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Sample records for late paleozoic sandstones

  1. Petrofacial analysis of Late Paleozoic sandstones of western Argentina: its paleotectonic significance

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez Gamundi, O.R.; Espejo, I.S.

    1987-05-01

    Late Paleozoic sandstones of western Argentina show an evolutionary trend which highlights their paleotectonic settings and the increasing importance of magmatic arc-derived detritus toward the Late Permian. For the Carboniferous-Early Permian interval, sandstones were subdivided into two contrasting petrofacies: (A) A quartzofeldspathic petrofacies which prevails on the western and central areas, characterized by high percentages of monocrystalline quartz (Qm, 60-90%) and K-feldspar (K, 5-25%) and low percentages of strained polycrystalline quartz (Qp) and plagioclase (P). Unstable polycrystalline lithic fragments (L) include small amounts of metamorphic (Lm) and sedimentary (Ls) lithics. These rocks show a close provenance from plutonic-high metamorphic complexes which constituted the cratonic eastern basin margin. (B) A lithic petrofacies which comprises the sandstones exposed on the western part and distinguished by high percentages of Ls and low percentages of K, Qm, and Qp. This detrital association was derived from Ordovician up to Devonian sedimentary rocks which were folded, faulted, and uplifted during Late Devonian orogenic movements, having constituted a recycled orogene source area located west of the cratonic flank. Both petrofacies evolved in time with a convergent pattern toward a lithofeldspathic-feldspatholitic (volcaniclastic) petrofacies with high percentages of P (30-50%) and Lv (30-40%), low percentages of Qm (0-20%) and K (0-10%), and high P/F and Lv/L ratios. This petrofacies suggests that coeval volcanic activity in the arc placed on the western margin of Gondwanaland became an important source area during Late Permian times.

  2. Late Paleozoic tectonics of the Solonker Zone in the Wuliji area, Inner Mongolia, China: Insights from stratigraphic sequence, chronology, and sandstone geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Guanzhong; Song, Guangzeng; Wang, Hua; Huang, Chuanyan; Zhang, Lidong; Tang, Jianrong

    2016-09-01

    The geology in the Wuliji area (including the Enger Us and Quagan Qulu areas) is important for understanding the Late Paleozoic tectonics of the Solonker Zone. Ultramafic/mafic rocks in the Enger Us area, previously interpreted as an ophiolitic suture, are actually lava flows and sills in a Permian turbiditic sequence and a small body of fault breccia containing serpentinite. Subduction zone features, such as accretionary complexes, magmatic arc volcanics or LP/HP metamorphism are absent. Early Permian N-MORB mafic rocks and Late Permian radiolarian cherts accompanied by turbidites and tuffeous rocks indicate a deep water setting. In the Quagan Qulu area, outcrops of the Late Carboniferous to Permian Amushan Formation are composed of volcano-sedimenary rocks and guyot-like reef limestone along with a Late Permian volcano-sedimentary unit. A dacite lava in the Late Permian volcano-sedimentary unit yields a zircon U-Pb age of 254 Ma. The gabbros in the Quagan Qulu area are intruded into the Amushan Formation and caused contact metamorphism of country rocks. Sandstones in the Upper Member of the Amushan Formation contain detrital clasts of volcanic fragments and mineral clasts of crystalline basement rocks (i.e. biotite, muscovite and garnet). Geochemical analysis of volcaniclastic sandstones shows a magmatic affinity to both continental island arc (CIA) and active continental margin (ACM) tectonic settings. A Late Permian incipient rift setting is suggested by analyzing the lithostratigraphic sequence and related magmatism in the Wuliji area. The volcano-sedimentary rocks in the Wuliji area experienced a nearly N-S shortening that was probably related to the Early Mesozoic nearly N-S compression well developed in other areas close to the Wuliji area.

  3. Modeling late Paleozoic glaciation

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, T.J.; Baum, S.K. )

    1992-06-01

    Late Paleozoic glaciation on Gondwana is associated with changes in geography, solar luminosity, and estimated CO{sub 2} levels. To assess the relative importance of these boundary conditions, the authors conducted a suite of climate model simulations for the periods before, during, and after peak mid-Carboniferous ({approximately}300 Ma) glaciation (340, 300, and 255 and 225 Ma, respectively). Orbital insolation values favorable for glaciation and interglaciation were used for each time interval. Results indicate that changes in geography cause significant changes in snow area, but the temporal trend is not consistent with the geologic record for glaciation. Combined CO{sub 2}-plus-geography changes yield the best agreement with observations. In addition, interglacial orbital configurations result in almost ice-free conditions for the glacial interval at 300 Ma, at a time of low CO{sub 2}. The large simulated glacial-interglacial snowline fluctuations for Permian-Carboniferous time may explain cyclothem fluctuations at these times. Overall, results support the importance of the CO{sub 2} paradigm, but also indicate that a fuller understanding of past climate change requires consideration of paleogeographic, luminosity, and orbital insolation changes.

  4. Sequence stratigraphic and sedimentologic significance of biogenic structures from a late Paleozoic marginal- to open-marine reservoir, Morrow Sandstone, subsurface of southwest Kansas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buatois, L.A.; Mangano, M.G.; Alissa, A.; Carr, T.R.

    2002-01-01

    high diversity of biogenic structures representing the activity of a benthic fauna developed under normal salinity conditions. Trace fossil and facies analyses allow environmental subdivision of the shoreface-offshore successions and suggest deposition in a weakly storm-affected nearshore area. An onshore-offshore replacement of the Skolithos ichnofacies by the Cruziana ichnofacies is clearly displayed. The lower Morrow fluvio-estuarine valley was incised during a drop of sea level coincident with the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian transition, but was mostly filled during a subsequent transgression. The transgressive nature of the estuarine infill is further indicated by the upward replacement of depauperate brackish-water trace fossil assemblages by the open-marine Cruziana ichnofacies. Additional stratal surfaces of allostratigraphic significance identified within the estuary include the bayline surface, the tidal ravinement surface, the wave ravinement surface, and a basinwide flooding surface recording inundation of the valley interfluves. A younger sequence boundary within the lower Morrow is also recorded in the Gentzler field at the base of a forced regression shoreface, demarcated by the firmground Glossifungites ichnofacies, indicating a rapid basinward facies migration during a sea-level drop. Trace fossil models derived from the analysis of Mesozoic and Cenozoic reservoirs are generally applicable to the study of these late Paleozoic reservoirs. Pennsylvanian brackish-water facies differ ichnologically from their post-Paleozoic counterparts, however, in that they have: (1) lower trace fossil diversity, (2) lower degree of bioturbation, (3) scarcity of crustacean burrows, (4) absence of firmground suites, and (5) absence of ichnotaxa displaying specific architectures designed to protect the tracemaker from salinity fluctuations. Morrow open-marine ichnofaunas closely resemble their post-Paleozoic equivalents. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sequence stratigraphic and sedimentologic significance of biogenic structures from a late Paleozoic marginal- to open-marine reservoir, Morrow Sandstone, subsurface of southwest Kansas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buatois, Luis A.; Mángano, M. Gabriela; Alissa, Abdulrahman; Carr, Timothy R.

    2002-09-01

    high diversity of biogenic structures representing the activity of a benthic fauna developed under normal salinity conditions. Trace fossil and facies analyses allow environmental subdivision of the shoreface-offshore successions and suggest deposition in a weakly storm-affected nearshore area. An onshore-offshore replacement of the Skolithos ichnofacies by the Cruziana ichnofacies is clearly displayed. The lower Morrow fluvio-estuarine valley was incised during a drop of sea level coincident with the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian transition, but was mostly filled during a subsequent transgression. The transgressive nature of the estuarine infill is further indicated by the upward replacement of depauperate brackish-water trace fossil assemblages by the open-marine Cruziana ichnofacies. Additional stratal surfaces of allostratigraphic significance identified within the estuary include the bayline surface, the tidal ravinement surface, the wave ravinement surface, and a basinwide flooding surface recording inundation of the valley interfluves. A younger sequence boundary within the lower Morrow is also recorded in the Gentzler field at the base of a forced regression shoreface, demarcated by the firmground Glossifungites ichnofacies, indicating a rapid basinward facies migration during a sea-level drop. Trace fossil models derived from the analysis of Mesozoic and Cenozoic reservoirs are generally applicable to the study of these late Paleozoic reservoirs. Pennsylvanian brackish-water facies differ ichnologically from their post-Paleozoic counterparts, however, in that they have: (1) lower trace fossil diversity, (2) lower degree of bioturbation, (3) scarcity of crustacean burrows, (4) absence of firmground suites, and (5) absence of ichnotaxa displaying specific architectures designed to protect the tracemaker from salinity fluctuations. Morrow open-marine ichnofaunas closely resemble their post-Paleozoic equivalents.

  6. Cycads: Fossil evidence of late paleozoic origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mamay, S.H.

    1969-01-01

    Plant fossils from Lower Permian strata of the southwestern United States have been interpreted as cycadalean megasporophylls. They are evidently descended from spermopterid elements of the Pennsylvanian Taeniopteris complex; thus the known fossil history of the cycads is extended from the Late Triassic into the late Paleozoic. Possible implications of the Permian fossils toward evolution of the angiosperm carpel are considered.

  7. Cycads: fossil evidence of late paleozoic origin.

    PubMed

    Mamay, S H

    1969-04-18

    Plant fossils from Lower Permian strata of the southwestern United States have been interpreted as cycadalean megasporophylls. They are evidently descended from spermopterid elements of the Pennsylvanian Taeniopteris complex; thus the known fossil history of the cycads is extended from the Late Triassic into the late Paleozoic. Possible implications of the Permian fossils toward evolution of the angiosperm carpel are considered.

  8. Origins of upper Paleozoic quartzose sandstones, American southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, Steven J.

    1988-04-01

    In the latter half of the Paleozoic, all margins of the North American craton were orogenic highlands except for the Cordilleran miogeocline. Rivers that drained cratonic areas northwest of the Transcontinental arch probably flowed to the topographically low Cordilleran miogeocline, but little direct sedimentary record of these ancient fluvial systems remains. The voluminous upper Paleozoic quartzose sandstone deposits of the American west are indirect evidence for these systems. Northern and central portions of the miogeocline were flooded with quartzose sand in the Pennsylvanian, and by mid-Early Permian, littoral and wind processes were transporting large volumes of quartzose sand southward, along the miogeoclinal/cratonic hingeline. Winds drove some of these sands inland, onto the disrupted western end of the Transcontinental arch, where they mixed with locally derived detritus and collected in great ergs. Calcareous siltstones that were deposited downwind of major ergs probably represent desert loess accumulations. Some eolian sands spilled across the Transcontinental arch to interfinger with carbonate and evaporite deposits in basins of the southwestern United States. Most sandstones deposited by these ancient littoral and eolian systems are fine- to very fine-grained, potash-feldspar subarkoses. Bimodal sandstones are common. The distribution, composition and volume of these sandstones suggest that the northern craton was the major source area and cratonic uplifts of the Ancestral Rockies were a secondary source. The fine grain size, high degree of sorting, and grain-size bimodality suggest that these sands were the most mobile sediments in littoral and eolian settings. A perplexing aspect of these deposits is the lack of compositionally unstable silicates, such as plagioclase, and the lack of phyllosilicate clays. Possibly this reflects great amounts of physical abrasion and sediment winnowing during protracted transport in littoral and eolian systems, and

  9. Chemical characteristics (REE, etc.) of Paleozoic and Mesozoic graywackes and sandstones from Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedepohl, Karl Hans; Simon, Klaus

    2012-10-01

    During the Variscan orogeny in Central Europe, partial melting in the lower continental crust formed granitic magmas, which intruded into the upper crust and left compounds of Ca (plus Eu2+), Mg, etc. in the lower crust. From the late Paleozoic decomposition of the tonalitic upper crust, sedimentary graywackes were produced reflecting the composition of this crust. The repeated reworking of the sedimentary cover caused the formation of sands. Sandstones as their products of consolidation contain increasing fractions of quartz and decreasing feldspar from Carboniferous and Triassic to Cretaceous age. A distinct negative Eu anomaly characterizes the majority of these rocks. The latter is imprinted by the Variscan magmatism. Quartz as used for numerous Medieval wood ash glasses is marked for its Central European origin by a distinct negative Eu anomaly in contrast to many soda glasses produced outside Germany mostly with a small or none Eu anomaly.

  10. Sequential filling of a late paleozoic foreland basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mars', J. C.; Thomas, W.A.

    1999-01-01

    Through the use of an extensive data base of geophysical well logs, parasequence-scale subdivisions within a late Paleozoic synorogenic clastic wedge resolve cycles of sequential subsidence of a foreland basin, sediment progradation, subsidence of a carbonate shelf edge, diachronously subsiding discrete depositional centers, and basinwide transgression. Although temporal resolution of biostratigraphic markers is less precise in Paleozoic successions than in younger basins, parasequence-scale subdivisions provide more detailed resolution within marker-defined units in Paleozoic strata. As an example, the late Paleozoic Black Warrior basin in the foreland of the Ouachita thrust belt is filled with a synorogenic clastic wedge, the lower part of which intertongues with the fringe of a cratonic carbonate facie??s in the distal part of the basin. The stratal geometry of one tongue of the carbonate facie??s (lower tongue of Bangor Limestone) defines a ramp that grades basinward into a thin black shale. An overlying tongue of the synorogenic clastic wedge (lower tongue of Parkwood Formation) consists of cyclic delta and delta-front deposits, in which parasequences are defined by marine-flooding surfaces above coarsening- and shallow ing-upward successions of mudstone and sandstone. Within the lower Parkwood tongue, two genetic stratigraphie sequences (A and B) are defined by parasequence offlap and downlap patterns and are bounded at the tops by basinwide maximum-flooding surfaces. The distribution of parasequences within sequences A and B indicates two cycles of sequential subsidence (deepening) and progradation, suggesting subsidence during thrust advance and progradation during thrust quiescence. Parasequence stacking in sequences A and B also indicates diachronous differential tectonic subsidence of two discrete depositional centers within the basin. The uppermost sequence (C) includes reworked sandstones and an overlying shallow-marine limestone, a vertical succession

  11. The Paleozoic sandstones in Wadi Feiran - El Tor area, Sinai, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allam, A.

    The Paleozoic sandstone succession between Wadi Feiran and El-Tor in southwestern Sinai has been subdivided into five distinct lithostratigraphic units: the Lower Cambrian Araba Formation; the Upper Cambrian Naqus Formation; the Lower Carboniferous Abu Durba Formation; the Upper Carboniferous Aheimer Formation and the Permian Qiseib Formation. The present study has also proved that the Paleozoic Earth movements have undergone distinct changes in the sedimentary facies, together with lateral variations in the composition and thickness of strata. The distribution of the sediments and their faunal contents point to the existence of five major phases of sedimentation during the Paleozoic Era.

  12. Geochemical evidence for Paleozoic oil in Lower Cretaceous O Sandstone, northern Denver basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clayton, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Organic geochemical properties of the oil produced from the Lower Cretaceous O sandstone on the eastern flank of the Denver basin indicate that this oil has been derived from a different source rock than other Cretaceous oils in the basin. O sandstone oil is characterized by low pristane/phytane ratio, high isoprenoid/n-alkane ratios, high asphaltene content, high sulfur content, and slight predominance of even-carbon numbered n-alkanes in the C25+ fraction. These features are evidence of a Paleozoic source and indicate a carbonate rock is the likely source. Preliminary source rock evaluation and correlation data suggest that calcareous black shales and marls of Middle Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) age are the source of the O sandstone oil. This is the first reported occurrence of oil from Paleozoic source rocks in a Cretaceous reservoir in the Denver basin. -from Author

  13. Late Paleozoic Deglaciation in Western Equatorial Pangaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soreghan, G. S.; Soreghan, M. J.; Eble, C. F.; Sweet, D.; Davogustto, O.; Young, R. A.; Elmore, R. D.

    2005-12-01

    The late Paleozoic icehouse is Earth's best-documented pre-Quaternary icehouse, long thought analogous to our modern world wherein glaciation is confined largely to high-latitude regions. However, emerging data from the Ancestral Rocky Mountains, an intraplate orogenic system in western equatorial Pangaea, indicate that glaciation extended to low latitudes as well. Key data exist in the Uncompahgre-uplift - Paradox basin system (western U.S.) in the form of a preserved Permo-Pennsylvanian glacial valley (ancestral Unaweep Canyon) and associated glacial and proglacial strata (proximal Cutler Formation). Within western Colorado, Unaweep Canyon is a deep, enigmatic, Precambrian-cored gorge that orthogonally bisects the western Uncompahgre Plateau, and is occupied by two underfit creeks flowing from a divide in its midst. A Cenozoic origin for the canyon is difficult to reconcile with geologic data; limited outcrop and well data confirm the canyon harbors a thick fill that includes a basal unit of probable late Paleozoic age as inferred by palynomorph, provenance, and preliminary paleomagnetic data. Geomorphologic attributes of the gorge walls together with preliminary results of cross-canyon gravity profiles indicate the canyon shape is best explained by a glacial genesis. Furthermore, the Permo-Pennsylvanian Cutler Formation onlaps Precambrian basement at the western mouth of the gorge, and contains facies of inferred proglacial (glaciolacustrine and glaciofluvial) origin, including (1) subaqueous sediment gravity flows, dropstones, and large slump blocks of an ice-contact Gilbert-type lacustrine delta, and (2) large-scale, laterally extensive cross-bedded conglomerates that record high-magnitude, outburst-type floods typical of deglaciation. The Cutler facies represent the proximal part of a system that ultimately extended to sea level in the distal Paradox basin. Maximum reasonable depositional gradients on this system yield maximum elevations of 500-1000 m for the

  14. An exhumed Late Paleozoic canyon in the rocky mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soreghan, G.S.; Sweet, D.E.; Marra, K.R.; Eble, C.F.; Soreghan, M.J.; Elmore, R.D.; Kaplan, S.A.; Blum, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Landscapes are thought to be youthful, particularly those of active orogenic belts. Unaweep Canyon in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, a large gorge drained by two opposite-flowing creeks, is an exception. Its origin has long been enigmatic, but new data indicate that it is an exhumed late Paleozoic landform. Its survival within a region of profound late Paleozoic orogenesis demands a reassessment of tectonic models for the Ancestral Rocky Mountains, and its form and genesis have significant implications for understanding late Paleozoic equatorial climate. This discovery highlights the utility of paleogeomorphology as a tectonic and climatic indicator. ?? 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  15. Late Paleozoic History of the Kazakhstan orocline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Voo, R.; Abrajevitch, S.; Bazhenov, M. L.; Levashova, N. M.

    2007-12-01

    Kazakhstan, located in the center of the Eurasian continent, is made of younger crust sandwiched between the old cratons of Siberia, Baltica and Tarim. A prominent geologic feature of Kazakhstan consists of two concentric horse-shoe shaped volcanic arcs, which are Devonian and late Paleozoic in age and with the youngest arc on the inside. Recent paleomagnetic studies in the region show that in the Middle Devonian the volcanic arc, which is now curved, was nearly straight and NW-SE trending. This arc marked the NE margin of the block that some have called Kazakhstania. The southern arm of the curved structure shows no significant changes in its relative orientation since the Middle Devonian, while its northern arm (in present day coordinates) underwent ~ 180 degrees of rotation. To constrain the timing of the rotation we conducted a paleomagnetic study of the Early Permian (295-290 Ma) subduction related volcanics from the central limb of the orocline. Declinations of the primary as well as secondary (Triassic) components isolated in studied rocks agree well with the Baltica reference directions indicating that the bending was essentially over by the earliest Permian. An initial bending of the orocline was probably caused by dextral shear motion of Siberia that affected the northern (Chingiz Range) end of Kazakhstania, while the collision of Tarim with Kazakhstania's southern corner (Tien Shan) created a back-stop. Continued subduction under the northern and southern limbs with an estimated subduction velocity of less than 1 cm/yr eventually led to closure of the intervening Balkhash-Ili ocean and tightening of the orocline. By the early Permian the Balhash-Ili represented a narrow oceanic basin with two subduction zones of opposite polarity, likely similar to the modern Molucca Sea subduction system.

  16. Synthesis of late Paleozoic and Mesozoic eolian deposits of the Western Interior of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blakey, R.C.; Peterson, F.; Kocurek, G.

    1988-01-01

    Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic eolian deposits include rock units that were deposited in ergs (eolian sand seas), erg margins and dune fields. They form an important part of Middle Pennsylvanian through Upper Jurassic sedimentary rocks across the Western Interior of the United States. These sedimentary rock units comprise approximately three dozen major eolian-bearing sequences and several smaller ones. Isopach and facies maps and accompanying cross sections indicate that most eolian units display varied geometry and complex facies relations to adjacent non-eolian rocks. Paleozoic erg deposits are widespread from Montana to Arizona and include Pennsylvanian formations (Weber, Tensleep, Casper and Quadrant Sandstones) chiefly in the Northern and Central Rocky Mountains with some deposits (Hermosa and Supai Groups) on the Colorado Plateau. Lower Permian (Wolfcampian) erg deposits (Weber, Tensleep, Casper, Minnelusa, Ingleside, Cedar Mesa, Elephant Canyon, Queantoweap and Esplanade Formations) are more widespread and thicken into the central Colorado Plateau. Middle Permian (Leonardian I) erg deposits (De Chelly and Schnebly Hill Formations) are distributed across the southern Colorado Plateau on the north edge of the Holbrook basin. Leonardian II erg deposits (Coconino and Glorieta Sandstones) are slightly more widespread on the southern Colorado Plateau. Leonardian III erg deposits formed adjacent to the Toroweap-Kaibab sea in Utah and Arizona (Coconino and White Rim Sandstones) and in north-central Colorado (Lyons Sandstone). Recognized Triassic eolian deposits include major erg deposits in the Jelm Formation of central Colorado-Wyoming and smaller eolian deposits in the Rock Point Member of the Wingate Sandstone and upper Dolores Formation, both of the Four Corners region. None of these have as yet received a modern or thorough study. Jurassic deposits of eolian origin extend from the Black Hills to the southern Cordilleran arc terrain. Lower Jurassic intervals

  17. Synthesis of late Paleozoic and Mesozoic eolian deposits of the Western Interior of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakey, Ronald C.; Peterson, Fred; Kocurek, Gary

    1988-04-01

    Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic eolian deposits include rock units that were deposited in ergs (eolian sand seas), erg margins and dune fields. They form an important part of Middle Pennsylvanian through Upper Jurassic sedimentary rocks across the Western Interior of the United States. These sedimentary rock units comprise approximately three dozen major eolian-bearing sequences and several smaller ones. Isopach and facies maps and accompanying cross sections indicate that most eolian units display varied geometry and complex facies relations to adjacent non-eolian rocks. Paleozoic erg deposits are widespread from Montana to Arizona and include Pennsylvanian formations (Weber, Tensleep, Casper and Quadrant Sandstones) chiefly in the Northern and Central Rocky Mountains with some deposits (Hermosa and Supai Groups) on the Colorado Plateau. Lower Permian (Wolfcampian) erg deposits (Weber, Tensleep, Casper, Minnelusa, Ingleside, Cedar Mesa, Elephant Canyon, Queantoweap and Esplanade Formations) are more widespread and thicken into the central Colorado Plateau. Middle Permian (Leonardian I) erg deposits (De Chelly and Schnebly Hill Formations) are distributed across the southern Colorado Plateau on the north edge of the Holbrook basin. Leonardian II erg deposits (Coconino and Glorieta Sandstones) are slightly more widespread on the southern Colorado Plateau. Leonardian III erg deposits formed adjacent to the Toroweap-Kaibab sea in Utah and Arizona (Coconino and White Rim Sandstones) and in north-central Colorado (Lyons Sandstone). Recognized Triassic eolian deposits include major erg deposits in the Jelm Formation of central Colorado-Wyoming and smaller eolian deposits in the Rock Point Member of the Wingate Sandstone and upper Dolores Formation, both of the Four Corners region. None of these have as yet received a modern or thorough study. Jurassic deposits of eolian origin extend from the Black Hills to the southern Cordilleran arc terrain. Lower Jurassic intervals

  18. Late Paleozoic extension in the Great Basin, western United States

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, E.L.; Smith, D.L. )

    1990-08-01

    Geologic mapping in the Toiyabe Range in central Nevada has revealed the existence of normal faults of probable mid-Mississippian to Early Permian age that strike roughly east-west and dip northward. Additional evidence of uplift and erosion followed by mafic volcanism and subsidence suggests that much of the central and southern Toiyabe Range was affected by late Paleozoic extension. Similar patterns of late Paleozoic uplift and subsidence, together with local basaltic volcanism, are widespread in the western United States, suggesting that the continental margin was dominated by extension or transtension in Mississippian to Permian time. This extension was coeval with convergence between North America and South America across the Ouachita and Marathon belts, and the dynamic interaction of these two margins may, by analogy with the Cenozoic tectonics of Asia, has given rise to complex late Paleozoic deformation in the Ancestral Rocky Mountains and adjacent areas of the interior western United States.

  19. Porosities and permeability of Paleozoic sandstones derived from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorand, Rachel; Koch, Andreas; Mohnke, Oliver; Klitzsch, Norbert; Clauser, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    Paleozoic sandstones. The results show that the used models yield good correlation between gas- and NMR-permeability (R2>0.86 for k>10-19 m2).

  20. Tectonic model for the Late Paleozoic of southeastern New England

    SciTech Connect

    Wintsch, R.P.; Sutter, J.F.

    1986-07-01

    Hornblende and biotite /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar age spectra from rocks in south-central Connecticut help define a Permian-Triassic cooling curve for the area. Together with petrologic and structural information, a time-temperature-pressure-strain path is established. Similar data for the Narragansett basin in Rhode Island and Massachusetts allow correlation of the late Paleozoic histories of the two areas. Together, these data suggest that in the late Paleozoic, south-central New England was part of a fold-thrust belt, and the Narragansett basin was a retroarc foreland basin. NW-SE compression during the final assembly of Pangaea resulted in SE directed thrusting, causing the development of clastic wedges in adjacent Rhode Island and Massachusetts in the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian. A clockwise rotation of this deformation from NW to NNE led to northward underthrusting and concomitant uplift of both eastern Connecticut and Rhode Island in the Permian and Triassic.

  1. Petrography and geochemistry of lower Paleozoic sandstones, East Sinai, Egypt: Implications for provenance and tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akarish, Adel I. M.; El-Gohary, Amr M.

    2008-09-01

    Petrography, mineralogy and chemical analyses were combined to investigate the lower Paleozoic sandstones at Wadi El-Quseiyeb area, East Sinai. They are mainly classified texturally as silty sandstones, sandstones and clayey siltstone. Their average modal composition (QFL, 87:11:2), classifies them as quartz arenite and arkosic arenite, with high proportions of quartz, monocrystalline quartz grains, more potash feldspar than plagioclase and a low plagioclase/total feldspar ratio ( P/ F < 0.2). High SiO 2, K 2O > Na 2O, and low Fe 2O 3 + MgO values revealed by chemical analyses are consistent with the modal data. Other criteria include elevated Ba and Sr contents and depletion in the ferromagnesian elements. The petrography and geochemistry suggest a stable continental (passive) margin or intracratonic basin, analogous to that of an Atlantic-type continental shelf. Also, they reflect a stable craton interior source, devoid, to a large extent, of basic debris and ultimately derived from a low-lying granite-rich Precambrian craton. Chemical index of alteration (CIA) and the Plagioclase index of Alteration (PIA) values range from 57.2 to 93.0 and from 79.7 to 94.6, respectively. However, most samples have values more than 60, suggesting a moderate to relatively high degree of alteration (weathering) in the source area.

  2. Late Paleozoic paleolatitude and paleogeography of the Midland basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.A. ); Golonka, J. ); Reid, A.M.; Reid, S.T. )

    1992-04-01

    During the Late Pennsylvanian through Early Permian, the Midland basin was located in the low latitudes. In the Desmoinesian (Strawn), the basin was astride the equator; during the Missourian (Canyon), the center of the basin had migrated northward so it was located at 1-2N latitude. In the Virgilian (Cisco), the basin center was located around 2-4N latitude, and by the Wolfcampian, it was positioned at around 4-6N latitude. From the Desmoinesian (312 Ma) through the Missourian (306 Ma), the relative motion of the basin was 63NE. Later during the Virgilian (298 Ma) to Wolfcampian (280 Ma), the direction of motion was 24NE. This change in motion reflects a major tectonic event, occurring between the Missourian and Virgilian, that greatly modifed the movement of the Laurentian (North American) plate. At that time, Laurentia had collided with Gondwana and become part of the supercontinent Pangea. Throughout the late Paleozoic, Laurentia was rotated so the Midland basin was oriented 43{degree} northeast from its current setting. Late Paleozoic paleogeography and paleolatitude controlled the direction of prevailing winds and ocean currents, thereby influencing the distribution of carbonate facies in the Midland basin. Present prevailing winds and ocean currents have been shown to have a major impact on modern carbonate sedimentation and facies distribution in Belize, the Bahamas and Turks, and Caicos. A clearer understanding of how late Paleozoic latitude and geography affected sedimentation helps explain and predict the distribution of carbonates throughout the Midland basin.

  3. The impact of fire on the Late Paleozoic Earth system

    PubMed Central

    Glasspool, Ian J.; Scott, Andrew C.; Waltham, David; Pronina, Natalia; Shao, Longyi

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of bulk petrographic data indicate that during the Late Paleozoic wildfires were more prevalent than at present. We propose that the development of fire systems through this interval was controlled predominantly by the elevated atmospheric oxygen concentration (p(O2)) that mass balance models predict prevailed. At higher levels of p(O2), increased fire activity would have rendered vegetation with high-moisture contents more susceptible to ignition and would have facilitated continued combustion. We argue that coal petrographic data indicate that p(O2) rather than global temperatures or climate, resulted in the increased levels of wildfire activity observed during the Late Paleozoic and can, therefore, be used to predict it. These findings are based upon analyses of charcoal volumes in multiple coals distributed across the globe and deposited during this time period, and that were then compared with similarly diverse modern peats and Cenozoic lignites and coals. Herein, we examine the environmental and ecological factors that would have impacted fire activity and we conclude that of these factors p(O2) played the largest role in promoting fires in Late Paleozoic peat-forming environments and, by inference, ecosystems generally, when compared with their prevalence in the modern world. PMID:26442069

  4. The impact of fire on the Late Paleozoic Earth system.

    PubMed

    Glasspool, Ian J; Scott, Andrew C; Waltham, David; Pronina, Natalia; Shao, Longyi

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of bulk petrographic data indicate that during the Late Paleozoic wildfires were more prevalent than at present. We propose that the development of fire systems through this interval was controlled predominantly by the elevated atmospheric oxygen concentration (p(O2)) that mass balance models predict prevailed. At higher levels of p(O2), increased fire activity would have rendered vegetation with high-moisture contents more susceptible to ignition and would have facilitated continued combustion. We argue that coal petrographic data indicate that p(O2) rather than global temperatures or climate, resulted in the increased levels of wildfire activity observed during the Late Paleozoic and can, therefore, be used to predict it. These findings are based upon analyses of charcoal volumes in multiple coals distributed across the globe and deposited during this time period, and that were then compared with similarly diverse modern peats and Cenozoic lignites and coals. Herein, we examine the environmental and ecological factors that would have impacted fire activity and we conclude that of these factors p(O2) played the largest role in promoting fires in Late Paleozoic peat-forming environments and, by inference, ecosystems generally, when compared with their prevalence in the modern world.

  5. Late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic history of the Pacific margin along Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Collinson, J.W.; Isbell, J.L. ); Miller, M.F. )

    1990-05-01

    The late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic Pacific margin of Gondwanaland from eastern Australia to Patagonia was characterized by a series of back-arc and foreland basins associated with subduction and volcanism. The Transantarctic basin including the present Transantarctic Mountains and Tasmania evolved from a middle Paleozoic passive continental margin to an Early Permian back-arc basin and a Late Permian-Triassic foreland basin. The earliest evidence of a volcanic arc and subduction is the appearance of abundant volcanic detritus at the base of the Early Permian postglacial marine shale-and-sandstone sequence in the Ellsworth Mountains. Volcaniclastic forearc sediments of Permian( ) to Triassic age are known from the Antarctic Peninsula. The introduction of abundant volcanic detritus to the East Antarctic craton and a 180{degree} paleocurrent reversal in the Late Permian in the Beardmore Glacier area is the earliest evidence of folding along the Antarctic-Pacific margin. By the Early Triassic, folding involved Late Permian sequences in the Ellsworth and Transantarctic (Pensacola) mountains. Thick Upper Permian and Triassic braided-stream deposits of mixed volcanic and cratonic provenance accumulated in this foreland basin. Subsidence ended in the Early Jurassic with uplift and diabase intrusion associated with the breakup of Gondwanaland.

  6. Floral responses to the Late Paleozoic deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Looy, C. V.; DiMichele, W. A.

    2011-12-01

    The current human-induced thawing of ice house Earth prompts the careful examination of similar earlier events and their biotic consequences. The most recent full transition from a cool earth to a warm world took place in the Early to Middle Permian. Against a background of global warming, plant communities were affected globally resulting in migrations, extinctions and changed evolutionary patterns as a response to the environmental changes. The collapse of the southern hemisphere ice-sheets resulted in significant changes, not just at higher latitudes, but also in the tropics where the rainfall regime changed from seasonally dry to seasonally wet. In the Early Permian tropics - in areas where net sedimentation facilitates fossilization, to be more specific - vegetation rich in walchian conifers began to replace the spore plants and seed ferns that previously dominated the Late Pennsylvanian wetlands. The replacing drier floras probably lived in the basinal lowlands as well, but episodically at the drier times of climate cycles. New finds within the tropics of latest Early to Middle Permian-age, in particular from north-central Texas, indicate the existence of floras which were adapted to even more extended periods of drought. These were populated by the more derived voltzian conifers and other seed plants, such as cycads. Surprisingly, the clades in these floras were until recently only known from the tens-of-millions-of-years younger Late Permian and Early Mesozoic, where they were the dominant forms. These occurrences demonstrate that even more derived groups were already in existence and well differentiated by the Early Permian, outside the window of preservation. This pattern of change in conifers and their communities from north-central Texas is unique in that it represents the best documented record in the Phanerozoic of terrestrial ecosystem response to a change from a global cool-mode to warm-mode Earth. Conifers serve as "marker plants" for the

  7. Kinematics of late paleozoic continental collision between laurentia and gondwana.

    PubMed

    Sacks, P E; Secor, D T

    1990-12-21

    In the Appalachians, late Paleozoic Alleghanian orogenesis is widely regarded as resulting from dextral oblique collision between irregular margins of Gondwana and Laurentia. However, this relative plate motion cannot account for coeval convergence in the Ouachitas and Variscides and is incompatible with some tectonic transport indicators in the Appalachians. An alternative kinematic model is proposed in which early sinistral transpression in the Appalachians is followed by counterclockwise rotation of Gondwana and the development of a system of dextral strike-slip faults extending from southern Europe to Alabama.

  8. Kinematics of late Paleozoic continental collision between Laurentia and Gondwana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sacks, P.E.; Secor, D.T.

    1990-01-01

    In the Appalachians, late Paleozoic Alleghanian orogenesis is widely regarded as resulting from dextral oblique collision between irregular margins of Gondwana and Laurentia. However, this relative plate motion cannot account for coeval convergence in the Ouachitas and Variscides and is incompatible with some tectonic transport indicators in the Appalachians. An alternative kinematic model is proposed in which early sinistral transpression in the Appalachians is followed by counterclockwise rotation of Gondwana and the development of a system of dextral strike-slip faults extending from southern Europe to Alabama.

  9. Chondrites isp. Indicating Late Paleozoic Atmospheric Anoxia in Eastern Peninsular India

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Biplab; Banerjee, Sudipto

    2014-01-01

    Rhythmic sandstone-mudstone-coal succession of the Barakar Formation (early Permian) manifests a transition from lower braided-fluvial to upper tide-wave influenced, estuarine setting. Monospecific assemblage of marine trace fossil Chondrites isp. in contemporaneous claystone beds in the upper Barakar succession from two Gondwana basins (namely, the Raniganj Basin and the Talchir Basin) in eastern peninsular India signifies predominant marine incursion during end early Permian. Monospecific Chondrites ichnoassemblage in different sedimentary horizons in geographically wide apart (~400 km) areas demarcates multiple short-spanned phases of anoxia in eastern India. Such anoxia is interpreted as intermittent falls in oxygen level in an overall decreasing atmospheric oxygenation within the late Paleozoic global oxygen-carbon dioxide fluctuations. PMID:24616628

  10. Chondrites isp. indicating late paleozoic atmospheric anoxia in Eastern Peninsular India.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Biplab; Banerjee, Sudipto

    2014-01-01

    Rhythmic sandstone-mudstone-coal succession of the Barakar Formation (early Permian) manifests a transition from lower braided-fluvial to upper tide-wave influenced, estuarine setting. Monospecific assemblage of marine trace fossil Chondrites isp. in contemporaneous claystone beds in the upper Barakar succession from two Gondwana basins (namely, the Raniganj Basin and the Talchir Basin) in eastern peninsular India signifies predominant marine incursion during end early Permian. Monospecific Chondrites ichnoassemblage in different sedimentary horizons in geographically wide apart (~400 km) areas demarcates multiple short-spanned phases of anoxia in eastern India. Such anoxia is interpreted as intermittent falls in oxygen level in an overall decreasing atmospheric oxygenation within the late Paleozoic global oxygen-carbon dioxide fluctuations.

  11. Late paleozoic fusulinoidean gigantism driven by atmospheric hyperoxia.

    PubMed

    Payne, Jonathan L; Groves, John R; Jost, Adam B; Nguyen, Thienan; Moffitt, Sarah E; Hill, Tessa M; Skotheim, Jan M

    2012-09-01

    Atmospheric hyperoxia, with pO(2) in excess of 30%, has long been hypothesized to account for late Paleozoic (360-250 million years ago) gigantism in numerous higher taxa. However, this hypothesis has not been evaluated statistically because comprehensive size data have not been compiled previously at sufficient temporal resolution to permit quantitative analysis. In this study, we test the hyperoxia-gigantism hypothesis by examining the fossil record of fusulinoidean foraminifers, a dramatic example of protistan gigantism with some individuals exceeding 10 cm in length and exceeding their relatives by six orders of magnitude in biovolume. We assembled and examined comprehensive regional and global, species-level datasets containing 270 and 1823 species, respectively. A statistical model of size evolution forced by atmospheric pO(2) is conclusively favored over alternative models based on random walks or a constant tendency toward size increase. Moreover, the ratios of volume to surface area in the largest fusulinoideans are consistent in magnitude and trend with a mathematical model based on oxygen transport limitation. We further validate the hyperoxia-gigantism model through an examination of modern foraminiferal species living along a measured gradient in oxygen concentration. These findings provide the first quantitative confirmation of a direct connection between Paleozoic gigantism and atmospheric hyperoxia.

  12. Late Paleozoic tectonomagmatic evolution of the western southern Tian Shan, Tajikistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, James R.; Kapp, Paul; Minaev, Vladislav; Chapman, James B.; Oimahmadov, Ilhomjon; Gadoev, Mustafo

    2015-04-01

    -facies metamorphism; crystallization ages are early Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic, suggesting peri-Gondwanan affinity. Metamorphic (consistently low Th/U) rims of zircons from a Garm Bt+Grt quartzofeldspathic gneiss span 324-284 Ma and define a protracted episode of amphibolite-facies metamorphism for the Garm massif that overlaps with both main-stage Gissar and post-collisional magmatism. This overlap favors delamination over post-orogenic extension as a mechanism for producing the 'post-collisional,' juvenile magmatism. The Zerafshan unit (north of the Gissar-Garm unit) comprises a Paleozoic volcano-sedimentary sequence that has been metamorphosed to ~greenschist facies. Chl±Bt schists exhibit zircon U-Pb age spectra similar to those in the Garm massif but with subordinate Paleoproterozoic peaks. Pb-loss discordia are present but weak for Zerafshan zircons, consistent with ~greenschist-facies metamorphism. Detrital-zircon U-Pb age spectra for modern river sands (which drain the Garm massif and Zerafshan unit) and Cretaceous sandstones (which unconformably overlie the Garm massif) reproduce the main and 'post-collisional' stages of magmatism found in the igneous rocks, as well as the Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic ages found in the metasedimentary rocks. A match between a 450 Ma Zerafshan meta-andesite and a peak in a Cretaceous sandstone, taken together with consistency between detrital- and igneous-zircon ɛHf values, suggests that the Cretaceous sandstones were sourced from the Tian Shan rather than age-equivalent terranes in the Pamir. Overall, the igneous and detrital U-Pb and Hf datasets document a late Paleozoic tectonomagmatic evolution of the Gissar arc that is consistent with development of an Andean-style active continental margin followed by ocean closure, continental collision and delamination.

  13. Global plate boundary evolution and kinematics since the late Paleozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Kara J.; Maloney, Kayla T.; Zahirovic, Sabin; Williams, Simon E.; Seton, Maria; Müller, R. Dietmar

    2016-11-01

    Many aspects of deep-time Earth System models, including mantle convection, paleoclimatology, paleobiogeography and the deep Earth carbon cycle, require high-resolution plate motion models that include the evolution of the mosaic of plate boundaries through time. We present the first continuous late Paleozoic to present-day global plate model with evolving plate boundaries, building on and extending two previously published models for the late Paleozoic (410-250 Ma) and Mesozoic-Cenozoic (230-0 Ma). We ensure continuity during the 250-230 Ma transition period between the two models, update the absolute reference frame of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic model and add a new Paleozoic reconstruction for the Baltica-derived Alexander Terrane, now accreted to western North America. This 410-0 Ma open access model provides a framework for deep-time whole Earth modelling and acts as a base for future extensions and refinement. We analyse the model in terms of the number of plates, predicted plate size distribution, plate and continental root mean square (RMS) speeds, plate velocities and trench migration through time. Overall model trends share many similarities to those for recent times, which we use as a first order benchmark against which to compare the model and identify targets for future model refinement. Except for during the period 260-160 Ma, the number of plates (16-46) and ratio of "large" plates (≥ 107.5 km2) to smaller plates ( 2.7-6.6) are fairly similar to present-day values (46 and 6.6, respectively), with lower values occurring during late Paleozoic assembly and growth of Pangea. This temporal pattern may also reflect difficulties in reconstructing small, now subducted oceanic plates further back in time, as well as whether a supercontinent is assembling or breaking up. During the 260-160 Ma timeframe the model reaches a minima in the number of plates, in contrast to what we would expect during initial Pangea breakup and thus highlighting the need for refinement

  14. Corals from a dismembered late Paleozoic paleo-Pacific plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Calvin H.

    1983-10-01

    A coral belonging to the rare Late Mississippian Early Pennsylvanian Family Pseudopavonidae and a specimen of the Permian waagenophyllid coral genus Parawentzelella have been recovered from the Cache Creek assemblage in northern British Columbia and from a small limestone block in southern British Columbia, Canada, respectively. Both of these fossils are closely related to corals known from eastern Japan and western Sze-chuan, China; Parawentzelella also occurs in Indochina. These corals apparently occur in shallow-water carbonates that overlie pieces of oceanic volcanic ridges or plateaus. In both Asia and North America these corals now lie geographically close to coeval, but completely different, coral faunas that lived on shallow carbonate platforms built on continental shelves. This suggests that the circum-Pacific terranes bearing these unusual corals were displaced from a single, shallow-water oceanic region that in late Paleozoic time lay in the paleo-Pacific Ocean far from any continental margin. In Late Permian or early Mesozoic time the region colonized by these fossils was torn apart; the rock masses bearing these fossils were then carried on oceanic plates to subduction zones at continental margins on opposite sides of the Pacific Ocean, where they became lodged.

  15. Van Horn Sandstone, Trans-Pecos Texas: Evidence for Late Cambrian rifting along southern North America

    SciTech Connect

    Hongshuan, Ye; Soegaard, K. . Programs in Geosciences)

    1993-02-01

    The Van Horn Sandstone in the Trans-Pecos region of west Texas is interpreted as a rift sequence which developed in response to Cambrian breakup along the southern margin of the North American continent. The Van Horn Sandstone consists exclusively of braided alluvial sediments and occupies relatively small isolated basins in the vicinity of the town of Van Horn. The sandstone is in structural unconformable contact above intensely deformed Precambrian sediments which are < 1,123 Ma old. The Van Horn Sandstone is overlain by more than 650 meters of earliest Ordovician to Mississippian shallow-marine shelf sediments. Geohistory analysis of the overlying Paleozoic shelf sediments indicates that subsidence was driven by thermal contraction of the crust and that the shallow-marine sediments represent a drift sequence. Subsidence history curves correspond with theoretical thermal decay curves where [beta] = 1.2 and suggest that thermal subsidence commenced in Late Cambrian time about 510 Ma ago. Increased crustal attenuation, resulting in development of an ocean basin, occurred between Van Horn and the original location of deep water sediments presently exposed in the Marathon uplift to the south. Proposed Late Cambrian breakup south of Van Horn is coeval with rifting in the southern Oklahoma aulachogen and Rome trough in the Appalachian Mountains, but post-dates the main Late Proterozoic rifting event between 625 and 555 Ma along the eastern and western freeboard of North American. The significance of diachronous rifting in Eocambrian-Cambrian time is unclear at present but has consequences for fragmentation of the late Precambrian supercontinent Rodinia'.

  16. Late Paleozoic subulitacea (mollusca:gastropoda), mass extinctions and the replacement of evolutionary faunas

    SciTech Connect

    Erwin, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    Mesogastropod subulitaceans possess characteristics typical of active carnivores and occupied a trophic regime typical of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic evolutionary fauna. Despite occupying a vacant niche, subulitaceans are low in both diversity and abundance in late Paleozoic gastropod faunas. In addition, Paleozoic Archaeogastropoda and Mesogastropoda are taxonomically and functionally distinct from Mesozoic groups and display diversity dynamics typical of the Paleozoic evolutionary fauna, not the Mesozoic-Cenozoic fauna with which they were grouped by Sepkoski. Late Paleozoic gastropods are different from pre-Carboniferous taxa, but there is no preferential expansion of the major Mesozoic taxa, nor is there any pattern of exploitation of a major niche utilized by later groups but under-used by Paleozoic taxa. The high taxonomic level used Sepkoski's factor analysis neglects the finer scale of replacement and diversification. This distinct evolutionary behavior of Paleozoic gastropods may be typical of other taxa as well. It weakens the assertions of Kitchell and Carr and Sepkoksi and Miller that the replacement of evolutionary Fauna II by Fauna III began in the late Paleozoic and would have occurred even without the Guadelupian-Dzulfian mass extinction. Thus for gastropods at last, the Late Permian mass extinction did not merely speed up on ongoing process, but probably determined the evolutionary outcome.

  17. Unroofing history of Late Paleozoic magmatic arcs within the ``Turan Plate'' (Tuarkyr, Turkmenistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzanti, E.; Gaetani, M.

    2002-07-01

    Stratigraphic, sedimentologic and petrographic data collected on the Kizilkaya sedimentary succession (Western Turkmenistan) demonstrate that the "Turan Plate" consists in fact of an amalgamation of Late Paleozoic to Triassic continental microblocks separated by ocean sutures. In the Kizilkaya area, an ophiolitic sequence including pyroxenite, gabbro, pillow basalt and chert, interpreted as the oceanic crust of a back-arc or intra-arc basin, is tectonically juxtaposed against volcaniclastic redbeds documenting penecontemporaneous felsic arc magmatism (Amanbulak Group). A collisional event took place around ?mid-Carboniferous times, when oceanic rocks underwent greenschist-facies metamorphism and a thick volcaniclastic wedge, with pyroclastic rocks interbedded in the lower part, accumulated (Kizilkaya Formation). The climax of orogenic activity is testified by arid fanglomerates shed from the rapid unroofing of a continental arc sequence, including Middle-Upper Devonian back-reef carbonates and cherts, and the underlying metamorphic and granitoid basement rocks (Yashmu Formation). After a short period of relative quiescence, renewed tectonic activity is indicated by a conglomeratic sequence documenting erosion of a sedimentary and metasedimentary succession including chert, sandstone, slate and a few carbonates. A final stage of rhyolitic magmatism took place during rapid unroofing of granitoid basement rocks (Kizildag Formation). Such a complex sequence of events recorded by the Kizilkaya episutural basin succession documents the stepwise assemblage of magmatic arcs and continental fragments to form the Turan microblock collage during the Late Paleozoic. Evolution of detrital modes is compatible with that predicted for juvenile to accreted and unroofed crustal blocks. The deposition of braidplain lithic arkoses in earliest Triassic time indicates that strong subsidence continued after the end of the volcanic activity, possibly in retroarc foreland basin settings

  18. Late Paleozoic-Mesozoic evolution of Arctic North America

    SciTech Connect

    Embry, A.F.

    1987-05-01

    Correlation of the upper Paleozoic to Mesozoic successions of northern Alaska and the Canadian Arctic Islands has revealed close stratigraphic and tectonic links between these two petroliferous areas. Depositional and tectonic trends have been reconstructed for Arctic North America, and such interpretations can assist petroleum assessments of unexplored areas in the region. Five regional unconformities are recognized, and these allow the succession to be divided into four tectonic sequences: Carboniferous-Lower Permian, Lower Permian-lowest Cretaceous, Lower Cretaceous, and Upper Cretaceous. The first sequence, Carboniferous-Lower Permian, developed during a phase of rifting when a series of pull-apart basins formed along the eroded Ellesmerian deformation belt. Fan deltas and shelf carbonates with equivalent basinal shales and evaporites characterize this sequence. An episode of uplift and faulting terminated the first sequence. The second sequence, Lower Permian-lowest Cretaceous, developed under conditions of thermal subsidence over the rifted areas. Clastic sedimentation was dominant with alternating shelf and deltaic deposition. Significant uplift reflecting the initiation of the Amerasian basin by rifting began in earliest Cretaceous. Sequence three, Lower Cretaceous, was deposited during the rifting phase of the Amerasian basin and consists of thick, deltaic, clastic wedges derived from either the craton or the uplifted Brooks Range. The onset of sea-floor spreading in the Amerasian basin in earliest Late Cretaceous resulted in widespread uplift. The fourth sequence, Upper Cretaceous, was deposited coincident with sea-floor spreading in the Amerasian basin. Initial deposits were bituminous shales which were followed by thick clastic wedges that prograded into the ocean basin. This sequence was terminated by uplift in Cretaceous-earliest Tertiary when sea-floor spreading switched to the Eurasian basin.

  19. Late Paleozoic to Jurassic tectonic evolution of the Bogda area (northwest China): Evidence from detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Wenhao; Zhang, Zhicheng; Li, Jianfeng; Li, Ke; Chen, Yan; Guo, Zhaojie

    2014-06-01

    Since the Cenozoic, the Tian Shan is rejuvenated by crustal shortening related to the ongoing India-Asia collision. However, the tectonic process prior to the Cenozoic remains ambiguous, especially in the Bogda area of the eastern Tian Shan. The continuous Late Paleozoic-Mesozoic sequences in the Bogda area record abundant information about the basin-mountain interaction. U-Pb (LA-ICP-MS) dating of detrital zircons from seven sandstone samples from Permian to Jurassic was used to investigate the changes of provenance and basin-mountain interaction in the Bogda area. During the Permian, proximal and synchronous pyroclastic materials were the major source. The Late Paleozoic magmatic belt in the North Tian Shan (NTS) had gradually become one of the main sources by the Late Permian, which implies the uplift and exhumation in the NTS area. This is interpreted in terms of near-source sedimentation in basin developing in a post-orogenic extension setting. The large range of U-Pb ages of detrital zircons observed in the Early-Middle Jurassic sediments encompasses most of the available sources implying a wide drainage pattern developing on a rather flat topography. Re-emergence of the Early Permian peak in the spectrum implies that the Bogda Mountains has existed as a gentle positive relief and began to provide materials to the submountain regions. The southern Junggar Basin extended towards to the south and evolved as a passively subsiding basin from the Middle Triassic to the Middle Jurassic. However, the synchronous pyroclastic (tuff) and the exhumed late Paleozoic detrital materials from the uplifted Bogda Mountains were the major component of the Upper Jurassic sediments. Associated to the conglomerate in the Kalaza Formation, the basin-range evolution entered a compression uplift stage. The basin pattern evolution of the Bogda area is consistent with that of the southern Junggar Basin.

  20. Iron cycling in a late Paleozoic dust bowl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, J. D.; Soreghan, G. S.; Gerhardt, A.; Sur, S.; Lyons, T. W.

    2009-12-01

    The late Paleozoic glaciation (~300 million years ago) marks the last major, pre-Cenozoic icehouse climate. In addition, emerging research suggests that this was a particularly dusty time, evinced by abundant dust (loessite) deposits throughout western equatorial Pangaea. Delivery of reactive Fe-rich eolian particles to the nutrient-depleted open ocean potentially stimulates primary production during glacial intervals, yet the details remain unclear for recent glaciations and completely unknown for the ancient. Bioavailable Fe is a limiting nutrient in high nitrate, low chlorophyll portions of the open ocean. Because primary abundances of the most labile forms of Fe are not easily assessed in ancient sediments, we use highly reactive Fe (FeHR) (mostly crystalline oxides, some or most of which might have been more soluble precursors at the time of deposition) as determined by a well-calibrated sequential extraction scheme as a proxy for bioavailable Fe. Here we present data from multiple Pennsylvanian-Permian loess and intercalated paleosol (ancient soil) deposits, as well as a modern dust site. We also compare ratios of total Fe (FeT) to Al to ratios of FeHR to FeT to assess whether increased Fe reactivity in dust reflects a net Fe addition or internal mineral repartitioning. We are finding that these paired proxies may provide a unique fingerprint of source relationships. Modern arid Saharan soil dust deposited in the Turks and Caicos Islands has high FeT/Al ratios (0.75 versus ~0.5 for average continental crust), with corresponding FeHR/FeT enrichments (0.48 compared to ~0.38 for typical riverine input). The ancient loessite samples do not show a similar pattern, instead suggesting an antithetic relationship between FeT/Al and FeHR/FeT. Therefore, FeHR was enriched and, by inference, bioavailable despite net Fe loss reflected in sub-crustal FeT/Al ratios. Most work to date has presumed an arid soil source for most bioavailable Fe. However, in light of our work

  1. Simulating Dust Cycling during the Late Paleozoic Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heavens, N. G.; Mahowald, N. M.; Soreghan, G. S.; Soreghan, M. J.; Shields, C. A.; Albani, S.

    2012-12-01

    sources, but find that our modeling of these processes still cannot explain the full amplitude of variability in the marine records. By making some inferences from the provenance and grain size distribution of the dust deposition records, we reconstruct dust cycling during the termination of extreme glacial conditions in the Early Permian within observational uncertainty. This reconstruction allows a rough estimate of the sensitivity of Early Permian glacial climates to dust as well as radiative forcing. Moreover, the reconstruction highlights potential new areas to explore for non-equatorial marine records of dust deposition, which will improve future assessment of the impact of dust on late Paleozoic climate.

  2. Late paleozoic tectonic amalgamation of northwestern China. Sedimentary record of the northern Tarim, northwestern Turpan, and southern Junggar basins

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, A.R.; Graham, S.A.; Hendrix, M.S.; Ying, D.; Zhou, D.

    1995-05-01

    This study focuses on areas adjacent to the Tian Shan (shan is Chinese for mountains) in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, northwestern China, and provides new field data on Carboniferous and Permian outcrop exposures of sedimentary rocks of the southern Junggar, northwestern Turpan, and northern Tarim basins that bear directly on the history of late Paleozoic tectonic amalgamation. We present here a multifaceted sedimentary basin analysis, including sedimentary facies, paleocurrent, and sandstone provenance analyses, and reconstructions of late Paleozoic basin subsidence. These data provide a unique record not only of the basins themselves, but also of the evolution of the adjacent orogenic belts. This study is based on fieldwork during the summers of 1987, 1988, 1991, and 1992 by workers from Stanford University, the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, and the Xinjiang Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources. Although reconnaissance in nature, the data presented here provide a basis for evaluating alternative hypotheses for the evolution of northwestern China and provide a starting point for more comprehensive future studies. 72 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Lower paleozoic of Baltic Area

    SciTech Connect

    Haselton, T.M.; Surlyk, F.

    1988-01-01

    The Baltic Sea offers a new and exciting petroleum play in northwestern Europe. The Kaliningrad province in the Soviet Union, which borders the Baltic Sea to the east, contains an estimated 3.5 billion bbl of recoverable oil from lower Paleozoic sandstones. To the south, in Poland, oil and gas fields are present along a trend that projects offshore into the Baltic. Two recent Petrobaltic wells in the southern Baltic have tested hydrocarbons from lower Paleozoic sandstone. Minor production comes from Ordovician reefs on the Swedish island of Gotland in the western Baltic. The Baltic synclise, which began subsiding in the late Precambrian, is a depression in the East European platform. Strate dip gently to the south where the Baltic Synclise terminates against a structurally complex border zone. Depth to the metamorphosed Precambrian basement is up to 4,000 m. Overlying basement is 200-300 m of upper Precambrian arkosic sandstone. The Lower Cambrian consists of shallow marine quartzites. During Middle and Late Camnbrian, restricted circulation resulted in anoxic conditions and the deposition of Alum shale. The Lower Ordovician consists of quartzites and shale. The Upper Ordovician includes sandstones and algal reefs. The Silurian contains marginal carbonates and shales. For the last 25 years, exploration in northwest Europe has concentrated on well-known Permian sandstone, Jurassic sandstone, and Cretaceous chalk plays. Extrapolation of trends known and exploited in eastern Europe could open an entirely new oil province in the lower Paleozoic in the Baltic.

  4. Controls on late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eolian deposition of the western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzolf, John E.

    1988-04-01

    terrestrial sediments. Mesozoic eolian sandstones of the western interior are Type II with distal source in the Gulf of Mexico-Atlantic rift belts. Erg development was initiated by marine regression and terminated by marine transgression. The late Paleozoic eolian sandstones of the western United States are a combination of Type I and II with proximal source in the Ancestral Rockies.

  5. Stratigraphic significance of heavy minerals in the Late Precambrian-Mesozoic clastic sequence (``Nubian Sandstone'') in the Near East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissbrod, T.; Nachmias, J.

    1986-05-01

    Five heavy-mineral assemblages are recognized in the Precambrian-Mesozoic clastic sequence ("Nubian Sandstone") of southern Israel, southern Jordan and Sinai. On their basis, eight assemblage zones of wide lateral continuity are established. These zones coincide in most cases with already-established lithostratigraphic units. Changes in the heavy-mineral assemblages can aid in recognizing paraconformities which are not always apparent otherwise. The zones are grouped into three associations representing three depositional cycles—Late Precambrian, Early Paleozoic, and Late Paleozoic-Mesozoic—separated by regional unconformities. Within the same rock, the heavy and light-mineral associations display parallel trends of maturation. The composition and vertical zonation of the heavy-mineral associations suggest the following sedimentary history: (1) An association of unstables, with much chlorite, hornblende and staurolite, characterizes the Late Precambrian arkoses and conglomerates. These were derived from elevated metamorphic and magmatic terrains which underwent rapid stripping by erosion. Transport was short without intensive weathering, and burial rapid, thus preserving much of the composition of the source rocks. (2) An association of ultrastables (zircon, tourmaline, rutile) and detrital apatite, which characterizes subarkoses and sometimes quartz-arenites of Early Paleozoic age. It was derived from magmatic, probably acidic terrains of moderate to low relief. The clastics underwent weathering and reworking under an epeirogenically controlled regime, by which the less stable constituents were selectively eliminated. (3) An association of ultrastables—zircon, tourmaline and rutile—which characterizes the Upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic quartz-arenites. This association was derived from the recycling of earlier arkoses and subarkoses under a continued epeirogenic regime. Within the ultrastable heavy-mineral assemblage occur local admixtures of unstable heavy

  6. Late Devonian glacial deposits from the eastern United States signal an end of the mid-Paleozoic warm period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brezinski, D.K.; Cecil, C.B.; Skema, V.W.; Stamm, R.

    2008-01-01

    A Late Devonian polymictic diamictite extends for more than 400??km from northeastern Pennsylvania across western Maryland and into east-central West Virginia. The matrix-supported, unbedded, locally sheared diamictite contains subangular to rounded clasts up to 2??m in diameter. The mostly rounded clasts are both locally derived and exotic; some exhibit striations, faceting, and polish. The diamictite commonly is overlain by laminated siltstone/mudstone facies associations (laminites). The laminites contain isolated clasts ranging in size from sand and pebbles to boulders, some of which are striated. The diamictite/laminite sequence is capped by massive, coarse-grained, pebbly sandstone that is trough cross-bedded. A stratigraphic change from red, calcic paleo-Vertisols in strata below the diamictite to non-calcic paleo-Spodosols and coal beds at and above the diamictite interval suggests that the climate became much wetter during deposition of the diamictite. The diamictite deposit is contemporaneous with regressive facies that reflect fluvial incision during the Late Devonian of the Appalachian basin. These deposits record a Late Devonian episode of climatic cooling so extreme that it produced glaciation in the Appalachian basin. Evidence for this episode of climatic cooling is preserved as the interpreted glacial deposits of diamictite, overlain by glaciolacustrine varves containing dropstones, and capped by sandstone interpreted as braided stream outwash. The Appalachian glacigenic deposits are contemporaneous with glacial deposits in South America, and suggest that Late Devonian climatic cooling was global. This period of dramatic global cooling may represent the end of the mid-Paleozoic warm interval that began in the Middle Silurian. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Burning experiments and late Paleozoic high O2 levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildman, R.; Essenhigh, R.; Berner, R.; Hickey, L.; Wildman, C.

    2003-04-01

    The Paleozoic rise of land plants brought about increased burial of organic matter and a resulting increase in atmospheric oxygen concentrations. Levels as high as 30-35% O2 may have been reached during the Permo-Carboniferous (Berner and Canfield, 1989; Berner, 2001). However, burning experiments based solely on paper (Watson, 1978) have challenged these results, the claim being that if the oxygen made up more than 25% of the atmosphere, the frequency and intensity of forest fires would increase sufficiently to prevent the continued existence of plant life. Thus, since plants have persisted, it is possible that fires served as a negative feedback against excessive oxygen levels. An initial study of Paleozoic wildfire behavior via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was conducted under ambient and enriched oxygen conditions to simulate present and ancient atmospheres. The tests focused on natural fuels, specifically tree leaves and wood, tree fern fibers, and sphagnum peat-moss, simulating Permo-Carboniferous upland and swampland ecosystems, respectively. Three conclusions are: (1) enriched oxygen increases the rate of mass loss during burning; (2) fuel chemistry (cellulose vs. lignin) influences burning patterns; and (3) in geometrically heterogeneous fuels, geometry affects burning rate significantly. Both geometrically and chemically, paper resists fire poorly; thus, we found that it loses its mass at lower temperatures than forest materials and is therefore a poor proxy for Paleozoic ecosystems. Further study of Paleozoic wildfire spread behavior is currently being conducted. Fires are lit using pine dowels, which allow for reproducible fuel density. Steady-state, one-dimensional flame-spread is measured with thermocouples anchored two inches above the fuel bed. Both oxygen concentration of the air supply to the fire and moisture content of the fuels are varied, as we suspect that these are two main controls of wildfire spread. Burning fuels of varying moisture

  8. Late Paleozoic paleofjord in the southernmost Parana Basin (Brazil): Geomorphology and sedimentary fill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedesco, Julia; Cagliari, Joice; Coitinho, Julia dos Reis; da Cunha Lopes, Ricardo; Lavina, Ernesto Luiz Correa

    2016-09-01

    In the southernmost part of the Parana Basin, records of the late Paleozoic glaciation occur in a discontinuous form preserved in paleovalley systems excavated in the crystalline basement. This paper addresses one of these paleovalleys, the Mariana Pimentel, which extends over 60 km with NW-SE valley direction and a constant width of 2.5 km. With the objective of demonstrating that the paleovalley worked as a fjord during the glaciation period, its origin as well as sedimentary fill and morphology were analyzed. The paleovalley morphology was obtained through electrical resistivity (electrical sounding and lateral mapping) and mathematical modeling in four transverse sections. The morphology of the paleovalley documented by the U-shape, steady width, and high depth reaching up to 400 m are typical features of modern glacial valleys. The sedimentary facies that fill the base of the paleovalley, such as rhythmites and dropstones with thickness up to 70 m and diamictites with faceted pebbles (up to 5 m thick) are signs of its glacial origin. During the glaciation period, the paleovalley had a connection to the epicontinental sea located to the northwest, extended toward Namibia, and was excavated by glaciers from the highlands of this region. Thus, the evidence attests that the Mariana Pimentel paleovalley was a fjord during the late Paleozoic glaciation. The duration of the late Paleozoic glaciation (which is longer than the Quaternary glaciation), the apatite fission track that suggests erosion up to 4 km thick in the study area, and the lack of preserved hanging valleys in the Mariana Pimentel indicate that the paleovalley once featured a higher dimension. Furthermore, the existence of paleofjords excavated in the border of the basement corroborates the idea of small ice centers controlled by topography during the late Paleozoic glaciation.

  9. Late Paleozoic orogenic episodes, Trans-Pecos Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Muehlberger, W.R. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    The onset of the Ouachita orogeny is marked by the absence of rock of Early Mississippian age. This is interpreted to be the result of the narrowing of the trans-equatorial seaway between North America and the oncoming South American plate. Foredeep filling (Pulse I) began in Early Meramecian time with northward-prograding Tesnus Fm siliciclastic turbidites. Pulse 2 began in Atokan time with northward-prograding siliciclastic turbidites of the Haymond Fm. The thrust belt to the south had now intersected the edge of the NAm carbonate platform as shown by clasts of Middle Cambrian carbonates, as well as Ouachita facies clasts, and rounded clasts of Precambrian quartzite, metarhyolite, and gneiss of unknown source. During Late Pennsylvanian time deltaic sediments prograded across the Marathon region into the southern Permian Basin (Gaptank Fm). In Early Wolfcampian time (Pulse 3), all these units were translated on the Dugout Creek thrust, then (Pulse 4 ) translated finally on a frontal imbricate before deposition of Upper Wolfcampian units across the eroded toes of the thrust sheets. Permian Basin orogenic phases parallel those outlined above. Transgressive clastics from the south and the subdivision of the earlier broad, shallow Tobosa Basin into the uplifts and basins that characterize the Permian Basin began in the Mississippian and became prominent structural units by Late Mississippian time.

  10. Provenance analysis of the Late Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the Xilinhot Terrane, NE China, and their tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jie; Zhou, Jian-Bo; Wilde, Simon A.; Song, Min-Chun

    2017-08-01

    The Xilinhot Terrane is located in the eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt in NE China, and is a key to a hotly debated issue on the Paleozoic tectonic evolution of this giant progenic belt. To constrain the tectonic evolution of the Xilinhot Terrane in the Late Paleozoic, we undertook zircon U-Pb dating and geochemical analyses of the Zhesi and Benbatu formations in the Suolun and Xi Ujimqin areas in the Xilinhot Terrane. Samples of the Benbatu Formation yield detrital zircon U-Pb ages ranging from 2659 Ma to 316 Ma, with four age populations at: 2659-1826 Ma, 1719-963 Ma, 590-402 Ma, and 396-316 Ma, whereas samples from the Zhesi Formation yield detrital zircon U-Pb ages ranging from 1967 Ma to 250 Ma, with four age populations at: 1967-1278 Ma, 971-693 Ma, 561-403 Ma, and 399-250 Ma. The age groups of both the Benbatu and Zhesi formations in the Xilinhot Terrane are similar to those in other parts of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). This evidence indicates that the Xilinhot Terrane is a microcontinent, and not an accretionary complex as previously thought. Furthermore, the youngest zircon grains in the Benbatu and Zhesi formations yield weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 322 ± 12 Ma (MSDW = 0.12, n = 4) and 257 ± 2.8 Ma (MSDW = 1.6, n = 8), respectively. Combined with fossil data, our new data suggest that the Benbatu and Zhesi formations in the Xilinhot Terrane were possibly deposited at ∼322 Ma and ∼257 Ma, respectively. Based on the provenance of the Carboniferous-Permian sandstones came from the blocks of NE China, we speculate that the Xilinhot Terrane is the western part of the Songliao block.

  11. Detrital zircon ages in Korean mid-Paleozoic meta-sandstones (Imjingang Belt and Taean Formation): Constraints on tectonic and depositional setting, source regions and possible affinity with Chinese terranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Seokyoung; de Jong, Koen; Yi, Keewook

    2017-08-01

    Sensitive High-Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Th-Pb isotopic data of detrital zircons from mature, quartz-rich meta-sandstones are used to constrain possible tectonic affinities and source regions of the rhythmically layered and graded-bedded series in the Yeoncheon Complex (Imjingang Belt) and the correlative Taean Formation. These metamorphic marine turbidite sequences presently occur along the Paleoproterozoic (1.93-1.83 Ga) Gyeonggi Massif, central Korea's main high-grade metamorphic gneiss terrane. Yet, detrital zircons yielded highly similar multimodal age spectra with peaks that do not match the age repartition in these basement rocks, as late (1.9-1.8 Ga) and earliest (∼ 2.5 Ga) Paleoproterozoic detrital modes are subordinate but, in contrast, Paleozoic (440-425 Ma) and Neoproterozoic (980-920 Ma) spikes are prominent, yet the basement essentially lacks lithologies with such ages. The youngest concordant zircon ages in each sample are: 378, 394 and 423 Ma. The maturity of the meta-sandstones and the general roundness of zircons of magmatic signature, irrespective of their age, suggest that sediments underwent considerable transport from source to sink, and possibly important weathering and recycling, which may have filtered out irradiation-weakened metamorphic zircon grains. In combination with these isotopic data, presence of a low-angle ductile fault contact between the Yeoncheon Complex and the Taean Formation and the underlying mylonitized Precambrian basement implies that they are in tectonic contact and do not have a stratigraphic relationship, as often assumed. Consequently, in all likelihood, both meta-sedimentary formations: (1) are at least of early Late Devonian age, (2) received much of their detritus from distant (reworked) Silurian-Devonian and Early Neoproterozoic magmatic sources, not present in the Gyeonggi Massif, (3) and not from Paleoproterozoic crystalline rocks of this massif, or other Korean Precambrian basement terranes, and

  12. Influence of ocean model treatment on late Paleozoic ice sheet growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilevitz, C.; Poulsen, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    The late Paleozoic ice age was a period of time 340-250 Ma during which ice sheets grew and shrank across the Gondwanan supercontinent. Atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs) have previously been used to generate late Paleozoic climates suitable for the growth of large ice sheets on the Gondwanan supercontinent to investigate the climate conditions necessary for ice sheet growth. These simulations included a slab ocean with diffusive heat transport that lacks the ability to accurately capture the ocean dynamics of the Paleozoic. In this work, a series of experiments are conducted to investigate the sensitivity of ice sheets to the ocean treatment. Four experiments are conducted: (i) The NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM)'s fully dynamic ocean is used to explore Permian ice sheet growth under more realistic conditions. (ii)The GENESIS GCM, which uses a slab ocean, is run to directly compare the two ocean models. (iii) The CESM slab ocean model is run using heat fluxes from the CESM simulation. (iv)GENESIS in fixed-SST mode is run using surface temperatures from the CESM simulation. All experiments are conducted for two atmospheric pCO2 concentrations (280 and 560 ppm). Climatologies from this set of experiments are then used to drive the Penn State University three-dimensional ice sheet model (ISM). Our results show that late Paleozoic ice sheets are sensitive to ocean dynamics. The ice sheets that result from both the GENESIS slab and SST cases have volumes of 108 km3 for both CO2 concentrations, and the CESM slab ocean case produced volumes of .5-108 km3 for both cases. The fully dynamic CESM simulation, however, produced ice sheets of 108 km3 for the 280 ppm CO2 case, but only 106 km3 for the 560 ppm CO2 case. This dramatic difference suggests that modeled ice sheets possess a critical sensitivity to pCO2 concentrations in a fully dynamic climate system.

  13. Tectonic transition associated with Kazakhstan Orocline in the Late Paleozoic: magmatic archives of western Chinese Tianshan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Keda

    2016-04-01

    Kazakhstan accretionary system was a principle component of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) that is one of the largest accretionary orogens on earth. The Kazakhstan composite continent could have been established in the Early Paleozoic by the Kazakhstan accretionary system in the form of progressively amalgamations of diverse tectonic units, such as continental ribbon, accretionary prim, oceanic remnant and arc material. Subsequently, the composite continent was bended to form a spectacular U-shaped architecture that probably occurred in the Late Paleozoic. The western Chinese Tianshan is situated on the south wing of the Kazakhstan Orocline, featured by extensive magmatim, intense deformation and voluminous mineralization. Our new geochronological and geochemical data suggest a noticeable magmatic gap between Late Devonian and Early carboniferous and contrasting magma sources of these magmatic rocks. The significant shifts correspond to the tectonic transition from terrane amalgamation to mountain bending in the Early Paleozoic. This study was financially supported by the Major Basic Research Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2014CB448000), Xinjiang outstanding youth scientific grant (2013711003) and the Talent Awards to KDC from the China Government under the 1000 Talent Plan.

  14. Illite authigenesis in sandstones of the Guaritas Allogroup (Early Paleozoic): Implications for the depositional age, stratigraphy and evolution of the Camaquã Basin (Southern Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraschin, Anderson José; Mizusaki, Ana Maria; Zwingmann, Horst; de Borba, André Weissheimer; Sbrissa, Gesiane Fraga

    2010-03-01

    Several analytical studies performed on alluvial-eolian sandstones of the Early Paleozoic Guaritas Allogroup (Camaquã Basin, southern Brazil) indicate illite to be abundant, showing different morphologies as authigenic grain rims and pore-bridging filaments. Authigenic illite separates of variable grain sizes from distinct stratigraphic intervals of the Guaritas Allogroup yielded 40K- 40Ar ages from 521.7 ± 10.3 to 473.7 ± 9.4 Ma. These ages, interpreted to record the timing of illite authigenesis, are coincident with the age of emplacement of the Rodeio Velho andesites (470 ± 19 Ma). Moreover, field structures suggest interaction between hot, andesite lava flows and wet, poorly consolidated sediments of the Pedra Pintada Alloformation (lower strata of the Guaritas Allogroup). This set of data indicates that the Rodeio Velho volcanism could have been responsible for a widespread remobilization of interstitial fluids and consequent authigenic illite precipitation in the sandstones of the Guaritas Allogroup.

  15. Oaxaquia, a Proterozoic microcontinent accreted to North America during the late Paleozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega-Gutierrez, Fernando; Ruiz, Joaquin; Centeno-Garcia, Elena

    1995-12-01

    Grenville-age granulite facies rocks in southern, central, and northeastern Mexico have distinctive geologic features that suggest a common tectonic evolution. The similarities include northwest-trending structural grain from Oaxaca to Tamaulipas, massif-type anorthosite-charnockite complexes, protoliths rich in sedimentary rocks of shallow-marine platform or continental rift-related facies devoid of calc-alkaline volcanic rocks, common metamorphism under granulite facies conditions, U-Pb zircon ages of about 1.0 Ga., and an apparently common history of uplift and cooling. Altogether, this evidence strongly suggests a coherent geologic history for this block. Paleontologic data from the overlying sedimentary sequences indicate that Oaxaquia was not part of Laurentia during most of the Paleozoic. This precludes emplacement of Oaxaquia in its present position by simple lateral displacement from the southern United States as well as a Taconic time of emplacement. Oaxaquia was probably emplaced to its present position during late Paleozoic time. The concept of a Mesoproterozoic “Oaxaquia” microcontinent extending for about 1000 km in Mexico needs to be considered in the reconstruction of the Grenville orogen as a whole and for the Paleozoic tectonic interactions between eastern Laurentia and western Gondwana.

  16. Volcanic Winter and Cold Tropical Uplands in Late Paleozoic Pangaea: A Thought Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heavens, N. G.; Soreghan, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Late Paleozoic Ice Age (LPIA) was the Earth's most recent icehouse climate prior to the Cenozoic. At present, it is generally accepted that the latitudinal gradient in climate conditions was similar to the present icehouse. High-latitude ice sheets occasionally advanced into the mid-latitudes and retreated once more, but the tropics were warmer or similar in climate to the tropics during the Plio-Pleistocene. Recently, this idea has been challenged by sedimentological evidence of glaciation and dry weathering in upland areas of the tropics as well as geochemical evidence for cold tropical oceans that is consistent with the sedimentological evidence. These observations challenge current qualitative and quantitative models of Late Paleozoic climate, implying tropical climate may have been up to 15 degrees Celsius colder than the present day at some point during the LPIA. Here we consider whether the disparity between evidence for equatorial cold in Pangaea and current models can be explained by explosive volcanic activity associated with events such as the Hercynian orogen or the Kennedy-Connors-Auburn Silicic Large Igneous Province. We find that the necessary radiative forcing for glaciation in low-latitude upland areas could be generated by explosive volcanic activity one to two orders of magnitude greater than the present day, perturbing a baseline climate with mid-latitude glaciation in both hemispheres. Such a forcing would have potentially significant impacts on the carbon cycle and ice sheet dynamics, but these effects are not likely to be unambiguously detectable in the record. Instead, we argue that measurements of mass independent fractionation of S in lacustrine sediments or other deposits sampling meteoric water would be the least ambiguous test of a hypothetical volcanic driver for late Paleozoic cold. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation, EAR-1337463.

  17. Late Paleozoic deformation of interior North America: The greater Ancestral Rocky Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Hongzhuan |; Royden, L.; Burchfiel, C.; Schuepbach, M.

    1996-09-01

    Late Paleozoic deformation within interior North America has produced a series of north-northwest- to northwest-trending elongate basins that cover much of Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah. Each basin thickens asymmetrically toward an adjacent region of coeval basement uplift from which it is separated by synsedimentary faults with great vertical relief. The remarkable coincidence in timing, geometry, and apparent structural style throughout the region of late Paleozoic deformation strongly suggests that these paired regions of basin subsidence and basement uplift form a unified system of regional deformation, the greater Ancestral Rocky Mountains. Over this region, basin subsidence and basement uplift were approximately synchronous, beginning in the Chesterian-Morrowan, continuing through the Pennsylvanian, and ending in the Wolfcampian (although minor post-Wolfcampian deformation occurs locally). The basement uplifts show evidence for folding and faulting in the Pennsylvanian and Early Permian. Reverse faults and thrust faults have been drilled over many of the uplifts, but only in the Anadarko region has thrusting of the basement uplifts over the adjacent basin been clearly documented. Extensive basement-involved thrusting also occurs along the margins of the Delaware and Midland basins, and suggests that the entire greater Ancestral Rocky Mountains region probably formed as the result of northeast-southwest-directed-intraplate shortening. Deformation within the greater Ancestral Rocky Mountains was coeval with late Paleozoic subduction along much of the North American plate margin, and has traditionally been related to emplacement of thrust sheets within the Ouachita-Marathon orogenic belt. The nature, timing, and orientation of events along the Ouachita-Marathon belt make it difficult to drive the deformation of the greater Ancestral Rocky Mountains by emplacement of the Ouachita-Marathon belt along the southern margin of North America.

  18. Paleolatitudinal changes in vertical facies transitions recording late Paleozoic glaciations: a case study from eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielding, C. R.; Frank, T. D.; Shultis, A. I.

    2011-12-01

    Stratigraphic records of the complex and multi-phase late Paleozoic Ice Age (LPIA) have been examined over a 2000 km paleo-polar to paleo-mid latitude transect from Tasmania to Queensland, eastern Australia. In this presentation, we summarize changes in facies assemblages within glacial and nonglacial epochs and the transitions between them, within the coastal to shallow marine Permian succession. In the earliest Permian P1 glacial interval, facies represent proximal proglacial to locally glacial environments in Tasmania (TAS), and an array of mainly marine proglacial to glacimarine environments in New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland (QLD). A trend of more ice-proximal to less ice-proximal facies assemblages is evident from south to north. The end of P1 is represented both by abrupt flooding trends in some areas and by thicker intervals of more gradually fining-upward facies recording progressive deepening elsewhere. The onset of the Sakmarian/Artinskian P2 glacial interval is best-exposed in southern NSW, where an abrupt change to marine proglacial facies is accompanied by evidence for deepening, suggesting isostatic loading of the sedimentary surface. P2 glacial facies are more proximal in NSW than in QLD. Both P1 and P2 intervals preserve complex internal stratigraphy, in many cases recording multiple glacial-interglacial cycles. The close of P2 is again recorded in a variety of ways, with many sections showing a gradual fining-upward and decrease in indicators of glacial conditions. The Kungurian to Capitanian P3 and P4 glacial intervals are in general represented by less proximal facies than their predecessors, typically intervals of outsize clast-bearing mudrocks and sandstones. These in many areas show diffuse boundaries with the nonglacial facies that enclose them. Furthermore, no significant paleolatitudinal changes in the P3 and P4 facies assemblages are evident from TAS to QLD. The documented patterns support the view that the P1 glacial represents the

  19. Provenance of Late Carboniferous to Jurassic sandstones for southern Taimyr, Arctic Russia: A comparison of heavy mineral analysis by optical and QEMSCAN methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Pease, Victoria; Omma, Jenny; Benedictus, Aukje

    2015-11-01

    Sandstone framework-grain petrography, optical and QEMSCAN (Quantitative Evaluation of Minerals by Scanning Electron Microscopy) heavy mineral analysis carried out on 40 samples collected from east and west southern Taimyr are used to constrain the provenance and tectonic history of Late Carboniferous to Late Jurassic siliciclastic sequences. The tectonic settings of provenance evolved gradually from a mix of volcanic arc and recycled orogen to craton interior. Much of the detritus in the Late Paleozoic to Mesozoic siliciclastic succession came from proximal sources with contributions from multi-type source rocks including acid igneous rocks, basalts, sedimentary rocks and low to medium-grade metamorphic rocks. Carboniferous to Permian sandstones contain low-diversity suites of heavy minerals, including apatite, tourmaline, zircon, rutile, Cr-spinel, monazite and titanite. Cr-spinel indicates probable influx from exposed ophiolitic basement. Abundant euhedral zircon and apatite suggest a volcanic arc source related with Uralian collision. The appearance of garnet in the early Triassic signals the unroofing of a metamorphic source. The abrupt increase of clinopyroxene in Middle to Late Triassic sandstones indicates the influx of detritus from basic rocks related with Siberian Trap magmatism. The decrease of Cr-spinel and an abundance of staurolite in Jurassic samples indicate that unroofing of an ophiolitic source ceased and that stripping of a different thrust sheet containing plenty of staurolite-bearing metamorphic rocks commenced.

  20. Archean inheritance in zircon from late Paleozoic granites from the Avalon zone of southeastern New England: an African connection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zartman, R.E.; Don, Hermes O.

    1987-01-01

    In southeastern New England the Narragansett Pier Granite locally intrudes Carboniferous metasedimentary rocks of the Narragansett basin, and yields a monazite UPb Permian emplacement age of 273 ?? 2 Ma. Zircon from the Narragansett Pier Granite contains a minor but detectable amount of an older, inherited component, and shows modern loss of lead. Zircon from the late-stage, aplitic Westerly Granite exhibits a more pronounced lead inheritance -permitting the inherited component to be identified as Late Archean. Such old relict zircon has not been previously recognized in Proterozoic to Paleozoic igneous rocks in New England, and may be restricted to late Paleozoic rocks of the Avalon zone. We suggest that the Archean crustal component reflects an African connection, in which old Archean crust was underplated to the Avalon zone microplate in the late Paleozoic during collision of Gondwanaland with Avalonia. ?? 1987.

  1. Carboniferous sediment dispersal in the Appalachian-Ouachita juncture: Provenance of selected late Mississippian sandstones in the Black Warrior Basin, Mississippi, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiangyang; O'Connor, Patrick M.; Alsleben, Helge

    2016-08-01

    The Black Warrior Basin is one of several Carboniferous foreland basins along the Appalachian-Ouachita fold-thrust belt in the southeastern United States. Sediment dispersal within the Black Warrior Basin has been a long-debated topic because of a complex tectonic history and the potential interaction between the Appalachian and Ouachita orogenic belts, as well as far field sediment sources. Three dispersal patterns have been proposed, including dispersal routes from the craton, dispersal via the Appalachian foreland, and dispersal from the arc side of the Ouachita suture, but sediment dispersal in the Black Warrior Basin remains inconclusive. In this study, sandstone modal analysis and U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology are used to document the provenance and potential dispersal patterns for selected Mississippian sandstone units in the Black Warrior Basin, Missouri, USA. Results show that the majority of the Lewis, Evans, Sanders, and Carter sandstones are sublitharenite to mature quartzarenite and fall within the Cratonic Interior field on Q-F-L diagrams. U-Pb detrital zircon analyses of the Lewis, Sanders, and Carter sandstones show that there are four distinctive age clusters, including a prominent Paleozoic age cluster (~ 350-500 Ma), a broad Grenville age cluster (~ 900-1350 Ma), and two minor age clusters of the Granite-Rhyolite (~ 1360-1600 Ma) and the Yavapai-Mazatzal (~ 1600-1800 Ma) provinces. All Mississippian sandstones have similar age distributions except for the Lewis sandstone, which lacks zircon grains from the Superior province (>~2500 Ma). Based on the compositional maturity, similarity of age distributions, and changes of relative abundance among different age groups, we conclude that the Late Mississippian sandstone units analyzed during this study were derived from the Laurussian craton and the northern part of the Appalachian foreland through a major axial drainage that occupied the Mississippi Valley Graben.

  2. Paleoclimate controls on late paleozoic sedimentation and peat formation in the central appalachian basin (U.S.A.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cecil, C.B.; Stanton, R.W.; Neuzil, S.G.; Dulong, F.T.; Ruppert, L.F.; Pierce, B.S.

    1985-01-01

    In the central Appalachian basin, at least two major climate changes affected sedimentation during the late Paleozoic. Stratigraphically, these two changes are indicated by the distribution of coal beds, the variation in coal quality, and the variation in rock lithologies. In latest Mississippian or earliest Pennsylvanian time, the climate changed from dry-seasonal tropical to ever-wet (equable) tropical. The equable climate prevailed into the Middle Pennsylvanian, influencing the morphology and geochemistry in peat-forming environments. Many of the peat deposits, which formed under the equable climate, were probably domed (raised bogs); low concentrations of dissolved solids in peat formation water resulted in low buffering capacity. Organic acids caused acidic (pH < 4), antiseptic conditions that resulted in intense leaching of mineral matter, minimal degradation of organic matter, and low-ash and low-sulfur peat deposits; the resulting coal beds are also low in ash and sulfur. Associated rocks are noncalcareous and consist of sequences of interbedded shale, siltstone, and sandstone including quartz arenite. Another climate change occurred in late Middle Pennsylvanian time when evapopation periodically exceeded rainfall resulting in an increase of both dissolved solids and pH (4 to ??? 7) in surface and near-surface water. Throughout the remainder of the Pennsylvanian, the surfaces of peat deposits were probably planar (not domed); water in peat-forming and other depositional environments became more nearly neutral. The coal beds derived from these peats are highly variable in both ash and sulfur contents. Drier or more seasonal climates are also indicated by sequences of (1) calcareous sandstone and shale, (2) nonmarine limestone that shows shallow-water and subaerial exposure features, and (3) calcareous paleosols that have caliche characteristics. Our data and observations indicate that physical depositional environment models for the origin of coal do not

  3. Late Paleozoic anorogenic magmatism in Southern Mongolia: Evolutionary stages and structural control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarmolyuk, V. V.; Kozlovsky, A. M.; Travin, A. V.

    2017-07-01

    Geochronological studies of anorogenic magmatic complexes in the South Mongolian Hercinide have been carried out. Series of the massifs composed of alkaline and subalkaline granitoids with some monzonite formed during the interval of 318-316 Ma have been found. Taking into account previously obtained data, two groups of Late Paleozoic A-type granitoids different in age have been identified in the region: Late Carboniferous and Early Permian. These two occupy different structural positions. The location the early magmatic massifs is controlled by the extended Trans-Altai fault zone of northwest strike: the massifs cluster in areas of the fault intersection with boundaries of structural blocks formed by the pull-apart mechanism. The later Early Permian igneous complexes are associated with the Gobi-Tienshan rift zone of sublatitudinal strike.

  4. Criteria for the recognition and correlation of sandstone units in the Precambrian and Paleozoic-Mesozoic clastic sequence in the near east

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissbrod, T.; Perath, I.

    A systematic study of the Precambrian and Paleozoic-Mesozoic clastic sequences (Nubian Sandstone) in Israel and Sinai, and a comparative analysis of its stratigraphy in neighbouring countries, has shown that besides the conventional criteria of subdivision (lithology, field appearance, photogeological features, fossil content), additional criteria can be applied, which singly or in mutual conjuction enable the recognition of widespread units and boundaries. These criteria show lateral constancy, and recurrence of a similar vertical sequence over great distances, and are therefore acceptable for the identification of synchronous, region-wide sedimentary units (and consequently, major unconformities). They also enable, once the units are established, to identify detached (not in situ) samples, samples from isolated or discontinous outcrops, borehole material or archive material. The following rock properties were tested and found to be usefuls in stratigraphic interpretation, throughout large distribution areas of the clastic sequence: Landscape, which is basically the response of a particular textural-chemic al aggregate to atmospheric weathering. Characteristic outcrop feature — styles of roundness or massivity, fissuring or fliatin, slope profile, bedding — express a basic uniformity of these platform-type clastics. Colors are often stratigraphically constant over hundreds of kilometers, through various climates and topographies, and express some intrinsic unity of the rock bodies. Grain size and sorting, when cross-plotted, enable to differentiate existing unit. The method requires the analysis of representative numbers of samples. Vertical trends of median grain size and sorting show reversals, typically across unconformities. Feldstar content diminishes from 15-50% in Precambrian-Paleozoic rocks to a mere 5% or less in Mesozoic sandstones — a distinctive regionwide time trend. Dominance of certain feldstar types characterizes Precambrian and Paleozoic

  5. The rise and fall of late Paleozoic trilobites of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brezinski, D.K.

    1999-01-01

    Based on range data and generic composition, four stages of evolution are recognized for late Paleozoic trilobites of the contiguous United States. Stage 1 occurs in the Lower Mississippian (Kinderhookian-Osagean) and is characterized by a generically diverse association of short-ranging, stenotopic species that are strongly provincial. Stage 2 species are present in the Upper Mississippian and consist of a single, eurytopic, pandemic genus, Paladin. Species of Stage 2 are much longer-ranging than those of Stage 1, and some species may have persisted for as long as 12 m.y. Stage 3 is present within Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian strata and consists initially of the eurytopic, endemic genera Sevillia and Ameura as well as the pandemic genus Ditomopyge. During the middle Pennsylvanian the very long-ranging species Ameura missouriensis and Ditomopyge scitula survived for more than 20 m.y. During the late Pennsylvanian and early Permian, a number of pandemic genera appear to have immigrated into what is now North America. Stage 4 is restricted to the Upper Permian (late Leonardian-Guadalupian) strata and is characterized by short-ranging, stenotopic, provincial genera. The main causal factor controlling the four-stage evolution of late Paleozoic trilobites of the United States is interpreted to be eustacy. Whereas Stage 1 represents an adaptive radiation developed during the Lower Mississippian inundation of North America by the Kaskaskia Sequence, Stage 2 is present in strata deposited during the regression of the Kaskaskia sea. Stage 3 was formed during the transgression and stillstand of the Absaroka Sequence and, although initially endemic, Stage 3 faunas are strongly pandemic in the end when oceanic circulation patterns were at a maximum. A mid-Leonardian sea-level drop caused the extinction of Stage 3 fauna. Sea-level rise near the end of the Leonardian and into the Guadalupian created an adaptive radiation of stentopic species of Stage 4 that quickly became

  6. Nd isotope and detrital zircon U-Pb age constraints on the provenance of the Pyeongan Supergroup (late Paleozoic-Early Triassic) in central eastern Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M. G.; Lee, Y. I.; Choi, T.

    2016-12-01

    During the late Paleozoic, subduction occurred beneath the both northern and southern margins of the Sino-Korean (North China) Craton (SKC), which led to collision with the Siberian Craton and the South China Craton, respectively. The collision among three cratons resulted in the formation of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) in the northern part of the SKC and the Qinling-Dabie Belt in the southern part. What happened in the east of the SKC during that time is rather unclear, except for the accretion and active arc magmatism recorded in the Japanese Islands. To investigate tectonics of the eastern SKC during the late Paleozoic, sandstone and shale samples taken from the Pyeongan Supergroup in central eastern Korea were analyzed for detrital zircon U-Pb and whole-rock Sm-Nd geochronology. The Pyeongan Supergroup, a Middle Carboniferous-Lower Triassic sedimentary succession in Korea, is largely correlatable to its age-equivalent succession in North China. However, its basinfill is interpreted to have been derived from recycled orogen located to the east-southeast. Detrital zircon age patterns are consistent from the bottom to the top of the succession, with the dominance of 1.7 2.0 Ga zircons (>80%), which suggests in the previous cycle the origination of sediments from Paleoproterozoic basement rocks of the Yeongnam Massif located in the southeast of the studied succession. The presence of some detrital zircon grains of near syn-depositional age suggest contemporaneous magmatic activity in the source terrane. ɛNd(0) varies between -22.7 and -8.7, with an average of -15.5. The lower ɛNd values (<-15.0) match that of the Yeongnam Massif basement rocks, but the higher ɛNd values (>-15.0) suggest significant mixing of juvenile materials, implying the input of the weathered product of late Paleozoic magmatism. Three pulses of relatively high ɛNd values at 315 Ma, 290 Ma, and 265 Ma are observed. The juvenile material with andesitic to basaltic composition is

  7. Structural and stratigraphic history of late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic of northwestern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Milliken, J.V.

    1988-02-01

    Late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic sedimentation in southern Arkansas, northern Louisiana, and northeastern Texas reflects a sequential change from compressional tectonism to extensional tectonism. Seismic, well, and surface data allow resolution of five tectonostratigraphic events between Early Pennsylvanian and Early Jurassic: (1) Ouachita Thrusting - a balanced cross section extending from southeastern Oklahoma to northeastern Texas indicates that north-directed thrust during the Atokan involved a southward-thickening early Paleozoic passive-margin sedimentary wedge, Precambrian basement, and northward-thickening syntectonic foredeep sediments. Initial shortening of the passive-margin wedge along the Ti Valley fault was followed by basement-involved duplexing beneath the Ti Valley thrust sheet. (2) Post-Atokan Unconformity - Uplift and erosion created a regional angular unconformity during earliest Desmoinesian time. (3) Southern Ouachita Successor Basin - Extension, basin subsidence, and sedimentation started in the southern part of the Ouachita orogen during the early Desmoinesian. Shallow-water carbonate and marginal margin clastic deposition continued through the remainder of the Paleozoic. (4) Triassic Rifting - A second period of extensional faulting during the Triassic created a series of mostly east-west-trending basins. Seismic stratal patterns indicate that these basins were filled by axial progradation of fluvio-deltaic systems. (5) Regional Subsidence - The Jurassic was dominated by regional subsidence. Deposition of Werner sands and anhydrite in remnant topographic lows was followed by widespread deposition of the Louann Salt. Of these five events, the first three are considered part of the Ouachita orogeny, whereas the last two are related to opening of the Gulf of Mexico.

  8. Late Paleozoic rift-related basalts from central Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wenping; Tian, Wei; Wei, Chunjing; Shao, Ji-an; Fu, Bin; Fanning, C. Mark; Chen, Mimi; Wang, Bin

    2017-08-01

    Late Paleozoic basaltic volcanism widely occurred in central Inner Mongolia, the southeastern part of the Central Asia Orogenic Blet (CAOB). Three volcanic pulses are identified by ion microprobe (SHRIMP II) zircon U-Pb analysis, which are Late Carboniferous (ca. 315 Ma), the latest Carboniferous (ca. 303 Ma) and early Permian (ca. 284 Ma). Basalts in the earliest stage are characterized by flat HREE, depletion in Nb and Ta, MORB-like Th/Yb ratios and depleted mantle (DM)-like Hf isotopic ratios. These are similar to forearc basalts, that have been generated by melting of a fluxed depleted mantle in an extensional environment. The latest Carboniferous basalts (sample D1363) have no Zr-Hf anomalies, relatively radiogenic Hf isotopic ratios (εHf(t) = +12.1 to +19.7) and high δ18O values up to 8.5‰, VSMOW. These are likely to be magmas originated from decompressional melting of a depleted mantle that interacted with ocean floor pillow basalts during their ascending through the crust. The early Permian sample D1380 have variable 206Pb/238U zircon ages with an interpreted magma crystallization age of 284.4 ± 2.5 Ma. These zircons have scattered Hf isotope (εHf(t) = +5 to +14) and δ18O (1.8-11.0‰, VSMOW), which suggest the involvement of a relatively enriched mantle source. Overall the temporal evolution of the Late Paleozoic basaltic volcanism from central Inner Mongolia suggests a rift-related tectonic setting.

  9. The development of floristic provinciality during the Middle and Late Paleozoic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wnuk, C.

    1996-01-01

    Phytogeographic reconstructions have been published for most Paleozoic series since the Pr??i??doli??, but there have been few attempts to synthesize this data into a comprehensive review of the characteristics and causes of the changing phytogeographic patterns for the whole Paleozoic history of the vascular flora. Existing floristic analyses have been compiled in this manuscript and the resulting data are used to reconstruct the evolution of floristic provinces since the Silurian. The earliest plant fossil records indicate that provinciality was characteristic of terrestrial vascular plant distributions right from the beginning of terrestrial colonization by vascular plants. This interpretation differs markedly from the views of many workers who still maintain that pre-Upper Carboniferous floras were uniform and cosmopolitan in distribution. Three of the four major phytogeographic units, i.e. Angara, Euramerica, and Gondwana, can be recognized in the earliest fossil floras. The fourth unit, Cathaysia, differentiated from Euramerica during the late Upper Carboniferous. Phytogeographic differentiation occurs in direct response to climatic gradients and physiographic barriers. As these gradients and barriers change, provincial boundaries expand and contract, fragment, reassemble and reassort. Phytogeographic units are dynamic through time. ?? 1996 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Cottage Grove fault system (Illinois Basin): Late Paleozoic transpression along a Precambrian crustal boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duchek, A.B.; McBride, J.H.; Nelson, W.J.; Leetaru, H.E.

    2004-01-01

    The Cottage Grove fault system in southern Illinois has long been interpreted as an intracratonic dextral strike-slip fault system. We investigated its structural geometry and kinematics in detail using (1) outcrop data, (2) extensive exposures in underground coal mines, (3) abundant borehole data, and (4) a network of industry seismic reflection profiles, including data reprocessed by us. Structural contour mapping delineates distinct monoclines, broad anticlines, and synclines that express Paleozoic-age deformation associated with strike slip along the fault system. As shown on seismic reflection profiles, prominent near-vertical faults that cut the entire Paleozoic section and basement-cover contact branch upward into outward-splaying, high-angle reverse faults. The master fault, sinuous along strike, is characterized along its length by an elongate anticline, ???3 km wide, that parallels the southern side of the master fault. These features signify that the overall kinematic regime was transpressional. Due to the absence of suitable piercing points, the amount of slip cannot be measured, but is constrained at less than 300 m near the ground surface. The Cottage Grove fault system apparently follows a Precambrian terrane boundary, as suggested by magnetic intensity data, the distribution of ultramafic igneous intrusions, and patterns of earthquake activity. The fault system was primarily active during the Alleghanian orogeny of Late Pennsylvanian and Early Permian time, when ultramatic igneous magma intruded along en echelon tensional fractures. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  11. The switch of magmatic evolution between early and late Paleozoic in the northern Beishan, southern Central Asia Orogenic belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Y.; Zong, K.; He, Z.

    2016-12-01

    The Beishan Orogenic Belt locates in the southernmost of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), which plays a key role in understanding the formation and evolution of the CAOB. However, the petrogenesis and geodynamic settings of widely distributed Paleozoic granitoids in the Beishan Orogenic Belt are poorly understood. In this study, we found that petrogenesis and tectonic settings are distinguished between the early and late Paleozoic granitoids in the Mazongshan unit located in the northern Beishan Orogenic Belt. The early Paleozoic intrusions are represented by Hongliuxia granite and Shibanjing complex which intruded at 460-430 Ma. On one hand, they display large range of zircon ɛHf(t) values from -17.1 to +14.2, implying both the juvenile and ancient crust material were involved in their petrogenesis. Noticeable, their zircon Hf model ages range from 0.5 Ga to 2.1 Ga and peaks at 0.9 Ga, 1.2 Ga and 1.8 Ga that are accordance with the formation time of the ancient continental crust in the southern Beishan Orogenic Belt. On the other hand, their geochemical and petrographic signatures reveal a classic high-K I-type granite affinity (e.g., weak peraluminous, moderate A/CNK values (0.72-1.27) , low Ga/Al ratios (1.87-2.41) and occurrence of hornblende). Moreover, they display relative enrichment of LILEs and LREEs but pronounced depletion of Nb, Ta and Ti. Thus, we suggest the early Paleozoic granitoids in the Beishan Orogenic Belt are generated in the continental arc setting. In contrast, the late Paleozoic granitoids are represented by Shuangjingzi complex which emplaced at 330 and 280 Ma. They are characterized by the positive zircon ɛHf(t) values of 5.4-12.8, supporting their magma source are dominated by partial melting of juvenile crust material in the extension setting. Therefore, the early and late Paleozoic magmatic evolutions in the Beishan Orogenic belt are distinguished by the reworking of ancient crust and remelting of juvenile crust materials

  12. Late Paleozoic basin formation and crustal deformation, ancestral Rocky Mountains province, Arizona and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, T.F. )

    1993-04-01

    Late Paleozoic collision of Laurussia and Gondwanaland resulted in regionally consistent sedimentation patterns that record two modes of lithospheric deformation in Arizona and New Mexico. Discrete intraforeland depocenters, the Orogrande and Pedregosa basins, formed in middle to late Pennsylvanian time (late Atokan-Virgilian). A regional unconformity is present at the base of the Permian system. Early Wolfcampian depositional thicknesses largely mimic and accentuate those of the Pennsylvanian, but later Wolfcampian rocks onlap intraforeland uplifts. Depositional systems paralleled the larger collision suture; a marine basin in southern New Mexico and Arizona graded northward to widespread redbeds deposited by south-flowing rivers. Intraforeland highs in northern Arizona and New Mexico were blanketed by sediment in late Wolfcampian time, whereas uplifts in southern New Mexico were covered in the Leonardian. Pennsylvanian basins formed during intraforeland wrench faulting that resulted from initial collision of marginal salients on one or both of the continental masses. The Wolfcampian basin formed through a combination of renewed wrenching and flexural subsidence during final suturing of the two supercontinents.

  13. CO2-forced climate and vegetation instability during Late Paleozoic deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Montañez, Isabel P; Tabor, Neil J; Niemeier, Deb; Dimichele, William A; Frank, Tracy D; Fielding, Christopher R; Isbell, John L; Birgenheier, Lauren P; Rygel, Michael C

    2007-01-05

    The late Paleozoic deglaciation is the vegetated Earth's only recorded icehouse-to-greenhouse transition, yet the climate dynamics remain enigmatic. By using the stable isotopic compositions of soil-formed minerals, fossil-plant matter, and shallow-water brachiopods, we estimated atmospheric partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and tropical marine surface temperatures during this climate transition. Comparison to southern Gondwanan glacial records documents covariance between inferred shifts in pCO2, temperature, and ice volume consistent with greenhouse gas forcing of climate. Major restructuring of paleotropical flora in western Euramerica occurred in step with climate and pCO2 shifts, illustrating the biotic impact associated with past CO2-forced turnover to a permanent ice-free world.

  14. Extreme freshwater release during the late Paleozoic Gondwana deglaciation and its impact on coastal ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buatois, Luis A.; Netto, Renata G.; Mángano, M. Gabriela; Balistieri, Patricia R. M. N.

    2006-12-01

    Strata in the Paganzo, Tarija, and Paraná Basins of Argentina and Brazil provide evidence for reconstructing the effects of late Paleozoic glacial retreat. The depositional environment of the transgressive and early highstand fine-grained deposits has been controversial, with interpretations ranging from normal-marine shelves to estuaries to lakes. Whereas their counterparts from shallow-marine settings not influenced by glaciation host diverse, fully marine ichnofaunas, these fine-grained postglacial deposits are dominated by nonspecialized grazing trails, simple feeding traces, arthropod trackways, and fish trails. They are typical of freshwater environments and represent examples of the Mermia and Scoyenia ichnofacies. However, the local presence of acritarchs indicates sporadic marine influence. These observations suggest a new interpretation, that freshwater conditions in fjordlike settings across South America were widespread because Gondwanan basins were overwhelmed by strong meltwater discharge issuing from melting of the continental ice masses.

  15. High-resolution sequence stratigraphy of lower Paleozoic sheet sandstones in central North America: The role of special conditions of cratonic interiors in development of stratal architecture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkel, Anthony C.; Miller, J.F.; McKay, R.M.; Palmer, A.R.; Taylor, John F.

    2007-01-01

    continuum of variable stratigraphic packages reflecting variable controls such as subsidence and shelf physiography. Special conditions of exceptionally slow subsidence rate, shallow bathymetry, and nearly flat regional shelf gradient are manifest mostly by the presence of individual systems tracts of relatively long duration that extend for much greater distances across depositional strike than those that characterize successions deposited in more dynamic tectonic and physiographic settings. These results suggest that if other cratonic interior successions are as anomalous as reported, a low sediment supply may have played a primary role in development of their apparently condensed stratal architecture. The results also lead us to suggest that a nonvegetated lower Paleozoic landscape played a relatively insignificant role in the development of what are commonly perceived to be enigmatic stratigraphic features of sheet sandstones, particularly their widespread yet thin geometry, and a scarcity of shale and siltstone. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

  16. Electrical structures in the northwest margin of the Junggar basin: Implications for its late Paleozoic geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Sheng; Xu, Yixian; Jiang, Li; Yang, Bo; Liu, Ying; Griffin, W. L.; Luo, Yong; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Liangliang

    2017-10-01

    Recent geological, geochemical and geophysical data have inclined to support the presence of a remnant Paleozoic oceanic lithosphere beneath the Western Junggar, southwestern Chinese Altaids. However, regional high-resolution geophysical data have been rarely deployed to image its geometry, making it difficult to trace its evolution and final geodynamic setting. Presently, two magnetotelluric (MT) profiles are deployed across the northwest margin of the Junggar basin and the southern Darbut belt to image the electrical structure of the crust and lithospheric mantle. High-quality data at 102 sites and the quasi-2D indications of phase tensor skew angles and impedance phase ellipses for relatively short periods (up to 500 s) allow us to invert the two profile data by a 2-D scheme. The resistivity cross-section of a NW-SE striking LINE2 sheds light on a fossil intraoceanic subduction system, and reveals the Miaoergou intrusions as a bowl-like pluton, indicating that the multi-phase intrusions primarily formed in a post-collisional setting. The resistivity cross-section of striking NE-SW LINE1 reveals a possible oceanic slab with relatively lower resistivity underlying the low-resistivity sedimentary strata and high-resistivity mélange. Given that the profile of LINE1 cuts the out-rise zone of a subducted slab developed during the late Paleozoic, the 2-D resistivity model may thus represent the zone that have experienced heterogeneous deformation, reflecting subduction with barrier variation parallel to the ancient trench. Moreover, as shown in previous results, the new MT data also illustrate that the Darbut Fault is a thin-skinned structure, which has been erased at depths during the subsequent magmatism.

  17. Fundamentals of Glacial-Interglacial Variability in Tropical Pangaean Aridity during the Late Paleozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heavens, N. G.; Mahowald, N. M.; Soreghan, G. S.; Soreghan, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Isotopic and sedimentological evidence suggests that the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian Periods were the most recent era of widespread glaciation prior to the Cenozoic; many aspects of the late Paleozoic glaciations remain disputed. Was glacial deposition on Gondwanaland due to a single ice sheet or multiple ice sheets? Did Milankovitch-scale orbital forcing drive expansion and contraction of ice sheets analogous to the Laurentide and Fennoscandian ice sheets? Or were Gondwanan ice sheets more stable, like the East Antarctic ice sheet? Did variability in Gondwanan ice sheet thickness and extent drive the sea level fluctuations evident in tropical cyclothem sequences from the late Paleozoic? One approach to answering some of these broad questions has been to identify and measure various aspects of sedimentary deposits containing dust (paleoloessites etc.) in order to reconstruct aridity at dust sources and sinks and wind patterns along the path between them. Moreover, glacial processes may be very efficient generators of dust particles. Dust deposits appear to have been widespread and thickly accumulating during late Paleozoic time, suggesting the Early Permian may have been the dustiest time in planetary history. There is strong high-frequency variability in dust deposition/wind patterns, possibly driven by Milankovitch-scale orbital variability and related climate feedbacks, and lower frequency variability driven by tectonic and/or other changes. Yet the sign of the correlation of aridity in tropical Pangaea with glacial extent in Gondwanaland and globally cooler climate in general is still unclear. Broadly speaking, some reconstructions (such as those based on dust) favor glacial aridity, while others favor glacial humidity. To investigate the dynamics of aridity in tropical Pangaea, we have designed and implemented simulations of the Earth's climate during the Asselian-Sakmarian of the Permian using the Community Climate System Model. These simulations

  18. Gulf of California analogue for origin of Late Paleozoic ocean basins adjacent to western North America

    SciTech Connect

    Murchey, B.L. )

    1993-04-01

    Ocean crust accreted to the western margin of North America following the Late Devonian to earliest Missippian Antler orogeny is not older than Devonian. Therefore, ocean crust all along the margin of western North America may have been very young following the Antler event. This situation can be compared to the present-day margin of North America which lies adjacent to young ocean crust as a result of the subduction of the Farallon plate and arrival of the East Pacific spreading ridge. Syn- and post-Antler rifting that occurred along the North American margin may well be analogous to the formation of the Gulf of California by the propagation of the East Pacific spreading ridge. Black-arc rifting associated with the subduction of very old ocean crust seems a less likely mechanism for the early stages of ocean basin formation along the late Paleozoic margin of western North America because of the apparent absence of old ocean crust to the west of the arc terranes. The eastern Pacific basins were as long-lived as any truly oceanic basins and may have constituted, by the earliest Permian, a single wedge-shaped basin separated from the western Pacific by rifted fragments of North American arc-terranes. In the Permian, the rifted arcs were once again sites of active magmatism and the eastern Pacific basins began to close, from south (Golconda terrane) to north. Final closure of the northernmost eastern Pacific basin (Angayucham in Alaska) did not occur until the Jurassic.

  19. Climate and vegetational regime shifts in the late Paleozoic ice age earth.

    PubMed

    DiMichele, W A; Montañez, I P; Poulsen, C J; Tabor, N J

    2009-03-01

    The late Paleozoic earth experienced alternation between glacial and non-glacial climates at multiple temporal scales, accompanied by atmospheric CO2 fluctuations and global warming intervals, often attended by significant vegetational changes in equatorial latitudes of Pangaea. We assess the nature of climate-vegetation interaction during two time intervals: middle-late Pennsylvanian transition and Pennsylvanian-Permian transition, each marked by tropical warming and drying. In case study 1, there is a catastrophic intra-biomic reorganization of dominance and diversity in wetland, evergreen vegetation growing under humid climates. This represents a threshold-type change, possibly a regime shift to an alternative stable state. Case study 2 is an inter-biome dominance change in western and central Pangaea from humid wetland and seasonally dry to semi-arid vegetation. Shifts between these vegetation types had been occurring in Euramerican portions of the equatorial region throughout the late middle and late Pennsylvanian, the drier vegetation reaching persistent dominance by Early Permian. The oscillatory transition between humid and seasonally dry vegetation appears to demonstrate a threshold-like behavior but probably not repeated transitions between alternative stable states. Rather, changes in dominance in lowland equatorial regions were driven by long-term, repetitive climatic oscillations, occurring with increasing intensity, within overall shift to seasonal dryness through time. In neither case study are there clear biotic or abiotic warning signs of looming changes in vegetational composition or geographic distribution, nor is it clear that there are specific, absolute values or rates of environmental change in temperature, rainfall distribution and amount, or atmospheric composition, approach to which might indicate proximity to a terrestrial biotic-change threshold.

  20. Stratigraphic evolution of paleozoic erathem, northern Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.L. Jr.

    1985-02-01

    Unmetamorphosed Paleozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks have been drilled in numerous wells throughout northern Florida and southern Georgia, in what is today a gently folded and block-faulted relict continental fragment of northwest Africa and northeast South America. Stratigraphic and lithologic equivalents of these North American Paleozoic units are prolific hydrocarbon producers in North Africa. The northern Florida Paleozoic sediments were deposited on Pan-African and Cadoman basement. Widespread continental glaciation from late Precambrian to Early Cambrian introduced a thick sequence of fine-grained marine sandstones (glacial flour), which overlie medium to coarse-grained glaciofluvial sandstones. Basinward of the sand shelf, the accretion of a volcanic island arc complex began during the Ordovician. A fluctuating transgression, accompanying a major glacial minimum, brought open-marine, graptolitic, black shales onto the sand shelf, producing an interbedded shoreface-shelf sand and black shale section during the Middle and Late Ordovician. At the Ordovician-Silurian boundary, renewed continental glaciation lowered sea level, producing a widespread unconformity. A Late Silurian major marine transgression returned black, graptolitic, highly organic shales onto the sand shelf. Devonian deltaic sands from Avalonia(.) to the north and the craton to the south closed the Paleozoic sedimentary record of northern Florida.

  1. Paleomagnetism and rock magnetism of Quaternary volcanic rocks and Late Paleozoic strata, VC-1 core hole, Valles Caldera, New Mexico, with emphasis on remagnetization of Late Paleozoic strata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissman, John W.

    1988-06-01

    Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic data obtained from azimuthally unoriented core samples, collected at approximately 1- to 3-m intervals, of Continental Scientific Drilling Program core hole VC-1 have prompted reinterpretations of the Quaternary volcanic stratigraphy intersected by the bore and have aided in evaluating the thermal regime within late Paleozoic strata attending fluid circulation and mineral deposition during and after development of the Toledo and Valles calderas. The results from Quaternary units (Banco Bonito Obsidian: I = +35.4°, a95 = 2.8° (inclination only determinations), n = 33; Battleship Rock Tuff: D = 359.6°, I = +42.4°, a95 = 2.8°, n = 5 site means (surface sites); VC-1 Rhyolite: I = +39.2°, a95 = 12.8°, n = 7; Upper VC-1 Tuff: I = +37.2°, a95 = 10.7°, n = 13; Middle VC-1 Tuff: I = +42.1°, a95 = 2.1°, n = 39; South Mountain Rhyolite: D = 350.9°, I = +49.9°, a95 = 3.4°, n = 10 (one surface site)) are consistent with isotopic age data, indicating that the entire moat volcanic sequence intersected is less than 650 kyr. Monitoring of natural remanent magnetization (NRM) intensity, NRM directions, directions of magnetizations isolated during progressive demagnetization, median destructive forces, and rock magnetization parameters has identified systematic variations within the thick Banco Bonito Obsidian and VC-1 Tuff units. The Permian Abo Formation, Pennsylvanian to earliest Permian Madera Limestone, and Pennsylvanian Sandia Formation typically contain a moderate positive inclination magnetization component (Abo Formation: I = +52.2°, a95 = 7.4°, n = 16; Madera Limestone: I = +58.4°, a95 = 2.8°, n = 105; Sandia Formation: I = +53.9°, a95 = 4.8°, n = 21); when residing in magnetite, it is usually unblocked in the laboratory by 350°C; when carried by hematite it is unblocked by 550°C. A moderate negative inclination (e.g., Madera and Abo strata: D = 173.1°, I = -46.6°, a95 = 5.5°; n = 47 samples; assuming a north seeking

  2. A New Paleozoic Symmoriiformes (Chondrichthyes) from the Late Carboniferous of Kansas (USA) and Cladistic Analysis of Early Chondrichthyans

    PubMed Central

    Pradel, Alan; Tafforeau, Paul; Maisey, John G.; Janvier, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Background The relationships of cartilaginous fishes are discussed in the light of well preserved three-dimensional Paleozoic specimens. There is no consensus to date on the interrelationship of Paleozoic chondrichthyans, although three main phylogenetic hypotheses exist in the current literature: 1. the Paleozoic shark-like chondrichthyans, such as the Symmoriiformes, are grouped along with the modern sharks (neoselachians) into a clade which is sister group of holocephalans; 2. the Symmoriiformes are related to holocephalans, whereas the other Paleozoic shark-like chondrichthyans are related to neoselachians; 3. many Paleozoic shark-like chondrichthyans, such as the Symmoriiformes, are stem chondrichthyans, whereas stem and crown holocephalans are sister group to the stem and crown neoselachians in a crown-chondrichthyan clade. This third hypothesis was proposed recently, based mainly on dental characters. Methodology/Principal Findings On the basis of two well preserved chondrichthyan neurocrania from the Late Carboniferous of Kansas, USA, we describe here a new species of Symmoriiformes, Kawichthys moodiei gen. et sp. nov., which was investigated by means of computerized X-ray synchrotron microtomography. We present a new phylogenetic analysis based on neurocranial characters, which supports the third hypothesis and corroborates the hypothesis that crown-group chondrichthyans (Holocephali+Neoselachii) form a tightly-knit group within the chondrichthyan total group, by providing additional, non dental characters. Conclusions/Significance Our results highlight the importance of new well preserved Paleozoic fossils and new techniques of observation, and suggest that a new look at the synapomorphies of the crown-group chondrichthyans would be worthwhile in terms of understanding the adaptive significance of phylogenetically important characters. PMID:21980367

  3. The making of a sandstone colossus: Tectonically and climatically induced flushing of 'Nubian' sands in the Early Paleozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luthi, Stefan M.; Hagadorn, James W.; Donselaar, Marinus E.

    2013-04-01

    Massive 'Nubian' sandstones of Cambro-Ordovician age drape most of the Arabian and northern African tectonic plates and preserve a sensitive record of how continental margins evolve under greenhouse conditions. These strata also contain important aquifers, petroleum reservoirs, and archaeological monuments such as Petra, and they were formed by a geologically sudden and long-lasting influx of >500,000 km3 of predominantly quartz sand. The cause and timing of this continent-scale sedimentation event were so far unknown. Here we constrain the depositional history of these strata and hypothesize that poleward migration of the Gondwanan supercontinent out of the horse latitudes caused a five-fold increase in sedimentation rates and buildup of one of the largest epicratonic sand wedges in earth history. Geohistorical sedimentation and subsidence modeling of these sandstones is presented, based on sedimentologic, biostratigraphic, basement paleotopographic, facies, and tectonic dip analyses of a well-preserved paleoslope-axial transect of 542-462 million-year-old strata in Jordan. This region experienced a ~25 m/Ma increase in sedimentation rate over ~30 Ma, concomitant with near-equilibrium plate subsidence response. Sedimentary rocks in the studied sequences exhibit coeval compositional variations that suggest a change in sedimentation style from immature to ultramature clastics. Our results are internally consistent with movement of a continent from an arid subtropical high toward a wet subpolar low, which would have caused widespread flushing of hypermature sands sourced from the interior of the African-Nubian Shield toward the continent margin.

  4. Seed ferns from the late Paleozoic and Mesozoic: Any angiosperm ancestors lurking there?

    PubMed

    Taylor, Edith L; Taylor, Thomas N

    2009-01-01

    Five orders of late Paleozoic-Mesozoic seed ferns have, at one time or another, figured in discussions on the origin of angiosperms, even before the application of phylogenetic systematics. These are the Glossopteridales, Peltaspermales, Corystospermales, Caytoniales, and Petriellales. Although vegetative features have been used to suggest homologies, most discussion has focused on ovulate structures, which are generally interpreted as megasporophylls bearing seeds, with the seeds partially to almost completely enclosed by the megasporophyll (or cupule). Here we discuss current information about the reproductive parts of these plants. Since most specimens are impression-compression remains, homologizing the ovulate organs, deriving angiospermous homologues, and defining synapomorphies remain somewhat speculative. Although new specimens have increased the known diversity in these groups, a reconstruction of an entire plant is available only for the corystosperms, and thus hypotheses about phylogenetic position are of limited value. We conclude that, in the case of these seed plants, phylogenetic analysis techniques have surpassed the hard data needed to formulate meaningful phylogenetic hypotheses. Speculation on angiosperm origins and transitional stages in these fossils provides for interesting discussion, but currently it is still speculation, as the role of these groups in the origin of angiospermy continues to be cloaked in Darwin's mystery.

  5. New interpretations of Paleozoic stratigraphy and history in the northern Laramie Range and vicinity, Southeast Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Sando, W.J.; Sandberg, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Biostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic studies of the Paleozoic sequence in Southeast Wyoming indicate the need for revision of the ages and nomenclature of Devonian, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian formations. The Paleozoic sequence begins with a quartzarenite of Devonian age referred to the newly named Fremont Canyon Sandstone, which is overlain by the Englewood Formation of Late Devonian and Early Mississippian age. The Englewood is succeeded by the Madison Limestone of Early and Late Mississippian age, which is overlain disconformably by the Darwin Sandstone Member (Pennsylvanian) of the Casper and Hartville formations. This sequence represents predominantly marine deposition in near-shore environments marginal to the ancient Transcontinental Arch.

  6. Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian (Late Jurassic) reservoir sandstones in the Witch Ground Graben, U. K. North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Harker, S.D. Ltd., Aberdeen ); Mantel, K.A. ); Morton, D.J. ); Riley, L.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Oil-bearing Late Jurassic Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian sandstones of the Sgiath and Piper formations are of major economic importance in the Witch Ground Graben. They form the reservoirs in Scott, which in 1993 will be the largest producing North Sea oil field to come on stream for more than a decade. Together with Scott, the Piper, Saltire, Tartan, Highlander, Petronella, Rob Roy, and Ivanhoe fields contained almost 2 Bbbl of recoverable reserves in these formations. The Sgiath and Piper represent two phases of Late Jurassic transgression and regression, initially represented by paralic deposited sand culminating in a wave-dominated delta sequence. The history of the Sgiath and Piper formations is reviewed and lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic correlations presented to illustrate the distribution of the reservoir sandstones.

  7. Late Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Constraints from multiple arc-basin systems in Altai-Junggar area, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we report results from integrated geological, geophysical and geochemical investigations on the Wulungu Depression of the Junggar Basin to understand the Late Paleozoic continental growth of the Junggar area and its amalgamation history with the Altai terrane, within the broad tectonic evolution of the Altai-Junggar area. Based on seismic and borehole data, the Wulungu Depression can be divided into two NW-trending tectonic units by southward thrust faults. The Suosuoquan Sag is composed of gray basaltic andesite, andesite, tuff, tuffaceous sandstone and tuffite, and the overlying Early Carboniferous volcano-sedimentary sequence with lava gushes and marine sediments from a proximal juvenile provenance, compared to the andesite in the Hongyan High. The SIMS Zircon U-Pb ages for andesites from Late Paleozoic strata indicate that these volcanics in Suosuoquan Sag and Hongyan High erupted at 376.3Ma and 313.4Ma, respectively. Most of the intermediate-mafic volcanic rocks exhibit calc-alkaline affinity, low initial 87Sr/86Sr and positive ɛNd(t) and ɛHf(t) values. Furthermore, these rocks have high Th/Yb and low Ce/Pb and La/Yb ratios as well as variable Ba/Th and Ba/La ratios. These features imply that the rocks were derived from partial melting of a mantle wedge metasomatized by subduction-related components in an island arc setting. The basin filling pattern and the distribution of island arc-type volcanics and their zircon Hf model ages with the eruptive time suggest that the Wulungu Depression represents an island arc-basin system with the development of a Carboniferous retro-arc basin. The gravity and magnetic anomaly data suggest that Altai-Junggar area incorporates three arc-basin belts from north to south: the Karamaili-Luliang-Darbut, Yemaquan-Wulungu, and Dulate-Fuhai-Saur. The recognition of the Wulungu arc-basin system demonstrates that the northern Junggar area is built by amalgamation of multiple Paleozoic linear arcs and accretionary

  8. New paleomagnetic data from late Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of Novaya Zemlya Archipelago: tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abashev, Victor V.; Metelkin, Dmitry V.; Mikhaltsov, Nikolay E.; Vernikovsky, Valery A.; Matushkin, Nikolay Yu.

    2017-04-01

    New paleomagnetic data for Novaya Zemlya archipelago were obtained by processing the samples collection gathered during the 2014 field season. The paleomagnetic directions and paleomagnetic poles were determined from the Paleozoic sedimentary complexes located on the Southern Island (Upper Permian) and the Northern Island (Lower and Upper Devonian, Upper Carboniferous) of the archipelago. Positive fold and reversal tests indicate that the isolated paleomagnetic directions correspond to the primary magnetization components. The corresponding paleomagnetic pole are in good agreement with poles obtained earlier in the 1980s by E.L. Gurevich and I.A. Pogarskaya. Considering the confidence ovals, the paleomagnetic poles obtained for the sites of the Northern Island are located close to the corresponding path segment of the APWP of Europe. This means that at least since the early Devonian, the northern part of Novaya Zemlya Archipelago had a position that was close to its current position relatively to the Arctic margin of Europe and has not undergone significant shifts or rotations. However, the upper Permian paleomagnetic pole for the Southern Island is very different from the corresponding part of the European APWP. We are considering this pole position within a model, involving significant intraplate movement between the structures of the European and Siberian tectonic provinces until the Late Cretaceous. The sinistral strike-slips inferred by the model could have caused or were accompanying the opening of the Mesozoic rift system in Western Siberia. This event has reached its maximum within the South Kara basin and resulted in the north-westward (in geographic coordinates) displacement of the southern part of the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago in relation to the Arctic margin of Europe and in the deformation of the Pay-Khoy-Novaya Zemlya margin, which caused its modern curved form. The study was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, grant No. 14-37-00030 and the

  9. Changing Low-Latitude Paleoenvironments During the Onset of the Late Paleozoic Ice Age.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, S.

    2007-12-01

    The Carboniferous is one of the critical stepwise transitions in the evolution of the Earth System when rapid changes in climate and atmospheric composition (rise in oxygen/carbon dioxide) coincided with key events in biological evolution (the proliferation of land plants) and increased rates of tectonic plate reorganisation. The paleoequatorial Carboniferous sedimentary successions of Britain and Ireland were deposited in a shallow epicontinental seaway and record high magnitude and high frequency eustatic changes as ice sheets waxed and waned on Gondwana during the onset of the Late Paleozoic ice age. In the Asbian and Brigantian (ca.334-326 Ma) widespread shallow and marginal marine conditions are recorded by mixed carbonate and siliciclastic deposition and carbonate successions on platforms and shelves. In the mid-Brigantian, a marine transgression reduced deposition on the carbonate platforms and connected previously separate sub-basins in central Scotland. Data used to interpret global climate for this time slice are contradictory. A warmer global climate is suggested by the widespread extent of a Gondwanan macrofloral realm that requires frost-free conditions whereas isotope data suggest a cold Asbian followed by a warm, ice-free Brigantian. In the Pendleian to Yeadonian (ca.326-317 Ma), increasingly light oxygen isotope data indicate a return to cold conditions. Well- constrained periods of Gondwanan glacial sedimentation (e.g. in SE Australia), of 1 and 3 Myr duration, coincide with major paleoevironmental changes across Britain and Ireland, including the end of significant carbonate production and the earliest examples of large-scale river paleovalleys (with 20-80 m of erosional relief). Depositional environments (fluvial, deltaic) and basin bathymetry (distinct shelf edges) provided optimal conditions for the effects of sea-level change to be recorded in sedimentary successions of this time slice. These late Mississippian and early Pennsylvanian

  10. Geodynamics of late Paleozoic magmatism in the Tien Shan and its framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biske, Yu. S.; Konopelko, D. L.; Seltmann, R.

    2013-07-01

    The Devonian-Permian history of magmatic activity in the Tien Shan and its framework has been considered using new isotopic datings. It has been shown that the intensity of magmatism and composition of igneous rocks are controlled by interaction of the local thermal upper mantle state (plumes) and dynamics of the lithosphere on a broader regional scale (plate motion). The Kazakhstan paleocontinent, which partly included the present-day Tien Shan and Kyzylkum, was formed in the Late Ordovician-Early Silurian as a result of amalgamation of ancient continental masses and island arcs. In the Early Devonian, heating of the mantle resulted in the within-plate basaltic volcanism in the southern framework of the Kazakhstan paleocontinent (Turkestan paleoocean) and development of suprasubduction magmatism over an extensive area at its margin. In the Middle-Late Devonian, the margins of the Turkestan paleoocean were passive; the area of within-plate oceanic magmatism shifted eastward, and the active margin was retained at the junction with the Balkhash-Junggar paleoocean. A new period of active magmatism was induced by an overall shortening of the region under the settings of plate convergence. The process started in the Early Carboniferous at the Junggar-Balkhash margin of the Kazakhstan paleocontinent and the southern (Paleotethian) margin of the Karakum-Tajik paleocontinent. In the Late Carboniferous, magmatism developed along the northern boundary of the Turkestan paleoocean, which was closing between them. The disappearance of deepwater oceanic basins by the end of the Carboniferous was accompanied by collisional granitic magmatism, which inherited the paleolocations of subduction zones. Postcollision magmatism fell in the Early Permian with a peak at 280 Ma ago. In contrast to Late Carboniferous granitic rocks, the localization of Early Permian granitoids is more independent of collision sutures. The magmatism of this time comprises: (1) continuation of the

  11. Late-Paleozoic-Mesozoic deformational and deformation related metamorphic structures of Kuznetsk-Altai region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinoviev, Sergei

    2014-05-01

    Kuznetsk-Altai region is a part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The nature and formation mechanisms of the observed structure of Kuznetsk-Altai region are interpreted by the author as the consequence of convergence of Tuva-Mongolian and Junggar lithospheric block structures and energy of collision interaction between the blocks of crust in Late-Paleozoic-Mesozoic period. Tectonic zoning of Kuznetsk-Altai region is based on the principle of adequate description of geological medium (without methods of 'primary' state recovery). The initial indication of this convergence is the crust thickening in the zone of collision. On the surface the mechanisms of lateral compression form a regional elevation; with this elevation growth the 'mountain roots' start growing. With an approach of blocks an interblock elevation is divided into various fragments, and these fragments interact in the manner of collision. The physical expression of collision mechanisms are periodic pulses of seismic activity. The main tectonic consequence of the block convergence and collision of interblock units is formation of an ensemble of regional structures of the deformation type on the basis of previous 'pre-collision' geological substratum [Chikov et al., 2012]. This ensemble includes: 1) allochthonous and autochthonous blocks of weakly deformed substratum; 2) folded (folded-thrust) systems; 3) dynamic metamorphism zones of regional shears and main faults. Characteristic of the main structures includes: the position of sedimentary, magmatic and PT-metamorphic rocks, the degree of rock dynamometamorphism and variety rock body deformation, as well as the styles and concentrations of mechanic deformations. 1) block terranes have weakly elongated or isometric shape in plane, and they are the systems of block structures of pre-collision substratum separated by the younger zones of interblock deformations. They stand out among the main deformation systems, and the smallest are included into the

  12. Groundwater flow, late cementation, and petroleum accumulation the Permian Lyons Sandstone, Denver basin

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.K.; Bethke, C.M. )

    1994-02-01

    The gray diagenetic facies of the Permian Lyons Sandstone, associated with all known petroleum accumulations in the formation, formed late in the history of the Denver basin as an alteration product of the formation's red facies. The red facies that makes up most of the sandstone contains iron oxide coating, quartz overgrowths and calcite cements. The gray facies, which occurs locally in the deep basin, is distinguished by pore-filling dolomite and anhydrite cements and by a lack of iron oxide and calcite. The dolomite and anhydrite cements overlie bitumen that was deposited by migrating oil, and hence formed after oil was first generated in the basin, late in the Cretaceous or early in the Tertiary. The isotopic composition of oxygen in the dolomite ranges to such light values that the cement must have formed deep in the basin in the presence of meteoric water. The gray facies likely formed in a regime of groundwater flow resulting from Laramide uplift of the Front Range during the Tertiary. In our model, saline groundwater flowed eastward through the Pennsylvanian Fountain Formation and then upwelled along the basin axis, where is discharged into the Lyons Sandstone. The saline water mixed with more dilute groundwater in the Lyons, driving a reaction that dissolved calcite and, by a common-ion effect, precipitated dolomite and anhydrite. The facies' gray color resulted from reduction of ferric oxide in the presence of migrating oil or the Fountain brine. Underlying source beds by this time had begun to generate petroleum, which migrated by buoyancy into the Lyons. The association of the gray facies with petroleum accumulations can be explained if the Fountain brines discharged across aquitards along the same fractures that transmitted oil. As petroleum accumulated in the Lyons, the newly formed cements prevented continued migration, as is observed in shallower strata, by sealing oil into the reservoirs from which it is produced today. 77 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Textural and Rb-Sr isotopic evidence for late Paleozoic mylonitization within the Honey Hill fault zone southeastern Connecticut

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, K.D.; Gromet, L.P.

    1983-09-01

    A petrographic and Rb-Sr isotopic study of rocks within and near the Honey Hill fault zone places important constraints on its history of movement. Rb-Sr apparent ages for micas and plagioclase from these rocks have been reset and range from Permian to Triassic, considerably younger than the minimum stratigraphic age (Ordovician) of the rocks studied or of Acadian (Devonian) regional metamorphism. Permian Rb-Sr ages of dynamically recrystallized muscovite date the development of mylonite fabric. An older age is precluded by the excellent preservation of unrecovered quartz, which indicates that these rocks did not experience temperatures high enough to anneal quartz or thermally reset Rb-Sr isotopic systems in muscovite since the time of mylonitization. Metamorphic mineral assemblages and mineral apparent ages in rocks north of the fault zone indicate recrystallization under similar upper greenschist-lower amphibolite grade conditions during Permian to Triassic time. Collectively these results indicate that the Honey Hill fault zone was active during the Late Paleozoic and that ductile deformation and metamorphism associated with the Alleghanian orogeny extend well into southern Connecticut. An Alleghanian age for mylonitization within the Honey Hill fault zone suggests it should be considered as a possible site for the major Late Paleozoic strike-slip displacements inferred from paleomagnetic studies for parts of coastal New England and maritime Canada.

  14. Late Paleozoic granitic rocks of the Chukchi Peninsula: Composition and location in the structure of the Russian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchitskaya, M. V.; Sokolov, S. D.; Kotov, A. B.; Natapov, L. M.; Belousova, E. A.; Katkov, S. M.

    2015-07-01

    An Early Carboniferous (352-359 Ma) U-Pb (TIMS, SIMS) age is established for granitic rocks of the Kibera pluton, quartz sienites of the Kuekvun pluton, and granites from the pebbles in the basement of Carboniferous rocks of the Kuul and Kuekvun uplifts in the Central Chukotka region. These data support the suggestion of granitic magmatism to occur in the region in the Late Paleozoic. The petrogeochemistry of most granitic rocks of the Kibera and Kuekvun plutons is similar to that of I-type granites, and their age coincides with tectonic events of Ellesmerian Orogeny in the Arctic region at the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous boundary. The Devonian-Early Carboniferous granitic complexes extend to the territories of the Arctic Alaska, Yukon, and Arctic Canada, which indicates a common geological evolution within the Chukotka-Arctic Alaska block, which experienced a motion away from Arctic Canada.

  15. Late Paleozoic metallogenesis and evolution of the East Tianshan Orogenic Belt (NW China, Central Asia Orogenic Belt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Chunming; Xiao, Wenjiao; Zhao, Guochun; Su, Benxun; Sakyi, Patrick Asamoah; Ao, Songjian; Wan, Bo; Zhang, Jien; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2014-11-01

    One of the most largest known and important metallogenic provinces in China is East Tianshan, where seven major types of Late Paleozoic metal deposits have been recognized: (1) porphyry-type Cu-Mo-(Au) ore deposits, (2) volcanic Fe-Cu deposits, (3) orogenic lode gold deposits, (4) magmatic Cu-Ni sulfide deposits, (5) epithermal gold deposits, (6) volcanic hydrothermal Cu deposits, and (7) skarn Cu-Ag deposits. Tectonically, the development of these Late Paleozoic metal mineral deposits was closely associated with the subduction and closure of the ancient Tianshan ocean intervening between the Tarim craton and the Junggar-Kazakhstan block. In the Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous, the northern margin of the Tarim craton existed as a passive-type continental margin, whereas the ancient Tianshan ocean was subducted beneath the southern margin of the Junggar-Kazakhstan block, resulting in the formation of the Dananhu-Tousuquan magmatic arc and associated porphyry-type Cu-Mo-(Au) deposits. In the Middle Carboniferous, the ancient Tianshan ocean began to subduct beneath the northern margin of the Tarim craton, leading to the formation of the Aqishan-Yamansu magmatic arc and associated volcanic Fe-Cu deposits. In the Late Carboniferous, the ancient Tianshan ocean was closed, and a continent-arc collision occurred, leading to the formation of the Tianshan orogen. Following the collision was an extensional event, which was associated with the emplacement of large amounts of ultramafic-mafic complexes and the formation of a number of large- to medium-scale magmatic copper-nickel ore deposits along the Kangger suture zone. In the Early Permian, East Tianshan entered into a post-collision stage, associated with the widespread emplacement of granitoid bodies and eruption of within-plate volcanism, which led to the formation of volcanic hydrothermal copper deposits, skarn-type Cu-Ag deposits, post-orogenic gold deposits, and epithermal gold deposits in East Tianshan.

  16. Late Paleozoic tectonic evolution and concentrated mineralization in Balkhash and West Junggar, western part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shuwen; Chen, Xuanhua; Chen, Zhengle

    2016-04-01

    The Central Asia Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is an important area with significant growth of the crust and metallogeny in the Late Paleozoic. The Balkhash-Junggar tectono-metallogenic belt consists of the Balkhash, the West Junggar, and the East Junggar tectono-metallogenic belts in western part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). According to the structural geological relationship, the East Junggar, the West Junggar, and the Balkhash belts are considered to be once a continuous E-W-trending tectono-metallogenic belt in Late Carboniferous. The West Junggar belt is featured with NE-trending left-lateral strike-slip faulting tectonic system (WJTS), while the left-lateral strike-slip faults are E-W-trending in the Balkhash belt. The WJTS consists of the Darabut, the Mayile, and the Baerluke faults, and the blocks among them. All these left-lateral strike-slip faults are forming due to the transition of tectonic settings from syn-collisional orogeny to post-collisional extension during the closure of the ocean (the Junggar Sea) in Late Carboniferous, with significant intrusion of batholiths and crust growth occurred in this period. These faults are truncated by the right-lateral strike-slip faults, such as the Chingiz-Junggar fault, and the Central Balkhash fault in Mesozoic. The Balkhash-Junggar tectono-metallogenic belt is important for the occurrence of many well-known super-large and large porphyry Cu-Mo deposits (such as the Kounrad, the Aktogai, the Borly, and the Baogutu deposits), large skarn Cu deposits (in the Sayak ore-filed), large rare metal deposits (such as the East Kounrad, the Zhanet, and the Akshatau deposits), and large gold deposits (such as the Hatu deposit). Zircon U-Pb ages, Re-Os isotopic dating of molybdenites, 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology of hornblendes, muscovites, biotites, and K-feldspars, and zircon and apatite fission track (FT) and (U-Th)/He dating and thermal history modeling, provide a multidisciplinary approach to constrain the whole

  17. Controls on deposition of the St. Peter Sandstone (Middle-Late Ordovician), Michigan basin

    SciTech Connect

    Nadon, G.C.; Simo, A.; Byers, C.W.; Dott, R.H, Jr. )

    1991-08-01

    The St. Peter Sandstone (Middle-late Ordovician) of the Michigan basin represents an approximately 10-m.y. interval of clastic deposition in an otherwise carbonate-dominated Ordovician succession. This interval, up to 320 m thick, also coincides with a change in basin configuration from the nearly circular depocenter of the underlying Shakopee Formation to an east-west elongate trough situated west to Saginaw Bay. Interpretation of well logs and core from throughout the basin indicates that the clastics are composed of 20-25 sequences upper shoreface to tidal-flat environments. The sequences are interbedded with heavily bioturbated, shaly, lower shoreface sandstones (1-14 m thick) and, in the central and southeastern parts of the basin, with carbonate shales, stromatolites, and oolitic grain-stones (2-39 m thick). The eastern and southeastern margins of the basin contain the thickest carbonate accumulations. Hydrocarbons fields are located over structural highs formed by reactivation of basement structures. Detailed comparison of well logs within field shows that sedimentary cycles thin over the structures as a result of the local reduction in the formation of accommodation space by syndepositional movements on the faults. The presence of thick carbonates along the southeastern margin of the basin is a result of the combination of distance form the clastic source and the episodic formation of accommodation space by syndepositional normal faulting along the basin margin.

  18. Late Leonardian plants from West Texas: The youngest Paleozoic plant megafossils in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mamay, S.H.; Miller, J.M.; Rohr, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Abundant Permian plant megafossils were discovered in the Del Norte Mountains of Brewster County, Trans-Pecos Texas. The flora is dominated by a new and distinctive type of gigantopteroid leaves. Marine invertebrates are closely associated, and this admixture of continental and marine fossils indicates a deltaic depositional setting, probably on the southern margin of the Permian Basin. Conodonts indicate correlation with the uppermost Leonardian Road Canyon Formation in the Glass Mountains. These are the youngest Paleozoic plant megafossils known in North America; they add an important paleontological element to the classic Permian area of this Continent.

  19. Some in situ fossil plants in Late Paleozoic rocks, eastern U. S. A

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, A.T. )

    1991-01-01

    Plants entombed in growth position are generally represented by standing stumps. Rarely, leaves or fronds may also represent plants buried in place. Stemps are most often seen in surface coal mine highwalls and highway cuts. Occasionally they are also found in association with sandstone cliffs. When present in coal-bearing sequences they are most often rooted in the top of the coal and may extend upward through several successive increments of sediments representing point-bar or overbank deposits in deltaic or fluvial depositional environments. Some standing logs in sandstones represent burial by washover fans or transgressive bars. Interpretation of the life environment of the plants and the successive environments in which the sediments that engulfed the plants were deposited demonstrated their paleoenvironment.

  20. CO2 Climate-Glaciation linkages During the Late Paleozoic Ice Age and the Earth's Penultimate Deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanez, I. P.

    2007-12-01

    The Late Paleozoic Ice Age (LPIA) was the longest-lived (330 to 260 Myr) and most intense glaciation of the past half-billion years. Emerging high-latitude Southern Hemisphere records document a much more dynamic ice age - one defined by multiple short-lived (1 to 7 myr duration) icehouse periods punctuated by warmer periods of glacial minima. These major climate shifts throughout the LPIA and its demise at the close of the Early Permian provide the only 'vegetated-Earth' analogues of major climate change in an icehouse. As our climate system departs from the well-studied Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles, a 'deep-time' perspective of pCO2-climate- glaciation linkages during past icehouse-to-greenhouse transitions provides a unique perspective into what may be the Earth's most epic deglaciation. Here we apply the carbon isotopic compositions of soil-formed carbonates and fossil plant material (cuticle, coals, charcoals) from several terrestrial basins in North America to a soil CO2-diffusion model and Monte Carlo modeling to estimate atmospheric pCO2 for the LPIA and its transition to the ensuing Mesozoic greenhouse state. Best estimates of Late Paleozoic pCO2 indicate repeated shifts from present-day levels to values of up to 2500 to 3000 ppmv during periods of glacial minima and possibly fully deglaciated greenhouse states. To evaluate the nature of the CO2-climate relationship during these major climate transitions, we developed a time-equivalent record of paleotropical sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) using δ18O values from a global compilation of well-preserved latest Permo-Carboniferous tropical shallow-water brachiopods. The observed covariance between shifts in inferred paleotropical SSTs, pCO2 and high- latitude Gondwanan glaciation implies a strong CO2-climate-glaciation linkage that is consistent with the range predicted by Permian climate simulations for a change in radiative CO2-forcing from 1 to 8 fold present-day levels. This apparent CO2

  1. Mineralogy and diagenesis of low-permeability sandstones of Late Cretaceous age, Piceance Creek Basin, northwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansley, Paula L.; Johnson, Ronald C.

    1980-01-01

    This report presents preliminary results of a mineralogic and diagenetic study of some low-permeability sandstones from measured surface sections and cores obtained from drill holes in the Piceance Creek Basin of northwestern Colorado. A documentation of the mineralogy and diagenetic history will aid in the exploration for natural gas and in the development of recovery technology in these low-permability sandstones. These sandstones are in the nonmarine upper part of the Mesaverde Formation (or Group) of Late Cretaceous age and are separated from overlying lower Tertiary rocks by a major regional unconformity. Attention is focused on the sandstone units of the Ohio Creek Member, which directly underlies the unconformity; however, comparisons between the mineralogy of the Ohio Creek strata and that of the underlying sandstone units are made whenever possible. The Ohio Creek is a member of the Hunter Canyon Formation (Mesaverde Group) in the southwestern part of the basin, and the Mesaverde Formation in the southern and central parts of the basin. The detrital mineralogy is fairly constant throughout all of these nonrnarine Cretaceous sandstone units; however, in the southeastern part of the basin, there is an increase in percentage of feldspar, quartzite, and igneous rock fragments in sandstones of the Ohio Creek Member directly underlying the unconformity. In the southwestern part of the basin, sandstones of the Ohio Creek Member are very weathered and are almost-entirely comprised of quartz, chert, and kaolinite. A complex diagenetic history, partly related to the overlying unconformity, appears to be responsible for transforming these sandstones into potential gas reservoirs. The general diagenetic sequence for the entire Upper Cretaceous interval studied is interpreted to be (early to late): early(?) calcite cement, chlorite, quartz overgrowths, calcite cement, secondary porosity, analcime (surface only), kaolinite and illite, and late carbonate cements

  2. Pervasive late Paleozoic-Triassic remagnetization of miogeoclinal carbonate rocks in the Basin and Range and vicinity, SW USA: regional results and possible tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillett, Stephen L.; Karlin, Robert E.

    2004-02-01

    Relatively unmetamorphosed Paleozoic miogeoclinal carbonate rocks in the Basin and Range of E Nevada, SW Nevada and adjacent California, and W Utah yield low-inclination magnetizations that reflect pervasive, regional remagnetization around the close of the Paleozoic. The rocks range in age from mid-Cambrian through Pennsylvanian and lie generally in a broad belt between the mid-Paleozoic Roberts Mountain Thrust and the late Cretaceous Sevier thrusts. Most of the magnetizations reside in magnetite, but at one site the magnetization is evidently carried by pyrrhotite. Preliminary rock-magnetic data suggest samples with magnetite-borne remanences have wasp-waisted hysteresis curves typical of remagnetized carbonates. The origin of the remagnetization is problematic and probably polygenetic: both the Permo-Triassic Sonoma orogeny and deformation associated with the Ancestral Rockies seem too spatially limited, but magnetite from smectite destruction seems difficult to reconcile with the great stratigraphic extent of late Paleozoic remagnetization unless combined with thermal resetting of the lowermost units. A number of sites also appear to have undergone some vertical-axis rotation, and the sense and magnitude of these rotations are grossly consistent with independent geologic evidence. However, the probably large age range of the low-inclination components complicates their use for resolving tectonic rotations. Younger, intermediate-stability components of magnetization, probably of Cretaceous or Cenozoic age, are also found in many sites and also probably have multiple origins. At sites farther W, the late Paleozoic component is not found, which probably reflects its destruction by later Mesozoic or Cenozoic heating. At sites farther E, on and near the Colorado Plateau, gray carbonates yield only Cenozoic magnetizations. Some reddish, oxidized carbonates there locally contain a hematite-borne magnetization of late Paleozoic age. However, it is probably related to

  3. Provenance study from petrography of the late Permian - Early Triassic sandstones of the Balfour Formation Karoo Supergroup, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oghenekome, M. E.; Chatterjee, T. K.; Hammond, N. Q.; van Bever Donker, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    Non marine clastic sediments from the Late Permian - Early Triassic Balfour Formation of the Karoo Supergroup were studied to infer the composition, provenance and influence of weathering conditions. Petrographic studies based on quantitative analysis of the detrital minerals reveal that these sediments (mainly sandstones) are mostly composed of quartz, feldspar and sedimentary and metamorphic rock fragments. There is no significant petrographic variation across the sandstone succession of the study. The sandstones are dominantly feldspathic litharenite and ultralithofeldspathic in composition indicating a metamorphic source area. Modal analysis data plot in the dissected and transitional arc block provenance fields of QmFLt (quartz-feldspar-lithic fragments) diagram suggesting an active margin and magmatic arc signature preserving a recycled provenance.

  4. Spectral analysis and modeling of microcyclostratigraphy in late Paleozoic glaciogenic rhythmites, Paraná Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Daniel R.; Hinnov, Linda A.; Ernesto, Marcia

    2011-09-01

    We investigate the depositional time scale of lithological couplets (fine sandstone/siltstone-siltstone/mudstone) from two distinctive outcrops of Permo-Carboniferous glacial rhythmites in the Itararé Group (Paraná Basin, Brazil). Resolving the fundamental issue of time scale for these rhythmites is important in light of recent evidence for paleosecular variation measured in these sequences. Spectral analysis and tuning of high-resolution gray scale scans of sediment core microstratigraphy, which comprises pervasive laminations, reveal a comparable spectral content at both localities, with a frequency suite interpreted as that of short-term climate variability of Recent and modern times. This evidence for decadal- to centennial-scale deposition of these lithological couplets is discussed in light of the `varvic' character, i.e., annual time scale that was previously assumed for the rhythmites.

  5. Lemhi Arch, a late Proterozoic and early Paleozoic landmass, central Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppel, E.T.

    1985-05-01

    The northwest-trending Lemhi arch of central Idaho first formed in late middle Proterozoic time, and as much as 4500 m (14,760 ft) of middle Proterozoic clastic rocks were eroded in later proterozoic time. The west flank of the arch was partly covered in late Proterozoic(.) and Early Cambrian time by the Wilbert Formation. On the east flank, westward-thinning marine sedimentation began with deposition of the Middle Cambrian Flathead Formation, and continued through the Late Cambrian. During Ordovician and Silurian times, the east flank of the arch was dry. The west flank was submerged in the Ordovician, and the Summerhouse Formation, Kinnikinnic Quartzite, and Saturday Mountain formation were deposited. The west flank of the arch was briefly exposed after deposition of the Saturday Mountain Formation, but was partly submerged later in the Silurian, when the Laketwon Dolomite was deposited. During the Middle and Late Devonian, deposition was renewed on the west flank of the arch, where the Jefferson formation indicates eastward transgression. The east flank was exposed until the late Devonian, when a thin sequence of the Jefferson and Three Forks Formations was deposited across the top of the arch, and marine sedimentation was continuous from the miogeocline far onto the craton. The Lemhi arch continued to influence marine deposition even after it was submerged, separating shelf deposits in southwest Montana and eastcentral Idaho from miogeoclinal deposits in central Idaho. The arch was overridden by the Medicine Lodge thrust in late Early and Late Cretaceous times.

  6. Structural evolution of the Irtysh Shear Zone: implication for the Late Paleozoic amalgamation of multiple arc systems in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengfei; Sun, Min; Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2015-04-01

    The NW-SE Irtysh Shear Zone represents a major tectonic boundary in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, recording the amalgamation history between the peri-Siberian orogenic system and the Kazakhstan orogenic system. The structural evolution and geodynamics of this shear zone is still poorly documented. Here we present new structural data complemented by chronological data in an attempt to unravel the geodynamic significance of the Irtysh Shear Zone in the context of accretion history of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Our results show three episodes of deformation for the shear zone. D1 foliation is locally recognized in low strain area and recorded by garnet inclusions, whereas D2 is represented by a sub-horizontal fabric and related NW-SE lineation. D3 is characterized by a transpersonal deformation event, to form a series of NW-SE mylonitic belts with sinistral kinematics, and to overprint D2 fabric forming regional-scale NW-SE upright folds. A paragneiss sample from the shear zone yielded the youngest detrital zircon peaks in the late Carboniferous, placing a maximum age constraint on the deformation, which overlaps in time with the late Paleozoic collision between the Chinese Altai and the intraoceanic arc system of the East Junggar and West Junggar. We interpret three episodes of deformation to represent orogenic thickening (D1), collapse (D2) and thickening (D3) in response to this collisional event. Sinistral shearing (D3) together with the coeval dextral shearing in the Tianshan accommodate eastward extrusion of the Kazakhstan orogenic system during the late Paleozoic amalgamation of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Acknowledgements: This study was financially supported by the Major Basic Research Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant: 2014CB440801), Hong Kong Research Grant Council (HKU705311P and HKU704712P), National Science Foundation of China (41273048, 41273012) and a HKU CRCG grant. The work is a contribution of the Joint

  7. Paleomagnetism of the Santa Fé Group, central Brazil: Implications for the late Paleozoic apparent polar wander path for South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Daniele; Ernesto, Marcia; Rocha-Campos, Antonio Carlos; Dos Santos, Paulo Roberto

    2009-02-01

    Paleomagnetic and rockmagnetic data are reported for the Floresta Formation (Santa Fé Group) of the Sanfranciscana Basin, central Brazil. This formation represents the Permo-Carboniferous glacial record of the basin and comprises the Brocotó (diamictites and flow diamictites), Brejo do Arroz (red sandstones and shales with dropstones and invertebrate trails), and Lavado (red sandstones) members, which crop out near the cities of Santa Fé de Minas and Canabrava, Minas Gerais State. Both Brejo do Arroz and Lavado members were sampled in the vicinities of the two localities. Alternating field and thermal demagnetizations of 268 samples from 76 sites revealed reversed components of magnetization in all samples in accordance with the Permo-Carboniferous Reversed Superchron. The magnetic carriers are magnetite and hematite with both minerals exhibiting the same magnetization component, suggesting a primary origin for the remanence. We use the high-quality paleomagnetic pole for the Santa Fé Group (330.9°E 65.7°S; N = 60; α95 = 4.1°; k = 21) in a revised late Carboniferous to early Triassic apparent polar wander path for South America. On the basis of this result it is shown that an early Permian Pangea A-type fit is possible if better determined paleomagnetic poles become available.

  8. The stratigraphy of Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian (Late Jurassic) reservoir sandstones in the Witch Ground Graben, United Kingdom North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Harker, S.D. ); Mantel, K.A. ); Morton, D.J. ); Riley, L.A. )

    1993-10-01

    Oil-bearing Upper Jurassic Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian sandstones of the Sgiath and Piper formations are of major economic importance in the Witch Ground Gaben, United Kingdom North Sea. They form the reservoirs in 14 fields that originally contained 2 billion bbl of oil reserves, including Scott Field, which in 1993 will be the largest producing United Kingdom North Sea oil field to come on stream in more than a decade. The Sgiath and Piper formations represent Late Jurassic transgressive and regressive phases that began with paralic deposition and culminated in a wave-dominated delta system. These phases preceded the major grabel rifting episode (late Kimmeridgian to early Ryazanian) and deposition of the Kimmeridge Clay Formation, the principal source rock of the Witch Ground Graben oil fields. A threefold subdivision of the middle to upper Oxfordian Sgiath Formation is formally proposed, with Scott field well 15/21a-15 as the designated reference well. The basal Skene Member consists of thinly interbedded paralic carbonaceous shales, coals, and sandstones. This is overlain by transgressive marine shales of the Saltire Member. The upper-most Oxfordian Scott Member consists of shallow marine sandstones that prograded to the southwest. The contact of the Sgiath and Piper formations is a basinwide transgressive marine shale (I shale), which can act as an effective barrier to fluid communication between the Sgiath and Piper reservoir sandstones.

  9. Paleomagnetism of Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic volcanic rocks of Southern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedyukin, I.; Shatsillo, A.

    2016-12-01

    The main objects of the present study are late Permian and Mesozoic volcanic rocks from Selengin-Vitim volcano-plutonic belt (South Siberia). The belt was formed in the back area of Siberian continent active margin. Volcanic rocks are presented by contrastive volcanites more than 5 km thick. The deposits are subdivided into three suits: Ungurkuy (basalts and andesites), Chernoyar (basalts, andesites and tuffs) and Hilok (basalts, pyroclastic flows and tuffs). The age of Ungurkuy suite is deemed to be between Late Carboniferous and Late Permian. The age of Chernoyar suite is Middle-late Triassic. The age og Hilok suite is Late Jurassic. Volcanic deposits of the three suits were studied to create APWP for the Siberian craton. 250 oriented samples from 40 sites were collected from the Chikoy river valley within South Siberia. All samples were characterized by interpretable paleomagnetic signal. The Ungurkuy suite has different dip and strike: from subhorizontal to 40 degrees inclination and NE course. Chernoyar rocks were collected from monoclinal structure with the dip and strike around NW declination and 5-10 degrees inclination. Hilok suite represents large subhorizontal eruptive bodies. Volcanic rocks of Ungurkuy suite show mostly monopolar (normal polarity) magnetization direction between Early Permian and Permian-Triassic Siberian poles, which indicates its Late Permian age. The normal polarity of the deposits indicates its formation in the period between Kiama superchron, characterized by reversal polarity, and Illavara hyperchron with mixed polarity - 265 Ma. Direction from Chernoyar suite is well-correlated with Late Triassic APWP of Europe, directions of magnetization are bipolar. From Hilok suite several sites show direction of magnetization similar to directions revealed from Early Cretaceous volcanites from nearby area. The magnetization is metachronous. In the other sites the directions of magnetization well-correlated with Late Jurassic APWP of Europe

  10. Ripple marks in intertidal Lower Bhander Sandstone (late Proterozoic), Central India: A morphological analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Soumen

    1981-08-01

    The late Proterozoic, intertidal Lower Bhander Sandstone (Bhander Group, Vindhyan Supergroup) developed around Maihar, central India, is characterized by alternations of sandstone and shale in different scales and shows profuse ripple marks of widely varying morphology. Visual examination of their external morphology led to the identification of wave ripple, current ripple and others of intermediate character. Standard deviation and average of ripple spacing and height of symmetrical and assymmetrical ripples show genetically significant differences analogous to those obtained by Harms (1969) for wave- and current-generated ripples. Different dimensionless parameters, e.g., R.I., R.S.I., S.I., etc., processed separately for the two types of ripples, show a wide variation in their range which encompasses the total spectrum of values stipulated for wave and current ripples. However, the frequency of any particular genetic type of ripple differs widely when analysed in terms of different dimensionless parameters. Several scatter plots, prepared after Tanner (1967) also indicate the presence of various genetic types of ripples, but there are ripples for which results remain inconclusive. Furthermore, scatter plots involving the vertical form index (ripple length/ripple height) and median grain size of a few asymmetrical ripples, following Reineck and Wunderlich (1968a), led to the discrimination between current ripple and wave ripple and the distinction is grossly consistent with the results obtained by other means. Ripple spacing, ripple index and grain-size data of a few representative samples of ripples of possible wave origin, analysed after Tanner (1971) and Allen (1979) indicate that they were generated in a shallow basin with restricted fetch. Internally, the ripples, irrespective of their symmetry, are often characterized by unidirectional bundles of foresets consisting of rhythmically alternating sand and mud laminae. The sets of cross-laminae may be complexly

  11. Late Paleozoic to Jurassic chronostratigraphy of coastal southern Peru: Temporal evolution of sedimentation along an active margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boekhout, F.; Sempere, T.; Spikings, R.; Schaltegger, U.

    2013-11-01

    We present an integrated geochronological and sedimentological study that significantly revises the basin and magmatic history associated with lithospheric thinning in southern coastal Peru (15-18°S) since the onset of subduction at ˜530 Ma. Until now, estimating the age of the sedimentary and volcanic rocks has heavily relied on paleontologic determinations. Our new geochronological data, combined with numerous field observations, provide the first robust constraints on their chronostratigraphy, which is discussed in the light of biostratigraphical attributions. A detailed review of the existing local units simplifies the current stratigraphic nomenclature and clarifies its absolute chronology using zircon U-Pb ages. We observe that the Late Paleozoic to Jurassic stratigraphy of coastal southern Peru consists of two first-order units, namely (1) the Yamayo Group, a sedimentary succession of variable (0-2 km) thickness, with apparently no nearby volcanic lateral equivalent, and (2) the overlying Yura Group, consisting of a lower, 1-6 km-thick volcanic and volcaniclastic unit, the Chocolate Formation, and an upper, 1-2 km-thick sedimentary succession that are in markedly diachronous contact across the coeval arc and back-arc. We date the local base of the Chocolate Formation, and thus of the Yura Group, to 216 Ma, and show that the underlying Yamayo Group spans a >110 Myr-long time interval, from at least the Late Visean to the Late Triassic, and is apparently devoid of significant internal discontinuities. The age of the top of the Chocolate Formation, i.e. of the volcanic arc pile, varies from ˜194 Ma to less than ˜135 Ma across the study area. We suggest that this simplified and updated stratigraphic framework can be reliably used as a reference for future studies.

  12. Late Paleozoic arc magmatism in the southern Yili Block (NW China): Insights to the geodynamic evolution of the Balkhash - Yili continental margin, Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yuchuang; Wang, Bo; Jahn, Bor-ming; Cluzel, Dominique; Shu, Liangshu; Zhong, Linglin

    2017-05-01

    The Yili Block represents the easternmost segment of the Kazakhstan-Yili microcontinent. Late Paleozoic magmatic rocks are extensively exposed in the Yili Block and are essential in understanding the tectonic development of the SW Central Asia Orogenic Belt (CAOB). We conducted field investigations, zircon U-Pb dating, whole-rock geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic studies on the magmatic rocks from the Wusun Range, southern Yili Block. The Late Paleozoic volcanic and plutonic rocks of the Wusun Range show geochemical features consistent with that of calc-alkaline series, and they have positive εNd(t) values (0.9 to 5.6), Neo- to Mesoproterozoic single-stage Nd model ages (0.80 1.33 Ga), and variable initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7041-0.7059), suggesting that these magmatic rocks are likely derived from partial melting of a moderately depleted mantle wedge with minor involvement of a Precambrian continental crust. These new data, combined with previously published results put constraints on the Late Paleozoic magmatic and geodynamic evolution of the Balkhash-Yili active continental margin. The Late Paleozoic arc magmatism initiated from 386 Ma along the northern Yili Block, and migrated southward to have occurred since 340 Ma along its southern margin. Subsequently, the arc-related magmatism moved back northward and terminated at 310 Ma in the south and at 295 Ma in the north. The OIB-like geochemical features of some volcanic rocks indicate incipient marginal rifting occurred along the southern Yili Block during Late Carboniferous. Taking into account the regional structural and tectonic data, the Carboniferous Yili magmatic arc may be laterally correlated with the Balkhash-Yili active margin of the Kazakhstan microcontinent, which was likely resulted from the southward subduction of the Junggar - North Tianshan Ocean.

  13. Late Paleozoic fusulinids from Sonora, Mexcio: importance for interpretation of depositional settings, biogeography, and paleotectonics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, Calvin H.; Poole, Forrest G.; Amaya-Martínez, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Three sets of fusulinid faunas in Sonora, Mexico, discussed herein, record different depositional and paleotectonic settings along the southwestern margin of Laurentia (North America) during Pennsylvanian and Permian time. The settings include: offshelf continental rise and ocean basin (Rancho Nuevo Formation in the Sonora allochthon), shallow continental shelf (La Cueva Limestone), and foredeep basin on the continental shelf (Mina México Formation). Our data represent 41 fusulinid collections from 23 localities with each locality providing one to eight collections. Reworked fusulinids in the Middle and Upper Pennsylvanian part of the Rancho Nuevo Formation range in age from Desmoinesian into Virgilian (Moscovian-Gzhelian). Indigenous Permian fusulinids in the La Cueva Limestone range in age from middle or late Wolfcampian to middle Leonardian (late Sakmarian-late Artinskian), and reworked Permian fusulinids in the Mina México Formation range in age from early to middle Leonardian (middle-late Artinskian). Conodonts of Guadalupian age occur in some turbidites in the Mina México Formation, indicating the youngest foredeep deposit is at least Middle Permian in age. Our fusulinid collections indicate a hiatus of at least 10 m.y. between the youngest Pennsylvanian (Virgilian) rocks in the Sonora allochthon and the oldest Permian (middle Wolfcampian) rocks in the region. Most fusulinid faunas in Sonora show affinities to those of West Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona; however, some genera and species are similar to those in southeastern California. As most species are similar to those east of the southwest-trending Transcontinental arch in New Mexico and Arizona, this arch may have formed a barrier preventing large-scale migration and mixing of faunas between the southern shelf of Laurentia in northwestern Mexico and the western shelf in the southwestern United States. The Sonora allochthon, consisting of pre-Permian (Lower Ordovician to Upper Pennsylvanian) deep

  14. Lead isotopic composition of paleozoic and late proterozoic marine carbonate rocks in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zartman, Robert E.; Kwak, Loretta M.

    1993-01-01

    Paleozoic and Late Proterozoic marine carbonate rocks (limestones, dolomites, and their metamorphic equivalents) cropping out in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain contain lead with an isotopic composition strongly suggesting them to be a major source of the lead observed at Trench 14 in the carbonate phase of carbonate-silica veins and nearby surficial calcrete deposits. Six whole-rock samples of marine carbonate rocks yield 206Pb/204Pb = 19.21-29.06, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.74-16.01, and 208Pb/204Pb = 37.90-39.25, and leachate and residue fractions of the rocks reveal additional isotopic heterogeneity within individual samples. Two samples of eolian dust also have isotopic compositions lying along a 'carbonate' to 'silicate' mixing trend that appears to arise entirely from pedogenic processes. The tendency for the marine carbonate rocks to evolve highly uranogenic, but no thorogenic, lead results in a distinctive isotopic composition that serves as a tracer in eolian dust and secondary carbonate minerals derived from the marine carbonate rocks.

  15. The late Paleozoic palynological diversity in southernmost Paraná (Uruguay), Claromecó and Paganzo basins (Argentina), Western Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beri, Ángeles; Gutiérrez, Pedro R.; Balarino, M. Lucía

    2015-12-01

    This study explores the changes in palynoflora diversity of the late Paleozoic in boreholes DI.NA.MI.GE. 254 (26 samples) and DI.NA.MI.GE. 221 (14 samples) of the Paraná Basin in Uruguay and in 18 surface samples of the La Deheza Formation (Paganzo Basin) and 10 samples of borehole UTAL.CMM1.La Estrella.x-1 (Claromecó Basin) in Argentina. Possible relationships among biostratigraphic zones, diversity levels, facies and climatic evolution patterns in Western Gondwana are studied. Diversity curves of boreholes 221 and 254 and the La Deheza Formation outcrop exhibit similar diversity evolution patterns, i.e., an increase in lower strata diversity and a decrease in upper strata diversity. The disappearance events are determined to be more prominent in biozones of the Cisuralian to the Guadalupian age and less prominent in biozones of the early Cisuralian age. The number of genera raises from the glaciomarine facies, through the deltaic and the marine facies, up to the shallow marine or lagoon facies, in which the disappearance rates become more prominent. . The diversity of the lower part of the La Estrella borehole is lesser than that of the other sequences These diversity, disappearance and appearance behaviors may reflect post-glacial climatic amelioration patterns and the beginning of an arid phase.

  16. Setting and occurrence of Late Paleozoic radiolarians in the Sylvester allochthon, part of a proto-Pacific ocean floor terrane in the Canadian Cordillera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harms, T.A.; Murchey, B.L.

    1992-01-01

    Late Paleozoic radiolarians have been used to establish th allochthon of the Slide Mountain terrane in British Columbia, and have thereby greatly clarified the geology and tectonic history of the terrane. As the Sylvester radiolarian fauna is limited, age assignments were based on a few distinctive and diagnostic robust forms. Radiolarians occur in cherts from a wide variety of different oceanic sequences that are structurally juxtaposed within the Sylvester allochthon. Like others in a suite of correlative terranes that lie along the length of the Cordillera, the Sylvester allochthon and the radiolarian bearing cherts in it derive from the telescoping together of slices from what was, in the late Paleozoic, a large area of the proto-Pacific ocean. ?? 1992.

  17. Bimineralic ooids as a record of Late Paleozoic changes in atmospheric and oceanic chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, B.A.; Algeo, T.J. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01

    Mineralogic variation in modern ooids is thought to be controlled mainly by short-term changes in the chemistry of the precipitating fluid. Other research documents large fluctuations in atmospheric pCO2 and changes in the mineralogy of tropical-marine carbonate sediments in relation to Pleistocene glacial/interglacial cycles. Glacio-eustatic control is generally inferred for transgressive/regressive carbonate cycles of Late Pennsylvanian age. The authors are investigating changes in ooid mineralogy in Late Pennsylvanian carbonates of the Midcontinent area that may provide a record of changing atmospheric and oceanic chemistry at this time. This study employs petrographic and geochemical techniques for inferring original carbonate mineralogy to document dominant primary mineralogies of ooids in transgressive and regressive limestone in the Missourian Series in southeastern Kansas. Enrichment of strontium in aragonite relative to calcite provides a trace-elemental indicator of primary mineralogies. Microprobe analyses of ooids with tangential fabrics show enrichment in strontium while strontium in ooids with radial fabrics is at lower levels. Investigation thus far suggests that originally aragonitic ooids having a tangential fabric are commonly associated with regressive units whereas originally calcitic ooids with radial fabric are more common in transgressive units. Changes in ooid mineralogy within and between transgressive/regressive limestones may allow semi-quantitative interpretation of changes in paleo-atmospheric and paleo-oceanic CO2 levels based on mineralogy.

  18. Kaolinite, illite and quartz dissolution in the karstification of Paleozoic sandstones of the Furnas Formation, Paraná Basin, Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, Mário Sérgio de; Guimarães, Gilson Burigo; Chinelatto, Adilson Luiz; Giannini, Paulo César Fonseca; Pontes, Henrique Simão; Chinelatto, Adriana Scoton Antonio; Atencio, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Karstification processes in sandstones of the Furnas Formation, Silurian to Devonian of the Paraná Basin, have been described since the mid-twentieth century. However, some geologists still doubt the idea of true karst in sandstones. Studies carried out in the Campos Gerais region, Paraná State, Southern Brazil, aimed at investigating the nature of erosion processes in Furnas Formation and the role of the dissolution in the development of their notorious erosive features and underground cavities. These studies have led to the recognition of dissolution macro to micro features ('furnas', caves, ponds, sinks, ruiniform relief on cliffs and rocky surfaces, grain corrosion, speleothems, mineral reprecipitation and incrustation). The analysis (scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry and x-ray diffractometry) of sandstones and their alterites has indicated significant dissolution of clay cement along with discrete quartz grain dissolution. This mesodiagenetic cement (kaolinite and illite) is dissolved and reprecipitated as clay minerals with poorly developed crystallinity along with other minerals, such as variscite and minerals of the alunite supergroup, suggesting organic participation in the processes of dissolution and incrustation. The mineral reprecipitation usually forms centimetric speleothems, found in cavities and sheltered rocky surfaces. The cement dissolution associated with other factors (fractures, wet weather, strong hydraulic gradient, antiquity of the landforms) leads to the rock arenisation, the underground erosion and the appearance of the karst features. Carbonate rocks in the basement may locally be increasing the karst forms in the overlying Furnas Formation. The recognition of the karst character of the Furnas Formation sandstones has important implications in the management of underground water resources (increasingly exploited in the region), in the use of the unique geological heritage and in the prevention of geo

  19. Late Paleozoic granitoid magmatism in Chukotka and its relation to Ellesmerian orogeny in Arctic Alaska and Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchitskaya, Marina; Sokolov, Sergey; Kotov, Alexander; Katkov, Sergey; Sal'nikova, Elena; Yakovleva, Sonya

    2013-04-01

    Chukotka fold area (Mesozoides) was formed as a result of collision between Chukotka - Arctic Alaska microplate and active margin of Siberian continent [1]. At present the majority of researches distinguish at least three stages of granitoid magmatism of Chukotka Mesozoides: 147-139, 127-100 and 82.4-78.8 Ma [2]. Granites of first two stages intrude metamorphic basement and Paleozoic-Mesozoic fold structures. Formation of Early Cretaceous granitoids are often considered in relation to granite-metamorphic core complexes evolution [3-5]. Intrusion of the third stage granitoid intrusions corresponds to Okhotsk-Chukotka volcanic belt activity. At the same time in several publications there is information of existence of more ancient Paleozoic granitoids. For orthogneisses of East Chukotka there are age estimations 380-320 Ma (U-Pb SHRIMP, [6]). V.V.Akinin [7] showed that protoliths of Velinkenay and Kuekvun plutons have Late Devonian (380-360 Ma) age. Granites of Kibera Peninsula were dated as 439±32 Ma [Rb-Sr method, 8]. Besides basal conglomerates of Carboniferous deposits contain granite pebbles. At the same time on the existing geological maps granites are indicated as Early Cretaceous ones [9]. Thus there are contradictions on the age estimations and scales of Paleozoic and Mesozoic granitoid magmatism manifestation within Chukotka Mesozoides. As a result of this interregional correlations, first of all correlation of Caledonian and Ellesmerian orogenies events in Arctic region, are complicated. So we carried out U-Pb geochronological studies of some reference granitoid plutons of Central Chukotka, located in the cores of antiform structures, composed of Paleozoic deposits, namely granodiorites of Kibera and quartz syenites of Kuekvyun plutons (Kuul and Kuekvyun rises respectively). Granitoids of Kibera pluton (coastal clippings of Kibera Peninsula, coast of East-Siberian Sea) intrude terrigenous Devonian deposits with carbonate units which are overlain with

  20. Late proterozoic and paleozoic tides, retreat of the moon, and rotation of the earth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonett, C.P.; Kvale, E.P.; Zakharian, A.; Chan, M.A.; Demko, T.M.

    1996-01-01

    The tidal rhythmites in the Proterozoic Big Cottonwood Formation (Utah, United States), the Neoproterozoic Elatina Formation of the Flinders Range (southern Australia), and the Lower Pennsylvanian Pottsville Formation (Alabama, United States) and Mansfield Formation (Indiana, United States) indicate that the rate of retreat of the lunar orbit is d??/dt k2 sin(2??) (where ?? is the Earth-moon radius vector, k2 is the tidal Love number, and ?? is the tidal lag angle) and that this rate has been approximately constant since the late Precambrian. When the contribution to tidal friction from the sun is taken into account, these data imply that the length of the terrestrial day 900 million years ago was -18 hours.

  1. Late Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic arc-related magmatism in southeastern Korea: SHRIMP zircon geochronology and geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Keewook; Cheong, Chang-sik; Kim, Jeongmin; Kim, Namhoon; Jeong, Youn-Joong; Cho, Moonsup

    2012-11-01

    Phanerozoic granitoids are widespread in the Korean Peninsula and form a part of the East Asian Cordilleran-type granitoid belt extending from southeastern China to Far East Russia. Here we present SHRIMP zircon U-Pb ages and geochemical and Nd isotopic compositions of Late Paleozoic to Early Jurassic granitoid plutons in the northern Gyeongsang basin, southeastern Korea; namely the Jangsari, Yeongdeok, Yeonghae, and Satkatbong plutons. The granite and associated gabbroic rocks from the Jangsari pluton were coeval and respectively dated at 257.3 ± 2.0 Ma and 255.7 ± 1.4 Ma. This result represents the first finding of a Late Paleozoic pluton in South Korea. Three granite samples from the Yeongdeok pluton yielded a slightly younger age span ranging from 252.9 ± 2.5 Ma to 246.7 ± 2.1 Ma. Two diorite samples from the Yeonghae pluton gave much younger ages of 195.1 ± 1.9 Ma and 196.3 ± 1.6 Ma. An Early Jurassic age of 192.4 ± 1.6 Ma was also obtained from a diorite sample from the Satkatbong pluton. The mineral assemblage and Al2O3/(Na2O + K2O) versus Al2O3/(CaO + Na2O + K2O) relationship indicate that all the analyzed plutons are subduction zone granitoids. Enrichments in large-ion-lithophile-elements and depletions in high-field-strength-elements of these plutons are also concordant with geochemical characteristics typical for the subduction zone magma. The presence of Late Permian to Early Triassic arc system is in contrast with the conventional idea that the arc magmatism along the continental margin of the Korean Peninsula has commenced from Early Jurassic after the termination of Triassic collisional orogenesis. The ɛNd(t) values of the granitoid plutons are consistently positive (2.4-4.6), suggesting that crustal residence time of the basement beneath the Gyeongsang basin is relatively short. Moreover, the reevaluation of previously-published data reveals that geochemical compositions of the Yeongdeok pluton are compatible with those of high

  2. New gas discoveries in the Ordovician sandstones, Risha area; northeast Jordan

    SciTech Connect

    Sabbah, A.A.; Ramini, H.M.

    1996-12-31

    Over thirty wells for exploration and production purposes were drilled in the Risha Area, northeast Jordan by the Natural Resources Authority since 1986. Commercial gas was discovered in the sandstones of Dubeidib Formation (Late Ordovician age). These sandstones are believed to have been deposited in the form of marine sand bars trending NNE-SSW. During the Early Paleozoic time, Jordan has undergone periods of epirogenic movements ending in Late Ordovician. Two major lineament trends are dominant, one oriented northwest-southeast and the other ENE-WSW. A third trend oriented north-south to NNW-SSE also appears but more discontinuous. Four source rock horizons were developed within the Early Paleozoic times. Oil generation of Lower Paleozoic source horizons took place in the Late Paleozoic. The upper Mudawwara hot shales of Silurian age is believed to have generated liquid hydrocarbons in the Late Cretaceous times, in a second phase of hydrocarbon generation. Dry gas was originated through organic maturation of the Lower Paleozoic source horizons. The Risha Gas Field is producing 30 MMcfgd since it was first discovered in 1987.

  3. New gas discoveries in the Ordovician sandstones, Risha area; northeast Jordan

    SciTech Connect

    Sabbah, A.A.; Ramini, H.M. )

    1996-01-01

    Over thirty wells for exploration and production purposes were drilled in the Risha Area, northeast Jordan by the Natural Resources Authority since 1986. Commercial gas was discovered in the sandstones of Dubeidib Formation (Late Ordovician age). These sandstones are believed to have been deposited in the form of marine sand bars trending NNE-SSW. During the Early Paleozoic time, Jordan has undergone periods of epirogenic movements ending in Late Ordovician. Two major lineament trends are dominant, one oriented northwest-southeast and the other ENE-WSW. A third trend oriented north-south to NNW-SSE also appears but more discontinuous. Four source rock horizons were developed within the Early Paleozoic times. Oil generation of Lower Paleozoic source horizons took place in the Late Paleozoic. The upper Mudawwara hot shales of Silurian age is believed to have generated liquid hydrocarbons in the Late Cretaceous times, in a second phase of hydrocarbon generation. Dry gas was originated through organic maturation of the Lower Paleozoic source horizons. The Risha Gas Field is producing 30 MMcfgd since it was first discovered in 1987.

  4. Origin and development of plains-type folds in the mid-continent (United States) during the late Paleozoic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merriam, D.F.

    2005-01-01

    Plains-type folds are local, subtle anticlines formed in the thin sedimentary package overlying a shallow, crystalline basement on the craton. They are small in areal extent (usually less than 1-3 km 2 [0.4-1.2 mi2]), and their amplitude increases with depth (usually tens of meters), which is mainly the result of differential compaction of sediments (usually clastic units) over tilted, rigid, basement fault blocks. The development of these structural features by continuous but intermittent movement of the basement fault blocks in the late Paleozoic in the United States mid-continent is substantiated by a record of stratigraphic and sedimentological evidence. The recurrent structural movement, which reflects adjustment to external stresses, is expressed by the change in thickness of stratigraphic units over the crest of the fold compared to the flanks. By plotting the change in thickness for different stratigraphic units of anticlines on different fault blocks, it is possible to determine the timing of movement of the blocks that reflect structural adjustment. These readjustments are confirmed by sedimentological evidence, such as convolute, soft-sediment deformation features and small intraformational faults. The stratigraphic interval change in thickness for numerous structures in the Cherokee, Forest City, and Salina basins and on the Nemaha anticline of the mid-continent United States was determined and compared for location and timing of the adjustments. Most of the adjustment occurred during and after time of deposition of the Permian-Pennsylvanian clastic units, which, in turn, reflect tectonic disturbance in adjacent areas, and the largest amount of movement on the plains-type structures occurred on those nearest and semiparallel to major positive features, such as the Nemaha anticline. Depending on the time of origin and development of plains-type folds, they may control the entrapment and occurrence of oil and gas. Copyright ??2005. The American

  5. Growth habit of the late Paleozoic rhizomorphic tree-lycopsid family Diaphorodendraceae: phylogenetic, evolutionary, and paleoecological significance.

    PubMed

    Dimichele, William A; Elrick, Scott D; Bateman, Richard M

    2013-08-01

    Rhizomorphic lycopsids evolved the tree habit independently of all other land plants. Newly discovered specimens allow radical revision of our understanding of the growth architectures of the extinct Paleozoic sister-genera Synchysidendron and Diaphorodendron. Detailed descriptions of six remarkable adpression specimens from the Pennsylvanian of the USA and three casts from the late Mississippian of Scotland are used to revise and reanalyze a previously published morphological cladistic matrix and to reinterpret their remarkable growth forms. Contrary to previous assertions, Synchysidendron resembled Diaphorodendron in having a distinct and relatively complex growth habit that emphasized serially homologous, closely spaced, deciduous lateral branches at the expense of reduced monocarpic crown branches. Lateral branches originated through several strongly anisotomous dichotomies before producing during extended periods large numbers of Achlamydocarpon strobili. The comparatively large diameter of abscission scars remaining on the main trunk and the emergence of branches above the horizontal plane suggest that the lateral branch systems were robust. Lateral branches were borne in two opposite rows on the main trunk and continued upward into an isotomously branched, determinate crown; their striking distichous arrangement caused preferred orientation of fallen trunks on bedding planes. This discovery identifies the plagiotropic growth habit, dominated by serial lateral branches, as ubiquitous in the Diaphorodendraceae and also as unequivocally primitive within Isoetales s.l., a conclusion supported by both the revised morphological cladistic analysis and relative first appearances of taxa in the fossil record. Previously assumed complete homology between crown branching in Lepidodendraceae and that of all earlier-divergent genera requires reassessment. Saltational phenotypic transitions via modification of key developmental switches remains the most credible

  6. The Terrestrial Fossil Organic Matter Record of Global Carbon Cycling: A Late Paleozoic through Early Mesozoic Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanez, I. P.

    2006-12-01

    plant growth, estimated from measured terrestrial δ13Corg values and contemporaneous marine carbonate δ13C values define a relatively consistent and narrow range (0.45 to 0.6) throughout the 150 million year interval within each depositional basin, regardless of landscape or stratigraphic position. Their narrow range in conjunction with the statistically significant long-term δ13Corg trend indicates that local to regional environmental effects on δ13Corg were secondary to extrabasinal influences such as the carbon isotopic composition of the paleo-atmosphere. This suggests that the long-term terrestrial δ13Corgrecord archives first-order variations in atmospheric δ13C throughout the Late Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic.

  7. Magnetic fabric and microstructures of Late Paleozoic granitoids from the North Patagonian Massif: Evidence of a collision between Patagonia and Gondwana?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López de Luchi, Mónica G.; Rapalini, Augusto E.; Tomezzoli, Renata N.

    2010-10-01

    Widespread Late Paleozoic magmatism in northern Patagonia is a target to test hypotheses on the long standing question over the origin of Patagonia. In recent years, a dispute over whether it is an accreted crustal block that collided with Gondwana in Paleozoic times or an autochthonous part of South America has taken place. As part of a multidisciplinary study, an integrated microstructural and magnetic fabric study was carried out on the Late Carboniferous Yaminué Complex and the Early Permian Navarrete Plutonic Complex, both exposed in the northeastern corner of the North Patagonian Massif (40.5°S, 67.0°W). Other investigated units are the Late Carboniferous Tardugno Granodiorite, the newly defined Cabeza de Vaca Granite and the Late Permian San Martin pluton. Over 300 oriented cores from 60 sites were collected for anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements. A systematic analysis of around 100 petrographic thin sections was performed to characterize the microstructures of the different magmatic units. Microstructures in the Yaminué Complex are indicative of a transition from magmatic to solid-state deformation. Microstructures of the orthogneiss of tonalitic composition suggest an early stage in the emplacement history of this complex. The Cabeza de Vaca Granite, intrusive in Yaminué Complex, is the most evolved unit and records less intense high-temperature solid-state deformation which suggests that the stress field that controlled the emplacement of the Yaminué Complex outlasted it. According to petrologic and structural considerations, the Navarrete Plutonic Complex has been subdivided into three facies, i.e. Robaina, Guanacos and Aranda, respectively. Microstructures of the Navarrete Plutonic Complex are mostly magmatic to submagmatic, versus the solid-state fabric that characterizes the Robaina facies at the contact with the Yaminué Complex. Combined analyses of AMS and microstructural data lead us to suggest that the Yaminué Complex

  8. Petrology and tectonic significance of gabbros, tonalites, shoshonites, and anorthosites in a late Paleozoic arc-root complex in the Wrangellia Terrane, southern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, J.S. ); Barker, F. )

    1989-11-01

    Plutonic rocks intrusive into the late Paleozoic Tetelna Formation of southern Alaska are the underpinnings of the late Paleozoic Skolai arc of the Wrangellia Terrane. There are four groups of intrusive rocks within the Skolai arc: (1) Gabbro-diorite plutons that contain gabbroic to anorthositic cumulates along with a differentiated series of gabbros and diorites of basaltic to andesitic composition; (2) Silicic intrusions including tonalite, granodiorite, and granite; (3) Monzonitic to syenitic plutonic rocks of the Ahtell complex and related dikes and sills; (4) Fault-bounded bytownite anorthosite of uncertain age and association. These anorthosites may be related to post-Skolai, Nikolai Greenstone magmatism. The silicic rocks yield discordant U-Pb zircon ages of 290-320 Ma (early to late Pennsylvanian). The monzonitic rocks of the Ahtell complex have shoshonitic chemistry. Similar shoshonitic rocks are widespread in both the Wrangellia terrane and the neighboring Alexander terrane and intrude the contact between the two. In modern oceanic arcs, shoshonitic rocks are typically associated with tectonic instability occurring during the initial stages of subduction or just prior to or during termination or flip of an established subduction zone. The nature of any tectonic instability which may have led to the cessation of subduction in the Skolai arc is unclear. Possibilities include collision of the arc with a ridge, an oceanic plateau, another arc, or a continental fragment. One possibility is that the shoshonitic magmatism marks the late Paleozoic amalgamation of Wrangellia and the Alexander terrane. The scarcity of arc rocks predating the shoshonites in the Alexander terrane supports this possibility, but structural corroboration is lacking.

  9. Late-Proterozoic to Paleozoic history of the peri-Gondwana Calabria-Peloritani Terrane inferred from a review of zircon chronology.

    PubMed

    Fornelli, Annamaria; Micheletti, Francesca; Piccarreta, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    U-Pb analyses of zircon from ten samples of augen gneisses, eight mafic and intermediate metaigneous rocks and six metasediments from some tectonic domains along the Calabria-Peloritani Terrane (Southern Italy) contribute to knowledge of peri-Gondwanan evolution from Late-Proterozoic to Paleozoic times. All samples were equilibrated under amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism during the Variscan orogeny. The zircon grains of all considered samples preserve a Proterozoic memory suggestive of detrital, metamorphic and igneous origin. The available data fit a frame involving: (1) Neoproterozoic detrital input from cratonic areas of Gondwana; (2) Pan-African/Cadomian assemblage of blocks derived from East and West African Craton; (3) metamorphism and bimodal magmatism between 535 and 579 Ma, within an active margin setting; (4) rifting and opening of Ordovician basins fed by detrital input from the assembled Cadomian blocks. The Paleozoic basins evolved through sedimentation, metamorphism and magmatism during the Variscan orogeny involving Palaeozoic and pre-Paleozoic blocks. The Proterozoic zircon records decidedly decrease in the high grade metamorphic rocks affected by Variscan pervasive partial melting.

  10. U-Pb Detrital Zircon Geochronologic Constraints on Depositional Age and Sediment Source Terrains of the Late Paleozoic Tepuel-Genoa Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffis, N. P.; Montanez, I. P.; Isbell, J.; Gulbranson, E. L.; Wimpenny, J.; Yin, Q. Z.; Cúneo, N. R.; Pagani, M. A.; Taboada, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    The late Paleozoic Ice Age (LPIA) is the longest-lived icehouse of the Phanerozoic and the only time a metazoan dominated and vegetated world transitioned from an icehouse climate into a greenhouse. Despite several decades of research, the timing, extent of glaciation and the location of ice centers remain unresolved, which prohibits reconstruction of ice volume. The Permo-Carboniferous sediments in the Tepuel-Genoa Basin, Patagonia contains a near complete record of sedimentation from the lower Carboniferous through lower Permian. Outsized clasts, thin pebble-rich diamictites and slumps represent the last of the late Paleozoic glacially influenced deep-water marine sediments in the Mojón de Hierro Fm. and the Paleozoic of Patagonia. U-Pb analysis of detrital zircons separated from slope sediments reveal groupings (20 myr bins, n≥5 zircons) with peak depositional ages of 420, 540 to 660 and 1040 Ma. Zircon age populations recovered from the Mojón de Hierro Fm. compare well with bedrock ages of the Deseado Massif of SE Patagonia, suggesting this may be a potential source of sediments. The maximum depositional age of the sediments is 306.05 ± 3.7 Ma (2σ) as determined by the median age of the two youngest concordant zircons that overlap in error. The youngest zircon from the analysis yields a 238U/206Pb age of 301.3 ± 4.5 Ma (2σ; MSWD = 2.3). Younger zircons from the analysis compare well with the age of granite bedrock exposed along the basin margin to the E-NE suggesting they may reflect a more proximal source. These data, which indicate a maximum age of late Carboniferous for the Mojón de Hierro Fm, provide the first geochemical constraints for the timing of final deposition of glaciomarine sediments in the Tepuel-Genoa Basin, and contributes to the biostratigraphic correlation of the late Paleozoic succession in Patagonia with other key LPIA basins that has thus far been hindered by faunal provincialism.

  11. Facies and depositional architecture according to a jet efflux model of a late Paleozoic tidewater grounding-line system from the Itararé Group (Paraná Basin), southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquino, Carolina Danielski; Buso, Victoria Valdez; Faccini, Ubiratan Ferrucio; Milana, Juan Pablo; Paim, Paulo Sergio Gomes

    2016-04-01

    During the Late Paleozoic, the Gondwana supercontinent was affected by multiple glacial and deglacial episodes known as "The Late Paleozoic Ice Age" (LPIA). In Brazil, the evidence of this episode is recorded mainly by widespread glacial deposits preserved in the Paraná Basin that contain the most extensive record of glaciation (Itararé Group) in Gondwana. The Pennsylvanian to early Permian glaciogenic deposits of the Itararé Group (Paraná Basin) are widely known and cover an extensive area in southern Brazil. In the Doutor Pedrinho area (Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil), three glacial cycles of glacier advance and retreat were described. The focus of this article is to detail the base of the second glacial episodes or Sequence II. The entire sequence records a deglacial system tract that is represented by a proximal glacial grounding-line system covered by marine mudstones and shales associated with a rapid flooding of the proglacial area. This study deals with the ice proximal grounding-line systems herein interpreted according to lab model named plane-wall jet with jump. Detailed facies analysis allowed the identification of several facies ranging from boulder-rich conglomerates to fine-grained sandstones. No fine-grained deposits such as siltstone or shale were recorded. According to this model, the deposits are a product of a supercritical plane-wall outflow jet that changes to a subcritical jet downflow from a hydraulic jump. The hydraulic jump forms an important energy boundary that is indicated by an abrupt change in grain size and cut-and-fill structures that occur at the middle-fan. The sedimentary facies and facies associations show a downflow trend that can be subdivided into three distinct stages of flow development: (1) a zone of flow establishment (ZFE), (2) a zone of transition (ZFT), and (3) an established zone (ZEF). The proximal discharge is characterized by hyperconcentrated-to-concentrated flow due to the high energy and sediment

  12. Extensional Late Paleozoic deformation on the western margin of Pangea, Patlanoaya area, Acatlán Complex, southern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Arias, M. A.; Keppie, J. D.; Ortega-Rivera, A.; Lee, J. W. K.

    2008-02-01

    New mapping in the northern part of the Paleozoic Acatlán Complex (Patlanoaya area) records several ductile shear zones and brittle faults with normal kinematics (previously thought to be thrusts). These movement zones separate a variety of units that pass structurally upwards from: (i) blueschist-eclogitic metamorphic rocks (Piaxtla Suite) and mylonitic megacrystic granites (Columpio del Diablo granite ≡ Ordovician granites elsewhere in the complex); (ii) a gently E-dipping, listric, normal shear zone with top to the east kinematic indicators that formed under upper greenschist to lower amphibolite conditions; (iii) the Middle-Late Ordovician Las Minas quartzite (upper greenschist facies psammites with minor interbedded pelites intruded by mafic dikes and a leucogranite dike from the Columpio del Diablo granite) unconformably overlain by the Otate meta-arenite (lower greenschist facies psammites and pelites): roughly temporal equivalents are the Middle-Late Ordovician Mal Paso and Ojo de Agua units (interbedded metasandstone and slate, and metapelite and mafic minor intrusions, respectively) — some of these units are intruded by the massive, 461 ± 2 Ma, Palo Liso megacrystic granite: decussate, contact metamorphic muscovite yielded a 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau age of 440 ± 4 Ma; (iv) a steeply-moderately, E-dipping normal fault; (v) latest Devonian-Middle Permian sedimentary rocks (Patlanoaya Group: here elevated from formation status). The upward decrease in metamorphic grade is paralleled by a decrease in the number of penetrative fabrics, which varies from (i) three in the Piaxtla Suite, through (ii) two in the Las Minas unit (E-trending sheath folds deformed by NE-trending, subhorizontal folds with top to the southeast asymmetry, both associated with a solution cleavage), (iii) one in the Otate, Mal Paso, and Ojo de Agua units (steeply SE-dipping, NE-SW plunging, open-close folds), to (iv) none in the Patlanoaya Group. 40Ar/ 39Ar analyses of muscovite from the

  13. Secondary porosity in immature Late Cretaceous and Tertiary sandstones, northeast Alaska and northwest Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, M.D. ); Smith, T.N. )

    1990-05-01

    Petrographic and scanning electron microscope analysis of Upper Cretaceous to lower Eocene sandstone from outcrops west of the Mackenzie delta and in the central Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) reveals secondary porosity. Recognizing this secondary porosity is important for oil and gas exploration because early diagenesis has eliminated most primary porosity in these immature litharenites. The litharenites are dominated by grains of quartz, cherty argillite, chert, volcanic rock fragments, variable amounts of feldspar, and minor amounts of metamorphic rock fragments. Because of the abundance of ductile grains all deep burial (probable burial to depths in excess of 3,000 m), these sandstones have suffered the loss of most primary porosity. Additional reduction of primary porosity has occurred due to the formation of minor amount of precompaction rim cement (carbonate, chlorite, and illite/smectite) and syncompaction quartz overgrowths. Dissolution of framework grains and, to a lesser degree, matrix has resulted in secondary porosities of up to 8% in outcrop samples. Framework grains commonly dissolved include volcanic rock fragments, feldspar, chert, cherty argillite, argillite, and quartz. Two processes are responsible for the dissolution. The first process is the direct dissolution of grains. The second process involves two steps in which grains and matrix are initially replaced by carbonate cement followed by dissolution of the cement and creation of secondary porosity. Secondary porosity is reported to exceed 20% in subsurface samples in northwest Canada.

  14. Testing alternative tectonic models of Palaeotethys in the E Mediterranean region: new U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic analyses of detrital zircons from Late Carboniferous and Late Triassic sandstones associated with the Anatolide and Tauride blocks (S Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustaömer, Timur; Ayda Ustaömer, Petek; Robertson, Alastair; Gerdes, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Alternative tectonic models of Palaeotethys during Late Palaeozoic-Early Mesozoic time infer: 1. southward subduction beneath the north margin of Gondwana; 2. northward subduction beneath the south margin of Eurasia, or 3. double subduction (northwards and southwards), at least during Late Carboniferous. U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic analysis of detrital zircons, extracted from sandstones, can provide strong indications of age and identity of source terranes. Here, we consider the provenance of both Late Carboniferous and Late Triassic sandstones from both relatively allochthonous and relatively autochthonous units that are all spatially associated with the Anatolide and Tauride continental blocks. The relatively allochthonous units are sandstones (3 samples) from the Late Carboniferous Aladaǧ Nappe (Tauride; in the east), the Konya Complex (Anatolide; central area) and the Karaburun Mélange (Tauride-related; in the west). The relatively autochthonous units are Late Triassic sandstones (4 samples) from the Üzümdere Formation, the Kasımlar Formation (both western Taurides) and the Güvercinlik Formation (Karaburun Peninsula-Tauride related; far west). The Late Carboniferous sandstones from the three relatively allochthonous units are dominated by Precambrian zircon populations, the age distribution of which suggests derivation from two contrasting source regions: First, a NE African-type source (i.e. Saharan craton) for the sandstones of the Konya Mélange and the Aladaǧ Nappe because these sediments have prominent zircon populations dated at 0.5-0.7, 0.8 and 0.9-1.1 Ga. Palaeozoic zircons are minimal in the sandstones of the Aladaǧ Nappe and the Konya Complex (3 and 5% of the whole data, respectively) and are confined to Cambrian to Ordovician. Secondly, a contrasting NW African-type source is inferred for sandstone from the Karaburun Mélange because of the marked absence of Tonian-Stenian zircons and the predominance of ~2 Ga zircons over ~2.5 Ga zircons. In

  15. Geological Setting and Petroleum Potential of the Paleozoic Hudson Platform, Northern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, J.; Hamblin, T.; Lavoie, D.; Duchesne, M.; Lajeunesse, P.; Zhang, Z.

    2009-05-01

    The Hudson Platform covers an area of 600,000 km2 and represents one of the largest Paleozoic sedimentary basins in Canada. The Hudson Platform contains the large Hudson Bay Basin and smaller Moose River Basin. The Hudson Bay and Moose River basins are surrounded and underlain by Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks of the Canadian Shield. The Hudson Platform contains Ordovician to Cretaceous sedimentary strata, with a maximum known thickness of about 2500 m in Hudson Bay. The lower Paleozoic succession includes Late Ordovician to Early Devonian shallow marine carbonates and thin mudstones, deposited during widespread early Paleozoic marine inundation of the Canadian Shield, and Early to Late Devonian marine carbonates, evaporates, and mudstones deposited in saucer-shaped, isolated basin depocentres. There is no record of late Paleozoic sedimentation in the region, perhaps related to cratonic uplift accompanying the Alleghenian Orogeny. Lower Paleozoic strata are unconformably overlain by thin, erosional remnants of Middle Jurassic and Early Cretaceous nonmarine sandstones, mudstones and lignite seams (Moose River Basin) and Early Cretaceous marine sandstones and mudstones (Hudson Bay Basin). The Hudson Platform is currently considered a frontier prospect for hydrocarbon exploration. However, the long- held view that the region is underlain by a thin sedimentary succession with no appreciable hydrocarbon source rocks or reservoir intervals is erroneous. Geological and geophysical data indicate the Hudson Bay Basin contains many prospective petroleum reservoir and trap types, potentially including hydrothermal dolomite. Recent studies indicate Upper Ordovician oil shales are widespread and may have generated hydrocarbons in deeper parts of the Hudson Bay Basin. New high resolution bathymetric surveys in northern Hudson Bay have led to the recognition of circular sea-floor depressions similar to fluid or gas-escape pockmarks. A modern re-evaluation of the

  16. Coordinated strike-slip and normal faulting in the Southern Ozark dome of Northern Arkansas: Deformation in a late Paleozoic foreland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    Structures that formed on the southern flank of the Ozark dome, in the foreland of the late Paleozoic Ouachita orogeny, have received little modern study. New mapping of the western Buffalo River region of northern Arkansas identifies diversely oriented faults and monoclinal folds that displace the generally flat lying Mississippian Boone Formation over a 180 m elevation range. Kinematic measurements and spatial relations reveal the presence of both east-striking normal faults and broader northeast-striking dextral strike-slip fault zones that acted in a coordinated fashion to accommodate constrictional strain, in which north-south extension was balanced by vertical and east-directed shortening. North-south extension in the Buffalo River region probably reflects Pennsylvanian-Early Permian deformation within the flexural forebulge of the developing Ouachita orogeny, which closed progressively westward along the southern margin of the craton.

  17. Evidence for Late-Paleozoic brine migration in Cambrian carbonate rocks of the central and southern Appalachians: Implications for Mississippi Valley-type sulfide mineralization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hearn, P.P.; Sutter, J.F.; Belkin, H.E.

    1987-01-01

    Many Lower Paleozoic limestones and dolostones in the Valley and Ridge province of the central and southern Appalachians contain 10 to 25 weight percent authigenic potassium feldspar. This was considered to be a product of early diagenesis, however, 40Ar 39Ar analyses of overgrowths on detrital K-feldspar in Cambrian carbonate rocks from Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and Tennessee yield Late Carboniferous-Early Permian ages (278-322 Ma). Simple mass balance calculations suggest that the feldspar could not have formed isochemically, but required the flux of multiple pore volumes of fluid through the rocks, reflecting regional fluid migration events during the Late-Paleozoic Alleghanian orogeny. Microthermometric measurements of fluid inclusions in overgrowths on detrital K-feldspar and quartz grains from unmineralized rocks throughout the study area indicate homogenization temperatures from 100?? to 200??C and freezing point depressions of -14?? to -18.5??C (18-21 wt.% NaCl equiv). The apparent similarity of these fluids to fluid inclusions in ore and gangue minerals of nearby Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits suggests that the regional occurrences of authigenic K-feldspar and MVT mineralization may be genetically related. This hypothesis is supported by the discovery of authigenic K-feldspar intergrown with sphalerite in several mines of the Mascot-Jefferson City District, E. Tennessee. Regional potassic alteration in unmineralized carbonate rocks and localized occurrences of MVT mineralization are both explainable by a gravity-driven flow model, in which deep brines migrate towards the basin margin under a hydraulic gradient established during the Alleghanian orogeny. The authigenic K-feldspar may reflect the loss of K during disequilibrium cooling of the ascending brines. MVT deposits are probably localized manifestations of the same migrating fluids, occurring where the necessary physical and chemical traps are present. ?? 1987.

  18. Late Paleozoic subduction and collision processes during the amalgamation of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt along the South Tianshan suture zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yigui; Zhao, Guochun; Sun, Min; Eizenhöfer, Paul R.; Hou, Wenzhu; Zhang, Xiaoran; Liu, Qian; Wang, Bo; Liu, Dongxing; Xu, Bing

    2016-03-01

    The provenance of late Paleozoic siliciclastic sedimentary strata on the northern margin of the Tarim Craton and the South Tianshan Orogenic Belt provides important insights into subduction and collision processes during the formation of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Detrital zircons from Carboniferous and Permian sedimentary rocks in the South Tianshan belt show two predominant age populations of 500-400 and 305-270 Ma, and three subordinate clusters around 2.5 Ga, 2.0-1.7 Ga, and 1.2-0.6 Ma. Such age patterns are similar to major magmatic episodes in the Tarim Craton but are distinct from those in the Central Tianshan-Yili Block, implying that the Carboniferous-Permian strata in the South Tianshan belt were deposited on the northern margin of the Tarim Craton. These data, in combination with Carboniferous passive margin deposition along the South Tianshan and northern Tarim regions and intense arc magmatism in the Central Tianshan area, support the northward subduction of the South Tianshan oceanic crust. The abrupt decrease of zircon εHf(t) values at 310 Ma indicates the tectonic transformation from oceanic subduction to continental collision. However, syn- and post-collisional sediments in the South Tianshan and northern Tarim regions did not contain detritus from the Central Tianshan-Yili Block, as evidenced by the absence/paucity of 380-310 Ma detrital zircons in the late Paleozoic strata and by the stratigraphic record in the regions. Insignificant surface erosion and uplifting during the collision and (ultra-)high-pressure rock exhumation require divergence in the frontal wedge. We propose that the switch from a convergent to a divergent regime was triggered by the arrival of the Tarim mantle plume in the latest Carboniferous, which possibly had profound effects on regional sedimentation and exhumation of (ultra-)high-pressure rocks in the orogenic belt.

  19. A-type granitoid in Hasansalaran complex, northwestern Iran: Evidence for extensional tectonic regime in northern Gondwana in the Late Paleozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, Hossein; Kazemi, Tahmineh; Asahara, Yoshihiro

    2017-07-01

    The Hasansalaran plutonic complex is one of the main intrusive bodies with a wide range of granite, monzonite, diorite and syenite that crop out in northwest Iran. This body includes Paleozoic granitoids that are surrounded and cut by Cretaceous granitoids. Zircon U-Pb age dating shows that the crystallization of this body occurred at 360 Ma ago in the Early Carboniferous. Whole rock compositions of the investigated intrusive body, show high contents of Ga (11.1-76.3 ppm), Zr (73.5-1280 ppm), Zn (43.7-358 ppm), Y(17.9-177 ppm), enrichment of rare earth elements (REEs) together with high Ga/Al ratios and a strong Eu negative anomaly, fairly consistent with typical A-type signature. The low εNd(t = 360 Ma) value (< + 3) and high variation of 87Sr/86Sr(initial) ratios are evidence of the role of the continental component for the evolution of A-type granitoids in the Hasansalaran area. Because of the high contents of Ta, Yb, Nb and Y, all samples are plotted in the within-plate tectonic regime without interfering oceanic released fluids in the subduction zone. These high Nb content rocks (37.2-342 ppm without one sample) are classified as A1-type granitoids. Based on the distribution of A1- and A2-type granitoids in the Late Paleozoic in northwest Iran, the existence of some gabbroic rocks with tholeiitic to alkali composition and a long gap for magmatic activities in the area from 550 to 360 Ma (approximately 180 my.a.) between the Zagros and Tabriz faults, we suggest a new thematic model for evolution of northwest Iran in the Late Paleozoic. Based on our model, the upwelling of a mantle plume, probably due to the proto-Tethys oceanic rollback activity beneath northern Gondwana, had a crucial role in the uplifting of the continental crust and resulted in the crystallization of A-type granitoids with some gabbroic rocks in northwest Iran.

  20. Sedimentary evolution of the Paleozoic basin fill, southeast Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Tunbridge, I.P. )

    1988-08-01

    The Paleozoic succession of southeast Turkey reaches its thickest development in the Hakkari district. Here, well-exposed Paleozoic rocks of Cambrian to Permian age are more than 5 km thick, representing a punctuated accumulation of clastic and carbonate sediments on the northern margin of the Arabian shield. Lower Cambrian rocks (< 1.5 km thick) are recorded in the Sadan Formation. A range of deltaic and fluviatile facies are present here. These developed as large-scale meandering then later braided river systems, which flowed north from the Arabian shield. Peritidal dolomites of the Koruk Formation follow, succeeded by 1 km of Cambrian-Ordovician storm-swept shelf sandstones and mudstones of the Seyisehir Formation. Following a Middle Ordovician break, a thin (25 m) Ashgillian siliciclastic shelf sea succession occurs, known as the Sort Tepe Formation. Silurian sediments are not found, and the Devonian of the Hakkari district is marked by the Upper Devonian Yiginli Formation. This formation records a 380-m regressive-transgressive fluvial-deltaic couplet, with deltaic conditions terminated by an Early Carboniferous eustatic sea-level rise. This event permitted the development of a 250 m-thick black shale facies (Koprulu Formation), which was succeeded by 130 m of carbonate mound facies (Belek Formation). Thick (2,000 m) carbonate sequences of the Habbur Formation (Permian) mark the start of the thick carbonate sequences which persisted from the late Paleozoic through the Mesozoic in the region.

  1. Orogenesis and Basin Development: U-Pb Detrital Zircon Age Constraints on Evolution of the Late Paleozoic St. Marys Basin, Central Mainland Nova Scotia.

    PubMed

    Murphy; Hamilton

    2000-01-01

    The St. Marys Basin, along the southern flank of the composite Late Paleozoic Magdalen Basin in the Canadian Appalachians and along the Avalon-Meguma terrane boundary, contains Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous continental clastic rocks of the Horton Group that were deposited in fluvial and lacustrine environments after the peak of the Acadian orogeny. SHRIMP II (Geological Survey of Canada) data on approximately 100 detrital zircons from three samples of Horton Group rocks from the St. Marys Basin show that most of the zircons have been involved in a multistage history, recycled from clastic rocks in the adjacent Meguma and Avalonian terranes. Although there is a minor contribution from Early Silurian (411 Ma) and Late Devonian suites (ca. 380-370 Ma), Neoproterozoic (ca. 700-550 Ma) and Paleoproterozoic (ca. 2.0-2.2 Ga) zircon populations predominate, with a minor contribution from ca. 1.0-, 1.2-, and 1.8-Ga zircons. Published U-Pb single-zircon analyses on clastic sedimentary rocks indicate that the Meguma and Avalon terranes have different populations of detrital zircons, sourced from discrete portions (Amazonian and West African cratons) of the ancient Gondwanan margin. Both terranes contain Neoproterozoic and Late Archean populations. The SHRIMP data, in conjunction with published sedimentological and geochemical data, indicate that the Horton Group basin-fill sediments are largely the result of rapid uplift and erosion of Meguma terrane metasedimentary and granitoid rocks immediately to the south of the St. Marys Basin during the waning stages of the Acadian orogeny. Regional syntheses indicate that this uplift occurred before and during deposition and was a consequence of dextral ramping of the Meguma terrane over the Avalon terrane along the southern flank of the Magdalen Basin.

  2. Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pantoja-Alor, J; Robison, R A

    1967-09-01

    Fossiliferous Cambrian, Ordovician, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian rocks, never before found in southern Mexico, have been discovered in the Nochixtlán region. Superjacent unfossiliferous sedimentary rocks may be Permian in age. Early Paleozoic and late Paleozoic intervals of marine sedimentation were bounded by intervals of positive tectonism and erosion.

  3. Geochemistry and Geochronology of the Heilongjiang Complex and Its Implications in the Late Paleozoic Tectonics of Eastern NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GE, M.; Zhang, J.; Liu, K.; Ling, Y.; Wang, M.; Wang, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Paleozoic to early Mesozoic tectonic framework of Northeast China, especially the Jiamusi block and its related structural belts, are highly debated. In this contribution, geochemical, geochronological and isotopic analyses were carried out on the basalts in the Heilongjiang complex to address these issues. The Heilongjiang complex defines the suture belt between the Jiamusi block and the Songliao block in Northeast China, and the blueschist is a major composition for this complex, coexisting with ultramafic rocks, amphibolite, greenschist, quartzite and mica schist. The blueschist has a mineral association of sodic amphibole, epidote, chlorite, phengite, albite and quartz with accessory phases of apatite, titanite, zircon and ilmenite. Together with the lithological association, the geochemical results present that the protoliths of the blueschist can be divided into the alkaline and tholeiitic basalts and have OIB affinities, formed in an ocean island setting, indicated by the (La/Yb) N values of 3.57 - 11.54, and the (La/Sm) N values of 0.69 - 3.64. The high and positive ɛNd (t) values of + 3.7 to +9.0, and relative enrichment in Nb and Ta show that both the alkaline and tholeiitic basalts may be derived from the asthenospheric mantle. Magmatic zircons from the blueschist in Yilan area yield a 206Pb/238U age of 281 - 288 Ma, interpreted as its protolithic age. The amphibolite from Xiachengzi area has a zircon U-Pb age of 248 ± 4 Ma, interpreted as its protolith age and has N-MORB affinities, supported by (La/Yb)N ratios of 0.60-0.89 and (La/Sm)N of 0.62-0.84, and high ɛNd (t) values ranging from + 7.8 to + 9.5, deriving from a depleted mantle source. A new 40Ar/39Ar amphibole plateau age of 195 ± 3 Ma and a youngest age of 200 Ma of the detrital zircons from Heilongjiang complex are reported to constrain the metamorphic age of the Heilongjiang complex. In addition, a huge north-south trending granitic belt generated from 174 Ma - 200 Ma has been

  4. Gold deposits of the northern margin of the North China craton: Multiple late Paleozoic-Mesozoic mineralizing events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, C.J.R.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Qiu, Y.; Snee, L.; Miller, L.D.; Miller, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    The northern margin of the North China craton is well-endowed with lode gold deposits hosting a resource of approximately 900 tonnes (t) of gold. The ???1,500-km-long region is characterized by east-trending blocks of metamorphosed Archean and Proterozoic strata that were episodically uplifted during Variscan, Indosinian, and Yanshanian deformational and magmatic events. At least 12 gold deposits from the Daqinshan, Yan-Liao (includes the Zhangjiakou, Yanshan, and Chifeng gold districts), and Changbaishan gold provinces contain resources of 20-100 t Au each. Most deposits are hosted in uplifted blocks of Precambrian metamorphic rocks, although felsic Paleozoic and Mesozoic plutons are typically proximal and host ???30% of the deposits. The lodes are characterized by sulfide-poor quartz veins in brittle structures with low base metal values and high Au:Ag ratios. Although phyllic alteration is most common, intensive alkali feldspar metasomatism characterizes the Wulashan, Dongping, and Zhongshangou deposits, but is apparently coeval with Variscan alkalic magmatism only at Wulashan. Stepwise 40Ar-39Ar geochronology on 16 samples from gangue and alteration phases, combined with unpublished SHRIMP U-Pb dates on associated granitoids, suggest that gold mineralizing events occured during Variscan, Indosinian, and Yanshanian orogenies at circa 350, 250, 200, 180, 150, and 129 Ma. However, widespread Permo-Triassic (???250 Ma) and Early Jurassic (???180 Ma) thermal events caused variable resetting of most of the white mica and K-feldspar argon spectra, as well as previously reported K-Ar determinations. Compiled and new stable isotope and fluid inclusion data show that most ??18O values for ore-stage veins range from 8 to 14???, indicating a fluid in equilibrium with the Precambrian metamorphic basement rocks; ??D values from fluid inclysions range widely from -64 to -154???, which is indicative of a local meteoric component in some veins; and highly variable ??34S data

  5. Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic evidence for a secondary yet early magnetization in large sandstone pipes and host Late Middle Jurassic (Callovian) Summerville Formation and Bluff Sandstone near Mesita, west central New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissman, John W.; Harlan, Stephen S.

    2004-07-01

    significantly to the characteristic remanent magnetization. The similarity in demagnetization properties between pipes and adjacent host strata, the absence of a well-defined high unblocking temperature remanence that is more typical of hematite-cemented detrital strata, and the essentially uniform reverse polarity of the remanence are all interpreted to indicate that pipes and host strata contain secondary, yet early acquired magnetizations and that magnetization acquisition continued after pipe injection. We propose that acquisition of the secondary magnetization took place in the presence of alkaline, high pH brines formed by the dissolution of the underlying gypsum-dominated Lower Jurassic Todilto Formation strata and therefore the remanence is early in age. On the basis of a comparison with Summerville and Morrison (Middle and Late Jurassic) paleomagnetic poles from rocks on the Colorado Plateau, we interpret the secondary remanence in Summerville strata and sandstone pipes near Laguna to be latest Middle to Late Jurassic in age. If realistic, this interpretation further emphasizes the importance of fluid-rock interaction in the acquisition of secondary magnetizations.

  6. Late Paleozoic vertical crustal growth of Western Junggar, Xinjiang in China: evidence from petrology and Nd isotope in charnockites and alkaline granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xian, W. S.; Sun, M.; Zhang, L. F.; Zhao, G. C.; Malpas, J.

    2003-04-01

    underplating of mantle-derived magmas. Laser Raman microspectrometer studies indicate that the fluid inclusions in quartz crystals of charnockites are exclusively C0_2-rich, suggesting that C0_2 may have played an important role in the petrogenesis of charnockites. Nd isotopic data reveal a juvenile nature of the lower crust in the studied area. ɛNd(t) values increase from the granulite enclaves through the charnockites and alkaline granites to the latest intermediate dykes, indicating that more and more mantle components were involved during the formation and evolution of the western Junggar granitoid complex. Based on this study and our previous data, we propose the following scenario for the vertical growth of the crust in the western Junggar area during the late Paleozoic. At ˜305 Ma, the western Junggar area (probably in the whole Central Asian Orogen) underwent an extensional event and large amounts of mantle-sourced magmas (basaltic magmas) were underplated beneath the bottom of the lower crust, which resulted in the partial melting of the lower crust to form the charnockites. Subsequently, at ˜274Ma, the newly-formed lower crust from underplating basalts was heated and partially melted to produce granitic magmas that formed numerous alkaline granites in the area. This conclusion is further supported by the presence of fine-grained, myrmekitic clinopyroxenes within coarse-grained othopyroxene in the charnockites, which we interpret as an anatectic texture that formed during the emplacement of alkaline granitic magmas with higher temperature (e.g. 900^oC). Therefore, we believe that the understating of basaltic magmas has played an important role in the formation of the charnockites and alkaline granite, that has resulted in a significant vertical growth of the western Junggar crust in the late Paleozoic time.

  7. Late Paleozoic to Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the Chinese western Tianshan Orogen: Integrating detrital zircon provenance analysis with regional magmatic, stratigraphic, and tectonothermal evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yigui; Zhao, Guochun

    2017-04-01

    The convergence between the Tarim Craton and the southwestern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt in the late Paleozoic resulted in the closure of the South Tianshan (STS) Ocean and a continent-continent collision that formed the western Tianshan Orogen in NW China. Recent intensive studies in this region have produced a great deal of new data, and also many competing tectonic interpretations, especially regarding the subduction polarity and closure time of the STS Ocean and the initial uplift of the western Tianshan Orogen. To address the controversy, this study presents a systematic provenance analysis of detrital zircons from Carboniferous to Mesozoic sedimentary strata distributed in the northern Tarim and STS regions. In combination with recent data of regional magmatism, sedimentation, and tectonothermal activity, we propose a tectonic model that can reconcile most of important geological events during late Paleozoic to Mesozoic time in the western Tianshan region. U-Pb dating of detrital zircons from Carboniferous and Permian strata in the northern Tarim and STS regions yielded consistent age patterns, i.e. two prominent populations at 270-305 Ma and 400-500 Ma, and some peaks clustering at 600-1200 Ma, 1.9 Ga, and 2.5 Ga. The scarcity of 310-380 Ma zircons in the two regions and contemporaneous passive margin sedimentation support a northward subduction of the STS oceanic crust. The closure of the ocean and continental collision probably occurred in the late Carboniferous, as indicated by a significant decrease of zircon ɛHf(t) values at 310 Ma and coeval (ultra-)high pressure metamorphic events. Detrital zircon age data also indicate that the foreland region (i.e. the northern Tarim and STS) had not received sediments from the upper plate throughout the late Carboniferous to Middle Triassic, implying insignificant surface uplift and erosion during and after collision. To interpret this, a plume-modified orogenic model is introduced, partially

  8. Glacial-interglacial variability in Tropical Pangaean Precipitation during the Late Paleozoic Ice Age: simulations with the Community Climate System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heavens, N. G.; Mahowald, N. M.; Soreghan, G. S.; Soreghan, M. J.; Shields, C. A.

    2012-05-01

    The Late Paleozoic Ice Age (LPIA), the Earth's penultimate "icehouse climate", was a critical time in the history of biological and ecological evolution. Many questions remain about the connections between high-latitude glaciation in Gondwanaland and low-latitude precipitation variability in Pangaea. We have simulated the Earth's climate during Asselian-Sakmarian time (299-284 Ma) with the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3), a coupled dynamic atmosphere-ocean-land-sea-ice model. Our simulations test the sensitivity of the model climate to direct and indirect effects of glaciation as well as variability in the Earth's orbit. Our focus is on precipitation variability in tropical (30° S-30° N) Pangaea, where there has been the most interpretation of glacial-interglacial climate change during the LPIA. The results of these simulations suggest that glacials generally were drier than interglacials in tropical Pangaea, though exceptional areas may have been wetter, depending on location and the mode of glaciation. Lower sea level, an indirect effect of changes in glacial extent, appears to reduce tropical Pangaean precipitation more than the direct radiative/topographic effects of high-latitude glaciation. Glaciation of the Central Pangaean Mountains would have greatly reduced equatorial Pangaean precipitation, while perhaps enhancing precipitation at higher tropical latitudes and in equatorial rain shadows. Variability evident in strata with 5th order stratigraphic cycles may have resulted from precipitation changes owing to precession forcing of monsoon circulations and would have differed in character between greenhouse and icehouse climates.

  9. Geochemistry and geochronology of the blueschist in the Heilongjiang Complex and its implications in the late Paleozoic tectonics of eastern NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Mao-hui; Zhang, Jin-jiang; Liu, Kai; Ling, Yi-yun; Wang, Meng; Wang, Jia-min

    2016-09-01

    The Paleozoic to early Mesozoic tectonic framework and evolution of Northeast China, especially the Jiamusi block and its related structural belts, are highly debated. In this paper, geochemical, geochronological and isotopic analyses were carried out on the blueschist in the Heilongjiang Complex to address these issues. The Heilongjiang Complex defines the suture belt between the Jiamusi block and the Songliao block in NE China, and the blueschist is a major composition for this complex, coexisting with mafic-ultramafic rocks, greenschist, quartzite and mica schist. The blueschist has a mineral association of sodic amphibole, epidote, chlorite, phengite, albite and quartz with accessory phases of apatite, titanite, zircon and ilmenite. Together with the lithological association, the major and trace element compositions present that the protoliths of the blueschist can be divided into the alkaline and tholeiitic basalts and have OIB affinities, formed in an ocean island setting, indicated by the (La/Yb) N values of 3.57 - 11.54, and the (La/Sm) N values of 0.69 - 3.64. The high and positive εNd (t) values of + 3.7 to + 9.0, and relative enrichment in Nb (vs. Th) and Ta (vs. U) show that both the alkaline and tholeiitic basalts may be derived from the asthenospheric mantle with insignificant crustal contamination. Magmatic zircons from the blueschist in Yilan area yield a 206Pb/238U age of 281 ± 3 Ma, interpreted as its protolithic age. The youngest ages of 200 Ma of the detrital zircons in the associated mica schist from Mudanjiang area place constraints on the timing of metamorphism for the blueschist. These indicate that a big ocean existed between the Jiamusi and Songliao blocks at least since the early Permian, and the blueschist formed since the late Triassic to late Jurassic by the subduction of this ocean. Such an ocean during the Permian - Jurassic is difficult to be interpreted by the tectonic evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean.

  10. A Late Paleozoic sill complex and related paleo-topography in the eastern North Sea analyzed using 3D seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausen, Ole Rønø; Andresen, Katrine Juul; Rasmussen, Jens Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we utilize large igneous intrusions as a key to a detailed analysis and understanding of the late Paleozoic evolution of the Ringkøbing-Fyn High, an important structural element in the North West European Craton. The study takes advantage of high-quality 3D seismic data and boreholes to map the geometry and lateral distribution of intrusive sills cross-cutting the sedimentary strata at a low angle (transgressive sills). Our analysis shows that the transgressive sills most likely sourced the vast extrusion of volcanics, which covered most of the Early Permian Northern Basin and which is associated to the Skagerak-Centered Large Igneous Province (SCLIP). Furthermore, a geometrical analysis of the sills demonstrates that the magmatic source for the sills was located SE of the studied area, suggesting a correlation with geophysically inferred lower crust intrusions. Hence, we are in this study able to constrain the full magmatic system from the lower crust intrusions to the surface volcanics. Intrusion of the sills occurred prior to an Early Permian faulting event, which created rotated fault blocks outlining the present Ringkøbing-Fyn High. The sills exposed for erosion at the crest of the footwall in turn controlled the Late Permian paleo-topography and the distribution of the Zechstein evaporites due to the fact that they are harder to erode. Hence, we are able to demonstrate a topography controlled thickness variation of the Zechstein evaporites. The study furthermore emphasizes that an understanding of the deepest parts of the North Sea Basin is crucial when evaluating the potential for yet unrecognized hydrocarbon plays.

  11. Paleozoic paleomagnetism and northward drift of the Alexander Terrane, southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Der Voo, Rob; Jones, Meridee; Gromme, C. Sherman; Eberlein, G. Donald; Churkin, Michael, Jr.

    1980-10-01

    Paleozoic limestone, graywacke, sandstone, milestone, red beds and volcanic rocks of the Alexander terrane, southeastern Alaska, have yielded six paleomagnetic pole positions after thermal and alternating-field demagnetization. These poles are from sample groups of late Middle Ordovician, Late Ordovician, Devonian, Late Devonian, and early and late Carboniferous age. To test various tectonic models for the structural development of this part of western North America, the paleomagnetic results are compared to those for the North American craton. It is found that the observed inclination and declination values deviate significantly from the values predicted for the present-day position of the Alexander terrane (55.5N, 133.5W). Better matching can be obtained for a paleoposition of the terrane at about 40N, 120W, in the present position of western Nevada and northeastern California. In addition, an in situ 25° clockwise rotation of the terrane is required to restore it to its original position.

  12. Paleozoic paleomagnetism and northward drift of the Alexander terrane, southeastern Alaska.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Der Voo, R.; Jones, M.; Gromme, C.S.; Eberlein, G.D.; Churkin, M.

    1980-01-01

    Paleozoic limestone, greywacke, sandstone, mudstone, red beds and volcanic rocks of the Alexander terrane, SE Alaska, have yielded six paleomagnetic pole positions after thermal and alternating-field demagnetization. These poles are from sample groups of late Middle Ordovician, Late Ordovician, Devonian, Late Devonian, and early and late Carboniferous age. To test various tectonic models for the structural development of this part of western N America, the paleomagnetic results are compared to those for the N American craton. It is found that the observed inclination and declination values deviate significantly from the values predicted for the present-day position of the Alexander terrance (55.5 N, 133.5 W). Better matching can be obtained for a paleoposition of the terrane at about 40 N, 120 W, in the present position of western Nevada and NE California. In addition, an in situ 25o clockwise rotation of the terrane is required to restore it to its original position.-Authors

  13. Late Paleozoic deformation and exhumation in the Sierras Pampeanas (Argentina): 40Ar/39Ar-feldspar dating constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löbens, Stefan; Oriolo, Sebastián; Benowitz, Jeff; Wemmer, Klaus; Layer, Paul; Siegesmund, Siegfried

    2017-09-01

    Systematic 40Ar/39Ar feldspar data obtained from the Sierras Pampeanas are presented, filling the gap between available high- (> 300 °C) and low-temperature (< 150 °C) thermochronological data. Results show Silurian-Devonian exhumation related to the late stages of the Famatinian/Ocloyic Orogeny for the Sierra de Pocho and the Sierra de Pie de Palo regions, whereas the Sierras de San Luis and the Sierra de Comechingones regions record exhumation during the Carboniferous. Comparison between new and available data points to a Carboniferous tectonic event in the Sierras Pampeanas, which represents a key period to constrain the early evolution of the proto-Andean margin of Gondwana. This event was probably transtensional and played a major role during the evolution of the Paganzo Basin as well as during the emplacement of alkaline magmatism in the retroarc.

  14. Early Paleozoic (Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician) acritarchs from the metasedimentary Baden-Baden-Gaggenau zone (Schwarzwald, SW Germany).

    PubMed

    Montenari, M; Servais, T

    2000-12-01

    The metasediments of the low-grade metamorphosed Baden-Baden-Gaggenau zone of the northern Schwarzwald (southwestern Germany) have been analyzed palynologically. From 133 samples representing different metasedimentary units, only three samples of the upper part of the Traischbach Serie provide extremely poorly-preserved palynomorphs. The assemblage consists of the galeate acritarch genera Caldariola, Cymatiogaleaand Stelliferidium, as well as specimens of diacromorph and polygonomorph acritarchs. Although determinations are difficult at the generic level and essentially impossible at the specific level, the assemblage can be attributed to an interval between the Late Cambrian and Early Ordovician. This is the first biostratigraphical age assignment for the metasediments of the Baden-Baden-Gaggenau zone, which can possibly be correlated with the Villé Unit of the northern Vosges Mountains (eastern France).

  15. Late Paleozoic deformation and exhumation in the Sierras Pampeanas (Argentina): 40Ar/39Ar-feldspar dating constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löbens, Stefan; Oriolo, Sebastián; Benowitz, Jeff; Wemmer, Klaus; Layer, Paul; Siegesmund, Siegfried

    2016-09-01

    Systematic 40Ar/39Ar feldspar data obtained from the Sierras Pampeanas are presented, filling the gap between available high- (>~300 °C) and low-temperature (<~150 °C) thermochronological data. Results show Silurian-Devonian exhumation related to the late stages of the Famatinian/Ocloyic Orogeny for the Sierra de Pocho and the Sierra de Pie de Palo regions, whereas the Sierras de San Luis and the Sierra de Comechingones regions record exhumation during the Carboniferous. Comparison between new and available data points to a Carboniferous tectonic event in the Sierras Pampeanas, which represents a key period to constrain the early evolution of the proto-Andean margin of Gondwana. This event was probably transtensional and played a major role during the evolution of the Paganzo Basin as well as during the emplacement of alkaline magmatism in the retroarc.

  16. Late Paleozoic crustal history of central coastal Queensland interpreted from geochemistry of Mesozoic plutons: The effects of continental rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, C. M.; Wooden, J. L.; Chappell, B. W.

    1997-12-01

    The eastern margin of Australia is understood to be the result of continental rifting during the Cretaceous and Tertiary. Consistent with this model, Cretaceous igneous rocks (granites to basalts) in a continental marginal setting near Bowen, Queensland are isotonically retarded, having isotopic ratios similar to those of most island arcs (Sr1 = 0.7030-0.7039, ɛNd = +6.46 to +3.00 and 206Pb/204Pb = 18.44-18.77, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.552-15.623, and 208Pb/204Pb = 37.90-38.52). These isotopic signatures are much less evolved than the Late Carboniferous-Permian batholith that many Cretaceous plutons intrude. As rocks ranging in age from about 300-100 Ma are well exposed near Bowen, we can track magma evolution through time. The significant change of magma source occurred much earlier than the Cretaceous based on the fact that Triassic granites in the same area are also isotonically primitive. We attribute the changes of magma composition to crustal rifting during the Late Permian and earliest Triassic. The Cretaceous rocks (actually latest Jurassic to Cretaceous, 145-98 Ma) themselves show compositional trends with time. Rocks of appropriate mineralogy for Al-in-hornblende geobarometry yield pressures ranging from 250 to 80 MPa for rocks ranging in age from 145 to 125 Ma, respectively. More significantly, this older group is relatively compositionally restricted, and is Sr-rich, and Y- and Zr-poor compared to 120-98 Ma rocks. This younger groups is bimodal, being comprised principally of basalts and rhyolites (granites). REE patterns for a given rock type, however, do not differ with age tribute these relatively subtle trace element differences to small differences in conditions (T, aH2O) at the site of melting. Cretaceous crustal rifting can explain the range of rock types and the spatial distribution of rocks < 120 Ma in a longitudinal strip between and overlapping with provinces of older Cretaceous intrusions. A subduction-related setting is assigned to the 145-125 Ma

  17. Petrogenesis of the Kekesai composite intrusion, western Tianshan, NW China: Implications for tectonic evolution during late Paleozoic time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dongyang; Zhang, Zhaochong; Encarnación, John; Xue, Chunji; Duan, Shigang; Zhao, Zhidan; Liu, Junlai

    2012-08-01

    The late Carboniferous to Permian is a critical period for final amalgamation of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), which is characterized by voluminous igneous rocks, particularly granitoids. The Kekesai composite granitoid porphyry intrusion, situated in the Chinese western Tianshan (southwest part of CAOB) includes two intrusive phases, a monzogranite phase, intruded by a granodiorite phase. LA-ICPMS U-Pb zircon analyses suggest that the monzogranitic rocks were formed at 305.5 ± 1.1 Ma, with a wide age range of inherited zircons (358-488 Ma and 1208-1391 Ma), whereas the granodioritic rocks formed at 288.7 ± 1.5 Ma. The monzogranitic and granodioritic phases have similar geochemical features and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions. They exhibit high and variable SiO2 (66-71 wt.%) and MgO (0.41-2.14 wt.%) contents with some arc-like geochemical characteristics (e.g., enrichment of large ion lithophile elements and negative anomalies of Nb, Ta and Ti) and relatively high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (ISr = 0.7055-0.7059), low positive ɛNd(t) (+ 0.84 to + 1.03) as well as a large variation in Hf isotopic compositions with ɛHf(t) between + 3.43 and + 14.8, implying both of them were derived from similar source materials. These geochemical characteristics suggest that they might be mainly derived from the partial melting of arc-derived Mesoproterozoic mafic lower crust with involvement of a mantle-derived component in variable proportions by mantle-derived magma underplating. The presence of late-Ordovician to earliest early Carboniferous inherited zircons and the Hf isotopic compositions in the monzogranitic sample, similar to that of the widespread juvenile arc rocks, indicates some crust contamination during magma emplacement. Our new data, combined with previous studies, imply that extensive post-collisional magmatism due to underplating of mantle-derived magma, could plausibly be explained by slab break-off regime.

  18. Late Paleozoic crustal history of central coastal Queensland interpreted from geochemistry of Mesozoic plutons: The effects of continental rifting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, C.M.; Wooden, J.L.; Chappell, B.W.

    1997-01-01

    The eastern margin of Australia is understood to be the result of continental rifting during the Cretaceous and Tertiary. Consistent with this model, Cretaceous igneous rocks (granites to basalts) in a continental marginal setting near Bowen, Queensland are isotonically retarded, having isotopic ratios similar to those of most island arcs (Sri = 0.7030-0.7039, ??Nd = +6.46 to +3.00 and 206Pb/204Pb = 18.44-18.77, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.552-15.623, and 208Pb/204Pb = 37.90-38.52). These isotopic signatures are much less evolved than the Late Carboniferous-Permian batholith that many Cretaceous plutons intrude. As rocks ranging in age from about 300-100 Ma are well exposed near Bowen, we can track magma evolution through time. The significant change of magma source occurred much earlier than the Cretaceous based on the fact that Triassic granites in the same area are also isotonically primitive. We attribute the changes of magma composition to crustal rifting during the Late Permian and earliest Triassic. The Cretaceous rocks (actually latest Jurassic to Cretaceous, 145-98 Ma) themselves show compositional trends with time. Rocks of appropriate mineralogy for Al-in-hornblende geobarometry yield pressures ranging from 250 to 80 MPa for rocks ranging in age from 145 to 125 Ma, respectively. More significantly, this older group is relatively compositionally restricted, and is Sr-rich, and Y- and Zr-poor compared to 120-98 Ma rocks. This younger groups is bimodal, being comprised principally of basalts and rhyolites (granites). REE patterns for a given rock type, however, do not differ with age tribute these relatively subtle trace element differences to small differences in conditions (T, aH2O) at the site of melting. Cretaceous crustal rifting can explain the range of rock types and the spatial distribution of rocks < 120 Ma in a longitudinal strip between and overlapping with provinces of older Cretaceous intrusions. A subduction-related setting is assigned to the 145-125 Ma

  19. Computer simulation of sphenopsid architecture. Part II. Calamites multiramis Weiss, as an example of Late Paleozoic arborescent Sphenopsids.

    PubMed

    Daviero; Lecoustre

    2000-04-01

    A late Carboniferous arborescent sphenopsid has been modelled for the first time with the AMAP 1 system. The natural entity consisting of the three form species 'Calamites multiramis/Annularia stellata/Calamostachys tuberculata' (respectively the trunk/branches and foliage/cones) representing the aerial part of this plant is reconstructed and its architecture modelled. The different growth stages are extrapolated, generating a dynamic view that did not exist until now. The model is based on the hypothesis that the modelled part is not preformed but results from the successive production and elongation of internodes. This growth led to old ontogenetic stages of the plant in agreement with Remy and Remy's reconstruction (Remy, W., Remy, R., 1977. Die Floren des Erdaltertums. Verlag Glückauf, Essen, 468 pp.). With its verticillate sterile organs and cone-shaped fructifications similar to the extant herbaceous relative Equisetum, this calamite is distinguished from the latter taxon by having possible 'throw-away' phyllomorphic branches. We assumed the presence of a restricted zone of branches located in the apical part of the trunk. Moreover, the production of reproductive organs that succeeds the vegetative stage implies a major photosynthetic phase associated with a monocarpical form of development of the fossil plant.

  20. Degradation processes and consolidation of Late Jurassic sandstone dinosaur tracks in museum environment (Museum of Lourinhã, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal, Sofia; mateus, Octavio; Tomas, Carla; Dionisio, Amelia

    2014-05-01

    The current study aims to conciliate conservation and restoration museology diagnosis with paleontological and geological curational needs and has, as subject of study, dinosaur footprints (vertebrates fossils). The footprints have been being exposed since 2004 in the paleontology hall of the Museum of Lourinhã, Portugal, and are part of a important paleontological collection of Late Jurassic vertebrate fossils from Lourinhã Formation. Presently, it is considered a unique heritage in danger of disappearing due to high decay level of disaggregation of its geological structure. The dinosaur footprints, (ML557) found, more precisely, on a coastline cliff in Lourinhã, Porto das Barcas, Lagido do Forno (coordinate 39° 14. 178'N, 9° 20. 397'W), Jurassic period, on the 5th of June 2001, by Jesper Milàn. This cliff of high slope presents sedimentary stratigraphic characteristics of a sandstone/siltstone of gray and red colors, by the '' Munsell scale and Color Chart''. Geological the tracks are Late Jurassic in age, and colected in the Lourinhã Formation, Praia Azul Member, of the Lusitanian Basin. There are three natural infills tridactyl tracks, possibly ascribed to ornithopod, a bipedal herbivore, resultant of a left foot movement, right and left. Footprints have 300-400mm of wide and 330-360mm of height with round fingers, which are elongated due to some degradation/erosion. In 2001, the footprints were collected from the field, cleaned, consolidated and glued in the laboratory of the Museum of Lourinhã before being exhibited in a museum display. Stone matrix was removed and a consolidation product applied, probably a polyvinyl acetate, of the brand Plexigum. The footprint with broken central digit was glued with an epoxy resin, Araldite. Both applied products were confirmed by analysis of µ-FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) and both presented colour change and detachment surface problems. After collecting and storing, in 2004, footprints were

  1. Petrogenetic evolution of Late Paleozoic rhyolites of the Harvey Group, southwestern New Brunswick (Canada) hosting uranium mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostal, J.; van Hengstum, T. R.; Shellnutt, J. G.; Hanley, J. J.

    2016-06-01

    The 360 Ma subaerial felsic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Harvey Group form a belt about 15 km long and 3 km wide in southwestern New Brunswick (Canada) that has been correlated with parts of the Mount Pleasant caldera complex, the site of a significant polymetallic (tin, tungsten, molybdenum, indium and bismuth) deposit. The Harvey volcanic rocks are highly fractionated peraluminous within-plate F-rich rhyolites, which host uranium mineralization. The rocks were modified by late-magmatic and post-magmatic processes. A comparison of the composition of whole rocks and melt inclusions in the quartz phenocrysts shows that some trace elements, including U, were affected by the post-magmatic processes. Their flat REE patterns accompanied by distinct negative Eu anomalies are typical of highly evolved F-rich leucogranites and rhyolites. Nd isotopic ratios (ɛNd(360) = +0.6 to -1.0) are similar to those of the felsic rocks of the Mount Pleasant complex. The Harvey rhyolites were generated by extensive fractional crystallization of andesites of the Mount Pleasant caldera. The melt evolved at the apex of the magma chamber where volatile elements become concentrated. The Harvey rhyolite (with melt inclusions containing ~20 ppm U) had the potential to develop a significant U mineralization. The erupted glassy rhyolite is a favorable U source rock amendable to leaching by post-magmatic hydrothermal and meteoric water. The high Th/U ratios in the Harvey volcanic rocks compared to the low ratios in the U-rich melt inclusions is indicative of such a process.

  2. Geochronology and Geochemistry of Igneous Rocks from the Laoshankou District, North Xinjiang: Implications for the Late Paleozoic Tectonic Evolution and Metallogenesis of East Junggar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Pei; Chen, Huayong; Hollings, Pete; Wu, Chao; Xiao, Bing; Bao, Zhiwei; Xu, Deru

    2016-12-01

    The Fe-Cu mineralization of the Laoshankou district is located in the Dulate Late Paleozoic island arc at the northern margin of East Junggar terrane, Northwest China and is hosted by volcanic rocks of the Middle Devonian Beitashan Formation. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of zircon constrains the timing of crystallization of biotite diorites and quartz syenites in the Laoshankou district to 379 ± 2 Ma and 376 ± 2 Ma, respectively. The volcanic rocks are calc-alkaline in composition and are characterised by LILE and LREE enrichments and HFSE depletions, consistent with a subduction-related affinity. The relatively depleted Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf and Th, enriched Sr and Ba, elevated Mg#, positive εNd(t) values (5.5 and 5.6), low (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios (0.7042 and 0.7044) and MORB-like Pb-isotope characters all suggest that they were derived from a depleted mantle wedge metasomatized by slab-derived fluids, without crustal contamination. The biotite diorite shows slightly metaluminous compositions and is geochemically similar to the volcanic rocks, suggesting that they were derived from the same depleted mantle source. The lack of correlation between SiO2 and initial Sr, Nd ratios suggests that fractional crystallization dominated the petrogenesis of the biotite diorite with only weak crustal contamination. The geochemical characteristics of the quartz syenite are distinct from the volcanic rocks and the biotite diorite. The positive εHf(t), εNd(t), high Th/La (0.17-0.53), Th/Yb (1.62-4.39), low Ce/Th (2.87-10.13) ratios and positive trends of SiO2 versus (87Sr/86Sr)i and (143Nd/144Nd)i indicate the quartz syenite is likely the product of a depleted mantle wedge metasomatized by slab-derived fluids and subducted sediment-derived melts that underwent crustal contamination during passage through the crust. The low abundance of Th, Yb, Ta and La, indicate that all the intrusive rocks from 379 to 376 Ma in the Laoshankou district formed in an island arc rather than a continental margin

  3. Postorogenic denudation along the late Paleozoic Ouachita trend, south central United States of America: Magnitude and timing constraints from apatite fission track data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrigan, Jeff; Cervany, Philip F.; Donelick, Raymond; Bergman, Steven C.

    1998-08-01

    The magnitude and timing of synorogenic and postorogenic denudation along fold and thrust belts and their associated foreland basins, of interest because of both tectonic and economic implications, is generally poorly constrained. Along the late Paleozoic Ouachita trend, a thin veneer of Cretaceous strata is preserved above a low-relief erosional surface that beveled the Ouachita orogen and adjacent foreland areas. This regional erosion surface provides a valuable constraint for interpreting new and previously published apatite fission track (AFT) data obtained from exposed structural highs along the Ouachita trend (Marathon, Llano, Arbuckle, and Benton uplifts). AFT data from sampled localities within the deformation belt (Marathon and Benton uplifts) exhibit younger ages and, generally, longer mean lengths than data from localities on the foreland side of the deformation front (Llano and Arbuckle uplifts). This observation suggests that erosion of the orogen, rather than its extensional collapse, was the primary mechanism responsible for flexural isostatic unloading of the foreland crust. In addition, all samples show evidence for mild reheating following their pre-Cretaceous cooling history. Specifically, the lack of a significant population of >14.5-μm tracks in all samples appears to require residence at temperatures of ≥55°±5°C after development of the sub-Cretaceous erosional surface. This implies that ˜1000 m of Cretaceous-Paleogene (?) strata were deposited across the entire Ouachita frontal trend and subsequently removed during later Tertiary time. This Tertiary denudation is interpreted to reflect the interplay between regional denudation and isostatic compensation in response to slow (˜10 m/m.y.) epeirogenic uplift of the southern midcontinent and a long-term drop (˜200 m) in eustatic sealevel during this time.

  4. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of the Late Paleozoic igneous rocks from the Alataw area of North Yili Block, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiangsong; Cai, Keda; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao; Xia, Xiaoping; Wan, Bo; Bao, Zhihe; Wang, Yannan

    2017-04-01

    Late Carboniferous to Early Permian is a critical period for the final amalgamation and tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). However, the amalgamation time and processes have been a matter of debated. In order to reconstruct the termination processes of the subduction of the Junggar oceanic plate in the Chinese western Tianshan, a suite of magmatic rocks including tuff, rhyolite and granite from the North Yili Block are studied systematically. Our secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) zircon U-Pb dating of the tuff, rhyolite and biotite granite showed that they were formed at 300.4±2.6 Ma, 298.6-302.6 Ma, and 287.5±1.2 Ma, respectively. Geochemically, the tuffs have relatively low SiO2 (65.8-71.5 wt.%) and Mg# (5.9-12.6) values, and exhibit arc affinity with significantly enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and depleted in high field strength elements (HFSE) such as Nb, Ta and Ti. The whole-rock ɛNd(t) and zircon ɛHf(t) values range from +6.9 to +7.0 and +9.86 to +14.07 respectively, indicative of a juvenile basaltic lower crustal origin. In contrast, the rhyolites have higher SiO2 (72.7-74.0 wt.%) and K2O (3.86-4.53 wt.%) contents, high zircon δ18O (11.67-13.23 ‰) values and low whole-rock ɛNd(t) (+2.9 to +3.8) and zircon ɛHf(t) (+2.78 to +9.97) values, which show a significant involvement of sediments. The biotite granites have the highest SiO2 (74.7-75.5 wt.%) contents and high whole-rock ɛNd(t) (+7.7 to +8.8), zircon ɛHf(t) (+9.81 to +12.71) and low zircon δ18O (5.99-6.84 ‰) values suggest a juvenile basaltic lower crustal source. Moreover, the high zircon saturation temperatures (815-938℃) of the tuffs and rhyolites demonstrate a possible genetic link with a break-off tectonic scenario. On the contrast, the very low zircon saturation temperatures (723-735℃) of the biotite granites may suggest a hydrous partial melting of juvenile lower crust, whist the abundant water-fluxes might have been introduced by

  5. Zircon ages and Hf isotopic compositions of Ordovician and Carboniferous granitoids from central Inner Mongolia and their significance for early and late Paleozoic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yuruo; Jian, Ping; Kröner, Alfred; Li, Linlin; Liu, Cui; Zhang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    We present zircon ages and Hf-in-zircon isotopic data for plutonic rocks and review the evolution of central Inner Mongolia, China, in the early and late Paleozoic. Zircons of a granodiorite yielded a 206Pb/238U age of 472 ± 3 Ma that reflects the time of early Paleozoic magmatism. Zircon ages were also obtained for a tonalite (329 ± 3 Ma), quartz-diorite (320 ± 3 Ma), and granite vein (297 ± 2 Ma). Our results, in combination with published zircon ages and geochemical data, document distinct magmatic episodes in central Inner Mongolia. The dated samples are mostly granodiorite, tonalite and quartz-diorite in composition with intermediate to high-silica, high Na2O (3.08-4.26 wt.%), low K2O (0.89-2.86 wt.%), and high Na2O/K2O and Sr/Y ratios. Their chondrite-normalized REE patterns are characterized by LREE enrichment. In mantle-normalized multi-element variation diagrams they show typical negative Nb and Ta anomalies, and all samples display positive εHf(t) and εNd(t) values, and low ISr. The Ordovician rocks, however, show higher Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios than the Carboniferous samples, implying that the older granitoids represent adakitic granitoids, and the Carboniferous granitoids are typical subduction-related arc granitoids but also with adakite-like compositions. The results are compatible with the view that the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) in Inner Mongolia evolved through operation of several subduction systems with different polarities: an early-middle Paleozoic subduction and accretion system along the northern margin of the North China Craton and the southern margin of the Mongolian terrane, and late Paleozoic northward subduction along the northern orogen and exhumation of a high-pressure metamorphic terrane on the northern margin of the North China Craton.

  6. Late Paleozoic to Early Jurassic tectonic development of the high Andean Principal Cordillera, El Indio Region, Chile (29 30°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Mark W.; Clavero R, Jorge; Mpodozis M, Constantino

    1999-01-01

    Regional mapping (1:50,000) and U-Pb and K-Ar geochronology in the El Indio region refines the knowledge of the distribution, lithostratigraphy, and age of the sedimentary, volcanic, and intrusive rocks that comprise the regionally extensive Pastos Blancos Group which is equivalent to the Choiyoi Group of the Argentine Frontal Cordillera. The Pastos Blancos Group (which we elevate to Group status herein) includes at least two diachronous volcanic-sedimentary sequences: an older felsic volcanic and volcaniclastic unit, the Guanaco Sonso sequence, that is Permian in age, and a younger bimodal volcanic and volcaniclastic unit, the Los Tilos sequence that is Middle Triassic to Early Jurassic. Sedimentary rocks of the Los Tilos sequence are transitional upward into the overlying Early to Middle Jurassic shallow marine limestones of the Lautaro Formation. Intrusions that make up the regionally extensive Permian to Early Jurassic plutons of the Chollay and Elqui-Limarı´ batholiths that were previously mapped as a single plutonic association, the Ingaguás Complex, include in the El Indio region at least three discrete intrusive units. These include: Early Permian (280-270 Ma) biotite granites, Early to Middle Triassic (242-238 Ma) silica-rich leucocratic granites and rhyolitic porphyries that made up the bulk of the Chollay Batholith, and a younger Late Triassic-Early Jurassic unit (221-200 Ma) of mainly intrusive rhyolitic porphyries, extrusive domes, and subordinate mafic intrusions and both felsic and mafic dikes, which are coeval with volcanic rocks of the Los Tilos sequence. Our data show that latest Paleozoic to Early Jurassic intrusive, volcanic, and sedimentary rocks in the El Indio region of the High Andes of Chile between 29-30°S likely formed during extension driven processes after the cessation of Carboniferous-Early Permian subduction along the western edge of Gondwana. These processes began by Late Permian time, but instead of recording a single and

  7. Geochronological and sedimentological evidences of Panyangshan foreland basin for tectonic control on the Late Paleozoic plate marginal orogenic belt along the northern margin of the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jialiang; Zhou, Zhiguang; He, Yingfu; Wang, Guosheng; Wu, Chen; Liu, Changfeng; Yao, Guang; Xu, Wentao; Zhao, Xiaoqi; Dai, Pengfei

    2017-08-01

    There is a wide support that the Inner Mongolia Palaeo-uplift on the northern margin of the North China Craton has undergone an uplifting history. However, when and how did the uplift occurred keeps controversial. Extensive field-based structural, metamorphic, geochemical, geochronological and geophysical investigations on the Inner Mongolia Palaeo-uplift, which suggested that the Inner Mongolia Palaeo-uplift was an uplifted region since the Early Precambrian or range from Late Carboniferous-Early Jurassic. The geochemical characteristics of the Late Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic intrusive rocks indicated that the Inner Mongolia Palaeo-uplift was an Andean-type continental margin that is the extensional tectonic setting. To address the spatial and temporal development of the Inner Mongolia Palaeo-uplift, we have carried out provenance analysis of Permian sedimentary rocks which collected from the Panyangshan basin along the northern margin of the North China Craton. The QFL diagram revealed a dissected arc-recycled orogenic tectonic setting. Moreover, the framework grains are abundant with feldspar (36-50%), indicating the short transport distance and unstable tectonic setting. Detrital zircon U-Pb analysis ascertained possible provenance information: the Precambrian basement ( 2490 and 1840 Ma) and continental arc magmatic action ( 279 and 295 Ma) along the northern margin of the North China Craton. The projection in rose diagrams of the mean palaeocurrent direction, revealing the SSW and SSE palaeoflow direction, also shows the provenance of the Panyangshan basin sources mainly from the Inner Mongolia Palaeo-uplift. The andesite overlying the Naobaogou Formation has yielded U-Pb age of 277.3 ± 1.4 Ma. The additional dioritic porphyry dike intruded the Naobaogou and Laowopu Formations, which has an emplacement age of 236 ± 1 Ma. The above data identify that the basin formed ranges from Early Permian to Middle Triassic (277-236 Ma). Accordingly, the Inner Mongolia

  8. Three stages in the Late Paleozoic to Triassic magmatism of southwestern Gondwana, and the relationships with the volcanogenic events in coeval basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Ana María; Llambías, Eduardo J.; Basei, Miguel A. S.; Castro, Carlos E.

    2015-11-01

    The intermediate to acid Choiyoi Magmatic Province is the most conspicuous feature along the Late Paleozic continental margin of southwestern Gondwana, and is generally regarded as the possible source for the widespread ash fall deposits interlayered with sedimentary sequences in the adjacent Gondwana basins. The Choiyoi magmatism is geologically constrained between the early Permian San Rafael orogenic phase and the Triassic extensional Huarpica phase in the region of Argentine Frontal Cordillera, Precordillera and San Rafael Block. In order to better assess the Choiyoi magmatism in Argentine Frontal Cordillera, we obtained 6 new LA-ICPMS U-Pb ages between 278.8 ± 3.4 Ma and 252.5 ± 1.9 Ma from plutonic rocks of the Colangüil Batholith and an associated volcanic rock. The global analysis of age data compiled from Chilean and Argentine Late Paleozoic to Triassic outcrops allows us to identify three stages of magmatism: (1) pre-Choiyoi orogenic magmatism, (2) Choiyoi magmatism (286-247 Ma), and (3) post-Choiyoi magmatism related to extensional tectonics. In the Choiyoi stage is there an eastward shift and expansion of the magmatism to the southeast, covering an extensive region that defines the Choiyoi magmatic province. On the basis of comparison with the ages from volcanogenic levels identified in the coeval Gondwana basins, we propose: (a) The pre-Choiyoi volcanism from the Paganzo basin (320-296 Ma) probably has a local source in addition to the Frontal Cordillera region. (b) The pre-Choiyoi and Choiyoi events identified in the Paraná basin (304-275 Ma) are likely to have their source in the Chilean Precordillera. (c) The early stage of the Choiyoi magmatism found in the Sauce Grande basin (284-281 Ma) may have come from the adjacent Las Matras to Chadileuvú blocks. (d) The pre-Choiyoi and Choiyoi events in the Karoo basins (302-253 Ma) include the longest Choiyoi interval, and as a whole bear the best resemblance to the age records along the Chilean and

  9. Petrogenesis of late Paleozoic-to-early Mesozoic granitoids and metagabbroic rocks of the Tengchong Block, SW China: implications for the evolution of the eastern Paleo-Tethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ren-Zhi; Lai, Shao-Cong; Qin, Jiang-Feng; Zhao, Shao-Wei

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents precise zircon U-Pb, bulk-rock geochemical, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data for metagabbro, quartz diorite, and granite units within the Tengchong Block of SW China, which forms the southeastern extension of the Himalayan orogeny and the southwestern section of the Sanjiang orogenic belt, a key region for furthering our understanding of the evolution of the eastern Paleo-Tethys. These data reveal four groups of zircon U-Pb ages that range from the late Paleozoic to the early Mesozoic, including a 263.6 ± 3.6 Ma quartz diorite, a 218.5 ± 5.4 Ma two-mica granite, a 205.7 ± 3.1 Ma metagabbroic unit, and a 195.5 ± 2.2 Ma biotite granite. The quartz diorite in this area contains low concentrations of SiO2 (60.71-64.32 wt%), is sodium-rich, and is metaluminous, indicating formation from magmas generated by a mixed source of metamafic rocks with a significant metapelitic sedimentary material within lower arc crust. The two-mica granites contain high concentrations of SiO2 (73.2-74.3 wt%), are strongly peraluminous, and have evolved Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions, all of which are indicative of a crustal source, most probably from the partial melting of felsic pelite and metagreywacke/psammite material. The metagabbros contain low concentrations of SiO2 (50.17-50.96 wt%), are sodium-rich, contain high concentrations of Fe2O3T (9.79-10.06 wt%) and CaO (6.88-7.12 wt%), and are significantly enriched in the Sr (869-894 ppm) and LREE (198.14-464.60 ppm), indicative of derivation from magmas generated by a metasomatized mantle wedge modified by the sedimentary-derived component. The biotite granites are weakly peraluminous and formed from magmas generated by melting of metasedimentary sources dominated by metagreywacke/psammite material. Combining the petrology and geochemistry of these units with the regional geology of the Indosinian orogenic belt provides evidence for two stages of magmatism: an initial stage that generated magmas during partial melting of

  10. Timing, petrogenesis and tectonic setting of the Late Paleozoic gabbro-granodiorite-granite intrusions in the Shalazhashan of northern Alxa: Constraints on the southernmost boundary of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xingjun; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Lei; Castro, Antonio; Xiao, XuChang; Tong, Ying; Zhang, Jianjun; Guo, Lei; Yang, Qidi

    2014-11-01

    The Late Paleozoic tectonic setting and location of the southernmost boundary of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) with respect to the Alxa Block or Alxa-North China Craton (ANCC) are debated. This paper presents new geochronological, petrological, geochemical and zircon Hf isotopic data of the Late Paleozoic intrusions from the Shalazhashan in northern Alxa and discusses the tectonic setting and boundary between the CAOB and ANCC. Using zircon U-Pb dating, intrusions can be broadly grouped as Late Carboniferous granodiorites (~ 301 Ma), Middle Permian gabbros (~ 264 Ma) and granites (~ 266 Ma) and Late Permian granodiorites, monzogranites and quartz monzodiorites (254-250 Ma). The Late Carboniferous granodiorites are slightly peraluminous and calcic. The remarkably high zircon Hf isotopes (εHf(t) = + 6-+ 10) and characteristics of high silica adakites suggest that these granodiorites were mainly derived from "hot" basaltic slab-melts of the subducted oceanic crust. The Middle Permian gabbros exhibited typical cumulate textures and were derived from the partial melting of depleted mantle. The Middle Permian granites are slightly peraluminous with high-K calc-alkaline and low εHf(t) values from - 0.9 to + 2.9. These granites were most likely derived from juvenile materials mixed with old crustal materials. The Late Permian granodiorites, monzogranites and quartz monzodiorites are characterized as metaluminous to slightly peraluminous, with variable Peacock alkali-lime index values from calc-alkalic to alkali-calcic. These rocks were mainly derived from juvenile crustal materials, as evidenced by their high εHf(t) values (+ 3.3 to + 8.9). The juvenile sources of the above intrusions in the Shalazhashan are similar to those of the granitoids from the CAOB but distinct from the granitoids within the Alxa Block. These findings suggest that the Shalazhashan Zone belongs to the CAOB rather than the Alxa Block and that its boundary with the Alxa block can be

  11. Petrogenesis of late Paleozoic volcanic rocks from the Daheshen Formation in central Jilin Province, NE China, and its tectonic implications: Constraints from geochronology, geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qian; Ge, Wen-Chun; Yang, Hao; Zhao, Guo-Chun; Zhang, Yan-Long; Su, Li

    2014-04-01

    We present geochronological, geochemical, whole-rock Sr-Nd and zircon Hf-isotopic data for late Paleozoic volcanic rocks from the Daheshen Formation in central Jilin Province, northeastern China, and constrain the petrogenesis of the volcanic rocks and late Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the northern margin of the Northern China Craton, which is regarded as the eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Lithologically, the Daheshen Formation is composed mainly of rhyolite, rhyolitic tuff, dacite and andesite, with minor basalt. The zircons from three rhyolites, two dacites, one rhyolitic tuff and one basalt are euhedral-subhedral, display oscillatory zoning and have high Th/U ratios (0.50-2.28), implying a magmatic origin. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb age data indicate that the volcanic rocks from the Daheshen Formation formed during Late Carboniferous-Early Permian time (302-299 Ma). Geochemically, late Paleozoic volcanic rocks have SiO2 = 52.13-81.77 wt.% and K2O = 0.86-6.88 wt.%, belonging to mid-K to high-K calc-alkaline series. These rocks are characterized by enrichment in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and light rare earth elements (LREEs), and depletion in high field strength elements (HFSEs, such as Nb, Ta, and Ti) and heavy rare earth elements (HREEs), with affinities to igneous rocks forming in an active continental margin setting. All volcanic rocks have depleted Nd isotopic compositions (ɛNd(t) = + 2.4 to + 2.5 for the basalts and + 5.8 to + 7.1 for the andesites and dacites, respectively). In situ Hf isotopic results of zircon from the rhyolites show that they have ɛHf(t) = - 1.1 to + 10.6. All these geochemical features indicate that the andesites, dacites, and rhyolites likely originated from the partial melting of Meso-Neoproterozoic accreted lower crust (Hf and Nd model ages (TDM2) of 1384-662 Ma and 1061-800 Ma, respectively). In contrast, the basalts were derived from the partial fusion of a depleted lithospheric mantle that

  12. Contrasting P-T-t paths: Thermochronologic evidence for a Late Paleozoic final assembly of the Avalon Composite Terrane in the New England Appalachians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wintsch, R. P.; Sutter, J. F.; Kunk, M. J.; Aleinikoff, J. N.; Dorais, M. J.

    1992-06-01

    Strongly contrasting pressure-temperature-time paths for the Avalon composite terrane and the structurally overlying Putnam-Nashoba zone in eastern New England obtained from thermochronologic and thermobarometric data are best explained by a late Paleozoic underthrusting of cover rocks by the Avalon composite terrane. We present new Ar and U-Pb thermochronologic data that show that in the southern Hope Valley zone, Permian (280 Ma) anatectic metamorphic conditions of 700°C and 6 kbar were quenched by relatively rapid cooling (12°C/m.y.) and exhumation (0.5 km/m.y.) for ˜40 m.y. In contrast, peak metamorphic conditions in the Putnam-Nashoba zone predate Silurian intrusions, and slower cooling (3.5°C/m.y.) began at about 400 Ma. One-dimensional thermal modeling suggests that these two belts were not in thermal equilibrium during the Permian metamorphism of the Avalon composite terrane. Because of the absence of high-grade Alleghanian metamorphism in rocks overlying the Avalon terrane, we conclude that high-grade Alleghanian metamorphism in the Avalon terrane occurred east of rocks now overlying it and that significant motion between Avalon and this cover occurred after peak Alleghanian metamorphism. Similarly contrasting metamorphic histories between Avalon inliers (Willimantic window, Massabesic complex gneiss, Pelham dome) and their cover rocks reveals the regional significance of this boundary. The core rocks all show Permian cooling, but the cover rocks show post-Acadian cooling ages decreasing from east to west to the Pelham area, where hornblende ages in Avalon and cover differ by only 35 rather than 80 m.y. Model calculations show that thermal equilibrium between instantaneously thrusted blocks of rocks is generally obtained in tens of millions of years. Consequently, underthrusting of Avalon is constrained to be middle Mississippian or younger. Because the leading edge of the underthrusting block would have been heated the longest and would have most

  13. Source-inherited compositional diversity in granite batholiths: The geochemical message of Late Paleozoic intrusive magmatism in central Calabria (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiannacca, Patrizia; Cirrincione, Rosolino; Bonanno, Fiorenza; Carciotto, Manuele Mario

    2015-11-01

    The Serre Batholith, in central Calabria, is a Late Paleozoic granitoid complex that makes up the middle portion, ca. 13 km thick, of a continuous and nearly complete section of the continental crust. The batholith displays a large compositional variety, with granitoid rocks ranging with continuity from quartz diorite to syenogranite, a distinct group of leucotonalites also occur. The granitoids are on the whole magnesian and calcic to calc-alkalic, with only some of the more evolved rocks showing a ferroan calc-alkalic to alkali-calcic composition. Quartz diorites and tonalites are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, while granodiorites and granites are weakly to strongly peraluminous, with two-mica porphyritic types being the only population with a genuine strongly peraluminous character. Fe*-number, MALI and ASI features highlight a strong affinity of the Serre Batholith rocks with Cordilleran granitoids, inherited from the compositions of the source rocks rather than reflecting the real tectonic environment of the magmas. Major trace element and existing Sr-Nd data are consistent with an origin of the Serre Batholith from the assembling of several batches of magmas with specific original compositions derived by fluid-absent melting of different crustal sources. Quartz diorites and tonalites originated from a metabasaltic magma source, whereas metagraywackes with various mafic and pelitic contents appear the most likely sources of weakly peraluminous granodiorites and strongly peraluminous granodiorites and granites. Biotite ± amphibole granodiorites could also have been derived from mafic-intermediate metaigneous sources. Two-mica porphyritic leucogranites are the only rock types representing pure crustal melts, resulting from melting of mafic pelitic sources. The other granitoid compositions are too silica-poor and MgO + FeOt rich to represent pure melts, so they need to include other components, such as solid restitic/peritectic material entrained from the

  14. Libyan Paleozoic: A review of the factors limiting hydrocarbon potential

    SciTech Connect

    Kanes, W.H.; Mairn, A.E.M.; Aburawi, R.M.

    1988-08-01

    Of the three main Paleozoic basins - Ghadames, Murquz, and Kufra - only the Ghadames and its continuation into Algeria, the Illizi (or Fort Polignac) basin, has yielded hydrocarbons in significant quantity. The Paleozoic on the Cyrenaica platform and basement of the Sirte basin has a potential not fully considered. The paleogeography of the Paleozoic system is reviewed to illustrate the extent to which inherited and reactivated basement-controlled structures have influenced later Paleozoic sedimentation and hence the distribution of source rocks, reservoirs, and seals. In all instances, the source rocks are restricted to shales of the Tanezufft Formation or occur in the Upper Devonian Aouinet Oeunine Formation. Multiple fine-grained sequences serve as seals in all the fields. The reservoirs range from the well-cemented but highly fractured Cambrian-Ordovician Gargaf sandstones to the Acacus-Tadrart clastics to the fine-grained Lower Carboniferous Tahara Sandstone. The principal plays are associated with minor structures, and stratigraphic trapping mechanisms play a minor role. The average field size (excluding the Sirte basin) is approximately 80 million bbl of recoverable oil. Paleozoic structural plays in the Sirte basin and the Cyrenaica platform include reactivated infra-Cambrian faults. The lower Paleozoic accumulations of the Murzuq basin are tied to large structures. With the exception of local areas in the Ghadames basin, the Paleozoic succession remains a stratigraphic frontier province - still incompletely explored but with several interesting possibilities for large amounts of stratigraphically trapped hydrocarbons.

  15. Seismic modeling, rock physics, avo and seismic attribute analysis for illuminating sandstone facies of the Late Ordovic Ian Mamuniyat Reservoir, R-Field, Murzuq Basin-Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abushalah, Yousf Milad

    The Late Ordovician Mamuniyat Formation is the main hydrocarbon reservoir in the R-Field in Murzuq Basin, SW Libya. The Lower Mamuniyat, which is the only unit that was encountered in the study area, is composed of sandstone facies called Clean Mamuniyat and shaly sandstone facies called Dirty Mamuniyat. One major problem with the development of the R-Field is the difficulty of distinguishing the two units so this project was aimed to develop better methods for distinguishing between the two units of the Lower Mamuniyat. The other problem is to distinguish the transgressive shaly facies of the Bir Tlacsin, which has an impact on the hydrocarbon accumulation. Those issues manifested in limit of seismic resolution and interference that resulted from the converted shear mode waves. The dissertation was divided into three chapters. In the first chapter, seismic modeling using a deterministic and a Ricker wavelet were used to investigate the interference effects on the poststack seismic data and a bandpass filter was used to remove those effects. Instantaneous frequency, spectral-based colored inversion and rock physics were, then applied to determine the distributions of the sandstone facies of the Lower Mamuniyat Formation and to interpret the depositional setting of it. In the second chapter, spectral decomposition and inverted density were utilized to determine the distribution of the shaly facies of Bir Tlacsin, and its temporal thickness and to remap the top reservoir. In the last chapter, amplitude variation with offset (AVO) modeling, ray tracing, and spectral analysis were used to investigate the mode conversion and its effect on AVO signature, the amplitude of the near-mid and far offsets and frequency contents. Data enhancement then was performed using partial stacks and a bandpass filter.

  16. Provenances and tectonic implications of Paleozoic siliciclastic rocks from the Baishuijiang Group of the southern Qinling belt, central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Zongqi; Ma, Zhenhui; Wang, Dongsheng

    2017-05-01

    The Paleozoic Baishuijiang Group is exposed in the southern Qinling belt and consists of turbidite sediments. The provenances of the Paleozoic sedimentary rocks is constrained by the integration of major and trace elements and detrital zircon U-Pb dating, which can help to understand the connection between the provenance and the Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the Qinling orogenic belt. The sandstones and mudstones have intermediate SiO2/Al2O3 and K2O/Na2O ratios, and high Fe2O3 + MgO contents. In comparison with average upper continental crust, they show strong negative Nb-Ta and Sr anomalies, slight depletion of Zr-Hf and Th, but moderate enrichment of Sc, Ni and Cr. These rocks show LREE enrichment, and pronounced negative Eu anomalies in chondrite-normalized REE patterns, similar to post-Archean shales. The weathering trend of the sandstones and mudstones suggests andesitic and granodioritic provenances. These sediments are geochemically similar to continental island arc sediments, and therefore were probably deposited at an active continental margin. Detrital zircon U-Pb dating of five sandstones from the Baishuijiang Group yielded ages ranging from 407 to 3000 Ma, with six peaks at ca. 425, 710, 780, 930, 1800, and 2500 Ma. The youngest age peak at 425 Ma and two zircon grains with a weighted average age of 414 Ma indicate that the maximum depositional age of the Baishuijiang Group is late Paleozoic. Our new age data thus suggest that these turbidite sediments were mainly derived from the northern Qinling belt and the northern margin of the Yangtze Block. We propose that the Paleozoic sediments were deposited in an ocean basin between the northern Qinling belt and the Yangtze Block. Combined with regional geological evidences, our results indicate that there was a paleo-ocean in the Qinling orogenic belt since Neoproterozoic era. The oceanic crust was continually subducted northward, resulting in multiple accretion events from the early Paleozoic to early

  17. First results of U-Pb dating of detrital zircons from the Upper Ordovician sandstones of the Bashkir uplift (Southern Urals)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, N. B.; Belousova, E. A.; Degtyarev, K. E.; Pyzhova, E. S.; Maslov, A. V.; Gorozhanin, V. M.; Gorozhanina, E. N.; Romanyuk, T. V.

    2016-04-01

    The first results of U-Pb dating of detrital zircons from Upper Ordovician sandstones of the Bashkir uplift in the Southern Urals and U-Pb isotopic ages available for detrital zircons from six stratigraphic levels of the Riphean-Paleozoic section of this region are discussed. It is established that the long (approximately 1.5 Ga) depositional history of sedimentary sequences of the Bashkir uplift includes a peculiar period lasting from the Late Vendian to the Emsian Age of the Early Devonian (0.55-0.41 Ga). This period is characterized by the following features: (1) prevalence of material from eroded Mesoproterozoic and Early Neoproterozoic crystalline complexes among clastics with ages atypical of the Volga-Urals segment of the East European Platform basement; (2) similarity of age spectra obtained for detrital zircons from different rocks of the period: Upper Vendian-Lower Cambrian lithic sandstones and Middle Ordovician substantially quartzose sandstones.

  18. Depositional Architecture of Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician Siliciclastic Barik Formation; Al Huqf Area, Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, Iftikhar Ahmed

    2017-04-01

    Early Paleozoic siliciclastics sediments of the Haima Supergroup are subdivided into a number of formations and members based on lithological characteristics of various rock sequences. One of the distinct sandstone sequence, the Barik Formation (Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician) of the Andam Group is a major deep gas reservoir in central Oman. The sandstone bodies are prospective reservoir rocks while thick shale and clay interbeds act as effective seal. Part of the Barik Formation (lower and middle part) is exposed in isolated outcrops in Al Huqf area as interbedded multistoried sandstone, and green and red shale. The sandstone bodies are up to 2 meters thick and can be traced laterally for 300 m to over 1 km. Most of sandstone bodies show both lateral and vertical stacking. Two types of sandstone lithofacies are identified on the basis of field characteristics; a plane-bedded sandstone lithofacies capping thick red and green color shale beds, and a cross-bedded sandstone lithofacies overlying the plane-bedded sandstone defining coarsening upward sequences. The plane-bedded sandstone at places contains Cruziana ichnofacies and bivalve fragments indicating deposition by shoreface processes. Thick cross-bedded sandstone is interpreted to be deposited by the fluvial dominated deltaic processes. Load-casts, climbing ripples and flaser-bedding in siltstone and red shale indicate influence of tidal processes at times during the deposition of the formation. This paper summarizes results of a study carried out in Al Huqf area outcrops to analyze the characteristics of the sandstone-body geometry, internal architecture, provenance and diagenetic changes in the lower and middle part of the formation. The study shows build-up of a delta complex and its progradation over a broad, low-angle shelf where fluvial processes operate beside shoreface processes in a vegetation free setting. Keywords: Andam Group, Barik Formation, Ordovician sandstone, Al Huqf, Central Oman,

  19. Late Proterozoic-Paleozoic evolution of the Arctic Alaska-Chukotka terrane based on U-Pb igneous and detrital zircon ages: Implications for Neoproterozoic paleogeographic reconstructions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amato, J.M.; Toro, J.; Miller, E.L.; Gehrels, G.E.; Farmer, G.L.; Gottlieb, E.S.; Till, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    The Seward Peninsula of northwestern Alaska is part of the Arctic Alaska-Chukotka terrane, a crustal fragment exotic to western Laurentia with an uncertain origin and pre-Mesozoic evolution. U-Pb zircon geochronology on deformed igneous rocks reveals a previously unknown intermediate-felsic volcanic event at 870 Ma, coeval with rift-related magmatism associated with early breakup of eastern Rodinia. Orthogneiss bodies on Seward Peninsula yielded numerous 680 Ma U-Pb ages. The Arctic Alaska-Chukotka terrane has pre-Neoproterozoic basement based on Mesoproterozoic Nd model ages from both 870 Ma and 680 Ma igneous rocks, and detrital zircon ages between 2.0 and 1.0 Ga in overlying cover rocks. Small-volume magmatism occurred in Devonian time, based on U-Pb dating of granitic rocks. U-Pb dating of detrital zircons in 12 samples of metamorphosed Paleozoic siliciclastic cover rocks to this basement indicates that the dominant zircon age populations in the 934 zircons analyzed are found in the range 700-540 Ma, with prominent peaks at 720-660 Ma, 620-590 Ma, 560-510 Ma, 485 Ma, and 440-400 Ma. Devonian- and Pennsylvanian-age peaks are present in the samples with the youngest detrital zircons. These data show that the Seward Peninsula is exotic to western Laurentia because of the abundance of Neoproterozoic detrital zircons, which are rare or absent in Lower Paleozoic Cordilleran continental shelf rocks. Maximum depositional ages inferred from the youngest detrital age peaks include latest Proterozoic-Early Cambrian, Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, and Pennsylvanian. These maximum depositional ages overlap with conodont ages reported from fossiliferous carbonate rocks on Seward Peninsula. The distinctive features of the Arctic Alaska-Chukotka terrane include Neoproterozoic felsic magmatic rocks intruding 2.0-1.1 Ga crust overlain by Paleozoic carbonate rocks and Paleozoic siliciclastic rocks with Neoproterozoic detrital zircons. The Neoproterozoic ages are

  20. Late Paleozoic closure of the Ob-Zaisan Ocean along the Irtysh/Chara shear zone and implications for arc amalgamation and oroclinal bending in the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengfei; Sun, Min; Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2016-04-01

    The Irtysh/Chara Shear Zone is one of the largest strike-slip systems in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). It records collisional processes of the peri-Siberian orogenic system with the West Junggar-Kazakhstan-Tianshan orogenic system following the closure of the Ob-Zaisan Ocean, but the exact timing of these events remains enigmatic. We conducted detailed structural analysis along the Irtysh Shear Zone (NW China), which together with new geochronological data allows us to reconstruct the tectonic evolution during the final closure of the Ob-Zaisan Ocean. Our results showed that subduction-accretion processes lasted at least until the Late Carboniferous in the Chinese Altai and the East/West Junggar. The subsequent arc amalgamation is characterized by a cycle of crustal thickening, orogenic collapse and transpressional thickening. On a larger scale, the West Junggar- Kazakhstan -Tianshan orogenic system defines a U-shape oroclinal structure (e.g. Xiao et al., 2010). A major phase of oroclinal bending that involved ~110° rotation may have occurred during the Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous (Levashova et al., 2012). Previous authors have linked oroclinal bending with the late Paleozoic amalgamation of the western CAOB, and proposed that a quasi-linear West Junggar- Kazakhstan -Tianshan orogenic system was buckled during the convergence of the Siberian and Tarim cratons following the closure of the Ob-Zaisan Ocean (in the north) and the South Tianshan Ocean (in the south) (e.g. Abrajevitch et al., 2008). This model, however, is not supported by our new data that constrain the closure of the Ob-Zaisan Ocean to the Late Carboniferous. Alternatively, we propose that oroclinal bending may have involved two phases of bending, with the ~110° rotation in the Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous possibly associated with trench retreat. Further tightening may have occurred in response to the convergence of the Siberian and Tarim cratons during the Late

  1. Evolution of the late Paleozoic accretionary complex and overlying forearc-magmatic arc, south central Chile (38°-41°S): Constraints for the tectonic setting along the southwestern margin of Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Mark W.; Kato, Terence T.; Rodriguez, Carolina; Godoy, Estanislao; Duhart, Paul; McDonough, Michael; Campos, Alberto

    1999-08-01

    Stratigraphic, structural, metamorphic, and geochronologic studies of basement rocks in the Andean foothills and Coast Ranges of south central Chile (39°-41°S) suggest a protracted late Paleozoic to middle Mesozoic deformational and metamorphic history that imposes important constraints on the tectonic development of the southwestern Gondwana margin. In the study area the late Paleozoic paired metamorphic belt, coeval magmatic arc, and overlying Triassic sedimentary units preserve a record of Late Carboniferous to Early Permian subduction and arc magmatism, subsequent deep exhumation of the Western Series subduction complex, and diminished uplift and erosion of the Eastern Series arc-forearc region by the Late Triassic. Late Paleozoic structural elements and metamorphic assemblages formed during early subduction and arc magmatism, collectively referred to as Dl, are largely erased in the Western Series by the dominant D2 schistosity and lower greenschist grade metamorphism. D1 structural features, as well as original sedimentary textures, are relatively well preserved in the less penetratively deformed Eastern Series. The regional distribution of late Paleozoic arc magmatism suggests that the late Paleozoic convergent margin deviated from a N-S trend north of this area to a NW-SE trend near this latitude and faced an open marine environment to the southwest. A transition from F2 isoclinal folding to more open, larger-scale F3 folds, interpreted as change in ductility during differential uplift of the Western Series, is not apparent in the Eastern Series. Despite a lesser degree of uplift during the main exhumational D2 event, delineation of unconformities and U-Pb dating of detrital zircons and intrusions into the Eastern Series allow tighter constraints to be placed on timing of uplift and denudation of the Eastern Series than on that in the Western Series. A regional unconformity exposed in the Lake District that separates more highly deformed Eastern Series

  2. Geochronology and geochemistry of late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic igneous rocks of the Erguna Massif, NE China: Implications for the early evolution of the Mongol-Okhotsk tectonic regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Feng; Tang, Jie; Zhao, Shuo; Guo, Peng

    2017-08-01

    We undertook geochemical and geochronological studies on late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic igneous rocks from the Erguna Massif with the aim of constraining the early evolution of the Mongol-Okhotsk tectonic regime. Zircon crystals from nine representative samples are euhedral-subhedral, display oscillatory growth zoning, and have Th/U values of 0.14-6.48, indicating a magmatic origin. U-Pb dating of zircon using SIMS and LA-ICP-MS indicates that these igneous rocks formed during the Late Devonian (∼365 Ma), late Carboniferous (∼303 Ma), late Permian (∼256 Ma), and Early-Middle Triassic (246-238 Ma). The Late Devonian rhyolites, together with coeval A-type granites, formed in an extensional environment related to the northwestwards subduction of the Heihe-Nenjiang oceanic plate. Their positive εHf(t) values (+8.4 to +14.4) and Hf two-stage model ages (TDM2 = 444-827 Ma) indicate they were derived from a newly accreted continental crustal source. The late Carboniferous granodiorites are geochemically similar to adakites, and their εHf(t) values (+10.4 to +12.3) and Hf two-stage model ages (TDM2 = 500-607 Ma) suggest they were sourced from thickened juvenile lower crustal material, this thickening may be related to the amalgamation of the Erguna-Xing'an and Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range massifs. Rocks of the late Permian to Middle Triassic suite comprise high-K calc-alkaline monzonites, quartz monzonites, granodiorites, and monzogranites. These rocks are relatively enriched in light rare earth elements and large ion lithophile elements, and depleted in heavy rare earth elements and high field strength elements. They were emplaced, together with coeval porphyry-type ore deposits, along an active continental margin where the Mongol-Okhotsk oceanic plate was subducting beneath the Erguna Massif.

  3. Upper Paleozoic glacigenic deposits of Gondwana: Stratigraphy and paleoenvironmental significance of a tillite succession in Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornamusini, Gianluca; Talarico, Franco M.; Cirilli, Simonetta; Spina, Amalia; Olivetti, Valerio; Woo, Jusun

    2017-08-01

    Late Paleozoic glacial deposits are widespread in Gondwana. In Antarctica the best outcrops occur in the Central Transantarctic Mountains, Ellsworth Mountains, Pensacola Mountains, and in Southern Victoria Land, whereas they are rare and very scattered in Northern Victoria Land, which represents a linkage sector with Tasmania and eastern Australia. The aim of the present research is to define the stratigraphic setting and the environmental interpretation of a poorly studied Lower Permian glacigenic succession located near Orr Glacier in the Lanterman Range in Northern Victoria Land. It has great importance because it represents the only significant glacigenic succession for this wide area, marking and defining time and modality of a glacial-postglacial transition during the early Permian, a critical time-interval in the paleoenvironmental evolution of southern Gondwana. This succession, named here as the Lanterman Formation, lies directly on to crystalline basement, and is overlain by a thick Permian fluvial succession (Takrouna Formation). The results provided by sedimentological facies analysis and palynological analysis, integrated with a limited petrographic characterization, show a correlation framework between two isolated successions, outlining their stratigraphic architecture and subdivided into a lower glacial portion and an upper postglacial portion. The former, Asselian in age, is dominated by diamictite, sandstone, mudstone with lonestones, and carbonate deposits, suggesting repeated advance and retreat of a terrestrial glacier, with facies associations indicating environmental changes from subglacial to glaciofluvial, to glaciolacustrine. The latter is dominated by lacustrine mudstone with decreasing lonestones upward, thin bedded sandstone, conglomerate and a thick fluvial sandstone and pebbly sandstone succession at the top, signalling the transition to a fluvial system through time. The overall dataset suggests that the late Paleozoic glacigenic

  4. Detrital modes of the Pyeongan Supergroup (Late Carboniferous Early Triassic) sandstones in the Samcheog coalfield, Korea: implications for provenance and tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong Il; Sheen, Dong-Hee

    1998-08-01

    Medium to coarse sandstones of the Carboniferous to Early Triassic Pyeongan Supergroup in the Samcheog coalfield, Korea, were studied to infer the provenance and tectonic settings of the source areas. Sandstone detrital modes change upwards stratigraphically. Sandstone types from the Manhang to Dosagog formations low to middle in the sequence are quartzarenite, and sublitharenite to litharenite, whereas sandstones of the Gohan and Donggo formations high in the sequence are feldspathic litharenite and arkose, respectively. Using various ternary diagrams, the provenance of the Manhang to Gohan formations is suggested to be a recycled orogen setting. Some Gohan Formation sandstones plot within the arc-related setting field, and the Donggo Formation sandstones plot within both continental block and recycled orogen fields. Results of quartz grain petrography are consistent with those of detrital modes. Quartz in sandstones of all units except the Donggo Formation indicates derivation from low-rank metamorphic sources. Quartz in Donggo sandstones was derived from medium- to high-rank metamorphic and plutonic source rocks. Considering the sandstone composition and palaeocurrent data, the Pyeongan Supergroup probably was deposited in a molasse foreland basin and was derived from a synbasinal orogenic belt, probably the Akiyoshi orogen located in southwest Japan.

  5. Gravity constraints on lithosphere flexure and the structure of the late Paleozoic Ouachita orogen in Arkansas and Oklahoma, south central North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harry, Dennis L.; Mickus, Kevin L.

    1998-04-01

    Spectral analysis of Bouguer gravity anomalies in western central Arkansas and eastern Oklahoma indicates that the thickness of the crust in the Ouachita fold and thrust belt increases from 38 km in the western Ouachitas to 44 km in the eastern Ouachitas. The change in crustal thickness occurs near the western end of the Broken Bow uplift and coincides with an abrupt decrease in the flexural rigidity of the lithosphere from 1.8×1024 N m in the western Ouachitas to 5.0×1023 N m in the eastern Ouachitas. The flexural rigidity in the western Ouachitas is similar to values determined in the Appalachian fold and thrust belt and coincides with the depth of the 450°C isotherm predicted by conductive cooling models for the thermal evolution of the early Paleozoic southern Laurentian rifted continental margin. The thick crust in the eastern Ouachitas results in lithosphere that is anomalously weak for rifted continental crust of this age. The thicker crust is attributed to an eastward transition from a rift segment to a transform segment of the Paleozoic continental margin. A layered density model derived from the gravity data shows that strata interpreted to be deformed Ouachita facies rocks are thickest in the eastern Ouachitas and are consistent with a greater amount of shortening in the central thrust belt in Arkansas as compared to Oklahoma. The opposite relationship is observed in the frontal Ouachita province, where shortening appears greater in Oklahoma. The cross-strike changes in the locus of shortening, crustal thickness, flexural rigidity, and the inferred transition from rift to transform segments of the early Paleozoic continental margin all coincide with the location of a previously hypothesized zone of diffuse rightlateral shear located at the western end of the Benton uplift. Flexural modeling indicates that the load required to produce the observed Bouguer gravity low in the Arkoma foreland basin trends parallel to the Benton and Broken Bow uplifts but

  6. Permian tectonism in Rocky Mountain foreland and its importance in Exploration for Minnelusa and Lyons sandstones

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, W.R.

    1985-05-01

    Permian sandstones are important producers of oil in the Powder River and Denver basins of the Rocky Mountain foreland region. In the Powder River basin, Wolfcampian Minnelusa Sandstone produces oil from structural and stratigraphic traps on both sides of the basin axis, whereas in Denver basin, the Leonardian Lyons Sandstone produces oil mainly from structural traps on the west flank of the basin. Two fields, North Fork-Cellars Ranch in the Powder River basin, and Black Hollow in the Denver basin, are examples of Permian growth of structural features. At North Fork-Cellars Ranch, a period of Permian structural growth and resultant differential sedimentation is documented by structure and isopach maps of the Minnelusa and overlying Goose Egg Formation. Structural growth began at the end of Minnelusa deposition and resulted in deposition of a much thicker Goose Egg section on the west flank of the field. At Black Hollow, mapping indicates structural growth was initiated before deposition of the Lyons Sandstone and continued throughout Leonardian time. In both fields growth abruptly ceased in the Late Permian. Both North Fork-Cellars Ranch and Black Hollow are located on structural highs, or arches, which trend east-west across the Powder River and Denver basins. These arches were present during the pre-Laramide migration of Paleozoic-sourced hydrocarbons into the basins and acted as pathways for migration. Exploration for Permian reservoirs in the two basins should be concentrated on the arches, as the early formed traps were present when migration began.

  7. Provenance of Gebel El-Zeit sandstones, gulf of Suez, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Wahab, Antar A.

    1992-01-01

    The Paleozoic elastic succession at Gebel Zeit chiefly consists of fine- to medium-grained quartz arenite, locally containing well-rounded quartz pebbles. The marine Araba Formation (Early Cambrian) was deposited during transgression over a Precambrian granite. The overlying Naqus Formation (Late Cambrian) is fluvial, except for the uppermost few meters. Paleocurrent data for the Araba and Naqus formations indicate derivation from the north-northeast and south-southwest respectively. Quartz typology, other morphologic features of quartz, and mineral inclusions in quartz, as well as the study of heavy minerals were used to determine the provenance of the sandstones. Quartz typology successfully identified a granitic source for the Araba Formation. A combination of parameters indicates that the Naqus Formation was derived chiefly from a metamorphic terrain. Two ratios, polycrystalline/monocrystalline quartz and undulose/non-undulose quartz, successfully distinguish sandstones of the Araba Formation from those of the Naqus Formation. These values are 0.14 and 0.25 for Araba sandstones and 0.26 and 0.46 for Naqus sandstones, respectively. These differences either reflect different source rocks, or have resulted from selective abrasion loss of polycrystalline quartz in the rigorous surf zone during the marine transgression that deposited the Araba Formation.

  8. Late Paleozoic low-angle southward-dipping thrust in the Züünharaa area, Mongolia: tectonic implications for the geological structures in the Sayan-Baikal and Hangai-Daur belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onon, Gantumur; Tsukada, Kazuhiro

    2017-02-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is key to understanding the Paleozoic-Mesozoic geodynamics of Eurasian continent. The geological structure of the Middle-to-Late Paleozoic rock units in the North Mongolia-West Transbaikal region is critical in revealing development process of CAOB. The region is largely comprised of rocks from the continental affinity and accretionary complexes which form the Sayan-Baikal (SB) and Hangai-Daur (HD) belts. This paper describes the lithology, stratigraphy, geological structure, and U-Pb age of the rocks in the Züünharaa area, which is located within the Haraa terrane of the HD belt in Mongolia. We identified a regional low-angle southward-dipping thrust in this area. The tectonic implication of the low-angle south-dipping thrust is discussed within the North Mongolia-West Transbaikal region. The study area exposes metamorphosed clastic rocks of the Haraa Group intruded by Ordovician-Silurian granitic rocks, Devonian felsic volcanic rocks of the Ulaan Öndör Formation, and Visean clastic rocks of the Örmögtei Formation in ascending order. The Haraa Group, granitic rock, and Ulaan Öndör Formation are cut by the low-angle southward-dipping thrust throughout this area. The rocks along the thrust are fractured to form cataclasite zone up to 40 m wide. The thrust includes granite-rhyolite clast of 450-420 Ma, and is unconformably covered by Visean Örmögtei Formation. Therefore, thrusting occurred after Ordovician-Silurian and before Visean. Late Paleozoic low-angle southward-dipping thrusts, similar to the present study, are widely distributed in the Haraa terrane of the Hangai-Daur belt and in terranes of the Sayan-Baikal belt. Whereas, the contemporaneous southeast-verging composite folds and northward-dipping thrusts are developed in the accretionary complexes, which are exposed at south of the Haraa terrane. These contrasting structures suggest a couple of "landward-verging" and "oceanward-verging" structures and may

  9. Early Paleozoic sedimentation in Reelfoot rift

    SciTech Connect

    Houseknecht, D.W.; Weaverling, P.H.

    1983-09-01

    Analysis of subsurface data from deep tests drilled in the northern Mississippi embayment and southern Mid-Continent suggests that earliest Paleozoic sedimentation was dominated by the tectonic evolution of the Reelfoot rift. Throughout most of the Mid-Continent, the Upper Cambrian Lamotte (Mt. Simon) sandstone rests nonconformably on Precambrian basement and is overlain by the Bonneterre (Eau Claire) Formation. However, in the area of the Reelfoot rift, both the Lamotte and Bonneterre grade into thick, basinal shales that locally display evidence of episodic deposition of coarse clastics, perhaps on submarine fans. Moreover, two major sedimentary units are present beneath the Lamotte-Bonneterre basinal facies within the Reelfoot rift. Immediately underlying the Lamotte-Bonneterre shale is a carbonate stratum (probably dolomite) that thickens to more than 1,000 ft (300 m) along the axis of the basin in eastern Arkansas. Underlying this carbonate is a detrital unit that grades from arkosic sandstone near the northern terminus of the basin to a basinal shale southward. This basinal shale is at least several hundred feet thick near the axis of the basin. These two strata occupy the stratigraphic position of the Conasauga (Middle Cambrian) and Rome (Lower Cambrian) Formations of the southern Appalachians. The axial and transverse distribution of these strata suggests that the Reelfoot evolved as paired grabens or half grabens during the Early and Middle Cambrian. Subsequently, the Reelfoot remained the axis for more widespread subsidence and sedimentation throughout much of the Paleozoic.

  10. Kleinholz paleozoic field study Kimball County, Nebraska

    SciTech Connect

    Sahl, H.L. ); Pritchett, F.I. Jr.; Loeffler, P.T.

    1993-07-01

    Kleinholz Field is located in Kimball County of western Nebraska, approximately 250 km northeast of Denver, Colorado. The Paleozoic production from the field is primarily from the Wykert sandstone of the Permian Council Grove Group. Several carbonate zones in the Permian Admire Group also are productive. The field has produced 1,412,449 BO (August 1992) from 26 wells completed in the Permian with a daily production rate of nearly 1,300 BOPD. The Wykert sandstone oil accumulation is in a stratigraphic trap. Ultimate recovery is expected to be approximately 4.5 MMBO which includes waterflood reserves in the Wykert and production from other zones. The discovery well was the Exxon Koenig No. 1 on the western edge of the field in the NW Sec. 17, T14N, R56W. It was drilled on a seismic anomaly targeting Wolfcamp and Pennsylvanian carbonates. It was completed in April 1986 for an initial potential of 35 BO and 11 BWPD from Admire perforations. Wykert sandstone production was first established a year and a half later at the Koenig No. 2. However, it was not recognized as the major field pay until January 1989 with completion of the Exxon P.V. Wykert No. 1 for an initial potential of 340 BOPD. 3 refs., 13 figs.

  11. Reservoir quality and diagenetic evolution of Upper Mississippian rocks in the Illinois Basin; influence of a regional hydrothermal fluid-flow event during late diagenesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitman, Janet K.; Henry, Mitchell E.; Seyler, Beverly

    1998-01-01

    Conventional reservoir quality data for more than 300 wells provided by the Illinois and Indiana State Geological Surveys were analyzed to determine the factors governing porosity and permeability in the Upper Mississippian Bethel Sandstone and Cypress Sandstone, two of the principal producing units in the Illinois Basin. In addition, approximately 150 samples of the Bethel Sandstone-Cypress Sandstone interval from about 80 wells in the Illinois Basin were collected for mineralogical and geochemical analysis to reconstruct the burial and diagenetic history and to establish the timing of diagenesis relative to the entrapment of hydrocarbons. One aspect of the study involved linking inorganic and organic diagenesis to late Paleozoic tectonism and hydrothermal fluid-flow events in the region.

  12. Did the Paleo-Asian Ocean between North China Block and Mongolia Block exist during the late Paleozoic? First paleomagnetic evidence from central-eastern Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Pan; Chen, Yan; Xu, Bei; Faure, Michel; Shi, Guanzhong; Choulet, Flavien

    2013-05-01

    The tectonic evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean between the North China Block (NCB) and the Mongolia Block (MOB) is a contentious issue, and geodynamic models remain speculative. In an effort to puzzle out this controversy, a paleomagnetic study was carried out on the Silurian to Permian formations in central-eastern Inner Mongolia (China). More than 680 sedimentary and volcanic samples were collected from 86 sites. We have established titanium-poor magnetite and hematite as the principal magnetic carriers. Anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility measurements demonstrate negligible deformation of the majority of study rocks with sedimentary fabrics. From primary magnetizations, a Late Devonian and a Permian pole are calculated for Inner Mongolia Block (IMB) at λ = 46.8°N, φ = 349.1°E, dp = 14.6°, dm = 27.3° with N = 3 and λ = 48.7°N, φ = 3.7°E, dp = 5.2°, dm = 9.1° with N = 6, respectively. Two stages of secondary magnetization are also identified probably due to Early Permian and Early Cretaceous magmatic events. As preliminary results, the comparison of our new paleomagnetic poles with available data from NCB, MOB, and Siberia indicates that (1) the paleolatitudes of IMB, NCB, and MOB are consistent between Late Devonian and Permian, suggesting pre-Late Devonian closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean and further evaluation of these three blocks as a single entity and (2) post-Permian intracontinental deformation was significant and characterized by block rotations, which are due to strike-slip faulting within the welded NCB-IMB-MOB block.

  13. Age and petrogenesis of late Paleozoic granites from the northernmost Alxa region, northwest China, and implications for the tectonic evolution of the region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen; Pease, Victoria; Meng, Qingpeng; Zheng, Rongguo; Wu, Tairan; Chen, Yan; Gan, Lisheng

    2017-01-01

    The Wudenghan, Huhetaoergai and Zhuxiaobuguhe plutons, northern Alxa region, in the southern Central Asia Orogenic Belt are dated by U-Pb zircon to 383 ± 3, 356 ± 3 and 286 ± 2 Ma, respectively. The late Devonian Wudenghan monzogranite, a highly fractionated I-type granite with ɛ Nd( t) (-0.2 to -0.1) and very low (87Sr/86Sr) t (0.704719-0.706113), is from mantle-derived magmas and shows volcanic arc characteristics. The early Carboniferous Huhetaoergai granodiorite with medium-K calc-alkaline peraluminous characteristics represents a volcanic arc granite generated from partial melting of lower continental crust combined with mantle-derived input. The early Permian Zhuxiaobuguhe pluton, an unfractionated calc-alkaline granodiorite with moderately low ɛ Nd( t) (-2.0 to -1.1) and low (87Sr/86Sr) t (0.708370-0.708462), was likely derived from partial melting of the mafic lower crust of a paleo-volcanic arc and represents a post-collisional granite. Our revised tectonic evolution of the region includes (1) northward subduction of the oceanic crust represented by the Engger Us Ophiolitic Belt and formation of the late Devonian Wudenghan monzogranite, (2) northward subduction of the ocean between the Huhetaoergai and Zhusileng tectonic zones and the formation of the Huhetaoergai volcanic arc granite during the early Carboniferous and (3) the emplacement of the Zhuxiaobuguhe pluton in the early Permian during post-collisional extension.

  14. Petrogenesis of Late Paleozoic volcanics from the Zhaheba depression, East Junggar: Insights into collisional event in an accretionary orogen of Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Di; He, Deng-fa; Santosh, M.; Tang, Jie-yun

    2014-01-01

    The Carboniferous to Permian period marks an important transition from accretion to collision in the East Junggar terrane, NW China. Field and Well Fuqian-1 well core data from the Zhaheba depression provide a better window for understanding the magmatic process during this period and its implications for the continental growth of Central Asia. Field investigations reveal structural features characterized by NE-SW compression, with lithology composed of basic and intermediate-felsic volcanic rocks and pyroclastic rocks. The core samples from Well Fuqian-1 show dominantly basalt, basaltic andesite, dacite and minor pyroclastic rocks. We report zircon SHRIMP U-Pb ages of 276.0-279.8 Ma from rhyolites and zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages of 315.4-317.4 Ma from dacite and basaltic andesite. Our data suggest that the volcanic rocks from surface exposures and the well cores of Well Fuqian-1 formed in the Early Permian and the Late Carboniferous, respectively. The Late Carboniferous mafic rocks have geochemical characteristics similar to the intercalated Early Permian felsic rocks. The mafic rocks show low initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.703162-0.703783) and high ɛNd(t) (5.5-7.5), enrichment in LREE and some LILEs (such as Rb and Th) as well as HFSEs (such as Zr, Y), and depletion in Nb, Ta and Ti. Furthermore, they also display lower Sm/Th (1.6-8.4) and higher Th/Y (0.03-0.12) ratios than those of MORB, and variable Th/Zr (0.004-0.016), Ba/Th (61-839), Ba/La (6.13-48.77) and Ba/Nb (10-101) ratios. The geochemical data suggest that these rocks were derived dominantly from a 5-10% partial melting of a mainly garnet-rich with minor spinel-bearing Iherzolite mantle source metasomatized by slab-derived fluids. The felsic rocks are rich in silica (SiO2 = 57.43-78.07%) and alkalis (K2O + Na2O = 5.33-9.28%) and possess high TFe2O3 (0.70-6.95%) contents and Ga/Al ratios, and low CaO (0.18-5.11%) and MgO (0.13-2.02%) contents. They represent typical high-medium-K calc-alkaline A-type rhyolite

  15. The Paleozoic petroleum geology of central Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    McGillivray, J.G.; Husseini, M.I. )

    1991-08-01

    Recent exploratory drilling in central Saudi Arabia indicates that all the geological elements of a major petroleum basin are present in this province. Several Paleozoic siliciclastic sequences which were deposited along the stable Arabian margin of Gondwanaland constitute excellent reservoirs. The identified reservoir targets include the Cambrian-Ordovician Saq Formation, Upper Ordovician-Lower Silurian glaciogenic clastics of the Sarah and Zarqa formations, and both fluvial and shallow marine sandstones of the Permian-Carboniferous Unayzah Formation. The source rock is a widespread organic-rich shale which was deposited during the regional deglaciation in the earliest Silurian. Migration occurred vertically along faults and/or updip from the regional Qusaiba shale subcrop through the reservoirs. Interbedded upper Permian shales and evaporites form the basal sequence of a major carbonate transgression and provide a capping seal. The traps are broad, low-relief, fault-generated structures which developed primarily during the Triassic.

  16. Petrology and stratigraphy of Paleogene nonmarine sandstones, Cascade Range, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frizzell, Virgil A.

    1979-01-01

    The Cascade Range of Washington north of 47? latitude is composed of probable Paleozoic and Mesozoic metamorphic rocks and Mesozoic and Tertiary plutonic rocks. Several Paleogene nonmarine arkosic sandstone units fringe and in part occur within the complex crystalline core. The early to middle Eocene Chuckanut Formation is present on the west side of the crystalline core in the western foothills of the Cascades. The early to middle Eocene Swauk Formation partially encircles the Mt. Stuart massif of the central Cascades. In the western foothills of the Cascades, between the main body of Chuckanut Formation near Bellingham and the main outcrop area of the Swauk Formation south of Mt. Stuart, many smaller bodies of arkosic sandstone have variously been referred to either the Swauk or Chuckanut Formations. The early Eocene Manastash Formation occurs locally in an area south of the Yakima River. The middle to late Eocene Chumstick Formation is mostly confined to the Chiwaukum graben within the crystalline core and is separated from the Swauk Formation on the southwest by the Leavenworth Fault. The Oligocene Wenatchee Formation unconformably over lies the Chumstick Formation near Wenatchee. The middle to late Eocene Roslyn Formation crops out north of the Yakima River and is underlain by the Teanaway Basalt which separates the Roslyn from the older Swauk Formation. The middle Eocene to early Oligocene Naches Formation forms a north-trending body that crosses the Yakima River and is in fault contact with both the Swauk and Manastash Formations. The middle to late Eocene Puget Group underlies the Quaternary deposits of the Puget Lowland southeast of Seattle on the western flank of the Cascades. The various formations are all composed predominantly of fine- to medium-grained sandstones with lesser amounts of interbedded shale, conglomerate and coal. Compositionally, the units are predominantly either feldspathic or litho-feldspathic subquartzose sandstones. Volcanic rocks

  17. Petrogenesis and tectonic setting of the Late Paleozoic Xing'an complex in the northern Great Xing'an Range, NE China: Constraints from geochronology, geochemistry and zircon Hf isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yu; Ge, Wenchun; Zhao, Guochun; Yang, Hao; Liu, Xiwen; Zhang, Yanlong

    2016-01-01

    To determine the petrogenesis and tectonic setting of the Late Paleozoic Xing'an complex in the northern Great Xing'an Range (GXR), northeastern China, we undertook zircon U-Pb dating and geochemical analyses (major and trace elements, and Hf isotopic compositions) on samples obtained from the complex. The Xing'an complex is composed mainly of the Xinshali (XSL), Ershihao (ESH), Xinnangou (XNG) and Xing'an Station (XAS) plutons. The U-Pb zircon ages measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) indicate that the Xing'an complex was emplaced in three stages, represented by the ∼358 Ma XSL, ∼308 Ma XNG/XAS, and ∼294 Ma ESH plutons. The XSL pluton is composed mainly of gabbro diorites (SiO2 = 53.49-56.81 wt.%; MgO = 4.60-5.52 wt.%) of the mid-K calc-alkaline series. These rocks are weakly enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and light rare earth elements (HREEs), and depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs, e.g., Nb, Ta, and Ti) and heavy rare earth elements (HREEs), with εHf(t) values of +4.07 to +7.59. Based on these geochemical and isotopic features, we propose that the magma of the XSL pluton was derived from partial melting of depleted lithospheric mantle that was metasomatized by subducted slab-derived fluids. The ESH and XSL plutons have similar geochemical compositions and zircon Hf isotopic values, thereby indicating a common petrogenesis. In contrast, the XNG and XAS plutons comprise syenogranites and monzogranites that are geochemically similar to I-type granites based on their high SiO2 (67.93-74.98 wt.%) and Na2O + K2O (7.12-9.20 wt.%) contents, low MgO (0.33-1.14 wt.%) content, enrichment in LILEs (e.g., Rb, Th, U, K) and LREEs, and depletion in Nb, Ta, Ti and P. The positive εHf(t) values (+6.34 to +12.72) of the XNG and XAS plutons and their corresponding Hf two-stage model ages of 1149 Ma to 484 Ma indicate that the parental magma was derived

  18. Origin of the Nubian and similar sandstones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, E.D.

    1963-01-01

    The Nubian Sandstone and similar sandstone bodies exposed across much of northern Africa and adjoining parts of Asia are characteristically formed of clean sand that is conspicuously cross stratified throughout. Such sandstone, here called Nubian-type sandstone, ranges from Cambrian through Cretaceous in age and its genesis has been interpreted in many ways. Studies of its primary structures, and of the direction of sand transport, based on statistical measurements of foreset dip directions, have contributed new data on its genesis. By far the most common structure in Nubian-type sandstone is a medium-scale planar-type cross stratification in which sets of evenly dipping cross beds are bounded by essentially flat-lying top and bottom surfaces to form tabular bodies. Other less numerous but typical structures are large-scale, truncated-wedge cross strata, trough-type cross strata, intraformational recumbent folds, small-scale ripple laminae, and dipping sets of tabular-planar cross beds. An analysis of these structures suggests that in the typical Nubian Sandstone of Cretaceous age eolian deposits are not represented and normal marine types probably also are lacking; flood plain, pond or lagoon, and other continental and marginal environments are indicated. In the Carboniferous rocks of Sinai Peninsula some beach sandstone and possibly some eolian, in addition to the types described, form part of the sequence. Direction of sand transport, as determined from cross-bed dips, was northerly in the Cretaceous Nubian of Libya, Sudan, and Egypt; easterly in the Jurassic Adigrat of Ethiopia; westerly in the Carboniferous of Sinai; northwesterly in the early Paleozoic of Jordan. ?? 1963 Ferdinand Enke Verlag Stuttgart.

  19. Geochronology and geochemistry of late Paleozoic magmatic rocks in the Yinwaxia area, Beishan: Implications for rift magmatism in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Rongguo; Wu, Tairan; Zhang, Wen; Meng, Qingpeng; Zhang, Zhaoyu

    2014-09-01

    since Early Devonian, and then changed into a continental rift stage around late Carboniferous-early Permian.

  20. Structural and kinematic evolution of the Yukon-Tanana upland tectonites, east-central Alaska: A record of late Paleozoic to Mesozoic crustal assembly

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, V.L.; Dusel-Bacon, C.

    1998-01-01

    The Yukon-Tanana terrane, the largest tectonostratigraphic terrane in the northern North American Cordillera, is polygenetic and not a single terrane. Lineated and foliated (L-S) tectonites, which characterize the Yukon-Tanana terrane, record multiple deformations and formed at different times. We document the polyphase history recorded by L-S tectonites within the Yukon-Tanana upland, east-central Alaska. These upland tectonites compose a heterogeneous assemblage of deformed igneous and metamorphic rocks that form the Alaskan part of what has been called the Yukon-Tanana composite terrane. We build on previous kinematic data and establish the three-dimensional architecture of the upland tectonites through kinematic and structural analysis of more than 250 oriented samples, including quartz c-axis fabric analysis of 39 samples. Through this study we distinguish allochthonous tectonites from parautochthonous tectonites within the Yukon-Tanana upland. The upland tectonites define a regionally coherent stacking order: from bottom to top, they are lower plate North American parautochthonous attenuated continental margin; continentally derived marginal-basin strata; and upper plate ocean-basin and island-arc rocks, including some continental basement rocks. We delineate three major deformation events in time, space, and structural level across the upland from the United States-Canada border to Fairbanks, Alaska: (1) pre-Early Jurassic (>212 Ma) northeast-directed, apparent margin-normal contraction that affected oceanic rocks; (2) late Early to early Middle Jurassic (>188-185 Ma) northwest-directed, apparent margin-parallel contraction and imbrication that resulted in juxtaposition of the allochthonous tectonites with parautochthonous continental rocks; and (3) Early Cretaceous (135-110 Ma) southeast-directed crustal extension that resulted in exposure of the structurally deepest, parautochthonous continental rocks. The oldest event represents deformation within a west

  1. Eolian Signal of the Onset of the Late Paleozoic Ice Age in North America Re-Deposited and Preserved As Paleo-Cave Sediments, Southwestern Colorado, U.S.a.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. E.; Soreghan, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Molas Formation is a loessite consisting of reddish silt of Early Pennsylvanian (Bashkirian) age. U-Pb age spectra of accessory zircons indicate long-distance (>2000 km) transport from the Grenville province in northeastern North America plus sources from the peri-Gondwanan terranes in southeastern North America and local sources in the Ancestral Rocky Mountains uplift. These eolian sediments formed a blanket deposit <30 m thick above a paleokarst landscape in southwestern Colorado, infilling solution valleys and burying karst towers developed on the underlying Mississippian (Tournaisian-Visean) Leadville Limestone. The loessite is an eolian signal for the probable onset of glaciation at multiple locations in tectonically uplifted mountainous areas in North America. However, the loessite is easily eroded and has low preservation potential. Prior to lithification, significant amounts of the loess were remobilized and transported into the underlying karst system. As paleo-cave deposits, encased in limestone and dolostone, the silt-rich deposits have a higher preservation potential, and the eolian signal of the onset of the Late Paleozoic Ice Age in North America is still recognizable. However, the following signal modification processes need to be understood: (1) source area weathering and pedogenesis; (2) land-atmosphere transfer processes; (3) deposition effects of paleotopography, vegetation and moisture conditions, and infiltration into open fractures and/or the matrix of colluvium; (4) remobilization by surface runoff into open fractures and/or groundwater piping/sapping processes in loess soils; (5) transport into vadose and phreatic karst passageways by episodic ("streamflood") hydrologic events, forming event deposits (debrites, inundites, and jointites); (6) breakout dome collapse (forming interbedded cave sediments, karst breccias, and speleothems); (7) lithification and diagenesis; (8) post-lithification modification including pervasive hydrothermal

  2. A paleozoic pangaea.

    PubMed

    Boucot, A J; Gray, J

    1983-11-11

    Paleozoic paleogeographies should be consistent with all available, reliable data. However, comparison of three different Devonian paleogeographies that are based largely or wholly on the data of remanent magnetism show them to be inconsistent in many regards. When these three paleogeographies are provided with possible ocean surface current circulation patterns, and have added to them lithofacies and biogeographic data, they also are shown to be inconsistent with such data. A pangaeic reconstruction positioned in the Southern Hemisphere permits the lithofacies and biogeographical data to be reconciled in a plausible manner.

  3. Paleozoic unconformities favorable for uranium concentration in northern Appalachian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, J.M.

    1986-05-01

    Unconformities can redistribute uranium from protore rock as ground water moves through poorly consolidated strata beneath the erosion surface, or later moves along the unconformity. Groundwater could migrate farther than in present-day lithified Paleozoic strata in the Appalachian basin, now locally deformed by the Taconic and Allegheny orogenies. Several paleoaquifer systems could have developed uranium geochemical cells. Sandstone mineralogy, occurrences of fluvial strata, and reduzate facies are important factors. Other possibilities include silcrete developed during desert exposure, and uranium concentrated in paleokarst. Thirteen unconformities are evaluated to determine favorable areas for uranium concentration. Cambrian Potsdam sandstone (New York) contains arkoses and possible silcretes just above crystalline basement. Unconformities involving beveled sandstones and possible fluvial strata include Cambrian Hardyston sandstone (New Jersey), Cambrian Potsdam Sandstone (New York), Ordovician Oswego and Juniata formations (Pennsylvania and New York), Silurian Medina Group (New York), and Silurian Vernon, High Falls, and Longwood formations (New York and New Jersey). Devonian Catskill Formation is beveled by Pennsylvanian strata (New York and Pennsylvania). The pre-Pennsylvanian unconformity also bevels Lower Mississippian Pocono, Knapp, and Waverly strata (Pennsylvania, New York, and Ohio), truncates Upper Mississippian Mauch Chunk Formation (Pennsylvania), and forms paleokarst on Mississippian Loyalhanna Limestone (Pennsylvania) and Maxville Limestone (Ohio). Strata associated with these unconformities contain several reports of uranium. Unconformities unfavorable for uranium concentration occur beneath the Middle Ordovician (New York), Middle Devonian (Ohio and New York), and Upper Devonian (Ohio and New York); these involve marine strata overlying marine strata and probably much submarine erosion.

  4. Paleozoic lithofacies in southwestern Sinai and their depositional environments

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, D.P.; Peck, N.R.; Mansour, S.E.

    1983-03-01

    Major breaks in sedimentation, accompanied by well-developed paleosols, have been successfully used to subdivide the 600 m (1968 ft) of Paleozoic sandstone and shale sequence of southwestern Sinai, Egypt, into five smaller facies association units (i.e., formations). The lowest unit (the Araba Formation) is dominated by 1 to 10 m (3 to 32 ft) thick coarsening-up sequences of parallel-bedded, varicolored, fine-grained arkosic sandstone and muddy sandstone. This is the deposit of a low-energy prograding sandy coastal plain complex that grades upward into a thin, fining-up channel-overbank deposits with poorly developed paleosols. The overlying Naqus Formation scours deep into the Araba, and is characterized by lenticular, coarse to medium-grained, cross-bedded quartz sandstone with only a few clayey intervals. Cross-beds are common. The Naqus is interpreted as alluvial fanbraided stream deposits. A 15 to 20 m (40 to 66 ft) thick, conspicuous dark brown, ferruginous shale, ochre-yellow dolomitic sandstone and fossiliferous gray siltstone sequence, persistent all along the Qabeliat valley, overlies the Naqus and represents lagoonal deposits laterally equivalent to the shallow marine shale-dolomite sequence of the Um Bogma Formation farther north. Basal fluvial channel sands of the succeeding Ataqa Formation cut into the Um Bogma paleosol, and grade upward into the fossiliferous green-red marine shales and subordinate sandstones in shoaling-upward sequences. Southward in the Qabeliat valley, a parallel-bedded sequence of thick green shales and thin brown sandstones, both nonfossiliferous, intervenes in the middle of the Budra Formation and represents ephemeral lake deposits related to the fluvial system.

  5. Late Paleozoic structural evolution of Permian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, T.E.

    1984-04-01

    The southern Permian basin is underlain by the NNW-trending Central Basin disturbed belt of Wolfcamp age (Lower Permian), the deep Delaware basin to its west, and the shallower Midland basin to its eat. The disturbed belt is highly segmented with zones of left-lateral offset. Major segments from south to north are: the Puckett-Grey Ranch zone; the Fort Stockton uplift; the Monahans transverse zone; the Andector ridges and the Eunice ridge; the Hobbs transverse zone; and the Tatum ridges, which abut the broad Roosevelt uplift to the north. The disturbed belt may have originated along rift zones of either Precambrian or Cambrian age. The extent of Lower and Middle Pennsylvanian deformation is unclear; much of the Val Verde basin-Ozona arch structure may have formed then. The main Wolfcamp deformation over thrust the West Texas crustal block against the Delaware block, with local denudation of the uplifted edge and eastward-directed backthrusting into the Midland basin. Latter in the Permian, the area was the center of a subcontinental bowl of subsidence - the Permian basin proper. The disturbed belt formed a pedestal for the carbonate accumulations which created the Central Basin platform. The major pre-Permian reservoirs of the Permian basin lie in large structural and unconformity-bounded traps on uplift ridges and domes. Further work on the regional structural style may help to predict fracture trends, to assess the timing of oil migration, and to evaluate intrareservoir variations in the overlying Permian giant oil fields.

  6. Integrated provenance analysis of Zakeen (Devonian) and Faraghan (early Permian) sandstones in the Zagros belt, SW Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoleikhaei, Yousef; Amini, Abdolhossein; Zamanzadeh, S. Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Successions of a controversial period of time in the Zagros and Arabian Plate stratigraphic column, including Zakeen (Devonian) and Faraghan (early Permian) formations are investigated for their provenance characteristics. Nearly similar depositional environments of the formations, regardless of 70-80 My hiatus between them, is the main motivation for this study. Evidence from various methods are put together to reconstruct a comprehensive image of their provenance. Results from petrographic and detrital mode analysis indicate a continental block provenance for of the sandstones of both formations. In addition, evidence of recycling is evident from some rock fragments in the conglomeratic facies. Heavy mineral diversities are limited to the ultra-stable species which represent consistent morphological characteristics in both formations. However, the values of rutile: zircon index (RZi) showed intermittent changes from low RZi to high RZi intervals in both formations. Detrital zircon age data in previous studies represented the same source for these two formations, which also remained unchanged from Neo-Proterozoic to late Paleozoic successions. Zircon grains' morphology, however, showed remarkable difference between the Zakeen and Faraghan formations on the one hand and successions deposited in the basin prior to the tectonic movements of mid-Paleozoic time on the other. Outcomes of this study show that, although each single technique may shed light on a particular aspect of the greater provenance problem, by integration of all the data, important evidence of recycled nature of these successions could be confirmed. Changes in the thickness of the Paleozoic units, the nature of their stratal surfaces, along with the information from magmatic events in the area provide a tectono-stratigraphic framework for northern margin of Gondwana in which the recycled nature of these successions is justifiable. The recycled nature of the studied formations on the one hand, and

  7. Late Paleozoic tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Altai segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Constraints from metamorphic P-T pseudosection and zircon U-Pb dating of ultra-high-temperature granulite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zilong; Yang, Xiaoqiang; Li, Yinqi; Santosh, M.; Chen, Hanlin; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2014-09-01

    Ultra-high-temperature (UHT) granulite-facies rocks offer important constraints on crustal evolution processes and tectonic history of orogens. UHT granulites are generally rare in Phanerozoic orogens. In this study, we investigate the late Paleozoic pelitic UHT granulites from Altai in the western segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The diagnostic minerals in these rocks include high alumina orthopyroxene (Al2O3 up to 9.76 wt.%, and y(opx) = AlVI in orthopyroxene up to 0.21) coexisting with sillimanite and quartz, and low Zn spinel (ZnO = 1.85-2.50 wt.%) overgrowth with quartz. Cordierite corona separates sillimanite from orthopyroxene. The high alumina orthopyroxene is replaced by symplectites of low-alumina orthopyroxene (~ 5.80 wt.% Al2O3) and cordierite. These textural observations are consistent with a significant decompression following the peak UHT metamorphism. Phase equilibrium modeling using pseudosections and the y(opx) isopleths indicate an anti-clockwise P-T path for the exhumation of the Altai orogenic belt. The pre-peak assemblage of spinel + quartz in garnet is stable at high- to ultra-high-temperature and low-pressure conditions (P < 5.8 kbar at T ~ 900 °C). The peak P-T values recorded by high aluminium orthopyroxene is > 940 °C and 7.8 to 10 kbar. Subsequent near-isothermal decompression occurred at 890 to 940 °C and 5 to 6 kbar. The final-stage cooling is recorded at 750 and 800 °C and 4 to 5 kbar accompanied by a decrease in the y(opx) values (0.11-0.12). In the UHT granulite, zircon grains are commonly enclosed within cordierite. The overgrowth rims of the zircon grains yield a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 277 ± 2 Ma using LA-ICP-MS zircon dating, which is interpreted to mark the timing of decompression and cooling. We propose that the anti-clockwise P-T path of the UHT granulite in the Altai orogenic belt could be related to an extensional event related to the sinistral strike-slip along the Irtish tectonic belt after

  8. Ordovician and Late Paleozoic Early Mesozoic tectonothermal history of the La Noria area, northern Acatlán Complex, southern Mexico: Record of convergence in the Rheic and paleo-Pacific Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinojosa-Prieto, H. R.; Nance, R. D.; Keppie, J. D.; Dostal, J. V.; Ortega-Rivera, A.; Lee, J. K. W.

    2008-12-01

    muscovite plateau ages probably closely post-date the D 2 event. D 1 may be correlated with early Carboniferous deformation elsewhere in the Acatlán Complex. On the other hand, the initial 40Ar/ 39Ar steps at ca. 300, 220 and 172 Ma probably indicate thermal disturbances below 300 °C during the Permo-Carboniferous, Triassic and Jurassic, respectively. Whereas the Ordovician history of the plutons and volcano-sedimentary units coincides with the lifespan of both the Iapetus and Rheic oceans, the Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic deformation better reflects closure of the Rheic Ocean and convergence tectonics on the paleo-Pacific margin following the amalgamation of Pangea.

  9. Log for Joint SEPM-Colorado Scientific Society field trip, September 20-21, 1986: late Paleozoic sedimentation and Laramide tectonics of the Sangre de Cristo Range, from Westcliffe to Crestone, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, David A.

    2001-01-01

    This trip will cross the northern Sangre de Cristo Range, from Westcliffe to Crestone, Colorado, by way of the Hermit Pass Road and the Rito Alto pack trail (Fig. 1 below; road and trail shown on Fig. 2). The traverse is designed to give the geologist a sample of the structure and stratigraphy of this part of the range. Emphasis will be on the relationship between the horst of the Sangre de Cristo Range and adjacent down-dropped valleys, on the Laramide thrusted structure of the range, and on the stratigraphy and depositional environments of Pennsylvanian and Permian sedimentary rocks in the range.The northern Sangre de Cristo Range is composed mostly of Early and Middle Proterozoic crystalline rocks and Paleozoic clastic sedimentary rocks (see geologic map, Fig. 2). Proterozoic rocks, mostly gneiss and quartz monzonite, are overlain on the west side of the range by about 100 m of early Paleozoic quartzite, dolomite, limestone, and shale. Early Paleozoic rocks are in turn unconformably overlain by Pennsylvanian and Permian clastic rocks. Southeast of the range, in Huerfano Park, Paleozoic rocks are overlain by Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks of the Raton basin.

  10. Provenance of sandstones in the Golconda terrane, north central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.A. )

    1991-02-01

    The upper Paleozoic Golconda terrane of north-central Nevada is a composite of several structurally bounded subterranes made of clastic, volcanic, and carbonate rocks. The clastic rocks provide important clues for the interpretation of the provenance and paleogeographic settings of the different lithologic assemblages found in these subterranes. Two petrographically distinct sandstones are identified in the Golconda terrane in the Osgood Mountains and the Hot springs Range of north-central Nevada. The sandstone of the Mississippian Farrel Canyon Formation, part of the Dry Hills subterrane, is characterized by quartzose and sedimentary and lithic-rich clasts with a small feldspar component. in contrast, the sandstone of the Permian Poverty Peak (II) subterrane is a silty quartzarenite with no lithic component, and a very limited feldspar component. The sandstone of the Farrel Canyon Formation is similar to nonvolcanic sandstones reported from elsewhere in the Golconda terrane. Modal data reflect a provenance of a recycled orogen and permit the interpretation that it could have been derived from the antler orogen as has been proposed for other sandstones of the golconda terrane. The sandstone of the Poverty Peak (II) subterrane is more mature than any of the other sandstones in either the Golconda terrane, the Antler overlap sequence, or the Antler foreland basin sequence. Modal data put the Poverty Peak (II) sandstone in the continental block provenance category. The distinct extrabasinal provenances represented in these different sandstones support the idea that the Golconda basin was made up of complex paleogeographic settings, which included multiple sources of extrabasinal sediment.

  11. The Implementation of 2-D Resistivity Method in Verifying Paleozoic Aquifer Properties at Bukit Chondong, Perlis (Malaysia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslinda, Umi; Nordiana, M. M.; Bery, A. A.; Afiq Saharudin, Muhamad; Hisham, Hazrul; Taqiuddin, Z. M.; Sulaiman, Nabila; Nur Amalina, M. K. A.; Nordiana, A. N.

    2017-04-01

    The research was conducted using 2-D resistivity in verifying Paleozoic aquifer. Since most geologic materials behave as electrical insulators, surface measurements of earth resistivity are controlled by the electrolytic ability of interstitial water. The subsurface distribution of water is controlled by the porosity of the formations. The study area is at Bukit Chondong, Beseri, Perlis. Bukit Chondong is made of sedimentary rock which mostly is sandstone. Bukit Chondong is from uppermost of the Kubang Pasu Formation that represented by a thick unit of grey mudstone interbedded with sandstone. The Kubang Pasu Formation was influenced by shallow marine during the early age. Paleocurrent and fossils traces were found on the mudstone at the study area. The area is suspected to be a Paleozoic aquifer because the sandstone can be a productive aquifer with diffuse flow. The water movement in sandstone is through the fractures and joints. Most of the water stores and transmits in sandstone. The interbedded sandstone and mudstone is one of the aquifer characteristic. Sandstone and mudstone are water-bearing rocks and low-permeable rocks respectively. The data was processed according to the geological information of the study area since there was an outcrop. The study area have low resistivity value which both sandstone and mudstone give less than 800 Ohm-m due to the water content (Sulphide and clay).

  12. Paleoclimatic and paleomagnetic constraints on the Paleozoic reconstructions of south China, north China and Tarim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shangyou, Nie

    1991-10-01

    Paleomagnetic and paleoclimatic data provide the most useful latitudinal constraints for plate reconstructions. Distributions through the Paleozoic of five types of climatically sensitive sediments (coals, evaporites, reefs, dolomites and limestones) for south China, north China and Tarim are shown on 15 maps that include 1578 reliable data points. These paleoclimatic data agree reasonably well with available paleomagnetic directions, although significant divergence between the two exists for the Early Paleozoic. These data indicate the following: (1) South China was in low latitudes during the entire Paleozoic, with a subtropical position in the Cambrian. (2) North China also remained near the equator in the Early and Late Paleozoic, except for the Ordovian and the Late Permian when extensive evaporites suggest slightly higher latitudinal positions, while its Middle Paleozoic position is uncertain due to the missing stratigraphie record. (3) In south China, local tectonics appears to have played a dominant role in determining paleogeography and therefore marine sedimentation, especially after the Late Ordovician-Early Silurian, because the areal coverage of marine sediments through time is distinctly different from what would be expected from published global sea-level curves. (4) Paleoclimatic and paleomagnetic data are compatible with biogeographic data which suggest that south China was part of eastern Gondwana in the Early Paleozoic, but was widely separated from Gondwana in the Late Paleozoic, and the split between the two probably happened in the Devonian, giving rise to a major break-up unconformity in central south China.

  13. From Back-arc Drifting to Arc Accretion: the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Evolution of the Guerrero Terrane Recorded by a Major Provenance Change in Sandstones from the Sierra de los Cuarzos, Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios Garcia, N. B.; Martini, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Guerrero terrane composed of Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous arc assemblages, were drifted from the North American continental mainland during lower Early Cretaceous spreading in the Arperos back arc basin, and subsequently accreted back to the continental margin in the late Aptian. Although the accretion of the Guerrero terrane represents one of the major tectonic processes that shaped the southern North American Pacific margin, the stratigraphic record related to such a regional event was not yet recognized in central Mexico. Due to the Sierra de los Cuarzos is located just 50 km east of the Guerrero terrane suture belt, its stratigraphic record should be highly sensitive to first order tectonic changes and would record a syn-tectonic deposits related to this major event. In that study area, were identified two main Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous clastic units. The Sierra de los Cuarzos formation represents the lowermost exposed stratigraphic record. Sedimentary structures, sandstones composition, and U-Pb detrital zircon ages document that the Sierra de los Cuarzos formation reflects a vigorous mass wasting along the margin of the North American continental mainland, representing the eastern side of the Arperos back arc basin. Sandstones of the Sierra de los Cuarzos formation are free from detrital contributions related to the Guerrero terrane juvenile sources, indicating that the Arperos Basin acted like an efficient sedimentological barrier that inhibited the influence of the arc massifs on the continental mainland deposits. The Sierra de los Cuarzos formation is overlain by submarine slope deposits of the Pelones formation, which mark a sudden change in the depositional conditions. Provenance analysis documents that sandstones from the Pelones formation were fed by the mafic to intermediate arc assemblages of the Guerrero terrane, as well as by quartz-rich sources of the continental mainland, suggesting that, by the time of deposition of the Pelones

  14. The early Paleozoic sedimentary-tectonic evolution of the circum-Mangar areas, Tarim block, NW China: Constraints from integrated detrital records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shunli; Li, Zhong; Jiang, Lei

    2016-07-01

    The Mangar depression, located in the eastern part of the Tarim basin, had deposited extremely-thick lower Paleozoic sediments, which yields great scientific value and hydrocarbon resource potential. Due to the lack of enough outcrop and core studies, many issues, e.g., early Paleozoic geographical evolution, basin nature and tectonic affinity, are still poorly understood. In this study, we selected circum-Mangar areas (i.e., the South Quruqtagh, Tabei and Tazhong areas), and carried out comprehensive detrital provenance analysis including detrital modal analysis, heavy mineral and trace element analysis, and detrital zircon U-Pb dating on the Middle-Upper Ordovician and Silurian sandstones. The results show that Upper Ordovician-Lower Silurian detrital provenances of the South Quruqtagh and Tabei areas were primarily derived from the intracontinental uplifts in Tarim. Meanwhile, Upper Silurian detrital provenances of the above two areas were mainly derived from the mix of intracontinental uplifts and continental-margin arcs. Dramatic Late Silurian provenance-change suggests the evident tectonic transition of the northern Tarim margin, which is the opening of the South Tianshan back-arc oceanic basin. Combining the previous studies, an integral redefinition model for the Mangar depression has been made. The evolution process of the Mangar depression could be divided into four stages: graben stage (late Neoproterozoic), transitional stage (Cambrian to Middle Ordovician), downwarp stage (Late Ordovician to Early Silurian) and extinction stage (Late Silurian). Hence, the Mangar depression evolved as an aulacogen. Significantly, the evolutional scenario of the Mangar aulacogen was consistent with that of the North Altyn Tagh and the North Qilian, suggesting that the Mangar aulacogen was involved mainly in the Proto-Tethys tectonic realm south to the Tarim block. However, the Late Silurian tectonic activity in the northern Tarim margin did produce massive detrital

  15. Sedimentology and Lithostratigraphy of Paleozoic Sedimentary Successions of Northern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Nageshwar; Bheemalingeswara, Konka; Nyssen, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Paleozoic sedimentary successions of Ethiopia form a very important chapter in Ethiopian Geology. Present study is a re-examination of such successions in northern Ethiopia, deposited in continental environments, in the light of modern concepts of depositional environments and litho-facies. Although they have very poor preservation potential, as they are dominated by erosional activities, deposits of continental environments are noticed in the study area. They are mappable, although occurring in patches, unconformably overlying the Proterozoic metamorphic basement rocks. The Paleozoic sedimentary lithostratigraphic units ESF (Enticho Sandstone Formation) and ATF (Adaga Arbi Tillite Formation) are totally different in their lithological characters. ESF is dominated by medium to coarse, cross-bedded, moderately sorted, white sandstones with occasional occurrence of muddy lenses rich in iron oxide and oligomectic conglomerates. The large size of cross-bedding as well as textural inversion of well-rounded and sub-angular grains suggest aeolian influence during deposition of this unit in a braided and meandering fluvial setting, the outwash of reworked glacial materials. ATF is characterized by the dominance of ferruginous, mud-matrix rich, un-stratified, unsorted tillites with large size, angular boulders derived from Precambrian source and deposited by glaciers. ESF is regarded as older and ATF younger by many workers on the basis of field occurrences. The former is overlain by the latter but often the reverse field relationship is also observed. However, there is no doubt about their glacial origin. At certain localities, in ATF, a muddy lithology with thin layers (varves) has also been observed with interrupted layers of mud by large and angular embedded dropstones. This unit, although rare in occurrence, clearly indicates their deposition in a pro-glacial lacustrine environment. Therefore, a glacio-lacustrine-fluvial depositional model is suggested on the basis of

  16. Ichnofabric of the Paleozoic Skolithos ichnofacies and the nature and distribution of Skolithos piperock

    SciTech Connect

    Droser, M.L. )

    1991-06-01

    Dense concentrations of Skolithos, commonly called piperock, exemplify the characteristic ichnofabric of the Skolithos ichnofacies in Paleozoic strata. Piperock occurs in sandstones and coarse siltstones within all types of shallow marine facies and is not restricted to beach, littoral or intertidal sediments. Piperock, however, is restricted to terrigenous clastic sediments. An analysis of the temporal distribution of piperock confirms the previous observations that piperock is typical of the Cambrian but also demonstrates that piperock occurs throughout the Paleozoic, decreasing in abundance after the Cambrian. This distribution may be a result of large-scale physical or biological factors. Preserved nearshore sandstones may decrease through this time interval. In addition, the decline of piperock corresponds with the Ordovician faunal diversification when bioturbation increases in other environments and, thus, may reflect the appearance of new and better adapted fauna in the nearshore terrigenous clastic setting.

  17. Petrography, diagenesis and reservoir characteristics of the Pre-Cenomanian sandstone, Sheikh Attia area, East Central Sinai, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassab, Mohamed A.; Hassanain, Ibrahim M.; Salem, Alaa M.

    2014-08-01

    The diagenetic influence on reservoir characteristics was investigated for the Pre-Cenomanian (Early Paleozoic and Early Cretaceous) sandstone sequence in the Sheikh Attia area, East Central Sinai. This sequence can be distinguished into four formations: Sarabit El-Khadim Formation (Cambrian) at the base, Abu Hamata Formation (Cambro-Ordovician), Adedia Formation (Ordovician-Silurian) and Malha Formation (Early Cretaceous) on the top. The sandstones of Pre-Cenomanian sequence in the Sheikh Attia area are dominantly quartz arenites and subarkoses, where the quartz grains constitute about 82.3-98.4% of the framework composition with an average value of approximately 94% of the framework composition. Feldspars range in abundance from 0% to14.2%, with an average value of about 3% of the framework composition. The rock fragments constitute up to 9.8% of volume percent of framework grains, with an average of about 2.7%. Diagenetic events identified in these sandstones include compaction, cementation by calcite, quartz, clay minerals and iron oxides, dissolution and alteration of unstable clastic grains, and tectonically induced grain fracturing. Unstable clastic grains like feldspars suffered considerable alteration to kaolinite. The Pre-Cenomanian (Early Paleozoic and Early Cretaceous) sandstones possess good reservoir characteristics because they retain sufficient porosity and permeability in some intervals. These sandstones are characterized by porosity ranges between 3.80% and 27.60%, and have a permeability range from k ⩽ 0.03 mD, for tight sandstones to k ⩾ 50 mD, for the more permeable parts. The Pre-Cenomanian sandstones can be classified into four petrophysical flow units (megaport, macroport, mesoport and microport) with varying reservoir performances and are distinguished by comparable ranges of R35. Petrographic observations showed that the Early Paleozoic sandstones are texturally immature owing to the abundance of angular grains, non-uniformity of grain

  18. "Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina

    2014-05-01

    Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products

  19. Detrital zircon age distribution from Devonian and Carboniferous sandstone in the Southern Variscan Fold-and-Thrust belt (Montagne Noire, French Massif Central), and their bearings on the Variscan belt evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei; Faure, Michel; Li, Xian-hua; Chu, Yang; Ji, Wenbin; Xue, Zhenhua

    2016-05-01

    In the Southern French Massif Central, the Late Paleozoic sedimentary sequences of the Montagne Noire area provide clues to decipher the successive tectonic events that occurred during the evolution of the Variscan belt. Previous sedimentological studies already demonstrated that the siliciclastic deposits were supplied from the northern part of the Massif Central. In this study, detrital zircon provenance analysis has been investigated in Early Devonian (Lochkovian) conglomerate and sandstone, and in Carboniferous (Visean to Early Serpukhovian) sandstone from the recumbent folds and the foreland basin of the Variscan Southern Massif Central in Montagne Noire. The zircon grains from all of the samples yielded U-Pb age spectra ranging from Neoarchean to Late Paleozoic with several age population peaks at 2700 Ma, 2000 Ma, 980 Ma, 750 Ma, 620 Ma, 590 Ma, 560 Ma, 480 Ma, 450 Ma, and 350 Ma. The dominant age populations concentrate on the Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic. The dominant concordant detrital zircon age populations in the Lochkovian samples, the 480-445 Ma with a statistical peak around 450 Ma, are interpreted as reflecting the rifting event that separated several continental stripes, such as Armorica, Mid-German Crystalline Rise, and Avalonia from the northern part of Gondwana. However, Ediacaran and Cambrian secondary peaks are also observed. The detrital zircons with ages at 352 - 340 Ma, with a statistical peak around 350 Ma, came from the Early Carboniferous volcanic and plutonic rocks similar to those exposed in the NE part of the French Massif Central. Moreover, some Precambrian grains recorded a more complex itinerary and may have experienced a multi-recycling history: the Archean and Proterozoic grains have been firstly deposited in Cambrian or Ordovician terrigenous rocks, and secondly re-sedimented in Devonian and/or Carboniferous formations. Another possibility is that ancient grains would be inherited grains, scavenged from an underlying but not

  20. Ophiolites of Iran: Keys to understanding the tectonic evolution of SW Asia: (I) Paleozoic ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafaii Moghadam, Hadi; Stern, Robert J.

    2014-09-01

    Iran is a mosaic of Ediacaran-Cambrian (Cadomian; 520-600 Ma) blocks, stitched together by Paleozoic and Mesozoic ophiolites. In this paper we summarize the Paleozoic ophiolites of Iran for the international geoscientific audience including field, chemical and geochronological data from the literature and our own unpublished data. We focus on the five best known examples of Middle to Late Paleozoic ophiolites which are remnants of Paleotethys, aligned in two main zones in northern Iran: Aghdarband, Mashhad and Rasht in the north and Jandagh-Anarak and Takab ophiolites to the south. Paleozoic ophiolites were emplaced when N-directed subduction resulted in collision of Gondwana fragment “Cimmeria” with Eurasia in Permo-Triassic time. Paleozoic ophiolites show both SSZ- and MORB-type mineralogical and geochemical signatures, perhaps reflecting formation in a marginal basin. Paleozoic ophiolites of Iran suggest a progression from oceanic crust formation above a subduction zone in Devonian time to accretionary convergence in Permian time. The Iranian Paleozoic ophiolites along with those of the Caucausus and Turkey in the west and Afghanistan, Turkmenistan and Tibet to the east, define a series of diachronous subduction-related marginal basins active from at least Early Devonian to Late Permian time.

  1. Late Paleozoic onset of subduction and exhumation at the western margin of Gondwana (Chilenia Terrane): Counterclockwise P-T paths and timing of metamorphism of deep-seated garnet-mica schist and amphibolite of Punta Sirena, Coastal Accretionary Complex, central Chile (34° S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyppolito, T.; García-Casco, A.; Juliani, C.; Meira, V. T.; Hall, C.

    2014-10-01

    by the non-coaxial exhumation-related foliation S2. During exhumation and retrograde D2 deformation, the garnet-mica schist and amphibolite were tectonically mingled at a depth of ca. 30 km at ca. 315 Ma. We propose that the Punta Sirena unit comprises a “pseudo”-coherent sequence formed by heterogeneous lithologies that followed non-chaotic exhumation mingling, now representing the remnants of the fossil subduction channel developed at the onset of the Late Paleozoic subduction at central Chile.

  2. A chronology of Paleozoic sea-level changes.

    PubMed

    Haq, Bilal U; Schutter, Stephen R

    2008-10-03

    Sea levels have been determined for most of the Paleozoic Era (542 to 251 million years ago), but an integrated history of sea levels has remained unrealized. We reconstructed a history of sea-level fluctuations for the entire Paleozoic by using stratigraphic sections from pericratonic and cratonic basins. Evaluation of the timing and amplitude of individual sea-level events reveals that the magnitude of change is the most problematic to estimate accurately. The long-term sea level shows a gradual rise through the Cambrian, reaching a zenith in the Late Ordovician, then a short-lived but prominent withdrawal in response to Hirnantian glaciation. Subsequent but decreasingly substantial eustatic highs occurred in the mid-Silurian, near the Middle/Late Devonian boundary, and in the latest Carboniferous. Eustatic lows are recorded in the early Devonian, near the Mississippian/Pennsylvanian boundary, and in the Late Permian. One hundred and seventy-two eustatic events are documented for the Paleozoic, varying in magnitude from a few tens of meters to approximately 125 meters.

  3. Middle Paleozoic metamorphism in the Hongseong area, South Korea, and tectonic significance for Paleozoic orogeny in northeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Chang-Whan; Imayama, Takeshi; Yi, Sang-Bong; Kim, Taeseong; Ryu, In-Chang; Jeon, Jimin; Yi, Keewook

    2014-12-01

    The Baekdong and Gwangcheon areas are located within the Hongseong collision belt of South Korea, and the discovery of late Permian-Triassic eclogites has confirmed this belt as an extension of the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu collision belt in China. The Qinling-Dabie-Sulu belt records a middle Paleozoic continental collision in addition to the late Permian-Triassic collision of the North and South China cratons. In this paper, we present evidence for middle Paleozoic igneous and metamorphic events in the Baekdong and Gwangcheon areas. Metabasites and meta-basaltic andesites in the Baekdong area originated in an arc tectonic setting at ca. 470-437 Ma, and underwent an intermediate-P/T metamorphism (6.2-8.2 kbar, 620-700 °C) at ca. 418-405 Ma. The meta-basaltic andesite in the Gwangcheon area underwent a high-pressure granulite facies metamorphism (close to the eclogite facies) at ca. 392-381 Ma. P-T values of 15.7-19.9 kbar and 860-890 °C were obtained for the peak metamorphism using conventional geothermobarometry, and conditions of 16-17 kbar and 870-920 °C were estimated by thermodynamic pseudosection analysis using the Perplex X program. Together with the late Permian-Triassic eclogites previously reported from the Hongseong area, these middle Paleozoic igneous activities that were related to subduction and metamorphism indicate that the Hongseong area underwent collision in the middle Paleozoic (418-381 Ma), in addition to the late Permian-Triassic collision, as recorded in the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu belt in China.

  4. Shelf sandstones of Twowells tongue, Dakota Sandstone, northwestern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Wolter, N.R.; Nummedal, D.

    1988-01-01

    The Dakota Sandstone of northwestern New Mexico is composed of basal continental strata and three marine sandstone tongues, which intertongue was the Mancos Shale. The late Cenomanian Twowells tongue was the last tongue deposited in the Dakota transgressive systems tract. This tongue is most commonly gradationallly underlain by the Whitewater Arroyo shale tongue and abruptly overlain by the Rio Salado tongue of the Mancos Shale. Data collected from 85 outcrop sections and 180 electric well logs, from the San Juan, Acoma, and Zuni Basins, indicates that the Twowells tongue represents three phases of marine deposition. The White-water Arroyo shale tongue, the muddy burrowed facies, and the horizontally bedded facies of the Twowells tongue represent a shoaling-upward sequence (regressive phase) of shelf and shoreface deposition. The regressive phase is sharply overlain by an inferred transgressive cross-bedded facies. Erosional scour and an extensive pebble lag mark the contact between the regressive and the transgressive facies. In the Acoma basin, the transgressive cross-bedded facies describes a north-south oriented shelf-sand ridge 32 km long, 18 km wide, and 32 m thick.

  5. Paleozoic crudes of Tomsk province

    SciTech Connect

    Smol'yaninova, N.M.; Mashukova, Z.I.; Nemirovskaya, G.V.

    1983-01-01

    The Paleozoic crudes typically have low densities at 20/sup 0/C, low contents of resins, high viscosities at 20/sup 0/C, rather high solid points, and high contents of solid paraffins. The Paleozoic crudes are in no way inferior in quality to the Mesozoic crudes of Tomsk province, and are even better in some respects (yields of high-V.I. and medium-V.I. oils). They can be processed with either a fuel/lube or petrochemical refining scheme. Finds that the crudes from the Ostaninsk and SeveroOstaninsk fields, in terms of their paraffin and sulfur contents and other indexes, are similar to the Jurassic crudes of the Zhetybai field on the Mangyshlak peninsula. These 2 crudes and the Chkalovsk crude, even though the high wax contents offer problems in production and transportation, can serve as good raw materials for fuel and oil production, and also for the manufacture of liquid and solid paraffins.

  6. Paleozoic tectonics of the Ouachita Orogen through Nd isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gleason, J.D.; Patchett, P.J.; Dickinson, W.R.; Ruiz, J. . Dept. of Geosciences)

    1992-01-01

    A combined isotopic and trace-element study of the Late Paleozoic Ouachita Orogenic belt has the following goals: (1) define changing provenance of Ouachita sedimentary systems throughout the Paleozoic; (2) constrain sources feeding into the Ouachita flysch trough during the Late Paleozoic; (3) isolate the geochemical signature of proposed colliding terranes to the south; (4) build a data base to compare with possible Ouachita System equivalents in Mexico. The ultimate aim is to constrain the tectonic setting of the southern margin of North America during the Paleozoic, with particular emphasis on collisional events leading to the final suturing of Pangea. Nd isotopic data identify 3 distinct groups: (1) Ordovician passive margin sequence; (2) Carboniferous proto-flysch (Stanley Fm.), main flysch (Jackfork and Atoka Fms.) and molasse (foreland Atoka Fm.); (3) Mississippian ash-flow tuffs. The authors interpret the Ordovician signature to be essentially all craton-derived, whereas the Carboniferous signature reflects mixed sources from the craton plus orogenic sources to the east and possibly the south, including the evolving Appalachian Orogen. The proposed southern source is revealed by the tuffs to be too old and evolved to be a juvenile island arc terrane. They interpret the tuffs to have been erupted in a continental margin arc-type setting. Surprisingly, the foreland molasse sequence is indistinguishable from the main trough flysch sequence, suggesting the Ouachita trough and the craton were both inundated with sediment of a single homogenized isotopic signature during the Late Carboniferous. The possibility that Carboniferous-type sedimentary dispersal patterns began as early as the Silurian has important implications for the tectonics and paleogeography of the evolving Appalachian-Ouachita Orogenic System.

  7. Paleozoic orogens in New England, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, P.; Tucker, R.D.; Bradley, D.; Berry, H.N.; Osberg, P.H.

    1998-01-01

    Stratigraphy and isotope geochronology in the crystalline core of the Appalachians suggest revised interpretations of the extent, nature and timing of Paleozoic orogens in New England. Five major episodes of magmatism, deformation, and high-grade regional metamorphism are recognized: Taconian (455-442 Ma), Acadian (423-385 Ma), Neo-Acadian (366-350 Ma), Late Pennsylvanian (300-290 Ma) and Alleghanian (280-260 Ma). In the Taconian, the passive margin of Laurentia was subducted below a complex magmatic arc lasting from 480 to 442 Ma, founded in part on continental crust of a Medial New England terrane with possible affinities with Amazonia. Questions about Medial New England involve its coherence as a single plate, and the nature of its underlying crust. The Acadian began in Late Silurian as a collision between the amalgamated Laurentia-Medial New England and outer belts of Composite Avalon along a cryptic suture in coastal Maine, and progressed northwestward to the Connecticut Valley basin by mid-Devonian. Tonalitic-granitic magmatism and up to granulite-facies metamorphism culminated in Early Devonian, possibly tied to lithospheric detachment below the subducting northwestern plate and consequent asthenosphere upwelling. Newly discovered Neo-Acadian Late Devonian to Early Mississippian tonalitic-granitic magmatism, up to granulite-facies metamorphism, and severe deformation in central Massachusetts took place in a plate context poorly understood. Late Pennsylvanian effects include magmatism, metamorphism, and deformation near south New England gneiss domes and the Sebago batholith, and development of the right-lateral Norumbega fault system. Permian Alleghanian effects include penetrative deformation, granitic intrusions and up to sillimanite-grade metamorphism of Pennsylvanian beds in southeastern New England. These last two episodes relate to the arrival of Africa.

  8. North American Paleozoic land snails with a summary of other Paleozoic nonmarine snails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Solem, Alan; Yochelson, Ellis Leon

    1979-01-01

    family placement of Anthracopupa, growth forms of modern pupillid and tornatellinid snails have been distinguished. The apertural barriers in Anthracopupa are identical in placement and growth pattern with those of living Tornatellinidae and independently confirm the family placement derived from study of the general form. One new species, A. sturgeoni, has been named. Anthracopupa is found most commonly in thin limestones interpreted as having been deposited in pools into which the small shells floated. Dendropupa is most commonly found in erect tree stumps that were covered by rapid sedimentation. Both environments are similar to those in which the shells of allied living species may be found today, and the fossils support environmental interpretations made entirely from lithology. A survey of the few European occurrences of Paleozoic land snails indicates that both Anthracopupa and Dendropupa occur in Lower Permian strata; Anthracopupa is known from beds as old as Westphalian B. These genera cannot be used for determining the Carboniferous-Permian boundary. Both the long local stratigraphic range of A. brittanica and D. vetusta reported in the literature and the moderately long range and great variability of A. ohioensis suggest that the land snails have little stratigraphic utility. On the other hand, the occurrence of these land snails in the late Paleozoic of the Northern Hemisphere provides further fossil evidence suggestive of a closed Atlantic Ocean at that time. A comparison of the Paleozoic and the present distributions of land -snail families on both sides of the Atlantic provides some interesting data on geographic shifts of organisms. Finally, the assignment of the earliest land snails to extant taxa at the family level indicates that the subclass Pulmonata has been very conservative in its evolution after initial radiation. A few notes on Paleozoic freshwater snails complete this survey.

  9. Sand and sandstone

    SciTech Connect

    Pettijohn, F.J.; Potter, P.E.; Siever, R.

    1987-01-01

    Here is a new, second edition of a classical textbook in sedimentology, petrology, and petrography of sand and sandstones. It has been extensively revised and updated, including: new techniques and their utility; new literature; new illustrations; new, explicitly stated problems for the student; and a wider scope.

  10. Paleozoic subduction complex and Paleozoic-Mesozoic island-arc volcano-plutonic assemblages in the northern Sierra terrane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Richard E.; Girty, Gary H.; Harwood, David S.; Schweickert, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    This field trip provides an overview of the stratigraphic and structural evolution of the northern Sierra terrane, which forms a significant part of the wall rocks on the western side of the later Mesozoic Sierra Nevada batholith in California. The terrane consists of a pre-Late Devonian subduction complex (Shoo Fly Complex) overlain by submarine arc-related deposits that record the evolution of three separate island-arc systems in the Late Sevonian-Early Mississippian, Permian, and Late Triassic-Jurassic. The two Paleozoic are packages and the underlying Shoo Fly Complex have an important bearing on plate-tectonic processes affecting the convergent margin outboard of the Paleozoic Cordilleran miogeocline, although their original paleogeographic relations to North America are controversial. The third arc package represents an overlap assemblage that ties the terrane to North America by the Late Triassic and helps constrain the nature and timing of Mesozoic orogenesis. Several of the field-trip stops examine the record of pre-Late Devonian subduction contained in the Shoo Fly Complex, as well as the paleovolcanology of the overlying Devonian to Jurassic arc rocks. Excellent glaciated exposures provide the opportunity to study a cross section through a tilted Devonian volcano-plutonic association. Additional stops focus on plutonic rocks emplaced during the Middle Jurassic arc magmatism in the terrane, and during the main pulse of Cretaceous magmatism in the Sierra Nevada batholith to the east.

  11. Land plants, weathering, and Paleozoic climatic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddéris, Yves; Maffre, Pierre; Donnadieu, Yannick; Carretier, Sébastien

    2017-04-01

    At the end of the Paleozoic, the Earth plunged into the longest and most severe glaciation of the Phanerozoic eon (Montanez et al., 2013). The triggers for this event (called the Late Paleozoic Ice Age, LPIA) are still debated. Based on field observations and laboratory experiments showing that CO2 consumption by rock weathering is enhanced by the presence of plants, the onset of the LPIA has been related to the colonization of the continents by vascular plants in the latest Devonian. By releasing organic acids, concentrating respired CO2 in the soil, and by mechanically breaking rocks with their roots, land plants may have increased the weatherability of the continental surfaces. The "greening" of the continents may also have contributed to an enhanced burial of organic carbon in continental sedimentary basins, assuming that lignin decomposers have not yet evolved (Berner, 2004). As a consequence, CO2 went down, setting the conditions for the onset of the LPIA. This scenario is now widely accepted in the scientific community, and reinforces the feeling that biotic evolutionary steps are main drivers of the long-term climatic evolution. Although appealing, this scenario suffers from some weaknesses. The timing of the continent colonization by vascular plants was achieved in the late Devonian, several tens of million years before the onset of the LPIA (Davies and Gibling, 2013). Second, lignin decomposer fungi were present at the beginning of the Carboniferous, 360 million years ago while the LPIA started around 340-330 Ma (Nelsen et al., 2016). Land plants have also decreased the continental albedo, warming the Earth surface and promoting runoff. Weathering was thus facilitated and CO2 went down. Yet, temperature may have stayed constant, the albedo change compensating for the CO2 fall (Le Hir et al., 2010). From a modelling point of view, the effect of land plants on CO2 consumption by rock weathering is accounted for by forcing the weatherability of the

  12. First North American occurrence of Anacoracid selachian Squalicorax yangaensis, Upper Cretaceous Dalton sandstone, near Crownpoint, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Wolberg, D.L.; Bellis, D. )

    1989-09-01

    This report documents the first North American occurrence of Squalicorax yangaensis in the Upper Cretaceous Dalton sandstone, Borrego Pass area, southeast of Crownpoint, New Mexico. The Dalton sandstone has been interpreted to be a regressive coastal barrier sandstone deposited parallel to the southeast-trending shoreline of the Late Cretaceous epeiric seaway.

  13. Paleozoic carbonate buildup (reef) inventory, central and southeastern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacson, P.E.

    1987-08-01

    Knowledge of central and southeastern Idaho's Paleozoic rocks to date suggest that three styles of buildup (reef) complexes occur in Late Devonian, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian-Permian time. The Late Devonian Jefferson Formation has stromatoporoid and coral (both rugosan and tabulate) organisms effecting a buildup in the Grandview Canyon vicinity; Early Mississippian Waulsortian-type mud mounds occur in the Lodgepole formation of southeastern Idaho; there are Late Mississippian Waulsortian-type mounds in the Surrett Canyon Formation of the Lost River Range; and cyclic Pennsylvanian-Permian algal and hydrozoan buildups occur in the Juniper gulch Member of the Snaky Canyon Formation in the Arco Hills and Lemhi Range. Late Devonian (Frasnian) carbonates of the Jefferson formation show buildup development on deep ramp sediments.

  14. Geochronology and geochemistry of the Heilongjiang Complex and the granitoids from the Lesser Xing'an-Zhangguangcai Range: Implications for the late Paleozoic-Mesozoic tectonics of eastern NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Mao-Hui; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Li, Long; Liu, Kai; Ling, Yi-Yun; Wang, Jia-Min; Wang, Meng

    2017-10-01

    An integrated study on two subduction-related units (the Heilongjiang Complex and magmatic rocks in the Lesser Xing'an-Zhangguangcai Range) was carried out to explore the Paleozoic to early Mesozoic tectonic framework of the eastern Northeast China, with a focus on the Jiamusi block. The Heilongjiang Complex, which is considered as the suture between the Jiamusi and Songliao blocks, is composed of blueschist, amphibolite and ultramafic rocks. The blueschist from the Yilan area shows geochemical features similar to OIB and has a 206Pb/238U age of 288 ± 2 Ma, which is interpreted as the crystallization age of protolith formed in an ocean island setting. In contrast, amphibolite from the Xiachengzi area shows geochemical features similar to N-MORB. Zircons in this amphibolite show magmatic character and yield a 206Pb/238U age of 248 ± 4 Ma, which is interpreted as the protolith age. Calcic amphiboles in the amphibolite give a 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of 195 ± 3 Ma, which is interpreted as the metamorphic age of the Heilongjiang Complex. Magmatic rocks in the Lesser Xing'an-Zhangguangcai Range mostly belong to I-type granites that were formed in an active continental margin setting. Zircon U-Pb ages of these granites range from 200 Ma to 174 Ma with a westward younging trend shown as two groups of emplacing ages of 200 Ma in the east and 180 Ma in the west. Our new data support an early occurrence (likely since the early Permian) of a large ocean (namely the Mudanjiang Ocean) in the area, whose subduction resulted in the metamorphic unit (the Heilongjiang Complex) and the magmatic unit (the Lesser Xing'an-Zhangguangcai Range) in the Jurassic.

  15. Status of Early Paleozoic biostratigraphy of the Tethyan Himalayan successions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parcha, Suraj Kumar; Pandey, Shivani

    2015-04-01

    The early Paleozoic successions of the Tethys Himalaya is exposed in the Spiti- Zanskar, Kashmir, Kumaun and in Garhwal regions. The most complete sequence described from the Tethys Himalayan region is exposed in the Spiti- Zanskar basin. The sedimentary succession of Spiti-Zanskar basin has a thick sequence of early Paleozoic age. The early Paleozoic rocks of these basins rest over the crystalline rock. The contact between underlying crystallines with the Paleozoic rocks has been interpreted unconformable/conformable and gradual/faulted by various workers. There is no definite record of faunal elements from the Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of both the basins. Above the metasedimentary rocks of Neoproterozoic the fossiliferous Cambrian rock rests. The fossiliferous Cambrian sequence of Spiti- Zanskar basins are corresponding to one another as far as the distribution of fauna is concerned. The early Cambrian successions in both the basins have more or less identical ichnogenera. Whereas, the Middle Cambrian of Zanskar Basin is dominated by agnostid trilobites along with polymerid trilobites on the other hand in the Spiti Basin Pagetides along with polymerid trilobites dominates during this period with few agnostid. In the Kashmir Basin the early Cambrian is equally dominated by Ichnofossils and the Middle Cambrian is controlled similarly by trilobite fauna like that of Spiti- Zanskar basins. In the Kumaun-Garhwal region so far no detailed studies have been carried out however earlier studies and in recent years ichnofossils of early Cambrian age has been reported along with some fragmentary report of trilobites. But from the Ordovician and Silurian successions of Garhwal basin brachiopods have been reported. The Ordovician succession of Spiti basin indicates shallow water depositional cycle, whereas the Zanskar basin indicates the sub aerial fluvial and deltaic depositional environment. A gradational contact has been observed between the Ordovician and

  16. Reservoir assessment of the Nubian sandstone reservoir in South Central Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Gendy, Nader; Barakat, Moataz; Abdallah, Hamed

    2017-05-01

    The Gulf of Suez is considered as one of the most important petroleum provinces in Egypt and contains the Saqqara and Edfu oil fields located in the South Central portion of the Gulf of Suez. The Nubian sandstone reservoir in the Gulf of Suez basin is well known for its great capability to store and produce large volumes of hydrocarbons. The Nubian sandstone overlies basement rocks throughout most of the Gulf of Suez region. It consists of a sequence of sandstones and shales of Paleozoic to Cretaceous age. The Nubian sandstone intersected in most wells has excellent reservoir characteristics. Its porosity is controlled by sedimentation style and diagenesis. The cementation materials are mainly kaolinite and quartz overgrowths. The permeability of the Nubian sandstone is mainly controlled by grain size, sorting, porosity and clay content especially kaolinite and decreases with increase of kaolinite. The permeability of the Nubian Sandstone is evaluated using the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR technology) and formation pressure data in addition to the conventional logs and the results were calibrated using core data. In this work, the Nubian sandstone was investigated and evaluated using complete suites of conventional and advanced logging techniques to understand its reservoir characteristics which have impact on economics of oil recovery. The Nubian reservoir has a complicated wettability nature which affects the petrophysical evaluation and reservoir productivity. So, understanding the reservoir wettability is very important for managing well performance, productivity and oil recovery.

  17. Paleozoic-involving thrust array in the central Sierras Interiores (South Pyrenean Zone, Central Pyrenees): regional implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, L.; Cuevas, J.; Tubía, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    This work deals with the structural evolution of the Sierras Interiores between the Tena and Aragon valleys. The Sierras Interiores is a WNW-trending mountain range that bounds the South Pyrenean Zone to the north and that is characterized by a thrust-fold system with a strong lithological control that places preferably decollements in Triassic evaporites. In the studied area of the Sierras Interiores Cenomanian limestones cover discordantly the Paleozoic rocks of the Axial Zone because there is a stratigraphic lacuna developed from Triassic to Late Cretaceous times. A simple lithostratigraphy of the study area is made up of Late Cenomanian to Early Campanian limestones with grey colour and massive aspect in landscape (170 m, Lower calcareous section), Campanian to Maastrichtian brown coloured sandstones (400-600 m, Marboré sandstones) and, finally, Paleocene light-coloured massive limestones (130-230 m), that often generate the higher topographic levels of the Sierras Interiores due to their greater resistance to erosion. Above the sedimentary sequence of the Sierras Interiores, the Jaca Basin flysch succession crops out discordantly. Based on a detailed mapping of the studied area of the Sierras Interiores, together with well and structural data of the Jaca Basin (Lanaja, 1987; Rodríguez and Cuevas, 2008) we have constructed a 12 km long NS cross section, approximately parallel to the movement direction deduced for this region (Rodríguez et al., 2011). The main structure is a thrust array made up of at least four Paleozoic-involving thrusts (the deeper thrust system) of similar thickness in a probably piggyback sequence, some of which are blind thrusts that generate fold-propagation-folds in upper levels. The higher thrust of the thrust array crops out duplicating the lower calcareous section all over the Sierras Interiores. The emplacement of the deeper thrust system generated the tightness of previous structures: south directed piggyback duplexes (the upper

  18. Paleozoic to Jurassic terrane accretion along the northeastern margin of Tibet plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, Franz; Liu, Yongjiang; Genser, Johann; Ren, Shoumai

    2010-05-01

    The Tibet plateau is considered to have been constructed by a number of basement terranes accreted to the Eurasian margin during Paleozoic to Mesozoic times, and accretion is interpreted to have progressed southwards. The northern margin, exposed in Altyn and Qilian Mountains, is generally considered as an Lower Paleozoic orogen including previously subducted ultra-high successions (Yin and Harrison, 2000; Xiao et al., 2009). Previous tectonic models of the Qaidam block and adjacent mountain ranges at the northeastern margin of the Tibet plateau assumed a minor role of Indosinian tectonism in that region, and firm evidence was only reported from eastern Kunlun Mountains (e.g., Liu et al., 2005). Based on four sources of new data, we propose that the Indosinian tectonism was much more widespread in the northeastern Qaidam block and adjacent mountain ranges, Altyn and Qilian Mts., as believed before and we propose a new tectonic model. The new data sources comprise: (1) 40Ar/39Ar dating of detrital white mica of Jurassic to Pliocene sandstones from the north-eastern Qaidam basin fill; (2) interpretation of Ordovician, Devonian and Jurassic sedimentary successions, from which we interpret the Jurassic successions as intramontane molasse to the Indosinian orogen; (3) 40Ar/39Ar dating of detrital white mica in recent rivers from the southern Qilian Shan revealing possible basement sources in the Qilian Shan draining towards the Qaidam basin; and (4) structural study of basement rocks and subordinate 40Ar/39Ar mineral ages of metamorphic basement rocks. An Ordovician greywacke exposed in the eastern Qaidam basin (W of Delinghua) yields three 40Ar/39Ar age groups of detrital white mica: 900-922, 610-654 and 527-554 Ma. Furthermore, similar old age groups centering at ca. 670 and 1010 Ma are virtually widespread in recent rivers from Qilian Mountains and clearly demonstrate the presence of Panafrican and Grenvillian tectonic elements in the southern Qilian Mts. at the

  19. [Ontophylogenetic studies of Paleozoic ammonoides].

    PubMed

    Leonova, T B

    2012-01-01

    In this work the main directions of study of ontogeny and phylogeny of Paleozoic ammonoids are discussed, and the results of studies of the Permian families of this subclass are presented. It is shown that the morphogenetic evolution of taxa of different rank is caused by manifestation of major phylogenetic moduses and their various combinations. Thus, development can proceed in the direction of morphological complexity and in the direction of simplification. The conclusion about the role of family in the evolutionary history of ammonoids, which depends on the complexity of its structure, was made: the more complex it is, the greater the perspective taxon can be for formation of new groups of the supraspecific rank.

  20. The Paleozoic evolution of the gastropod larval shell: larval armor and tight coiling as a result of predation-driven heterochronic character displacement.

    PubMed

    Seuss, Barbara; Nützel, Alexander; Scholz, Henning; Frýda, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Early and middle Paleozoic gastropod protoconchs generally differ strongly from their corresponding adult morphologies, that is, most known protoconchs are smooth and openly coiled, whereas the majority of adult shells are ornamented and tightly coiled. In contrast, larval and adult shells of late Paleozoic gastropods with planktotrophic larval development (Caenogastropoda, Neritimorpha) commonly resemble each other in shape and principle ornamentation. This is surprising because habitat and mode of life of planktonic larvae and benthic adults differ strongly from each other. Generally, late Paleozoic to Recent protoconchs are tightly coiled. This modern type of larval shell resembles the adult shell morphology and was obviously predisplaced onto the larval stage during the middle Paleozoic. The oldest known planktonic-armored (strongly ornamented) larval shells are known from the late Paleozoic. However, smooth larval shells are also common among the studied late Paleozoic gastropods. The appearance of larval armor at the beginning of the late Paleozoic could reflect an increase of predation pressure in the plankton. Although there are counter examples in which larval and adult shell morphology differ strongly from each other, there is statistical evidence for a heterochronic predisplacement of adult characters onto the larval stage. Larval and adult shells are built in the same way, by accretionary secretion at the mantle edge. It is likely that the same underlying gene expression is responsible for that. If so, similarities of larval and adult shell may be explained by gene sharing, whereas differences may be due to different (planktic vs. benthic life) epigenetic patterns.

  1. The maturation history of the Paleozoic hydrocarbon system of the Arabian platform

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, R.S.

    1995-08-01

    This poster defines the Paleozoic hydrocarbon system of the Arabian Platform, presents an interpretation of its thermal and burial history and uses those results to describe the maturation history of the Lower Silurian source rock. Geohistory analysts were used to delineate source rock kitchens and to guide searches for previously unrecognized sources. The Paleozoic hydrocarbon system is one of the areally largest hydrocarbon systems in the world and one of the least drilled. It contains one of the world`s largest gas fields, is one of the largest potential gas resources on earth, and contains one of the largest emerging oil plays. It is present in both the Zagros Foldbelt and the Arabian Platform. The Lower Silurian Qusaiba source and the Triassic Sudair regional seal define the boundaries of the system. The Paleozoic hc system evolved in basically five stages: (1) simultaneous sediment accumulation and structural formation during the Paleozoic; (2) major tectonism and erosion in Late Paleozoic (Hercynian); (3) Triassic deposition of a regional seal; (4) Mesozoic charging primarily from the Lower Silurian sources; and (5) re-initiation of maturation of Paleozoic sources and charging of the Zagros compressional traps during Neogene collision with Eurasia. We have also interpreted the filling history of North Dome to explain why it contains gas rather than oil. A combination of late trap growth and late gas generation apparently displaced the previously resident oils and left a trap with a gas rich in condensate. The Silurian may have been exhausted by this time, thus indicating that other sources may have contributed significantly to North Dome.

  2. The potential of paleozoic nonmarine trace fossils for paleoecological interpretations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maples, C.G.; Archer, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    Many Late Paleozoic environments have been interpreted as marine because of the co-occurrence of supposedly exclusively marine trace fossils. Beginning in the Late Ordovician, however, nonmarine trace-fossil diversity increased throughout the Paleozoic. This diversification of nonmarine organisms and nonmarine trace fossils was especially prevalent in Devonian and later times. Diversification of freshwater organisms is indicated by the large number of freshwater fish, arthropods, annelids and molluscs that had developed by the Carboniferous. In addition to diverse freshwater assemblages, entirely terrestrial vertebrate and invertebrate ecosystems had developed by the Devonian. This rapid diversification of freshwater and terrestrial organisms is inherently linked to development and diversification of land plants and subsequent shedding of large quantities of organic detritus in nonmarine and marginal-marine areas. Nearshore marine organisms and their larvae that are able to tolerate relatively short periods of lowered salinities will follow salt-water wedges inland during times of reduced freshwater discharge. Similarly, amphidromous marine organisms will migrate periodically inland into nonmarine environments. Undoubtedly, both of these processes were active in the Paleozoic. However, both processes are restricted to stream/distributary channels, interdistributary bays, or estuaries. Therefore, the presence of diverse trace-fossil assemblages in association with floodplain deposits is interpreted to reflect true nonmarine adaptation and diversity. Conversely, diverse trace-fossil assemblages in association with stream/distributary channel deposits, interdistributary-bay deposits, or estuarine deposits may reflect migration of salt-water wedges inland, or migration of marine organisms into freshwater environments (amphidromy), or both. ?? 1989.

  3. U-Pb geochronology and petrology of the late Paleozoic Gil Marquez pluton: magmatism in the Variscan suture zone, southern Iberia, during continental collision and the amalgamation of Pangea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladney, Evan R.; Braid, James A.; Murphy, J. Brendan; Quesada, Cecilio; McFarlane, Christopher R. M.

    2014-07-01

    The origin of plutonic complexes that stitch suture zones developed during collision is not well understood. In southern Iberia, the Pulo du Lobo suture zone (PDLZ) is intruded by the syn- to postcollisional Gil Marquez pluton (GMP), thought to be part of the Sierra Norte Batholith. U-Pb (LA-ICPMS, zircon) data on various phases of the GMP yield from oldest to youngest: (1) a 354.4 ± 7.6 Ma unfoliated gabbro; (2) a 345.6 ± 2.5 Ma foliated intermediate phase; (3) a 346.5 ± 5.4 Ma unfoliated porphyritic granite; (4) a 335.1 ± 2.8 Ma unfoliated biotite granite. This sequence is consistent with cross-cutting relationships observed in the field. The range in ages is consistent with interpretations that the GMP is part of the composite (ca. 350-308 Ma) SNB. Inherited ages preserved in the GMP intermediate and felsic phases indicate that its magmas traversed through South Portuguese Zone and PDLZ crust during emplacement. The ca. 345 Ma emplacement of the late kinematic foliated intermediate phase constrains the age of late-stage strike slip deformation within the PDLZ, and the lack of a foliation in the older gabbro indicates that is was not proximal to a shear zone neither at the time of emplacement, nor during its subsequent history. The unfoliated porphyritic granite and unfoliated biotite granite cut the foliation of the intermediate phase indicating emplacement during the waning stages of collision, while the ca. 335 Ma biotite granite intrudes the Santa Ira Flysch, thereby providing a tight constraint for the latest stage of deformation in the PDLZ.

  4. Paleozoic and Mesozoic deformations in the central Sierra Nevada, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Kistler, Ronald Wayne

    1980-01-01

    Analysis of structural and stratigraphic data indicates that several periods of regional deformation, consisting of combined folding, faulting, cataclasis, and regional metamorphism, occurred throughout the central Sierra Nevada during Paleozoic and Mesozoic time. The oldest regional deformation occurred alono northward trends during the Devonian and Mississippian periods in most roof pendants containing lower Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks at the center and along the crest of the range. This deformation is expressed in some roof pendants by an angular unconformity separating older thrice-deformed from younger twice-deformed Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks. The first Mesozoic deformation, which consisted of uplift and erosion and was accompanied by the onset of Andean-type volcanism during the Permian and Triassic, is expressed by an angular unconformity in several roof pendants from the Saddlebag Lake to the Mount Morrison areas. This unconformity is defined by Permian and Triassic andesitic to rhyolitic metavolcanic rocks unconformably overlying more intensely deformed Pennsylvanian, Permian(?), and older metasedimentary rocks. A later regional deformation occurred during the Triassic along N. 20?_30? W. trends in Permian and Triassic metavolcanic rocks of the Saddlebag Lake and Mount Dana roof pendants, in upper Paleozoic rocks of the Pine Creek roof pendant, and in the Calaveras Formation of the western metamorphic belt; the roof pendants are crosscut by Upper Triassic granitic rocks of the Lee Vining intrusive epoch. A still later period of Early and Middle Jurassic regional deformation occurred along N. 30?-60? E. trends in upper Paleozoic rocks of the Calaveras Formation of the western metamorphic belt. A further period of deformation was the Late Jurassic Nevadan orogeny, which occurred along N. 20?_40? W. trends in Upper Jurassic rocks of the western metamorphic belt that are crosscut by Upper Jurassic granitic rocks of the Yosemite intrusive epoch

  5. Facies architecture of tidal shelf sandstone ridge: Tocito sandstone

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, G.W.; Nummedal, D. )

    1989-09-01

    The lithofacies architecture of a single Tocito Sandstone Lentil has been documented in outcrops near the Hogback oil field west of Farmington with a very detailed outcrop study. This isolated Tocito sand body is composed of a three-tiered hierarchy of linear ridge elements. The large-scale Tocito Sandstone Lentil is approximately 5 km wide, 30 km long, and up to 16 m thick. The lentil is composed of at least three smaller scale ridges, which are up to 1 km wide, of unknown length, and up to 16 m thick. The small-scale ridges are arranged such that each new ridge accreted on the landward margin of the previous ridge. These smaller scale ridges consist of an ordered arrangement of four basic lithofacies: (1) burrowed, muddy sandstone, (2) interbedded clean and muddy sandstone, (3) cross-bedded sandstone, and (4) ripple-bedded sandstone. burrowed, muddy sandstone is found at the base of the small-scale ridges, is laterally extensive, and is interpreted as forming downcurrent from the most active portion of the ridge. The cross-bedded sandstone forms ribbon-shaped sand bodies elongate in the direction of ridge elongation. Typically the sand ribbons are 100-300 m wide, 2-4 m thick, and up to 1 km long. Usually two or more combine to form a small-scale ridge. The interbedded sandstone is found above the cross-bedded lithofacies as well as between the sand ribbons. The ripple-bedded facies is always found at the top of the section and represents the waning stage of ridge growth. The resulting architecture is one of coalesced sand ribbons combining to form the small-scale ridges, and subsequently small-scale ridges accreting landward to form a composite Tocito Sandstone Lentil.

  6. Geochemistry and petrology of greenstones from the Erdenetsogt formation, central Mongolia: New evidence for a middle Paleozoic mantle plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganbat, E.; Ishiwatari, A.; Demberel, O.

    2012-12-01

    This research presents evidence of the plume-related formation of greenstones from the Erdenetsogt Formation (EF) hosted by Tsetserleg terrane of middle Paleozoic Hangay-Hentey accretionary complex, which is central part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Our new data can support middle Paleozoic evolution of plume-related magmatism of the paleo-oceanic plate and its accretionary processes, which significantly contributed to the continental growth of CAOB. EF is mainly made up of intensively deformed oceanic plate stratigraphy such as radiolarian/ribbon chert, red and green quartzites (metachert), fine to medium-grained sandstone, siltstone with minor amount of limestone, and some basaltic greenstones which have been discovered lately during geological mapping in the south Hangay region. The upper unit of this formation was dated by late Devonian conodonts from the chert. However, the chemistry of greenstones in this region has not been studied yet except brief study by Orolmaa (2008). The studied samples include metabasalts, dolerites, microgabbros, and occasional meta-picrites with mostly subophitic, intersertal, and partly intergranular textures. The common assembledge of phenocrysts is clinopyroxene (well-preserved in all greenstones) and plagioclase (replaced by albite). Also completely altered olivine containing relict Cr-spinel observed from metapicrite and porphyritic metabasalt. The composition of the primary clinopyroxene (augite) and Cr-spinel were analyzed by electron microprobe and bulk rock major and trace elements by XRF. On the basis of Ca +Na vs. Ti and Ca vs. Ti+Cr discrimination diagrams, clinopyroxenes display tholeiitic magma type and non-orogenic affinity. The relict spinels are 20-250 μm in size. The Al2O3 wt.% vs. TiO2 wt.% variation of the spinels corresponds to the transitional affinity of OIB and MORB. The Cr and Mg numbers of the spinels show very limited values ranging from 55 to 68 and from 0.3 to 0.6, respectively, and

  7. Tidal-bundle sequences in the Jordan Sandstone (Upper Cambrian), southeastern Minnesota, U.S.A.: Evidence for tides along inboard shorelines of the Sauk Epicontinental Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tape, C.H.; Cowan, Clinton A.; Runkel, Anthony C.

    2003-01-01

    This study documents for the first time tidal bundling in a lower Paleozoic sheet sandstone from the cratonic interior of North America, providing insights into the hydrodynamics of ancient epicontinental seas. The Jordan Sandstone (Upper Cambrian) in the Upper Mississippi Valley contains large-scale planar tabular cross-sets with tidal-bundle sequences, which were analyzed in detail at an exceptional exposure. Tidal-bundle sequences (neap-spring-neap cycles) were delineated by foreset thickening-thinning patterns and composite shale drapes, the latter of which represent accumulations of mud during the neap tides of neap-spring-neap tidal cycles. Fourier analysis of the bundle thickness data from the 26 measurable bundle sequences revealed cycles ranging from 15 to 34 bundles per sequence, which suggests a semidiurnal or mixed tidal system along this part of the Late Cambrian shoreline. We extend the tidal interpretation to widespread occurrences of the same facies in outcrops of lesser quality, where the facies is recognizable but too few bundles are exposed for tidal cycles to be measured. By doing so, this study shows that tidally generated deposits have a significant geographic and temporal extent in Upper Cambrian strata of central mid-continent North America. The deposition and preservation of tidal facies was related to the intermittent development of shoreline embayments during transgressions. The tidally dominated deposits filled ravined topographies that were repeatedly developed on the updip parts of the shoreface. Resulting coastal geomorphologies, accompanied perhaps by larger-scale changes in basinal conditions and/or configuration, led to changes in depositional conditions from wave-dominated to tide-dominated. Outcrops of the Jordan Sandstone tidal facies in the Upper Mississippi Valley represent the farthest inboard recorded transmission of ocean-generated tides in the Laurentian epicontinental seas, demonstrating that tidal currents were

  8. Provenance and geochronology of Cenozoic sandstones of northern Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hattum, M. W. A.; Hall, R.; Pickard, A. L.; Nichols, G. J.

    2013-10-01

    The Crocker Fan of Sabah was deposited during subduction of the Proto-South China Sea between the Eocene and Early Miocene. Collision of South China microcontinental blocks with Borneo in the Early Miocene terminated deep water sedimentation and resulted in the major regional Top Crocker Unconformity (TCU). Sedimentation of fluvio-deltaic and shallow marine character resumed in the late Early Miocene. The Crocker Fan sandstones were derived from nearby sources in Borneo and nearby SE Asia, rather than distant Asian and Himalayan sources. The Crocker Fan sandstones have a mature composition, but their textures and heavy mineralogy indicate they are first-cycle sandstones, mostly derived from nearby granitic source rocks, with some input of metamorphic, sedimentary and ophiolitic material. The discrepancy between compositional maturity and textural immaturity is attributed to the effects of tropical weathering. U-Pb ages of detrital zircons are predominantly Mesozoic. In the Eocene sandstones Cretaceous zircons dominate and suggest derivation from granites of the Schwaner Mountains of southern Borneo. In Oligocene sandstones Permian-Triassic and Palaeoproterozoic zircons become more important, and are interpreted to be derived from Permian-Triassic granites and Proterozoic basement of the Malay Tin Belt. Miocene fluvio-deltaic and shallow marine sandstones above the TCU were mostly recycled from the deformed Crocker Fan in the rising central mountain range of Borneo. The provenance of the Tajau Sandstone Member of the Lower Miocene Kudat Formation in north Sabah is strikingly different from other Miocene and older sandstones. Sediment was derived mainly from granitic and high-grade metamorphic source rocks. No such rocks existed in Borneo during the Early Miocene, but potential sources are present on Palawan, to the north of Borneo. They represent continental crust from South China and subduction-related metamorphic rocks which formed an elevated region in the Early

  9. Paleozoic synsedimentary structural deformation in Appalachian fold-thrust belt of Alabama and west Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrill, B.A.

    1986-05-01

    The Appalachian fold-thrust belt consists of allochthonous Paleozoic sedimentary cover rocks transported by late Paleozoic Alleghenian thrust faults. Local variations in stratigraphy in Alabama and west Georgia indicate episodic, synsedimentary, structural movement during much of the Paleozoic. To provide a base map for interpreting prethrust stratigraphy, a new palinspastic map was constructed from a series of balanced and restored cross sections. Local thickness variations suggest that synsedimentary deformation was associated with high-angle basement faults, and some basement faults are confirmed by seismic data. Two major phases of synsedimentary basement fault movement account for most of the local thickness variation: (1) Early and Middle Cambrian, and (2) Early Mississippian to Early Pennsylvanian. The Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician Knox Group is a regionally pervasive carbonate unit that reflects tectonic quiescence. The interval from Middle Ordovician to Lower Mississippian is characterized by thin, laterally variable, shallow marine units. The section includes several unconformities that locally coalesce, thus completely removing this succession. Different expressions of facies and unconformities locally suggest both synsedimentary and postdepositional structural basins. Minor reactivation of basement faults evidently occurred during the middle Paleozoic. Relative locations of early synsedimentary structures and later Alleghenian thin-skinned structures suggest both strike-parallel and cross-strike basement faults that locally correspond to frontal and lateral decollement ramps, respectively. Thus, Paleozoic basement-related, thick-skinned, synsedimentary structures probably controlled the location and geometry of some decollement ramps generated during Alleghenian thrusting.

  10. Solonker ophiolite in Inner Mongolia, China: A late Permian continental margin-type ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhi-wen; Xu, Bei; Shi, Guan-zhong; Zhao, Pan; Faure, M.; Chen, Yan

    2016-09-01

    The Solonker ophiolite is exposed along the border between Mongolia and China within the Solonker zone, the southeastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), and it is composed dominantly of serpentinized peridotite with subordinate gabbro, basaltic lava, radiolarian-bearing siliceous rocks, and minor plagiogranite. Meanwhile, layered mafic-ultramafic cumulates are not ubiquitous. In this study, zircon grains from two gabbros and a plagiogranite yield 206Pb/238U ages of 259 ± 6 Ma, 257 ± 3 Ma and 263 ± 1 Ma. These data were interpreted to represent the formation age of the Solonker ophiolite. The studied gabbros and basalts have a tholeiitic composition, showing a MORB affinity. They are also characterized by enrichment of Pb and depletion of Nb relative to La and Th. Furthermore, the studied gabbros contain inherited zircon grains and display a large range of zircon Hf isotopes (εHf(t) = - 5.27 to + 10.19). These features imply that crustal contamination played an important role in the generation of these mafic rocks. Major elements derived from the radiolarian-bearing siliceous rocks suggest a continental margin setting. This is confirmed by rock association. Terrigenous rocks (sandstones and siltstones) interstratified with siliceous rocks. U-Pb dating of detrital zircon grains in sandstones from both the northern and southern sides of the Solonker ophiolite belt, along with published data, reveals that the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian strata in fault contact with the Solonker ophiolite was deposited above Early Paleozoic orogens. The lines of petrological, geochemical, geochronological, and isotopic evidence led us to propose that the Solonker ophiolite is a Late Permian continental margin-type body formed during the early stages of opening of an ocean basin, following rifting and break-up of the Early Paleozoic orogens. Accordingly, the Permian Solonker zone is characterized by an intra-continental extensional setting.

  11. Patagonia: A paleozoic continent adrift?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Victor A.

    2008-11-01

    The evolution of Patagonia as an independent and exotic microcontinent from the rest of South America was a recurrent hypothesis since the XIX century, reaching notoriety during the discussion times of continental drift theory. The arrival of plate tectonics triggered different hypotheses, some of them with fixist interpretations that consider Patagonia as an autochthonous part of Gondwana, and others more mobilistic that postulate an allochthonous origin. After several decades, although some consensus exists among those hypotheses that postulate its allochthony, there is no agreement in its boundaries, subduction, accretion, and final amalgamation times to the Gondwana supercontinent. In this review the different magmatic belts are analyzed, their deformation and metamorphism, the associated sedimentary basins, as well as the existing geochronologic controls. Aware that important uncertainties still remain, a new model is proposed with two magmatic arcs: a western belt that was active from the Devonian to the mid Carboniferous, and a northern one partially coeval that led to the collision of Patagonia against the southwestern margin of Gondwana in the Lower Permian. It is hypothesized that the termination of the western magmatic arc activity was linked to the collision of the Antarctic Peninsula and associated terranes. The reconstruction of the plate tectonic history of Patagonia during the Paleozoic shows the existence of several episodes of fragmentation and rifting, convergence and accretion, renewed periods of rifting and reaccretion to the Gondwana margin. Those processes were intrinsic to the formation of Terra Australis orogen, controlled by the absolute motion of the Gondwana supercontinent and guided by successive global plate reorganizations.

  12. Sandstones of unexpectedly high diffusibility.

    PubMed

    Bashar, Khairul; Tellam, John H

    2011-03-25

    Measurements have been made of diffusion coefficients (D(i)=-mass flux/concentration gradient) using a double reservoir, steady-state method with two tracers, CaBr(2) and amino-G-acid, on intact samples of Triassic red-bed sandstone from northwest England. Diffusibility (D'=D(i)/diffusion coefficient in water) averages 0.124, ranging between 0.075 and 0.215 (porosity 0.1 to 0.24), very similar for the two tracers. Implied tortuosities (actual path length/straight line length) average 1.21 (range 1.06 to 1.47), with constrictivities close to 1. In comparison with limited red-bed sandstone data from elsewhere, these D' values are up to 4 times greater, and tortuosity correspondingly lower. Re-interpretation of formation factor data from previous studies on shallow sandstone samples also from northwest England confirms that diffusibility is significantly higher in these sandstones than others from similar palaeoenvironment/stratigraphic units. The lower tortuosities appear to result from the relatively high permeability, open fabric of the rock, properties likely to be present in shallow sandstone systems used for water supply. It is concluded that diffusion rates may, in some shallow freshwater-containing continental sandstone systems, be significantly greater than is implied by estimates of sandstone diffusibility current in the literature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Petroleum prospectivity in Precambrian and Early Paleozoic basins, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, B.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Proterozoic to Devonian age strata with some potential for petroleum accumulations are known from sedimentary basins covering {approximately}1,870,000 km{sup 2} onshore Australia. Portions of these very old basins have not sustained the deleterious effects of deep burial. Explorers with vision continue to target these very old rocks in the MacArthur/South Nicholson, Amadeus, Canning, Adavale, and Bonaparte basins. Approximately 429,000 km{sup 2} of these basins remain under license for petroleum exploration. The oldest known oil in Australia is reservoired within and sourced from the mid-Proterozoic in the McArthur basin. The Early Ordovician Pacoota Sandstone of the Amadeus basin is the oldest formation commercially exploited for oil and gas in Australia. Significant discoveries awaiting development include Dingo, Pictor, and Gilmore. The Tern gas field trap in the Bonaparte basin is related to a salt diapir; the salt probably being Silurian-Devonian in age. Salt probably of the same age has formed diapirs in the Canning basin, too. Cambrian and Proterozoic salt-bearing strata are likewise the cause and core of some anticlinal and diapiric structures in the Amadeus basin. Minor oil shows have been reported from the Cambrian of the Officer basin. The Warburton, Pedirka, Arrowie, Ord, Wiso, Georgina, and Ngalia basins contain Proterozoic and early Paleozoic sedimentary rocks but are ascribed only limited petroleum prospectivity at this time.

  14. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources: Utica-Lower Paleozoic Total Petroleum System: Chapter G.10 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Robert T.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Both conventional oil and gas resources and continuous (unconventional) gas resources are present in the UticaLower Paleozoic TPS. Conventional oil and gas resources in the Utica-Lower Paleozoic TPS were assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2002 in the following assessment units (AU): (1) the Lower Paleozoic Carbonates in Thrust Belt AU, (2) the Knox Unconformity AU, (3) the Black River-Trenton Hydrothermal Dolomite AU, and (4) the Lockport Dolomite AU. The total estimated undiscovered oil and gas resources for these four AUs, at a mean value, was about 46 million barrels of oil (MMBO) and about 3 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG), respectively. In contrast, continuous (unconventional) gas resources in the TPS were assessed by the USGS in 2002 in four AUs associated with the “Clinton” sandstone, Medina sandstone, Medina Group sandstones, Tuscarora Sandstone, and sandstones in the Queenston Shale. The total estimated undiscovered gas for these four AUs, at a mean value, was about 26.8 TCFG. A hypothetical Utica Shale AU for oil(?) and continuous gas is identified in this report. In 2012, the Utica Shale was recognized by the USGS as a continuous AU and was assessed by Kirschbaum and others (2012).

  15. Similarities in the Paleozoic successions of north Africa and Arabia and implications for petroleum exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Clark-Lowes, D.D. )

    1988-08-01

    From field studies in southwest Libya and northwest Saudi Arabia, the facies of the Paleozoic succession of the north African/Arabian stable cratonic margin of Gondwanaland are interpreted as fluvial, estuarine, deltaic, shallow marine, and glacial deposits. The facies of the Saq and Tabuk Formations of Saudi Arabia bear witness to a sedimentary history that is very similar to that of north Africa, the Saq Formation (Cambrian-Arenig) being equivalent to the Hassaouna Formation of Libya and the Tabuk Formation being subdivided and correlated using well-dated shale members to the following formations: Haouaz (Llanvirn-Llandeilo), Melez-Chograne (Caradoc), Memouniat (Ashgill), Tanezzuft/Acacus (Llandovery-Ludlow), and Tadrart (Gedinnian -Emsian). The Cambrian-Ordovician succession comprises Nubian-type fluvial and estuarine sandstones which pass up to regressive deltaic/shallow marine sequences overlain by Upper Ordovician glacial deposits that lie in deeply incised paleovalleys recorded from Saudi Arabia and north Africa. The Silurian succession comprises the deposits of a postglacial marine transgression of vast lateral extent and a subsequent regression, the sandstones of which are markedly diachronous. The Lower Devonian succession comprises fining-upward retrogradational deltaic (transgressive) sequences of Nubian-type sandstones (fluvial to shallow marine) which form widespread blanket sandstone bodies. The prospectivity of these strata is well known from Algeria in the west to Jordan in the east, the Llandoverian oil-prone source rocks providing the key to Cambrian-Ordovician and Lower Devonian plays. The significance of underlying paleovalley-fill fluvioglacial sandstones as linear reservoir targets has yet to be fully appreciated.

  16. Factors controlling reservoir quality in tertiary sandstones and their significance to geopressured geothermal production. Annual report, May 1, 1979-May 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Loucks, R.G.; Richmann, D.L.; Milliken, K.L.

    1980-07-01

    Differing extents of diagenetic modification is the factor primarily responsible for contrasting regional reservoir quality of Tertiary sandstones from the Upper and Lower Texas Gulf Coast. Detailed comparison of Frio sandstones from the Chocolate Bayou/Danbury Dome area, Brazoria County, and Vicksburg sandstones from the McAllen Ranch Field area, Hidalgo County, reveals that extent of diagenetic modification is most strongly influenced by (1) detrital mineralogy and (2) regional geothermal gradients. Vicksburg sandstones from the McAllen Ranch Field area are less stable, chemically and mechanically, than Frio sandstones from the Chocolate Bayou/Danbury dome area. Vicksburg sandstones are mineralogically immature and contain greater proportions of feldspars and rock fragments than do Frio sandstones. Thr reactive detrital assemblage of Vicksubrg sandstones is highly susceptible to diagenetic modification. Susceptibility is enhanced by higher than normal geothermal gradients in the McAllen Ranch Field area. Thus, consolidation of Vicksburg sandstones began at shallower depth of burial and precipitation of authigenic phases (especially calcite) was more pervasive than in Frio sandstones. Moreover, the late-stage episode of ferroan calcite precipitation that occluded most secondary porosity in Vicksburg sandstones did not occur significantly in Frio sandstones. Therefore, regional reservoir quality of Frio sandstones from Brazoria County is far better than that characterizing Vicksburg sandstones from Hidalgo County, especially at depths suitable for geopressured geothermal energy production.

  17. Petrology, diagnosis, and sedimentology of oil reservoirs in Upper Cretaceous Shannon Sandstone Beds, Powder River basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Hansley, P.L.; Whitney, C.G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of the petrology of the Shannon Sandstone Member that indicates diagenetic alterations of outcrop and near-surface sandstones cannot be used to predict the diagenesis of deeply buried sandstones. Textural relations show that oil migrated to reservoirs late in the postdepositional history of the Shannon. Petrologic and sedimentologic data suggest that an alternative depositional model (for example, a nearshore rather than mid-shelf setting) should be considered for the Shannon.

  18. Distribution and erosion of the Paleozoic tectonic unconformities in the Tarim Basin, Northwest China: Significance for the evolution of paleo-uplifts and tectonic geography during deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Changsong; Yang, Haijun; Liu, Jingyan; Rui, Zhifeng; Cai, Zhenzhong; Zhu, Yongfeng

    2012-03-01

    The distribution and erosional features of the Paleozoic major tectonic unconformities in the Tarim Basin, and their genetic relation to the development of paleo-uplifts as well as the evolution of geodynamic settings, are documented in this paper based on the integral analysis of seismic, drilling, and outcrop data. During the Paleozoic, the Tarim Basin underwent three major tectonic deformation stages, which resulted in three angular unconformities and in significant changes in basin geomorphology and paleogeography. The tectonic deformation at the end of the Middle Ordovician was characterized by development of the southern central paleo-uplift, the northern depression, and the southeastern Tangguzibasi depression in the basin. The thickest denudation belts of the unconformity (Tg5-2) are distributed mainly along the thrust structural highs. A stronger deformation event took place at the end of the Late Ordovician and formed a huge uplift along the southwestern and southeastern basin margins and the western part of the Tabei uplift along the northern basin margin, producing an extensive angular unconformity (Tg5) with maximum erosion thickness of 1500-2000 m. This tectonic event resulted in an abrupt change in overall geography of the basin, from a deepwater marine environment at the late stages of the Late Ordovician to a littoral and neritic basin in the Early Silurian. The deformation that occurred at the end of the Middle Devonian was the strongest in the Paleozoic. It generated the most widespread angular unconformity (Tg3) within the basin and led to extensive erosion, with maximum denudation thickness of 3000-5000 m in the northern and northeastern parts of the basin. The topography of the basin during the late Devonian was characterized by a high in the northeast and a low in the southwest, forming an embayment basin opening to the southwest during the Early Devonian to Carboniferous. The transgression in general from southwest to northeast deposited

  19. Geology of Paleozoic Rocks in the Upper Colorado River Basin in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, Excluding the San Juan Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geldon, Arthur L.

    2003-01-01

    The geology of the Paleozoic rocks in the Upper Colorado River Basin in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, was studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program to provide support for hydrogeological interpretations. The study area is segmented by numerous uplifts and basins caused by folding and faulting that have recurred repeatedly from Precambrian to Cenozoic time. Paleozoic rocks in the study area are 0-18,000 feet thick. They are underlain by Precambrian igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks and are overlain in most of the area by Triassic formations composed mostly of shale. The overlying Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks are 0-27,000 feet thick. All Paleozoic systems except the Silurian are represented in the region. The Paleozoic rocks are divisible into 11 hydrogeologic units. The basal hydrogeologic unit consisting of Paleozoic rocks, the Flathead aquifer, predominantly is composed of Lower to Upper Cambrian sandstone and quartzite. The aquifer is 0-800 feet thick and is overlain gradationally to unconformably by formations of Cambrian to Mississippian age. The Gros Ventre confining unit consists of Middle to Upper Cambrian shale with subordinate carbonate rocks and sandstone. The confining unit is 0-1,100 feet thick and is overlain gradationally to unconformably by formations of Cambrian to Mississippian age. The Bighom aquifer consists of Middle Cambrian to Upper Ordovician limestone and dolomite with subordinate shale and sandstone. The aquifer is 0-3,000 feet thick and is overlain unconformably by Devonian and Mississipplan rocks. The Elbert-Parting confining unit consists of Lower Devonian to Lower Mississippian limestone, dolomite, sandstone, quartzite, shale, and anhydrite. It is 0-700 feet thick and is overlain conformably to unconformably by Upper Devonian and Mississippian rocks. The Madison aquifer consists of two zones of distinctly different lithology. The lower (Redwall-Leadville) zone

  20. Late Paleozoic transcurrent tectonic assembly of the central Appalachian Piedmont

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentino, David W.; Gates, Alexander E.; Glover, Lynn

    1994-02-01

    Recent investigations in south-eastern Pennsylvania and northern Maryland have demonstrated a major anastomosing strike-slip shear system. The Pleasant Grove-Huntingdon Valley shear system emerges from beneath the coastal plain cover at Trenton, New Jersey, and extends to the area west of Baltimore, Maryland, where it is overlain by the Culpepper Mesozoic rift basin. The sense of offset across this system is dextral. In the Susquehanna River region and north of the shear zone, the rocks of the Octoraro Formation contain evidence for two metamorphisms and deformations prior to strike-slip shearing, whereas south of the shear zone the Peters Creek Formation contains evidence for only one. The discordance in metamorphic and deformational history across the shear zone suggests the now juxtaposed rocks originated in different parts of the orogen. Although conclusive ages for the strike-slip deformation do not exist at this time, the timing of deformation is loosely constrained where the shear system crosscuts known Taconian structures in the Piedmont. Comparison of deformation style with other regions in the Appalachian suggests the Pleasant Grove-Huntingdon Valley shear system is related to Alleghanian transcurrent tectonics in the Piedmont. Palinspastic reconstruction of the Pleasant Grove-Huntingdon Valley shear system reveals fundamental problems in current tectonic models for the central Appalachian Piedmont. A minimum of 150 km of dextral offset is proposed for the Pleasant Grove-Huntingdon Valley shear system based on reconstruction of the Cambrian-Ordovician shelf edge between northern Maryland and southeastern New York. Displacement of this magnitude can account for the previously proposed tectonic models that portray a failed Iapetan rift block and microcontinent that contains the Baltimore Grenvillian massifs. Even though a history of early orthogonal collision is preserved within discrete structural blocks, transcurrent shearing has greatly influenced the distribution of those blocks. Models not including the strike-slip component of tectonic assembly need serious reconsideration, as evidence grows that the magnitude of orogen-parallel displacement is equal to or larger than the orthogonal component.

  1. Compaction of Norphlet sandstones, Rankin County, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, E.F.

    1987-09-01

    Fabric and porosity changes resulting from compaction were studied in sandstones from three cores sampled at depths between 15,900 and 22,500 ft. Point counts of 30 thin sections indicate that 0.4% of the rock volume was lost by ductile grain deformation and 3% by pressure solution at both grain contacts and at widely spaced stylolites. Pre-cement porosities of eolian sandstone range from 27 to 35% (mean = 29%), indicating that a total of from 10 to 18% porosity (mean = 16%) was lost by compaction (assuming 45% initial porosity). The difference between the total porosity loss and the sum of the other two processes is assumed to be the porosity lost by grain rearrangement (mean = 12.6%). The amount of pressure solution at grain contacts for each well is independent of depth, temperature, and amount of both quartz cement and total cement. Stylolites transect both grains and cements, which indicates they formed late in the diagenetic sequence. Silica released by pressure solution at quartz grain contacts could not be the sole source and was probably not even the major source of quartz cement in the formation, because cementation by quartz preceded the episode of strong pressure solution. In addition, the volume of silica released by pressure solution appears to have been inadequate to provide the volume of quartz cement present.

  2. Structural evolution of Vendian and early to Middle Paleozoic complexes in Uraltau Zone and Sakmara allochthons, Southern Urals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golionko, B. G.; Ryazantsev, A. V.

    2017-05-01

    The structural evolution of the Late Precambrian and Early to Middle Paleozoic complexes is considered for the southern part of the Uraltau Zone and its extension in the Ebeta Antiform, as well as for the northeastern and northwestern frameworks of the ophiolitic Khabarny Allochthon, where the Late Precambrian and Paleozoic complexes of the continental margin in combination with ophiolites are drawn together in packets of tectonic nappes. The formation of the regional structure took place during several stages in various geodynamic settings. Five deformation stages have been recognized in the regional structural evolution from new data on mesostructural parageneses, which consist of folds that developed within outcrops and their relationships in rocks differing in age. The first stage is related to the Late Precambrian Timanian, or Cadomian Orogeny, and four subsequent deformation stages characterize Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the region. The geodynamic nature of the second stage remains unknown; the third stage is related to overthrusting of ophiolites in the Early Devonian; the fourth stage of deformations marks Late Paleozoic continental collision. The fifth stage of postcollisional strike-slip deformations completes the regional structural evolution.

  3. New isotopic evidence for the origin of groundwater from the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer in the Negev, Israel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vengosh, A.; Hening, S.; Ganor, J.; Mayer, B.; Weyhenmeyer, C.E.; Bullen, T.D.; Paytan, A.

    2007-01-01

    SO4-rich groundwater from the underlying Jurassic aquifer contributes significantly to the salt budget of the Nubian Sandstone aquifer. The unique chemical and isotopic composition of the Jurassic groundwater (??34SSO4 ??? +14???; ??18OSO4 ??? 14???; 87Sr/86Sr ???0.70764) is interpreted as reflecting dissolution of Late Triassic marine gypsum deposits. In the southern Arava Valley the authors postulate that SO4-rich groundwater with distinctively high Br/Cl (3 ?? 10-3) low 87Sr/86Sr (0.70734), and high ??34SSO4 values (+15???) is derived from mixing with underlying brines from the Paleozoic units. The radiocarbon measurements reveal low 14C activities (0.2-5.8 pmc) in both the northeastern Negev and southern Arava Valley. Taking into account dissolution of carbonate rocks and bacterial SO4 reduction in the unconfined area, estimated mean residence times of groundwater in the confined zone in the northeastern Negev are on the order of 21-38 ka, which suggests recharge predominantly during the last glacial period. The 14C signal in groundwater from the southern Arava Valley is equally low but due to evidence for mixing with external water sources the residence time estimates are questionable. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Introduction: Paleozoic applications of sequence stratigraphy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witzke, B.J.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Day, J.; ,

    1996-01-01

    Despite conceptual origins from studies of the Paleozoic strata of cratonic basins, sequence stratigraphy has largely been developed and applied to post-Paleozoic successions in extracratonic settings. The application of continental-margin sequence stratigraphic concepts to cratonic basinal successions is fraught with problems owing to slower rates of sediment accumulation, and consequently, a more coarsely defined temporal resolution. In addition, some important sequence stratigraphic components are rare or completely missing from cratonic areas. Common usage of genetic sequence stratigraphic terminology can coopt critical evaluation of depositional characters, and must be practiced with extreme caution in order to avoid 'model-driven' approaches to stratigraphic synthesis. The best available tests for evaluating current questions regarding the central role of eustasy in sequence stratigraphy may be through interregional and intercontinental comparisons of cratonic stratigraphic sequences.

  5. (Vitrinites of Mesozoic, Cenozoic, and Paleozoic coals)

    SciTech Connect

    Faizullina, E.M.; Lapo, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    In the reported experiment, the vitrinites of the coalification stages from B to A have been studied by IR spectrometry. A comparison of the intensities of the absorption bands of equally coalified vitrinites of different ages has shown that they differ mainly in their content of stretching vibrations of aliphatic CH and CH/sub 2/ groups (absorption bands at 2930 and 2860 cm/sup -1/) and the stretching vibrations of C.0 groups (band close to 1700 cm/sup -1/). A high absorption in the vitrinites of Mesozoic and Cenozoic coals due to aliphatic CH and CH/sub 2/ groups as compared with the vitrinities of Paleozoic coals has been found. The laws established previously in the coalification series for the vitrinites of Paleozoic coals have also been confirmed for the vitrinites of Meso-Cenozoic coals. 13 refs.

  6. Petrophysics and hydrocarbon potential of Paleozoic rocks in Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Fowzia; Shaaban, Fouad; Khalaf, Fikry; Bahaman, Fatma; Akbar, Bibi; Al-Khamiss, Awatif

    2017-10-01

    Well logs from nine deep exploratory and development wells in Kuwaiti oil fields have been used to study petrophysical characteristics and their effect on the reservoir quality of the subsurface Paleozoic Khuff and Unayzah formations. Petrophysical log data have been calibrated with core analysis available at some intervals. The study indicates a complex lithological facies of the Khuff Formation that is composed mainly of dolomite and anhydrite interbeds with dispersed argillaceous materials and few limestone intercalations. This facies greatly lowered the formation matrix porosity and permeability index. The porosity is fully saturated with water, which is reflected by the low resistivity logs responses, except at some intervals where few hydrocarbon shows are recorded. The impermeable anhydrites, massive (low-permeability) carbonate rock and shale at the lower part of the formation combine to form intraformational seals for the clastic reservoirs of the underlying Unayzah Formation. By contrast, the log interpretation revealed clastic lithological nature of the Unayzah Formation with cycles of conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone, mudstone and shales. The recorded argillaceous materials are mainly of disseminated habit, which control, for some extent, the matrix porosity, that ranges from 2% to 15% with water saturation ranges from 65% to 100%. Cementation, dissolution, compaction and clay mineral authigenesis are the most significant diagenetic processes affecting the reservoir quality. Calibration with the available core analysis at some intervals of the formation indicates that the siliciclastic sequence is a fluvial with more than one climatic cycle changes from humid, semi-arid to arid condition and displays the impact of both physical and chemical diagenesis. In general, the study revealed that the Unyazah Formation has a better reservoir quality than the Khuff Formation and possible gas bearing zones.

  7. Operation Sandstone: 1948. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Berkhouse, L.H.; Hallowell, J.H.; McMullan, F.W.; Davis, S.E.; Jones, C.B.

    1983-12-19

    SANDSTONE was a three-detonation atmospheric nuclear weapon test series conducted during the spring of 1948 at Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands. Report emphasis is on the radiological safety of the personnel. Available records on personnel exposure are summarized.

  8. Geothermal investigation of Paleozoic formations in the Central Alberta Basin/Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weides, S.; Moeck, I.; Majorowicz, J.

    2012-04-01

    This study explores Paleozoic formations in the Central Alberta Basin with regard to their usability as geothermal reservoirs. The research area of this regional scale study is approx. 150 km * 200 km in size and located around the city of Edmonton. A 3D geological model is developed based on stratigraphic picks of more than 7000 wells from the Alberta general well data file. The model consists of 20 different geological units, of which 14 belong to the Paleozoic succession. Spatial distribution and thickness of formations is analysed with help of the 3D modelling study. Due to its depth and its distribution throughout the whole study area, the Cambrian Basal Sandstone formation is the most promising horizon for a geothermal development. Porosity and horizontal permeability of four Devonian carbonate formations - Cooking Lake, Leduc, Nisku and Wabamun - is mapped by reinvestigation of more than 50,000 core analyses from the Alberta general well data file. Average porosity of the Devonian ranges from 5.2 % (Nisku) to 10.4 % (Wabamun), average horizontal permeability is between 5 mD (Cooking Lake) and 142 mD (Leduc). In parts of the Devonian formations a vuggy porosity exists, as analysis of cores has shown. This locally high porosity and permeability zones are not fully covered by the core measurements. Since logging and core analysis data of the Cambrian Basal Sandstone are rare, properties of this formation are measured on core samples with probe permeametry, gas permeametry and helium pycnometry. First results show an average porosity of 11.1 % and an average horizontal permeability of 1.4 mD. Further investigation of the Cambrian Basal Sandstone in Central Alberta is planned, including analysis of thin sections and geomechanical testing. Surface temperatures of Cambrian and Devonian strata are calculated, based on a newly calculated geothermal gradient and the reservoir depth range derived from the 3D model. Temperature in the Cambrian Basal Sandstone

  9. Homology among divergent Paleozoic tetrapod clades.

    PubMed

    Carroll, R L

    1999-01-01

    A stringent definition of homology is necessary to establish phylogenetic relationships among Paleozoic amphibians. Many derived characters exhibited by divergent clades of Carboniferous lepospondyls resemble those achieved convergently among Cenozoic squamates that have elongate bodies and reduced limbs, and by lineages of modern amphibians that have undergone miniaturization. Incongruent character distribution, poorly resolved cladograms and functionally improbable character transformations determined by phylogenetic analysis suggest that convergence was also common among Paleozoic amphibians with a skull length under 3 cm, including lepospondyls, early amniotes and the putative ancestors of modern amphibians. For this reason, it is injudicious to equate apparent synapomorphy (perceived common presence of a particular derived character in two putative sister-taxa) with strict homology of phylogenetic origin. Identification of homology by the similarity of structure, anatomical position and pattern of development is insufficient to establish the synapomorphy of bone and limb loss or precocial ossification of vertebral centra, which are common among small Paleozoic amphibians. The only way in which synapomorphies can be established definitively is through the discovery and recognition of the trait in question in basal members of each of the clades under study, and in their immediate common ancestors.

  10. Tectonic setting of the South China Block in the early Paleozoic: Resolving intracontinental and ocean closure models from detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuejun; Zhang, Feifei; Fan, Weiming; Zhang, Guowei; Chen, Shiyue; Cawood, Peter A.; Zhang, Aimei

    2010-12-01

    Zircon U-Pb geochronological data on over 900 zircon grains for Cambrian to Silurian sandstone samples from the South China Block constrain the pre-Devonian tectonic setting of, and the interrelationships between, the constituent Cathaysia and Yangtze blocks. Zircons range in age from 3335 to 465 Ma. Analyses from the Cathaysia sandstone samples yield major age clusters at ˜2560, ˜1850, ˜1000, and 890-760 Ma. Zircons from the eastern and central Yangtze sandstone samples show a similar age distribution with clusters at ˜2550, ˜1860, ˜1100, and ˜860-780 Ma. A minor peak at around 1450 Ma is also observed in the Cathaysia and central Yangtze age spectra, and a peak at ˜490 Ma represents magmatic zircons from Middle Ordovician sandstone in the eastern Yangtze and Cathaysia blocks. The Cambrian and Ordovician strata show a transition from a carbonate-dominated succession in the central Yangtze Block, to an interstratified carbonate-siliciclastic succession in the eastern Yangtze Block, to a neritic siliciclastic succession in the Cathaysia Block. Paleocurrent data across this succession consistently indicate directions toward the W-NNW, from the Cathaysia Block to the Yangtze Block. Our data, together with other geological constraints, suggest that the Cathaysia Block constitutes a fragment on the northern margin of east Gondwana and both Cathaysia and east Gondwana constituted the source for the analyzed early Paleozoic samples. The similar age spectra for the Cambrian to Silurian sandstone samples from the Yangtze and Cathaysia blocks argue against the independent development and spatial separation of these blocks in the early Paleozoic but rather suggest that the sandstone units accumulated in an intracontinental basin that spanned both blocks. Subsequent basin inversion and Kwangsian orogenesis possibly at 400-430 Ma also occurred in an intracontinental setting probably in response to the interaction of the South China Block with the Australian

  11. Isotopic age constraints on middle Paleozoic deformation in the northern Sierra Nevada, California

    SciTech Connect

    Saleeby, J.; Hannah, J.L.; Varga, R.J.

    1987-08-01

    Allochthons of the lower Paleozoic Shoo Fly Complex in the northern Sierra Nevada were assembled and internally deformed prior to formation of a Devonian-Permian island-arc sequence. U/Pb data on zircons indicate ages of 423 +5/-15 Ma for a submarine tuff within the uppermost thrust slice of the Shoo Fly Complex and 378 +5/-10 Ma for a granitic intrusion that may be cogenetic with the lower part of the arc sequence. These data indicate late Early Silurian Shoo Fly deposition and proximity to active volcanism, as well as late Middle Devonian initiation of arc-related magmatism.

  12. From source-to-sink: The Late Permian SW Gondwana paleogeography and sedimentary dispersion unraveled by a multi-proxy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandretti, Luciano; Machado, Rômulo; Warren, Lucas Veríssimo; Assine, Mario Luis; Lana, Cristiano

    2016-10-01

    The Late Permian sedimentary succession of the Paraná Basin, southern Brazil, provide a valuable source of information about sediment provenance, tectonic processes and, consequently, the paleogeography of the southwestern Gondwana supercontinent. In order to understand the patterns of sedimentary dispersal and reconstruct the Late Permian source-to-sink dynamic, we report a complete series of U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic compositions of detrital zircons from the Rio do Rasto Formation sandstones allied with detailed paleocurrent and sedimentologic data. Our integrated provenance study reveals a consistent sediment transport from the south to the north and northwest. According to the evaluation of zircon ages and Hf isotopes, it was possible to determine four distinct source areas: (i) a distant Late Paleozoic active magmatic arc located in the southwestern Gondwana margin (i.e. Gondwanides Orogen), corresponding to the North Patagonian Massif; (ii) recycling of orthoquartzites from the uplifted Paleozoic Ventania Fold Belt and immature sandstones from the Claromecó Foreland Basin in central-eastern Argentina and the Silurian-Devonian successions of the southern Paraná Basin (central-northern Uruguay) and North Patagonian Massif; (iii) exhumed areas of the Archean-Paleoproterozoic basement and Neoproterozoic to Early Paleozoic mobile belts of the Damara in southwestern Africa and Ribeira Fold Belt in Uruguay and southern Brazil; and (iv) southeastward provenance of Grenvillian (1.2-1.0 Ga) zircons coming from the mafic to intermediate Mesoproterozoic igneous units of the Namaqua-Natal Belt in South Africa and Namibia. These data allow us to argue that sediments deposited in the Paraná Basin during the Late Permian come from both short- and long-distance source areas. In this context, an important population of Permian detrital zircons comes from the Gondwanides Orogen in the south, probably carried by transcontinental alluvial systems. Close to the source area

  13. Grebull sandstone pool (Lower Cretaceous) on Elk Basin thrust-fold complex, Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, D.S.

    1984-07-01

    The Elk Basin field in the northern Bighorn basin is a giant structural trap with cumulative production surpassing 500 million bbl, principally from a Paleozoic common pool. Abundant well data and seismic information have been used in a stratigraphic and structural study focusing on the Greybull (Lower Cretaceous) gas pool and on deeper formations along this structural complex. These data support an interpretation of the Elk Basin field as a thrust-fold complex, underlain by a listric thrust fault zone which probably emanates from Precambrian basement at an angle of 45/sup 0/ or less. The fault steepens upward and dies out in steeply dipping Mesozoic clastics that are attenuated and cut by extensional faults at the surface. The little known Greybull Sandstone pool at Elk Basin field, which is now used for gas storage, was discovered in 1920, and contained estimated primary recoverable reserves of 54 bcf of gas at an average depth of about 2500 ft (760 m). The Greybull lies stratigraphically between the Dakota and Morrison Formations, and is composed of two distinct sandstone units, called A and B at the North Clark's Fork field in southern Montana. The lower B unit at Elk Basin is a fluvial river-channel deposit which ranges up to 150 ft (45 m) in thickness and nearly 2 mi (3 km) in width. The upper A unit is a series of shoreline sandstone deposits oriented northwest-southeast. Individual, porous A sandstone bodies range from a few feet to more than 20 ft (6 m) in thickness at Elk Basin. These two Greybull Sandstone units are part of a common gas pool covering about 2000 acres (800 ha.) of the crestal closure of the Elk Basin anticline. Seismic modeling indicates that Greybull Sandstone channels over 60 ft (18 m) thick may be detected by reflection character changes in CDP seismic data.

  14. Paleozoic large igneous provinces of Northern Eurasia: Correlation with mass extinction events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravchinsky, Vadim A.

    2012-04-01

    This paper assesses data from recently described major Paleozoic large igneous provinces (LIPs), mostly in Northern Eurasia. The 10 LIPs reviewed form a unimodal distribution in terms of volume. Eight LIPs have an initial modal volume greater than 0.1 × 106 km3. The rift associated basalts of 2 LIPs from the end of the Late Cambrian Period and the end of the Late Ordovician Period do not occupy a large volume. Some of the provinces were discovered or rediscovered relatively recently and dating is still approximate, but most provinces fit a simple model in which volcanism persisted on the order of 10-20 Myr, often resulting in continental break-up. Correlation between LIP ages and the ages of geological events in the Paleozoic Era that reflect mass extinctions and oceanic anoxia agrees with correlations suggested by Courtillot (1994) and Courtillot and Renne (2003) for the Cenozoic and Mesozoic eras, considering that the absolute dating of some Paleozoic LIPs needs to be strengthened in the future.

  15. Early Paleozoic tectonics of Asia: A preliminary full-plate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeier, Mat

    2017-04-01

    One of the largest and longest evolving orogens on Earth, the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB; alt. the Altaids) is as endlessly fascinating as it is astonishingly complex. By the slow grind of tectonics, the CAOB was forged over hundreds of millions of years, with a spectacular climax during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic, when a series of terrane collisions first melded a mosaic of island arcs and continental blocks into a colossal landmass that we now know as Asia. Unsurprisingly, that dynamic late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic interval has garnered tremendous interest, stimulated a great wealth of studies, and instigated captivating ongoing debates. But what set the stage for this action-packed display? Here I report on an ongoing initiative to weave together a self-consistent, full-plate tectonic model of the building blocks of Asia in the early Paleozoic ( 500-400 Ma), this will provide a testable and freely-available geodynamic framework for early CAOB genesis that can focus new work and foster new insights into the nature and evolution of Asia.

  16. Diagenetic history of fluvial and lacustrine sandstones of the Hartford Basin (Triassic Jurassic), Newark Supergroup, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolela, A. M.; Gierlowski-Kordesch, E. H.

    2007-04-01

    The early introduction of clays into continental sandstones has been attributed to mechanical infiltration by percolation of clay-rich surface waters into grain framework or cutans formed from pedogenic processes. The discovery of pedogenic mud aggregates as traction-load mud in ancient fluvial deposits suggests that permeability and porosity of terrigenous sandstones can be influenced at deposition and control early diagenetic patterns. This study compares diagenesis in fluvial (subaerially exposed) sandstones with lacustrine (subaqueous) sandstones in a Triassic-Jurassic continental rift basin (Hartford Basin, Newark Supergroup). Diversity of diagenetic minerals and sequence of diagenetic alteration can be directly related to depositional environment. The fluvial sandstones in the New Haven Arkose, East Berlin Formation, and Shuttle Meadow Formation of the Hartford Basin are dominated by concretionary calcite and early calcite cement, infiltrated clays (illite-smectite), pedogenic mud aggregates (smectite and illite-smectite), grain coating clays (illite/hematite, illite-chlorite/hematite), quartz overgrowths, late stage carbonate cements (calcite, ferroan calcite), pore-filling clays (illite, kaolinite with minor amounts of smectite, smectite-chlorite, illite-smectite) and hematite. However, pedogenic processes in these fluvial sandstones retarded the development of quartz and feldspar overgrowths, and carbonate authigenesis, as well as the quality of diagenetically enhanced porosity. Dark gray-black lacustrine (subaqueous) sandstones and mudrocks in the East Berlin and Shuttle Meadow Formations are dominated by pyrite, concretionary dolomite and early dolomite cement, radial grain coating clays (smectite-chlorite, illite-smectite), late stage carbonate cements (dolomite, ferroan dolomite, ankerite), albite and pore-filling clays (smectite-chlorite, illite-smectite, illite-chlorite). Clay minerals exist as detrital, mechanically infiltrated, and neoformed clay

  17. Petroleum potential of lower and middle Paleozoic rocks in Nebraska portion of Mid-Continent

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, M.P. )

    1989-08-01

    Central North America during the Paleozoic was characterized by northern (Williston) and southern (Anadarko) depositional regimes separated by a stable Transcontinental arch. Nebraska lies on the southern flank of this arch and contains the northern zero edges of the lower and middle Paleozoic rocks of the southern regime. Most of these rocks are secondary dolomites with zones of excellent intercrystalline porosity. The Reagan-LaMotte Sandstones and the overlying Arbuckle dolomites are overlapped by Middle Ordovician rocks toward the Transcontinental arch. Rocks equivalent to the Simpson consist of a basal sand (St. Peter) and overlying interbedded gray-green shales and dolomitic limestones. An uppermost shale facies is present in the Upper Ordovician (Viola-Maquoketa) eastward and southward across Nebraska. The dolomite facies extends northward into the Williston basin. The Silurian dolomites, originally more widely deposited, are overlapped by Devonian dolomites in southeastern Nebraska. Upper Devonian rocks exhibit a regional facies change from carbonate to green-gray shale to black shale southeastward across the Mid-Continent. Mississippian carbonates overlap the Devonian westward and northward across the Transcontinental arch. Pennsylvanian uplift and erosion were widespread, producing numerous stratigraphic traps. Sands related to the basal Pennsylvanian unconformity produce along the Cambridge arch. Arbuckle, Simpson, Viola, and Hunton production is present in the Forest City basin and along the Central Kansas uplift. Although source rocks are scarce and the maturation is marginal, current theories of long-distance oil migration encourage exploration in the extensive lower and middle Paleozoic reservoirs in this portion of the Mid-Continent.

  18. Middle Paleozoic kimberlite magmatism in the northeastern Siberian craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorova, E. O.; Afanas'ev, V. P.; Pokhilenko, N. P.

    2016-10-01

    The mineral chemistry and crystal morphology of kimberlite pyropes from the Billyakh River placer in the northeastern Siberian craton are characterised in terms of the placer history. The pyropes bear signatures of chemical weathering (dissolution), presumably in a Middle Paleozoic laterite profile, and therefore were originally hosted by Middle Paleozoic kimberlites. The broad occurrence of placer pyropes with lateritic dissolution signatures points to the presence of Middle Paleozoic diamond-bearing kimberlites in the study area.

  19. Artesian pressures and water quality in Paleozoic aquifers in the Ten Sleep area of the Bighorn Basin, north-central Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Maurice E.

    1986-01-01

    The major Paleozoic artesian aquifers, the aquifers most favorable for continued development, in the Ten Sleep area of the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming are the Tensleep Sandstone, the Madison Limestone and Bighorn Dolomite (Madison-Bighorn aquifer), and the Flathead Sandstone. The minor aquifers include the Goose Egg and Park City Formations (considered in the Ten Sleep area to be the lateral equivalent of the Phosphoria Formation) and the Amsden Formation. Most wells completed in the major and minor aquifers flow at the land surface. Wellhead pressures generally are less than 50 pounds per square inch for the Tensleep Sandstone, 150-250 pounds per square inch for the Madison-Bighorn aquifer, and more than 400 pounds per square inch for the Flathead Sandstone. Flowing wells completed in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer and the Flathead Sandstone yield more than 1,000 gallons per minute. The initial test of one well completed in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer indicated a flow rate of 14,000 gallons per minute. Transmissivities range from 500 to 1,900 feet squared per day for the Madison-Bighorn aquifer and from about 90 to 325 feet squared per day for the Tensleep and Flathead Sandstones. Significant secondary permeability from fracturing in the Paleozoic aquifers allows local upward interformational movement of water, and this affects the altitude of the potentiometric surfaces of the Tensleep Sandstone and the Madison-Bighorn aquifer. Water moves upward from the Tensleep and other formations, through the Goose Egg Formation, to discharge at the land surface as springs. Much of the spring flow is diverted for irrigation or is used for rearing fish. Decreases from original well pressures were not apparent in wells completed in the Tensleep Sandstone or in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer in the study area except for a few wells in or near the town of Ten Sleep. Most wells completed in the Flathead Sandstone, which also are open to the Madison-Bighorn aquifer, show a decrease of

  20. Mid-Paleozoic latitudinal predation gradient: Distribution of brachiopod ornamentation reflects shifting Carboniferous climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietl, Gregory P.; Kelley, Patricia H.

    2001-02-01

    Shell ornamentation in modern oceans increases toward the tropics in conjunction with an equatorward increase in shell-breaking predation. Latitudinal gradients in antipredatory ornamentation were previously documented for Devonian brachiopods. We examined the latitudinal distribution of shell ornamentation in Tournaisian, Visean, and Namurian articulate brachiopods to test the hypothesis that the latitudinal gradient in antipredatory ornamentation was present in the Carboniferous. We found a statistically significant latitudinal ornamentation gradient, which was most pronounced in the Tournaisian, when the latitudinal temperature gradient was most steep. These results support the hypothesis that a latitudinal gradient in defensive morphology occurred as a result of the mid-Paleozoic increase in predation. Although the mid-Paleozoic and late Mesozoic intervals of predator-prey escalation may have differed in dynamics and intensity, both episodes produced adaptations in prey morphology that varied along a latitudinal gradient.

  1. Paleozoic and mesozoic evolution of East-Central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, C.H.; Stone, P.; Dunne, G.C.; Greene, D.C.; Walker, J.D.; Swanson, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    East-central California, which encompasses an area located on the westernmost part of sialic North America, contains a well-preserved record of Paleozoic and Mesozoic tectonic events that reflect the evolving nature of the Cordilleran plate margin to the west. After the plate margin was formed by continental rifting in the Neoproterozoic, sediments comprising the Cordilleran miogeocline began to accumulate on the subsiding passive margin. In east-central California, sedimentation did not keep pace with subsidence, resulting in backstepping of a series of successive carbonate platforms throughout the early and middle Paleozoic. This phase of miogeoclinal development was brought to a close by the Late Devonian-Early Mississippian Antler orogeny, during the final phase of which oceanic rocks were emplaced onto the continental margin. Subsequent Late Mississippian-Pennsylvanian faulting and apparent reorientation of the carbonate platform margin are interpreted to have been associated with truncation of the continental plate on a sinistral transform fault zone. In the Early Permian, contractional deformation in east-central California led to the development of a narrow, uplifted thrust belt flanked by marine basins in which thick sequences of deep-water strata accumulated. A second episode of contractional deformation in late Early Permian to earliest Triassic time widened and further uplifted the thrust belt and produced the recently identified Inyo Crest thrust, which here is correlated with the regionally significant Last Chance thrust. In the Late Permian, about the time of the second contractional episode, extensional faulting created shallow sedimentary basins in the southern Inyo Mountains. In the El Paso Mountains to the south, deformation and plutonism record the onset of subduction and arc magmatism in late Early Permian to earliest Triassic time along this part of the margin. Tectonism had ceased in most of east-central California by middle to late Early

  2. Middle-Late Mesozoic sedimentary provenances of the Luxi and Jiaolai areas: Implications for tectonic evolution of the North China Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianqiang; Li, Zhong

    2015-11-01

    Provenances of sedimentary rocks may provide important constraints on the tectonic evolution of the North China Block (NCB). Previous studies have demonstrated that the northern NCB (NNCB) and the Xing-Meng orogenic belt (XMOB) supplied massive detritus southward into the hinterland of the NCB during the Jurassic. In order to study the evolution of sedimentary provenance during the Middle-Late Mesozoic, U-Pb geochronology and Hf isotopic geochemistry of detrital zircon grains and chemical compositions of detrital garnets from sandstones in the Luxi and Jiaolai areas, eastern NCB, were analyzed in combination with published data on the Jurassic sandstones. The Late Paleozoic-Mesozoic (367-139 Ma) zircons in the lowermost Cretaceous Mengyin Formation samples from the Luxi area show εHf(t) values of -15.3 to -3.2 and +1.3 to +10.0, which are very similar to the results of analyses of the Jurassic formations. Further, the increased amount of Mesozoic zircons and granulite-derived garnets in the Mengyin Formation samples, compared to those in the Jurassic samples, indicates there was more detritus supply from the NNCB than from the XMOB. In the overlying Qingshan Formation samples, zircon grains do not exhibit Paleozoic ages, but most of them have Early Cretaceous ages and negative εHf(t) values, which are similar to the zircon grains extracted from the widespread Early Cretaceous igneous rocks in the NCB. This suggests that the provenance might have changed to a locally derived source. In contrast, the zircon population of the Early Cretaceous sandstones from the Jiaolai basin is dominated by grains of mid-Neoproterozoic age (700-900 Ma) which signifies contribution from the Sulu orogen. Moreover, the detrital garnet assemblages of sandstones in the Luxi area are not consistent with those from representative metamorphic rocks in the Sulu orogen. The above results seem to confirm that the Mesozoic sedimentary provenance of the Luxi area had no evident connection with

  3. Polygonal deformation bands in sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonellini, Marco; Nella Mollema, Pauline

    2017-04-01

    We report for the first time the occurrence of polygonal faults in sandstone, which is compelling given that layer-bound polygonal fault systems have been observed so far only in fine-grained sediments such as clay and chalk. The polygonal faults are dm-wide zones of shear deformation bands that developed under shallow burial conditions in the lower portion of the Jurassic Entrada Fm (Utah, USA). The edges of the polygons are 1 to 5 meters long. The shear deformation bands are organized as conjugate faults along each edge of the polygon and form characteristic horst-like structures. The individual deformation bands have slip magnitudes ranging from a few mm to 1.5 cm; the cumulative average slip magnitude in a zone is up to 10 cm. The deformation bands heaves, in aggregate form, accommodate a small isotropic horizontal extension (strain < 0.005). The individual shear deformation bands show abutting T-junctions, veering, curving, and merging where they mechanically interact. Crosscutting relationships are rare. The interactions of the deformation bands are similar to those of mode I opening fractures. Density inversion, that takes place where under-compacted and over-pressurized layers (Carmel Fm) lay below normally compacted sediments (Entrada Sandstone), may be an important process for polygonal deformation bands formation. The gravitational sliding and soft sediment structures typically observed within the Carmel Fm support this hypothesis. Soft sediment deformation may induce polygonal faulting in the section of the Entrada Sandstone just above the Carmel Fm. The permeability of the polygonal deformation bands is approximately 10-14 to 10-13 m2, which is less than the permeability of the host, Entrada Sandstone (range 10-12 to 10-11 m2). The documented fault networks have important implications for evaluating the geometry of km-scale polygonal fault systems in the subsurface, top seal integrity, as well as constraining paleo-tectonic stress regimes.

  4. Tidal influence within Pennsylvanian sandstones

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, A.W. )

    1991-08-01

    Within Pennsylvanian-age strata of the Illinois basin, large-scale linear sand bodies have been previously interpreted as fluvial and deltaic in origin. Nonetheless, analyses of fine-scale sedimentology and bed forms within such sandstones and the associated shales indicate that tidal processes greatly influenced the depositional environments within such lithofacies. Recent work on Mid-Continent Pennsylvanian-age sandstones indicates the occurrence of similar depositional environments. Based upon the pervasive tidal influence observed within such strata, environmental analogs other than fluvial and deltaic bear consideration. In general, tidally influenced estuarine models seem particularly appropriate. Within such settings, the changeover from a fluvially dominated deposystem to tidally influenced estuary occurs during transgressive phases. Despite the tidal influence that can be interpreted from the sedimentology, the strata contain few, if any, marine indicators because of the low salinities that occurred during deposition. Ongoing work in the Mid-Continent indicates that Morrowan, Atokan, Desmoinesian, Missourian, and Virgilian sands share a number of similarities with the tidally influenced environments delineated in the Illinois basin studies. Thus a tidal/estuarine interpretation might be a generalizable model for many Pennsylvanian sandstones. In addition, enhanced understanding of the siliciclastic parts of Mid-Continent cyclothems provides a more useful framework for documentation of carbonate/siliciclastic interrelationships. Oscillations of carbonate/siliciclastic environments may be more readily explainable by climatic cycles rather than by traditionally popular depth-related facies models.

  5. Paleozoic intrusive rocks from the Dunhuang tectonic belt, NW China: Constraints on the tectonic evolution of the southernmost Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yan; Sun, Yong; Diwu, Chunrong; Zhu, Tao; Ao, Wenhao; Zhang, Hong; Yan, Jianghao

    2017-05-01

    The Dunhuang tectonic belt (DTB) is of great importance for understanding the tectonic evolution of the southernmost Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). In this study, the temporal-spatial distribution, petrogenesis and tectonic setting of the Paleozoic representative intrusive rocks from the DTB were systematically investigated to discuss crustal evolution history and tectonic regime of the DTB during Paleozoic. Our results reveal that the Paleozoic magmatism within the DTB can be broadly divided into two distinct episodes of early Paleozoic and late Paleozoic. The early Paleozoic intrusive rocks, represented by a suite metaluminous-slight peraluminous and medium- to high-K calc-alkaline I-type granitoids crystallized at Silurian (ca. 430-410 Ma), are predominantly distributed along the northern part of the DTB. They were probably produced with mineral assemblage of eclogite or garnet + amphibole + rutile in the residue, and were derived from magma mixing source of depleted mantle materials with various proportions of Archean-Mesoproterozoic continental crust. The late Paleozoic intrusive rocks can be further subdivided into two stages of late Devonian stage (ca. 370-360 Ma) and middle Carboniferous stage (ca. 335-315 Ma). The former stage is predominated by metaluminous to slight peraluminous and low-K tholeiite to high-K calc-alkaline I-type granitic rocks distributed in the central part of the DTB. They were also generated with mineral assemblage of amphibolite- to eclogite-facies in the residue, and originated from magma source of depleted mantle materials mixed with different degrees of old continental crust. The later stage is represented by adakite and alkali-rich granite exposed in the southern part of the DTB. The alkali-rich granites studied in this paper were possibly produced with mineral assemblage of granulite-facies in the residue and were generated by partial melting of thickened lower continental crust. Zircon Hf isotopes and field distribution of

  6. Paleozoic tectonics in the eastern part of Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongjiang; Li, Weimin; Feng, Zhiqiang; Neubauer, Franz

    2017-04-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is the largest accretionary orogen in the world, which is responsible for considerable Phanerozoic juvenile crustal growth. The NE China and its adjacent areas compose the eastern segment of the CAOB, which is a key area for providing important evidence of the CAOB evolution and understanding the NE Asian tectonics. The eastern segment of the CAOB is composed tectonically of four micro-blocks and four sutures, i.e. Erguna block (EB), Xing'an block (XB), Songliao-Xilinhot block (SXB), Jiamusi block (JB), Xinlin-Xiguitu suture (XXS), Heihe-Hegenshan suture (HHS), Mudanjiang-Yilan suture (MYS) and Solonker-Xar Moron-Changchun-Yanji suture (SXCYS). The EB and XB were amalgamated by westward subduction, oceanic island accretions and final collision in ca. 500 Ma. The XB and SXB were amalgamated by subduction-related Early Paleozoic marginal arc, Late Paleozoic marginal arc and final collision in the late Early Carboniferous to early Late Carboniferous. The JB probably had been attached to the SXB in the Early Paleozoic, but broken apart from the SXB in the Triassic and collided back in the Jurassic. The closure of Paleo-Asian Ocean had experienced a long continue/episodic subduction-accretion processes on margins of the NCC to the south and the SXB to the north from the Early to Late Paleozoic. The final closure happened along the SXCYS, from west Solonker, Sonid Youqi, Kedanshan (Keshenketengqi), Xar Moron River through Songliao Basin via Kailu, Tongliao, Horqin Zuoyizhongqi, Changchun, to the east Panshi, Huadian, Dunhua, Yanji, with a scissors style closure in time from the Late Permian-Early Triassic in the west to the Late Permian-Middle Triassic in the east. The amalgamated blocks should compose a united micro-continent, named as Jiamusi-Mongolia Block (JMB) after Early Carboniferous, which bounded by Mongo-Okhotsk suture to the northwest, Solonker-Xar Moron-Changchun suture to the south and the eastern margin of JB to the

  7. Core facies, petrology, and permeability of Tirrawarra Sandstone, Moorari Field, Cooper Basin, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Bever, J.M.; Carroll, P.G.; Wild, E.W.; Williams, B.P.J.

    1988-01-01

    The oil and gas-bearing Tirrawarra Sandstone lies in the basal section of the Cooper basin sequence, which is largely Permian in age. The sandstone is characteristically thick, but both interfingers with and conformable overlies glacio-lacustrine diamictites and varvites of the late Carboniferous-Early Permian Merrimeleia Formation. The Tirrawarra Sandstone has previously been interpreted as being deposited in a glacio-fluvial braided river environment. The sandstone produces high gas:oil-ratio oil at the Moorari field, from depths of 9,400 ft below sea level. Appraisal and development of the field has been hampered by the patchy distribution of reservoir quality sandstone. This study investigated the cause of reservoir quality variations. For seven cored wells, core facies analysis, core plug porosity/permeability, petrology, and wireline logs were all matched and compared. The results are as follows. (1) Facies states (grain size and bed form) largely control permeability distribution in the Tirrawarra Sandstone at the Moorari field, such that horizontally bedded medium-coarse sandstones are consistently more permeable than cross-bedded equivalents. (2) Diagenesis levels are high and include extensive silica cement and patchy kaolinite and siderite cements. However, diagenesis rarely operates independently of original depositional fabric. (3) An association between depositional environment and permeability is recognizable, with medial bars in particular providing better reservoir quality.

  8. Assessment of Appalachian Basin Oil and Gas Resources: Utica-Lower Paleozoic Total Petroleum System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Robert T.

    2008-01-01

    The Utica-Lower Paleozoic Total Petroleum System (TPS) is an important TPS identified in the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in the Appalachian basin province (Milici and others, 2003). The TPS is named for the Upper Ordovician Utica Shale, which is the primary source rock, and for multiple lower Paleozoic sandstone and carbonate units that are the important reservoirs. Upper Cambrian through Upper Silurian petroleum-bearing strata that constitute the Utica-Lower Paleozoic TPS thicken eastward from about 2,700 ft at the western margin of the Appalachian basin to about 12,000 ft at the thrust-faulted eastern margin of the Appalachian basin. The Utica-Lower Paleozoic TPS covers approximately 170,000 mi2 of the Appalachian basin from northeastern Tennessee to southeastern New York and from central Ohio to eastern West Virginia. The boundary of the TPS is defined by the following geologic features: (1) the northern boundary (from central Ontario to northeastern New York) extends along the outcrop limit of the Utica Shale-Trenton Limestone; (2) the northeastern boundary (from southeastern New York, through southeastern Pennsylvania-western Maryland-easternmost West Virginia, to northern Virginia) extends along the eastern limit of the Utica Shale-Trenton Limestone in the thrust-faulted eastern margin of the Appalachian basin; (3) the southeastern boundary (from west-central and southwestern Virginia to eastern Tennessee) extends along the eastern limit of the Trenton Limestone in the thrust-faulted eastern margin of the Appalachian basin; (4) the southwestern boundary (from eastern Tennessee, through eastern Kentucky, to southwestern Ohio) extends along the approximate facies change from the Trenton Limestone with thin black shale interbeds (on the east) to the equivalent Lexington Limestone without black shale interbeds (on the west); (5) the northern part of the boundary in southwestern Ohio

  9. The Late Jurassic Oblique Collisional Orogen of SW Japan. New Structural Data and Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faure, Michel; Caridroit, Martial; Charvet, Jacques

    1986-12-01

    The structural configuration of SW Japan mainly reflects a late Jurassic-early Cretaceous orogeny. The region is divided into an inner belt and an outer belt, on the Japan sea and Pacific ocean sides respectively, by a strike-slip fault, the Median Tectonic Line (MTL). Both consist of a series of stacked nappes. The inner belt is divided into a Jurassic olistostrome known as the Tanba zone and a hinterland area comprising continental Triassic-Jurassic sediments. The Tanba zone is sliced into two units: a lower one with late Jurassic matrix and Triassic-early Jurassic radiolarite olistoliths, tectonically overthrust by an upper unit comprising an olistostrome with middle Jurassic matrix and blocks which include late Paleozoic limestone, basic lava, and radiolarite. The Tanba zone is overthrust by a Paleozoic nappe complex derived from the hinterland. The basal sole of the nappe corresponds to a peculiar unit called the ultra-Tanba zone. In the Chugoku area, the hinterland is divided into an upper nappe: the Oga nappe, formed by Permo-Carboniferous limestone and Permian clastic rocks and a lower one: the Sangun-Maizuru nappe, formed by Paleozoic high pressure (HP) metamorphics (the Sangun schists), the Permian Maizuru olistostrome, and the dismembered Paleozoic Yakuno ophiolites. In the northern part of SW Japan, the Tanba zone is in faulted contact with the circum-Hida and the Hida zones. The former is interpreted as the equivalent of the Oga and Sangun-Maizuru nappes of the Chugoku domain crushed by post Cretaceous tectonics. The latter consists of Paleozoic high temperature (HT) metamorphic rocks and late Triassic-early Jurassic granite, locally mylonitized and covered by early Jurassic sandstone. The outer belt is formed by a superficial nappe similar to the Tanba zone thrust upon a "deep domain" characterized by a synmetamorphic ductile deformation. The "deep domain" is divided into a lower unit, the Oboke unit formed by continental derived arenites and a Green

  10. A direct comparison of the ages of detrital monazite versus detrital zircon in Appalachian foreland basin sandstones: Searching for the record of Phanerozoic orogenic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hietpas, Jack; Samson, Scott; Moecher, David

    2011-10-01

    The provenance potential of detrital monazite was investigated by in situ measurement of 232Th- 208Pb dates of grains isolated from six Middle Carboniferous-Permian sandstones from the Appalachian foreland basin. Provenance assessment of these units was previously investigated by measuring U-Pb crystallization ages of detrital zircon (Thomas et al., 2004; Becker et al., 2005, 2006). Approximately 90% of the detrital zircon ages record Mesoproterozoic or older ages, with only 10% recording the three major pulses of tectonism (Taconian, Acadian and Alleghanian) that are the hallmark of the Appalachian Orogen. 232Th- 208Pb ages of detrital monazite, however, strongly record the complex phases of Paleozoic orogenesis. Nearly 65% of the ages record Paleozoic events, while 35% record Neoproterozoic or older ages. In several of the analyzed sandstones, detrital monazite ages record Paleozoic orogenic events that are completely missed by detrital zircon ages, demonstrating that monazite ages more accurately reflect the character of the sediment source rocks. The inferred maximum age of sediment deposition, as determined by the youngest monazite grains, is ~ 550 Ma younger for two of the analyzed sandstones compared to depositional constraints based on the youngest detrital zircon. The different physical properties and petrogenesis of zircon and monazite are interpreted to be factors for the dramatic differences in sediment provenance information provided by each mineral. The results from this study have important implications for determining sediment provenance, constraining maximum age of sediment deposition, and developing robust regional tectonic models.

  11. Petrofacies, provenance and diagenesis of the dhosa sandstone member (Chari Formation) at Ler, Kachchh sub-basin, Western India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, A. H. M.; Bhat, G. M.

    2006-10-01

    The sandstones of the Dhosa Sandstone Member of Late Callovian and Early Oxfordian age exposed at Ler have been analyzed for their petrofacies, provenance, tectonic setting and diagenetic history. These sandstones are fine to medium grained and poorly- to well sorted. The constituent mineral grains are subangular to subrounded. These sandstones were derived from a mixed provenance including granites, granite-gneisses, low- and high-grade metamorphic and some basic rocks of the Aravalli Range and Nagarparkar Massif. The petrofacies analysis reveals that these sandstones belong to the continental block-, recycled orogen- and rifted continental margin tectonic regime. The imprints of early and deep burial diagenesis of these sandstones include different stages of compaction, cementation, change in crystal boundaries, cement-cement boundaries, chertification and neomorphism. The sequence of cementation includes precipitation of calcite and its subsequent replacement by Fe calcite and silica cements. The typical intermediate burial (2-3 km depth) diagenetic signatures of these sandstones are reflected in the formation of suture and straight-line boundaries, and triple junctions with straight-line boundaries. The depositional environment, relatively low-energy environment that was below storm wave base but subjected to gentle currents, of the Dhosa Sandstone Member controlled the early diagenesis, which in turn influenced the burial diagenesis of these sandstones.

  12. Paleoenvironmental setting of Paleozoic mud mounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wanless, H.R. . Dept. Geological Sciences); Tedesco, L.P. )

    1992-01-01

    Paleozoic carbonate mud mounds formed above storm wave base, which in many settings was in moderate to extremely shallow water. This is concluded by a comparative analysis of sedimentary structures, fabrics and small scale sequences occurring in Mississippian and Pennsylvanian mounds and in modern mud mounds and Halimeda bioherms. Most small mounds studied contain a shallowing sequence that represents shallowing into the zone of daily agitation. The bulk of each mound sequence is detrital deposition of layered mudstones to wackestones in the mound core and packstones to grainstones on the flanks and shoal cap. If macroskeletal fauna and flora are present, an autochthonous skeletal packstone may occur in the upper portion of the shallowing sequence beneath the detrital grainstone cap. Burrow excavations and grainy tubular tempestite infillings partially to completely modify the primary depositional fabric of all of these facies. Larger mounds studied are a composite of several to numerous smaller mound depositional sequences. High vertical relief of some larger mounds may be more the result of continued accommodation space provided by subsidence/downfaulting than be deposition in extremely deep water. Although the biotic components of carbonate mounds vary greatly through the Paleozoic, the contained sedimentary structures, fabrics and fundamental depositional sequences remain very similar. This suggests a general similarity in the mechanism and depositional setting of mound formation.

  13. Pore-throat sizes in sandstones, tight sandstones, and shales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip H.

    2009-01-01

    Pore-throat sizes in silidclastic rocks form a continuum from the submillimeter to the nanometer scale. That continuum is documented in this article using previously published data on the pore and pore-throat sizes of conventional reservoir rocks, tight-gas sandstones, and shales. For measures of central tendency (mean, mode, median), pore-throat sizes (diameters) are generally greater than 2 μm in conventional reservoir rocks, range from about 2 to 0.03 μm in tight-gas sandstones, and range from 0.1 to 0.005 μm in shales. Hydrocarbon molecules, asphaltenes, ring structures, paraffins, and methane, form another continuum, ranging from 100 Å (0.01 μm for asphaltenes to 3.8 A (0.00038 μm) for methane. The pore-throat size continuum provides a useful perspective for considering (1) the emplacement of petroleum in consolidated siliciclastics and (2) fluid flow through fine-grained source rocks now being exploited as reservoirs.

  14. Basin analysis studies of lower Paleozoic rocks, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Macke, D.L.

    1988-07-01

    The lower Paleozoic (Cambrian through Mississippian) sedimentary rocks of the Powder River basin represent nearly half of Phanerozoic time, yet they remain virtually unexplored in the subsurface. Rocks of the same age in the Big Horn and Williston basins and in the Central Montana trough have produced much oil and gas, as have the overlying Pennsylvanian strata of the Powder River basin. A synthesis of published stratigraphic information, together with a regional analysis of sedimentary sequences, has been undertaken to evaluate the economic potential of the lower Paleozoic formations. The lack of an economic impetus to study these rocks has hampered the development of precise depositional models for these sequences. Furthermore, the depths of prospective beds, as well as long-standing misconceptions about the regional stratigraphy, have also served to restrain exploration. Stratigraphic studies have documented a succession of marine transgressions and regressions on the flanks of a highland in southeastern Wyoming. The highland persisted as a subdued geographic feature through most of early Paleozoic time, until it rose at the end of the Mississippian. Erosion during the Late Silurian and Devonian removed much of the depositional record in the area, but onlap can be demonstrated with relative certainty for Ordovician and Mississippian rocks. The repetition of sedimentologic features indicates persistent geologic controls in the region and suggests that these paleoenvironments might provide good targets for exploration.

  15. The fossil record, function, and possible origins of shell color patterns in Paleozoic marine invertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Kobluk, D.R. ); Mapes, R.H. )

    1989-02-01

    Fossil invertebrate shells and carapaces displaying preserved original color patterns are among the rarest fossils. The fossil record of color patterns extends into the Middle Cambrian where the trilobite Anomocare displays a fan-like array of stripes on the pygidium. About 180 Paleozic genera are known with patterns, including trilobites, cephalopods, gastropods, brachiopods, bivalves, crinoids, and crustaceans. Based upon an analysis of these taxa, it appears that patterns and pigments in middle and late Paleozoic invertebrates may have served several functions such as warning displays, light screening, camouflage, or waste disposal. However, the presence of color patterns in fossil invertebrates in the early Paleozoic may have developed prior to the evolution of vision sufficiently sophisticated to see them. This suggests that camouflage and warning displays were not the original functions of color patterns, and that in the earliest Paleozoic they may not have been functional. The authors propose a hypothesis that involves three developmental phases in the evolution of invertebrate color patterns: (1) the incorporation of metabolic by-products, perhaps some pigmented and some not pigmented, into shells and carapaces as a means of disposal of dietary or metabolic wastes, (2) use of these pigments and patterns as an environmental adaptation, such as light screening, and (3) display during and following the evolution of vision in predators sufficiently sophisticated to see the patterns.

  16. The Timan-Pechora Basin province of northwest Arctic Russia; Domanik, Paleozoic total petroleum system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindquist, Sandra J.

    1999-01-01

    The Domanik-Paleozoic oil-prone total petroleum system covers most of the Timan-Pechora Basin Province of northwestern Arctic Russia. It contains nearly 20 BBOE ultimate recoverable reserves (66% oil). West of the province is the early Precambrian Eastern European craton margin. The province itself was the site of periodic Paleozoic tectonic events, culminating with the Hercynian Uralian orogeny along its eastern border. The stratigraphic record is dominated by Paleozoic platform and shelf-edge carbonates succeeded by Upper Permian to Triassic molasse siliciclastics that are locally present in depressions. Upper Devonian (Frasnian), deep marine shale and limestone source rocks ? with typically 5 wt % total organic carbon ? by middle Mesozoic time had generated hydrocarbons that migrated into reservoirs ranging in age from Ordovician to Triassic but most focused in Devonian and Permian rocks. Carboniferous structural inversions of old aulacogen borders, and Hercynian (Permian) to Early Cimmerian (Late Triassic to Early Jurassic) orogenic compression not only impacted depositional patterns, but also created and subsequently modified numerous structural traps within the province.

  17. Hypothetical southeast Pacific continent revisited New evidence from the middle Paleozoic basins of northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahlburg, Heinrich

    1993-10-01

    The truncation of orogenic trends at the modern Chilean coast, paleocurrent indicators, and facies distributions indicating the derivation of sediment from sialic sources in the present-day Pacific have suggested to students of the Paleozoic foundation of the Andes that a "south east Pacific continent" may have been located oceanward of the present margin in Paleozoic time. These features are well represented in the middle Paleozoic siliciclastic platform-deeper basin system in northern Chile. Furthermore, the Middle Devonian platform sections contain brachiopods both of Malvinokaffric and Eastern Americas realm affinity. Sedimentological and tectonic features are consistent with the evolution of the basin in a Devonian and early Carboniferous extensional regime, which was succeeded by the inception of subduction by oblique convergence in the late Carboniferous. The extensional regime was possibly governed by the clockwise motion of Laurentia along the proto-Andean margin, as recently proposed by Ian Dalziel; subduction of Pacific oceanic crust then began in the wake of Laurentia moving toward its Permian position in the Pangea supercontinent.

  18. Diagenetic framework for chemical remanence acquisition in lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks from W. Newfoundland

    SciTech Connect

    Beaubouef, R.T.; Rush, P.F. )

    1991-03-01

    The Lower Ordovician (Tremadocian) St. George Group on Port au Port Peninsula forms part of the Cambro-Ordovician autochthonous carbonate sequences of W. Newfoundland. The geology and stratigraphy of the St. George Group indicates that these rocks have been subjected to distinct uplift and exposure events and their petrographic characteristics suggest a complex diagenetic history. Paleomagnetic, petrographic, geochemical, and geological evidence will be presented that indicates both Paleozoic components record chemical remanent magnetizations associated with subaerial exposures of the ancient continental shelf during at least two distinct times in the Paleozoic. Given the observed range of petrographic and magnetic variability, it appears that during the (Early-Middle ) Ordovician, the lower St. George rocks underwent relatively rapid diagenesis, including lithification, calcite cementation, sulfide precipitation, dolomitization, dedolomitization, and hematite authigenesis. The Late Paleozoic component appears to represent a remagnetization component also associated with dedolomitization and hematite authigenesis and cementation. Perhaps more important, rock samples bearing hematite as the major remanence phase can be petrographically identical to one another, yet carry distinct directional components acquired at different times in geologic history.

  19. The diversification of Paleozoic fire systems and fluctuations in atmospheric oxygen concentration

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Andrew C.; Glasspool, Ian J.

    2006-01-01

    By comparing Silurian through end Permian [≈250 million years (Myr)] charcoal abundance with contemporaneous macroecological changes in vegetation and climate we aim to demonstrate that long-term variations in fire occurrence and fire system diversification are related to fluctuations in Late Paleozoic atmospheric oxygen concentration. Charcoal, a proxy for fire, occurs in the fossil record from the Late Silurian (≈420 Myr) to the present. Its presence at any interval in the fossil record is already taken to constrain atmospheric oxygen within the range of 13% to 35% (the “fire window”). Herein, we observe that, as predicted, atmospheric oxygen levels rise from ≈13% in the Late Devonian to ≈30% in the Late Permian so, too, fires progressively occur in an increasing diversity of ecosystems. Sequentially, data of note include: the occurrence of charcoal in the Late Silurian/Early Devonian, indicating the burning of a diminutive, dominantly rhyniophytoid vegetation; an apparent paucity of charcoal in the Middle to Late Devonian that coincides with a predicted atmospheric oxygen low; and the subsequent diversification of fire systems throughout the remainder of the Late Paleozoic. First, fires become widespread during the Early Mississippian, they then become commonplace in mire systems in the Middle Mississippian; in the Pennsylvanian they are first recorded in upland settings and finally, based on coal petrology, become extremely important in many Permian mire settings. These trends conform well to changes in atmospheric oxygen concentration, as predicted by modeling, and indicate oxygen levels are a significant control on long-term fire occurrence. PMID:16832054

  20. The diversification of Paleozoic fire systems and fluctuations in atmospheric oxygen concentration.

    PubMed

    Scott, Andrew C; Glasspool, Ian J

    2006-07-18

    By comparing Silurian through end Permian [approximately 250 million years (Myr)] charcoal abundance with contemporaneous macroecological changes in vegetation and climate we aim to demonstrate that long-term variations in fire occurrence and fire system diversification are related to fluctuations in Late Paleozoic atmospheric oxygen concentration. Charcoal, a proxy for fire, occurs in the fossil record from the Late Silurian (approximately 420 Myr) to the present. Its presence at any interval in the fossil record is already taken to constrain atmospheric oxygen within the range of 13% to 35% (the "fire window"). Herein, we observe that, as predicted, atmospheric oxygen levels rise from approximately 13% in the Late Devonian to approximately 30% in the Late Permian so, too, fires progressively occur in an increasing diversity of ecosystems. Sequentially, data of note include: the occurrence of charcoal in the Late Silurian/Early Devonian, indicating the burning of a diminutive, dominantly rhyniophytoid vegetation; an apparent paucity of charcoal in the Middle to Late Devonian that coincides with a predicted atmospheric oxygen low; and the subsequent diversification of fire systems throughout the remainder of the Late Paleozoic. First, fires become widespread during the Early Mississippian, they then become commonplace in mire systems in the Middle Mississippian; in the Pennsylvanian they are first recorded in upland settings and finally, based on coal petrology, become extremely important in many Permian mire settings. These trends conform well to changes in atmospheric oxygen concentration, as predicted by modeling, and indicate oxygen levels are a significant control on long-term fire occurrence.

  1. New concepts in exploring subsalt Paleozoic hydrocarbon systems in mature and near producing areas of Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Jabour, H.; Deminati, A.; Hcaine, M.; El Alji, M.

    1996-12-31

    The subsalt Paleozoic hydrocarbon systems are one of the areally largest and paradoxally the least drilled in Morocco. Although, worldwide, these systems contain the largest potential gas reserves and contain one of the largest emerging oil plays and better still the few wells drilled to test the system in Essaouira Basin are producing commercial wet gas, these systems have never been tested in the Interatlasic and Prerif Basins. Impediments to exploration in these areas focused on the inability to map beneath the {open_quotes}geophysical basement{close_quotes}, to seismically image sub-salt, pre-Jurassic block faulted structures and the perceived lack of adequate source rock. Recent integrated study combining newly acquired deep targeted seismic, gravity, magnetic, geochemical data and basin modelling techniques, has permitted to decipher the pre-salt structures, interpret basin evolution and assess source rock potential. The sub-salt Paleozoic hydrocarbon system evolved in basically five stages: (1) simultaneous sediment accumulation and structural formation during the Paleozoic; (2) major tectonism and erosion in Late Paleozoic (Hercynian); (3) Triassic-Lower Jurassic deposition of a regional seal (salt and evaporate); (4) Mesozoic charging primarily from Silurian to Carboniferous sources; and (5) re-initiation of generation from Silurian source in uplifted blocks following atlasic (Neogene) compression. Large structures and prospective stratigraphic features exhibiting many similarities to the prolific Triassic objectives of neighboring Algeria are now defined and await to be drilled. Furthermore, the Maghreb-Europe gas pipeline will shortly cross both the Interatlasic and the Prerif areas providing additional positive attribute that makes these exploration areas more attractive.

  2. Subsurface cross section of lower Paleozoic rocks, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Macke, D.L.

    1988-07-01

    The Powder River basin is one of the most actively explored Rocky Mountain basins for hydrocarbons, yet the lower Paleozoic (Cambrian through Mississippian) rocks of this interval remain little studied. As a part of a program studying the evolution of sedimentary basins, approximately 3200 km of cross section, based on more than 50 combined geophysical and lithologic logs, have been constructed covering an area of about 200,000 km/sup 2/. The present-day basin is a Cenozoic structural feature located between the stable interior of the North American craton and the Cordilleran orogenic belt. At various times during the early Paleozoic, the basin area was not distinguishable from either the stable craton, the Williston basin, the Central Montana trough, or the Cordilleran miogeocline. Both deposition and preservation in the basin have been greatly influenced by the relative uplift of the Transcontinental arch. Shows of oil and dead oil in well cuttings confirm that hydrocarbons have migrated through at least parts of the basin's lower Paleozoic carbonate section. These rocks may have been conduits for long-distance migration of hydrocarbons as early as Late Cretaceous, based on (1) the probable timing of thermal maturation of hydrocarbon-source rocks within the basin area and to the west, (2) the timing of Laramide structural events, (3) the discontinuous nature of the reservoirs in the overlying, highly productive Pennsylvanian-Permian Minnelusa Formation, and (4) the under-pressuring observed in some Minnelusa oil fields. Vertical migration into the overlying reservoirs could have been through deep fractures within the basin, represented by major lineament systems. Moreover, the lower Paleozoic rocks themselves may also be hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  3. Provenance and depositional conditions of Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary sandstones from northeastern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehrmann, Stephanie; Augustsson, Carita; Izaguirre Valdez, Rocio Nereyda; Jenchen, Uwe; Schulte, Peter

    2012-12-01

    We compare Late Maastrichtian siliciclastic sandstone in northeastern Mexico with those representing the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary to reveal differences in provenance and depositional conditions between background sedimentation and K-Pg sand. Lithology and compositional variations are presented for the deep-water Burgos Basin and the shallow-water La Popa Basin. The Late Maastrichtian sandstones in the Burgos Basin have sharp lower contacts, contain abundant trace fossils and are separated by meter-thick marl layers. They represent sporadic mass flows from coastal areas separated by long phases of hemipelagic sedimentation. The K-Pg sandstone layers are amalgamated, contain thin marl intercalations only in the uppermost part and trace fossils are present in the top sandstone layer only. Also this succession represents mass-flow deposits, but the sand may have been deposited during a very short period. The La Popa Basin sandstones represent deltaic sedimentation interrupted by submarine channel deposition during the K-Pg boundary transition with abundant rip-up clasts and bioclasts at the base. The sandstones of the Burgos Basin are quartz to akosic wacke dominated by quartz (> 90%) and some feldspar (< 10%) in calcite cement and matrix. Lithic fragments are rare and dominated by chert and bioclasts. Ultra-stable heavy minerals (ZTR = 50-80) and plutonic quartz grains (ca. 40% of the total quartz population) are particularly common in the K-Pg sandstones. In the Maastrichtian sandstones, metamorphic heavy minerals, particularly chlorite, clinozoisite, and tourmaline (20-50% of the heavy mineral population), and metamorphic quartz (80% of the quartz population) have higher abundances. The La Popa sandstones are subarkose to arkose and arkosic wacke and have a high abundance of feldspar (15-30%) and lithic fragments (5-20%), mainly of siltstone and carbonate. The sandstones from both basins have chemical compositions typical for recycling (Zr/Sc = 12-27 and

  4. Dynamic growth of selected Paleozoic reef complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Bowsher, A.L.

    1986-03-01

    The sequential positioning of the compound biothermal facies of paleozoic reefs reflects the history of water movement (rise or fall) over the shelf on which the reef complex accumulated. Siliciclastic deposits are directly related to reef complexes. Reef complexes built on a constructional platform generally show progradation in response to increase water depth over the platform. At least one reef complex in the Sacramento Mountains is retrograde, having formed over a platform that is partly a destructional surface. Reefs are best characterized as progradational or retrogradational in preference to transgressional or regressional. The reef complex often shows several different growth stages separated by hiatuses, although the depositional breaks may appear to be minor. The complex may record tilting of the subreef platform. The reef complex is only a facet of the total sedimentary pattern of the depositional basin. A method is illustrated for determining the relative rate of construction (growth) of reef complexes.

  5. Paleontological evidence of Paleozoic age for the Walden Creek Group, Ocoee Supergroup, Tennessee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unrug, Raphael; Unrug, Sophia

    1990-11-01

    A newly discovered fossil assemblage including trilobite, ostracod, bryozoan, and microcrinoid fragments and agglutinated foraminifers has been found in the Wilhite Formation, Walden Creek Group, Ocoee Supergroup, in the foothills of the Great Smoky Mountains, Tennessee. These fossils prove a Paleozoic age for the Walden Creek Group, which had been interpreted to be of Late Proterozoic age. The foraminiferal assemblage indicaes the Silurian as the older age limit for the Walden Creek Group. These findings make necessary a redefinition of the Ocoee sedimentary basin and reinterpretation of models of the evolution of the Blue Ridge structural province.

  6. Lithostratigraphic, conodont, and other faunal links between lower Paleozoic strata in northern and central Alaska and northeastern Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Harris, Anita G.; Gagiev, Mussa; Bradley, Dwight C.; Repetski, John E.

    2002-01-01

    Lower Paleozoic platform carbonate strata in northern Alaska (parts of the Arctic Alaska, York, and Seward terranes; herein called the North Alaska carbonate platform) and central Alaska (Farewell terrane) share distinctive lithologic and faunal features, and may have formed on a single continental fragment situated between Siberia and Laurentia. Sedimentary successions in northern and central Alaska overlie Late Proterozoic metamorphosed basement; contain Late Proterozoic ooid-rich dolostones, Middle Cambrian outer shelf deposits, and Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian shallow-water platform facies, and include fossils of both Siberian and Laurentian biotic provinces. The presence in the Alaskan terranes of Siberian forms not seen in wellstudied cratonal margin sequences of western Laurentia implies that the Alaskan rocks were not attached to Laurentia during the early Paleozoic.The Siberian cratonal succession includes Archean basement, Ordovician shallow-water siliciclastic rocks, and Upper Silurian–Devonian evaporites, none of which have counterparts in the Alaskan successions, and contains only a few of the Laurentian conodonts that occur in Alaska. Thus we conclude that the lower Paleozoic platform successions of northern and central Alaska were not part of the Siberian craton during their deposition, but may have formed on a crustal fragment rifted away from Siberia during the Late Proterozoic. The Alaskan strata have more similarities to coeval rocks in some peri-Siberian terranes of northeastern Russia (Kotelny, Chukotka, and Omulevka). Lithologic ties between northern Alaska, the Farewell terrane, and the peri-Siberian terranes diminish after the Middle Devonian, but Siberian afµnities in northern and central Alaskan biotas persist into the late Paleozoic.

  7. Multidisciplinary studies on ancient sandstone quarries of Western Sardinia (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grillo, Silvana Maria; Del Vais, Carla; Naitza, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    The ancient coastal quarries of Mediterranean are increasingly considered geosites of multidisciplinary relevance. They are sites of historical-archaeological interest that show ancient techniques of stone extraction; they are significant for cultural heritage conservation and restoration, as sources of the stones used in ancient buildings and monuments; they are sites of geological relevance, as often retain important stratigraphic sections; they are also useful markers of secular changes in the sea level. A multisciplinary study is in progress on the ancient quarries of the Sinis region (western Sardinia island), integrating archaeological, geological, minero-petrographical data. In Sardinia, coastal quarries have been established from Punic and Roman times. Many of them exploited Quaternary sediments along the southern and western coasts of the island. They consist of middle-late Pleistocene marine conglomerates and carbonate sandstones, and of coastal (aeolian) carbonate sandstones. Sandstone blocks of different sizes have been widely used in ancient cities for buildings, defensive works, harbours, etc. Three main areas of stone extraction (San Giovanni di Sinis, Punta Maimoni, Is Arutas) have been so far recognized in the Sinis. GIS-supported mapping and documentation of the sites includes their geology and stratigraphy, the extension and layout of the quarries, and an evaluation of volumes of extracted rocks. Documented archaeological evidences include ancient extraction fronts, spoil heaps, working areas, working traces in the old fronts, transport routes of blocks, and traces of loading facilities. The study is aimed at reconstructing the relationships of the quarries with the urban areas of Sinis, as the ancient Punic-Roman city of Tharros. Consequently, a minero-petrographical characterization (optical microscopy, XRD) is performed on sandstones sampled in each quarry, and in historical buildings in Tharros and other centres of the region (Cabras

  8. Biostratigraphic refinements of paleozoics of Great Basin using palynology

    SciTech Connect

    Hutter, T.J.

    1987-08-01

    Examining material from numerous wells and extensive collections of Paleozoic sediments from throughout the Great Basin shows large morphic diversity of the acritarchs, chitinozoans, and spores. Quantitative analysis of these palynomorphs provides data on biostratigraphy, paleoenvironments, and organic thermal maturation throughout the Paleozoic stratigraphic units. Biostratigraphic boundaries and associated lithostratigraphic units can be recognized by using the acritarch, chitinozoan, and spore assemblages. The Paleozoic microflora and microfauna from the Great Basin show remarkable affinities to assemblage records from western Australia. Comparisons with established graptolite and conondont zone are also established.

  9. The Paleozoic tectonothermal evolution of the Bachu Uplift of the Tarim Basin, NW China: Constraints from (U-Th)/He ages, apatite fission track and vitrinite reflectance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Nansheng; Jiang, Guang; Mei, Qinghua; Chang, Jian; Wang, Shengjun; Wang, Jiyang

    2011-06-01

    This study uses a new application of the apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometry technique to investigate the thermal history and tectonic uplift of sedimentary basins. Based on measured apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He ages, apatite fission track data and equivalent vitrinite reflectance measurements of borehole core samples, the thermal history of the Bachu Uplift of the Tarim Basin was modeled. Our analysis indicates a complicated thermal history in the Bachu Uplift region during the Paleozoic. The thermal gradient initially increased from 28-30 °C/km in the Cambrian period to 30-33 °C/km in the Ordovician period and increased up to 33-34 °C/km in the Silurian period. The thermal gradient began to decrease during the Devonian period and was estimated to be approximately 30 °C/km during the Late Devonian and the Early Carboniferous periods. The low thermal gradient phase was followed by an additional high gradient phase from the Late Carboniferous to the Early Permian when the gradient was approximately 32 °C/km. Thermal gradients in the Paleozoic were substantially different than the present-day gradient (21 °C/km). Tectonothermal modeling results also revealed uplift events in the Bachu Uplift region that shifted from south to north (e.g., ˜150 Ma to ˜100 Ma) and from west to east (e.g., ˜250 Ma to ˜150 Ma). This thermal evolution of the Bachu Uplift is consistent with its tectonic progression. The thermal spike in the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian periods could be related to magmatic activities in the Early Permian period. The Paleozoic thermal history of the Bachu Uplift region of the Tarim Basin could not be reconstructed properly due to a lack of reliable thermal indicators in the Lower Paleozoic successions, and a poor understanding of the thermal evolution of Lower Paleozoic source rocks during the Paleozoic has hindered petroleum exploration in this area. This study provides a new Paleozoic thermal history and shows that the Paleozoic

  10. Origin of a classic cratonic sheet sandstone: Stratigraphy across the Sauk II-Sauk III boundary in the Upper Mississippi Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkel, Anthony C.; McKay, R.M.; Palmer, A.R.

    1998-01-01

    The origin of cratonic sheet sandstones of Proterozoic and early Paleozoic age has been a long-standing problem for sedimentologists. Lower Paleozoic strata in the Upper Mississippi Valley are best known for several such sandstone bodies, the regional depositional histories of which are poorly understood. We have combined outcrop and subsurface data from six states to place the Upper Cambrian Wonewoc (Ironton and Galesville) Sandstone in a well-constrained stratigraphic framework across thousands of square kilometers. This framework makes it possible for the first time to construct a regional-scale depositional model that explains the origin of this and other cratonic sheet sandstones. The Wonewoc Sandstone, although mapped as a single contiguous sheet, is a stratigraphically complex unit that was deposited during three distinct conditions of relative sea level that span parts of four trilobite zones. During a relative highstand of sea level in Crepicephalus Zone time, quartzose sandstone lithofacies aggraded more or less vertically in nearshore-marine and terrestrial environments across much of the present-day out-crop belt around the Wisconsin arch. At the same time, finer grained, feldspathic sandstone, siltstone, and shale aggraded in deeper water immediately seaward of the quartzose sand, and shale and carbonate sediment accumulated in the most distal areas. During Aphelaspis and Dunderbergia Zones time a relative fall in sea level led to the dispersal of quartzose sand into a basinward-tapering, sheet-like body across much of the Upper Mississippi Valley. During early Elvinia Zone time a major transgression led to deposition of a second sheet sandstone that is generally similar to the underlying regressive sheet. The results of this investigation also demonstrate how subtle sequence-bounding unconformities may be recognized in mature, cratonic siliciclastics. We place the Sauk II-Sauk III subsequence boundary at the base of the coarsest bed in the Wonewoc

  11. Allochthonous deep-water basin deposits of the western US: Implications for Paleozoic paleogeography and plate margin tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, E.L. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-04-01

    The stratigraphy and sedimentology of the lower Paleozoic Roberts Mts. and upper Paleozoic Golconda allochthons can be used to reconstruct their general paleogeographic setting in the Paleozoic. Basalt pillow lavas and radiolarian chert, were once considered straightforward evidence that the allochthons represented imbricated ocean crust formed at sites far removed from continental influences. Better stratigraphic definition, provenance studies and geochemistry of lavas now indicate that clastic components were derived from the continental shelf or interior and basalts in the Roberts Mountains allochthon were erupted in an intraplate setting through thinned continental crust (Madrid, 1987). Both in the earliest Mississippian and in the Late Permian, the Antler Basin (Roberts Mts.) and the Havallah Basin (Golconda) received proximal detritus from island arc sources to the west, immediately prior to closure of the basins by thrust-faulting. These data suggest that both systems of basins formed as marginal basins by rifting on the continental shelf (Antler Basin) and along the continental margin (Havallah Basin) and were flanked to the west by active island arcs at least during part of their history. As such, their stratigraphy provides a great deal of insight regarding tectonism along the western plate margin of North America during the Paleozoic.

  12. The influence of diagenesis on the reservoir quality of Cambrian and Carboniferous sandstones, southwest Sinai, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Earle F.; Abdel-Wahab, Antar; Salem, Alaa M. K.

    1996-04-01

    The diagenetic influence on hydrocarbon reservoir quality was investigated for the Cambrian and Lower Carboniferous sandstones of southwestern Sinai. These quartzose and feldspathic Palaeozoic sandstones were not buried more than 1 to 1.5 km until Late Cretaceous and more recent times, when the most deeply buried rocks may have reached 25 km. Porosity was reduced by compaction from an assumed original 45% to about 26%. In general, both Cambrian and Carboniferous sandstones lost more porosity by compaction (average of 19% for each) than by cementation (average of 17% and 13%, respectively). There is no significant difference in the degree of compaction shown by Cambrian (older, deeper buried) rather than Carboniferous sandstones. Cementation by iron oxide, quartz, calcite and kaolinite reduced porosity to 12-15%, except in silcretes and some ferricretes where porosity was reduced to <5%. Significant secondary porosity was created (5.8 and 5.1 % for Cambrian and Carboniferous sandstones, respectively ) chiefly by dissolution of feldspar. Kaolinite (maximum of 20%) is the most deleterious cement because it has high microporosity, which causes high residual water saturation, and occurs as tiny crystals that have the potential to break loose during rapid fluid flow and block the pore throats. The present-day porosity in these sandstones averages 19% and ranges from 1.5 to 32%. Many sandstone samples (47% of a total of 178 samples) have permeability values higher than 1000 md. The plot of porosity versus the log of permeability has a good correlation indicating that microporosity, even though locally important, does not significantly influence reservoir quality. In spite of their age and the large volumes of groundwater that probably passed through them, these Palaeozoic sandstones retain sufficient porosity and permeability to possess excellent reservoir quality.

  13. On Restoring Sedimentary Basins for Post-Depositional Deformation - Paleozoic Basins of the Central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahlburg, H.

    2015-12-01

    The reconstruction and interpretation of sedimentary basins incorporated into folded and thrusted mountain belts is strongly limited by the style and intensity of shortening. This problem is exacerbated if deformation is polyphasic as is the case for the Paleozoic basins in the central Andes. Some of these have been deformed by folding and thrusting during at least 3 events in the Late Ordovician, the Late Paleozoic and Cenozoic. A realistic reconstruction of the original basin dimensions and geometries from outcrops and maps appears to be almost impossible. We present results of a stepwise reconstruction of the Paleozoic basins of the central Andes by restoring basin areas and fills accounting for crustal shortening. The structurally most prominent feature of the central Andes is the Bolivian Orocline which accomodated shortening in the last 45 Ma on the order of between 300 and 500 km. In a first step basins were restored by accounting for Cenozoic rotation and shortening by deconvolving the basins using an enhanced version of the oroclinal bending model of Ariagada et al. (2008). Results were then restored stepwise for older deformation. Constraints on these subsequent steps are significantly poorer as values of shortening can be derived only from folds and thusts apparent in outcrops. The amount of shortening accomodated on unexposed and therefore unknown thrusts can not be quantified and is a significant source of error very likely leading to an underestimation of the amount of shortening. Accepting these limitations, basin restoration results in an increase in basin area by ≥100%. The volumes of stratigraphically controlled basin fills can now be redistributed over the wider, restored area, translating into smaller rates of accumulation and hence required subsidence. The restored rates conform to those of equivalent modern basin settings and permit a more realistic and actualistic analysis of subsidence drivers and the respective tectonic framework.

  14. High-boiling arenes of Paleozoic petroleum of West Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Golovko, A.K.; Kam'yanov, V.F.; Korobitsina, L.L.; Kurakolova, E.A.; Rusinova, G.V.; Petrov, Al. A.

    1984-01-01

    A number of petroleum deposits have been found recently in the southern regions of West Siberia, in carbonate reservoirs of the Paleozoic age; certain aspects of increasing petroleum output in the field are related to these deposits. The general characteristics of Paleozoic petroleums of West Siberia are fairly varied, these petroleums usually have lower sulfur and resin contents but contain more was than petroleums from the Mesozoic deposits in the upper strata. No detailed study has so far, apparently, been carried out of the hydrocarbon composition of higher fractions of Paleozoic petroleums of the regio using physico-chemical methods. Accordingly, the composition of aromatic components of medium and high-boiling petroleum distillates of the Maloich deposit are examined since these are one of the first Paleozoic deposits put to industrial use.

  15. North American Paleozoic Oceanography: Overview of Progress Toward a Modern Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Markes E.

    1987-04-01

    Three fundamental questions have confronted paleoceanographers from the beginning of their North American explorations. What was the size and timing of ancient epicontinental seas: large and long-lasting or small and brief? What characterized the distribution of biotas and sediments at any one point in time: a multitude of complex facies patterns or a more spacially homogeneous cover? What promoted continental foundering: eustatic changes in sea level or relative changes in sea level brought about by regional tectonics? These questions have been debated by North Americans since the middle 1800s in response to various new insights, usually coming from abroad but often elaborated into substantial contributions of equal standing. Contemporary facies zones in Mediterranean biota found by the Englishman E. Forbes attracted the notice of geologists as early as 1844. C. Whittlesey was among the first to apply the bathymetric scheme of Forbes to the interpretation of American Paleozoic strata in 1851. The outstanding "native" innovation of the period was J. Hall's geosyncline concept, which is reflected in the earliest map of Paleozoic North America made by T. C. Chamberlin in 1881. Another wave of influence spread from the late 19th century work on stratigraphic facies patterns by the German J. Walther. A. W. Grabau is best remembered as Walther's foremost American champion against the formidable layer-caker E. O. Ulrich in the first decades of the 20th century, but he also made pioneering contributions of his own on Paleozoic sea level studies and global paleogeographic reconstructions. Charles Schuchert was the consummate paleogeographer of this period. Meanwhile, the term "cyclothem" was coined by J. Marvin Weller in 1930 for recurrent Carboniferous strata in Illinois. Controversy fast erupted over a glacial as opposed to tectonic mode of origin for these cycles. In 1964, A. B. Shaw restimulated interest in Paleozoic oceanography through his reformulation of Walther

  16. Electrofacies vs. lithofacies sandstone reservoir characterization Campanian sequence, Arshad gas/oil field, Central Sirt Basin, Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burki, Milad; Darwish, Mohamed

    2017-06-01

    The present study focuses on the vertically stacked sandstones of the Arshad Sandstone in Arshad gas/oil field, Central Sirt Basin, Libya, and is based on the conventional cores analysis and wireline log interpretation. Six lithofacies types (F1 to F6) were identified based on the lithology, sedimentary structures and biogenic features, and are supported by wireline log calibration. From which four types (F1-F4) represent the main Campanian sandstone reservoirs in the Arshad gas/oil field. Lithofacies F5 is the basal conglomerates at the lower part of the Arshad sandstones. The Paleozoic Gargaf Formation is represented by lithofacies F6 which is the source provenance for the above lithofacies types. Arshad sediments are interpreted to be deposited in shallow marginal and nearshore marine environment influenced by waves and storms representing interactive shelf to fluvio-marine conditions. The main seal rocks are the Campanian Sirte shale deposited in a major flooding events during sea level rise. It is contended that the syn-depositional tectonics controlled the distribution of the reservoir facies in time and space. In addition, the post-depositional changes controlled the reservoir quality and performance. Petrophysical interpretation from the porosity log values were confirmed by the conventional core measurements of the different sandstone lithofacies types. Porosity ranges from 5 to 20% and permeability is between 0 and 20 mD. Petrophysical cut-off summary of the lower part of the clastic dominated sequence (i. e. Arshad Sandstone) calculated from six wells includes net pay sand ranging from 19.5‧ to 202.05‧, average porosity from 7.7 to 15% and water saturation from 19 to 58%.

  17. Reservoir sandstone bodies in lower Silurian Clinton sandstone interval, eastern Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Coogan, A.H.

    1987-09-01

    The stratigraphic relationships of the sandstones, shales, limestones, dolomites, and related beds of the Lower Silurian Clinton sandstone interval in Ohio have been examined using several thousand well logs from Medina County to Coshocton County in eastern Ohio. This north-south band of counties lies semiparallel to the north-northeast-trending depositional edge of the Clinton lower deltaic and coastal plain. Continuous and discontinuous bar sandstones with patterns similar to barrier island deposits are found at the edge of the deltaic plain. The thicker sandstone reservoirs in these deposits have been prolific oil and gas pools. The discontinuous bar sands are more common, however, and where drilling is sparse or where only the cleaner sandstones are mapped, these bar sands appear as isolated, thick, porous sandstone bodies. Examples exist in Holmes and Wayne Counties, Ohio. Elongate, nearly straight, narrow sandstone bodies occur on the lower deltaic plain, and were deposited in channels that were fluvial or partly estuarine. The channel sandstones are less than 1000 ft wide, extend for distances up to 10 mi and can be seen in Coshocton, Summit, and Medina Counties. The reservoirs in these sandstones are prolific oil and gas producers, but they are not easy to locate. At the seaward end of the elongate channel, sandstones are thick, localized sand bodies that fit in the sedimentological picture as river mouth bars. An example from Medina County illustrates this reservoir geometry at the site of excellent oil production from the Clinton interval.

  18. Diagenesis of shallowly buried cratonic sandstones, southwest Sinai, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, Alaa M. K.; Abdel-Wahab, Antar; McBride, Earle F.

    1998-08-01

    In spite of their age, quartzose and feldspathic Lower Carboniferous sandstones deposited on the Arabian shield in western Sinai remain friable and porous (average of 19%, maximum of 25%) except for strongly cemented ferricretes and silcretes. These fluvial and shallow-marine sandstones were not buried more than 1.5 km until Late Cretaceous and younger time, when the deepest rocks reached 2.5 km. Owing to shallow burial depths and episodic exposure, meteoric water dominated the pore system for most of geologic time: iron oxides had multiple diagenetic stages and yield Carboniferous and Late Cretaceous paleomagnetic signatures, and oxygen isotopic data for authigenic quartz, sparry calcite, and kaolinite yield meteoric signatures. The most significant diagenetic changes were: (1) cementation by iron oxide that locally reaches 40% in groundwater ferricretes; (2) reduction in porosity to 19% from an assumed original porosity 45% (19% porosity was lost by compaction and 7% by cementation); (3) generation of diagenetic quartzarenites by the loss of 7% detrital feldspar by kaolinization and dissolution; and (4) development of three thin mature silcretes apparently by thermal groundwaters. Some outcrop samples have halite and gypsum cements of young but uncertain origin: recycled from topographically higher younger rocks or from aerosols? Mature silcretes are strongly cemented by microcrystalline quartz, multiply zoned syntaxial quartz, and, originally, minor opal. Quartz overgrowths in most sandstones average only 2.2%, but display a variety of textures and in places overprint isopachous opal (now dissolved) grain coats. These features have more in common with incipient silcrete cement than normal burial quartz cement. Most silica was imported in groundwater.

  19. Sandstone units of the Lee Formation and related strata in eastern Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, Charles L.

    1984-01-01

    Most of the Cumberland Plateau region of southeastern Kentucky is underlain by thick sequences of quartzose sandstone which are assigned for the most part to the Lee Formation. Much new information has been gathered about the Lee and related strata as a result of the cooperative mapping program of the U. S. Geological Survey and the Kentucky Geological Survey between 1960 and 1978. This report summarizes the age, lithology, distribution, sedimentary structures, and stratigraphic relations of the sandstone units of the Lee within and between each of three major outcrop belts in Kentucky: Cumberland Mountain, Pine Mountain, and the Pottsville Escarpment area. The Lee Formation generally has been regarded as Early Pennsylvanian in age and separated from Mississippian strata in Kentucky by an unconformity. However, lithostratigraphic units included in the formation as presently defined are broadly time-transgressive and range in age from Late Mississippian in parts of the Cumberland Mountain outcrop belt to Middle Pennsylvanian in the Pottsville Escarpment area. Members of the Lee intertongue with and grade into the underlying Pennington Formation and overlying Breathitt Formation. Sandstone and conglomeratic sandstone members of the Lee of Mississippian age found only in parts of the Cumberland overthrust sheet are closely associated with marine rocks; Pennsylvanian members are mostly associated with continental coal-bearing strata. Sandstone members of the Lee are mostly quartz rich and range from more than 90 percent to more than 99 percent quartz. They are relatively coarse grained, commonly pebbly, and in places conglomeratic. The units are southwest-trending linear or broadly lobate bodies. The Lee Formation is as much as 1,500 ft thick in the type area in Cumberland Mountain where it has been divided into eight members. The Pinnacle Overlook, Chadwell, White Rocks Sandstone, Middlesboro, Bee Rock Sandstone, and Naese Sandstone Members are mostly quartzose

  20. Occurrence of paleozoic and early mesozoic radiolaria in Thailand (preliminary report)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sashida, Katsuo; Igo, Hisayoshi; Hisafa, Ken-Ichiro; Nakornsri, Nikorn; Ampornmaha, Apsorn

    Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic radiolarians are newly recovered from chert and associated fine-grained clastic rocks in Thailand. This study clarifies the geologic age of these radiolarian rocks and their paleogeographic and geotectonic significance. Devonian, Early Carboniferous and Permian radiolarians were found in the "Fang Chert" which outcrops along the Chiang Mai-Fang Road, upper north Thailand, Early Carboniferous radiolarians were recovered from a sequence of tuffaceous shale and chert exposed in the Pak Chom area along the Mekong River, and well-preserved Late Devonian and Early Carboniferous radiolarians were also recovered from cherts exposed along the Pak Chom-Loei Road near Phu Laem, north of Loei, in northeast Thailand. These Devonian to Carboniferous radiolarian faunas are apparently identical with those reported from eastern and western Australia. Well-preserved Early Triassic conodonts and radiolarians were obtained from a limeston exposed near Patthalung, southern Thailand. Most of the radiolarian species of this fauna show close affinity with those reported from the Upper Paleozoic rocks, and are new species except for some spicule-type forms. Based on the above-mentioned newly obtained micropaleontological evidence, the geotectonic significance of these radiolarian rocks are briefly discussed in relation to the paleography of the Palaeo-Tethys Ocean, Sibumas and Indochina Terranes, and Australia during the Late Devonian to Middle Permian times.

  1. Evolution of Early Paleozoic Kuznetsk Alatau Zone in Siberia on the Base of Paleomagnetic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metelkin, D. V.; Kazansky, A. Y.; Kungurtsev, L. V.; Kizub, P. A.

    2001-05-01

    The region under study between 53-58 N and 86-89E is an important tectonic unit of Central Siberian Folded Area. We report paleo-magnetic data from 7 site localities in the Lower Cambrian, 4 in the Middle Cambrian and 2 in the Lower Ordovician volcano-sedimentary formations. Progressive thermal demagnetization in each case removed Late Paleozoic (?) secondary component after which the characteristic component (ChRM) was isolated. Results on Cambrian and Ordovician rocks appear to pass the foldtest, while Middle Cambrian in addition show both polarities. Preliminary paleopoles constitute an evident trajectory suggesting that the block under study have moved since Late Cambrian from equatorial latitudes to more higher ones (Ordovician plat=20N). Such motion sense well coincides with paleolontological data (Bulgakova, 1986). Paleomagnetic data available from adjacent blocks demonstrate the same latitudes, supporting the idea of close spatial position of those blocks in Early Paleozoic (Metelkin et al., 2000), while declination discrepancies (from up to 45 degrees) indicate relative block rotations. The study was supported by Russian Fund of Basic Researches, grant 01-05-65143

  2. Prospects for hydrocarbon exploration in the Mesozoic and Paleozoic sections of the Pannonian basin in Hungary

    SciTech Connect

    Mattick, R. ); Koncz, I.; Bardocz, B.; Szalay, A.; Szent-Gyoergyi, K. ); Csaszar, G.; Juhasz, E. )

    1993-09-01

    To date, exploration in the Pannonian basin of Hungary has concentrated on oil and gas believed to be derived from source rocks of the Cenozoic. In this sense, the basin is a mature hydrocarbon province. However, exploration of the Mesozoic and Paleozoic sections has just begun. These section may contain significant quantities of hydrocarbons derived from source rocks of the Mesozoic. Much of the buried basement consists of a complex system of stacked nappes composed of Mesozoic and older rocks. Basement structures from three areas are shown: (1) southwestern Hungary, where oil and gas produced from fracture zones in the crest of nappes; (2) southeastern Hungary, where thrusting occurred subsequent to Upper Cretaceous deposition; and (3) western Hungary, where thrusting occurred prior to Upper Cretaceous deposition. In general, Paleozoic-Middle Triassic rocks are overmature; however, Upper Triassic-Cretaceous rocks entered the oil-generation window during the Neogene. The heavy oils of the Zala basin were generated from organic-rich marls of the Late Triassic. In the Mecsek area, Toarcian shales are likely a good source for oil. Upper Cretaceous rocks, because of their terrestrial character, are inferred to be gas prone. Reservoir properties of Triassic and older rocks are expected to be poor, except where fracture porosity occurs. In the Nagylengyel field, rudist limestones of Late Cretaceous contain prolific reservoirs with primary solution and fracture porosity. Although the average porosities of these reservoir rocks are relatively low (2-4%), permeabilities are >1-2 d as a result of paleokarst development.

  3. Compositional trends in the Permian sandstones from the Denison Trough, bowen basin, queensland reflect changing provenance and tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    R., Ahmad; J. C., Tipper; Eggleton, R. A.

    1994-03-01

    Point-count data of sandstone samples collected from six sedimentary formations encountered in boreholes in the Permian sequence of the Denison Trough (an Australian backare/ retroarc foreland basin) provide information about the tectonic evolution of their source areas and the depositional sites. Plots of the detrital compositions of these Permian sandstones against borehole depths indicate that the Reids Dome Beds sandstones, containing highly abundant lithic/volcanolithic grains, mark the onset of intense compressional tectonics and arc volcanic activities to the east accompanied by extensional tectonics and subsidence in the trough. Folding and thrusting owing to intense compressional tectonics in the New England Fold Belt and Arc volcanism in the Camboon Volcanic Arc region to the east generated a great supply of recycled sediment and volcanic detritus that led to a rapid infilling of the subsiding Denison Trough during formation of the Reids Dome Beds sandstones in Early Permian time. The detrital composition of the sandstones of the overlying Cattle Creek Formation, Aldebaran Sandstone, and the Freitag Formation indicate gradually decreasing compressional tectonics and arc volcanism accompanied by increasingly dominant sediment-supply from the stable continental craton to the west. The Freitag Formation sandstone compositions mark the quietest tectonic and volcanic episode in the region, accompanied by subsidence of the Denison Trough owing to thermal cooling during the Middle Permian. The Peawaddy Formation and the Bandanna Formation sandstone compositions represent a Late Permian renewal of compressional tectonics and arc volcanism to the east accompanied by uplift and folding of the sedimentary strata, resulting in the formation of largely fluvial depositional environments in the Denison Trough. Modal compositions of the Bandanna Formation sandstones indicate that renewed arc volcanism and compressional tectonic activity attained maximum intensities

  4. Paleozoic framework of Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, M.L.

    1986-09-01

    A Paleozoic proto-Gulf of Mexico was formed by chronologically sequential continental collisions that migrated from northeast to southwest. Initial Ordovician and Devonian orogenies in the Appalachian province predated the proto-Gulf of Mexico during the Carboniferous and Permian in Texas and northern Mexico. A southward-widening ocean existed between the North American ancestral craton and the impinging block. This geometric configuration, supplemented by drag delay along compressional transform margins, caused the prolonged time span between first and final impacts. In the Ouachita and Marathon provinces, triangular flsych depocenters with north-plunging axes may have been the consequences of transform drag and related clockwise rotation of mobile block segments. The composite Muenster arch part of the Amarillo-Wichita uplift and the Central Basin platform are structurally analogous vertical block uplifts but of different tectonic age. These uplifts and associated Anadarko-Ardmore and Delaware-Val Verde aulacogens in Oklahoma and Texas are impingement-related features on the stable cratonic block. An ancestral basement fabric of the North American craton predestined structural development of features such as the Central Basin platform and composite Muenster arch.

  5. Paleozoic framework of Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, M.L.

    1987-05-01

    A Paleozoic proto-Gulf of Mexico was formed by chronologically sequential continental collisions which migrated from northeast to southwest. Initial Ordovician and Devonian orogenies in the Appalachian province were predecessors to the genesis of the proto-Gulf of Mexico during Carboniferous and Permian times in Texas and northern Mexico. A southward-widening ocean existed between the North American ancestral craton and the impinging block. This geometric configuration, supplemented by drag delay along compressional transform margins, caused the prolonged time span between first and final impacts. In the Ouachita and Marathon provinces, triangularly shaped flysch depocenters (or syns of the flysch) with north-plunging axes are postulated to have been the consequences of transform drag and related clockwise rotation of mobile block segments. The composite Muenster arch and the Central Basin platform are structurally analogous vertical block uplifts but of different tectonic age. These uplifts and the associated Anadarko-Ardmore and Delaware-Val Verde aulacogens in Oklahoma and Texas are impingement-related features on the stable cratonic block. An ancestral basement fabric of the North American craton predestined structural development of features such as the Central Basin platform and composite Muenster arch.

  6. Laurentian and Baltican components of Terranes in NW Washington: Implications for Displacement of Paleozoic Terranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schermer, E. R.; Brown, N.; Gehrels, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    New field, U-Pb, and Lu-Hf data constrain the geologic history, age, and origin of the Yellow Aster Complex (YAC) in NW Washington, and suggest that this Paleozoic arc terrane originated along the paleo-Arctic margin of NE Laurentia. Field work shows the oldest YAC consists of quartzo-feldspathic paragneiss (meta-arkosic sandstone + conglomerate) and quartzose calc-silicate gneiss (meta-calcareous siltstone) in gradational contact. Paragneisses are cut by syn- and post-tectonic intrusions, and faulted against granitic orthogneiss. U-Pb results show that 1) maximum depositional ages of paragneisses are Silurian to early Devonian (399 to 434 Ma); 2) quartzose calc-silicate gneisses show a broad age peak from 1000-1900 Ma, while quartzofeldspathic gneisses contain several distinct Precambrian age peaks, including at 1.8-2.0 Ga and 2.4-2.5 Ga; 3) Both gneisses contain early Paleozoic grains with peaks at ~400-420 and ~450-460 Ma; 4) pre-tectonic orthogneiss and syn- and post-tectonic dikes range from 410 to 398 Ma; 4) All intrusive rocks contain apparently xenocrystic ~450 Ma grains. Lu-Hf data show that nearly all Paleozoic grains have negative epsilon Hf values, and zircons in the meta-arkose samples are more highly evolved than those in the calc-silicate. Several meta-arkose samples yield epsilon Hf values of -40 to -50, which is rare in the North American Cordillera, and requires the involvement of Early Archean crustal components. The most likely source region is Greenland, which implies derivation from the paleo-Arctic margin of northeastern Laurentia or Baltica. The chemistry and petrology of the igneous rocks suggest the terrane was in a continental arc setting during or very shortly after deposition of the sedimentary rocks. The data suggest that sedimentation, deformation, metamorphism, and magmatism all occurred within a brief (~15 m.y.) period in the early Devonian. These relationships suggest a Caledonian origin for YAC prior to translation to the

  7. Ouachita-Appalachian junction: a Paleozoic transpressional zone

    SciTech Connect

    Hale-Erlich, W.S.; Coleman, J.L.; Lopez, J.A.; Lober, M.S.

    1987-05-01

    The late Paleozoic collision of the Gondwana supercontinent with the trailing southern margin of North America created the Ouachita and Appalachian orogenic belts. Transecting these belts are several transpressional or wrench fault zones, including the Val Verde basin-Texas lineament system, the Ardmore-Anadarko basin trend, and the Reelfoot rift complex. Vertical movement within these wrench zones resulted in the emplacement of pop-block or flower structures. In Texas and Oklahoma these features are major structural traps for oil and gas. In this work, they propose that the (buried) juncture between the Ouachita and Appalachian foldbelts in Mississippi is a similar transpressional fault zone. Recent reconstructions of the collision between Gondwana and North America indicate a relative closure direction of southeast to northwest. Normal decollement thrusting occurred in the Appalachian and Ouachita foldbelts, where the structural grain of the North American margin was nearly perpendicular to the closure direction. Where the structural grain was oblique to closure direction, wrench faulting and high-angle thrust faulting occurred, due to the combined effect of both translational and compressional stress fields. In southwestern Alabama and Mississippi the trailing North American plate margin consisted of Mississippian and Pennsylvanian clastics draped over a thick Cambro-Ordovician carbonate shelf. This shelf trends northeast-southwest in Alabama but turns sharply to trend north-northwest in Mississippi, possibly reflecting changes in Precambrian basement relief. Transpressional stresses would have been generated near this sharp bend during the collision. This study identifies one such transpressional fault zone, on the basis of seismic data and well control, in east-central Mississippi.

  8. Anconichnus horizontalis: A pervasive ichnofabric-forming trace fossil in post-Paleozoic offshore siliciclastic facies

    SciTech Connect

    Goldring, R. ); Pollard, J.E.; Taylor, A.M. )

    1991-06-01

    The fabric of often intensely mottled, upper offshore to lower shoreface siliciclastic sediments of post-Paleozoic age is analyzed and the principal trace described from material collected from outcrop (U.K.) and the North Sea Basin (core). The characteristic trace of these mottled zones is Anconichnus horizontalis, which is a narrow, discontinuous, twisting, muddy fecal string within a poorly defined burrow fill depleted in mud and inertinite. This trace formed endogenically, principally in association with small-scale cross-stratification and thin (cm) event beds. Seven taphonomic-sediment associations (ichnofabrics) are recognized: (1) in siltstone to very fine-grained sandstone in thin (cm) event beds, often as only one trace; (2) in association with small-scale cross-stratification; (3) in dense concentrations in fine-grained sediment where the primary structures have been obscured; (4) similar to (3) but with a patchy distribution of the trace; (5) siltstone to very fine-grained sandstone, often associated with heterolithic stratification, with a higher ichnodiversity, including Phoebichnus, Palaeophycus, Thalassinoides, Rhizocorallium, Cylindrichnus and Diplocraterion; (6) as (3) but with muddy patches and sand-filled Chondrites sp.; (7) mud dominated, with silty horizons and associated with Terebellina. Associations 1 to 4 were produced by opportunistic shallow tier burrowers penecontemporaneous with deposition of mud-depleted event beds in an offshore environment. Association 5, with diverse, later mid-tier burrowers, suggests a more equilibrium endobenthic community in aggrading sedimentation conditions, under fair weather, in the offshore transition zone to lower shoreface, while associations 6 and 7 indicated muddier offshore situations.

  9. Northwest vergent folding in the Harmony Formation, north central Nevada: Lower Paleozoic tectonics revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, A.E.

    1993-04-01

    The Upper Cambrian to Lower Ordovician Harmony Formation is an arkosic sandstone composed of coarse graded beds of turbiditic sandstone, siltstone and shale that crops out at Battle Mountain, the Sonoma Range, and the Hot Springs Range of north central Nevada. Regional mapping by Hotz and Willden in 1964 suggested that west vergent folding was the main structural feature of the Harmony Formation in the Hot Springs Range. In this study, over 1,600 bedding measurements in the Harmony Formation have been collected in the Hot Springs Range. 300 of these measurements include positively defined facing directions. A stereo plot of poles to bedding falls along a great circle with a pole at N36E, plunging 23[degree]NE. A well defined cluster of poles to overturned beds along the northwestern part of the great circle confirms the report by Hotz and Willden, and indicates bedding overturned toward the northwest. Important conclusions from this data set are (1) the fold orientations in the Harmony Formation and the Valmy Formation in the Hot Springs Range are clearly different, (2) the east-vergent deformation reported by others in rocks of the Roberts Mountains terrane did not affect the Harmony Formation in the Hot Springs Range and therefore (3) major Paleozoic structural boundaries between the Harmony Formation and rocks of Roberts Mountains terrane must exist. Both the Harmony Formation and the Roberts Mountains terrane are unconformably overlain by Pennsylvanian rocks indicating a pre-Pennsylvanian age for both deformation events. The different pre-Pennsylvanian structural characteristics of these two terranes demonstrate that they evolved with separate pre-Pennsylvanian tectonic histories.

  10. Co-evolution of Eukaryotes and Ocean and Atmosphere Oxygenation in the Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic Eras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenton, T. M.; Daines, S. J.; Mills, B.; Boyle, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    The nature, timing and cause(s) of the Earth's second oxygenation event are widely debated. It has been argued that there was a single pronounced rise in atmospheric oxygen toward present levels in the Late Neoproterozoic, which in turn triggered the evolution of animals. Here we suggest a more complex co-evolutionary scenario, with fluctuations in ocean and atmosphere oxygenation in the Late Neoproterozoic and Early Paleozoic caused partly by the evolution of animals, followed by a pronounced rise of atmospheric oxygen to present levels later in the Paleozoic caused by the rise of land plants. Current geochemical evidence suggests some parts of the deep oceans became oxygenated during the Ediacaran, but there was subsequent de-oxygenation of the ocean during the Cambrian that may have persisted into the Ordovician. Only later in the Paleozoic is there evidence for widespread oxygenation of the deep ocean, together with charcoal indicating atmospheric oxygen had approached present levels. The limited Neoproterozoic oxygenation of the ocean could be explained by the evolution of filter-feeding sponges removing oxygen demand from the water column and encouraging a shift from cyanobacteria to faster-sinking eukaryotic algae, which transferred oxygen demand to greater depths and into sediments. The resulting oxygenation of shelf bottom waters would have increased phosphorus removal from the ocean thus lowering global productivity and oxygen demand in a positive feedback loop encouraging ocean oxygenation [1]. The subsequent Cambrian de-oxygenation of the ocean could be explained by the evolution of bioturbating animals oxygenating the sediments and thus lowering the C/P burial ratio of organic matter, reducing organic carbon burial and lowering atmospheric oxygen [2]. The later rise of land plants, selectively weathering phosphorus from continental rocks and producing recalcitrant high C/P biomass, increased organic carbon burial and atmospheric oxygen, finally

  11. Location of Mars Sandstone Target Windjana

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-25

    In this Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter view of the Curiosity rover mission waypoint called the Kimberley, the red dot indicates the location of a sandstone target, Windjana, selected for close-up inspection.

  12. Knobbly Textured Sandstone on Mount Sharp, Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-11

    Patches of Martian sandstone visible in this view from NASA Curiosity Mars rover have a knobbly texture due to nodules apparently more resistant to erosion than the host rock in which some are still embedded.

  13. Hydrogeology of the Leadville limestone and other paleozoic rocks in northwestern Colorado, with results of aquifer tests at Glenwood Springs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geldon, Arthur L.

    1989-01-01

    Paleozoic rocks in northwestern Colorado were investigated during the U.S. Geological Survey 's Regional Aquifer Systems Analysis of the Upper Colorado River Basin. Paleozoic rocks in the study area are grouped into 11 hydrostratigraphic units on the basis of lithologic and hydrologic properties. Devonian and Mississippian carbonate rocks and Pennsylvanian and Permian sandstone are regional aquifers, with natural discharges commonly ranging from 50 to 1,000 gal/min. Other hydrostratigraphic units in the area are either local aquifers or confining layers, with discharges rarely exceeding 50 gal/min. Aquifer tests at Glenwood Springs indicate that the Devonian and Mississippian carbonate rocks unit locally has a transmissivity of 47,000 sq ft/day, a storage coefficient of 0.0005, and a hydraulic conductivity of more than 100 ft/day. Hydraulic conductivities in most hydrostratigraphic units decrease with distance away from structural uplifts. Water in the Devonian and Mississippian carbonate rocks unit flows from structural uplifts to structural and fluvial basins. This hydrostratigraphic unit supplies water to streams that drain the White River Plateau, hot springs at Glenwood Springs, and artesian wells in the Burns basin. (USGS)

  14. Habitat of petroleum in the Paleozoic basins of Brazil: A look back, a comparison, a look forward

    SciTech Connect

    Meister, E.M.; Campos, J.N.P.; Filho, C.B.; Brazil, I.R.; Neves, C.A.O.; Goes, A.M.O.; Milani, E.J. )

    1991-03-01

    It took almost a century of intermittent petroleum exploration in Brazil's vast Paleozoic basins before continuous production of about 5000 bbl per day of light oil, together with gas, could be established in one of them. Proved volumes of oil equivalent in place so far discovered in Paleozoic reservoirs amount to only 0.6% of the domestic total, but hopes of substantial new finds are great. In the Rio Urucu field of Solimoes basin (Upper Amazon), hydrocarbons are being produced from Early Carboniferous Monte Alegre formation sandstones roofed by evaporites and carbonates of the Carboniferous Itaituba formation which were intruded by thick Juro-Triassic igneous sills and folded during a Cretaceous reactivation event into the present-day shape of gentle anticlinal trends controlled by reverse faulting. The widespread occurrence of igneous intrusions and extrusions in the Solimoes, Amazonas, Parnaiba, and Parana basins is a major problem met by explorationists throughout the years but can be faced with presently available technology, seismic and other. Further investigations in these four basins are needed in order to better define details of basin architecture, configuration of basement, location of the oil kitchens, main carrier beds, windows in the dyke walls through which hydrocarbons could find their way to the traps, etc. Examples from the various basins, along with a comparison to some successful exploration cases in the USA, suggest that the habitat of other commercial oil and gas in the Paleozoic basins of Brazil may be localized in the deeper basinal positions - like in the Rio Urucu trend - but also in the shallow flank areas, where igneous rocks tend to be scarcer and exploration baroquely started.

  15. Behavior of Sandstones Under Heat Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppert, M.; Fořt, J.; Trník, A.; Koňáková, D.; Vejmelková, E.; Pokorný, J.; Svora, P.; Pavlík, Z.; Černý, R.

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of materials behavior under heat treatment is of high importance in construction and safety engineering; tunnels represent a special field because of their specific safety issues. In the case of fire, tunnel structure and surrounding rock are subjected to extreme temperatures which induces irreversible changes in the material's microstructure and consequently its mechanical properties. Significant portion of the Earth's crust is formed by sandstones; this group of sedimentary rocks is highly variable in structure, composition and engineering properties. Quartz grains (alternatively together with other minerals) form the clastic part of sandstones; the space between clasts is filled by variable amount of cement and matrix which can contain particularly clay minerals, quartz and calcite. The porosity of sandstones is again highly variable from a nearly compact material to a highly porous one. The paper aims to find out and explain differences in response of various kinds of sandstones to heat treatment. The behavior of a representative set of sandstones under heat treatment was studied by TG/DSC, thermodilatometry and residual strength measurement. These experiments were accompanied by SEM and porosimetry measurement. The effect of increased temperature on the compressive strength was found to be crucially dependent on the nature of the cement and matrix present in the individual rock. The rocks with calcite cement which had high initial strength and low porosity were damaged by calcite decomposition. The siliceous sandstones were damaged by cracking due to thermally induced volume changes. In contrary, the strength of the clayey sandstones was even improved after the heat treatment. It can be concluded that behavior of sandstone under heat treatment is controlled by its composition and diagenesis.

  16. Provenance of Norphlet sandstone, northern Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, W.P.; Ward, W.C.; Kuglar, R.L.

    1987-09-01

    The Upper Jurassic Norphlet sandstone of the northern Gulf Coast is predominantly subarkose, with some arkose in the eastern area and sublitharenite and quartzarenite in the western area. Despite great depths of burial and despite feldspar and rock-fragment constituents, diagenesis has not appreciably altered the composition of Norphlet sandstone. Therefore, reconstruction of original composition of Norphlet sandstone presented little difficulty. Variation in detrital modes of the Norphlet suggests compositionally distinct source terranes. Samples from Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi reflect the influence of metamorphic and plutonic rocks of the Appalachian Piedmont Province and of Triassic-Jurassic volcanic rocks. Sandstones in east Texas, northern Louisiana, and southern Arkansas were derived from sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks of the Ouachita system. The Arbuckle Mountains and Llano uplift may have supplied trace amounts of quartzo-feldspathic and volcanic-rock fragments to the extreme western part of the study area. Norphlet sandstones represent a mixture of collision-orogen-derived sediment from the Appalachian and/or Ouachita system and continental-block-derived sediment from paleohighs and uplifts within the Gulf basin. However, Norphlet sandstones plot in the craton-interior and transitional-continental fields on Q-F-L and QM-F-Lt tectonic-provenance diagrams, because of mineralogically mature source rocks, elimination of unstable grains by abrasion and sorting during deposition, and/or sediment mixing from different source terranes.

  17. Porosity prediction in sandstones using erosional unconformities

    SciTech Connect

    Shanmugam, G.

    1989-03-01

    Erosional unconformities of subaerial origin are created by tectonic uplifts and eustatic sea level fall. Most erosional unconformities developed on sandstones are planes of increased porosity because uplifted sandstones are exposed to undersaturated CO/sub 2/-charged meteoric waters that result in dissolution of unstable framework grains and cements. The chemical weathering of sandstones is intensified in humid regions by the heavy rainfall, soil zones, lush vegetation, and accompanying voluminous production of organic and inorganic acids. Erosional unconformities are considered hydrologically open systems because of abundant supply of fresh meteoric water and relatively unrestricted transport of dissolved constituents away from the site of dissolution, causing a net gain in porosity near unconformities. Thus, porosity in sandstones tends to increase toward overlying unconformities. Such porosity trends have been observed in hydrocarbon-bearing sandstone reservoirs in Alaska, Algeria, Australia, China, Libya, Netherlands, Norwegian North Sea, Norwegian Sea, and Texas. A common attribute of these reservoirs is that they were all subaerially exposed under heavy rainfall conditions. An empirical model has been developed for the Triassic and Jurassic sandstone reservoirs in the Norwegian North Sea on the basis of the observed relationship that shows an increase in porosity in these reservoirs with increasing proximity to the overlying base of Cretaceous unconformity. An important practical attribute of this model is that it allows for the prediction of porosity in the neighboring undrilled areas by recognizing the base of Cretaceous unconformity in seismic reflection profiles and by constructing subcrop maps.

  18. GREYBULL SANDSTONE PETROLEUM POTENTIAL ON THE CROW INDIAN RESERVATION, SOUTH-CENTRAL MONTANA

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Lopez

    2000-12-14

    Evaluation of the Lower Cretaceous Greybull Sandstone on the Crow Indian Reservation for potential stratigraphic traps in the valley-fill sandstone was the focus of this project. The Crow Reservation area, located in south-central Montana, is part of the Rocky Mountain Foreland structural province, which is characterized by Laramide uplifts and intervening structural basins. The Pryor and Bighorn mountains, like other foreland uplifts, are characterized by asymmetrical folds associated with basement-involved reverse faults. The reservation area east of the mountains is on the northwestern flank of the Powder River Basin. Therefore, regional dips are eastward and southeastward; however, several prominent structural features interrupt these regional dips. The nearly 4,000 mi{sup 2} reservation is under explored but has strong potential for increased oil and gas development. Oil and gas production is well established in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming to the south as well as in the areas north and west of the reservation. However, only limited petroleum production has been established within the reservation. Geologic relations and trends indicate strong potential for oil and gas accumulations, but drilling has been insufficient for their discovery. The Greybull Sandstone, which is part of the transgressive systems tract that includes the overlying Fall River Sandstone, was deposited on a major regional unconformity. The erosional surface at the base of the Greybull Sandstone is the +100 Ma, late Aptian-Early Albian regional unconformity of Weimer (1984). This lowstand erosional surface was controlled by a basin-wide drop in sea level. In areas where incised Greybull channels are absent, the lowstand erosional unconformity is at the base of the Fall River Sandstone and equivalent formations. During the pre-Greybull lowstand, sediment bypassed this region. In the subsequent marine transgression, streams began to aggrade and deposit sand of the lower Greybull Sandstone

  19. Salamanca sandstone: a good GHSR not suitable for all construction purposes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Dolores; Blanco, Jose Antonio; Nespereira, Jose

    2016-04-01

    Salamanca sandstone, which in fact is an opal-cemented formation of sandstones and conglomerates, was used in the construction of many historical buildings of Salamanca old city, as well as other places nearby. Salamanca is recognized as World Heritage site since 1988, precisely because the homogeneous architecture and the use of local natural resources, as the Salamanca sandstone, the Villamayor sandstone and some local granites. The reason for using the sedimentary stone was the easy access of the resource, as the city is built on top of the Salamanca sandstone Formation, a late Cretaceous-early Palaeocene deposit. This formation consists of siliciclastic successions that were deposited in braided fluvial systems. These materials are derived from a deeply weathered Variscan basement showing ferruginous alteration that adds an aesthetic value to the global view of the natural stone. However, after several centuries, the stone has started to show serious problems due to water absorption, mainly in those places where it was used as basement of the buildings. Restoration of historical buildings should consider the use of the same original material when replacement is requested. But when this original material has been demonstrated to be not appropriate for long-term constructions, a matching and preferable natural stone should be used for replacement. There is such possibility in Salamanca and this has not have to mean the disregard of the Salamanca sandstone for other uses. The natural stone has been used for interior use and for sculpture with quality results. We present the Salamanca sandstone as a possible candidate to be taken into account as GHSR, supported by complete characterization and use recommendation.

  20. Dunlin group sequence stratigraphy in the northern North Sea: A model for Cook sandstone deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Marjanac, T.; Steel, R.J.

    1997-02-01

    The Dunlin Group in the northern North Sea, consisting of the Johansen, Amundsen, Burton, Cook, and Drake formations of late Sinemurian-Toarcian age, hosts important hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Cook Formation sandstones. The Johansen Formation is associated with a relative fall of sea level and is interpreted to be a large sandstone delta confined within a broad incised valley at the base of the group. During a later stage of relative sea level rise, the finer grained Amundsen and Burton formations were deposited. The overlying Cook Formation consists of four sandstone tongues, each of which is characterized by a lower zone of sharp-based, upward-coarsening, thinly bedded shoreface sandstones and siltstones (reflecting forced regression during falling relative sea level) and an erosively based upper zone of thin tidal flat and thick deltaic/estuarine sandstones (reflecting lowstand incision, as well as initial progradation and subsequent transgressive backfill of estuaries during relative sea level rise). The Drake Formation shales were deposited during continued relative sea level rise. Several types of erosional surfaces are recognized within the studied succession: (1) sequence boundaries occur at the base of the Johansen Formation and within the Cook Formation, and represent the bottoms of incised valleys that truncate the underlying shoreface deposits; (2) regressive surfaces of marine erosion occur at the base of Cook Formation units and truncate the underlying Burton and Drake shales, siltstones, and mudstones; (3) transgressive tidal channel (tidal ravinement) surfaces within the Cook Formation underlie the estuarine sandstones of the incised valley fills; (4) wave ravinement surfaces truncate the tops of estuarine sandstones and are overlain by thin transgressive lags that grade upward into the overlying black shales.

  1. Discovery of a Late Devonian magmatic arc in the southern Lancangjiang zone, western Yunnan: Geochemical and zircon U-Pb geochronological constraints on the evolution of Tethyan ocean basins in SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Xiaomei; Feng, Qinglai; Metcalfe, Ian; Baxter, Alan T.; Liu, Guichun

    2016-03-01

    The Tibetan Plateau and western Yunnan are known to have formed by the amalgamation of Gondwana-derived continental blocks and arc terranes as a result of Tethyan subduction followed by continental collisions during the Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic. The Devonian and the southern Lancangjiang zone, western Yunnan is a critical period and key region for studying the transformation between the "Proto-Tethyan" and Paleo-Tethyan oceanic systems. New geochemical data and LA-ICPMS U-Pb zircon ages of the Late Devonian volcanogenic sediments from the southern Lancangjiang zone in western Yunnan, SW China, are presented. The studied sedimentary rocks of the Nanguang Formation are volcaniclastic rocks with high volcanic lithic content (55-65%, mostly andesite, dacite, with some rhyolite and tuffs). Whole rock geochemistry, zircon trace elements and detrital modal analyses indicate derivation from a subduction-related magmatic arc. Three tuff samples yield Late Devonian weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 378 ± 4 Ma, 366 ± 5 Ma and 382 ± 8 Ma, suggesting a Late Devonian depositional age. 104 zircon U-Pb analyses on 104 zircon grains from two sandstone samples present extremely tight age clusters, mostly ranging from 380 Ma to 360 Ma. This indicates a single Late Devonian igneous source. A short transport distance and a high rate of denudation and deposition within an arc-related basin are considered likely for the tuffs and volcaniclastic rocks in this study. This implies the presence of an as yet unidentified Late Devonian magmatic arc in the southern Lancangjiang zone. The cryptic Late Devonian arc is likely to represent either a continuation of Late Ordovician-Late Silurian "Proto-Tethyan" subduction or the initial stage of the Paleo-Tethyan Lincang Arc and indicates that subduction of the Changning-Menglian ocean beneath the Simao/Indochina Block occurred in the Late Devonian.

  2. Petrographic study of the Miocene-Pleistocene sandstones in the Western Foothills, southern Taiwan: implication for the unroofing history of Taiwan orogenic belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syu, Shih-Jie

    2017-04-01

    Petrographic study of foreland basin deposits provides a record of unroofing history for the orogenic belt in Taiwan since late Miocene. In this study, we analyze sandstone petrography and quartz grain shape to discuss the source provenance and orogenic exhumation history of the southern Taiwan. Results of sandstone composition indicate that Miocene sandstones contain abundant monocrystalline quartz with minor feldspar, most probably supplied from Eurasian continent. The late Pliocene-early Pleistocene (3.6-2.5 Ma) sandstone contains lithic fragments which consist dominantly of sandstone fragments (12%). It suggests that the sediments were derived from sedimentary provenance of the orogenic belt (Miocene strata). The early Pleistocene (2.5-1.2 Ma) sandstone consists of sandstone (8%), metasandstone (8%), and argillite (14%) fragments (Oligocene strata), which were derived mainly from low-grade metamorphic provenance (Hsuehshan Range). Since the middle Pleistocene (<1.2 Ma), sandstone is composed of large amount lithic fragments of sandstone (2%), metasandstone (5%), argillite (7%), quartzite (20%), and slate (20%) fragments, which were derived from the Central Range (Hsuehshan and Backbone Ranges). The shape of particle indicates the useful information of their transport distance and degree of erosion. Therefore, we use monocrystalline quartz to analyze their sphericity. Results of morphological analysis show the best circularity in the late Pliocene strata with the emergence of sedimentary lithic (sandstone) fragments. In contrast, the Pleistocene strata had become less circularity and enriched in metamorphic lithic fragments. We can realize that circularity became much better is related to reworked undiagenesis sediments from top of orogenic belt. The sequential change of petrography indicates the unroofing of Taiwan orogenic belt, whereas the exhumation history is revealed significant changes from undiagenesis sediments to metamorphic provenance since Pliocene.

  3. Upper Paleozoic oceanic crust in the Polish Sudetes: NdSr isotope and trace element evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pin, C.; Majerowicz, A.; Wojciechowska, I.

    1988-03-01

    The two main mafic-ultramafic complexes outcropping in the Polish Sudetes around the Sowie Góry high-grade massif (Mt. Sleza and Nowa Ruda) have been studied for trace elements and NdSr isotopes. Upper Paleozoic SmNd whole-rock isochron ages are obtained for both massifs: 353 ± 21 Ma (2σ) with ɛi = + 8.8 ± 0.1 (Mt. Sleza) and 351 ± 16 Ma with ɛi = 8.5 ± 0.1 (Nowa Ruda). The high initial ɛNd point to a source characterized by a strong time-integrated LREE depletion and, along with incompatible trace-element patterns, they substantiate the oceanic derivation of these massifs. Although a subduction-related marginal basin setting cannot be totally precluded, trace-element and isotopic data rather suggest a normal mid-ocean ridge origin for the Sudetic ophiolites. While these results are in marked contrast with previously inferred Precambrian or early Paleozoic ages, remnants of oceanic crust as young as the Early Carboniferous are consistent with the local sedimentary record of pelagic facies from the Frasnian to the Tournaisian, and they may provide a suitable explanation for the contrasted evolution displayed by different domains of the Sudetes. The Sudetic ophiolites might tentatively be correlated with the upper Paleozoic "prasinites" of the Saxon Lineament if a Late Hercynian ca. 150 km dextral offset is assumed along the Elbe Fracture. In that case, they might represent the latest-stage remnants of an oceanic suture zone between the Saxo-Thuringian and Moldanubian zones. Together with several other examples throughout Europe, these ophiolites provide compelling evidence for the involvement of oceanic crust and plate-tectonic processes in the Variscan belt.

  4. Do Low 15N Values in Paleozoic Epeiric Basins Indicate High Rates of N Fixation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuite, M. L.; Macko, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    As a consequence of the high energetic requirements of dinitrogen (N2) fixation, organic N produced by diazotrophic microorganisms typically exhibits δ15N values similar to atmospheric N2 (approximately 0%). Because the δ15N of organic-rich Paleozoic epeiric basin sediments often has values in the vicinity of 0%, it is frequently asserted that N2 fixation was the primary source of new reactive N for productivity. There are two broad reasons why recourse to widespread and intensive N fixation as the primary source of the organic N is problematic. First, there are substantial physiological and ecological constraints on marine N fixation that limit its extent in modern oceans primarily to open ocean basins. Second, preservation of an unaltered isotopic signature of diazotrophy in underlying sediments is not a likely outcome of oxic and anoxic diagenetic alteration and repeated cycles of mineralization and assimilation. Constraining the sources of reactive N for primary productivity is critical to understanding the N cycle in Paleozoic epeiric seas. In this study we report δ15N values from high organic matter Middle Ordovician through Late Devonian dysoxic and euxinic basinal sediments. We propose a nitrogen isotope mass balance model that incorporates the microbial ecology of a stratified water column and the biochemical stoichiometry of primary production and organic matter diagenesis. Results from the model support our contention that high rates of N fixation over extended time periods were not the cause of depleted nitrogen isotope values in organic-rich Paleozoic basinal sediments. Rather, the depleted values were a consequence of a diminished role for nitrification and subsequent N loss via denitrification and anammox, and the preferential preservation of a substantially 15N-depleted chlorophyll-influenced lipid fraction. The model may be applicable to earlier and later geological periods where high organic matter sediments feature depleted δ15N values.

  5. Microstructure of deformed graywacke sandstones

    SciTech Connect

    Dengler, L.A.

    1980-03-05

    Microsctures in low-permeability graywacke sandstones were studied by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM specimens were prepared by ion-bombardment of thick polished samples. The undeformed rock contains grains in a matrix composed primarily of authigenic chlorite and kaolinite. Chlorite platelets are randomly arranged in face-to-edge relation to one another. Kaolinite occurs as pseudohexagonal crystals stacked face-to-face in pore filling books. Uniaxial-stress experiments covered a range of confining pressures from .1 to 600 MPa. Below 50 MPa confining pressure, intergranular fracturing occurs within the fault zone and near the sample's cylindrical surface. Between 100 and 300 MPa confining pressure, fault zones contain highly fractured grains, gauge and slickensides on grain surfaces. At 600 MPa, the sample contains a diffuse shear zone of highly fractured grains and no well-defined fault. In all samples, the distribution of microcracks is heterogeneous. Different clay minerals exhibit different modes of deformation. Chlorite structure responds to applied stress by compaction, reducing both pore size and volume. Chlorite platelets are plastically deformed in even the least strained samples. Kaolinite does not deform plastically in any of the samples examined. Deformation of kaolinite is restricted to toppling of the book structure. Dilatant crack growth was studied in two samples unloaded prior to failure. Uniaxially-strained samples deform primarily along grain boundaries, producing intergranular cracks and realignment of chlorite platelets. Intragranular crack density is linearly related to axial-strain, although grains are less fractured than in uniaxially-stressed samples tested at equivalent mean pressures. Cracks are rarely longer than a grain diameter. Nuclear-explosively deformed samples were recovered after the Rio Blanco gas stimulation experiment. (JGB)

  6. Petrography and diagenesis of Eagle Mills sandstones, subsurface - Northeast Texas and southwest Arkansas

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, W.C.; Callender, C.A. )

    1991-03-01

    The Eagle Mills Formation (Triassic-Jurassic) has been penetrated by several deep wells (12,000 to 18,000 ft) in northeast Texas and southwest Arkansas. It consists of green, red, and pink conglomeratic lithic arenites and fine- to coarse-grained feldspathic arenites, interbedded with red and greenish gray shales and siltstones. Lithic arenites contain basalt, chert, quartzite, and dolomite rock fragments; plagioclase is the predominant feldspar. All Eagle Mills sandstones have low textural and mineralogic maturities. Eagle Mills red beds and associated intrusive igneous rocks (diabase and basalt dikes and sills) represent the fillings of grabens or rift basins that actively subsided during deposition (in alluvial, fluvial-deltaic, and lacustrine paleoenvironments). Eagle Mills lithic and feldspathic sandstones have undergone a complex diagenetic history, including chlorite cementation (pore linings and pore fillings), compaction, quartz and feldspar overgrowths, dolomite cementation, chloritization and albitization of detrital feldspars, local dissolution of framework grains (igneous lithics and feldspars), precipitation of kaolinite, late Fe-calcite cementation, and saddle dolomite formation. Cement mineralogies are strongly correlative with lithofacies. Lithic sandstones contain the highest frequency of chlorite cements, whereas feldspathic sandstones are preferentially cemented with carbonates and anhydrite; quartz and feldspar overgrowths are ubiquitous. The suite of authigenic minerals in Eagle Mills sandstones records progressive burial into a deep, high-temperature (120-150C), semiclosed, diagenetic regime.

  7. Comparison of composition and texture of calcite-cemented concretions and host sandstones, northern Apennines, Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Cibin, U. . Dept. de Scienze Geologiche); Cavazza, W. . Dept de Scienze Mineralogiche); Fontana, D. . Inst. di Geologia); Milliken, K.L.; McBride, E.F. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-09-01

    Compositional and textural characteristics of 13 calcite-cemented concretions are compared with those in adjacent but essentially uncemented host sandstones to test the belief that concretions better preserve original detrital compositions than do host rocks. Sandstones sampled are from five upper Eocene to Pliocene clastic units deposited in a piggy-back setting and from one Miocene unit in the foreland basin of the northern Apennines. The authors' data indicate that calcite-cemented concretions do not necessarily preserve unstable grains more readily than host sandstones, especially if cementation occurs late in the burial history of the sandstones. In the examined formations the main factors controlling the capability of concretions to preserve unstable framework grains seem to be (1) the types of unstable grains, (2) their susceptibility to dissolution by interstitial fluids or replacement by calcite, (3) burial depth and temperature during and after concretion development, and (4) time. Correct provenance reconstructions of sandstone units containing concretions must be preceded by assessment of any diagenetic alteration affecting the framework grains of both concretions and host rocks.

  8. Isotopic age constraints on provenance of exotic terranes, latest Permian collision and fast Late Triassic post-collisional cooling and tectonic exhumation of the Korean collision belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, Koenraad; Han, Seokyoung; Ruffet, Gilles; Yi, Keewook

    2016-04-01

    The Korean peninsula is located in the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent where major late Palaeozoic to early Mesozoic continental collision zones, like the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and the Central China Orogen, merge with circum-Pacific subduction-accretion systems. We present an integrated view of the Korean collision belt using recent Ar/Ar laser-probe step-heating single grain ages from the uppermost Gyeonggi Massif, central Korea's Palaeoproterozoic high-grade granite-gneiss terrane affected by Permo-Triassic metamorphism, the bordering Hongseong zone and the overlying Imjingang belt and the correlative Taean Formation, as well as SHRIMP isotopic ages of detrital zircons from meta-sandstones from the latter metamorphic marine turbidite sequences. We show that early Paleozoic isolated exotic terranes form part of the collision belt and were reworked in Permo-Triassic time. Age spectra of zircons from mature meta-sandstones in the Misan Formation (Imjingang Belt) and Taean Formation do not match the age distribution of the Gyeonggi Massif, to which both are usually assigned, as they show only subordinate 1.9-1.8 Ga and ~2.5 Ga age modes but dominant 441-426 Ma and 978-919 Ma peaks. Much of the sediment appears to have been derived from distant, exotic middle Paleozoic and Early Neoproterozoic magmatic sources, not present in Gyeonggi or other Korean basement massifs. The youngest concordant zircon ages are: 394, 398 and 402 Ma, showing that both formations are at least of Early Devonian age. Terranes with a substratum with Early Neoproterozoic and Silurian-Devonian granitoids are present in the South Chinese Cathaysia Terrane and in the Qinling Terrane (Central China Orogen). Both formations may, hence, represent the submarine fan part of a routing system and a delta-shelf system originally situated in China. The Taean Formation and Imjingang Belt are thus exotic Paleozoic terranes tectonically emplaced in the Korean collision belt. Muscovite, biotite

  9. Geological investigations of pre-late Jurassic terranes in the southernmost Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsythe, R. D.

    Pre-Late Jurassic terranes of the Patagonian Archipelago were investigated. Their regional stratigraphic and structural characteristics were surveyed. Their significance in the late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic evolution of South America were determined. Pre-Late Jurassic rocks within the archipelago are distributed in two belts. Within the outer belt the Madre de Dios Archipielago was studied in detail. Pre-Late Jurassic rocks of this area are divisible into three mappable units. These three units are interpreted to be part of a late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic accretionary prism that was located along the ancestral Pacific margin of the South American sector of Gondwana. Within the inner belt, the region of Peninsula Staines was studied in detail. In this region greenschist facies metamorphism and pervasive deformation fabrics prevent stratigraphic subdivision of the terrane. However the lithologies present are correlative with the outer belt suggesting that they also were part of the late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic accretionary prism.

  10. Interpreting Fracture Patterns in Sandstones Interbedded with Ductile Strata at the Salt Valley Anticline, Arches National Park, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    LORENZ, JOHN C.; COOPER, SCOTT P.

    2001-12-01

    Sandstones that overlie or that are interbedded with evaporitic or other ductile strata commonly contain numerous localized domains of fractures, each covering an area of a few square miles. Fractures within the Entrada Sandstone at the Salt Valley Anticline are associated with salt mobility within the underlying Paradox Formation. The fracture relationships observed at Salt Valley (along with examples from Paleozoic strata at the southern edge of the Holbrook basin in northeastern Arizona, and sandstones of the Frontier Formation along the western edge of the Green River basin in southwestern Wyoming), show that although each fracture domain may contain consistently oriented fractures, the orientations and patterns of the fractures vary considerably from domain to domain. Most of the fracture patterns in the brittle sandstones are related to local stresses created by subtle, irregular flexures resulting from mobility of the associated, interbedded ductile strata (halite or shale). Sequential episodes of evaporite dissolution and/or mobility in different directions can result in multiple, superimposed fracture sets in the associated sandstones. Multiple sets of superimposed fractures create reservoir-quality fracture interconnectivity within restricted localities of a formation. However, it is difficult to predict the orientations and characteristics of this type of fracturing in the subsurface. This is primarily because the orientations and characteristics of these fractures typically have little relationship to the regional tectonic stresses that might be used to predict fracture characteristics prior to drilling. Nevertheless, the high probability of numerous, intersecting fractures in such settings attests to the importance of determining fracture orientations in these types of fractured reservoirs.

  11. /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar age of detrital muscovite within Lower Ordovician sandstone in the coastal plain basement of Florida: implications for west African terrane linkages

    SciTech Connect

    Dallmeyer, R.D.

    1987-11-01

    Detrital muscovite was concentrated from a core of Lower Ordovician sandstone recovered from 1282 m in the Sun Oil Company, H.T. Parker No.1 well, Marion County, Florida. The concentrate records a /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar plateau age of 504.1 +/- 2.1 Ma. The Paleozoic sedimentary section penetrated in this well is part of an extensive subsurface Lower Ordovician-Middle Devonian sedimentary succession characterized by Gondwanan paleontological affinities. The succession has been correlated with sequences of similar age in the Bove Basin of west Africa which unconformably overlie metamorphic units of the Bassaride and Rokelide orogens in Senegal and Guinea. Muscovite within these metamorphic rocks records ca. 500-510 Ma postmetamorphic /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar cooling ages and was likely a proximal source for the lower Paleozoic clastic detritus represented in the pre-Mesozoic sedimentary sequences beneath the southeastern US coastal plain.

  12. Upper cretaceous to paleocene depositional sequences and sandstone petrography of southwestern Patagonia (Argentina and Chile)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macellari, C. E.; Barrio, C. A.; Manassero, M. J.

    Upper Cretaceous to Paleocene strata exposed along the Andean margin of Patagonia south of 50°S were deposited in a foreland basin and comprise a complex transition from continental to marine facies. Three unconformity-bounded sequences are observed within the sedimentary succession studied. Sequence 1 (upper Campanian) displays a rapid north-to-south transition from upper delta plain mudstones (Cerro Fortaleza Formation) through lower delta plain and subaqueous delta plain sandstones (La Anita Formation) to delta-slope and basinal turbidites (Alta Vista and Tres Pasos Formations). Sequence 2 (Maastrichtian-Paleocene) was initiated with braided river sediments (La Irene Formation), deposited over a Type II unconformity ( sensu Vail et al., 1984). These rocks are overlain by meandering fluvial sandstones and mudstones (Chorrillo Formation) that interfinger to the south with fossiliferous shallow marine sandstones (upper Cerro Cazador Formation). Sequence 3 (Paleocene) is composed of shallow marine conglomerates and crossbedded sandstones (Calafate and Cerro Dorotea Formations). These rocks are separated by an angular unconformity from subjacent units. Sandstone petrographic analysis indicates the presence of two main petrofacies within the rocks studied. A quartz-rich petrofacies, present to the north of the basin during late Campanian to early Maastrichtian time, was derived from continental crustal block and recycled orogen sources that were possibly exposed to the northwest of the basin. The second petrofacies (volcanic-rich petrofacies) was restricted to the south of the basin during the late Campanian to early Maastrichtian, but covered the entire area during the late Maastrichtian and Paleocene. These sediments were derived from a dissected magmatic arc located to the west of the study area. The presence of abundant tuffaceous intercalations, as well as fresh andesitic fragments, indicates contemporaneous volcanism near the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. The

  13. Sea level and paleotectonic controls on distribution of reservoir sandstone of Lower Cretaceous Muddy Sandstone, Hilight Field, Powder River basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, D.M.; Gustason, E.R.

    1987-05-01

    To date, over 74 million bbl of oil have been produced from stratigraphic traps at Hilight field. Production is primarily from thin but stratigraphically complex fluvial and shallow marine sandstone of the Lower Cretaceous Muddy Sandstone. The deposition and preservation of these reservoirs were controlled by the interplay between sea level and tectonics. The Muddy Sandstone in Hilight field was deposited during a late Albian sea level rise. It onlaps an erosional surface, developed during the preceding sea level drop, including a dendritic valley system cut deeply into the underlying Skull Creek Shale. In this area, the Muddy consists of four members that are bounded by transgressive disconformities. These members were deposited during stillstands in the overall rise of sea level. The lower two members consist of fluvial and fluvial-estuarine deposits which fill the valley system; the upper two members consist of fluvial-deltaic and barrier island deposits. Three northeast-trending lineaments transect Hilight field. These lineaments are interpreted to represent basement faults that experienced recurrent movement during Muddy deposition. Relative structural downdrop controlled the orientation of drainages that cut the Hilight valley system. Recurrent movement provided structural and topographic lows within which relatively thick fluvial-deltaic and barrier island sandstones were deposited and preserved. Thinner sequences were deposited and subsequently eroded on adjacent structural and topographic highs.

  14. Evidence of multi-stage faulting by clay mineral analysis: Example in a normal fault zone affecting arkosic sandstones (Annot sandstones)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buatier, Martine D.; Cavailhes, Thibault; Charpentier, Delphine; Lerat, Jérémy; Sizun, Jean Pierre; Labaume, Pierre; Gout, Claude

    2015-06-01

    Fault affecting silicoclastic sediments are commonly enriched in clay minerals. Clays are sensitive to fluid-rock interactions and deformation mechanisms; in this paper, they are used as proxy for fault activity and behavior. The present study focuses on clay mineral assemblages from the Point Vert normal fault zone located in the Annot sandstones, a Priabonian-Rupelian turbidite succession of the Alpine foredeep in SE France. In this area, the Annot sandstones were buried around 6-8 km below the front of Alpine nappes soon after their deposition and exhumed during the middle-late Miocene. The fault affects arkosic sandstone beds alternating with pelitic layers, and displays throw of about thirty meters. The fault core zone comprises intensely foliated sandstones bounding a corridor of gouge about 20 cm thick. The foliated sandstones display clay concentration along S-C structures characterized by dissolution of K-feldspar and their replacement by mica, associated with quartz pressure solution, intense microfracturation and quartz vein precipitation. The gouge is formed by a clayey matrix containing fragments of foliated sandstones and pelites. However, a detailed petrographical investigation suggests complex polyphase deformation processes. Optical and SEM observations show that the clay minerals fraction of all studied rocks (pelites and sandstones from the damage and core zones of the fault) is dominated by white micas and chlorite. These minerals have two different origins: detrital and newly-formed. Detrital micas are identified by their larger shape and their chemical composition with a lower Fe-Mg content than the newly-formed white micas. In the foliated sandstones, newly-formed white micas are concentrated along S-C structures or replace K-feldspar. Both types of newly formed micas display the same chemical composition confirmed microstructural observations suggesting that they formed in the same conditions. They have the following structural formulas: Na0

  15. Post-Paleozoic crinoid radiation in response to benthic predation preceded the Mesozoic marine revolution

    PubMed Central

    Baumiller, Tomasz K.; Salamon, Mariusz A.; Gorzelak, Przemysław; Mooi, Rich; Messing, Charles G.; Gahn, Forest J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been argued that increases in predation over geological time should result in increases in defensive adaptations in prey taxa. Recent in situ and laboratory observations indicate that cidaroid sea urchins feed on live stalked crinoids, leaving distinct bite marks on their skeletal elements. Similar bite marks on fossil crinoids from Poland strongly suggest that these animals have been subject to echinoid predation since the Triassic. Following their near-demise during the end-Permian extinction, crinoids underwent a major evolutionary radiation during the Middle–Late Triassic that produced distinct morphological and behavioral novelties, particularly motile taxa that contrasted strongly with the predominantly sessile Paleozoic crinoid faunas. We suggest that the appearance and subsequent evolutionary success of motile crinoids were related to benthic predation by post-Paleozoic echinoids with their stronger and more active feeding apparatus and that, in the case of crinoids, the predation-driven Mesozoic marine revolution started earlier than in other groups, perhaps soon after the end-Permian extinction. PMID:20231453

  16. Post-Paleozoic crinoid radiation in response to benthic predation preceded the Mesozoic marine revolution.

    PubMed

    Baumiller, Tomasz K; Salamon, Mariusz A; Gorzelak, Przemyslaw; Mooi, Rich; Messing, Charles G; Gahn, Forest J

    2010-03-30

    It has been argued that increases in predation over geological time should result in increases in defensive adaptations in prey taxa. Recent in situ and laboratory observations indicate that cidaroid sea urchins feed on live stalked crinoids, leaving distinct bite marks on their skeletal elements. Similar bite marks on fossil crinoids from Poland strongly suggest that these animals have been subject to echinoid predation since the Triassic. Following their near-demise during the end-Permian extinction, crinoids underwent a major evolutionary radiation during the Middle-Late Triassic that produced distinct morphological and behavioral novelties, particularly motile taxa that contrasted strongly with the predominantly sessile Paleozoic crinoid faunas. We suggest that the appearance and subsequent evolutionary success of motile crinoids were related to benthic predation by post-Paleozoic echinoids with their stronger and more active feeding apparatus and that, in the case of crinoids, the predation-driven Mesozoic marine revolution started earlier than in other groups, perhaps soon after the end-Permian extinction.

  17. A comparative study of diversification events: the early Paleozoic versus the Mesozoic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erwin, D. H.; Valentine, J. W.; Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1987-01-01

    We compare two major long-term diversifications of marine animal families that began during periods of low diversity but produced strikingly different numbers of phyla, classes, and orders. The first is the early-Paleozoic diversification (late Vendian-Ordovician; 182 MY duration) and the other the Mesozoic phase of the post-Paleozoic diversification (183 MY duration). The earlier diversification was associated with a great burst of morphological invention producing many phyla, classes, and orders and displaying high per taxon rates of family origination. The later diversification lacked novel morphologies recognized as phyla and classes, produced fewer orders, and displayed lower per taxon rates of family appearances. The chief difference between the diversifications appears to be that the earlier one proceeded from relatively narrow portions of adaptive space, whereas the latter proceeded from species widely scattered among adaptive zones and representing a variety of body plans. This difference is believed to explain the major differences in the products of these great radiations. Our data support those models that hold that evolutionary opportunity is a major factor in the outcome of evolutionary processes.

  18. A comparative study of diversification events: the early Paleozoic versus the Mesozoic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erwin, D. H.; Valentine, J. W.; Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1987-01-01

    We compare two major long-term diversifications of marine animal families that began during periods of low diversity but produced strikingly different numbers of phyla, classes, and orders. The first is the early-Paleozoic diversification (late Vendian-Ordovician; 182 MY duration) and the other the Mesozoic phase of the post-Paleozoic diversification (183 MY duration). The earlier diversification was associated with a great burst of morphological invention producing many phyla, classes, and orders and displaying high per taxon rates of family origination. The later diversification lacked novel morphologies recognized as phyla and classes, produced fewer orders, and displayed lower per taxon rates of family appearances. The chief difference between the diversifications appears to be that the earlier one proceeded from relatively narrow portions of adaptive space, whereas the latter proceeded from species widely scattered among adaptive zones and representing a variety of body plans. This difference is believed to explain the major differences in the products of these great radiations. Our data support those models that hold that evolutionary opportunity is a major factor in the outcome of evolutionary processes.

  19. Fold deformations of the paleozoic basement roof in the Chunkurchak Trough, Kyrgyz Ala-Too Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przhiyalgovskii, E. S.; Lavrushina, E. V.

    2017-07-01

    A structural-geological study has been performed on the northern slope of the Kyrgyz Ala-Too Range. Deformations of the peneplaned Paleozoic basement surface, structures of granite disintegration, and morphostructural manifestation of Late Cenozoic tectonic movements have been investigated. Based on the location of pre-Paleocene peneplain remnants with the retained weathering mantle partly overlapped by Paleocene-Miocene sedimentary complexes, we have reconstructed the morphology of the folded surface of the Chunkurchak Trough separated from the Chu Basin at the early Miocene. The dome-fold forms, the morphology and arrangement of which are controlled by disintegration of the basement, have been described for the basement surface. It has been established that granites are broken by systems of steeply dipping, fanshaped, and gently dipping faults and fractures. Variously oriented insignificant offsets along slickensides, as well as displacements deduced from the geometry of fracture intersections, are a result of volumetric cataclastic flow of rocks. The tectonic mobility of disintegrated granites, which are abundant in the Paleozoic-Precambrian basement, explains the complexity and scale of tectonic processes initiated by Cenozoic activation. In paleotectonic reconstructions, which take into consideration tectonic flow and the redistribution of basement masses, the estimates of Cenozoic relative rapprochement of the Chu Basin and the Kyrgyz Ala-Too Range decrease substantially to 4-6 km.

  20. New Perspectives on the Old Red Sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miall, Andrew D.

    The Old Red Sandstone is amongst the most distinctive and well-known stratigraphic units in the British Isles. It is mainly of Devonian age; in fact, its lower boundary was used to define the base of the Devonian until relatively recently and it was called "Old" back in the nineteenth century to distinguish it from a superficially similar succession of Triassic age named the New Red Sandstone. The Old Red Sandstone has long been known to be a non-marine syntectonic to post-tectonic deposit associated with the Caledonian Orogeny One of the most famous outcrops of the red sandstone is at Siccar Point in northeast England at one of several outcrops named "Hutton's unconformity" where it lies, with marked angularity on Silurian lithic sandstones and shales. It was at these outcrops, toward the end of the eigthteenth century that James Hutton first came to understand the meaning of angular unconformities as structures representing vast amounts of missing time during which major upheavals of the Earth's crust occurred.

  1. Artesian pressures and water quality in Paleozoic aquifers in the Ten Sleep area of the Bighorn Basin, north-central Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Major Paleozoic artesian aquifers in the southeastern Bighorn Basin of Wyoming area, in descending order, the Tensleep Sandstone; the Madison Limestone and Bighorn Dolomite, which together form the Madison-Bighorn aquifer; and the Flathead Sandstone. Operating yields commonly are more than 1,000 gallons per minute from flowing wells completed in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer. The initial test of one well indicated a flow of 14,000 gallons per minute. Wellhead pressures range from less than 50 to more than 400 pounds per square inch. Transmissivities are 500-1,900 feet squared per day for the Madison-Bighorn aquifer and 90-325 feet squared per day for the Tensleep and Flathead Sandstones. Despite extensive development for irrigation there have been few decreases in pressure. Some decreases in pressure have occurred in wells completed in the Flathead Sandstone. Fractures along linear structural features result in significant secondary permeability and allow upward interformational movement of water that affects the altitude of the potentiometric surfaces in the Tensleep Sandstone and Madison-Bighorn aquifer. Upward-moving water from the Tensleep and other formations discharges at the land surface as springs along or near these lineations. Water from the aquifers generally contains minimal concentrations of dissolved solids and individual constituents but has excessive hardness. The water is satisfactory for irrigation and other purposes when hardness is not a detrimental factor. Wellhead temperatures range from 11 degrees to 27.5 degrees C, giving a geothermal gradient of about 0.44 degrees C per 100 feet. (USGS)

  2. Chlorites in reservoir sandstones of the Guadalupian Delaware Mountain Group

    SciTech Connect

    Walling, S.D. )

    1992-04-01

    Late-stage authigenic clay minerals are pervasive in the very fine-grained, subarkosic sandstones of the Guadalupian Delaware Mountain Group, comprising up to 10% of the bulk rock. Thus, reservoir rock properties are influenced by these minerals. Samples selected from cored intervals, ranging from 600 to 2500 m, were studied using optical and electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction methods to determine the distribution and nature of occurrence of the authigenic clay minerals. In thin sections, the clay minerals are recognizable as grain coatings, with thickness varying from a few micrometers to tens of micrometers. A correlation between the morphology and the amount of interstratification has been observed, with more interstratification corresponding to the formless chlorite variety. The structural and morphological evidence suggests that the chlorites represent different stages of development, possibly evolving from a smectite component through an interstratified intermediate, to a more well-ordered form. There appears to be no systematic trends vertically or laterally in clay mineralogy. The importance of understanding the clay mineralogy and chemistry in these sandstones is evident when considering enhanced recovery procedures. Different clay structures and chemistries may respond differently to production and stimulation techniques. The proposed chlorite diagenetic sequence suggests that drastic changes in borehole fluid chemistry may cause retrogression of chlorite to some expansive forms, which may be water sensitive or inclined to migration.

  3. Volcanic Debris Flows of the Latest Paleozoic Arbasay Formation: Geomorphological Characters and Paleoenvironment Reconstruction of Northern Tian Shan, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W.; Liu, D.; Guo, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Texturally well-preserved volcanic debris flows (also called lahars) are exposed in the Latest Paleozoic Arbasay Formation, Northern Tian Shan. LA-ICP-MS zircon dating of the intercalated fallout tuff sample provided an age of 314.4±3.4 Ma (MSWD=1.6), suggesting they were deposited at Latest Carboniferous. The lahars consist primarily of two lithofacies: massive, poorly lithified diamictites and stratified, moderately lithified gravelly sandstones. The diamictites can be generally divided into two subfacies, i.e., the matrix-supported and the clast-supported diamictites. Most diamictites are structureless and nongraded. They are thick in beds and contain large clasts up to 3 m in dimension. The gravelly sandstones display much finer particle size and have wedge or lenticular geometries. Large clasts are absent within them and the sorting characters are much better than the diamictites. Despite the different size grading, the matrix and the clasts of the two lithofacies appear to be homogeneous. The matrix is generally sandy mudstone. The clasts comprise rhyolites, dacites, andesites, andesitic basalts and basalts, same to the co-existing volcanic rocks, suggesting they originate from the cognate volcanics. The disorganized diamictites are supposed to deposit from a turbulent flood or pyroclastic surge. The gravelly sandstone lithofacies are interpreted as sand-rich flood flows or hyperconcentrated flood flows during the waning stage of a mass-flow event. The overall characteristics of the deposits suggest a mass-flow dominated alluvial fan environment. It's noteable that several syn- sedimentary normal faults occurred within these lahar deposits, indicating that the Southern Junggar Basin was in an extensional regime during the lahars' deposition. Structure is dominated by normal faulting, allowing the existence of relatively small, highly compartmentalized depocenters. This is also supported by geochemistry and detrital zircon studies.

  4. Indirect Estimations of Frictional Coefficients of Fractures in Sandstones for Analysis of Injection Induced Microseismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Y.; Chang, C.; Koh, H. J.

    2014-12-01

    The frictional coefficient of fractures, a fundamental parameter needed to analyze a variety of geomechanical problems for microseismicity, is normally determined from laboratory shear tests. However, recovered rock cores are rarely available because of difficulties and high cost in getting undisturbed core samples. In that case, the frictional coefficient should be either assumed or estimated indirectly. We investigate the frictional property of fractures of various sandstones in laboratory tests and attempt to correlate that with other properties measureable relatively readily even without cores. We use various sandstones obtained from different depths of a 1 km deep borehole drilled for coal bed methane development in a Paleozoic sedimentary basin, South Korea. The sandstones have various physical properties (e.g. P-wave velocity (VP) of 2253-5038 m/s) and chemical compositions in terms of clay content (5-31%). We conduct direct shear tests in an artificial saw-cut fracture in the sandstones and determined frictional coefficients in a range of 0.36-0.57. The frictional coefficients have an inverse-linear correlation with clay contents measured from XRD analysis. These results are also quite consistent with those from previous clay gouge experiments (Takahashi et al., 2007; Tembe et al., 2010; Kohli & Zoback, 2013). They also have a linear correlation with VP. Our study demonstrates that frictional coefficients can be estimated empirically from such properties. To check feasibility of such an approach, we apply the obtained empirical relation to the borehole where cores were recovered. The clay contents in sandstone formations are estimated from the borehole gamma ray log calibrated using the XRD clay content data. Clay content estimated from gamma ray varies significantly with depth in a range of 0-45%. This range of clay content corresponds to frictional coefficients of 0.25-0.58. Comparison between estimated and measured frictional coefficients shows a

  5. Origin of northern Gondwana Cambrian sandstone revealed by detrital zircon SHRIMP dating

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Avigad, D.; Kolodner, K.; McWilliams, M.; Persing, H.; Weissbrod, T.

    2003-01-01

    Voluminous Paleozoic sandstone sequences were deposited in northern Africa and Arabia following an extended Neoproterozoic orogenic cycle that culminated in the assembly of Gondwana. We measured sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb ages of detrital zircons separated from several Cambrian units in the Elat area of southern Israel in order to unravel their provenance. This sandstone forms the base of the widespread siliciclastic section now exposed on the periphery of the Arabian-Nubian shield in northeastern Africa and Arabia. Most of the detrital zircons we analyzed yielded Neoproterozoic concordant ages with a marked concentration at 0.55–0.65 Ga. The most likely provenance of the Neoproterozoic detritus is the Arabian-Nubian shield; 0.55–0.65 Ga was a time of posttectonic igneous activity, rift-related volcanism, and strike-slip faulting there. Of the zircons, 30% yielded pre-Neoproterozoic ages grouped at 0.9–1.1 Ga (Kibaran), 1.65–1.85 Ga, and 2.45–2.7 Ga. The majority of the pre-Neoproterozoic zircons underwent Pb loss, possibly as a consequence of the Pan-African orogeny resetting their provenance. Rocks of the Saharan metacraton and the southern Afif terrane in Saudi Arabia (∼1000 km south of Elat) are plausible sources of these zircons. Kibaran basement rocks are currently exposed more than 3000 km south of Elat (flanking the Mozambique belt), but the shape of the detrital zircons of that age and the presence of feldspar in the host sandstone are not fully consistent with such a long-distance transport. Reworking of Neoproteorozoic glacial detritus may explain the presence of Kibaran detrital zircons in the Cambrian of Elat, but the possibility that the Arabian-Nubian shield contains Kibaran rocks (hitherto not recognized) should also be explored.

  6. Sandstone geometry, porosity and permeability distribution, and fluid migration in eolian system reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lupe, Robert; Ahlbrandt, Thomas S.

    1975-01-01

    Upper Paleozoic to Mesozoic eolian blanket sandstones of the Colorado Plateau and the Rocky Mountains of Colorado and southern Wyoming are texturally complex. As petroleum reservoirs they commonly have poor performance histories. They contain the sediments of a depositional system comprised of three closely associated depositional subenvironments: dune, interdune, and extradune. Sediments of each subenvironment have different textural properties which resulted from different depositional processes. Dune sediments are usually more porous and permeable than interdune or extradune sediments and may be better quality reservoirs than interdune or extradune sediments. Interdune sediments are here restricted to those nondune sediments deposited in the relatively flat areas between dunes. Extradune sediments (a new term) include all deposits adjacent to a dune field and are mainly subaqueous deposits. Dune sediments may be enveloped by extradune sediments as the depositional system evolves resulting in a texturally inhomogeneous reservoir having poor fluid migration properties. This model of textural inhomogeneity in eolian blanket sandstones. was applied to the Weber (Tensleep) Sandstone in Brady, Wertz, and Lost Soldier fields, Sweetwater County, Wyoming. Data were obtained from both outcrop and subsurface and included environmental interpretation, textural analysis, and plotting of the distribution of depositional subenvironments. As predicted from the model, the texture of dune sediments in Brady field differed markedly from interdune and extradune sediments. The predicted geometric distribution of subenvironments was confirmed in Lost Soldier and Wertz fields. However, secondary cementation and fracturing there has obscured the original porosity and permeability contrasts. The porosity and permeability distribution, a characteristic depending partly on depositional processes, could impede fluid migration in the reservoir and significantly reduce recovery of

  7. Dakota sandstone facies, western Oklahoma panhandle

    SciTech Connect

    Atalik, E.; Mansfield, C.F.

    1984-04-01

    The Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone in Cimarron County comprised three sandstone units and intervening mudrocks; it overlies the Kiowa Shale Member of the Purgatoire Formation. Deposits include shoreface, beach (foreshore) and dune, estuarine and tidal channel, marine marginal bay and swamp/marsh in a generally progradational sequences associated with marine regression in the Western Interior. The shoreface sand, characterized by ripple lamination, bioturbation and the trace fossils Teichichnus and Thalassinoides, is fine-grained, 5-10 m (15-30 ft) thick and grades into the underlying Kiowa Shale. Beach and associated dune deposits are 2-5 m (6-16 ft) thick, medium to fine-grained, medium to thick-bedded, tabular-planar cross-bedded, and lenticular; cross-bed paleocurrent headings are northeasterly and northwesterly. Estuarine channel deposits are 3-5 m (10 to 16 ft) thick, trough to tabular-planar cross-bedded, and medium to coarse-grained with local conglomerate overlying the scoured base which commonly cuts into the Kiowa Shale or overlying shoreface sandstone; rip-up clasts and wood pieces are common but trace fossils are rare; southeasterly and southwesterly paleocurrents predominate. Tidal channel deposits are thinner (up to 2 m of 6 ft) and finer grained (medium to fine-grained) that the estuarine channel deposits; they occur within fine-grained sandstone and mudrock sequences, are trough cross-bedded, and commonly contain trace fossils (e.g., Skolithos) and wood fragments. Marine marginal (tidal flat or bay.) deposits comprise fine-grained sandstone, siltstone and interbedded shale, that are 1-3m (3-10 ft) thick with abundant burrows, small ripple marks, and parallel lamination. These grade into the fine to very fine-grained sandstones, siltstones, shales, and coals of the swamp/marsh deposits that are 1-5m (3-16 ft) thick and contain ripple marks, burrows, other trace fossils, and parallel lamination.

  8. Structural styles of Paleozoic intracratonic fault reactivation: A case study of the Grays Point fault zone in southeastern Missouri, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clendenin, C.W.; Diehl, S.F.

    1999-01-01

    A pronounced, subparallel set of northeast-striking faults occurs in southeastern Missouri, but little is known about these faults because of poor exposure. The Commerce fault system is the southernmost exposed fault system in this set and has an ancestry related to Reelfoot rift extension. Recent published work indicates that this fault system has a long history of reactivation. The northeast-striking Grays Point fault zone is a segment of the Commerce fault system and is well exposed along the southeast rim of an inactive quarry. Our mapping shows that the Grays Point fault zone also has a complex history of polyphase reactivation, involving three periods of Paleozoic reactivation that occurred in Late Ordovician, Devonian, and post-Mississippian. Each period is characterized by divergent, right-lateral oblique-slip faulting. Petrographic examination of sidwall rip-out clasts in calcite-filled faults associated with the Grays Point fault zone supports a minimum of three periods of right-lateral oblique-slip. The reported observations imply that a genetic link exists between intracratonic fault reactivation and strain produced by Paleozoic orogenies affecting the eastern margin of Laurentia (North America). Interpretation of this link indicate that right-lateral oblique-slip has occurred on all of the northeast-striking faults in southeastern Missouri as a result of strain influenced by the convergence directions of the different Paleozoic orogenies.

  9. Comparative development of the Western United States and southern Kazakhstan, Soviet Union - Two early Paleozoic carbonate passive margins

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, H.E. ); Taylor, M.E. ); Zhemchuzhnikov, S.V.; Apollonov, M.K.; Ergaliev, G. Kh.; Sargaskaev, Z.S. ); Dubinina, S.V. )

    1991-02-01

    Early Paleozoic passive continental margins of the Western united States and southern Kazakhstan evolved at low latitudes on rifted Precambrian continental crust adjacent to the proto-Pacific Ocean. In the Western United States, early Paleozoic carbonate submarine fans and slides formed on continental slopes in central Nevada. Coeval shoal-water carbonate sediments occurred to the east, in Utah, where they interfingered with siliciclastic sediments and onlapped the craton. In contrast, early Paleozoic carbonate sediments of the Malyi Karatau, southern Kazakhstan, were deposited on isolated microcontinental blocks that developed during Late Proterozoic rifting of the continental crust. Comparison of stratigraphic sections from Nevada and Malyi Karatau indicate a similar upward-shallowing and seaward-prograding evolution. The Hot Creek Range section in Nevada consists of the Upper Cambrian Swarbrick Formation and Tybo Shale, and Upper Cambrian and lowest Ordovician Hales Limestone. These depositional facies include basin plain (about 500 m), carbonate submarine fan and slides (200 m), upperslope (150 m), and platform margin (150 m). The Kyrshabakty and Batyrbay sections in the Malyi Karatau consist of Cambrian and lowest Ordovician rocks of the Shabakty Suite. Stratigraphic sections in both the Western United States and Malyi Karatau record three coeval episodes of sea level lowstands. These lowstands, which the authors interpret to be eustatic, are recognized by times of seaward collapse of large segments of the platform margins and deeper water slopes and by solution breccias and faunal discontinuities in shoal-water platform-interior sites.

  10. Eolian sabkha sandstones in the Nugget Sandstone (Jurassic), Vernal area, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Schenk, C.J.; Peterson, F. )

    1991-06-01

    The Jurassic Nugget Sandstone in the Vernal, Utah, area is characterized by thick (up to 25 m) sets of cross-stratified eolian dune sandstone separated by either erosional planar bounding surfaces or thin (mostly < 3 m) sandstones interpreted as sabkha sandstones. Structures in Nugget sabkha sandstones are predominantly wavy or irregular bedding and thin, remnant sets of dune cross-strata consisting of eolian ripple and avalanche strata. The types of sedimentary structures and erosional features in Nugget sabkha sandstones indicate a close relationship between sand deposition and erosion and fluctuations in the local water table. Thin, remnant eolian dune sets are common in Nugget sabkha sandstones. The remnant sets form when dunes migrating across a sabkha are partially wetted as the water table rises slightly (on a scale of tens of centimeters); the lower part of the dune with wetted sand remains on the sabkha as the rest of the dune continues to migrate. Typically, ripple strata of the dune apron and the toes of avalanche strata are preserved in dune remnants. The avalanche strata, being slightly coarser grained, are preferentially deflated, leaving microtopography. This topography is commonly filled in with ripple strata that form as dry sand again blows across the sabkha. Stacked sets of remnant dunes separated by erosional surfaces illustrate the control of sand deposition on eolian sabkhas by the local water table.

  11. Reconstruction of an early Paleozoic continental margin based on the nature of protoliths in the Nome Complex, Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Till, Alison B.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Ayuso, Robert A.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Amato, Jeffrey M.; Slack, John F.; Shanks, W.C. Pat

    2014-01-01

    The Nome Complex is a large metamorphic unit that sits along the southern boundary of the Arctic Alaska–Chukotka terrane, the largest of several micro continental fragments of uncertain origin located between the Siberian and Laurentian cratons. The Arctic Alaska–Chukotka terrane moved into its present position during the Mesozoic; its Mesozoic and older movements are central to reconstruction of Arctic tectonic history. Accurate representation of the Arctic Alaska–Chukotka terrane in reconstructions of Late Proterozoic and early Paleozoic paleogeography is hampered by the paucity of information available. Most of the Late Proterozoic to Paleozoic rocks in the Alaska–Chukotka terrane were penetratively deformed and recrystallized during the Mesozoic deformational events; primary features and relationships have been obliterated, and age control is sparse. We use a variety of geochemical, geochronologic, paleontologic, and geologic tools to read through penetrative deformation and reconstruct the protolith sequence of part of the Arctic Alaska–Chukotka terrane, the Nome Complex. We confirm that the protoliths of the Nome Complex were part of the same Late Proterozoic to Devonian continental margin as weakly deformed rocks in the southern and central part of the terrane, the Brooks Range. We show that the protoliths of the Nome Complex represent a carbonate platform (and related rocks) that underwent incipient rifting, probably during the Ordovician, and that the carbonate platform was overrun by an influx of siliciclastic detritus during the Devonian. During early phases of the transition to siliciclastic deposition, restricted basins formed that were the site of sedimentary exhalative base-metal sulfide deposition. Finally, we propose that most of the basement on which the largely Paleozoic sedimentary protolith was deposited was subducted during the Mesozoic.

  12. Paleozoic-early Mesozoic gold deposits of the Xinjiang Autonomous Region, northwestern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rui, Z.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Qiu, Y.; Zhou, T.; Chen, R.; Pirajno, F.; Yun, G.

    2002-01-01

    The late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic tectonic evolution of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, northwestern China provided a favorable geological setting for the formation of lode gold deposits along the sutures between a number of the major Eastern Asia cratonic blocks. These sutures are now represented by the Altay Shan, Tian Shan, and Kunlun Shan ranges, with the former two separated by the Junggar basin and the latter two by the immense Tarim basin. In northernmost Xinjiang, final growth of the Altaid orogen, southward from the Angara craton, is now recorded in the remote mid- to late Paleozoic Altay Shan. Accreted Early to Middle Devonian oceanic rock sequences contain typically small, precious-metal bearing Fe-Cu-Zn VMS deposits (e.g. Ashele). Orogenic gold deposits are widespread along the major Irtysh (e.g. Duyolanasayi, Saidi, Taerde, Kabenbulake, Akexike, Shaerbulake) and Tuergen-Hongshanzui (e.g. Hongshanzui) fault systems, as well as in structurally displaced terrane slivers of the western Junggar (e.g. Hatu) and eastern Junggar areas. Geological and geochronological constraints indicate a generally Late Carboniferous to Early Permian episode of gold deposition, which was coeval with the final stages of Altaid magmatism and large-scale, right-lateral translation along older terrane-bounding faults. The Tian Shan, an exceptionally gold-rich mountain range to the west in the Central Asian republics, is only beginning to be recognized for its gold potential in Xinjiang. In this easternmost part to the range, northerly- and southerly-directed subduction/accretion of early to mid-Paleozoic and mid- to late Paleozoic oceanic terranes, respectively, to the Precambrian Yili block (central Tian Shan) was associated with 400 to 250 Ma arc magmatism and Carboniferous through Early Permian gold-forming hydrothermal events. The more significant resulting deposits in the terranes of the southern Tian Shan include the Sawayaerdun orogenic deposit along the Kyrgyzstan border and

  13. Magnetotelluric imaging of a fossil paleozoic intraoceanic subduction zone in western Junggar, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yixian; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Sheng; Liu, Ying; Zhu, Lupei; Huang, Rong; Chen, Chao; Li, Yongtao; Luo, Yinhe

    2016-06-01

    The fate of subducted oceanic slabs can provide important clues to plate reconstruction through Earth history. Since oceanic slabs in continental collision zones are typically not well preserved, ancient subduction zones have rarely been imaged by geophysical techniques. Here we present an exception from the Darbut belt in the Junggar accretionary collage in the southern Altaids of Asia. We deployed a 182 km long magnetotelluric (MT) profile including 60 broadband sounding sites across the belt. Quality off-diagonal impedances were inverted by a three-dimensional scheme to image resistivities beneath the profile. The resistivity model along with MT impedance phase ellipses and induction vectors were tested and interpreted in detail. Combining geological and geophysical observations, mineral physical experiment, and geodynamic modeling results, the MT transect suggests a fossil intraoceanic subduction zone during the Late Paleozoic in the western Junggar that has been well preserved due to lack of significant subsequent tecto-thermal events.

  14. Ground-water conditions in the Navajo Sandstone in the central Virgin River basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cordova, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    The central Virgin River basin, Utah, includes about 1,000 square miles (2,600 square kilometers) in the drainage basin of the Virgin River downstream from the Hurricane Cliffs. The Navajo Sandstone of Late Triassic(?) and Jurassic age crops out in 234 square miles (606 square kilometers) of the basin and underlies younger rocks in about 450 square miles (1,200 square kilometers) of the basin.

  15. Middle Micoene sandstone reservoirs of the Penal/Barrackpore field

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, B.L. )

    1991-03-01

    The Penal/Barrackpore field was discovered in 1938 and is located in the southern subbasin of onshore Trinidad. The accumulation is one of a series of northeast-southwest trending en echelon middle Miocene anticlinal structures that was later accentuated by late Pliocene transpressional folding. Relative movement of the South American and Caribbean plates climaxed in the middle Miocene compressive tectonic event and produced an imbricate pattern of southward-facing basement-involved thrusts. Further compressive interaction between the plates in the late Pliocene produced a transpressive tectonic episode forming northwest-southeast oriented transcurrent faults, tear faults, basement thrust faults, lystric normal faults, and detached simple folds with infrequent diapiric cores. The middle Miocene Herrera and Karamat turbiditic sandstones are the primary reservoir rock in the subsurface anticline of the Penal/Barrackpore field. These turbidites were sourced from the north and deposited within the marls and clays of the Cipero Formation. Miocene and Pliocene deltaics and turbidites succeed the Cipero Formation vertically, lapping into preexisting Miocene highs. The late Pliocene transpression also coincides with the onset of oil migration along faults, diapirs, and unconformities from the Cretaceous Naparima Hill source. The Lengua Formation and the upper Forest clays are considered effective seals. Hydrocarbon trapping is structurally and stratigraphically controlled, with structure being the dominant trapping mechanism. Ultimate recoverable reserves for the field are estimated at 127.9 MMBo and 628.8 bcf. The field is presently owned and operated by the Trinidad and Tobago Oil Company Limited (TRINTOC).

  16. Effect of kaolinite as a key factor controlling the petrophysical properties of the Nubia sandstone in central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassab, Mohamed A.; Abu Hashish, Mohamed F.; Nabawy, Bassem S.; Elnaggar, Osama M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive petrographical and petrophysical investigation for the Late Cretaceous Nubia sandstone from Wadi Kareem in central Eastern Desert to measure their fluid flow properties and to investigate the effect of kaolinite on their petrophysical characteristics. From the petrographical analyses, scanning electron microscope 'SEM' and the X-ray diffraction 'XRD' analysis, it is shown that the studied sandstone samples are quite homogeneous in mineralogy and can be distinguished into four sedimentary microfacies: quartz arenite as a clean sandstone as well as three kaolinitic microfacies; namely they are kaolinitic quartz arenite, kaolinitic subarkose, and calcareous to kaolinitc quartz arenite. The main recognized diagenetic processes that prevailed during the post-depositional history of the Nubia sandstone are; compaction, cementation, alteration and dissolution of feldspar into kaolinite. The petrophysical potentiality of the studied sandstones was studied using the helium pycnometer, gas permeability and mercury injection confining pressure 'MICP' techniques. The investigated sandstones can be classified into three petrophysical facies with varying reservoir performances. The petrophysical behaviour of these facies is dependent mostly on their kaolinite content and its impact on porosity, permeability, irreducible water saturation, R35 (pore aperture corresponding to mercury saturation of 35% pore volume), R50 (median pore-throat radius), and MHR (the mean hydraulic radius). Therefore, the studied petrophysical facies are comparable to the distinguished petrographical facies.

  17. Geochronology, geochemistry and origins of the Paleozoic-Triassic plutons in the Langshan area, western Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zeng-Zhen; Han, Bao-Fu; Feng, Li-Xia; Liu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The Langshan area is the northeastern part of the Alxa block and adjacent to the Inner Mongolia-Da Hinggan Orogenic Belt (IMDOB) to the north, and geochronological and geochemical studies of the Langshan plutons would be helpful for unraveling the relationship of the magmatism in the Langshan area with that in the IMDOB. Based on zircon U-Pb ages presented in this study and in published papers, five magmatic stages are recognized in Langshan area: Late Silurian (∼418 Ma), Carboniferous (328-304 Ma), Early Permian (294-272 Ma), Late Permian (260-254 Ma) and Middle-Late Triassic (245-227 Ma). The Late Silurian two-mica granite is peraluminous and has a source from ancient continental crust, indicating a collision event. The late Early Carboniferous mafic plutons are subalkaline, show appinitic affinities, and may originate from the subduction-modified continental lithospheric mantle. The late Early Permian granodiorite is weakly peraluminous and high-K calc-alkaline and may be derived from ancient continental crust, while the late Early Permian alkaline gabbro-diorite displays EM I-like Sr-Nd isotopic signatures, indicating an enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle source. The Late Permian granodiorite is calc-alkaline and peraluminous and may result from the partial melting of ancient lower continental crust, whereas the Late Permian leuconorite belongs to low-K tholeiitic series and has a cumulate origin from an enriched mantle source with the input of juvenile mantle materials. The Paleozoic-Triassic magmatic stages in the Langshan area are consistent with the main magmatic periods in the northern NCC, which are the Late Silurian to Middle Devonian (∼418-386 Ma) and Early Carboniferous to Late Triassic (∼342-211 Ma, with three magmatic stages of Carboniferous, Permian and Triassic). Especially, the Carboniferous to Late Triassic magmatic period in the northern NCC are closely comparable with that in the IMDOB, indicating the two domains might be

  18. Impact Metamorphism of Sandstones at Amguid Crater, Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoui, R.; Belhai, D.

    2016-08-01

    Amguid is a 450 m diameter sample crater; it is emplaced in Lower Devonian sandstones.We have carried out a petrographic study in order to investigate shock effects recorded in these sandstones and define shock stages in Amguid.

  19. Paleozoic tectonic history of the Arctic basin north of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Churkin, M.

    1969-01-01

    The geology of the margin of the Canada Basin, together with geophysical data, leads me to reject the continental subsidence theory for the origin of the deep Canada Basin. Instead, the Canada Basin is, I believe, a true and probably very ancient ocean basin floored by oceanic crust and rimmed by an early Paleozoic geosynclinal belt. In the Upper Devonian, uplifts in this circumarctic geosyncline, accompanied by granitic intrusion, produced a wedge of coarse clastic sediments (exogeosyncline) that spread southward onto adjoining areas of Alaska, Canada, and Siberia. In both northern Alaska and the Canadian Arctic Islands, thick sequences of upper Paleozoic and younger strata were deposited unconformably on the rocks of the early Paleozoic geosyncline, showing a similarity in tectonic history between the areas. The Paleozoic history of the southern rim of the Canada Basin resembles that of other mobile belts bordering North America. The movement of the floor of the Arctic Ocean against the continental crust of North America (sea-floor spreading) would provide a mechanism to account for the long history of orogenic activity along the basin margin. The sharp bend in the structural elements of southern Alaska (the Alaska orocline) has been cited as evidence of clockwise rotation of the Arctic Islands of Canada from Alaska and the Soviet Arctic to their present position during the Mesozoic. However, the geologic and geophysical evidence available indicates that the Arctic basin has a longer history, extending into the Paleozoic, and that this bend in Alaskan structures may have been largely caused by spreading of the Pacific sea floor against the continental margin in the Gulf of Alaska.

  20. Early Paleozoic tectonic reconstruction of Iran: Tales from detrital zircon geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Hadi Shafaii; Li, Xian-Hua; Griffin, William L.; Stern, Robert J.; Thomsen, Tonny B.; Meinhold, Guido; Aharipour, Reza; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.

    2017-01-01

    In this study we use detrital zircons to probe the Early Paleozoic history of NE Iran and evaluate the link between sediment sources and Gondwanan pre-Cadomian, Cadomian and younger events. U-Pb zircon ages and Hf isotopic compositions are reported for detrital zircons from Ordovician and Early Devonian sedimentary rocks from NE Iran. These clastic rocks are dominated by zircons with major age populations at 2.5 Ga, 0.8-0.6 Ga, 0.5 Ga and 0.5-0.4 Ga as well as a minor broad peak at 1.0 Ga. The source of 2.5 Ga detrital zircons is enigmatic; they may have been supplied from the Saharan Metacraton (or West African Craton) to the southwest or Afghanistan-Tarim to the east. The detrital zircons with age populations at 0.8-0.6 Ga probably originated from Cryogenian-Ediacaran juvenile igneous rocks of the Arabian-Nubian Shield; this inference is supported by their juvenile Hf isotopes, although some negative εHf (t) values suggest that other sources (such as the West African Craton) were also involved. The age peak at ca 0.5 Ga correlates with Cadomian magmatism reported from Iranian basement and elsewhere in north Gondwana. The variable εHf (t) values of Cadomian detrital zircons, resembling the εHf (t) values of zircons in magmatic Cadomian rocks from Iran and Taurides (Turkey), suggest an Andean-type margin and the involvement of reworked older crust in the generation of the magmatic rocks. The youngest age population at 0.5-0.4 Ga is interpreted to represent Gondwana rifting and the opening of Paleotethys, which probably started in Late Cambrian-Ordovician time. A combination of U-Pb dating and Hf-isotope data from Iran, Turkey and North Gondwana confirms that Iran and Turkey were parts of Gondwana at least until late Paleozoic time.

  1. Ouachita-Appalachian juncture: A paleozoic transpressional zone in the Southeastern USA

    SciTech Connect

    Hale-Erlich, W.S.; Coleman, J.L. Jr. )

    1993-04-01

    The northern margin of Gondwana collided with the southern margin of the North American craton in the late Paleozoic (330-265 Ma.). Near-normal compressional stresses, generated where the trend of the North American margin was nearly perpendicular to Gondwana's plate-motion vector (closure direction), caused extensive crustal shortening and decollement thrusting within the sedimentary section. The application and Ouachita fold belts are the erosional remnants of this collision on the North American margin. Transecting the ouachita fold belt are several zones of late Palezoic transcurrent faulting: the Val Verde, Ardmore-Anadarko, and Reelfoot zones. They occur where the precollision margin of the North American craton was oriented oblique of parallel to the closure direction with Gondwana. Stresses generated within these zones during the collision were transpressional rather than simply compressional, and gave rise to high-angle faulting, high-amplitude vertical displacements, and the emplacement of positive flower structures. In the Val Verde and Ardmore-Anadarko basins, these features have proven to be major structural traps for oil and gas. On the basis of seismic and well data, this study identifies a zone of complex structures, including positive flower structures, in the subsurface Paleozoic section of Kemper County in east-central Mississippi. The region is considered to be another transpressional zone analogous to the Val Verde, Armore-Anadarko, and Reelfoot zones. The Kemper County zone separates and truncates the Appalachian Valley and Ridge fold belt to the west and is, therefore, also identified as the juncture between the Ouachita and Appalachian fold-belt systems in the southeastern U.S.A. 81 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Sediment and weathering control on the distribution of Paleozoic magmatic tin-tungsten mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romer, Rolf L.; Kroner, Uwe

    2015-03-01

    The formation of major granite-hosted Sn and/or W deposits and lithium-cesium-tantalum (LCT) type pegmatites in the Acadian, Variscan, and Alleghanian orogenic belts of Europe and Atlantic Northern America involves weathering-related Sn and W enrichment in the sedimentary debris of the Cadomian magmatic arc and melting of these sedimentary source rocks during later tectonic events, followed by magmatic Sn and W enrichment. We suggest that within this, more than 3,000-km long late Paleozoic belt, large Sn and/or W deposits are only found in regions where later redeposition of the Sn-W-enriched weathered sediments, followed by tectonic accumulation, created large volumes of Sn-W-enriched sedimentary rocks. Melting of these packages occurred both during the formation of Pangea, when continental collision subjected these source rocks to high-grade metamorphism and anatexis, and during post-orogenic crustal extension and mantle upwelling. The uncoupling of source enrichment and source melting explains (i) the diachronous occurrence of tin granites and LCT pegmatites in this late Paleozoic orogenic belt, (ii) the occurrence of Sn and/or W mineralizations and LCT pegmatites on both sides of the Rheic suture, and (iii) the contrasting tectonic setting of Sn and/or W mineralizations within this belt. Source enrichment, sedimentary and tectonic accumulation of the source rocks, and heat input to mobilize metals from the source rocks are three unrelated requirements for the formation of Sn and/or W granites. They are the controlling features on the large scale. Whether a particular granite eventually generates a Sn and/or W deposit depends on local conditions related to source melting, melt extraction, and fractionation processes.

  3. Diagenesis and reservoir quality of Paleocoene sandstones in the Kupe South field, Taranaki Basin, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, K.R. ); Baker, J.C. ); Hamilton, P.J. ); Thrasher, G.P. )

    1994-04-01

    The Kupe South field, Taranaki basin, New Zealand is a gas condensate and oil field offshore in the southern Taranaki basin. Its Paleocene reservoir sandstones contain a diagenetic mineral assemblage that records major shifts in pore-water composition during the burial history of the basin. Early calcite formed a shallow burial largely from meteoric depositional pore waters, whereas later chlorite/smectic records the downward passage of marine pore waters into the sandstones from overlying, marine mudrocks prior to significant sandstone compaction during the late Miocene. Late calcite and ferroan carbonates may record the presence of connate meteoric water expelled upward from nonmarine sedimentary rocks of the underyling Cretaceous sequence, whereas later kaolinite and secondary porosity formation are related to localized meteoric influx resulting from late Miocene to early Pliocene uplift and erosion of the reservoir section. Hydrocarbon entrapment occurred during further Pliocene to Holocene sediment accumulation. Labile-grain alteration has been less severe in the lower part of the hydrocarbon-bearing section than in the upper sands with the result that the lower sands contain mainly chlorite/smectite and the upper sands contain mainly ferroan carbonates and kaolinite formed by extensive alteration of labile grains and earlier formed chlorite/smectite. Reservoir quality in the lower sands is controlled mostly by grain size and the presence of chlorite/smectite, but in the upper sands, the presence of kaolinite is the single most important cause of poor reservoir quality. 36 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Fractures and stresses in Bone Spring sandstones

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, J.C.; Warpinski, N.R.; Sattler, A.R.; Northrop, D.A.

    1990-09-01

    This project is a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and Harvey E. Yates Company being conducted under the auspices of the Oil Recovery Technology Partnership. The project seeks to apply perspectives related to the effects of natural fractures, stress, and sedimentology to the simulation and production of low-permeability gas reservoirs to low-permeability oil reservoirs as typified by the Bone Spring sandstones of the Permian Basin, southeast New Mexico. This report presents the results and analysis obtained in 1989 from 233 ft of oriented core, comprehensive suite of logs, various in situ stress measurements, and detailed well tests conducted in conjunction with the drilling of two development wells. Natural fractures were observed in core and logs in the interbed carbonates, but there was no direct evidence of fractures in the sandstones. However, production tests of the sandstones indicated permeabilities and behavior typical of a dual porosity reservoir. A general northeast trend for the maximum principal horizontal stress was observed in an elastic strain recovery measurements and in strikes of drilling-induced fractures; this direction is subparallel to the principal fracture trend observed in the interbed carbonates. Many of the results presented are believed to be new information for the Bone Spring sandstones. 57 figs., 18 tabs.

  5. Differential Erosion at Work on Martian Sandstones

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-24

    Sandstone layers with varying resistance to erosion are evident in this Martian scene recorded by the Mast Camera on NASA Curiosity Mars rover on Feb. 25, 2014, about one-quarter mile about 400 meters from a planned waypoint called the

  6. Spectral Induced Polarization of Sandstones: Temperature Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binley, A.; Kruschwitz, S.; Lesmes, D.

    2007-12-01

    There is growing interest in the use of spectral induced polarization (SIP) for a wide range of environmental applications, in particular those focused on hydrogeological investigations. Recent experimental work has demonstrated that the mean relaxation time of electrical impedance spectra measured in sandstones is linked to the grain surface area and strongly correlated to some measure of a dominant pore throat size. Such empirically derived relationships lead to potential models of SIP - hydraulic conductivity, which has immense value for the hydrological community. Furthermore, the links between surface area and electrical response may lead to other, equally exciting, applications, such as in characterizing geochemical reactivity of sediments. However, there is a need to understand the fundamental behavior of SIP in such porous media in order for such models to be applied usefully. In an attempt to address this, we focus here on the influence of temperature on the SIP behavior of a range of sandstones. Classical models of dielectric dispersion in colloids have proposed direct inverse relationships between relaxation time and temperature. Through a series of experimental trials we have studied this behavior: examining the impedance spectra (in the 1 mHz to 1 kHz range) of four different sandstones over a temperature range of 5 to 30 degrees Celsius. Analysis of the spectra with the widely used Pelton Cole-Cole model has confirmed hypothesized effects on a mean relaxation time but revealed that the responses to temperature change is a function of physical properties of the sandstone. In addition, the analysis has illustrated how temperature effects on surface complex conductivity of the sandstones differ as a function of pore fluid and formation factor. The results add to the growing experimental evidence of controls on spectral impedance in porous media and help ascertain generalized petrophysical models for a wide range of applications.

  7. Facies patterns and conodont biogeography in Arctic Alaska and the Canadian Arctic Islands: Evidence against juxtaposition of these areas during early Paleozoic time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, J.A.; Harris, A.G.; Bradley, D.C.; De Freitas, T. A.

    2000-01-01

    Differences in lithofacies and biofacies suggest that lower Paleozoic rocks now exposed in Arctic Alaska and the Canadian Arctic Islands did not form as part of a single depositional system. Lithologic contrasts are noted in shallow- and deep-water strata and are especially marked in Ordovician and Silurian rocks. A widespread intraplatform basin of Early and Middle Ordovician age in northern Alaska has no counterpart in the Canadian Arctic, and the regional drowning and backstepping of the Silurian shelf margin in Canada has no known parallel in northern Alaska. Lower Paleozoic basinal facies in northern Alaska are chiefly siliciclastic, whereas resedimented carbonates are volumetrically important in Canada. Micro- and macrofossil assemblages from northern Alaska contain elements typical of both Siberian and Laurentian biotic provinces; coeval Canadian Arctic assemblages contain Laurentian forms but lack Siberian species. Siberian affinities in northern Alaskan biotas persist from at least Middle Cambrian through Mississippian time and appear to decrease in intensity from present-day west to east. Our lithologic and biogeographic data are most compatible with the hypothesis that northern Alaska-Chukotka formed a discrete tectonic block situated between Siberia and Laurentia in early Paleozoic time. If Arctic Alaska was juxtaposed with the Canadian Arctic prior to opening of the Canada basin, biotic constraints suggest that such juxtaposition took place no earlier than late Paleozoic time.

  8. Trace fossils and sedimentary facies from a Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician tide-dominated shelf (Santa Rosita Formation, northwest Argentina): Implications for ichnofacies models of shallow marine successions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mangano, M.G.; Buatois, L.A.; Acenolaza, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    The Santa Rosita Formation is one the most widely distributed lower Paleozoic units of northwest Argentina. At the Quebrada del Salto Alto section, east of Purmamarca, Jujuy Province, it is represented by four sedimentary facies: thick-bedded planar cross-stratified quartzose sandstones (A), thin-bedded planar cross-stratified quartzose sandstones and mudstones (B), wave-rippled sandstones and bioturbated mudstones (C), and black and greenish gray shales (D). Paleocurrent data, sandstone architecture, and sedimentary structures from facies A and B indicate bipolar/bimodal paleoflows, suggesting the action of tidal currents. The succession is interpreted as that of a tide-dominated shelf, with only secondary influence of wave processes. Trace fossils are restricted to facies B and C. The Cruziana ichnocoenosis is preserved on the soles of thin-bedded planar cross-stratified quartzose sandstones (facies B). This ichnocoenosis consists of Conostichus isp., Cruziana omanica, C. semiplicata, C. cf. tortworthi, Cruziana isp. Helminthopsis abeli, Monomorphichnus bilinearis, M. multilineatus, Palaeophycus tubularis, Rusophycus carbonarius, R. latus, and R. isp. The occurrence of Cruziana semiplicata, C. omanica, C. cf. tortworthi, and Rusophycus latus supports a Late Cambrian-Tremadoc age. Slabbing of Cruziana shows complex interactions between biologic and sedimentologic processes, and suggests a predominance of exhumed traces, washed out and recast by tractive sand deposition. Sandstone soles are densely packed with biogenic structures and exhibit distinctive clusters of Rusophycus isp. that most likely represent trilobite nesting burrows. The Cruziana ichnocoenosis records the resident fauna of a protected, lower intertidal to subtidal interbar setting. The Skolithos ichnocoenosis is represented by high to low density vertical burrows of Skolithos linearis, which extend downwards to the quartzose sandstone soles of facies B and cross the Cruziana ichnocoenosis. The

  9. Isotopic tracers of gold deposition in Paleozoic limestones, southern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterman, Z.E.; Widmann, B.L.; Marshall, B.D.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Futa, K.; Mahan, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    Strontium isotopic analyses of barren and mineralized Paleozoic carbonate rocks show that hydrothermal fluids added radiogenic strontium (87Sr) to the mineralized zones. At Bare Mountain, samples collected from mineralized areas have ??87Srt values (per mil deviation from primary marine values) ranging from +3.0 to +23.0 (mean of this log-normal distribution is +7.0), whereas unmineralized carbonate rocks have ??87Srt values of -0.6 to +2.9 (mean of +1.07??1.03). In other ranges (Striped Hills, Spring Mountains, and ranges in the vicinity of Indian Springs Valley), ??87Srt values of the unmineralized carbonate rocks are even lower and virtually indistinguishable from primary marine values. This correlation of elevated ??87Srt values with mineralized zones provided a useful technique for assessing the mineral potential of the Paleozoic basement beneath Yucca Mountain, and may find broader use in mineral exploration in the Basin and Range province as a whole.

  10. Ontogenetic evidence for the Paleozoic ancestry of salamanders.

    PubMed

    Schoch, Rainer R; Carroll, Robert L

    2003-01-01

    The phylogenetic positions of frogs, salamanders, and caecilians have been difficult to establish. Data matrices based primarily on Paleozoic taxa support a monophyletic origin of all Lissamphibia but have resulted in widely divergent hypotheses of the nature of their common ancestor. Analysis that concentrates on the character states of the stem taxa of the extant orders, in contrast, suggests a polyphyletic origin from divergent Paleozoic clades. Comparison of patterns of larval development in Paleozoic and modern amphibians provides a means to test previous phylogenies based primarily on adult characteristics. This proves to be highly informative in the case of the origin of salamanders. Putative ancestors of salamanders are recognized from the Permo-Carboniferous boundary of Germany on the basis of ontogenetic changes observed in fossil remains of larval growth series. The entire developmental sequence from hatching to metamorphosis is revealed in an assemblage of over 600 specimens from a single locality, all belonging to the genus Apateon. Apateon forms the most speciose genus of the neotenic temnospondyl family Branchiosauridae. The sequence of ossification of individual bones and the changing configuration of the skull closely parallel those observed in the development of primitive living salamanders. These fossils provide a model of how derived features of the salamander skull may have evolved in the context of feeding specializations that appeared in early larval stages of members of the Branchiosauridae. Larvae of Apateon share many unique derived characters with salamanders of the families Hynobiidae, Salamandridae, and Ambystomatidae, which have not been recognized in any other group of Paleozoic amphibians.

  11. Paleozoic ice sheet inception; a study of paleogeographic sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, D. E.; Poulsen, C. J.; Torsvik, T. H.

    2011-12-01

    Large-scale continental glaciation is thought to have been episodic throughout the Paleozoic era. Evidence of short-lived glaciation in the Ordovician, a period of questionable glaciation in the Devonian, and extensive glaciation in the Permo-Carboniferous are variously supported by the geologic record. The climatic conditions that allowed Earth to descend into icehouse conditions during these periods are not well understood. Traditionally, Paleozoic glaciation was thought to be driven by the drift of continents over the austral pole, yet a myriad of other factors play a role in global mean temperatures and the ability of an icehouse climate to initiate. In this sensitivity study we utilize a coupled GCM-ice sheet-biome model in conjunction with updated paleogeographic reconstructions to examine ice sheet initiation at 30 million year time slices throughout the Paleozoic. Each time slice is subjected to an ice-favorable orbital alignment and a range of atmospheric pCO2 concentrations in an effort to determine the influence of continent distribution and greenhouse gas concentration on ice sheet initiation. Our modeling results demonstrate that both continental configuration and atmospheric pCO2 concentration play a significant role in ice sheet initiation, ice sheet areal extent, and ice sheet volume. Our results indicate that the geographic configurations most conducive to continental glaciation occurred from the mid-Devonian to the early Carboniferous, a result that is inconsistent with the geologic record and suggests that continental drift wasn't the sole driving force behind the occurrence of Paleozoic ice ages.

  12. Preserving Native American petroglyphs on porous sandstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grisafe, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    A new method of chemical treatment is proposed to improve the durability of soft, porous sandstones onto which Native American petroglyphs have been carved. Cores of Dakota Sandstone from the Faris Cave site, located along the Smoky Hill River in Ellsworth County, Kansas, were treated with ethyl silicate dissolved in a lightweight ketone carrier, and some cores were subsequently treated with a combination of ethyl silicate and silane using the same solvent. Measurement of the resulting physical properties, when compared to untreated cores, indicate the treatments substantially increased the compressive strength and freeze-thaw resistance of the stone without discoloring the stone or completely sealing the pore system. The treatment increases the durability of the stone and provides a method for preserving the petroglyphs at the site. After treating test panels at the site, the petroglyphs were treated in like manner.

  13. Fractures and stresses in Bone Spring sandstones

    SciTech Connect

    Warpinski, N.R.; Sattler, A.R.; Lorenz, J.C.; Northrop, D.A.

    1992-06-01

    This project was a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and the Harvey E. Yates Company (Heyco), Roswell, NM, conducted under the auspices of Department of Energy's Oil Recovery Technology Partnership. The project applied Sandia perspectives on the effects of natural fractures, stress, and sedimentology for the stimulation and production of low permeability gas reservoirs to low permeability oil reservoirs, such as those typified by the Bone Spring sandstones of the Delaware Basin, southeast New Mexico. This report details the results and analyses obtained in 1990 from core, logs, stress, and other data taken from three additional development wells. An overall summary gives results from all five wells studied in this project in 1989--1990. Most of the results presented are believed to be new information for the Bone Spring sandstones.

  14. Upper Paleozoic stratigraphic sequences in the Western Interior, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Maughan, E.K.; Macke, D.L.

    1993-04-01

    Major depositional sequences in the upper Paleozoic (Mississippian through Permian) of the Western Interior reflect either tectonism, eustatic sea-level change, or both. The stratigraphic sequences approximate (1) the Lower Mississippian Lodgepole Limestone of the Madison Group, (2) the Lower and Upper Mississippian Mission Canyon Limestone in the Madison Group, (3) the Upper Mississippian Big Snowy Group, (4) the Lower and Middle Pennsylvanian Amsden Group, (5) the Middle Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Minnelusa Group, and (6) the Middle and Upper Permian Park City Group. These upper Paleozoic sequences in the Western Interior seem to be intricately related to similar, third-order transgressive-regressive cycles in the Cordilleran region, but precise relationships of some sequence boundaries remain to be determined. Parasequence sets evidence minor eustatic oscillations within these six major Western Interior sequences. The widespread paraconformable contact between Permian and overlying Triassic strata on the Wyoming shelf indicates that this sequence boundary resulted primarily from eustatic marine regression. Overall, the upper Paleozoic sequences of the Western Interior were deposited in a stable epeirogenic framework that succeeded Devonian tectonism but were diastrophically affected again during the Pennsylvanian. The timing of these diastrophic events in the Western Interior seem to coincide with plate collision events along the eastern and southern margins of North America, but eustatic changes may be related to other causes.

  15. New insights into Paleozoic charophyte morphology and phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Feist, Monique; Liu, Junying; Tafforeau, Paul

    2005-07-01

    Examination of Paleozoic charophyte fructifications using microscopy and high-resolution x-ray synchrotron microtomography has revealed that most of them have a utricle that forms a supplementary calcified cover around the gyrogonite. All Paleozoic families with utricles have been assigned to the Sycidiales. We consider the Moellerinaceae to occupy a central position in the phylogeny of the Charophyta. From these, one group of descendants constitutes the gyrogonites inside the utricles of the Sycidiales; a second descendant goup is thought to be the utricle-free ancestors of the Charales prior to inversion of spiralization and reduction in cell number. The Sycidiales have a multilayered wall and an internal vesicle, but their families are distinguished by diversity in orientation of external cells, complexity of the utricle wall, and in presence or absence of antheridia. The solidly packed structure of the utricle is believed to be an organ protecting the zygote against dessication. We interpret the morphological similarities between Paleozoic Sycidiales and Mesozoic Clavatoraceae, both with a utricle, as homoplasous rather than expressing a true phylogenetic relationship. We confirm that some umbellids might correspond to utricles of charophytes.

  16. Paleozoic oil/gas shale reservoirs in southern Tunisia: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soua, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    During these last years, considerable attention has been given to unconventional oil and gas shale in northern Africa where the most productive Paleozoic basins are located (e.g. Berkine, Illizi, Kufra, Murzuk, Tindouf, Ahnet, Oued Mya, Mouydir, etc.). In most petroleum systems, which characterize these basins, the Silurian played the main role in hydrocarbon generation with two main 'hot' shale levels distributed in different locations (basins) and their deposition was restricted to the Rhuddanian (Lllandovery: early Silurian) and the Ludlow-Pridoli (late Silurian). A third major hot shale level had been identified in the Frasnian (Upper Devonian). Southern Tunisia is characterized by three main Paleozoic sedimentary basins, which are from North to South, the southern Chotts, Jeffara and Berkine Basin. They are separated by a major roughly E-W trending lower Paleozoic structural high, which encompass the Mehrez-Oued Hamous uplift to the West (Algeria) and the Nefusa uplift to the East (Libya), passing by the Touggourt-Talemzane-PGA-Bou Namcha (TTPB) structure close to southern Tunisia. The forementioned major source rocks in southern Tunisia are defined by hot shales with elevated Gamma ray values often exceeding 1400 API (in Hayatt-1 well), deposited in deep water environments during short lived (c. 2 Ma) periods of anoxia. In the course of this review, thickness, distribution and maturity maps have been established for each hot shale level using data for more than 70 wells located in both Tunisia and Algeria. Mineralogical modeling was achieved using Spectral Gamma Ray data (U, Th, K), SopectroLith logs (to acquire data for Fe, Si and Ti) and Elemental Capture Spectroscopy (ECS). The latter technique provided data for quartz, pyrite, carbonate, clay and Sulfur. In addition to this, the Gamma Ray (GR), Neutron Porosity (ΦN), deep Resistivity (Rt) and Bulk Density (ρb) logs were used to model bulk mineralogy and lithology. Biostratigraphic and complete

  17. Experimental research on seismoelectric effects in sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Rong; Wei, Jian-Xing; Di, Bang-Rang; Ding, Pin-Bo; Liu, Zi-Chun

    2016-09-01

    The seismoelectric effects induced from the coupling of the seismic wave field and the electromagnetic field depend on the physical properties of the reservoir rocks. We built an experimental apparatus to measure the seismoelectric effects in saturated sandstone samples. We recorded the seismoelectric signals induced by P-waves and studied the attenuation of the seismoelectric signals induced at the sandstone interface. The analysis of the seismoelectric effects suggests that the minimization of the potential difference between the reference potential and the baseline potential of the seismoelectric disturbance area is critical to the accuracy of the seismoelectric measurements and greatly improves the detectability of the seismoelectric signals. The experimental results confirmed that the seismoelectric coupling of the seismic wave field and the electromagnetic field is induced when seismic wave propagating in a fluid-saturated porous medium. The amplitudes of the seismoelectric signals decrease linearly with increasing distance between the source and the interface, and decay exponentially with increasing distance between the receiver and the interface. The seismoelectric response of sandstone samples with different permeabilities suggests that the seismoelectric response is directly related to permeability, which should help obtaining the permeability of reservoirs in the future.

  18. Matrix versus fracture permeability in a regional sandstone aquifer (Wajid sandstone, SW Saudi Arabia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Ajmi, Hussain; Hinderer, Matthias; Rausch, Randolf; Hornung, Jens; Bassis, Alexander; Keller, Martin; Schüth, Christoph

    2014-06-01

    Sandstones are often characterized as fractured aquifers. We present a case study of the Wajid sandstone, which forms a regional aquifer system in SW Saudi Arabia, where matrix, fracture, and large-scale hydraulic conductivities are coincident. The measurements deal with different scales and methods and are based on porosity and permeability measurements in the laboratory, as well as pumping tests in the field. Porosities of the sandstone samples in general are high and range between less than 5 % and more than 45 %. Gas permeabilities for strongly cemented samples are < 1 mD, whereas most samples range in between 500 and 5,000 mD. There is only a weak anisotropy with preference of the horizontal x-, y-directions. Hydraulic conductivities of the matrix samples (5.5 · 10-6 m/s and 1.1 · 10-5 m/s for the Upper and Lower Wajid sandstone, respectively) were in the same order of magnitude compared to hydraulic conductivities derived from pumping tests (8.3 · 10-5 m/s and 2.2 · 10-5 m/s for the Upper and Lower Wajid sandstone, respectively).

  19. Re-evaluating origins of Paleozoic orbital-scale and My-scale stratigraphic cyclicity using oxygen isotopes of marine apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elrick, M.; Theiling, B. P.; Wallace, Z. A.; Reardon, D.; Labor, W.; Martin, J.

    2012-12-01

    High-frequency (104-105 yr) sedimentary cycles and My-scale depositional sequences in Paleozoic marine strata have been studied for over a century and though debated, their origins are most commonly attributed to sea-level changes. Early studies focused mainly on repetitive shallowing and deepening facies changes, subaerial exposure features, and widespread correlations to argue for eustatic drivers. Subsequent studies utilized 1D and 2D computer models and statistical and time series analysis to argue for eustasy and for Milankovitch-scale periodicities. With increasing high-resolution numeric age control provided by newly discovered ash beds, the durations of many Paleozoic cycles and sequences are found to lie within the Milankovitch-frequency band. Recently the origins of Paleozoic cycles and sequences have been evaluated using oxygen isotopes from marine apatite (conodonts) to specifically test for glacio-eustatic origins. Isotopic trends from well studied Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian marine successions support the hypothesis that the cycles and sequences were generated by glacio-eustasy with decreasing and low isotopic values occurring within deepening and deepest water facies and increasing and high values occurring in shallowing and shallowest water facies. Of particular interest is that the magnitudes of isotopic change and by inference, the magnitude of climatic change, observed across cycles and sequences developed in Paleozoic greenhouse time intervals (Silurian, Devonian) are as large as those observed in icehouse (Neogene, Pennsylvanian) and transitional (Late Ordovician, Early Mississippian) climatic intervals. These oxygen isotope results combined with earlier stratigraphic, modeling, and statistical studies suggest that short- and long-period Milankovitch-forced glacio-eustasy controlled cycle and sequence development throughout the Paleozoic.

  20. Shoreface to estuarine sedimentation in the late Paleocene Matanomadh Formation, Kachchh, western India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, V. K.; Singh, B. P.

    2017-04-01

    Late Paleocene sedimentation in the pericratonic Kachchh Basin marks the initial marine transgression during the Cenozoic era. A 17 m thick sandstone-dominated succession, known as the clastic member (CM) of the Matanomadh Formation (MF), is exposed sporadically in the basin. Three facies associations are reconstructed in the succession in three different sections. Facies association-1 contains matrix-supported pebbly conglomerate facies, horizontally-laminated sandstone-mudstone alternation facies, hummocky- and swaley cross-bedded sandstone facies, wave-rippled sandstone facies and climbing ripple cross-laminated sandstone facies. This facies association developed between shoreface and foreshore zone under the influence of storms on a barrier ridge. Facies association-2 contains sigmoidal cross-bedded sandstone facies, sandstone-mudstone alternation facies, flaser-bedded sandstone facies, herringbone cross-bedded sandstone facies and tangential cross-bedded sandstone facies. This facies association possessing tidal bundles and herringbone cross-beds developed on a tidal flat with strong tidal influence. Facies association-3 comprises pebbly sandstone facies, horizontally-bedded sandstone facies, tangential cross-bedded sandstone facies exhibiting reactivation surfaces and tabular cross-bedded sandstone facies. This facies association represents sedimentation in a river-dominated estuary and reactivation surfaces and herringbone cross-beds indicating tidal influence. The bipolar paleocurrent pattern changes to unipolar up-section because of the change in the depositional currents from tidal to fluvial. The sedimentation took place in an open coast similar to the Korean coast. The presence of neap-spring tidal rhythmites further suggests that a semidiurnal system similar to the modern day Indian Ocean was responsible for the sedimentation. Here, the overall sequence developed during the transgressive phase where barrier ridge succession is succeeded by the tidal

  1. Paleomagnetic tests for tectonic reconstructions of the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Woyla Group, Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Advokaat, Eldert; Bongers, Mayke; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Rudyawan, Alfend; Marshal, Edo

    2017-04-01

    SE Asia consists of multiple continental blocks, volcanic arcs and suture zones representing remnants of closing ocean basins. The core of this mainland is called Sundaland, and was formed by accretion of continental and arc fragments during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic. The former positions of these blocks are still uncertain but reconstructions based on tectonostratigraphic, palaeobiogeographic, geological and palaeomagnetic studies indicate the continental terranes separated from the eastern margin of Gondwana. During the mid-Cretaceous, more continental and arc fragments accreted to Sundaland, including the intra-oceanic Woyla Arc now exposed on Sumatra. These continental fragments were derived from Australia, but the former position of the Woyla Arc is unconstrained. Interpretations on the former position of the Woyla Arc fall in two end-member groups. The first group interprets the Woyla Arc to be separated from West Sumatra by a small back-arc basin. This back arc basin opened in the Late Jurassic, and closed mid-Cretaceous, when the Woyla Arc collided with West Sumatra. The other group interprets the Woyla Arc to be derived from Gondwana, at a position close to the northern margin of Greater India in the Late Jurassic. Subsequently the Woyla Arc moved northwards and collided with West Sumatra in the mid-Cretaceous. Since these scenarios predict very different plate kinematic evolutions for the Neotethyan realm, we here aim to place paleomagnetic constraints on paleolatitudinal evolution of the Woyla Arc. The Woyla Arc consists mainly of basaltic to andesitic volcanics and dykes, and volcaniclastic shales and sandstones. Associated limestones with volcanic debris are interpreted as fringing reefs. This assemblage is interpreted as remnants of an Early Cretaceous intra-oceanic arc. West Sumatra exposes granites, surrounded by quartz sandstones, shales and volcanic tuffs. These sediments are in part metamorphosed. This assemblage is interpreted as a Jurassic

  2. Inventory of Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic strata in Sonora, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, John H.; Poole, Forrest G.

    2002-01-01

    This compilation is an inventory of all known outcrops of Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic strata in Sonora, Mexico. We have not attempted an interpretation of the regional stratigraphic or structural setting of the strata. Brief summaries of the stratigraphic setting of the Sonora rocks are given in Poole and Hayes (1971), Rangin (1978), Stewart and others (1984, 1990), and Poole and Madrid (1986; 1988b). More specific information on the setting of strata of specific ages are given by Stewart and others (2002) for the Neoproterozoic and Cambrian; by Poole and others (1995a) for Ordovician shelf strata; by Poole and others (1995b) for Ordovician deep-water openbasin strata; by Poole and others (1997, 1998, 2000a) for Silurian strata; and by Poole and others (2000a) for Mississippian strata. Other reports that discuss regional aspects of Paleozoic stratigraphy include López-Ramos (1982), Peiffer-Rangin, (1979, 1988), Pérez-Ramos (1992), and Stewart and others (1997, 1999a). Structurally, the major Paleozoic feature of Sonora is the Sonora allochthon, consisting of deep-water (eugeoclinal) strata emplaced in the Permian over shelf (miogeoclinal) deposits (Poole and others, 1995a,b; Poole and Perry, 1997; 1998). The emplacement structure is generally considered to be a major Permian continental margin thrust fault that emplaced the deep-water rocks northward over shelf (miogeoclinal) deposits. An alternate interpretation has been presented by Stewart and others (2002). He proposed that the emplacement of the Sonora allochthon was along a major Permian transpressional structure that was primarily a strike-slip fault with only a minor thrust component . The Mojave-Sonora megashear has been proposed to disrupt Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic trends in Sonora. This feature is a hypothetical, left-lateral, northwest-striking fault extending across northern Sonora and the southwestern United States (Silver and Anderson, 1974; Anderson and Schmidt, 1983). It is proposed to have

  3. Paleocurrent, petrography and provenance analyses of the Ajali Sandstone (Upper Cretaceous), southeastern Benue Trough, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amajor, L. C.

    1987-09-01

    Paleocurrent, petrographic and heavy-mineral analyses of the Ajali Sandstone (Late Cretaceous) in southeastern Nigeria show that the sedimentary rocks on the Santonian Okigwe-Abakaliki anticlinorium provided the major detritus, whereas minor contributions of the eastern Precambrian basement block (Oban massif) are confined along a narrow belt southeast of Alayi in the Afikpo Basin. The sandstones derived from the major sedimentary source are quartz arenites characterized by a zircon-tourmaline heavy-mineral assemblage and a radial paleocurrent pattern which parallels the paleoslope of the provenance. On the other hand, those sands generated from the eastern basement block are arkose and sub-arkose dominated by a garnet-apatite-rutile heavy-mineral assemblage and southwesterly directed paleocurrent modes. The results of this study support the previous hypothesis that most ancient quartz arenites are multicycle in origin.

  4. The enigma of fine-grained alluvial basin fills: the Permo-Triassic (Cumbrian Coastal and Sherwood Sandstone Groups) of the Solway Basin, NW England and SW Scotland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookfield, Michael E.

    The late Permian to Triassic sediments of the Solway Basin consist of a layer-cake succession of mature, predominantly fine-grained red clastics laid down in semi-arid alluvial plain to arid sabkha and saline marginal marine or lacustrine environments. The Cumbrian Coastal Group consists of Basal Clastics and Eden Shales. The Basal Clastics are thin regolith deposits resting unconformably on all-underlying units and are composed of mixtures of angular local gravel and far-transported fine to very fine-grained sands deposited as basal lag. The Eden Shales are predominantly gypsiferous red silty mudstones, with thin very fine-grained sandstone beds, and with thick marine gypsum beds at the base, deposited at a saline lake margin. The overlying Triassic Sherwood Sandstone Group consists of the Annan and Kirklinton Sandstones. The Annan Sandstones are predominantly thick-bedded, multi-storied, fine-grained mature red quartz sandstones in which coarse sand is practically absent despite channels with clay pebbles up to 30 cm in diameter. The overlying, predominantly aeolian, Kirklinton Sandstones consist of festoon cross-bedded and parallel-laminated fine-grained sandstones, almost identical to the Annan Sandstones except that mica and clay are absent. The Stanwix Shales, located above, consist of interbedded red, blue and green mudstones, siltstones, and thin very fine-grained sandstones, with gypsum layers. Although the entire succession can plausibly be interpreted as deposited in a large desert basin opening into a hypersaline marine or lacustrine embayment to the southwest, the uniformly fine-grained nature of the succession is unusual, as is the absence of paleosols, and body and trace fossils. There is almost no coarse sand even in the river channel units, and it seems likely that the basin was not only extremely arid but supplied predominantly by wind rather than water.

  5. Provenance changes for sandstones from the Sierra de los Cuarzos (central Mexico): the possible record of a terrane accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios García, N. B.; Martini, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Guerrero terrane is composed of Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous arc successions exposed along the western Pacific margin of Mexico. Several lines of evidence indicate that the Guerrero terrane represents the Mexican leading-edge of the North American plate, which was drifted in the paleo-Pacific domain during Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous back-arc spreading, and subsequently accreted back to the Mexican continental core before the Albian. In this paper, we present new stratigraphic data and a detailed provenance analysis of sandstones from the Sierra de Los Cuarzos area, which is located in central Mexico, ~50 km to the east of the Guerrero terrane suture belt. In the Sierra de Los Cuarzos is exposed a Mesozoic succession composed of: 1) quartz-rich turbidites grading upward to 2) calcareous slump deposits, which are overlain by 3) volcaniclastic sandstone and scarce conglomerate hosting 20 cm- to 100 m-wide blocks and slabs of basalt. Sandstone provenance and paleocurrent marks indicate that turbidites and slumps deposits were fed by sources from the Mexican continental core. Similar Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous turbidites and calcareous slump deposits are exposed in the Sierra de Guanajuato, ~50 km to the west of the Sierra de Los Cuarzos area, and are preliminarily correlated with the lower units (1 and 2) of the study area. On the other hand, provenance analysis indicates that volcaniclastic sandstones from unit 3 were principally fed by the arc successions exposed in the Guerrero terrane. The drastic change in provenance of sandstones from the Sierra de los Cuarzos suggests a complex depositional history, characterized by the contribution of distinct supplying sources during the infilling of the basin. In this paper, it is explored the possibility of a syn-tectonic origin for the volcaniclastic rocks of the Sierra de Los Cuarzos, related to the accretion of the Guerrero terrane to the Mexican continental core.

  6. Vista from Curiosity Shows Crossbedded Martian Sandstone

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-11

    Large-scale crossbedding in the sandstone of this ridge on a lower slope of Mars' Mount Sharp is common in petrified sand dunes. The scene combines multiple images taken with both cameras of the Mast Camera (Mastcam) on Curiosity on Aug. 27, 2015, during the 1,087th Martian day, or sol of the rover's work on Mars. It spans from east, at left, to south-southwest. Figure 1 includes a scale bar of 200 centimeters (about 6.6 feet). Sets of bedding laminations lie at angles to each other. Such crossbedding is common in wind-deposited sandstone of the U.S. Southwest. An example from Utah is pictured at http://3dparks.wr.usgs.gov/zion/html2/3d153.html. The sandstone in the image from Mars is part of the Stimson unit on Mount Sharp. The color of the Mastcam mosaic has been approximately white-balanced to resemble how the scene would appear under daytime lighting conditions on Earth. The component images in the center and upper portion of the mosaic are from Mastcam's right-eye camera, which is equipped with a 100-millimeter-focal-length telephoto lens. Images used in the foreground and at far left and right were taken with Mastcam's left-eye camera, using a wider-angle, 34-millimeter lens. Malin Space Science Systems, San Diego, built and operates Curiosity's Mastcam. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, built the rover and manages the project for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. For more information about Curiosity, visit http://www.nasa.gov/msl and http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msl . http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19818

  7. Age of the Bedford Shale, Berea Sandstone, and Sunbury Shale in the Appalachian and Michigan basins, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Witt, Wallace

    1970-01-01

    The suggestion by Sanford (1967, p. 994) that the Bedford Shale, Berea Sandstone, and Sunbury Shale of the Michigan basin are of Late Devonian age because these strata contain Hymenozonotriletes lepidophytus Kedo is invalid for these formations in the Appalachian basin, the area of their type localities. Endosporites lacunosus Winslow, a synonym of Hymenozonotriletes lepidophytus Kedo, occurs in upper Chautauqua (Upper Devonian) rocks through much of the Kinderhook (Lower Mississippian) strata in Ohio. The Sunbury Shale, the Sunbury Member of the Orangeville Shale in part of northern Ohio, contains a Siplionodella fauna which clearly demonstrates the Kinderhook age of the unit. The basal strata of the Bedford Shale contain Spathoffnathodus anteposlcornis which suggests a very Late Devonian or very Early Mississippian age for this part of the Bedford. Except for the basal fossil zone, most of the Bedford Shale and the younger Berea Sandstone overlie the Murrysville sand, which along the Allegheny Front in central Pennsylvania contains an Adiantites flora of Early Mississippian (Kinderhook) age. The presence of Adiantites in the Murrysville sand indicates that most of the Bedford Shale and all the Berea Sandstone are of Early Mississippian age. Lithostratigraphic evidence suggests that the Berea Sandstone of Ohio may be a temporal equivalent of the basal Beckville Member of the Pocono Formation of the Anthracite region of Pennsylvania. The clearly demonstrable Kinderhook age of the Sunbury, Berea, and most of the Bedford in the Appalachian basin strongly indicates a similar age for the same units in the Michigan basin.

  8. Early Paleozoic accretionary orogenesis along northern margin of Gondwana constrained by high-Mg metaigneous rocks, SW Yunnan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Xiaowan; Wang, Yuejun; Cawood, Peter A.; Zhang, Yuzhi

    2017-07-01

    SW Yunnan of China constituted part of the northern margin of Gondwana facing the proto-Tethys ocean in the early Paleozoic. However, the evolution of the region and its relationship with the accretionary orogenism have been poorly established. This paper reports a set of new zircon U-Pb age data and whole-rock major oxides, elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic data for early Paleozoic metavolcanic rocks from the previously defined Lancang Group and reveals the development of an Ordovician suprasubduction zone in SW Yunnan. Zircon U-Pb ages of 462 ± 6 and 454 ± 27 Ma for two representative samples indicate eruption of the volcanic rocks in the Late Ordovician. Geochemical data for the metavolcanic rocks together with other available data indicate a calc-alkaline affinity with high Al2O3 (13.04-18.77 wt%) and low TiO2 (0.64-1.00 wt%). They have Mg-numbers ranging from 62 to 50 with SiO2 of 53.57-69.10 wt%, compositionally corresponding to the high-Mg andesitic rocks. They display enrichments in LREEs and LILEs with significant Eu negative anomalies ( δEu = 0.20-0.33), and depletions in HFSEs, similar to arc volcanic rocks. Their initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.721356 to 0.722521 and ɛNd( t) values from -7.63 to -7.62 with Nd model ages of 2.06-2.10 Ga. Integration of ages and geochemical data with available geological observations, we propose the presence of Ordovician magmatism related to proto-Tethyan evolution in SW Yunnan and the metaigneous rocks formed in an island-arc setting. They were part of a regional accretionary orogen that extended along the northern margin of Gondwana during Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic period.

  9. Age and provenance constraints on seismically-determined crustal layers beneath the Paleozoic southern Central Asian Orogen, Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Ping; Kröner, Alfred; Shi, Yuruo; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Yaran; Windley, Brian F.; Jahn, Bor-ming; Zhang, Liqao; Liu, Dunyi

    2016-06-01

    We present 110 ages and 51 in-situ δ18O values for zircon xenocrysts from a post-99 Ma intraplate basaltic rock suite hosted in a subduction-accretion complex of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt in order to constrain a seismic profile across the Paleozoic Southern Orogen of Inner Mongolia and the northern margin of the North China Craton. Two zircon populations are recognized, namely a Phanerozoic group of 70 zircons comprising granitoid-derived (ca. 431-99 Ma; n = 31; peak at 256 Ma), meta-granitoid-derived (ca. 449-113 Ma; n = 24; peak at 251 Ma) and gabbro-derived (436-242 Ma; n = 15; peaks at 264 and 244 Ma) grains. Each textural type is characterized by a distinct zircon oxygen isotope composition and is thus endowed with a genetic connotation. The Precambrian population (2605-741 Ma; n = 40) exhibits a prominent age peak at 2520 Ma (granulite-facies metamorphism) and four small peaks at ca. 1900, 1600, and 800 Ma. Our new data, together with literature zircon ages, significantly constrain models of three seismically-determined deep crustal layers beneath the fossil subduction zone-forearc along the active northern margin of the North China Craton, namely: (1) an upper arc crust of early to mid-Paleozoic age, intruded by a major Permian-Triassic composite granitoid-gabbroic pluton (8-20 km depth); (2) a middle crust, predominantly consisting of mid-Meso- to Neoproterozoic felsic and mafic gneisses; and (3) a lower crust composed predominantly of late Archean granulite-facies rocks. We conclude that the Paleozoic orogenic crust is limited to the upper crustal level, and the middle to lower crust has a North China Craton affinity. Furthermore, integrating our data with surface geological, petrological and geochronological constraints, we present a new conceptual model of orogenic uplift, lithospheric delamination and crustal underthrusting for this key ocean-continent convergent margin.

  10. Paleomagnetism of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks from the Karatau Range, Southern Kazakhstan: Multiple remagnetization events correlate with phases of deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirscher, U.; Zwing, A.; Alexeiev, D. V.; Echtler, H. P.; Bachtadse, V.

    2013-08-01

    The paleogeography of the Altaids and its kinematic and tectonic evolution during the final collision and amalgamation of Eurasia is still poorly known. Addressing this problem, a paleomagnetic study has been undertaken on Paleozoic sedimentary rocks from the Karatau, Southern Kazakhstan. Stepwise thermal demagnetization reveals the presence of a high-temperature component of magnetization in most samples. Fold tests indicate a syn-folding age of magnetic remanence acquisition at three of the five areas studied. Directional data of Devonian and Permian rocks yield a positive fold test, implying a primary magnetization. Resulting prefolding paleolatitudes for Permian and Devonian rocks show the proximity of the Karatau to Baltica during those times. Syn- and post-folding magnetizations result in paleolatitudes for Karatau, which intersect the paleolatitude curve based on the Baltica apparent polar wander path (APWP), at times, which can be correlated to major deformational events at ~280 Ma, ~260 Ma, and ~230 Ma, respectively. We interpret this with complicated pattern of remagnetization events accompanying deformation, which can include syn-folding remagnetization events and areas of primary magnetic signals. Additionally, the differences between reference declinations based on the APWP for Baltica and observed declinations suggest successive counterclockwise rotational reorganization of the Karatau during the late Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic, with maximal rotation values of ~65° with respect to Baltica. The remagnetization events are correlated with latest intracontinental stages of orogenic evolution in the Ural mountains and thus the Paleozoic amalgamation of the Eurasian continent and suggest synchronous and coherent tectonic evolution in the Urals and Karatau mountains.

  11. Early Paleozoic accretionary orogenesis along northern margin of Gondwana constrained by high-Mg metaigneous rocks, SW Yunnan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Xiaowan; Wang, Yuejun; Cawood, Peter A.; Zhang, Yuzhi

    2015-12-01

    SW Yunnan of China constituted part of the northern margin of Gondwana facing the proto-Tethys ocean in the early Paleozoic. However, the evolution of the region and its relationship with the accretionary orogenism have been poorly established. This paper reports a set of new zircon U-Pb age data and whole-rock major oxides, elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic data for early Paleozoic metavolcanic rocks from the previously defined Lancang Group and reveals the development of an Ordovician suprasubduction zone in SW Yunnan. Zircon U-Pb ages of 462 ± 6 and 454 ± 27 Ma for two representative samples indicate eruption of the volcanic rocks in the Late Ordovician. Geochemical data for the metavolcanic rocks together with other available data indicate a calc-alkaline affinity with high Al2O3 (13.04-18.77 wt%) and low TiO2 (0.64-1.00 wt%). They have Mg-numbers ranging from 62 to 50 with SiO2 of 53.57-69.10 wt%, compositionally corresponding to the high-Mg andesitic rocks. They display enrichments in LREEs and LILEs with significant Eu negative anomalies (δEu = 0.20-0.33), and depletions in HFSEs, similar to arc volcanic rocks. Their initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.721356 to 0.722521 and ɛNd(t) values from -7.63 to -7.62 with Nd model ages of 2.06-2.10 Ga. Integration of ages and geochemical data with available geological observations, we propose the presence of Ordovician magmatism related to proto-Tethyan evolution in SW Yunnan and the metaigneous rocks formed in an island-arc setting. They were part of a regional accretionary orogen that extended along the northern margin of Gondwana during Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic period.

  12. Poncho field - Cretaceous J sandstone stratigraphic traps - Denver basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Ethridge, F.G.; Ziegler, J.R.

    1983-08-01

    Distributary channel and delta destructional sandstones of Early Cretaceous age are important reservoirs for stratigraphic traps in the J sandstone at Poncho field, Adams and Arapahoe Counties, Colorado. Cores and logs from the field area reveal a lowermost, nonproductive, northeast-trending delta front sandstoe (J-3); a middle complex of southeast- and east-trending, productive distributary channel sandstones (J-2) that grade into tightly cemented delta fringe marine sediments to the southeast and northeast; and an upper, northeast trending, productive delta destructional sandstone (J-1). Vertical and lateral sequences of sedimentary structures, textures, trace fossil assemblages, and geometry and trend of sandstone bodies suggest that these units were part of a wave-dominated delta complex that prograded to the east and southeast from the area of Lonetree field. Thin section and SEM analyses reveal that the principal cements in both reservoir sandstones are quartz overgrowths, kaolinite, and chlorite, and that the bulk of the porosity is secondary and related to dissolution of carbonate cement and feldspar grains. Porosities and permeabilities are most variable and lowest in the nonproductive delta front sandstones, averaging 15% and 7 md; variable and intermediate in the productive distributary channel sandstones, averaging 16% and 28 md; and most uniform and highest in the overlying delta destructional sandstones, averaging 21% and 88 md.

  13. An evaluation of alternative chemical classifications of sandstones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    Chemical classification of sandstone is worth attempting because modern analytical methods are producing extensive data sets on rock composition. Previous compilations and statistical studies have demonstrated the application of chemical data to problems in sandstone petrology, but classification has been largely ignored. Chemical data has value for classification, but the limitations of using chemical data for classification must be identified. Consideration of the processes of sandstone formation permits formulation of classification guidelines and systems for classification. Alternative systems for chemical classification can be then evaluated for their power to identify major types of sandstones and to facilitate genetic interpretation.

  14. Discolored Fracture Zones in Martian Sandstone

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-17

    This view from NASA's Curiosity Mars rover shows an example of discoloration closely linked to fractures in the Stimson formation sandstone on lower Mount Sharp. The pattern is evident along two perpendicular fractures. Curiosity's Navigation Camera (Navcam) acquired the component images of this mosaic on Aug. 23, 2015, during the 1.083rd Martian day, or sol, of the mission. The location is along the rover's path between "Marias Pass" and "Bridger Basin." In this region, the rover has found fracture zones to be associated with rock compositions enriched in silica, relative to surrounding bedrock. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20268

  15. Geophysical log responses and their correlation with bed-to-bed stress contrasts in Paleozoic rocks, Appalachian Plateau, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumb, Richard A.; Evans, Keith F.; Engelder, Terry

    1991-08-01

    A 1-km profile of in situ stress and geophysical log data was acquired in the Wilkins well to study the relationship between rock properties and in situ stress contrasts. The Wilkins well penetrates Devonian clastic rocks on the Appalachian Plateau near the town of South Canisteo, New York. Open hole hydraulic fracture stress measurements were made in stratigraphic sequences where geophysical logs indicated significant bed-to-bed variations in elastic and lithologic properties. Analysis of stress magnitudes and interval-averaged geophysical data shows that principal horizontal stress magnitudes correlate directly with elastic stiffness and inversely with clay content. A similar relation is found for older Paleozoic strata penetrated by a well at Auburn, New York. Correlations between stress magnitude and geophysical properties observed in the Wilkins and Auburn wells provide strong evidence that bed to bed stress variations arise from a uniform ENE-WSW directed strain acting on beds of different Young's modulus rather than from variations in rock shear strength. Because of their high Young's modulus, sandstones, siltstones, and limestones in the northern Appalachian Basin are likely to be stronger barriers to hydraulic fracture propagation than shales. Porosity logs in the Wilkins well show that the large decrease in horizontal stress found at the base of the Rhine street Formation occurs where shales are less compacted. The correlation with undercompaction is consistent with a paleo-overpressure drainage mechanism as the cause for the stress decrease.

  16. CO2-Driven Convection Produced the Vertical Distribution of Sandstone Colors and Iron Concretions in Navajo Sandstone at Zion National Park, Utah (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettler, R. M.; Loope, D. B.

    2011-12-01

    Along cliff faces exposed in Zion National Park (SW Utah), the porous and permeable Navajo Sandstone (Jurassic) is 700 m thick, and is capped by impermeable mudrocks and evaporites of the Carmel Formation. Previous workers have documented an areally extensive color pattern that is easily visible across much of southwestern and south-central Utah: the uppermost Navajo Sandstone is nearly white, the middle third of the formation is pink, and the lowermost fraction is reddish brown. To the northwest of the park, however, the formation is uniformly red (likely its primary color; G.B. Nielsen et al., 2009). Spheroidal concretions with dense, iron-oxide-cemented rinds and iron-poor cores are abundant in the pink and brown sandstones. Rhomb-shaped clots of iron oxide cement that are pseudomorphous after siderite are present in the cores of the largest concretions. The color variations are evidence that iron was transported from the upper portion of the Navajo SS to the lower portion. The pseudomorphs are evidence that the concretions are the oxidized remains of siderite-cemented precursors. The vertical iron transport and the precipitation of siderite require similar vertical transport of reducing, CO2-rich formation waters through the Navajo Sandstone. We argue that this circulation was driven in part by groundwater convection beneath a CO2 accumulation that was trapped below the Navajo-Carmel contact. This circulation caused aqueous iron and aqueous carbonate to be displaced downward and to accumulate (in the form of siderite) in the lower Navajo Sandstone. There are numerous CO2 reservoirs in the Colorado Plateau region; the gas was derived mainly from mantle sources. We hypothesize that, in the late Tertiary, the Carmel Formation capped a broad, structurally high accumulation of CO2 and CH4 in the Navajo Sandstone. The CH4 bleached the upper portion of the sandstone, releasing Fe2+ into the formation water. CO2 dissolved in the water, thereby increasing its density

  17. Depositional environments and hydrocarbon occurrence of upper Jurassic Cotton Valley sandstones, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Kornfeld, I.

    1985-02-01

    The sandstones of the Kimmeridgian (Jurassic) upper Cotton Valley Formation of Mississippi, northern Louisiana, and eastern Texas were deposited on a stable subsiding shelf. These sands are regressive and are part of a complex of deltaic and marine systems. They are quartz-rich and exhibit a variety of sedimentary structures. Cotton Valley fluvial-deltaic systems drained Paleozoic and younger highlands to the north and northwest, depositing sands on the shelf where they were subsequently reworked. Three depositional environments have been interpreted for these sands in Mississippi: (1) a constructive delta in the west-central part of the state, (2) a destructive delta in the east-central part of the state, and (3) an interdeltaic system in central Mississippi between the other systems. In northern Louisiana and northeastern Texas, the following environments have been interpreted: a proximal destructive delta system in northwest Louisiana and northeast Texas and another delta system in northeastern Louisiana with an interdeltaic system consisting of barrier beaches and barrier bars located centrally between them. Production is controlled by porosity and permeability barriers, fault traps, and salt- and basement-induced structures.

  18. Anisotropy of permeability in faulted porous sandstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, N. J. C.; Healy, D.; Taylor, C. W.

    2014-06-01

    Studies of fault rock permeabilities advance the understanding of fluid migration patterns around faults and contribute to predictions of fault stability. In this study a new model is proposed combining brittle deformation structures formed during faulting, with fluid flow through pores. It assesses the impact of faulting on the permeability anisotropy of porous sandstone, hypothesising that the formation of fault related micro-scale deformation structures will alter the host rock porosity organisation and create new permeability pathways. Core plugs and thin sections were sampled around a normal fault and oriented with respect to the fault plane. Anisotropy of permeability was determined in three orientations to the fault plane at ambient and confining pressures. Results show that permeabilities measured parallel to fault dip were up to 10 times higher than along fault strike permeability. Analysis of corresponding thin sections shows elongate pores oriented at a low angle to the maximum principal palaeo-stress (σ1) and parallel to fault dip, indicating that permeability anisotropy is produced by grain scale deformation mechanisms associated with faulting. Using a soil mechanics 'void cell model' this study shows how elongate pores could be produced in faulted porous sandstone by compaction and reorganisation of grains through shearing and cataclasis.

  19. Pliocene-Pleistocene diatoms in Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary and igneous rocks from Antarctica: A Sirius problem solved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burckle, Lloyd H.; Potter, Noel, Jr.

    1996-03-01

    There are two competing scenarios on the behavior of the East Antarctic ice sheet during the late Tertiary. In one scenario, the ice sheet was very dynamic and underwent major drawdown and renewal as late as the Pliocene. In the other, the ice sheet was relatively stable during the late Neogene. The presence of marine diatoms in Sirius Group sedimentary rocks in East Antarctica is at the center of the disagreement. One side regards the diatoms as the major piece of evidence to support the drawdown and renewal hypothesis and infers that they were introduced into the Sirius during renewed glaciation of East Antarctica; others suggest that these diatoms were likely introduced into the Sirius by atmospheric (largely eolian) processes. We propose a simple test of the eolian hypothesis. If diatoms were introduced into the Sirius by eolian processes, then they should also be present in older (Paleozoic and Mesozoic) sedimentary and igneous rocks. Samples from two units of the Beacon Supergroup (Devonian to Jurassic) from Beacon Valley, East Antarctica, were analyzed: the Beacon Heights Orthoquartzite (Devonian) and the Feather Conglomerate (Permian-Triassic). Also examined was sediment found in cracks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic (Devonian to Cretaceous) igneous rocks from Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica. Largely Pliocene-Pleistocene planktonic marine diatoms were found in all sample sets. Because neither Beacon Supergroup sedimentary rocks nor igneous rocks from Marie Byrd Land are Pliocene-Pleistocene in age, such findings strongly suggest that diatoms were introduced into them by eolian processes. This same scenario can be applied to Sirius Group sedimentary rocks.

  20. Pb isotopic composition of Paleozoic sediments derived from the Appalachian orogen

    SciTech Connect

    Krogstad, E.J. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Differences in [sup 207]Pb/[sup 204]Pb at restricted ranges of [sup 206]Pb/[sup 204]Pb are robust indicators of differences in the earliest history of crust or mantle reservoirs, surviving later changes in U/Pb that may be due to melting, metamorphism, or sedimentary reworking. Ayuso and Bevier (1991) have used the [sup 207]Pb/[sup 204]Pb differences between Late Paleozoic granites in the N. Appalachians to trace their sources in either Laurentian (Grenville) lithosphere, or docked (Avalonian) lithosphere. If the Pb isotopic composition of Avalonian lithosphere is unique to that source among all lithospheric reservoirs in the Appalachian orogeny, the sediments shed off the orogen should record the first appearance of rocks with this extraneous Pb isotopic composition as they become accreted. The high [sup 207]Pb/[sup 204]Pb at similar [sup 206]Pb/[sup 204]Pb that may be indicative of all outboard terranes occurs in sedimentary rocks younger than middle Ordovician in New York and Maine, and younger than Ordovician in Virginia. Older sediments (Hadrynian, Cambrian), as well as autochthonous basement and paraautochonous basement slices, have lower [sup 207]Pb/[sup 204]Pb at similar [sup 206]Pb/[sup 204]Pb. The low [sup 207]Pb/[sup 204]Pb at similar [sup 206]Pb/[sup 204]Pb shown by these rocks may be a locally diagnostic signature of Late Proterozoic Laurentian lithosphere. The high [sup 207]Pb/[sup 204]Pb at similar [sup 206]Pb/[sup 204]Pb may be a locally diagnostic signature of Late Proterozoic accreted terranes. Rocks with accreted terrane Pb isotopic composition became dominant in the provenance of sediments along the strike of the Appalachian orogen by middle Ordovician time.

  1. The Origin of a Layer of Subcircular Mudflakes in the Ross Sandstone Formation of County Clare, Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, K. H.; Kackstaetter, U. R.

    2015-12-01

    The west coast of Ireland in County Clare is famous for its Paleozoic stratigraphy containing spectacular exposures of deposits from carbonate shelf, deep marine, slope and deltaic environments, exposed at several distinctive and well-known locations including the Burr