary tumors, types of pathological fractures, surgical procedures, and postoperative complications were recorded. Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) functional score was used for functional evaluation. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to determine survival rate. Results The primary malignancies were 6 cases of breast cancer, 3 cases of lung cancer, 3 cases of renal cell carcinoma, 2 cases of cholangiocarcinoma, 2 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, 1 case of esophageal cancer, 1 case of colon cancer, and 1 case of ovarian cancer. Pathological fractures included 8 cases of pertrochanteric fractures and 11 cases of subtrochanteric fractures. Intramedullary nailing was performed in 10 cases, and joint replacement surgery was performed in 9 cases. Postoperative complications included local recurrence in 1 case, infection in 1 case, and nail breakage in 1 case. The mean postoperative MSTS score was 21. The mean survival period was 10.6 months. Patient survival rates were 42.1% after 6 months, 26.3% after 12 months, and 10.5% after 24 months. Conclusion Surgical treatment of pathological fractures at the proximal femur provided early ambulation, and excellent pain relief. The surgery was well tolerated emotionally. Surgery is necessary for improving the quality of life in such patients; however, more cases of pathological fractures in these regions should be subjected to detailed analysis. PMID:25683996

  13. Late paternities.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jean

    2007-06-01

    Late paternities are frequent. Very often these couples ask for medically assisted procreation. In general, it is considered that the couple should not be treated differently from the couple where the father is younger. Recent studies show a certain number of specific risks linked to the late paternities. Doctors and society do not act in the same way towards men and women: a 'sensible age' for women to no longer attempt pregnancy has been set in many countries at 42 years of age, whereas men aged 80 can benefit from IVF attempts and be reimbursed by the state or insurance companies. This is an obvious inequity. PMID:17579995

  14. Three-Dimensional Analysis of the Curvature of the Femoral Canal in 426 Chinese Femurs

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiu-Yun; Zhao, Zhe; Zhao, Jing-Xin; Zhang, Li-Cheng; Long, An-Hua; Zhang, Li-Hai; Tang, Pei-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The human femur has long been considered to have an anatomical anterior curvature in the sagittal plane. We established a new method to evaluate the femoral curvature in three-dimensional (3D) space and reveal its influencing factors in Chinese population. Methods. 3D models of 426 femurs and the medullary canal were constructed using Mimics software. We standardized the positions of all femurs using 3ds Max software. After measuring the anatomical parameters, including the radius of femoral curvature (RFC) and banking angle, of the femurs using the established femur-specific coordinate system, we analyzed and determined the relationships between the anatomical parameters of the femur and the general characteristics of the population. Results. Pearson's correlation analyses showed that there were positive correlations between the RFC and height (r = 0.339, p < 0.001) and the femoral length and RFC (r = 0.369, p < 0.001) and a negative correlation between the femoral length and banking angle (r = −0.223, p < 0.001). Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that the most relevant factors for the RFC and banking angle were the femoral length and gender, respectively. Conclusions. This study concluded that the banking angle of the femur was significantly larger in female than in male. PMID:26640785

  15. Prevalence of abuse among young children with femur fractures: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical factors that affect the likelihood of abuse in children with femur fractures have not been well elucidated. Consequently, specifying which children with femur fractures warrant an abuse evaluation is difficult. Therefore the purpose of this study is to estimate the proportion of femur fractures in young children attributable to abuse and to identify demographic, injury and presentation characteristics that affect the probability that femur fractures are secondary to abuse. Methods We conducted a systematic review of published articles written in English between January 1990 and July 2013 on femur fracture etiology in children less than or equal to 5 years old based on searches in PubMed/MEDLINE and CINAHL databases. Data extraction was based on pre-defined data elements and included study quality indicators. A meta-analysis was not performed due to study population heterogeneity. Results Across the 24 studies reviewed, there were a total of 10,717 children less than or equal to 60 months old with femur fractures. Among children less than 12 months old with all types of femur fractures, investigators found abuse rates ranging from 16.7% to 35.2%. Among children 12 months old or greater with femur fractures, abuse rates were lower: from 1.5% - 6.0%. In multiple studies, age less than 12 months, non-ambulatory status, a suspicious history, and the presence of additional injuries were associated with findings of abuse. Diaphyseal fractures were associated with a lower abuse incidence in multiple studies. Fracture side and spiral fracture type, however, were not associated with abuse. Conclusions Studies commonly find a high proportion of abuse among children less than 12 months old with femur fractures. The reported trauma history, physical examination findings and radiologic results must be examined for characteristics that increase or decrease the likelihood of abuse determination. PMID:24989500

  16. Compartment syndrome of the thigh complicating surgical treatment of ipsilateral femur and ankle fractures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, M. R.; Garfin, S. R.; Hargens, A. R.

    1987-01-01

    A 26-year-old man presented with ipsilateral femur and ankle fractures. The patient was treated with interlocking nail of his femur fracture, followed by open reduction and internal fixation of his ankle fracture under tourniquet control. Postoperatively, the patient developed compartment syndrome of his thigh with elevated pressures, requiring decompressive fasciotomies. This case illustrates the possible complication of treating a femur fracture with intramedullary nailing and then immediately applying a tourniquet to treat an ipsilateral extremity fracture. Because of the complication with this patient, we feel the procedure should be staged, or a tourniquet should be avoided if possible.

  17. [Assessment of mechanical complications of intramedullary osteosynthesis in trochanteric fractures of the femur in elderly people].

    PubMed

    Hładki, Waldemar; Bednarenko, Marcin; Kotela, Ireneusz

    2011-01-01

    Operational treatment of trochanteric fractures of the femur, independently of the applied connecting implant, carries the risk of various types of complications. In this paper the incidence of mechanical complications in performed osteosynthesis of trochanteric fractures of the femur was analyzed as well as the risk factors influencing them and their extent were assessed. The results showed statistically significant influence of the type of implant, the type of fracture and the patients' age. It has been proven that the use of Gamma nail decreases the risk of mechanical complications almost twofold in comparison with the Ender's posts, disregarding the type of trochanteric fracture of the femur. PMID:21751513

  18. Modeling of the mechanical behavior of the human femur: Stress analysis and strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belaid, Dalila; Bouchoucha, Ali

    2015-12-01

    The strength of bone depends on its state of mineralization, its geometry, and even supported loads. The femur is the longest bone, the largest and strongest of the human skeleton. It provides standing and walking and running, due to its hip joints with the one side, and with the patella and tibia across. The approach of this paper is to numerically model the mechanical behavior of the femur to determine the stress and strain distribution field. Modeling is performed on the ANSYS software. The results show the influence of different positions of the femur in different cases of postures.

  19. Measurement of elastic wave dispersion on human femur tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strantza, M.; Louis, O.; Polyzos, D.; Boulpaep, F.; Van Hemelrijck, D.; Aggelis, D. G.

    2014-03-01

    Cortical bone is one of the most complex heterogeneous media exhibiting strong wave dispersion. In such media when a burst of energy goes into the formation of elastic waves the different modes tend to separate according to the velocities of the frequency components as usually occurs in waveguides. In this study human femur specimens were subjected to elastic wave measurements. The main objective of the study is using broadband acoustic emission sensors to measure parameters like wave velocity dispersion and attenuation. Additionally, waveform parameters like the duration, rise time and average frequency, are also examined relatively to the propagation distance as a preparation for acoustic emission monitoring during fracture. To do so, four sensors were placed at adjacent positions on the surface of the cortical bone in order to record the transient response after pencil lead break excitation. The results are compared to similar measurements on a bulk metal piece which does not exhibit heterogeneity at the scale of the propagating wave lengths. It is shown that the microstructure of the tissue imposes a dispersive behavior for frequencies below 1 MHz and care should be taken for interpretation of the signals.

  20. Paediatric femur fractures at the emergency department: accidental or not?

    PubMed

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Eva M M; Vrolijk-Bosschaart, Thekla F; Bakx, Roel; Van Rijn, Rick R

    2016-01-01

    Only a small proportion of all paediatric fractures is caused by child abuse or neglect, especially in highly prevalent long bone fractures. It can be difficult to differentiate abusive fractures from non-abusive fractures. This article focuses on femoral fractures in young children. Based on three cases, this article presents a forensic evidence-based approach to differentiate between accidental and non-accidental causes of femoral fractures. We describe three cases of young children who were presented to the emergency department because of a suspected femur fracture. Although in all cases, the fracture had a similar location and appearance, the clinical history and developmental stage of the child led to three different conclusions. In the first two cases, an accidental mechanism was a plausible conclusion, although in the second case, neglect of parental supervision was the cause for concern. In the third case, a non-accidental injury was diagnosed and appropriate legal prosecution followed. Any doctor treating children should always be aware of the possibility of child abuse and neglect in children with injuries, especially in young and non-mobile children presenting with an unknown trauma mechanism. If a suspicion of child abuse or neglect arises, a thorough diagnostic work-up should be performed, including a full skeletal survey according to the guidelines of the Royal College of Radiologists and the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. In order to make a good assessment, the radiologist reviewing the skeletal survey needs access to all relevant clinical and social information.

  1. Statistical shape model-based femur kinematics from biplane fluoroscopy.

    PubMed

    Baka, N; de Bruijne, M; van Walsum, T; Kaptein, B L; Giphart, J E; Schaap, M; Niessen, W J; Lelieveldt, B P F

    2012-08-01

    Studying joint kinematics is of interest to improve prosthesis design and to characterize postoperative motion. State of the art techniques register bones segmented from prior computed tomography or magnetic resonance scans with X-ray fluoroscopic sequences. Elimination of the prior 3D acquisition could potentially lower costs and radiation dose. Therefore, we propose to substitute the segmented bone surface with a statistical shape model based estimate. A dedicated dynamic reconstruction and tracking algorithm was developed estimating the shape based on all frames, and pose per frame. The algorithm minimizes the difference between the projected bone contour and image edges. To increase robustness, we employ a dynamic prior, image features, and prior knowledge about bone edge appearances. This enables tracking and reconstruction from a single initial pose per sequence. We evaluated our method on the distal femur using eight biplane fluoroscopic drop-landing sequences. The proposed dynamic prior and features increased the convergence rate of the reconstruction from 71% to 91%, using a convergence limit of 3 mm. The achieved root mean square point-to-surface accuracy at the converged frames was 1.48 ± 0.41 mm. The resulting tracking precision was 1-1.5 mm, with the largest errors occurring in the rotation around the femoral shaft (about 2.5° precision).

  2. Atraumatic bilateral femur fracture in long-term bisphosphonate use.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Maria S; Reid, Kristoff R; Johnston, James C; Khanuja, Harpal S

    2009-08-01

    Postmenopausal women with osteoporosis are commonly treated with the bisphosphonate class of medications, one of the most frequently prescribed medications in the United States. In the past 4 years, reports have been published implying that long-term bisphosphonate therapy could be linked to atraumatic femoral diaphyseal fractures. This article presents a case of a 67-year-old woman who presented with an atraumatic right femur fracture. She had a medical history notable for use of the bisphosphonate alendronate for 16 years before being switched to ibandronate for 1 year before presentation. She had sustained a similar fracture on the contralateral side 3 years previously. This case report, in addition to a review of the literature, shows that use of the bisphosphonate class of medications for an extended period of time may result in an increased susceptibility to atraumatic femoral diaphyseal fractures. Some studies have suggested that the reason may be the mechanism of action of bisphosphonates, resulting in decreased bone turnover and remodeling. Studies have not shown if the entire class of medications produce a similar result, but patients who have been treated with any bisphosphonate for an extended period of time should be considered at risk. In patients who have already sustained a femoral diaphyseal fracture, imaging of the contralateral side should be performed to identify cortical thickening as an early sign of fracture risk. Patients should also be questioned about thigh pain.

  3. Internal fixators: a safe option for managing distal femur fractures?

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Bruno Bellaguarda; Salim, Rodrigo; Paccola, Cleber Antonio Jansen; Kfuri, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluate safety and reliability of internal fixator for the treatment of intra-articular and periarticular distal femur fractures. METHODS: Retrospective data evaluation of 28 patients with 29 fractures fixed with internal fixator was performed. There was a predominance of male patients (53.5%), with 52% of open wound fractures, 76% of AO33C type fractures, and a mean follow up of 21.3 months. Time of fracture healing, mechanical axis deviation, rate of infection and postoperative complications were registered. RESULTS: Healing rate was 93% in this sample, with an average time of 5.5 months. Twenty-seven percent of patients ended up with mechanical axis deviation, mostly resulting from poor primary intra-operative reduction. There were two cases of implant loosening; two implant breakage, and three patients presented stiff knee. No case of infection was observed. Healing rate in this study was comparable with current literature; there was a high degree of angular deviation, especially in the coronal plane. CONCLUSION: Internal fixators are a breakthrough in the treatment of knee fractures, but its use does not preclude application of principles of anatomical articular reduction and mechanical axis restoration. Level of Evidence II, Retrospective Study. PMID:25061424

  4. Wave dispersion and attenuation on human femur tissue.

    PubMed

    Strantza, Maria; Louis, Olivia; Polyzos, Demosthenes; Boulpaep, Frans; van Hemelrijck, Danny; Aggelis, Dimitrios G

    2014-01-01

    Cortical bone is a highly heterogeneous material at the microscale and has one of the most complex structures among materials. Application of elastic wave techniques to this material is thus very challenging. In such media the initial excitation energy goes into the formation of elastic waves of different modes. Due to "dispersion", these modes tend to separate according to the velocities of the frequency components. This work demonstrates elastic wave measurements on human femur specimens. The aim of the study is to measure parameters like wave velocity, dispersion and attenuation by using broadband acoustic emission sensors. First, four sensors were placed at small intervals on the surface of the bone to record the response after pencil lead break excitations. Next, the results were compared to measurements on a bulk steel block which does not exhibit heterogeneity at the same wave lengths. It can be concluded that the microstructure of the tissue imposes a dispersive behavior for frequencies below 1 MHz and care should be taken for interpretation of the signals. Of particular interest are waveform parameters like the duration, rise time and average frequency, since in the next stage of research the bone specimens will be fractured with concurrent monitoring of acoustic emission. PMID:25196011

  5. SUPRA AND INTRACONDYLAR OPEN FRACTURE OF THE FEMUR IN A MOTOCROSS ATHLETE: CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Jorge Sayum; Sayum, Jorge; de Carvalho, Rogério Teixeira; Nicolini, Alexandre; Matsuda, Marcelo Mitsuro; Cheng, Wu Tu; Cohen, Moisés

    2015-01-01

    The authors report the case of a patient (amateur motocross competitor) who suffered a fall during a motocross competition resulting in a supra and intracondylar open fracture in the right femur. PMID:27027061

  6. [Changes of femur minerals and serum BGP in hindlimb unloaded rats during convalescence].

    PubMed

    Wan, Y M; Zhang, M F; Cui, W; Song, J P

    2000-08-01

    Objective. To observe bone mass changes during convalescence after simulated weightlessness. Method. 7-week-old rats were tail-suspended for 21 d then reloaded for 7 d and 21 d to recover, and measured serum BGP. Result. Tail suspension of rats for 21 d caused significant decrease of serum BGP and phosphorus as well as femur minerals. Serum BGP and femur minerals were still lower than control levels, but serum contents of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium increased significantly after reloading for 7 d. Femur minerals and serum BGP, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium returned to control levels after reloading for 21 d. Conclusion. The deficit in femur mineral induced by hindlimb unloading in rats can be restored by return to normal weight bearing, BGP can be used to monitor the case of its recovery.

  7. Assessment of the bilateral asymmetry of human femurs based on physical, densitometric, and structural rigidity characteristics.

    PubMed

    Pierre, Melissa A; Zurakowski, David; Nazarian, Ara; Hauser-Kara, Diana A; Snyder, Brian D

    2010-08-10

    The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive geometric, densitometric, biomechanical, and statistical analysis of paired femurs for an adult population over a wide age range using three imaging modalities to quantify the departure from symmetry in size, bone mineral density, and cross-sectional structural rigidities. Femur measurements were obtained from 20 pairs of cadaveric femurs. Dimensions of these anatomic sites were measured using calipers directly on the bone and plain radiographs. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density. Bone mineral content and axial and bending rigidities were determined from the CT imaging. No differences were observed between the geometric measurements, DXA based bone mineral density and axial and bending rigidities of left and right femurs (P>0.05 for all cases). Left and right proximal femurs are not significantly different based on geometric, densitometric, and structural rigidity measurements. However, absolute left-right differences for individual patients can be substantial. When using the contralateral femur as a control, the number of femur pairs required to assess significant changes in anatomic dimensions and structural properties induced by a tumor, infection, fracture, or implanted device can range from 3 to 165 pairs depending on the desired effect size or sensitivity (5% or 10% difference). This information is important both for femoral arthroplasty implant design and the use of the contralateral femur as an intra-subject control for clinical assessment and research studies. In addition, our statistical analysis provides sample size estimates for planning future orthopedic research studies.

  8. Lesser Trochanter Migration following Intramedullary Fixation of an Intertrochanteric Femur Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Montoli, Carlo; Pasquali, Cecilia; Paiusco, Elia; Pellecchia, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Intertrochanteric femur fractures are commonly observed in the elderly and may be associated with a complete fracture of the lesser trochanter in over 50% of cases. The migration of the lesser trochanter secondary to the psoas muscle contracture is a rare event. This case report presents a rare case of sudden groin pain three-week status after intramedullary fixation of a intertrochanteric femur fracture. PMID:27006846

  9. Lesser Trochanter Migration following Intramedullary Fixation of an Intertrochanteric Femur Fracture.

    PubMed

    Montoli, Carlo; Pasquali, Cecilia; Paiusco, Elia; Pellecchia, Vincenzo; Vulcano, Ettore

    2016-01-01

    Intertrochanteric femur fractures are commonly observed in the elderly and may be associated with a complete fracture of the lesser trochanter in over 50% of cases. The migration of the lesser trochanter secondary to the psoas muscle contracture is a rare event. This case report presents a rare case of sudden groin pain three-week status after intramedullary fixation of a intertrochanteric femur fracture. PMID:27006846

  10. Increased incidence of femoral fractures in small femurs and women undergoing uncemented total hip arthroplasty - why?

    PubMed

    Bonnin, M P; Neto, C C; Aitsiselmi, T; Murphy, C G; Bossard, N; Roche, S

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the geometry of the proximal femur and the incidence of intra-operative fracture during uncemented total hip arthroplasty (THA). We studied the pre-operative CT scans of 100 patients undergoing THA with an uncemented femoral component. We measured the anteroposterior and mediolateral dimensions at the level of division of the femoral neck to calculate the aspect ratio of the femur. Wide variations in the shape of the femur were observed, from round, to very narrow elliptic. The femurs of women were narrower than those of men (p < 0.0001) and small femurs were also narrower than large ones. Patients with an intra-operative fracture of the calcar had smaller and narrower femurs than those without a fracture (p < 0.05) and the implanted Corail stems were smaller in those with a fracture (mean size 9 vs 12, p < 0.0001). The variability of the shape of the femoral neck at the level of division contributes to the understanding of the causation of intra-operative fractures in uncemented THA. PMID:26033052

  11. Systemic treatment with telmisartan improves femur fracture healing in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiong; Wang, Jia-xing; Feng, Ya-fei; Wu, Zi-xiang; Zhang, Yang; Shi, Lei; Tan, Quan-chang; Yan, Ya-bo; Lei, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Recent clinical studies indicated that angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) would decrease the risk of bone fractures in the elderly populations. There is little known about the role of the ARBs in the process of fracture healing. The purpose of the present study was to verify the hypothesis that systemic treatment with telmisartan has the ability to promote fracture healing. In this study, femur fractures were produced in 96 mature male BALB/c mice. Animals were treated with the ARBs telmisartan or vehicle. Fracture healing was analysed after 2, 5 and 10 weeks postoperatively using X-ray, biomechanical testing, histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Radiological analysis showed the diameter of the callus in the telmisartan treated animals was significantly increased when compared with that of vehicle treated controls after two weeks of fracture healing. The radiologically observed promotion of callus formation was confirmed by histomorphometric analyses, which revealed a significantly increased amount of bone formation when compared with vehicle-treated controls. Biomechanical testing further showed a significantly greater peak torque at failure, and a higher torsional stiffness in telmisartan-treated animals compared with controls. There was an increased fraction of PCNA-positive cells and VEGF-positive cells in telmisartan-treated group compared with vehicle-treated controls. From the three-dimensional reconstruction of the bony callus, telmisartan-treated group significantly increased the values of BV/TV by 21.7% and CsAr by 26.0% compared to the vehicle-treated controls at 5 weeks post-fracture. In summary, we demonstrate in the current study that telmisartan could promote fracture healing in a mice model via increasing mechanical strength and improving microstructure. The most mechanism is probably by an increase of cell proliferation and neovascularization associated with a decreased VEGF expression in hypertrophic

  12. Systemic Treatment with Telmisartan Improves Femur Fracture Healing in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zi-xiang; Zhang, Yang; Shi, Lei; Tan, Quan-chang; Yan, Ya-bo; Lei, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Recent clinical studies indicated that angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) would decrease the risk of bone fractures in the elderly populations. There is little known about the role of the ARBs in the process of fracture healing. The purpose of the present study was to verify the hypothesis that systemic treatment with telmisartan has the ability to promote fracture healing. In this study, femur fractures were produced in 96 mature male BALB/c mice. Animals were treated with the ARBs telmisartan or vehicle. Fracture healing was analysed after 2, 5 and 10 weeks postoperatively using X-ray, biomechanical testing, histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Radiological analysis showed the diameter of the callus in the telmisartan treated animals was significantly increased when compared with that of vehicle treated controls after two weeks of fracture healing. The radiologically observed promotion of callus formation was confirmed by histomorphometric analyses, which revealed a significantly increased amount of bone formation when compared with vehicle-treated controls. Biomechanical testing further showed a significantly greater peak torque at failure, and a higher torsional stiffness in telmisartan-treated animals compared with controls. There was an increased fraction of PCNA-positive cells and VEGF-positive cells in telmisartan-treated group compared with vehicle-treated controls. From the three-dimensional reconstruction of the bony callus, telmisartan-treated group significantly increased the values of BV/TV by 21.7% and CsAr by 26.0% compared to the vehicle-treated controls at 5 weeks post-fracture. In summary, we demonstrate in the current study that telmisartan could promote fracture healing in a mice model via increasing mechanical strength and improving microstructure. The most mechanism is probably by an increase of cell proliferation and neovascularization associated with a decreased VEGF expression in hypertrophic

  13. The shape of the early hominin proximal femur.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Elizabeth H

    2009-06-01

    Postcranial skeletal variation among Plio-Pleistocene hominins has implications for taxonomy and locomotor adaptation. Although sample size constraints make interspecific comparisons difficult, postcranial differences between Australopithecus afarensis and Australopithecus africanus have been reported (McHenry and Berger: J Hum Evol 35 1998 1-22; Richmond et al.: J Hum Evol 43 [2002] 529-548; Green et al.: J Hum Evol 52 2007 187-200). Additional evidence indicates that the early members of the genus Homo show morphology like recent humans (e.g., Walker and Leakey: The Nariokotome Homo erectus skeleton. Cambridge: Harvard, 1993). Using a larger fossil sample than previous studies and novel methods, the early hominin proximal femur is newly examined to determine whether new data alter the current view of femoral evolution and inform the issue of interspecific morphological variation among australopiths. Two- and three-dimensional data are collected from large samples of recent humans, Pan, Gorilla, and Pongo and original fossil femora of Australopithecus, Paranthropus, and femora of African fossil Homo. The size-adjusted shape data are analyzed using principal components, thin plate spline analysis, and canonical variate analysis to assess shape variation. The results indicate that femora of fossil Homo are most similar to modern humans but share a low neck-shaft angle (NSA) with australopiths. Australopiths as a group have ape-like greater trochanter morphology. A. afarensis differs from P. robustus and A. africanus in attributes of the neck and NSA. However, interspecific femoral variation is low and australopiths are generally morphologically similar. Although the differences are not dramatic, when considered in combination with other postcranial evidence, the adaptive differences among australopiths in craniodental morphology may have parallels in the postcranium. PMID:19012328

  14. Paediatric femur fractures at the emergency department: accidental or not?

    PubMed

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Eva M M; Vrolijk-Bosschaart, Thekla F; Bakx, Roel; Van Rijn, Rick R

    2016-01-01

    Only a small proportion of all paediatric fractures is caused by child abuse or neglect, especially in highly prevalent long bone fractures. It can be difficult to differentiate abusive fractures from non-abusive fractures. This article focuses on femoral fractures in young children. Based on three cases, this article presents a forensic evidence-based approach to differentiate between accidental and non-accidental causes of femoral fractures. We describe three cases of young children who were presented to the emergency department because of a suspected femur fracture. Although in all cases, the fracture had a similar location and appearance, the clinical history and developmental stage of the child led to three different conclusions. In the first two cases, an accidental mechanism was a plausible conclusion, although in the second case, neglect of parental supervision was the cause for concern. In the third case, a non-accidental injury was diagnosed and appropriate legal prosecution followed. Any doctor treating children should always be aware of the possibility of child abuse and neglect in children with injuries, especially in young and non-mobile children presenting with an unknown trauma mechanism. If a suspicion of child abuse or neglect arises, a thorough diagnostic work-up should be performed, including a full skeletal survey according to the guidelines of the Royal College of Radiologists and the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. In order to make a good assessment, the radiologist reviewing the skeletal survey needs access to all relevant clinical and social information. PMID:26642309

  15. Lower hip bone mass and proximal femur fractures in elderly patients: more valuable than lumbar vertebrae bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hun-Kyu; Choi, Jae-Yeol; Lee, Jinmyung; Jeong, Hwa Jae; Kim, Eugene; Park, Se-Jin; Jeon, Byeongsam; Lim, Jong-Jun

    2010-12-01

    A decreased bone mineral density, such as osteoporosis, has been considered a factor closely associated with proximal femur fractures. We studied the relationship between osteoporosis and proximal femur fractures. Dual energy radiograph absorptiometry was used to measure the bone mineral density of 121 patients with a femur neck fracture and 134 patients with an intertrochanteric fracture. The bone density of the femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and the trochanteric region were measured. Two hundred seventeen normal patients who had undergone a bone mineral density test and were found to have no proximal femur fracture were used as the control group. Comparative analysis was performed after the patients were subdivided into different groups depending on sex and fracture type. The bone mineral density of the lumbar vertebra in patients with a proximal femur fracture was not significantly different from that of the control group, but the bone mineral density of the proximal femur in patients with a proximal femur fracture was significantly less than that of the control group. The bone mineral density of the group with an intertrochanteric fracture was lower than that of the femur neck fracture group. However, the difference was statistically insignificant. In bone mineral density comparisons, no significant differences were observed between the displaced and undisplaced femur neck fracture group and between the stable and the unstable intertrochanteric fracture group. The bone mineral density of elderly patients with a proximal femur fracture was significantly less than that of normal individuals. However, femur neck fractures in elderly men were less likely to be associated with a decreased bone mineral density. Little correlation between bone mineral densities of the proximal femur and fracture location (neck vs intertrochanter) and type (nondisplaced vs displaced neck, stable vs unstable intertrochanter) was found.

  16. The shape of the hominoid proximal femur: a geometric morphometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Harmon, Elizabeth H

    2007-01-01

    As part of the hip joint, the proximal femur is an integral locomotor component. Although a link between locomotion and the morphology of some aspects of the proximal femur has been identified, inclusive shapes of this element have not been compared among behaviourally heterogeneous hominoids. Previous analyses have partitioned complex proximal femoral morphology into discrete features (e.g. head, neck, greater trochanter) to facilitate conventional linear measurements. In this study, three-dimensional geometric morphometrics are used to examine the shape of the proximal femur in hominoids to determine whether femoral shape co-varies with locomotor category. Fourteen landmarks are recorded on adult femora of Homo, Pan, Gorilla, Pongo and Hylobates. Generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA) is used to adjust for position, orientation and scale among landmark configurations. Principal components analysis is used to collapse and compare variation in residuals from GPA, and thin-plate spline analysis is used to visualize shape change among taxa. The results indicate that knucklewalking African apes are similar to one another in femoral shape, whereas the more suspensory Asian apes diverge from the African ape pattern. The shape of the human and orangutan proximal femur converge, a result that is best explained in terms of the distinct requirements for locomotion in each group. These findings suggest that the shape of the proximal femur is brought about primarily by locomotor behaviour. PMID:17310545

  17. Lateral gastrocnemius myocutaneous flap transposition to the midlateral femur: extending the arc of rotation.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Rishi Raj; Broder, Kevin; Kulidjian, Anna; Bodor, Richard

    2014-05-01

    We report the successful use of an extended lateral gastrocnemius myocutaneous flap for coverage of the midlateral femur using successive delayed elevations. A 62-year-old man underwent wide resection of a liposarcoma of the right anterior thigh with free flap reconstruction and subsequent radiation therapy 10 years before. Four years later, the patient fractured his irradiated femur and was treated with a retrograde intramedullary nail, which subsequently became infected, causing osteomyelitis of the distal femur, septic arthritis of the knee joint, and nonunion of his pathologic fracture. Although advised by numerous surgeons to undergo above-knee amputation, we offered our motivated patient a multidisciplinary approach to clear his infection and pathology; implanted new orthopedic hardware; performed delayed flap reconstruction; and rehabilitated him back to painless, unassisted ambulation. The extended lateral gastrocnemius myocutaneous flap used provided perfused soft tissues and durable coverage for the patient's exposed orthopedic hardware of the midlateral femur, 14 cm above the joint line of the knee. By using this flap to cover a femur defect well above published heights, our patient avoided amputation after years of worsening incapacitation.

  18. Outcome of Fetuses with Diagnosis of Isolated Short Femur in the Second Half of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Roselló, José; Peralta LLorens, Núria

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the outcome of fetuses with isolated short femur detected at 19–41 weeks and determine to what extent this incidental finding should be a cause of concern in fetuses with a normal previous follow-up. Methods. 156 fetuses with isolated short femur were compared with a control group of 637 fetuses with normal femur length. FL values were converted into Z-scores and classified into 4 groups: control group: Z-score over −2, group 1: Z-score between −2 and −3, group 2: Z-score between −3 and −4, and group 3: Z-score below −4. FL values were plotted with the curves representing Z-scores −2, −3, and −4. To assess fetal outcome, the frequency of SGA, IUGR, abnormal umbilical Doppler (AUD), Down's syndrome, and skeletal dysplasia was determined for each group after delivery, and the relative risk in comparison with the control group was obtained. Finally, ROC curves were drawn in order to evaluate the FL diagnostic ability for the conditions appearing with increased frequency. Results. SGA, IUGR, and AUD were more frequent in the fetuses with short femur. Conversely, none of them presented Down's syndrome or skeletal dysplasia. According to ROC analysis, FL measurement behaved as a good diagnostic test for SGA and IUGR. Conclusions. A short femur diagnosis in a fetus with an otherwise normal follow-up determines just a higher risk of being small (SGA or IUGR). PMID:22577572

  19. Percutaneous cementoplasty for painful osteolytic distal femur metastases: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Mingxing; Liu, Yaosheng; Yang, Shaoxing; Jiang, Weigang; Cao, Yuncen; Liu, Shubin

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous cementoplasty has been shown to immediately restore the mechanical stability of affected bones, prevent further risk of bone fractures, and allow immediate weight bearing. It is emerging as one of the most promising procedures for patients with painful bone metastasis who are unsuitable for surgery or who show resistance to radiotherapy and/or analgesic therapies. This study aimed at describing the procedure, indications, and benefits of percutaneous cementoplasty for painful osteolytic distal femur metastases. We report the case of a painful metastatic lesion in the left distal femur secondary to non-small-cell lung cancer in a 58-year-old woman. The patient underwent percutaneous cementoplasty and experienced effective pain relief and recovery of knee function postoperatively. In addition, no perioperative complication was observed. Percutaneous cementoplasty for osteolytic distal femur metastases offers effective pain relief and restores impaired knee function. Although this method may be a safe option, larger samples of retrospective or prospective confirmation are warranted. PMID:27799817

  20. [Biomechanical test study of rat femurs growing under different stress environment].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingxi; Zhao, Wenzhi; Zhang, Jun; Li, Shouju; Li, Jingnian; Sun, Xiaojiang

    2005-06-01

    By creating two kinds of stress environment in the same animal model, we performed a three-point bending test and a compressing test on the rat femurs growing under different stress conditions to characterize the effect of stress on bone mechanical properties. The right hindlimbs were subjected to sciatic nerve resection to become cripple and were used as unloading group; the left hindlimbs bore excess load and made up the overloading group; the normal rats were used as control group. The animals were encouraged to exercise for half an hour everyday in the morning, noon and evening. The experiment observation finished in four weeks. The biomechanical parameters of femur diaphyses were measured. The experiment results showed that stress environment may change several mechanical parameters of rat femurs. This study indicated that bone tissues can adapt to its stress environment by changing its mechanical properties. The experimental model in this article is practical and reliable.

  1. A new anterolateral approach for type C fractures of the distal femur.

    PubMed

    Bin, Zhang; Song, Luo; Binghua, Wu; Ping, Qiu; Min, Dai

    2014-01-01

    To provide an anatomic basis for treating type C distal femoral fractures by a new anterolateral approach. Twenty surgical procedures were performed in 10 adult cadaveric specimens using a new anterolateral approach followed by dissection of all lower limbs. The main anterolateral muscles and ligaments were observed. Vessels and nerves related to the new anterolateral approach were also evaluated. Full exposure of the distal femur was achieved. The iliotibial band was protected, and damage to the quadriceps femoris was reduced. The distance between the common peroneal nerve and the new incision line at the level of the lateral epicondyle of the femur was (χ̄ ± s) 8.19 ± 0.79 cm (range, 7.48-9.57 cm). This new anterolateral approach to the distal femur is safe. Although it induces slight soft tissue damage, its exposure is excellent. Knee rehabilitation can be performed in the early postoperative period. PMID:25437603

  2. A New Anterolateral Approach for Type C Fractures of the Distal Femur

    PubMed Central

    Bin, Zhang; Song, Luo; Binghua, Wu; Ping, Qiu; Min, Dai

    2014-01-01

    To provide an anatomic basis for treating type C distal femoral fractures by a new anterolateral approach. Twenty surgical procedures were performed in 10 adult cadaveric specimens using a new anterolateral approach followed by dissection of all lower limbs. The main anterolateral muscles and ligaments were observed. Vessels and nerves related to the new anterolateral approach were also evaluated. Full exposure of the distal femur was achieved. The iliotibial band was protected, and damage to the quadriceps femoris was reduced. The distance between the common peroneal nerve and the new incision line at the level of the lateral epicondyle of the femur was (χ̄ ± s) 8.19 ± 0.79 cm (range, 7.48–9.57 cm). This new anterolateral approach to the distal femur is safe. Although it induces slight soft tissue damage, its exposure is excellent. Knee rehabilitation can be performed in the early postoperative period. PMID:25437603

  3. Chondral fracture of the lateral trochlea of the femur occurring in an adolescent: mechanism of injury.

    PubMed

    Oohashi, Yoshikazu; Oohashi, Yoshinori

    2007-11-01

    The trochlea of the femur is a very unusual site for chondral fracture. Little is known of the mechanism of injuries confined to the articular cartilage of the trochlea of the femur. A very unusual case of chondral fracture of the lateral trochlea of the femur occurring in an adolescent is reported here. The mechanism by which this injury occurred could be evaluated in this patient. The cartilage on the convex surface of the lateral trochlea was likely avulsed proximally by shear force of the patella during rapid extension of the weight-bearing knee from a flexed position. From a viewpoint of mechanism, this injury differs from the more usual osteochondral or chondral fractures of the weight bearing area of the femoral condyle, which are usually accompanied by twisting forces.

  4. The Analysis of Biomechanical Properties of Proximal Femur after Implant Removal

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jae Hyuk; Jung, Tae Gon; Honnurappa, Arjun Rupanagudi; Cha, Jae Min; Ham, Chang Hwa; Kim, Tae Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. To compare the biomechanical stability of the femur following the removal of proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA-II) and dynamic hip screw (DHS). Material and Methods. 56 paired cadaveric femurs were used as experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, PFNA-II and DHS were randomly inserted into femurs on both sides and then removed. Thereafter, compression load was applied until fracture occurred; biomechanical stability of the femurs and associated fracture patterns were studied. Results. The ultimate load and stiffness of the control group were 6227.8 ± 1694.1 N and 990.5 ± 99.8 N/mm, respectively. These were significantly higher than experimental group (p = 0.014, <0.001) following the removal of PFNA-II (4085.6 ± 1628.03 N and 656.3 ± 155.3 N/mm) and DHS (4001.9 ± 1588.3 N and 656.3 ± 155.3 N/mm). No statistical differences in these values were found between the 2 device groups (p = 0.84, 0.71), regardless of age groups. However, fracture patterns were different between two devices, intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures. Conclusions. Mechanical stability of the proximal femurs does not differ after the removal of 2 different of fixation devices regardless of the age. However, it was significantly lower compared to an intact femur. Different fracture patterns have been shown following the removal of different fixation devices as there are variations in the site of stress risers for individual implants.

  5. The epidemiology and treatment of femur fractures at a northern tanzanian referral centre

    PubMed Central

    Hollis, Alexander Conor; Ebbs, Samuel Robert; Mandari, Faiton Ndesanjo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Femoral fractures are the most common presenting injury at the orthopaedic department in a large Tanzanian hospital. To date, there has been no current examination of the epidemiology of femoral fractures and the disease burden has not been quantified. Methods A retrospective descriptive study of patient records in the orthopaedic department at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC) was performed. Patient demographics, aetiology of fractures, diagnosis and treatment were all recorded. Results A total of 540 consecutive patient admission records were reviewed over a 9 month period. Of these 540 cases, 213 (39%) were diagnosed with a femoral fracture. The 21-30 age group were the most commonly affected by femur fractures (20% n = 42). Within this group, motor traffic accidents (MTA) were the cause of 71% of injuries (n = 30). For males, MTA's caused 59% of all femur fractures (n = 80), while falls were the most common cause of femur fractures in females (70%; n = 49). 80% of the fractures in the 51-100 age group were caused by falls (n = 52). In both the male and female groups the most common fracture seen was mid shaft femoral fracture (males 33% (n = 48), females 25% (n = 18)). The most common treatment was skeletal traction used in 40% (n = 85) of patients. Conclusion Femur fracture most commonly presented in males under age 30. Femur fracture was most commonly cause by MTAs in males and by falls in females. The most common diagnosis was mid shaft of femur fracture. Skeletal traction was the most frequent treatment. PMID:26977245

  6. The Analysis of Biomechanical Properties of Proximal Femur after Implant Removal

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jae Hyuk; Jung, Tae Gon; Honnurappa, Arjun Rupanagudi; Cha, Jae Min; Ham, Chang Hwa; Kim, Tae Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. To compare the biomechanical stability of the femur following the removal of proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA-II) and dynamic hip screw (DHS). Material and Methods. 56 paired cadaveric femurs were used as experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, PFNA-II and DHS were randomly inserted into femurs on both sides and then removed. Thereafter, compression load was applied until fracture occurred; biomechanical stability of the femurs and associated fracture patterns were studied. Results. The ultimate load and stiffness of the control group were 6227.8 ± 1694.1 N and 990.5 ± 99.8 N/mm, respectively. These were significantly higher than experimental group (p = 0.014, <0.001) following the removal of PFNA-II (4085.6 ± 1628.03 N and 656.3 ± 155.3 N/mm) and DHS (4001.9 ± 1588.3 N and 656.3 ± 155.3 N/mm). No statistical differences in these values were found between the 2 device groups (p = 0.84, 0.71), regardless of age groups. However, fracture patterns were different between two devices, intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures. Conclusions. Mechanical stability of the proximal femurs does not differ after the removal of 2 different of fixation devices regardless of the age. However, it was significantly lower compared to an intact femur. Different fracture patterns have been shown following the removal of different fixation devices as there are variations in the site of stress risers for individual implants. PMID:27597807

  7. The Analysis of Biomechanical Properties of Proximal Femur after Implant Removal.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jae Hyuk; Jung, Tae Gon; Honnurappa, Arjun Rupanagudi; Cha, Jae Min; Ham, Chang Hwa; Kim, Tae Yoon; Suh, Seung Woo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. To compare the biomechanical stability of the femur following the removal of proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA-II) and dynamic hip screw (DHS). Material and Methods. 56 paired cadaveric femurs were used as experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, PFNA-II and DHS were randomly inserted into femurs on both sides and then removed. Thereafter, compression load was applied until fracture occurred; biomechanical stability of the femurs and associated fracture patterns were studied. Results. The ultimate load and stiffness of the control group were 6227.8 ± 1694.1 N and 990.5 ± 99.8 N/mm, respectively. These were significantly higher than experimental group (p = 0.014, <0.001) following the removal of PFNA-II (4085.6 ± 1628.03 N and 656.3 ± 155.3 N/mm) and DHS (4001.9 ± 1588.3 N and 656.3 ± 155.3 N/mm). No statistical differences in these values were found between the 2 device groups (p = 0.84, 0.71), regardless of age groups. However, fracture patterns were different between two devices, intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures. Conclusions. Mechanical stability of the proximal femurs does not differ after the removal of 2 different of fixation devices regardless of the age. However, it was significantly lower compared to an intact femur. Different fracture patterns have been shown following the removal of different fixation devices as there are variations in the site of stress risers for individual implants. PMID:27597807

  8. Pterosauria from the Late Triassic of Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaparte, J. F.; Schultz, C. L.; Soares, M. B.

    A few postcranial remains of a Late Triassic pterosaur from the early Coloradian Caturrita Formation of Rio Grande do Sul are communicated. The general morphology of the coracoid, proximal portion of the humerus, femur, tibia and fibula suggests that it is more primitive than the pterosaurs from the Norian of northern Italy. The morphology and proportions of the different bones support their assignment to a primitive pterosaur. An almost complete maxilla with three teeth is tentatively referred to the same taxon because it was collected at some distance from the postcrania cited above.

  9. Femur ontogeny in humans and great apes: heterochronic implications for hominid évolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardieu, Christine

    1997-12-01

    Did the first hominids have a short developmental period similar to that of the great apes, or a longer period closer to that of modern humans? Some morphological modifications undergone by the human femur during growth are shown to be excellent markers of different developmental stages. The femur of the first hominids ( Australopithecus afarensis) shows only features of infantile growth, whereas characters of both infantile and adolescent growth are typical of later hominids ( Homo). In the first australopithecines the period of peripubertal growth would have still been short. The prolongation of the adolescent period appears to be a characteristic of Homo.

  10. [The use of the gamma nail in fractures of the nearer end of femur].

    PubMed

    Kotela, Ireneusz; Bołtuć, Witold; Bednarenko, Marcin; Bilski, Przemysław

    2006-01-01

    The elaboration presents the operating indications in treatment of fractures of the nearer end of the femur using the Gamma nail. In comminuted fractures, the Kyle partition was used. The operating- techniques, difficulties and complications appeared after treatment with this method have been presented. Among 42 patients operated with the Gamma nail, 39 good and satisfactory results have been obtained. The stable intramedullary osteosynthesis ought to be recommended in fractures of the nearer end of femur having in mind characterised by the closed operating techniques, little loss of blood, stability of the junction and early mobilization of the patient. PMID:17784543

  11. Management of distal femur fractures with modern plates and nails: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Beltran, Michael J; Gary, Joshua L; Collinge, Cory A

    2015-04-01

    Fractures of the distal femur, even those with articular extension, are well suited to surgical fixation with modern precontoured anatomic plates and nails. Numerous adjuvant techniques are available to the treating surgeon to obtain and maintain reduction while preserving fracture biology. Yet despite their proven track record and benefits over older implants, technical errors are common and must be overcome with proper preoperative planning and intraoperative attention to detail. This review summarizes the current state of the art regarding distal femur fractures, with an emphasis on relevant modern plate and nail surgical techniques, tempered by our current understanding of implant biomechanics, fracture healing, and long-term outcomes. PMID:25793566

  12. Naturally occurring tetracycline-like fluorescence in sections of femur from jackals in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Bingham, J; Matema, R; Kappeler, A; Hill, F W

    1994-08-20

    In assessing the potential of the tetracycline compounds as biomarkers in oral rabies vaccination campaigns in jackals in Zimbabwe, the natural prevalence of fluorescent compounds in bone tissue from jackals was investigated. Femur samples were taken from unbaited jackals received for routine rabies diagnosis, and thin undecalcified sections were cut and viewed under an ultraviolet microscope. Of 131 femur samples examined, 49 (37 per cent) had fluorescent markings indistinguishable from those of tetracycline. The result implies that the tetracycline compounds, which are commonly used in rabies baiting campaigns in Europe and North America, cannot be used as biomarkers in jackals in Zimbabwe.

  13. Osteoporosis and low bone mass at the femur neck or lumbar spine in older adults: United States, 2005-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many current clinical guidelines recommend that assessment of osteoporosis or low bone mass, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) (1), be based on bone mineral density at either the femur neck region of the proximal femur (hip) or the lumbar spine (2,3). This data brief presents the mos...

  14. Biomechanical measurements of surgical drilling force and torque in human versus artificial femurs.

    PubMed

    MacAvelia, Troy; Salahi, Meisam; Olsen, Michael; Crookshank, Meghan; Schemitsch, Emil H; Ghasempoor, Ahmad; Janabi-Sharifi, Farrokh; Zdero, Rad

    2012-12-01

    Few experimental studies have examined surgical drilling in human bone, and no studies have inquired into this aspect for a popular commercially-available artificial bone used in biomechanical studies. Sixteen fresh-frozen human femurs and five artificial femurs were obtained. Cortical specimens were mounted into a clamping system equipped with a thrust force and torque transducer. Using a CNC machine, unicortical holes were drilled in each specimen at 1000 rpm, 1250 rpm, and 1500 rpm with a 3.2 mm diameter surgical drill bit. Feed rate was 120 mm/min. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Force at increasing spindle speed (1000 rpm, 1250 rpm, and 1500 rpm), respectively, showed a range for human femurs (198.4 ± 14.2 N, 180.6 ± 14.0 N, and 176.3 ± 11.2 N) and artificial femurs (87.2 ± 19.3 N, 82.2 ± 11.2 N, and 75.7 ± 8.8 N). For human femurs, force at 1000 rpm was greater than at other speeds (p ≤ 0.018). For artificial femurs, there was no speed effect on force (p ≥ 0.991). Torque at increasing spindle speed (1000 rpm, 1250 rpm, and 1500 rpm), respectively, showed a range for human femurs (186.3 ± 16.9 N·mm, 157.8 ± 16.1 N·mm, and 140.2 ± 16.4 N·mm) and artificial femurs (67.2 ± 8.4 N·mm, 61.0 ± 2.9 N·mm, and 53.3 ± 2.9 N·mm). For human femurs, torque at 1000 rpm was greater than at other speeds (p < 0.001). For artificial femurs, there was no difference in torque for 1000 rpm versus higher speeds (p ≥ 0.228), and there was only a borderline difference between the higher speeds (p = 0.046). Concerning human versus artificial femurs, their behavior was different at every speed (force, p ≤ 0.001; torque, p < 0.001). For human specimens at 1500 rpm, force and torque were linearly correlated with standardized bone mineral density (sBMD) and the T-score used to clinically categorize bone quality (R

  15. Late Occurring Medial Migration of a Lag Screw in Gamma Nailing

    PubMed Central

    van Hoef, S.; Fuchs, M. C. H. W.; ten Broeke, R. H. M.

    2016-01-01

    An 81-year-old female was treated for a pertrochanteric multifragmentary fracture of the proximal femur with a third-generation Gamma nail. After 3 months she presented herself again with acute pain and inability to bear weight on the leg. Radiographs showed medial migration of the lag screw. She was treated with a total hip arthroplasty, after which she was successfully discharged. In this case report the possible causes of this late and unusual complication are discussed. PMID:27313926

  16. Tea drinking habits and osteoporotic hip/femur fractures: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chenshu; Tang, Rongrui

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between tea drinking habits and osteoporotic hip/femur fractures. Methods: Paired case-control method was used for face-to-face interviews from January 2010 to June 2014. Patients (n=435) with newly osteoporotic hip/femur fracture and 435 controls with the same gender and age (±3) were given questionnaire survey. The survey content included general situation, detailed tea drinking and other diet condition, health-related behavior and family history of fractures, etc. Results: Single factor logistic analysis showed that the habit of drinking tea can significantly reduce the risk of hip/femur fracture. Cumulative year of tea drinking, the cumulative amount of tea and tea concentration (low dose group) have the maximum protection for fracture, while the high dose group is weaker in protection (trend test, P<0.05). After adjustment for age, energy, BMI, education degree, parents’ history of fracture, second hand smoke exposure, calcium supplements, and equivalent energy consumption of physical activity, etc, the above association still showed significant linear trend, but the associated strength was slightly reduced. But stratified analysis found that the effect of tea drinking was only statistically significant in men. And there were no statistically significant differences of people with different education degree. Conclusions: Regular tea drinking can reduce the risk of osteoporotic hip/femur fractures in middle-aged and elderly men. PMID:27182250

  17. The influence of simvastatin in rats mandible and femur bone mass under Freund's adjuvant arthritis.

    PubMed

    Seferos, Nikos; Pantopoulou, Alkistis; Kotsiou, Antonia; Rallis, Georgios; Tesseromatis, Christine

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats has been used widely as a model of rodent arthropathy and polyarthritis followed by osteoporosis, decreased bone formation and increased bone formation. Osteoporosis is characterized by rapid reduce of bone mass affecting more than 100 million people worldwide. Periodontitis a chronic inflammatory, of multifactorian origin disease has been associated with general osteoporosis. Protective bone-specific anabolic and antiresorptive effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors have also been evaluated in normal and osteoporotic bone. AIM. The aim of the study was to investigate mandible and femur bone density in Freund's adjuvant induced arthritis rats under the influence of simvastatin. METHODS. Three groups (A, B, C) of 7 Wistar male rats each aged 3 months, (292±48.38 g) were used. A control. Group B and C subjected experimental arthritis via complete Freund's adjuvant injected in right paw. Group C was treated with simvastatin 0.5 mg/kg/daily po 14 days. Femur, mandible were isolated and sizes parameters, biochemical serum findings and BMD were estimated. RESULTS. CFA established by paw diameter, adrenals and spleen weight increase and thymus weight decrease, while biochemical serum findings were also affected. Reduced femur, mandible weight and general bone mass parameters BMD evaluated via DEXA occurred and restored under simvastatin treatment. CONCLUSIONS. CFA induced mandible and femur injuries are repaired by ssimvatatin treatment that could be therapeutically useful.

  18. A fracture risk assessment model of the femur in children with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) during gait.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Jessica M; Guan, Yabo; Wang, Mei; Smith, Peter A; Harris, Gerald F

    2009-11-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable bone fragility disorder characterized by skeletal deformities and increased bone fragility. There is currently no established clinical method for quantifying fracture risk in OI patients. This study begins the development of a patient-specific model for femur fracture risk assessment and prediction based on individuals' gait analysis data, bone geometry from imaging and material properties from nanoindentation (Young's modulus=19 GPa, Poisson's ratio=0.3). Finite element models of the femur were developed to assess fracture risk of the femur in a pediatric patient with OI type I. Kinetic data from clinical gait analysis was used to prescribe loading conditions on the femoral head and condyles along with muscle forces on the bone's surface. von Mises stresses were analyzed against a fracture strength of 115 MPa. The patient with OI whose femur was modeled showed no risk of femoral fracture during normal gait. The highest stress levels occurred during the mid-stance and loading responses phases of gait. The location of high stress migrated throughout the femoral diaphysis across the gait cycle. Maximum femoral stress levels occurred during the gait cycle phases associated with the highest loading. The fracture risk (fracture strength/von Mises stress), however, was low. This study provides a relevant method for combining functional activity, material property and analytical methods to improve patient monitoring.

  19. Simultaneously detected parosteal osteoma and osteochondroma in the distal femur of a single patient.

    PubMed

    Yun, Seong Jong; Jin, Wook; Park, Yong Koo; Han, Chung Soo; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Park, Ji Seon; Park, So Young

    2013-01-01

    Parosteal osteoma arising from long tubular bone is an extremely rare bone tumor and should be distinguished from parosteal osteosarcoma, whereas osteochondroma is a common benign bone tumor showing an outgrowth of medullary and cortical bone with a cartilaginous cap. This report describes simultaneously detected parosteal osteoma and osteochondroma arising from the distal femur in a single patient.

  20. Cemented allograft-prosthesis composite reconstruction for the proximal femur tumor

    PubMed Central

    Min, Li; Tang, Fan; Duan, Hong; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Wen-li; Shi, Rui; Tu, Chong-qi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cemented allograft-prosthesis composite (APC) reconstruction is one option following resection of the proximal femur tumor. However, rare studies have focused on the indications and complications. The goal of the present study was to (1) ascertain the indications for cemented APC arthroplasty in the proximal femur; (2) identify the detailed perioperative management; and (3) illustrate our experiences to avoid the complications of cemented APC. Materials and methods A total 28 patients who underwent cemented APC reconstruction of the proximal femur after tumor resection were retrospectively evaluated at a median follow-up of 56 months. Clinical records and radiographs were reviewed to evaluate patients’ outcome. Results In our series, excluding three cases of death that had a short follow-up period, union occurred in 22 (88.0%) patients (range 9–18 months). Nonunion of the greater trochanter was seen in six of the 12 patients (50.0%). Eight (32.0%) hips had resorption. There were two (8.0%) hips that were observed to have asymptomatic wear of the acetabulum. The average Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) score was 26.5 points. The average Harris Hip Score (HHS) score was 80.6 points. There were no cases of recurrence, but metastasis was found in two hips. Conclusions Mastering indications, perioperative management, and complication prevention are all very important in the APC reconstruction after resection of the proximal femur. PMID:26345329

  1. Numerical simulation of stress amplification induced by crack interaction in human femur bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alia, Noor; Daud, Ruslizam; Ramli, Mohammad Fadzli; Azman, Wan Zuki; Faizal, Ahmad; Aisyah, Siti

    2015-05-01

    This research is about numerical simulation using a computational method which study on stress amplification induced by crack interaction in human femur bone. Cracks in human femur bone usually occur because of large load or stress applied on it. Usually, the fracture takes longer time to heal itself. At present, the crack interaction is still not well understood due to bone complexity. Thus, brittle fracture behavior of bone may be underestimated and inaccurate. This study aims to investigate the geometrical effect of double co-planar edge cracks on stress intensity factor (K) in femur bone. This research focuses to analyze the amplification effect on the fracture behavior of double co-planar edge cracks, where numerical model is developed using computational method. The concept of fracture mechanics and finite element method (FEM) are used to solve the interacting cracks problems using linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) theory. As a result, this study has shown the identification of the crack interaction limit (CIL) and crack unification limit (CUL) exist in the human femur bone model developed. In future research, several improvements will be made such as varying the load, applying thickness on the model and also use different theory or method in calculating the stress intensity factor (K).

  2. Changes in proximal femur bone properties following ovariectomy and their association with resistance to fracture.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Hélder; Moreira-Gonçalves, Daniel; Vaz, Mário; Fernandes, Maria Helena; Ferreira, Rita; Amado, Francisco; Mota, Maria Paula; Duarte, José Alberto

    2012-05-01

    Bone strength depends on several material and structural properties, but findings concerning the best predictors of bone mechanical performance are conflicting. The aim of this study was to investigate how a broad set of bone properties in the proximal femur are influenced by age and hormonal status, and how these properties together determine bone strength. Twenty-five Wistar rats were ovariectomized (OVX, n = 13) or sham operated (SHAM, n = 12) at 5 months of age, and killed after 9 months. Another group of rats was killed at 5 months as baseline control (BSL, n = 7). At sacrifice, serum 17β-estradiol and bone turnover marker concentrations were determined in the serum. Both femurs were collected for assessment of trabecular microarchitecture, femoral neck geometry, radiographic absorptiometry, calcium and phosphate content, and biomechanical properties. While stiffness was mostly associated with proximal femur trabecular microarchitecture and mineralization degree, bone strength was mostly linked to bone size and femoral neck geometry, which predicted almost 50% of its variance. Despite the decrease in cortical and trabecular bone as well as in mineralization degree following estrogen loss, bone strength was not reduced in OVX animals compared to BSL or sham-operated rats. This was due to a change in femoral neck geometry as well as to an increase in femur size in OVX, which apparently compensated their lower bone volume and mineral content, thereby preserving bone strength. Estrogen loss leads to a deterioration of bone tissue quality, but bone strength was preserved at the expense of geometric adaptations.

  3. Prediction of the mechanical response of the femur with uncertain elastic properties.

    PubMed

    Wille, Hagen; Rank, Ernst; Yosibash, Zohar

    2012-04-30

    A mandatory requirement for any reliable prediction of the mechanical response of bones, based on quantitative computer tomography, is an accurate relationship between material properties (usually Young's modulus E) and bone density ρ. Many such E-ρ relationships are available based on different experiments on femur specimens with a large spread due to uncertainties. The first goal of this study is to pool and analyze the relevant available experimental data and develop a stochasticE-ρ relationship. This analysis highlights that there is no experimental data available to cover the entire density range of the human femur and that some "popular" E-ρ relationships are based on data that contains extreme scatter, while others are based on a very limited amount of information. The second goal is to use the newly developed stochastic E-ρ relationship in high-order finite element analyses (FEAs) for the computation of strains and displacements in two human proximal femurs, mimicking in vitro experiments. When compared with the experimental observations, the FEA predictions using the median of the stochastic E-ρ relationship follow the underlying distribution of the stochastic E-ρ relationship. Thus, most deviations of the FEA predictions from experimental observations can possibly be explained by uncertain elastic properties of the femur.

  4. QCT-based failure analysis of proximal femurs under various loading orientations.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Majid; Keshavarzian, Maziyar; Alavi, Fatemeh; Amiri, Pegah; Samiezadeh, Saeid

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the variations of the failure strength and pattern of human proximal femur with loading orientation were analysed using a novel quantitative computed tomography (QCT)-based linear finite element (FE) method. The QCT images of 4 fresh-frozen femurs were directly converted into voxel-based finite element models for the analyses of the failure loads and patterns. A new geometrical reference system was used for the alignment of the mechanical loads on the femoral head. A new method was used for recognition and assortment of the high-risk elements using a strain energy-based measure. The FE results were validated with the experimental results of the same specimens and the results of similar case studies reported in the literature. The validated models were used for the computational investigation of the failure loads and patterns under 15 different loading conditions. A consistent variation of the failure loads and patterns was found for the 60 different analysed cases. Finally, it was shown that the proposed procedure can be used as a reliable tool for the failure analysis of proximal femurs, e.g. identification of the relevant loading directions for specific failure patterns, or determination of the loading conditions under which the proximal femurs are failure-prone. PMID:25731689

  5. Femur-mounted navigation system for the arthroscopic treatment of femoroacetabular impingement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S. H.; Hwang, D. S.; Yoon, Y. S.

    2013-07-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement stems from an abnormal shape of the acetabulum and proximal femur. It is treated by resection of damaged soft tissue and by the shaping of bone to resemble normal features. The arthroscopic treatment of femoroacetabular impingement has many advantages, including minimal incisions, rapid recovery, and less pain. However, in some cases, revision is needed owing to the insufficient resection of damaged bone from a misreading of the surgical site. The limited view of arthroscopy is the major reason for the complications. In this research, a navigation method for the arthroscopic treatment of femoroacetabular impingement is developed. The proposed navigation system consists of femur attachable measurement device and user interface. The bone mounted measurement devices measure points on head-neck junction for registration and position of surgical instrument. User interface shows the three-dimensional model of patient's femur and surgical instrument position that is tracked by measurement device. Surgeon can know the three-dimensional anatomical structure of hip joint and surgical instrument position on surgical site using navigation system. Surface registration was used to obtain relation between patient's coordinate at the surgical site and coordinate of three-dimensional model of femur. In this research, we evaluated the proposed navigation system using plastic model bone. It is expected that the surgical tool tracking position accuracy will be less than 1 mm.

  6. A PTH-responsive circadian clock operates in ex vivo mouse femur fracture healing site

    PubMed Central

    Kunimoto, Tatsuya; Okubo, Naoki; Minami, Yoichi; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Hosokawa, Toshihiro; Asada, Maki; Oda, Ryo; Kubo, Toshikazu; Yagita, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The circadian clock contains clock genes including Bmal1 and Period2, and it maintains an interval rhythm of approximately 24 hours (the circadian rhythm) in various organs including growth plate and articular cartilage. As endochondral ossification is involved not only in growth plate but also in fracture healing, we investigated the circadian clock functions in fracture sites undergoing healing. Our fracture models using external fixation involved femurs of Period2::Luciferase knock-in mice which enables the monitoring of endogenous circadian clock state via bioluminescence. Organ culture was performed by collecting femurs, and fracture sites were observed using bioluminescence imaging systems. Clear bioluminescence rhythms of 24-hour intervals were revealed in fracture healing sites. When parathyroid hormone (PTH) was administered to fractured femurs in organ culture, peak time of Period2::Luciferase activity in fracture sites and growth plates changed, indicating that PTH-responsive circadian clock functions in the mouse femur fracture healing site. While PTH is widely used in treating osteoporosis, many studies have reported that it contributes to improvement of fracture healing. Future studies of the role of this local clock in wound healing may reveal a novel function of the circadian timing mechanism in skeletal cells. PMID:26926165

  7. A comparative study of orthotropic and isotropic bone adaptation in the femur

    PubMed Central

    Geraldes, Diogo M; Phillips, Andrew T M

    2014-01-01

    Functional adaptation of the femur has been studied extensively by embedding remodelling algorithms in finite element models, with bone commonly assumed to have isotropic material properties for computational efficiency. However, isotropy is insufficient in predicting the directionality of bone's observed microstructure. A novel iterative orthotropic 3D adaptation algorithm is proposed and applied to a finite element model of the whole femur. Bone was modelled as an optimised strain-driven adaptive continuum with local orthotropic symmetry. Each element's material orientations were aligned with the local principal stress directions and their corresponding directional Young's moduli updated proportionally to the associated strain stimuli. The converged predicted density distributions for a coronal section of the whole femur were qualitatively and quantitatively compared with the results obtained by the commonly used isotropic approach to bone adaptation and with ex vivo imaging data. The orthotropic assumption was shown to improve the prediction of bone density distribution when compared with the more commonly used isotropic approach, whilst producing lower comparative mass, structurally optimised models. It was also shown that the orthotropic approach can provide additional directional information on the material properties distributions for the whole femur, an advantage over isotropic bone adaptation. Orthotropic bone models can help in improving research areas in biomechanics where local structure and mechanical properties are of key importance, such as fracture prediction and implant assessment. © 2014 The Authors. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24753477

  8. Multiple vibration displacements at multiple vibration frequencies stress impact on human femur computational analysis.

    PubMed

    Ezenwa, Bertram; Yeoh, Han Teik

    2011-01-01

    Whole-body vibration training using single-frequency methods has been reported to improve bone mineral density. However, the intensities can exceed safe levels and have drawn unfavorable comments from subjects. In a previous article, whole-body vibration training using multiple vibration displacements at multiple vibration frequencies (MVDMVF) was reported. This article presents the computational simulation evaluation of stress dispersion on a femur with and without the MVDMVF input. A model of bone femur was developed from a computed tomography image of the lower limb with Mimics software from Materialise (Plymouth, Michigan). We analyzed the mesh model in COMSOL Multiphysics (COMSOL, Inc; Burlington, Massachusetts) with and without MVDMVF input, with constraints and load applied to the femur model. We compared the results with published joint stresses during walking, jogging, and stair-climbing and descending and with standard vibration exposure limits. Results showed stress levels on the femur are significantly higher with MVDMVF input than without. The stress levels were within the published levels during walking and stair-climbing and descending but below the stress levels during jogging. Our computational results demonstrate that MVDMVF generates stress level equivalent to the level during walking and stair-climbing. This evidence suggests that MVDMVF is safe for prolonged use in subjects with osteoporosis who ambulate independently. PMID:21480091

  9. Femur bone strength in Tyrannosaurus rex: A study of sexual dimorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Scott

    2012-04-01

    Tyrannosaurus rex is the iconic species of a fearsome predator and is held in fascination by virtually everyone. Like many other species, Tyrannosaurs rex displayed sexual dimorphism with the females larger than the males. The femur bones of 14 fossil specimens were examined to determine if the maximum running abilities were significantly different for the two genders. No significant difference is observed.

  10. Internal fixation after fracture or osteotomy of the femur in young children with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Benedetti Valentini, Matteo; Ippolito, Ernesto; Catellani, Francesco; Farsetti, Pasquale

    2015-07-01

    Children from 4 to 7 years of age with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia (PFD) may need internal fixation of the femur for either fracture or osteotomy. At that age, the small size of the femur allows only the use of small intramedullary nails. However, titanium elastic nails and rigid intramedullary pediatric interlocking femoral nails - good for fracture or osteotomy fixation in the normal femur - are not indicated in PFD. From 2009 to 2011, we treated eight cases of PFD femoral fracture and deformity by internal fixation with a custom-modified adult humeral nail to which a spiral blade was connected. The 7-mm thick nail fit properly into the small femoral shaft and the spiral blade conferred ideal mechanical support to the femoral neck. Three cases had replacement of the humeral nail with a more appropriate adult femoral nail 3 years after the index procedure when the femur had reached an adequate size. In the maximum follow-up period of 4 years, few complications were observed.

  11. Anesthetic management in a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta for rush nail removal in femur

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Divanshu; Purohit, Alaka

    2016-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetically inherited syndrome involving connective tissues, resulting in anatomic and physiologic abnormalities, which results in any form of anesthesia, a challenging task. We hereby report a case of OI type I presented with distinctively blue sclera, hearing loss, kyphoscoliosis, and mild pulmonary restrictive disease who underwent rush nail removal in the femur. PMID:27746572

  12. Detecting Early Biomechanical Effects of Zoledronic Acid on Femurs of Osteoporotic Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Palacio, Evandro Pereira; Müller, Sérgio Swain; Sardenberg, Trajano; Mizobuchi, Roberto Ryuiti; Galbiatti, José Antônio; Durigan, Alcides; Savarese, Aniello; Ortolan, Érika Veruska Paiva

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the biomechanical effects of zoledronic acid (ZA) on femurs of female osteoporotic rats after follow-up periods of 9 and 12 months. Methods. Eighty female Wistar rats were prospectively assessed. At 60 days of age, the animals were randomly divided into two groups: bilateral oophorectomy (O) (n = 40) and sham surgery (S) (n = 40). At 90 days of age, groups O and S were randomly subdivided into four groups, according to whether 0.1 mg/kg of ZA or distilled water (DW) was intraperitoneally administered: OZA (n = 20), ODW (n = 20), SZA (n = 20), and SDW (n = 20). The animals were sacrificed at 9 and 12 months after the administration of the substances, and then their right femurs were removed and analyzed biomechanically. Axial compression tests that focused on determining the maximum load (N), yield point (N), and stiffness coefficient (N/mm) of the proximal femur were performed in the biomechanical study. Results. ZA significantly increased the maximum load and yield point, reducing the stiffness coefficient concerning the oophorectomy status and follow-up period. Conclusion. Zoledronic acid, at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg, significantly increased the maximum loads and yield points and reduced the stiffness coefficients in the femurs of female rats with osteoporosis caused by bilateral oophorectomy. PMID:23304634

  13. Clinical and functional comparison of endoprosthetic replacement with intramedullary nailing for treating proximal femur metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hua; Liu, Zhenyu; Wang, Baojun; Guo, Ai

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical and functional outcomes of modular endoprosthetic replacement (EPR) compared to proximal femur intramedullary nailing (IMN) for the treatment of proximal femur metastases. Methods: We retrospectively studied the records of patients with proximal femur metastatic lesions treated with surgical stabilization between January 2007 and December 2014 in terms of operation time, blood loss, postoperative score, soreness, Karnofsky performance score (KPS) and survival time. Results: There were 34 patients treated with surgical stabilization. The mean follow-up period was 12.1?.6 months (range: 10-47 months). Thirteen were treated with EPR and 21 were stabilized with IMN (20 males, 14 females; mean age: 68.7 years). The median survival time was 11.0 months for both groups (P=0.147). The operation time, blood loss and Harris score of IMN group were lower than those of EPR group (P=0.001, P=0.001, P=0.002, respectively). Conclusions: Both EPR and IMN for treating proximal femur metastasis achieved effective clinical outcomes. Therefore, the suitable surgical methods depended on the general conditions and medical requirements of patients, as well as the technical advantages of the doctor. PMID:27199518

  14. Proximal femur of Australopithecus africanus from Member 4, Makapansgat, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Reed, K E; Kitching, J W; Grine, F E; Jungers, W L; Sokoloff, L

    1993-09-01

    A left proximal femur (MLD 46) from Member 4, Makapansgat, South Africa is described and analyzed. It consists of the head, neck, and a small segment of the shaft that extends to just below the lesser trochanter. The femur exhibits degenerative joint disease in the form of marginal osteophyte formation and thus its taxonomic identity has been somewhat obscured. Consideration of all like-sized mammalian femora from Makapansgat suggests that the femur is that of either a felid or hominid. Comparison of MLD 46 to femora of extent and extinct felids reveals that MLD 46 does not possess two morphological features that are characteristic of felids, namely a deep, prolonged trochanteric fossa and a high neck-shaft angle. Simple shape variables (ratios) and multivariate analyses consistently place MLD 46 with modern and fossil hominids, and most closely align it with the australopithecines. We conclude that the femur is most reasonably attributable to Australopithecus africanus, which is the only hominid yet identified from Makapansgat. Despite its pathological condition, MLD 46 is the most complete proximal femur known for A. africanus, thereby permitting further morphological comparisons with homologues of A. afarensis and Paranthropus. Marginal osteophytes of mammalian femoral heads characteristically occur in individuals of advanced age, suggesting that MLD 46 may have lived some time with the disease. Finally, MLD 46 is considerably larger than the previously described specimen, Sts 14, from Sterkfontein Member 4. There may be as great a contrast in body size in A. africanus as there is between the large and small specimens of A. afarensis. PMID:8238286

  15. Femur specific polyaffine model to regularize the log-domain demons registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, Christof; Pennec, Xavier; Ritacco, Lucas; Reyes, Mauricio

    2011-03-01

    Osteoarticular allograft transplantation is a popular treatment method in wide surgical resections with large defects. For this reason hospitals are building bone data banks. Performing the optimal allograft selection on bone banks is crucial to the surgical outcome and patient recovery. However, current approaches are very time consuming hindering an efficient selection. We present an automatic method based on registration of femur bones to overcome this limitation. We introduce a new regularization term for the log-domain demons algorithm. This term replaces the standard Gaussian smoothing with a femur specific polyaffine model. The polyaffine femur model is constructed with two affine (femoral head and condyles) and one rigid (shaft) transformation. Our main contribution in this paper is to show that the demons algorithm can be improved in specific cases with an appropriate model. We are not trying to find the most optimal polyaffine model of the femur, but the simplest model with a minimal number of parameters. There is no need to optimize for different number of regions, boundaries and choice of weights, since this fine tuning will be done automatically by a final demons relaxation step with Gaussian smoothing. The newly developed synthesis approach provides a clear anatomically motivated modeling contribution through the specific three component transformation model, and clearly shows a performance improvement (in terms of anatomical meaningful correspondences) on 146 CT images of femurs compared to a standard multiresolution demons. In addition, this simple model improves the robustness of the demons while preserving its accuracy. The ground truth are manual measurements performed by medical experts.

  16. Ultrasonic fetal weight prediction: role of head circumference and femur length.

    PubMed

    Weiner, C P; Sabbagha, R E; Vaisrub, N; Socol, M L

    1985-06-01

    The accurate sonographic estimate of fetal weight is helpful in those instances when the fetal weight estimate might alter clinical management. Most sonographic weight predicting formulas have been based predominantly on measurements from the term fetus and then applied to the preterm fetus. Yet, the morphology of the preterm and term fetus differs considerably. The authors have examined the predictive accuracy of three published sonographic formulas in 69 preterm fetuses scanned within 48 hours of delivery. The mean birth weight was 1396 g. Thirty-nine of the infants were less than 1500 g. Sixty-two percent were products of pregnancies complicated by premature rupture of membranes. The results were compared with new equations derived from combinations of head and abdominal circumferences, biparietal diameter, and femur length obtained from the first 33 fetuses and then tested on the remaining 36. Whereas each formula correlated highly with birth weight, the selected new formula was more accurate than the published formulas by each criteria examined. In contrast to the latter, the mean error (actual minus predicted weight) of most new equations did not significantly differ from zero when tested prospectively. In addition, it appeared that the accuracy of two new formulas not incorporating femur length could be further enhanced in the group of fetuses whose femur length differed from the mean by at least 2 standard deviations by multiplying the predicted weight by the ratio of actual to mean femur length. The authors conclude that the use of head circumference and femur length coupled with a population restricted to the preterm fetus enhances the accuracy of sonographic weight predictions. PMID:3889747

  17. Intramedullary versus extramedullary fixation in the management of subtrochanteric femur fractures: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pengcheng; Wu, Xing; Shi, Hui; Liu, Run; Shu, Hexi; Gong, JinPeng; Yang, Yong; Sun, Qi; Wu, Jiezhou; Nie, Xiaoyang; Cai, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background Intramedullary and extramedullary fixation methods are used in the management of subtrochanteric femur fractures. However, whether intramedullary or extramedullary fixation is the primary treatment for subtrochanteric femur fractures in adults remains debatable. Level of evidence Meta-analyses of prospective studies, level I. Materials and methods The Cochrane library, Embase, Google Scholar, and PubMed databases were searched separately for all relevant studies published before January 1, 2015. No language restriction was applied. Prospective randomized controlled trials that compared intramedullary or extramedullary internal fixation to repair subtrochanteric femur fractures in adults were included. We determined intraoperative data, postoperative complications, fracture fixation complications, wound infection, hospital stay days, and final outcome measures to assess the relative effects of different internal fixation methods for the treatment of subtrochanteric femur fractures in adults. Results Six studies were included in our meta-analysis. The relative risks (RRs) of revision rate was 83% lower (RR, 0.17, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.05 to 0.60; P=0.006), fixation failure rate was 64% lower (RR, 0.36, 95% CI, 0.12 to 1.08; P=0.07), non-union rate was 77% lower (RR, 0.23, 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.81; P=0.02) in the intramedullary group compared with the extramedullary group. No significant differences were found between the intramedullary group and extramedullary group for intraoperative data, postoperative complications, wound infection, hospital stay days or final outcome measures. Conclusion In conclusion, our meta-analysis suggests that there was no significant difference in intraoperative data, postoperative complications, wound infection, hospital stay days or final outcome measures between intramedullary and extramedullary internal fixation. However, a significant decrease occurred in the rate of fracture fixation complications for patients

  18. What is new in distal femur periprosthetic fracture fixation?

    PubMed

    Tosounidis, Theodoros H; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2015-12-01

    Distal femoral periprosthetic fractures are on the rise. Increased mortality of these injuries is also evident from recent data. Their incidence and risk factors have been extensively reported in the past but new data are being available that merit attention. The increased incidence and the even higher projected incidence should direct the focus of future strategies to the education of surgeons, relevant capacity of hospital and reconfiguration of health care resources. New and potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into consideration to the informed consent process and new studies should be developed to clarify the causative relationship of the new risk factors such as the peptic ulcer disease and the COPD. The main internal fixation techniques remain the lateral locking plating and the retrograde intramedullary nailing. New techniques in plating are the supplementary medial plate in selected cases and the far cortical locking. Nailing is considered a valid option especially in fractures located well above the anterior flange of the femoral component of the arthroplasty. Results and outcomes from good quality studies are still sparse regarding the comparison between plating and nailing. Interprosthetic fractures constitute an entity that is lately gaining considerable attention. The best method of management of these injuries is still evolving with considerable amount of work being done in the clinical and biomechanical level.

  19. [Investigation on biomechanics behavior using three-dimensional finite element analysis for femur shaft fracture treated with locking compression plate].

    PubMed

    He, Qinli; Jiang, Wei; Luo, Jiaoming

    2014-08-01

    Based on the CT data and the structure characteristics of the femoral fractures during different healing stages, medical FE models of fractured femur treated with locking compression plate (LCP)were built. Under the physiological load of a standard body weight (70 kg) and the constraint condition, the stress distributions of LCP and fractured femur during healing were calculated by means of three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D-FEA). The results showed that the stress distribution in the LCP and the fractured femur was similar, during the initial stage which there was no newly formed bone or soft tissue in fracture site. The maximum von Mises stress (371.23,272.76 MPa) in the fractured femur was much higher than that in natural femur, and the intensive stress was concentrated mainly in the proximal area of the fractured femur. With the growth of bony callus bone in fracture site, the intensity of stress in proximal femur decreased. Contrasted to the two cases mentioned above, the value of the maximum von Mises stress (68. 17 MPa) in bony callus bone stage decreased significantly, and was lower than the safe strength of natural bone. Therefore, appropriate training which is benefitial for the growth to new bone could be arranged for the better rehabilitation.

  20. Ipsilateral Fracture Shaft Femur with Neglected Dislocation of Prosthesis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Mantu; Bihari, Amar Jyoti; Sriramka, Bhavna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Neglected hip dislocation is rare in today’s world and after prosthesis replacement even rarer finding. However such patients may not report to surgeons until they develop secondary complications. Management of such patient’s is a challenge to the treating surgeon and need to be tailored suiting to patient’s demands, expectations and constraints of financial resources. We did not find a similar case in the electronic and print media and therefore report this case which was innovatively managed. Case Report: A 60 year farmer presented with fracture shaft femur and ipsilateral dislocation prosthesis of right hip. He had a hemiarthroplasty done for fracture neck of femur in the past but used to walk with a lurch since he started to ambulate after discharge. However he was satisfied despite “some problems” which had caused shortening of his limb. The patient was informed of the various treatment options and their possible complications. He expressed his inability to afford a Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) at any stage and consented for other options discussed with him. The patient was positioned supine and adductor tenotomy done. Next he was positioned laterally and the fracture was fixed with heavy duty broad dynamic compression plate and screws. The wound was temporarily closed. Now through the previous scar via posterior approach the hip was exposed. The prosthesis was found to be firmly fixed to the proximal femur. The acetabulum was cleared with fibrous tissue. All attempts the prosthesis to relocate the prosthesis failed after several attempts and it was best decided to leave alone. Post operatively period was uneventful. At follow up he refused for any further manoeuvre in future inform of heavy traction and attempts to reduce the same. At one year when he was walking unaided and his X-rays showed that fracture had well united his SF-36 score was PCS - 49.6 and MCS – 51.9. Conclusion: Ipsilateral shaft femur fracture in chronically

  1. Surgically Relevant Bony and Soft Tissue Anatomy of the Proximal Femur

    PubMed Central

    Philippon, Marc J.; Michalski, Max P.; Campbell, Kevin J.; Goldsmith, Mary T.; Devitt, Brian M.; Wijdicks, Coen A.; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hip endoscopy facilitates the treatment of extra-articular disorders of the proximal femur. Unfortunately, current knowledge of proximal femur anatomy is limited to qualitative descriptions and lacks surgically relevant landmarks. Purpose: To provide a quantitative and qualitative analysis of proximal femur anatomy in reference to surgically relevant bony landmarks. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Fourteen cadaveric hemipelvises were dissected. A coordinate measuring device measured dimensions and interrelationships of the gluteal muscles, hip external rotators, pectineus, iliopsoas, and joint capsule in reference to osseous landmarks. Results: The vastus tubercle, superomedial border of the greater trochanter, and femoral head-neck junction were distinct and reliable osseous landmarks. The anteroinferior tip of the vastus tubercle was 17.1 mm (95% CI: 14.5, 19.8 mm) anteroinferior to the center of the gluteus medius lateral insertional footprint and was 22.9 mm (95% CI: 20.1, 25.7 mm) inferolateral to the center of the gluteus minimus insertional footprint. The insertions of the piriformis, conjoint tendon of the hip (superior gemellus, obturator internus, and inferior gemellus), and obturator externus were identified relative to the superomedial border of the greater trochanter. The relationship of the aforementioned footprints were 49% (95% CI: 43%, 54%), 42% (95% CI: 33%, 50%), and 64% (95% CI: 59%, 69%) from the anterior (0%) to posterior (100%) margins of the superomedial border of the greater trochanter, respectively. The hip joint capsule attached distally on the proximal femur 18.2 mm (95% CI: 14.2, 22.2 mm) from the head-neck junction medially on average. Conclusion: The vastus tubercle, superomedial border of the greater trochanter, and the femoral head-neck junction were reliable osseous landmarks for the identification of the tendinous and hip capsular insertions on the proximal femur. Knowledge of the

  2. Osteosynthesis of fractures of the femur with flexible metallic intramedullary nails.

    PubMed

    Firica, A; Troianescu, O; Petre, M

    1978-04-01

    The authors discuss their use of Ender's method in the treatment of fractures of the femur. The diameter and length of the nails depends on the type of fracture. 1) Three nails of 4 mm diameter are introduced in parallel from the medial condyle in fractures of the femoral neck; 2) 5 mm nails are used, in similar fashion, for the fixation of intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures; 3) 5 mm nails are used for diaphyseal, supracondylar and intercondylar fractures, introduced in crossed fashion ("Eiffel Tower" technique) from both medial and lateral condyles. This method of fixation has proved to be extremely stable. The operation itself is quick, with no blood loss or shock. The patient can resume partial weight bearing after a week in stabilised intertrochanteric and shaft fractures, after a month in less stable types, and after three to four months in fractures of the neck of the femur. This report is based on the first 250 cases treated by this method.

  3. The hip prosthesis in lateral femur fracture: current concepts and surgical technique

    PubMed Central

    Giannotti, Stefano; Bottai, Vanna; Dell’Osso, Giacomo; De Paola, Gaia; Bugelli, Giulia; Guido, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    Summary The third proximal femur fractures are divided into medial and lateral ones. For medial fractures already exists unanimity of thought for the choice of treatment that involves the prosthetic replacement of the hip joint in patients over 60 without indications to the synthesis. Regarding the lateral femur fractures this unanimity does not exist yet even if the majority of surgeons practice treatment with osteosynthesis. We want to highlight if there are any types of lateral fractures associated with patient’s clinical condition in which it might be more useful to a prosthetic replacement with the aim of being able to allow a total load and earlier deambulation, reducing complications related to a possible patient immobilization. PMID:25568653

  4. The hip prosthesis in lateral femur fracture: current concepts and surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Giannotti, Stefano; Bottai, Vanna; Dell'Osso, Giacomo; De Paola, Gaia; Bugelli, Giulia; Guido, Giulio

    2014-09-01

    The third proximal femur fractures are divided into medial and lateral ones. For medial fractures already exists unanimity of thought for the choice of treatment that involves the prosthetic replacement of the hip joint in patients over 60 without indications to the synthesis. Regarding the lateral femur fractures this unanimity does not exist yet even if the majority of surgeons practice treatment with osteosynthesis. We want to highlight if there are any types of lateral fractures associated with patient's clinical condition in which it might be more useful to a prosthetic replacement with the aim of being able to allow a total load and earlier deambulation, reducing complications related to a possible patient immobilization. PMID:25568653

  5. Bilateral Neck of Femur Fractures in a Bilateral Below-Knee Amputee: A Unique Case.

    PubMed

    Lancer, Hannah R; Smitham, Peter; Ray, Pinak

    2016-01-01

    According to the National Hip Fracture Database, over 64,000 patients were admitted with a hip fracture across England, Wales, and Northern Ireland in 2013, but very few are bilateral, and there are no current cases in the literature of bilateral neck of femur fractures in a patient with bilateral below-knee amputations. We present a case of a 69-year-old bilateral below-knee amputee male admitted to the emergency department with bilateral hip pain and radiological evidence of bilateral displaced neck of femur fractures. The patient subsequently underwent synchronous bilateral total hip replacements under general anaesthetic and an epidural and then went on to make a full recovery. He was discharged 27 days after arrival in hospital. Outpatient follow-up at 3 months has shown that the patient has returned to a similar level of preinjury function and is still able to carry out his daily activities with walking aids and bilateral leg prostheses. PMID:26881162

  6. The femur of Orrorin tugenensis exhibits morphometric affinities with both Miocene apes and later hominins.

    PubMed

    Almécija, Sergio; Tallman, Melissa; Alba, David M; Pina, Marta; Moyà-Solà, Salvador; Jungers, William L

    2013-01-01

    Orrorin tugenensis (Kenya, ca. 6 Ma) is one of the earliest putative hominins. Its proximal femur, BAR 1002'00, was originally described as being very human-like, although later multivariate analyses showed an australopith pattern. However, some of its traits (for example, laterally protruding greater trochanter, medially oriented lesser trochanter and presence of third trochanter) are also present in earlier Miocene apes. Here, we use geometric morphometrics to reassess the morphological affinities of BAR 1002'00 within a large sample of anthropoids (including fossil apes and hominins) and reconstruct hominoid proximal femur evolution using squared-change parsimony. Our results indicate that both hominin and modern great ape femora evolved in different directions from a primitive morphology represented by some fossil apes. Orrorin appears intermediate between Miocene apes and australopiths in shape space. This evidence is consistent with femoral shape similarities in extant great apes being derived and homoplastic and has profound implications for understanding the origins of human bipedalism.

  7. Forensic Applicability of Femur Subtrochanteric Shape to Ancestry Assessment in Thai and White American Males.

    PubMed

    Tallman, Sean D; Winburn, Allysha P

    2015-09-01

    Ancestry assessment from the postcranial skeleton presents a significant challenge to forensic anthropologists. However, metric dimensions of the femur subtrochanteric region are believed to distinguish between individuals of Asian and non-Asian descent. This study tests the discriminatory power of subtrochanteric shape using modern samples of 128 Thai and 77 White American males. Results indicate that the samples' platymeric index distributions are significantly different (p≤0.001), with the Thai platymeric index range generally lower and the White American range generally higher. While the application of ancestry assessment methods developed from Native American subtrochanteric data results in low correct classification rates for the Thai sample (50.8-57.8%), adapting these methods to the current samples leads to better classification. The Thai data may be more useful in forensic analysis than previously published subtrochanteric data derived from Native American samples. Adapting methods to include appropriate geographic and contemporaneous populations increases the accuracy of femur subtrochanteric ancestry methods.

  8. Desmoplastic fibroma in the proximal femur: A case report with long-term follow-up

    PubMed Central

    GONG, YU-BAO; QU, LI-MEI; QI, XIN; LIU, JIAN-GUO

    2015-01-01

    Desmoplastic fibroma of the bone is an extremely rare primary benign tumor. The present study reports a case of desmoplastic fibroma of the bone with the longest published follow-up. A 21-year-old female presented to The First Hospital of Jilin University (Changchun, Jilin, China) with thigh pain. Radiography demonstrated a lytic expansile lesion in the proximal femur. Curettage was performed, followed by use of an allogeneic graft. One month later, the patient suffered a pathological fracture and was treated with an open reduction and internal fixation. There was no recurrence of the tumor over a 28-year follow-up period. In conclusion, desmoplastic fibroma in the proximal femur is rare and an intralesional resection is strongly recommended to prevent recurrence. The disease may be misdiagnosed as a bone cyst, so the diagnosis should be confirmed with a histological examination. PMID:26622872

  9. Bilateral Neck of Femur Fractures in a Bilateral Below-Knee Amputee: A Unique Case

    PubMed Central

    Lancer, Hannah R.

    2016-01-01

    According to the National Hip Fracture Database, over 64,000 patients were admitted with a hip fracture across England, Wales, and Northern Ireland in 2013, but very few are bilateral, and there are no current cases in the literature of bilateral neck of femur fractures in a patient with bilateral below-knee amputations. We present a case of a 69-year-old bilateral below-knee amputee male admitted to the emergency department with bilateral hip pain and radiological evidence of bilateral displaced neck of femur fractures. The patient subsequently underwent synchronous bilateral total hip replacements under general anaesthetic and an epidural and then went on to make a full recovery. He was discharged 27 days after arrival in hospital. Outpatient follow-up at 3 months has shown that the patient has returned to a similar level of preinjury function and is still able to carry out his daily activities with walking aids and bilateral leg prostheses. PMID:26881162

  10. Primary Intraosseus Xanthoma Involving the Proximal Femur in a Normolipidemic Patient: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Won Chul; Suh, Kuen Tak

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 25-year-old woman presenting with left hip pain. A lesion was found in the proximal femoral metaphysis. Benign bone tumor, such as intraosseous lipoma or liposclerosing myxofibrous tumor, was suspected based on simple radiographs and magnetic resonance images. Curettage of the lesion and bone grafting was performed. Histologic findings reflected primary intraosseous xanthoma of the proximal femur. Laboratory tests revealed the patient to be normolipidemic, while immunoelectrophoretic fractionation of lipoproteins revealed normal values for alpha, pre-beta, beta, and chylomicrons. At the one-year follow-up, there was no evidence of local recurrence. This is the first reported case of primary intraosseous xanthoma of the proximal femur in a normolipidemic patient. PMID:27777923

  11. Anisotropic analysis of trabecular architecture in human femur bone radiographs using quaternion wavelet transforms.

    PubMed

    Sangeetha, S; Sujatha, C M; Manamalli, D

    2014-01-01

    In this work, anisotropy of compressive and tensile strength regions of femur trabecular bone are analysed using quaternion wavelet transforms. The normal and abnormal femur trabecular bone radiographic images are considered for this study. The sub-anatomic regions, which include compressive and tensile regions, are delineated using pre-processing procedures. These delineated regions are subjected to quaternion wavelet transforms and statistical parameters are derived from the transformed images. These parameters are correlated with apparent porosity, which is derived from the strength regions. Further, anisotropy is also calculated from the transformed images and is analyzed. Results show that the anisotropy values derived from second and third phase components of quaternion wavelet transform are found to be distinct for normal and abnormal samples with high statistical significance for both compressive and tensile regions. These investigations demonstrate that architectural anisotropy derived from QWT analysis is able to differentiate normal and abnormal samples. PMID:25571265

  12. Bilateral Neck Femur Fracture Following a Generalized Seizure- A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    M Shah, Harshad; Grover, Amit; Gadi, Daksh; Sudarshan, K

    2014-01-01

    Hip fractures are one of the most common injuries which present to an orthopaedic surgeon. Most of these cases are unilateral .Bilateral simultaneous femur neck fracture is a rare occurrence. We report a case of a bilateral neck femur fracture in a 30 year male following a generalized tonic clonic seizure in view of its rarity and also to increase the awareness of such rare injuries. The patient was operated within 3 hours. At 5 months, the patient had good radiological and functional outcome. During a convulsion, there is a powerful and forceful contraction of muscles which may lead to fracture or dislocation. The incidence of fractures following a convulsion is 1.1%. A delay in diagnosis can lead to complications like avascular necrosis, osteoarthritis, non union, functional disability and legal consequences. All orthopaedic surgeons and emergency physicians should be aware of such uncommon injuries to ensure early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25692154

  13. Bilateral neck femur fracture following a generalized seizure- a rare case report.

    PubMed

    M Shah, Harshad; Grover, Amit; Gadi, Daksh; Sudarshan, K

    2014-10-01

    Hip fractures are one of the most common injuries which present to an orthopaedic surgeon. Most of these cases are unilateral .Bilateral simultaneous femur neck fracture is a rare occurrence. We report a case of a bilateral neck femur fracture in a 30 year male following a generalized tonic clonic seizure in view of its rarity and also to increase the awareness of such rare injuries. The patient was operated within 3 hours. At 5 months, the patient had good radiological and functional outcome. During a convulsion, there is a powerful and forceful contraction of muscles which may lead to fracture or dislocation. The incidence of fractures following a convulsion is 1.1%. A delay in diagnosis can lead to complications like avascular necrosis, osteoarthritis, non union, functional disability and legal consequences. All orthopaedic surgeons and emergency physicians should be aware of such uncommon injuries to ensure early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25692154

  14. Dynamic Bending Tolerance and Elastic-Plastic Material Properties of the Human Femur

    PubMed Central

    Funk, J. R.; Kerrigan, J. R.; Crandall, J. R.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide data on the structural tolerance and material properties of the human femur in dynamic bending. Fifteen (15) isolated femurs from eight (8) males were tested in either posterior-to-anterior or lateral-to-medial three-point bending. The failure moment was 458 ± 95 Nm and did not differ significantly with loading direction. A method was developed to estimate the elastic-plastic material properties of the bone using both force-deflection data and strain gauge measurements. The bone material appeared to yield at about one third of the ultimate strain level prior to fracture. It is hoped that these data will aid in the development of injury criteria and finite element models for predicting injuries to pedestrians and vehicle occupants. PMID:15319127

  15. Stress fractures of the femur after ACL reconstruction with transfemoral fixation.

    PubMed

    Arriaza, Rafael; Señaris, Jose; Couceiro, Gonzalo; Aizpurua, Jesus

    2006-11-01

    The ACL reconstruction with hamstring tendons has become increasingly popular, in part because it is assumed that the complication rate associated with the technique and their severity are lower than with patellar tendon. Two cases of stress reaction of the medial supracondylar area of the femur after ACL reconstruction with hamstring tendons using BioTransfix (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA) devices for fixation within femur are presented. Both patients were professional athletes (one soccer and one basketball player), and it is hypothesized that the accelerated rehabilitation program used might have represented a risk factor for stress fractures when associated with the guide pin exit hole in the medial femoral cortex. To our knowledge, no such cases have been published to date, but it is important to consider this possibility if an unexplained pain arises in the rehabilitation process of an ACL reconstruction using transfemoral fixation.

  16. The outcome of patients sustaining a proximal femur fracture who suffer from alcohol dependency.

    PubMed

    Faroug, R; Amanat, S; Ockendon, M; Shah, S V; Gregory, J J

    2014-07-01

    There are many negative health consequences associated with alcohol dependency. Fractures of the proximal femur carry significant morbidity and mortality. This study examines the outcomes in patients with alcohol dependency, who sustain a fracture of the proximal femur. Twenty-eight consecutive alcohol dependent patients who suffered a fracture of the proximal femur were identified over a three year period. Data were collected on demographics, co-morbidity, surgical factors, mobility and mortality. The median age of patients was 61 years. The median weekly alcohol intake was 158 units. Thirteen patients sustained an extra-capsular fracture and 15 an intra-capsular proximal femoral fracture. Twenty-two fractures were treated with internal fixation and six with arthroplasty. The overall mortality rate was 29% at a median of 15 months post fracture. The failure rate of intra-capsular fractures fixed with cannulated screws was 56% at a median time of 43 days. All patients had a reduction in mobility compared to their pre-operative function. The reduction in mobility was greatest in patients with intra-capsular fractures treated with cannulated screw fixation. Alcohol dependent patients sustaining a fracture of the proximal femur are significantly younger than non-alcohol dependent patients sustaining the same injury. Despite the younger age at presentation the one year mortality rate of this group was high (29%). The high rate of complications with fracture fixation and high one year mortality suggest that hemiarthroplasty may be the best treatment option for intra-capsular fractures in this patient group.

  17. Loading mechanics of the femur in tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) during terrestrial locomotion.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, K Megan; Blob, Richard W

    2011-08-01

    Salamanders are often used as representatives of the basal tetrapod body plan in functional studies, but little is known about the loads experienced by their limb bones during locomotion. Although salamanders' slow walking speeds might lead to low locomotor forces and limb bone stresses similar to those of non-avian reptiles, their highly sprawled posture combined with relatively small limb bones could produce elevated limb bone stresses closer to those of avian and mammalian species. This study evaluates the loads on the femur of the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) during terrestrial locomotion using three-dimensional measurements of the ground reaction force (GRF) and hindlimb kinematics, as well as anatomical measurements of the femur and hindlimb muscles. At peak stress (29.8 ± 2.0% stance), the net GRF magnitude averaged 0.42 body weights and was directed nearly vertically for the middle 20-40% of the contact interval, essentially perpendicular to the femur. Although torsional shear stresses were significant (4.1 ± 0.3 MPa), bending stresses experienced by the femur were low compared with other vertebrate lineages (tensile: 14.9 ± 0.8 MPa; compressive: -18.9 ± 1.0 MPa), and mechanical property tests indicated yield strengths that were fairly standard for tetrapods (157.1 ± 3.7 MPa). Femoral bending safety factors (10.5) were considerably higher than values typical for birds and mammals, and closer to the elevated values calculated for reptilian species. These results suggest that high limb bone safety factors may have an ancient evolutionary history, though the underlying cause of high safety factors (e.g. low limb bone loads, high bone strength or a combination of the two) may vary among lineages.

  18. Damage characterization on human femur bone by means of ultrasonics and acoustic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strantza, M.; Polyzos, D.; Louis, O.; Boulpaep, F.; Van Hemelrijck, D.; Aggelis, D. G.

    2015-07-01

    Human bone tissue is characterized as a material with high brittleness. Due to this nature, visible signs of cracking are not easy to be detected before final failure. The main objective of this work is to investigate if the acoustic emission (AE) technique can offer valuable insight to the fracture process of human femur specimens as in other engineering materials characterization. This study describes the AE activity during fracture of whole femur bones under flexural load. Before fracture, broadband AE sensors were used in order to measure parameters like wave velocity dispersion and attenuation. Waveform parameters like the duration, rise time and average frequency, were also examined relatively to the propagation distance as a preparation for the AE monitoring during fracture. After the ultrasonic study, the samples were partly cast in concrete and fixed as cantilevers. A point load was applied on the femur head, which due to the test geometry resulted in a combination of two different patterns of fracture, bending and torsion. Two AE broadband sensors were placed in different points of the sample, one near the fixing end and the other near the femur head. Preliminary analysis shows that parameters like the number of acquired AE signals and their amplitude are well correlated with the load history. Furthermore, the parameters of rise time and frequency can differentiate the two fracture patterns. Additionally, AE allows the detection of the load at the onset of fracture from the micro-cracking events that occur at the early loading stages, allowing monitoring of the whole fracture process. Parameters that have been used extensively for monitoring and characterization of fracture modes of engineering materials seem to poses characterization power in the case of bone tissue monitoring as well.

  19. Thigh muscle volume in relation to age, sex and femur volume.

    PubMed

    Maden-Wilkinson, T M; McPhee, J S; Rittweger, J; Jones, D A; Degens, H

    2014-02-01

    Secular changes and intra-individual differences in body shape and size can confound cross-sectional studies of muscle ageing. Normalising muscle mass to height squared is often suggested as a solution for this. We hypothesised that normalisation of muscle volume to femur volume may be a better way of determining the extent of muscle lost with ageing (sarcopenia). Thigh and femur muscle volumes were measured from serial magnetic resonance imaging sections in 20 recreationally active young men (mean age 22.4 years), 25 older men (72.3 years), 18 young women (22.1 years) and 28 older women (72.0 years). There were no age-related differences in femur volume. The relationship between thigh muscle volume and femur volume (R (2) = 0.76; exponent of 1.12; P < 0.01) was stronger than that with height (R (2) = 0.49; exponent of 3.86; P < 0.01) in young participants. For young subjects, the mean muscle/bone ratios were 16.0 and 14.6 for men and women, respectively. For older men and women, the mean ratios were 11.6 and 11.5, respectively. The Z score for the thigh muscle/bone volume ratio relative to young subjects was -2.2 ± 0.7 for older men and -1.4 ± 0.8 for older women. The extent of sarcopenia judged by the muscle/bone ratio was approximately twice that determined when normalising to height squared. These data suggest that the muscle/bone ratio captures the intra-individual loss of muscle mass during ageing, and that the age-related loss of muscle mass may be underestimated when normalised to height squared. The quadriceps seems relatively more affected by ageing than other thigh muscles. PMID:23934008

  20. Early result of hemiarthroplasty in elderly patients with fracture neck of femur

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Mue; Mohammed, Salihu; Francis, Awonusi; William, Yongu; Joseph, Kortor; Cornilius, Elachi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fractured neck of femur is a frequent and severe injury in elderly patients with consequent high morbidity and mortality. Hemiarthroplasty is an established treatment modality for displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures in elderly patients above 60 years. This study analysed the early functional outcome and complications of Austin Moore endoprosthesis in elderly patients above 60 years with fractured neck of femur. Materials and Methods: Retrospective data were obtained over a 5 year period from January 2007 to December 2012. Thirty-five elderly patients of 60 years and above with displaced intracapsular fracture neck of femur treated with hemiarthroplasty using Austin Moore endoprosthesis were included. Data were analysed using SPSS version 21. Results: A total of 35 patients were involved. The age-range was 60-90 years with mean age of 69.7 ± 7 years. The predominant mechanism of injury was trivial falls in 18 (66.7%) patients. The commonest complication was pressure sore in 2 (5.7%) patients, followed by surgical site infection in 1 (2.9%) patient and periprosthetic fracture in 1 (2.9%) patients. Early post-operative mortality was 2.9%. Post-operative hip functional status according to Postel and Merle d Aubigne revealed that majority (66.6%) of patients had satisfactory hip function. Conclusion: Functional outcome of Austin Moore in elderly patients above 60 years with fracture neck of femur was satisfactory in most of the cases with minimal morbidity. Careful patient selection for hemiarthroplasty is vital and may decrease the incidence of complications and ameliorate the outcomes in the treatment of intracapsular femoral neck fractures. PMID:25657497

  1. The surgical management and treatment of metastatic lesions in the proximal femur

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Helin; Wang, Jin; Xu, Jianfa; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Yingze

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Review current treatments of metastatic lesions in the proximal femur. We reviewed published literature related to diagnosis and surgical treatments and summarized current treatment options. Surgical management mainly consist of internal fixation, hip replacement, and percutaneous femoroplasty (PFP) which has been newly applied in clinical practice. An appropriate series of treatments is necessary for patients to avoid the occurrence of paraplegia and prolong survival time. PMID:27428183

  2. "Push back" technique: A simple method to remove broken drill bit from the proximal femur.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, Devendra K; Sharma, Siddhartha

    2015-11-18

    Broken drill bits can be difficult to remove from the proximal femur and may necessitate additional surgical exploration or special instrumentation. We present a simple technique to remove a broken drill bit that does not require any special instrumentation and can be accomplished through the existing incision. This technique is useful for those cases where the length of the broken drill bit is greater than the diameter of the bone.

  3. Laser ablation ICP-MS analysis of the radial distribution of lead in the femur of Alligator mississippiensis.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, Michael D; Lance, Valentine A; Elsey, Ruth M

    2006-06-15

    A laser ablation ICP-MS technique has been used to examine the radial distribution of lead in transverse sections of alligator femur. Annual bone growth in the femur results in the deposition of incremental layers of calcified tissue at the periphery of existing bone. Patterns of lead concentration within these layers provide a record of time-dependent accumulation from which exposure history can potentially be deduced. Femur specimens obtained from captive-reared alligators exhibited levels of lead accumulation that were entirely consistent with previously documented clinical signs of lead intoxication. In contrast, femurs obtained from wild alligators contained only minor amounts of lead that were likely accumulated as a result of incidental exposure.

  4. Laser ablation ICP-MS analysis of the radial distribution of lead in the femur of Alligator mississippiensis.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, Michael D; Lance, Valentine A; Elsey, Ruth M

    2006-06-15

    A laser ablation ICP-MS technique has been used to examine the radial distribution of lead in transverse sections of alligator femur. Annual bone growth in the femur results in the deposition of incremental layers of calcified tissue at the periphery of existing bone. Patterns of lead concentration within these layers provide a record of time-dependent accumulation from which exposure history can potentially be deduced. Femur specimens obtained from captive-reared alligators exhibited levels of lead accumulation that were entirely consistent with previously documented clinical signs of lead intoxication. In contrast, femurs obtained from wild alligators contained only minor amounts of lead that were likely accumulated as a result of incidental exposure. PMID:15982720

  5. Diets containing leguminous seeds influence chromium content in the rat femur bone.

    PubMed

    Gralak, M A; Leontowicz, H; Leontowicz, M; Debski, B

    2002-01-01

    Leguminous seeds contain a lot of antinutritional factors (ANFs) such as protease inhibitors, lectins and condensed tannins which can affect bioavailability of nutrients. Detrimental effect of protease inhibitors can be decreased by sulphur amino acids addition. Moreover, most of the leguminous ANFs are thermolabile. Hence, legumes tested in our study were extruded and/or diets were supplemented with methionine and cystine (0.15% + 0.15%). The present experiment was performed for 28 days on 90 Wistar rats divided into nine feeding groups. Semipurified diets (10% casein) were supplemented (10%), except the control one, with soybean (S) or faba bean (F), raw (R) or extruded (E), with addition of sulphur amino acids (SAA) or without them. The Cr concentration was determined in the femur bone. Total feed intake during whole trial widely varied among the groups and was the lowest in SR (289 g) and FR (294 g) groups. There was no correlation between feed intake and Cr content in the femur bone. Generally, 10% soybean in the diet decreased Cr concentration in the bones, and faba bean increased it. The SAA addition to diets generally increased femur Cr content. However, there was a significant interaction between SAA supplementation and extrusion of faba bean, hence, the effect of their combination was unclear. PMID:11944585

  6. Finite element analysis of a femur to deconstruct the paradox of bone curvature.

    PubMed

    Jade, Sameer; Tamvada, Kelli H; Strait, David S; Grosse, Ian R

    2014-01-21

    Most long limb bones in terrestrial mammals exhibit a longitudinal curvature and have been found to be loaded in bending. Bone curvature poses a paradox in terms of the mechanical function of limb bones, for many believe the curvature in these bones increases bending stress, potentially reducing the bone's load carrying capacity (i.e., its mechanical strength). The aim of this study is to investigate the role of longitudinal bone curvature in the design of limb bones. In particular, it has been hypothesized that bone curvature results in a trade-off between the bone's mechanical strength and its bending predictability. We employed finite element analysis (FEA) of abstract and realistic human femora to address this issue. Geometrically simplified human femur models with different curvatures were developed and analyzed with a commercial FEA tool to examine how curvature affects the bone's bending predictability and load carrying capacity. Results were post-processed to yield probability density functions (PDFs) describing the circumferential location of maximum equivalent stress for various curvatures in order to assess bending predictability. To validate our findings, a finite element model was built from a CT scan of a real human femur and compared to the simplified femur model. We found general agreement in trends but some quantitative differences most likely due to the geometric differences between the digitally reconstructed and the simplified finite element models. As hypothesized by others, our results support the hypothesis that bone curvature can increase bending predictability, but at the expense of bone strength.

  7. Low-grade central osteosarcoma of distal femur, resembling fibrous dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Vasiliadis, Haris S; Arnaoutoglou, Christina; Plakoutsis, Sotiris; Doukas, Michalis; Batistatou, Anna; Xenakis, Theodoros A

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 32 year-old male, admitted for a lytic lesion of the distal femur. One month after the first X-ray, clinical and imaging deterioration was evident. Open biopsy revealed fibrous dysplasia. Three months later, the lytic lesion had spread to the whole distal third of the femur reaching the articular cartilage. The malignant clinical and imaging features necessitated excision of the lesion and reconstruction with a custom-made total knee arthroplasty. Intra-operatively, no obvious soft tissue infiltration was evident. Nevertheless, an excision of the distal 15.5 cm of the femur including 3.0 cm of the surrounding muscles was finally performed. The histological examination of the excised specimen revealed central low-grade osteosarcoma. Based on the morphological features of the excised tumor, allied to the clinical findings, the diagnosis of low-grade central osteosarcoma was finally made although characters of a fibrous dysplasia were apparent. Central low-grade osteosarcoma is a rare, well-differentiated sub-type of osteosarcoma, with clinical, imaging, and histological features similar to benign tumours. Thus, initial misdiagnosis is usual with the condition commonly mistaken for fibrous dysplasia. Central low-grade osteosarcoma is usually treated with surgery alone, with rare cases of distal metastases. However, regional recurrence is quite frequent after close margin excision. PMID:24147271

  8. Integrated remodeling-to-fracture finite element model of human proximal femur behavior.

    PubMed

    Hambli, Ridha; Lespessailles, Eric; Benhamou, Claude-Laurent

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop an integrated remodeling-to-fracture finite element model allowing for the combined simulation of (i) simulation of a human proximal femur remodeling under a given boundary conditions, (ii) followed by the simulation of its fracture behavior (force-displacement curve and fracture pattern) under quasi-static load. The combination of remodeling and fracture simulation into one unified model consists in considering that the femur properties resulting from the remodeling simulation correspond to the initial state for the fracture prediction. The remodeling model is based on phenomenological one based on a coupled strain and fatigue damage stimulus. The fracture model is based on continuum damage mechanics in order to predict the progressive fracturing process which allows to predict the fracture pattern and the complete force-displacement curve under quasi-static load. To prevent mesh-dependence that generally affects the damage propagation rate, regularization technique was applied in the current work. To investigate the potential of the proposed unified remodeling-to-fracture model, we performed remodeling simulations on a 3D proximal femur model for a duration of 365 days under five different daily loading conditions followed by a side fall fracture simulation reproducing previously published experimental tests (de Bakker et al. (2009), case C, male, 72 years old). We show here that the implementation of an integrated remodeling-to-fracture model provides more realistic prediction strategy to assess the bone remodeling effects on the fracture risk of bone.

  9. An improved interactive segmentation method for extracting the edge features of femur digital radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shaobin; Zhang, Bin; Meng, Shang; Liu, Dan; Sun, Jinwei

    2012-01-01

    By comparing the advantages and disadvantages of two interactive image segmentation algorithms: level set and live wire, we propose a improved multi-step realization method of interactive image segmentation, which could help the operators to extract the important anatomical structure features from the femur digital radiographs (DR) images more accurately. Firstly, a preprocessing step including median filtering and image enhancement was made to eliminate the noise during the DR imaging; Secondly, with the advantages of level set such as simple operation and fast convergence rate, the coarse outline contour extraction was realized; Finally, with the advantages of live-wire such as repeated local operation and high precision, the fine contour extraction of special anatomic areas, the profile of fracture edge and the overlapping area was realized. So, all the interesting anatomical structure features of DR images were obtained. In this paper, our method was applied to the complete femur DR images and artificial fracture femur DR images. The segmentation result shows that our method has a good performance in accuracy and efficiency.

  10. Predicting the biomechanical strength of proximal femur specimens with Minkowski functionals and support vector regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chien-Chun; Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Huber, Markus B.; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Bauer, Jan S.; Baum, Thomas; Eckstein, Felix; Lochmüller, Eva-Maria; Link, Thomas M.; Wismüller, Axel

    2014-03-01

    Regional trabecular bone quality estimation for purposes of femoral bone strength prediction is important for improving the clinical assessment of osteoporotic fracture risk. In this study, we explore the ability of 3D Minkowski Functionals derived from multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) images of proximal femur specimens in predicting their corresponding biomechanical strength. MDCT scans were acquired for 50 proximal femur specimens harvested from human cadavers. An automated volume of interest (VOI)-fitting algorithm was used to define a consistent volume in the femoral head of each specimen. In these VOIs, the trabecular bone micro-architecture was characterized by statistical moments of its BMD distribution and by topological features derived from Minkowski Functionals. A linear multiregression analysis and a support vector regression (SVR) algorithm with a linear kernel were used to predict the failure load (FL) from the feature sets; the predicted FL was compared to the true FL determined through biomechanical testing. The prediction performance was measured by the root mean square error (RMSE) for each feature set. The best prediction result was obtained from the Minkowski Functional surface used in combination with SVR, which had the lowest prediction error (RMSE = 0.939 ± 0.345) and which was significantly lower than mean BMD (RMSE = 1.075 ± 0.279, p<0.005). Our results indicate that the biomechanical strength prediction can be significantly improved in proximal femur specimens with Minkowski Functionals extracted from on MDCT images used in conjunction with support vector regression.

  11. Influence of ethanol on stiffness, toughness, and ductility of femurs of rats.

    PubMed

    Kusy, R P; Hirsch, P F; Peng, T C

    1989-04-01

    Recently, we reported that the ingestion of alcohol in rats reduced the mechanical strength of femurs. Our results showed that, as the dose exceeded 0.012 g of ethanol per gram of body weight, a significant (p less than 0.001) loss of "strength" occurred that was independent of sex according to the relationship, Strength (N) = 140.4 - 6003 dose (g/g). In the present effort, the same flexure tests were reevaluated to include the parameters of stiffness, toughness, and ductility. These latest results confirm that the femurs of rats fed an ethanol liquid diet for 4 weeks are not only weaker but also more compliant and less energy absorbing. Although the femurs of rats fed ethanol are more ductile, the bones are more prone to fracture in fatigue and impact circumstances as well as under simple loading situations. The rat may be an appropriate model to study the mechanisms that lead to the higher incidence of fractures in the alcoholic human.

  12. Shape Ontogeny of the Distal Femur in the Hominidae with Implications for the Evolution of Bipedality

    PubMed Central

    Tallman, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Heterochrony has been invoked to explain differences in the morphology of modern humans as compared to other great apes. The distal femur is one area where heterochrony has been hypothesized to explain morphological differentiation among Plio-Pleistocene hominins. This hypothesis is evaluated here using geometric morphometric data to describe the ontogenetic shape trajectories of extant hominine distal femora and place Plio-Pleistocene hominins within that context. Results of multivariate statistical analyses showed that in both Homo and Gorilla, the shape of the distal femur changes significantly over the course of development, whereas that of Pan changes very little. Development of the distal femur of Homo is characterized by an elongation of the condyles, and a greater degree of enlargement of the medial condyle relative to the lateral condyle, whereas Gorilla are characterized by a greater degree of enlargement of the lateral condyle, relative to the medial. Early Homo and Australopithecus africanus fossils fell on the modern human ontogenetic shape trajectory and were most similar to either adult or adolescent modern humans while specimens of Australopithecus afarensis were more similar to Gorilla/Pan. These results indicate that shape differences among the distal femora of Plio-Pleistocene hominins and humans cannot be accounted for by heterochrony alone; heterochrony could explain a transition from the distal femoral shape of early Homo/A. africanus to modern Homo, but not a transition from A. afarensis to Homo. That change could be the result of genetic or epigenetic factors. PMID:26886416

  13. Optimal Mass Distribution Prediction for Human Proximal Femur with Bi-modulus Property.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiao; Cai, Kun; Qin, Qing H

    2014-12-01

    Simulation of the mass distribution in a human proximal femur is important to provide a reasonable therapy scheme for a patient with osteoporosis. An algorithm is developed for prediction of optimal mass distribution in a human proximal femur under a given loading environment. In this algorithm, the bone material is assumed to be bi-modulus, i.e., the tension modulus is not identical to the compression modulus in the same direction. With this bi-modulus bone material, a topology optimization method, i.e., modified SIMP approach, is employed to determine the optimal mass distribution in a proximal femur. The effects of the difference between two moduli on the final material distribution are numerically investigated. Numerical results obtained show that the mass distribution in bi-modular bone materials is different from that in traditional isotropic material. As the tension modulus is less than the compression modulus for bone tissues, the amount of mass required to support tension loads is greater than that required by isotropic material for the same daily activities including one-leg stance, abduction and adduction. PMID:26336694

  14. Investigation of hyperelastic models for nonlinear elastic behavior of demineralized and deproteinized bovine cortical femur bone.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, M; Ghoreishi, M; Narooei, K

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the hyperelastic models of demineralized and deproteinized bovine cortical femur bone were investigated and appropriate models were developed. Using uniaxial compression test data, the strain energy versus stretch was calculated and the appropriate hyperelastic strain energy functions were fitted on data in order to calculate the material parameters. To obtain the mechanical behavior in other loading conditions, the hyperelastic strain energy equations were investigated for pure shear and equi-biaxial tension loadings. The results showed the Mooney-Rivlin and Ogden models cannot predict the mechanical response of demineralized and deproteinized bovine cortical femur bone accurately, while the general exponential-exponential and general exponential-power law models have a good agreement with the experimental results. To investigate the sensitivity of the hyperelastic models, a variation of 10% in material parameters was performed and the results indicated an acceptable stability for the general exponential-exponential and general exponential-power law models. Finally, the uniaxial tension and compression of cortical femur bone were studied using the finite element method in VUMAT user subroutine of ABAQUS software and the computed stress-stretch curves were shown a good agreement with the experimental data. PMID:26953961

  15. Computer assisted 3D pre-operative planning tool for femur fracture orthopedic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamage, Pavan; Xie, Sheng Quan; Delmas, Patrice; Xu, Wei Liang

    2010-02-01

    Femur shaft fractures are caused by high impact injuries and can affect gait functionality if not treated correctly. Until recently, the pre-operative planning for femur fractures has relied on two-dimensional (2D) radiographs, light boxes, tracing paper, and transparent bone templates. The recent availability of digital radiographic equipment has to some extent improved the workflow for preoperative planning. Nevertheless, imaging is still in 2D X-rays and planning/simulation tools to support fragment manipulation and implant selection are still not available. Direct three-dimensional (3D) imaging modalities such as Computed Tomography (CT) are also still restricted to a minority of complex orthopedic procedures. This paper proposes a software tool which allows orthopedic surgeons to visualize, diagnose, plan and simulate femur shaft fracture reduction procedures in 3D. The tool utilizes frontal and lateral 2D radiographs to model the fracture surface, separate a generic bone into the two fractured fragments, identify the pose of each fragment, and automatically customize the shape of the bone. The use of 3D imaging allows full spatial inspection of the fracture providing different views through the manipulation of the interactively reconstructed 3D model, and ultimately better pre-operative planning.

  16. Shape Ontogeny of the Distal Femur in the Hominidae with Implications for the Evolution of Bipedality.

    PubMed

    Tallman, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Heterochrony has been invoked to explain differences in the morphology of modern humans as compared to other great apes. The distal femur is one area where heterochrony has been hypothesized to explain morphological differentiation among Plio-Pleistocene hominins. This hypothesis is evaluated here using geometric morphometric data to describe the ontogenetic shape trajectories of extant hominine distal femora and place Plio-Pleistocene hominins within that context. Results of multivariate statistical analyses showed that in both Homo and Gorilla, the shape of the distal femur changes significantly over the course of development, whereas that of Pan changes very little. Development of the distal femur of Homo is characterized by an elongation of the condyles, and a greater degree of enlargement of the medial condyle relative to the lateral condyle, whereas Gorilla are characterized by a greater degree of enlargement of the lateral condyle, relative to the medial. Early Homo and Australopithecus africanus fossils fell on the modern human ontogenetic shape trajectory and were most similar to either adult or adolescent modern humans while specimens of Australopithecus afarensis were more similar to Gorilla/Pan. These results indicate that shape differences among the distal femora of Plio-Pleistocene hominins and humans cannot be accounted for by heterochrony alone; heterochrony could explain a transition from the distal femoral shape of early Homo/A. africanus to modern Homo, but not a transition from A. afarensis to Homo. That change could be the result of genetic or epigenetic factors.

  17. Low-grade myxofibrosarcoma following a metal implantation in femur: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Myxofibrosarcoma is a myxoid variant of malignant fibrous histiocytoma that most commonly involves the extremities of elderly people. However, a primary myxofibrosarcoma with bone invasion in young adults is extremely rare. Herein, we report the case of a 31-year-old male with a gradually enlarging left thigh mass, who had a history of left femur fracture and received an open reduction and internal fixation with titanium alloy plates and screws 33 months previously. Imaging investigations revealed an irregularly shaped soft tissue mass around the left femur shaft and a partial bone defect in the middle one-third of the left femur. Pathological examination of the resected specimen showed a multi-nodular appearance, abundant myxoid matrix and elongated curvilinear capillaries. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that the tumor cells was positive for VIM and MDM2, and was negative for CK, MSA, SMA, DES, S-100 and CD34. Labeling index of Ki-67 was 25%. Based on the morphological finding and immunostaining, it was diagnosed as a low-grade myxofibrosarcoma. The clinical and imaging examinations did not reveal the evidence of a primary cancer elsewhere, and the patient had no personal or family history of malignancy. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a primary myxofibrosarcoma developed following a fracture and metal implantation in young adults. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1745984882113605 PMID:24444015

  18. ANATOMIC STUDY OF THE PROXIMAL THIRD OF THE FEMUR: FEMOROACETABULAR IMPACT AND THE CAM EFFECT

    PubMed Central

    Labronici, Pedro José; Alves, Sergio Delmonte; da Silva, Anselmo Fernandes; Giuberti, Gilberto Ribeiro; de Azevedo Neto, Justino Nóbrega; Mezzalira Penedo, Jorge Luiz

    2015-01-01

    To analyze anatomical variations of the proximal end of femur that could cause a femoroacetabular impact. Methods: 199 skeletically mature anatomical specimens of femurs were used. The femurs were measured in order to determine the anteversion angle of the femoral neck, neckshaft angle, sphericity of the femoral head at anteroposterior and superoinferior, angle between epiphysis and the anterior femoral neck, angle between epiphysis and the neck at lateral plane, anteroposterior distance at 5mm of the head and neck junction and anteroposterior distance of the neck base. Results: we found that the impact subgroup presented a significantly larger junction diameter of 5mm (p = 0.0001) and cam-head (%) (p= 0.0001), while base-cam (%) (p = 0.0001) showed a significantly smaller diameter than the subgroup without impact. It was identified that cam-head (%) ≤ 80 e base-cam (%) ≤ 73 were identified as the optimal impact points. Conclusion: our study showed that the effect cam, caused by anatomical variations of the proximal femoral end focused the head-neck junction and base of the neck-junction head-neck. These rates can be predictive factors of the impact. PMID:26998462

  19. Periprosthetic fractures of the femur after total hip arthroplasty: etiology and outcome.

    PubMed

    Blacha, Jan; Gagała, Jacek

    2004-10-30

    Background. This article reports on our experience in the management of periprosthetic fractures of the femur. Materials and methods. We studied 44 patients (39 women and 5 men) with periprosthetic fractures of the femur after total hip replacement (THR). The average age of the patients at the time of surgery was 68 (range 33-82). Femoral fractures had occurred 1-20 years after THR in 27 hips. Revision hip arthroplasty was associated with periprosthetic fracture in 14 hips. Three patients had primary THR complicated by intraoperative femoral periprosthetic fracture. The outcome measures were bone union, delayed union or any revision intervention. Results. Bone union was achieved in 42 cases (95%). Thirty-five patients were satisfied with the surgical results, seven were moderately satisfied. Two patients had non-union of the femoral shaft, necessitating another intervention. The mean Harris Hip Score after bone union was 84 points (range 58-97). Deviation of the femoral axis was observed in 4 cases, due to subsiding of polished cemented stems. There were no deep infections. Conclusions. Internal stabilization with plate and cables is the best option in the treatment of fractured femur around a stable stem. Ineffective stabilization due to the use of a plate that was not long enough resulted in union with angulation. Long polished stems tended to subside within the cement mantle.

  20. Shape Ontogeny of the Distal Femur in the Hominidae with Implications for the Evolution of Bipedality.

    PubMed

    Tallman, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Heterochrony has been invoked to explain differences in the morphology of modern humans as compared to other great apes. The distal femur is one area where heterochrony has been hypothesized to explain morphological differentiation among Plio-Pleistocene hominins. This hypothesis is evaluated here using geometric morphometric data to describe the ontogenetic shape trajectories of extant hominine distal femora and place Plio-Pleistocene hominins within that context. Results of multivariate statistical analyses showed that in both Homo and Gorilla, the shape of the distal femur changes significantly over the course of development, whereas that of Pan changes very little. Development of the distal femur of Homo is characterized by an elongation of the condyles, and a greater degree of enlargement of the medial condyle relative to the lateral condyle, whereas Gorilla are characterized by a greater degree of enlargement of the lateral condyle, relative to the medial. Early Homo and Australopithecus africanus fossils fell on the modern human ontogenetic shape trajectory and were most similar to either adult or adolescent modern humans while specimens of Australopithecus afarensis were more similar to Gorilla/Pan. These results indicate that shape differences among the distal femora of Plio-Pleistocene hominins and humans cannot be accounted for by heterochrony alone; heterochrony could explain a transition from the distal femoral shape of early Homo/A. africanus to modern Homo, but not a transition from A. afarensis to Homo. That change could be the result of genetic or epigenetic factors. PMID:26886416

  1. Implant Augmentation: Adding Bone Cement to Improve the Treatment of Osteoporotic Distal Femur Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Wähnert, Dirk; Hofmann-Fliri, Ladina; Richards, R. Geoff; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Raschke, Michael J.; Windolf, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The increasing problems in the field of osteoporotic fracture fixation results in specialized implants as well as new operation methods, for example, implant augmentation with bone cement. The aim of this study was to determine the biomechanical impact of augmentation in the treatment of osteoporotic distal femur fractures. Seven pairs of osteoporotic fresh frozen distal femora were randomly assigned to either an augmented or nonaugmented group. In both groups, an Orthopaedic Trauma Association 33 A3 fractures was fixed using the locking compression plate distal femur and cannulated and perforated screws. In the augmented group, additionally, 1 mL of polymethylmethacrylate cement was injected through the screw. Prior to mechanical testing, bone mineral density (BMD) and local bone strength were determined. Mechanical testing was performed by cyclic axial loading (100 N to 750 N + 0.05N/cycle) using a servo-hydraulic testing machine. As a result, the BMD as well as the axial stiffness did not significantly differ between the groups. The number of cycles to failure was significantly higher in the augmented group with the BMD as a significant covariate. In conclusion, cement augmentation can significantly improve implant anchorage in plating of osteoporotic distal femur fractures. PMID:25415673

  2. Physical properties and composition of femurs of rat fed with diets based on corn tortillas made from different processes.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Flores, H E; Figueroa, J D C; Martínez-Bustos, F; Gonzalez-Hernandez, J; Rodriquez García, M E; Baños López, A M L; Garnica-Romo, M G

    2002-03-01

    In this study the effect of calcium absorption on some physical properties and composition of rat femurs was evaluated, comparing rats fed with raw whole corn (RC), tortillas made from extruded masa with 0.25% lime content (TEWL) and without lime (TE), and nixtamal tortillas (NT). The diets were formulated to contain the same amount of protein, oil, fiber, vitamins and minerals other than calcium. In all diets 0.20% calcium was added. At the end of the trials, the femurs were extracted, weighed and measured for ash, calcium and phosphorus content, some physical dimensions, and the crystallinity percentage. The femurs of rats fed with TEWL and NT were heavier, thicker, longer and had higher calcium content. On the other hand, the force required to break the femur of rats fed on ETWL and NT was 1.25 kg greater than that required to break the femurs of rats fed with RC. Higher crystallinity percentage values were observed in the femurs of the rats fed with NT (37.66%) and TEWL (36.98%) as compared to a 30.31% value obtained with the RC.

  3. Effect of amputation level on the stress transferred to the femur by an artificial limb directly attached to the bone.

    PubMed

    Newcombe, L; Dewar, M; Blunn, G W; Fromme, P

    2013-12-01

    Attachment of an artificial limb directly to the skeleton has a number of potential benefits and the technique has been implemented for several amputation sites. In this paper the transfer of stress from an external, transfemoral prosthesis to the femur during normal walking activity is investigated. The stress distribution in the femur and at the implant-bone interface is calculated using finite element analysis for the 3D geometry and inhomogeneous, anisotropic material properties obtained from a CT scan of a healthy femur. Attachment of the prosthetic leg at three different levels of amputation is considered. Stress concentrations are found at the distal end of the bone and adjacent to the implant tip and stress shielding is observed adjacent to the implant. It is found that the stress distribution in the femur distal to the epiphysis, where the femur geometry is close to cylindrical, can be predicted from a cylindrical finite element model, using the correct choice of bone diameter as measured from a radiograph. Proximal to the lesser trochanter the stress decreases as the femur geometry diverges significantly from a cylinder. The stress concentration at the distal, resected end of the bone is removed when a collared implant is employed. These findings form the basis for appropriate settings of an external fail-safe device to protect the bone from excessive stress in the event of an undue load.

  4. Three-dimensional conformal intensity-modulated radiation therapy of left femur foci does not damage the sciatic nerve

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wanlong; Zhao, Xibin; Wang, Qing; Sun, Jungang; Xu, Jiangbo; Zhou, Wenzheng; Wang, Hao; Yan, Shigui; Yuan, Hong

    2014-01-01

    During radiotherapy to kill femoral hydatid tapeworms, the sciatic nerve surrounding the focus can be easily damaged by the treatment. Thus, it is very important to evaluate the effects of radiotherapy on the surrounding nervous tissue. In the present study, we used three-dimensional, conformal, intensity-modulated radiation therapy to treat bilateral femoral hydatid disease in Meriones meridiani. The focus of the hydatid disease on the left femur was subjected to radiotherapy (40 Gy) for 14 days, and the right femur received sham irradiation. Hematoxylin-eosin staining, electron microscopy, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-dUTP nick end labeling assays on the left femurs showed that the left sciatic nerve cell structure was normal, with no obvious apoptosis after radiation. Trypan blue staining demonstrated that the overall protoscolex structure in bone parasitized with Echinococcus granulosus disappeared in the left femur of the animals after treatment. The mortality of the protoscolex was higher in the left side than in the right side. The succinate dehydrogenase activity in the protoscolex in bone parasitized with Echinococcus granulosus was lower in the left femur than in the right femur. These results suggest that three-dimensional conformal intensity-modulated radiation therapy achieves good therapeutic effects on the secondary bone in hydatid disease in Meriones meridiani without damaging the morphology or function of the sciatic nerve. PMID:25422645

  5. Ontogeny of the female femur: geometric morphometric analysis applied on current living individuals of a Spanish population

    PubMed Central

    Pujol, Aniol; Rissech, Carme; Ventura, Jacint; Badosa, Joaquim; Turbón, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In this study we describe the development of the female femur based on the analysis of high-resolution radiographic images by means of geometric morphometrics, while assessing the usefulness of this method in these kinds of studies. The material analysed consisted of digital images in DICOM format (telemetries), corresponding to 184 left femora in anterior view, obtained from the database of the Hospital Sant Joan de Déu of Barcelona (Spain). Bones analysed corresponded to individuals from 9 to 14 years old. Size and shape variation of the entire femur was quantified by 22 two-dimensional landmarks. Landmark digitisation errors were assessed using Procrustes anova test. Centroid size (CS) variation with age was evaluated by an anova test. Shape variation was assessed by principal component analysis. A mancova test between the first five principal components and age, using the CS as covariable, was applied. Results indicated that both size and shape vary significantly with age. Several age-related shape changes remained significant after removing the allometric effect. In general, an increase in the robustness of the bone and noticeable phenotypic changes in certain areas of the femur were observed. During growth in the proximal region of the femur, the collo-diaphyseal angle decreases, the neck of the femur widens and the fovea moves to a lower position, standing more in line with the plane of the neck. Likewise, the size of the greater and lesser trochanters increase. In the distal region, a significant increase of epiphyseal dimensions was recorded, mainly in the medial condyle. The angular remodelling of the neck and the bicondylar region of the femur in females continues until 13 years old. The information provided in the present study increases our knowledge on the timing and morphology of the femur during development, and in particular the morphology of the different femoral ossification centres during development. PMID:24975495

  6. In vivo strains in the femur of the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus).

    PubMed

    Copploe, Joseph V; Blob, Richard W; Parrish, John H A; Butcher, Michael T

    2015-08-01

    The capacity of limb bones to resist the locomotor loads they encounter depends on both the pattern of those loads and the material properties of the skeletal elements. Among mammals, understanding of the interplay between these two factors has been based primarily on evidence from locomotor behaviors in upright placentals, which show limb bones that are loaded predominantly in anteroposterior bending with minimal amounts of torsion. However, loading patterns from the femora of opossums, marsupials using crouched limb posture, show appreciable torsion while the bone experiences mediolateral (ML) bending. These data indicated greater loading diversity in mammals than was previously recognized, and suggested the possibility that ancestral loading patterns found in sprawling lineages (e.g., reptilian sauropsids) might have been retained among basal mammals. To further test this hypothesis, we recorded in vivo locomotor strains from the femur of the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), a member of the basal xenarthran clade of placental mammals that also uses crouched limb posture. Orientations of principal strains and magnitudes of shear strains indicate that armadillo femora are exposed to only limited torsion; however, bending is essentially ML, placing the medial aspect of the femur in compression and the lateral aspect in tension. This orientation of bending is similar to that found in opossums, but planar strain analyses indicate much more of the armadillo femur experiences tension during bending, potentially due to muscles pulling on the large, laterally positioned third trochanter. Limb bone safety factors were estimated between 3.3 and 4.3 in bending, similar to other placental mammals, but lower than opossums and most sprawling taxa. Thus, femoral loading patterns in armadillos show a mixture of similarities to both opossums (ML bending) and other placentals (limited torsion and low safety factors), along with unique features (high axial tension

  7. Proximal femur elastic behaviour is the same in impact and constant displacement rate fall simulation.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, S; Nishiyama, K K; de Bakker, P; Guy, P; Boyd, S K; Oxland, T; Cripton, P A

    2014-11-28

    Understanding proximal femur fracture may yield new targets for fracture prevention screening and treatment. The goal of this study was to characterize force-displacement and failure behaviours in the proximal femur between displacement control and impact loading fall simulations. Twenty-one human proximal femurs were tested in two ways, first to a sub-failure load at a constant displacement rate, then to fracture in an impact fall simulator. Comparisons of sub-failure energy and stiffness were made between the tests at the same compressive force. Additionally, the impact failure tests were compared with previous, constant displacement rate failure tests (at 2 and 100mm/s) in terms of energy, yield force, and stiffness. Loading and displacement rates were characterized and related to specimen stiffness in the impact tests. No differences were observed between the sub-failure constant displacement and impact tests in the aforementioned metrics. Comparisons between failure tests showed that the impact group had the lowest absorbed energy, 24% lower maximum force and 160% higher stiffness than the 100mm/s group (p<0.01 for all), but suffered from low statistical power to differentiate the donor age and specimen BMD. Loading and displacement rates for the specimens tested using impact varied during each test and between specimens and did not show appreciable viscoelasticity. These results indicate that constant displacement rate testing may help understand sub-failure mechanical behaviour, but may not elucidate failure behaviours. The differences between the impact and constant displacement rate fall simulations have important ramifications for interpreting the results of previous experiments.

  8. Parathyroid hormone resets the cartilage circadian clock of the organ-cultured murine femur

    PubMed Central

    Okubo, Naoki; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Minami, Yoichi; Kunimoto, Tatsuya; Hosokawa, Toshihiro; Umemura, Yasuhiro; Inokawa, Hitoshi; Asada, Maki; Oda, Ryo; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose The circadian clock governs endogenous day-night variations. In bone, the metabolism and growth show diurnal rhythms. The circadian clock is based on a transcription-translation feedback loop composed of clock genes including Period2 (Per2), which encodes the protein period circadian protein homolog 2. Because plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels show diurnal variation, we hypothesized that PTH could carry the time information to bone and cartilage. In this study, we analyzed the effect of PTH on the circadian clock of the femur. Patients and methods Per2::Luciferase (Per2::Luc) knock-in mice were used and their femurs were organ-cultured. The bioluminescence was measured using photomultiplier tube-based real-time bioluminescence monitoring equipment or real-time bioluminescence microscopic imaging devices. PTH or its vehicle was administered and the phase shifts were calculated. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect PTH type 1 receptor (PTH1R) expression. Results Real-time bioluminescence monitoring revealed that PTH reset the circadian rhythm of the Per2::Luc activity in the femurs in an administration time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. Microscopic bioluminescence imaging revealed that Per2::Luc activity in the growth plate and the articular cartilage showed that the circadian rhythms and their phase shifts were induced by PTH. PTH1R was expressed in the growth plate cartilage. Interpretation In clinical practice, teriparatide (PTH (1-34)) treatment is widely used for osteoporosis. We found that PTH administration regulated the femoral circadian clock oscillation, particularly in the cartilage. Regulation of the local circadian clock by PTH may lead to a more effective treatment for not only osteoporosis but also endochondral ossification in bone growth and fracture repair. PMID:25765847

  9. Strain and micromotion in intact and resurfaced composite femurs: experimental and numerical investigations.

    PubMed

    Pal, Bidyut; Gupta, Sanjay; New, Andrew M R; Browne, Martin

    2010-07-20

    Understanding the load transfer within a resurfaced femur is necessary to determine the influence of mechanical factors on potential failure mechanisms such as early femoral neck fractures and stress shielding. In this study, an attempt has been made to measure the stem-bone micromotion and implant cup-bone relative displacements (along medial-lateral and anterior-posterior direction), in addition to surface strains at different locations and orientations on the proximal femur and to compare these measurements with those predicted by equivalent FE models. The loading and the support conditions of the experiment were closely replicated in the FE models. A new experimental set-up has been developed, with specially designed fixtures and load application mechanism, which can effectively impose bending and deflection of the tested femurs, almost in any direction. High correlation coefficient (0.92-0.95), low standard error of the estimate (170-379 muepsilon) and low percentage error in regression slope (12.8-17.5%), suggested good agreement between the numerical and measured strains. The effect of strain shielding was observed in two (out of eight) strain gauges located on the posterior side. A pronounced strain increase occurred in strain gauges located on the anterior head and neck regions after implantation. Experimentally measured stem-bone micromotion and implant cup-bone relative displacements (0-13.7 microm) were small and similar in trends predicted by the FE models (0-25 microm). Despite quantitative deviations in the measured and numerical results, it appears that the FE model can be used as a valid predictor of the actual strain and stem-bone micromotion. PMID:20392448

  10. Mapping anisotropy of the proximal femur for enhanced image based finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Enns-Bray, William S; Owoc, Jan S; Nishiyama, Kyle K; Boyd, Steven K

    2014-10-17

    Finite element (FE) models of bone derived from quantitative computed tomography (QCT) rely on realistic material properties to accurately predict bone strength. QCT cannot resolve bone microarchitecture, therefore QCT-based FE models lack the anisotropy apparent within the underlying bone tissue. This study proposes a method for mapping femoral anisotropy using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) scans of human cadaver specimens. Femur HR-pQCT images were sub-divided into numerous overlapping cubic sub-volumes and the local anisotropy was quantified using a 'direct-mechanics' method. The resulting directionality reflected all the major stress lines visible within the trabecular lattice, and provided a realistic estimate of the alignment of Harvesian systems within the cortical compartment. QCT-based FE models of the proximal femur were constructed with isotropic and anisotropic material properties, with directionality interpolated from the map of anisotropy. Models were loaded in a sideways fall configuration and the resulting whole bone stiffness was compared to experimental stiffness and ultimate strength. Anisotropic models were consistently less stiff, but no statistically significant differences in correlation were observed between material models against experimental data. The mean difference in whole bone stiffness between model types was approximately 26%, suggesting that anisotropy can still effect considerable change in the mechanics of proximal femur models. The under prediction of whole bone stiffness in anisotropic models suggests that the orthotropic elastic constants require further investigation. The ability to map mechanical anisotropy from high-resolution images and interpolate information into clinical-resolution models will allow testing of new anisotropic material mapping strategies.

  11. Bone density of the radius, spine, and proximal femur in osteoporosis

    SciTech Connect

    Mazess, R.B.; Barden, H.; Ettinger, M.; Schultz, E.

    1988-02-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 140 normal young women (aged 20 to 39 years) and in 423 consecutive women over age 40 referred for evaluation of osteoporosis. Lumbar spine and proximal femur BMD was measured using dual-photon absorptiometry (/sup 153/Gd), whereas the radius shaft measurement used single-photon absorptiometry (/sup 125/I). There were 324 older women with no fractures, of which 278 aged 60 to 80 years served as age-matched controls. There were 99 women with fractures including 32 with vertebral and 22 with hip fractures. Subsequently, another 25 women with hip fractures had BMD measured in another laboratory; their mean BMD was within 2% of that of the original series. The mean age in both the nonfracture and fracture groups was 70 +/- 5 years. The BMD in the age-matched controls was 20% to 25% below that of normal young women for the radius, spine, and femur, but the Ward's triangle region of the femur showed even greater loss (35%). The mean BMD at all sites in the crush fracture cases was about 10% to 15% below that of age-matched controls. Spinal abnormality was best discriminated by spine and femoral measurements (Z score about 0.9). In women with hip fractures, the BMD was 10% below that of age-matched controls for the radius and the spine, and the BMD for the femoral sites was about 25% to 30% below that of age-matched control (Z score about 1.6). Femoral densities gave the best discrimination of hip fracture cases and even reflected spinal osteopenia. In contrast, neither the spine nor the radius reflected the full extent of femoral osteopenia in hip fracture.

  12. Mechanical Properties of a Single Cancellous Bone Trabeculae Taken from Bovine Femur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enoki, Shinichi; Sato, Mitsuhiro; Tanaka, Kazuto; Katayama, Tsutao

    The increase of patients with osteoporosis is becoming a social problem, thus it is an urgent issue to find its prevention and treatment methods. Since cancellous bone is metabolically more active than cortical bone, cancellous bone is often used for diagnosis of osteoporosis and has received much attention within the study of bone. Bone is a hierarchically structured material and its mechanical properties vary at different structural levels, therefore it is important to break down the mechanical testing of bone according to the various levels within bone material. Mechanical properties of cancellous bone is said to be depended on quantities and orientation of trabecular bone. It is supposed that mechanical properties of trabecular bone are constant without depending on any structural arrangement and parts. However, such assumption has not been established in studies of trabecular bone. Furthermore test results have a large margin of error caused by insufficient shape assessment. In this study, three point bending tests of single cancellous bone trabeculae extracted from bovine femur were conducted to evaluate the effects of directions to the femur major axis direction on the mechanical properties. X-ray μCT was used to obtain shape of trabecular bone specimens. Furthermore compression tests of cancellous bone specimens, which were extracted in 10mm cubic geometry, were conducted for evaluation of directional properties.There were small difference in the elastic modulus of the trabecular bones which were extracted in parallel and in perpendicular to the major axis of femur. Considering from the results that the cancellous bone specimens, which were extracted in 10mm cubic geometry, have different elastic properties depending on the tested directions; the bone structure has larger influence than bone material property on the mechanical properties of cancellous bone.

  13. Treatment of Bifocal Cyst Hydatid Involvement in Right Femur with Teicoplanin Added Bone Cement and Albendazole

    PubMed Central

    Pazarci, Ozhan; Oztemur, Zekeriya; Bulut, Okay

    2015-01-01

    Although bone involvement associated with cyst hydatid is rarely seen, it can cause unintended results such as high recurrence rate, infection, sepsis, or amputation of relevant extremity. Because of this reason, its treatment is difficult and disputed. In the case of bifocal bone cyst hydatid in right femur, along with albendazole treatment, result of resecting cyst surgically and its treatment with teicoplanin with added bone cement is given. In conclusion, since the offered treatment method both supports bone in terms of mechanical aspect and also can prevent secondary infection, the method is thought to be a good and safe treatment approach. PMID:26236523

  14. Revision Arthroplasty Using a MUTARS® Prosthesis in Comminuted Periprosthetic Fracture of the Distal Femur.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyung Suk; Nho, Jae Hwi; Kim, Chung Hyun; Kwon, Sai Won; Park, Jong Seok; Suh, You Sung

    2016-11-01

    Periprosthetic fractures after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are gradually increasing, reflecting extended lifespan, osteoporosis, and the increasing proportion of the elderly during the past decade. Supracondylar periprosthetic femoral fracture is a potential complication after TKA. Generally, open reduction and internal fixation are the conventional option for periprosthetic fracture after TKA. However, the presence of severe comminution with component loosening can cause failure of internal fixation. Although the current concept for periprosthetic fracture is open reduction and internal fixation, we introduce an unusual case of revision arthroplasty using a MUTARS® prosthesis for a comminuted periprosthetic fracture in the distal femur after TKA, with technical tips. PMID:27593884

  15. Physical therapy in the postoperative of proximal femur fracture in elderly. Literature review

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Mariana Barquet; Alves, Débora Pinheiro Lédio; Mercadante, Marcelo Tomanik

    2013-01-01

    The proximal femoral fracture in the elderly is a serious public health problem. Surgical treatment of this fracture is used to reduce morbidity, together with postoperative physical therapy. The objective was to conduct a systematic review of physical therapy protocols in postoperative for fractures of the proximal femur in elderly. We selected randomized controlled trials in elderly in the past 10 years, in Portuguese and English. There were 14 articles in the literature. Physical therapy has an important role in functional recovery of the elderly. Level of Evidence I, Systematic Review RCTs (Study results were homogenous). PMID:24453665

  16. Salter Harris Fractures of the Distal Femur: Learning Points From Two Cases Compared.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Sean M; Hamilton, Steven W; Barker, Simon L

    2013-01-01

    Salter Harris-type injuries of the distal femur should be treated as a dislocation of the knee and therefore as a medical emergency. Senior medical staff should be involved early, ankle-brachial index ratio should be measured in all patients and the clinician should have a high index of suspicion for a vascular injury. Ideally reduction, stabilization, and vascular repair, if necessary, should be carried out within 6 hours of the initial event. There should be a low threshold for fasciotomies. These 2 cases demonstrate the importance of having a high index of suspicion for vascular injury and the need for continued reassessment.

  17. Revision Arthroplasty Using a MUTARS® Prosthesis in Comminuted Periprosthetic Fracture of the Distal Femur

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyung-Suk; Kim, Chung-Hyun; Kwon, Sai-Won; Park, Jong-Seok; Suh, You-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Periprosthetic fractures after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are gradually increasing, reflecting extended lifespan, osteoporosis, and the increasing proportion of the elderly during the past decade. Supracondylar periprosthetic femoral fracture is a potential complication after TKA. Generally, open reduction and internal fixation are the conventional option for periprosthetic fracture after TKA. However, the presence of severe comminution with component loosening can cause failure of internal fixation. Although the current concept for periprosthetic fracture is open reduction and internal fixation, we introduce an unusual case of revision arthroplasty using a MUTARS® prosthesis for a comminuted periprosthetic fracture in the distal femur after TKA, with technical tips. PMID:27593884

  18. Long bone florid reactive periostitis ossificans: a case in the distal femur mimicking osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Azorín, Daniel; López-Pino, Miguel A; González-Mediero, Imelda; Epeldegui, Tomás; López-Barea, Fernando

    2008-11-01

    Florid reactive periostitis ossificans is a well-known benign lesion classically described in hands and feet which histopathological features can lead to a misdiagnosis of osteosarcoma. To the best of our knowledge, there is only one previous report of this lesion in a long bone. In this study we report a case of florid reactive periostitis ossificans located in the distal metaphysis of the left femur that histologically mimicked an osteosarcoma and discuss the differential diagnosis between these two entities to warn about a diagnostic pitfall.

  19. Deep-vein thrombosis following hip surgery for fracture of the proximal femur.

    PubMed

    Mitra, A K; Khoo, T K; Ngan, C C

    1989-12-01

    This is a prospective study involving seventy-two consecutive admissions of patients with fractures of the proximal femur over a period of eleven months. It reviews the incidence, pattern and clinical course of deep vein thrombosis in this group of patients. The method of detection of deep vein thrombosis was that of ascending phlebography of the injured limb. Results show that the incidence of deep vein thrombosis is low and complications of thromboembolism and local complications secondary to venous stasis are nil. It appears that prophylaxis and active treatment of deep vein thrombosis in this group of patients may not be essential.

  20. High Salt Diets, Bone Strength and Mineral Content of Mature Femur After Skeletal Unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Michael T. C.

    1998-01-01

    It is known that high salt diets increase urinary calcium (Ca) loss, but it is not known whether this effect weakens bone during space flight. The Bone Hormone Lab has studied the effect of high salt diets on Ca balance and whole body Ca in a space flight model (2,8). Neither the strength nor mineral content of the femurs from these studies has been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of high salt diets (HiNa) and skeletal unloading on femoral bone strength and bone mineral content (BMC) in mature rats.

  1. MECHANICAL FAILURE OF THE LONG GAMMA NAIL IN TWO PROXIMAL FEMUR FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Najibi, Soheil; Mark, Lemos; Fehnel, David

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical failure of the long gamma nail was encountered in two elderly patients with proximal femur fractures over a 6-month period. One of the patients had a known history of lymphoma. The other patient had a history of rheumatoid arthritis but no history of cancer or other metabolic bone disease. Both nails failed at the junction of the compression screw and the nail. The angle of failure of the nail was the same in both cases. The index of suspicion for imminent mechanical failure of the gamma nail should be higher in pathologic fractures and fractures which are malreduced during nailing. PMID:21046000

  2. Mechanical failure of the long gamma nail in two proximal femur fractures.

    PubMed

    Najibi, Soheil; Mark, Lemos; Fehnel, David

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical failure of the long gamma nail was encountered in two elderly patients with proximal femur fractures over a 6-month period. One of the patients had a known history of lymphoma. The other patient had a history of rheumatoid arthritis but no history of cancer or other metabolic bone disease. Both nails failed at the junction of the compression screw and the nail. The angle of failure of the nail was the same in both cases. The index of suspicion for imminent mechanical failure of the gamma nail should be higher in pathologic fractures and fractures which are malreduced during nailing. PMID:21046000

  3. Biomechanical analysis using infrared thermography of a traditional metal plate versus a carbon fibre/epoxy plate for Vancouver B1 femur fractures.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Faisal S; Shah, Suraj; Nicayenzi, Bruce; Schemitsch, Emil H; Zdero, Radovan; Bougherara, Habiba

    2014-01-01

    Traditional high-stiffness metal plates for Vancouver B1 femur shaft fractures below the tip of a hip implant can cause stress shielding, bone resorption, and implant loosening. This is the first study to compare the biomechanics of a traditional metal plate versus a low-stiffness carbon fibre/epoxy composite plate for this injury. A total hip replacement was implanted in two previously validated intact artificial femurs. Femurs were fitted with either a metal or composite plate and had a 5 mm fracture gap created to simulate a Vancouver B1 shaft fracture. Femurs were cyclically loaded using 5 Hz at 7° of adduction with an average axial load of 800 N (range = 400-1200 N). Overall mechanical stiffnesses and femur and plate thermographic stresses were obtained. Femur/metal plate stiffness (698 N/mm) was only 12% higher than femur/composite plate stiffness (625 N/mm). The femur with the composite plate had 22.7% higher combined average stress compared to the femur with the metal plate, having specific differences of 29.5% (anterior view), 33.9% (posterior view), 1.0% (medial view), and 26.4% (lateral view). The composite plate itself had an average 21.1% reduction in stress compared to the metal plate. The composite plate reduced stress shielding, yet provided adequate stiffness.

  4. Treatment with zoledronic acid ameliorates negative geometric changes in the proximal femur following acute spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, J; Smith, B; Beck, T; Ballard, P; Dapthary, M; BrintzenhofeSzoc, K; Caminis, J

    2007-05-01

    Acute spinal cord injury is associated with rapid bone loss and an increased risk of fracture. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 17 patients were followed for 1 year after administration of either 4 or 5 mg of zoledronic acid or placebo. Bone mineral density (BMD) and structural analyses of the proximal femur were performed using the hip structural analysis program at entry, 6 months, and 12 months. The 17 subjects completed 12 months of observation, nine receiving placebo and eight zoledronic acid. The placebo group showed a decrease in BMD, cross-sectional area, and section modulus and an increase in buckling ratio at each proximal femur site at 6 and 12 months. Six months after zoledronic acid, BMD, cross-sectional area, and section modulus increased at the femoral neck and intertrochanteric regions and buckling ratio decreased consistent with improved bone stability. However, at 12 months, the femoral narrow-neck values declined to baseline. In contrast to placebo, the intertrochanteric region and femur shaft were maintained at or near baseline through 12 months in the zoledronic acid-treated group. Urine N-telopeptide excretion was increased at baseline and declined in both the placebo and treatment groups during the 12 months of observation. We conclude that a single administration of zoledronic acid will ameliorate bone loss and maintain parameters of bone strength at the three proximal femur sites for 6 months and at the femur intertrochanteric and shaft sites for 12 months.

  5. Confocal scanning optical microscopy of a 3-million-year-old Australopithecus afarensis femur.

    PubMed

    Bromage, T G; Goldman, H M; McFarlin, S C; Perez Ochoa, A; Boyde, A

    2009-01-01

    Portable confocal scanning optical microscopy (PCSOM) has been specifically developed for the noncontact and nondestructive imaging of early human fossil hard tissues, which here we describe and apply to a 3-million-year-old femur from the celebrated Ethiopian skeleton, "Lucy," referred to Australopithecus afarensis. We examine two bone tissue parameters that demonstrate the potential of this technology. First, subsurface reflection images from intact bone reveal bone cell spaces, the osteocyte lacunae, whose density is demonstrated to scale negatively with body size, reflecting aspects of metabolism and organismal life history. Second, images of a naturally fractured cross section near to Lucy's femoral mid-shaft, which match in sign those of transmitted circularly polarized light, reveal relative collagen fiber orientation patterns that are an important indicator of femoral biomechanical efficacy. Preliminary results indicate that Lucy was characterized by metabolic constraints typical for a primate her body size and that in her femur she was adapted to habitual bipedalism. Limitations imposed by the transport and invasive histology of unique or rare fossils motivated development of the PCSOM so that specimens may be examined wherever and whenever nondestructive imaging is required.

  6. TOMOGRAFIC AND TENSIOMETRIC ASSESSMENT ON FEMURS FROM OOPHORECTOMIZED RATS SUBJECTED TO HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Martynetz, Fábio Alexandre; Pessole Biondo-Simões, Maria de Lourdes; Martynetz, Juliano Rodrigo; Martynetz, Tatiana Daher; Zimerman, Elise; Neto, Heraldo Mello

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the biomechanical and tomographic effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on femurs from rats subjected to induced menopause. Methods: Forty-five adult Wistar rats were divided equally into three groups. The first and second groups consisted of rats subjected to oophorectomy, and the third was the control group, consisting of nonoophorectomized rates. After verifying that hormone failure had occurred (exfoliative cytological test), only the first group received HRT, over a two-month period. After this period, the femurs were disarticulated and subjected to biomechanical tests in a universal testing machine to evaluate their strength, and were subjected to tomographic evaluation to determine the bone mineral density. Results: The exfoliative cytological test showed that hormone failure was induced in all the oophorectomized animals. A significant difference (p = 0.030) in maximum strength measurements was observed between the groups (higher in the group with HRT). Greater bone fragility was observed in the oophorectomized animals without HRT than in those with HRT (p = 0.010), in relation to the control group (p = 0.0107). There was greater bone strength in the oophorectomized rats with HRT than in those without HRT, and these values were similar to those of the control group (p = 0.179). In the tomographic evaluation, no significant differences were found between the groups (p = 0.625). Conclusion: A significant increase in bone strength was observed with the use of HRT. However, treatment with HRT did not show any significant change in bone mineral density. PMID:27019837

  7. A Rare Occurrence of Enchondroma in Neck of Femur in an Adult Female: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kejariwal, Ujjwal; Chugh, Ankush

    2015-01-01

    Enchondroma is a solitary, benign, intramedullary cartilaginous tumour occurring most commonly in small bones of hands and feet. Distal femur and proximal humerus are other less common locations. Enchondroma consists of 3-10% of all bone tumours, while they constitute 12-24% of benign bone tumours. They originate from the growth plate cartilage which later on proliferates to form enchondroma. Radiographs reveal a localized, radiolucent lytic bone defect usually with punctuate calcifications. Lesions are central or eccentric and metaphyseal involvement most commonly for long bones. MRI and histopathological examination can be used to confirm the diagnosis. Asymptomatic cases can be managed conservatively with serial radiological follow ups. Cases with symptoms are managed operatively. Recurrence rate is very low (<5%), it suggests malignancy. We here present a case of a 30-year-old female patient who presented with a history of pain in right hip since 7 months. Radiological examination showed the lesion to be enchondroma. The patient was managed by curettage with autogenous iliac bone graft & prophylactic 6.5 mm cannulated screws fixation. Histopathology confirmed the lesion to be enchondroma. At the latest follow up after 6 months, the patient was symptom free and there was no evidence of any recurrence. The current case report of enchondroma located in the neck of femur signifies the importance of early diagnosis, timely intervention and treatment. Also, this case report represents one of the very rare cases reported in literature. PMID:26816956

  8. [Free microvascular transfer of segmental corticocancellous femur for treatment of avascular scaphoid necrosis].

    PubMed

    Bürger, K H; Gaggl, A J; Kukutschki, W; Mueller, E

    2009-02-01

    Successful treatment of scaphoid non-union with avascular necrosis of the proximal poles and humpback deformity with carpal collapse is one of the main problems in reconstructive hand surgery. Vascularised bone transfer is one of the most successful techniques for treating these problems. 15 patients with avascular necrosis and non-union of the scaphoid were treated by a microvascular reanastomosed corticocancellous transplant from the distal medial femur. In all patients the success of the microvascular bone transfer was examined by MRI and conventional radiographs immediately, 6 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively. The transplant vitality, signs of reunion and carpal configuration were registered. Furthermore, the Mayo wrist score was employed for clinical evaluation. All transplants remained vital during the follow-up period of one year. Pseudoarthrosis was treated successfully in every case. In 14 cases there was a significant increase of the Mayo wrist score and in one case there was no difference before and after surgery. The microvascular transfer of corticocancellous femur resulted in a high rate of complete healing of scaphoid pseudoarthrosis and correction of the carpal relation.

  9. Atypical femur fractures in a patient with pycnodysostosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hashem, J; Krochak, R; Culbertson, M D; Mileto, C; Goodman, H

    2015-08-01

    Pycnodysostosis is a rare autosomal recessive disease due to a mutation in the gene for the enzyme Cathepsin K. It is characterized by short stature, craniofacial dysmorphias, osteosclerosis, and brittle bones. There are only a few reports in the literature describing surgical interventions for long bone fractures in pycnodysostosis patients, most of which describe intramedullary nail treatment of isolated long bone fractures. We describe a case in which a pregnant female with pycnodysostosis presented with a shaft fracture of the left femur following minor trauma and a history of increasing thigh pain. Radiographs obtained in the emergency room also revealed an impending subtrochanteric fracture of the contralateral side. The acute left femoral shaft fracture was treated with an adolescent-sized intramedullary nail; it was decided to defer surgery on the contralateral side until after pregnancy. Three months later, the patient had the contralateral femur prophylactically fixated with a plate and screws. One year after the index surgery, both methods demonstrated satisfactory healing both clinically and radiographically. Although we recommend use of an intramedullary nail for long bone fractures in patients with pycnodysostosis, a plate can be utilized if health conditions or skeletal morphology precludes use of a nail.

  10. What is the role of bosentan in healing of femur fractures in a rat model?

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ali; Halici, Zekai; Akpinar, Erol; Aksakal, A Murat; Saritemur, Murat; Yayla, Muhammed; Kunak, C Semih; Cadirci, Elif; Atmaca, H Tarik; Karcioglu, S Sena

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects bosentan (which is a strong vasoconstrictor) on bone fracture pathophysiology, and investigate the roles of the nonselective endothelin 1 receptor blocker bosentan on the bone fractures formed in rats through radiographic, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical methods. The rats were divided into three groups (six rats in each group): a femoral fracture control group, a femoral fracture plus bosentan at 50 mg/kg group, and a femoral fracture plus bosentan at 100 mg/kg group. The femoral fracture model was established by transversely cutting the femur at the midsection. After manual reduction, the fractured femur was fixed with intramedullary Kirschner wires. The radiographic healing scores of the bosentan 100 and 50 mg/kg groups were significantly better that those of the fracture control group. The fracture callus percent of new bone in the bosentan 100 mg/kg group was significantly greater than that in the control group. Also, semiquantitative analysis showed higher positive vascular endothelial growth factor and osteocalcin staining and lower positive endothelin receptor type A staining in the treatment groups than in the control group. Bosentan treatment also decreased tissue endothelin 1 expression relative to that in the fracture control group. As a result of our study, the protective effect of bosentan was shown in experimental femoral fracture healing in rats by radiographic, histopathologic, and molecular analyses.

  11. Individual-specific multi-scale finite element simulation of cortical bone of human proximal femur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascenzi, Maria-Grazia; Kawas, Neal P.; Lutz, Andre; Kardas, Dieter; Nackenhorst, Udo; Keyak, Joyce H.

    2013-07-01

    We present an innovative method to perform multi-scale finite element analyses of the cortical component of the femur using the individual's (1) computed tomography scan; and (2) a bone specimen obtained in conjunction with orthopedic surgery. The method enables study of micro-structural characteristics regulating strains and stresses under physiological loading conditions. The analysis of the micro-structural scenarios that cause variation of strain and stress is the first step in understanding the elevated strains and stresses in bone tissue, which are indicative of higher likelihood of micro-crack formation in bone, implicated in consequent remodeling or macroscopic bone fracture. Evidence that micro-structure varies with clinical history and contributes in significant, but poorly understood, ways to bone function, motivates the method's development, as does need for software tools to investigate relationships between macroscopic loading and micro-structure. Three applications - varying region of interest, bone mineral density, and orientation of collagen type I, illustrate the method. We show, in comparison between physiological loading and simple compression of a patient's femur, that strains computed at the multi-scale model's micro-level: (i) differ; and (ii) depend on local collagen-apatite orientation and degree of calcification. Our findings confirm the strain concentration role of osteocyte lacunae, important for mechano-transduction. We hypothesize occurrence of micro-crack formation, leading either to remodeling or macroscopic fracture, when the computed strains exceed the elastic range observed in micro-structural testing.

  12. Associated ilium and femur from Koobi Fora, Kenya, and postcranial diversity in early Homo.

    PubMed

    Ward, Carol V; Feibel, Craig S; Hammond, Ashley S; Leakey, Louise N; Moffett, Elizabeth A; Plavcan, J Michael; Skinner, Matthew M; Spoor, Fred; Leakey, Meave G

    2015-04-01

    During the evolution of hominins, it is generally accepted that there was a shift in postcranial morphology between Australopithecus and the genus Homo. Given the scarcity of associated remains of early Homo, however, relatively little is known about early Homo postcranial morphology. There are hints of postcranial diversity among species, but our knowledge of the nature and extent of potential differences is limited. Here we present a new associated partial ilium and femur from Koobi Fora, Kenya, dating to 1.9 Ma (millions of years ago) that is clearly attributable to the genus Homo but documents a pattern of morphology not seen in eastern African early Homo erectus. The ilium and proximal femur share distinctive anatomy found only in Homo. However, the geometry of the femoral midshaft and contour of the pelvic inlet do not resemble that of any specimens attributed to H. erectus from eastern Africa. This new fossil confirms the presence of at least two postcranial morphotypes within early Homo, and documents diversity in postcranial morphology among early Homo species that may reflect underlying body form and/or adaptive differences. PMID:25747316

  13. Development of a balanced experimental-computational approach to understanding the mechanics of proximal femur fractures.

    PubMed

    Helgason, B; Gilchrist, S; Ariza, O; Chak, J D; Zheng, G; Widmer, R P; Ferguson, S J; Guy, P; Cripton, P A

    2014-06-01

    The majority of people who sustain hip fractures after a fall to the side would not have been identified using current screening techniques such as areal bone mineral density. Identifying them, however, is essential so that appropriate pharmacological or lifestyle interventions can be implemented. A protocol, demonstrated on a single specimen, is introduced, comprising the following components; in vitro biofidelic drop tower testing of a proximal femur; high-speed image analysis through digital image correlation; detailed accounting of the energy present during the drop tower test; organ level finite element simulations of the drop tower test; micro level finite element simulations of critical volumes of interest in the trabecular bone. Fracture in the femoral specimen initiated in the superior part of the neck. Measured fracture load was 3760N, compared to 4871N predicted based on the finite element analysis. Digital image correlation showed compressive surface strains as high as 7.1% prior to fracture. Voxel level results were consistent with high-speed video data and helped identify hidden local structural weaknesses. We found using a drop tower test protocol that a femoral neck fracture can be created with a fall velocity and energy representative of a sideways fall from standing. Additionally, we found that the nested explicit finite element method used allowed us to identify local structural weaknesses associated with femur fracture initiation. PMID:24629624

  14. The effect of age on blood flow in the proximal femur in man

    SciTech Connect

    Lahtinen, T.; Alhava, E.M.; Karjalainen, P.; Romppanen, T.

    1981-11-01

    Blood flow in the proximal femur was measured in 45 healthy male and female adults by means of a Xe-133 washout method. On the basis of a two-compartment exponential model, blood flow was calculated assuming that the compartments were hematopoietic (red) marrow and nonhematopoietic tissues of bone. Between the ages of 20 and 55 the bone perfusion was 8.2 +/- 1.4 (1 s.d.) ml/100g/min, decreasing thereafter in older patients. During the same period the red-marrow blood flow (RMBF) decreased linearly: RMBF (ml/100g/min) = -0.14 x age + 24.5. The nonhematopoietic bone perfusion changed like the bone perfusion. The fractional masses of red marrow and nonhematopoietic tissues of bone in the greater trochanteric region of the femur were determined morphometrically from the bone biopsies of seven adult cadavers. They agreed with the values estimated by the Xe-133 washout method. The blood-flow values will be used as reference values for the Xe-133 bone circulation method.

  15. The effect of age on blood flow in the proximal femur in man

    SciTech Connect

    Lahtinen, T.; Alhava, E.M.; Karjalainen, P.; Romppanen, T.

    1981-11-01

    blood flow in the proximal femur was measured in 45 healthy male and female adults by means of a Xe-133 washout method. On the basis of a two-compartment exponential model, blood flow was calculated assuming that the compartments were hematopoietic (red) marrow and nonhematopoietic tissues of bone. Between the ages of 20 and 55 the bone perfusion was 8.3 +/- 1.4 (1 s.d.) ml/100 g/min, decreasing thereafter in older patients. During the same period the red-marrow blood flow (RMBF) decreased linearly: RMBF (ml/100 g/min) . -0.14 x age + 24.5. The nonhematopoietic bone perfusion changed like the bone perfusion. The fractional masses of red marrow and nonhematopoietic tissues of bone in the greater trochanteric region of the femur were determined morphometrically from the bone biopsies of seven adult cadavers. They agreed with the values estimated by the Xe-133 washout method. The blood-flow values will be used as reference values for the Xe-133 bone circulation method.

  16. An Uncemented Spreading Stem for the Fixation in the Metaphyseal Femur: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Daniel; Pumberger, Matthias; Fuchs, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Surgical treatment to restore full range of motion and full weight bearing after extensive femoral bone resection in patients with primary or metastatic femoral tumours is individually challenging. Especially when the remaining distal or proximal bone is very short, a rigid fixation of an implant is difficult to achieve due to the reverse funnel shape of the metaphysis. Herein, we present a novel implant design using a spreading mechanism in the distal part of the prosthesis for rigid, uncemented fixation in the remaining femoral bone after extensive tumour resection of the femur. We present the outcome of 5 female patients who underwent implantation of this spreading stem after extensive proximal or distal femoral bone resection. There was no radiological or clinical loosening or implant-related revision surgery in our follow-up (mean 21.46 months, range 3.5–46 months). This uncemented spreading stem may therefore represent an alternative option for fixation of a prosthetic device in the remaining metaphyseal femur. PMID:27293377

  17. [Original vacuum dressing for the treatment of open femur fracture with gangrene immobilized by external fixation].

    PubMed

    Debarge, R; Pinaroli, A; Caillot, J-L; Voiglio, E-J

    2008-02-01

    We report a case of gangrene, which developed following an open fracture of the femur immobilized with an external fixator in a 45-year-old patient. A conventional vacuum dressing (VAC Therapy) could not be applied with the external fixator in place. An original vacuum dressing was thus fashioned after surgical debridement. Scabs were covered with calcium alginate. The lower limb was enveloped in sterile dressings and vacuum was achieved by suction with gastric tubes under adhesive films. The dressing was redone every 48 h in a surgical setting. Antibiotic prophylaxis enabled cure of the infection. Budding appeared within two weeks enabling skin grafting. Centro-medullary nailing was undertaken on day 30 to accelerate bone healing. At three months from the trauma, the initial loss of sensitivity in the leg and foot noted at the first weight bearing required programmed disarticulation of the knee after femur and wound healing. At six months, the patient had resumed his occupational activities and was pain free. This type of dressing could be useful for tissue loss over a fracture immobilized with an external fixator. This type of assembly can easily be installed in the operating room. PMID:18342034

  18. Sex Assessment Using the Femur and Tibia in Medieval Skeletal Remains from Ireland: Discriminant Function Analysis.

    PubMed

    Novak, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Sex determination based on discriminant function analysis of skeletal measurements is probably the most effective method for assessment of sex in archaeological and contemporary populations due to various reasons, but it also suffers from limitations such as population specificity. In this paper standards for sex assessment from the femur and tibia in the medieval Irish population are presented. Six femoral and six tibial measurements obtained from 56 male and 45 female skeletons were subjected to discriminant function analysis. Average accuracies obtained by this study range between 87.1 and 97%. The highest level of accuracy (97%) was achieved when using combined variables of the femur and tibia (maximum diameter of femoral head and circumference at tibial nutrient foramen), as well as two variables of the tibia (proximal epiphyseal breadth and circumference at nutrient foramen). Discriminant functions using a single variable provided accuracies between 87.1 and 96% with the circumference at the level of the tibial nutrient foramen providing the best separation. High accuracy rates obtained by this research correspond to the data recorded in other studies thus confirming the importance of discriminant function analysis in assessment of sex in both archaeological and forensic contexts.

  19. The Effect of Irreversible Electroporation on the Femur: Experimental Study in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yue; Zheng, Jingjing; Yan, Mingwei; Ding, Weidong; Xu, Kui; Fan, Qingyu; Li, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a novel ablation method that has been tested in humans with lung, prostate, kidney, liver, lymph node and presacral cancers. As a new non-thermal treatment, the use of IRE to ablate tumors in the musculoskeletal system might reduce the incidence of fractures. We aimed to determine the ablation threshold of cortical bone and to evaluate the medium- and long-term healing process and mechanical properties of the femur in a rabbit model post-IRE ablation. The ablation threshold of cortical bone was between 1090 V/cm and 1310 V/cm (120 pulses). IRE-ablated femurs displayed no detectable fracture but did exhibit signs of recovery, including osteoblast regeneration, angiogenesis and bone remodeling. In the ablation area, revascularization appeared at 4 weeks post-IRE. Osteogenic activity peaked 8 weeks post-IRE and remained high at 12 weeks. The mechanical strength decreased briefly 4 weeks post-IRE but returned to normal levels within 8 weeks. Our experiment revealed that IRE ablation preserved the structural integrity of the bone cortex, and the ablated bone was able to regenerate rapidly. IRE may hold unique promise for in situ bone tissue ablation because rapid revascularization and active osteogenesis in the IRE ablation area are possible. PMID:26655843

  20. A comparison between automatically generated linear and parabolic tetrahedra when used to mesh a human femur.

    PubMed

    Polgar, K; Viceconti, M; O'Connor, J J

    2001-01-01

    Finite element models of bone segments generated from computed tomography data using automatic mesh generation algorithms are becoming common not only in research but also in clinical applications such as computer aided orthopaedic surgery. Especially in the case of the latter application, the models cannot be verified against an experimental measurement, therefore their inherent accuracy should be well known before drawing conclusions based on the calculated results. This study was carried out to assess the performance of tetrahedral solid finite elements with linear and quadratic displacement functions when they are used to mesh the human femur in conjunction with automatic mesh generator methods. Ten-node quadratic tetrahedra (T10) having parabolic displacement functions were compared with four-node linear tetrahedron elements (T4) on the basis of accuracy and central processing unit (CPU) time. From the analyses of 11 finite element meshes, it was concluded that linear tetrahedral elements should be avoided and quadratic tetrahedral elements ought to be chosen for the purposes of finite element analysis of the human femur. When incremental loading and iterative solution is necessary, the coarsest possible T10 mesh compatible with accuracy is needed to minimize computer capacity and CPU time.

  1. Multiobjective topology optimization of trabecular Bone Structure in the spine and the femur: Implications for biomimcry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbanna, Ahmed; Peetz, Darin

    Bone is classically considered to be a self-optimizing structure in accordance with Wolff's law. However, while the structure's ability to adapt to changing stress patterns has been well documented, whether it is fully optimal for compliance is less certain (Sigmund, 2002). Given the complexity of many biological systems, it is expected that this structure serves several purposes. We present a multi-objective topology optimization formulation for trabecular bone in the human body at two locations: the vertebrae and the femur. We account for the effect of different conflicting objectives such as maximization of stiffness, maximization of surface area, and minimization of buckling susceptibility. Our formulation enables us to determine the relative role of each of these objective in optimizing the structure. Moreover, it provides an opportunity to explore what structural features have to evolve to meet a certain objective requirements that may have been absent otherwise. For example, inclusion of stability considerations introduce numerous horizontal and diagonal members in the topology in the case of human vertebrae under vertical loading. However, the stability is found to play a lesser role in the case of the femur bone optimization. Our formulation enables investigation of bone adaptation at different locations of the body as well as under different loading and boundary conditions (e.g. healthy and diseased discs for the case of the spine). We discuss the implications of our findings on developing design rules for bio-inspired and bio-mimetic architectured materials. National Science Foundation: CMMI.

  2. Changes in bone mineral density of the acetabulum and proximal femur after total hip resurfacing arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiang; Shen, Bin; Yang, Jing; Zhou, Zong-ke; Kang, Peng-de; Pei, Fu-xing

    2013-12-01

    Our aim was to investigate the changes in bone mineral density (BMD) of acetabulum and proximal femur after total hip resurfacing arthroplasty. A comparative study was carried out on 51 hips in 48 patients. Group A consisted of 25 patients (26 hips) who had undergone total hip resurfacing and group B consisted of 23 patients (25 hips) who had had large-diameter metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty (THA). BMDs around the acetabulum and proximal femur were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) at 2 weeks, 6 months, 1 year and annually thereafter during the 3 years after surgery. At final follow-up, the acetabular net mean BMD decreased by 11% in group A and 10% in group B with no differences between two groups (P = .35). For the femoral side, in Gruen zone 1, the mean BMD increased by 4% in group A, whereas it decreased by 11% in group B (P = .029). In Gruen zone 7, the mean BMD increased by 8% at the final follow-up in group A, whereas it decreased by 13% in group B (P = .02). In both groups the mean BMD increased by 3% in Gruen zones 3, 4, 5, and 6. Stress-related bone loss of the acetabulum was comparable for MOM THA and resurfacing devices, but proximal femoral bone density increased in the resurfacing group and decreased in the THA group.

  3. Treatment of a Femur Nonunion with Microsurgical Corticoperiosteal Pedicled Flap from the Medial Femoral Condyle

    PubMed Central

    Guzzini, Matteo; Guidi, Marco; Civitenga, Carolina; Ferri, Germano; Ferretti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The vascularized corticoperiosteal flap is harvested from the medial femoral condyle and it is nourished by the articular branch of the descending genicular artery and the superomedial genicular artery. This flap is usually harvested as a free flap for the reconstruction of bone defects at forearm, distal radius, carpus, hand, and recently at lower limb too. Case Report. A 50-year-old Caucasian man referred to our department for hypertrophic nonunion of the distal femur, refractory to the conservative treatments. The first surgical choice was the revision of the nail and the bone reconstruction with a corticoperiosteal pedicled flap from the medial femoral condyle. We considered union to have occurred 3.5 months after surgery when radiographs showed bridging of at least three of the four bony cortices and clinically the patient was able to walk with full weight bearing without any pain. At the last follow-up (25 months), the patient was completely satisfied with the procedure. Discussion. The corticoperiosteal flap allows a faster healing of fractures with a minimal morbidity at the donor site. We suggest that the corticoperiosteal pedicled flap graft is a reliable and effective treatment for distal femur nonunion. PMID:27064589

  4. Sex Assessment Using the Femur and Tibia in Medieval Skeletal Remains from Ireland: Discriminant Function Analysis.

    PubMed

    Novak, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Sex determination based on discriminant function analysis of skeletal measurements is probably the most effective method for assessment of sex in archaeological and contemporary populations due to various reasons, but it also suffers from limitations such as population specificity. In this paper standards for sex assessment from the femur and tibia in the medieval Irish population are presented. Six femoral and six tibial measurements obtained from 56 male and 45 female skeletons were subjected to discriminant function analysis. Average accuracies obtained by this study range between 87.1 and 97%. The highest level of accuracy (97%) was achieved when using combined variables of the femur and tibia (maximum diameter of femoral head and circumference at tibial nutrient foramen), as well as two variables of the tibia (proximal epiphyseal breadth and circumference at nutrient foramen). Discriminant functions using a single variable provided accuracies between 87.1 and 96% with the circumference at the level of the tibial nutrient foramen providing the best separation. High accuracy rates obtained by this research correspond to the data recorded in other studies thus confirming the importance of discriminant function analysis in assessment of sex in both archaeological and forensic contexts. PMID:27301232

  5. Development of a balanced experimental-computational approach to understanding the mechanics of proximal femur fractures.

    PubMed

    Helgason, B; Gilchrist, S; Ariza, O; Chak, J D; Zheng, G; Widmer, R P; Ferguson, S J; Guy, P; Cripton, P A

    2014-06-01

    The majority of people who sustain hip fractures after a fall to the side would not have been identified using current screening techniques such as areal bone mineral density. Identifying them, however, is essential so that appropriate pharmacological or lifestyle interventions can be implemented. A protocol, demonstrated on a single specimen, is introduced, comprising the following components; in vitro biofidelic drop tower testing of a proximal femur; high-speed image analysis through digital image correlation; detailed accounting of the energy present during the drop tower test; organ level finite element simulations of the drop tower test; micro level finite element simulations of critical volumes of interest in the trabecular bone. Fracture in the femoral specimen initiated in the superior part of the neck. Measured fracture load was 3760N, compared to 4871N predicted based on the finite element analysis. Digital image correlation showed compressive surface strains as high as 7.1% prior to fracture. Voxel level results were consistent with high-speed video data and helped identify hidden local structural weaknesses. We found using a drop tower test protocol that a femoral neck fracture can be created with a fall velocity and energy representative of a sideways fall from standing. Additionally, we found that the nested explicit finite element method used allowed us to identify local structural weaknesses associated with femur fracture initiation.

  6. Testing assumptions of the Gilbert and Gill method for assessing ancestry using the femur subtrochanteric shape.

    PubMed

    Wescott, D; Srikanta, D

    2008-01-01

    In 1990, Gilbert and Gill proposed a simple metric technique using femoral subtrochanteric anteroposterior and mediolateral diaphyseal diameters for discriminating between Native American and American Black and White femora in medicolegal and bioarchaeological contexts. However, there are several inherent assumptions in the method that may affect its validity. The assumptions include minimal sexual dimorphism, temporal and geographical homogeneity within populations, and that differences between populations in femoral subtrochanteric size and shape are primarily due to genetic variation. In this study, these assumptions are tested using femora from seven populations (African, American Black, American White, Australian, Native American, Hispanic, and Polynesian). The results indicate that sexual dimorphism and geographical and temporal heterogeneity in proximal femur diaphyseal shape within Native Americans are not great enough to significantly affect the validity of the Gilbert and Gill method (GGM). Variation between populations is most likely due to combined genetic and environmental factors, but differences in proximal femur shape between Native Americans and American Blacks/Whites are sufficient to allow accurate discrimination between these groups. Caution, however, must be taken during investigations where populations other than Native Americans or American Blacks/Whites are present, and therefore, the GGM may have limited forensic anthropological application in many parts of the world.

  7. Persistent Wound Drainage After Tumor Resection and Endoprosthetic Reconstruction of the Proximal Femur

    PubMed Central

    Hettwer, Werner H; Horstmann, Peter F; Grum-Schwensen, Tomas A; Petersen, Michael M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the prevalence of prolonged wound drainage (PWD) after tumor resection and endoprosthetic reconstruction of the hip. Methods: Retrospective review of 86 consecutive patients with metastatic bone disease, malignant hematologic bone disease or bone sarcoma, treated with tumor resection and subsequent endoprosthetic reconstruction of the proximal femur, between 2010 and 2012, in a single center. Results: PWD for 7 days or more was observed in 41 cases (48%). The wounds only ceased oozing after a mean of 8.4 days, leading to prolonged administration of prophylactic antibiotics (mean 8.7 days) and length of hospital stay (mean 10.2 days). Total femur replacement, bone sarcoma and additional pelvic reconstruction were identified as significant independent risk factors for an even longer duration of PWD. Conclusion: Compared to conventional hip arthroplasty, PWD appears to be significantly more prevalent in patients undergoing tumor arthroplasty procedures of the hip. Given the potentially increased risk for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), increased awareness, identification and implementation of adequate strategies for prevention and treatment of this avoidable complication are warranted. PMID:25621083

  8. Femur Window Chamber Model for In Vivo Cell Tracking in the Murine Bone Marrow.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yonghong; Maeda, Azusa; Bu, Jiachuan; DaCosta, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow is a complex organ that contains various hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. These cells are involved in many biological processes, including hematopoiesis, immune regulation and tumor regulation. Commonly used methods for understanding cellular actions in the bone marrow, such as histology and blood counts, provide static information rather than capturing the dynamic action of multiple cellular components in vivo. To complement the standard methods, a window chamber (WC)-based model was developed to enable serial in vivo imaging of cells and structures in the murine bone marrow. This protocol describes a surgical procedure for installing the WC in the femur, in order to facilitate long-term optical access to the femoral bone marrow. In particular, to demonstrate its experimental utility, this WC approach was used to image and track neutrophils within the vascular network of the femur, thereby providing a novel method to visualize and quantify immune cell trafficking and regulation in the bone marrow. This method can be applied to study various biological processes in the murine bone marrow, such as hematopoiesis, stem cell transplantation, and immune responses in pathological conditions, including cancer. PMID:27500928

  9. The Tribology of Explanted Hip Resurfacings Following Early Fracture of the Femur

    PubMed Central

    Lord, James K.; Langton, David J.; Nargol, Antoni V.F.; Meek, R.M. Dominic; Joyce, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    A recognized issue related to metal-on-metal hip resurfacings is early fracture of the femur. Most theories regarding the cause of fracture relate to clinical factors but an engineering analysis of failed hip resurfacings has not previously been reported. The objective of this work was to determine the wear volumes and surface roughness values of a cohort of retrieved hip resurfacings which were removed due to early femoral fracture, infection and avascular necrosis (AVN). Nine resurfacing femoral heads were obtained following early fracture of the femur, a further five were retrieved due to infection and AVN. All fourteen were measured for volumetric wear using a co-ordinate measuring machine. Wear rates were then calculated and regions of the articulating surface were divided into “worn” and “unworn”. Roughness values in these regions were measured using a non-contacting profilometer. The mean time to fracture was 3.7 months compared with 44.4 months for retrieval due to infection and AVN. Average wear rates in the early fracture heads were 64 times greater than those in the infection and AVN retrievals. Given the high wear rates of the early fracture components, such wear may be linked to an increased risk of femoral neck fracture. PMID:26501331

  10. The importance of femur/acetabulum cartilage in the biomechanics of the intact hip: experimental and numerical assessment.

    PubMed

    Duarte, R J; Ramos, A; Completo, A; Relvas, C; Simões, J A

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies have been made to study and validate the biomechanics of the pair femur/acetabulum considering both structures without the presence of cartilage. The main goal of this study was to validate a numerical model of the intact hip. Numerical and experimental models of the hip joint were developed with respect to the anatomical restrictions. Both iliac and femur bones were replicated based on composite replicas. Additionally, a thin layer of silicon rubber was used for the cartilage. A three-dimensional finite element model was developed and the boundary conditions of the models were applied according to the natural physiological constrains of the joint. The loads used in both models were used just for comparison purposes. The biomechanical behaviour of the models was assessed considering the maximum and minimum principal bone strains and von Mises stress. We analysed specific biomechanical parameters in the interior of the acetabular cavity and on femur's surface head to determine the role of the cartilage of the hip joint within the load transfer mechanism. The results of the study show that the stress observed in acetabular cavity was 8.3 to 9.2 MPa. When the cartilage is considered in the joint model, the absolute values of the maximum and minimum peak strains on the femur's head surface decrease simultaneously, and the strains are more uniformly distributed on both femur and iliac surfaces. With cartilage, the cortex strains increase in the medial side of the femur. We prove that finite element models of the intact hip joint can faithfully reproduce experimental models with a small difference of 7%.

  11. The biomechanics of the T2 femoral nailing system: a comparison of synthetic femurs withfinite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Bougherara, H; Zdero, R; Miric, M; Shah, S; Hardisty, M; Zalzal, P; Schemitsch, E H

    2009-04-01

    Intramedullary nails are commonly used to repair femoral fractures. Fractures in normal healthy bone often occur in the young during motor vehicle accidents. Although clinically beneficial, bone refracture and implant failure persist. Large variations in human femur quality and geometry have motivated recent experimental use of synthetic femurs that mimic human tissue and the development of increasingly sophisticated theoretical models. Four synthetic femurs were fitted with a T2 femoral nailing system (Stryker, Mahwah, New Jersey, USA). The femurs were not fractured in order to simulate post-operative perfect union. Six configurations were created: retrograde nail with standard locking (RS), retrograde nail with advanced locking 'off' (RA-off), retrograde nail with advanced locking 'on' (RA-on), antegrade nail with standard locking (AS), antegrade nail with advanced locking 'off' (AA-off), and antegrade nail with advanced locking 'on' (AA-on). Strain gauges were placed on the medial side of femurs. A 580 N axial load was applied, and the stiffness was measured. Strains were recorded and compared with results from a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model. Experimental axial stiffnesses for RA-off (771.3 N/mm) and RA-on (681.7 N/mm) were similar to intact human cadaveric femurs from previous literature (757 + 264 N/mm). Conversely, experimental axial stiffnesses for AS (1168.8N/mm), AA-off (1135.3N/mm), AA-on (1152.1 N/mm), and RS (1294.0 N/mm) were similar to intact synthetic femurs from previous literature (1290 +/- 30 N/mm). There was better agreement between experimental and FE analysis strains for RS (average percentage difference, 11.6 per cent), RA-on (average percentage difference, 11.1 per cent), AA-off (average percentage difference, 13.4 per cent), and AA-on (average percentage difference, 16.0 per cent), than for RA-off (average percentage difference, 33.5 per cent) and AS (average percentage difference, 32.6 per cent). FE analysis was more

  12. Cycling with Functional Electrical Stimulation Before and After a Distal Femur Fracture in a Man with Paraplegia

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Ralph J.; Oleson, Christina V.; Schmidt-Read, Mary; Modlesky, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Case Presentation: A man with chronic paraplegia sustained a distal femur fracture following an unrelated fall while enrolled in a study examining musculoskeletal changes after 6 months of cycling with functional electrical stimulation (FES). After healing, he restarted and completed the study. Management and Outcome: Study measures included areal bone mineral density, trabecular bone microarchitecture, cortical bone macroarchitecture, serum bone formation/resorption markers, and muscle volume. The patient made small gains in bone- and muscle-related measures. Bone markers had not returned to baseline prior to restarting cycling, which may have impacted results. Discussion: This case shows that cycling with FES may be safely resumed after distal femur fracture. PMID:26689692

  13. Strain distribution in the proximal femur with flexible composite and metallic femoral components under axial and torsional loads.

    PubMed

    Otani, T; Whiteside, L A; White, S E

    1993-05-01

    This study investigated strain distribution changes in the proximal femur after implantation of a flexible composite femoral component (carbon composite material, modulus of elasticity = 18.6 GPa), a titanium alloy implant (E = 100 GPa), and a stainless steel implant (E = 200 GPa). Transverse as well as longitudinal strain was measured using bipolar strain gauges at eight locations on the proximal femur under both physiologic axial (1000 N and 2000 N) and physiologic torsional (10 N-m and 20 N-m) loads. Under axial load, longitudinal compressive strain at the calcar region was significantly greater in intact femurs and the carbon composite stem specimens than in the two metal stem specimens. The difference between intact femurs and the carbon composite stem specimens was not significant. Stress shielding in the proximal lateral region of the femur, however, was still apparent even in the carbon composite stem specimens. Without seating of the stem collar on the femoral neck, longitudinal compressive strain was not generated at the calcar region, and transverse tensile strain at this region was increased. With conventional implant design, the stem collar was still necessary even in the flexible composite stem to provide near normal longitudinal compressive strain in the calcar region. Under torsional load, proximal strain in intact femurs was small and the proximal strain levels observed after either carbon composite or titanium alloy stem implantation were greater than strain levels before implantation. It seemed unlikely that torsional stress relief played a significant role in proximal bone loss after total hip arthroplasty. Both longitudinal and transverse strains at the calcar region under torsional load were significantly greater in the carbon composite stem specimens than in both intact femurs and the titanium alloy stem specimens, suggesting that these abnormally high proximal stresses may cause high proximal micromotion of the implant, and even bone

  14. Shape of the intercondylar notch of the human femur: a comparison of osteoarthritic and non-osteoarthritic bones from a skeletal sample

    PubMed Central

    Shepstone, L; Rogers, J; Kirwan, J; Silverman, B

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To compare objectively the shape of the intercondylar notch in human osteoarthritic and non-osteoarthritic femora.
METHODS—A sample of 96 human femora from a large skeletal population were selected for study. These femora included subjects with evidence of late stage osteoarthritis (that is, with eburnation present) and subjects with no such evidence. The distal end of the femur, viewed axially, was recorded with a video camera, and digitised computer images were produced. The outline of the intercondylar notch was extracted and represented mathematically as two functions. A functional principal components analysis was used to identify important modes of shape variation. These variations in shape were compared between eburnated and non-eburnated femora.
RESULTS—A statistically significant difference in the shape of the intercondylar notch was found between the two groups. The difference related mostly to the shape of the edge of the medial condyle: in the non-osteoarthritic group this tended to exhibit a concavity; in the osteoarthritic group it tended to be straight.
CONCLUSIONS—This observed difference may be a predisposing factor to the development of osteoarthritis. The morphology of the intercondylar notch is related to the functioning of and possible damage to the cruciate ligaments, and damage to the cruciate ligaments is a known risk factor for osteoarthritis. Alternatively, this difference may be due to bony remodelling secondary to the onset of osteoarthritis, perhaps in response to altered biomechanics.

 PMID:11557655

  15. Development and testing of texture discriminators for the analysis of trabecular bone in proximal femur radiographs

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, M. B.; Carballido-Gamio, J.; Fritscher, K.; Schubert, R.; Haenni, M.; Hengg, C.; Majumdar, S.; Link, T. M.

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Texture analysis of femur radiographs may serve as a potential low cost technique to predict osteoporotic fracture risk and has received considerable attention in the past years. A further application of this technique may be the measurement of the quality of specific bone compartments to provide useful information for treatment of bone fractures. Two challenges of texture analysis are the selection of the best suitable texture measure and reproducible placement of regions of interest (ROIs). The goal of this in vitro study was to automatically place ROIs in radiographs of proximal femur specimens and to calculate correlations between various different texture analysis methods and the femurs' anchorage strength. Methods: Radiographs were obtained from 14 femoral specimens and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in the femoral neck. Biomechanical testing was performed to assess the anchorage strength in terms of failure load, breakaway torque, and number of cycles. Images were segmented using a framework that is based on the usage of level sets and statistical in-shape models. Five ROIs were automatically placed in the head, upper and lower neck, trochanteric, and shaft compartment in an atlas subject. All other subjects were registered rigidly, affinely, and nonlinearly, and the resulting transformation was used to map the five ROIs onto the individual femora. Results: In each ROI, texture features were extracted using gray level co-occurence matrices (GLCM), third-order GLCM, morphological gradients (MGs), Minkowski dimensions (MDs), Minkowski functionals (MFs), Gaussian Markov random fields, and scaling index method (SIM). Coefficients of determination for each texture feature with parameters of anchorage strength were computed. In a stepwise multiregression analysis, the most predictive parameters were identified in different models. Texture features were highly correlated with anchorage strength estimated by the failure load of up to R{sup 2

  16. Structural patterns of the proximal femur in relation to age and hip fracture risk in women.

    PubMed

    Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Harnish, Roy; Saeed, Isra; Streeper, Timothy; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Amin, Shreyasee; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Therneau, Terry M; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Cheng, Xiaoguang; Melton, L Joseph; Keyak, Joyce H; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Khosla, Sundeep; Harris, Tamara B; Lang, Thomas F

    2013-11-01

    Fractures of the proximal femur are the most devastating outcome of osteoporosis. It is generally understood that age-related changes in hip structure confer increased risk, but there have been few explicit comparisons of such changes in healthy subjects to those with hip fracture. In this study, we used quantitative computed tomography and tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to identify three-dimensional internal structural patterns of the proximal femur associated with age and with incident hip fracture. A population-based cohort of 349 women representing a broad age range (21-97years) was included in this study, along with a cohort of 222 older women (mean age 79±7years) with (n=74) and without (n=148) incident hip fracture. Images were spatially normalized to a standardized space, and age- and fracture-specific morphometric features were identified based on statistical maps of shape features described as local changes of bone volume. Morphometric features were visualized as maps of local contractions and expansions, and significance was displayed as Student's t-test statistical maps. Significant age-related changes included local expansions of regions low in volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and local contractions of regions high in vBMD. Some significant fracture-related features resembled an accentuated aging process, including local expansion of the superior aspect of the trabecular bone compartment in the femoral neck, with contraction of the adjoining cortical bone. However, other features were observed only in the comparison of hip fracture subjects with age-matched controls including focal contractions of the cortical bone at the superior aspect of the femoral neck, the lateral cortical bone just inferior to the greater trochanter, and the anterior intertrochanteric region. Results of this study support the idea that the spatial distribution of morphometric features is relevant to age-related changes in bone and independent to fracture risk. In women

  17. Time domain optical coherence tomography investigation of bone matrix interface in rat femurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, Laura-Cristina; Negruá¹±iu, Meda-Lavinia; Sinescu, Cosmin; Hoinoiu, Bogdan; Topala, Florin-Ionel; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Rominu, Mihai; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2013-08-01

    The materials used to fabricate scaffolds for tissue engineering are derived from synthetic polymers, mainly from the polyester family, or from natural materials (e.g., collagen and chitosan). The mechanical properties and the structural properties of these materials can be tailored by adjusting the molecular weight, the crystalline state, and the ratio of monomers in the copolymers. Quality control and adjustment of the scaffold manufacturing process are essential to achieve high standard scaffolds. Most scaffolds are made from highly crystalline polymers, which inevitably result in their opaque appearance. Their 3-D opaque structure prevents the observation of internal uneven surface structures of the scaffolds under normal optical instruments, such as the traditional light microscope. The inability to easily monitor the inner structure of scaffolds as well as the interface with the old bone poses a major challenge for tissue engineering: it impedes the precise control and adjustment of the parameters that affect the cell growth in response to various mimicked culture conditions. The aim of this paper is to investigate the interface between the femur rat bone and the new bone that is obtained using a method of tissue engineering that is based on different artificial matrixes inserted in previously artificially induced defects. For this study, 15 rats were used in conformity with ethical procedures. In all the femurs a round defect was induced by drilling with a 1 mm spherical Co-Cr surgical drill. The matrixes used were Bioss and 4bone. These materials were inserted into the induced defects. The femurs were investigated at 1 week, 1 month, 2 month and three month after the surgical procedures. The interfaces were examined using Time Domain (TD) Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) combined with Confocal Microscopy (CM). The optical configuration uses two single mode directional couplers with a superluminiscent diode as the source centered at 1300 nm. The scanning

  18. Use of femur bone density to segregate wild from farmed Dybowski's frog (Rana dybowskii).

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu Hui; Huang, Xiao Ming; Xia, Rui; Xu, Yan Chun; Dahmer, Thomas D

    2011-04-15

    Wildlife has been utilized by humans throughout history and demand continues to grow today. Farming of wildlife can supplement the supply of wild-harvested wildlife products and, in theory, can reduce pressure on free-ranging populations. However, poached wildlife products frequently enter legal markets where they are fraudulently sold as farmed wildlife products. To effectively close this illegal trade in wild-captured wildlife, there is a need to discriminate wild products from farmed products. Because of the strong market demand for wild-captured frog meat and the resulting strong downward pressure on wild populations, we undertook research to develop a method to discriminate wild from farmed Dybowski's frog (Rana dybowskii) based on femur bone density. We measured femur bone density (D(f)) as the ratio of bone mass to bone volume. D(f) of wild frogs revealed a slightly increasing linear trend with increasing age (R(2)=0.214 in males and R(2)=0.111 in females, p=0.000). Wild males and wild females of age classes from 2 to ≥ 5 years had similar D(f) values. In contrast, 2-year-old farmed frogs showed significantly higher D(f) values (p=0.000) among males (mean D(f)=0.623 ± 0.011 g/ml, n=32) than females (mean D(f)=0.558 ± 0.011 g/ml, n=27). For both sexes, D(f) of wild frogs was significantly higher than that of farmed frogs (p=0.000). Among males, 87.5% (28 of 32 individuals) of farmed frogs were correctly identified as farmed frogs and 86.3% (69 of 80 individuals) of wild frogs were correctly identified as wild frogs. These results suggest that femur bone density is one reliable tool for discriminating between wild and farmed Dybowski's frog. This study also highlights a novel strategy with explicit forensic potential to discriminate wild from captive bred wildlife species.

  19. A Case Report of Curettage and Kryptonite® use in Proximal Femur Intraosseous Lipoma

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Martín; Córdova, Cecilia; Avilés, Carolina; Fernández, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Intraosseous lipomas are the most infrequent primary bone tumor, lesions are mainly asymptomatic and generally diagnosed incidentally, and there is controversy about the management. Here, we present a surgery solution that has not been described previously in literature. Case Presentation: A 23-year-old female without previous morbid history consults a general physician because of unspecific left hip pain when walking, not related to any previous trauma or any other symptoms. In her study, radiography of the sore hip showed a radiopaque lesion with lithic aspect at the neck of the left femur. Conclusion: Intraosseous lipoma, in spite of being a rare condition, can be diagnosed incidentally by its radiologic characteristics. The treatment can be based on observation or surgery in particular cases objectified by clinic and Mirel score.

  20. The rapid transit system for patients with fractures of proximal femur.

    PubMed Central

    Sikorski, J M; Davis, N J; Senior, J

    1985-01-01

    The rapid transit system for patients with fractures of the proximal femur consists of immediate internal fixation or replacement of the fractured bone under spinal anaesthesia, without any sedation. Patients are mobilised within hours of surgery and sent home as soon as they can walk. They are supervised at home by both an experienced physiotherapist and a visiting nurse. Sixty nine patients admitted to a metropolitan teaching hospital were considered for the system and 50 were accepted. Their age distribution and level of general ill health were comparable with those in other series. The rapid transit system resulted in 90% of patients accepted being discharged to their homes within the first five days, with a lower morbidity and a mortality at three months of 7%. Using the rapid transit system rehabilitation in the original environment is difficult only if the patient lives alone, and even then temporary support is often enough to allow them to return home. PMID:3918621

  1. Pathological fractures of the proximal femur due to solitary bone cyst: classification, methods of treatment.

    PubMed

    Miu, A

    2015-01-01

    Fractures are a very important issue in a child's orthopedic pathology. Neglected a good amount of time, being considered "not too serious", or "rare", having better and faster healing methods and not leaving sequels, like in the case of adults, a child's fractures remain an important chapter of traumatology in general. Because of the raising prevalence of child osteoarticular traumas, as well as new less invasive treatment methods, this theme is always to date. The paper analyzes particular cases of bone fractures that appeared due to minor traumas, on bones with a high brittleness, localized especially on the long bones. Although these fractures on a pathological bone can be seen at all levels of the human skeleton, this paper focuses on fractures located in the proximal third part of the femur. A group of children admitted in the Pediatric Orthopedic Department of "M.S. Curie" Hospital-Bucharest with this diagnostic, were analyzed between 2009 and 2013.

  2. Intramedullary nailing of the femur with an inflatable self-locking nail: comparison with locked nailing.

    PubMed

    Lepore, Luciano; Lepore, Stefano; Maffulli, Nicola

    2003-01-01

    We report a comparative study between an inflatable expandable nail and a traditional locked intramedullary implant in closed fractures of the femoral shaft. We matched each of 43 patients who had undergone intramedullary fixation with an inflatable expandable nail with a patient of the same sex, age (within 2 years), and fracture who had undergone statically locked intramedullary fixation with traditional nails. The mean duration of surgery was significantly shorter in the patients who were treated with the inflatable expandable nail. There were no differences in average blood loss, transfusion requirements, or hospitalization. Five of the patients who underwent traditional nailing required dynamization to achieve union. The inflatable expandable nail allows effective management of diaphyseal fractures of the femur. Interlocking is not necessary, operative times are reduced, and exposure to ionizing radiation is minimized. At present, however, the inflatable expandable nail used in the this investigation is markedly more expensive than traditional devices. PMID:14648267

  3. Pathologic Fracture of the Femur in Brown Tumor Induced in Parathyroid Carcinoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-Hyun; Kwon, Yong-Uk; Park, Jun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Brown tumor refers to a change of skeletones that develops as a complication of hyperparathyroidism. As osteoclast is activated to stimulate reabsorption and fibrosis of bone, it causes a cystic change of the bone. Parathyroid carcinoma is being reported as a tumor that induces primary hyperparathyroidism. It causes excessive secretion of the parathyroid hormone and increases the blood parathyroid hormone and calcium. Bone deformation due to brown tumor is known to be naturally recovered through the treatment for hyperparathyroidism. However, there is no clearly defined treatment for lesions that can induce pathological fractures developing in lower extremities. We experienced a case where brown tumor developed in the proximal femur of a 57-year-old female patient due to parathyroid carcinoma. In this case, spontaneous fracture occurred without any trauma, and it was cured by performing intramedullary nailing fixation and parathyroidectomy. We report the treatment results along with a literature review. PMID:27777921

  4. Bilateral osteochondritis dissecans of the lateral trochlea of the femur: a case report.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoshimasa; Nawata, Koji; Hashiguchi, Hirokazu; Kawaguchi, Kei; Yamasaki, Daisuke; Tanaka, Hidetoshi

    2008-05-01

    Osteochondritis dissecans of the bilateral trochlea of femur is unusual case for orthopedic surgeon. The patient was a healthy 15-year-old male with symptomatic osteochondritis dissecans of the bilateral distal lateral femoral condyle of the trochlea. A surgery on the bilateral knee joints was performed simultaneously. The osteochondral free fragment of the right knee was resected by a minimum open surgery after arthroscopic evaluation. In the left knee the fragment was stabilized with multiple cortical bone pegs harvested from the proximal tibia. The surgery was successful, and the patient was able to play basketball 3 months postoperatively. The course of the right knee is currently under careful observation because of the possibility of recurrence. The left knee has remained in an excellent condition for 18 months following surgery with bone pegs.

  5. [Adjusted cupula in the treatment of massive osteonecrosis of the upper part of the femur in adolescent children].

    PubMed

    Lefort, G; Bouche-Pillon, M A; Lefebvre, F; Daoud, S

    1989-01-01

    Six important necrosis of the apophysis of the femur were treated by arthroplasty with adjusted cup. This operation always made these hips painless, 5 times, the mobility was greatly improved. This a normal social life was quickly recovered. However, the distant future remains uncertain. With the exception of one immediate failure, one hip had to be reoperated, 8 years after the total arthroplasty.

  6. Role of subject-specific musculoskeletal loading on the prediction of bone density distribution in the proximal femur.

    PubMed

    Vahdati, A; Walscharts, S; Jonkers, I; Garcia-Aznar, J M; Vander Sloten, J; van Lenthe, G H

    2014-02-01

    The typical bone density patterns in the proximal femur can be explained using bone remodeling simulations incorporating a load-adaptive response. Yet, subject-specific variations in bone density have not received much attention. Therefore, the objective of this study was to quantify to what extent subject-specific bone geometry and subject-specific musculoskeletal loading affect the predicted bone density distribution. To accomplish this goal, a computational bone remodeling scheme was combined with gait analysis and a subject-specific musculoskeletal model. Finite element models incorporating the subject-specific geometry as well as the subject-specific hip contact forces and associated muscle forces were used to predict the density distribution in the proximal femur of three individuals. Next, the subject-specific musculoskeletal loads were interchanged between the subjects and the resulting changes in bone remodeling of the proximal femur were analyzed. Simulations results were compared to computed tomography (CT) image-based density profiles. The results confirm that the predicted bone density distribution in the proximal femur is drastically influenced by the inclusion of subject-specific loading, i.e. hip contact forces and muscle forces calculated based on gait analysis data and musculoskeletal modeling. This factor dominated the effect of individualized geometry. We conclude that when predicting femoral density distribution in patients, the effect of subject-specific differences in loading conditions of the hip joint and the associated difference in muscle forces needs to be accounted for.

  7. The effects of glucocorticoid on microarchitecture, collagen, mineral and mechanical properties of sheep femur cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ming; Danielsen, Carl Christian; Overgaard, Søren

    2012-06-01

    In this study, 18 female skeletally mature sheep were randomly allocated into three groups of six each. Group 1 (glucocorticoid-1) received prednisolone treatment (0.60 mg/kg/day, five times weekly) for 7 months. Group 2 (glucocorticoid-2) received the same treatment regime followed by observation of 3 months without treatment. Group 3 was left untreated and served as controls. All sheep received a restricted diet with low calcium and phosphorus. At sacrifice, cortical bone samples from the femur midshaft of each sheep were harvested, micro-CT scanned and subjected to three-point bending and tensile strength testing. Bone collagen and mineral were determined. Cortical porosity was significantly increased in the glucocorticoid-2 compared with the glucocorticoid-1 and control groups. Apparent density was significantly decreased in the glucocorticoid-2 compared with the glucocorticoid-1 group. Collagen content was significantly increased in the glucocorticoid-2 compared with the glucocorticoid-1 and control groups. Bone mineral content did not differ between the groups. Neither the three-point bending mechanical properties nor the tensile mechanical properties differed significantly between the groups, while there was a trend towards decreasing bending mechanical properties in the glucocorticoid-2 group. In conclusion, 7 months of glucocorticoid treatment with malnutrition had a significant impact on the cortical microarchitecture of the sheep femur midshaft. These observed changes occurred 3 months after glucocorticoid cessation, suggesting a delayed effect of glucocorticoid on cortical bone. Thus, changes in cortical bone beyond cancellous bone might further increase fracture risk in patients treated with glucocorticoids. This model might be used as a glucocorticoid-induced osteoporotic model for orthopaedic biomaterial, joint prosthesis and medical device researches.

  8. Analysis of trabecular distribution of the proximal femur in patients with fragility fractures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) was used in order to assess the trabecular distribution of proximal femur and its relationship with hip fragility fractures. Methods A total of 99 elderly women were scanned by MDCT including: 27 trochanteric hip fractures (group A), 40 femoral neck fractures (group B), and 32 non-fractures (group C). A mid-coronal MPR image of the proximal femur was reconstructed for every patient by e-Film95 software. Four regions of interest (ROI) were chosen in the images including compressive trabecula (ComT), tensile trabecula (TenT), trochanteric trabecula (TroT) and Ward's triangle (WT) region. The mean CT values were measured by the software. Results The mean age was 81.44, 74.10 and 69.25 years for groups A, B and C, respectively. There was significant inter-group differences based on one-way ANOVA (P<0.05). The CT values in the four ROIs had significant differences in the groups except for TenT between group A and B (P>0.05). After the age adjustment with ANCOVA, the mean CT values of TroT and WT were significantly lower in group A as compared to that of the group B (P<0.05). However, there were no significant differences for ComT and TenT between groups A and B (P>0.05). Conclusions The occurrence of femoral neck fracture was closely related to the degeneration of ComT and TenT. Trochanteric hip fractures were associated with a more severe degeneration in TroT as well as an enlargement of WT region besides the ComT and TenT degeneration. We concluded that the hip fragility fractures might be predicted by the measurement of the mean CT values in ComT, TenT, TroT and WT region. PMID:23570243

  9. Results of 32 Allograft-prosthesis Composite Reconstructions of the Proximal Femur

    PubMed Central

    Larousserie, Frédérique; Thévenin, Fabrice; Piperno-Neumann, Sophie; Anract, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    The use of allograft-prosthesis composites for reconstruction after bone tumor resection at the proximal femur has generated considerable interest since the mid1980s on the basis that their use would improve function and survival, and restore bone stock. Although functional improvement has been documented, it is unknown whether these composites survive long periods and whether they restore bone stock. We therefore determined long-term allograft-prosthesis composite survival, identified major complications that led to revision, and determined whether allograft bone stock could be spared at the time of revision. We also compared the radiographic appearance of allografts sterilized by gamma radiation and fresh-frozen allografts. We retrospectively reviewed 32 patients with bone malignancy in the proximal femur who underwent reconstruction with a cemented allograft-prosthesis composite. The allograft-prosthesis composite was a primary reconstruction for 23 patients and a revision procedure for nine. The minimum followup was 2 months (median, 68 months; range, 2–232 months). The cumulative incidence of revision for any reason was 14% at 5 years (95% confidence interval, 1%–28%) and 19% at 10 years (95% confidence interval, 3%–34%). Nine patients (28%) had revision of the reconstruction during followup; four of these patients had revision surgery for infection. Allografts sterilized by gamma radiation showed worse resorption than fresh-frozen allografts. Based on reported results, allograft-composite prostheses do not appear to improve survival compared with megaprostheses. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:19851817

  10. Distal Femur Morphology of Iranian Population and Correlation With Current Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Moghtadaei, Mehdi; Moghimi, Javad; Shahhoseini, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Maintaining proper size and rotation of components of total knee arthroplasty is mandatory for optimal longevity. Ethnical differences may affect the fitness of prostheses that were manufactured mainly based on Caucasian dimensions. Objectives: To evaluate the distal femur morphology of the Iranian population at the level of standard cuts simulated via computed tomography. Patients and Methods: During 2013, 150 consecutive patients (96 males and 54 females) from the outpatient Department of Orthopedic Surgery of Rasoul Akram Hospital with knee CT scans were studied. We entered cases with apparent normal extremity alignment and bone maturity. Exclusion criteria were history of fracture or conditions affecting knee profile. Standard cuts were simulated on the CT scan using the Marco Pacs program. For each bone, anteroposterior (AP), mediolateral (ML), and aspect ratio (ML/AP) were measured. Values were compared with the sizing of four currently available prostheses. Results: The mean age of the patients was 43 years (range: 17 to 80). All isolated parameters were higher in men significantly (P < 0.001). However, the aspect ratio did not show any significant difference (1.51 ± 0.11 vs 1.46 ± 0.1), suggestive of a similar configuration of distal femur profiles between genders. Ultimately, close correlations were observed among simulated cuts and size-matched femoral components of the prostheses. For females, however, components were mostly overhang mediolaterally except for one gender-specific subset. Decrement in the aspect ratio for larger knees was another mismatch with current prostheses that preserve an almost constant ratio throughout all sizes. Conclusions: Our findings may be applied by manufacturers to design prostheses more compatible with Asian populations. Alterations to the shape of components should be considered to provide optimal coverage. PMID:27186388

  11. Less invasive percutaneous wave plating of simple femur shaft fractures: A prospective series.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Alessandro Janson; Livani, Bruno; Flierl, Michael A; Morgan, Steven J; Belangero, William Dias

    2010-06-01

    In developing nations, fixation of femoral shaft fractures with intramedullary (IM) nails can pose significant challenges. Use of IM implants is commonly limited by availability, funds or patient's physique. Conversely, traditional compression plates are usually readily available at a much lower cost, making bridge plating of femur fractures a frequently used surgical technique. We hypothesised that less invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO) of femoral shaft fractures has a similar outcome compared to IM nailing. The study is designed as a prospective case series at a Level 1 university trauma centre. Fifty-seven patients with simple femur shaft fractures (Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen/Orthopaedic Trauma Association (AO/OTA) type A) were enrolled between April 2001 and December 2005 and followed up for a minimum of 1 year or until fracture union. Primary outcome measures included union rate and time to union. Secondary outcome parameters were hardware failure, malalignment, infection and need for revision surgery. The mean age of the study cohort was 24.7 years. Fifty-four patients sustained associated systems injury. Primary union occurred in 54 patients in an average time of 13 weeks. Two patients presented with implant failure, and one patient displayed signs of delayed union. Six patients developed valgus deformities, whereas five patients displayed external rotation malalignment. One patient developed a superficial wound infection, and another presented with a deep infection. Bridge wave plating represents a safe and efficacious treatment alternative to IM nailing for simple femoral shaft fractures in countries where IM nails are limited by availability, costs and patient's physical characteristics. PMID:20170914

  12. Individual-specific multi-scale finite element simulation of cortical bone of human proximal femur

    SciTech Connect

    Ascenzi, Maria-Grazia; Kardas, Dieter; Nackenhorst, Udo; Keyak, Joyce H.

    2013-07-01

    We present an innovative method to perform multi-scale finite element analyses of the cortical component of the femur using the individual’s (1) computed tomography scan; and (2) a bone specimen obtained in conjunction with orthopedic surgery. The method enables study of micro-structural characteristics regulating strains and stresses under physiological loading conditions. The analysis of the micro-structural scenarios that cause variation of strain and stress is the first step in understanding the elevated strains and stresses in bone tissue, which are indicative of higher likelihood of micro-crack formation in bone, implicated in consequent remodeling or macroscopic bone fracture. Evidence that micro-structure varies with clinical history and contributes in significant, but poorly understood, ways to bone function, motivates the method’s development, as does need for software tools to investigate relationships between macroscopic loading and micro-structure. Three applications – varying region of interest, bone mineral density, and orientation of collagen type I, illustrate the method. We show, in comparison between physiological loading and simple compression of a patient’s femur, that strains computed at the multi-scale model’s micro-level: (i) differ; and (ii) depend on local collagen-apatite orientation and degree of calcification. Our findings confirm the strain concentration role of osteocyte lacunae, important for mechano-transduction. We hypothesize occurrence of micro-crack formation, leading either to remodeling or macroscopic fracture, when the computed strains exceed the elastic range observed in micro-structural testing.

  13. Geriatric fractures about the hip: divergent patterns in the proximal femur, acetabulum, and pelvis.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Matthew P; Baldwin, Keith D; Donegan, Derek J; Mehta, Samir; Ahn, Jaimo

    2014-03-01

    Geriatric acetabular, pelvis, and subtrochanteric femur fractures are poorly understood and rapidly growing clinical problems. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiologic trends of these injuries as compared with traditional fragility fractures about the hip. From 1993 to 2010, the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) recorded more than 600 million Medicare-paid hospital discharges. This retrospective study used the NIS to compare patients with acetabular fractures (n=87,771), pelvic fractures (n=522,831), and subtrochanteric fractures (n=170,872) with patients with traditional hip fractures (intertrochanteric and femoral neck, n=3,495,742) with regard to annual trends over an 18-year period in incidence, length of hospital stay, hospital mortality, transfers from acute care institutions, and hospital charges. Traditional hip fractures peaked in 1996 and declined by 25.7% by 2010. During the same 18-year period, geriatric acetabular fractures increased by 67%, subtrochanteric femur fractures increased by 42%, and pelvic fractures increased by 24%. Hospital charges, when controlling for inflation, increased roughly 50% for all fracture types. Furthermore, transfers from outside acute care hospitals for definitive management stayed elevated for acetabular fractures as compared with traditional hip fractures, suggesting a greater need for tertiary care of acetabular fractures. Geriatric acetabular fractures are rapidly increasing, whereas traditional hip fractures continue to decline. Patients with these injuries are more likely to be transferred from their hospital of presentation to another acute care institution, possibly increasing costs and complications. This is likely related to their complexity and the lack of consensus regarding optimal management.

  14. Biomechanical properties of the mid-shaft femur in middle-aged hypophysectomized rats as assessed by bending test.

    PubMed

    Bozzini, Clarisa; Picasso, Emilio O; Champin, Graciela M; Alippi, Rosa María; Bozzini, Carlos E

    2012-10-01

    Both stiffness and strength of bones are thought to be controlled by the "bone mechanostat". Its natural stimuli would be the strains of bone tissue (sensed by osteocytes) that are induced by both gravitational forces (body weight) and contraction of regional muscles. Body weight and muscle mass increase with age. Biomechanical performance of load-bearing bones must adapt to these growth-induced changes. Hypophysectomy in the rat slows the rate of body growth. With time, a great difference in body size is established between a hypophysectomized rat and its age-matched control, which makes it difficult to establish the real effect of pituitary ablation on bone biomechanics. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare mid-shaft femoral mechanical properties between hypophysectomized and weight-matched normal rats, which will show similar sizes and thus will be exposed to similar habitual loads. Two groups of 10 female rats each (H and C) were established. H rats were 12-month-old that had been hypophysectomized 11 months before. C rats were 2.5-month-old normals. Right femur mechanical properties were tested in 3-point bending. Structural (load-bearing capacity and stiffness), geometric (cross-sectional area, cortical sectional area, and moment of inertia), and material (modulus of elasticity and maximum elastic stress) properties were evaluated. The left femur was ashed for calcium content. Comparisons between parameters were performed by the Student's t test. Average body weight, body length, femur weight, femur length, and gastrocnemius weight were not significantly different between H and C rats. Calcium content in ashes was significantly higher in H than in C rats. Cross-sectional area, medullary area, and cross-sectional moment of inertia were higher in C rats, whereas cortical area did not differ between groups. Structural properties (diaphyseal stiffness, elastic limit, and load at fracture) were about four times higher in hypophysectomized rats

  15. Biomechanical properties of the mid-shaft femur in middle-aged hypophysectomized rats as assessed by bending test.

    PubMed

    Bozzini, Clarisa; Picasso, Emilio O; Champin, Graciela M; Alippi, Rosa María; Bozzini, Carlos E

    2012-10-01

    Both stiffness and strength of bones are thought to be controlled by the "bone mechanostat". Its natural stimuli would be the strains of bone tissue (sensed by osteocytes) that are induced by both gravitational forces (body weight) and contraction of regional muscles. Body weight and muscle mass increase with age. Biomechanical performance of load-bearing bones must adapt to these growth-induced changes. Hypophysectomy in the rat slows the rate of body growth. With time, a great difference in body size is established between a hypophysectomized rat and its age-matched control, which makes it difficult to establish the real effect of pituitary ablation on bone biomechanics. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare mid-shaft femoral mechanical properties between hypophysectomized and weight-matched normal rats, which will show similar sizes and thus will be exposed to similar habitual loads. Two groups of 10 female rats each (H and C) were established. H rats were 12-month-old that had been hypophysectomized 11 months before. C rats were 2.5-month-old normals. Right femur mechanical properties were tested in 3-point bending. Structural (load-bearing capacity and stiffness), geometric (cross-sectional area, cortical sectional area, and moment of inertia), and material (modulus of elasticity and maximum elastic stress) properties were evaluated. The left femur was ashed for calcium content. Comparisons between parameters were performed by the Student's t test. Average body weight, body length, femur weight, femur length, and gastrocnemius weight were not significantly different between H and C rats. Calcium content in ashes was significantly higher in H than in C rats. Cross-sectional area, medullary area, and cross-sectional moment of inertia were higher in C rats, whereas cortical area did not differ between groups. Structural properties (diaphyseal stiffness, elastic limit, and load at fracture) were about four times higher in hypophysectomized rats

  16. Low-energy diaphyseal femoral fractures associated with bisphosphonate use and severe curved femur: a case series.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Satoshi; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Hongo, Michio; Kasukawa, Yuji; Shimada, Yoichi

    2012-09-01

    Recent reports have raised concerns about low-energy subtrochanteric and diaphyseal femoral fractures after long-term bisphosphonate treatment, which may be associated with severely suppressed bone turnover (SSBT). However, diaphyseal femoral fractures without bisphosphonate treatment have also been reported in patients with severely curved femur, which are commonplace in the elderly. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate associations between occurrence of such fractures, bisphosphonate use, and curvature of the femur. Nine consecutive elderly patients treated for low-energy diaphyseal femoral fractures between 2005 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Three patients sustained bilateral fractures. Eight patients were administered bisphosphonates and one patient was administered raloxifene. Duration of osteoporosis treatment, type of fractures, surgical procedure, cortical thickness and curvature of opposite femur were evaluated. The cortical thickness and femoral curvature were further compared with those of 24 control subjects without fractures. The mean duration of drug administration was 3.6 years. All fractures showed similar X-ray patterns of simple transverse fracture with medial spike. Only one femur showed thickening of the femoral cortex. One case was treated with locking plate fixation, while the other cases were operated with intramedullary nails (9 antegrade nails, 2 retrograde nails). One femur treated with retrograde nail showed delayed bone union. The femoral curvature was significantly higher in the low-energy fracture group than the control group (P < 0.01); however, cortical thickness did not show a significant difference between the groups. In addition to SSBT, increased femoral curvature might be a causative factor for low-energy diaphyseal femoral fracture in the elderly.

  17. A novel framework for the temporal analysis of bone mineral density in metastatic lesions using CT images of the femur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoop, Tom H.; Derikx, Loes C.; Verdonschot, Nico; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2015-03-01

    In the progressive stages of cancer, metastatic lesions in often develop in the femur. The accompanying pain and risk of fracture dramatically affect the quality of life of the patient. Radiotherapy is often administered as palliative treatment to relieve pain and restore the bone around the lesion. It is thought to affect the bone mineralization of the treated region, but the quantitative relation between radiation dose and femur remineralization remains unclear. A new framework for the longitudinal analysis of CT-scans of patients receiving radiotherapy is presented to investigate this relationship. The implemented framework is capable of automatic calibration of Hounsfield Units to calcium equivalent values and the estimation of a prediction interval per scan. Other features of the framework are temporal registration of femurs using elastix, transformation of arbitrary Regions Of Interests (ROI), and extraction of metrics for analysis. Build in Matlab, the modular approach aids easy adaptation to the pertinent questions in the explorative phase of the research. For validation purposes, an in-vitro model consisting of a human cadaver femur with a milled hole in the intertrochanteric region was used, representing a femur with a metastatic lesion. The hole was incrementally stacked with plates of PMMA bone cement with variable radiopaqueness. Using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test, changes in density distribution due to an increase of the calcium concentration could be discriminated. In a 21 cm3 ROI, changes in 8% of the volume from 888 ± 57mg • ml-1 to 1000 ± 80mg • ml-1 could be statistically proven using the proposed framework. In conclusion, the newly developed framework proved to be a useful and flexible tool for the analysis of longitudinal CT data.

  18. In vivo discrimination of hip fracture with quantitative computed tomography: results from the prospective European Femur Fracture Study (EFFECT).

    PubMed

    Bousson, Valérie Danielle; Adams, Judith; Engelke, Klaus; Aout, Mounir; Cohen-Solal, Martine; Bergot, Catherine; Haguenauer, Didier; Goldberg, Daniele; Champion, Karine; Aksouh, Redha; Vicaut, Eric; Laredo, Jean-Denis

    2011-04-01

    In assessing osteoporotic fractures of the proximal femur, the main objective of this in vivo case-control study was to evaluate the performance of quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and a dedicated 3D image analysis tool [Medical Image Analysis Framework--Femur option (MIAF-Femur)] in differentiating hip fracture and non-hip fracture subjects. One-hundred and seven women were recruited in the study, 47 women (mean age 81.6 years) with low-energy hip fractures and 60 female non-hip fracture control subjects (mean age 73.4 years). Bone mineral density (BMD) and geometric variables of cortical and trabecular bone in the femoral head and neck, trochanteric, and intertrochanteric regions and proximal shaft were assessed using QCT and MIAF-Femur. Areal BMD (aBMD) was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 96 (37 hip fracture and 59 non-hip fracture subjects) of the 107 patients. Logistic regressions were computed to extract the best discriminates of hip fracture, and area under the receiver characteristic operating curve (AUC) was calculated. Three logistic models that discriminated the occurrence of hip fracture with QCT variables were obtained (AUC = 0.84). All three models combined one densitometric variable--a trabecular BMD (measured in the femoral head or in the trochanteric region)--and one geometric variable--a cortical thickness value (measured in the femoral neck or proximal shaft). The best discriminant using DXA variables was obtained with total femur aBMD (AUC = 0.80, p = .003). Results highlight a synergistic contribution of trabecular and cortical components in hip fracture risk and the utility of assessing QCT BMD of the femoral head for improved understanding and possible insights into prevention of hip fractures.

  19. Huge Subchondral Cyst Communicating with Medulary Canal of Femur in OA Knee-Treated by Extension Stem and Bone Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Rajani, Amyn M; Kumar, Ritesh; Shyam, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We report an osteoarthritic patient with huge sub-chondral cyst-like lesions in the Anterior part of distal femur. Deep and large bone defects and severe lateral laxity due to Advanced osteoarthritis was successfully treated with semi-constrained type total knee arthroplasty with long stem. Case Report: A 70yrs old Female was admitted in our institution diagnosed with severe bilateral Osteoarthritis. The x-rays showed bone on bone Tricompartment OA Knee with Varus Malalignment. She was posted for Single Stage Bilateral Total Knee Replacement and as planned the Left Knee Was Operated first. After exposure, Proximal Tibial, Distal Femoral Cuts and measurement of extension gaps the synovium from the anterior Femur was removed and sizing was done. The AP cut was then proceeded with. We spotted a small Osteochondral Cyst in the Anterior Femur which was curretted to remove the cystic material, which is when we realised that the cyst was large and communicating with the medulary canal. The remaining Femoral preparations was done keeping in mind the risk of iatrogenic fracture and extension Stem was used in the femur. The defect was then packed cancellous bone graft. Conclusion: If suspected a Preoperative MRI should be done to exclude any sub-chondral cysts osteochondral defects and any surprise during surgery. Usually one should keep extension stems ready for difficult cases. Operating surgeon should know his implants very well, as in many standard implants extension stems can only be used when distal femur cuts are taken accordingly as 5° Valgus. Mini incision should be avoided because it may fail to reveal such surprises and may land into periprosthetic fractures. PMID:27298967

  20. Late-term abortion.

    PubMed

    Epner, J E; Jonas, H S; Seckinger, D L

    1998-08-26

    Recent proposed federal legislation banning certain abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, would modify the US Criminal Code such that physicians performing these procedures would be liable for monetary and statutory damages. Clarification of medical procedures is important because some of the procedures used to induce abortion prior to viability are identical or similar to postviability procedures. This article reviews the scientific and medical information on late-term abortion and late-term abortion techniques and includes data on the prevalence of late-term abortion, abortion-related mortality and morbidity rates, and legal issues regarding fetal viability and the balance of maternal and fetal interests. According to enacted American Medical Association (AMA) policy, the use of appropriate medical terminology is critical in defining late-term abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, which is a variant of but distinct from dilatation and evacuation. The AMA recommends that the intact dilatation and extraction procedure not be used unless alternative procedures pose materially greater risk to the woman and that abortions not be performed in the third trimester except in cases of serious fetal anomalies incompatible with life. Major medical societies are urged to collaborate on clinical guidelines on late-term abortion techniques and circumstances that conform to standards of good medical practice. More research on the advantages and disadvantages of specific abortion procedures would help physicians make informed choices about specific abortion procedures. Expanded ongoing data surveillance systems estimating the prevalence of abortion are also needed. PMID:9728645

  1. Late-term abortion.

    PubMed

    Epner, J E; Jonas, H S; Seckinger, D L

    1998-08-26

    Recent proposed federal legislation banning certain abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, would modify the US Criminal Code such that physicians performing these procedures would be liable for monetary and statutory damages. Clarification of medical procedures is important because some of the procedures used to induce abortion prior to viability are identical or similar to postviability procedures. This article reviews the scientific and medical information on late-term abortion and late-term abortion techniques and includes data on the prevalence of late-term abortion, abortion-related mortality and morbidity rates, and legal issues regarding fetal viability and the balance of maternal and fetal interests. According to enacted American Medical Association (AMA) policy, the use of appropriate medical terminology is critical in defining late-term abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, which is a variant of but distinct from dilatation and evacuation. The AMA recommends that the intact dilatation and extraction procedure not be used unless alternative procedures pose materially greater risk to the woman and that abortions not be performed in the third trimester except in cases of serious fetal anomalies incompatible with life. Major medical societies are urged to collaborate on clinical guidelines on late-term abortion techniques and circumstances that conform to standards of good medical practice. More research on the advantages and disadvantages of specific abortion procedures would help physicians make informed choices about specific abortion procedures. Expanded ongoing data surveillance systems estimating the prevalence of abortion are also needed.

  2. Late Mitochondrial Acquisition, Really?

    PubMed Central

    Degli Esposti, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a timely critique of a recent Nature paper by Pittis and Gabaldón that has suggested a late origin of mitochondria in eukaryote evolution. It shows that the inferred ancestry of many mitochondrial proteins has been incorrectly assigned by Pittis and Gabaldón to bacteria other than the aerobic proteobacteria from which the ancestor of mitochondria originates, thereby questioning the validity of their suggestion that mitochondrial acquisition may be a late event in eukaryote evolution. The analysis and approach presented here may guide future studies to resolve the true ancestry of mitochondria. PMID:27289097

  3. Lateness to School Remediation Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugwuegbulam, Charles N.; Ibrahim, Haj. Naheed

    2015-01-01

    Primary and secondary school in Nigeria encourage punctuality to school yet a good number of the learners came late to school. This is especially true in the case of day students. Learners who come late to school are usually punished in one way or the other yet the lateness to school phenomenon still persist. Lateness to school behaviour affects…

  4. Fracture risk predictions based on statistical shape and density modeling of the proximal femur.

    PubMed

    Bredbenner, Todd L; Mason, Robert L; Havill, Lorena M; Orwoll, Eric S; Nicolella, Daniel P

    2014-09-01

    Increased risk of skeletal fractures due to bone mass loss is a major public health problem resulting in significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in the case of hip fractures. Current clinical methods based on two-dimensional measures of bone mineral density (areal BMD or aBMD) are often unable to identify individuals at risk of fracture. We investigated predictions of fracture risk based on statistical shape and density modeling (SSDM) methods using a case-cohort sample of individuals from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study. Baseline quantitative computed tomography (QCT) data of the right femur were obtained for 513 individuals, including 45 who fractured a hip during follow-up (mean 6.9 year observation, validated by physician review). QCT data were processed for 450 individuals (including 40 fracture cases) to develop individual models describing three-dimensional bone geometry and density distribution. Comparison of mean fracture and non-case models indicated complex structural differences that appear to be responsible for resistance to hip fracture. Logistic regressions were used to model the relation of baseline hip BMD and SSDM weighting factors to the occurrence of hip fracture. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for a prediction model based on weighting factors and adjusted by age was significantly greater than AUC for a prediction model based on aBMD and age (0.94 versus 0.83, respectively). The SSDM-based prediction model adjusted by age correctly identified 55% of the fracture cases (and 94.7% of the non-cases), whereas the clinical standard aBMD correctly identified 10% of the fracture cases (and 91.3% of the non-cases). SSDM identifies subtle changes in combinations of structural bone traits (eg, geometric and BMD distribution traits) that appear to indicate fracture risk. Investigation of important structural differences in the proximal femur between fracture and no-fracture cases may lead to

  5. Radiocarbon dating the late Middle Paleolithic and the Aurignacian of the Swabian Jura.

    PubMed

    Conard, Nicholas J; Bolus, Michael

    2008-11-01

    Many lines of evidence point to the period between roughly 40 and 30 ka BP as the period in which modern humans arrived in Europe and displaced the indigenous Neandertal populations. At the same time, many innovations associated with the Upper Paleolithic--including new stone and organic technologies, use of personal ornaments, figurative art, and musical instruments--are first documented in the European archaeological record. Dating the events of this period is challenging for several reasons. In the period about six to seven radiocarbon half-lives ago, variable preservation, pre-treatment, and sample preparation can easily lead to a lack of reproducibility between samples and laboratories. A range of biological, cultural, and geological processes can lead to mixing of archaeological strata and their contents. Additionally, some data sets point to this period as a time of significant spikes in levels of atmospheric radiocarbon. This paper assesses these questions in the context of the well-excavated and intensively studied caves of Geissenklösterle and Hohle Fels in the Swabian Jura of southwestern Germany. We conclude that variable atmospheric radiocarbon production contributes to the problems of dating the late Middle Paleolithic and the early Upper Paleolithic. To help establish a reliable chronology for the Swabian Aurignacian, we are beginning to focus our dating program on short-lived, stratigraphically secure features to see if they yield reproducible results. This approach may help to test competing explanations for the noisy and often non-reproducible results that arise when trying to date the transition from the Middle to the Upper Paleolithic.

  6. Ipsilateral obturator type of hip dislocation with fracture shaft femur in a child: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Arjun, R H H; Kumar, Vishal; Saibaba, Balaji; John, Rakesh; Guled, Uday; Aggarwal, Sameer

    2016-09-01

    The incidence of traumatic hip dislocations in children is rising in this fast developing world along with increasing numbers of high-velocity road traffic accidents. Anterior dislocation of the hip has a lower incidence compared with posterior dislocation of the hip. We encountered a rare case of the obturator type of anteriorly dislocated hip associated with ipsilateral fracture of the shaft femur in an 11-year-old child. This is a highly unusual injury combination and the mechanism of injury is obscure. Only two similar cases have been reported in the English literature to date. Closed reduction of the hip using a hitherto undescribed technique and an intramedullary interlocking nail was performed in this case. At 6 months of follow-up, the fracture shaft femur has united and the child is bearing full weight on the limb. PMID:27128394

  7. The variation of sonic plesio-velocity in dose dependent lathyritic rabbit femurs.

    PubMed

    Lees, S; Barnard, S M; Churchill, D

    1987-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the origin of the increased elastic modulus of mineralized bone compared with the demineralized bone matrix is in the higher crosslinking density of the collagen in bone. Osteolathyrism is ascribed to an inhibition of crosslinking of the collagen by the lathyrogen and should be accompanied by a decrease in the elastic modulus of the bone. Dose dependent osteolathyrism was induced by varying the amount of BAPN ingested per day by young New Zealand white rabbits until they were mature. The femurs exhibited dose dependent properties, including wet bone density and sonic plesio-velocity in the radial direction. It was found that there is no minimum critical dose. Even though no overt osteolathyritic stigmata could be observed, both the sonic properties and the wet bone density could be affected at any dose level. The sonic plesio-velocity and the longitudinal elastic modulus decreased with BAPN dose level, most rapidly at the lower dose levels and then less so at higher dosages. Since BAPN acts to inhibit the crosslinking density, it appears that the elastic moduli of bone are dependent on the crosslinking density.

  8. Dissimilarity of femur aging in men and women from a Nationwide Survey in Korea (KNHANES IV).

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Lim, Jung Soo; Kim, Kwang Joon; Choi, Han Seok; Rhee, Yumie; Oh, Han Jin; Choi, Hoon; Choi, Woong Hwan; Kim, Jung Gu; Lim, Sung-Kil

    2013-03-01

    In light of the differences in hip fracture rates between men and women of different ages, age-related changes in bone structure that lead to bone fragility might differ depending on both age and gender. To investigate age-related bone loss and geometric deterioration of the femur, hip scans of 1,504 men and 2,076 women aged 19-92 years acquired during the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were analyzed with a structural analysis program. Cross-sectional area and cortical thickness with bone mineral density in men started to decline from the third decade and continued to decline at a constant rate. However, in women, these parameters remained nearly constant until the fifth decade and then declined at a more rapid rate than that seen in men. Consequently, changes in the buckling ratio, earlier onset, and continuation of increase over the lifetime were observed in men. A relatively later onset with a greater acceleration with aging was observed in women. Taken together, there were obvious gender and age differences in structural trends with age. Bone aging, i.e., bone loss and geometric deterioration, actually begins at a young age, especially in men, and osteoporosis prevention strategies should target not only the elderly but also younger individuals.

  9. Recognizing different tissues in human fetal femur cartilage by label-free Raman microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunstar, Aliz; Leijten, Jeroen; van Leuveren, Stefan; Hilderink, Janneke; Otto, Cees; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A.; Karperien, Marcel; van Apeldoorn, Aart A.

    2012-11-01

    Traditionally, the composition of bone and cartilage is determined by standard histological methods. We used Raman microscopy, which provides a molecular "fingerprint" of the investigated sample, to detect differences between the zones in human fetal femur cartilage without the need for additional staining or labeling. Raman area scans were made from the (pre)articular cartilage, resting, proliferative, and hypertrophic zones of growth plate and endochondral bone within human fetal femora. Multivariate data analysis was performed on Raman spectral datasets to construct cluster images with corresponding cluster averages. Cluster analysis resulted in detection of individual chondrocyte spectra that could be separated from cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) spectra and was verified by comparing cluster images with intensity-based Raman images for the deoxyribonucleic acid/ribonucleic acid (DNA/RNA) band. Specific dendrograms were created using Ward's clustering method, and principal component analysis (PCA) was performed with the separated and averaged Raman spectra of cells and ECM of all measured zones. Overall (dis)similarities between measured zones were effectively visualized on the dendrograms and main spectral differences were revealed by PCA allowing for label-free detection of individual cartilaginous zones and for label-free evaluation of proper cartilaginous matrix formation for future tissue engineering and clinical purposes.

  10. Microstructure and micromechanical properties of the mid-diaphyses of human fetal femurs.

    PubMed

    Su, X W; Feng, Q L; Cui, F Z; Zhu, X D

    1997-01-01

    The microstructure, composition and the micromechanical properties across the thickness of femoral mid-diaphyses from 14 to 26 week human fetuses have been investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were employed to examine structural changes with maturation. The fetal bones consist of layers of woven bone. From young to old fetuses and from outer to inner bone layers, the collagen fibrils become more cross-linked, densely packed and change from disordered to an ordered arrangement. The collagen fibril bundles are also more preferentially oriented and change from a chiefly circumferential to longitudinal direction. The sizes of the apatite crystals also increase with age. The Ca/P ratio remains constant around 1.55 for all the bone layers except the outmost layer which is lower than 1.2. An nano-indenter was used to evaluate the microhardness and elastic modulus of each bone layer. The increase of microhardness and elastic modulus correlates with the maturation of bone. The mechanical properties of the mid-diaphyses of human fetal femurs are anisotropic, which is due to the preferential orientation of collagen fibrils.

  11. Using a statistical appearance model to predict the fracture load of the proximal femur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuler, Benedikt; Fritscher, Karl D.; Kuhn, Volker; Eckstein, Felix; Schubert, Rainer

    2009-02-01

    Nowadays clinical diagnostic techniques like e.g. dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry are used to quantify bone quality. However, bone mineral density alone is not sufficient to predict biomechanical properties like the fracture load for an individual patient. Therefore, the development of tools, which can assess the bone quality in order to predicting individual biomechanics of a bone, would mean a significant improvement for the prevention of fractures. In this paper an approach to predict the fracture load of proximal femora by using a statistical appearance model will be presented. For this purpose, 96 CT-datasets of anatomical specimen of human femora are used to create statistical models for the prediction of the individual fracture load. Calculating statistical appearance models in different regions of interest by using principal component analysis (PCA) makes it possible to use geometric as well as structural information about the proximal femur. By regressing the output of PCA against the individual fracture load of 96 femora multi-linear regression models using a leave-one-out cross validation scheme have been created. The resulting correlations are comparable to studies that partly use higher image resolutions.

  12. Does Computer-Assisted Femur First THR Improve Musculoskeletal Loading Conditions?

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Tim A.; Dendorfer, Sebastian; Grifka, Joachim; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.; Renkawitz, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a novel, computer-assisted operation method for minimal-invasive total hip replacement (THR) following the concept of “femur first/combined anteversion,” which incorporates various aspects of performing a functional optimization of the prosthetic stem and cup position (CAS FF). The purpose of this study is to assess whether the hip joint reaction forces and patient's gait parameters are being improved by CAS FF in relation to conventional THR (CON). We enrolled 60 patients (28 CAS FF/32 CON) and invited them for gait analysis at three time points (preoperatively, postop six months, and postop 12 months). Data retrieved from gait analysis was processed using patient-specific musculoskeletal models. The target parameters were hip reaction force magnitude (hrf), symmetries, and orientation with respect to the cup. Hrf in the CAS FF group were closer to a young healthy normal. Phase-shift symmetry showed an increase in the CAS FF group. Hrf orientation in the CAS FF group was closer to optimum, though no edge or rim-loading occurred in the CON group as well. The CAS FF group showed an improved hrf orientation in an early stage and a trend to an improved long-term outcome. PMID:26582355

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254) induced changes in femur morphometry calcium metabolism and nephrotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) on calcium metabolism, femur morphometry, and nephrotoxicity. Fischer 344 rats were dosed daily IG for 5, 10, or 15 weeks with 0, 0.1, 1, 10 or 25 mg PCB/kg body weight. After 5, 10 and 15 weeks, liver weight and liver-to-body weight ratio were increased at the two higher dose levels. Overt toxicity was observed at the highest dose level after 10 and 15 weeks as evidenced by significantly smaller body weight. Urinary alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were elevated at 5, 10 and 15 weeks of PCB exposure and the kidney-to-body weight ratios were elevated at the 10 and 25 mg/kg dose levels after 10 and 15 weeks of exposure indicating nephrotoxicity. Hypercalcemia was present at the highest dose level after 5 and 10 weeks of exposure but serum calcium concentration was normal at 15 weeks. Serum triglycerides were significantly elevated after 5 weeks of exposure but were significantly decreased after 10 and 15 weeks of PCB exposure. Serum cholesterol was significantly elevated at the two higher dose levels at all three periods. The results demonstrate that PCB exposure effects calcium metabolism and bone morphometry and is nephrotoxic.

  14. Review article: Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in the diagnosis of occult proximal femur fractures.

    PubMed

    Chatha, Hamid A; Ullah, Sana; Cheema, Zulfiqar Z

    2011-04-01

    Electronic databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library as well as the Google Scholar search engine were used. Studies written in the English language highlighting the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography in diagnosing occult proximal femoral fractures despite negative or equivocal plain radiographs were included. Two reviewers independently extracted data from each article. Raw frequencies for each of the details investigated were calculated. 15 prospective and 7 retrospective studies from 1989 to 2009 were included in this systematic review. A total of 996 patients (mean age, 75 years; standard deviation, 5 years) with suspected occult proximal femur fractures underwent MRI for further assessment. 350 (35%) of the patients tested positive for proximal femoral fractures, of whom 295 (84%) underwent further treatment/surgical interventions. MRI also detected other fractures and soft-tissue injuries. MRI was superior to other imaging modalities in diagnosing occult proximal femoral fractures and should be performed within 24 hours of injury. Early diagnosis and management may avoid substantial displacement and complications, and improve overall mortality and morbidity.

  15. A patient with focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia in the distal femur and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ando, Akira; Hatori, Masahito; Hosaka, Masami; Hagiwara, Yoshihiro; Kita, Atsushi; Ochiai, Tatsuhiro; Itoi, Eiji

    2008-08-01

    Focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia (FFCD) is a rare and benign bone lesion that induces bowing deformity of the long bones in young children. Excessive production of fibrocartilage by abnormal differentiation in the metaphysis or by trauma during delivery or after birth is thought to cause growth disturbance. Radiologically, the lesion is characterized by a lucent defect with marginal sclerosis in the medial metaphysis of the long bone. However, there have been few reports about the initial radiological changes of FFCD before bowing started. We report a patient with FFCD in the left distal femur in whom the radiological changes were serially observed during the course of the disorder. A 2-week-old boy first visited our hospital because of left thigh pain. Plain radiographs did not show any abnormal findings at that time. At 10 weeks, a well-defined lucent defect with bony fragment inside was observed in the distal femoral medial cortex. At 1 year, this bony fragment gradually vanished but varus deformity progressed and reached approximately 40 degrees at the age of 2. After removal of the lesion, osteotomy and immobilization was performed with Ilizarov external fixator comprising rings, rods and wires. Complete bone union was achieved 3 months after operation. It is noteworthy that we could observe the initial radiological changes of FFCD before varus deformity occurred. As far as we know, there have been no descriptions of the bony fragment inside a lucent defect of the lesion. Radiological features may vary in the early phase of FFCD. PMID:18679004

  16. The Frank Stinchfield Award: Morphologic features of the acetabulum and femur: anteversion angle and implant positioning.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, M; Feinberg, J R; Capello, W N; D'Antonio, J A

    2001-12-01

    Morphologic features of the hips, in particular those features germane to determination of acetabular and femoral anteversion angles and femoral head offset, were studied in 50 male and 50 female human skeletons with bilateral normal joints. Four distinct configurations were identified relative to the anterior acetabular ridge. The majority (121, 60.5%) were curved; 51 (25.5%) were angular; 19 (9.5%) were irregular; and nine (4.5%) were straight. The acetabular anteversion angle measured 19.9 degrees +/- 6.6 degrees (range, 7 degrees-42 degrees) and was significantly larger in females (21.3 degrees +/- 7.1 degrees) versus males (18.5 degrees +/- 5.8 degrees). The notch acetabular angle, which can be identified easily intraoperatively, was defined as the angle created at the intersection of a line from the sciatic notch along the posterior acetabular ridge and a line from the posterior to the anterior acetabular wall. This angle is almost perpendicular (89.0 degrees +/- 3.5 degrees) and, therefore, may provide an accurate estimate of acetabular anteversion during cup placement. Awareness of the anatomic differences between genders for acetabular anteversion angle, anterolateral bowing of the femur, and neck shaft angle may help reduce the relatively higher incidence of dislocation in females and may lead to different implant designs for male and female patients. PMID:11764371

  17. Growth characteristics of the fetal ligament of the head of femur: significance in congenital hip disease.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Measurement of the length and width of the ligament of the head of femur (ligamentum teres) in 140 normal human fetuses between 12 weeks and term provides limits for growth changes in this structure. These observations provide no morphological evidence of a significant difference between males and females, or between the right and left sides, to explain the female and left hip preponderance reported in congenital hip disease. The ligament is shown to be variable in length, width, and shape, and it is not a distinctly linear structure through linearity may increase with age. Tests of femoral head mobility support the opinion that this ligament must play a role in fetal and neonatal hip joint stability. Weak correlation only was demonstrated between the ligament variables and acetabular depth, which suggests that ligament shape and socket shape are not closely related. Comparison of measurements from normal and 12 dysplastic or subluxated joints provides no evidence to support previous observations that this structure is unusually long in abnormal hip joints which are not frankly dislocated. Images FIG. 1 PMID:7445537

  18. Anatomy of the Intracortical Canal System: Scanning Electron Microscopy Study in Rabbit Femur

    PubMed Central

    Congiu, Terenzio; Raspanti, Mario; Ranchetti, Federico; Quacci, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    The current model of compact bone is that of a system of longitudinal (Haversian) canals connected by transverse (Volkmann’s) canals. Models based on histology or microcomputed tomography lack the morphologic detail and sense of temporal development provided by direct observation. Using direct scanning electron microscopy observation, we studied the bone surface and structure of the intracortical canal system in paired fractured surfaces in rabbit femurs, examining density of canal openings on periosteal and endosteal surfaces, internal network nodes and canal sizes, and collagen lining of the inner canal system. The blood supply of the diaphyseal compact bone entered the cortex through the canal openings on the endosteal and periosteal surfaces, with different morphologic features in the midshaft and distal shaft; their density was higher on endosteal than on periosteal surfaces in the midshaft but with no major differences among subregions. The circumference measurements along Haversian canals documented a steady reduction behind the head of the cutting cone but rather random variations as the distance from the head increased. These observations suggested discontinuous development and variable lamellar apposition rate of osteons in different segments of their trajectory. The frequent branching and types of network nodes suggested substantial osteonal plasticity and supported the model of a network organization. The collagen fibers of the canal wall were organized in intertwined, longitudinally oriented bundles with 0.1- to 0.5-μm holes connecting the canal lumen with the osteocyte canalicular system. PMID:19330389

  19. Response of cat cortical neurons to position and movement of the femur.

    PubMed

    Aloisi, A M; Decchi, B; Fontani, G; Rossi, A; Carli, G

    1996-01-01

    The contribution of joint afferents to the response of cortical neurons in area 3a to mechanical stimulation of the contralateral hindlimb was evaluated in cats anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and paralyzed with pancuronium bromide. The hindlimb projection to the pericruciate cortex was established by recording the evoked potentials to electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve and some of its branches, the bicepssemitendinosus and the quadratus femoris. Out of 169 neurons, 63 responded exclusively to cutaneous stimuli (superficial), whereas the others could be activated by local pressure of hindlimb muscles and/or by joint rotation (deep). Deep neurons were classified as slowly adapting (SA) or rapidly adapting (RA) units. In the neurons responding exclusively to joint rotation, the site of the receptive field could not be identified with certainty. In 13 deep neurons, their firing was affected by rotation of multiple joints of the contralateral hindlimb. In an attempt to identify the source of activation of cortical neurons, partial denervations and muscle disconnections were performed in five animals to isolate and stimulate the hip capsule. In these preparations, in 14 of 15 cortical neurons the source of activation was localized in the periarticular muscles, with no response to mechanical stimulation of the joint capsule. Only one neuron (SA) could be selectively excited by punctate pressure on the hip capsule. Our results suggest that in neurons of area 3a of the cat, the information about the position of the femur relies mainly on muscle afferents.

  20. Fat emboli syndrome in isolated fractures of the tibia and femur.

    PubMed

    Ganong, R B

    1993-06-01

    The fat emboli syndrome (FES) was studied in otherwise healthy young skiers with isolated fractures of the tibia and femur treated from 1980 until 1991. During the first year, 13 of 56 tibial and femoral fractures developed FES. The overall incidence of FES was 23%: 19% among fractured tibiae and 75% among fractured femora. Thirty-three percent of displaced transverse tibial fractures developed FES. During the next ten year, only those tibial or femoral fractures that developed FES were studied. There were 44 such cases. Symptoms included a mean PO2 of 45 mm Hg and a fever of 39 degrees. In addition, 40% of the patients had petechiae. The mean patient age was 26 years. None of the patients had other significant injuries or illnesses, 75% received oxygen, and 9% received steroids. None of the patients received mechanical ventilation. All cases had developed by the third day of hospitalization, and the duration of the syndrome was less than four days in 86% of the patients. The mortality rate was 0%. In 50% of the patients, hospitalization was prolonged because of FES; otherwise, there were no complications. This study of isolated femoral and tibial fractures in healthy young skiers demonstrates that FES occurs more commonly than previously thought, is not associated with mortality, and causes little morbidity. Treatment should consist of supportive care only, with specific care directed toward the underlying injury.

  1. Defining the medial-lateral axis of an anatomical femur coordinate system using freehand 3D ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Passmore, Elyse; Sangeux, Morgan

    2016-03-01

    Hip rotation from gait analysis informs clinical decisions regarding correction of femoral torsional deformities. However, it is among the least repeatable due to discrepancies in determining the medial-lateral axis of the femur. Conventional or functional calibration methods may be used to define the axis but there is no benchmark to evaluate these methods. Freehand 3D ultrasound, the coupling of ultrasound with 3D motion capture, may provide such a benchmark. We measured the accuracy in vitro and repeatability in vivo of determining the femur condylar axis from freehand 3D ultrasound. The condylar axis provided the reference medial-lateral axis of the femur and was used to evaluate one conventional method and three functional calibration methods, applied to three calibration movements. Ten healthy subjects (20 limbs) underwent 3D gait analysis and freehand 3D ultrasound. The functional calibration methods were a transformation technique, a geometrical method and a method that minimises variance of knee varus-valgus kinematics (DynaKAD). The conventional method used markers over the femoral epicondyles. The condylar axis determined by 3D ultrasound showed good accuracy in vitro, 1.6° (SD: 0.3°) and good repeatability in vivo, 0.2° (RSMD: 2.3°). The DynaKAD method applied to the walking calibration movement determined the medial-lateral axis closest to the ultrasound reference. The average angular difference in the transverse plane was 3.1° (SD: 6.1°). Freehand 3D ultrasound offers an accurate, non-invasive and relatively fast method to locate the medial-lateral axis of the femur for gait analysis.

  2. Predicting the biomechanical strength of proximal femur specimens with bone mineral density features and support vector regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Markus B.; Yang, Chien-Chun; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Bauer, Jan S.; Baum, Thomas; Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Eckstein, Felix; Lochmüller, Eva; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M.; Wismüller, Axel

    2012-03-01

    To improve the clinical assessment of osteoporotic hip fracture risk, recent computer-aided diagnosis systems explore new approaches to estimate the local trabecular bone quality beyond bone density alone to predict femoral bone strength. In this context, statistical bone mineral density (BMD) features extracted from multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) images of proximal femur specimens and different function approximations methods were compared in their ability to predict the biomechanical strength. MDCT scans were acquired in 146 proximal femur specimens harvested from human cadavers. The femurs' failure load (FL) was determined through biomechanical testing. An automated volume of interest (VOI)-fitting algorithm was used to define a consistent volume in the femoral head of each specimen. In these VOIs, the trabecular bone was represented by statistical moments of the BMD distribution and by pairwise spatial occurrence of BMD values using the gray-level co-occurrence (GLCM) approach. A linear multi-regression analysis (MultiReg) and a support vector regression algorithm with a linear kernel (SVRlin) were used to predict the FL from the image feature sets. The prediction performance was measured by the root mean square error (RMSE) for each image feature on independent test sets; in addition the coefficient of determination R2 was calculated. The best prediction result was obtained with a GLCM feature set using SVRlin, which had the lowest prediction error (RSME = 1.040+/-0.143, R2 = 0.544) and which was significantly lower that the standard approach of using BMD.mean and MultiReg (RSME = 1.093+/-0.133, R2 = 0.490, p<0.0001). The combined sets including BMD.mean and GLCM features had a similar or slightly lower performance than using only GLCM features. The results indicate that the performance of high-dimensional BMD features extracted from MDCT images in predicting the biomechanical strength of proximal femur specimens can be significantly improved by

  3. Measurement reproducibility of magnetic resonance imaging-based finite element analysis of proximal femur microarchitecture for in vivo assessment of bone strength

    PubMed Central

    Hotca-Cho, Alexandra; Rusinek, Henry; Honig, Stephen; Mikheev, Artem; Egol, Kenneth; Regatte, Ravinder R.; Rajapakse, Chamith S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Osteoporosis is a disease of weak bone. Our goal was to determine the measurement reproducibility of magnetic resonance assessment of proximal femur strength. Methods This study had institutional review board approval, and written informed consent was obtained from all subjects. We obtained images of proximal femur microarchitecture by scanning 12 subjects three times within 1 week at 3T using a high-resolution 3-D FLASH sequence. We applied finite element analysis to compute proximal femur stiffness and femoral neck elastic modulus. Results Within-day and between-day root-mean-square coefficients of variation and intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 3.5 to 6.6 % and 0.96 to 0.98, respectively. Conclusion The measurement reproducibility of magnetic resonance assessment of proximal femur strength is suitable for clinical studies of disease progression or treatment response related to osteoporosis bone-strengthening interventions. PMID:25487834

  4. Increasing shape modelling accuracy by adjusting for subject positioning: an application to the analysis of radiographic proximal femur symmetry using data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    PubMed

    Lindner, C; Wallis, G A; Cootes, T F

    2014-04-01

    In total hip arthroplasty, the shape of the contra-lateral femur frequently serves as a template for preoperative planning. Previous research on contra-lateral femoral symmetry has been based on conventional hip geometric measurements (which reduce shape to a series of linear measurements) and did not take the effect of subject positioning on radiographic femur shape into account. The aim of this study was to analyse proximal femur symmetry based on statistical shape models (SSMs) which quantify global femoral shape while also adjusting for differences in subject positioning during image acquisition. We applied our recently developed fully automatic shape model matching (FASMM) system to automatically segment the proximal femur from AP pelvic radiographs to generate SSMs of the proximal femurs of 1258 Caucasian females (mean age: 61.3 SD=9.0). We used a combined SSM (capturing the left and right femurs) to identify and adjust for shape variation attributable to subject positioning as well as a single SSM (including all femurs as left femurs) to analyse proximal femur symmetry. We also calculated conventional hip geometric measurements (head diameter, neck width, shaft width and neck-shaft angle) using the output of the FASMM system. The combined SSM revealed two modes that were clearly attributable to subject positioning. The average difference (mean point-to-curve distance) between left and right femur shape was 1.0mm before and 0.8mm after adjusting for these two modes. The automatic calculation of conventional hip geometric measurements after adjustment gave an average absolute percent asymmetry of within 3.1% and an average absolute difference of within 1.1mm or 2.9° for all measurements. We conclude that (i) for Caucasian females the global shape of the right and left proximal femurs is symmetric without isolated locations of asymmetry; (ii) a combined left-right SSM can be used to adjust for radiographic shape variation due to subject positioning; and (iii

  5. Extraction of 3D Femur Neck Trabecular Bone Architecture from Clinical CT Images in Osteoporotic Evaluation: a Novel Framework.

    PubMed

    Sapthagirivasan, V; Anburajan, M; Janarthanam, S

    2015-08-01

    The early detection of osteoporosis risk enhances the lifespan and quality of life of an individual. A reasonable in-vivo assessment of trabecular bone strength at the proximal femur helps to evaluate the fracture risk and henceforth, to understand the associated structural dynamics on occurrence of osteoporosis. The main aim of our study was to develop a framework to automatically determine the trabecular bone strength from clinical femur CT images and thereby to estimate its correlation with BMD. All the 50 studied south Indian female subjects aged 30 to 80 years underwent CT and DXA measurements at right femur region. Initially, the original CT slices were intensified and active contour model was utilised for the extraction of the neck region. After processing through a novel process called trabecular enrichment approach (TEA), the three dimensional (3D) trabecular features were extracted. The extracted 3D trabecular features, such as volume fraction (VF), solidity of delta points (SDP) and boundness, demonstrated a significant correlation with femoral neck bone mineral density (r = 0.551, r = 0.432, r = 0.552 respectively) at p < 0.001. The higher area under the curve values of the extracted features (VF: 85.3 %; 95CI: 68.2-100 %, SDP: 82.1 %; 95CI: 65.1-98.9 % and boundness: 90.4 %; 95CI: 78.7-100 %) were observed. The findings suggest that the proposed framework with TEA method would be useful for spotting women vulnerable to osteoporotic risk.

  6. Design and development of potential tissue engineering scaffolds from structurally different longitudinal parts of a bovine-femur.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Sumit; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Cho, Jongman; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2014-07-28

    The complex architecture of the cortical part of the bovine-femur was examined to develop potential tissue engineering (TE) scaffolds. Weight-change and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that significant phase transformation and morphology conversion of the bone occur at 500-750°C and 750-900°C, respectively. Another breakthrough finding was achieved by determining a sintering condition for the nucleation of hydroxyapatite crystal from bovine bone via XRD technique. Scanning electron microscopy results of morphological growth suggests that the concentration of polymer fibrils increases (or decreases, in case of apatite crystals) from the distal to proximal end of the femur. Energy-dispersive analysis of X-ray, Fourier transform infrared, micro-computer tomography, and mechanical studies of the actual composition also strongly support our microscopic results and firmly indicate the functionally graded material properties of bovine-femur. Bones sintered at 900 and 1000°C show potential properties for soft and hard TE applications, respectively.

  7. Achieving ligament stability and correct rotational alignment of the femur in knee arthroplasty: a study using the Medial Pivot knee.

    PubMed

    Shakespeare, David; Kinzel, Vera; Ledger, Michael

    2005-12-01

    In a series of 90 Medial Pivot arthroplasties rotational alignment of the femur was achieved by provisionally reconstructing the lateral side of the joint and tensioning the medial side with feeler gauges. Axial CT scans were employed to measure the rotational alignment relative to surgical epicondylar axis. In valgus knees the cutting block was externally rotated to adjust for posterolateral bone loss. The mean rotational alignment of the femur was 0.6 degrees of external rotation (S.D. 1.3, range 3 degrees of ER to 4 degrees of IR). The mean laxity of the medial ligament was 1 mm in flexion (SD 1, range 0-5 mm) and 0.5 mm in flexion (S.D. 0.5, range 0-2 mm) In those knees in which the medial ligament had been released the CT alignment was perfect, but when internally rotated against the hip 3-4 mm of gapping was noted. In valgus knees the mean rotation of the femoral component was 0.8 degrees of internal rotation (S.D. 1.5, range 1 degrees of IR to 4 degrees of ER). In spite of externally rotating the cutting block there was still a tendency to internally rotate the femur in some knees. This simple technique achieves the two goals of ligament stability and correct rotational alignment in a high proportion of cases. It may be applicable to any instrument system which employs posterior referencing.

  8. Mechanical evaluation of six types of reconstruction following 25, 50, and 75% resection of the proximal femur.

    PubMed

    Kohles, S S; Markel, M D; Rock, M G; Chao, E Y; Vanderby, R

    1994-11-01

    The structural stiffness and the stiffness of the osteotomy site after six types of reconstruction of the proximal femur were compared by testing in axial compression, mediolateral bending, and axial torsion in a canine model. An osteotomy was carried out for 25, 50, or 75% of the length of each femur, and the proximal portion was replaced by one of five allograft/endoprosthetic composites or a segmental replacement. The reconstructions included (a) a composite press-fit proximally and cemented distally, (b) a composite cemented proximally and distally, (c) a composite cemented proximally and fixed with two plates at the allograft-host bone interface, (d) a composite cemented proximally and secured distally with bicortical screws, (e) a composite secured proximally and distally with bicortical screws, and (f) a segmental prosthesis cemented into the distal femur. The results showed that the segmental reconstruction and the reconstruction with double-plate fixation and a cemented endoprosthesis were structurally stiffer and had greater stiffness of the osteotomy site than the other reconstructions. In comparison, reconstructions that involved cement alone or cement and press-fit techniques generally were more compliant than the others, both structurally and at the osteotomy site.

  9. Implementation of boundary conditions in modeling the femur is critical for the evaluation of distal intramedullary nailing.

    PubMed

    Bayoglu, Riza; Okyar, A Fethi

    2015-11-01

    In previous numerical and experimental studies of the intramedullary nail-implanted human femur several simplifications to model the boundary and loading conditions during pre-clinical testing have been proposed. The distal end of the femur was fixed in the majority of studies dealing with the biomechanics of the lower extremity, be it numerical or experimental, which resulted in obviously non-physiological deflections. Per contra, Speirs et al. (2007) proclaimed physiological deflections as a result of constraining the femur in a novel statically determinate fashion in combination with using a complex set of muscle forces. In tandem with this, we have shown that not only the deflections but also the stress and strain predictions turn out to be much lower in magnitude, as a result of using the latter approach. To illustrate the dramatic change in results, we compared these results with those of two other models employing commonly used boundary and loading conditions in retrograde stabilization of a distal diaphyseal fracture. The model used herewith resulted in more realistic femoral cortical strains, lower stresses on both the nail and the screws, as well as such deflections in the overall structure. PMID:26341599

  10. Three-dimensional reconstruction method for measuring the knee valgus angle of the femur in northern Chinese adults*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Wang, Chen-yu; Xiao, Jian-lin; Zhu, Lan-yu; Li, Xue-zhou; Qin, Yan-guo; Gao, Zhong-li

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a method for measuring the knee valgus angle from the anatomical and mechanical axes on three-dimensional reconstruction imaging models, and to use this method for estimating an average knee valgus angle value for northern Chinese adults. Computed tomographic angiography data in DICOM format for 128 normal femurs from 64 adult subjects were chosen for analysis. After the femur images were subjected to three-dimensional reconstruction, the deepest point in the intercondylar notch (point A), the midpoint of the medullary cavity 20 cm above the knee-joint line (point B), and the landmark of the femoral head rotation center (point C) were identified on each three-dimensional model. The knee valgus angle was defined as the angle enclosed by the distal femoral anatomical axis (line AB) and the femoral mechanical axis (line AC). The average (mean±SD) of knee valgus angle for the 128 femurs was 6.20°±1.20° (range, 3.05° to 10.64°). Significant positive correlations were found between the knee valgus angles of the right and left sides and between the knee valgus angle and age. During total knee arthroplasty, choosing a valgus cut angle of approximately 6° may achieve a good result in reestablishing the natural mechanical alignment of the lower extremity for patients of northern Chinese ethnicity. Larger valgus cut angles should be chosen for older patients. PMID:25091990

  11. Effects of ethanol consumption and alcohol detoxification on the biomechanics and morphology the bone in rat femurs.

    PubMed

    Garcia, J A D; Souza, A L T; Cruz, L H C; Marques, P P; Camilli, J A; Nakagaki, W R; Esteves, A; Rossi-Junior, W C; Fernandes, G J M; Guerra, F D; Soares, E A

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the effects of ethanol consumption and alcohol detoxification on the biomechanics, area and thickness of cortical and trabecular bone in rat femur. This was an experimental study in which 18 male Wistar rats were used, with 40 days of age, weighing 179 ± 2.5 g. The rats were divided into three groups (n=06): CT (control), AC (chronic alcoholic), DT (detoxification). After experimental procedures, the animals were euthanized by an overdose of the anesthetic and their femurs were collected for mechanical testing and histological processing. All animals did not present malnutrition or dehydration during experimentation period. Morphometric analysis of cortical and trabecular bones in rat femurs demonstrated that AC animals showed inferior dimensions and alcohol detoxification (DT) allowed an enhancement in area and thickness of cortical and trabecular bone. Material and structural properties data of AC group highlighted the harmful effects of ethanol on bone mechanical properties. The results of this study demonstrated that chronic alcoholic rats (AC) presented major bone damage in all analyzed variables. Those findings suggested that alcohol detoxification is highly suggested in pre-operative planning and this corroborates to the success of bone surgery and bone tissue repair. Thanks to the financial support offered by PROBIC - UNIFENAS. PMID:26675916

  12. Effects of ethanol consumption and alcohol detoxification on the biomechanics and morphology the bone in rat femurs.

    PubMed

    Garcia, J A D; Souza, A L T; Cruz, L H C; Marques, P P; Camilli, J A; Nakagaki, W R; Esteves, A; Rossi-Junior, W C; Fernandes, G J M; Guerra, F D; Soares, E A

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the effects of ethanol consumption and alcohol detoxification on the biomechanics, area and thickness of cortical and trabecular bone in rat femur. This was an experimental study in which 18 male Wistar rats were used, with 40 days of age, weighing 179 ± 2.5 g. The rats were divided into three groups (n=06): CT (control), AC (chronic alcoholic), DT (detoxification). After experimental procedures, the animals were euthanized by an overdose of the anesthetic and their femurs were collected for mechanical testing and histological processing. All animals did not present malnutrition or dehydration during experimentation period. Morphometric analysis of cortical and trabecular bones in rat femurs demonstrated that AC animals showed inferior dimensions and alcohol detoxification (DT) allowed an enhancement in area and thickness of cortical and trabecular bone. Material and structural properties data of AC group highlighted the harmful effects of ethanol on bone mechanical properties. The results of this study demonstrated that chronic alcoholic rats (AC) presented major bone damage in all analyzed variables. Those findings suggested that alcohol detoxification is highly suggested in pre-operative planning and this corroborates to the success of bone surgery and bone tissue repair. Thanks to the financial support offered by PROBIC - UNIFENAS.

  13. CORRELATION BETWEEN TIME UNTIL SURGICAL TREATMENT AND MORTALITY AMONG ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH FRACTURES AT THE PROXIMAL END OF THE FEMUR

    PubMed Central

    Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; da Costa Astur, Diego; Linhares, Glauber Kazuo; Balbachevsky, Daniel; Fernandes, Hélio Jorge Alvachian; dos Reis, Fernando Baldy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The primary aim of this study was to analyze the possible association between delay in receiving surgical treatment and mortality among elderly patients with fractures at the proximal end of the femur. Methods: 269 patients with fractures at the proximal end of the femur (femur neck and intertrochanteric fractures) who were treated surgically at Hospital São Paulo, UNIFESP, São Paulo, between January 2003 and December 2007, were studied. The following attributes were analyzed and compared with the literature relating to this subject: sex, age, type of fracture, classification of the fracture, affected side, synthesis used, trauma mechanism, length of hospitalization, waiting time for surgery, associated comorbidities, hemogram on admission, type of anesthesia, need for blood transfusion, day of the week and season of the year of the fracture. Results: The study showed that higher mortality correlated with higher numbers of clinical comorbidities, longer hospitalization and use of general anesthesia during the surgery. Conclusion: There was no association between the time spent waiting for surgery and mortality. PMID:27027009

  14. Implementation of boundary conditions in modeling the femur is critical for the evaluation of distal intramedullary nailing.

    PubMed

    Bayoglu, Riza; Okyar, A Fethi

    2015-11-01

    In previous numerical and experimental studies of the intramedullary nail-implanted human femur several simplifications to model the boundary and loading conditions during pre-clinical testing have been proposed. The distal end of the femur was fixed in the majority of studies dealing with the biomechanics of the lower extremity, be it numerical or experimental, which resulted in obviously non-physiological deflections. Per contra, Speirs et al. (2007) proclaimed physiological deflections as a result of constraining the femur in a novel statically determinate fashion in combination with using a complex set of muscle forces. In tandem with this, we have shown that not only the deflections but also the stress and strain predictions turn out to be much lower in magnitude, as a result of using the latter approach. To illustrate the dramatic change in results, we compared these results with those of two other models employing commonly used boundary and loading conditions in retrograde stabilization of a distal diaphyseal fracture. The model used herewith resulted in more realistic femoral cortical strains, lower stresses on both the nail and the screws, as well as such deflections in the overall structure.

  15. Late Babylonian Astrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, John M.

    The last five centuries BC saw the development of several new forms of astrology in Babylonia. Key to these new astrological techniques was the invention of the zodiac in about 400 BC. These new forms of astrology include personal horoscopes, astral medicine, and the exploitation of geometrical relationships between the position of heavenly bodies. Several Late Babylonian astrological doctrines were later adopted within Greek astrology.

  16. A New Hadrosauroid Dinosaur from the Early Late Cretaceous of Shanxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Run-Fu; You, Hai-Lu; Xu, Shi-Chao; Wang, Suo-Zhu; Yi, Jian; Xie, Li-Juan; Jia, Lei; Li, Ya-Xian

    2013-01-01

    Background The origin of hadrosaurid dinosaurs is far from clear, mainly due to the paucity of their early Late Cretaceous close relatives. Compared to numerous Early Cretaceous basal hadrosauroids, which are mainly from Eastern Asia, only six early Late Cretaceous (pre-Campanian) basal hadrosauroids have been found: three from Asia and three from North America. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we describe a new hadrosauroid dinosaur, Yunganglong datongensis gen. et sp. nov., from the early Late Cretaceous Zhumapu Formation of Shanxi Province in northern China. The new taxon is represented by an associated but disarticulated partial adult skeleton including the caudodorsal part of the skull. Cladistic analysis and comparative studies show that Yunganglong represents one of the most basal Late Cretaceous hadrosauroids and is diagnosed by a unique combination of features in its skull and femur. Conclusions/Significance The discovery of Yunganglong adds another record of basal Hadrosauroidea in the early Late Cretaceous, and helps to elucidate the origin and evolution of Hadrosauridae. PMID:24204734

  17. Coping – Late Side Effects

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer treatment can cause late side effects that may not show up for months or years after treatment. These late effects may include heart and lung problems, bone loss, eye and hearing changes, lymphedema, and other problems

  18. The need for routine sonography prior to late abortion.

    PubMed

    Chervenak, F A; Dorfman, S F; Bowers, C; Berkowitz, R L; Holder, A R; Ehrenkranz, R A; Furlong, R; Hobbins, J C

    1985-01-01

    The routine use of sonographic assessment of gestational age prior to elective late abortions should be encouraged for both fetal and maternal interests. The Supreme Court has upheld the right to abortion before viability and has held that not all second trimester abortions must be performed in hospitals. Viability is a presumptive and predictive term when used to describe a fetus in utero. In very premature newborn infants, survival is usually expressed as a function of birth weight because of the lack of standardization of gestational age assessment. It is very unusual for an infant with a birth weight less than 600 g to live, but a healthy infant with a birth weight greater than 600 g has a reasonable chance of survival if a modern intensive care unit is available. According to intrauterine and extrauterine growth curves, this birth weight corresponds to a gestational age of 23-24 weeks, but infants surviving at very low birth weights probably represent more mature fetuses with intrauterine growth retardation. For late abortions, the inherent inaccuracies of menstrual history and clinical sizing do not preclude the possibility of confusing a fetus that is not yet viable with a potentially viable fetus. Determination of biparietal diameter prior to late 2nd trimester abortion seems warranted since obstetric ultrasound is now readily available. A biparietal diameter measurement between 18-24 menstrual weeks is reliable within 10 days using 95% confidence limits. Based on biometric studies, a biparietal diameter of 57 mm to 61 mm and a femur length of 42 mm to 44 mm correspond to a mean gestational age of 24 weeks. Other sonographic measurements such as head perimeter and orbital measurements could also be used. In case of pregnancy termination, the method of termination should be based on accurate assessment of the duration of pregnancy.

  19. The locomotion of Babakotia radofilai inferred from epiphyseal and diaphyseal morphology of the humerus and femur.

    PubMed

    Marchi, Damiano; Ruff, Christopher B; Capobianco, Alessio; Rafferty, Katherine L; Habib, Michael B; Patel, Biren A

    2016-09-01

    Palaeopropithecids, or "sloth lemurs," are a diverse clade of large-bodied Malagasy subfossil primates characterized by their inferred suspensory positional behavior. The most recently discovered genus of the palaeopropithecids is Babakotia, and it has been described as more arboreal than Mesopropithecus, but less than Palaeopropithecus. In this article, the within-bone and between-bones articular and cross-sectional diaphyseal proportions of the humerus and femur of Babakotia were compared to extant lemurs, Mesopropithecus and Palaeopropithecus in order to further understand its arboreal adaptations. Additionally, a sample of apes and sloths (Choloepus and Bradypus) are included as functional outgroups composed of suspensory adapted primates and non-primates. Results show that Babakotia and Mesopropithecus both have high humeral/femoral shaft strength proportions, similar to extant great apes and sloths and indicative of forelimb suspensory behavior, with Babakotia more extreme in this regard. All three subfossil taxa have relatively large femoral heads, also associated with suspension in modern taxa. However, Babakotia and Mesopropithecus (but not Palaeopropithecus) have relatively small femoral head surface area to shaft strength proportions suggesting that hind-limb positioning in these taxa during climbing and other behaviors was different than in extant great apes, involving less mobility. Knee and humeral articular dimensions relative to shaft strengths are small in Babakotia and Mesopropithecus, similar to those found in modern sloths and divergent from those in extant great apes and lemurs, suggesting more sloth-like use of these joints during locomotion. Mesopropithecus and Babakotia are more similar to Choloepus in humerofemoral head and length proportions while Palaeopropithecus is more similar to Bradypus. These results provide further evidence of the suspensory adaptations of Babakotia and further highlight similarities to both extant suspensory

  20. Use of DXA-Based Structural Engineering Models of the Proximal Femur to Discriminate Hip Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lang; Peel, Nicola; Clowes, Jackie A; McCloskey, Eugene V; Eastell, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Several DXA-based structural engineering models (SEMs) of the proximal femur have been developed to estimate stress caused by sideway falls. Their usefulness in discriminating hip fracture has not yet been established and we therefore evaluated these models. The hip DXA scans of 51 postmenopausal women with hip fracture (30 femoral neck, 17 trochanteric, and 4 unspecified) and 153 age-, height-, and weight-matched controls were reanalyzed using a special version of Hologic’s software that produced a pixel-by-pixel BMD map. For each map, a curved-beam, a curved composite-beam, and a finite element model were generated to calculate stress within the bone when falling sideways. An index of fracture risk (IFR) was defined over the femoral neck, trochanter, and total hip as the stress divided by the yield stress at each pixel and averaged over the regions of interest. Hip structure analysis (HSA) was also performed using Hologic APEX analysis software. Hip BMD and almost all parameters derived from HSA and SEM were discriminators of hip fracture on their own because their ORs were significantly >1. Because of the high correlation of total hip BMD to HSA and SEM-derived parameters, only the bone width discriminated hip fracture independently from total hip BMD. Judged by the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve, the trochanteric IFR derived from the finite element model was significant better than total hip BMD alone and similar to the total hip BMD plus bone width in discriminating all hip fracture and femoral neck fracture. No index was better than total hip BMD for discriminating trochanteric fractures. In conclusion, the finite element model has the potential to replace hip BMD in discriminating hip fractures. PMID:18767924

  1. Effects of skeletal unloading on the vasomotor properties of the rat femur principal nutrient artery

    PubMed Central

    Prisby, Rhonda D.; Behnke, Bradley J.; Allen, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    Spaceflight and prolonged bed rest induce deconditioning of the cardiovascular system and bone loss. Previous research has shown declines in femoral bone and marrow perfusion during unloading and with subsequent reloading in hindlimb-unloaded (HU) rats, an animal model of chronic disuse. We hypothesized that the attenuated bone and marrow perfusion may result from altered vasomotor properties of the bone resistance vasculature. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of unloading on the vasoconstrictor and vasodilator properties of the femoral principal nutrient artery (PNA), the main conduit for blood flow to the femur, in 2 wk HU and control (CON) rats. Vasoconstriction of the femoral PNA was assessed in vitro using norepinephrine, phenylephrine, clonidine, KCl, endothelin-1, arginine vasopressin, and myogenic responsiveness. Vasodilation through endothelium-dependent [acetylcholine, bradykinin, and flow-mediated dilation (FMD)] and endothelium-independent mechanisms [sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and adenosine] were also determined. Vasoconstrictor responsiveness of the PNA from HU rats was not enhanced through any of the mechanisms tested. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation to acetylcholine (CON, 86 ± 3%; HU, 48 ± 7% vasodilation) and FMD (CON, 61 ± 9%; HU, 11 ± 11% vasodilation) were attenuated in PNAs from HU rats, while responses to bradykinin were not different between groups. Endothelium-independent vasodilation to SNP and adenosine were not different between groups. These data indicate that unloading-induced decrements in bone and marrow perfusion and increases in vascular resistance are not the result of enhanced vasoconstrictor responsiveness of the bone resistance arteries but are associated with reductions in endothelium-dependent vasodilation. PMID:25635000

  2. Use of DXA-based structural engineering models of the proximal femur to discriminate hip fracture.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lang; Peel, Nicola; Clowes, Jackie A; McCloskey, Eugene V; Eastell, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Several DXA-based structural engineering models (SEMs) of the proximal femur have been developed to estimate stress caused by sideway falls. Their usefulness in discriminating hip fracture has not yet been established and we therefore evaluated these models. The hip DXA scans of 51 postmenopausal women with hip fracture (30 femoral neck, 17 trochanteric, and 4 unspecified) and 153 age-, height-, and weight-matched controls were reanalyzed using a special version of Hologic's software that produced a pixel-by-pixel BMD map. For each map, a curved-beam, a curved composite-beam, and a finite element model were generated to calculate stress within the bone when falling sideways. An index of fracture risk (IFR) was defined over the femoral neck, trochanter, and total hip as the stress divided by the yield stress at each pixel and averaged over the regions of interest. Hip structure analysis (HSA) was also performed using Hologic APEX analysis software. Hip BMD and almost all parameters derived from HSA and SEM were discriminators of hip fracture on their own because their ORs were significantly >1. Because of the high correlation of total hip BMD to HSA and SEM-derived parameters, only the bone width discriminated hip fracture independently from total hip BMD. Judged by the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve, the trochanteric IFR derived from the finite element model was significant better than total hip BMD alone and similar to the total hip BMD plus bone width in discriminating all hip fracture and femoral neck fracture. No index was better than total hip BMD for discriminating trochanteric fractures. In conclusion, the finite element model has the potential to replace hip BMD in discriminating hip fractures.

  3. Sartorius muscle pedicle iliac bone graft for the treatment of avascular necrosis of femur head

    PubMed Central

    Vaishya, Raju; Agarwal, Amit Kumar; Gupta, Nishint; Vijay, Vipul

    2016-01-01

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) of femoral head needs to be addressed early in the course of the disease, to prevent progression to osteoarthritis. A revascularizing procedure which can help preserve the head should be considered in young adults to alleviate the need for total hip arthroplasty. We included 40 cases (53 hips) of AVN of femoral head operated with Sartorius muscle pedicle iliac bone grafting, done by the senior author. Early post-operative rehabilitation was done. The weight bearing was delayed for 6 weeks. All the patients were followed clinically and radiologically at regular intervals. The operated femoral heads, were grouped according to Ficat’s staging: 24 in stage IIA (45.3%), 22 in stage IIB (41.5%) and 07 in stage III (13.2%). The average duration of surgery was 85 min (range: 55–130 min). The total duration of follow-up was average 4.2 years (range: 2.2–15 years).The Harris hip score was excellent (>90) in 18 hips (33.96%), good (80–89) in 24 hips (45.28%), fair (70–79) in 9 hips (17%) and poor (<70) in 2 hips (3.7%). AVN of the femoral head is a painful and disabling condition in young adults. Sartorius muscle pedicle bone graft technique allows adequate decompression, re vascularization and osteogenesis of the femur head in Ficat’s stage IIa, IIb and III, in young adults. This is an effective and easy technique to adopt with excellent to good results in 80% cases and is associated with only minimal complications. PMID:27583161

  4. Sartorius muscle pedicle iliac bone graft for the treatment of avascular necrosis of femur head.

    PubMed

    Vaishya, Raju; Agarwal, Amit Kumar; Gupta, Nishint; Vijay, Vipul

    2016-08-01

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) of femoral head needs to be addressed early in the course of the disease, to prevent progression to osteoarthritis. A revascularizing procedure which can help preserve the head should be considered in young adults to alleviate the need for total hip arthroplasty. We included 40 cases (53 hips) of AVN of femoral head operated with Sartorius muscle pedicle iliac bone grafting, done by the senior author. Early post-operative rehabilitation was done. The weight bearing was delayed for 6 weeks. All the patients were followed clinically and radiologically at regular intervals. The operated femoral heads, were grouped according to Ficat's staging: 24 in stage IIA (45.3%), 22 in stage IIB (41.5%) and 07 in stage III (13.2%). The average duration of surgery was 85 min (range: 55-130 min). The total duration of follow-up was average 4.2 years (range: 2.2-15 years).The Harris hip score was excellent (>90) in 18 hips (33.96%), good (80-89) in 24 hips (45.28%), fair (70-79) in 9 hips (17%) and poor (<70) in 2 hips (3.7%). AVN of the femoral head is a painful and disabling condition in young adults. Sartorius muscle pedicle bone graft technique allows adequate decompression, re vascularization and osteogenesis of the femur head in Ficat's stage IIa, IIb and III, in young adults. This is an effective and easy technique to adopt with excellent to good results in 80% cases and is associated with only minimal complications. PMID:27583161

  5. Assessment of femur length for fetal biometry in Malaysian pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Ramzun Maizan; Adam, Noraina; Jaafar, Mohamad Suhaimi; Rahman, Azhar Abdul; Mustafa, Iskandar Shahrim; Radzi, Yasmin; Nordin, Suriani; Kamarudin, Izyani

    2013-05-01

    The fetal biometry assessment of femur length (FL) was developed in most countries to evaluate the foetus growth. In this study, the FL values for Malaysia population were determined. A prospective study was conducted and a number of 6501 pregnant women were involved with 12372 FL data were collected, performed at antenatal care clinic of Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. The SPSS software version 17 (regression analysis and paired sample t-test) were used for analysis. The FL values of this study were constructed and rapid FL growth rate in second trimester (2.59 mm/week) than third trimester (1.43 mm/week) was observed. By ethnicity, no significant difference (p ≥ 0.05) was found between the FL values for fetuses of Malay and Indian ethnic's mother (t = -2.042), however these two groups shows significantly (p < 0.05) higher values than those of Chinese ethnic's mother (t = 4.019, 4.083; accordingly). The FL values of Malaysian resulted as significant difference with the common reference FL values from USA and UK, and also with selected Asian populations (India, China, Korea and Japan). As conclusion, it is strong suggested that medical practitioner in Malaysia should avoid in using biometry references based on other population to avoid under- or over-estimation and for accurate assessment of the fetus growth. As this study involved local Malaysian fetuses, therefore the medical practitioner can use the FL values of this study as reference value for fetus biometry assessment in Malaysia.

  6. Biomechanical properties of osteoporotic rat femurs after different hormonal treatments: genistein, estradiol, and estradiol/progesterone

    PubMed Central

    Azboy, İbrahim; Özkaya, Mustafa; Demir, Teyfik; Demirtaş, Abdullah; Kağan Arslan, Arslan; Özkul, Emin; Akcan, Adnan; Tolunay, Tolga

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of the study is to compare the effects of genistein, estradiol, estradiol/progesterone combination on the bone mineral density and biomechanical properties of ovariectomized rats’ bone. Methods: 50 female adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. Bilaterally ovaeriectomy were performed in all groups except the sham-operated group. Groups were a sham-operated group and a control group (water was given), estradiol treated group (17-β estradiol 0.015 mg/kg per day), genistein treated group (genistein 10 mg/kg per day), and an estradiol/progesterone combination group (17-β estradiol 0.015 mg/kg plus drosperinone 0.028 mg/kg per day). The water or hormones were implemented in relevant groups for eight weeks by orogasthric catheter. The bone mineral density and biomechanical properties of the femur were analyzed. Results: Genistein, estradiol, and estradiol/progesterone groups increased bone mineral density significantly compared to the control group. In diaphysis and metaphysis bending test, all groups had higher peak load values than the control group. There were statistically significant differences between the estrogen/progesterone group and control group in diaphysis bending with regard to peak load. There were statistically significant differences between the estradiol and control groups in metaphysis bending with regard to peak load. In axial rotation test, all groups had higher peak torque values than the control groups. Conclusions: Genistein, estradiol and estrogen/progesterone combination improved the biomechanical properties of the ovariectomized rat bone. Genistein which has less side effects may be considered as an alternative in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:27194109

  7. Sartorius muscle pedicle iliac bone graft for the treatment of avascular necrosis of femur head.

    PubMed

    Vaishya, Raju; Agarwal, Amit Kumar; Gupta, Nishint; Vijay, Vipul

    2016-08-01

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) of femoral head needs to be addressed early in the course of the disease, to prevent progression to osteoarthritis. A revascularizing procedure which can help preserve the head should be considered in young adults to alleviate the need for total hip arthroplasty. We included 40 cases (53 hips) of AVN of femoral head operated with Sartorius muscle pedicle iliac bone grafting, done by the senior author. Early post-operative rehabilitation was done. The weight bearing was delayed for 6 weeks. All the patients were followed clinically and radiologically at regular intervals. The operated femoral heads, were grouped according to Ficat's staging: 24 in stage IIA (45.3%), 22 in stage IIB (41.5%) and 07 in stage III (13.2%). The average duration of surgery was 85 min (range: 55-130 min). The total duration of follow-up was average 4.2 years (range: 2.2-15 years).The Harris hip score was excellent (>90) in 18 hips (33.96%), good (80-89) in 24 hips (45.28%), fair (70-79) in 9 hips (17%) and poor (<70) in 2 hips (3.7%). AVN of the femoral head is a painful and disabling condition in young adults. Sartorius muscle pedicle bone graft technique allows adequate decompression, re vascularization and osteogenesis of the femur head in Ficat's stage IIa, IIb and III, in young adults. This is an effective and easy technique to adopt with excellent to good results in 80% cases and is associated with only minimal complications.

  8. Epidemiology of fractures of the proximal third of the femur in elderly patients☆

    PubMed Central

    Daniachi, Daniel; Netto, Alfredo dos Santos; Ono, Nelson Keiske; Guimarães, Rodrigo Pereira; Polesello, Giancarlo Cavalli; Honda, Emerson Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Objective This was an epidemiological study on fractures of the proximal third of the femur in elderly patients who were treated at a teaching hospital in the central region of São Paulo. Methods The subjects were patients over the age of 60 years who were attended over a 1-year period. A questionnaire seeking basic sociodemographic data and information on comorbidities presented and medications used was drawn up. The circumstances of the fractures and their characteristics, the treatment instituted and the intra-hospital mortality rate were evaluated. Results The 113 patients included in the study presented a mean age of 79 years. The ratio between the sexes was three women to each man. Only 30.4% of the patients reported having osteoporosis and only 0.9% had had treatment for the disease. Low-energy trauma was the cause of 92.9% of the fractures. Femoral neck fractures accounted for 42.5% of the fractures and trochanteric fractures, 57.5%. Five patients did not undergo operations; 39 underwent joint replacement; and 69 underwent osteosynthesis. The mean length of hospital stay was 13.5 days and the mean length of waiting time until surgery was 7 days. The intra-hospital mortality rate was 7.1%. Conclusion The patients attended at this institution presented an epidemiological profile similar to what is found in the Brazilian literature. Chronic kidney failure is a significant factor with regard to intra-hospital mortality. Preventive measures such as early diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis and regular physical activity practices were not implemented. PMID:26401497

  9. Limited V-shaped cement augmentation of the proximal femur to prevent secondary hip fractures.

    PubMed

    Fliri, Ladina; Sermon, An; Wähnert, Dirk; Schmoelz, Werner; Blauth, Michael; Windolf, Markus

    2013-07-01

    Patients with a femoral fracture due to osteoporosis are at high risk of sustaining a secondary fracture on the contralateral side. A prophylactic mechanical reinforcement of the contralateral side during operation of the initial fracture could be of interest for such patients. This biomechanical in vitro study investigates the potential of a limited V-shaped bone cement augmentation to prevent secondary hip fractures by targeting the areas of the proximal femur with the highest stresses during a fall. Five pairs of human cadaveric proximal femora were tested in a configuration simulating a fall on the greater trochanter. The femoral neck of one specimen of each pair was augmented with 8-14 ml polymethylmethacrylate from the lateral cortex towards inferior and superior, spanning a V-shaped cement pattern. Clinical relevant fractures were generated with a 45 kg mass in controlled free fall. Load-displacement data were recorded and energy to fracture, fracture load, yield load and stiffness were statistically evaluated. Augmented samples absorbed 124% more energy until fracture compared to their controls (p = 0.043). No significant differences were found between the two groups for fracture load (p = 0.5), yield load (p = 0.35) and stiffness (p = 0.5). Biomechanically, a limited V-shaped prophylactic cement augmentation carries potential to prevent secondary hip fractures indicated by increased energy absorption until fracture. Further investigations are necessary to minimize interference with the biology and to maximize the mechanical benefit of prophylactic augmentation.

  10. Systemic Inflammatory Effects of Traumatic Brain Injury, Femur Fracture, and Shock: An Experimental Murine Polytrauma Model

    PubMed Central

    Probst, C.; Mirzayan, M. J.; Mommsen, P.; Zeckey, C.; Tegeder, T.; Geerken, L.; Maegele, M.; Samii, A.; van Griensven, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Despite broad research in neurotrauma and shock, little is known on systemic inflammatory effects of the clinically most relevant combined polytrauma. Experimental investigation in an animal model may provide relevant insight for therapeutic strategies. We describe the effects of a combined injury with respect to lymphocyte population and cytokine activation. Methods. 45 male C57BL/6J mice (mean weight 27 g) were anesthetized with ketamine/xylazine. Animals were subjected to a weight drop closed traumatic brain injury (WD-TBI), a femoral fracture and hemorrhagic shock (FX-SH). Animals were subdivided into WD-TBI, FX-SH and combined trauma (CO-TX) groups. Subjects were sacrificed at 96 h. Blood was analysed for cytokines and by flow cytometry for lymphocyte populations. Results. Mortality was 8%, 13% and 47% for FX-SH, WD-TBI and CO-TX groups (P < 0.05). TNFα (11/13/139 for FX-SH/WD-TBI/CO-TX; P < 0.05), CCL2 (78/96/227; P < 0.05) and IL-6 (16/48/281; P = 0.05) showed significant increases in the CO-TX group. Lymphocyte populations results for FX-SH, WD-TBI and CO-TX were: CD-4 (31/21/22; P = n.s.), CD-8 (7/28/34, P < 0.05), CD-4-CD-8 (11/12/18; P = n.s.), CD-56 (36/7/8; P < 0.05). Conclusion. This study shows that a combination of closed TBI and femur-fracture/ shock results in an increase of the humoral inflammation. More attention to combined injury models in inflammation research is indicated. PMID:22529516

  11. Primary Cementless Hip Arthroplasty in Unstable Intertrochanteric Femur Fracture in Elderlys: Short-term Results

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyung Lae; Cho, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study was aimed to explore and report the short term results of primary cementless hip arthroplasty in treatment of unstable intertrochanteric femur fracture in elderlys. Materials and Methods Between March 2009 and Feburary 2012, 35 arthroplasty cases performed by single surgeon and followed up for more than one year were evaluated. They were 21 females and 14 males with mean age of 78 years (range, 71-92 years). Preoperative evaluation was performed by American Society of Anesthesia score. Retrospective evaluation was performed by operative time, transfusion amount, time to operation days, hospital stay and time to full weight bearing. Clinically, ambulatory ability was checked by Parker and Palmer (P&P) score and function of hip was appraised by Harris hip score (HSS). Radiologically, bone healing of fractured trochanteric fragment and presence of subsidence, stress shielding or osteolysis were checked. Results Fracture type was 11 cases of A2.2, 18 cases of A2.3 and 6 cases of A3.3. Femoral stems used were 8 cases of rectangular tapered wedge type and 27 cases of fluted modular distal fixation type. P&P score improved from mean preinjury score of 7.1 to mean postoperative last follow-up score of 6.5. Median HHS at last follow-up was 75. Mean time to full weight bearing was 47 days (24-79 days). Postoperative complications were one case of linear periprosthetic femoral fracture and one case of postoperative dislocation. Conclusion Cementless hip replacement arthroplasty could be a good option for unstable intertrochanteric femoral fracture in elderlys. PMID:27536574

  12. Late embryogenesis abundant proteins

    PubMed Central

    Olvera-Carrillo, Yadira; Reyes, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins accumulate at the onset of seed desiccation and in response to water deficit in vegetative plant tissues. The typical LEA proteins are highly hydrophilic and intrinsically unstructured. They have been classified in different families, each one showing distinctive conserved motifs. In this manuscript we present and discuss some of the recent findings regarding their role in plant adaptation to water deficit, as well as those concerning to their possible function, and how it can be related to their intrinsic structural flexibility. PMID:21447997

  13. Avoidance of late abortion.

    PubMed

    1979-11-24

    Induced abortion is now a common procedure in the United States and Britain. Methods for performing induced abortion are reviewed. Menstrual regulation, aspiration with a hand-held syringe and a flexible cannula within 6 weeks of the last period, is not often practiced in Britain. Several developing countries are using this simple technique to advantage. Vacuum aspiration in the 1st 12 weeks of pregnancy is the main method being used everywhere for 1st trimester procedures. Mortality rates with this method are low and, in well-organized clinics with experienced personnel, the rates can be reduced even further. It is agreed that 2nd trimester procedures are more complex, both physically and emotionally. In the last several years, dilatation and evacuation (D&E) has increased in popularity for 2nd trimester procedures. Dilation of the cervix is generally accomplished with laminaria, evacuation of the uterus with forceps, and then suction curettage applied. This procedure has replaced intraamniotic infusion, hysterotomy, and hysterectomy as the most commonly - practiced method, despite its need for special surgical skills and good clinical backup. Follow-up of abortions is difficult. Different long-term effects have been noted with different abortion procedures. Early abortion seems to have only a modest effect, if that. Whether late abortion has long-lasting effects remains open to question. Late abortion should be avoided.

  14. Bone mineral density of the proximal femur after hip resurfacing arthroplasty: 1-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA) is considered a bone-preserving procedure and may eliminate proximal femoral stress shielding and osteolysis. However, in addition to implant-related stress-shielding factors, various patient-related factors may also have an effect on bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal femur in patients with HRA. Thus, we studied the effects of stem-neck angle, demographic variables, and physical functioning on the BMD of the proximal femur in a one-year follow-up. Methods Thirty three patients (9 females and 24 males) with a mean (SD) age of 55 (9) years were included in the study. BMD was measured two days and 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively and 10 regions of interest (ROI) were used. Stem-neck angle was analyzed from anteroposterior radiographs. Results Three months postoperatively, BMD decreased in six out of 10 regions of interest (ROI) on the side operated on and in one ROI on the control side (p < 0.05) compared to the second postoperative day. At 12 months, BMD had increased in 7 ROIs on the operated side and one ROI on the control side (all p < 0.001). Correlation was found between the stem-neck angle and BMD in ROIs 2, 3, 7, and 9 (r = 0.36 - 0.61). In multiple regression analysis, stem-neck angle, age, sex, body mass index, and walking distance did not explain the BMD changes. Conclusions After an early drop, the BMD of the upper femur was restored and even exceeded the preoperative level at one year follow-up. From a clinical standpoint, the changes in BMD in these HRA patients could not be explained by stem-neck angle or patient related factors. PMID:21595913

  15. Comparative Study Using Intramedullary K-wire Fixation Over Titanium Elastic Nail in Paediatric Shaft Femur Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Tushar; Singh, Sudhir

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fracture shaft femur is common paediatric trauma leading to significant morbidity. Conservative treatments available are associated with prolonged periods of immobilization. Use of flexible intramedullary implant allows early rehabilitation in diaphyseal fractures of femur in children. Aim: The aim of the present study is to compare fixation of diaphyseal femur fracture by titanium elastic nail and intramedullary K-wires in children. Setting and Design: Prospective randomized study in a tertiary care hospital. Material and Methods: Fifty-two children between 6 years and 14 years of age with femoral shaft fracture were assigned either in Group I or Group II based on computer generated random numbers. In Group I closed percutaneous intramedullary K- wire fixation and in Group II closed percutaneous intramedullary titanium elastic nail was used to fix the fractures. Partial weight bearing was allowed after 6 weeks of surgery and full weight bearing at clinico-radiological union. Results: Average time of radiological union was 6 to 10 weeks in both groups. In both the groups two cases had entry site irritation which resolved with early implant removal. One case in both the groups had unacceptable mal-alignment. Both the groups had few cases of limb-length discrepancy, which was in acceptable limit, except two cases of TENS. There was no statistically significant difference between the results of both the groups. But, using K-wires significantly reduced the cost of treatment. Conclusion: Most of such fractures in our society are neglected because of high cost of treatment. Providing a cheaper alternative in form of K-wires may be beneficial for the patients from low socio-economic status. PMID:25584251

  16. Recurrent Proximal Femur Fractures in a Teenager With Osteogenesis Imperfecta on Continuous Bisphosphonate Therapy: Are We Overtreating?

    PubMed

    Vasanwala, Rashida F; Sanghrajka, Anish; Bishop, Nicholas J; Högler, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    Long-term bisphosphonate (BP) therapy in adults with osteoporosis is associated with atypical femoral fractures, caused by increased material bone density and prolonged suppression of bone remodeling which may reduce fracture toughness. In children with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), long-term intravenous BP therapy improves bone structure and mass without further increasing the already hypermineralized bone matrix, and is generally regarded as safe. Here we report a teenage girl with OI type IV, who was started on cyclical intravenous pamidronate therapy at age 6 years because of recurrent fractures. Transiliac bone biopsy revealed classical structural features of OI but unusually low bone resorption surfaces. She made substantial improvements in functional ability, bone mass, and fracture rate. However, after 5 years of pamidronate therapy she started to develop recurrent, bilateral, nontraumatic, and proximal femur fractures, which satisfied the case definition for atypical femur fractures. Some fractures were preceded by periosteal reactions and prodromal pain. Pamidronate was discontinued after 7 years of therapy, following which she sustained two further nontraumatic femur fractures, and continued to show delayed tibial osteotomy healing. Despite rodding surgery, and very much in contrast to her affected, untreated, and normally mobile mother, she remains wheelchair-dependent. The case of this girl raises questions about the long-term safety of BP therapy in some children, in particular about the risk of oversuppressed bone remodeling with the potential for microcrack accumulation, delayed healing, and increased stiffness. The principal concern is whether there is point at which benefit from BP therapy could turn into harm, where fracture risk increases again. This case should stimulate debate whether current adult atypical femoral fracture guidance should apply to children, and whether low-frequency, low-dose cyclical, intermittent, or oral treatment

  17. Degradation and silicon excretion of the calcium silicate bioactive ceramics during bone regeneration using rabbit femur defect model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaili; Liu, Yong; Huang, Hai; Chen, Lei; Wang, Zhen; Chang, Jiang

    2015-06-01

    The investigation of the bone regeneration ability, degradation and excretion of the grafts is critical for development and application of the newly developed biomaterials. Herein, the in vivo bone-regeneration, biodegradation and silicon (Si) excretion of the new type calcium silicate (CaSiO3, CS) bioactive ceramics were investigated using rabbit femur defect model, and the results were compared with the traditional β-tricalcium phosphate [β-Ca3(PO4)2, β-TCP] bioceramics. After implantation of the scaffolds in rabbit femur defects for 4, 8 and 12 weeks, the bone regenerative capacity and degradation were evaluated by histomorphometric analysis. While urine and some organs such as kidney, liver, lung and spleen were resected for chemical analysis to determine the excretion of the ionic products from CS implants. The histomorphometric analysis showed that the bioresorption rate of CS was similar to that of β-TCP in femur defect model, while the CS grafts could significantly stimulate bone formation capacity as compared with β-TCP bioceramics (P < 0.05). The chemical analysis results showed that Si concentration in urinary of the CS group was apparently higher than that in control group of β-TCP. However, no significant increase of the Si excretion was found in the organs including kidney, which suggests that the resorbed Si element is harmlessly excreted in soluble form via the urine. The present studies show that the CS ceramics can be used as safe, bioactive and biodegradable materials for hard tissue repair and tissue engineering applications.

  18. Image-Based Macro-Micro Finite Element Models of a Canine Femur with Implant Design Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Somnath; Krishnan, Ganapathi; Dyce, Jonathan

    2006-06-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive model of a bone-cement-implant assembly is developed for a canine cemented femoral prosthesis system. Various steps in this development entail profiling the canine femur contours by computed tomography (CT) scanning, computer aided design (CAD) reconstruction of the canine femur from CT images, CAD modeling of the implant from implant blue prints and CAD modeling of the interface cement. Finite element analysis of the macroscopic assembly is conducted for stress analysis in individual components of the system, accounting for variation in density and material properties in the porous bone material. A sensitivity analysis is conducted with the macroscopic model to investigate the effect of implant design variables on the stress distribution in the assembly. Subsequently, rigorous microstructural analysis of the bone incorporating the morphological intricacies is conducted. Various steps in this development include acquisition of the bone microstructural data from histological serial sectioning, stacking of sections to obtain 3D renderings of void distributions, microstructural characterization and determination of properties and, finally, microstructural stress analysis using a 3D Voronoi cell finite element method. Generation of the simulated microstructure and analysis by the 3D Voronoi cell finite element model provides a new way of modeling complex microstructures and correlating to morphological characteristics. An inverse calculation of the material parameters of bone by combining macroscopic experiments with microstructural characterization and analysis provides a new approach to evaluating properties without having to do experiments at this scale. Finally, the microstructural stresses in the femur are computed using the 3D VCFEM to study the stress distribution at the scale of the bone porosity. Significant difference is observed between the macroscopic stresses and the peak microscopic stresses at different locations.

  19. Locally applied simvastatin improves fracture healing at late period in osteoporotic rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Faming; Zhang, Liu; Kang, Yuchuan; Zhang, Junshan; Ao, Jiao; Yang, Fang

    effect of simvastatin locally applied from a bioactive polymer coating of implants on osteoporotic fracture healing at late period. Methods:Femur fracture model was established on normal or osteotoporotic mature female SD rats, intramedullary stabilization was achieved with uncoated titanium Kirschnerwires in normal rats(group A),with polymer-only coated vs. polymer plus simvastatin coated titanium Kirschner wires in osteoporotic rats(group B and C, respectively).Femurs were harvested after 12 weeks, and underwent radiographic and histologic analysis, as well as immunohistochemical evaluation for BMP-2 expression. Results:Radiographic results demonstrated progressed callus in the simvastatin-treated groups compared to the uncoated group.The histologic analysis revealed a significantly processed callus with irregular-shaped newly formed bone trabeculae in simvastatin-treated group. Immunohistochemical evaluation showed markedly higher expression levels of B:MP-2 in simvastatin-treated group.Conclusions: The present study revealed a improved fracture healing under local application of simvastatin in osteoporotic rat,which might partially from upregulation of the B:MP-2 expression at fractured site.

  20. A new enigmatic Late Miocene mylodontoid sloth from northern South America

    PubMed Central

    Rincón, Ascanio D.; McDonald, H. Gregory; Solórzano, Andrés; Flores, Mónica Núñez; Ruiz-Ramoni, Damián

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and species of sloth (Eionaletherium tanycnemius gen. et sp. nov.) recently collected from the Late Miocene Urumaco Formation, Venezuela (northern South America) is herein described based on a partial skeleton including associated femora and tibiae. In order to make a preliminary analysis of the phylogenetic affinities of this new sloth we performed a discriminate analysis based on several characters of the femur and tibia of selected Mylodontoidea and Megatherioidea sloths. The consensus tree produced indicates that the new sloth, E. tanycnemius, is a member of the Mylodontoidea. Surprisingly, the new taxon shows some enigmatic features among Neogene mylodontoid sloths, e.g. femur with a robust lesser trochanter that projects medially and the straight distinctly elongated tibia. The discovery of E. tanycnemius increases the diversity of sloths present in the Urumaco sequence to ten taxa. This taxon supports previous studies of the sloth assemblage from the Urumaco sequence as it further indicates that there are several sloth lineages present that are unknown from the better sampled areas of southern South America. PMID:26064594

  1. A new enigmatic Late Miocene mylodontoid sloth from northern South America.

    PubMed

    Rincón, Ascanio D; McDonald, H Gregory; Solórzano, Andrés; Flores, Mónica Núñez; Ruiz-Ramoni, Damián

    2015-02-01

    A new genus and species of sloth (Eionaletherium tanycnemius gen. et sp. nov.) recently collected from the Late Miocene Urumaco Formation, Venezuela (northern South America) is herein described based on a partial skeleton including associated femora and tibiae. In order to make a preliminary analysis of the phylogenetic affinities of this new sloth we performed a discriminate analysis based on several characters of the femur and tibia of selected Mylodontoidea and Megatherioidea sloths. The consensus tree produced indicates that the new sloth, E. tanycnemius, is a member of the Mylodontoidea. Surprisingly, the new taxon shows some enigmatic features among Neogene mylodontoid sloths, e.g. femur with a robust lesser trochanter that projects medially and the straight distinctly elongated tibia. The discovery of E. tanycnemius increases the diversity of sloths present in the Urumaco sequence to ten taxa. This taxon supports previous studies of the sloth assemblage from the Urumaco sequence as it further indicates that there are several sloth lineages present that are unknown from the better sampled areas of southern South America. PMID:26064594

  2. Osteoblast-osteocyte transformation. A SEM densitometric analysis of endosteal apposition in rabbit femur

    PubMed Central

    Pazzaglia, Ugo E; Congiu, Terenzio; Sibilia, Valeria; Quacci, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Transformation of osteoblasts into osteocytes is marked by changes in volume and cell shape. The reduction of volume and the entrapment process are correlated with the synthesis activity of the cell which decreases consequently. This transformation process has been extensively investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) but no data have yet been published regarding osteoblast-osteocyte dynamic histomorphometry. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) densitometric analysis was carried out to determine the osteoblast and open osteocyte lacunae density in corresponding areas of a rabbit femur endosteal surface. The lining cell density was 4900.1 ± 30.03 n mm−2, the one of open osteocyte lacunae 72.89 ± 22.55 n mm−2. This corresponds to an index of entrapment of one cell every 67.23 osteoblasts (approximated by defect). The entrapment sequence begins with flattening of the osteoblast and spreading of equatorial processes. At first these are covered by the new apposed matrix and then also the whole cellular body of the osteocyte undergoing entrapment. The dorsal aspect of the cell membrane suggests that closure of the osteocyte lacuna may be partially carried out by the same osteoblast-osteocyte which developed a dorsal secretory territory. A significant proportion of the endosteal surface was analysed by SEM, without observing any evidence of osteoblast mitotic figures. This indicates that recruitment of the pool of osteogenic cells in cortical bone lamellar systems occurs prior to the entrapment process. No further additions occurred once osteoblasts were positioned on the bone surface and began lamellar apposition. The number of active osteoblasts on the endosteal surface exceeded that of the cells which become incorporated as osteocytes (whose number was indicated by the number of osteocyte lacunae). Therefore such a balance must be equilibrated by the osteoblasts' transformation in resting lining cells or by apoptosis. The current work

  3. Collar-type osteophyte of the femur in young adults: is it a harbinger of intra-articular osteoid osteoma?

    PubMed

    Sanal, Hatice Tuba; Bozkurt, Yalcin

    2013-09-01

    Variable clinical and radiological findings for intra-articular osteoid osteoma (OO) of the hip joint make its diagnosis difficult. Because radiographs commonly do not identify the nidus, MR imaging becomes the second line of study. However, because the appearance varies, findings on MR images can be confusing. We found "collar type osteophyte" of the femur i.e. an osteophyte rim around the femoral neck, to be a conspicuous finding of intra-articular OO. Here, this feature will be emphasized and intra-articular OOs will be discussed, with a review of the literature.

  4. A rare case of metaphyseodiaphyseal chondroblastoma of proximal femur presenting with constitutional symptoms in a six-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Bali, Kamal; Kumar, Vishal; Rawall, Saurabh; Sudesh, Pebam

    2012-03-01

    Primary metaphyseodiaphyseal chondroblastoma is rare. To our knowledge, very few such cases have been reported in the English literature. Insidious onset of pain is the most common complaint in patients with chondroblastoma. A clinical presentation of constitutional symptoms along with a metaphyseodiaphyseal lesion on radiographs in a young child usually points toward a diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma or infection. Here, we document a case of metaphyseodiaphyseal chondroblastoma of femur in a 6-year-old child presenting with chief local complaints of an intermediate onset pain and swelling along with systemic complaints of fever and malaise. The patient was operated by excision of the tumor and reconstruction using autogenous-free fibular graft.

  5. The classic: Epiphyseal coxa vara or displacement of the capital epiphysis of the femur in adolescence. 1926.

    PubMed

    Key, John Albert

    2013-07-01

    This Classic Article is a redacted reprint of the original work by J.A. Key, "Epiphyseal coxa vara or displacement of the capital epiphysis of the femur in adolescence." (Note the case reports and associated figures were deleted but are available in the supplemental reprint of the original article available online.) An accompanying biographical sketch of J.A. Key is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-013-2907-9. The classic article is reprinted courtesy of The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery from Key JA. J Bone Joint Surg. 1926;8:53-117.

  6. Is the rotation of the femural head a potential initiation for cutting out? A theoretical and experimental approach

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Since cut-out still remains one of the major clinical challenges in the field of osteoporotic proximal femur fractures, remarkable developments have been made in improving treatment concepts. However, the mechanics of these complications have not been fully understood. We hypothesize using the experimental data and a theoretical model that a previous rotation of the femoral head due to de-central implant positioning can initiate a cut-out. Methods In this investigation we analysed our experimental data using two common screws (DHS/Gamma 3) and helical blades (PFN A/TFN) for the fixation of femur fractures in a simple theoretical model applying typical gait pattern on de-central positioned implants. In previous tests during a forced implant rotation by a biomechanical testing machine in a human femoral head the two screws showed failure symptoms (2-6Nm) at the same magnitude as torques acting in the hip during daily activities with de-central implant positioning, while the helical blades showed a better stability (10-20Nm). To calculate the torque of the head around the implant only the force and the leverarm is needed (N [Nm] = F [N] * × [m]). The force F is a product of the mass M [kg] multiplied by the acceleration g [m/s2]. The leverarm is the distance between the center of the head of femur and the implant center on a horizontal line. Results Using 50% of 75 kg body weight a torque of 0.37Nm for the 1 mm decentralized position and 1.1Nm for the 3 mm decentralized position of the implant was calculated. At 250% BW, appropriate to a normal step, torques of 1.8Nm (1 mm) and 5.5Nm (3 mm) have been calculated. Comparing of the experimental and theoretical results shows that both screws fail in the same magnitude as torques occur in a more than 3 mm de-central positioned implant. Conclusion We conclude the center-center position in the head of femur of any kind of lag screw or blade is to be achieved to minimize rotation of the femoral head and to prevent

  7. CT analysis of the upper end of the femur: The asterisk sign and ischaemic bone necrosis of the femoral head

    SciTech Connect

    Dihlmann, W.

    1982-08-01

    In computed tomography (CT) of the head of the femur, a star-shaped structure can be seen which we refer to as the asterisk or asterisk sign. The asterisk is formed by thickened weight-bearing bone trabeculae. It can be shown by CT that the asterisk exhibits a characteristic change in ischaemic bone necrosis of the femoral head, even when the disease is in an early stage. CT of the hip joint is therefore an important examination for early diagnosis of ischaemic diesease of the femoral head.

  8. Fracture toughness and compressive properties of cancellous bone at the head of the femur and relationships to non-invasive skeletal assessment measurements.

    PubMed

    Cook, R B; Curwen, C; Tasker, T; Zioupos, P

    2010-11-01

    Osteoporosis defines a causal relationship between reduced bone density, reduced mechanical competence of the bone tissue of the sufferers and concomitantly an increased risk of fracture in life. The aims of the present study is: (1) to provide further evidence to support the use of Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) results from peripheral sites to provide a prediction of the density of the proximal femur; and (2) to provide rational evidence for the well-proven ability of QUS to predict directly 'risk of fracture'. 20 femoral heads were obtained from 15 Caucasian females and 5 Caucasian males undergoing emergency surgery for a fractured neck of femur. QUS investigations of the calcaneus, proximal phalanx, distal radius and mid-shaft tibia were undertaken on the donors with 72h of surgery. 128 fracture toughness samples and 20 compression cores were manufactured and tested. Significant relationships were found between QUS parameters determined in vivo and the apparent density (g/cm(3)) of the tissue at the proximal femur and both the fracture toughness and strength determined in vitro from the same donor individual. In this study we relate QUS results obtained in vivo to the actual apparent density of bone tissue from the proximal femur, donated by the same individual, and the fracture toughness and compressive strength. The study demonstrates the ability of QUS investigations at peripheral sites to accurately predict the density of bone from the proximal femur and provides evidence to support the use of QUS to predict the 'risk of fracture' directly.

  9. Long-term effects of high or low Ca intakes and of lack of parathyroid function on rat femur biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, J L; Tessaro, R D; Audisio, E O; Galassi, C D

    1985-12-01

    In order to assess the repercussion of chronically affected parathyroid function on bone biomechanics, 3-point flexion tests were carried out with fresh, whole femurs of young, intact rats fed diets with low, normal, or high Ca contents, and thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) rats fed normal Ca diet. Ca-restriction reduced, and TPTX augmented, inertial parameters and load-resistance of the whole femurs, not affecting the bending stress or the modulus of elasticity of the bone material, suggesting that parathyroid status affected bone mass and architecture without biomechanical alteration of bone tissue. High-Ca feeding enhanced tissue strength and stiffness as a direct effect, not altering bone geometry. The relationships between the energy-absorbing capacity of the whole bones or of the bone tissue, and the moment of inertia of the fracture sections in weight-paired animals showed that (1) in intact rats under normocalcic diet, the inertia of the section was unrelated to the whole-bone biomechanical performance, while bone section architecture depended on bone tissue biomechanical quality; and (2) in the absence of the parathyroids, or in chronically-induced hyperparathyroidism, this last relationship did not apply, but section architecture had a major influence on the whole-bone biomechanics, independently of physiological stresses. The evidence obtained can be interpreted to indicate that architectural changes brought about by the parathyroids contribute to the regulation of bone biomechanics by adapting organ inertial parameters to tissue quality.

  10. Orientation of orthotropic material properties in a femur FE model: a method based on the principal stresses directions.

    PubMed

    San Antonio, T; Ciaccia, M; Müller-Karger, C; Casanova, E

    2012-09-01

    Most work done on bone simulation has modeled the tissue as inhomogeneous and isotropic even though it is a recognized anisotropic material. Some recent investigations have included orthotropic behavior in bone finite elements (FE) models; however the problem regarding the orientation of these properties along the irregular bone anatomy remains. In this work, a procedure to orientate orthotropic properties in a proximal femur FE model using the directions of the principal stresses produced by a physiological load scheme was developed. Two heterogeneous material models, one isotropic and one orthotropic, were employed to test their influence on the mechanical behavior of the bone model. In the developed orthotropic material, the mechanical properties are aligned with the highest principal stress produced from the successive application of a multi load scenario corresponding to 10%, 30% and 45% of the gait cycle. A solid match between anatomical structures in the proximal femur and the corresponding directions of the main principal stress of the elements of the model suggests that the developed methodology works accurately. The differences found in the stress distributions were small (maximum 7.6%); nevertheless the changes in the strain distributions were important (maximum 27%) and located in areas of clinical relevance. PMID:22100056

  11. Exploring the Use of Non-Image-Based Ultrasound to Detect the Position of the Residual Femur within a Stump

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Sook-Yee; Röhrle, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    A satisfactorily fitted socket interacts dynamically with the stump in order to support body weight, transmit load effectively, enhance dynamic stability, and enable the control and stabilization of the residual limb. The internal dynamics occurring within a socket is important in determining optimal fit. Many measurement and imaging techniques, such as X-rays, have been utilized to investigate the movement of the residual femur within the stump during gait. However, due to associated health risks and costs, none of the current techniques have been extended to clinical prosthetics. The use of B-mode ultrasound has been suggested as a safe and cheap alternative, and has been utilized in previous studies to monitor the motion of the femur. However, the need to create a duplicate socket and time-consuming analysis of the images were obstacles to the system being applied clinically. This study aims to gauge the effectiveness of a non-image based ultrasound system. Here, we determined errors expected from the measurements. Accuracy errors of 2.9 mm to 8.4 mm and reproducibility measurements within a standard deviation of 3.9 mm are reported. We also estimated errors up to 14.4 mm in in-vivo measurements. We think there is potential in developing this technique, and we hope to reduce some technical difficulties such that it can, one day, be easily incorporated into prosthetic fitting. PMID:27764120

  12. Bone regeneration in a massive rat femur defect through endochondral ossification achieved with chondrogenically differentiated MSCs in a degradable scaffold.

    PubMed

    Harada, Noriko; Watanabe, Yoshinobu; Sato, Kenji; Abe, Satoshi; Yamanaka, Katsuyuki; Sakai, Yuhiro; Kaneko, Tadashi; Matsushita, Takashi

    2014-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells capable of proliferating and differentiating into several lineages. In regenerative medicine, their potential as a resource for tissue-replacement therapy is receiving much attention. However, transplanting MSCs to repair larger bone defects in animal models has so far proved disappointing. Here we report on the healing of both critical-sized (5 mm) and massive (15 mm) full-thickness femur defects in rats by implanting a uniquely fabricated PLGA scaffold seeded with MSCs pre-differentiated in vitro into cartilage-forming chondrocytes (MSC-DCs). This strategy closely mimics endochondral ossification, the process by which long bones develop in nature. It is thought that because the transplanted MSC-DCs induced natural bone formation, the defect size was not critical to the outcome. Crucially, after 8 weeks the mean biomechanical strength of femora with the massive 15 mm implant reached 75% that of a normal rat femur, while in the case of 5 mm implants there was no significant difference. Successful healing was also highly reproducible, with bone union occurring in all treated animals examined radiologically 8 or 16 weeks after surgery.

  13. Bone mineral density distribution in the proximal femur and its relationship to morphologic factors in progressed unilateral hip osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Naomi; Inaba, Yutaka; Yukizawa, Yohei; Takagawa, Shu; Ike, Hiroyuki; Kubota, So; Naka, Takuma; Saito, Tomoyuki

    2015-07-01

    Although an adverse relationship between osteoporosis and osteoarthritis (OA) has been reported, it remains controversial. In most previous reports of OA, bone mineral density (BMD) changes in the subtrochanteric region have not been clarified, whilst BMD of the femoral neck and trochanteric region has been well investigated. In our current study, we investigated the BMD ratio compared to the contralateral side in the whole proximal femurs of hip OA patients. We aimed to clarify the morphologic factor that may influence these BMD ratios. We performed dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) analysis of 69 hip joints from unilateral progressed OA cases. The minimum joint space, center edge angle, Sharp angle, acetabular head index, neck-shaft angle, and leg length discrepancy were also measured as radiographic factors. The correlation between BMD ratio and radiographic morphologic factors was then evaluated by logistic regression. The BMD ratio was higher in the femoral neck than in the distal region. In terms of radiographic factors, the neck-shaft angle was revealed to influence the decreased BMD ratio in the distal subtrochanteric part, whilst the leg length discrepancy and Sharp angle showed a relationship with the increased BMD ratio in the proximal neck region. The discrepancy in the BMD ratio between the femoral neck and the distal subtrochanteric region in the proximal femur is influenced by several morphologic factors.

  14. Influence of effective number of pulses on the morphological structure of teeth and bovine femur after femtosecond laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolodelli, Gustavo; de Fátima Zanirato Lizarelli, Rosane; Salvador Bagnato, Vanderlei

    2012-04-01

    Femtosecond lasers have been widely used in laser surgery as an instrument for contact-free tissue removal of hard dental, restorative materials, and osseous tissues, complementing conventional drilling or cutting tools. In order to obtain a laser system that provides an ablation efficiency comparable to mechanical instruments, the laser pulse rate must be maximal without causing thermal damage. The aim of this study was to compare the different morphological characteristics of the hard tissue after exposure to lasers operating in the femtosecond pulse regime. Two different kinds of samples were irradiated: dentin from human extracted teeth and bovine femur samples. Different procedures were applied, while paying special care to preserving the structures. The incubation factor S was calculated to be 0.788+/-0.004 for the bovine femur bone. These results indicate that the incubation effect is still substantial during the femtosecond laser ablation of hard tissues. The plasma-induced ablation has reduced side effects, i.e., we observe less thermal and mechanical damage when using a superficial femtosecond laser irradiation close to the threshold conditions. In the femtosecond regime, the morphology characteristics of the cavity were strongly influenced by the change of the effective number of pulses.

  15. [Intramedullary osteosynthesis in treating intertrochanteric fracture of the femur, based on our own experience using Gamma nails and Ender rods].

    PubMed

    Bednarenko, Marcin; Kotela, Ireneusz; Zieńzuk, Witold; Korzec, Artur

    2008-01-01

    Intertrochanteric fractures have always posed an interdisciplinary medical problem. Most frequently it happens between 7th and 8th decades of life. The majority of them are due to osteoporosis. Both for a medical doctor and surgeon they face quite a challenge when it comes to treating a patient with a fracture of the proximal epiphysis of the femur. Recently, the outcome of the fracture treatment has improved greatly due to introduction of modern methods of intramedullary and periosteal fusion. In this study we present a possible utilization of Gamma nails, its advantages and disadvantages compared with the stabilisation achieved using Ender rods. We analyzed the outcome of treatment of 198 patients treated for intertrochanteric fractures of the femur. We present advantages and disadvantages of both methods of stabilization. We stress the importance of the correct reduction of the bone even if requiring opening. We also point to difficulties that accompany both types of stabilization. The final results reveal a considerably better outcome in patients treated using Gamma nails, especially if fractures were instable. PMID:18669108

  16. Personalized x-ray reconstruction of the proximal femur via a non-rigid 2D-3D registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Weimin; Zysset, Philippe; Zheng, Guoyan

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we present a new approach for a personalized X-ray reconstruction of the proximal femur via a non-rigid registration of a 3D volumetric template to 2D calibrated C-arm images. The 2D-3D registration is done with a hierarchical two-stage strategy: the global scaled rigid registration stage followed by a regularized deformable b-spline registration stage. In both stages, a set of control points with uniform spacing are placed over the domain of the 3D volumetric template and the registrations are driven by computing updated positions of these control points, which then allows to accurately register the 3D volumetric template to the reference space of the C-arm images. Comprehensive experiments on simulated images, on images of cadaveric femurs and on clinical datasets are designed and conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation results are given, which demonstrate the efficacy of the present approach.

  17. The use of small interfering RNAs to inhibit adipocyte differentiation in human preadipocytes and fetal-femur-derived mesenchymal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Y.; Mirmalek-Sani, S.-H.; Yang, X.; Zhang, J.; Oreffo, R.O.C. . E-mail: roco@soton.ac.uk

    2006-06-10

    RNA interference (RNAi) has been used in functional genomics and offers innovative approaches in the development of novel therapeutics. Human mesenchymal stem cells offer a unique cell source for tissue engineering/regeneration strategies. The current study examined the potential of small interfering RNAs (siRNA) against human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) to suppress adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis) in human preadipocytes and fetal-femur-derived mesenchymal cells. Adipogenesis was investigated using cellular and biochemical analysis. Transient transfection with PPAR{gamma}-siRNA using a liposomal-based strategy resulted in a significant inhibition of adipogenesis in human preadipocytes and fetal-femur-derived mesenchymal cells, compared to controls (cell, liposomal and negative siRNA). The inhibitory effect of PPAR{gamma}-siRNA was supported by testing human PPAR{gamma} mRNA and adipogenic associated genes using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 as well as examination of fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP{sub 3}) expression, an adipocyte-specific marker. The current studies indicate that PPAR{gamma}-siRNA is a useful tool to study adipogenesis in human cells, with potential applications both therapeutic and in the elucidation of mesenchymal cell differentiation in the modulation of cell differentiation in human mesenchymal cells.

  18. The interdisciplinary approach of an aggressive giant cell tumor of bone complicated with a fracture of the distal femur.

    PubMed

    Vîlcioiu, Iulian Daniel; Zamfirescu, Dragoş George; Cristescu, Ioan; Ursache, Andrei; Popescu, Şerban Arghir; Creangă, Cosmin Antoniu; Lascăr, Ioan

    2016-01-01

    Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) represents one of the commonest bone tumors encountered by an orthopedic surgeon. The giant-cell tumor is generally classified as benign but the fast growing rhythm and the aggressive soft-tissue invasion may in some cases demonstrate a malign potential of the tumor. We present the case of an aggressive giant cell tumor in a young patient that was first diagnosed in our emergency department with a fracture of the distal femur after a low energy trauma. With further examinations, we discovered that the tumor was invading the both femoral condyles and was vascularized by three major arterial pedicles. The onset of his problems was the femoral fracture and the changes on the major vessels, muscles and nerves. After an interdisciplinary approach of the patient and a meticulous preoperative planning, we decided to make an extensive total resection of the tumor followed by a complex reconstruction surgery for the bone. A very stable fixation of a vascularized graft allowed the bone to heal even if the surrounded soft-tissue was almost completely invaded by the tumor and removed during the excision. The follow-up of this case demonstrated that using an interdisciplinary approach of the patient with the Plastic Surgery team, we manage to remove the tumor within oncological limits and achieved bone healing with good stability of the distal femur. PMID:27516036

  19. Orientation of orthotropic material properties in a femur FE model: a method based on the principal stresses directions.

    PubMed

    San Antonio, T; Ciaccia, M; Müller-Karger, C; Casanova, E

    2012-09-01

    Most work done on bone simulation has modeled the tissue as inhomogeneous and isotropic even though it is a recognized anisotropic material. Some recent investigations have included orthotropic behavior in bone finite elements (FE) models; however the problem regarding the orientation of these properties along the irregular bone anatomy remains. In this work, a procedure to orientate orthotropic properties in a proximal femur FE model using the directions of the principal stresses produced by a physiological load scheme was developed. Two heterogeneous material models, one isotropic and one orthotropic, were employed to test their influence on the mechanical behavior of the bone model. In the developed orthotropic material, the mechanical properties are aligned with the highest principal stress produced from the successive application of a multi load scenario corresponding to 10%, 30% and 45% of the gait cycle. A solid match between anatomical structures in the proximal femur and the corresponding directions of the main principal stress of the elements of the model suggests that the developed methodology works accurately. The differences found in the stress distributions were small (maximum 7.6%); nevertheless the changes in the strain distributions were important (maximum 27%) and located in areas of clinical relevance.

  20. Less invasive surgery using external fixator for the treatment of subtrochanteric femur fracture in a high-risk geriatric patient.

    PubMed

    Atik, O Şahap; Can, Fatih I; Şenol, M Selçuk; Eren, Toygun K

    2016-08-01

    A 90-year-old female patient was admitted to our clinic complaining of pain in her left hip which occurred due to fall from a chair. Her medical history included memory loss and mental changes associated with Alzheimer's disease and depression. Patient's cooperation and orientation were weak. Range of motion of the left hip was restricted and painful. Radiographs of the left hip demonstrated subtrochanteric comminuted fracture of femur. Laboratory tests revealed anemia and liver insufficiency. Departments of internal medicine and anesthesiology reported high risk for surgery. Surgery was performed under spinal anesthesia on radiolucent table and in supine position. Using fluoroscopy, subtrochanteric comminuted fracture of femur was reduced. Proximally, two Schanz screws were placed through femoral neck and head in axial plane, and distally, three Schanz screws were placed through femoral shaft in coronal plane. Finally, fixation of the screws was achieved with an external fixator which was made of carbon fiber rods. Patient was allowed to sit in the bed and move around with a wheelchair as of the day of surgery. No infection or loosening of fixator occurred. PMID:27499322

  1. Illusory Late Heavy Bombardments.

    PubMed

    Boehnke, Patrick; Harrison, T Mark

    2016-09-27

    The Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB), a hypothesized impact spike at ∼3.9 Ga, is one of the major scientific concepts to emerge from Apollo-era lunar exploration. A significant portion of the evidence for the existence of the LHB comes from histograms of (40)Ar/(39)Ar "plateau" ages (i.e., regions selected on the basis of apparent isochroneity). However, due to lunar magmatism and overprinting from subsequent impact events, virtually all Apollo-era samples show evidence for (40)Ar/(39)Ar age spectrum disturbances, leaving open the possibility that partial (40)Ar* resetting could bias interpretation of bombardment histories due to plateaus yielding misleadingly young ages. We examine this possibility through a physical model of (40)Ar* diffusion in Apollo samples and test the uniqueness of the impact histories obtained by inverting plateau age histograms. Our results show that plateau histograms tend to yield age peaks, even in those cases where the input impact curve did not contain such a spike, in part due to the episodic nature of lunar crust or parent body formation. Restated, monotonically declining impact histories yield apparent age peaks that could be misinterpreted as LHB-type events. We further conclude that the assignment of apparent (40)Ar/(39)Ar plateau ages bears an undesirably high degree of subjectivity. When compounded by inappropriate interpretations of histograms constructed from plateau ages, interpretation of apparent, but illusory, impact spikes is likely. PMID:27621460

  2. Illusory Late Heavy Bombardments.

    PubMed

    Boehnke, Patrick; Harrison, T Mark

    2016-09-27

    The Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB), a hypothesized impact spike at ∼3.9 Ga, is one of the major scientific concepts to emerge from Apollo-era lunar exploration. A significant portion of the evidence for the existence of the LHB comes from histograms of (40)Ar/(39)Ar "plateau" ages (i.e., regions selected on the basis of apparent isochroneity). However, due to lunar magmatism and overprinting from subsequent impact events, virtually all Apollo-era samples show evidence for (40)Ar/(39)Ar age spectrum disturbances, leaving open the possibility that partial (40)Ar* resetting could bias interpretation of bombardment histories due to plateaus yielding misleadingly young ages. We examine this possibility through a physical model of (40)Ar* diffusion in Apollo samples and test the uniqueness of the impact histories obtained by inverting plateau age histograms. Our results show that plateau histograms tend to yield age peaks, even in those cases where the input impact curve did not contain such a spike, in part due to the episodic nature of lunar crust or parent body formation. Restated, monotonically declining impact histories yield apparent age peaks that could be misinterpreted as LHB-type events. We further conclude that the assignment of apparent (40)Ar/(39)Ar plateau ages bears an undesirably high degree of subjectivity. When compounded by inappropriate interpretations of histograms constructed from plateau ages, interpretation of apparent, but illusory, impact spikes is likely.

  3. Modeling late Paleozoic glaciation

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, T.J.; Baum, S.K. )

    1992-06-01

    Late Paleozoic glaciation on Gondwana is associated with changes in geography, solar luminosity, and estimated CO{sub 2} levels. To assess the relative importance of these boundary conditions, the authors conducted a suite of climate model simulations for the periods before, during, and after peak mid-Carboniferous ({approximately}300 Ma) glaciation (340, 300, and 255 and 225 Ma, respectively). Orbital insolation values favorable for glaciation and interglaciation were used for each time interval. Results indicate that changes in geography cause significant changes in snow area, but the temporal trend is not consistent with the geologic record for glaciation. Combined CO{sub 2}-plus-geography changes yield the best agreement with observations. In addition, interglacial orbital configurations result in almost ice-free conditions for the glacial interval at 300 Ma, at a time of low CO{sub 2}. The large simulated glacial-interglacial snowline fluctuations for Permian-Carboniferous time may explain cyclothem fluctuations at these times. Overall, results support the importance of the CO{sub 2} paradigm, but also indicate that a fuller understanding of past climate change requires consideration of paleogeographic, luminosity, and orbital insolation changes.

  4. A supervised texton based approach for automatic segmentation and measurement of the fetal head and femur in 2D ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Ye, Xujiong; Lambrou, Tryphon; Duan, Wenting; Allinson, Nigel; Dudley, Nicholas J.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a supervised texton based approach for the accurate segmentation and measurement of ultrasound fetal head (BPD, OFD, HC) and femur (FL). The method consists of several steps. First, a non-linear diffusion technique is utilized to reduce the speckle noise. Then, based on the assumption that cross sectional intensity profiles of skull and femur can be approximated by Gaussian-like curves, a multi-scale and multi-orientation filter bank is designed to extract texton features specific to ultrasound fetal anatomic structure. The extracted texton cues, together with multi-scale local brightness, are then built into a unified framework for boundary detection of ultrasound fetal head and femur. Finally, for fetal head, a direct least square ellipse fitting method is used to construct a closed head contour, whilst, for fetal femur a closed contour is produced by connecting the detected femur boundaries. The presented method is demonstrated to be promising for clinical applications. Overall the evaluation results of fetal head segmentation and measurement from our method are comparable with the inter-observer difference of experts, with the best average precision of 96.85%, the maximum symmetric contour distance (MSD) of 1.46 mm, average symmetric contour distance (ASD) of 0.53 mm while for fetal femur, the overall performance of our method is better than the inter-observer difference of experts, with the average precision of 84.37%, MSD of 2.72 mm and ASD of 0.31 mm.

  5. Theoretical effects of fully ductile versus fully brittle behaviors of bone tissue on the strength of the human proximal femur and vertebral body.

    PubMed

    Nawathe, Shashank; Yang, Haisheng; Fields, Aaron J; Bouxsein, Mary L; Keaveny, Tony M

    2015-05-01

    The influence of the ductility of bone tissue on whole-bone strength represents a fundamental issue of multi-scale biomechanics. To gain insight, we performed a computational study of 16 human proximal femurs and 12 T9 vertebral bodies, comparing the whole-bone strength for the two hypothetical bounding cases of fully brittle versus fully ductile tissue-level failure behaviors, all other factors, including tissue-level elastic modulus and yield stress, held fixed. For each bone, a finite element model was generated (60-82 μm element size; up to 120 million elements) and was virtually loaded in habitual (stance for femur, compression for vertebra) and non-habitual (sideways fall, only for femur) loading modes. Using a geometrically and materially non-linear model, the tissue was assumed to be either fully brittle or fully ductile. We found that, under habitual loading, changing the tissue behavior from fully ductile to fully brittle reduced whole-bone strength by 38.3±2.4% (mean±SD) and 39.4±1.9% for the femur and vertebra, respectively (p=0.39 for site difference). These reductions were remarkably uniform across bones, but (for the femur) were greater for non-habitual (57.1±4.7%) than habitual loading (p<0.001). At overall structural failure, there was 5-10-fold less failed tissue for the fully brittle than fully ductile cases. These theoretical results suggest that the whole-bone strength of the proximal femur and vertebra can vary substantially between fully brittle and fully ductile tissue-level behaviors, an effect that is relatively insensitive to bone morphology but greater for non-habitual loading.

  6. Effects of Vitamin D and Calcium Supplementation on Micro-architectural and Densitometric Changes of Rat Femur in a Microgravity Simulator Model

    PubMed Central

    Kouhnavard, Marjan; Nasli Esfahani, Ensieh; Montazeri, Mohammad; Hashemian, Seyed Jafar; Mehrazma, Mitra; Larijani, Bagher; Nezami Asl, Amir; Khoshvaghti, Amir; Falsafi, Ammar; Lalehfar, Komeil; Malekpour, Keyvan; Vosugh, Mehran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Revealing data on the role of vitamin D and calcium supplementation in bone health has led some to suggest that vitamin D and calcium treatment could also play a role in protecting bone against microgravity-induced mineral loss. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of vitamin D and calcium administration on microscopic and densitometric changes of rat femur in a Microgravity Simulator Model. Materials and Methods: After designing a Microgravity Simulator Model, 14 rats were placed in the cages as follows: seven rats as osteoporosis group and seven rats received oral supplement of calcium/vitamin D as the treatment group. Animals were sacrificed after eight weeks and then both femurs were removed. Bone mineral density was measured for one femur from each animal, and morphologic studies were evaluated for the contralateral femur. Results: Bone mineral density of the whole femur in the treatment group was significantly higher than the osteoporosis group (0.168 ± 0.005 vs. 0.153 ± 0.006, P = 0.003). Also, bone mineral content of the whole femur was significantly higher in treatment group (0.415 ± 0.016 vs. 0.372 ± 0.019, P = 0.003). However, resorption eroded surface percentage was higher in the osteoporosis group (18.86 ± 3.71% vs. 9.71 ± 1.61%, P = 0.002). Conclusions: According to the results of this study, vitamin D and calcium administration might have protective effects against microgravity-induced mineral loss in a Rat Microgravity Simulator Model. PMID:25068054

  7. Anxiety disorders in late life.

    PubMed Central

    Flint, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and treatment of anxiety disorders in late life. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiologic and comorbidity data are derived from well designed random-sample community surveys. There are virtually no controlled data specific to treatment of anxiety in the elderly. Guidelines for treating anxiety disorders in late life, therefore, must be extrapolated from results of randomized controlled trials conducted in younger patients. MAIN MESSAGE: Generalized anxiety disorder and agoraphobia account for most cases of anxiety disorder in late life. Late-onset generalized anxiety is usually associated with depressive illness and, in this situation, the primary pharmacologic treatment is antidepressant medication. Most elderly people with agoraphobia do not give a history of panic attacks; exposure therapy is the preferred treatment for agoraphobia without panic. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians need to make more use of antidepressant medication and behavioural therapy and less use of benzodiazepines in treating anxiety disorders in late life. PMID:10587775

  8. Iatrogenic Pseudo-aneurysm of Profunda Femoris Artery Following Fixation of Intertrochanteric Femur Fracture – A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Rishi Anil; Purohit, Shaligram; Bandagi, Gokul; Marathe, Nandan

    2016-01-01

    The Profunda Femoris is a common site for arterial pseudo-aneurysms and these have been described in literature following fractures as well as orthopaedic procedures of the femur and hip region. These are an uncommon complication and a high index of suspicion is required for correct diagnosis and prompt management. We present a case of pseudo-aneurysm of the Profunda Femoris in an operated case of Intertrochanteric femur fracture with acute presentation. The case was managed successfully by angiographic coil embolization. PMID:27134957

  9. EVALUATION OF PRESENTATION OF SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF FEMOROACETABULAR IMPINGEMENT AFTER EPIPHYSIOLYSIS OF THE PROXIMAL FEMUR

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Fábio Peng; de Britto, Paulo Sérgio Gérzon; Neto, Lauro Machado; Schwartsmann, Carlos Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The long-bone fractures occur most frequently in the tibial shaft. Adequate treatment of such fractures avoids consolidation failure, skewed consolidation and reoperation. To classify these fractures, the AO/OTA classification method is still used, but it is worthwhile getting to know the Ellis classification method, which also includes assessment of soft-tissue injuries. There is often an association with compartmental syndrome, and early diagnosis can be achieved through evaluating clinical parameters and constant clinical monitoring. Once the diagnosis has been made, fasciotomy should be performed. It is always difficult to assess consolidation, but the RUST method may help in this. Radiography is assessed in two projections, and points are scored for the presence of the fracture line and a visible bone callus. Today, the dogma of six hours for cleaning the exposed fracture is under discussion. It is considered that an early start to intravenous antibiotic therapy and the lesion severity are very important. The question of early or late closure of the lesion in an exposed fracture has gone through several phases: sometimes early closure has been indicated and sometimes late closure. Currently, whenever possible, early closure of the lesion is recommended, since this diminishes the risk of infection. Milling of the canal when the intramedullary nail is introduced is still a controversial subject. Despite strong personal positions in favor of milling, studies have shown that there may be some advantage in relation to closed fractures, but not in exposed fractures. PMID:27027007

  10. [Sociological aspects of late fatherhood].

    PubMed

    Bessin, M

    2006-09-01

    Starting from a sociological research on late parenthood, the article shows quantitative and qualitative lessons on the subject--in particular concerning the fathers' perspective. Late parenthood has declined over the 20th Century, to increase again since 1980. The further exploitation of the survey EHF 99 shows the processes and the socio-demographic of late fatherhood, over three generations. This phenomenon is tightly related to the multiple descents and family recombinings. We also observe in these configurations major age differences between spouses and late relationship. The social bipolarity of this phenomenon appears clearly as far as late motherhood is concerned, but is less clear concerning fatherhood, since more blue collars and non qualified men are concerned. This difference is due to the important role played by migrants in this phenomenon. A qualitative survey conducted on the basis of biographic interviews has underlined the gendered logics of late family founding. These logics are linked to the discrepancies due to man/woman differences regarding their respective calendar of fertility and to their attitude towards work. The interviews which provide an analysis of the biographical processes of late parenthood are organised according to postponement or renewal logics, in the form of refoundation or repetition. They are linked to self-introspection and to the negotiations at work within a couple.

  11. Site-Specific Advantages in Skeletal Geometry and Strength at the Proximal Femur and Forearm in Young Female Gymnasts

    PubMed Central

    Dowthwaite, Jodi N.; Rosenbaum, Paula F.; Scerpella, Tamara A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated site-specific skeletal adaptation to loading during growth,comparing radius (RAD) and femoral neck (FN) DXA scans in young female gymnasts (GYM) and non-gymnasts (NON). Methods Subjects from an ongoing longitudinal study (8-26 yrs old) underwent annual DXA scans (proximal femur, forearm, total body) and anthropometry, completing maturity and physical activity questionnaires. This cross-sectional analysis used the most recent data meeting the following criteria: gynecological age ≤2.5 yrs post-menarche; GYM annual mean gymnastic exposure ≥5.0 h/wk in the prior year. Bone geometric and strength indices were derived from scans for 173 subjects (8-17 yrs old) via hip structural analysis (femoral narrow neck, NN) and similar radius formulae (1/3 and Ultradistal (UD)). Maturity was coded as M1 (Tanner I breast), M2 (pre-menarche, ≥Tanner II breast) or M3 (post-menarche). ANOVA and chi square compared descriptive data. Two factor ANCOVA adjusted for age, height, total body non-bone lean mass and percent body fat; significance was tested for main effects and interactions between gymnastic exposure and maturity. Results At the distal radius, GYM means were significantly greater than NON means for all variables (p<0.05). At the proximal femur, GYM exhibited narrower periosteal and endosteal dimensions, but greater indices of cortical thickness, BMC, aBMD and section modulus, with lower buckling ratio (p <0.05). However, significant interactions between maturity and loading were detected for the following: 1) FN bone mineral content (BMC), NN buckling ratio (GYM BMC advantages only in M1 and M3; for BMC and buckling ratio, M1 advantages were greatest; 2) 1/3 radius BMC, width, endosteal diameter, cortical cross-sectional area, section modulus (GYM advantages primarily post-menarche); 3) UD radius BMC and axial compressive strength (GYM advantages were larger with greater maturity, greatest post-menarche). Conclusions Maturity-specific comparisons

  12. A numerical study of failure mechanisms in the cemented resurfaced femur: effects of interface characteristics and bone remodelling.

    PubMed

    Pal, B; Gupta, S; New, A M

    2009-05-01

    Failure mechanisms of the resurfaced femoral head include femoral neck fracture in the short-term and stress shielding and implant loosening in the long-term. In this study, finite element simulations of the resurfaced femur considering a debonded implant-cement interface, variable stem-bone interface conditions, and bone remodelling were used to study load transfer within the resurfaced femur and to investigate its relationship with known failure mechanisms. Realistic three-dimensional finite element models of an intact and resurfaced femur were used. Various conditions at the interface between the stem of the prosthesis and the bone were considered. Loading conditions included normal walking and stair climbing. For all stem-bone contact conditions, the tensile stresses in the cement mantle varied between 1 MPa and 5.4 MPa, except near the distal rim of the resurfacing component where they reached 5.4-7MPa. In the case of full stem-bone contact, high von Mises stresses (114-121MPa) were generated in the implant at the stem-cup junction. These stresses were considerably reduced (maximum von Mises stress, 76 MPa) where a gap was present at the stem-bone interface. Resurfacing led to strain shielding of the bone of the femoral head (20-75 per cent strain reductions) and periprosthetic bone resorption (50-80 per cent bone density reductions) for all interface stem-bone contact conditions. In the lateral femoral head and the proximal femoral shaft around the trochantric region, bone density reductions varied between 10 per cent and 50 per cent. Bone apposition was observed in the inferior-medial part of the femoral head and proximal femoral neck region. For full stem-bone contact, more load was transferred through the stem to the surrounding bone, exacerbating strain shielding. Although femoral hip resurfacing conserves bone stock at the primary operation, strain shielding and periprosthetic bone resorption might lead to eventual loosening over time. Post

  13. Cutmark data and their implications for the planning depth of Late Pleistocene societies.

    PubMed

    Soulier, Marie-Cécile; Morin, Eugène

    2016-08-01

    Cutmarks provide empirical evidence for the exploitation of animal resources by past human groups. Their study may contribute substantially to our knowledge of economic behavior, including the procurement of prey and the analysis of butchery sequences. Butchering practices can be investigated using cutmark illustrations recorded on bone templates. In this paper, quantitative data on cutmarks were derived from published and unpublished cutmark drawings for 27 French assemblages dated between the late Middle Paleolithic and the final Upper Paleolithic. The analysis of cutmark data on meaty long bones (humerus, radio-ulna, femur, tibia) highlights strong variations in cutmark length and orientation in the sample that potentially reflect significant shifts in meat processing strategies during the Late Pleistocene. The present study shows that long longitudinal cutmarks are considerably more frequent during the Late Glacial Maximum than in the early Upper Paleolithic. Although the number of studies is small, actualistic data generated in controlled settings indicate that long longitudinal cutmarks are commonly produced during filleting, an activity closely associated with meat preservation, as is the case with drying and smoking. Because they provide information on possible changes in the capacity for anticipation, these results have potentially important implications for the logistical and economic organization of Paleolithic hominins. PMID:27457544

  14. Biomechanical and histologic investigation of cemented total hip arthroplasties. A study of autopsy-retrieved femurs after in vivo cycling.

    PubMed

    Maloney, W J; Jasty, M; Burke, D W; O'Connor, D O; Zalenski, E B; Bragdon, C; Harris, W H

    1989-12-01

    Eleven whole anatomic specimens of the femur were retrieved at autopsy from patients who previously had cemented total hip arthroplasty. Implant duration ranged from 0.5 to 210 months. Clinically and roentgenographically the implants were stable. A detailed biomechanical analysis evaluated bone strains and implant stability in both the single-limb stance and stair-climbing positions using a 100-pound spinal load. The stability offered by cement in these well-fixed prostheses was remarkable, with the maximum axial micromotion being 40 mu. This is a reflection of intimate osseointegration at the bone-cement interface with only rare intervening fibrous tissue. The strain gauge and photoelastic strain-coating studies revealed that marked stress shielding in the proximal medial femoral cortex persists long after a cemented femoral component is inserted. Even 17 years after surgery, the strain in the calcar region did not normalize. PMID:2582664

  15. A comparative study of trochanteric and basicervical fractures of the femur treated with the Ender and McLaughlin techniques.

    PubMed

    Indemini, E; Clerico, P; Fenoglio, E; Mariotti, U

    1982-09-01

    Endomedullary nailing as proposed by Ender is an important alternative in the treatment of trochanteric and basicervical fractures of the femur (Amici et al., 1980; Carret et al., 1980; Ender, 1970; Kempf et al., 1979; Zinghi et al., 1979). Rush's concept (Eiffel Tower, for the distal epiphysis) is reproposed with some variations and transposed to the femoral neck. The aim of the operation differs from that of the nail and plate technique in that, instead of trying to achieve anatomical reconstruction, an immediate functional by-pass of the fractured part is attempted. After using this technique for three years, we compared the old method, which we had not abandoned, the McLaughlin nail and plate, with the new Ender nail.

  16. Influence of Lateral Muscle Loading in the Proximal Femur after Fracture Stabilization with a Trochanteric Gamma Nail (TGN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitthiseripratip, Kriskrai; Mahaisavariya, Banchong; Suwanprateeb, Jintamai; Bohez, Erik; Vander Sloten, Jos

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of lateral muscle loading on the stress/strain distributions of the trochanteric Gamma nail (TGN) fixation within the healed, trochanteric and subtrochanteric femoral fractures by means of a finite element method. The effect of three muscle groups, the abductors (ABD), the vastus lateralis (VL) and the iliotibial band (ITB), were investigated. The analytical results showed that addition of lateral muscle forces, iliotibial band and vastus lateralis, produced compensation of forces and reduction of bending moments in the bone and in the trochanteric Gamma nail especially in the lateral aspect. The iliotibial band produced a higher impact as compared to the vastus lateralis. Therefore in the finite element analysis of the proximal femur with the trochanteric Gamma nail fracture fixation should include the lateral muscle forces to simulate load condition with maximal physiological relevance to the closed nailing technique.

  17. A Case of Distal Femur Medial Condyle Hoffa Type II(C) Fracture Treated with Headless Screws

    PubMed Central

    Merh, Aditya; Shah, Malkesh; Golwala, Paresh

    2016-01-01

    Coronal plane fractures of the distal femur are less frequent compared to sagittal plane fractures. They were described by Hoffa in 1904 and are known as Hoffa fractures (AO type B3). They are isolated fractures of the femoral condyle and rare in occurrence. The objective in the treatment of these fractures is to achieve anatomical reduction of the articular surface and a stable fixation to prevent joint damage in future and prevent post-traumatic arthritis of the joint. We report the case of a young male patient who had a rare type of medial Hoffa fracture which was treated by open reduction and internal fixation using headless Herbert screws using a posterior approach. The fracture was united in eight weeks, and the patient had a full range of knee movement. We advocate this approach and modality of treatment for Hoffa type II(C) fractures.

  18. The effect of extending femur scan length on BMD results on the Hologic Discovery-W scanner.

    PubMed

    Prater, Ginnie L; Jankowski, Lawrence G; Peace, Frederick; Nunnally, Nancy; Burroughs, Leandria; Morgan, Sarah L

    2014-01-01

    A longer dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan field of the hip may be useful for the detection of atypical subtrochanteric femur fractures. It has been demonstrated in a Prodigy GE/Lunar scanner that extending the scan length does not affect bone mineral density (BMD) results at the total hip or femoral neck. We hypothesized that extending the scan field on a Hologic Discovery scanner would also have no effect on BMD results at the hip. Thirty subjects who presented for standard of care dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans underwent paired default (15.2 cm) and extended (24.1 cm) length hip scans. There was no significant difference in the total hip or any of the component subregions of femoral neck, greater trochanter, or intertrochanteric (shaft) BMD between the default and extended length scans.

  19. Mapping the strain distribution on the proximal femur with titanium and flexible-stemmed implants using digital image correlation.

    PubMed

    Tayton, E; Evans, S; O'Doherty, D

    2010-08-01

    We implanted titanium and carbon fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP) femoral prostheses of the same dimensions into five prosthetic femora. An abductor jig was attached and a 1 kN load applied. This was repeated with five control femora. Digital image correlation was used to give a detailed two-dimensional strain map of the medial cortex of the proximal femur. Both implants caused stress shielding around the calcar. Distally, the titanium implant showed stress shielding, whereas the CFRP prosthesis did not produce a strain pattern which was statistically different from the controls. There was a reduction in strain beyond the tip of both the implants. This investigation indicates that use of the CFRP stem should avoid stress shielding in total hip replacement.

  20. Early Definitive Fixation of an Open Periprosthetic Femur Fracture in the Polytraumatized Patient: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Aleem, Ilyas S; Bhandari, Mohit; Elizalde, Sebastian Rodriguez

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Periprosthetic fractures of the femur after total hip arthroplasty are increasing in frequency. In the polytraumatized patient with long-bone fracture, an ongoing debate exists regarding early definitive stabilization versus initial damage control orthopaedics, followed by delayed fixation. It remains to be seen whether this rationale applies to the polytraumatized patient with periprosthetic fracture. Case presentation: We present the case of a 73-years old Caucasian woman who sustained bilateral Gustillo-Anderson grade III open femur fractures; the fracture on the right was a Vancouver C open periprosthetic fracture after cemented total hip arthroplasty. After massive fluid resuscitation in the trauma bay she was taken to the intensive care unit in a hemodynamically unstable condition. She was subsequently operated and underwent early definitive fixation of both femurs with the rationale of potentially reducing pulmonary complications and promoting early mobilization. Conclusion: Early definitive stabilization versus delayed fixation in the polytraumatized patient with an open periprosthetic femur fracture is reviewed. Although several treatment algorithms based on fracture classification and implant stability exist, further study is required to delineate the preferred method and timeline of fixation for this growing cohort of patients. PMID:27299122

  1. Comparison between mechanical stress and bone mineral density in the femur after total hip arthroplasty by using subject-specific finite element analyses.

    PubMed

    Ike, Hiroyuki; Inaba, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Naomi; Hirata, Yasuhide; Yukizawa, Yohei; Aoki, Chie; Choe, Hyonmin; Saito, Tomoyuki

    2015-08-01

    The mechanism underling bone mineral density (BMD) loss that occurs in the femur after total hip arthroplasty (THA) remains unknown. We compared the equivalent stress and strain energy density (SED) to BMD in the femur after THA using subject-specific finite element analyses. Twenty-four patients who had undergone primary cementless THA were analysed. BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) at 1 week and 3, 6 and 12 months after THA. Seven regions of interest (ROIs) were defined in accordance with Gruen's system (ROIs 1-7). Computed tomography images of the femurs were acquired pre- and postoperatively, and the images were converted into three-dimensional finite element (FE) models. Equivalent stress and SED were analysed and compared with DEXA data. BMD was maintained 1 year after THA in ROIs 3, 4, 5 and 6, whereas BMD decreased in ROIs 1, 2 and 7. FE analysis revealed that equivalent stress in ROIs 3, 4, 5 and 6 was much higher than that in ROIs 1, 2 and 7. A significant correlation was observed between the rate of changes in BMD and equivalent stress. Reduction of equivalent stress may contribute to decrease in BMD in the femur after THA.

  2. Helping the Habitually Late Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Jerry

    1978-01-01

    The author gives three major reasons for a student being habitually late to class: resistance, disorganization, or unavoidable schedule conflicts. He makes specific suggestions to teachers for dealing with the disorganized and resistant latecomers. (SJL)

  3. Late Blooming or Language Problem?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Late Blooming or Language Problem? Parents are smart. They listen to their ... or not their child is developing speech and language at a normal rate. If parents think that ...

  4. Finite-element analysis of the effect of basic hip movements on the mechanical stimulus within a proximal femur.

    PubMed

    Tovar-López, Francisco Javier; Domínguez-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Diez-García, María Del Pilar; Araujo-Monsalvo, Víctor Manuel

    2014-07-01

    Osteoporosis is a serious and multifactorial disease. The number of people affected with osteoporosis is increasing due to the lengthening of life expectancy. Currently, unlike the genetic, nutritional and hormonal factors that have been the focus of most studies of osteoporosis, mechanical stimuli that potentially can produce an increase in bone strength have not been well studied. Studies suggest that the relationship between the health of the bone and mechanical stimuli occurs through bone adaptive remodeling, which is activated by means of the shear stress transmitted by the interstitial fluid flow. The present work consists of a finite element analysis of a femur to simulate the basic movements of the hip (flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction) to compare the shear stresses in a common zone of fracture and in the critical mechanical strength zones of the femoral head. A comparison of the distribution and magnitude of the shear stresses was performed to estimate the movement that could induce a more rapid adaptive bone remodeling. This study is the first step in the development of a physical therapy for a preventive rehabilitation that helps to prevent patients with low bone mineral density to avoid suffering osteoporosis hip fractures. The finite element model was constructed using a free-access three-dimensional standardized femur obtained from the Instituti Ortopedici Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy. The mechanical properties and the muscular forces were obtained from a specialized bibliography. We conclude that the movements that exhibit a higher mean value and a good shear stress distribution in the femoral neck are hip extension and abduction. PMID:25264795

  5. Relationship between number of spleen colonies and /sup 125/IdUrd incorporation into spleen and femur

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, T.; Bullis, J.E.; Cronkite, E.P.; Hubner, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    Graded numbers of bone marrow (BM) cells were injected into fatally irradiated mice. Eight days later the mice were given 3.0 ..mu..Ci (1 Ci = 3.7 x 10/sup 10/Bq) of /sup 125/IdUrd to label proliferating cells in the spleen and BM. On day 9 the mice were killed and the spleens and femurs were removed for splenic colony assay and measurement of radioactivity in the spleen and femurs. The number of splenic colonies shows a linear relationship with dose of marrow cells injected from 10/sup 4/ to 10/sup 5/ cells. The slope of the curve of spleen colonies versus number of cells injected is <1, implying that the fraction seeded in spleen decreases with number of cells injected. Above 10/sup 5/ and below 10/sup 4/ there is a striking departure from the simple linearity. Below 2 x 10/sup 3/ cells injected, the logarithm of the observed colony yield is linear with logarithm of the number of cells injected. Poisson calculation of the average number of pluripotent stem cells that should be present with numbers of marrow cells injected below 2 x 10/sup 3/ followed closely the actual observations. The data show that there is no detectible proliferation in the BM until the dose of marrow cells exceeds 3.5 x 10/sup 4/ cells. Induction of cells into cycle increases the seeding into the BM, and thymidine cytocide drastically reduces seeding in the BM, leading us to conclude that the BM is repopulated almost exclusively by stem cells in DNA synthesis.

  6. Chondroblastoma of the distal femur resected through a small fenestra via computed tomography navigation and endoscopy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Chondroblastoma is a benign bone tumor with a relatively high incidence in older children and adolescents during the period of active epiphyseal growth. It is generally regarded as a benign neoplasm, but sometimes it grows aggressively or recurs. To prevent recurrence, complete curettage is important; however, such an approach can be extremely difficult to perform precisely when the chondroblastoma arises deep in the epiphysis. In our patient’s case, we used a computed tomography-based navigation system with registration technique involving skin marker fiduciaries and endoscopic curettage of the lesion. Case presentation A 16-year-old Japanese girl presented to our facility with left knee joint pain, which started nine months before her initial examination. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies of the left knee showed a radiolucent lesion with marginal sclerosis and lobular homogeneous hypo-intensity and hyper-intensity signals in the distal epiphysis of the left femoral epiphysis, carried through to the growth plate. To prevent recurrence of chondroblastoma and growth disturbance, we used a computed tomography-based navigation system with registration technique involving skin marker fiduciaries and endoscopic curettage of the lesion. Wide excision with total removal of the chondroblastoma in the distal femur often requires large exposure with associated drawbacks, where a wide excision near the growth plate can potentially lead to growth disturbance. Therefore, in an accessible location in the distal femur, endoscopic excision of chondroblastoma under navigation system guidance can be performed with minimal operative damage. Conclusions In the setting of a benign intra-osseous lesion infiltrating the growth plate, arthroscopic retrieval or excision under a computed tomography-based navigation system should be considered before proceeding with open surgery. PMID:23805921

  7. Cortical thickness estimation of the proximal femur from multi-view dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsaousis, N.; Gee, A. H.; Treece, G. M.; Poole, K. E. S.

    2013-02-01

    Hip fracture is the leading cause of acute orthopaedic hospital admission amongst the elderly, with around a third of patients not surviving one year post-fracture. Although various preventative therapies are available, patient selection is difficult. The current state-of-the-art risk assessment tool (FRAX) ignores focal structural defects, such as cortical bone thinning, a critical component in characterizing hip fragility. Cortical thickness can be measured using CT, but this is expensive and involves a significant radiation dose. Instead, Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) is currently the preferred imaging modality for assessing hip fracture risk and is used routinely in clinical practice. Our ambition is to develop a tool to measure cortical thickness using multi-view DXA instead of CT. In this initial study, we work with digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) derived from CT data as a surrogate for DXA scans: this enables us to compare directly the thickness estimates with the gold standard CT results. Our approach involves a model-based femoral shape reconstruction followed by a data-driven algorithm to extract numerous cortical thickness point estimates. In a series of experiments on the shaft and trochanteric regions of 48 proximal femurs, we validated our algorithm and established its performance limits using 20 views in the range 0°-171°: estimation errors were 0:19 +/- 0:53mm (mean +/- one standard deviation). In a more clinically viable protocol using four views in the range 0°-51°, where no other bony structures obstruct the projection of the femur, measurement errors were -0:07 +/- 0:79 mm.

  8. Tissue level microstructure and mechanical properties of the femoral head in the proximal femur of fracture patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Linwei; Meng, Guangwei; Gong, He; Zhu, Dong; Gao, Jiazi; Fan, Yubo

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the regional variations of trabecular morphological parameters and mechanical parameters of the femoral head, as well as to determine the relationship between trabecular morphological and mechanical parameters. Seven femoral heads from patients with fractured proximal femur were scanned using a micro-CT system. Each femoral head was divided into 12 sub-regions according to the trabecular orientation. One trabecular cubic model was reconstructed from each sub-region. A total of 81 trabecular models were reconstructed, except three destroyed sub-regions from two femoral heads during the surgery. Trabecular morphological parameters, i.e. trabecular separation (Tb.Sp), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), specific bone surface (BS/BV), bone volume fraction (BV/TV), structural model index (SMI), and degree of anisotropy (DA) were measured. Micro-finite element analyses were performed for each cube to obtain the apparent Young's modulus and tissue level von Mises stress distribution under 1 % compressive strain along three orthogonal directions, respectively. Results revealed significant regional variations in the morphological parameters (). Young's moduli along the trabecular orientation were significantly higher than those along the other two directions. In general, trabecular mechanical properties in the medial region were lower than those in the lateral region. Trabecular mechanical parameters along the trabecular orientation were significantly correlated with BS/BV, BV/TV, Tb.Th, and DA. In this study, regional variations of microstructural features and mechanical properties in the femoral head of patients with proximal femur fracture were thoroughly investigated at the tissue level. The results of this study will help to elucidate the mechanism of femoral head fracture for reducing fracture risk and developing treatment strategies for the elderly.

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS ON TREATMENT OF FRACTURE OF PROXIMAL FEMUR IN PATIENTS WITH SYSTEMIV OSTEOPOROSIS.

    PubMed

    Palshina, A M; Bannaev, I F; Palshin, G A; Shamaeva, S Kh; Yadrikhinskaya, V N; Komissarov, A N; Krivoshapkina, A G

    2015-01-01

    In the structure of intrahospital infections the infections of urinary tract make up from 20 to 40%. This problem represents special medical-social significance for trauma departments as patients with trauma are being in forced situation for along time. 380 patients older than 60 years (average age 73.6 ± 9.2 years) with a fracture of proximal femur against background of the systemic osteoporosis having in-patient treatment in the trauma department of the Republic Hospital No2 were being examined and treated from 2011 to 2013. Urinary tract infections were diagnosed in 130 (34.2%) patients (average age 77.3 ± 8.3 years). Women (80%-82%) with the average age 77.7 ± 8.2 years prevailed by gender signs. From them 40 (30.8%) patients admitted with prehospital urinary tract infections and intrahospital urinary tract infections were diagnosed in 90 (69.2%) patients. In etiological structure of urinary tract infections the part of gram-negative microorganisms made up 47.4%, the leading role belonged to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. Escherichia coli (23.3%) and Klibsiella pneumonia (12%) were the most significant from them. Gram-positive microorganisms 44% were sown in the second place. More frequently Enterococci (33.6%) were separated such as Enterococcus faecium (18.1%) and Enterococcus faecalis (15.5%). Intrahospital urinary tract infections resistant to antimicrobial therapy were observed in 6.7% patients with systemic osteoporosis and fracture of proximal femur. The average duration of preoperative preparation and in-patient treatment of patients with fracture of proximal femurand concomitant urinary tract infections is much more (3.9 days and 5.4 bed-days correspondingly) higher than the average indications of all operated patients in the department.

  10. The use of sparse CT datasets for auto-generating accurate FE models of the femur and pelvis.

    PubMed

    Shim, Vickie B; Pitto, Rocco P; Streicher, Robert M; Hunter, Peter J; Anderson, Iain A

    2007-01-01

    The finite element (FE) method when coupled with computed tomography (CT) is a powerful tool in orthopaedic biomechanics. However, substantial data is required for patient-specific modelling. Here we present a new method for generating a FE model with a minimum amount of patient data. Our method uses high order cubic Hermite basis functions for mesh generation and least-square fits the mesh to the dataset. We have tested our method on seven patient data sets obtained from CT assisted osteodensitometry of the proximal femur. Using only 12 CT slices we generated smooth and accurate meshes of the proximal femur with a geometric root mean square (RMS) error of less than 1 mm and peak errors less than 8 mm. To model the complex geometry of the pelvis we developed a hybrid method which supplements sparse patient data with data from the visible human data set. We tested this method on three patient data sets, generating FE meshes of the pelvis using only 10 CT slices with an overall RMS error less than 3 mm. Although we have peak errors about 12 mm in these meshes, they occur relatively far from the region of interest (the acetabulum) and will have minimal effects on the performance of the model. Considering that linear meshes usually require about 70-100 pelvic CT slices (in axial mode) to generate FE models, our method has brought a significant data reduction to the automatic mesh generation step. The method, that is fully automated except for a semi-automatic bone/tissue boundary extraction part, will bring the benefits of FE methods to the clinical environment with much reduced radiation risks and data requirement.

  11. Reconsideration of the Effects of Age on Proximal Femur Structure: Implications for Joint Replacement and Hip Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Khoo, B. C. C.; Brown, J. K.; Prince, R. L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In recent years quantitative computed tomography (QCT) has allowed precise non-invasive, three dimensional, in vivo measurement of hip structure in large numbers of individuals. The effects of ageing on proximal femur structure are reported and implications for the prevention of hip prosthesis loosening and hip fracture considered. Design, Setting and Participants An observational cross-sectional study of proximal femur QCT in 719 unselected female European descent aged 20 to 89 years recruited from US and Australian populations. Main Outcomes Measures QCT scans were obtained using software that separates cortical and cancellous bone by a thresholding technique. Voxel based mineral volume and mass was computed for the integral (external), cancellous and cortical compartments of 1 mm wide sections through the femoral neck (FN), trochanter (TR) and intertrochanter (IT) regions. Results Over the adult life span total integral volumes at the FN, TR and IT sites expand linearly by between 18 and 37% at the same time as bone mass decreased by 22 to 25% resulting in massive reductions in true volumetric BMD (vBMD) of 40 to 50%. Cancellous volume expansion was larger at 65 to 79% at the three sites. Between the ages of 65 and 75 the average increase in cancellous volume at the IT site was 3.74 cm3 (12.1%). Voxel determined FN cortical volume decreased linearly by 43%, as did cortical bone mass so that vBMD did not change substantially. TR and IT cortical volumes decreased 54 and 28% respectively, small reductions in TR and IT cortical vBMD also occurred. Conclusions Large endosteal expansion in the area in which hip replacement stem placement occurs may contribute to loosening. Regarding the propensity to hip fracture, periosteal expansion contributes to increased resistance to bending but cortical thinning contributes to loss of bone to resistance to bending forces. Understanding individual hip structure may contribute to individualisation of risk and

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS ON TREATMENT OF FRACTURE OF PROXIMAL FEMUR IN PATIENTS WITH SYSTEMIV OSTEOPOROSIS.

    PubMed

    Palshina, A M; Bannaev, I F; Palshin, G A; Shamaeva, S Kh; Yadrikhinskaya, V N; Komissarov, A N; Krivoshapkina, A G

    2015-01-01

    In the structure of intrahospital infections the infections of urinary tract make up from 20 to 40%. This problem represents special medical-social significance for trauma departments as patients with trauma are being in forced situation for along time. 380 patients older than 60 years (average age 73.6 ± 9.2 years) with a fracture of proximal femur against background of the systemic osteoporosis having in-patient treatment in the trauma department of the Republic Hospital No2 were being examined and treated from 2011 to 2013. Urinary tract infections were diagnosed in 130 (34.2%) patients (average age 77.3 ± 8.3 years). Women (80%-82%) with the average age 77.7 ± 8.2 years prevailed by gender signs. From them 40 (30.8%) patients admitted with prehospital urinary tract infections and intrahospital urinary tract infections were diagnosed in 90 (69.2%) patients. In etiological structure of urinary tract infections the part of gram-negative microorganisms made up 47.4%, the leading role belonged to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. Escherichia coli (23.3%) and Klibsiella pneumonia (12%) were the most significant from them. Gram-positive microorganisms 44% were sown in the second place. More frequently Enterococci (33.6%) were separated such as Enterococcus faecium (18.1%) and Enterococcus faecalis (15.5%). Intrahospital urinary tract infections resistant to antimicrobial therapy were observed in 6.7% patients with systemic osteoporosis and fracture of proximal femur. The average duration of preoperative preparation and in-patient treatment of patients with fracture of proximal femurand concomitant urinary tract infections is much more (3.9 days and 5.4 bed-days correspondingly) higher than the average indications of all operated patients in the department. PMID:26887137

  13. Finite-element analysis of the effect of basic hip movements on the mechanical stimulus within a proximal femur.

    PubMed

    Tovar-López, Francisco Javier; Domínguez-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Diez-García, María Del Pilar; Araujo-Monsalvo, Víctor Manuel

    2014-07-01

    Osteoporosis is a serious and multifactorial disease. The number of people affected with osteoporosis is increasing due to the lengthening of life expectancy. Currently, unlike the genetic, nutritional and hormonal factors that have been the focus of most studies of osteoporosis, mechanical stimuli that potentially can produce an increase in bone strength have not been well studied. Studies suggest that the relationship between the health of the bone and mechanical stimuli occurs through bone adaptive remodeling, which is activated by means of the shear stress transmitted by the interstitial fluid flow. The present work consists of a finite element analysis of a femur to simulate the basic movements of the hip (flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction) to compare the shear stresses in a common zone of fracture and in the critical mechanical strength zones of the femoral head. A comparison of the distribution and magnitude of the shear stresses was performed to estimate the movement that could induce a more rapid adaptive bone remodeling. This study is the first step in the development of a physical therapy for a preventive rehabilitation that helps to prevent patients with low bone mineral density to avoid suffering osteoporosis hip fractures. The finite element model was constructed using a free-access three-dimensional standardized femur obtained from the Instituti Ortopedici Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy. The mechanical properties and the muscular forces were obtained from a specialized bibliography. We conclude that the movements that exhibit a higher mean value and a good shear stress distribution in the femoral neck are hip extension and abduction.

  14. Proximal Femoral Nail Antirotation Versus Reverse Less Invasive Stabilization System-distal Femur for Treating Proximal Femoral Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xuan; Wang, Ying; Ma, XinLong; Ma, JianXiong; Wang, Chen; Zhang, ChengBao; Han, Zhe; Sun, Lei; Lu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and safety of 2 surgical techniques that are used to treat proximal femoral fractures. A systematic literature search (up to December 2014) was conducted in Medline, Embase, PubMed, and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to screen for studies comparing proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA) with less invasive stabilization system–distal femur (LISS-DF) for proximal femoral fractures. Two authors independently assessed the methodological quality of the included studies and extracted data. Surgical information and postoperative outcomes were analyzed. A total of 7 studies with 361 patients who satisfied the eligibility criteria included 3 randomized controlled trials and 4 case-controlled trials associated with PFNA versus LISS in treating proximal femoral fractures. Our results demonstrated that there was a significant reduction in hospital stay and time to weight-bearing ambulation and bone healing for PFNA compared with LISS (odds ratio [OR] −1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] −2.92 to −0.05; OR −7.08, 95% CI −8.32 to −5.84; OR −2.71, 95% CI −4.76 to 0.67). No statistically significant difference was observed between the 2 groups for operative time, blood loss volume, Harris hip score, and incidence of complications. Based on the results of this analysis, we inferred that PFNA is safer and more effective than reverse LISS-DF in patients undergoing osteosynthesis for proximal femoral fractures, and that PFNA is associated with reduced hospital stays and reduced time to weight-bearing ambulation and bone healing. Nonetheless, in certain cases in which PFNA is not suitable due to abnormal structure of the proximal femur or particularly unstable fractures, the LISS plate technique could be a useful alternative. PMID:27057840

  15. Late and chronic Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Donta, Sam T

    2002-03-01

    This article reviews the late and chronic manifestations of Lyme disease. Special attention is given to the chronic manifestations of the disease, detailing its pathogenesis, clinical spectrum, and laboratory criteria for the diagnosis. Based on experimental evidence and experience, approaches to the successful treatment of the late and chronic disease are outlined. Much additional work is needed to improve the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of the disease, its diagnosis and treatment.

  16. Baja california: late cretaceous dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Morris, W J

    1967-03-24

    Late Cretaceous dinosaurs have been discovered along the Pacific margin of Baja California. The presence of Hypacrosaurus sp. is suggestive of correlation with the Upper Edmont