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Sample records for lateral diffusion electrodes

  1. Decreasing lateral diffusion of photo-generated carriers for light-addressable potentiometric array by using meshed working electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dong; Liu, ShiBin; Yin, ShiMin; Liang, JinTao

    2016-09-01

    Lateral diffusion of photon-generated carriers is a critical factor affecting the signal stability and spatial resolution of light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) array. LAPS with meshed working electrode for rejecting lateral diffusion is presented. Simulation shows that using meshed working electrode can resist the lateral distribution. In an experiment, the inhibition of lateral distribution and the signal stability was studied. Results showed, using the meshed working electrode, the ability to reject the lateral distribution and the signal stability is obviously enhanced. Research in this paper may help to enhance spatial resolution and detection stability of LAPS.

  2. Lateral Diffusion in an Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Saxton, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    Lateral diffusion of molecules in lipid bilayer membranes can be hindered by the presence of impermeable domains of gel-phase lipid or of proteins. Effective-medium theory and percolation theory are used to evaluate the effective lateral diffusion constant as a function of the area fraction of fluid-phase lipid and the permeability of the obstructions to the diffusing species. Applications include the estimation of the minimum fraction of fluid lipid needed for bacterial growth, and the enhancement of diffusion-controlled reactions by the channeling effect of solid patches of lipid. PMID:7052153

  3. The structure of hydrophobic gas diffusion electrodes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giner, J.

    1972-01-01

    The 'flooded agglomerate' model of the Teflon-bonded gas diffusion electrode is discussed. A mathematical treatment of the 'flooded agglomerate' model is given; it can be used to predict the performance of the electrode as a function of measurable physical parameters.

  4. Lateral drug diffusion in human nails.

    PubMed

    Palliyil, Biji B; Li, Cong; Owaisat, Suzan; Lebo, David B

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of the current work is to demonstrate the process of passive lateral diffusion in the human nail plate and its effect on the passive transungual permeation of antifungal drug ciclopirox olamine (CPO). A water soluble dye, methyl red sodium salt (MR) was used to visualize the process of lateral diffusion using a novel suspended nail experiment. The decline in concentration of CPO correlates with that of concentration of MR from the proximal to the distal end of the nail in suspended nail study. Three toenails each were trimmed to 5 mm × 5 mm (25 mm(2)), 7 mm × 7 mm (49 mm(2)), and 9 mm × 9 mm (81 mm(2)) to study the extent and effect of lateral diffusion of the CPO on its in vitro transungual permeation. The permeation flux of CPO decreased as the surface area of the toenail increased. There was a positive correlation between the concentrations of CPO and MR in the area of application and in the peripheral area of the toenails of the three surface areas, confirming the findings in the suspended nail experiment. Profound lateral diffusion of CPO was demonstrated and shown to reduce the in vitro passive transungual drug permeation and prolong the lag-time in human toenails. The study data implies that during passive in vitro transungual permeation experiments, the peripheral nail around the area of drug application has to be kept to a minimum, in order to get reliable data which mimics the in vivo situation.

  5. Diffusion in biofilms respiring on electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Renslow, Ryan S.; Babauta, Jerome T.; Majors, Paul D.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2012-11-15

    The goal of this study was to measure spatially and temporally resolved effective diffusion coefficients (De) in biofilms respiring on electrodes. Two model electrochemically active biofilms, Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, were investigated. A novel nuclear magnetic resonance microimaging perfusion probe capable of simultaneous electrochemical and pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR) techniques was used. PFG-NMR allowed for noninvasive, nondestructive, high spatial resolution in situ De measurements in living biofilms respiring on electrodes. The electrodes were polarized so that they would act as the sole terminal electron acceptor for microbial metabolism. We present our results as both two-dimensional De heat maps and surface-averaged relative effective diffusion coefficient (Drs) depth profiles. We found that (1) Drs decreases with depth in G. sulfurreducens biofilms, following a sigmoid shape; (2) Drs at a given location decreases with G. sulfurreducens biofilm age; (3) average De and Drs profiles in G. sulfurreducens biofilms are lower than those in S. oneidensis biofilms—the G. sulfurreducens biofilms studied here were on average 10 times denser than the S. oneidensis biofilms; and (4) halting the respiration of a G. sulfurreducens biofilm decreases the De values. Density, reflected by De, plays a major role in the extracellular electron transfer strategies of electrochemically active biofilms.

  6. DIFFUSION IN BIOFILMS RESPIRING ON ELECTRODES

    PubMed Central

    Renslow, RS; Babauta, JT; Majors, PD; Beyenal, H

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to measure spatially and temporally resolved effective diffusion coefficients (De) in biofilms respiring on electrodes. Two model electrochemically active biofilms, Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, were investigated. A novel nuclear magnetic resonance microimaging perfusion probe capable of simultaneous electrochemical and pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR) techniques was used. PFG-NMR allowed noninvasive, nondestructive, high spatial resolution in situ De measurements in living biofilms respiring on electrodes. The electrodes were polarized so that they would act as the sole terminal electron acceptor for microbial metabolism. We present our results as both two-dimensional De heat maps and surface-averaged relative effective diffusion coefficient (Drs) depth profiles. We found that 1) Drs decreases with depth in G. sulfurreducens biofilms, following a sigmoid shape; 2) Drs at a given location decreases with G. sulfurreducens biofilm age; 3) average De and Drs profiles in G. sulfurreducens biofilms are lower than those in S. oneidensis biofilms—the G. sulfurreducens biofilms studied here were on average 10 times denser than the S. oneidensis biofilms; and 4) halting the respiration of a G. sulfurreducens biofilm decreases the De values. Density, reflected by De, plays a major role in the extracellular electron transfer strategies of electrochemically active biofilms. PMID:23420623

  7. Penetration and lateral diffusion characteristics of polycrystalline graphene barriers.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Taeshik; Mun, Jeong Hun; Cho, Byung Jin; Kim, Taek-Soo

    2014-01-07

    We report penetration and lateral diffusion behavior of environmental molecules on synthesized polycrystalline graphene. Penetration occurs through graphene grain boundaries resulting in local oxidation. However, when the penetrated molecules diffuse laterally, the oxidation region will expand. Therefore, we measured the lateral diffusion rate along the graphene-copper interface for the first time by the environment-assisted crack growth test. It is clearly shown that the lateral diffusion is suppressed due to the high van der Waals interaction. Finally, we employed bilayer graphene for a perfect diffusion barrier facilitated by decreased defect density and increased lateral diffusion path.

  8. Penetration and lateral diffusion characteristics of polycrystalline graphene barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Taeshik; Mun, Jeong Hun; Cho, Byung Jin; Kim, Taek-Soo

    2013-12-01

    We report penetration and lateral diffusion behavior of environmental molecules on synthesized polycrystalline graphene. Penetration occurs through graphene grain boundaries resulting in local oxidation. However, when the penetrated molecules diffuse laterally, the oxidation region will expand. Therefore, we measured the lateral diffusion rate along the graphene-copper interface for the first time by the environment-assisted crack growth test. It is clearly shown that the lateral diffusion is suppressed due to the high van der Waals interaction. Finally, we employed bilayer graphene for a perfect diffusion barrier facilitated by decreased defect density and increased lateral diffusion path.We report penetration and lateral diffusion behavior of environmental molecules on synthesized polycrystalline graphene. Penetration occurs through graphene grain boundaries resulting in local oxidation. However, when the penetrated molecules diffuse laterally, the oxidation region will expand. Therefore, we measured the lateral diffusion rate along the graphene-copper interface for the first time by the environment-assisted crack growth test. It is clearly shown that the lateral diffusion is suppressed due to the high van der Waals interaction. Finally, we employed bilayer graphene for a perfect diffusion barrier facilitated by decreased defect density and increased lateral diffusion path. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03849a

  9. Coupled diffusion and mechanics in battery electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshghinejad, Ahmadreza

    We are living in a world with continuous production and consumption of energy. The energy production in the past decades has started to move away from petrochemical sources toward sustainable sources such as solar, wind and geothermal. Also, the energy consumption is further adapting to the sustainable sources. For instance, in recent years electric vehicles are growing fast that can consume sustainable electric energy stored in their batteries. In this direction, in order to further move toward sustainable energy, materials are becoming increasingly important for storing electric energy. Although, currently the technologies such as Li-ion batteries and solid-oxide fuel cells are commercially available for energy applications, improvements are crucial for the next generation of many other technologies producing or consuming sustainable energies. A critical aspect of the electrochemical activities involved in energy storage technologies such as Li-ion batteries and solid-oxide fuel cells is the diffusion of ions into the electrode materials. This process ultimately governs various functional properties of the batteries such as capacity and charging/discharging rates. The first goal of this dissertation is to develop mathematical tools to analyze the ionic diffusion and investigate its coupling with mechanics in electrodes. For this purpose, a thermodynamics-based modeling framework is developed and numerically solved using two numerical methods to analyze ionic diffusion in heterogeneous and structured electrodes. The next goal of this dissertation is to develop and analyze characterization techniques to probe the electrochemical processes at the nano-scale. To this end, the mathematical models are first employed to model a previously developed Atomic Force Microscopy based technique to probe local electrochemical activities called Electrochemical Strain Microscopy (ESM). This method probes the activities by inducing AC electric field to perturb ionic activities and

  10. Rapid prototyping of electrochemical lateral flow devices: stencilled electrodes.

    PubMed

    Aller Pellitero, Miguel; Kitsara, Maria; Eibensteiner, Friedrich; del Campo, F Javier

    2016-04-21

    A straightforward and very cost effective method is proposed to prototype electrodes using pressure sensitive adhesives (PSA) and a simple cutting technique. Two cutting methods, namely blade cutting and CO2 laser ablation, are compared and their respective merits are discussed. The proposed method consists of turning the protective liner on the adhesive into a stencil to apply screen-printing pastes. After the electrodes have been printed, the liner is removed and the PSA can be used as a backing material for standard lateral flow membranes. We present the fabrication of band electrodes down to 250 μm wide, and their characterization using microscopy techniques and cyclic voltammetry. The prototyping approach presented here facilitates the development of new electrochemical devices even if very limited fabrication resources are available. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a simple lateral-flow device capable of determining glucose in blood. The prototyping approach presented here is highly suitable for the development of novel electroanalytical tools.

  11. Characterization of gas diffusion electrodes for metal-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danner, Timo; Eswara, Santhana; Schulz, Volker P.; Latz, Arnulf

    2016-08-01

    Gas diffusion electrodes are commonly used in high energy density metal-air batteries for the supply of oxygen. Hydrophobic binder materials ensure the coexistence of gas and liquid phase in the pore network. The phase distribution has a strong influence on transport processes and electrochemical reactions. In this article we present 2D and 3D Rothman-Keller type multiphase Lattice-Boltzmann models which take into account the heterogeneous wetting behavior of gas diffusion electrodes. The simulations are performed on FIB-SEM 3D reconstructions of an Ag model electrode for predefined saturation of the pore space with the liquid phase. The resulting pressure-saturation characteristics and transport correlations are important input parameters for modeling approaches on the continuum scale and allow for an efficient development of improved gas diffusion electrodes.

  12. Tunable diffusive lateral inhibition in chemical cells⋆

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Tompkins, Nathan; Gonzalez-Ochoa, Hector; Fraden, Seth

    2015-01-01

    The Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction has become the prototype of nonlinear chemical dynamics. Microfluidic techniques provide a convenient method for emulsifying BZ solutions into monodispersed drops with diameters of tens to hundreds of microns, providing a unique system in which reaction-diffusion theory can be quantitatively tested. In this work, we investigate monolayers of microfluidically generated BZ drops confined in close-packed two-dimensional (2D) arrays through experiments and finite element simulations. We describe the transition from oscillatory to stationary chemical states with increasing coupling strength, controlled by independently varying the reaction chemistry within a drop and diffusive flux between drops. For stationary drops, we studied how the ratio of stationary oxidized to stationary reduced drops varies with coupling strength. In addition, using simulation, we quantified the chemical heterogeneity sufficient to induce mixed stationary and oscillatory patterns. PMID:25795263

  13. Lateral PNP bipolar transistor with aiding field diffusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, R. C.; Mc Cann, D. H.

    1969-01-01

    Fabrication technique produces field aided lateral PNP transistors compatible with micropower switching circuits. The sub-collector diffusion is performed with phosphorus as the dopant and the epitaxy is grown using the higher temperature silicon tetrachloride process.

  14. Numerical evaluation of lateral diffusion inside diffusive gradients in thin films samplers.

    PubMed

    Santner, Jakob; Kreuzeder, Andreas; Schnepf, Andrea; Wenzel, Walter W

    2015-05-19

    Using numerical simulation of diffusion inside diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) samplers, we show that the effect of lateral diffusion inside the sampler on the solute flux into the sampler is a nonlinear function of the diffusion layer thickness and the physical sampling window size. In contrast, earlier work concluded that this effect was constant irrespective of parameters of the sampler geometry. The flux increase caused by lateral diffusion inside the sampler was determined to be ∼8.8% for standard samplers, which is considerably lower than the previous estimate of ∼20%. Lateral diffusion is also propagated to the diffusive boundary layer (DBL), where it leads to a slightly stronger decrease in the mass uptake than suggested by the common 1D diffusion model that is applied for evaluating DGT results. We introduce a simple correction procedure for lateral diffusion and demonstrate how the effect of lateral diffusion on diffusion in the DBL can be accounted for. These corrections often result in better estimates of the DBL thickness (δ) and the DGT-measured concentration than earlier approaches and will contribute to more accurate concentration measurements in solute monitoring in waters.

  15. Numerical Evaluation of Lateral Diffusion Inside Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films Samplers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Using numerical simulation of diffusion inside diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) samplers, we show that the effect of lateral diffusion inside the sampler on the solute flux into the sampler is a nonlinear function of the diffusion layer thickness and the physical sampling window size. In contrast, earlier work concluded that this effect was constant irrespective of parameters of the sampler geometry. The flux increase caused by lateral diffusion inside the sampler was determined to be ∼8.8% for standard samplers, which is considerably lower than the previous estimate of ∼20%. Lateral diffusion is also propagated to the diffusive boundary layer (DBL), where it leads to a slightly stronger decrease in the mass uptake than suggested by the common 1D diffusion model that is applied for evaluating DGT results. We introduce a simple correction procedure for lateral diffusion and demonstrate how the effect of lateral diffusion on diffusion in the DBL can be accounted for. These corrections often result in better estimates of the DBL thickness (δ) and the DGT-measured concentration than earlier approaches and will contribute to more accurate concentration measurements in solute monitoring in waters. PMID:25877251

  16. High Speed, Low Cost Fabrication of Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Membrane Electrode Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    DeCastro, Emory S.; Tsou, Yu-Min; Liu, Zhenyu

    2013-09-20

    Fabrication of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) depends on creating inks or pastes of catalyst and binder, and applying this suspension to either the membrane (catalyst coated membrane) or gas diffusion media (gas diffusion electrode) and respectively laminating either gas diffusion media or gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) to the membrane. One barrier to cost effective fabrication for either of these approaches is the development of stable and consistent suspensions. This program investigated the fundamental forces that destabilize the suspensions and developed innovative approaches to create new, highly stable formulations. These more concentrated formulations needed fewer application passes, could be coated over longer and wider substrates, and resulted in significantly lower coating defects. In March of 2012 BASF Fuel Cell released a new high temperature product based on these advances, whereby our customers received higher performing, more uniform MEAs resulting in higher stack build yields. Furthermore, these new materials resulted in an “instant” increase in capacity due to higher product yields and material throughput. Although not part of the original scope of this program, these new formulations have also led us to materials that demonstrate equivalent performance with 30% less precious metal in the anode. This program has achieved two key milestones in DOE’s Manufacturing R&D program: demonstration of processes for direct coating of electrodes and continuous in-line measurement for component fabrication.

  17. Lateral diffusion on tubular membranes: quantification of measurements bias.

    PubMed

    Renner, Marianne; Domanov, Yegor; Sandrin, Fanny; Izeddin, Ignacio; Bassereau, Patricia; Triller, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    Single Particle Tracking (SPT) is a powerful technique for the analysis of the lateral diffusion of the lipid and protein components of biological membranes. In neurons, SPT allows the study of the real-time dynamics of receptors for neurotransmitters that diffuse continuously in and out synapses. In the simplest case where the membrane is flat and is parallel to the focal plane of the microscope the analysis of diffusion from SPT data is relatively straightforward. However, in most biological samples the membranes are curved, which complicates analysis and may lead to erroneous conclusions as for the mode of lateral diffusion. Here we considered the case of lateral diffusion in tubular membranes, such as axons, dendrites or the neck of dendritic spines. Monte Carlo simulations allowed us to evaluate the error in diffusion coefficient (D) calculation if the curvature is not taken into account. The underestimation is determined by the diameter of the tubular surface, the frequency of image acquisition and the degree of mobility itself. We found that projected trajectories give estimates that are 25 to 50% lower than the real D in case of 2D-SPT over the tubular surface. The use of 3D-SPT improved the measurements if the frequency of image acquisition was fast enough in relation to the mobility of the molecules and the diameter of the tube. Nevertheless, the calculation of D from the components of displacements in the axis of the tubular structure gave accurate estimate of D, free of geometrical artefacts. We show the application of this approach to analyze the diffusion of a lipid on model tubular membranes and of a membrane-bound GFP on neurites from cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

  18. Lateral Diffusion on Tubular Membranes: Quantification of Measurements Bias

    PubMed Central

    Sandrin, Fanny; Izeddin, Ignacio; Bassereau, Patricia; Triller, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    Single Particle Tracking (SPT) is a powerful technique for the analysis of the lateral diffusion of the lipid and protein components of biological membranes. In neurons, SPT allows the study of the real-time dynamics of receptors for neurotransmitters that diffuse continuously in and out synapses. In the simplest case where the membrane is flat and is parallel to the focal plane of the microscope the analysis of diffusion from SPT data is relatively straightforward. However, in most biological samples the membranes are curved, which complicates analysis and may lead to erroneous conclusions as for the mode of lateral diffusion. Here we considered the case of lateral diffusion in tubular membranes, such as axons, dendrites or the neck of dendritic spines. Monte Carlo simulations allowed us to evaluate the error in diffusion coefficient (D) calculation if the curvature is not taken into account. The underestimation is determined by the diameter of the tubular surface, the frequency of image acquisition and the degree of mobility itself. We found that projected trajectories give estimates that are 25 to 50% lower than the real D in case of 2D-SPT over the tubular surface. The use of 3D-SPT improved the measurements if the frequency of image acquisition was fast enough in relation to the mobility of the molecules and the diameter of the tube. Nevertheless, the calculation of D from the components of displacements in the axis of the tubular structure gave accurate estimate of D, free of geometrical artefacts. We show the application of this approach to analyze the diffusion of a lipid on model tubular membranes and of a membrane-bound GFP on neurites from cultured rat hippocampal neurons. PMID:21980531

  19. New silicon drift detector design for diminishing lateral diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijzen, E. A.; Schooneveld, E. M.; van Eijk, C. W. E.; Hollander, R. W.

    1993-10-01

    In this paper we present a new drift detector design, which diminishes the effect of lateral diffusion. This is achieved by giving the strips a saw tooth shape. In this way a small electric field in the direction parallel to the surface and perpendicular to the drift direction is established. Therefore the electrons are confined in this direction within the length of one saw tooth. The influences of some important parameters of the saw tooth are discussed.

  20. Lateral Diffusion of Nutrients by Mammalian Herbivores in Terrestrial Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Adam; Doughty, Christopher E.; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2013-01-01

    Animals translocate nutrients by consuming nutrients at one point and excreting them or dying at another location. Such lateral fluxes may be an important mechanism of nutrient supply in many ecosystems, but lack quantification and a systematic theoretical framework for their evaluation. This paper presents a mathematical framework for quantifying such fluxes in the context of mammalian herbivores. We develop an expression for lateral diffusion of a nutrient, where the diffusivity is a biologically determined parameter depending on the characteristics of mammals occupying the domain, including size-dependent phenomena such as day range, metabolic demand, food passage time, and population size. Three findings stand out: (a) Scaling law-derived estimates of diffusion parameters are comparable to estimates calculated from estimates of each coefficient gathered from primary literature. (b) The diffusion term due to transport of nutrients in dung is orders of magnitude large than the coefficient representing nutrients in bodymass. (c) The scaling coefficients show that large herbivores make a disproportionate contribution to lateral nutrient transfer. We apply the diffusion equation to a case study of Kruger National Park to estimate the conditions under which mammal-driven nutrient transport is comparable in magnitude to other (abiotic) nutrient fluxes (inputs and losses). Finally, a global analysis of mammalian herbivore transport is presented, using a comprehensive database of contemporary animal distributions. We show that continents vary greatly in terms of the importance of animal-driven nutrient fluxes, and also that perturbations to nutrient cycles are potentially quite large if threatened large herbivores are driven to extinction. PMID:23951141

  1. Lateral diffusion of rhodopsin in photoreceptor membrane: a reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Korenyak, Darya A.; Shukolyukov, Sergei A.; Zueva, Lidia V.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose In a series of works between 1972 and 1984, it was established that rhodopsin undergoes rotational and lateral Brownian motion in the plane of photoreceptor membrane. The concept of free movement of proteins of phototransduction cascade is an essential principle of the present scheme of vertebrate phototransduction. This has recently been challenged by findings that show that in certain conditions rhodopsin in the membrane may be dimeric and form extended areas of paracrystalline organization. Such organization seems incompatible with earlier data on free rhodopsin diffusion. Thus we decided to reinvestigate lateral diffusion of rhodopsin and products of its photolysis in photoreceptor membrane specifically looking for indications of possible oligomeric organization. Methods Diffusion exchange by rhodopsin and its photoproducts between bleached and unbleached halves of rod outer segment was traced using high-speed dichroic microspectrophotometer. Measurements were conducted on amphibian (frog, toad, and salamander) and gecko rods. Results We found that the curves that are supposed to reflect the process of diffusion equilibration of rhodopsin in nonuniformly bleached outer segment largely show production of long-lived bleaching intermediate, metarhodopsin III (Meta III). After experimental elimination of Meta III contribution, we observed rhodopsin equilibration time constant was threefold to tenfold longer than estimated previously. However, after proper correction for the geometry of rod discs, it translates into generally accepted value of diffusion constant of approximately 5×10−9 cm2 s−1. Yet, we found that there exists an immobile rhodopsin fraction whose size can vary from virtually zero to 100%, depending on poorly defined factors. Controls suggest that the formation of the immobile fraction is not due to fragmentation of rod outer segment discs but supposedly reflects oligomerization of rhodopsin. Conclusions Implications of the new findings

  2. Lateral Diffusion of Bedload Transport under Laminar Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, C. P.; Houssais, M.; Purohit, P. K.; Durian, D. J.; Jerolmack, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Lateral sediment transport is a key momentum-exchange mechanism to model equilibrium channel geometry and channel bar evolution. We study sediment transport from a statistical mechanical point of view akin to Furbish et al. 2012. This approach holds promise for linking grain-scale motion to macroscopic transport, but there are few data to definitively develop and test such models. We study an experimental model river, composed of monodisperse acrylic spheres dispersed in silicon oil, driven by a layer of fluid under steady shear. We choose to drive fluid flow in the laminar regime (Re < 1) to suppress fluid turbulence and isolate granular and bed structure controls. We use a refractive-index-matched laser scanning technique to observe the motion of particles at the surface of the bed as well as the particle dynamics below the surface. We study how the probability distribution of displacements varies as a function of distance from the bed surface and as a function of distance to the channel center. In the streamwise direction, in agreement with Furbish et al. 2012, we find that the dynamics can be decomposed into an advection and a diffusion term. In the lateral direction, we find a competition between diffusion and an elastic-like interaction with the bed. We study this lateral stochastic process and find a need to introduce two parameters to quantify this competition. The first parameter describes the tendency for particles to reside near the center of the channel and the second parameter describes the kinetic energy distribution of the particles. We study how the requisite averaging scales and ensemble sizes to achieve statistically convergent parameters, and we explore how these parameters depend on the driving rate.

  3. Lateral distribution and diffusion of plastocyanin in chloroplast thylakoids

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The lateral distribution of plastocyanin in the thylakoid lumen of spinach and pea chloroplasts was studied by combining immunocytochemical localization and kinetic measurements of P700+ reduction at high time resolution. In dark-adapted chloroplasts, the concentration of plastocyanin in the photosystem I containing stroma membranes exceeds that in photosystem II containing grana membranes by a factor of about two. Under these conditions, the reduction of P700+ with a halftime of 12 microseconds after a laser flash of saturating intensity indicates that to greater than 95% of total photosystem I a plastocyanin molecule is bound. An analysis of the labeling densities, the length of the different lumenal regions, and the total amounts of plastocyanin and P700 shows that most of the remaining presumable mobile plastocyanin is found in the granal lumen. This distribution of plastocyanin is consistent with a more negative surface charge density in the stromal than in the granal lumen. During illumination the concentration of plastocyanin in grana increases at the expense of that in stroma lamellae, indicating a light-driven diffusion from stroma to grana regions. Our observations provide evidence that a high concentration of plastocyanin in grana in the light favors the lateral electron transport from cytochrome b6/f complexes in appressed grana across the long distance to photosystem I in nonappressed stroma membranes. PMID:2647767

  4. Lateral displacement as a function of particle size using a piecewise curved planar interdigitated electrode array.

    PubMed

    Han, Ki-Ho; Han, Song-I; Frazier, A Bruno

    2009-10-21

    We describe the lateral displacement of a particle passing over a planar interdigitated electrode array at an angle as a function of the particle size. The lateral displacement was also measured as a function of the angle between the electrode and the direction of flow. A simplified line charge model was used for numerically estimating the lateral displacement of fluorescent polystyrene (PS) beads with three different diameters. Using the lateral displacement as a function of particle size, we developed a lateral dielectrophoretic (DEP) microseparator, which enables continuous discrimination of particles by size. The microchannel was divided into three regions, each with an electrode array placed at a different angle with respect to the direction of flow. The experiment using an admixture of 3-, 5-, and 10-microm PS beads showed that the lateral DEP microseparator could continuously separate out 99.86% of the 3-microm beads, 98.82% of the 5-microm beads, and 99.69% of the 10-microm beads, simply by using a 200-kHz 12-Vp-p AC voltage to create the lateral DEP force. The lateral DEP microseparator is thus a practical device for simultaneously separating particles according to size from a heterogeneous admixture.

  5. Electrochemical disinfection using the gas diffusion electrode system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenying; Li, Ping; Dong, Bin

    2010-01-01

    A study on the electrochemical disinfection with H2O2 generated at the gas diffusion electrode (GDE) from active carbon/polytetrafluoroethylene was performed in a non-membrane cell. The effects of Pt load and the pore-forming agent content in GDE, and operating conditions were investigated. The experimental results showed that nearly all bacterial cultures inoculated in the secondary effluent from wastewater treatment plant could be inactivated within 30 min at a current density of 10 mA/cm2. The disinfection improved with increasing Pt load. Addition of the pore-forming agent NH4HCO3 improved the disinfection, while a drop in the pH value resulted in a rapid rise of germicidal efficacy and the disinfection time was shortened with increasing oxygen flow rate. Adsorption was proved to be ineffective in destroying bacteria, while germicidal efficacy increased with current density. The acceleration rate was different, it initially increased with current density. Then decreased, and finally reached a maximum at a current density of 6.7 mA/cm2. The disinfection also improved with decreasing total bacterial count. The germicidal efficacy in the cathode compartment was approximately the same as in the anode compartment, indicating that the contribution of direct oxidation and the indirect treatment of bacterial cultures by hydroxyl radical was similar to the oxidative indirect effect of the generated H2O2.

  6. [Electrochemical disinfection using the gas diffusion electrode system].

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen-Ying; Li, Ping; Dong, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Study on the electrochemical disinfection with the H2O2 produced at the gas diffusion electrode (GDE) prepared from active carbon/ poly-tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was performed in the non-membrane cell. The effects of PTFE mass fraction W(PTFE) and content of the pore-forming agent in GDE m(NH4CO3), operating conditions such as pH value and oxygen flow rate Q(o2)) on disinfection were investigated, respectively. The experimental results showed that H2 O2 reached peak production at W(PTFE) of 0.5 in GDE. Addition of the pore-forming agent in the appropriate amount improved the disinfection, and this phenomenon was more obvious at neutral pH than at acidic pH. BET specific area analysis indicated that the average pore size in the membrane electrode first decreased significantly with the increasing amount of pore-forming agent, and then increased moderately. This helped the mass transfer of oxygen at the GDE. Adsorption made little or no progress to kill the bacteria during the electrolysis. Drop of pH value resulted in a rapid rise of the germicidal efficacy. This system had a broad pH coverage: when total bacterial count in raw water was 10(6) CFU x mL(-1), pH 3-10,the germicidal efficacy was greater than 80% after 30 min electrolysis using the GDE with W(Pt) of 3 per thousand as cathode. Increase of the oxygen flow rate Q(o2) within limits had little influence on the production of H2 O2 and the succeeding disinfection. On one hand, resistance of the solution and energy consumption on the disinfection increased at high oxygen flow rate, which gave rise to an increase in the operating cost of disinfection with the GDE system; on the other hand, treatment time could be reduced reasonably at high oxygen flow rate, which leads to reduction of equipment investment. Killing mechanism study showed that the direct oxidation and formation of the free radicals at the anode played a greater role in the beginning, and then the oxidative indirect effect of the generated H2 O2 at

  7. Monolithic and Flexible ZnS/SnO2 Ultraviolet Photodetectors with Lateral Graphene Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Xie, Yunchao; Deng, Heng; Tumlin, Travis; Zhang, Chi; Su, Jheng-Wun; Yu, Ping; Lin, Jian

    2017-03-15

    A continuing trend of miniaturized and flexible electronics/optoelectronic calls for novel device architectures made by compatible fabrication techniques. However, traditional layer-to-layer structures cannot satisfy such a need. Herein, a novel monolithic optoelectronic device fabricated by a mask-free laser direct writing method is demonstrated in which in situ laser induced graphene-like materials are employed as lateral electrodes for flexible ZnS/SnO2 ultraviolet photodetectors. Specifically, a ZnS/SnO2 thin film comprised of heterogeneous ZnS/SnO2 nanoparticles is first coated on polyimide (PI) sheets by a solution process. Then, CO2 laser irradiation ablates designed areas of the ZnS/SnO2 thin film and converts the underneath PI into highly conductive graphene as the lateral electrodes for the monolithic photodetectors. This in situ growth method provides good interfaces between the graphene electrodes and the semiconducting ZnS/SnO2 resulting in high optoelectronic performance. The lateral electrode structure reduces total thickness of the devices, thus minimizing the strain and improving flexibility of the photodetectors. The demonstrated lithography-free monolithic fabrication is a simple and cost-effective method, showing a great potential for developement into roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible electronics.

  8. Diffusion welded nonconsumable electrode assembly and use thereof for electrolytic production of metals and silicon

    DOEpatents

    Byrne, Stephen C.; Vasudevan, Asuri K.

    1984-01-01

    A nonconsumable electrode assembly suitable for use in the production of metal by electrolytic reduction of a metal compound dissolved in a molten salt, the assembly comprising a metal conductor diffusion welded to a portion of a ceramic electrode body having a level of free metal or metal alloy sufficient to effect a metal bond.

  9. Time of Flight Electrochemistry: Diffusion Coefficient Measurements Using Interdigitated Array (IDA) Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Fei; Kolesov, Grigory; Parkinson, Bruce A.

    2014-09-26

    A simple and straightforward method for measuring diffusion coefficients using interdigitated array (IDA) electrodes is reported. The method does not require that the exact electrode area be known but depends only the size of the gap between the IDA electrode pairs. Electroactive molecules produced at the generator electrode of the IDA by a voltage step or scan can diffuse to the collector electrode and the time delay before the current for the reverse electrochemical reaction is detected at the collector is used to calculate the diffusion coefficient. The measurement of the diffusion rate of Ru(NH3)6+2 in aqueous solution has been used as an example measuring diffusion coefficients using this method. Additionally, a digital simulation of the electrochemical response of the IDA electrodes was used to simulate the entire current/voltage/time behavior of the system and verify the experimentally measured diffusion coefficients. This work was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  10. Lateral diffusion in model membranes is independent of the size of the hydrophobic region of molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Balcom, B J; Petersen, N O

    1993-01-01

    We have systematically investigated the probe size and shape dependence of lateral diffusion in model dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine membranes. Linear hydrophobic polymers, which differ in length by an order of magnitude, were used to explore the effect on the lateral diffusion coefficient of hydrodynamic restrictions in the bilayer interior. The polymers employed are isoprenoid alcohols--citronellol, solanesol, and dolichol. Tracer lateral diffusion coefficients were measured by fluorescence photobleaching recovery. Despite the large difference in lengths, the nitrobenzoxadiazole labelled alcohols all diffuse at the rate of lipid self-diffusion (5.0 x 10(-12) m2 s-1, 29 degrees C) in the liquid crystal phase. Companion measurements in isotropic polymer solution, in gel phase lipid membranes and with nonpolar fluorescent polyaromatic hydrocarbons, show a marked dependence of the lateral diffusion coefficient on the probe molecule size. Our results in the liquid crystal phase are in accord with free area theory which asserts that lateral diffusion in the membrane is restricted by the surface-free area. Probe molecules which are significantly longer than the host phospholipid, seven times longer in the case of dolichol, are still restricted in their lateral motion by the surface properties of the bilayer in the liquid crystal phase. Fluorescence quenching experiments indicate that the nitrobenzoxadiazole label does not reside at the aqueous interface, although it must reside in close proximity according to the diffusion measurements. PMID:8218892

  11. Lateral CO2 diffusion inside dicotyledonous leaves can be substantial: quantification in different light intensities.

    PubMed

    Morison, James I L; Lawson, Tracy; Cornic, Gabriel

    2007-11-01

    Substantial lateral CO(2) diffusion rates into leaf areas where stomata were blocked by grease patches were quantified by gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence imaging in different species across the full range of photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD). The lateral CO(2) flux rate over short distances was substantial and very similar in five dicotyledonous species with different vascular anatomies (two species with bundle sheath extensions, sunflower [Helianthus annuus] and dwarf bean [Phaseolus vulgaris]; and three species without bundle sheath extensions, faba bean [Vicia faba], petunia [Petunia hybrida], and tobacco [Nicotiana tabacum]). Only in the monocot maize (Zea mays) was there little or no evident lateral CO(2) flux. Lateral diffusion rates were low when PPFD <300 micromol m(-2) s(-1) but approached saturation in moderate PPFD (300 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) when lateral CO(2) diffusion represented 15% to 24% of the normal CO(2) assimilation rate. Smaller patches and higher ambient CO(2) concentration increased lateral CO(2) diffusion rates. Calculations with a two-dimensional diffusion model supported these observations that lateral CO(2) diffusion over short distances inside dicotyledonous leaves can be important to photosynthesis. The results emphasize that supply of CO(2) from nearby stomata usually dominates assimilation, but that lateral supply over distances up to approximately 1 mm can be important if stomata are blocked, particularly when assimilation rate is low.

  12. Electrochemical measurement of lateral diffusion coefficients of ubiquinones and plastoquinones of various isoprenoid chain lengths incorporated in model bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Marchal, D; Boireau, W; Laval, J M; Moiroux, J; Bourdillon, C

    1998-01-01

    The long-range diffusion coefficients of isoprenoid quinones in a model of lipid bilayer were determined by a method avoiding fluorescent probe labeling of the molecules. The quinone electron carriers were incorporated in supported dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine layers at physiological molar fractions (<3 mol%). The elaborate bilayer template contained a built-in gold electrode at which the redox molecules solubilized in the bilayer were reduced or oxidized. The lateral diffusion coefficient of a natural quinone like UQ10 or PQ9 was 2.0 +/- 0.4 x 10(-8) cm2 s(-1) at 30 degrees C, two to three times smaller than the diffusion coefficient of a lipid analog in the same artificial bilayer. The lateral mobilities of the oxidized or reduced forms could be determined separately and were found to be identical in the 4-13 pH range. For a series of isoprenoid quinones, UQ2 or PQ2 to UQ10, the diffusion coefficient exhibited a marked dependence on the length of the isoprenoid chain. The data fit very well the quantitative behavior predicted by a continuum fluid model in which the isoprenoid chains are taken as rigid particles moving in the less viscous part of the bilayer and rubbing against the more viscous layers of lipid heads. The present study supports the concept of a homogeneous pool of quinone located in the less viscous region of the bilayer. PMID:9545054

  13. Application of gas diffusion electrodes in bioelectrochemical syntheses and energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Horst, Angelika E W; Mangold, Klaus-Michael; Holtmann, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    Combining the advantages of biological components (e.g., reaction specificity, self-replication) and electrochemical techniques in bioelectrochemical systems offers the opportunity to develop novel efficient and sustainable processes for the production of a number of valuable products. The choice of electrode material has a great impact on the performance of bioelectrochemical systems. In addition to the redox process at the electrodes, interactions of biocatalysts with electrodes (e.g., enzyme denaturation or biofouling) need to be considered. In recent years, gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) have proved to be very attractive electrodes for bioelectrochemical purposes. GDEs are porous electrodes, that posses a large three-phase boundary surface. At this interface, a solid catalyst supports the electrochemical reaction between gaseous and liquid phase. This mini-review discusses the application of GDEs in microbial and enzymatic fuel cells, for microbial electrolysis, in biosensors and for electroenzymatic synthesis reactions.

  14. Lateral diffusion coefficients in membranes measured by resonance energy transfer and a new algorithm for diffusion in two dimensions.

    PubMed Central

    Kuśba, Jósef; Li, Li; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Johnson, Michael; Lakowicz, Joseph R

    2002-01-01

    We describe measurements of lateral diffusion in membranes using resonance energy transfer. The donor was a rhenium (Re) metal-ligand complex lipid, which displays a donor decay time near 3 micros. The long donor lifetime resulted in an ability to measure lateral diffusion coefficient below 10(-8) cm(2)/s. The donor decay data were analyzed using a new numerical algorithm for calculation of resonance energy transfer for donors and acceptors randomly distributed in two dimensions. An analytical solution to the diffusion equation in two dimensions is not known, so the equation was solved by the relaxation method in Laplace space. This algorithm allows the donor decay in the absence of energy transfer to be multiexponential. The simulations show that mutual lateral diffusion coefficients of the donor and acceptor on the order of 10(-8) cm(2)/s are readily recovered from the frequency-domain data with donor decay times on the microsecond timescale. Importantly, the lateral diffusion coefficients and acceptor concentrations can be recovered independently despite correlation between these parameters. This algorithm was tested and verified using the donor decays of a long lifetime rhenium lipid donor and a Texas red-lipid acceptor. Lateral diffusion coefficients ranged from 4.4 x 10(-9) cm(2)/s in 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)] (DMPG) at 10 degrees C to 1.7 x 10(-7) cm(2)/s in 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) at 35 degrees C. These results demonstrated the possibility of direct measurements of lateral diffusion coefficients using microsecond decay time luminophores. PMID:11867452

  15. Lateral diffusion of bilayer lipids measured via (31)P CODEX NMR.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Qasim; Lai, Angel; Morales, Hannah H; Macdonald, Peter M

    2012-10-01

    We have employed (31)P CODEX (centre-band-only-detection-of-exchange) NMR to measure lateral diffusion coefficients of phospholipids in unilamellar lipid bilayer vesicles consisting of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC), alone or in mixtures with 30 mol% 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG) or cholesterol (CHOL). The lateral diffusion coefficients of POPC and POPG were extracted from experimental CODEX signal decays as a function of increasing mixing time, after accounting for the vesicle's size and size distribution, as determined via dynamic light scattering, and the viscosity of the vesicular suspension, as determined via (1)H pulsed field gradient NMR. Lateral diffusion coefficients for POPC and POPG determined in this fashion fell in the range 1.0-3.2 × 10(-12) m(2) s(-1) at 10 °C, depending on the vesicular composition, in good agreement with accepted values. Thus, two advantages of (31)P CODEX NMR for phospholipid lateral diffusion measurements are demonstrated: no labelling of the molecule of interest is necessary, and multiple lateral diffusion coefficients can be measured simultaneously. It is expected that this approach will prove particularly useful in diagnosing heterogeneities in lateral diffusion behaviours, such as might be expected for specific lipid-lipid or lipid-protein interactions, and thermotropic or electrostatically induced phase inhomogeneities.

  16. Static and Dynamic Effects of Lateral Carrier Diffusion in Semiconductor Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jian-Zhong; Cheung, Samson H.; Ning, C. Z.; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Electron and hole diffusions in the plane of semiconductor quantum wells play an important part in the static and dynamic operations of semiconductor lasers. It is well known that the value of diffusion coefficients affects the threshold pumping current of a semiconductor laser. At the same time, the strength of carrier diffusion process is expected to affect the modulation bandwidth of an AC-modulated laser. It is important not only to investigate the combined DC and AC effects due to carrier diffusion, but also to separate the AC effects from that of the combined effects in order to provide design insights for high speed modulation. In this presentation, we apply a hydrodynamic model developed by the present authors recently from the semiconductor Bloch equations. The model allows microscopic calculation of the lateral carrier diffusion coefficient, which is a nonlinear function of the carrier density and plasma temperature. We first studied combined AC and DC effects of lateral carrier diffusion by studying the bandwidth dependence on diffusion coefficient at a given DC current under small signal modulation. The results show an increase of modulation bandwidth with decrease in the diffusion coefficient. We simultaneously studied the effects of nonlinearity in the diffusion coefficient. To clearly identify how much of the bandwidth increase is a result of decrease in the threshold pumping current for smaller diffusion coefficient, thus an effective increase of DC pumping, we study the bandwidth dependence on diffusion coefficient at a given relative pumping. A detailed comparison of the two cases will be presented.

  17. Exploratory laboratory study of lateral turbulent diffusion at the surface of an alluvial channel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sayre, William W.; Chamberlain, A.R.

    1964-01-01

    In natural streams turbulent diffusion is one of the principal mechanisms by which liquid and suspended-particulate contaminants are dispersed in the flow. A knowledge of turbulence characteristics is therefore essential in predicting the dispersal rates of contaminants in streams. In this study the theory of diffusion by continuous movements for homogeneous turbulence is applied to lateral diffusion at the surface of an open channel in which there is uniform flow. An exploratory-laboratory investigation was conducted in which the lateral dispersion at the water surface of a sand-Led flume was studied by measuring the lateral spread from a point source of small floating polyethylene articles. The experiment was restricted to a single set of low and channel geometry conditions. The results of the study indicate that with certain restrictions lateral dispersion in alluvial channels may be successfully described by the theory of diffusion by continuous movements. The experiment demonstrates a means for evaluating the lateral diffusion coefficient and also methods for quantitatively estimating fundamental turbulence properties, such as the intensity and the Lagrangian integral scale of turbulence in an alluvial channel. The experimental results show that with increasing distance from the source the coefficient of lateral turbulent diffusion increases initially but tends toward a constant limiting value. This result is in accordance with turbulent diffusion theory. Indications are that the distance downstream from the source required for the diffusion coefficient to reach its limiting value is actually very small when compared to the length scale of most diffusion phenomena in natural streams which are of practical interest.

  18. Normal-mode analysis of lateral diffusion on a bounded membrane surface.

    PubMed Central

    Koppel, D E

    1985-01-01

    The normal-mode analysis of fluorescence redistribution after photobleaching, introduced for the characterization of lateral diffusion on spherical membrane surfaces, has been generalized and extended to other surface geometries. Theoretical expressions are derived for the characteristic values and orthogonal characteristic functions of the diffusion equations for cylindrical surfaces, ellipsoids of revolution and dimpled discoidal surfaces. On the basis of these results, a simple analytical function is proposed as an empirical solution for the analysis of photobleaching data on a variety of discoidal surfaces. Special experimental and computational methods for determining the surface-diffusion coefficient are described, and demonstrated with data for lipid diffusion in erythrocyte membranes. PMID:3978205

  19. Primary Lateral Sclerosis as Progressive Supranuclear Palsy: Diagnosis by Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Coon, Elizabeth A.; Whitwell, Jennifer L.; Jack, Clifford R.; Josephs, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Evaluating the integrity of white matter tracts with diffusion tensor imaging may differentiate primary lateral sclerosis from progressive supranuclear palsy. Methods Thirty-three prospectively recruited subjects had standardized evaluations and diffusion tensor imaging: 3 with primary lateral sclerosis who presented with features suggestive of progressive supranuclear palsy, 10 with probable or definite progressive supranuclear palsy, and 20 matched controls. We compared fractional anisotropy of the corticospinal tract, superior cerebellar peduncle and body of the corpus callosum between groups. Results Both the primary lateral sclerosis and progressive supranuclear palsy subjects showed reduced fractional anisotropy in superior cerebellar peduncles and body of the corpus callosum compared to controls, but only primary lateral sclerosis subjects showed reductions in the corticospinal tracts. A ratio of corticospinal tract/superior cerebellar peduncle best distinguished the disorders (p<0.02). Conclusions The corticospinal tract/superior cerebellar peduncle ratio is a marker to differentiate primary lateral sclerosis from progressive supranuclear palsy. PMID:22517038

  20. Vanadium diaphragm electrode serves as hydrogen diffuser in lithium hydride cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouthamel, C. E.; Heinrich, R. R.; Johnson, C. E.

    1967-01-01

    Lithium hydride cell uses vanadium diaphragm electrode as a hydrogen diffuser. Vanadium is high in hydrogen gas solubility and permeability, is least sensitive to adverse surface effects, maintains good mechanical strength in hydrogen atmospheres, and appears to be compatible with all alkali-halide electrolytes and lithium metals.

  1. (abstract) Alkali Metal Diffusion Through Porous Metal Electrodes in AMTEC Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.; Underwood, M. L.; O'Connor, D.; Kisor, A.; Kikkert, S.

    1993-01-01

    The mechanisms of mass transport of an alkali metal through porous metal electrodes in alkali metal thermal-to-electric converter AMTEC cells is important in optimizing these high current density devices, but also affords the opportunity to investigate a variety of simple mass transport modes at high temperatures via electrochemical techniques. We have previously reported evidence of ionic, free molecular flow, and surface transport of sodium in several types of AMTEC electrodes. Quantitative investigations of Na transport through WPt(sub 3.5) via surface or grain boundary diffusion, and K transport through porous Mo electrodes by free molecular flow, over large ranges of temperature have been performed. WPt(sub 3.5) has especially low transport impedance over the 950 to 1200K temperature range. New results are the Na through porous WPt(sub 3.5) and K through porous Mo diffusion rates and mechanisms.

  2. Membrane orientation and lateral diffusion of BODIPY-cholesterol as a function of probe structure.

    PubMed

    Solanko, Lukasz M; Honigmann, Alf; Midtiby, Henrik Skov; Lund, Frederik W; Brewer, Jonathan R; Dekaris, Vjekoslav; Bittman, Robert; Eggeling, Christian; Wüstner, Daniel

    2013-11-05

    Cholesterol tagged with the BODIPY fluorophore via the central difluoroboron moiety of the dye (B-Chol) is a promising probe for studying intracellular cholesterol dynamics. We synthesized a new BODIPY-cholesterol probe (B-P-Chol) with the fluorophore attached via one of its pyrrole rings to carbon-24 of cholesterol (B-P-Chol). Using two-photon fluorescence polarimetry in giant unilamellar vesicles and in the plasma membrane (PM) of living intact and actin-disrupted cells, we show that the BODIPY-groups in B-Chol and B-P-Chol are oriented perpendicular and almost parallel to the bilayer normal, respectively. B-Chol is in all three membrane systems much stronger oriented than B-P-Chol. Interestingly, we found that the lateral diffusion in the PM was two times slower for B-Chol than for B-P-Chol, although we found no difference in lateral diffusion in model membranes. Stimulated emission depletion microscopy, performed for the first time, to our knowledge, with fluorescent sterols, revealed that the difference in lateral diffusion of the BODIPY-cholesterol probes was not caused by anomalous subdiffusion, because diffusion of both analogs in the PM was free but not hindered. Our combined measurements show that the position and orientation of the BODIPY moiety in cholesterol analogs have a severe influence on lateral diffusion specifically in the PM of living cells.

  3. Thermal imaging measurement of lateral diffusivity and non-invasive material defect detection

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Jiangang; Deemer, Chris

    2003-01-01

    A system and method for determining lateral thermal diffusivity of a material sample using a heat pulse; a sample oriented within an orthogonal coordinate system; an infrared camera; and a computer that has a digital frame grabber, and data acquisition and processing software. The mathematical model used within the data processing software is capable of determining the lateral thermal diffusivity of a sample of finite boundaries. The system and method may also be used as a nondestructive method for detecting and locating cracks within the material sample.

  4. Variations of boundary reaction rate and particle size on the diffusion-induced stress in a phase separating electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lei; He, Linghui; Ni, Yong; Song, Yicheng

    2014-10-14

    In contrast to the case of single-phase delithiation wherein faster discharging leads to higher diffusion-induced stress (DIS), this paper reports nonmonotonous dependency of the boundary reaction rate on the DIS in nanosized spherical electrode accompanying phase separation. It is attributed to a transition from two-phase to single-phase delithiation driven by increase of the boundary reaction rate leading to narrowing and vanishing of the miscibility gap in a range of the particle size. The profiles of lithium concentration and the DIS are identified during the transition based on a continuum model. The resultant maximum DIS first decreases in the region of two-phase delithiation and later returns to increase in the region of single-phase delithiation with the increase of the boundary reaction rate. A map for the failure behavior in the spherical electrode particle is constructed based on the Tresca failure criterion. These results indicate that the failure caused by the DIS can be avoided by appropriate selection of the said parameters in such electrodes.

  5. Strong influence of periodic boundary conditions on lateral diffusion in lipid bilayer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camley, Brian A.; Lerner, Michael G.; Pastor, Richard W.; Brown, Frank L. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Saffman-Delbrück hydrodynamic model for lipid-bilayer membranes is modified to account for the periodic boundary conditions commonly imposed in molecular simulations. Predicted lateral diffusion coefficients for membrane-embedded solid bodies are sensitive to box shape and converge slowly to the limit of infinite box size, raising serious doubts for the prospects of using detailed simulations to accurately predict membrane-protein diffusivities and related transport properties. Estimates for the relative error associated with periodic boundary artifacts are 50% and higher for fully atomistic models in currently feasible simulation boxes. MARTINI simulations of LacY membrane protein diffusion and LacY dimer diffusion in DPPC membranes and lipid diffusion in pure DPPC bilayers support the underlying hydrodynamic model.

  6. Strong influence of periodic boundary conditions on lateral diffusion in lipid bilayer membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Camley, Brian A.; Lerner, Michael G.; Pastor, Richard W.; Brown, Frank L. H.

    2015-12-28

    The Saffman-Delbrück hydrodynamic model for lipid-bilayer membranes is modified to account for the periodic boundary conditions commonly imposed in molecular simulations. Predicted lateral diffusion coefficients for membrane-embedded solid bodies are sensitive to box shape and converge slowly to the limit of infinite box size, raising serious doubts for the prospects of using detailed simulations to accurately predict membrane-protein diffusivities and related transport properties. Estimates for the relative error associated with periodic boundary artifacts are 50% and higher for fully atomistic models in currently feasible simulation boxes. MARTINI simulations of LacY membrane protein diffusion and LacY dimer diffusion in DPPC membranes and lipid diffusion in pure DPPC bilayers support the underlying hydrodynamic model.

  7. A quantitative radioluminographic imaging method for evaluating lateral diffusion rates in skin.

    PubMed

    Rush, Allison K; Miller, Matthew A; Smith, Edward D; Kasting, Gerald B

    2015-10-28

    A method is presented for measuring the lateral diffusion coefficients of exogenously applied compounds on excised skin. The method involves sequential high resolution imaging of the spatial distribution of β-radiation associated with [(14)C]-labeled compounds to monitor the development of the concentration profile on the skin surface. It is exemplified by measurements made on three radiolabeled test compounds--caffeine, testosterone, and zinc pyrithione (ZnPT)--administered as solutions. Lateral diffusivity is expected to be an important determinant of the topical bioavailability of ZnPT, which is characteristically administered as a fine suspension and must reach microorganisms in molecular form to exert biocidal activity. Application of the test compounds at levels below and above their estimated saturation doses in the upper stratum corneum allows one to distinguish between diffusion-limited and dissolution rate-limited kinetics. The effective lateral diffusivities of the two chemically stable reference compounds, caffeine and testosterone, were (1-4) × 10(-9) cm(2)/s and (3-9) × 10(-9) cm(2)/s, respectively. Lateral transport of [(14)C] associated with ZnPT was formulation-dependent, with effective diffusivities of (1-2) × 10(-9) cm(2)/s in water and (3-9) × 10(-9) cm(2)/s in a 1% body wash solution. These differences are thought to be related to molecular speciation and/or the presence of a residual surfactant phase on the skin surface. All values were greater than those estimated for the transverse diffusivities of these compounds in stratum corneum by factors ranging from 250 to over 2000. Facile lateral transport on skin, combined with a low transdermal permeation rate, may thus be seen to be a key factor in the safe and effective use of ZnPT as a topical antimicrobial agent.

  8. Improved chemically amplified photoresist characterization using interdigitated electrode sensors: photoacid diffusivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Cody M.; Henderson, Clifford L.

    2004-05-01

    The ability of interdigitated electrodes to serve as novel chemically amplified resist characterization tools has recently been demonstrated through their ability to measure the Dill C kinetic rate constant for photoacid generation. The work presented in this paper attempts to further extend the capabilities of the interdigitated electrode (IDE) sensors by investigating their potential use as a measurement tool for photoacid diffusion coefficients. Impedance spectroscopy of chemically amplified photoresist coated interdigitated electrodes is used to calculate the bulk ionic conductivity of the resist film. The ionic conductivity is subsequently utilized in the Nernst-Einstein equation to calculate the diffusion coefficient of the photoacid, assuming that it is the major charge carrying species in the film. A detailed description of the measurement and data analysis processes required to calculate the diffusion coefficient of triphenylsulfonium triflate in poly(p-hydroxystyrene) is provided. In addition, the effect of varying the relative humidity of the measurement environment upon the impedance data collected has been examined. It has been observed that the presence of water within the resist film, typically as a result of absorption of water from the humid ambient environment, dramatically changes the conductivity of the resist coated IDE. This change is apparently the result of changes in the proton conduction mechanism within the resist as a function of film water content. A discussion of several possible causes of this phenomena and its impact on the interpretation of the electrical data and the calculation and meaning of an acid diffusion coefficient are presented.

  9. Effects of electrode properties and fabricated pressure on Li ion diffusion and diffusion-induced stresses in cylindrical Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Guo, Zhansheng

    2014-03-01

    The effects of electrode properties and fabricated pressure on Li ion diffusion and diffusion-induced stress in a cylindrical Li-ion battery are studied. It is found that hydrostatic pressure or elastic modulus variation in the active layer have little effect on the distribution of Li ions for a higher diffusivity coefficient, but both can facilitate Li ion diffusion for a lower diffusivity coefficient. The elastic modulus variation has a significant effect on the distribution of stress and hydrostatic pressure can reduce the surface stress for the lower diffusivity coefficient. A higher charging rate causes a more transient response in the stress history, but a linear charging history is observed for slow charging rates. A higher charging rate would not inflict extra damage on the electrode for the higher diffusivity coefficient and the stress history becomes highly transient and charging rate dependent for the lower diffusivity coefficient. The effect of fabricated pressure can be neglected.

  10. Peculiarities of lateral diffusion of lipids in three-component bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, A. V.; Rudakova, M. A.

    2011-03-01

    The lateral diffusion of lipid molecules in macroscopically oriented bilayers of mixed dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine (DOPC), egg sphingomyeline (SM), and cholesterol (CHOL) and its dependence on cholesterol concentration and temperature was studied by NMR with pulsed field gradient. The system forms a lamellar liquid crystalline (LC) phase; in a certain range of temperatures and concentrations of cholesterol the system is separated into two subphases: a disordered LC phase (ld) enriched with DOPC, and an ordered phase (l0) enriched with SM. These are characterized by their own lateral diffusion coefficients (LDCs), which differ from one another by a factor of 1.5-5. The dependence of the LDCs in the phases on the cholesterol concentration was analyzed. There was no clear dependence for the disordered LC phase, but we found that LDCs tend to grow in the concentration range of 15-35 mol % of CHOL. This behavior could be due to the redistribution of lipid components as the concentration of CHOL increases, eventually leading to a rise in DOPC concentration in the lo phase. In the range of liquid-phase domains, we observed no dependence of LDCs on the diffusion time typical of the restricted diffusion regime, due to spatial restraints in the system. This could be associated with the relatively large size of the domains, and with the domain capability of lateral diffusion in a surrounding continuous phase.

  11. Perturbation of the Heat Lateral Diffusion by Interface Resistance in Layered Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frétigny, C.; Duquesne, J.-Y.; Fournier, D.

    2015-06-01

    It is well established that interface resistances do usually exist in layered structures, and their values strongly depend on their origin. They may arise from different vibrational properties of the layers, nonharmonic processes at the interface, surface chemical contamination, interfacial defects, etc. Numerous studies have been published to evaluate their values, most of the time, in a perpendicular heat diffusion scheme. In this paper, the effect of interface resistances on the lateral modulated surface temperature of a layered structure for cylindrical symmetry heat diffusion is studied. The thermoreflectance microscope is a particularly convenient tool to record heat lateral diffusion from a surface modulated heated point and thus to evidence the presence of such resistance interfaces. In a first part, the theoretical model of heat diffusion in cylindrical symmetry, in a layered structure exhibiting an interface resistance between the layer and the substrate, is briefly described. In a second part, the C/I configuration (good conductive layer deposited on an insulating substrate, with an interface resistance) is investigated. Experimental results illustrate the theory. In the third part, the reverse case I/C (insulating layer deposited on a conductive substrate, with an interface resistance) is discussed. To conclude, all the cases and the ability of the lateral diffusion to recover interface thermal resistances are compared.

  12. Measurement of lateral dopant diffusion in rapid thermal annealed W-polycide gate structures

    SciTech Connect

    Schiml, T.; Bevk, J.; Furtsch, M.; Georgiou, G.E.; Cirelli, R.; Mansfield, W.M.; Silverman, P.J.; Luftman, H.S.

    1996-12-01

    Lateral dopant diffusion is a well known problem in dual-gate W-polycide CMOS devices. The authors have recently demonstrated that RTA processing helps to alleviate this problem and at the same time ensures sufficient dopant activation. However, due to the complex micro-structural changes in both poly-Si and WSi{sub x} (x {approximately} 2.5) layers during the RTA process, the time dependence of the diffusion processes and dopant distribution are difficult to predict. Consequently, the process optimization and device simulations are rather unreliable. They describe a new experimental technique to measure lateral dopant diffusion and 2-dimensional dopant distribution in RTA processed W-polycide structures using conventional SIMS analysis of lithographically defined test structures. The experiments show that the technique is capable of measuring lateral dopant diffusion over distances between one and tens of microns without losing the vertical resolution of conventional SIMS profiling. The technique can be used to study diffusion processes in a variety of materials and multi-layer structures.

  13. Diffusion-free mediator based miniature biofuel cell anode fabricated on a carbon-MEMS electrode.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Gobind S; Holmberg, Sunny; Kulinsky, Lawrence; Madou, Marc

    2012-10-02

    We report on the functionalization of a micropatterned carbon electrode fabricated using the carbon-MEMS process for its use as a miniature diffusion-free glucose oxidase anode. Carbon-MEMS based electrodes offer precise manufacturing control on both the micro- and nanoscale and possess higher electron conductivity than redox hydrogels. However, the process involves pyrolysis in a reducing environment that renders the electrode surface less reactive and introduction of a high density of functional groups becomes challenging. Our functionalization strategy involves the electrochemical oxidation of amine linkers onto the electrode. This strategy works well with both aliphatic and aryl linkers and uses stable compounds. The anode is designed to operate through mediated electron transfer between 2,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (DHB) based redox mediator and glucose oxidase enzyme. The electrode was first functionalized with ethylene diamine (EDA) to serve as a linker for the redox mediator. The redox mediator was then grafted through reductive amination, and attachment was confirmed through cyclic voltammetry. The enzyme immobilization was carried out through either adsorption or attachment, and their efficiency was compared. For enzyme attachment, the DHB attached electrode was functionalized again through electro-oxidation of aminobenzoic acid (ABA) linker. The ABA functionalization resulted in reduction of the DHB redox current, perhaps due to increased steric hindrance on the electrode surface, but the mediator function was preserved. Enzyme attachment was then carried out through a coupling reaction between the free carboxyl group on the ABA linker and the amine side chains on the enzyme. The enzyme incubation for both adsorption and attachment was done either through a dry spotting method or wet spotting method. The dry spotting method calls for the evaporation of enzyme droplet to form a thin film before sealing the electrode environment, to increase the effective

  14. FTIR microscopy and confocal Raman microscopy for studying lateral drug diffusion from a semisolid formulation.

    PubMed

    Gotter, B; Faubel, W; Neubert, R H H

    2010-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy was applied to obtain information on lateral drug diffusion of dithranol in artificial acceptor membranes. Lateral (2D) drug distribution into an artificial membrane was investigated on an area of 300microm x 1000microm with a lateral resolution of 25microm x 25microm by integrating a specific IR band located at 1430cm(-1). The concentration profiles show a heterogeneous distribution of dithranol particles resulting in non-uniform drug diffusion. Use of the FTIR microscope either in the transmission or in the reflection mode was restricted to a thickness of the DDC membrane <15microm. The third dimension (depth profile) was analysed by means of confocal Raman microscopy (CRM). In an artificial membrane, the depth range from a minimum of 1.5microm up to a maximum of 49microm was analysed for dithranol distribution.

  15. Defect Detection in Fuel Cell Gas Diffusion Electrodes Using Infrared Thermography

    SciTech Connect

    Ulsh, Michael; Porter, Jason M.; Bittinat, Daniel C.; Bender, Guido

    2016-04-01

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells are energy conversion devices that offer high power densities and high efficiencies for mobile and other applications. Successful introduction into the marketplace requires addressing cost barriers such as production volumes and platinum loading. For cost reduction, it is vital to minimize waste and maximize quality during the manufacturing of platinum-containing electrodes, including gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs). In this work, we report on developing a quality control diagnostic for GDEs, involving creating an ex situ exothermic reaction on the electrode surface and using infrared thermography to measure the resulting temperature profile. Experiments with a moving GDE containing created defects were conducted to demonstrate the applicability of the diagnostic for real-time web-line inspection.

  16. Development and optimization of porous carbon papers suitable for gas diffusion electrodes. Final report, December 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, Gerald J.; Fleming, Patrick J.

    2001-01-16

    This final report details results from the program to optimize porous carbon gas diffusion electrodes for use in fuel cells. Efforts focused on isolating discrete paper properties through a custom-made matrix, then fuel cell testing each variant to correlate properties to performance. Resulting reduced cost material was manufactured on production equipment and made available to DOE industry partners. The resulting product is suitable for continuous production, which will be evaluated in future work.

  17. LATERAL HEAT FLOW INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY FOR THICKNESS INDEPENDENT DETERMINATION OF THERMAL DIFFUSIVITY IN CFRP

    SciTech Connect

    Tralshawala, Nilesh; Howard, Don; Knight, Bryon; Plotnikov, Yuri; Ringermacher, Harry

    2008-02-28

    In conventional infrared thermography, determination of thermal diffusivity requires thickness information. Recently GE has been experimenting with the use of lateral heat flow to determine thermal diffusivity without thickness information. This work builds on previous work at NASA Langley and Wayne State University but we incorporate thermal time of flight (tof) analysis rather than curve fitting to obtain quantitative information. We have developed appropriate theoretical models and a tof based data analysis framework to experimentally determine all components of thermal diffusivity from the time-temperature measurements. Initial validation was carried out using finite difference simulations. Experimental validation was done using anisotropic carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. We found that in the CFRP samples used, the in-plane component of diffusivity is about eight times larger than the through-thickness component.

  18. Interplay of electron hopping and bounded diffusion during charge transport in redox polymer electrodes.

    PubMed

    Akhoury, Abhinav; Bromberg, Lev; Hatton, T Alan

    2013-01-10

    Redox polymer electrodes (RPEs) have been prepared both by attachment of random copolymers of hydroxybutyl methacrylate and vinylferrocene (poly(HBMA-co-VF)) to carbon substrates by grafting either "to" or "from" the substrate surfaces, and by impregnation of porous carbon substrates with redox polymer gels of similar composition. An observed linear dependence of peak current on the square root of the applied voltage scan rate in cyclic voltammetry (CV) led to the conclusion that the rate controlling step in the redox process was the diffusive transfer of electrons through the redox polymer layer. The variation in the peak current with increasing concentration of the redox species in the polymer indicated that the electron transport transitioned from bounded diffusion to electron hopping. A modified form of the Blauch-Saveant equation for apparent diffusivity of electrons through a polymer film indicated that bounded diffusion was the dominant mechanism of electron transport in RPEs with un-cross-linked polymer chains at low concentrations of the redox species, but, as the concentration of the redox species increased, electron hopping became more dominant, and was the primary mode of electron diffusion above a certain concentration level of redox species. In the cross-linked polymer gels, bounded diffusion was limited because of the restricted mobility of the polymer chains. Electron hopping was the primary mode of electron diffusion in such systems at all concentrations of the redox species.

  19. Effects of spatial variation in membrane diffusibility and solubility on the lateral transport of membrane components.

    PubMed Central

    Eisinger, J; Halperin, B I

    1986-01-01

    There exist many examples of membrane components (e.g. receptors) accumulating in special domains of cell membranes. We analyze how certain variations in lateral diffusibility and solubility of the membrane would increase the efficiency of transport to these regions. A theorem is derived to show that the mean-time-of capture, tc, for particles diffusing to a trap from an annular region surrounding it, is intermediate to the tc values that correspond to the minimum and maximum diffusion coefficients that obtain in this region. An analytical solution for tc as a function of the gradient of diffusivity surrounding a trap is derived for circular geometry. Since local diffusion coefficients can be increased dramatically by reducing the concentration of intra-membrane particles and/or allowing them to form aggregates, such mechanisms could greatly enhance the diffusion-limited transport of particular membrane components to a trap (e.g. coated pit). If the trap is surrounded by an annular region in which the probe particles' partition function is increased, say, by the local segregation of certain phospholipids, tc is shown to vary inversely with the logarithm of the relative partition function. We provide some conjectural examples to illustrate the magnitude of the effects which heterogeneities in diffusibility and solubility may have in biological membranes. PMID:3756302

  20. Influence of impeller and diffuser geometries on the lateral fluid forces of whirling centrifugal impeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohashi, Hideo; Sakurai, Akira; Nishihama, Jiro

    1989-01-01

    Lateral fluid forces on two-dimensional centrifugal impellers, which whirl on a circular orbit in a vaneless diffuser, were reported. Experiments were further conducted for the cases in which a three-dimensional centrifugal impeller, a model of the boiler feed pump, whirls in vaneless and vaned diffusers. The influence of the clearance configuration between the casing and front shroud of the impeller was also investigated. The result indicated that the fluid dynamic interaction between the impeller and the guide vanes induces quite strong fluctuating fluid forces to the impeller, but nevertheless its influence on radial and tangential force components averaged over a whirling orbit is relatively small.

  1. Ultrathin MgO diffusion barriers for ferromagnetic electrodes on GaAs(001).

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Anirban; Wang, Shibo; Grafeneder, Wolfgang; Arndt, Martin; Koch, Reinhold

    2015-04-24

    Ultrathin MgO(100) films serving as a diffusion barrier between ferromagnetic electrodes and GaAs(001) semiconductor templates have been investigated. Using Fe as an exemplary ferromagnetic material, heterostructures of Fe/MgO/GaAs(001) were prepared at 200 °C with the MgO thickness ranging from 1.5 to 3 nm. Structural characterization reveals very good crystalline ordering in all layers of the heterostructure. Auger electron spectroscopy depth-profiling and cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy evidence diffusion of Fe into MgO and-for too thin MgO barriers-further into GaAs(001). Our results recommend a MgO barrier thickness larger than or equal to 2.6 nm for its application as a reliable diffusion barrier on GaAs(001) in spintronics devices.

  2. Physical degradation of membrane electrode assemblies undergoing freeze/thaw cycling: Diffusion media effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soowhan; Ahn, Byung Ki; Mench, M. M.

    In this work, the effects of properties of diffusion media (DM) (stiffness, thickness and micro-porous layer (MPL)) on the physical damage of membrane electrode assembly (MEA) subjected to freeze/thaw cycling were studied. Pressure uniformity of the diffusion media onto the catalyst layer (CL) was determined to be a key parameter to mitigate freeze-induced physical damage. Stiffer diffusion media, enabling more uniform compression under the channels and lands, can mitigate surface cracks, but flexible cloth diffusion media experienced severe catalyst layer surface damage. The thickness of the diffusion media and existence of a micro-porous layer were not observed to be major factors to mitigate freeze-damage when the catalyst layer is in contact with liquid. Interfacial delamination between diffusion media and catalyst layers, but not between the catalyst layer and membrane, was observed. This permanent deformation of the stiff diffusion media in the channel locations as well as fractures of carbon fibers increased electrical resistance, and may increase water flooding, resulting in reduced longevity and operational losses. Although use of a freeze-tolerable MEA design (negligible virgin cracked catalyst layers with thinner reinforced membrane) [S. Kim, M.M. Mench, J. Power Sources, in press] with stiff diffusion media can reduce the freeze-damage in the worst case scenario test condition of direct liquid contact, extensive irreversible damage (diffusion media/catalyst layer interfacial delamination) was not completely prevented. In addition to proper material selection, liquid water contact with the catalyst layer should be removed prior to shutdown to a frozen state to permit long-term cycling damage and facilitate frozen start.

  3. Study on electrical characteristics of barrier-free atmospheric air diffuse discharge generated by nanosecond pulses and long wire electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lee Liu, Yun-Long; Teng, Yun; Liu, Lun; Pan, Yuan

    2014-07-15

    In room-temperature atmospheric air, the large-scale diffuse plasmas can be generated via high-voltage nanosecond pulses with short rise-time and wire electrodes. Diffuse discharge with the wire electrode length up to 110.0 cm and the discharge spacing of several centimeters has been investigated in this paper. Electrical characteristics of diffuse discharge have been analyzed by their optical photographs and measuring of the voltage and current waveforms. Experimental results show the electrode spacing, and the length of wire electrodes can influence the intensity and mode transition of diffuse discharge. The characteristic of current waveforms is that there are several current oscillation peaks at the time of applied pulsed voltage peak, and at the tail of applied pulse, the conduction current component will compensate the displacement one so that the measured current is unidirectional in diffuse discharge mode. The transition from diffuse discharge to arc discharge is always with the increasing of conduction current density. As for nanosecond pulses with long tail, the long wire electrodes are help for generating non-equilibrium diffuse plasmas.

  4. Gas diffusion-type oxygen electrode using perovskite-type oxides for metal-air batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Hyodo, Takeo; Miura, Norio; Yamazoe, Noboru

    1995-12-31

    In order to develop an air cathode of metal-air batteries, oxygen reduction behavior of gas diffusion-type carbon electrodes loaded with perovskite-type oxides, La{sub 1{minus}x}A{prime}{sub x}FeO{sub 3} (A{prime} = Ca, Sr, Ba, 0 {le} x {le} 1.0), was examined in 8 M KOH at 60 C. Among the oxide catalysts tested, La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3} (specific surface area: 21.5 m{sup 2}{center_dot}g{sup {minus}1}) gave the highest electrode performance. On the basis of electrode reaction kinetics, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition rates, and temperature programmed desorption of oxygen, it was concluded that such a performance was attributable to the active sites of the oxide for the direct 4-electron reduction of oxygen. Moreover, the electrode using La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3} was found to be rather stable in a short-term operation for 90 h at 300 mA{center_dot}cm{sup {minus}2}.

  5. Gas diffusion electrode setup for catalyst testing in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Wiberg, Gustav K. H. E-mail: m.arenz@chem.ku.dk; Fleige, Michael; Arenz, Matthias E-mail: m.arenz@chem.ku.dk

    2015-02-15

    We present a detailed description of the construction and testing of an electrochemical cell setup allowing the investigation of a gas diffusion electrode containing carbon supported high surface area catalysts. The setup is designed for measurements in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated temperature, i.e., very close to the actual conditions in high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs). The cell consists of a stainless steel flow field and a PEEK plastic cell body comprising the electrochemical cell, which exhibits a three electrode configuration. The cell body and flow field are braced using a KF-25 vacuum flange clamp, which allows an easy assembly of the setup. As demonstrated, the setup can be used to investigate temperature dependent electrochemical processes on high surface area type electrocatalysts, but it also enables quick screening tests of HT-PEMFC catalysts under realistic conditions.

  6. Diffusion tensor imaging detects corticospinal tract involvement at multiple levels in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Toosy, A; Werring, D; Orrell, R; Howard, R; King, M; Barker, G; Miller, D; Thompson, A

    2003-01-01

    Background: Histopathological studies of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are of end stage disease. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides the opportunity to investigate indirectly corticospinal tract pathology of ALS in vivo. Methods: DTI was used to study the water diffusion characteristics of the corticospinal tracts in 21 patients with ALS and 14 normal controls. The authors measured the fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) along the pyramidal tracts from the internal capsules down to the pyramids. A mixed model regression analysis was used to compare FA and MD between the ALS and control groups. Results: FA showed a downward linear trend from the cerebral peduncles to the pyramids and was lower in the ALS group than controls at multiple levels of the corticospinal tract. At the internal capsules, FA was higher on the right. MD showed an upward trend, progressing caudally from the internal capsules to the pyramids. MD was higher at the level of the internal capsule in the ALS group, but caudally this difference was not maintained. No correlations were found between clinical markers of disability and water diffusion indices. Conclusions: These findings provide insights into the pathological processes of ALS. Differences in diffusion characteristics at different anatomical levels may relate to underlying tract architecture or the distribution of pathological damage in ALS. Further development may permit monitoring of progression and treatment of disease. PMID:12933929

  7. Lateral diffusivity coefficients from the dynamics of a SF6 patch in a coastal environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersalé, M.; Petrenko, A. A.; Doglioli, A. M.; Nencioli, F.; Bouffard, J.; Blain, S.; Diaz, F.; Labasque, T.; Quéguiner, B.; Dekeyser, I.

    2016-01-01

    The dispersion of a patch of the tracer sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is used to assess the lateral diffusivity in the coastal waters of the western part of the Gulf of Lion (GoL), northwestern Mediterranean Sea, during the Latex10 experiment (September 2010). Immediately after the release, the spreading of the patch is associated with a strong decrease of the SF6 concentrations due to the gas exchange from the ocean to the atmosphere. This has been accurately quantified, evidencing the impact of the strong wind conditions during the first days of this campaign. Few days after the release, as the atmospheric loss of SF6 decreased, lateral diffusivity coefficient at spatial scales of 10 km has been computed using two approaches. First, the evolution of the patch with time was combined with a diffusion-strain model to obtain estimates of the strain rate (γ = 2.5 10- 6 s- 1) and of the lateral diffusivity coefficient (Kh = 23.2 m2 s- 1). Second, a steady state model was applied, showing Kh values similar to the previous method after a period of adjustment between 2 and 4.5 days. This implies that after such period, our computation of Kh becomes insensitive to the inclusion of further straining of the patch. Analysis of sea surface temperature satellite imagery shows the presence of a strong front in the study area. The front clearly affected the dynamics within the region and thus the temporal evolution of the patch. Our results are consistent with previous studies in open ocean and demonstrate the success and feasibility of those methods also under small-scale, rapidly-evolving dynamics typical of coastal environments.

  8. Phospholipid lateral diffusion in phosphatidylcholine-sphingomyelin-cholesterol monolayers; effects of oxidatively truncated phosphatidylcholines.

    PubMed

    Parkkila, Petteri; Stefl, Martin; Olżyńska, Agnieszka; Hof, Martin; Kinnunen, Paavo K J

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in a number of pathological conditions and the generated oxidatively modified lipids influence membrane properties and functions, including lipid-protein interactions and cellular signaling. Brewster angle microscopy demonstrated oxidatively truncated phosphatidylcholines to promote phase separation in monolayers of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (POPC), sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol (Chol). More specifically, 1-palmitoyl-2-azelaoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PazePC), was found to increase the miscibility transition pressure of the SM/Chol-phase. Lateral diffusion of lipids is influenced by a variety of membrane properties, thus making it a sensitive parameter to observe the coexistence of different lipid phases, for instance. The dependence on lipid lateral packing of the lateral diffusion of fluorophore-containing phospholipid analogs was investigated in Langmuir monolayers composed of POPC, SM, and Chol and additionally containing oxidatively truncated phosphatidylcholines, using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). To our knowledge, these are the first FCS results on miscibility transition in ternary lipid monolayers, confirming previous results obtained using Brewster angle microscopy on such lipid monolayers. Wide-field fluorescence microscopy was additionally employed to verify the transition, i.e. the loss and reformation of SM/Chol domains.

  9. Lateral diffusion of membrane proteins: consequences of hydrophobic mismatch and lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Ramadurai, Sivaramakrishnan; Duurkens, Ria; Krasnikov, Victor V; Poolman, Bert

    2010-09-08

    Biological membranes are composed of a large number lipid species differing in hydrophobic length, degree of saturation, and charge and size of the headgroup. We now present data on the effect of hydrocarbon chain length of the lipids and headgroup composition on the lateral mobility of the proteins in model membranes. The trimeric glutamate transporter (GltT) and the monomeric lactose transporter (LacY) were reconstituted in giant unilamellar vesicles composed of unsaturated phosphocholine lipids of varying acyl chain length (14-22 carbon atoms) and various ratios of DOPE/DOPG/DOPC lipids. The lateral mobility of the proteins and of a fluorescent lipid analog was determined as a function of the hydrophobic thickness of the bilayer (h) and lipid composition, using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The diffusion coefficient of LacY decreased with increasing thickness of the bilayer, in accordance with the continuum hydrodynamic model of Saffman-Delbrück. For GltT, the mobility had its maximum at diC18:1 PC, which is close to the hydrophobic thickness of the bilayer in vivo. The lateral mobility decreased linearly with the concentration of DOPE but was not affected by the fraction of anionic lipids from DOPG. The addition of DOPG and DOPE did not affect the activity of GltT. We conclude that the hydrophobic thickness of the bilayer is a major determinant of molecule diffusion in membranes, but protein-specific properties may lead to deviations from the Saffman-Delbrück model.

  10. Lateral-crack-free, buckled, inkjet-printed silver electrodes on highly pre-stretched elastomeric substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaemyon; Chung, Seungjun; Song, Hyunsoo; Kim, Sangwoo; Hong, Yongtaek

    2013-03-01

    We report the formation of lateral-crack-free silver electrodes on highly pre-stretched poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) substrates using the inkjet-printing method followed by an annealing process under the pre-stretched state. Due to Poisson's effect, cracks are easily obtained in the direction lateral to the pre-stretching and releasing directions when the highly pre-stretched substrate is released after the electrode formation. In our method, however, Poisson's effect is suppressed significantly from the PDMS thermal expansion perpendicular to the pre-stretched direction during the annealing process. In order to prevent the formation of a lateral crack, the annealing temperature needs to be optimized for each pre-stretching condition. We modelled their relationship using Poisson's ratios and thermal expansion coefficients of the substrate and silver materials. Our measurement results showed consistent result with the simulation. The resistance of the fabricated silver electrodes negligibly changes under up to 17% strain and even after 1000 time stretching cycle tests.

  11. Fabrication of stainless steel mesh gas diffusion electrode for power generation in microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    You, Shi-Jie; Wang, Xiu-Heng; Zhang, Jin-Na; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Ren, Nan-Qi; Gong, Xiao-Bo

    2011-01-15

    This study reports the fabrication of a new membrane electrode assembly by using stainless steel mesh (SSM) as raw material and its effectiveness as gas diffusion electrode (GDE) for electrochemical oxygen reduction in microbial fuel cell (MFC). Based on feeding glucose (0.5 g L(-1)) substrate to a single-chambered MFC, power generation using SSM-based GDE was increased with the decrease of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) content applied during fabrication, reaching the optimum power density of 951.6 mW m(-2) at 20% PTFE. Repeatable cell voltage of 0.51 V (external resistance of 400 Ω) and maximum power density of 951.6 mW m(-2) produced for the MFC with SSM-based GDE are comparable to that of 0.52 V and 972.6 mW m(-2), respectively obtained for the MFC containing typical carbon cloth (CC)-made GDE. Besides, Coulombic efficiency (CE) is found higher for GDE (SSM or CC) with membrane assembly than without, which results preliminarily from the mitigation of Coulombic loss being associated with oxygen diffusion and substrate crossover. This study demonstrates that with its good electrical conductivity and much lower cost, the SSM-made GDE suggests a promising alternative as efficient and more economically viable material to conventional typical carbon for power production from biomass in MFC.

  12. Killing of total heterotrophic bacteria using the gas diffusion electrode system.

    PubMed

    Xu, W Y; Li, P

    2012-06-01

    This study focused on the disinfection of dual electrodes with a gas diffusion cathode using total heterotrophic bacteria as indicator microorganisms. Batch tests were performed to study the effects of platinum load W(Pt) and the pore-forming agent content WNH4HCO3 in gas diffusion electrodes on the germicidal efficacy eta and H2O2 yield. The results showed that the disinfection improved with W(Pt), but its efficiency at W(Pt) of 3 per thousand was equivalent to W(Pt) of 4 per thousand. The right amount of the pore-forming agent improved disinfection. Continuous tests were performed to study residence times (RTs), pH and oxygen flow rates Qo2 on the germicidal efficacy and H2O2 yield. The results indicated that at the steady state total heterotrophic bacteria in the outlet stream were completely inactivated under our experimental conditions. Disinfection improved with increasing RT. This phenomenon was more significant when RT < 20 min. A drop in pH value resulted in the rapid rise of germicidal efficacy, while disinfection shortened with an increasing oxygen flow rate Qo2. The operating costs are high. Further research is required to fully understand all parameters and reduce operating costs.

  13. Prevention of neurological complications using a neural monitoring system with a finger electrode in the extreme lateral interbody fusion approach.

    PubMed

    Narita, Wataru; Takatori, Ryota; Arai, Yuji; Nagae, Masateru; Tonomura, Hitoshi; Hayashida, Tatsuro; Ogura, Taku; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE Extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) is a minimally disruptive surgical procedure that uses a lateral approach. There is, however, concern about the development of neurological complications when this approach is used, particularly at the L4-5 level. The authors performed a prospective study of the effects of a new neural monitoring system using a finger electrode to prevent neurological complications in patients treated with XLIF and compared the results to results obtained in historical controls. METHODS The study group comprised 36 patients (12 male and 24 female) who underwent XLIF for lumbar spine degenerative spondylolisthesis or lumbar spine degenerative scoliosis at L4-5 or a lower level. Using preoperative axial MR images obtained at the mid-height of the disc at the treated level, we calculated the psoas position value (PP%) by dividing the distance from the posterior border of the vertebral disc to the posterior border of the psoas major muscle by the anteroposterior diameter of the vertebral disc. During the operation, the psoas major muscle was dissected using an index finger fitted with a finger electrode, and threshold values of the dilator were recorded before and after dissection. Eighteen cases in which patients had undergone the same procedure for the same indications but without use of the finger electrode served as historical controls. Baseline clinical and demographic characteristics, PP values, clinical results, and neurological complications were compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS The mean PP% values in the control and finger electrode groups were 17.5% and 20.1%, respectively (no significant difference). However, 6 patients in the finger electrode group had a rising psoas sign with PP% values of 50% or higher. The mean threshold value before dissection in the finger electrode group was 13.1 ± 5.9 mA, and this was significantly increased to 19.0 ± 1.5 mA after dissection (p < 0.001). A strong negative correlation was found

  14. Effects of concentration-dependent elastic modulus on Li-ions diffusion and diffusion-induced stresses in spherical composition-gradient electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Kai; Li, Yong; Zheng, Bailin

    2015-09-14

    The composition-gradient electrode material is considered as one of the most promising materials for lithium-ion batteries because of its excellent electrochemical performance and thermal stability. In this work, the effects of concentration-dependent elastic modulus on Li-ions diffusion and diffusion-induce stress in the composition-gradient electrodes were studied. The coupling equations of elasticity and diffusion under both potentiostatic charging and galvanostatic charging were developed to obtain the distributions of both the Li-ions concentration and the stress. The results indicated that the effects of the concentration-dependent elastic modulus on the Li-ions diffusion and the diffusion-induce stresses are controlled by the lithiation induced stiffening factor in the composition-gradient electrodes: a low stiffening factor at the center and a high stiffening factor at the surface lead to a significant effect, whereas a high stiffening factor at the center and a low stiffening factor at the surface result in a minimal effect. The results in this work provide guidance for the selection of electrode materials.

  15. CAD/CAM-designed 3D-printed electroanalytical cell for the evaluation of nanostructured gas-diffusion electrodes.

    PubMed

    Chervin, Christopher N; Parker, Joseph F; Nelson, Eric S; Rolison, Debra R; Long, Jeffrey W

    2016-04-29

    The ability to effectively screen and validate gas-diffusion electrodes is critical to the development of next-generation metal-air batteries and regenerative fuel cells. The limiting electrode in a classic two-terminal device such as a battery or fuel cell is difficult to discern without an internal reference electrode, but the flooded electrolyte characteristic of three-electrode electroanalytical cells negates the prime function of an air electrode-a void volume freely accessible to gases. The nanostructured catalysts that drive the energy-conversion reactions (e.g., oxygen reduction and evolution in the air electrode of metal-air batteries) are best evaluated in the electrode structure as-used in the practical device. We have designed, 3D-printed, and characterized an air-breathing, thermodynamically referenced electroanalytical cell that allows us to mimic the Janus arrangement of the gas-diffusion electrode in a metal-air cell: one face freely exposed to gases, the other wetted by electrolyte.

  16. CAD/CAM-designed 3D-printed electroanalytical cell for the evaluation of nanostructured gas-diffusion electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chervin, Christopher N.; Parker, Joseph F.; Nelson, Eric S.; Rolison, Debra R.; Long, Jeffrey W.

    2016-04-01

    The ability to effectively screen and validate gas-diffusion electrodes is critical to the development of next-generation metal-air batteries and regenerative fuel cells. The limiting electrode in a classic two-terminal device such as a battery or fuel cell is difficult to discern without an internal reference electrode, but the flooded electrolyte characteristic of three-electrode electroanalytical cells negates the prime function of an air electrode—a void volume freely accessible to gases. The nanostructured catalysts that drive the energy-conversion reactions (e.g., oxygen reduction and evolution in the air electrode of metal-air batteries) are best evaluated in the electrode structure as-used in the practical device. We have designed, 3D-printed, and characterized an air-breathing, thermodynamically referenced electroanalytical cell that allows us to mimic the Janus arrangement of the gas-diffusion electrode in a metal-air cell: one face freely exposed to gases, the other wetted by electrolyte.

  17. Lateral diffusion of CO2 from shaded to illuminated leaf parts affects photosynthesis inside homobaric leaves.

    PubMed

    Pieruschka, Roland; Schurr, Ulrich; Jensen, Manfred; Wolff, Wilfried F; Jahnke, Siegfried

    2006-01-01

    Gas exchange is generally regarded to occur between the leaf interior and ambient air, i.e. in vertical (anticlinal) directions of leaf blades. However, inside homobaric leaves, gas movement occurs also in lateral directions. The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether lateral CO2 diffusion affects leaf photosynthesis when illuminated leaves are partially shaded. Measurements using gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence imaging techniques were performed on homobaric leaves of Vicia faba and Nicotiana tabacum or on heterobaric leaves of Glycine max and Phaseolus vulgaris. For homobaric leaves, gas exchange inside a clamp-on leaf chamber was affected by shading the leaf outside the chamber. The quantum yield of photosystem II (Phi(PSII)) was highest directly adjacent to a light/shade border (LSB). Phi(PSII) decreased in the illuminated leaf parts with distance from the LSB, while the opposite was observed for nonphotochemical quenching. These effects became most pronounced at low stomatal conductance. They were not observed in heterobaric leaves. The results suggest that plants with homobaric leaves can benefit from lateral CO2 flux, in particular when stomata are closed (e.g. under drought stress). This may enhance photosynthetic, instead of nonphotochemical, processes near LSBs in such leaves and reduce the photoinhibitory effects of excess light.

  18. Laterally configured resistive switching device based on transition-metal nano-gap electrode on Gd oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Kawakita, Masatoshi; Okabe, Kyota; Kimura, Takashi

    2016-01-11

    We have developed a fabrication process for a laterally configured resistive switching device based on a Gd oxide. A nano-gap electrode connected by a Gd oxide with the ideal interfaces has been created by adapting the electro-migration method in a metal/GdO{sub x} bilayer system. Bipolar set and reset operations have been clearly observed in the Pt/GdO{sub x} system similarly in the vertical device based on GdO{sub x}. Interestingly, we were able to observe a clear bipolar switching also in a ferromagnetic CoFeB nano-gap electrode with better stability compared to the Pt/GdO{sub x} device. The superior performance of the CoFeB/GdO{sub x} device implies the importance of the spin on the resistive switching.

  19. Magnetically Diffused Radial Electric-Arc Air Heater Employing Water-Cooled Copper Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, R. F.; Davis, D. D., Jr.

    1962-01-01

    A magnetically rotated electric-arc air heater has been developed that is novel in that an intense magnetic field of the order of 10,000 to 25,000 gauss is employed. This field is supplied by a coil that is connected in series with the arc. Experimentation with this heater has shown that the presence of an intense magnetic field transverse to the arc results in diffusion of the arc and that the arc has a positive effective resistance. With the field coil in series with the arc, highly stable arc operation is obtained from a battery power supply. External ballast is not required to stabilize the arc when it is operating at maximum power level. The electrode erosion rate is so low that the airstream contamination is no more than 0.07 percent and may be substantially less.

  20. Fabrication of gas diffusion electrodes via electrophoretic deposition for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felix, Cecil; Jao, Ting-Chu; Pasupathi, Sivakumar; Linkov, Vladimir M.; Pollet, Bruno G.

    2014-07-01

    The Electrophoretic Deposition (EPD) method was adapted to fabricate Gas Diffusion Electrodes (GDEs) for Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEA) for High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (HT-PEMFC) operating at 160 °C. Suspensions containing the Pt/C catalyst, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and NaCl were studied. Stable catalyst suspensions were observed when the NaCl concentrations were ≤0.1 mM. Mercury intrusion porosity analysis showed that the GDEs obtained via the EPD method had higher porosity (30.5 m2 g-1) than the GDEs fabricated by the ultrasonic spray method (25.2 m2 g-1). Compared to the ultrasonically sprayed MEA, the EPD MEA showed ∼12% increase in peak power at a slightly lower (∼4 wt %) Pt loading. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) analysis showed a lower charge transfer resistance for the EPD MEA compared to the ultrasonically sprayed MEA while Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) analysis showed ∼16% higher Electrochemical Surface Area (ECSA) for the EPD MEA compared to the ultrasonically sprayed MEA. These observations were attributed to the higher porosity and better catalyst particle size distribution of the EPD GDEs. A comparison between PTFE and Nafion® ionomer in the Catalyst Layers (CL) of two EPD MEAs revealed that PTFE yielded MEAs with better performance and is therefore more suitable in HT-PEMFCs.

  1. Reducing diffusion induced stress in planar electrodes by plastic shakedown and cyclic plasticity of current collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yicheng; Li, Zongzan; Zhang, Junqian

    2014-10-01

    This paper proposes a strategy to reduce the diffusion induced stress and enhance the capacity of a layered electrode by allowing the plastic deformation of current collector. Based on analytical formulations of the stress in whole electrode, three types of elastoplastic behaviors of current collector, i.e. pure elastic deformation, plastic shakedown and cyclic plasticity, are identified. Criterions separating the three cases are proposed. It is found applying a thin current collector and allowing it to plastically yield in the charge/discharge cycles is beneficial not only to capacity as more space can be provided for active materials but also to electrochemical stability because the stress in active layer is significantly reduced. Structural design corresponding to plastic shakedown shows good balance between the said improvements and structural safety, whereas the case of cyclic plasticity further enhances the improvements. Therefore, structural designing scheme is provided for the former case according to the criterion of plastic shakedown but for the latter one based on the Coffin-Manson relation with expected cycle life.

  2. Structural and diffusion imaging versus clinical assessment to monitor amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas-Blanco, Arturo; Machts, Judith; Acosta-Cabronero, Julio; Kaufmann, Joern; Abdulla, Susanne; Kollewe, Katja; Petri, Susanne; Schreiber, Stefanie; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Dengler, Reinhard; Vielhaber, Stefan; Nestor, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects upper and lower motor neurons. Observational and intervention studies can be tracked using clinical measures such as the revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R) but for a complete understanding of disease progression, objective in vivo biomarkers of both central and peripheral motor pathway pathology are highly desirable. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of structural and diffusion imaging as central nervous system biomarkers compared to the standard clinical measure, ALSFRS-R, to track longitudinal evolution using three time-point measurements. N = 34 patients with ALS were scanned and clinically assessed three times at a mean of three month time intervals. The MRI biomarkers were structural T1-weighted volumes for cortical thickness measurement as well as deep grey matter volumetry, voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Cortical thickness focused specifically on the precentral gyrus while quantitative DTI biomarkers focused on the corticospinal tracts. The evolution of imaging biomarkers and ALSFRS-R scores over time were analysed using a mixed effects model that accounted for the scanning interval as a fixed effect variable, and, the initial measurements and time from onset as random variables. The mixed effects model showed a significant decrease in the ALSFRS-R score, (p < 0.0001, and an annual rate of change (AROC) of − 7.3 points). Similarly, fractional anisotropy of the corticospinal tract showed a significant decrease (p = 0.009, AROC = − 0.0066) that, in turn, was driven by a significant increase in radial diffusivity combined with a trend to decrease in axial diffusivity. No significant change in cortical thickness of the precentral gyrus was found (p > 0.5). In addition, deep grey matter volumetry and voxel-based morphometry also identified no significant changes. Furthermore, the

  3. A novel lateral diffused metal oxide semiconductor (LDMOS) by attracting the electric field Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orouji, Ali A.; Hanaei, Mahsa

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a novel silicon on insulator (SOI) lateral diffused metal oxide semiconductor (LDMOS) transistor with high voltage and high frequency performance is presented. In this work we try to reduce the electric field crowding in the drift region. The proposed structure consists of a metal in the buried oxide and also connected to the source. The inserted metal attracts the electric field lines in the buried oxide. It causes 67% improvement in the breakdown voltage in comparison with a conventional SOI-LDMOS (C-LDMOS). Our simulations with two dimensional ATLAS simulator show that the gate-drain capacitance improves in the proposed structure. The unilateral power gain also enhances. So, the proposed structure is suitable for high voltage and high frequency applications.

  4. Nonlinear dilational mechanics of Langmuir lipid monolayers: a lateral diffusion mechanism.

    PubMed

    Arriaga, Laura R; López-Montero, Iván; Rodríguez-García, Ruddi; Monroy, Francisco

    2008-06-01

    We propose a theoretical model for the nonlinear mechanical response of Langmuir lipid monolayers subjected to a dilational in-plane deformation. Lateral diffusion in conjunction with free convection has been considered to drive nonlinear mass transport in Langmuir lipid monolayers. The present model combines the conservative dynamical equations for lipid transport along the monolayer plane together with a material relationship accounting for nonlinear hypoelasticity, as experimentally observed from high-strain rheological measurements [Hilles, Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 122, 67 (2007)]. The dynamical equations have been resolved for oscillatory nonlinear motion, the theoretical spectral amplitudes being found in quantitative agreement with the experimental values obtained from surface rheology experiments performed in Langmuir monolayers of two different lipid systems, namely DPPC and native E. Coli lipids. The presence of micrometer-sized phase coexistence domains in these lipid systems has been claimed to pump diffusive transport along the monolayer plane. This dynamical scenario defines a relaxation regime compatible with the observed nonlinear mechanical behavior.

  5. Reaction-diffusion finite element model of lateral line primordium migration to explore cell leadership.

    PubMed

    Allena, R; Maini, P K

    2014-12-01

    Collective cell migration plays a fundamental role in many biological phenomena such as immune response, embryogenesis and tumorigenesis. In the present work, we propose a reaction-diffusion finite element model of the lateral line primordium migration in zebrafish. The population is modelled as a continuum with embedded discrete motile cells, which are assumed to be viscoelastic and able to undergo large deformations. The Wnt/ß-catenin-FGF and cxcr4b-cxcr7b signalling pathways inside the cohort regulating the migration are described through coupled reaction-diffusion equations. The coupling between mechanics and the molecular scenario occurs in two ways. Firstly, the intensity of the protrusion-contraction movement of the cells depends on the cxcr4b concentration. Secondly, the intra-synchronization between the active deformations and the adhesion forces inside each cell is triggered by the cxcr4b-cxcr7b polarity. This influences the inter-synchronization between the cells and results in two main modes of migration: uncoordinated and coordinated. The main objectives of the work were (i) to validate our assumptions with respect to the experimental observations and (ii) to decipher the mechanical conditions leading to efficient migration of the primordium. To achieve the second goal, we will specifically focus on the role of the leader cells and their position inside the population.

  6. Nano-fabricated perpendicular magnetic anisotropy electrodes for lateral spin valves and observation of Nernst-Ettingshausen related signals

    SciTech Connect

    Chejanovsky, N.; Sharoni, A.

    2014-08-21

    Lateral spin valves (LSVs) are efficient structures for characterizing spin currents in spintronics devices. Most LSVs are based on ferromagnetic (FM) electrodes for spin-injection and detection. While there are advantages for using perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) FM, e.g., stability to nano-scaling, these have almost not been studied. This is mainly due to difficulties in fabricating PMA FMs in a lateral geometry. We present here an efficient method, based on ion-milling through an AlN mask, for fabrication of LSVs with multi-layered PMA FMs such as Co/Pd and Co/Ni. We demonstrate, using standard permalloy FMs, that the method enables efficient spin injection. We show the multi-layer electrodes retain their PMA properties as well as spin injection and detection in PMA LSVs. In addition, we find a large asymmetric voltage signal which increases with current. We attribute this to a Nernst-Ettingshausen effect caused by local Joule heating and the perpendicular magnetic easy axis.

  7. Finite dose skin mass balance including the lateral part: comparison between experiment, pharmacokinetic modeling and diffusion models.

    PubMed

    Selzer, D; Hahn, T; Naegel, A; Heisig, M; Kostka, K H; Lehr, C M; Neumann, D; Schaefer, U F; Wittum, G

    2013-01-28

    This work investigates in vitro finite dose skin absorption of the model compounds flufenamic acid and caffeine experimentally and mathematically. The mass balance in different skin compartments (donor, stratum corneum (SC), deeper skin layers (DSL), lateral skin parts and acceptor) is analyzed as a function of time. For both substances high amounts were found in the lateral skin compartment after 6h of incubation, which emphasizes not to elide these parts in the modeling. Here, three different mathematical models were investigated and tested with the experimental data: a pharmacokinetic model (PK), a detailed microscopic two-dimensional diffusion model (MICRO) and a macroscopic homogenized diffusion model (MACRO). While the PK model was fitted to the experimental data, the MICRO and the MACRO models employed input parameters derived from infinite dose studies to predict the underlying diffusion process. All models could satisfyingly predict or describe the experimental data. The PK model and MACRO model also feature the lateral parts.

  8. Enhancement of Lateral Diffusion in Catanionic Vesicles during Multilamellar-to-Unilamellar Transition.

    PubMed

    Mitra, S; Sharma, V K; Garcia-Sakai, V; Orecchini, A; Seydel, T; Johnson, M; Mukhopadhyay, R

    2016-04-21

    Catanionic vesicles are formed spontaneously by mixing cationic and anionic dispersions in aqueous solution in suitable conditions. Because of spontaneity in formation, long-term stability, and easy modulation of size and charge, they have numerous advantages over conventional lipid-based vesicles. The dynamics of such vesicles is of interest in the field of biomedicine, as they can be used to deliver drug molecules into the cell membrane. Dynamics of catanionic vesicles based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) have been studied using incoherent elastic and quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) techniques. Neutron scattering experiments have been carried out on two backscattering spectrometers, IRIS and IN16B, which have different energy resolutions and energy transfer windows. An elastic fixed-window scan carried out using IN16B shows a phase transition at ∼307 K during the heating cycle, whereas on cooling the transition occurred at ∼294 K. DSC results are found to be in close agreement with the elastic scan data. This transition is ascribed to a structural rearrangement from a multilamellar to a unilamellar phase [ Andreozzi J. Phys. Chem. B 2010 , 114 , 8056 - 8060 ]. It is found that a model in which the surfactant molecules undergo both lateral and internal motions can describe the QENS data quite well. While the data from IRIS have contributions from both dynamical processes, the data from IN16B probe only lateral motions, as the internal motions are too fast for the energy window of the spectrometer. It is found that, through the transition, the fraction of surfactant molecules undergoing lateral motion increases of a factor of 2 from the multilamellar to the unilamellar phase, indicating an enhanced fluidity of the latter. The lateral motion is found to be Fickian in nature, while the internal motion has been described by a localized translational diffusion model. The results reported here could have direct

  9. Notch-mediated lateral inhibition regulates proneural wave propagation when combined with EGF-mediated reaction diffusion.

    PubMed

    Sato, Makoto; Yasugi, Tetsuo; Minami, Yoshiaki; Miura, Takashi; Nagayama, Masaharu

    2016-08-30

    Notch-mediated lateral inhibition regulates binary cell fate choice, resulting in salt and pepper patterns during various developmental processes. However, how Notch signaling behaves in combination with other signaling systems remains elusive. The wave of differentiation in the Drosophila visual center or "proneural wave" accompanies Notch activity that is propagated without the formation of a salt and pepper pattern, implying that Notch does not form a feedback loop of lateral inhibition during this process. However, mathematical modeling and genetic analysis clearly showed that Notch-mediated lateral inhibition is implemented within the proneural wave. Because partial reduction in EGF signaling causes the formation of the salt and pepper pattern, it is most likely that EGF diffusion cancels salt and pepper pattern formation in silico and in vivo. Moreover, the combination of Notch-mediated lateral inhibition and EGF-mediated reaction diffusion enables a function of Notch signaling that regulates propagation of the wave of differentiation.

  10. Notch-mediated lateral inhibition regulates proneural wave propagation when combined with EGF-mediated reaction diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Makoto; Yasugi, Tetsuo; Minami, Yoshiaki; Miura, Takashi; Nagayama, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    Notch-mediated lateral inhibition regulates binary cell fate choice, resulting in salt and pepper patterns during various developmental processes. However, how Notch signaling behaves in combination with other signaling systems remains elusive. The wave of differentiation in the Drosophila visual center or “proneural wave” accompanies Notch activity that is propagated without the formation of a salt and pepper pattern, implying that Notch does not form a feedback loop of lateral inhibition during this process. However, mathematical modeling and genetic analysis clearly showed that Notch-mediated lateral inhibition is implemented within the proneural wave. Because partial reduction in EGF signaling causes the formation of the salt and pepper pattern, it is most likely that EGF diffusion cancels salt and pepper pattern formation in silico and in vivo. Moreover, the combination of Notch-mediated lateral inhibition and EGF-mediated reaction diffusion enables a function of Notch signaling that regulates propagation of the wave of differentiation. PMID:27535937

  11. Effect of local velocity on diffusion-induced stress in large-deformation electrodes of lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Kai; Zheng, Bailin; Yang, Fuqian

    2016-07-01

    In this work, the contribution of local velocity to the resultant flux of lithium in lithium-ion battery is introduced into the diffusion equation to describe the migration of lithium in the active material of electrodes. The effect of the local velocity on the stress evolution in a spherical electrode made of silicon is analyzed, using the derived diffusion equation and nonlinear theory of elasticity. Two boundary conditions at the surface of the electrode, which represent two extreme conditions of real electrode materials, are used in the stress analysis: one is stress-free, and the other is immobile. The numerical results with the stress-free boundary condition suggest that the effect of the local velocity on the distribution of radial stress and hoop stress increases with the increase of time and the effect of the local velocity on the distribution of lithium is relatively small. In comparison with the results without the effect of the local velocity, the effect of the local velocity is negligible for the immobile boundary condition. The numerical result shows that the use of the immobile boundary condition leads to the decrease of von-Mises stress, which likely will retard the mechanical degradation of electrode and improve the electrochemical performance of lithium-ion battery.

  12. Elemental Diffusion and Service Performance of Bi2Te3-Based Thermoelectric Generation Modules with Flexible Connection Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chengpeng; Fan, Xi'an; Rong, Zhenzhou; Zhang, Chengcheng; Li, Guangqiang; Feng, Bo; Hu, Jie; Xiang, Qiusheng

    2017-02-01

    In this work, the elemental diffusion and service performance of Bi2Te3-based thermoelectric generation (TEG) modules with flexible Al electrodes were evaluated at a temperature difference of 240°C and a cold junction temperature of 50°C. The results indicated that while the maximum output power ( P max) and open circuit voltage ( U 0) first increased rapidly and then decreased gradually with service time, the dynamic inner-resistance ( R i) showed the opposite trend. Obvious defects and elemental diffusion across the interfaces were observed and resulted in the performance degradation of the TEG modules. The Ni barrier layer with a thickness of 8-10 μm could not effectively restrain the elemental diffusion for the TEG applications at the high operating temperatures. Al was not suitable as the electrode material for the Bi2Te3-based TEG modules due to its ready absorption of Se from the n-type thermoelectric legs. Encouragingly, we found that the Al electrode could restrain the diffusion of the other elements such as Bi, Te, Sb, Cu, Ni, and I. These results provided insight into the improvement of the service performance of the TEG modules.

  13. Gradation of mechanical properties in gas-diffusion electrode. Part 2: Heterogeneous carbon fiber and damage evolution in cell layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poornesh, K. K.; Cho, C. D.; Lee, G. B.; Tak, Y. S.

    In PEM fuel cell, gas-diffusion electrode (GDE) plays very significant role in force transmission from bipolar plate to the membrane. This paper investigates the effects of geometrical heterogeneities of gas-diffusion electrode layer (gas-diffusion layer (GDL) and catalyst layer (CL)) on mechanical damage evolution and propagation. We present a structural integrity principle of membrane electrode assembly (MEA) based on the interlayer stress transfer capacity and corresponding cell layer material response. Commonly observable damages such as rupture of hydrophobic coating and breakage of carbon fiber in gas-diffusion layer are attributed to the ductile to brittle phase transition within a single carbon fiber. Effect of material inhomogeneity on change in modulus, hardness, contact stiffness, and electrical contact resistance is also discussed. Fracture statistics of carbon fiber and variations in flexural strength of GDL are studied. The damage propagation in CL is perceived to be influenced by the type of gradation and the vicinity from which crack originates. Cohesive zone model has been proposed based on the traction-separation law to investigate the damage propagation throughout the two interfaces (carbon fiber/CL and CL/membrane).

  14. Electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Clere, T.M.

    1983-08-30

    A 3-dimensional electrode is disclosed having substantially coplanar and substantially flat portions and ribbon-like curved portions, said curved portions being symmetrical and alternating in rows above and below said substantially coplanar, substantially flat portions, respectively, and a geometric configuration presenting in one sectional aspect the appearance of a series of ribbon-like oblate spheroids interrupted by said flat portions and in another sectional aspect, 90/sup 0/ from said one aspect, the appearance of a square wave pattern.

  15. Influence of Membrane Receptor Lateral Diffusion on the Short-Term Depression of Acetylcholine-Induced Current in Helix Neurons.

    PubMed

    Vasilyeva, Natalia A; Murzina, Galina B; Kireev, Igor I; Pivovarov, Arkady S

    2017-02-24

    We have studied how various drugs increasing the rate of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) lateral diffusion affect the depression of ACh-induced current in land snail Helix lucorum neurons responsible for defensive behavior. The acetylcholine (ACh) iontophoretic application protocol imitated the behavioral habituation protocol for the intact animal. We found that the drugs decreasing cholesterol level in cell membranes as methyl-β-cyclodextrin 1 mM and Ro 48-8071 2 µM, and polyclonal antibodies to actin-binding proteins as spectrin 5 µg/ml and merlin 2.5 µg/ml have changed the dynamic of ACh-current depression. The nAChRs lateral diffusion coefficient was obtained by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. A curve fitting model specially created for analysis of short-term choline sensitivity depression in snail neurons helped us evaluate separately the contribution of nAChRs lateral diffusion, their endocytosis and exocytosis to observed effects during electrophysiological experiments. Taken together, we hypothesize that nAChRs lateral diffusion plays an important role in the cellular correlate of habituation in land snail Helix lucorum neurons.

  16. Diffusion tensor imaging analysis of sequential spreading of disease in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis confirms patterns of TDP-43 pathology.

    PubMed

    Kassubek, Jan; Müller, Hans-Peter; Del Tredici, Kelly; Brettschneider, Johannes; Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Lulé, Dorothée; Böhm, Sarah; Braak, Heiko; Ludolph, Albert C

    2014-06-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging can identify amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-associated patterns of brain alterations at the group level. Recently, a neuropathological staging system for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis has shown that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis may disseminate in a sequential regional pattern during four disease stages. The objective of the present study was to apply a new methodological diffusion tensor imaging-based approach to automatically analyse in vivo the fibre tracts that are prone to be involved at each neuropathological stage of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Two data samples, consisting of 130 diffusion tensor imaging data sets acquired at 1.5 T from 78 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 52 control subjects; and 55 diffusion-tensor imaging data sets at 3.0 T from 33 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 22 control subjects, were analysed by a tract of interest-based fibre tracking approach to analyse five tracts that become involved during the course of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: the corticospinal tract (stage 1); the corticorubral and the corticopontine tracts (stage 2); the corticostriatal pathway (stage 3); the proximal portion of the perforant path (stage 4); and two reference pathways. The statistical analyses of tracts of interest showed differences between patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and control subjects for all tracts. The significance level of the comparisons at the group level was lower, the higher the disease stage with corresponding involved fibre tracts. Both the clinical phenotype as assessed by the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis functional rating scale-revised and disease duration correlated significantly with the resulting staging scheme. In summary, the tract of interest-based technique allowed for individual analysis of predefined tract structures, thus making it possible to image in vivo the disease stages in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This approach can be used not only for

  17. Lateral diffusion contributes to FRET from lanthanide-tagged membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tien-Hung; Wu, Guangyu; Lambert, Nevin A

    2015-08-14

    Diffusion can enhance Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) when donors or acceptors diffuse distances that are similar to the distances separating them during the donor's excited state lifetime. Lanthanide donors remain in the excited state for milliseconds, which makes them useful for time-resolved FRET applications but also allows time for diffusion to enhance energy transfer. Here we show that diffusion dramatically enhances FRET between membrane proteins labeled with lanthanide donors. This phenomenon complicates interpretation of experiments that use long-lived donors to infer association or proximity of mobile membrane proteins, but also offers a method of monitoring diffusion in membrane domains in real time in living cells.

  18. A large-area diffuse air discharge plasma excited by nanosecond pulse under a double hexagon needle-array electrode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Jie; Wang, Wen-Chun; Yang, De-Zheng; Wang, Sen; Zhang, Shuai; Tang, Kai; Jiang, Peng-Chao

    2014-01-01

    A large-area diffuse air discharge plasma excited by bipolar nanosecond pulse is generated under a double hexagon needle-array electrode at atmospheric pressure. The images of the diffuse discharge, electric characteristics, and the optical emission spectra emitted from the diffuse air discharge plasma are obtained. Based on the waveforms of pulse voltage and current, the power consumption, and the power density of the diffuse air discharge plasma are investigated under different pulse peak voltages. The electron density and the electron temperature of the diffuse plasma are estimated to be approximately 1.42×10(11) cm(-3) and 4.4 eV, respectively. The optical emission spectra are arranged to determine the rotational and vibrational temperatures by comparing experimental with simulated spectra. Meanwhile, the rotational and vibrational temperatures of the diffuse discharge plasma are also discussed under different pulse peak voltages and pulse repetition rates, respectively. In addition, the diffuse air discharge plasma can form an area of about 70×50 mm(2) on the surface of dielectric layer and can be scaled up to the required size.

  19. Lateral diffusion contributes to FRET from lanthanide-tagged membrane proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, Tien-Hung; Wu, Guangyu; Lambert, Nevin A.

    2015-08-14

    Diffusion can enhance Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) when donors or acceptors diffuse distances that are similar to the distances separating them during the donor's excited state lifetime. Lanthanide donors remain in the excited state for milliseconds, which makes them useful for time-resolved FRET applications but also allows time for diffusion to enhance energy transfer. Here we show that diffusion dramatically enhances FRET between membrane proteins labeled with lanthanide donors. This phenomenon complicates interpretation of experiments that use long-lived donors to infer association or proximity of mobile membrane proteins, but also offers a method of monitoring diffusion in membrane domains in real time in living cells. - Highlights: • Diffusion enhances TR-FRET from membrane proteins labeled with lanthanide donors. • Diffusion-dependent FRET can overshadow FRET due to oligomerization or clustering. • FRET studies using lanthanide-tagged membrane proteins should consider diffusion. • FRET from lanthanide donors can be used to monitor membrane protein diffusion.

  20. Generation of large-scale, barrier-free diffuse plasmas in air at atmospheric pressure using array wire electrodes and nanosecond high-voltage pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Yun; Li, Lee Liu, Yun-Long; Liu, Lun; Liu, Minghai

    2014-10-15

    This paper introduces a method to generate large-scale diffuse plasmas by using a repetition nanosecond pulse generator and a parallel array wire-electrode configuration. We investigated barrier-free diffuse plasmas produced in the open air in parallel and cross-parallel array line-line electrode configurations. We found that, when the distance between the wire-electrode pair is small, the discharges were almost extinguished. Also, glow-like diffuse plasmas with little discharge weakening were obtained in an appropriate range of line-line distances and with a cathode-grounding cross-electrode configuration. As an example, we produced a large-scale, stable diffuse plasma with volumes as large as 18 × 15 × 15 cm{sup 3}, and this discharge region can be further expanded. Additionally, using optical and electrical measurements, we showed that the electron temperature was higher than the gas temperature, which was almost the same as room temperature. Also, an array of electrode configuration with more wire electrodes had helped to prevent the transition from diffuse discharge to arc discharge. Comparing the current waveforms of configurations with 1 cell and 9 cells, we found that adding cells significantly increased the conduction current and the electrical energy delivered in the electrode gaps.

  1. Generation of large-scale, barrier-free diffuse plasmas in air at atmospheric pressure using array wire electrodes and nanosecond high-voltage pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Yun; Li, Lee; Liu, Yun-Long; Liu, Lun; Liu, Minghai

    2014-10-01

    This paper introduces a method to generate large-scale diffuse plasmas by using a repetition nanosecond pulse generator and a parallel array wire-electrode configuration. We investigated barrier-free diffuse plasmas produced in the open air in parallel and cross-parallel array line-line electrode configurations. We found that, when the distance between the wire-electrode pair is small, the discharges were almost extinguished. Also, glow-like diffuse plasmas with little discharge weakening were obtained in an appropriate range of line-line distances and with a cathode-grounding cross-electrode configuration. As an example, we produced a large-scale, stable diffuse plasma with volumes as large as 18 × 15 × 15 cm3, and this discharge region can be further expanded. Additionally, using optical and electrical measurements, we showed that the electron temperature was higher than the gas temperature, which was almost the same as room temperature. Also, an array of electrode configuration with more wire electrodes had helped to prevent the transition from diffuse discharge to arc discharge. Comparing the current waveforms of configurations with 1 cell and 9 cells, we found that adding cells significantly increased the conduction current and the electrical energy delivered in the electrode gaps.

  2. Isotopic evidence for lateral flow and diffusive transport, but not sublimation, in a sloped seasonal snowpack, Idaho, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Samantha L.; Flores, Alejandro N.; Heilig, Achim; Kohn, Matthew J.; Marshall, Hans-Peter; McNamara, James P.

    2016-04-01

    Oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in snow were measured in weekly profiles during the growth and decline of a sloped subalpine snowpack, southern Idaho, 2011-2012. Isotopic steps (10‰, δ18O; 80‰, δD) were preserved relative to physical markers throughout the season, albeit with some diffusive smoothing. Melting stripped off upper layers without shifting isotopes within the snowpack. Meltwater is in isotopic equilibrium with snow at the top but not with snow at each respective collection height. Transport of meltwater occurred primarily along pipes and lateral flow paths allowing the snowpack to melt initially in reverse stratigraphic order. Isotope diffusivities are ~2 orders of magnitude faster than estimated from experiments but can be explained by higher temperature and porosity. A better understanding of how snowmelt isotopes change during meltout improves hydrograph separation methods, whereas constraints on isotope diffusivities under warm conditions improve models of ice core records in low-latitude settings.

  3. Measurement of lateral diffusion rates in membranes by pulsed magnetic field gradient, magic angle spinning-proton nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Gawrisch, Klaus; Gaede, Holly C

    2007-01-01

    Membrane organization, including the presence of domains, can be characterized by measuring lateral diffusion rates of lipids and membrane-bound substances. Magic angle spinning (MAS) yields well-resolved proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of lipids in biomembranes. When combined with pulsed-field gradient NMR (rendering what is called "pulsed magnetic field gradients-MAS-NMR"), it permits precise diffusion measurements on the micrometer lengths scale for any substance with reasonably well-resolved proton MAS-NMR resonances, without the need of preparing oriented samples. Sample preparation procedures, the technical requirements for the NMR equipment, and spectrometer settings are described. Additionally, equations for analysis of diffusion data obtained from unoriented samples, and a method for correcting the data for liposome curvature are provided.

  4. Effects of reversible chemical reaction on Li diffusion and stresses in spherical composition-gradient electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Kai; Zheng, Bailin Zhang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Qi

    2015-06-28

    Composition-gradient electrode materials have been proven to be one of the most promising materials in lithium-ion battery. To study the mechanism of mechanical degradation in spherical composition-gradient electrodes, the finite deformation theory and reversible chemical theory are adopted. In homogeneous electrodes, reversible electrochemical reaction may increase the magnitudes of stresses. However, reversible electrochemical reaction has different influences on stresses in composition-gradient electrodes, resulting from three main inhomogeneous factors—forward reaction rate, backward reaction rate, and reaction partial molar volume. The decreasing transition form of forward reaction rate, increasing transition form of backward reaction rate, and increasing transition form of reaction partial molar volume can reduce the magnitudes of stresses. As a result, capacity fading and mechanical degradation are reduced by taking advantage of the effects of inhomogeneous factors.

  5. Nonlinearity Effects of Lateral Density Diffusion Coefficient on Gain-Guided VCSEL Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jian-Zhong; Cheung, Samson H.; Ning, C. Z.; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Electron and hole diffusions in the plane of semiconductor quantum wells play an important part in the static and dynamic operations of semiconductor lasers. In this paper, we apply a hydrodynamic model developed from the semiconductor Bloch equations to numerically study the effects of nonlinearity in the diffusion coefficient on single mode operation and direct modulation of a gain-guided InGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well laser, operating not too far from threshold. We found that a small diffusion coefficient is advantageous for lowering the threshold current and increasing the modulation bandwidth. Most importantly, the effects of nonlinearity in the coefficient can be approximately reproduced by replacing the coefficient with an effective constant diffusion coefficient, which corresponds roughly to the half height density of the density distribution.

  6. Effect of micro gravity on the product selectivity of dichlorodifluoromethane electrolysis at metal supported gas diffusion electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonoyama, Noriyuki

    2007-12-01

    The micro gravity effect on the product selectivity of electrochemical reduction of CCl2 F2 (CFC-12) was studied using the metal supported gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs). Under the micro gravity, the current efficiency for methane formation (the final product) increased, whereas that for CHClF2formation (a intermediate product) decreased at the Cu-supported GDE compared with the result under the normal gravity. This result suggests that the convection has an influence on the product selectivity for electrochemical reaction.

  7. Chronoamperometry at micropipet electrodes for determination of diffusion coefficients and transferred charges at liquid/liquid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yi; Wang, Lei; Amemiya, Shigeru

    2004-09-15

    Chronoamperometry was carried out at liquid/liquid interfaces supported at the tip of micropipet electrodes for direct determination of the diffusion coefficient of a species in the outer solution. The diffusion coefficient was used for subsequent determination of the transferred charges per species from the diffusion-limited steady-state current. A large tip resistance of the micropipets causes prolonged charging current so that the faradic current can be measured accurately only at a long-time regime (typically t > 5 ms). At the same time, the long-time current response at the interfaces surrounded by a thin glass wall of the pipets is enhanced by diffusion of the species from behind the pipet tip. Therefore, numerical simulations of the long-time chronoamperometric response were carried out using the finite element method for accurate determination of diffusion coefficients. Validity of the simulation results was confirmed by studying simple transfer of tetraethylammonium ion. The technique was applied for transfer/adsorption reactions of the natural polypeptide protamine and also for Ca2+ and Mg2+ transfers facilitated by ionophore ETH 129. With the diffusion coefficient of protamine determined to be (1.2 +/- 0.1) x 10(-6) cm(2)/s, the ionic charge transferred by each protamine molecule was obtained as +20 +/- 1, which is close to the excess positive charge of protamine. Also, the diffusion coefficient of ETH 129 was determined to demonstrate that each ionophore molecule transfers +0.67 and +1 charge per Ca2+ and Mg2+ transfer, respectively, which corresponds to formation of 1:3 and 1:2 complexes with the respective ions.

  8. Spin diffusion and non-local spin-valve effect in an exfoliated multilayer graphene with a Co electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lijun; Lee, Inyeal; Lim, Dongsuk; Rathi, Servin; Kang, Moonshik; Uemura, Tetsuya; Kim, Gil-Ho

    2016-08-01

    We fabricated a non-local spin valve with a thin layer of graphite with Co transparent electrodes. The spin-valve effect and spin precession were observed at room temperature. The magnitude of the mangetoresistance increases when temperature decreases. The spin-relaxation time, {τ }s, obtained from the fitting of the Hanle curves increases with decreasing temperature with a weak dependence ∼ {T}-0.065 while the spin-diffusion constant D decreases. At room temperature, {τ }s exceeds 100 ps and the spin-diffusion length, {λ }s, is ∼2 μm. The temperature dependence of {λ }s is not monotonic, and it has the largest value at room temperature. Our results show that multilayer graphene is a suitable material for spintronic devices.

  9. Fast spatiotemporal correlation spectroscopy to determine protein lateral diffusion laws in live cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Di Rienzo, Carmine; Gratton, Enrico; Beltram, Fabio; Cardarelli, Francesco

    2013-07-23

    Spatial distribution and dynamics of plasma-membrane proteins are thought to be modulated by lipid composition and by the underlying cytoskeleton, which forms transient barriers to diffusion. So far this idea was probed by single-particle tracking of membrane components in which gold particles or antibodies were used to individually monitor the molecules of interest. Unfortunately, the relatively large particles needed for single-particle tracking can in principle alter the very dynamics under study. Here, we use a method that makes it possible to investigate plasma-membrane proteins by means of small molecular labels, specifically single GFP constructs. First, fast imaging of the region of interest on the membrane is performed. For each time delay in the resulting stack of images the average spatial correlation function is calculated. We show that by fitting the series of correlation functions, the actual protein "diffusion law" can be obtained directly from imaging, in the form of a mean-square displacement vs. time-delay plot, with no need for interpretative models. This approach is tested with several simulated 2D diffusion conditions and in live Chinese hamster ovary cells with a GFP-tagged transmembrane transferrin receptor, a well-known benchmark of membrane-skeleton-dependent transiently confined diffusion. This approach does not require extraction of the individual trajectories and can be used also with dim and dense molecules. We argue that it represents a powerful tool for the determination of kinetic and thermodynamic parameters over very wide spatial and temporal scales.

  10. Lateral Ge Diffusion During Oxidation of Si/SiGe Fins.

    PubMed

    Brewer, William M; Xin, Yan; Hatem, C; Diercks, D; Truong, V Q; Jones, K S

    2017-04-12

    This Letter reports on the unusual diffusion behavior of Ge during oxidation of a multilayer Si/SiGe fin. It is observed that oxidation surprisingly results in the formation of vertically stacked Si nanowires encapsulated in defect free epitaxial strained SixGe1-x. High angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) shows that extremely enhanced diffusion of Ge occurs along the vertical Si/SiO2 oxidizing interface and is responsible for the encapsulation process. Further oxidation fully encapsulates the Si layers in defect free single crystal SixGe1-x (x up to 0.53), which results in Si nanowires with up to -2% strain. Atom probe tomography reconstructions demonstrate that the resultant nanowires run the length of the fin. We found that the oxidation temperature plays a significant role in the formation of the Si nanowires. In the process range of 800-900 °C, pure strained and rounded Si nanowires down to 2 nm in diameter can be fabricated. At lower temperatures, the Ge diffusion along the oxidizing Si/SiO2 interface is slow, and rounding of the nanowire does not occur, while at higher temperatures, the diffusivity of Ge into Si is sufficient to result in dilution of the pure Si nanowire with Ge. The use of highly selective etchants to remove the SiGe could provide a new pathway for the creation of highly controlled vertically stacked nanowires for gate all around transistors.

  11. Optimisation of electrophoretic deposition parameters for gas diffusion electrodes in high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felix, Cecil; Jao, Ting-Chu; Pasupathi, Sivakumar; Pollet, Bruno G.

    2013-12-01

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method was used to fabricate gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (HT PEMFC). Parameters related to the catalyst suspension and the EPD process were studied. Optimum suspension conditions are obtained when the catalyst particles are coated with Nafion® ionomer and the pH is adjusted to an alkaline range of about 8-10. These suspensions yield good stability with sufficient conductivity to form highly porous catalyst layers on top of the gas diffusion layers (GDLs). GDEs were fabricated by applying various electric field strengths of which 100 V cm-1 yields the best membrane electrode assembly (MEA) performance. Compared to an MEA fabricated by the traditional hand sprayed (HS) method, the EPD MEA shows superior performance with a peak power increase of about 73% at similar platinum (Pt) loadings. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) analysis shows lower charge transfer resistance for the MEA fabricated via the EPD method compared to the HS MEA. The EPD GDE exhibits a greater total pore area (22.46 m2 g-1) compared to the HS GDE (13.43 m2 g-1) as well as better dispersion of the Pt particles within the catalyst layer (CL).

  12. Fast Ionic Diffusion-Enabled Nanoflake Electrode by Spontaneous Electrochemical Pre-Intercalation for High-Performance Supercapacitor

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Liqiang; Li, Han; Zhao, Yunlong; Xu, Lin; Xu, Xu; Luo, Yanzhu; Zhang, Zhengfei; Ke, Wang; Niu, Chaojiang; Zhang, Qingjie

    2013-01-01

    Layered intercalation compounds NaxMnO2 (x = 0.7 and 0.91) nanoflakes have been prepared directly through wet electrochemical process with Na+ ions intercalated into MnO2 interlayers spontaneously. The as-prepared NaxMnO2 nanoflake based supercapacitors exhibit faster ionic diffusion with enhanced redox peaks, tenfold-higher energy densities up to 110 Wh·kg−1 and higher capacitances over 1000 F·g−1 in aqueous sodium system compared with traditional MnO2 supercapacitors. Due to the free-standing electrode structure and suitable crystal structure, NaxMnO2 nanoflake electrodes also maintain outstanding electrochemical stability with capacitance retention up to 99.9% after 1000 cycles. Besides, pre-intercalation effect is further studied to explain this enhanced electrochemical performance. This study indicates that the suitable pre-intercalation is effective to improve the diffusion of electrolyte cations and other electrochemical performance for layered oxides, and suggests that the as-obtained nanoflakes are promising materials to achieve the hybridization of both high energy and power density for advanced supercapacitors.

  13. Uncinate fasciculus microstructure and verbal episodic memory in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a diffusion tensor imaging and neuropsychological study.

    PubMed

    Christidi, Foteini; Zalonis, Ioannis; Kyriazi, Stavroula; Rentzos, Michalis; Karavasilis, Efstratios; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Evdokimidis, Ioannis

    2014-12-01

    The present study evaluates the integrity of uncinate fasciculus (UF) and the association between UF microstructure and verbal episodic memory (as one of the cognitive functions linked to UF) in non-demented patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We studied 21 patients with ALS and 11 healthy, demographically-comparable volunteers. Fractional anisotropy, apparent diffusion coefficient, axial and radial diffusivity were the DTI metrics examined. Episodic memory was evaluated with Babcock Story Recall Test and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) for patients; measures of immediate and delayed recall and retention for both tests and sum of words recalled through five learning trials for RAVLT were considered. Patients with ALS showed significant bilateral reduction of axial diffusivity in the UF as compared to controls. Furthermore, there were several significant relations between various DTI metrics (mostly in left hemisphere) and memory measures (specifically for the RAVLT). UF microstructural changes may contribute to ALS-related memory impairment, with word-list learning performance relying more upon the integrity of frontal and temporal connections than memory components associated with story recall.

  14. A historical perspective on the lateral diffusion model of GTPase activation and related coupling of membrane signaling proteins

    PubMed Central

    Liebman, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Aspects of our discovery of lateral diffusion of the G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) rhodopsin and that a single activated rhodopsin can non-covalently catalyze GTP binding to thousands of GTPases per second on rod disk membranes via this diffusion are summarized herein. Rapid GTPase coupling to membrane-bound phosphodiesterase (PDE) further amplifies the signal via cGMP hydrolysis, essential to visual transduction. Important generalizations from this work are that biomembranes can uniquely concentrate, orient for reaction and provide a solvent appropriate to rapid, powerful and appropriately controlled sequential interaction of signaling proteins. Of equal importance to function is timely control and termination of such powerful amplification via receptor phosphorylation (quenching) and arrestin binding. Downstream kinetic modulation by GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) and regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) and related mechanisms as well as limitations set by membrane domain fencing, structural protein binding etc. can be essential in relevant systems. PMID:25279248

  15. Improving Breakdown Behavior by Substrate Bias in a Novel Double Epi-layer Lateral Double Diffused MOS Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Wang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Yun; Wei, Xue-Ming

    2012-02-01

    A new lateral double diffused MOS (LDMOS) transistor with a double epitaxial layer formed by an n-type substrate and a p-type epitaxial layer is reported (DEL LDMOS). The mechanism of the improved breakdown characteristic is that the high electric field around the drain is reduced by substrate reverse bias, which causes the redistribution of the bulk electric field in the drift region, and the vertical blocking voltage is shared by the drain side and the source side. The numerical results indicate that the trade-off between breakdown voltage and on-resistance of the proposed device is improved greatly in comparison to that of the conventional LDMOS.

  16. Towards combined electrochemistry and surface-enhanced resonance Raman of heme proteins: Improvement of diffusion electrochemistry of cytochrome c at silver electrodes chemically modified with 4-mercaptopyridine.

    PubMed

    Millo, Diego; Ranieri, Antonio; Koot, Wynanda; Gooijer, Cees; van der Zwan, Gert

    2006-08-01

    To date, a successful combination of surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS) and electrochemistry to study heme proteins is inhibited by the problems raised by the prerequisite to use silver as electrode metal. This paper indicates an approach to overcome these problems. It describes a quick and reproducible procedure to prepare silver electrodes chemically modified with 4-mercaptopyridine suitable to perform diffusion electrochemistry of cytochrome c (cyt c). The method involves the employment of a mechanical and a chemical treatment and avoids the use of alumina slurries and any electrochemical pretreatment. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to test the electrochemical response of cyt c, and the CV signals were found identical with those obtained on gold electrodes under the same experimental conditions. Compared to previous literature, a significant improvement of the CV signal of cyt c at silver electrodes was achieved. Preliminary results show that this treatment can be also successfully employed for the preparation of SERRS-active electrodes.

  17. Confinement, Desolvation, And Electrosorption Effects on the Diffusion of Ions in Nanoporous Carbon Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Pean, Clarisse; Daffos, Barbara; Rotenberg, Benjamin; Levitz, Pierre; Haefele, Matthieu; Taberna, Pierre-Louis; Simon, Patrice; Salanne, Mathieu

    2015-10-07

    Supercapacitors are electrochemical devices which store energy by ion adsorption on the surface of a porous carbon. They are characterized by high power delivery. The use of nanoporous carbon to increase their energy density should not hinder their fast charging. However, the mechanisms for ion transport inside electrified nanopores remain largely unknown. Here we show that the diffusion is characterized by a hierarchy of time scales arising from ion confinement, solvation, and electrosorption effects. By combining electrochemistry experiments with molecular dynamics simulations, we determine the in-pore conductivities and diffusion coefficients and their variations with the applied potential. We show that the diffusion of the ions is slower by 1 order of magnitude compared to the bulk electrolyte. The desolvation of the ions occurs on much faster time scales than electrosorption.

  18. Confinement, Desolvation, And Electrosorption Effects on the Diffusion of Ions in Nanoporous Carbon Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Supercapacitors are electrochemical devices which store energy by ion adsorption on the surface of a porous carbon. They are characterized by high power delivery. The use of nanoporous carbon to increase their energy density should not hinder their fast charging. However, the mechanisms for ion transport inside electrified nanopores remain largely unknown. Here we show that the diffusion is characterized by a hierarchy of time scales arising from ion confinement, solvation, and electrosorption effects. By combining electrochemistry experiments with molecular dynamics simulations, we determine the in-pore conductivities and diffusion coefficients and their variations with the applied potential. We show that the diffusion of the ions is slower by 1 order of magnitude compared to the bulk electrolyte. The desolvation of the ions occurs on much faster time scales than electrosorption. PMID:26369420

  19. Asymptomatic choroid plexus cysts in the lateral ventricles: an incidental finding on diffusion-weighted MRI.

    PubMed

    Cakir, B; Karakas, H M; Unlu, E; Tuncbilek, N

    2002-10-01

    We assessed the role of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the detection of choroid plexus cysts. We reviewed more than 1000 patients who had undergone MRI in a 1-year period. We reviewed echo-planar DWI with b=1000 s/mm(2), acquired at 1.0 tesla, for any difference in signal intensity which might indicate choroid plexus cysts. On conventional images, all cystic lesions were isointense with cerebrospinal fluid, and 72 cysts could not be identified. On DWI, 90 rounded high-signal foci were detected in 58 patients; 64 cysts were bilateral. Focal ventricular expansion due to large cysts was observed in nine cases. DWI were found to show choroid plexus cysts undetected within the cerebrospinal fluid on conventional images.

  20. Eliminating micro-porous layer from gas diffusion electrode for use in high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Huaneng; Xu, Qian; Chong, Junjie; Li, Huaming; Sita, Cordellia; Pasupathi, Sivakumar

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we report a simple strategy to improve the performance of high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) by eliminating the micro-porous layer (MPL) from its gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs). Due to the absence of liquid water and the general use of high amount of catalyst, the MPL in a HT-PEMFC system works limitedly. Contrarily, the elimination of the MPL leads to an interlaced micropore/macropore composited structure in the catalyst layer (CL), which favors gas transport and catalyst utilization, resulting in a greatly improved single cell performance. At the normal working voltage (0.6 V), the current density of the GDE eliminated MPL reaches 0.29 A cm-2, and a maximum power density of 0.54 W cm-2 at 0.36 V is obtained, which are comparable to the best results yet reported for the HT-PEMFCs with similar Pt loading and operated using air. Furthermore, the MPL-free GDE maintains an excellent durability during a preliminary 1400 h HT-PEMFC operation, owing to its structure advantages, indicating the feasibility of this electrode for practical applications.

  1. Limitations of the commonly used simplified laterally uniform optical fiber probe-tissue interface in Monte Carlo simulations of diffuse reflectance

    PubMed Central

    Naglič, Peter; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan; Bürmen, Miran

    2015-01-01

    Light propagation models often simplify the interface between the optical fiber probe tip and tissue to a laterally uniform boundary with mismatched refractive indices. Such simplification neglects the precise optical properties of the commonly used probe tip materials, e.g. stainless steel or black epoxy. In this paper, we investigate the limitations of the laterally uniform probe-tissue interface in Monte Carlo simulations of diffuse reflectance. In comparison to a realistic probe-tissue interface that accounts for the layout and properties of the probe tip materials, the simplified laterally uniform interface is shown to introduce significant errors into the simulated diffuse reflectance. PMID:26504647

  2. Narrow groove welding gas diffuser assembly and welding torch

    DOEpatents

    Rooney, Stephen J.

    2001-01-01

    A diffuser assembly is provided for narrow groove welding using an automatic gas tungsten arc welding torch. The diffuser assembly includes a manifold adapted for adjustable mounting on the welding torch which is received in a central opening in the manifold. Laterally extending manifold sections communicate with a shield gas inlet such that shield gas supplied to the inlet passes to gas passages of the manifold sections. First and second tapered diffusers are respectively connected to the manifold sections in fluid communication with the gas passages thereof. The diffusers extend downwardly along the torch electrode on opposite sides thereof so as to release shield gas along the length of the electrode and at the distal tip of the electrode. The diffusers are of a transverse width which is on the order of the thickness of the electrode so that the diffusers can, in use, be inserted into a narrow welding groove before and after the electrode in the direction of the weld operation.

  3. Lateral electrophoresis and diffusion of Concanavalin A receptors in the membrane of embryonic muscle cell

    PubMed Central

    Poo, M. M.; Poo, W. J.; Lam, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    A uniform electric field of 10 V/cm applied across the surface of embryonic toad Xenopus muscle cells results in the asymmetric accumulation of concanavalin A (Con A) receptors toward one side of the cells within 10 min, as visualized by postfield fluorescent Con A labeling. This field produces an extracellular voltage difference of 20 mV across these 20-microns wide cells. The effect is reversible in two respects: (a) Additional exposure of the cell to the same field of opposite polarity for 10 min completely reverses the asymmetric accumulation to the other side of the cell. (b) Relaxation occurs after the removal of the field and results in complete recovery of the uniform distribution in 30 min. Both the accumulation and the recovery movements are independent of cell metabolism, and appear to be electrophoretic and diffusional in nature. The threshold field required to induce a detectable accumulation by the present method is between 1.0 and 1.5 V/cm (corresponding to a voltage difference of 2-3 mV across a 20-microns wide cell). The electrophoretic mobility of the most mobile population of nonliganded Con A receptors is estimated to be about 2 x 10(-3) microns/s per V/cm, while their diffusion coefficient is in the range of 4-7 x 10(-10) cm2/s. Extensive accumulation of the Con A receptors by an electric field results in the formation of immobile aggregates. The Con A receptors appear to consist of a heterogeneous population of membrane components different in their charge properties, mobility, and capability in forming aggregates. PMID:10605452

  4. Lateral gas phase diffusion length of boron atoms over Si/B surfaces during CVD of pure boron layers

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammadi, V. Nihtianov, S.

    2016-02-15

    The lateral gas phase diffusion length of boron atoms, L{sub B}, along silicon and boron surfaces during chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using diborane (B{sub 2}H{sub 6}) is reported. The value of L{sub B} is critical for reliable and uniform boron layer coverage. The presented information was obtained experimentally and confirmed analytically in the boron deposition temperature range from 700 °C down to 400 °C. For this temperature range the local loading effect of the boron deposition is investigated on the micro scale. A L{sub B} = 2.2 mm was determined for boron deposition at 700 °C, while a L{sub B} of less than 1 mm was observed at temperatures lower than 500 °C.

  5. Silver nanoparticle-decorated carbon nanotubes as bifunctional gas-diffusion electrodes for zinc-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Kaempgen, M.; Nopphawan, P.; Wee, G.; Mhaisalkar, S.; Srinivasan, M.

    Thin, lightweight, and flexible gas-diffusion electrodes (GDEs) based on freestanding entangled networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) decorated with Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) are tested as the air-breathing cathode in a zinc-air battery. The SWNT networks provide a highly porous surface for active oxygen absorption and diffusion. The high conductivity of SWNTs coupled with the catalytic activity of AgNPs for oxygen reduction leads to an improvement in the performance of the zinc-air cell. By modulating the pH value and the reaction time, different sizes of AgNPs are decorated uniformly on the SWNTs, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. AgNPs with sizes of 3-5 nm double the capacity and specific energy of a zinc-air battery as compared with bare SWNTs. The simplified, lightweight architecture shows significant advantages over conventional carbon-based GDEs in terms of weight, thickness and conductivity, and hence may be useful for mobile and portable applications.

  6. Manipulating the Lateral Diffusion of Surface-Anchored EGF Demonstrates that Receptor Clustering Modulates its Phosphorylation Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Stabley, Daniel; Retterer, Scott T; Marshal, Stephen; Salaita, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Upon activation, the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor becomes phosphorylated and triggers a vast signaling network that has profound effects on cell growth. The EGF receptor is observed to assemble into clusters after ligand binding and tyrosine kinase autophosphorylation, but the role of these assemblies in the receptor signaling pathway remains unclear. To address this question, we measured the phosphorylation of EGFR when the EGF ligand was anchored onto laterally mobile and immobile surfaces. We found that cells generated clusters of ligand-receptor complex on mobile EGF surfaces, and generated a lower ratio of phosphorylated EGFR to EGF than when compared to immobilized EGF that is unable to cluster. This result was verified by tuning the lateral assembly of ligand-receptor complexes on the surface of living cells using patterned supported lipid bilayers. Nanoscale metal lines fabricated into the supported membrane constrained lipid diffusion and EGF receptor assembly into micron and sub-micron scale corrals. Single cell analysis indicated that clustering impacts EGF receptor activation, and larger clusters (> 1 m2) of ligand-receptor complex generated lower EGF receptor phosphorylation per ligand than smaller assemblies (< 1 m2) in HCC1143 cells that were engaged to ligand-functionalized surfaces. We investigated EGFR clustering by treating cells with compounds that disrupt the cytoskeleton (Latrunculin-B), clathrin-mediated endocytosis (Pitstop2), and inhibit EGFR activation (Gefitinib). These results help elucidate the nature of large-scale EGFR clustering, thus underscoring the general significance of receptor spatial organization in tuning function.

  7. Spin-related thermoelectric conversion in lateral spin-valve devices with single-crystalline Co2FeSi electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, Kento; Oki, Soichiro; Yamada, Shinya; Kanashima, Takeshi; Hamaya, Kohei

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate the conversion between a heat current and a spin current in Cu-based lateral spin valves (LSVs) with single-crystalline Co2FeSi (CFS) electrodes. We can observe the thermally induced spin injection from CFS into Cu resulting from the spin-dependent Seebeck effect, and the heat current generated by the spin-dependent Peltier effect can be detected even in the LSV structures. This study is an important step toward understanding heat-spin conversion in single-crystalline materials with various electronic band structures.

  8. Palladium nanoparticles decorated on reduced graphene oxide rotating disk electrodes toward ultrasensitive hydrazine detection: effects of particle size and hydrodynamic diffusion.

    PubMed

    Krittayavathananon, Atiweena; Srimuk, Pattarachai; Luanwuthi, Santamon; Sawangphruk, Montree

    2014-12-16

    Although metal nanoparticle/graphene composites have been widely used as the electrode in electrochemical sensors, two effects, consisting of the particle size of the nanoparticles and the hydrodynamic diffusion of analytes to the electrodes, are not yet fully understood. In this work, palladium nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide (PdNPs/rGO) composites were synthesized using an in situ polyol method. Palladium(II) ions and graphene oxide were reduced together with a reducing agent, ethylene glycol. By varying the concentration of palladium(II) nitrate, PdNPs with different sizes were decorated on the surface of rGO sheets. The as-fabricated PdNPs/rGO rotating disk electrodes (RDEs) were investigated toward hydrazine detection. Overall, a 3.7 ± 1.4 nm diameter PdNPs/rGO RDE exhibits high performance with a rather low limit of detection of about 7 nM at a rotation speed of 6000 rpm and provides a wide linear range of 0.1-1000 μM with R(2) = 0.995 at 2000 rpm. This electrode is highly selective to hydrazine without interference from uric acid, glucose, ammonia, caffeine, methylamine, ethylenediamine, hydroxylamine, n-butylamine, adenosine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, and l-arginine. The PdNPs/rGO RDEs with larger sizes show lower detection performance. Interestingly, the detection performance of the electrodes is sensitive to the hydrodynamic diffusion of hydrazine. The as-fabricated electrode can detect trace hydrazine in wastewater with high stability, demonstrating its practical use as an electrochemical sensor. These findings may lead to an awareness of the effect of the hydrodynamic diffusion of analyte that has been previously ignored, and the 3.7 ± 1.4 nm PdNPs/rGO RDE may be useful toward trace hydrazine detection, especially in wastewater from related chemical industries.

  9. Ab initio diffuse-interface model for lithiated electrode interface evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stournara, Maria E.; Kumar, Ravi; Qi, Yue; Sheldon, Brian W.

    2016-07-01

    The study of chemical segregation at interfaces, and in particular the ability to predict the thickness of segregated layers via analytical expressions or computational modeling, is a fundamentally challenging topic in the design of novel heterostructured materials. This issue is particularly relevant for the phase-field (PF) methodology, which has become a prominent tool for describing phase transitions. These models rely on phenomenological parameters that pertain to the interfacial energy and thickness, quantities that cannot be experimentally measured. Instead of back-calculating these parameters from experimental data, here we combine a set of analytical expressions based on the Cahn-Hilliard approach with ab initio calculations to compute the gradient energy parameter κ and the thickness λ of the segregated Li layer at the LixSi-Cu interface. With this bottom-up approach we calculate the thickness λ of the Li diffuse interface to be on the order of a few nm, in agreement with prior experimental secondary ion mass spectrometry observations. Our analysis indicates that Li segregation is primarily driven by solution thermodynamics, while the strain contribution in this system is relatively small. This combined scheme provides an essential first step in the systematic evaluation of the thermodynamic parameters of the PF methodology, and we believe that it can serve as a framework for the development of quantitative interface models in the field of Li-ion batteries.

  10. Computationally efficient approach for solving time dependent diffusion equation with discrete temporal convolution applied to granular particles of battery electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senegačnik, Jure; Tavčar, Gregor; Katrašnik, Tomaž

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents a computationally efficient method for solving the time dependent diffusion equation in a granule of the Li-ion battery's granular solid electrode. The method, called Discrete Temporal Convolution method (DTC), is based on a discrete temporal convolution of the analytical solution of the step function boundary value problem. This approach enables modelling concentration distribution in the granular particles for arbitrary time dependent exchange fluxes that do not need to be known a priori. It is demonstrated in the paper that the proposed method features faster computational times than finite volume/difference methods and Padé approximation at the same accuracy of the results. It is also demonstrated that all three addressed methods feature higher accuracy compared to the quasi-steady polynomial approaches when applied to simulate the current densities variations typical for mobile/automotive applications. The proposed approach can thus be considered as one of the key innovative methods enabling real-time capability of the multi particle electrochemical battery models featuring spatial and temporal resolved particle concentration profiles.

  11. A finite element simulation on transient large deformation and mass diffusion in electrodes for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Yonghao; Jiang, Hanqing

    2013-10-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have attracted great deal of attention recently. Silicon is one of the most promising anode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries, due to its highest theoretical specific capacity. However, the short lifetime confined by mechanical failure in the silicon anode is now considered to be the biggest challenge in desired applications. High stress induced by the huge volume change due to lithium insertion/extraction is the main reason underlying this problem. Some theoretical models have been developed to address this issue. In order to properly implement these models, we develop a finite element based numerical method using a commercial software package, ABAQUS, as a platform at the continuum level to study fully coupled large deformation and mass diffusion problem. Using this method, large deformation, elasticity-plasticity of the electrodes, various spatial and temporal conditions, arbitrary geometry and dimension could be fulfilled. The interaction between anode and other components of the lithium ion batteries can also be studied as an integrated system. Several specific examples are presented to demonstrate the capability of this numerical platform.

  12. Use of LARS system for the quantitative determination of smoke plume lateral diffusion coefficients from ERTS images of Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blais, R. N.; Copeland, G. E.; Lerner, T. H.

    1975-01-01

    A technique for measuring smoke plume of large industrial sources observed by satellite using LARSYS is proposed. A Gaussian plume model is described, integrated in the vertical, and inverted to yield a form for the lateral diffusion coefficient, Ky. Given u, wind speed; y sub l, the horizontal distance of a line of constant brightness from the plume symmetry axis a distance x sub l, downstream from reference point at x=x sub 2, y=0, then K sub y = u ((y sub 1) to the 2nd power)/2 x sub 1 1n (x sub 2/x sub 1). The technique is applied to a plume from a power plant at Chester, Virginia, imaged August 31, 1973 by LANDSAT I. The plume bends slightly to the left 4.3 km from the source and estimates yield Ky of 28 sq m/sec near the source, and 19 sq m/sec beyond the bend. Maximum ground concentrations are estimated between 32 and 64 ug/cu m. Existing meteorological data would not explain such concentrations.

  13. Morphology evolution via self-organization and lateral and vertical diffusion in polymer:fullerene solar cell blends.

    PubMed

    Campoy-Quiles, Mariano; Ferenczi, Toby; Agostinelli, Tiziano; Etchegoin, Pablo G; Kim, Youngkyoo; Anthopoulos, Thomas D; Stavrinou, Paul N; Bradley, Donal D C; Nelson, Jenny

    2008-02-01

    Control of blend morphology at the microscopic scale is critical for optimizing the power conversion efficiency of plastic solar cells based on blends of conjugated polymer with fullerene derivatives. In the case of bulk heterojunctions of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and a soluble fullerene derivative ([6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester, PCBM), both blend morphology and photovoltaic device performance are influenced by various treatments, including choice of solvent, rate of drying, thermal annealing and vapour annealing. Although the protocols differ significantly, the maximum power conversion efficiency values reported for the various techniques are comparable (4-5%). In this paper, we demonstrate that these techniques all lead to a common arrangement of the components, which consists of a vertically and laterally phase-separated blend of crystalline P3HT and PCBM. We propose a morphology evolution that consists of an initial crystallization of P3HT chains, followed by diffusion of PCBM molecules to nucleation sites, at which aggregates of PCBM then grow.

  14. Drastic change of phase interference by small diffusion of heavy-mass electrode atoms in carbon nanotubes and phase switching device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruyama, Junji; Takesue, Izumi; Hasegawa, Tetsuro

    2001-07-01

    We slightly diffuse atoms of electrode materials into one end of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), grown using nanoporous alumina membranes. Diffusion of the light-mass materials (carbon and aluminum) lead to weak localization in Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak oscillation, consistent with past reports. In contrast, we find that diffusion of heavy-mass materials (gold and platinum) at the volume ratio of only about 5% change this weak localization to antilocalization. It is understood by a drastic change of the phase interference caused by the injection of spin-flipped electrons due to spin-orbit interaction in the diffusion region, in the entire part of the MWNTs. We also propose an electron-wave phase switching circuit using this effect.

  15. The effect of formulation excipients on the penetration and lateral diffusion of ibuprofen on and within the stratum corneum following topical application to humans.

    PubMed

    Gee, Carol M; Watkinson, Adam C; Nicolazzo, Joseph A; Finnin, Barrie C

    2014-03-01

    Distribution profiles of topically applied drugs can be influenced by the presence of excipients. This study investigated the effect of common topical excipients on the simultaneous lateral diffusion and stratum corneum (SC) penetration of a model compound, ibuprofen (IBU) in humans. IBU solutions with and without propylene glycol (PG), polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG 200), and/or octisalate (OS) were dosed onto the forearm of participants. At various times, 10 "tape-strippings" were obtained with perforated concentric tapes and analyzed for IBU concentration and SC protein mass. Complimentary in vitro permeation studies assessed the effect of excipients on the percutaneous absorption of IBU across human skin. Following in vivo application, IBU displayed a greater tendency for lateral diffusion when applied with OS, whereas IBU resisted lateral diffusion when dosed with PG and PEG 200. After 24 h, 25.3 ± 8.0% and 55.5 ± 18.6% of IBU was recovered from the SC in vivo with and without excipients, respectively. There was a twofold-to threefold enhancement in IBU flux in vitro when applied with excipients. The lower IBU recovery from the SC when applied with excipients may be attributed to the permeation enhancement effects of these excipients. The ability of IBU to laterally diffuse appears to be dependent on formulation excipients.

  16. Dimensionless numbers and correlating equations for the analysis of the membrane-gas diffusion electrode assembly in polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyenge, E. L.

    The Quraishi-Fahidy method [Can. J. Chem. Eng. 59 (1981) 563] was employed to derive characteristic dimensionless numbers for the membrane-electrolyte, cathode catalyst layer and gas diffuser, respectively, based on the model presented by Bernardi and Verbrugge for polymer electrolyte fuel cells [AIChE J. 37 (1991) 1151]. Monomial correlations among dimensionless numbers were developed and tested against experimental and mathematical modeling results. Dimensionless numbers comparing the bulk and surface-convective ionic conductivities, the electric and viscous forces and the current density and the fixed surface charges, were employed to describe the membrane ohmic drop and its non-linear dependence on current density due to membrane dehydration. The analysis of the catalyst layer yielded electrode kinetic equivalents of the second Damköhler number and Thiele modulus, influencing the penetration depth of the oxygen reduction front based on the pseudohomogeneous film model. The correlating equations for the catalyst layer could describe in a general analytical form, all the possible electrode polarization scenarios such as electrode kinetic control coupled or not with ionic and/or oxygen mass transport limitation. For the gas diffusion-backing layer correlations are presented in terms of the Nusselt number for mass transfer in electrochemical systems. The dimensionless number-based correlating equations for the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) could provide a practical approach to quantify single-cell polarization results obtained under a variety of experimental conditions and to implement them in models of the fuel cell stack.

  17. Comparison of Diffusion MRI Acquisition Protocols for the In Vivo Characterization of the Mouse Spinal Cord: Variability Analysis and Application to an Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Model

    PubMed Central

    Marcuzzo, Stefania; Bonanno, Silvia; Padelli, Francesco; Moreno-Manzano, Victoria; García-Verdugo, José Manuel; Bernasconi, Pia; Mantegazza, Renato; Bruzzone, Maria Grazia; Zucca, Ileana

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dMRI) has relevant applications in the microstructural characterization of the spinal cord, especially in neurodegenerative diseases. Animal models have a pivotal role in the study of such diseases; however, in vivo spinal dMRI of small animals entails additional challenges that require a systematical investigation of acquisition parameters. The purpose of this study is to compare three acquisition protocols and identify the scanning parameters allowing a robust estimation of the main diffusion quantities and a good sensitivity to neurodegeneration in the mouse spinal cord. For all the protocols, the signal-to-noise and contrast-to noise ratios and the mean value and variability of Diffusion Tensor metrics were evaluated in healthy controls. For the estimation of fractional anisotropy less variability was provided by protocols with more diffusion directions, for the estimation of mean, axial and radial diffusivity by protocols with fewer diffusion directions and higher diffusion weighting. Intermediate features (12 directions, b = 1200 s/mm2) provided the overall minimum inter- and intra-subject variability in most cases. In order to test the diagnostic sensitivity of the protocols, 7 G93A-SOD1 mice (model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) at 10 and 17 weeks of age were scanned and the derived diffusion parameters compared with those estimated in age-matched healthy animals. The protocols with an intermediate or high number of diffusion directions provided the best differentiation between the two groups at week 17, whereas only few local significant differences were highlighted at week 10. According to our results, a dMRI protocol with an intermediate number of diffusion gradient directions and a relatively high diffusion weighting is optimal for spinal cord imaging. Further work is needed to confirm these results and for a finer tuning of acquisition parameters. Nevertheless, our findings could be important for the

  18. Efficient degradation of rhodamine B using modified graphite felt gas diffusion electrode by electro-Fenton process.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jiangnan; Olajuyin, Ayobami Matthew; Mu, Tingzhen; Yang, Maohua; Xing, Jianmin

    2016-06-01

    The electro-Fenton (EF) process treatment of 0.1-M (rhodamine B) RhB solution was studied with different graphite cathode materials, and graphite felt (GF) was selected as a promising material in further investigation. Then, the degradation performances of gas diffusion electrode (GDE) and graphite felt (GF) were compared, and GDE was confirmed to be more efficient in RhB removal. The operational parameters such as Fe(2+) dosage and current density were optimized, and comparison among different modified methods-polytetrafluoroethylene-carbon black (PTFE-CB), polytetrafluoroethylene-carbon nanotube (PTFE-CNT), electrodeposition-CB, and electrodeposition-CNT-showed 98.49 % RhB removal by PTFE-CB-modified cathode in 0.05 M Na2SO4 at a current density of 50 A/m(2) and an air flow rate of 1 L/min after 20 min. Meanwhile, after cathode modified by PTFE-CB, the mineralization efficiency and mineralization current efficiency performed absolutely better than the pristine one. Cyclic voltammograms, SEM images, contact angles, and BET surface area were carried out to demonstrate stronger current responses and higher hydrophilicity of GF after modified. The value of biochemical oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand (BOD5/COD) increased from 0.049 to 0.331 after 90-min treatment, suggesting the solution was biodegradable, and the modified cathode was confirmed to be stable after ten circle runs. Finally, a proposed degradation pathway of RhB was put forward.

  19. A MoO2 sheet as a promising electrode material: ultrafast Li-diffusion and astonishing Li-storage capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yungang; Geng, Cheng

    2017-03-01

    The potential of MoO2 crystal as an electrode material is reported, and nanostructural MoO2 systems, including nanoparticles, nanospheres, nanobelts and nanowires, were synthesized and proved to be advanced electrode materials. A two-dimensional (2D) geometric structure represents an extreme of surface-to-volume ratio, and thus is more suitable as an electrode material in general. Stimulated by the recent fabrication of 2D MoO2, we adopted an ab initio molecular dynamics simulation and density functional theory calculation to study the stability and electrochemical properties of a MoO2 sheet. Identified by a phonon dispersion curve and potential energy curve calculations, the MoO2 sheet proved to be dynamically and thermally stable. After lithiation, similar to most promising 2D structures, we found that a Li atom can strongly adsorb on a MoO2 sheet, and the lithiated MoO2 sheet presented excellent metallic properties. Note that, compared with most promising 2D structures, we unexpectedly revealed that the diffusion barrier of the Li atom on the MoO2 sheet was much lower and the storage capacity of the MoO2 sheet was much larger. The calculated energy barrier for the diffusion of Li on the MoO2 sheet was only 75 meV, and, due to multilayer adsorption, the theoretical capacity of the MoO2 sheet can reach up to 2513 mA h g‑1. Benefiting from general properties, such as strong Li-binding and excellent conductivity, and unique phenomena, such as ultrafast diffusion capacity and astonishing storage capacity, we highlight a new promising electrode material for the Li-ion battery.

  20. Lateralization of the arcuate fasciculus and its differential correlation with reading ability between young learners and experienced readers: a diffusion tensor tractography study in a Chinese cohort.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Deqiang; Tan, Li-Hai; Siok, Wai-Ting; Zhou, Ke; Khong, Pek-Lan

    2011-12-01

    As Chinese reading engages a different neural network from alphabetic language reading, we investigate whether leftward lateralization of the arcuate fasciculus (AF), as observed in the Western population, is also present in the Chinese population and if it does, whether it is associated with better reading ability. Diffusion tensor tractography analysis on 75 Chinese subjects of three age groups (first graders, fourth graders, and college students) showed that 70-83% of them had leftward lateralization of the AF. The pattern of lateralization did not differ significantly among the three groups, suggesting that lateralization of the AF is formed at an early age and before one enters first grade. Among the first graders, who had just started to learn to read, subjects with strongly leftward lateralized AF scored significantly higher than those with other defined lateralization patterns in Chinese (P = 0.001) and English (P = 0.036) reading tasks. This association was not observed among the fourth graders and college students who were experienced Chinese readers. Among the fourth graders, females were found to obtain significantly higher Chinese (P = 0.033) and English reading scores than males (P = 0.002). Our study suggests a differential effect of leftward lateralization of the AF on reading ability at different stages of reading development in the Chinese population.

  1. The effect of electrolyte composition on the electroreduction of CO2 to CO on Ag based gas diffusion electrodes.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sumit; Lu, Xun; Ma, Sichao; Masel, Richard I; Kenis, Paul J A

    2016-03-14

    The electroreduction of CO2 to C1-C2 chemicals can be a potential strategy for utilizing CO2 as a carbon feedstock. In this work, we investigate the effect of electrolytes on the electroreduction of CO2 to CO on Ag based gas diffusion electrodes. Electrolyte concentration was found to play a major role in the process for the electrolytes (KOH, KCl, and KHCO3) studied here. Several fold improvements in partial current densities of CO (jCO) were observed on moving from 0.5 M to 3.0 M electrolyte solution independent of the nature of the anion. jCO values as high as 440 mA cm(-2) with an energy efficiency (EE) of ≈ 42% and 230 mA cm(-2) with EE ≈ 54% were observed when using 3.0 M KOH. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that both the charge transfer resistance (Rct) and the cell resistance (Rcell) decreased on moving from a 0.5 M to a 3.0 M KOH electrolyte. Anions were found to play an important role with respect to reducing the onset potential of CO in the order OH(-) (-0.13 V vs. RHE) < HCO3(-) (-0.46 V vs. RHE) < Cl(-) (-0.60 V vs. RHE). A decrease in Rct upon increasing electrolyte concentration and the effect of anions on the cathode can be explained by an interplay of different interactions in the electrical double layer that can either stabilize or destabilize the rate limiting CO2˙(-) radical. EMIM based ionic liquids and 1 : 2 choline Cl urea based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been used for CO2 capture but exhibit low conductivity. Here, we investigate if the addition of KCl to such solutions can improve conductivity and hence jCO. Electrolytes containing KCl in combination with EMIM Cl, choline Cl, or DESs showed a two to three fold improvement in jCO in comparison to those without KCl. Using such mixtures can be a strategy for integrating the process of CO2 capture with CO2 conversion.

  2. Multi-electrode laterally coupled distributed feedback InGaAsP/InP lasers: a prescription for longitudinal mode control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhsaien, Abdessamad; Dridi, Kais; Zhang, Jessica; Hall, Trevor J.

    2013-10-01

    Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs) enable photons as data carriers at a very high speed. PIC market opportunities call for reduced wafer dimensions, power consumption and cost as well as enhanced reliability. The PIC technology development must cater for the latter relentless traits. In particular, monolithic PICs are sought as they can integrate hundreds of components and functions onto a single chip. InGaAsP/InP laterally-coupled distributed feedback (LC-DFB) lasers stand as key enablers in the PIC technology thanks to the compelling advantages their embedded high-order surface-gratings have. The patterning of the spatial corrugation along the sidewalls of the LC-DFB ridge, has been established to make the epitaxial overgrowth unnecessary thereby reducing the cost and time of manufacturing, and ultimately increasing the yield. LC-DFBs boast a small footprint synonymous of enhanced monolithic integrate-ability. Nonetheless, LC-DFBs suffer from the adverse longitudinal spatial hole burning (LSHB) effects materialized by typically quite high threshold current levels. Indeed, the carrier density longitudinal gradient- responsible for modes contending for the available material gain in the cavity- may be alleviated somewhat by segmenting the LC-DFB electrode into two or three reasonably interspaced longitudinal sections. In this work we report on the realization and performance of various electrode partition configurations. At room temperature, the experimental characterization of many as-cleaved LC-DFB devices provides ample evidence of superior performance such as a narrow linewidth (less than 400 kHz), a wide wavelength tune-ability (over 4 nm) and a hop-free single mode emission (side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) exceeding 54dB).

  3. Language Laterality in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Controls: A Functional, Volumetric, and Diffusion Tensor MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Knaus, Tracey A.; Silver, Andrew M.; Kennedy, Meaghan; Lindgren, Kristen A.; Dominick, Kelli C.; Siegel, Jeremy; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Language and communication deficits are among the core features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reduced or reversed asymmetry of language has been found in a number of disorders, including ASD. Studies of healthy adults have found an association between language laterality and anatomical measures but this has not been systematically investigated in ASD. The goal of this study was to examine differences in gray matter volume of perisylvian language regions, connections between language regions, and language abilities in individuals with typical left lateralized language compared to those with atypical (bilateral or right) asymmetry of language functions. 14 adolescent boys with ASD and 20 typically developing adolescent boys participated, including equal numbers of left- and right-handed individuals in each group. Participants with typical left lateralized language activation had smaller frontal language region volume and higher fractional anisotropy of the arcuate fasciculus compared to the group with atypical language laterality, across both ASD and control participants. The group with typical language asymmetry included the most right-handed controls and fewest left-handers with ASD. Atypical language laterality was more prevalent in the ASD than control group. These findings support an association between laterality of language function and language region anatomy. They also suggest anatomical differences may be more associated with variation in language laterality than specifically with ASD. Language laterality therefore may provide a novel way of subdividing samples, resulting in more homogenous groups for research into genetic and neurocognitive foundations of developmental disorders. PMID:20031197

  4. Influence of the electron cross-field diffusion in negative ion sources with the transverse magnetic field and the plasma-electrode bias

    SciTech Connect

    Kuppel, S.; Matsushita, D.; Hatayama, A.; Bacal, M.

    2010-02-15

    The physical mechanisms involved in the extraction of H{sup -} ions from the negative ion source are studied with a PIC 2D3V code. The effect of a weak magnetic field transverse to the extraction direction is taken into account, along with a variable bias voltage applied on the plasma electrode (PE). In addition to previous modeling works, the electron diffusion across the magnetic field is taken into account as a simple one-dimensional random-walk process. The results show that without PE bias, the value of the diffusion coefficient has a significant influence upon the value of the extracted H{sup -} current. However, the value of this coefficient does not affect qualitatively the mechanism leading to the peak of extracted H{sup -} ion current observed for an optimum value of the PE bias.

  5. Enhanced performance of polybenzimidazole-based high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell with gas diffusion electrodes prepared by automatic catalyst spraying under irradiation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Huaneng; Pasupathi, Sivakumar; Bladergroen, Bernard Jan; Linkov, Vladimir; Pollet, Bruno G.

    2013-11-01

    Gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) prepared by a novel automatic catalyst spraying under irradiation (ACSUI) technique are investigated for improving the performance of phosphoric acid (PA)-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The physical properties of the GDEs are characterized by pore size distribution and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical properties of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with the GDEs are evaluated and analyzed by polarization curve, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemistry impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Effects of PTFE binder content, PA impregnation and heat treatment on the GDEs are investigated to determine the optimum performance of the single cell. At ambient pressure and 160 °C, the maximum power density can reach 0.61 W cm-2, and the current density at 0.6 V is up to 0.38 A cm-2, with H2/air and a platinum loading of 0.5 mg cm-2 on both electrodes. The MEA with the GDEs shows good stability for fuel cell operating in a short term durability test.

  6. Study on electrochemical oxidation behaviors and the diffusion mechanism of hydroquinone at pre-anodized carbon paste electrode by cyclic voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Linjin; Wang, Zhenhui; Li, Quanmin

    2012-01-21

    A functional pre-anodized carbon paste electrode (PACPE) was constructed by using successive cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical oxidation behaviors of hydroquinone (HQ) were carefully investigated by various electrochemical techniques. The diffusion mechanism of HQ has been put forward for the first time. The driving force for the HQ transport towards anode not only related to the concentration diffusion but also depended on the transport of H(+) in the feed phase along a concentration gradient towards the cathode. The results indicated that the PACPE exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of HQ. Compared with the bare carbon paste electrode, the oxidation and reduction peak separation (ΔE(p)) of HQ at the PACPE has been decreased from 578 to 83 mV. Under the optimum conditions, the oxidation peak current was linear with HQ concentration in the range of 4 × 10(-7) to 1.0 × 10(-4) M with the linear correlation coefficient of 0.9986. The detection limit was 1.05 × 10(-7) M. This method can be successfully applied to the determination of HQ in wastewater.

  7. A MoO2 sheet as a promising electrode material: ultrafast Li-diffusion and astonishing Li-storage capacity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yungang; Geng, Cheng

    2017-03-10

    The potential of MoO2 crystal as an electrode material is reported, and nanostructural MoO2 systems, including nanoparticles, nanospheres, nanobelts and nanowires, were synthesized and proved to be advanced electrode materials. A two-dimensional (2D) geometric structure represents an extreme of surface-to-volume ratio, and thus is more suitable as an electrode material in general. Stimulated by the recent fabrication of 2D MoO2, we adopted an ab initio molecular dynamics simulation and density functional theory calculation to study the stability and electrochemical properties of a MoO2 sheet. Identified by a phonon dispersion curve and potential energy curve calculations, the MoO2 sheet proved to be dynamically and thermally stable. After lithiation, similar to most promising 2D structures, we found that a Li atom can strongly adsorb on a MoO2 sheet, and the lithiated MoO2 sheet presented excellent metallic properties. Note that, compared with most promising 2D structures, we unexpectedly revealed that the diffusion barrier of the Li atom on the MoO2 sheet was much lower and the storage capacity of the MoO2 sheet was much larger. The calculated energy barrier for the diffusion of Li on the MoO2 sheet was only 75 meV, and, due to multilayer adsorption, the theoretical capacity of the MoO2 sheet can reach up to 2513 mA h g(-1). Benefiting from general properties, such as strong Li-binding and excellent conductivity, and unique phenomena, such as ultrafast diffusion capacity and astonishing storage capacity, we highlight a new promising electrode material for the Li-ion battery.

  8. Language Laterality in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Controls: A Functional, Volumetric, and Diffusion Tensor MRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaus, Tracey A.; Silver, Andrew M.; Kennedy, Meaghan; Lindgren, Kristen A.; Dominick, Kelli C.; Siegel, Jeremy; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Language and communication deficits are among the core features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reduced or reversed asymmetry of language has been found in a number of disorders, including ASD. Studies of healthy adults have found an association between language laterality and anatomical measures but this has not been systematically…

  9. Anomalous output characteristic shift for the n-type lateral diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor with floating P-top layer

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Siyang; Zhang, Chunwei; Sun, Weifeng; Su, Wei; Wang, Shaorong; Ma, Shulang; Huang, Yu

    2014-04-14

    Anomalous output characteristic shift of the n-type lateral diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor with floating P-top layer is investigated. It shows that the linear drain current has obvious decrease when the output characteristic of fresh device is measured for two consecutive times. The charge pumping experiments demonstrate that the decrease is not from hot-carrier degradation. The reduction of cross section area for the current flowing, which results from the squeezing of the depletion region surrounding the P-top layer, is responsible for the shift. Consequently, the current capability of this special device should be evaluated by the second measured output characteristic.

  10. Lateral Diffusion of Proteins on Supported Lipid Bilayers: Additive Friction of Synaptotagmin 7 C2A–C2B Tandem Domains

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The synaptotagmin (Syt) family of proteins contains tandem C2 domains, C2A and C2B, which bind membranes in the presence of Ca2+ to trigger vesicle fusion during exocytosis. Despite recent progress, the role and extent of interdomain interactions between C2A and C2B in membrane binding remain unclear. To test whether the two domains interact on a planar lipid bilayer (i.e., experience thermodynamic interdomain contacts), diffusion of fluorescent-tagged C2A, C2B, and C2AB domains from human Syt7 was measured using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with single-particle tracking. The C2AB tandem exhibits a lateral diffusion constant approximately half the value of the isolated single domains and does not change when additional residues are engineered into the C2A–C2B linker. This is the expected result if C2A and C2B are separated when membrane-bound; theory predicts that C2AB diffusion would be faster if the two domains were close enough together to have interdomain contact. Stopped-flow measurements of membrane dissociation kinetics further support an absence of interdomain interactions, as dissociation kinetics of the C2AB tandem remain unchanged when rigid or flexible linker extensions are included. Together, the results suggest that the two C2 domains of Syt7 bind independently to planar membranes, in contrast to reported interdomain cooperativity in Syt1. PMID:25437758

  11. Reduced Integrity of Right Lateralized White Matter in Patients with Primary Insomnia: A Diffusion-Tensor Imaging Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Shumei; Tian, Junzhang; Bauer, Andreas; Huang, Ruiwang; Wen, Hua; Li, Meng; Wang, Tianyue; Xia, Likun; Jiang, Guihua

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To analyze the integrity of white matter (WM) tracts in primary insomnia patients and provide better characterization of abnormal WM integrity and its relationship with disease duration and clinical features of primary insomnia. Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by the ethics committee of the Guangdong No. 2 Provincial People's Hospital. Tract-based spatial statistics were used to compare changes in diffusion parameters of WM tracts from 23 primary insomnia patients and 30 healthy control (HC) participants, and the accuracy of these changes in distinguishing insomnia patients from HC participants was evaluated. Voxel-wise statistics across subjects was performed by using a 5000-permutation set with family-wise error correction (family-wise error, P < .05). Multiple regressions were used to analyze the associations between the abnormal fractional anisotropy (FA) in WM with disease duration, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, insomnia severity index, self-rating anxiety scale, and the self-rating depression scale in primary insomnia. Characteristics for abnormal WM were also investigated in tract-level analyses. Results Primary insomnia patients had lower FA values mainly in the right anterior limb of the internal capsule, right posterior limb of the internal capsule, right anterior corona radiata, right superior corona radiata, right superior longitudinal fasciculus, body of the corpus callosum, and right thalamus (P < .05, family-wise error correction). The receiver operating characteristic areas for the seven regions were acceptable (range, 0.60-0.74; 60%-74%). Multiple regression models showed abnormal FA values in the thalamus and body corpus callosum were associated with the disease duration, self-rating depression scale, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores. Tract-level analysis suggested that the reduced FA values might be related to greater radial diffusivity. Conclusion This study showed that WM tracts related to regulation

  12. Li + ion diffusion in Li 4Ti 5O 12 thin film electrode prepared by PVP sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rho, Young Ho; Kanamura, Kiyoshi

    2004-06-01

    Li 4Ti 5O 12 thin films for rechargeable lithium batteries were prepared by a sol-gel method with poly(vinylpyrrolidone). Interfacial properties of lithium insertion into Li 4Ti 5O 12 thin film were examined by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and potentiostatic intermittent titration technique (PITT). Redox peaks in CV were very sharp even at a fast scan rate of 50 mV s -1, indicating that Li 4Ti 5O 12 thin film had a fast electrochemical response, and that an apparent chemical diffusion coefficient of Li + ion was estimated to be 6.8×10 -11 cm 2 s -1 from a dependence of peak current on sweep rates. From EIS, it can be seen that Li + ions become more mobile at 1.55 V vs. Li/Li +, corresponding to a two-phase region, and the chemical diffusion coefficients of Li + ion ranged from 10 -10 to 10 -12 cm 2 s -1 at various potentials. The chemical diffusion coefficients of Li + ion in Li 4Ti 5O 12 were also estimated from PITT. They were in a range of 10 -11-10 -12 cm 2 s -1.

  13. Modulation of manual preference induced by lateralized practice diffuses over distinct motor tasks: age-related effects

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Rosana M.; Coelho, Daniel B.; Teixeira, Luis A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of use of the non-preferred left hand to practice different motor tasks on manual preference in children and adults. Manual preference was evaluated before, immediately after and 20 days following practice. Evaluation was made with tasks of distinct levels of complexity requiring reaching and manipulation of cards at different eccentricities in the workspace. Results showed that left hand use in adults induced increased preference of that hand at the central position when performing the simple task, while left hand use by the children induced increased preference of the left hand at the rightmost positions in the performance of the complex task. These effects were retained over the rest period following practice. Kinematic analysis showed that left hand use during practice did not lead to modification of intermanual performance asymmetry. These results indicate that modulation of manual preference was a consequence of higher frequency of use of the left hand during practice rather than of change in motor performance. Findings presented here support the conceptualization that confidence on successful performance when using a particular limb generates a bias in hand selection, which diffuses over distinct motor tasks. PMID:25538656

  14. Impact of drift gap, N-layer, and deep N+ sinker on breakdown voltage and saturation current of lateral double-diffused metal oxide semiconductor transistor.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kunsik; Won, Taeyoung

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss on the optimal design of a High-Side n-channel Lateral Double-diffused Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (LDMOSFET) whose breakdown voltage is over 100 V with 0.35 microm Bipolar-CMOS-DMOS (BCD) process. The proposed nLDMOSFET has been fabricated and tested in order to confirm the features of a deep N+ sinker and a gap of between the drift region (DEEP N-WELL) and the center of the source. The surface is implanted by the N-layer for high breakdown voltage and simultaneously the low specific on-resistance. The computer simulation of the proposed High-Side LDMOS exhibits BVdss of 115 V and Ron,sp of as low as 2.20 m ohms cm2, which is consistent with the experimental results.

  15. Probabilistic diffusion tractography: a potential tool to assess the rate of disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ciccarelli, O; Behrens, T E; Altmann, D R; Orrell, R W; Howard, R S; Johansen-Berg, H; Miller, D H; Matthews, P M; Thompson, A J

    2006-07-01

    The goal of probabilistic tractography is to obtain a connectivity index along a white matter pathway that reflects fibre organization and is sensitive to pathological abnormalities contributing to disability. Here, we present the development of voxel-based connectivity measures along the tractography-derived corticospinal tract (CST). We investigated whether these connectivity measures are different in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and correlate with the rate of disease progression. We also investigated whether fractional anisotropy (FA), which reflects directional coherence of fibre tracts, is reduced in the CST of ALS patients and relates to disease progression rate. Thirteen patients with probable or definite ALS and 19 healthy subjects were studied. The probabilistic tractography algorithm segmented the bilateral CST, along which FA and connectivity values were obtained. To take into account the asymmetric distribution of connectivity values, two summary statistic measures that focused on voxels with higher connectivity values were selected and then used in the analysis, together with the mean connectivity and the mean FA. To complete the analysis, the same summary measures for FA were included. Differences in all these indices between patients with moderate or rapid disease progression rate and controls were investigated using linear regression, adjusted for age and white matter fraction. The association between FA or connectivity in the CST and the disease progression rate was assessed using linear regression. Patients with a rapid disease progression rate had significantly lower summary connectivity measures than controls in the left CST, but there was only a borderline statistical difference in mean connectivity. Patients with rapid progression had a significantly lower mean FA, and any other FA measure, in both CSTs than controls. When only patients were considered, strong associations between the rate of disease progression and all

  16. Bifunctional catalytic electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cisar, Alan (Inventor); Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor); Clarke, Eric (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to an oxygen electrode for a unitized regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell and the unitized regenerative fuel cell having the oxygen electrode. The oxygen electrode contains components electrocatalytically active for the evolution of oxygen from water and the reduction of oxygen to water, and has a structure that supports the flow of both water and gases between the catalytically active surface and a flow field or electrode chamber for bulk flow of the fluids. The electrode has an electrocatalyst layer and a diffusion backing layer interspersed with hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. The diffusion backing layer consists of a metal core having gas diffusion structures bonded to the metal core.

  17. An assembled poly-4-vinyl pyridine and cellulose triacetate membrane and Bi2S3 electrode for photoelectrochemical diffusion of metallic ions.

    PubMed

    Amara, Mourad; Arous, Omar; Smail, Fatima; Kerdjoudj, Hacène; Trari, Mohamed; Bouguelia, Aissa

    2009-09-30

    The transport phenomena across ion exchange membrane may be enhanced by applying various strengths inside or outside the system. The electrical current, generated by n-type semiconductor, is used to catalyse the separation of metal ions. The cation exchange membrane located between the two compartments allows both the separation and concentration of M(n+) (Ag(+), Cu(2+), Pb(2+) and Ni(2+)). The flows of M(n+) from the aqueous solution to-and inside the membrane are monitored by the determination of the fluxes and the potentials. In this study, the four cations are investigated alone or in quaternary systems. From photoelectrochemical measurement, the gap of Bi(2)S(3) is found to be indirect at 1.65 eV. The shape of photocurrent potential curve and the negative flat band potential (-1.02 V(SCE)) give evidence of n-type character. The conduction band (-1.25 V(SCE)) yields thermodynamically M(2+) photoreduction and catalyzes the diffusion process. The photoelectrode Bi(2)S(3) makes the flux twofold greater than that observed in the dark. In all cases, the potential of the electrode M(2+)/M in the feed compartment increases until a maximal value, reached at approximately 100 min above which it undergoes a diminution. The membrane is more selective to Cu(2+) and this selectivity decreases in the quaternary system.

  18. Lateral Diffusion, Function, and Expression of the Slow Channel Congenital Myasthenia Syndrome αC418W Nicotinic Receptor Mutation with Changes in Lipid Raft Components*

    PubMed Central

    Oyola-Cintrón, Jessica; Caballero-Rivera, Daniel; Ballester, Leomar; Baéz-Pagán, Carlos A.; Martínez, Hernán L.; Vélez-Arroyo, Karla P.; Quesada, Orestes; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Lipid rafts, specialized membrane microdomains in the plasma membrane rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids, are hot spots for a number of important cellular processes. The novel nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) mutation αC418W, the first lipid-exposed mutation identified in a patient that causes slow channel congenital myasthenia syndrome was shown to be cholesterol-sensitive and to accumulate in microdomains rich in the membrane raft marker protein caveolin-1. The objective of this study is to gain insight into the mechanism by which lateral segregation into specialized raft membrane microdomains regulates the activable pool of nAChRs. We performed fluorescent recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), quantitative RT-PCR, and whole cell patch clamp recordings of GFP-encoding Mus musculus nAChRs transfected into HEK 293 cells to assess the role of cholesterol and caveolin-1 (CAV-1) in the diffusion, expression, and functionality of the nAChR (WT and αC418W). Our findings support the hypothesis that a cholesterol-sensitive nAChR might reside in specialized membrane microdomains that upon cholesterol depletion become disrupted and release the cholesterol-sensitive nAChRs to the pool of activable receptors. In addition, our results in HEK 293 cells show an interdependence between CAV-1 and αC418W that could confer end plates rich in αC418W nAChRs to a susceptibility to changes in cholesterol levels that could cause adverse drug reactions to cholesterol-lowering drugs such as statins. The current work suggests that the interplay between cholesterol and CAV-1 provides the molecular basis for modulating the function and dynamics of the cholesterol-sensitive αC418W nAChR. PMID:26354438

  19. Fabrication of conducting-filament-embedded indium tin oxide electrodes: application to lateral-type gallium nitride light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Dong; Kim, Kyeong Heon; Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Tae Geun

    2015-11-02

    A novel conducting filament (CF)-embedded indium tin oxide (ITO) film is fabricated using an electrical breakdown method. To assess the performance of this layer as an ohmic contact, it is applied to GaN (gallium nitride) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as a p-type electrode for comparison with typical GaN LEDs using metallic ITO. The operating voltage and output power of the LED with the CF embedded ITO are 3.93 V and 8.49 mW, respectively, at an injection current of 100 mA. This is comparable to the operating voltage and output power of the conventionally fabricated LEDs using metallic ITO (3.93 V and 8.43 mW). Moreover, the CF-ITO LED displays uniform and bright light emission indicating excellent current injection and spreading. These results suggest that the proposed method of forming ohmic contacts is at least as effective as the conventional method.

  20. Positive electrodes of nickel-cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wabner, D. W.; Kandler, L.; Krienke, W.

    1985-01-01

    Ni hydroxide sintered electrodes which are filled electrochemically are superior to chemically treated electrodes. In the electrochemical process, the hydroxide grows on the Ni grains and possesses a well-defined porous structure. Diffusion and conducting mechanisms are therefore facilitated.

  1. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.; Vissers, D.R.

    1981-12-30

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell are described. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  2. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo; Vissers, Donald R.

    1983-01-01

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  3. A gold-gold oil microtrench electrode for liquid-liquid anion transfer voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Dale, Sara E C; Chan, Yohan; Bulman Page, Philip C; Barnes, Edward O; Compton, Richard G; Marken, Frank

    2013-07-01

    Two flat gold electrodes are placed vis-à-vis with an epoxy spacer layer that is etched out to give a ca. 100 μm-deep electrochemically active trench. A water-insoluble oil phase, here the redox system N,N-diethyl-N'N'-didodecyl-phenylenediamine (DDPD) in 4-(3-phenylpropyl)-pyridine (PPP), is immobilized into the trench to allow anion transfer upon oxidation of DDPD (oil) to DDP⁺ (oil). In "mono-potentiostatic mode" quantitative transfer/expulsion of anions into the trench oil phase occurs. However, in "bi-potentiostatic mode" feedback currents dominated by rapid plate-to-plate diffusion normal to the electrode surfaces are observed. Comparison of "normal" diffusion and "lateral" diffusion shows that the rate of diffusion-migration charge transport across the oil film is anion hydrophobicity dependent.

  4. Floating-diffusion electrometer with adjustable sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, John R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The effective capacitance of the floating diffusion in a floating-diffusion electrometer is modified to adjust electrometer sensitivity. This is done by changing the direct potential applied to a gate electrode proximate to the floating diffusion.

  5. Electrode compositions

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.; Fan, X.

    1998-10-27

    An electrode composition is described for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. The electrode composition contains an electrically active powder in a solid polymer and, as a dispersant, a C{sub 8}-C{sub 15} alkyl capped oligomer of a hexanoic acid that is electrochemically inert at 2.5--4.5 volts.

  6. Electrode compositions

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob; Fan, Xiyun

    1998-01-01

    An electrode composition for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. The electrode composition contains an electrically active powder in a solid polymer and, as a dispersant, a C.sub.8 -C.sub.15 alkyl capped oligomer of a hexanoic acid that is electrochemically inert at 2.5-4.5 volts.

  7. Magnetohydrodynamic electrode

    DOEpatents

    Boquist, Carl W.; Marchant, David D.

    1978-01-01

    A ceramic-metal composite suitable for use in a high-temperature environment consists of a refractory ceramic matrix containing 10 to 50 volume percent of a continuous high-temperature metal reinforcement. In a specific application of the composite, as an electrode in a magnetohydrodynamic generator, the one surface of the electrode which contacts the MHD fluid may have a layer of varying thickness of nonreinforced refractory ceramic for electrode temperature control. The side walls of the electrode may be coated with a refractory ceramic insulator. Also described is an electrode-insulator system for a MHD channel.

  8. Origin, diffusion, and differentiation of Y-chromosome haplogroups E and J: inferences on the neolithization of Europe and later migratory events in the Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Semino, Ornella; Magri, Chiara; Benuzzi, Giorgia; Lin, Alice A; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Battaglia, Vincenza; Maccioni, Liliana; Triantaphyllidis, Costas; Shen, Peidong; Oefner, Peter J; Zhivotovsky, Lev A; King, Roy; Torroni, Antonio; Cavalli-Sforza, L Luca; Underhill, Peter A; Santachiara-Benerecetti, A Silvana

    2004-05-01

    The phylogeography of Y-chromosome haplogroups E (Hg E) and J (Hg J) was investigated in >2400 subjects from 29 populations, mainly from Europe and the Mediterranean area but also from Africa and Asia. The observed 501 Hg E and 445 Hg J samples were subtyped using 36 binary markers and eight microsatellite loci. Spatial patterns reveal that (1). the two sister clades, J-M267 and J-M172, are distributed differentially within the Near East, North Africa, and Europe; (2). J-M267 was spread by two temporally distinct migratory episodes, the most recent one probably associated with the diffusion of Arab people; (3). E-M81 is typical of Berbers, and its presence in Iberia and Sicily is due to recent gene flow from North Africa; (4). J-M172(xM12) distribution is consistent with a Levantine/Anatolian dispersal route to southeastern Europe and may reflect the spread of Anatolian farmers; and (5). E-M78 (for which microsatellite data suggest an eastern African origin) and, to a lesser extent, J-M12(M102) lineages would trace the subsequent diffusion of people from the southern Balkans to the west. A 7%-22% contribution of Y chromosomes from Greece to southern Italy was estimated by admixture analysis.

  9. Nanoparticle-electrode collision processes: Investigating the contact time required for the diffusion-controlled monolayer underpotential deposition on impacting nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutress, Ian J.; Rees, Neil V.; Zhou, Yi-Ge; Compton, Richard G.

    2011-09-01

    Recent work on faradaic processes occurring during thermal nanoparticle-electrode collisions contrasts significantly from analogous research using ultrasonically-driven microparticles, where no faradaic signals were found. It is suggested that this might be explained by the differences in both particle size and contact time. To investigate this, we present results from adapted Monte Carlo random walk simulations. Using the underpotential deposition of thallium onto silver nanoparticles as a model system, it is found that an estimated minimum contact time of ca. 10-4 s is required to deposit a complete monolayer (from a 10 mM solution) onto a nanoparticle of radius 45 nm.

  10. Diffusion barriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolet, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    The choice of the metallic film for the contact to a semiconductor device is discussed. One way to try to stabilize a contact is by interposing a thin film of a material that has low diffusivity for the atoms in question. This thin film application is known as a diffusion barrier. Three types of barriers can be distinguished. The stuffed barrier derives its low atomic diffusivity to impurities that concentrate along the extended defects of a polycrystalline layer. Sacrificial barriers exploit the fact that some (elemental) thin films react in a laterally uniform and reproducible fashion. Sacrificial barriers have the advantage that the point of their failure is predictable. Passive barriers are those most closely approximating an ideal barrier. The most-studied case is that of sputtered TiN films. Stuffed barriers may be viewed as passive barriers whose low diffusivity material extends along the defects of the polycrystalline host.

  11. Activated transport in AMTEC electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.; Underwood, M. L.; O'Connor, D.; Kikkert, S.

    1992-01-01

    Transport of alkali, metal atoms through porous cathodes of alkali metal thermal-to-electric converter (AMTEC) cells is responsible for significant reducible losses in the electrical performance of these cells. Experimental evidence for activated transport of metal atoms at grain surfaces and boundaries within some AMTEC electrodes has been derived from temperature dependent studies as well as from analysis of the detailed frequency dependence of ac impedance results for other electrodes, including thin, mature molybdenum electrodes which exhibit transport dominated by free molecular flow of sodium gas at low frequencies or dc conditions. Activated surface transport will almost always exist in parallel with free molecular flow transport, and the process of alkali atom adsorption/desorption from the electrode surface will invariably be part of the transport process, and possibly a dominant part in some cases. The temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient of the alkali metal through the electrode in several cases provides an activation energy and preexponential, but at least two activated processes may be operative, and the activation parameters should be expected to depend on the alkali metal activity gradient that the electrode experiences. In the case of Pt/W/Mn electrodes operated for 2500 hours, limiting currents varied with electrode thickness, and the activation parameters could be assigned primarily to the surface/grain boundary diffusion process.

  12. Liquid electrode

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, Amy A.

    1994-01-01

    A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

  13. High temperature behavior of multi-region direct current current-voltage spectroscopy and relationship with shallow-trench-isolation-based high-voltage laterally diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yandong; Zhang, Ganggang; Zhang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    With the process compatibility with the mainstream standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS), shallow trench isolation (STI) based laterally diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor (LDMOS) devices have become popular for its better tradeoff between breakdown voltage and performance, especially for smart power applications. A multi-region direct current current-voltage (MR-DCIV) technique with spectroscopic features was demonstrated to map the interface state generation in the channel, accumulation and STI drift regions. High temperature behavior of MR-DCIV spectroscopy was analyzed and a physical model was verified. Degradation of STI-based LDMOS transistors under high temperature reverse bias (HTRB) stress is experimentally studied by MR-DCIV spectroscopy. The impact of interface state location on device electrical characteristics was investigated. Our results show that the major contribution to HTRB degradation, in term of the on-resistance degradation, was attributed to interface state generation under STI drift region.

  14. Lifetimes of Electrodes for AMTEC Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, M. A.; Kisor, A.; Williams, R F.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; O'Connor, D.

    1994-01-01

    The lifetime of an AMTEC electrode depends on the rate of grain growth, which in turn depends on the surface self-diffusion coefficient of the electrode material under AMTEC operating conditions. Grain growth rates for molybdenum and platinum-tungsten alloy electrodes have been determined, and have been used to predict operating lifetimes of AMTEC electrodes. For lifetimes of 10 years of more, Mo may be used in AMTEC cells only at operating temperatures under 1100 K. Pt(sub 2.5)W electrodes may be used at much higher temperatures, up to 1300 K.

  15. Liquid electrode

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  16. Simultaneous measurement of Ca2+ in muscle with Ca electrodes and aequorin. Diffusible cytoplasmic constituent reduces Ca(2+)-independent luminescence of aequorin

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Estimates of cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were made essentially simultaneously in the same intact frog skeletal muscle fibers with aequorin and with Ca-selective microelectrodes. In healthy fibers under truly resting conditions [Ca2+]i was too low to be measured reliably with either technique. The calibration curves for both indicators were essentially flat in this range of [Ca2+], and the aequorin light signal was uniformly below the level to be expected in the total absence of Ca2+. When [Ca2+]i had been raised to a stable level below the threshold for contracture by increasing [K+]o to 12.5 mM, [Ca2+]i was 38 nM according to aequorin and 59 nM according to the Ca-selective microelectrodes. These values are not significantly different. Our estimates of [Ca2+]i are lower than most others obtained with microelectrodes, probably because the presence of aequorin in the cells allowed us to detect damaging microelectrode impalements that otherwise we would have had no reason to reject. The observation that the light emission from aequorin-injected fibers in normal Ringer solution was below the level expected from the Ca(2+)-independent luminescence of aequorin in vitro was investigated further, with the conclusion that the myoplasm contains a diffusible macromolecule (between 10 and 30 kD) that interacts with aequorin to reduce light emission in the absence of Ca2+. PMID:1783896

  17. Graphene based nanocomposite hybrid electrodes for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aphale, Ashish N.

    There is an unmet need to develop high performance energy storage systems (ESS), capable of storing energy from both renewable and non-renewable sources to meet the current energy crisis and depletion of non-renewable sources. Amongst many available ESS, supercapacitors (ECs) are the most promising because they exhibit a high charge/discharge rate and power density, along with a long cycle life. The possibility of exploring the use of atomically thin carbon allotropes like graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and electrically conducting polymers (ECPs) such as polypyrrole (PPy) has been studied as a high performance conducting electrodes in supercapacitor application. A novel templated sustainable nanocomposite electrode has been fabricated using cellulose extracted from Cladophora c. aegagropila algae as component of the assembled supercapacitor device which later has been transitioned to a unique template-less freestanding nanocomposite supercapacitor electrode. The specific capacitance of polypyrrole-graphene-cellulose nanocomposite as calculated from cyclic voltammetry curve is 91.5 F g -1 at the scan rate 50 m Vs-1 in the presence of 1M NaCl electrolyte. The open circuit voltage of the device with polypyrrole -graphene-cellulose electrode was found to be around 225 m V and that of the polypyrrole -cellulose device is only 53 m V without the presence of graphene in the nanocomposite electrode. Understanding the fundamentals by fabricating template nanocomposite electrode, it led to fabricate a unique nanocomposite template-less freestanding film which comprises of polypyrrole-graphene-CNT hybrid. Various experiments have been performed using different electrolytes such ascorbic acid, sodium sulfate and sulfuric acid in different scan rates. The specific capacitance of polypyrrole-graphene-CNT nanocomposite with 0.1 wt% of graphene-CNT, as calculated from cyclic voltammetry curve is 450 F g-1 at the scan rate 5 m V s-1. For the first time a nanofibrous membrane has

  18. Activated transport in AMTEC electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M.A.; Underwood, M.L.; O`Connor, D.; Kikkert, S.

    1992-07-01

    Transport of alkali metal atoms through porous cathodes of alkali metal thermal-to-electric converter (AMTEC) cells is responsible for significant, reducible losses in the electrical performance of these cells. Experimental evidence for activated transport of metal atoms at grain surfaces and boundaries within some AMTEC electrodes has been derived from temperature dependent studies as well as from analysis of the detailed frequency dependence of ac impedance results for other electrodes, including thin, mature molybdenum electrodes which exhibit transport dominated by free molecular flow of sodium gas at low frequencies or dc conditions. Activated surface transport will almost always exist in parallel with free molecular flow transport, and the process of alkali atom adsorption/desorption from the electrode surface will invariably be part of the transport process, and possibly a dominant part in some cases. Little can be learned about the detailed mass transport process from the ac impedance or current voltage curves of an electrode at one set of operating parameters, because the transport process includes a number of important physical parameters that are not all uniquely determined by one experiment. The temperature dependence of diffusion coefficient of the alkali metal through the electrode in several cases provides an activation energy and pre-exponential, but at least two activated processes may be operative, and the activation parameters should be expected to depend on the alkali metal activity gradient that the electrode experiences. In the case of Pt/W/Mn electrodes operated for 2500 hours, limiting currents varied with electrode thickness, and the activation parameters could be assigned primarily to the surface/grain boundary diffusion process. 17 refs.

  19. Activated transport in AMTEC electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M.A.; Underwood, M.L.; O'Connor, D.; Kikkert, S.

    1992-01-01

    Transport of alkali metal atoms through porous cathodes of alkali metal thermal-to-electric converter (AMTEC) cells is responsible for significant, reducible losses in the electrical performance of these cells. Experimental evidence for activated transport of metal atoms at grain surfaces and boundaries within some AMTEC electrodes has been derived from temperature dependent studies as well as from analysis of the detailed frequency dependence of ac impedance results for other electrodes, including thin, mature molybdenum electrodes which exhibit transport dominated by free molecular flow of sodium gas at low frequencies or dc conditions. Activated surface transport will almost always exist in parallel with free molecular flow transport, and the process of alkali atom adsorption/desorption from the electrode surface will invariably be part of the transport process, and possibly a dominant part in some cases. Little can be learned about the detailed mass transport process from the ac impedance or current voltage curves of an electrode at one set of operating parameters, because the transport process includes a number of important physical parameters that are not all uniquely determined by one experiment. The temperature dependence of diffusion coefficient of the alkali metal through the electrode in several cases provides an activation energy and pre-exponential, but at least two activated processes may be operative, and the activation parameters should be expected to depend on the alkali metal activity gradient that the electrode experiences. In the case of Pt/W/Mn electrodes operated for 2500 hours, limiting currents varied with electrode thickness, and the activation parameters could be assigned primarily to the surface/grain boundary diffusion process. 17 refs.

  20. Thin film fuel cell electrodes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asher, W. J.; Batzold, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    Earlier work shows that fuel cell electrodes prepared by sputtering thin films of platinum on porous vycor substrates avoid diffusion limitations even at high current densities. The presented study shows that the specific activity of sputtered platinum is not unusually high. Performance limitations are found to be controlled by physical processes, even at low loadings. Catalyst activity is strongly influenced by platinum sputtering parameters, which seemingly change the surface area of the catalyst layer. The use of porous nickel as a substrate shows that pore size of the substrate is an important parameter. It is noted that electrode performance increases with increasing loading for catalyst layers up to two microns thick, thus showing the physical properties of the sputtered layer to be different from platinum foil. Electrode performance is also sensitive to changing differential pressure across the electrode. The application of sputtered catalyst layers to fuel cell matrices for the purpose of obtaining thin total cells appears feasible.

  1. A Pascalian lateral drift sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, H.

    2016-09-01

    A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic electrode

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, David D.; Killpatrick, Don H.

    1978-01-01

    An electrode capable of withstanding high temperatures and suitable for use as a current collector in the channel of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator consists of a sintered powdered metal base portion, the upper surface of the base being coated with a first layer of nickel aluminide, an intermediate layer of a mixture of nickel aluminide - refractory ceramic on the first layer and a third or outer layer of a refractory ceramic material on the intermediate layer. The sintered powdered metal base resists spalling by the ceramic coatings and permits greater electrode compliance to thermal shock. The density of the powdered metal base can be varied to allow optimization of the thermal conductivity of the electrode and prevent excess heat loss from the channel.

  3. Cermet electrode

    DOEpatents

    Maskalick, Nicholas J.

    1988-08-30

    Disclosed is a cermet electrode consisting of metal particles of nickel, cobalt, iron, or alloys or mixtures thereof immobilized by zirconia stabilized in cubic form which contains discrete deposits of about 0.1 to about 5% by weight of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof. The solid oxide electrode can be made by covering a substrate with particles of nickel, cobalt, iron, or mixtures thereof, growing a stabilized zirconia solid oxide skeleton around the particles thereby immobilizing them, contacting the skeleton with a compound of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof, and heating the skeleton to a temperature of at least 500.degree. C. The electrode can also be made by preparing a slurry of nickel, cobalt, iron, or mixture and a compound of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof, depositing the slurry on a substrate, heating the slurry to dryness, and growing a stabilized zirconia skeleton around the metal particles.

  4. Hot-carrier-induced linear drain current and threshold voltage degradation for thin layer silicon-on-insulator field P-channel lateral double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xin; Qiao, Ming; He, Yitao; Li, Zhaoji; Zhang, Bo

    2015-11-16

    Hot-carrier-induced linear drain current (I{sub dlin}) and threshold voltage (V{sub th}) degradations for the thin layer SOI field p-channel lateral double-diffused MOS (pLDMOS) are investigated. Two competition degradation mechanisms are revealed and the hot-carrier conductance modulation model is proposed. In the channel, hot-hole injection induced positive oxide trapped charge and interface trap gives rise to the V{sub th} increasing and the channel conductance (G{sub ch}) decreasing, then reduces I{sub dlin}. In the p-drift region, hot-electron injection induced negative oxide trapped charge enhances the conductance of drift doping resistance (G{sub d}), and then increases I{sub dlin}. Consequently, the eventual I{sub dlin} degradation is controlled by the competition of the two mechanisms due to conductance modulation in the both regions. Based on the model, it is explained that the measured I{sub dlin} anomalously increases while the V{sub th} is increasing with power law. The thin layer field pLDMOS exhibits more severe V{sub th} instability compared with thick SOI layer structure; as a result, it should be seriously evaluated in actual application in switching circuit.

  5. Photoelectrochemical electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Rembaum, A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The surface of a moderate band gap semiconductor such as p-type molybdenum sulfide is modified to contain an adherent film of charge mediating ionene polymer containing an electroactive unit such as bipyridimium. Electron transport between the electrode and the mediator film is favorable and photocorrosion and recombination processes are suppressed. Incorporation of particles of catalyst such as platinum within the film provides a reduction in overvoltage. The polymer film is readily deposited on the electrode surface and can be rendered stable by ionic or addition crosslinking. Catalyst can be predispersed in the polymer film or a salt can be impregnated into the film and reduced therein.

  6. Graphene-based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Jiguang; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Jun; Xu, Wu; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Deyu

    2014-05-24

    Some batteries can exhibit greatly improved performance by utilizing electrodes having randomly arranged graphene nanosheets forming a network of channels defining continuous flow paths through the electrode. The network of channels can provide a diffusion pathway for the liquid electrolyte and/or for reactant gases. Metal-air batteries can benefit from such electrodes. In particular Li-air batteries show extremely high capacities, wherein the network of channels allow oxygen to diffuse through the electrode and mesopores in the electrode can store discharge products.

  7. Microvoltammetric Electrodes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-25

    Microvoltammetric Electrodes, J. 0. Howell, R. M. Wightman, Anal. Chem., 56, 524-529 (1984). 2. Flow Rate Independent Amperometric Cell , W. L. Caudill...Electroanal. Chem., 182, 113-122 (1985). C. List of all publications 1. Flow Rate Independent Amperometric Cell , W. L. Caudill, J. 0. Howell, R. M

  8. Lateral Mixing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    apl.uw.edu/dasaro LONG-TERM GOALS I seek to understand the processes controlling lateral mixing in the ocean, particularly at the submesoscale ...APPROACH During AESOP, Lee and D’Asaro pioneered an innovative approach to measuring submesoscale structure in strong fronts. An adaptive measurement...injection of potential vorticity and scalars is predicted to create an intense ‘ submesoscale soup’ of high small-scale variance. The combination of small

  9. Lateral Mixing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-08

    to mesoscale forcing. APPROACH Figure 1: MVP system deployed from stern of R/V Endeavor in Sargasso Sea . 1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for...integrative efforts with other sea -going investigators and numerical modelers. The Lateral Mixing Experiment project was an ideal opportunity to...2011 I also participated in the sea -going part of this project, taking my group on the R/V Endeavor in June 2011. Our role was to sample around the

  10. Lateral Mixing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    ocean as it responds to mesoscale forcing. APPROACH Figure 1: MVP system deployed from stern of R/V Endeavor in Sargasso Sea . My approach for...therefore requires integrative efforts with other sea -going investigators and numerical modelers. The Lateral Mixing Experiment project was an ideal...also participated in the sea -going part of this project, taking my group on the R/V Endeavor in June 2011. Our role was to sample around the center of

  11. Carbon nanotube macrofilm-based nanocomposite electrodes for energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zeyuan

    , Ni)) with CNT macofilms as high performance anodes for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries and as catalysts for oxygen reduction/evolution (ORR/OER). All MxOy-CNT macrofilm nanocomposites inherit the high specific capacity and cycling stability for lithium-ion batteries. NiO/SWNT and Co3O4/SWNT (200 °C) have their specialized high catalytic activities for ORR and OER in alkaline solutions, respectively. NiO/SWNT also exhibits an excellent electrochemical performance in asymmetric supercapacitors with a high power and energy density. Experimental measurements on electrochemical kinetics such as potentiostatic/galvanostatic intermittent titration techniques (PITT/GITT) are depended to understand the underlying improved Li+ diffusion behavior of nanocomposites. Critical effects of the film thickness have been identified. The CNT macrofilm with a thickness that is comparable to the characteristic diffusion length of 300~500 nm enables the nanocomposite with the highest Li+ chemical diffusion coefficient and thus an optimal electrochemical performance. The adhesive characteristic of CNT macrofilms is noticed for the first time after fragmentation by ultrasound that origins from irregular structures of laterally 2-D distributed CNT segments. The fragmented CNT macrofilms (FCNT) as "bifunctional" adhesive conductors promote a general approach to construct nanocomposite electrodes with both cathode and anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. An in-situ tribology method combining the wear track imaging and force measurement is employed to evaluate the adhesion strength of the adhesive FCNT conductors. The results show that the FCNT macrofilms have a higher adhesion strength than the conventional polymer binder polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). It is confirmed that the fabricated nanocomposite electrodes exhibit high rate and retention capabilities, superior to the electrodes using PVDF and carbon black. Thus, FCNT is recognized to be a competent substitute for polymer

  12. Lateral conduction infrared photodetector

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jin K.; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2011-09-20

    A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

  13. Iron serves as diffusion barrier in thermally regenerative galvanic cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouthamel, C. E.

    1967-01-01

    Pure iron or iron-coated diaphragm provides a hydrogen diffusion electrode for a thermally regenerative galvanic cell. It allows the gas to diffuse through its interatomic spaces and resists the corrosive action of the cell environment.

  14. resterilizable electrode for electrosurgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engstrom, E. R.; Houge, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Required properties of flexibility, electrical conductivity, tensile strength, and tear resistance of electrosurgical electrodes is retained through utilization of flexible-polymer/conductive particle composites for electrodes.

  15. Subcutaneous electrode structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, G. F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A subcutaneous electrode structure suitable for a chronic implant and for taking a low noise electrocardiogram of an active animal, comprises a thin inflexible, smooth disc of stainless steel having a diameter as of 5 to 30 mm, which is sutured in place to the animal being monitored. The disc electrode includes a radially directed slot extending in from the periphery of the disc for approximately 1/3 of the diameter. Electrical connection is made to the disc by means of a flexible lead wire that extends longitudinally of the slot and is woven through apertures in the disc and held at the terminal end by means of a spot welded tab. Within the slot, an electrically insulative sleeve, such as silicone rubber, is placed over the wire. The wire with the sleeve mounted thereon is captured in the plane of the disc and within the slot by means of crimping tabs extending laterally of the slot and over the insulative wire. The marginal lip of the slot area is apertured and an electrically insulative potting material such as silicone rubber, is potted in place overlaying the wire slot region and through the apertures.

  16. Nanoband array electrode as a platform for high sensitivity enzyme-based glucose biosensing.

    PubMed

    Falk, Magnus; Sultana, Reshma; Swann, Marcus J; Mount, Andrew R; Freeman, Neville J

    2016-12-01

    We describe a novel glucose biosensor based on a nanoband array electrode design, manufactured using standard semiconductor processing techniques, and bio-modified with glucose oxidase immobilized at the nanoband electrode surface. The nanoband array architecture allows for efficient diffusion of glucose and oxygen to the electrode, resulting in a thousand-fold improvement in sensitivity and wide linear range compared to a conventional electrode. The electrode constitutes a robust and manufacturable sensing platform.

  17. AC impedance modelling study on porous electrodes of proton exchange membrane fuel cells using an agglomerate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerteisen, Dietmar; Hakenjos, Alex; Schumacher, Jürgen O.

    A one-dimensional model of the PEM fuel cell cathode is developed to analyse ac impedance spectra and polarisation curves. The porous gas diffusion electrode is assumed to consist of a network of dispersed catalyst (Pt/C) forming spherically shaped agglomerated zones that are filled with electrolyte. The coupled differential equation system describes: ternary gas diffusion in the backing (O2 , N2 , water vapour), Fickian diffusion and Tafel kinetics for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) inside the agglomerates, proton migration with ohmic losses and double-layer charging in the electrode. Measurements are made of a temperature-controlled fuel cell with a geometric area of 1.4 cm × 1.4 cm. Lateral homogeneity is ensured by using a high stoichiometry of λmin . The model predicts the behaviour of measured polarisation curves and impedance spectra. It is found that a better humidification of the electrode leads to a higher volumetric double-layer capacity. The catalyst layer resistance shows the same behaviour depending on the humidification as the membrane resistance. Model parameters, e.g. Tafel slope, ionic resistance and agglomerate radius are varied. A sensitivity analysis of the model parameters is conducted.

  18. Lateral diffusion of peripheral membrane proteins on supported lipid bilayers is controlled by the additive frictional drags of (1) bound lipids and (2) protein domains penetrating into the bilayer hydrocarbon core.

    PubMed

    Ziemba, Brian P; Falke, Joseph J

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral membrane proteins bound to lipids on bilayer surfaces play central roles in a wide array of cellular processes, including many signaling pathways. These proteins diffuse in the plane of the bilayer and often undergo complex reactions involving the binding of regulatory and substrate lipids and proteins they encounter during their 2D diffusion. Some peripheral proteins, for example pleckstrin homology (PH) domains, dock to the bilayer in a relatively shallow position with little penetration into the bilayer. Other peripheral proteins exhibit more complex bilayer contacts, for example classical protein kinase C isoforms (PKCs) bind as many as six lipids in stepwise fashion, resulting in the penetration of three PKC domains (C1A, C1B, C2) into the bilayer headgroup and hydrocarbon regions. A molecular understanding of the molecular features that control the diffusion speeds of proteins bound to supported bilayers would enable key molecular information to be extracted from experimental diffusion constants, revealing protein-lipid and protein-bilayer interactions difficult to study by other methods. The present study investigates a range of 11 different peripheral protein constructs comprised by 1-3 distinct domains (PH, C1A, C1B, C2, anti-lipid antibody). By combining these constructs with various combinations of target lipids, the study measures 2D diffusion constants on supported bilayers for 17 different protein-lipid complexes. The resulting experimental diffusion constants, together with the known membrane interaction parameters of each complex, are used to analyze the molecular features correlated with diffusional slowing and bilayer friction. The findings show that both (1) individual bound lipids and (2) individual protein domains that penetrate into the hydrocarbon core make additive contributions to the friction against the bilayer, thereby defining the 2D diffusion constant. An empirical formula is developed that accurately estimates the diffusion

  19. Alternative hybrid electrolytes based on a series of bis(trialkoxysilyl)alkanes and 3-(trihydroxysilyl)-1-propane sulfonic acid applied in gas diffusion electrodes of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. W.; Chung, L. C.; Veerapur, R. S.; Yang, F. C.

    This study demonstrates a method for improving the electrolyte distribution in catalyst layers and enhancing the utilization of catalyst existing in primary pores. Bis(trialkoxysilyl)alkanes (BTAS-alkanes) and 3-(trihydroxysilyl)-1-propane sulfonic acid (THS)Pro-SO 3H) precursors have been used to prepare a series of hybrid electrolytes with various organic segment lengths of BTAS-alkanes and ratios of organic moiety and sulfonic acid groups. Investigations of BTAS-alkanes series includes bis(triethoxysilyl)octane (BTES-Oct), bis(trimethoxysilyl)hexane (BTMS-Hex), and bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTES-Eth). Small angle X-ray spectroscopy (SAXS) identifies morphological phase separation in BTES-Oct and BTMS-Hex hybrid electrolytes. The results of mercury porosimetry and BET porosimetry show that the hybrid electrolytes have better capability than Nafion ionomer to penetrate into primary pores of the catalyst layers. Electrochemical measurements including electrode polarization, electrochemical active surface (EAS) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) are discussed. The BTES-Oct or BTMS-Hex hybrid electrolytes with higher ratio of organic moiety and sulfonic acid group have achieved better electrode performance. Oxygen benefit current (OBC) results indicate that higher ratios of BTES-Oct/(THS)Pro-SO 3H provides higher hydrophobicity with better gas transport properties. However, the hybrid electrodes exhibit lower cathode performance than Nafion ®-based electrodes due to excessive electrolyte incorporated in the catalyst layer.

  20. Ion-Selective Electrodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Mark A.; Meyerhoff, Mark E.

    1984-01-01

    Literature on ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) is reviewed in seven sections: books, conferences, reviews; potentiometric membrane electrodes; glass and solid-state membrane electrodes; liquid and polymer membrane ISEs; coated wire electrodes, ion-selective field effect transistors, and microelectrodes; gas sensors and selective bioelectrode…

  1. Metal fiber - carbon electrodes for oxygen reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Robert Fendlay

    An investigation was carried out to determine activities for oxygen reduction and current efficiencies to hydrogen peroxide of commercially available nickel fibers, carbon fibers, and carbon powders. The activities and current efficiencies were determined by conducting Rotating Ring Disk Electrode Experiments (RRDE) on porous electrodes that utilize an interlocking network of metal fibers with carbon fibers and/or powders. Experimentation was also done using PTFE - carbon powder and PTFE - nickel fiber paste electrodes to remove any porosity and symbiotic effects of the nickel - carbon electrodes. Results of the traditional flat plate PTFE electrodes were compared to the porous electrodes to verify the proposed mathematical viability of porous electrode RRDE. RRDE experiments showed that the most active carbons for oxygen reduction have a surface area to volume ratio of 1000 m2/g, and current rent efficiency to hydrogen peroxide was increased as the average pore size increased. A mathematical model and half-cell polarization experiments were used to characterize and optimize oxygen reduction in gas diffusion electrodes consisting of carbon fibers and/or powders entrapped in a sinter-locked network of nickel microfibers. Important electrode physical parameters, such as nickel fiber loading (0.005 to 0.01 g/cm2) , nickel fiber diameter (2 to 12 mum), void volume (73 to 96%), distance of the active layer from the gas supply (0 to 0.005 cm), and addition of a peroxide decomposition catalyst (0 to 0.004 g/cm2) were systematically varied to determine their effects on electrode performance. Experimentally determined total currents and current efficiencies to hydrogen peroxide were compared to calculated values for model verification. Other important parameters, including intra-electrode oxygen and hydrogen peroxide concentrations, overpotentials, and reaction rates, were simulated to help optimize the electrode. Fabricated metal fiber-carbon electrodes were compared to a

  2. HSPES membrane electrode assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An improved fuel cell electrode, as well as fuel cells and membrane electrode assemblies that include such an electrode, in which the electrode includes a backing layer having a sintered layer thereon, and a non-sintered free-catalyst layer. The invention also features a method of forming the electrode by sintering a backing material with a catalyst material and then applying a free-catalyst layer.

  3. Regular arrays of microdisc electrodes: simulation quantifies the fraction of 'dead' electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ordeig, Olga; Banks, Craig E; Davies, Trevor J; Del Campo, Javier; Mas, Roser; Muñoz, Francesc Xavier; Compton, Richard G

    2006-03-01

    Arrays of microdisc electrodes have found widespread use in electroanalysis. These are commonly produced lithographically and practical arrays may contain up to hundreds of individual disc electrodes (e.g. of gold, platinum, indium,...) to maximise sensitivity and minimise limits of detection. Typically, however, the lithographic fabrication process is imperfect resulting in a significant fraction (often tens of percent) of electrochemically inactive electrodes. We demonstrate that a 2-dimensional simulation based on the diffusion domain approximation in conjugation with simple experiments on the ferrocyanide redox couple in aqueous solutions can be used to rigorously 'count' the number of active electrodes in a non-destructive fashion. The agreement with an independent count in which active electrodes are identified via electro-plating with copper followed by ex situ microscopic examination is quantitatively excellent.

  4. Three-Dimensional Electrodes for High-Performance Bioelectrochemical Systems

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yang-Yang; Zhai, Dan-Dan; Si, Rong-Wei; Sun, Jian-Zhong; Liu, Xiang; Yong, Yang-Chun

    2017-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) are groups of bioelectrochemical technologies and platforms that could facilitate versatile environmental and biological applications. The performance of BES is mainly determined by the key process of electron transfer at the bacteria and electrode interface, which is known as extracellular electron transfer (EET). Thus, developing novel electrodes to encourage bacteria attachment and enhance EET efficiency is of great significance. Recently, three-dimensional (3D) electrodes, which provide large specific area for bacteria attachment and macroporous structures for substrate diffusion, have emerged as a promising electrode for high-performance BES. Herein, a comprehensive review of versatile methodology developed for 3D electrode fabrication is presented. This review article is organized based on the categorization of 3D electrode fabrication strategy and BES performance comparison. In particular, the advantages and shortcomings of these 3D electrodes are presented and their future development is discussed. PMID:28054970

  5. Controlled porosity in electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Bae, Chang-Jun; Halloran, John William; Fu, Qiang; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Erdonmez, Can K.

    2015-06-23

    Porous electrodes in which the porosity has a low tortuosity are generally provided. In some embodiments, the porous electrodes can be designed to be filled with electrolyte and used in batteries, and can include low tortuosity in the primary direction of ion transport during charge and discharge of the battery. In some embodiments, the electrodes can have a high volume fraction of electrode active material (i.e., low porosity). The attributes outlined above can allow the electrodes to be fabricated with a higher energy density, higher capacity per unit area of electrode (mAh/cm.sup.2), and greater thickness than comparable electrodes while still providing high utilization of the active material in the battery during use. Accordingly, the electrodes can be used to produce batteries with high energy densities, high power, or both compared to batteries using electrodes of conventional design with relatively highly tortuous pores.

  6. Micromachined electrode array

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    2007-12-11

    An electrode array is disclosed which has applications for neural stimulation and sensing. The electrode array, in certain embodiments, can include a plurality of electrodes each of which is flexibly attached to a common substrate using a plurality of springs to allow the electrodes to move independently. In other embodiments of the electrode array, the electrodes can be fixed to the substrate. The electrode array can be formed from a combination of bulk and surface micromachining, and can include electrode tips having an electroplated metal (e.g. platinum, iridium, gold or titanium) or a metal oxide (e.g. iridium oxide) for biocompatibility. The electrode array can be used to form a part of a neural prosthesis, and is particularly well adapted for use in an implantable retinal prosthesis.

  7. Flexible retinal electrode array

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Wessendorf, Kurt O.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2006-10-24

    An electrode array which has applications for neural stimulation and sensing. The electrode array can include a large number of electrodes each of which is flexibly attached to a common substrate using a plurality of springs to allow the electrodes to move independently. The electrode array can be formed from a combination of bulk and surface micromachining, with electrode tips that can include an electroplated metal (e.g. platinum, iridium, gold or titanium) or a metal oxide (e.g. iridium oxide) for biocompatibility. The electrode array can be used to form a part of a neural prosthesis, and is particularly well adapted for use in an implantable retinal prosthesis where the electrodes can be tailored to provide a uniform gentle contact pressure with optional sensing of this contact pressure at one or more of the electrodes.

  8. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or "halo" at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.

  9. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.

  10. Materials analyses and electrochemical impedance of implantable metal electrodes.

    PubMed

    Howlader, Matiar M R; Ul Alam, Arif; Sharma, Rahul P; Deen, M Jamal

    2015-04-21

    Implantable electrodes with high flexibility, high mechanical fixation and low electrochemical impedance are desirable for neuromuscular activation because they provide safe, effective and stable stimulation. In this paper, we report on detailed materials and electrical analyses of three metal implantable electrodes - gold (Au), platinum (Pt) and titanium (Ti) - using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning acoustic microscopy, drop shape analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. We investigated the cause of changes in electrochemical impedance of long-term immersed Au, Pt and Ti electrodes on liquid crystal polymers (LCPs) in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). We analyzed the surface wettability, surface and interface defects and the elemental depth profile of the electrode-adhesion layers on the LCP. The impedance of the electrodes decreased at lower frequencies, but increased at higher frequencies compared with that of the short-term immersion. The increase of impedances was influenced by the oxidation of the electrode/adhesion-layers that affected the double layer capacitance behavior of the electrode/PBS. The oxidation of the adhesion layer for all the electrodes was confirmed by XPS. Alkali ions (sodium) were adsorbed on the Au and Pt surfaces, but diffused into the Ti electrode and LCPs. The Pt electrode showed a higher sensitivity to surface and interface defects than that of Ti and Au electrodes. These findings may be useful when designing electrodes for long-term implantable devices.

  11. Method of making an electrode

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, Arnold O.

    1986-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of coating an electrode on a solid oxygen conductive oxide layer. A coating of particles of an electronic conductor is formed on one surface of the oxide layer and a source of oxygen is applied to the opposite surface of the oxide layer. A metal halide vapor is applied over the electronic conductor and the oxide layer is heated to a temperature sufficient to induce oxygen to diffuse through the oxide layer and react with the metal halide vapor. This results in the growing of a metal oxide coating on the particles of electronic conductor, thereby binding them to the oxide layer.

  12. High performance cermet electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Zymboly, Gregory E.

    1986-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of increasing the operating cell voltage of a solid oxide electrochemical cell having metal electrode particles in contact with an oxygen-transporting ceramic electrolyte. The metal electrode is heated with the cell, and oxygen is passed through the oxygen-transporting ceramic electrolyte to the surface of the metal electrode particles so that the metal electrode particles are oxidized to form a metal oxide layer between the metal electrode particles and the electrolyte. The metal oxide layer is then reduced to form porous metal between the metal electrode particles and the ceramic electrolyte.

  13. Dynamic Analysis of Mcfc Porous Electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gwo-Lin Kevin

    1992-01-01

    The intent of this work is to develop AC impedance measurements, in combination with other methods, as a tool to determine the relative importance of various resistance sources in the multi-step process occurring at a gas-diffusion porous electrode. In particular, the case of a MCFC cathode is studied. The goals of this study are: (1) elucidation of electrode mechanism; (2) analysis of the porous electrode performance for the purpose of optimizing design; and (3) developing the capabilities of AC impedance as an index of long-term cell performance decay. The oxygen reduction reaction of molten carbonate fuel cell and the corresponding kinetic as well as transport parameters were tried to be estimated by using impedance techniques combining with other electrochemical methods from flag, wire and rotating disk electrodes in pot cell as well as porous electrode in lab cell. The dominant pathway for oxygen reduction in 62%Li _2CO_3/38%K _2CO_3 melt at 650^circC is via superoxide ions. This follows from flag electrode impedance results indicating that O_sp{2}{ -}/CO_2 mixed diffusion is the dominant source of resistance. The polarization behavior of gas-diffusion porous electrodes has been analyzed in terms of individual voltage loss and overall voltage loss. In most cases, the optimal electrolyte filling will be obtained when the dominant source of voltage loss switches from ohmic or mass transfer resistances to kinetic activation resistance, and similar behavior for optimal electrode thickness. Pressurized operation is favorable for performance if the reaction mechanism follows the superoxide mechanism, but not if the peroxide path dominates. A distributed-network approach has been developed and it is concluded that a digital simulation of AC-superimposed -on-DC impedance of a porous electrode is possible and helpful. Kinetic activation and mass transfer resistances are extracted separate and conclude that both peroxide and superoxide contribute the oxygen reduction

  14. FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS. RAW MATERIAL SELECTION INFLUENCES POLARIZATION BUT IS NOT A SINGLE CONTROLLING FACTOR. AVAILABLE...DATA INDICATES THAT AN INTERRELATIONSHIP OF POROSITY, AVERAGE PORE VOLUME, AND PERMEABILITY CONTRIBUTES TO ELECTRODE FUEL CELL BEHAVIOR.

  15. Improved biomedical electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Newly designed electrode is prefilled, disposable, electrolyte-saturated spong. New design permits longe periods of storage without deterioration, and readiness in matter of seconds. Electrodes supply signals for electroencephalogram, electro-oculogram, and electrocardiogram.

  16. Corneal-shaping electrode

    DOEpatents

    Doss, James D.; Hutson, Richard L.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a circulating saline electrode for changing corneal shape in eyes. The electrode comprises a tubular nonconductive electrode housing having an annular expanded base which has a surface substantially matched to a subject corneal surface. A tubular conductive electrode connected to a radiofrequency generating source is disposed within the electrode housing and longitudinally aligned therewith. The electrode has a generally hemispherical head having at least one orifice. Saline solution is circulated through the apparatus and over the cornea to cool the corneal surface while radiofrequency electric current emitted from the electrode flows therefrom through the cornea to a second electrode, on the rear of the head. This current heats the deep corneal stroma and thereby effects corneal reshaping as a biological response to the heat.

  17. The CMG Nickel Electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Depaul, R. A.; Gutridge, I.

    1981-01-01

    The development and design of the Controlled Microgeometry electrode are described. Advantages of the electrode over others in existance include a higher number of ampere hours per kilogram and the ability to make them over a wide range of thicknesses. The parameters that control the performance of the electrode can be individually controlled over a wide range. Therefore, the electrode may be designed to give the optimum performance for a given duty cycle.

  18. Low resistance fuel electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Maskalick, Nichols J.; Folser, George R.

    1989-01-01

    An electrode 6 bonded to a solid, ion conducting electrolyte 5 is made, where the electrode 6 comprises a ceramic metal oxide 18, metal particles 17, and heat stable metal fibers 19, where the metal fibers provide a matrix structure for the electrode. The electrolyte 5 can be bonded to an air electrode cathode 4, to provide an electrochemical cell 2, preferably of tubular design.

  19. Compartmented electrode structure

    DOEpatents

    Vissers, Donald R.; Shimotake, Hiroshi; Gay, Eddie C.; Martino, Fredric J.

    1977-06-14

    Electrodes for secondary electrochemical cells are provided with compartments for containing particles of the electrode reactant. The compartments are defined by partitions that are generally impenetrable to the particles of reactant and, in some instances, to the liquid electrolyte used in the cell. During cycling of the cell, reactant material initially loaded into a particular compartment is prevented from migrating and concentrating within the lower portion of the electrode or those portions of the electrode that exhibit reduced electrical resistance.

  20. Diffusion MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuyama, Hidenao

    Recent advances of magnetic resonance imaging have been described, especially stressed on the diffusion sequences. We have recently applied the diffusion sequence to functional brain imaging, and found the appropriate results. In addition to the neurosciences fields, diffusion weighted images have improved the accuracies of clinical diagnosis depending upon magnetic resonance images in stroke as well as inflammations.

  1. Insulated ECG electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portnoy, W. M.; David, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    Insulated, capacitively coupled electrode does not require electrolyte paste for attachment. Other features of electrode include wide range of nontoxic material that may be employed for dielectric because of sputtering technique used. Also, electrode size is reduced because there is no need for external compensating networks with FET operational amplifier.

  2. Fuel cell electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Strmcnik, Dusan; Cuesta, Angel; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Markovic, Nenad

    2015-06-23

    A process includes patterning a surface of a platinum group metal-based electrode by contacting the electrode with an adsorbate to form a patterned platinum group metal-based electrode including platinum group metal sites blocked with adsorbate molecules and platinum group metal sites which are not blocked.

  3. Aerospace electrode line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, L.

    1980-04-01

    A facility which produces electrodes for spacecraft power supplies is described. The electrode assembly procedures are discussed. A number of design features in the production process are reported including a batch operation mode and an independent equipment module design approach for transfering the electrode materials from process tank to process tank.

  4. Electrically conductive diamond electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Swain, Greg; Fischer, Anne ,; Bennett, Jason; Lowe, Michael

    2009-05-19

    An electrically conductive diamond electrode and process for preparation thereof is described. The electrode comprises diamond particles coated with electrically conductive doped diamond preferably by chemical vapor deposition which are held together with a binder. The electrodes are useful for oxidation reduction in gas, such as hydrogen generation by electrolysis.

  5. Microresonator electrode design

    DOEpatents

    Olsson, III, Roy H.; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Branch, Darren W.

    2016-05-10

    A microresonator with an input electrode and an output electrode patterned thereon is described. The input electrode includes a series of stubs that are configured to isolate acoustic waves, such that the waves are not reflected into the microresonator. Such design results in reduction of spurious modes corresponding to the microresonator.

  6. A Simple Hydrogen Electrode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Per-Odd

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the construction of an inexpensive, robust, and simple hydrogen electrode, as well as the use of this electrode to measure "standard" potentials. In the experiment described here the students can measure the reduction potentials of metal-metal ion pairs directly, without using a secondary reference electrode. Measurements…

  7. Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Miller, J.L.; Ault, E.R.

    1994-08-23

    The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window. 2 figs.

  8. Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; Miller, John L.; Ault, Earl R.

    1994-01-01

    The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window.

  9. Engineering interface-type resistive switching in BiFeO3 thin film switches by Ti implantation of bottom electrodes.

    PubMed

    You, Tiangui; Ou, Xin; Niu, Gang; Bärwolf, Florian; Li, Guodong; Du, Nan; Bürger, Danilo; Skorupa, Ilona; Jia, Qi; Yu, Wenjie; Wang, Xi; Schmidt, Oliver G; Schmidt, Heidemarie

    2015-12-22

    BiFeO3 based MIM structures with Ti-implanted Pt bottom electrodes and Au top electrodes have been fabricated on Sapphire substrates. The resulting metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures show bipolar resistive switching without an electroforming process. It is evidenced that during the BiFeO3 thin film growth Ti diffuses into the BiFeO3 layer. The diffused Ti effectively traps and releases oxygen vacancies and consequently stabilizes the resistive switching in BiFeO3 MIM structures. Therefore, using Ti implantation of the bottom electrode, the retention performance can be greatly improved with increasing Ti fluence. For the used raster-scanned Ti implantation the lateral Ti distribution is not homogeneous enough and endurance slightly degrades with Ti fluence. The local resistive switching investigated by current sensing atomic force microscopy suggests the capability of down-scaling the resistive switching cell to one BiFeO3 grain size by local Ti implantation of the bottom electrode.

  10. Engineering interface-type resistive switching in BiFeO3 thin film switches by Ti implantation of bottom electrodes

    PubMed Central

    You, Tiangui; Ou, Xin; Niu, Gang; Bärwolf, Florian; Li, Guodong; Du, Nan; Bürger, Danilo; Skorupa, Ilona; Jia, Qi; Yu, Wenjie; Wang, Xi; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Schmidt, Heidemarie

    2015-01-01

    BiFeO3 based MIM structures with Ti-implanted Pt bottom electrodes and Au top electrodes have been fabricated on Sapphire substrates. The resulting metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures show bipolar resistive switching without an electroforming process. It is evidenced that during the BiFeO3 thin film growth Ti diffuses into the BiFeO3 layer. The diffused Ti effectively traps and releases oxygen vacancies and consequently stabilizes the resistive switching in BiFeO3 MIM structures. Therefore, using Ti implantation of the bottom electrode, the retention performance can be greatly improved with increasing Ti fluence. For the used raster-scanned Ti implantation the lateral Ti distribution is not homogeneous enough and endurance slightly degrades with Ti fluence. The local resistive switching investigated by current sensing atomic force microscopy suggests the capability of down-scaling the resistive switching cell to one BiFeO3 grain size by local Ti implantation of the bottom electrode. PMID:26692104

  11. Failure analysis of the lithium battery: A study of the header deposit on the cell top and diffusion within the electrode glass seal using nuclear microanalysis and FFTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Razi A.

    1991-10-01

    The Solid Rocket Booster Range Safety System (SRBRSS) uses a lithium/poly-carbon monofluoride primary battery as a source of electrical power. After cell fabrication and activation, some battery cells have shown self discharge. One possible source of this cell discharge has been suggested to be the formation and growth of a conducting crystallized chemical compound across the glass bead insulator, electrically shorting the glass bead to the casing. This laboratory has begun an analysis of this compound, the glass seal holding the cathode into place, and the cell electrolyte, using Fast Fourier Transform Infrared (FFTIR) Analysis, Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), and Nuclear Reaction Microanalysis. Preliminary measurements have confirmed the existence of lithium, nitrogen, fluorine, and oxygen on a reddish-brown deposit covering parts of the glass seal holding the positive electrode in place. Cells using Li metal electrodes, have many advantages over conventional primary batteries. One principal disadvantage of using Li batteries on a commercial basis would be the environmental impact of the fluorocarbon material. Another would be the relatively high expense of (CF)n.

  12. Failure analysis of the lithium battery: A study of the header deposit on the cell top and diffusion within the electrode glass seal using nuclear microanalysis and FFTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, Razi A.

    1991-01-01

    The Solid Rocket Booster Range Safety System (SRBRSS) uses a lithium/poly-carbon monofluoride primary battery as a source of electrical power. After cell fabrication and activation, some battery cells have shown self discharge. One possible source of this cell discharge has been suggested to be the formation and growth of a conducting crystallized chemical compound across the glass bead insulator, electrically shorting the glass bead to the casing. This laboratory has begun an analysis of this compound, the glass seal holding the cathode into place, and the cell electrolyte, using Fast Fourier Transform Infrared (FFTIR) Analysis, Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), and Nuclear Reaction Microanalysis. Preliminary measurements have confirmed the existence of lithium, nitrogen, fluorine, and oxygen on a reddish-brown deposit covering parts of the glass seal holding the positive electrode in place. Cells using Li metal electrodes, have many advantages over conventional primary batteries. One principal disadvantage of using Li batteries on a commercial basis would be the environmental impact of the fluorocarbon material. Another would be the relatively high expense of (CF)n.

  13. Carbon nanotube yarns for deep brain stimulation electrode.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Changqing; Li, Luming; Hao, Hongwei

    2011-12-01

    A new form of deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode was proposed that was made of carbon nanotube yarns (CNTYs). Electrode interface properties were examined using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS). The CNTY electrode interface exhibited large charge storage capacity (CSC) of 12.3 mC/cm(2) which increased to 98.6 mC/cm(2) after acid treatment, compared with 5.0 mC/cm(2) of Pt-Ir. Impedance spectrum of both untreated and treated CNTY electrodes showed that finite diffusion process occurred at the interface due to their porous structure and charge was delivered through capacitive mechanism. To evaluate stability electrical stimulus was exerted for up to 72 h and CV and EIS results of CNTY electrodes revealed little alteration. Therefore CNTY could make a good electrode material for DBS.

  14. Negative electrode composition

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Chilenskas, Albert A.

    1982-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell and a negative electrode composition for use therewith comprising a positive electrode containing an active material of a chalcogen or a transiton metal chalcogenide, a negative electrode containing a lithium-aluminum alloy and an amount of a ternary alloy sufficient to provide at least about 5 percent overcharge capacity relative to a negative electrode solely of the lithium-aluminum alloy, the ternary alloy comprising lithium, aluminum, and iron or cobalt, and an electrolyte containing lithium ions in contact with both of the positive and the negative electrodes. The ternary alloy is present in the electrode in the range of from about 5 percent to about 50 percent by weight of the electrode composition and may include lithium-aluminum-nickel alloy in combination with either the ternary iron or cobalt alloys. A plurality of series connected cells having overcharge capacity can be equalized on the discharge side without expensive electrical equipment.

  15. Igniter electrode life control

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J.C.

    1985-10-07

    The prevention of electrode material erosion by undercutting in the outer electrode shell of igniter electrodes of jet engine ignition systems is prevented by the application of an electrical insulation coating. The coating is applied to the surface of the outer electrode shell which faces the ceramic insulation around the center electrode where erosion patterns are known to occur. The insulation material is selected from electrical insulation substances such as oxides of aluminum, tungsten, magnesium, beryllium or zirconium by choosing a non-porous electrical-insulating substance with thermal-expansion characteristics approximately equalling those of the outer electrode shell. Since a typical outer electrode shell is composed of 446 stainless steel, an optimum choice for the electrical insulation coating is Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ deposited with a coating thickness of between 5 and 10 mils.

  16. Electrode Configurations in Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lietz, Amanda M.; Kushner, Mark J.

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) are being studied for emerging medical applications including cancer treatment and wound healing. APPJs typically consist of a dielectric tube through which a rare gas flows, sometimes with an O2 or H2O impurity. In this paper, we present results from a computational study of APPJs using nonPDPSIM, a 2-D plasma hydrodynamics model, with the goal of providing insights on how the placement of electrodes can influence the production of reactive species. Gas consisting of He/O2 = 99.5/0.5 is flowed through a capillary tube at 2 slpm into humid air, and a pulsed DC voltage is applied. An APPJ with two external ring electrodes will be compared with one having a powered electrode inside and a ground electrode on the outside. The consequences on ionization wave propagation and the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) will be discussed. Changing the electrode configuration can concentrate the power deposition in volumes having different gas composition, resulting in different RONS production. An internal electrode can result in increased production of NOx and HNOx by increasing propagation of the ionization wave through the He dominated plume to outside of the tube where humid air is diffusing into the plume. Work supported by US DOE Office of Fusion Energy Science and the National Science Foundation.

  17. Li + ion diffusion in nanoscale alumina coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannes, Michelle; Bernstein, Noam

    Nanoscale coatings of alumina are used to stabilize surfaces for a variety of technologies. Diffusion of ions through these coatings is of primary importance: in some cases, diffusion is unwanted (e.g. corrosion) and in others (e.g. electrode materials), it is necessary. In this work DFT and AIMD calculations are used to investigate Li+ ion diffusion through a nano-layer of alumina, examining the phase (alpha, gamma, and amorphous), ion concentration, and electron count dependence. We look at the role of the surface itself in promoting diffusion. One of our main findings is that as the number of ions or charge increases, the diffusivity rises. We show how our data can explain electrochemical data from coated LiCoO2 cathodes and may point toward better and more efficient coatings for stabilizing electrodes.

  18. Griffith diffusers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T.-T.; Nelson, C. D.

    1979-01-01

    Contoured wall diffusers are designed by using an inverse method. The prescribed wall velocity distribution(s) was taken from the high lift airfoil designed by A. A. Griffith in 1938; therefore, such diffusers are named Griffith diffusers. First the formulation of the inverse problem and the method of solution are outlined. Then the typical contour of a two-dimensional diffuser and velocity distributions across the flow channel at various stations are presented. For a Griffith diffuser to operate as it is designed, boundary layer suction is necessary. Discussion of the percentage of through-flow required to be removed for the purpose of boundary layer control is given. Finally, reference is made to the latest version of a computer program for a two-dimensional diffuser requiring only area ratio, nondimensional length and suction percentage as inputs.

  19. [Lateral retinacular release].

    PubMed

    Verdonk, P; Bonte, F; Verdonk, R

    2008-09-01

    This overview of numerous studies discusses, based on short-term and long-term results, which diagnoses are indications for lateral retinacular release. No significant differences in outcome between arthroscopic and open lateral release could be documented. Isolated lateral release offers a good success rate for treating a stable patella with excessive lateral pressure. In patellar instability, the results are less favorable in long-term follow-up evaluation. Hyperlaxity with hypermobility of the patella is an absolute contraindication. Lateral release provides only temporary benefit for patellofemoral osteoarthritis. Proximal and/or distal realignment of the extensor mechanism gives better results than isolated lateral release.

  20. New electrode-barrier structures for high density ferroelectric memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedula, R.; Desu, C. S.; Tirumala, S.; Bhatt, H. D.; Desu, S. B.; Lee, K. B.

    2001-03-01

    In this paper, two electrode-barrier structures based on Pt-Rh and Pt-Ir alloys and their oxides are proposed for high-density ferroelectric memory applications. These electrode-barriers are multi-layered, comprising a diffusion barrier (PtRhOx or PtIrOx), metal alloy (PtRh or PtIr) and another PtRhOx or PtIrOx layer for fatigue reduction in the case of PZT capacitors. Both lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and strontium bismuth tantalate (SBT) capacitors based on the electrode-barriers were used in the present study. The electrode-barrier structure acts as a conducting electrode as well as an excellent diffusion barrier for lead, bismuth, oxygen and silicon. The PZT test capacitors fabricated on these electrode-barriers showed excellent fatigue resistance with other ferroelectric properties being similar to those on Pt. Also, these electrode-barriers are stable, and remain conductive even up to the processing temperatures of SBT (750 °C). This makes direct integration of both PZT and SBT capacitors on to a poly-Si plug attainable. In addition, the conducting electrode-barrier structures can be deposited in situ, directly over n+polycrystalline Si, thereby significantly improving the density of the device.

  1. Electrochemical hydrogenation of thiophene on SPE electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haiyan; Yuan, Penghui; Yu, Ying; Chung, Keng H.

    2017-01-01

    Electrochemical reduction desulfurization is a promising technology for petroleum refining which is environmental friendly, low cost and able to achieve a high degree of automation. Electrochemical hydrogenation of thiophene was performed in a three-electrode system which SPE electrode was the working electrode. The electrochemical desulfurization was studied by cyclic voltammetry and bulk electrolysis with coulometry (BEC) techniques. The results of cyclic voltammetry showed that the electrochemical hydrogenation reduction reaction occurred at -0.4V. The BEC results showed that the currents generated from thiophene hydrogenation reactions increased with temperature. According to Arrhenius equation, activation energy of thiophene electrolysis was calculated and lower activation energy value indicated it was diffusion controlled reaction. From the products of electrolytic reactions, the mechanisms of electrochemical hydrogenation of thiophene were proposed, consisting of two pathways: openingring followed by hydrogenation, and hydrogenation followed by ring opening.

  2. Uncharged positive electrode composition

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Vissers, Donald R.; Shimotake, Hiroshi

    1977-03-08

    An uncharged positive-electrode composition contains particulate lithium sulfide, another alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound other than sulfide, e.g., lithium carbide, and a transition metal powder. The composition along with a binder, such as electrolytic salt or a thermosetting resin is applied onto an electrically conductive substrate to form a plaque. The plaque is assembled as a positive electrode within an electrochemical cell opposite to a negative electrode containing a material such as aluminum or silicon for alloying with lithium. During charging, lithium alloy is formed within the negative electrode and transition metal sulfide such as iron sulfide is produced within the positive electrode. Excess negative electrode capacity over that from the transition metal sulfide is provided due to the electrochemical reaction of the other than sulfide alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound.

  3. Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis)

    MedlinePlus

    .org Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis) Page ( 1 ) Tennis elbow, or lateral epicondyliti s, is a painful condition of the elbow caused by overuse. Not surprisingly, playing tennis or other racquet sports can cause ...

  4. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (a-my-o-TROE-fik LAT-ur-ul skluh-ROE-sis), or ALS, is a progressive nervous system (neurological) disease that ...

  5. Nanoscopic electrode molecular probes

    DOEpatents

    Krstic, Predrag S [Knoxville, TN; Meunier, Vincent [Knoxville, TN

    2012-05-22

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for enhancing the electron transport property measurements of a molecule when the molecule is placed between chemically functionalized carbon-based nanoscopic electrodes to which a suitable voltage bias is applied. The invention includes selecting a dopant atom for the nanoscopic electrodes, the dopant atoms being chemically similar to atoms present in the molecule, and functionalizing the outer surface and terminations of the electrodes with the dopant atoms.

  6. Pocket ECG electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, Gordon F. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A low-noise electrode suited for sensing electrocardiograms when chronically and subcutaneously implanted in a free-ranging subject. The electrode comprises a pocket-shaped electrically conductive member with a single entrance adapted to receive body fluids. The exterior of the member and the entrance region is coated with electrical insulation so that the only electrolyte/electrode interface is within the member remote from artifact-generating tissue. Cloth straps are bonded to the member to permit the electrode to be sutured to tissue and to provide electrical lead flexure relief.

  7. Pocket ECG electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, G. F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A low noise electrode suited for sensing electrocardiograms when chronically and subcutaneously implanted in a free ranging subject is described. The electrode comprises a pocket shaped electrically conductive member with a single entrance adapted to receive body fluids. The exterior of the member and the entrance region is coated with electrical insulation so that the only electrolyte/electrode interface is within the member, remote from artifact-generating tissue. Cloth straps are bonded to the member to permit the electrode to be sutured to tissue and to provide electrical lead flexure relief.

  8. Lateral flow strip assay

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, Robin R; Benett, William J; Coleman, Matthew A; Pearson, Francesca S; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  9. Micro-agar salt bridge in patch-clamp electrode holder stabilizes electrode potentials

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Xuesi M.; Feldman, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining a stable electrode potential is critical for patch-clamp measurements. The electrode potential of conventional patch electrode-holder assembly, where an Ag/AgCl wire is in direct contact with the patch pipette filling solution, is subject to drift if the pipette solution contains a low concentration of chloride ions (Cl−). We developed an agar bridge of 3 M KCl filled in a polyimide microtubing which forms an electrical connection between an Ag/AgCl wire and the pipette solution. We examined the offset potentials of the micro-agar salt bridge electrode assembly in parallel with a conventional electrode assembly in generic recording conditions (the pipette solution contained 5 mM NaCl). The junction potential between the Ag/AgCl wire and the pipette filling solution in the conventional electrode contributed to most of the offset potential drift observed during the course of 30 min recordings. The drift was up to 27.3 mV after several changes of the glass pipette. In contrast, the micro-agar salt bridge stabilized the electrode potential within typically 2 mV without affecting the patch electrode resistance, capacitance or noise level. Numerical simulations showed that Cl− diffusion from the agar bridge to the tip caused a negligible 0.4 μM Cl− concentration change at the pipette tip within 30 min. This method is easy to implement and provides long-term recording stability. The micro-agar salt bridge can fit in most commercial patch electrode holders and can be conveniently maintained. PMID:16916545

  10. Cytoplasmic hydrogen ion diffusion coefficient.

    PubMed Central

    al-Baldawi, N F; Abercrombie, R F

    1992-01-01

    The apparent cytoplasmic proton diffusion coefficient was measured using pH electrodes and samples of cytoplasm extracted from the giant neuron of a marine invertebrate. By suddenly changing the pH at one surface of the sample and recording the relaxation of pH within the sample, an apparent diffusion coefficient of 1.4 +/- 0.5 x 10(-6) cm2/s (N = 7) was measured in the acidic or neutral range of pH (6.0-7.2). This value is approximately 5x lower than the diffusion coefficient of the mobile pH buffers (approximately 8 x 10(-6) cm2/s) and approximately 68x lower than the diffusion coefficient of the hydronium ion (93 x 10(-6) cm2/s). A mobile pH buffer (approximately 15% of the buffering power) and an immobile buffer (approximately 85% of the buffering power) could quantitatively account for the results at acidic or neutral pH. At alkaline pH (8.2-8.6), the apparent proton diffusion coefficient increased to 4.1 +/- 0.8 x 10(-6) cm2/s (N = 7). This larger diffusion coefficient at alkaline pH could be explained quantitatively by the enhanced buffering power of the mobile amino acids. Under the conditions of these experiments, it is unlikely that hydroxide movement influences the apparent hydrogen ion diffusion coefficient. PMID:1617134

  11. Membrane Bioprobe Electrodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rechnitz, Garry A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the design of ion selective electrodes coupled with immobilized enzymes which operate either continuously or on drop-sized samples. Cites techniques for urea, L-phenylalanine and amygdalin. Micro size electrodes for use in single cells are discussed. (GH)

  12. Electrode stabilizing materials

    DOEpatents

    Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali; Moore, Jeffrey S.; Odom, Susan A.

    2015-11-03

    An electrolyte includes a polar aprotic solvent; an alkali metal salt; and an electrode stabilizing compound that is a monomer, which when polymerized forms an electrically conductive polymer. The electrode stabilizing compound is a thiophene, a imidazole, a anilines, a benzene, a azulene, a carbazole, or a thiol. Electrochemical devices may incorporate such electrolytes.

  13. Long term flight electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosier, B.

    1975-01-01

    The reproducibility, stability, and methods of preparation for the various types and forms of biomedical electrodes are discussed. A critical and selective compilation of information on biological and/or physiological electrodes is presented. A discussion of plant hydrocolloids, clays, hydrophyllic colloids, synthetic waxes, and acrylic polymers is included.

  14. Effect of Electrode Configuration on Nitric Oxide Gas Sensor Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ling; Murray, Erica P.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of electrode configuration on the impedancemetric response of nitric oxide (NO) gas sensors was investigated for solid electrochemical cells [Au/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/Au)]. Fabrication of the sensors was carried out at 1050 °C in order to establish a porous YSZ electrolyte that enabled gas diffusion. Two electrode configurations were studied where Au wire electrodes were either embedded within or wrapped around the YSZ electrolyte. The electrical response of the sensors was collected via impedance spectroscopy under various operating conditions where gas concentrations ranged from 0 to 100 ppm NO and 1%–18% O2 at temperatures varying from 600 to 700 °C. Gas diffusion appeared to be a rate-limiting mechanism in sensors where the electrode configuration resulted in longer diffusion pathways. The temperature dependence of the NO sensors studied was independent of the electrode configuration. Analysis of the impedance data, along with equivalent circuit modeling indicated the electrode configuration of the sensor effected gas and ionic transport pathways, capacitance behavior, and NO sensitivity. PMID:26404312

  15. Single file diffusion in microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutenberg, Andrew; Farrell, Spencer; Brown, Aidan

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the single file diffusion (SFD) of large particles entering a confined tubular geometry, such as luminal diffusion of proteins inside microtubules or flagella. While single-file effects have no effect on particle density, we report significant single-file effects for individually-tracked tracer particle motion. Both exact and approximate ordering statistics of particles entering semi-infinite tubes agree well with our stochastic simulations. Considering initially empty semi-infinite tubes, with particles entering at one end starting from an initial time t = 0 , tracked particles display super-diffusive effective exponents just after they enter the system and trends towards diffusive exponents at later times. Equivalently, if diffusive exponents are assumed the effective diffusivity is reduced at early times and enhanced at later times through a logarithmic factor logN , where N is the number of particles in the tube. When we number each particle from the first (n = 1) to the most recent (n = N), we find good scaling collapse of the effective diffusivity for all n. Techniques that track individual particles, or local groups of particles, such as photo-activation or photobleaching, will exhibit single-file effects.

  16. HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRODES

    DOEpatents

    Murray, J.J.

    1963-04-23

    S>This patent relates to electrode structure for creating an intense direct current electric field which may have a field strength of the order of two to three times that heretofore obtained, with automatic suppression of arcing. The positive electrode is a conventional conductive material such as copper while the negative electrode is made from a special material having a resistivity greater than that of good conductors and less than that of good insulators. When an incipient arc occurs, the moderate resistivity of the negative electrode causes a momentary, localized decrease in the electric field intensity, thus suppressing the flow of electrons and avoiding arcing. Heated glass may be utilized for the negative electrode, since it provides the desired combination of resistivity, capacity, dielectric strength, mechani-cal strength, and thermal stability. (AEC)

  17. Microstructure of room temperature ionic liquids at stepped graphite electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Guang; Li, Song; Zhao, Wei; Cummings, Peter T.

    2015-07-14

    Molecular dynamics simulations of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) [emim][TFSI] at stepped graphite electrodes were performed to investigate the influence of the thickness of the electrode surface step on the microstructure of interfacial RTILs. A strong correlation was observed between the interfacial RTIL structure and the step thickness in electrode surface as well as the ion size. Specifically, when the step thickness is commensurate with ion size, the interfacial layering of cation/anion is more evident; whereas, the layering tends to be less defined when the step thickness is close to the half of ion size. Furthermore, two-dimensional microstructure of ion layers exhibits different patterns and alignments of counter-ion/co-ion lattice at neutral and charged electrodes. As the cation/anion layering could impose considerable effects on ion diffusion, the detailed information of interfacial RTILs at stepped graphite presented here would help to understand the molecular mechanism of RTIL-electrode interfaces in supercapacitors.

  18. Advanced catalytic electrode development for nickel-hydrogen batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, D.K.; Grindstaff, B.K.; Hoofnagle, P.S.; Chiappetti, D.P.

    1995-12-31

    Low catalyst loading gas diffusion membrane electrodes have been developed for spaceflight qualified nickel-hydrogen (NiH{sub 2}) batteries. These electrodes involve the use of new electrode designs and innovative manufacturing methods. Supported catalysts, mixed catalysts and alterative catalyst systems have been developed to decrease catalyst loading levels, and therefore reduce electrode cost, without reducing performance or reliability. This advanced electrode technology has currently accumulated more than 13,000 charge/discharge cycles in real-time, low-earth-orbit (LEO) testing. The technology has been incorporated into several nickel-hydrogen spaceflight programs including the TUBSAT B spacecraft, built by the Technical University of Berlin and launched in January of 1994 aboard a Russian Cyclone rocket.

  19. Diffuse radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A diffuse celestial radiation which is isotropic at least on a course scale were measured from the soft X-ray region to about 150 MeV, at which energy the intensity falls below that of the galactic emission for most galactic latitudes. The spectral shape, the intensity, and the established degree of isotropy of this diffuse radiation already place severe constraints on the possible explanations for this radiation. Among the extragalactic theories, the more promising explanations of the isotropic diffuse emission appear to be radiation from exceptional galaxies from matter antimatter annihilation at the boundaries of superclusters of galaxies of matter and antimatter in baryon symmetric big bang models. Other possible sources for extragalactic diffuse gamma radiation are discussed and include normal galaxies, clusters of galaxies, primordial cosmic rays interacting with intergalactic matter, primordial black holes, and cosmic ray leakage from galaxies.

  20. Electrode performance parameters for a radioisotope-powered AMTEC for space power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, M. L.; O'Connor, D.; Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.; Bankston, C. P.

    1992-01-01

    The alkali metal thermoelastic converter (AMTEC) is a device for the direct conversion of heat to electricity. Recently a design of an AMTEC using a radioisotope heat source was described, but the optimum condenser temperature was hotter than the temperatures used in the laboratory to develop the electrode performance model. Now laboratory experiments have confirmed the dependence of two model parameters over a broader range of condenser and electrode temperatures for two candidate electrode compositions. One parameter, the electrochemical exchange current density at the reaction interface, is independent of the condenser temperature, and depends only upon the collision rate of sodium at the reaction zone. The second parameter, a morphological parameter, which measures the mass transport resistance through the electrode, is independent of condenser and electrode temperatures for molybdenum electrodes. For rhodium-tungsten electrodes, however, this parameter increases for decreasing electrode temperature, indicating an activated mass transport mechanism such as surface diffusion.

  1. Electroretinography in dogs using a fiber electrode prototype

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, A.L.; Montiani-Ferreira, F.; Santos, V.R.; Salomão, S.R.; Souza, C.; Berezovsky, A.

    2013-01-01

    We compared two electroretinography (ERG) electrodes in dogs using ERG standards of the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV). Ten healthy Yorkshire terrier dogs (mean age, 2.80 ± 1.42 years; 6 females) weighing 5.20 ± 1.56 kg were evaluated using an ERG system for veterinary use. Dark- and light-adapted ERG responses were recorded using an ERG-Jet electrode and a fiber electrode prototype. The examinations were performed during 2 visits, 3 weeks apart. Both electrodes (ERG-Jet or fiber prototype) were used on each animal and the first eye to be recorded (OD × OS) was selected randomly. Three weeks later the examination was repeated on the same animal switching the type of electrode to be used that day and the first eye to be examined. The magnitude and waveform quality obtained with the two electrode types were similar for all ERG responses. ERG amplitudes and implicit times obtained from dogs using the fiber electrode prototype were comparable to those obtained with the ERG-Jet electrode for rod, maximal rod-cone summed, cone, and 30-Hz flicker responses. The fiber electrode prototype is a low-cost device, available as an alternative instrument for clinical veterinary ERG recording for retinal function assessment. PMID:23558860

  2. Electrodes for sealed secondary batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boies, D. B.; Child, F. T.

    1972-01-01

    Self-supporting membrane electrode structures, in which active ingredients and graphite are incorporated in a polymeric matrix, improve performance of electrodes in miniature, sealed, alkaline storage batteries.

  3. Investigation of copper electrodes for mercuric iodide detector applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, X.J.; Schlesinger, T.E. ); James, R.B.; Stulen, R.H. ); Ortale, C.; van den Berg, L. )

    1990-06-15

    Copper diffusion in mercuric iodide was studied by low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. A broad radiative emission band at a wavelength of about 6720 A in the PL spectra was found to be related to Cu incorporation in the crystal. PL spectra obtained from surface doping experiments indicate that Cu is a rapid diffuser in HgI{sub 2} bulk material. Auger electron spectroscopy performed as a function of depth from the crystal surface confirms the rapid bulk diffusion process of Cu in HgI{sub 2}. Fabrication of HgI{sub 2} nuclear detectors with Cu electrodes indicates that Cu is not acceptable as an electrode material, which is consistent with the fact that it diffuses easily into the bulk crystal and introduces new radiative recombination centers.

  4. Electrode for electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.; Nelson, P.A.; Miller, W.E.

    1980-05-09

    An electrode structure for a secondary electrochemical cell includes an outer enclosure defining a compartment containing electrochemical active material. The enclosure includes a rigid electrically conductive metal sheet with perforated openings over major side surfaces. The enclosure can be assembled as first and second trays each with a rigid sheet of perforated electrically conductive metal at major side surfaces and normally extending flanges at parametric margins. The trays can be pressed together with moldable active material between the two to form an expandable electrode. A plurality of positive and negative electrodes thus formed are arranged in an alternating array with porous frangible interelectrode separators within the housing of the secondary electrochemical cell.

  5. Electrode for electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Nelson, Paul A.; Miller, William E.

    1981-01-01

    An electrode structure for a secondary electrochemical cell includes an outer enclosure defining a compartment containing electrochemical active material. The enclosure includes a rigid electrically conductive metal sheet with perforated openings over major side surfaces. The enclosure can be assembled as first and second trays each with a rigid sheet of perforated electrically conductive metal at major side surfaces and normally extending flanges at parametric margins. The trays can be pressed together with moldable active material between the two to form an expandable electrode. A plurality of positive and negative electrodes thus formed are arranged in an alternating array with porous frangible interelectrode separators within the housing of the secondary electrochemical cell.

  6. EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND CONTAMINATION ON MPCMS ELECTRODES IN 241-AY-101 AND 241-AN-107 TANK WASTE SIMULANTS

    SciTech Connect

    CATO DM; DAHL MM; PHILO GL; EDGEMON GL; BELL DR.JLS; MOORE CG

    2010-03-26

    This report documents the results of tests designed to characterize the relationship between temperature and the measured potential of electrodes installed on multi-probe corrosion monitoring systems in waste tanks. This report also documents the results of tests designed to demonstrate the impact of liquid in-leakage into electrode bodies as well as the contamination of primary reference electrodes by diffusion through the electrode tip.

  7. Electrodes for solid state devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickler, D. B. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The invention relates to coated metal powders and to dispersions of such powders in liquid vehicles forming screenable, sinterable pastes for use in forming electrodes on photovoltaic devices. The primary nickel or copper metal particles are provided with a carrier of lower melting sintering metals such as 1-20% by weight, of a non-oxidizing metal such as lead or tin. The powdered metal systems operate on the basis of fusing together by way of eutectic alloying. As the paste is heated during firing the organic binder is first vaporized. An eutectic of the base metal (copper) and coating (tin) forms at the intersections of the base metal grains. This eutectic dissolves the grains and as the temperature is raised above the eutectic temperature, more of the base metal is dissolved. While the temperature is held at the higher value, the much smaller amount of sintering metal disappears as the eutectic dissolves and diffuses into the base metal until the composition of the eutectic is so enriched with base metal that it no longer has the eutectic properties and it solidifies. In this high temperature solidification, the base metal grains became thoroughly alloyed together and will not separate at the eutectic temperature (a lower temperature than their solidification by diffusion).

  8. Reading Disability and Laterality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrow, Sara S.

    The purpose of this study was to determine how retarded readers differed from normal readers in the various ways laterality is manifested. An additional purpose was to investigate the development of laterality as seen across several age levels. Subjects were 80 white male 9-, 10-, 11-, and 12-year-olds from regular classrooms in suburban…

  9. Improved capacitive EKG electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, J. L.; Griffith, M. E.; Portnox, W. M.; Stotts, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    Light, compact electrode monitors heart signals through burn ointment and requires no electrolyte paste for coupling to skin. Innovation is useful because of its ability to monitor heart condition of burn victims.

  10. Millisecond dynamics of thermal expansion of mechanically controllable break junction electrodes studied in the tunneling regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnychenko, O. Yu.; Toonen, A. J.; Shklyarevskii, O. I.; van Kempen, H.

    2001-10-01

    The thermal expansion dynamics of W, Pt-Ir, and Au mechanically controllable break junction electrodes was studied in the millisecond range. By measuring a transient tunnel current as a function of time, we found that, at low temperatures, the electrode elongation Δs˜t1/2 due to the large values of thermal diffusivity of metals. The magnitude of Δs varies in direct proportion to the power P dissipated in the electrodes.

  11. Conducting polymer electrodes for electroencephalography.

    PubMed

    Leleux, Pierre; Badier, Jean-Michel; Rivnay, Jonathan; Bénar, Christian; Hervé, Thierry; Chauvel, Patrick; Malliaras, George G

    2014-04-01

    Conducting polymer electrodes are developed on a flexible substrate for electroencephalography applications. These electrodes yield higher quality recordings than dry electrodes made from metal. Their performance is equivalent to commercial gel-assisted electrodes, paving the way for non-invasive, long-term monitoring of the human brain.

  12. Defusing Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dou, Remy; Hogan, DaNel; Kossover, Mark; Spuck, Timothy; Young, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion has often been taught in science courses as one of the primary ways by which molecules travel, particularly within organisms. For years, classroom teachers have used the same common demonstrations to illustrate this concept (e.g., placing drops of food coloring in a beaker of water). Most of the time, the main contributor to the motion…

  13. Demonstrating Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Barry G.

    1977-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. Materials and instructions for demonstrating movement of molecules into cytoplasm using agar blocks, phenolphthalein, and sodium hydroxide are given. A simple method for demonstrating that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to its molecular weight is also presented. (AJ)

  14. Silicon drift detector with reduced lateral diffusion:. experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šonský, J.; Valk, H.; Huizenga, J.; Hollander, R. W.; van Eijk, C. W. E.; Sarro, P. M.

    2000-01-01

    In a standard multi-anode silicon drift detector electron cloud broadening during the drifting towards the anode pixels deteriorates the energy and position resolution. This makes the detector less applicable for detection of low-energy X-rays. The signal charge sharing between several anodes can be eliminated by introducing sawtooth-shaped p + field strips. The sawtooth structure results in small electric fields directed parallel to the sensor surface and perpendicular to the drift direction which produce gutters. The drifting electrons are confined in these gutters of one saw tooth period wide. For a detector with a sawtooth period of 500 μm, we have measured the maximum number of fully confined electrons as a function of the potential gutter depth induced by different sawtooth angles.

  15. Recipes for lateral spin transport between magnetic contacts, advantage of carbon-based materials.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fert, Albert

    2010-03-01

    After the presentation of magneto-transport results [1] on metallic carbon nanotubes (CNT) between LSMO electrodes (MR 60-70%, [VAP -- VP] 60mV), I will discuss the general problem of spin transport in a nonmagnetic lateral channel between spin-polarized contacts in both the diffusive and ballistic regimes. In the diffusive regime, a treatment by the classical drift-diffusion equations applied to a multi-terminal structure is used to calculate what can be expected for the output signal with local or non-local voltage probes. A general result is that the output signal (δR = δV/I where δV is the local or non-local output voltage), directly related to the spin accumulation splitting in the channel, scales with the smallest of the relevant spin and interfaces resistances. In the best situation, that is with only tunnel contacts having the same (large) resistance RT and separated by less than the spin diffusion length (λ) in a lateral channel limited to the zone of the contacts, the signal δR increases in proportion of RT as long as the dwell time is smaller than the spin lifetime. δR can be thus much larger than the spin resistance of the channel (product of its resistivity by the ratio λ/section ). This explain why, in the experiments of Ref.[1] on CNT, δR can be as large as 90 Mφ, that is of the order of the tunnel contact resistances and much larger than the spin resistance of the CNT (smaller signals in experiments with CNT or graphene are often due the leak of spin accumulation in lateral channels extending too far outside the contacts). The relative disadvantage for semiconductors comes from the too long dwell time due to much smaller electron velocities than in metallic CNTs (and graphene). We will conclude by a similar analysis of the ballistic regime and a discussion of experiments with graphene. [4pt] [1] Hueso et al, Nature 445, 410 (2007).

  16. Capacitive de-ionization electrode

    DOEpatents

    Daily, III, William D.

    2013-03-19

    An electrode "cell" for use in a capacitive deionization (CDI) reactor consists of the electrode support structure, a non-reactive conductive material, the electrode accompaniment or substrate and a flow through screen/separator. These "layers" are repeated and the electrodes are sealed together with gaskets between two end plates to create stacked sets of alternating anode and cathode electrodes in the CDI reactor.

  17. Probing Electrode Heterogeneity Using Fourier-Transformed Alternating Current Voltammetry: Application to a Dual-Electrode Configuration.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sze-Yin; Unwin, Patrick R; Macpherson, Julie V; Zhang, Jie; Bond, Alan M

    2017-03-07

    Quantitative studies of electron transfer processes at electrode/electrolyte interfaces, originally developed for homogeneous liquid mercury or metallic electrodes, are difficult to adapt to the spatially heterogeneous nanostructured electrode materials that are now commonly used in modern electrochemistry. In this study, the impact of surface heterogeneity on Fourier-transformed alternating current voltammetry (FTACV) has been investigated theoretically under the simplest possible conditions where no overlap of diffusion layers occurs and where numerical simulations based on a 1D diffusion model are sufficient to describe the mass transport problem. Experimental data that meet these requirements can be obtained with the aqueous [Ru(NH3)6](3+/2+) redox process at a dual-electrode system comprised of electrically coupled but well-separated glassy carbon (GC) and boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. Simulated and experimental FTACV data obtained with this electrode configuration, and where distinctly different heterogeneous charge transfer rate constants (k(0) values) apply at the individual GC and BDD electrode surfaces, are in excellent agreement. Principally, because of the far greater dependence of the AC current magnitude on k(0), it is straightforward with the FTACV method to resolve electrochemical heterogeneities that are ∼1-2 orders of magnitude apart, as applies in the [Ru(NH3)6](3+/2+) dual-electrode configuration experiments, without prior knowledge of the individual kinetic parameters (k(0)1 and k(0)2) or the electrode size ratio (θ1:θ2). In direct current voltammetry, a difference in k(0) of >3 orders of magnitude is required to make this distinction.

  18. Simulation of nanostructured electrodes for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Sanjeev M.; Xing, Yangchuan

    Aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with Pt uniformly deposited on them are being considered in fabricating the catalyst layer of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell electrodes. When coated with a proton conducting polymer (e.g., Nafion) on the Pt/CNTs, each Pt/CNT acts as a nanoelectrode and a collection of such nanoelectrodes constitutes the proposed nanostructured electrodes. Computer modeling was performed for the cathode side, in which both multicomponent and Knudsen diffusion were taken into account. The effect of the nanoelectrode lengths was also studied with catalyst layer thicknesses of 2, 4, 6, and 10 μm. It was observed that shorter lengths produce better electrode performance due to lower diffusion barriers and better catalyst utilization. The effect of spacing between the nanoelectrodes was studied. Simulation results showed the need to have sufficiently large gas pores, i.e., large spacing, for good oxygen transport. However, this is at the cost of obtaining large electrode currents due to reduction of the number of nanoelectrodes per unit geometrical area of the nanostructured electrode. An optimization of the nanostructured electrodes was obtained when the spacing was at about 400 nm that produced the best limiting current density.

  19. Diffusion in membranes: Toward a two-dimensional diffusion map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toppozini, Laura; Garcia-Sakai, Victoria; Bewley, Robert; Dalgliesh, Robert; Perring, Toby; Rheinstädter, Maikel C.

    2015-01-01

    For decades, quasi-elastic neutron scattering has been the prime tool for studying molecular diffusion in membranes over relevant nanometer distances. These experiments are essential to our current understanding of molecular dynamics of lipids, proteins and membrane-active molecules. Recently, we presented experimental evidence from X-ray diffraction and quasi-elastic neutron scattering demonstrating that ethanol enhances the permeability of membranes. At the QENS 2014/WINS 2014 conference we presented a novel technique to measure diffusion across membranes employing 2-dimensional quasi-elastic neutron scattering. We present results from our preliminary analysis of an experiment on the cold neutron multi-chopper spectrometer LET at ISIS, where we studied the self-diffusion of water molecules along lipid membranes and have the possibility of studying the diffusion in membranes. By preparing highly oriented membrane stacks and aligning them horizontally in the spectrometer, our aim is to distinguish between lateral and transmembrane diffusion. Diffusion may also be measured at different locations in the membranes, such as the water layer and the hydrocarbon membrane core. With a complete analysis of the data, 2-dimensional mapping will enable us to determine diffusion channels of water and ethanol molecules to quantitatively determine nanoscale membrane permeability.

  20. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a nervous system disease that attacks nerve cells called neurons in your brain and spinal cord. These neurons ... breathing machine can help, but most people with ALS die from respiratory failure. The disease usually strikes ...

  1. [Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Veldink, J H; Weikamp, J; Schelhaas, H J; van den Berg, L H

    2010-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is one of the most severe and disabling diseases of the nervous system. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis leads to the progressive weakening of the muscles in the arms, legs, face, mouth and trunk. The onset of the disease is insidious, starting with weakness in the hands or feet or with slurred speech. The weakness worsens and patients pass away as a result of weakness of the respiratory muscles on average within 3 years of the onset of the disease. In the Netherlands, approximately 400 patients are diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis every year. There is no diagnostic test for this neuro-muscular disease; the diagnosis is established by excluding other disorders that resemble amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Only one drug is able to inhibit the progression of the disease to any extent: riluzole. Treatment, therefore, is mainly focused on supportive measures and those which enhance the quality of life optimally.

  2. Nickel gradient electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, A.H.

    1988-03-31

    This invention relates generally to rechargeable batteries, and, in particular, relates to batteries that use nickel electrodes. It provides an improved nickel electrode with a selected gradient of additive materials. The concentration of additives in the impregnating solution are controlled during impregnation such that an additive gradient is generated. In the situation where the highest ionic conductivity is needed at the current collector boundary with the active material, the electrochemical impregnating solution is initially high in additive, and at the end of impregnation has been adjusted to significantly lower additive concentration. For chemical impregnation, the electrodes are similarly dipped in solutions that are initially high in additive. This invention is suitable for conventional additives such as cobalt, cadmium, barium, manganese, and zinc. It is therefore one objective of the invention to provide an improved nickel electrode of a battery cell with an additive in the active material to increase the life of the battery cell. Another objective is to provide for an improved nickel electrode having a greater concentration of additive near the current collector of nickel.

  3. Weld electrode cooling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Robert C.; Simon, Daniel L.

    1999-03-01

    The U.S. auto/truck industry has been mandated by the Federal government to continuously improve their fleet average gas mileage, measured in miles per gallon. Several techniques are typically used to meet these mandates, one of which is to reduce the overall mass of cars and trucks. To help accomplish this goal, lighter weight sheet metal parts, with smaller weld flanges, have been designed and fabricated. This paper will examine the cooling characteristics of various water cooled weld electrodes and shanks used in resistance spot welding applications. The smaller weld flanges utilized in modern vehicle sheet metal fabrications have increased industry's interest in using one size of weld electrode (1/2 inch diameter) for certain spot welding operations. The welding community wants more data about the cooling characteristics of these 1/2 inch weld electrodes. To hep define the cooling characteristics, an infrared radiometer thermal vision system (TVS) was used to capture images (thermograms) of the heating and cooling cycles of several size combinations of weld electrodes under typical production conditions. Tests results will show why the open ended shanks are more suitable for cooling the weld electrode assembly then closed ended shanks.

  4. Reaction-zone expansions and mechanism of the O{sub 2}, Ag/yttria-stabilized zirconia electrode reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, R.; Kloidt, T.; Kleitz, M.

    1997-02-01

    Experimental data obtained by impedance spectroscopy with silver droplet electrodes of different radii have been reanalyzed in the medium-frequency range under the assumption of rate-limiting oxygen diffusion through a thin slab of the electrode material. The model, which is based on literature data and has no adjustable parameters, gives a good fit. This demonstrates that in the medium-frequency range, oxygen diffusion through the electrode material is evenly distributed over the whole electrode interface. On the other hand, under dc conditions it is concentrated along the electrode triple-phase perimeter. Therefore, the distribution of the transfer current over the interface varies with the applied signal frequency. It follows that the electrode resistance and capacitance determined from the impedance diagram are related to an electrode reaction occurring over a reaction zone variable with the signal frequency.

  5. Diffusion bonding

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Robert C.

    1976-06-22

    1. A method for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding, comprising the steps of coating at least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces with nickel, positioning a coated surface portion in a contiguous relationship with an other surface portion, subjecting the contiguously disposed surface portions to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure, applying a force upon the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other, heating the contiguous surface portions to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, substantially uniformly decreasing the applied force while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature, and maintaining a portion of the applied force at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions.

  6. Electrode materials for coal-fired MHD generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, R. A.

    1980-10-01

    Metallic materials are evaluated as electrodes for coal fired MHD generators. A laboratory test that simulates the electrochemical and corrosive environment was developed and used to characterize electrode behavior in a diffuse current flow (nonarcing) mode of operation. High current density requires that an electron transport mechanism of current flow be maintained. With inert, stable electrodes, anode polarization occurs and ionic conduction prevails, limiting current to low values. The nature of this behavior and approaches to overcoming anodic polarization are studied as a function of electrode material, slag composition, and temperature. By operating at high temperatures and with controlled slag chemistries to produce a very fluid slag, depolarization may be achieved by mechanical mixing. Interrupted current flow are required to aid in breaking down anodic polarization.

  7. Processing of carbon composite paper as electrode for fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, R. B.; Maheshwari, Priyanka H.; Dhami, T. L.; Sharma, R. K.; Sharma, C. P.

    The porous carbon electrode in a fuel cell not only acts as an electrolyte and a catalyst support, but also allows the diffusion of hydrogen fuel through its fine porosity and serves as a current-carrying conductor. A suitable carbon paper electrode is developed and possesses the characteristics of high porosity, permeability and strength along with low electrical resistivity so that it can be effectively used in proton-exchange membrane and phosphoric acid fuel cells. The electrode is prepared through a combination of two important techniques, viz., paper-making technology by first forming a porous chopped carbon fibre preform, and composite technology using a thermosetting resin matrix. The study reveals an interdependence of one parameter on another and how judicious choice of the processing conditions are necessary to achieve the desired characteristics. The current-voltage performance of the electrode in a unit fuel cell matches that of a commercially-available material.

  8. Fluid dynamics of double diffusive systems

    SciTech Connect

    Koseff, J.R.

    1989-04-07

    A study of mixing processes in doubly diffusive systems is being conducted. Continuous gradients of two diffusing components (heat and salinity in our case) are being used as initial conditions, and forcing is introduced by lateral heating and surface shear. The goals of the proposed work include: (1) quantification of the effects of finite amplitude disturbances on stable, double diffusive systems, particularly with respect to lateral heating, (2) development of an improved understanding of the physical phenomena present in wind-driven shear flows in double diffusive stratified environments, (3) increasing our knowledge-base on turbulent flow in stratified environments and how to represent it, and (4) formulation of a numerical code for such flows. The work is being carried out in an experimental facility which is located in the Stanford Environmental Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, and on laboratory minicomputers and CRAY computers. In particular we are focusing on the following key issues: (1) the formation and propagation of double diffusive intrusions away from a heated wall and the effects of lateral heating on the double diffusive system; (2) the interaction between the double diffusively influenced fluxes and the turbulence induced fluxes; (3) the measurement of heat and mass fluxes; and (4) the influence of double diffusive gradients on mixed layer deepening. 1 fig.

  9. Morphology studies on high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, Florian; Klages, Merle; Scholta, Joachim; Jörissen, Ludwig; Morawietz, Tobias; Hiesgen, Renate; Kramer, Dominik; Zeis, Roswitha

    2014-06-01

    The electrode morphology influences the properties and performance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Here we report our studies of two different electrodes for high-temperature PEMFC prepared by spraying and coating and their impact on the fuel cell performance. Differences in 3D microstructure and adhesion between catalyst layer and gas diffusion layer (GDL) of the electrodes were studied with X-ray microtomography. Scanning electrode microscope investigations show hairline cracks between agglomerates on the surface of the sprayed electrode, whereas the coated electrode shows a network of shrinkage cracks in the catalyst layer. The distribution of the electrode binder polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is related to the locally resolved conductivity, which was determined by scanning the electrode surfaces with a conductive atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip. The macrostructures of the sprayed and coated electrodes are different but contain similar pore structures. The coated electrode has a higher PTFE concentration on the top region, which tends to form a nonconductive and less wettable "skin" on the electrode surface and delays the start-up of the fuel cell. In contrast to low-temperature PEMFC, the electrode morphology has only a minor impact on the steady-state cell performance of high-temperature PEMFC.

  10. Porous electrode preparation method

    DOEpatents

    Arons, R.M.; Dusek, J.T.

    1983-10-18

    A porous sintered plaque is provided with a bimodal porosity that is especially well suited for use as an electrode within a molten carbonate fuel cell. The coarse porosity is sufficient for admitting gases into contact with the reaction surfaces while the fine porosity is wetted with and retains molten electrolyte on the reaction sites. The electrode structure is prepared by providing a very fine powder of such as nickel oxide and blending the powder with a suitable decomposable binder to form a solid mass. The mass is comminuted into agglomerate size particles substantially larger than the fine oxide particles and formed into a cohesive compact for subsequent sintering. Sintering is carried out at sufficient conditions to bind the agglomerates together into a porous structure having both coarse and fine porosity. Where lithiated nickel oxide cathodes are prepared, the sintering conditions can be moderate enough to retain substantial quantities of lithium within the electrode for adequate conductivity. 2 figs.

  11. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1997-05-06

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granulated materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  12. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  13. Fuel cell electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Struthers, R. C.

    1985-03-05

    A flat, laminated fuel cell gas electrode arranged between and separating gas and liquid mediums in a fuel cell. The electrode includes a flat, perforated sheet metal support and electric conductor part with a rear surface disposed toward the gas medium, a flat, hydrophobic gas permeable membrane with a rear surface in contact with a front surface of said part, a flat liquid and gas permeable metallic current collector with a rear surface spaced from a front surface of said membrane and with a front surface disposed toward the liquid medium, a catalytic barrier structure of bonded together particulate catalytic material and metal conductor filaments by and in electric conducting contact with the collector and having a rear surface in contact with the front surface of the membrane and a plurality of spaced apart electric conducting fasteners engaged with and between said part and collector securing the parts of the electrode in assembled relationship and electrically connecting the current collector with said part.

  14. Liquid-permeable electrode

    DOEpatents

    Folser, George R.

    1980-01-01

    Electrodes for use in an electrolytic cell, which are liquid-permeable and have low electrical resistance and high internal surface area are provided of a rigid, porous, carbonaceous matrix having activated carbon uniformly embedded throughout. The activated carbon may be catalyzed with platinum for improved electron transfer between electrode and electrolyte. Activated carbon is mixed with a powdered thermosetting phenolic resin and compacted to the desired shape in a heated mold to melt the resin and form the green electrode. The compact is then heated to a pyrolyzing temperature to carbonize and volatilize the resin, forming a rigid, porous structure. The permeable structure and high internal surface area are useful in electrolytic cells where it is necessary to continuously remove the products of the electrochemical reaction.

  15. Advances in Studies of Electrode Kinetics and Mass Transport in AMTEC Cells (abstract)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.; Underwood, M. L.; Kisor, A.; O'Connor, D.; Kikkert, S.

    1993-01-01

    Previous work reported from JPL has included characterization of electrode kinetics and alkali atom transport from electrodes including Mo, W, WRh(sub x), WPt(sub x)(Mn), in sodium AMTEC cells and vapor exposure cells, and Mo in potassium vapor exposure cells. These studies were generally performed in cells with small area electrodes (about 1 to 5 cm(sup 2)), and device geometry had little effect on transport. Alkali diffusion coefficients through these electrodes have been characterized, and approximate surface diffusion coefficients derived in cases of activated transport. A basic model of electrode kinetic at the alkali metal vapor/porous metal electrode/alkali beta'-alumina solid electrolyte three phase boundary has been proposed which accounts for electrochemical reaction rates with a collision frequency near the three phase boundary and tunneling from the porous electrode partially covered with adsorbed alkali metal atoms. The small electrode effect in AMTEC cells has been discussed in several papers, but quantitative investigations have described only the overall effect and the important contribution of electrolyte resistance. The quantitative characterization of transport losses in cells with large area electrodes has been limited to simulations of large area electrode effects, or characterization of transport losses from large area electrodes with significant longitudinal temperature gradients. This paper describes new investigations of electrochemical kinetics and transport, particularily with WPt(sub 3.5) electrodes, including the influence of electrode size on the mass transport loss in the AMTEC cell. These electrodes possess excellent sodium transport properties making verification of device limitations on transport much more readily attained.

  16. Laterally bendable belt conveyor

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, William J.

    1985-01-01

    An endless, laterally flexible and bendable belt conveyor particularly adapted for coal mining applications in facilitating the transport of the extracted coal up- or downslope and around corners in a continuous manner is disclosed. The conveying means includes a flat rubber belt reinforced along the middle portion thereof along which the major portion of the belt tension is directed so as to cause rotation of the tubular shaped belt when trammed around lateral turns thus preventing excessive belt bulging distortion between adjacent belt supports which would inhibit belt transport. Pretension induced into the fabric reinforced flat rubber belt by conventional belt take-up means supports the load conveyed when the belt conveyor is making lateral turns. The carrying and return portions of the belt are supported and formed into a tubular shape by a plurality of shapers positioned along its length. Each shaper is supported from above by a monorail and includes clusters of idler rollers which support the belt. Additional cluster rollers in each shaper permit the belt supporting roller clusters to rotate in response to the belt's operating tension imposed upon the cluster rollers by induced lateral belt friction forces. The freely rotating roller clusters thus permit the belt to twist on lateral curves without damage to itself while precluding escape of the conveyed material by effectively enclosing it in the tube-shaped, inner belt transport length.

  17. Ceramic component for electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, David D.

    1979-01-01

    A ceramic component suitable for preparing MHD generator electrodes consists of HfO.sub.2 and sufficient Tb.sub.4 O.sub.7 to stabilize at least 60 volume percent of the HfO.sub.2 into the cubic structure. The ceramic component may also contain a small amount of PrO.sub.2, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 or a mixture of both to improve stability and electronic conductivity of the electrode. The component is highly resistant to corrosion by molten potassium seed and molten coal slag in the MHD fluid and exhibits both ionic and electronic conductivity.

  18. Sandwich-type electrode

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Wen-Tong P.; Garcia, Earl R.

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is an improvement on a method of making an electrode wherein a suspension in a liquid is prepared of a powdered catalyst containing a noble metal, carbon powder and a binder, and the suspension is poured over a carbon substrate dried, compressed and sintered to form a solid catalyst layer bonded to the carbon substrate. The improvement is placing a carbon paper on the catalyst layer prior to compressing. The improved electrode can be used as either a cathode or an anode in a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer in a process for producing hydrogen from water.

  19. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Sadoway, D.R.

    1988-08-16

    A stable reference electrode is described for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6], wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution. 1 fig.

  20. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Sadoway, Donald R.

    1988-01-01

    A stable reference electrode for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na.sub.3 AlF.sub.6, wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution.

  1. Optical and electrical investigation of a cylindrical diffuse-discharge chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Yun; Li, Lee Cheng, Yong; Ma, Ning; Peng, Ming-yang; Liu, Ming-hai

    2015-03-15

    More and more attention has been attached to atmospheric-pressure air diffuse plasma due to its enormous potential applications. In this paper, we designed a large-scale, cylindrical diffuse-plasma chamber using wire electrodes and a repetitive nanosecond pulse generator. The plasma chamber can be completely exposed in the open air without any barrier dielectric, and the length of cylindrical plasma chamber was extensible. Using optical and electrical measurements, we investigated the effects of electrode distance, electrode length, pulse repetition frequency, and electrode angle on the uniformity of discharge space. Four discharge regions were distinguished based on different spectral characteristics. Additionally, it was found that the discharge uniformity was improved as the electrode distance decreases, but remained almost constant with the variations of electrode length and pulse repetition frequency. Both of the plasma uniformity and the power density increased significantly as the electrode angle reduced.

  2. Dual porosity gas evolving electrode

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, Carl W.

    1994-01-01

    A dual porosity electrode for use in thermoelectrochemical systems where simultaneous transport of gas and liquid into and/or out of the electrode is required. The electrode includes catalytic electrode particles having diameters ranging from about 25 to 100 angstroms. The catalytic electrode particles are anchored to a support network in clusters which have internal pores ranging in size from 25 to 100 angstroms. The pores between the clusters range in size from between about 1 to 20 microns. A method for making the dual porosity electrodes is also disclosed.

  3. Dual porosity gas evolving electrode

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, C.W.

    1994-11-15

    A dual porosity electrode is described for use in thermoelectrochemical systems where simultaneous transport of gas and liquid into and/or out of the electrode is required. The electrode includes catalytic electrode particles having diameters ranging from about 25 to 100 angstroms. The catalytic electrode particles are anchored to a support network in clusters which have internal pores ranging in size from 25 to 100 angstroms. The pores between the clusters range in size from between about 1 to 20 microns. A method for making the dual porosity electrodes is also disclosed.

  4. Electrical properties of textile electrodes.

    PubMed

    Rattfalt, Linda; Chedid, Michel; Hult, Peter; Lindén, Maria; Ask, Per

    2007-01-01

    In this study we aim to explain the behavior of textile electrodes due to their construction techniques. Three textile electrodes were tested for electrode impedance and polarization potentials. The multifilament yarn (A) is favorable for its low thread resistance. Although, when knitted into electrodes, the staple fiber yarn (B) showed a comparable and satisfiable electrode impedance. The multifilament yarn had however a lower polarization potential drift then the other specimens. The monofilament yarn (C) had high electrode impedance and varying mean polarization potentials due to its conductive material and small contact area with the skin.

  5. Bilateral lateral periodontal cyst.

    PubMed

    Govil, Somya; Gupta, Vishesh; Misra, Neeta; Misra, Pradyumna

    2013-05-10

    The bilateral lateral periodontal cyst is a rare nasological entity, which despite clinical and radiological presentation is being diagnosed by histological characteristics. It is asymptomatic in nature and is observed in routine radiography. The aim and objective of this article is to present a rare case of bilateral lateral periodontal cyst in a 14-year-old child. The clinical and radiographical findings, along with its management have been discussed. Enucleation of bilateral cyst without extraction of the adjacent tooth was performed. Lesion samples were sent for histopathological analysis. The histopathological analysis revealed a thin, non keratinised stratified squamous epithelium resembling reduced enamel epithelium. Epithelial plaques were also seen. A clinicopathological correlation incorporating the surgical, radiographical and gold standard histopathological findings was obtained to suggest the final diagnosis of the bilateral lateral periodontal cyst.

  6. Virtual electrodes for high-density electrode arrays

    DOEpatents

    Cela, Carlos J.; Lazzi, Gianluca

    2015-10-13

    The present embodiments are directed to implantable electrode arrays having virtual electrodes. The virtual electrodes may improve the resolution of the implantable electrode array without the burden of corresponding complexity of electronic circuitry and wiring. In a particular embodiment, a virtual electrode may include one or more passive elements to help steer current to a specific location between the active electrodes. For example, a passive element may be a metalized layer on a substrate that is adjacent to, but not directly connected to an active electrode. In certain embodiments, an active electrode may be directly coupled to a power source via a conductive connection. Beneficially, the passive elements may help to increase the overall resolution of the implantable array by providing additional stimulation points without requiring additional wiring or driver circuitry for the passive elements.

  7. Lateral Thinking of Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Xavier, S. Amaladoss

    2013-01-01

    Edward de Bono who invented the term "lateral thinking" in 1967 is the pioneer of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is concerned with the generation of new ideas. Liberation from old ideas and the stimulation of new ones are twin aspects of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is a creative skills from which all people can benefit…

  8. BUBBLE DYNAMICS AT GAS-EVOLVING ELECTRODES

    SciTech Connect

    Sides, Paul J.

    1980-12-01

    Nucleation of bubbles, their growth by diffusion of dissolved gas to the bubble surface and by coalescence, and their detachment from the electrode are all very fast phenomena; furthermore, electrolytically generated bubbles range in size from ten to a few hundred microns; therefore, magnification and high speed cinematography are required to observe bubbles and the phenomena of their growth on the electrode surface. Viewing the action from the front side (the surface on which the bubbles form) is complicated because the most important events occur close to the surface and are obscured by other bubbles passing between the camera and the electrode; therefore, oxygen was evolved on a transparent tin oxide "window" electrode and the events were viewed from the backside. The movies showed that coalescence of bubbles is very important for determining the size of bubbles and in the chain of transport processes; growth by diffusion and by coalescence proceeds in series and parallel; coalescing bubbles cause significant fluid motion close to the electrode; bubbles can leave and reattach; and bubbles evolve in a cycle of growth by diffusion and different modes of coalescence. An analytical solution for the primary potential and current distribution around a spherical bubble in contact with a plane electrode is presented. Zero at the contact point, the current density reaches only one percent of its undisturbed value at 30 percent of the radius from that point and goes through a shallow maximum two radii away. The solution obtained for spherical bubbles is shown to apply for the small bubbles of electrolytic processes. The incremental resistance in ohms caused by sparse arrays of bubbles is given by {Delta}R = 1.352 af/kS where f is the void fraction of gas in the bubble layer, a is the bubble layer thickness, k is the conductivity of gas free electrolyte, and S is the electrode area. A densely populated gas bubble layer on an electrode was modeled as a hexagonal array of

  9. DIFFUSION PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Levenson, L.

    1963-09-01

    A high-vacuum diffusion pump is described, featuring a novel housing geometry for enhancing pumping speed. An upright, cylindrical lower housing portion is surmounted by a concentric, upright, cylindrical upper housing portion of substantially larger diameter; an uppermost nozzle, disposed concentrically within the upper portion, is adapted to eject downwardly a conical sheet of liquid outwardly to impinge upon the uppermost extremity of the interior wall of the lower portion. Preferably this nozzle is mounted upon a pedestal rising coaxially from within the lower portion and projecting up into said upper portion. (AEC)

  10. Diffusion Controlled Current at a Stationary Finite Disk Electrode. Experiment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    Koryta, H. Brezina, J. Prada, and J. Prad4ovi, "Electro- analytical Chemistry", Vol. 11, Chapt. 2, Edited by A. J. Bard, Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1979. 2 D...Minneapolis, Minnesota 55435 Dr. J. Z. Demuth IBM brporties Dr. a. P. Van Duyme Thomas J. Watson sbairch Center Chemistry Departmeat P.O. 3.. 21S

  11. Simultaneous in vivo imaging of diffuse optical reflectance, optoacoustic pressure and ultrasonic scattering

    PubMed Central

    Subochev, Pavel; Orlova, Anna; Mikhailova, Irina; Shilyagina, Natalia; Turchin, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    We present reflection-mode bioimaging system providing complementary optical, photoacsoutic and acoustic measurements by acoustic detector after each laser pulse. While the photons absorbed within the sample provide optoacoustic (OA) signals, the photons absorbed by the external electrode of a detector provide the measurable diffuse reflectance (DR) from the sample and the probing ultrasonic (US) pulse. To demonstrate the in vivo capabilities of the system we present the results of complementary DR/OA/US imaging of a mouse tumor, head of a newborn rat, and the back of a newborn rat with 3.5mm/50μm/35μm lateral resolution. Trimodal approach allows visualization of mechanical structures in healthy and pathological tissues along with peculiarities of blood supply. The system may be used for diagnostics of diseases accompanied by the defects of vascularization as well as for assessing the mechanisms of vascular changes when monitoring response to therapy. PMID:27867706

  12. Capacitive electrodes in electroencephalography.

    PubMed

    von Ellenrieder, Nicolás; Spinelli, Enrique; Muravchik, Carlos H

    2006-01-01

    We present a forward problem formulation for computing biopotentials measured with dry or capacitive electrodes. This formulation is not quasistatic and has mixed boundary conditions. Our results show that simple approximations to the measurements based on capacitive coupling are adequate in most situations. We study the range of validity and errors committed in the EEG forward and inverse problems when using this approximation.

  13. Battery electrode growth accommodation

    DOEpatents

    Bowen, Gerald K.; Andrew, Michael G.; Eskra, Michael D.

    1992-01-01

    An electrode for a lead acid flow through battery, the grids including a plastic frame, a plate suspended from the top of the frame to hang freely in the plastic frame and a paste applied to the plate, the paste being free to allow for expansion in the planar direction of the grid.

  14. Photoelectrosynthesis at semiconductor electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Nozik, A. J.

    1980-12-01

    The general principles of photoelectrochemistry and photoelectrosynthesis are reviewed and some new developments in photoelectrosynthesis are discussed. Topics include energetics of semiconductor-electrolyte interfaces(band-edge unpinning); hot carrier injection at illuminated semiconductor-electrolyte junctions; derivatized semiconductor electrodes; particulate photoelectrochemical systems; layered compounds and other new materials; and dye sensitization. (WHK)

  15. Dry EEG Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Gordo, M. A.; Sanchez-Morillo, D.; Valle, F. Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) emerged in the second decade of the 20th century as a technique for recording the neurophysiological response. Since then, there has been little variation in the physical principles that sustain the signal acquisition probes, otherwise called electrodes. Currently, new advances in technology have brought new unexpected fields of applications apart from the clinical, for which new aspects such as usability and gel-free operation are first order priorities. Thanks to new advances in materials and integrated electronic systems technologies, a new generation of dry electrodes has been developed to fulfill the need. In this manuscript, we review current approaches to develop dry EEG electrodes for clinical and other applications, including information about measurement methods and evaluation reports. We conclude that, although a broad and non-homogeneous diversity of approaches has been evaluated without a consensus in procedures and methodology, their performances are not far from those obtained with wet electrodes, which are considered the gold standard, thus enabling the former to be a useful tool in a variety of novel applications. PMID:25046013

  16. Electrical polymerization of a tetrazole polymer-modified electrode and its catalytic reaction toward dopamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Mu-Tao; Whang, Thou-Jen

    2017-02-01

    A conducting polymer-modified electrode was proposed in this article, which was fabricated by electropolymerization of 5-amino-1H-tetrazole (ATet) on a glassy carbon electrode. Electrochemical studies such as differential pulse voltammetry and chronoamperometry were performed for the evaluation of the rate constant of the catalytic reaction, the diffusion coefficient of the analyte dopamine, and the linear dynamic range of the analyte determination. The film modified electrode has superior resolving power in quantitative determination from the mixture of analytes and it was found to be an efficient functionalized electrode for its sensitivity and selectivity toward the analyte of interest.

  17. On effective transport coefficients in PEM fuel cell electrodes: Anisotropy of the porous transport layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pharoah, J. G.; Karan, K.; Sun, W.

    This paper reviews the approach taken in the literature to model the effective transport coefficients - mass diffusivity, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and hydraulic permeability - of carbon-fibre based porous electrode of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). It is concluded that current PEMFC model do not account for the inherent anisotropic microstructure of the fibrous electrodes. Simulations using a 2-D PEMFC cathode model show that neglecting the anisotropic nature and associated transport coefficients of the porous electrodes significantly influences both the nature and the magnitude of the model predictions. This emphasizes the need to appropriately characterize the relevant anisotropic properties of the fibrous electrode.

  18. Onset dominance in lateralization.

    PubMed

    Freyman, R L; Zurek, P M; Balakrishnan, U; Chiang, Y C

    1997-03-01

    Saberi and Perrott [Acustica 81, 272-275 (1995)] found that the in-head lateralization of a relatively long-duration pulse train could be controlled by the interaural delay of the single pulse pair that occurs at onset. The present study examined this further, using an acoustic pointer measure of lateralization, with stimulus manipulations designed to determine conditions under which lateralization was consistent with the interaural onset delay. The present stimuli were wideband pulse trains, noise-burst trains, and inharmonic complexes, 250 ms in duration, chosen for the ease with which interaural delays and correlations of select temporal segments of the stimulus could be manipulated. The stimulus factors studied were the periodicity of the ongoing part of the signal as well as the multiplicity and ambiguity of interaural delays. The results, in general, showed that the interaural onset delay controlled lateralization when the steady state binaural cues were relatively weak, either because the spectral components were only sparsely distributed across frequency or because the interaural time delays were ambiguous. Onset dominance can be disrupted by sudden stimulus changes within the train, and several examples of such changes are described. Individual subjects showed strong left-right asymmetries in onset effectiveness. The results have implications for understanding how onset and ongoing interaural delay cues contribute to the location estimates formed by the binaural auditory system.

  19. Anomalous diffusion governed by a fractional diffusion equation and the electrical response of an electrolytic cell.

    PubMed

    Santoro, P A; de Paula, J L; Lenzi, E K; Evangelista, L R

    2011-09-21

    The electrical response of an electrolytic cell in which the diffusion of mobile ions in the bulk is governed by a fractional diffusion equation of distributed order is analyzed. The boundary conditions at the electrodes limiting the sample are described by an integro-differential equation governing the kinetic at the interface. The analysis is carried out by supposing that the positive and negative ions have the same mobility and that the electric potential profile across the sample satisfies the Poisson's equation. The results cover a rich variety of scenarios, including the ones connected to anomalous diffusion.

  20. Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Newmark, R L; Daily, W; Ramirez, A

    1999-03-22

    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) using multiple electrodes installed in boreholes has been shown to be useful for both site characterization and process monitoring. In some cases, however, installing multiple downhole electrodes is too costly (e.g., deep targets) or risky (e.g., contaminated sites). For these cases we have examined the possibility of using the steel casings of existing boreholes as electrodes. The first case we investigated used an array of steel casings as electrodes. This results in very few data and thus requires additional constraints to limit the domain of possible inverse solutions. Simulations indicate that the spatial resolution and sensitivity are understandably low but it is possible to coarsely map the lateral extent of subsurface processes such as steam floods. A hybrid case uses traditional point electrode arrays combined with long-conductor electrodes (steel casings). Although this arrangement provides more data, in many cases it results in poor reconstructions of test targets. Results indicate that this method may hold promise for low resolution imaging where steel casings can be used as electrodes.

  1. Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as long electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Daily, W; Newmark, R L; Ramirez, A

    1999-07-20

    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) using multiple electrodes installed in boreholes has been shown to be useful for both site characterization and process monitoring. In some cases, however, installing multiple downhole electrodes is too costly (e.g., deep targets) or risky (e.g., contaminated sites). For these cases we have examined the possibility of using the steel casings of existing boreholes as electrodes. Several possibilities can be considered. The first case we investigated uses an array of steel casings as electrodes. This results in very few data and thus requires additional constraints to limit the domain of possible inverse solutions. Simulations indicate that the spatial resolution and sensitivity are understandably low but it is possible to coarsely map the lateral extent of subsurface processes such as steam floods. The second case uses an array of traditional point borehole electrodes combined with long-conductor electrodes (steel casings). Although this arrangement provides more data, in many cases it results in poor reconstructions of test targets. Results indicate that this method may hold promise for low resolution imaging where steel casings can be used as electrodes but the merits depend strongly on details of each application. Field tests using these configurations are currently being conducted.

  2. Localizing and tracking electrodes using stereovision in epilepsy cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiaoyao; Ji, Songbai; Roberts, David W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2015-03-01

    In epilepsy cases, subdural electrodes are often implanted to acquire intracranial EEG (iEEG) for seizure localization and resection planning. However, the electrodes may shift significantly between implantation and resection, during the time that the patient is monitored for iEEG recording. As a result, the accuracy of surgical planning based on electrode locations at the time of resection can be compromised. Previous studies have only quantified the electrode shift with respect to the skull, but not with respect to the cortical surface, because tracking cortical shift between surgeries is challenging. In this study, we use an intraoperative stereovision (iSV) system to visualize and localize the cortical surface as well as electrodes, record three-dimensional (3D) locations of the electrodes in MR space at the time of implantation and resection, respectively, and quantify the raw displacements, i.e., with respect to the skull. Furthermore, we track the cortical surface and quantify the shift between surgeries using an optical flow (OF) based motion-tracking algorithm. Finally, we compute the electrode shift with respect to the cortical surface by subtracting the cortical shift from raw measured displacements. We illustrate the method using one patient example. In this particular patient case, the results show that the electrodes not only shifted significantly with respect to the skull (8.79 +/- 3.00 mm in the lateral direction, ranging from 2.88 mm to 12.87 mm), but also with respect to the cortical surface (7.20 +/- 3.58 mm), whereas the cortical surface did not shift significantly in the lateral direction between surgeries (2.23 +/- 0.76 mm).

  3. How to Enhance Gas Removal from Porous Electrodes?

    PubMed Central

    Kadyk, Thomas; Bruce, David; Eikerling, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a structure-based modeling approach to optimize gas evolution at an electrolyte-flooded porous electrode. By providing hydrophobic islands as preferential nucleation sites on the surface of the electrode, it is possible to nucleate and grow bubbles outside of the pore space, facilitating their release into the electrolyte. Bubbles that grow at preferential nucleation sites act as a sink for dissolved gas produced in electrode reactions, effectively suctioning it from the electrolyte-filled pores. According to the model, high oversaturation is necessary to nucleate bubbles inside of the pores. The high oversaturation allows establishing large concentration gradients in the pores that drive a diffusion flux towards the preferential nucleation sites. This diffusion flux keeps the pores bubble-free, avoiding deactivation of the electrochemically active surface area of the electrode as well as mechanical stress that would otherwise lead to catalyst degradation. The transport regime of the dissolved gas, viz. diffusion control vs. transfer control at the liquid-gas interface, determines the bubble growth law. PMID:28008914

  4. How to Enhance Gas Removal from Porous Electrodes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadyk, Thomas; Bruce, David; Eikerling, Michael

    2016-12-01

    This article presents a structure-based modeling approach to optimize gas evolution at an electrolyte-flooded porous electrode. By providing hydrophobic islands as preferential nucleation sites on the surface of the electrode, it is possible to nucleate and grow bubbles outside of the pore space, facilitating their release into the electrolyte. Bubbles that grow at preferential nucleation sites act as a sink for dissolved gas produced in electrode reactions, effectively suctioning it from the electrolyte-filled pores. According to the model, high oversaturation is necessary to nucleate bubbles inside of the pores. The high oversaturation allows establishing large concentration gradients in the pores that drive a diffusion flux towards the preferential nucleation sites. This diffusion flux keeps the pores bubble-free, avoiding deactivation of the electrochemically active surface area of the electrode as well as mechanical stress that would otherwise lead to catalyst degradation. The transport regime of the dissolved gas, viz. diffusion control vs. transfer control at the liquid-gas interface, determines the bubble growth law.

  5. Zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    McBreen, J.

    1995-12-31

    The zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte is unusual in that supersaturated zincate solutions can form during discharge and spongy or mossy zinc deposits can form on charge at low overvoltages. The effect of additives on regular pasted ZnO electrodes and calcium zincate electrodes is discussed. The paper also reports on in situ x-ray absorption (XAS) results on mossy zinc deposits.

  6. Characterization of nanoporous gold electrodes for bioelectrochemical applications.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Micheál D; Salaj-Kosla, Urszula; Belochapkine, Serguei; MacAodha, Domhnall; Leech, Dónal; Ding, Yi; Magner, Edmond

    2012-01-31

    The high surface areas of nanostructured electrodes can provide for significantly enhanced surface loadings of electroactive materials. The fabrication and characterization of nanoporous gold (np-Au) substrates as electrodes for bioelectrochemical applications is described. Robust np-Au electrodes were prepared by sputtering a gold-silver alloy onto a glass support and subsequent dealloying of the silver component. Alloy layers were prepared with either a uniform or nonuniform distribution of silver and, post dealloying, showed clear differences in morphology on characterization with scanning electron microscopy. Redox reactions under kinetic control, in particular measurement of the charge required to strip a gold oxide layer, provided the most accurate measurements of the total electrochemically addressable electrode surface area, A(real). Values of A(real) up to 28 times that of the geometric electrode surface area, A(geo), were obtained. For diffusion-controlled reactions, overlapping diffusion zones between adjacent nanopores established limiting semi-infinite linear diffusion fields where the maximum current density was dependent on A(geo). The importance of measuring the surface area available for the immobilization was determined using the redox protein, cyt c. The area accessible to modification by a biological macromolecule, A(macro), such as cyt c was reduced by up to 40% compared to A(real), demonstrating that the confines of some nanopores were inaccessible to large macromolecules due to steric hindrances. Preliminary studies on the preparation of np-Au electrodes modified with osmium redox polymer hydrogels and Myrothecium verrucaria bilirubin oxidase (MvBOD) as a biocathode were performed; current densities of 500 μA cm(-2) were obtained in unstirred solutions.

  7. Inhomogeneous longitudinal distribution of Ni atoms on graphene induced by layer-number-dependent internal diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, M.; Tashima, K.; Kotsugi, M.; Ohkochi, T.; Suemitsu, M.; Fukidome, H.

    2016-09-01

    The intrinsic transport properties, such as carrier mobility and saturation velocity, of graphene are the highest among materials owing to its linear band dispersion and weak backscattering. However, the reported field-effect mobility of transistors using graphene as a channel is much lower than the intrinsic channel mobility. One of the reasons for this low mobility is the high contact resistance between graphene and metals used for the source and drain electrodes, which results from the interfacial roughness. Even Ni, which is a promising contact metal for many materials because of its high adhesion and lower contact resistance, does not meet the requirement as a contact metal for graphene. Noticing that the interfacial roughness between the a metal and graphene is strongly related to the onset of the contact resistance, we performed transmission electron microscopy and photoemission electron microscopy measurements to evaluate the microscopic lateral and longitudinal distributions of Ni atoms at the Ni/graphene interface formed on epitaxial graphene (EG) on 4H-SiC(0001). Our data revealed that the deposited Ni atoms diffused into the EG layers, but they did not reach the EG/SiC interface, and the diffusion was stronger on bilayered graphene than on monolayered graphene. We thus ascribe the layer-number-dependent internal diffusion of Ni atoms in EG as a cause of the microscopic interfacial roughness between graphene and the metal. Ensuring homogeneous distribution of the number of EG layers should be key to lowering the contact resistance.

  8. Lateral Attitude Change.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Tina; Dickel, Nina; Liersch, Benjamin; Rees, Jonas; Süssenbach, Philipp; Bohner, Gerd

    2015-08-01

    The authors propose a framework distinguishing two types of lateral attitude change (LAC): (a) generalization effects, where attitude change toward a focal object transfers to related objects, and (b) displacement effects, where only related attitudes change but the focal attitude does not change. They bring together examples of LAC from various domains of research, outline the conditions and underlying processes of each type of LAC, and develop a theoretical framework that enables researchers to study LAC more systematically in the future. Compared with established theories of attitude change, the LAC framework focuses on lateral instead of focal attitude change and encompasses both generalization and displacement. Novel predictions and designs for studying LAC are presented.

  9. Lateral flow assays

    PubMed Central

    Koczula, Katarzyna M.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral flow assays (LFAs) are the technology behind low-cost, simple, rapid and portable detection devices popular in biomedicine, agriculture, food and environmental sciences. This review presents an overview of the principle of the method and the critical components of the assay, focusing on lateral flow immunoassays. This type of assay has recently attracted considerable interest because of its potential to provide instantaneous diagnosis directly to patients. The range and interpretation of results and parameters used for evaluation of the assay will also be discussed. The main advantages and disadvantages of LFAs will be summarized and relevant future improvements to testing devices and strategies will be proposed. Finally, the major recent advances and future diagnostic applications in the LFA field will be explored. PMID:27365041

  10. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Malik, Rabia; Lui, Andrew; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting 20,000 to 30,000 people in the United States. The mainstay of care of patients affected by this disease is supportive and given the multifaceted nature of their needs is provided most efficiently through multidisciplinary clinics that have shown to prolong survival and improve quality of life. The authors discuss in detail evidence-based management of individuals affected by this condition.

  11. Conjugal amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Dewitt, John D.; Kwon, Julia; Burton, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disease characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the motor cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord. The incidence of sporadic ALS is 1.5 to 2.7 in 100,000, and the prevalence is 5.2 to 6.0 in 100,000. Conjugal ALS is even rarer than sporadic ALS. We report a case of conjugal ALS encountered in our outpatient neurology clinic. PMID:22275781

  12. Lateral Elbow Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bhabra, Gev; Wang, Allan; Ebert, Jay R.; Edwards, Peter; Zheng, Monica; Zheng, Ming H.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral elbow tendinopathy, commonly known as tennis elbow, is a condition that can cause significant functional impairment in working-age patients. The term tendinopathy is used to describe chronic overuse tendon disorders encompassing a group of pathologies, a spectrum of disease. This review details the pathophysiology of tendinopathy and tendon healing as an introduction for a system grading the severity of tendinopathy, with each of the 4 grades displaying distinct histopathological features. Currently, there are a large number of nonoperative treatments available for lateral elbow tendinopathy, with little guidance as to when and how to use them. In fact, an appraisal of the clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses studying these treatment modalities reveals that no single treatment reliably achieves outstanding results. This may be due in part to the majority of clinical studies to date including all patients with chronic tendinopathy rather than attempting to categorize patients according to the severity of disease. We relate the pathophysiology of the different grades of tendinopathy to the basic science principles that underpin the mechanisms of action of the nonoperative treatments available to propose a treatment algorithm guiding the management of lateral elbow tendinopathy depending on severity. We believe that this system will be useful both in clinical practice and for the future investigation of the efficacy of treatments. PMID:27833925

  13. Hemispheric lateralization in reasoning.

    PubMed

    Turner, Benjamin O; Marinsek, Nicole; Ryhal, Emily; Miller, Michael B

    2015-11-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that reasoning in humans relies on a number of related processes whose neural loci are largely lateralized to one hemisphere or the other. A recent review of this evidence concluded that the patterns of lateralization observed are organized according to two complementary tendencies. The left hemisphere attempts to reduce uncertainty by drawing inferences or creating explanations, even at the cost of ignoring conflicting evidence or generating implausible explanations. Conversely, the right hemisphere aims to reduce conflict by rejecting or refining explanations that are no longer tenable in the face of new evidence. In healthy adults, the hemispheres work together to achieve a balance between certainty and consistency, and a wealth of neuropsychological research supports the notion that upsetting this balance results in various failures in reasoning, including delusions. However, support for this model from the neuroimaging literature is mixed. Here, we examine the evidence for this framework from multiple research domains, including an activation likelihood estimation analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of reasoning. Our results suggest a need to either revise this model as it applies to healthy adults or to develop better tools for assessing lateralization in these individuals.

  14. Hydrogenase electrodes for fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Karyakin, A A; Morozov, S V; Karyakina, E E; Zorin, N A; Perelygin, V V; Cosnier, S

    2005-02-01

    Considering crucial problems that limit use of platinum-based fuel cells, i.e. cost and availability, poisoning by fuel impurities and low selectivity, we propose electrocatalysis by enzymes as a valuable alternative to noble metals. Hydrogenase electrodes in neutral media achieve hydrogen equilibrium potential (providing 100% energy conversion), and display high activity in H(2) electrooxidation, which is similar to that of Pt-based electrodes in sulphuric acid. In contrast with platinum, enzyme electrodes are highly selective for their substrates, and are not poisoned by fuel impurities. Hydrogenase electrodes are capable of consuming hydrogen directly from microbial media, which ensures their use as fuel electrodes in treatment of organic wastes.

  15. Catalyzed enzyme electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Wilson, Mahlon S.; Rishpon, Judith; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    1993-01-01

    An enzyme electrode is prepared with a composite coating on an electrical conductor. The composite coating is formed from a casting solution of a perfluorosulfonic acid polymer, an enzyme, and a carbon supported catalyst. The solution may be cast directly on the conductor surface or may be formed as a membrane and applied to the surface. The perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer formed from the casting solution provides an insoluble biocompatible protective matrix for the enzyme and acts to retain the enzyme for long term availability in the electrode structure. The carbon supported catalyst provides catalytic sites throughout the layer for the oxidation of hydrogen peroxide from the enzyme reactions. The carbon support then provides a conductive path for establishing an electrical signal to the electrical conductor. In one embodiment, the electrical conductor is a carbon cloth that permits oxygen or other gas to be introduced to the perfluorosulfonic polymer to promote the enzyme reaction independent of oxygen in the solution being tested.

  16. Inert electrode connection

    SciTech Connect

    Weyand, John D.; Woods, Robert W.; DeYoung, David H.; Ray, Siba P.

    1985-01-01

    An inert electrode connection is disclosed wherein a layer of inert electrode material is bonded to a layer of conductive material by providing at least one intermediate layer of material therebetween comprising a predetermined ratio of inert material to conductive material. In a preferred embodiment, the connection is formed by placing in a die a layer of powdered inert material, at least one layer of a mixture of powdered inert material and conductive material, and a layer of powdered conductive material. The connection is then formed by pressing the material at 15,000-20,000 psi to form a powder compact and then densifying the powder compact in an inert or reducing atmosphere at a temperature of 1200.degree.-1500.degree. C.

  17. Inert electrode connection

    DOEpatents

    Weyand, J.D.; Woods, R.W.; DeYoung, D.H.; Ray, S.P.

    1985-02-19

    An inert electrode connection is disclosed wherein a layer of inert electrode material is bonded to a layer of conductive material by providing at least one intermediate layer of material therebetween comprising a predetermined ratio of inert material to conductive material. In a preferred embodiment, the connection is formed by placing in a die a layer of powdered inert material, at least one layer of a mixture of powdered inert material and conductive material, and a layer of powdered conductive material. The connection is then formed by pressing the material at 15,000--20,000 psi to form a powder compact and then densifying the powder compact in an inert or reducing atmosphere at a temperature of 1,200--1,500 C. 5 figs.

  18. Long life reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Yonco, R.M.; Nagy, Z.

    1987-07-30

    An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservoir and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved. 2 figs.

  19. Long life reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Yonco, R.M.; Nagy, Z.

    1989-04-04

    An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservoir and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved. 2 figs.

  20. Long life reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Yonco, Robert M.; Nagy, Zoltan

    1989-01-01

    An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservior and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved.

  1. Magnetohydrodynamic generator electrode

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, David D.; Killpatrick, Don H.; Herman, Harold; Kuczen, Kenneth D.

    1979-01-01

    An improved electrode for use as a current collector in the channel of a magnetohydrodynamid (MHD) generator utilizes an elongated monolithic cap of dense refractory material compliantly mounted to the MHD channel frame for collecting the current. The cap has a central longitudinal channel which contains a first layer of porous refractory ceramic as a high-temperature current leadout from the cap and a second layer of resilient wire mesh in contact with the first layer as a low-temperature current leadout between the first layer and the frame. Also described is a monolithic ceramic insulator compliantly mounted to the frame parallel to the electrode by a plurality of flexible metal strips.

  2. Electrocatalysts for bifunctional oxygen/air electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolova, V.; Iliev, P.; Petrov, K.; Vitanov, T.; Zhecheva, E.; Stoyanova, R.; Valov, I.; Stoychev, D.

    Oxygen reduction and evolution have been studied with respect to the development of bifunctional air/oxygen electrode (BFE). Three groups of catalysts have been prepared: (i) Cu xCo 3- xO 4 by thermal decomposition of mixed nitrate and carbonate precursors; (ii) thin films of Co-Ni-Te-O and Co-Te-O were deposited by vacuum co-evaporation of Co, Ni and TeO 2 and (iii) Co xO v/ZrO 2 films were obtained by electrochemical deposition. The electrochemical behavior of the chemically synthesized catalysts was studied on classical bilayered gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs), where the catalyst is in form of powder. The GDE catalyzed with vacuum deposited catalysts was prepared by direct deposition of the catalyst on gas-supplying layer, thus creating a ready-to-use gas diffusion electrode. Catalysts prepared electrochemically were first deposited on Ni foam and than pressed onto the gas-supplying layer. Different catalysts deposited on classical and originally designed GDEs were compared by their electrochemical performances. Cu 0.3Co 2.7O 4 deposited on a classical bilayered GDE with loading of 50 mg cm -2 exhibits stable current-voltage characteristics after 200 charge-discharge cycles in a real metal hydride-air battery. The electrochemically and vacuum deposited Co xO v/ZrO 2, Co-Ni-Te-O and Co-Te-O films exhibit much higher mass activity compared to Cu 0.2Co 2.8O 4 for both oxygen reduction and evolution reactions. The difference is that the loading of electrochemically and vacuum deposited films is 0.06 mg cm -2 only, which is a substantial advantage from a practical viewpoint.

  3. Nickel anode electrode

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Prabhakar; Benedict, Mark

    1987-01-01

    A nickel anode electrode fabricated by oxidizing a nickel alloying material to produce a material whose exterior contains nickel oxide and whose interior contains nickel metal throughout which is dispersed the oxide of the alloying material and by reducing and sintering the oxidized material to form a product having a nickel metal exterior and an interior containing nickel metal throughout which is dispersed the oxide of the alloying material.

  4. Electrocatalysts for oxygen electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Yeager, E.B. )

    1991-10-01

    The objectives of the research were: to develop further understanding of the factors controlling O{sub 2} reduction and generation on various electrocatalysts, including transition metal macrocycles and oxides: to use this understanding to identify and develop much higher activity catalysts, both monofunction and bifunction; and to establish how catalytic activity for a given O{sub 2} electrocatalyst depends on catalyst-support interactions and to identify stable catalyst supports for bifunctional electrodes.

  5. Membrane reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.; Bloom, I.D.

    1988-01-21

    A reference electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a reference material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured, with high spatial resolution. 2 figs.

  6. Membrane reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo; Bloom, Ira D.

    1989-01-01

    A reference electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a reference material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured with high spatial resolution.

  7. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Glenn, D.F.; Suciu, D.F.; Harris, T.L.; Ingram, J.C.

    1993-04-06

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  8. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Glenn, David F.; Suciu, Dan F.; Harris, Taryl L.; Ingram, Jani C.

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  9. Fuel cell oxygen electrode

    DOEpatents

    Shanks, H.R.; Bevolo, A.J.; Danielson, G.C.; Weber, M.F.

    An oxygen electrode for a fuel cell utilizing an acid electrolyte has a substrate of an alkali metal tungsten bronze of the formula: A/sub x/WO/sub 3/ where A is an alkali metal and x is at least 0.2, which is covered with a thin layer of platinum tungsten bronze of the formula: Pt/sub y/WO/sub 3/ where y is at least 0.8.

  10. Fuel cell oxygen electrode

    DOEpatents

    Shanks, Howard R.; Bevolo, Albert J.; Danielson, Gordon C.; Weber, Michael F.

    1980-11-04

    An oxygen electrode for a fuel cell utilizing an acid electrolyte has a substrate of an alkali metal tungsten bronze of the formula: A.sub.x WO.sub.3 where A is an alkali metal and x is at least 0.2, which is covered with a thin layer of platinum tungsten bronze of the formula: Pt.sub.y WO.sub.3 where y is at least 0.8.

  11. Electrostatic Levitator Electrode Layout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Schematic of Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) electrodes and controls system. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

  12. Electrode array for neural stimulation

    DOEpatents

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.; Okandan, Murat; Stein, David J.; Yang, Pin; Cesarano, III, Joseph; Dellinger, Jennifer

    2011-08-16

    An electrode array for neural stimulation is disclosed which has particular applications for use in a retinal prosthesis. The electrode array can be formed as a hermetically-sealed two-part ceramic package which includes an electronic circuit such as a demultiplexer circuit encapsulated therein. A relatively large number (up to 1000 or more) of individually-addressable electrodes are provided on a curved surface of a ceramic base portion the electrode array, while a much smaller number of electrical connections are provided on a ceramic lid of the electrode array. The base and lid can be attached using a metal-to-metal seal formed by laser brazing. Electrical connections to the electrode array can be provided by a flexible ribbon cable which can also be used to secure the electrode array in place.

  13. Transparent electrode for optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Goldhar, Julius; Henesian, Mark A.

    1986-01-01

    A low pressure gas electrode utilizing ionized gas in a glow discharge regime forms a transparent electrode for electro-optical switches. The transparent electrode comprises a low pressure gas region on both sides of the crystal. When the gas is ionized, e.g., by a glow discharge in the low pressure gas, the plasma formed is a good conductor. The gas electrode acts as a highly uniform conducting electrode. Since the plasma is transparent to a high energy laser beam passing through the crystal, the electrode is a transparent electrode. A crystal exposed from two sides to such a plasma can be charged up uniformly to any desired voltage. The plasma can be created either by the main high voltage pulser used to charge up the crystal or by auxiliary discharges or external sources of ionization. A typical configuration utilizes 10 torr argon in the discharge region adjacent to each crystal face.

  14. Shielded capacitive electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kireeff Covo, Michel

    2013-07-09

    A device is described, which is sensitive to electric fields, but is insensitive to stray electrons/ions and unlike a bare, exposed conductor, it measures capacitively coupled current while rejecting currents due to charged particle collected or emitted. A charged particle beam establishes an electric field inside the beam pipe. A grounded metallic box with an aperture is placed in a drift region near the beam tube radius. The produced electric field that crosses the aperture generates a fringe field that terminates in the back surface of the front of the box and induces an image charge. An electrode is placed inside the grounded box and near the aperture, where the fringe fields terminate, in order to couple with the beam. The electrode is negatively biased to suppress collection of electrons and is protected behind the front of the box, so the beam halo cannot directly hit the electrode and produce electrons. The measured signal shows the net potential (positive ion beam plus negative electrons) variation with time, as it shall be observed from the beam pipe wall.

  15. Carbon cloth supported electrode

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Wen-Tong P.; Ammon, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    A flow-by anode is disclosed made by preparing a liquid suspension of about to about 18% by weight solids, the solids comprising about 3.5 to about 8% of a powdered catalyst of platinum, palladium, palladium oxide, or mixtures thereof; about 60 to about 76% carbon powder (support) having a particle size less than about 20 m.mu.m and about 20 to about 33% of an inert binder having a particle size of less than about 500 m.mu.m. A sufficient amount of the suspension is poured over a carbon cloth to form a layer of solids about 0.01 to about 0.05 cm thick on the carbon cloth when the electrode is completed. A vacuum was applied to the opposite side of the carbon cloth to remove the liquid and the catalyst layer/cloth assembly is dried and compressed at about 10 to about 50 MPa's. The binder is then sintered in an inert atmosphere to complete the electrode. The electrode is used for the oxidation of sulfur dioxide in a sulfur based hybrid cycle for the decomposition of water.

  16. Unitary plate electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor); Clough, Thomas J. (Inventor); Josefowicz, Jack Y. (Inventor); Sibert, John W. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    The unitary electrode (10) comprises a porous sheet (12) of fiberglass the strands (14) of which contain a coating (16) of conductive tin oxide. The lower portion of the sheet contains a layer (18) of resin and the upper layer (20) contains lead dioxide forming a positive active electrode on an electrolyte-impervious layer. The strands (14) form a continuous conduction path through both layers (16, 18). Tin oxide is prevented from reduction by coating the surface of the plate facing the negative electrode with a conductive, impervious layer resistant to reduction such as a thin film (130) of lead or graphite filled resin adhered to the plate with a layer (31) of conductive adhesive. The plate (10) can be formed by casting a molten resin from kettle (60) onto a sheet of glass wool (56) overlying a sheet of lead foil and then applying positive active paste from hopper (64) into the upper layer (68). The plate can also be formed by passing an assembly of a sheet ( 80) of resin, a sheet (86) of sintered glass and a sheet (90) of lead between the nip (92) of heated rollers (93, 95) and then filling lead oxide into the pores (116) of the upper layer (118).

  17. Electrochemical impedance measurement of a carbon nanotube probe electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaba, Akira; Takei, Yusuke; Kan, Tetsuo; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao

    2012-12-01

    We measured and analyzed the electrochemical impedance of carbon nanotube (CNT) probe electrodes fabricated through the physical separation of insulated CNT bridges. The fabricated CNT electrodes were free-standing CNTs that were completely covered with an insulator, except for their tips. Typical dimensions of the nanoelectrodes were 1-10 nm in CNT diameter, 80-300 nm in insulator diameter, 0.5-4 μm in exposed CNT length and 1-10 μm in probe length. The electrochemical impedance at frequencies ranging from 40 Hz to 1 MHz was measured in physiological saline. The measured impedance of the CNT electrode was constant at 32 MΩ at frequencies below 1 kHz and was inversely proportional to frequency at frequencies above 10 kHz. By means of comparison with the parasitic capacitive impedance of the insulator membrane, we confirmed that the electrode was sufficiently insulated such that the measured constant impedance was given by the exposed CNT tip. Consequently, we can use the CNT electrode for highly localized electrochemical impedance measurements below 1 kHz. Considering an equivalent circuit and the nanoscopic dimensions of the CNT electrode, we demonstrated that the constant impedance was governed by diffusion impedance, whereas the solution resistance, charge-transfer resistance and double-layer capacitance were negligible.

  18. Engineering the Electrode-Electrolyte Interface: From Electrode Architecture to Zinc Redox in Ionic Liquid Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engstrom, Erika

    2011-12-01

    The electrode-electrolyte interface in electrochemical environments involves the understanding of complex processes relevant for all electrochemical applications. Some of these processes include electronic structure, charge storage, charge transfer, solvent dynamics and structure and surface adsorption. In order to engineer electrochemical systems, no matter the function, requires fundamental intuition of all the processes at the interface. The following work presents different systems in which the electrode-electrolyte interface is highly important. The first is a charge storage electrode utilizing percolation theory to develop an electrode architecture producing high capacities. This is followed by Zn deposition in an ionic liquid in which the deposition morphology is highly dependant on the charge transfer and surface adsorption at the interface. Electrode Architecture: A three-dimensional manganese oxide supercapacitor electrode architecture is synthesized by leveraging percolation theory to develop a hierarchically designed tri-continuous percolated network. The three percolated phases include a faradaically-active material, electrically conductive material and pore-former templated void space. The micropores create pathways for ionic conductivity, while the nanoscale electrically conducting phase provides both bulk conductivity and local electron transfer with the electrochemically active phase. Zn Electrodeposition: Zn redox in air and water stable N-ethyl-N-methylmorpholinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [C2nmm][NTf2] is presented. Under various conditions, characterization of overpotential, kinetics and diffusion of Zn species and morphological evolution as a function of overpotential and Zn concentration are analyzed. The surface stress evolution during Zn deposition is examined where grain size and texturing play significant rolls in compressive stress generation. Morphological repeatability in the ILs led to a novel study of purity in ionic

  19. Development And Testing Of The Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Diffusion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becnel, Mark D.; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2013-01-01

    The Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) diffusion thruster is an experiment in active development that takes advantage of physical phenomenon that occurs during operation of an IEC device. The IEC device has been proposed as a fusion reactor design that relies on traditional electrostatic ion acceleration and is typically arranged in a spherical geometry. The design incorporates two radially-symmetric spherical electrodes. Often the inner electrode utilizes a grid of wire shaped in a sphere with a radius 15 to 50 percent of the radius of the outer electrode. The inner electrode traditionally has 90 percent or more transparency to allow particles (ions) to pass to the center of the spheres and collide/recombine in the dense plasma core at r=0. When operating the IEC, an unsteady plasma leak is typically observed passing out one of the gaps in the lattice grid of the inner electrode. The IED diffusion thruster is based upon the idea that this plasma leak can be used for propulsive purposes. The IEC diffusion thruster utilizes the radial symmetry found in the IEC device. A cylindrical configuration is employed here as it will produce a dense core of plasma the length of the cylindrical grid while promoting the plasma leak to exhaust through an electromagnetic nozzle at one end of the apparatus. A proof-of-concept IEC diffusion thruster is operational and under testing using argon as propellant (Figure 1).

  20. Diamond heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Y. -H.; Bi, B.; Golding, B.

    2015-02-24

    A method of diamond heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth is demonstrated which utilizes a photolithographic metal mask to pattern a thin (001) epitaxial diamond surface. Significant structural improvement was found, with a threading dislocation density reduced by two orders of magnitude at the top surface of a thick overgrown diamond layer. In the initial stage of overgrowth, a reduction of diamond Raman linewidth in the overgrown area was also realized. Thermally-induced stress and internal stress were determined by Raman spectroscopy of adhering and delaminated diamond films. As a result, the internal stress is found to decrease as sample thickness increases.

  1. Silicon ohmic lateral-contact MEMS switch for RF applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogozhin, A.; Miakonkikh, A.; Tatarintsev, A.; Lebedev, K.; Kalnov, V.; Rudenko, K.; Lukichev, V.

    2016-12-01

    Application variety and huge potential market of RF MEMS switches guarantee relentless research interest to the field. There are lots of different types of MEMS switches. Direct contact MEMS switches are simplifier for integration than capacitive MEMS switches. Lateral technology considerably simplifies the formation process. The objective of this research is to estimate characteristics of the simple direct-contact lateral MEMS switch and to understand the improvement directions. The MEMS switches were fabricated on the SOI wafers by e-beam lithography, dry etching and wet HF-etching. E-beam lithography and dry etching were used to form the cantilever and electrodes on the buried oxide layer. The structure with two control electrodes was used. IV characteristics were measured by Keithley 4200-SCS. The distance between cantilever and control electrodes was 100 nm. From the obtained IV characteristics it is clear that the devices switches at about 60 V. High control voltage could be explained by the large distance between cantilever and control electrode, and high rigidity of the cantilever. Following simulation in COMSOL Multiphysics showed that the control voltage could be decreased to 20-30 V by adding of spring element to the cantilever and device geometry modification.

  2. Microfluidic electrochemical device and process for chemical imaging and electrochemical analysis at the electrode-liquid interface in-situ

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Bingwen; Yang, Li; Zhu, Zihua; Marshall, Matthew J.

    2016-03-01

    A microfluidic electrochemical device and process are detailed that provide chemical imaging and electrochemical analysis under vacuum at the surface of the electrode-sample or electrode-liquid interface in-situ. The electrochemical device allows investigation of various surface layers including diffuse layers at selected depths populated with, e.g., adsorbed molecules in which chemical transformation in electrolyte solutions occurs.

  3. Biphasic cell responses on laterally mobile films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourouklis, Andreas; Lerum, Ronald; Bermudez, Harry

    2013-03-01

    The engineering of polymer surfaces or matrices that are capable of controlling cell adhesion has been widely explored. In nearly all of these works, the polymer chains (and ligands) are chemically attached to the underlying substrate, and therefore these systems are inherently static. By contrast, cellular environments such as the extracellular matrix (ECM) are dynamic and remodeled by biochemical reactions and biophysical forces. Borrowing this concept from Nature, we created polymer films by an interfacial self-assembly process, whereby individual chains can exhibit lateral mobility (in-plane diffusive motion). NIH 3T3 fibroblasts seeded on such RGD-presenting polymer films show biphasic responses in spreading and adhesion strength to lateral mobility, with a minimal response for intermediate mobility values. Futhermore, preliminary immuno-staining experiments reveal that the total area of focal adhesions demonstrates a similar biphasic trend to the cellular-scale behaviors. In contrast, actin filaments or stress fibers appear to be unaffected by the substrate lateral mobility. These results show that lateral mobility is an important, although not fully explored aspect of mechano-sensing by cells, and can potentially give new perspectives on cell-ECM interactions. National Science Foundation

  4. Rescue pallidotomy for dystonia through implanted deep brain stimulation electrode

    PubMed Central

    Blomstedt, Patric; Taira, Takaomi; Hariz, Marwan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Some patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS), where removal of implants is indicated due to hardware related infections, are not candidates for later re-implantation. In these patients a rescue lesion through the DBS electrode has been suggested as an option. In this case report we present a patient where a pallidotomy was performed using the DBS electrode. Case Description: An elderly woman with bilateral Gpi DBS suffered an infection around the left burr hole involving the DBS electrode. A unilateral lesion was performed through the DBS electrode before it was removed. No side effects were encountered. Burke-Fahn-Marsden (BFM) dystonia movement scale score was 39 before DBS. With DBS before lesioning BFM score was 2.5 points. The replacement of the left sided stimulation with a pallidotomy resulted in only a minor deterioration of the score to 5 points. Conclusions: In the case presented here a small pallidotomy performed with the DBS electrode provided a satisfactory effect on the patient's dystonic symptoms. Thus, rescue lesions through the DBS electrodes, although off-label, might be considered in patients with Gpi DBS for dystonia when indicated. PMID:27990311

  5. Creativity in later life.

    PubMed

    Price, K A; Tinker, A M

    2014-08-01

    The ageing population presents significant challenges for the provision of social and health services. Strategies are needed to enable older people to cope within a society ill prepared for the impacts of these demographic changes. The ability to be creative may be one such strategy. This review outlines the relevant literature and examines current public health policy related to creativity in old age with the aim of highlighting some important issues. As well as looking at the benefits and negative aspects of creative activity in later life they are considered in the context of the theory of "successful ageing". Creative activity plays an important role in the lives of older people promoting social interaction, providing cognitive stimulation and giving a sense of self-worth. Furthermore, it is shown to be useful as a tool in the multi-disciplinary treatment of health problems common in later life such as depression and dementia. There are a number of initiatives to encourage older people to participate in creative activities such as arts-based projects which may range from visual arts to dance to music to intergenerational initiatives. However, participation shows geographical variation and often the responsibility of provision falls to voluntary organisations. Overall, the literature presented suggests that creative activity could be a useful tool for individuals and society. However, further research is needed to establish the key factors which contribute to patterns of improved health and well-being, as well as to explore ways to improve access to services.

  6. Diffusion archeology for diffusion progression history reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Sefer, Emre; Kingsford, Carl

    2016-11-01

    Diffusion through graphs can be used to model many real-world processes, such as the spread of diseases, social network memes, computer viruses, or water contaminants. Often, a real-world diffusion cannot be directly observed while it is occurring - perhaps it is not noticed until some time has passed, continuous monitoring is too costly, or privacy concerns limit data access. This leads to the need to reconstruct how the present state of the diffusion came to be from partial diffusion data. Here, we tackle the problem of reconstructing a diffusion history from one or more snapshots of the diffusion state. This ability can be invaluable to learn when certain computer nodes are infected or which people are the initial disease spreaders to control future diffusions. We formulate this problem over discrete-time SEIRS-type diffusion models in terms of maximum likelihood. We design methods that are based on submodularity and a novel prize-collecting dominating-set vertex cover (PCDSVC) relaxation that can identify likely diffusion steps with some provable performance guarantees. Our methods are the first to be able to reconstruct complete diffusion histories accurately in real and simulated situations. As a special case, they can also identify the initial spreaders better than the existing methods for that problem. Our results for both meme and contaminant diffusion show that the partial diffusion data problem can be overcome with proper modeling and methods, and that hidden temporal characteristics of diffusion can be predicted from limited data.

  7. Towards superlattices: Lateral bipolar multibarriers in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drienovsky, Martin; Schrettenbrunner, Franz-Xaver; Sandner, Andreas; Weiss, Dieter; Eroms, Jonathan; Liu, Ming-Hao; Tkatschenko, Fedor; Richter, Klaus

    2014-03-01

    We report on transport properties of monolayer graphene with a laterally modulated potential profile, employing striped top gate electrodes with spacings of 100 to 200 nm. Tuning of top and back gate voltages gives rise to local charge carrier density disparities, enabling the investigation of transport properties either in the unipolar (nn') or the bipolar (np ') regime. In the latter, pronounced single- and multibarrier Fabry-Pérot (FP) resonances occur. We present measurements of different devices with different numbers of top gate stripes and spacings. The data are highly consistent with a phase coherent ballistic tight-binding calculation and quantum capacitance model, whereas a superlattice effect and modification of band structure can be excluded.

  8. Digital simulation of chronoamperometry at an electrode within a hemispherical polymer drop containing an enzyme: comparison of a hemispherical with a flat disk electrode.

    PubMed

    Britz, Dieter; Strutwolf, Jörg

    2013-12-15

    Current-time and steady state current behaviour was simulated for the cases of a hemispherical and flat inlaid disk electrodes located under a hemispherical polymer drop containing an enzyme which converts a substrate diffusing into the drop into a product that is electroactive at the electrode. As well, a cylindrical electrode with length much greater than its diameter and coated with a layer of polymer/enzyme was treated. The ratio of steady state currents at the hemispherical to the disk electrode is not, as has sometimes been assumed, always equal to π/2; indeed this is only approached for polymer drops with large spillover ratio, that is, having a radius much larger than that of the electrodes. Steady state currents for all electrode geometries (including the cylinder) go through a maximum for some spillover ratio and then approach a constant value for larger spillover ratios. This constant value is the same as that for the diffusion limited current in a semi-infinite medium. For a cylindrical electrode, the steady state current tends towards zero for large spillover ratios.

  9. Composite lateral electric field excited piezoelectric resonator.

    PubMed

    Zaitsev, B D; Shikhabudinov, A M; Borodina, I A; Teplykh, A A; Kuznetsova, I E

    2017-01-01

    The novel method of suppression of parasitic oscillations in lateral electric field excited piezoelectric resonator is suggested. Traditionally such resonator represents the piezoelectric plate with two electrodes on one side of the plate. The crystallographic orientation of the plate is selected so that the tangential components of electric field excite bulk acoustic wave with given polarization travelling along the normal to the plate sides. However at that the normal components of field excite the parasitic Lamb waves and bulk waves of other polarization which deteriorate the resonant properties of the resonator. In this work we suggest to separate the source of the HF electric field and resounded piezoelectric plate by air gap. In this case the tangential components of the field in piezoelectric plate do not practically weaken but normal components significantly decrease. This method is realized on the composite resonator having the structure "glass plate with rectangular electrodes - air gap - plate of 128 Y-X lithium niobate." It has been shown that there exist the optimal value of the width gap which ensure the good quality of series and parallel resonances in frequency range 3-4MHz with record values of Q-factor of ∼15,000 in both cases.

  10. An electrochemical double layer capacitor using an activated carbon electrode with gel electrolyte binder

    SciTech Connect

    Osaka, Tetsuya, Liu, X.; Nojima, Masashi; Momma, Toshiyuki

    1999-05-01

    An electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) was prepared with an activated carbon powder electrode with poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) based gel electrolyte. Ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC) were used as plasticizer and tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF{sub 4}) was used as the supporting electrolyte. An optimized gel electrolyte of PVdF-HFP/PC/EC/TEABF{sub 4} - 23/31/35/11 mass ratio exhibited high ionic conductivity of 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} S/cm, high electrode capacitance, and good mechanical strength. An electrode consisting of activated carbon (AC) with the gel electrolyte as the binder (AC/PVdF-HFP based gel, 7/3 mass ratio) showed a higher specific capacitance and a lower ion diffusion resistance within the electrode than a carbon electrode, prepared with PVdF-HFP binder without plasticizer. This suggests that an electrode mixed with the gel electrolyte has a lower ion diffusion resistance inside the electrode. The highest specific capacitance of 123 F/g was achieved with an electrode containing AC with a specific surface area of 2500 m{sup 2}/g. A coin-type EDLC cell with optimized components showed excellent cycleability exceeding 10{sup 4} cycles with ca. 100% coulombic efficiency achieved when charging and discharging was repeated between 1.0 and 2.5 V at 1.66 mA/cm{sup 2}.

  11. Cathodic decomposition of propylene carbonate at graphite electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Piao, T.; Doh, C.H.; Moon, S.I.; Park, S.M.

    1997-12-01

    The decomposition reaction of propylene carbonate has been studied at graphite electrode in 1.0 M LiClO{sub 4} employing a variety of transient electrochemical techniques. Results show that the PC decomposition reaction takes place through an EC{prime} (electron transfer followed by catalytic reduction) reaction path. The pseudo first order rate constants of the chemical decomposition step has been determined. The formation of passive films on the electrode surface has been confirmed. The diffusion coefficients at the fresh and the film covered graphite electrodes have been determined to be 8.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} cm{sup 2}/s and 7.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} cm{sup 2}/s, respectively.

  12. Ceramic component for electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, David D.; Bates, J. Lambert

    1980-01-01

    A ceramic component suitable for preparing MHD generator electrodes having the compositional formula: Y.sub.x (Mg.sub.y Cr.sub.z).sub.w Al.sub.(1-w) O.sub.3 where x=0.9 to 1.05, y=0.02 to 0.2, z=0.8 to 1.05 and w=1.0 to 0.5. The component is resistant to the formation of hydration products in an MHD environment, has good electrical conductivity and exhibits a lower electrochemical corrosion rate than do comparable compositions of lanthanum chromite.

  13. Lower lateral crural reverse plasty.

    PubMed

    Kubilay, Utku; Azizli, Elad; Erdoğdu, Suleyman

    2013-11-01

    The lateral crus plays a significant role in the aesthetic appearance of the nose. Excessive concavities of the lower lateral crura can lead to heavy aesthetic disfigurement of the nasal tip and to insufficiencies of the external nasal valve. The lateral crus of the alar cartilage may also cause a concavity of the alar rim and even collapse of the alar rim in severe cases. Surgical techniques performed on the lateral crus help to treat both functional and aesthetic deformities of the lateral nasal tip. We present a reverse plasty technique for the lateral crus, and we evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of the technique.

  14. NIST Diffusion Data Center

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Diffusion Data Center (Web, free access)   The NIST Diffusion Data Center is a collection of over 14,100 international papers, theses, and government reports on diffusion published before 1980.

  15. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    1984-08-07

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  16. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  17. Electrodynamic Arrays Having Nanomaterial Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trigwell, Steven (Inventor); Biris, Alexandru S. (Inventor); Calle, Carlos I. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electrodynamic array of conductive nanomaterial electrodes and a method of making such an electrodynamic array. In one embodiment, a liquid solution containing nanomaterials is deposited as an array of conductive electrodes on a substrate, including rigid or flexible substrates such as fabrics, and opaque or transparent substrates. The nanomaterial electrodes may also be grown in situ. The nanomaterials may include carbon nanomaterials, other organic or inorganic nanomaterials or mixtures.

  18. Low-Noise Implantable Electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, G. F.

    1982-01-01

    New implantable electrocardiogram electrode much less sensitive than previous designs to spurious biological potentials. Designed in novel "pocket" configuration, new electrode is intended as sensor for radiotelemetry of biological parameters in experiments on unrestrained subjects. Electrode is esentially squashed cylinder that admits body fluid into interior. Cylinder and electrical lead are made of stainless steel. Spot welding and crimping are used for assembly, rather than soldering.

  19. Primary Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Statland, Jeffrey M.; Barohn, Richard J.; Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Floeter, Mary Kay; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) is characterized by insidious onset of progressive upper motor neuron dysfunction in the absence of clinical signs of lower motor neuron involvement. Patients experience stiffness, decreased balance and coordination, and mild weakness, and if the bulbar region is affected, difficulty speaking and swallowing, and emotional lability. The diagnosis is made based on clinical history, typical exam findings, and diagnostic testing negative for other causes of upper motor neuron dysfunction. EMG is normal, or only shows mild neurogenic findings in a few muscles, not meeting El Escorial criteria. Although no test is specific for PLS, some neurodiagnostic tests are supportive: including absent or delayed central motor conduction times; and changes in the precentral gyrus or corticospinal tracts on MRI, DTI or MR Spectroscopy. Treatment is largely supportive, and includes medications for spasticity, baclofen pump, and treatment for pseudobulbar affect. The prognosis in PLS is more benign than ALS, making this a useful diagnostic category. PMID:26515619

  20. Lateral Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Donald P.; Butler, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Lateral abdominal wall (LAW) defects can manifest as a flank hernias, myofascial laxity/bulges, or full-thickness defects. These defects are quite different from those in the anterior abdominal wall defects and the complexity and limited surgical options make repairing the LAW a challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. LAW reconstruction requires an understanding of the anatomy, physiologic forces, and the impact of deinnervation injury to design and perform successful reconstructions of hernia, bulge, and full-thickness defects. Reconstructive strategies must be tailored to address the inguinal ligament, retroperitoneum, chest wall, and diaphragm. Operative technique must focus on stabilization of the LAW to nonyielding points of fixation at the anatomic borders of the LAW far beyond the musculofascial borders of the defect itself. Thus, hernias, bulges, and full-thickness defects are approached in a similar fashion. Mesh reinforcement is uniformly required in lateral abdominal wall reconstruction. Inlay mesh placement with overlying myofascial coverage is preferred as a first-line option as is the case in anterior abdominal wall reconstruction. However, interposition bridging repairs are often performed as the surrounding myofascial tissue precludes a dual layered closure. The decision to place bioprosthetic or prosthetic mesh depends on surgeon preference, patient comorbidities, and clinical factors of the repair. Regardless of mesh type, the overlying soft tissue must provide stable cutaneous coverage and obliteration of dead space. In cases where the fasciocutaneous flaps surrounding the defect are inadequate for closure, regional pedicled flaps or free flaps are recruited to achieve stable soft tissue coverage. PMID:23372458

  1. Ultrathin metallic interlayers in vacuum deposited MoOx/metal/MoOx electrodes for organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travkin, V. V.; Luk'yanov, A. Yu.; Drozdov, M. N.; Vopilkin, E. A.; Yunin, P. A.; Pakhomov, G. L.

    2016-12-01

    Eight types of practically important metals were tested as interlayers in MoOx/Metal/MoOx composite electrodes. Ultrathin semitransparent electrodes with a fixed thickness were deposited on glass, using thermal vacuum evaporation, and characterized by various microscopic and X-ray techniques and by mass spectrometry profiling. The optical transmission and sheet resistance of the electrodes were compared as key parameters for photovoltaic applications. We attempted to find correlations between the chemical properties of embedded metals and the structural/conducting properties of composite electrodes. In general, the electrodes with noble metal interlayers feature a better conductivity, whereas their average transparency in the visible and near infrared range is similar to that of electrodes with reactive metals. Diffusion and oxidation processes in composite electrodes were examined by the SIMS depth profiling technique.

  2. FRACTIONAL PEARSON DIFFUSIONS.

    PubMed

    Leonenko, Nikolai N; Meerschaert, Mark M; Sikorskii, Alla

    2013-07-15

    Pearson diffusions are governed by diffusion equations with polynomial coefficients. Fractional Pearson diffusions are governed by the corresponding time-fractional diffusion equation. They are useful for modeling sub-diffusive phenomena, caused by particle sticking and trapping. This paper provides explicit strong solutions for fractional Pearson diffusions, using spectral methods. It also presents stochastic solutions, using a non-Markovian inverse stable time change.

  3. FRACTIONAL PEARSON DIFFUSIONS

    PubMed Central

    Leonenko, Nikolai N.; Meerschaert, Mark M.

    2013-01-01

    Pearson diffusions are governed by diffusion equations with polynomial coefficients. Fractional Pearson diffusions are governed by the corresponding time-fractional diffusion equation. They are useful for modeling sub-diffusive phenomena, caused by particle sticking and trapping. This paper provides explicit strong solutions for fractional Pearson diffusions, using spectral methods. It also presents stochastic solutions, using a non-Markovian inverse stable time change. PMID:23626377

  4. Electrodes for Semiconductor Gas Sensors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Pil

    2017-03-25

    The electrodes of semiconductor gas sensors are important in characterizing sensors based on their sensitivity, selectivity, reversibility, response time, and long-term stability. The types and materials of electrodes used for semiconductor gas sensors are analyzed. In addition, the effect of interfacial zones and surface states of electrode-semiconductor interfaces on their characteristics is studied. This study describes that the gas interaction mechanism of the electrode-semiconductor interfaces should take into account the interfacial zone, surface states, image force, and tunneling effect.

  5. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Zhifeng; Wen, Jian; Chen, Jinghua; Huang, Zhongping; Wang, Dezhi

    2008-10-28

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  6. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Zhifeng; Wen, Jian; Chen, Jinghua; Huang, Zhongping; Wang, Dezhi

    2006-12-12

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  7. Diffusion of glycophorin A in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Giger, Katie; Habib, Ibrahim; Ritchie, Ken; Low, Philip S

    2016-11-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that glycophorin A (GPA) interacts with band 3 in human erythrocyte membranes including: i) the existence of an epitope shared between band 3 and GPA in the Wright b blood group antigen, ii) the fact that antibodies to GPA inhibit the diffusion of band 3, iii) the observation that expression of GPA facilitates trafficking of band 3 from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane, and iv) the observation that GPA is diminished in band 3 null erythrocytes. Surprisingly, there is also evidence that GPA does not interact with band 3, including data showing that: i) band 3 diffusion increases upon erythrocyte deoxygenation whereas GPA diffusion does not, ii) band 3 diffusion is greatly restricted in erythrocytes containing the Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis mutation whereas GPA diffusion is not, and iii) most anti-GPA or anti-band 3 antibodies do not co-immunoprecipitate both proteins. To try to resolve these apparently conflicting observations, we have selectively labeled band 3 and GPA with fluorescent quantum dots in intact erythrocytes and followed their diffusion by single particle tracking. We report here that band 3 and GPA display somewhat similar macroscopic and microscopic diffusion coefficients in unmodified cells, however perturbations of band 3 diffusion do not cause perturbations of GPA diffusion. Taken together the collective data to date suggest that while weak interactions between GPA and band 3 undoubtedly exist, GPA and band 3 must have separate interactions in the membrane that control their lateral mobility.

  8. Influence of implantation on the electrochemical properties of smooth and porous TiN coatings for stimulation electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijs, S.; Sørensen, C.; Sørensen, S.; Rechendorff, K.; Fjorback, M.; Rijkhoff, N. J. M.

    2016-04-01

    Objective. To determine whether changes in electrochemical properties of porous titanium nitride (TiN) electrodes as a function of time after implantation are different from those of smooth TiN electrodes. Approach. Eight smooth and 8 porous TiN coated electrodes were implanted in 8 rats. Before implantation, voltage transients, cyclic voltammograms and impedance spectra were recorded in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). After implantation, these measurements were done weekly to investigate how smooth and porous electrodes were affected by implantation. Main results. The electrode capacitance of the porous TiN electrodes decreased more than the capacitance of the smooth electrodes due to acute implantation under fast measurement conditions (such as stimulation pulses). This indicates that protein adhesion presents a greater diffusion limitation for counter-ions for the porous than for the smooth electrodes. The changes in electrochemical properties during the implanted period were similar for smooth and porous TiN electrodes, indicating that cell adhesion poses a similar diffusion limitation for smooth and porous electrodes. Significance. This knowledge can be used to optimize the porous structure of the TiN film, so that the effect of protein adhesion on the electrochemical properties is diminished. Alternatively, an additional coating could be applied on the porous TiN that would prevent or minimize protein adhesion.

  9. Reflexive Planning for Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Margaret A.; Kemp, Candace L.; French, Susan; Gafni, Amiram; Joshi, Anju; Rosenthal, Carolyn J.; Davies, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    Informed by Giddens' (1991) concept of "reflexive life" planning and the notion of later life as a time of increasing social and financial risk, this research explores the idea of "reflexive planning for later life". We utilize a conceptual model that incorporates three types of planning for later life: public protection, self-insurance, and…

  10. Lateral Thinking and Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waks, Shlomo

    1997-01-01

    Presents an analysis of technology education and its relevance to lateral thinking. Discusses prospects for utilizing technology education as a platform and a contextual domain for nurturing lateral thinking. Argues that technology education is an appropriate environment for developing complementary incorporation of vertical and lateral thinking.…

  11. Lateral Turbulence Intensity and Plume Meandering During Stable Conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, Steven R.

    1983-08-01

    There is much evidence in the literature for the presence of mesoscale lateral meanders in the stable nighttime boundary layer. These meanders result in relatively high lateral turbulence intensities and diffusion rates when averaged over an hour. Anemometer data from 17 overnight experiments at Cinder Cone Butte in Idaho are analyzed to show that the dominant period of the mesoscale meanders is about two hours. Lidar cross-sections of tracer plumes from these same experiments show that the hourly average y is often dominated by meandering. Since meandering is not always observed for given meteorological conditions, it is suggested that nighttime diffusion cannot be accurately predicted without using onsite observations of wind fluctuations. In case no turbulence data are available, an empirical formula is suggested that predicts the hourly average lateral turbulence intensity as a function of wind speed and hour-to-hour variation in wind direction.

  12. NiCd battery electrodes, C-150

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleck, G.; Turchan, M.; Hopkins, J.

    1972-01-01

    Electrodes for a nongassing negative limited nickel-cadmium cell are discussed. The key element is the development of cadmium electrodes with high hydrogen overvoltage. For this, the following electrode structures were manufactured and their physical and electrochemical characteristics were evaluated: (1) silver-sinter-based Cd electrodes, (2) Teflon-bonded Cd electrodes, (3) electrodeposited Cd sponge, and (4) Cd-sinter structures.

  13. Design and characterisation of a thin-film electrode array with shared reference/counter electrodes for electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Uludag, Yildiz; Olcer, Zehra; Sagiroglu, Mahmut Samil

    2014-07-15

    In the current study, a novel electrode array and integrated microfluidics have been designed and characterised in order to create a sensor chip which is not only easy, rapid and cheaper to produce but also have a smaller imprint and good electrochemical sensing properties. The current study includes the assessment of the effects of an Au quasi-reference electrode and the use of shared reference/counter electrodes for the array, in order to obtain a small array that can be produced using a fine metal mask. In the study, it is found that when Au is used as the quasi-reference electrode, the arrays with shared reference and counter electrodes result in faster electron transfer kinetics and prevent the potential change with respect to scan rate, and hence is advantageous with respect to conventional electrodes. In addition, the resulting novel electrode array has been shown to result in higher current density (10.52 µA/cm(2); HRP detection assay) and measured diffusion coefficient (14.40×10(-12) cm(2)/s; calculated from the data of cyclic voltammetry with 1mM potassium ferricyanide) with respect to conventional electrodes tested in the study. Using the new electrode arrays, the detection limits obtained from horse radish peroxidase (HRP) and bisphenol A assays were 12.5 ng/ml (2.84×10(-10) M ) and 10 ng/ml (44×10(-9) M), respectively. Performing the HRP detection assay in a flow injection system using array integrated microfluidics provided 25 times lower detection limit (11.36×10(-12) M), although Ti has been used as electrode material instead of Au. In short, incorporation of this new electrode array to lab-on-a-chip or MEMs (micro-electro mechanic systems) technologies may pave the way for easy to use automated biosensing devices that could be used for a variety of applications from diagnostics to environmental monitoring, and studies will continue to move forward in this direction.

  14. A new mechanism for spatial pattern formation via lateral and protrusion-mediated lateral signalling

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Ginger L.; Baum, Buzz

    2016-01-01

    Tissue organization and patterning are critical during development when genetically identical cells take on different fates. Lateral signalling plays an important role in this process by helping to generate self-organized spatial patterns in an otherwise uniform collection of cells. Recent data suggest that lateral signalling can be mediated both by junctional contacts between neighbouring cells and via cellular protrusions that allow non-neighbouring cells to interact with one another at a distance. However, it remains unclear precisely how signalling mediated by these distinct types of cell–cell contact can physically contribute to the generation of complex patterns without the assistance of diffusible morphogens or pre-patterns. To explore this question, in this work we develop a model of lateral signalling based on a single receptor/ligand pair as exemplified by Notch and Delta. We show that allowing the signalling kinetics to differ at junctional versus protrusion-mediated contacts, an assumption inspired by recent data which show that the cleavage of Notch in several systems requires both Delta binding and the application of mechanical force, permits individual cells to act to promote both lateral activation and lateral inhibition. Strikingly, under this model, in which Delta can sequester Notch, a variety of patterns resembling those typical of reaction–diffusion systems is observed, together with more unusual patterns that arise when we consider changes in signalling kinetics, and in the length and distribution of protrusions. Importantly, these patterns are self-organizing—so that local interactions drive tissue-scale patterning. Together, these data show that protrusions can, in principle, generate different types of patterns in addition to contributing to long-range signalling and to pattern refinement. PMID:27807273

  15. Fabrication Method for Laboratory-Scale High-Performance Membrane Electrode Assemblies for Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Sassin, Megan B; Garsany, Yannick; Gould, Benjamin D; Swider-Lyons, Karen E

    2017-01-03

    Custom catalyst-coated membranes (CCMs) and membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) are necessary for the evaluation of advanced electrocatalysts, gas diffusion media (GDM), ionomers, polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), and electrode structures designed for use in next-generation fuel cells, electrolyzers, or flow batteries. This Feature provides a reliable and reproducible fabrication protocol for laboratory scale (10 cm(2)) fuel cells based on ultrasonic spray deposition of a standard Pt/carbon electrocatalyst directly onto a perfluorosulfonic acid PEM.

  16. Microstructure of room temperature ionic liquids at stepped graphite electrodes

    DOE PAGES

    Feng, Guang; Li, Song; Zhao, Wei; ...

    2015-07-14

    Molecular dynamics simulations of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) [emim][TFSI] at stepped graphite electrodes were performed to investigate the influence of the thickness of the electrode surface step on the microstructure of interfacial RTILs. A strong correlation was observed between the interfacial RTIL structure and the step thickness in electrode surface as well as the ion size. Specifically, when the step thickness is commensurate with ion size, the interfacial layering of cation/anion is more evident; whereas, the layering tends to be less defined when the step thickness is close to the half of ion size. Furthermore, two-dimensional microstructure of ionmore » layers exhibits different patterns and alignments of counter-ion/co-ion lattice at neutral and charged electrodes. As the cation/anion layering could impose considerable effects on ion diffusion, the detailed information of interfacial RTILs at stepped graphite presented here would help to understand the molecular mechanism of RTIL-electrode interfaces in supercapacitors.« less

  17. A two electrode apparatus for electrical impedance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merriam, J. B.

    2009-12-01

    A two electrode cell for complex impedance measurements on core samples in the range 1 mHz - 0.3 kHz is described. Two electrode cells are more convenient than four electrode cells but some restrictions need to be observed. I will show that the contact impedance between the electrodes and the sample can be controlled and reduced to less than fifty ohms in most cases. The contact impedance is repeatable, with a peak phase near 10 Hz of less than one degree and a maximum change in impedance magnitude of less than fifty ohm. A model for the contact impedance is used to correct impedance measurements, leaving an un-modeled contact impedance of a few ohms. There is typically a drift of about 100 ohm during a measurement sequence due to diffusion between the ceramic frits at the ends of the sample. This is corrected by repeat measurements at 100 Hz. Un-modeled impedance changes due to drift are about ten ohm. The un-modeled impedance changes mean that the relative error on conductive samples is greater than on resistive samples. Repeat measurements on a sandstone sample with conductive pore water (0.14 S/m) yield a mean of 492 ohms with a standard deviation of 20 ohm, or about five percent. Measurements on mineralized core and on cells constructed from mixtures of silica sand and polarizable minerals demonstrate that the two electrode set up can be used even on heavily mineralized samples.

  18. Cyclic voltammetry of aquocobalamin on clay-modified electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Borek, V.; Morra, M.J.

    1998-07-15

    Halogenated synthetic compounds are widespread contaminants of the environment. Although corrinoids reductively dehalogenate synthetic contaminants in solution, the redox behavior of sorbed tetrapyrroles has received limited attention. Colloidal clay suspensions were prepared as Ca{sup 2+} forms of hectorite (SHCa-1), montmorillonite (SWy-1, Syn-1, and SAz-1), and vermiculite (VTx-1) and spin coated on platinum electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry was performed with the clay-modified electrodes immersed in buffered solutions containing 1.0 mM aquocobalamin. Aquocobalamin in the presence of vermiculite-coated electrodes displayed the same cathodic and anodic peak potentials as unmodified electrodes immersed in aquocobalamin solutions. All other clay-modified electrodes shifted cathodic peaks to more negative values, while anodic peak shifts varied with the clay. Hectorite caused the largest shift in formal redox potential as compared to aquocobalamin in solution. The redox behavior of aquocobalamin as modified by sorption to clay minerals potentially affects dehalogenation rates of synthetic organic compounds in the environment. Clays lowering the formal redox potential of the tetrapyrrole create a potentially more efficient catalyst for pollutant degradation. However, thermodynamic data as obtained using cyclic voltammetry cannot be used to make definitive predictions about the kinetics of contaminant dehalogenation. Reductive dehalogenation will be a function of altered electrochemical properties of the tetrapyrrole as well as rates of contaminant diffusion to the site of tetrapyrrole sorption.

  19. ELECTROCHEMISTRY OF FUEL CELL ELECTRODES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    optimization of fuel cell electrodes. Hydrogen oxidation and reduction, the reduction of oxygen, and the oxidation of formic acid, a soluble organic...substance, were selected for these studiees because of their relevance to fuel cell systems and because of their relative simplicity. The electrodes

  20. Carbon Cloth Supports Catalytic Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, W. T. P.; Ammon, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Carbon cloth is starting material for promising new catalytic electrodes. Carbon-cloth electrodes are more efficient than sintered-carbon configuration previously used. Are also chemically stable and require less catalyst--an important economic advantage when catalyst is metal such as platinum.

  1. Reaction profiles in porous electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katan, T.; Carlen, P. J.

    1985-05-01

    An experimental program was conducted to ascertain causes of alkaline zinc electrode shape change and to determine the development of reaction profiles within the pores of porous zinc electrodes. Various analog electrochemical cells were operated to isolate and evaluate the individual processes occurring during charge and discharge. It was found that both edge effects and osmosis can be responsible for the shape change phenomenon.

  2. Electrochemical photovoltaic cells and electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, Terje A.

    1984-01-01

    Improved electrochemical photovoltaic cells and electrodes for use therein, particularly electrodes employing amorphous silicon or polyacetylene coating are produced by a process which includes filling pinholes or porous openings in the coatings by electrochemical oxidation of selected monomers to deposit insulating polymer in the openings.

  3. Low resistance electrode construction

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo; Karell, Eric J.

    2002-01-01

    An electrochemical cell having a cathode and an anode in contact with an electrolyte. Both electrodes or one of them has an electrically conducting non-metal receptacle defining a chamber with a first metal having a melting point in the range of from about room temperature to about 800.degree. C. inside said receptacle chamber. A second metal with a melting point greater than about 800.degree. C. is in contact with the first metal inside the receptacle chamber and extends outside of the receptacle chamber to form a terminal for the anode. The electrolyte may include the oxides, halides or mixtures thereof of one or more of Li, V, U, Al and the lanthanides. Metal may be produced at the cathode during operation of the cell and oxygen or chlorine at the anode.

  4. Ribbed electrode substrates

    DOEpatents

    Breault, Richard D.; Goller, Glen J.

    1983-01-01

    A ribbed substrate for an electrochemical cell electrode is made from a mixture of carbon fibers and carbonizable resin and has a mean pore size in the ribs which is 60-75% of the mean pore size of the web portions of the substrate which interconnect the ribs. Preferably the mean pore size of the web portion is 25-45 microns; and, if the substrate includes edge seals parallel to the ribs, the edge seals preferably have a mean pore size no greater than about ten microns. Most preferably the substrate has the same ratio of carbon fibers to polymeric carbon in all areas, including the ribs, webs, and edge seals. A substrate according to the present invention will have better overall performance than prior art substrates and minimizes the substrate thickness required for the substrate to perform all its functions well.

  5. Electrochromic counter electrode

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland; Jorgensen, Gary J.

    2005-02-22

    The present invention discloses an amorphous material comprising nickel oxide doped with tantalum that is an anodically coloring electrochromic material. The material of the present invention is prepared in the form of an electrode (200) having a thin film (202) of an electrochromic material of the present invention residing on a transparent conductive film (203). The material of the present invention is also incorporated into an electrochromic device (100) as a thin film (102) in conjunction with a cathodically coloring prior art electrochromic material layer (104) such that the devices contain both anodically coloring (102) and cathodically coloring (104) layers. The materials of the electrochromic layers in these devices exhibit broadband optical complimentary behavior, ionic species complimentary behavior, and coloration efficiency complimentary behavior in their operation.

  6. Thermal characterization of Li-ion cell electrodes by photothermal deflection spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loges, André; Herberger, Sabrina; Werner, Daniel; Wetzel, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Contactless and temperature-dependent evaluation of thermal diffusivities of Li-ion cell electrodes based on photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS) measurements is introduced and applied to electrodes from three prismatic hardcase Li-ion cells. The accuracy of the method is validated using reference materials, which cover a wide range of thermal diffusivity. The effective thermal diffusivities of the three anode and cathode coatings and of the current collectors are determined in the temperature range of 5-45 °C. Furthermore, the temperature-dependent specific heat capacity of the electrodes is evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements in the same temperature range. Based on the experimental results the through-plane and in-plane thermal conductivity of the electrodes is calculated and compared to previously reported values. The results indicate significant influence of the porosity and manufacturing process on the effective thermal conductivity of the electrodes. The three mayor impact factors on thermal conductivity of electrodes are (i) composition, (ii) morphology of the coating and (iii) the thickness ratio of coating to current collector.

  7. Effective ultrasound electrochemical degradation of methylene blue wastewater using a nanocoated electrode.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Zuo, Jiane; Tang, Xinhua; Liu, Fenglin; Yu, Xin; Tang, Xinyao; Jiang, Hui; Gan, Lili

    2014-07-01

    A novel sonoelectrochemical catalytic oxidation-driven process using a nanocoated electrode to treat methylene blue (MB) wastewater was developed. The nano-scale (nanocoated) electrode generated more hydroxyl radicals than non-nano-scale (non-nanocoated) electrodes did. However, hydroxyl radicals were easily adsorbed by the nanomaterial and thus were not able to enter the solution. Supersonic waves were found to enhance the mass-transfer effect on the nanocoated electrode surface, resulting in rapid diffusion of the generated hydroxyl radicals into the solution. In solution, the hydroxyl radicals then reacted with organic pollutants in the presence of ultrasonic waves. The effect of the nanocoated electrode on the MB wastewater treatment process was enhanced by ultrasound when compared to the non-nanocoated electrode used under the same conditions. The synergy of the nanocoated electrode and ultrasonic waves towards MB degradation was then studied. The optimum operating conditions resulted in a 92% removal efficiency for TOC and consisted of a current of 600 mA, an ultrasound frequency of 45 kHz, and a supersonic power of 250 W. The mechanism of ultrasound enhancement of the nanocoated electrode activity with respect to MB treatment is discussed. The reaction intermediates of the sonoelectrochemical catalytic oxidation process were monitored, and degradation pathways were proposed. The sonoelectrochemical catalytic oxidation-driven process using nanocoated electrodes was found to be a very efficient method for the treatment of non-biodegradable wastewater.

  8. Enhanced electrochemical nanoring electrode for analysis of cytosol in single cells.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Lihong; Zuo, Huanzhen; Wu, Zengqiang; Wang, Yu; Fang, Danjun; Jiang, Dechen

    2014-12-02

    A microelectrode array has been applied for single cell analysis with relatively high throughput; however, the cells were typically cultured on the microelectrodes under cell-size microwell traps leading to the difficulty in the functionalization of an electrode surface for higher detection sensitivity. Here, nanoring electrodes embedded under the microwell traps were fabricated to achieve the isolation of the electrode surface and the cell support, and thus, the electrode surface can be modified to obtain enhanced electrochemical sensitivity for single cell analysis. Moreover, the nanometer-sized electrode permitted a faster diffusion of analyte to the surface for additional improvement in the sensitivity, which was evidenced by the electrochemical characterization and the simulation. To demonstrate the concept of the functionalized nanoring electrode for single cell analysis, the electrode surface was deposited with prussian blue to detect intracellular hydrogen peroxide at a single cell. Hundreds of picoamperes were observed on our functionalized nanoring electrode exhibiting the enhanced electrochemical sensitivity. The success in the achievement of a functionalized nanoring electrode will benefit the development of high throughput single cell electrochemical analysis.

  9. Electrode for a lithium cell

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Vaughey, John T.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2008-10-14

    This invention relates to a positive electrode for an electrochemical cell or battery, and to an electrochemical cell or battery; the invention relates more specifically to a positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell or battery when the electrode is used therein. The positive electrode includes a composite metal oxide containing AgV.sub.3O.sub.8 as one component and one or more other components consisting of LiV.sub.3O.sub.8, Ag.sub.2V.sub.4O.sub.11, MnO.sub.2, CF.sub.x, AgF or Ag.sub.2O to increase the energy density of the cell, optionally in the presence of silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrode and to improve the power capability of the cell or battery.

  10. Method for fabrication of electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Morse, Jeffrey D.; Barksdale, Randy

    2004-06-22

    Described herein is a method to fabricate porous thin-film electrodes for fuel cells and fuel cell stacks. Furthermore, the method can be used for all fuel cell electrolyte materials which utilize a continuous electrolyte layer. An electrode layer is deposited on a porous host structure by flowing gas (for example, Argon) from the bottomside of the host structure while simultaneously depositing a conductive material onto the topside of the host structure. By controlling the gas flow rate through the pores, along with the process conditions and deposition rate of the thin-film electrode material, a film of a pre-determined thickness can be formed. Once the porous electrode is formed, a continuous electrolyte thin-film is deposited, followed by a second porous electrode to complete the fuel cell structure.

  11. Composite electrode/electrolyte structure

    DOEpatents

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2004-01-27

    Provided is an electrode fabricated from highly electronically conductive materials such as metals, metal alloys, or electronically conductive ceramics. The electronic conductivity of the electrode substrate is maximized. Onto this electrode in the green state, a green ionic (e.g., electrolyte) film is deposited and the assembly is co-fired at a temperature suitable to fully densify the film while the substrate retains porosity. Subsequently, a catalytic material is added to the electrode structure by infiltration of a metal salt and subsequent low temperature firing. The invention allows for an electrode with high electronic conductivity and sufficient catalytic activity to achieve high power density in ionic (electrochemical) devices such as fuel cells and electrolytic gas separation systems.

  12. A study of Na(x)Pt3O4 as an O2 electrode bifunctional electrocatalyst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielder, William L.; Singer, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    The present study suggests that polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) bonded Na(X)Pt3O4 gas porous diffusion electrodes may be a viable candidate for bifunctional O2 reduction and evolution activity. The electrodes exhibited Tafel slopes of about 0.06 V/decade for both O2 reduction an evolution. For O2 reduction, the 0.06 slope doubled to 0.12 V/decade at larger current densities. Preliminary stability testing at 24 C suggest that the Na(x)Pt3O4 electrodes were relatively stable at reducing and oxidizing potentials typically encountered at the O2 electrodes in a regenerative fuel cell.

  13. TiO2/graphene sandwich paper as an anisotropic electrode for high rate lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Zhou, Guangmin; Fang, Ruopian; Li, Feng; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2013-09-07

    We designed an anisotropic electrode, in which Li(+) ion insertion and diffusion are anisotropic, by controlled growth of TiO2 nanosheets parallel to the surface of graphene paper. The anisotropic electrode gives a gravimetric capacity of 112 mA h g(-1) at an ultra-high rate of 100 C (corresponding to 36 s of charge-discharge), 3 times higher than that of a referenced isotropic electrode. The results indicate that such an anisotropic electrode can be useful in the search for high-power lithium ion batteries.

  14. In situ chemical probing of the electrode-electrolyte interface by ToF-SIMS

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bingwen; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Zhu, Zihua; Hua, Xin; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhaoying

    2014-01-01

    A portable vacuum interface allowing direct probing of the electrode-electrolyte interface was developed. A classical electrochemical system consisting of gold working electrode, platinum counter electrode, platinum reference electrode, and potassium iodide electrolyte was used to demonstrate real-time observation of the gold iodide adlayer on the electrode and chemical species as a result of redox reactions using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and the time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS, a vacuum-based surface analytical technique) simultaneously. This microfluidic electrochemical probe provides a new way to investigate the surface region with adsorbed molecules and region of diffused layer with chemical speciation in liquids in situ by surface sensitive techniques.

  15. Magnetite nanoparticles-chitosan composite containing carbon paste electrode for glucose biosensor application.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, A L; Prabu, H Gurumallesh; Babu, S Ananda; Suja, S K

    2013-01-01

    This work was aimed to develop reusable magnetite chitosan composite containing carbon paste electrode for biosensor application. Glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme was used to prepare GOx-magnetite-chitosan nanocomposite containing carbon paste electrode for sensitive detection of glucose. The immobilized enzyme retained its bioactivity, exhibited a surface confined reversible electron transfer reaction, and had good stability. The surface parameters like surface coverage (tau), Diffusion coefficient (D0), and rate constant (kS) were studied. The carbon paste modified electrode virtually eliminated the interference during the detection of glucose. The excellent performance of the biosensor is attributed to large surface-to-volume ratio, high conductivity and good biocompatibility of chitosan, which enhances the enzyme absorption and promotes electron transfer between redox enzymes and the surface of electrode. The shelf life of the developed electrode system is about 12 weeks under refrigerated conditions. We report for the first time in the fabrication of carbon paste bioelectrode containing magnetite-chitosan-GOx.

  16. Diamond heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yung-Hsiu

    This dissertation describes improvements in the growth of single crystal diamond by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Heteroepitaxial (001) diamond was grown on 1 cm. 2 a-plane sapphiresubstrates using an epitaxial (001) Ir thin-film as a buffer layer. Low-energy ion bombardment of the Ir layer, a process known as bias-enhanced nucleation, is a key step in achieving a high density of diamond nuclei. Bias conditions were optimized to form uniformly-high nucleation densities across the substrates, which led to well-coalesced diamond thin films after short growth times. Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) was used as a means of decreasing diamond internal stress by impeding the propagation of threading dislocations into the growing material. Its use in diamond growth requires adaptation to the aggressive chemical and thermal environment of the hydrogen plasma in a CVD reactor. Three ELO variants were developed. The most successful utilized a gold (Au) mask prepared by vacuum evaporation onto the surface of a thin heteroepitaxial diamond layer. The Au mask pattern, a series of parallel stripes on the micrometer scale, was produced by standard lift-off photolithography. When diamond overgrows the mask, dislocations are largely confined to the substrate. Differing degrees of confinement were studied by varying the stripe geometry and orientation. Significant improvement in diamond quality was found in the overgrown regions, as evidenced by reduction of the Raman scattering linewidth. The Au layer was found to remain intact during diamond overgrowth and did not chemically bond with the diamond surface. Besides impeding the propagation of threading dislocations, it was discovered that the thermally-induced stress in the CVD diamond was significantly reduced as a result of the ductile Au layer. Cracking and delamination of the diamond from the substrate was mostly eliminated. When diamond was grown to thicknesses above 0.1 mm it was found that

  17. Advantage of four-electrode over two-electrode defibrillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragard, J.; Šimić, A.; Laroze, D.; Elorza, J.

    2015-12-01

    Defibrillation is the standard clinical treatment used to stop ventricular fibrillation. An electrical device delivers a controlled amount of electrical energy via a pair of electrodes in order to reestablish a normal heart rate. We propose a technique that is a combination of biphasic shocks applied with a four-electrode system rather than the standard two-electrode system. We use a numerical model of a one-dimensional ring of cardiac tissue in order to test and evaluate the benefit of this technique. We compare three different shock protocols, namely a monophasic and two types of biphasic shocks. The results obtained by using a four-electrode system are compared quantitatively with those obtained with the standard two-electrode system. We find that a huge reduction in defibrillation threshold is achieved with the four-electrode system. For the most efficient protocol (asymmetric biphasic), we obtain a reduction in excess of 80% in the energy required for a defibrillation success rate of 90%. The mechanisms of successful defibrillation are also analyzed. This reveals that the advantage of asymmetric biphasic shocks with four electrodes lies in the duration of the cathodal and anodal phase of the shock.

  18. Diffusion layer formation drives zone migration in travelling wave electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Booth, William Albert; Edwards, Boyd; Jo, Kyoo; Timperman, Aaron; Schiffbauer, Jarrod

    2017-04-04

    COMSOL finite element modeling software is used to simulate 2D traveling-wave electrophoresis for microfluidic separations and sample concentration. A four-phase AC potential is applied to a periodic interdigitated four-electrode array to produce a longitudinal electric wave that travels through the channel. Charged particles are carried along with the electric wave or left behind, depending on their mobilities. A simplified model of asymmetric electrode reactions resolves the issue of electric double layer shielding at the electrodes. Selective reactions allow for the formation of diffusion layers of charged particles which follow the traveling electric wave. These diffusion layers determine the transport of charged species through the system. Our model reproduces experimental separations of charged species based on mobility. With easy control over the frequency and direction, one may employ this method for concentrating and/or separating charged particles.

  19. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Preserving the Lateral Canthal Angle

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu Ho; Choi, Hong Lim; Jeong, Eui Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic lateral canthoplasty, in which the size of the eye is increased by extending the palpebral fissure and decreasing the degree of the eye slant, has become a prevalent procedure for East Asians. However, it is not uncommon for there to be complications or unfavorable results after the surgery. With this in mind, the authors have designed a surgical method to reduce complications in cosmetic lateral canthoplasty by preserving the lateral canthal angle. We discuss here the anatomy required for surgery, the surgical methods, and methods for reducing complications during cosmetic lateral canthoplasty. PMID:27462563

  20. Rolling silver nanowire electrodes: simultaneously addressing adhesion, roughness, and conductivity.

    PubMed

    Hauger, Tate C; Al-Rafia, S M Ibrahim; Buriak, Jillian M

    2013-12-11

    Silver nanowire mesh electrodes represent a possible mass-manufacturable route toward transparent and flexible electrodes for plastic-based electronics such as organic photovoltaics (OPVs), organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), and others. Here we describe a route that is based upon spray-coated silver nanowire meshes on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheets that are treated with a straightforward combination of heat and pressure to generate electrodes that have low sheet resistance, good optical transmission, that are topologically flat, and adhere well to the PET substrate. The silver nanowire meshes were prepared by spray-coating a solution of silver nanowires onto PET, in air at slightly elevated temperatures. The as-prepared silver nanowire electrodes are highly resistive due to the poor contact between the individual silver nanowires. Light pressure applied with a stainless steel rod, rolled over the as-sprayed silver nanowire meshes on PET with a speed of 10 cm s(-1) and a pressure of 50 psi, results in silver nanowire mesh arrays with sheet resistances of less than 20 Ω/□. Bending of these rolled nanowire meshes on PET with different radii of curvature, from 50 to 0.625 mm, showed no degradation of the conductivity of the electrodes, as shown by the constant sheet resistance before and after bending. Repeated bending (100 times) around a rod with a radius of curvature of 1 mm also showed no increase in the sheet resistance, demonstrating good adherence and no signs of delamination of the nanowire mesh array. The diffuse and direct transmittance of the silver nanowires (both rolled and as-sprayed) was measured for wavelengths from 350 to 1200 nm, and the diffuse transmission was similar to that of the PET substrate; the direct transmission decreases by about 7-8%. The silver nanowires were then incorporated into OPV devices with the following architecture: transparent electrode/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PC61BM/LiF/Al. While slightly lower in efficiency than the

  1. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Wijesekera, Lokesh C; Leigh, P Nigel

    2009-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurones in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord. Incidence (average 1.89 per 100,000/year) and prevalence (average 5.2 per100,000) are relatively uniform in Western countries, although foci of higher frequency occur in the Western Pacific. The mean age of onset for sporadic ALS is about 60 years. Overall, there is a slight male prevalence (M:F ratio~1.5:1). Approximately two thirds of patients with typical ALS have a spinal form of the disease (limb onset) and present with symptoms related to focal muscle weakness and wasting, where the symptoms may start either distally or proximally in the upper and lower limbs. Gradually, spasticity may develop in the weakened atrophic limbs, affecting manual dexterity and gait. Patients with bulbar onset ALS usually present with dysarthria and dysphagia for solid or liquids, and limbs symptoms can develop almost simultaneously with bulbar symptoms, and in the vast majority of cases will occur within 1–2 years. Paralysis is progressive and leads to death due to respiratory failure within 2–3 years for bulbar onset cases and 3–5 years for limb onset ALS cases. Most ALS cases are sporadic but 5–10% of cases are familial, and of these 20% have a mutation of the SOD1 gene and about 2–5% have mutations of the TARDBP (TDP-43) gene. Two percent of apparently sporadic patients have SOD1 mutations, and TARDBP mutations also occur in sporadic cases. The diagnosis is based on clinical history, examination, electromyography, and exclusion of 'ALS-mimics' (e.g. cervical spondylotic myelopathies, multifocal motor neuropathy, Kennedy's disease) by appropriate investigations. The pathological hallmarks comprise loss of motor neurones with intraneuronal ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions in upper motor neurones and TDP-43 immunoreactive inclusions in

  2. In vivo electrode implanting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Jr., Earl R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A cylindrical intramuscular implantable electrode is provided with a strip of fabric secured around it. The fabric is woven from a polyester fiber having loops of the fiber protruding. The end of the main cylindrical body is provided with a blunt conductive nose, and the opposite end is provided with a smaller diameter rear section with an annular groove to receive tips of fingers extending from a release tube. The fingers are formed to spring outwardly and move the fingertips out of the annular groove in order to release the electrode from the release tube when a sheath over the electrode is drawn back sufficiently. The sheath compresses the fingers of the release tube and the fabric loops until it is drawn back. Muscle tissue grows into the loops to secure the electrode in place after the sheath is drawn back. The entire assembly of electrode, release tube and sheath can be inserted into the patient's muscle to the desired position through a hypodermic needle. The release tube may be used to manipulate the electrode in the patient's muscle to an optimum position before the electrode is released.

  3. MHD Electrode and wall constructions

    DOEpatents

    Way, Stewart; Lempert, Joseph

    1984-01-01

    Electrode and wall constructions for the walls of a channel transmitting the hot plasma in a magnetohydrodynamic generator. The electrodes and walls are made of a plurality of similar modules which are spaced from one another along the channel. The electrodes can be metallic or ceramic, and each module includes one or more electrodes which are exposed to the plasma and a metallic cooling bar which is spaced from the plasma and which has passages through which a cooling fluid flows to remove heat transmitted from the electrode to the cooling bar. Each electrode module is spaced from and electrically insulated from each adjacent module while interconnected by the cooling fluid which serially flows among selected modules. A wall module includes an electrically insulating ceramic body exposed to the plasma and affixed, preferably by mechanical clips or by brazing, to a metallic cooling bar spaced from the plasma and having cooling fluid passages. Each wall module is, similar to the electrode modules, electrically insulated from the adjacent modules and serially interconnected to other modules by the cooling fluid.

  4. Arc electrode interaction study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, X.; Berns, D.; Heberlein, J.

    1994-01-01

    The project consisted of two parts: (1) the cathode interaction studies which were a continuation of previous work and had the objective of increasing our understanding of the microscopic phenomena controlling cathode erosion in arc jet thrusters, and (2) the studies of the anode attachment in arc jet thrusters. The cathode interaction studies consisted of (1) a continuation of some modeling work in which the previously derived model for the cathode heating was applied to some specific gases and electrode materials, and (2) experimental work in which various diagnostics was applied to the cathode. The specific diagnostics used were observation of the cathode tip during arcing using a Laser Strobe Video system in conjunction with a tele-microscope, a monochromator with an optical multichannel analyzer for the determination of the cathode temperature distribution, and various ex situ materials analysis methods. The emphasis of our effort was shifted to the cathode materials analysis because a parallel project was in place during the second half of 1993 with a visiting scientist pursuing arc electrode materials studies. As a consequence, the diagnostic investigations of the arc in front of the cathode had to be postponed to the first half of 1994, and we are presently preparing these measurements. The results of last year's study showed some unexpected effects influencing the cathode erosion behavior, such as increased erosion away from the cathode tip, and our understanding of these effects should improve our ability to control cathode erosion. The arc jet anode attachment studies concentrated on diagnostics of the instabilities in subsonic anode attachment arc jet thrusters, and were supplemental measurements to work which was performed by one of the authors who spent the summer as an intern at NASA Lewis Research Center. A summary of the results obtained during the internship are included because they formed an integral part of the study. Two tasks for 1994, the

  5. Capacitance enhancement via electrode patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Tuan A.; Striolo, Alberto

    2013-11-01

    The necessity of increasing the energy density in electric double layer capacitors to meet current demand is fueling fundamental and applied research alike. We report here molecular dynamics simulation results for aqueous electrolytes near model electrodes. Particular focus is on the effect of electrode patterning on the structure of interfacial electrolytes, and on the potential drop between the solid electrodes and the bulk electrolytes. The latter is estimated by numerically integrating the Poisson equation using the charge densities due to water and ions accumulated near the interface as input. We considered uniform and patterned electrodes, both positively and negatively charged. The uniformly charged electrodes are modeled as graphite. The patterned ones are obtained by removing carbon atoms from the top-most graphene layer, yielding nanoscopic squares and stripes patterns. For simplicity, the patterned electrodes are effectively simulated as insulators (the charge remains localized on the top-most layer of carbon atoms). Our simulations show that the patterns alter the structure of water and the accumulation of ions at the liquid-solid interfaces. Using aqueous NaCl solutions, we found that while the capacitance calculated for three positively charged electrodes did not change much, that calculated for the negatively charged electrodes significantly increased upon patterning. We find that both water structure and orientation, as well as ion accumulation affect the capacitance. As electrode patterning affects differently water structure and ion accumulation, it might be possible to observe ion-specific effects. These results could be useful for advancing our understanding of electric double layer capacitors, capacitive desalination processes, as well as of fundamental interfacial electrolytes properties.

  6. Capacitance enhancement via electrode patterning

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Tuan A.; Striolo, Alberto

    2013-11-28

    The necessity of increasing the energy density in electric double layer capacitors to meet current demand is fueling fundamental and applied research alike. We report here molecular dynamics simulation results for aqueous electrolytes near model electrodes. Particular focus is on the effect of electrode patterning on the structure of interfacial electrolytes, and on the potential drop between the solid electrodes and the bulk electrolytes. The latter is estimated by numerically integrating the Poisson equation using the charge densities due to water and ions accumulated near the interface as input. We considered uniform and patterned electrodes, both positively and negatively charged. The uniformly charged electrodes are modeled as graphite. The patterned ones are obtained by removing carbon atoms from the top-most graphene layer, yielding nanoscopic squares and stripes patterns. For simplicity, the patterned electrodes are effectively simulated as insulators (the charge remains localized on the top-most layer of carbon atoms). Our simulations show that the patterns alter the structure of water and the accumulation of ions at the liquid-solid interfaces. Using aqueous NaCl solutions, we found that while the capacitance calculated for three positively charged electrodes did not change much, that calculated for the negatively charged electrodes significantly increased upon patterning. We find that both water structure and orientation, as well as ion accumulation affect the capacitance. As electrode patterning affects differently water structure and ion accumulation, it might be possible to observe ion-specific effects. These results could be useful for advancing our understanding of electric double layer capacitors, capacitive desalination processes, as well as of fundamental interfacial electrolytes properties.

  7. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Research Program Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Research Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...research programs such as the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Research Program (ALSRP) is allo- cated via specific guidance from Congress. Proposal

  8. [Lateral mandibular deviations].

    PubMed

    Gotte, P

    1980-01-01

    The mandibular laterodeviation is one of the most evident malformations of the face, because it alters the lower third of the face. Etiologically it can be classified into: Static laterodeviations caused by teeth; Static laterodeviations caused by skeleton change: by monolateral hypertrophy (condyle, condyle and neck of the condyle, half mandible hypertrophy); by monolateral hypertrophy (congenital pathological); Dinamic laterodeviations functional. The midline displacement with posterior monolateral cross bite is caused by width discrepancy between the upper and lower dental arch resulting in a lateral shifting of the mandible. This laterodeviation is also called "laterale forced bite" or "articular cross bite". Articular cross bite is generally corrected by orthodontics during the interceptive period when the growth of the jaws is still present. In the author's opinion the orthognathic surgery is absolutely necessary for adult dental laterodeviation already stabilized. The skeletal laterodeviation must always be treated by orthognathic surgery. It is the author's practice to use the sagittal bilateral osteotomy at the angle and ramus level whose lines of osteotomy at the angle are different from one another depending on the displacement and rotation which one must do to the mandible to get contact surfaces which are larger enough to ensure proper union because the two mandibular halves have different lengths and different angles. This kind of operation normalizes the occlusion and is sometime sufficient to harmonize the oval of the lower third of the face. In the anterior part of the chin is still laterodeviated one continues with a wedge shaped osteotomy at the tip of the chin in order to reposition the tip to the midline and with an additional osteotomy at the hypertrophied angle level. If laterodeviation is joined by other bone malformations in can be considered a symptom which is more or less marked. In this case, therefore, laterodeviation is a part of a

  9. Note: Adhesive stamp electrodes using spider silk masks for electronic transport measurements of supra-micron sized samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steven, E.; Jobiliong, E.; Eugenio, P. M.; Brooks, J. S.

    2012-04-01

    A procedure for fabricating adhesive stamp electrodes based on gold coated adhesive tape used to measure electronic transport properties of supra-micron samples in the lateral range 10-100 μm and thickness >1 μm is described. The electrodes can be patterned with a ˜4 μm separation by metal deposition through a mask using Nephila clavipes spider dragline silk fibers. Ohmic contact is made by adhesive lamination of a sample onto the patterned electrodes. The performance of the electrodes with temperature and magnetic field is demonstrated for the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor (TMTSF)2PF6 and single crystal graphite, respectively.

  10. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Chung, Sung-Yoon; Bloking, Jason T; Andersson, Anna M

    2014-10-07

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001electrodes and storage batteries.

  11. Mixed Conducting Electrodes for Better AMTEC Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Margaret; Williams, Roger; Homer, Margie; Lara. Liana

    2003-01-01

    take place throughout the thickness of the cathode. The net effect is to reduce the diffusion and flow resistance to sodium through the electrode while reducing the electronic resistance by providing shorter conduction paths for electrons. Reduced resistance to both sodium transport and electronic conductivity results in an increase in electric power output.

  12. Microfabricated diffusion source

    DOEpatents

    Oborny, Michael C.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Manginell, Ronald P.

    2008-07-15

    A microfabricated diffusion source to provide for a controlled diffusion rate of a vapor comprises a porous reservoir formed in a substrate that can be filled with a liquid, a headspace cavity for evaporation of the vapor therein, a diffusion channel to provide a controlled diffusion of the vapor, and an outlet to release the vapor into a gas stream. The microfabricated diffusion source can provide a calibration standard for a microanalytical system. The microanalytical system with an integral diffusion source can be fabricated with microelectromechanical systems technologies.

  13. Apparatus for focused electrode induced polarization logging

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, H.J.; Waxman, M.H.

    1986-04-15

    An induced polarization logging tool is described for measuring parameters of a formation surrounding a borehole. The logging tool consists of: a non-conductive logging sonde; a plurality of electrodes disposed on the sonde, the electrodes including at least a survey current electrode and guard electrodes disposed on opposite sides of the survey current electrode, a non-polarizing voltage measuring electrode, a non-polarizing voltage reference electrode and a current return electrode, both the voltage reference and current return electrodes being located a greater distance from the survey current electrode than the guard electrodes; means connected to the survey current electrode and the guard electrodes for generating a signal representative of the potential difference in the formation between the survey current electrode and the guard electrodes; first control means directly coupled to the survey current electrode, the first control means controlling the current flow to the survey current electrode in response to the potential difference signal; a second control means directly coupled to the guard electrodes to control the current flow to the guard electrodes in response to the potential difference signal; a source of alternating current located at the surface, one end of the source being coupled to the two control means and the other to the current return electrode, the source supplying alternating current at various discrete frequencies between substantially 0.01 and 100 Hz; measurement means directly coupled to the voltage measurement and survey current electrodes to measure the amplitude and phase of the voltage induced in the formation and the amplitude and phase of the current flow to the survey electrode; and transmission means for transmitting the measurements to the surface.

  14. Additional field verification of convective scaling for the lateral dispersion parameter

    SciTech Connect

    Sakiyama, S.K.; Davis, P.A.

    1988-07-01

    The results of a series of diffusion trials over the heterogeneous surface of the Canadian Precambrian Shield provide additional support for the convective scaling of the lateral dispersion parameter. The data indicate that under convective conditions, the lateral dispersion parameter can be scaled with the convective velocity scale and the mixing depth. 10 references.

  15. Septins and the lateral compartmentalization of eukaryotic membranes.

    PubMed

    Caudron, Fabrice; Barral, Yves

    2009-04-01

    Eukaryotic cells from neurons and epithelial cells to unicellular fungi frequently rely on cellular appendages such as axons, dendritic spines, cilia, and buds for their biology. The emergence and differentiation of these appendages depend on the formation of lateral diffusion barriers at their bases to insulate their membranes from the rest of the cell. Here, we review recent progress regarding the molecular mechanisms and functions of such barriers. This overview underlines the importance and conservation of septin-dependent diffusion barriers, which coordinately compartmentalize both plasmatic and internal membranes. We discuss their role in memory establishment and the control of cellular aging.

  16. Research on rechargeable oxygen electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giner, J.; Malachesky, P. A.; Holleck, G.

    1971-01-01

    Studies were carried out on a number of factors which may influence the behavior of the platinum electrocatalyst of oxygen electrodes for use in rechargeable metal-oxygen batteries or hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells. The effects of pretreatments for various potentials and added ionic species, which could be present in such systems, were studied with reguard to: (1) the state of surface oxidation, (2) platinum dissolution, (3) the kinetics of oxygen evolution and reduction (including the role of hydrogen peroxide), and (4) changes in porous electrode structure. These studies were carried out on smooth platinum, platinized platinum, and Teflon-bonded platinum black electrodes in carefully purified electrolyte solutions. The main factors which appear to affect rechargeable oxygen electrode performance and life are: (1) the buildup of a refractory anodic layer on extended cycling, and (2) the dissolution of platinum.

  17. Method of making biocompatible electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Wollam, John S.

    1992-01-01

    A process of improving the sensing function of biocompatible electrodes and the product so made are disclosed. The process is designed to alter the surfaces of the electrodes at their tips to provide increased surface area and therefore decreased contact resistance at the electrode-tissue interface for increased sensitivity and essentially includes rendering the tips atomically clean by exposing them to bombardment by ions of an inert gas, depositing an adhesion layer on the cleaned tips, forming a hillocked layer on the adhesion layer by increasing the temperature of the tips, and applying a biocompatible coating on the hillocked layer. The resultant biocompatible electrode is characterized by improved sensitivity, minimum voltage requirement for organ stimulation and a longer battery life for the device in which it is employed.

  18. The secondary alkaline zinc electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLarnon, Frank R.; Cairns, Elton J.

    1991-02-01

    The worldwide studies conducted between 1975 and 1990 with the aim of improving cell lifetimes of secondary alkaline zinc electrodes are overviewed. Attention is given the design features and characteristics of various secondary alkaline zinc cells, including four types of zinc/nickel oxide cell designs (vented static-electrolyte, sealed static-electrolyte, vibrating-electrode, and flowing-electrolyte); two types of zinc/air cells (mechanically rechargeable consolidated-electrode and mechanically rechargeable particulate-electrode); zinc/silver oxide battery; zinc/manganese dioxide cell; and zinc/ferric cyanide battery. Particular consideration is given to recent research in the fields of cell thermodynamics, zinc electrodeposition, zinc electrodissolution, zinc corrosion, electrolyte properties, mathematical and phenomenological models, osmotic pumping, nonuniform current distribution, and cell cycle-life perforamnce.

  19. Composite substrate for bipolar electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Tekkanat, Bora; Bolstad, James J.

    1992-12-22

    Substrates for electrode systems, particularly those to be used for bipolar electrodes in zinc-bromine batteries, are disclosed. The substrates preferably include carbon-black as a conductive filler in a polymeric matrix, with reinforcing materials such as glass fibers. Warpage of the zinc-bromine electrodes which was experienced in the prior art and which was believed to be caused by physical expansion of the electrodes due to bromine absorption by the carbon-black, is substantially eliminated when new substrate fabrication techniques are employed. In the pesent invention, substrates are prepared using a lamination process known as glass mat reinforced thermoplastics technology or, in an alternate embodiment, the substrate is made using a slurry process.

  20. Composite substrate for bipolar electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Tekkanat, B.; Bolstad, J.J.

    1992-12-22

    Substrates for electrode systems, particularly those to be used for bipolar electrodes in zinc-bromine batteries, are disclosed. The substrates preferably include carbon-black as a conductive filler in a polymeric matrix, with reinforcing materials such as glass fibers. Warpage of the zinc-bromine electrodes which was experienced in the prior art and which was believed to be caused by physical expansion of the electrodes due to bromine absorption by the carbon-black, is substantially eliminated when new substrate fabrication techniques are employed. In the present invention, substrates are prepared using a lamination process known as glass mat reinforced thermoplastics technology or, in an alternate embodiment, the substrate is made using a slurry process. 4 figs.

  1. Electrode materials for rechargeable batteries

    DOEpatents

    Abouimrane, Ali; Amine, Khalil

    2015-04-14

    Selenium or selenium-containing compounds may be used as electroactive materials in electrodes or electrochemical devices. The selenium or selenium-containing compound is mixed with a carbon material.

  2. Eight electrode optical readout gap

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E.; Crain, Robert W.

    1985-01-01

    A protective device for a plurality of electrical circuits includes a pluity of isolated electrodes forming a gap with a common electrode. An output signal, electrically isolated from the circuits being monitored, is obtained by a photosensor viewing the discharge gap through an optical window. Radioactive stabilization of discharge characteristics is provided for slowly changing voltages and carbon tipped dynamic starters provide desirable discharge characteristics for rapidly varying voltages. A hydrogen permeation barrier is provided on external surfaces of the device.

  3. Bifunctional oxygen/air electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jörissen, Ludwig

    A selective review on the materials and construction principles used for bifunctional oxygen/air electrodes is given. The discussion emphasizes the catalytically active materials used for the construction of these electrodes, which are a key component in electrically rechargeable air breathing electrochemical systems. Whereas, in acid electrolytes normally noble metal catalysts must be used, there is a possibility to use less expensive transition metal oxides in alkaline electrolytes. Typical transition metal oxides have the perovskite, pyrochlore and spinel structure.

  4. Heat and water transport in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, Partha P; Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rod L; Ranjan, Devesh

    2010-01-01

    In the present scenario of a global initiative toward a sustainable energy future, the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) has emerged as one of the most promising alternative energy conversion devices for various applications. Despite tremendous progress in recent years, a pivotal performance limitation in the PEFC comes from liquid water transport and the resulting flooding phenomena. Liquid water blocks the open pore space in the electrode and the fibrous diffusion layer leading to hindered oxygen transport. The electrode is also the only component in the entire PEFC sandwich which produces waste heat from the electrochemical reaction. The cathode electrode, being the host to several competing transport mechanisms, plays a crucial role in the overall PEFC performance limitation. In this work, an electrode model is presented in order to elucidate the coupled heat and water transport mechanisms. Two scenarios are specifically considered: (1) conventional, Nafion{reg_sign} impregnated, three-phase electrode with the hydrated polymeric membrane phase as the conveyer of protons where local electro-neutrality prevails; and (2) ultra-thin, two-phase, nano-structured electrode without the presence of ionomeric phase where charge accumulation due to electro-statics in the vicinity of the membrane-CL interface becomes important. The electrode model includes a physical description of heat and water balance along with electrochemical performance analysis in order to study the influence of electro-statics/electro-migration and phase change on the PEFC electrode performance.

  5. Plasma driven by helical electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akcay, Cihan; Finn, John; Nebel, Richard; Barnes, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    A novel plasma state, obtained by applying a helical voltage at the wall with a uniform axial magnetic field, is studied by means of zero-pressure resistive MHD simulations in a periodic cylinder. The radial magnetic field at the wall is taken to be zero. For a small helical electrode voltage, the helical perturbation in the plasma is small and localized to the edge. Beyond a critical electrode voltage, there is a bifurcation to the newly discovered state, which is a single-helicity Ohmic equilibrium with the same helicity as the electrodes, i.e., the fields depend only on radius and mθ - nφ , where θ and φ = z / R are the poloidal and toroidal angles. For electrostatic driving with m = 1 , the mean magnetic field (m = n = 0) has field line safety factor q(r) equal to the pitch of the electrodes m / n = 1 / n except near the edge, where it monotonically increases an amount of order unity. The plasma is force-free in the interior. Near the edge, however, the current crosses the field lines to enter and exit through the helical electrodes. A large helical plasma flow related Pfirsch-Schlüter-like currents exist in this edge vicinity. Applications to current drive in tokamaks, as well as to straight plasmas with endcap electrodes are discussed.

  6. A density functional theory study of the carbon-coating effects on lithium iron borate battery electrodes.

    PubMed

    Loftager, Simon; García-Lastra, Juan María; Vegge, Tejs

    2017-01-18

    Lithium iron borate (LiFeBO3) is a promising cathode material due to its high theoretical specific capacity, inexpensive components and small volume change during operation. Yet, challenges related to severe air- and moisture-induced degradation have prompted the utilization of a protective coating on the electrode which also improves the electronic conductivity. However, not much is known about the preferential geometries of the coating as well as how these coating-electrode interfaces influence the lithium diffusion between the coating and the electrode. Here, we therefore present a density functional theory (DFT) study of the anchoring configurations of carbon coating on the LiFeBO3 electrode and its implications on the interfacial lithium diffusion. Due to large barriers associated with Li-ion diffusion through a parallel-oriented pristine graphene coating on the FeBO3 and LiFeBO3 electrode surfaces, large structural defects in the graphene coating are required for fast Li-ion diffusion. However, such defects are expected to exist only in small concentrations due to their high formation energies. Alternative coating geometries were therefore investigated, and the configuration in which the coating layers were anchored normal to the electrode surface at B and O atoms was found to be most stable. Nudged elastic band (NEB) calculations of the lithium diffusion barriers across the interface between the optimally oriented coating layers and the electrode show no kinetic limitations for lithium extraction and insertion. Additionally, this graphite-coating configuration showed partial blocking of electrode-degrading species.

  7. Structural optimization of 3D porous electrodes for high-rate performance lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jianchao; Baumgaertel, Andreas C; Wang, Y Morris; Biener, Juergen; Biener, Monika M

    2015-02-24

    Much progress has recently been made in the development of active materials, electrode morphologies and electrolytes for lithium ion batteries. Well-defined studies on size effects of the three-dimensional (3D) electrode architecture, however, remain to be rare due to the lack of suitable material platforms where the critical length scales (such as pore size and thickness of the active material) can be freely and deterministically adjusted over a wide range without affecting the overall 3D morphology of the electrode. Here, we report on a systematic study on length scale effects on the electrochemical performance of model 3D np-Au/TiO2 core/shell electrodes. Bulk nanoporous gold provides deterministic control over the pore size and is used as a monolithic metallic scaffold and current collector. Extremely uniform and conformal TiO2 films of controlled thickness were deposited on the current collector by employing atomic layer deposition (ALD). Our experiments demonstrate profound performance improvements by matching the Li(+) diffusivity in the electrolyte and the solid state through adjusting pore size and thickness of the active coating which, for 200 μm thick porous electrodes, requires the presence of 100 nm pores. Decreasing the thickness of the TiO2 coating generally improves the power performance of the electrode by reducing the Li(+) diffusion pathway, enhancing the Li(+) solid solubility, and minimizing the voltage drop across the electrode/electrolyte interface. With the use of the optimized electrode morphology, supercapacitor-like power performance with lithium-ion-battery energy densities was realized. Our results provide the much-needed fundamental insight for the rational design of the 3D architecture of lithium ion battery electrodes with improved power performance.

  8. Diffusion bonding aeroengine components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, G. A.; Broughton, T.

    1988-10-01

    The use of diffusion bonding processes at Rolls-Royce for the manufacture of titanium-alloy aircraft engine components and structures is described. A liquid-phase diffusion bonding process called activated diffusion bonding has been developed for the manufacture of the hollow titanium wide chord fan blade. In addition, solid-state diffusion bonding is being used in the manufacture of hollow vane/blade airfoil constructions mainly in conjunction with superplastic forming and hot forming techniques.

  9. Determination of reaction resistances for metal-hydride electrodes during anodic polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunsheng; Soriaga, Manuel P.; Srinivasan, Supramaniam

    The anodic polarization process in metal-hydride electrodes occurs via the following consecutive steps: (i) diffusion of absorbed hydrogen from the bulk to the surface of the electrode, (ii) hydrogen transfer from absorbed state to adsorbed state at the electrode surface, and (iii) electrochemical oxidation of the adsorbed hydrogen on the electrode surface. A theoretical treatment is presented to account for the dependencies on these three consecutive steps, of the reaction resistances, anodic limiting current, cathodic limiting current, and exchange current. The theoretical analysis predicts that the total resistances measured from linear micropolarization is the sum of the charge-transfer, hydrogen-transfer, and hydrogen-diffusion resistances, which is in contradiction with the generally accepted idea that the resistance measured from linear micropolarization is only the charge-transfer resistance. For a metal-hydride electrode with a flat pressure plateau at a low state of discharge (SOD), the resistance measured from linear micropolarization is approximately equal to the sum of three resistances measured from AC impedance, namely, charge-transfer, hydrogen-transfer and hydrogen-diffusion resistances; however, when the SOD is high, the resistance measured from linear micropolarization is higher than total resistances measured from AC impedance.

  10. Spectroscopic Analysis of Ion Concentration Profile at Electrode/Electrolyte Interface by Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, David; Saraf, Ravi

    2014-03-01

    Owing to the difference in Fermi levels at an electrode/electrolyte interface, ions form an electrical double layer (EDL) with ion concentrations well over 10-fold compared to bulk. The concentration profile of the EDL intrinsically affects the electrochemical reaction rates at the electrode, which is of great significance in many applications, such as batteries and biosensors. Conventionally, using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), the electrical properties of the EDL are represented as ``equivalent circuits'' consisting of the resistance to charge transfer (Rct), the double layer capacitance (Cdl) and a ``Warburg (constant phase) diffusion element'' that represents the long range diffusion of ions to the electrode. The translation to the well-understood physical structure can be lost as complicated effects are often lumped together. For example, the effect of subtle modification of the electrode surface by say, redox compounds, enzymes, or polymers is not directly measured, and must be inferred by capacitance changes. An interferometer method will be described to directly measure changes in concentration at the interface during redox process. This method in concert with CV or EIS performed concomitantly will lead to more information to model the diffuse layer for improved understanding of the kinetics of the reaction at different distances from the electrode. Applications to DNA and polymer adsorption binding will be discussed.

  11. Superior electrode performance of mesoporous hollow TiO2 microspheres through efficient hierarchical nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Yu; Song, Shuyan; Zhang, Hongjie

    2011-10-01

    Mesoporous hollow TiO2 microspheres with controlled size and hierarchical nanostructures are designed from a process employing in suit template-assisted and hydrothermal methods. The results show that the hollow microspheres composed of mesoporous nanospheres possess very stable reversible capacity of 184 mAh g-1 at 0.25C and exhibit extremely high power of 122 mAh g-1 at the high rate of 10C. The superior high-rate and high-capacity performance of the sample is attributed to the efficient hierarchical nanostructures. The hollow structure could shorten the diffusion length for lithium ion in the microspheres. The large mesoporous channels between the mesoporous nanospheres provide an easily-accessed system which facilitates electrolyte transportation and lithium ion diffusion within the electrode materials. The electrolyte, flooding the mesoporous channels, can also lead to a high electrolyte/electrode contact area, facilitating transport of lithium ions across the electrolyte/electrode interface. The small mesopores in the meosporous nanospheres can make the electrolyte and lithium ion further diffuse into the interior of electrode materials and increase electrolyte/electrode contact area. The small nanoparticles can also ensure high reversible capacity.

  12. Characterization of solid electrode materials using chronoamperometry: A study of the alkaline γ-MnO 2 electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloy, Aaron P.; Donne, Scott W.

    Large voltage step chronoamperometry is shown to be a time-efficient means to examine solid electrode materials compared with conventional electrochemical methods such as linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and step potential electrochemical spectroscopy (SPECS), all the while providing comparable information concerning the rate capability of a material and its capacity. The applicability of the technique is demonstrated through a study of the alkaline γ-MnO 2 electrode. By sampling the current (and hence the charge) at various times after the chronoamperometric voltage step, the compatibility between chronoamperometry and LSV is disclosed. Furthermore, modelling of the chronoamperometric data using two curves based on a spherical diffusion model representing fast and slow discharge processes are found to be statistically suitable. From this modelling, values of A√ D (where A is the electrochemically active surface area and D is the diffusion coefficient) for the two processes are 3.89 × 10 -4 and 0.70 × 10 -4 cm 3 s -1/2 g -1, respectively, both of which are comparable with A√ D data extracted from a SPECS experiment on an identical electrode.

  13. Electrodes for solid state gas sensor

    DOEpatents

    Mukundan, Rangachary; Brosha, Eric L.; Garzon, Fernando

    2007-05-08

    A mixed potential electrochemical sensor for the detection of gases has a ceria-based electrolyte with a surface for exposing to the gases to be detected, and with a reference wire electrode and a sensing wire electrode extending through the surface and fixed within the electrolyte as the electrolyte is compressed and sintered. The electrochemical sensor is formed by placing a wire reference electrode and a wire sensing electrode in a die, where each electrode has a first compressed planar section and a second section depending from the first section with the second section of each electrode extending axially within the die. The die is filled with an oxide-electrolyte powder and the powder is pressed within the die with the wire electrodes. The wire-electrodes and the pressed oxide-electrolyte powder are sintered to form a ceramic electrolyte base with a reference wire electrode and a sensing wire electrode depending therefrom.

  14. Electrodes for solid state gas sensor

    DOEpatents

    Mukundan, Rangachary; Brosha, Eric L.; Garzon, Fernando

    2003-08-12

    A mixed potential electrochemical sensor for the detection of gases has a ceria-based electrolyte with a surface for exposing to the gases to be detected, and with a reference wire electrode and a sensing wire electrode extending through the surface and fixed within the electrolyte as the electrolyte is compressed and sintered. The electrochemical sensor is formed by placing a wire reference electrode and a wire sensing electrode in a die, where each electrode has a first compressed planar section and a second section depending from the first section with the second section of each electrode extending axially within the die. The die is filled with an oxide-electrolyte powder and the powder is pressed within the die with the wire electrodes. The wire-electrodes and the pressed oxide-electrolyte powder are sintered to form a ceramic electrolyte base with a reference wire electrode and a sensing wire electrode depending therefrom.

  15. Implanted electrodes for multi-month EEG.

    PubMed

    Jochum, Thomas; Engdahl, Susannah; Kolls, Brad J; Wolf, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    An implanted electroencephalogram (EEG) recorder would help diagnose infrequent seizure-like events. A proof-of-concept study quantified the electrical characteristics of the electrodes planned for the proposed recorder. The electrodes were implanted in an ovine model for eight weeks. Electrode impedance was less than 800 Ohms throughout the study. A frequency-domain determination of sedation performed similarly for surface versus implanted electrodes throughout the study. The time-domain correlation between an implanted electrode and a surface electrode was almost as high as between two surface electrodes (0.86 versus 0.92). EEG-certified clinicians judged that the implanted electrode quality was adequate to excellent and that the implanted electrodes provided the same clinical information as surface electrodes except for a noticeable amplitude difference. No significant issues were found that would stop development of the EEG recorder.

  16. Diffusion of tungsten hexafluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of tungsten hexafluoride

  17. Reduce Confusion about Diffusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebrank, Mary R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents activities that allow students to explore the fundamental but poorly understood concept of diffusion by appealing to their kinesthetic senses first, then challenging their analytical skills as they try to deduce the mathematical principle involved. Presents a computer simulation of diffusion and discusses diffusion's limitations and…

  18. Diffusion Strategy Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, James R.; Sanders, John R.

    A methodology is presented for planning and managing the spread of educational innovations. The first portion of the guide develops a theoretical framework for diffusion which summarizes and capitalizes on the latest marketing and on the latest marketing and diffusion research findings. Major stages in the diffusion paradigm discussed include…

  19. A Student Diffusion Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutzner, Mickey; Pearson, Bryan

    2017-02-01

    Diffusion is a truly interdisciplinary topic bridging all areas of STEM education. When biomolecules are not being moved through the body by fluid flow through the circulatory system or by molecular motors, diffusion is the primary mode of transport over short distances. The direction of the diffusive flow of particles is from high concentration toward low concentration.

  20. Handbook on atmospheric diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, S.R.; Briggs, G.A.; Hosker, R.P. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Basic meteorological concepts are covered as well as plume rise, source effects, and diffusion models. Chapters are included on cooling tower plumes and urban diffusion. Suggestions are given for calculating diffusion in special situations, such as for instantaneous releases over complex terrain, over long distances, and during times when chemical reactions or dry or wet deposition are important. (PSB)

  1. Calcium-Antimony Alloys as Electrodes for Liquid Metal Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Ouchi, T; Kim, H; Ning, XH; Sadoway, DR

    2014-08-08

    The performance of a calcium-antimony (Ca-Sb) alloy serving as the positive electrode in a Ca vertical bar vertical bar Sb liquid metal battery was investigated in an electrochemical cell, Ca(in Bi) vertical bar LiCl-NaCl-CaCl2 vertical bar Ca(in Sb). The equilibrium potential of the Ca-Sb electrode was found to lie on the interval, 1.2-0.95 V versus Ca, in good agreement with electromotive force (emf) measurements in the literature. During both alloying and dealloying of Ca at the Sb electrode, the charge transfer and mass transport at the interface are facile enough that the electrode potential varies linearly from 0.95 to 0.75 V vs Ca(s) as current density varies from 50 to 500 mA cm(-2). The discharge capacity of the Ca vertical bar vertical bar Sb cells increases as the operating temperature increases due to the higher solubility and diffusivity of Ca in Sb. The cell was successfully cycled with high coulombic efficiency (similar to 100%) and small fade rate (<0.01% cycle(-1)). These data combined with the favorable costs of these metals and salts make the Ca vertical bar vertical bar Sb liquid metal battery attractive for grid-scale energy storage. (C) The Author(s) 2014. Published by ECS. All rights reserved.

  2. Diffuse intestinal ganglioneuromatosis in a child

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Mika A.B.; Adler, Brent H.; Arnold, Michael A.; Kumar, Soma; Carvalho, Ryan; Besner, Gail E.

    2014-01-01

    A 7 year old male with a history of congenital neutropenia and growth hormone deficiency presented with abdominal pain, fevers, and diarrhea. Imaging and endoscopy revealed significant inflammation of the ascending colon with stenosis at the level of the hepatic flexure. A right hemicolectomy was performed, and pathologic findings were consistent with diffuse intestinal ganglioneuromatosis. Due to recurrent mass effect at the intestinal anastomotic site detected radiologically, a second intestinal resection was performed 7 months later. Genetic testing was negative for mutations in the RET protooncogene, NF1 and PTEN tumor suppressor genes. We report a case of diffuse intestinal ganglioneuromatosis in a child with congenital neutropenia. PMID:23701793

  3. Abnormal band of lateral meniscus.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Brian; Goldblatt, John

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a case of an "abnormal band" of the lateral meniscus, extending from the posterior horn of the true lateral meniscus to its antero-mid portion, observed during arthroscopy in a 45-year-old white man of Bosnian descent. The periphery of the aberrant lateral meniscus was freely mobile, and not connected to the underlying true lateral meniscus. Preoperative physical examination findings were consistent with medial-sided meniscal pathology only; however, evidence of an anomalous lateral meniscus was seen with magnetic resonance imaging. This anatomical pattern is rare and has been reported in the literature only once, in a report of 2 Asian patients. This article illustrates an anatomical variant of the lateral meniscus in a non-Asian patient with a clinical presentation that has not been previously described. In addition to the case report, the article presents a comprehensive review of the existing body of literature on anomalous lateral meniscus patterns. We believe that the definitions of the types of aberrant meniscus can be clarified to establish improved accuracy in reporting.

  4. Materials and fabrication of electrode scaffolds for deposition of MnO2 and their true performance in supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jianyun; Li, Xiaohong; Wang, Yaming; Walsh, Frank C.; Ouyang, Jia-Hu; Jia, Dechang; Zhou, Yu

    2015-10-01

    MnO2 is a promising electrode material for high energy supercapacitors because of its large pseudo-capacitance. However, MnO2 suffers from low electronic conductivity and poor cation diffusivity, which results in poor utilization and limited rate performance of traditional MnO2 powder electrodes, obtained by pressing a mixed paste of MnO2 powder, conductive additive and polymer binder onto metallic current collectors. Developing binder-free MnO2 electrodes by loading nanoscale MnO2 deposits on pre-fabricated device-ready electrode scaffolds is an effective way to achieve both high power and energy performance. These electrode scaffolds, with interconnected skeletons and pore structures, will not only provide mechanical support and electron collection as traditional current collectors but also fast ion transfer tunnels, leading to high MnO2 utilization and rate performance. This review covers design strategies, materials and fabrication methods for the electrode scaffolds. Rational evaluation of the true performance of these electrodes is carried out, which clarifies that some of the electrodes with as-claimed exceptional performances lack potential in practical applications due to poor mass loading of MnO2 and large dead volume of inert scaffold materials/void spaces in the electrode structure. Possible ways to meet this challenge and bring MnO2 electrodes from laboratory studies to real-world applications are considered.

  5. Field dependence, laterality and the EEG.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, K P; Shaw, J C

    1978-03-01

    There is evidence that an individual's 'cognitive style' is related to lateralization of function in the brain, and that this in turn is associated with characteristic EEG coherence spectra. We tested the hypothesis that field dependence (a measure of cognitive organization) and hand preference (a measure of functional organisation) relate to EEG coherence measures in a specific way. The predicted associations were based on the proposal that right preferent individuals have a more specific, and left preferents a more diffuse, system of functional units in the cortex. The association between alpha band resting EEG coherence (sampled on two occasions for both hemispheres from 12 right and 12 left preferent individuals), field dependence (Nyborg's criterion of frame dependence on a rod and frame test), and laterality scores (questionnaire and manual performance), was measured by Kendall's coefficient of concordance (W). Significant associations support the proposed model except for coherence within the left preferents' right hemisphere. It is argued that the right hemisphere is more specifically organised in strong sinistrals than the general model would predict. These and other results support the use of EEC coherence measures in the study of cerebral functional organisation.

  6. Extraction electrode geometry for a calutron

    DOEpatents

    Veach, A.M.; Bell, W.A. Jr.

    1975-09-23

    This patent relates to an improved geometry for the extraction electrode and the ground electrode utilized in the operation of a calutron. The improved electrodes are constructed in a partial-picture-frame fashion with the slits of both electrodes formed by two tungsten elongated rods. Additional parallel spaced-apart rods in each electrode are used to establish equipotential surfaces over the rest of the front of the ion source. (auth)

  7. What causes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Sarah; Al Khleifat, Ahmad; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease predominantly affecting upper and lower motor neurons, resulting in progressive paralysis and death from respiratory failure within 2 to 3 years. The peak age of onset is 55 to 70 years, with a male predominance. The causes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are only partly known, but they include some environmental risk factors as well as several genes that have been identified as harbouring disease-associated variation. Here we review the nature, epidemiology, genetic associations, and environmental exposures associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  8. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Chung, Sung-Yoon; Bloking, Jason T.; Andersson, Anna M.

    2008-03-18

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z(A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).s- ub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  9. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Yet-Ming [Framingham, MA; Chung, Sung-Yoon [Incheon, KR; Bloking, Jason T [Mountain View, CA; Andersson, Anna M [Vasteras, SE

    2012-04-03

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  10. An Autopsy Case of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis with Diaphragm Pacing

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hisashi; Kamei, Tetsumasa; Odake, Sanae; Nakano, Masayuki; Okeda, Riki; Kohriki, Shunsaku; Kawachi, Jun; Onders, Raymond P.; Yoshii, Fumihito

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory insufficiency is a critical problem in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. We herein present the case of an autopsied patient with sporadic ALS who underwent diaphragm pacing (DP). The pathology showed several localized adhesions with a markedly atrophied diaphragm. A marked loss of motor neurons with Bunina bodies and phosphorylated TDP-43 positive inclusions was found in the spinal cord and primary motor cortex. Mild hyalinization and a few multinucleated giant cells were present around the electrode tracks in the diaphragm. However, no infiltration of inflammatory cells was detected. Our findings suggest that full-time DP might not cause severe damage to adjacent diaphragm tissue. PMID:27904119

  11. An Autopsy Case of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis with Diaphragm Pacing.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hisashi; Kamei, Tetsumasa; Odake, Sanae; Nakano, Masayuki; Okeda, Riki; Kohriki, Shunsaku; Kawachi, Jun; Onders, Raymond P; Yoshii, Fumihito

    Respiratory insufficiency is a critical problem in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. We herein present the case of an autopsied patient with sporadic ALS who underwent diaphragm pacing (DP). The pathology showed several localized adhesions with a markedly atrophied diaphragm. A marked loss of motor neurons with Bunina bodies and phosphorylated TDP-43 positive inclusions was found in the spinal cord and primary motor cortex. Mild hyalinization and a few multinucleated giant cells were present around the electrode tracks in the diaphragm. However, no infiltration of inflammatory cells was detected. Our findings suggest that full-time DP might not cause severe damage to adjacent diaphragm tissue.

  12. Rotating disk electrode system for elevated pressures and temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Fleige, M. J.; Wiberg, G. K. H.; Arenz, M.

    2015-06-15

    We describe the development and test of an elevated pressure and temperature rotating disk electrode (RDE) system that allows measurements under well-defined mass transport conditions. As demonstrated for the oxygen reduction reaction on polycrystalline platinum (Pt) in 0.5M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, the setup can easily be operated in a pressure range of 1–101 bar oxygen, and temperature of 140 °C. Under such conditions, diffusion limited current densities increase by almost two orders of magnitude as compared to conventional RDE setups allowing, for example, fuel cell catalyst studies under more realistic conditions. Levich plots demonstrate that the mass transport is indeed well-defined, i.e., at low electrode potentials, the measured current densities are fully diffusion controlled, while at higher potentials, a mixed kinetic-diffusion controlled regime is observed. Therefore, the setup opens up a new field for RDE investigations under temperature and current density conditions relevant for low and high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

  13. Controlling the parameters of wet lateral oxidation for VCSEL fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaziat, Majid; Reed, David; Kor, Alex

    2016-03-01

    Physical parameters that need to be controlled during the wet oxidation of VCSEL mesas are numerous and include: temperature uniformity, vapor flow pattern, epitaxial thickness and composition uniformity, diffusion through adjacent layers, oxidation onset delay, etch skirt, and wafer surface prep. We report the results of our studies on some of these factors including vapor flow patterns, and oxidation front monitoring. The results are being used for the optimization of our commercial system for wet lateral oxidation.

  14. Mathematical model for silicon electrode - Part I. 2-d model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikha, Godfrey; De, Sumitava; Gordon, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a 2-dimensional transient numerical model to simulate the electrochemical lithium insertion in a silicon nanowire (Si NW) electrode. The model geometry is a cylindrical Si NW electrode anchored to a copper current collector (Cu CC) substrate. The model solves for diffusion of lithium in Si NW, stress generation in the Si NW due to chemical and elastic strains, stress generation in the Cu CC due to elastic strain, and volume expansion in the Si NW and Cu CC geometries. The evolution of stress components, i.e., radial, axial and tangential stresses in different regions in the Si NW are presented and discussed. The effect of radius of Si NW and lithiation rate, on the maximum stresses developed in the Si NW are also discussed.

  15. Modulation of membrane protein lateral mobility by polyphosphates and polyamines.

    PubMed

    Schindler, M; Koppel, D E; Sheetz, M P

    1980-03-01

    The lateral mobility of fluorescein-labeled membrane glycoproteins was measured in whole unlysed erythrocytes and erythrocyte ghosts by the technique of "fluorescence redistribution after fusion." Measurements were made on polyethylene glycol-fused cell pairs in which only one member of the couplet was initially fluorescently labeled. Diffusion coefficients were estimated from the rate of fluorescence redistribution determined from successive scans with a focused laser beam across individual fused pairs. This technique allows for the analysis of diffusion within cell membranes without the possible damaging photochemical events caused by photobleaching. It was found that lateral mobility of erythrocyte proteins can be increased by the addition of polyphosphates (i.e., ATP and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate) and decreased by the addition of organic polyamines (i.e., neomycin and spermine). This control is exerted by these molecules only when they contact the cytoplasmic side of the membrane and is not dependent upon high-energy phosphates. Microviscosity experiments employing diphenylhexatriene demonstrated no changes in membrane lipid state as a function of these reagents. Our results, in conjunction with data on the physical interactions of cytoskeletal proteins, suggest that the diffusion effector molecules alter the lateral mobility of erythrocyte membrane proteins through modifications of interactions in the shell, which is composed of spectrin, actin, and component 4.1.

  16. Lateral Dominance and Reading Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Albert J.

    1979-01-01

    Theory and research on the relation of lateral dominance to the causation of reading disability are reviewed. Both direct and indirect measures of cerebral hemisphere functioning are considered. (SBH)

  17. Hyperaldosteronism: diagnosis, lateralization, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Adrian M

    2014-06-01

    Primary hyperaldosteronism is an important and commonly unrecognized secondary cause of hypertension. This article provides an overview of the current literature with respect to screening, diagnosis, and lateralization. Selection and outcomes of medical and surgical treatment are discussed.

  18. Long Spin Diffusion Length in Few-Layer Graphene Flakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, W.; Phillips, L. C.; Barbone, M.; Hämäläinen, S. J.; Lombardo, A.; Ghidini, M.; Moya, X.; Maccherozzi, F.; van Dijken, S.; Dhesi, S. S.; Ferrari, A. C.; Mathur, N. D.

    2016-09-01

    We report a spin valve with a few-layer graphene flake bridging highly spin-polarized La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 electrodes, whose surfaces are kept clean during lithographic definition. Sharp magnetic switching is verified using photoemission electron microscopy with x-ray magnetic circular dichroism contrast. A naturally occurring high interfacial resistance ˜12 M Ω facilitates spin injection, and a large resistive switching (0.8 M Ω at 10 K) implies a 70 - 130 μ m spin diffusion length that exceeds previous values obtained with sharp-switching electrodes.

  19. Lidar for Lateral Mixing (LATMIX)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    km, i.e., the “ submesoscale ”. We aim to understand the underlying mechanisms and forcing, as well as the temporal, spatial, and scale variability of...the overall objectives of the Lateral Mixing DRI to try to determine the extent to which submesoscale stirring is driven by a cascade of energy down...technical goal of our work is to develop the use of airborne LIDAR surveys of evolving dye experiments as a tool for studying submesoscale lateral dispersion

  20. Electrochemical communication between microbial cells and electrodes via osmium redox systems.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Kamrul; Patil, Sunil A; Leech, Dónal; Hägerhäll, Cecilia; Gorton, Lo

    2012-12-01

    Electrochemical communication between micro-organisms and electrodes is the integral and fundamental part of BESs (bioelectrochemical systems). The immobilization of bacterial cells on the electrode and ensuring efficient electron transfer to the electrode via a mediator are decisive features of mediated electrochemical biosensors. Notably, mediator-based systems are essential to extract electrons from the non-exoelectrogens, a major group of microbes in Nature. The advantage of using polymeric mediators over diffusible mediators led to the design of osmium redox polymers. Their successful use in enzyme-based biosensors and BFCs (biofuel cells) paved the way for exploring their use in microbial BESs. The present mini-review focuses on osmium-bound redox systems used to date in microbial BESs and their role in shuttling electrons from viable microbial cells to electrodes.

  1. Numerical modelling of needle-grid electrodes for negative surface corona charging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Y.; Chen, G.; Rotaru, M.

    2011-08-01

    Surface potential decay measurement is a simple and low cost tool to examine electrical properties of insulation materials. During the corona charging stage, a needle-grid electrodes system is often used to achieve uniform charge distribution on the surface of the sample. In this paper, a model using COMSOL Multiphysics has been developed to simulate the gas discharge. A well-known hydrodynamic drift-diffusion model was used. The model consists of a set of continuity equations accounting for the movement, generation and loss of charge carriers (electrons, positive and negative ions) coupled with Poisson's equation to take into account the effect of space and surface charges on the electric field. Four models with the grid electrode in different positions and several mesh sizes are compared with a model that only has the needle electrode. The results for impulse current and surface charge density on the sample clearly show the effect of the extra grid electrode with various positions.

  2. Electrocatalysis for oxygen electrodes in fuel cells and water electrolyzers for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prakash, Jai; Tryk, Donald; Yeager, Ernest

    1990-01-01

    The lead ruthenate pyrochlore Pb2Ru2O6.5, in both high- and low-area forms, has been characterized using thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, cyclic voltammetry, and O2 reduction and generation kinetic-mechanistic studies. Mechanisms are proposed. Compounds in which part of the Ru is substituted with Ir have also been prepared. They exhibit somewhat better performance for O2 reduction in porous, gas-fed electrodes than the unsubstituted compound. The anodic corrosion resistance of pyrochlore-based porous electrodes was improved by using two different anionically conducting polymer overlayers, which slow down the diffusion of ruthenate and plumbate out of the electrode. The O2 generation performance was improved with both types of electrodes. With a hydrogel overlayer, the O2 reduction performance was also improved.

  3. Electrochemical study of uranium cations in LiCl-KCl melt using a rotating disk electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Sang-Eun; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Yoon; Park, Tae-Hong; Cho, Young Hwan; Yeon, Jei-Won; Song, Kyuseok

    2013-07-01

    A rotating disk electrode (RDE) measurement technique was employed to investigate the electrochemical REDOX reactions of actinide (An) and lanthanide (Ln) ions in LiCl-KCl molten salt. By using RDE, it is possible to access more exact values of the diffusion coefficient, Tafel slope, and exchange current density. In this work, we constructed RDE setup and electrodes for RDE measurements in high temperature molten salt and measured the electrochemical parameters of the An and Ln ions. The RDE setup is composed of a Pine model MSRX rotator equipped with a rod type of W electrode. The active electrode area was confined to the planar part of the W rod by making meniscus at the LiCl-KCl melt surface.

  4. The effect of an electrical double layer on the voltammetric performance of nanoscale interdigitated electrodes: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Guigen

    2008-11-19

    Finite-element based computational simulation is performed to investigate the effect of an electrical double layer (EDL) on the electrochemical processes of nanometer-scale interdigitated electrodes (nano-IDEs). Results show that the EDL structure will alter the voltammetric current response of nano-IDEs due to the expansion of the diffuse layer into the diffusion layer at the electrode surfaces and the overlap of the electrical fields of the neighboring electrodes. The EDL induced change in the voltammetric current response is more severe for nano-IDEs with a smaller electrode size and gap spacing, and the EDL effect is influenced by the compact layer thickness, the charge valence of the redox species, the electron transfer rate, and the absence of the supporting electrolyte.

  5. Control of edge effects of oxidant electrode

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Peter; Chi, Chen H.

    1981-09-08

    Described is an electrode assembly comprising; a. a porous electrode having a first and second exterior face with a cavity formed in the interior between said exterior faces thereby having first and second interior faces positioned opposite the first and second exterior faces; b. a counter electrode positioned facing each of the first and second exterior faces of the porous electrode; c. means for passing an oxidant through said porous electrode; and d. screening means for blocking the interior face of the porous electrode a greater amount than the blocking of the respective exterior face of the porous electrode, thereby maintaining a differential of oxidant electrode surface between the interior face and the exterior face. The electrode assembly is useful in a metal, halogen, halogen hydrate electrical energy storage device.

  6. Artifacts of the electrode in cochlea implantation and limits in analysis of deep insertion in cone beam tomography (CBT).

    PubMed

    Güldner, C; Wiegand, S; Weiss, R; Bien, S; Sesterhenn, A; Teymoortash, A; Diogo, I

    2012-03-01

    Until now more than 250,000 cochlea implantations have been performed worldwide. The surgical procedure is well standardized. A discussion about the kind of postoperative radiological control has started since cone beam tomography (CBT) has been established in ENT and hearing preservation operations have come more into the focus. Further research has been concentrated on the role of CBT and the insertion of the basal turn. The aim of this study was to look for the possibilities of CBT and deep insertion. The second aim was to analyze the artifacts of cochlea implants in CBT. Three human cadaver ears were implanted with a flex soft electrode of MedEl© in a standard operation procedure with round window insertion and a full insertion. Afterwards 72 CBT sets per ear were performed with different X-ray-tube currents (2-10 mA), voltages (72-90 kV), and exposure times (9 and 17 s). On each data set, the radiological diameter of the electrode 9 (basal), electrode 2 (apical), the diameter of the cable next to the electrodes 9 and 2, and the associated diameter of the cochlea next to the electrodes 9 and 2 were evaluated. Additionally, a comparison to the real diameter was done. The mean radiological diameters of the measure point at electrode 9 were: electrode = 1.19 mm; cable = 0.65 mm; cochlea = 1.77 mm. Results for measure point at electrode 2 were: electrode = 0.98 mm; cable = 0.48 mm; cochlea = 1.21 mm. The real diameters were at electrode 9 in lateral view 0.58 mm and in top view 0.63 mm and at electrode 2 in lateral view 0.36 mm and in top view 0.50 mm. Differences between the diameters of the electrode 9 and 2 were highly significant. Interestingly, the real diameter of the electrode is half in comparison to the radiological one. Also in comparison to the diameter of the cable and the associated electrode is nearly half. Nearly 50% artifact exists on radiologic evaluation of the diameter of the electrode. Varying the X-ray adjustments did not lead to optimized

  7. Neural stimulation and recording electrodes.

    PubMed

    Cogan, Stuart F

    2008-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of nerve tissue and recording of neural electrical activity are the basis of emerging prostheses and treatments for spinal cord injury, stroke, sensory deficits, and neurological disorders. An understanding of the electrochemical mechanisms underlying the behavior of neural stimulation and recording electrodes is important for the development of chronically implanted devices, particularly those employing large numbers of microelectrodes. For stimulation, materials that support charge injection by capacitive and faradaic mechanisms are available. These include titanium nitride, platinum, and iridium oxide, each with certain advantages and limitations. The use of charge-balanced waveforms and maximum electrochemical potential excursions as criteria for reversible charge injection with these electrode materials are described and critiqued. Techniques for characterizing electrochemical properties relevant to stimulation and recording are described with examples of differences in the in vitro and in vivo response of electrodes.

  8. Composite Electrodes for Electrochemical Supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Yang, Quan Min; Zhitomirsky, Igor

    2010-03-01

    Manganese dioxide nanofibers with length ranged from 0.1 to 1 μm and a diameter of about 4-6 nm were prepared by a chemical precipitation method. Composite electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors were fabricated by impregnation of the manganese dioxide nanofibers and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) into porous Ni plaque current collectors. Obtained composite electrodes, containing 85% of manganese dioxide and 15 mass% of MWCNT, as a conductive additive, with total mass loading of 7-15 mg cm-2, showed a capacitive behavior in 0.5-M Na2SO4 solutions. The decrease in stirring time during precipitation of the nanofibers resulted in reduced agglomeration and higher specific capacitance (SC). The highest SC of 185 F g-1 was obtained at a scan rate of 2 mV s-1 for mass loading of 7 mg cm-2. The SC decreased with increasing scan rate and increasing electrode mass.

  9. Nanofiber membrane-electrode-assembly and method of fabricating same

    SciTech Connect

    Pintauro, Peter N.; Ballengee, Jason; Brodt, Matthew

    2016-02-02

    In one aspect of the present invention, a fuel cell membrane-electrode-assembly (MEA) has an anode electrode, a cathode electrode, and a membrane disposed between the anode electrode and the cathode electrode. At least one of the anode electrode, the cathode electrode and the membrane is formed of electrospun nanofibers.

  10. Flat Panel Light Source with Lateral Gate Structure Based on SiC Nanowire Field Emitters

    PubMed Central

    Youh, Meng-Jey; Tseng, Chun-Lung; Jhuang, Meng-Han; Chiu, Sheng-Cheng; Huang, Li-Hu; Gong, Jyun-An; Li, Yuan-Yao

    2015-01-01

    A field-emission light source with high luminance, excellent luminance uniformity, and tunable luminance characteristics with a novel lateral-gate structure is demonstrated. The lateral-gate triode structure comprises SiC nanowire emitters on a Ag cathode electrode and a pair of Ag gate electrodes placed laterally on both sides of the cathode. The simple and cost-effective screen printing technique is employed to pattern the lateral-gates and cathode structure on soda lime glass. The area coverage of the screen-printed cathode and gates on the glass substrate (area: 6 × 8 cm2) is in the range of 2.04% – 4.74% depending on the set of cathode-gate electrodes on the substrate. The lateral-gate structure with its small area coverage exhibits a two-dimensional luminance pattern with high brightness and good luminance uniformity. A maximum luminance of 10952 cd/cm2 and a luminance uniformity of >90% can be achieved with a gate voltage of 500 V and an anode voltage of 4000 V, with an anode current of 1.44 mA and current leakage to the gate from the cathode of about 10%. PMID:26042359

  11. Gallium nitride electrodes for membrane-based electrochemical biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, T.; Steinhoff, G.; von Ribbeck, H.-G.; Stutzmannn, M.; Eickhoff, M.; Tanaka, M.

    2009-10-01

    We report on the deposition of planar lipid bilayers (supported membranes) on gallium nitride (GaN) electrodes for potential applications as membrane-based biosensors. The kinetics of the lipid membrane formation upon vesicle fusion were monitored by simultaneous measurements of resistance and capacitance of the membrane using AC impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range between 50mHz and 50kHz. We could identify a two-step process of membrane spreading and self-healing. Despite its relatively low resistance, the membrane can be modeled by a parallel combination of an ideal resistor and capacitor, indicating that the membrane efficiently blocks the diffusion of ions.

  12. Gallium nitride electrodes for membrane-based electrochemical biosensors.

    PubMed

    Schubert, T; Steinhoff, G; von Ribbeck, H-G; Stutzmannn, M; Eickhoff, M; Tanaka, M

    2009-10-01

    We report on the deposition of planar lipid bilayers (supported membranes) on gallium nitride (GaN) electrodes for potential applications as membrane-based biosensors. The kinetics of the lipid membrane formation upon vesicle fusion were monitored by simultaneous measurements of resistance and capacitance of the membrane using AC impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range between 50 mHz and 50 kHz. We could identify a two-step process of membrane spreading and self-healing. Despite its relatively low resistance, the membrane can be modeled by a parallel combination of an ideal resistor and capacitor, indicating that the membrane efficiently blocks the diffusion of ions.

  13. Nanoscale phase change memory with graphene ribbon electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnam, Ashkan; Xiong, Feng; Cappelli, Andrea; Wang, Ning C.; Carrion, Enrique A.; Hong, Sungduk; Dai, Yuan; Lyons, Austin S.; Chow, Edmond K.; Piccinini, Enrico; Jacoboni, Carlo; Pop, Eric

    2015-09-01

    Phase change memory (PCM) devices are known to reduce in power consumption as the bit volume and contact area of their electrodes are scaled down. Here, we demonstrate two types of low-power PCM devices with lateral graphene ribbon electrodes: one in which the graphene is patterned into narrow nanoribbons and the other where the phase change material is patterned into nanoribbons. The sharp graphene "edge" contacts enable switching with threshold voltages as low as ˜3 V, low programming currents (<1 μA SET and <10 μA RESET) and OFF/ON resistance ratios >100. Large-scale fabrication with graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition also enables the study of heterogeneous integration and that of variability for such nanomaterials and devices.

  14. Fluid streaming above interdigitated electrodes in dielectrophoresis experiments.

    PubMed

    Stanke, Sandra; Bier, Frank F; Hölzel, Ralph

    2011-09-01

    For the investigation of alternating current electrokinetic effects, a system is presented that allows for the simultaneous observation of fluid flow above and around microelectrodes in all three directions in space. Beside the usual microscopical view from top, lateral observation through the same objective is made possible by two small mirrors that are placed next to the electrodes. Fluid flow and movement of fluorescent nanoparticles above interdigitated electrodes are monitored by fluorescence microscopy and digital imaging and are further analysed by image processing. Field frequencies are varied from 10 Hz to 1 GHz at up to 10V(rms) . Electrical conductivity of the fluid is monitored in situ in the actual measuring chamber.

  15. Nanoengineered membrane electrode assembly interface

    DOEpatents

    Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A

    2013-08-06

    A membrane electrode structure suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) that comprises membrane-affixed metal nanoparticles whose formation is controlled by a photochemical process that controls deposition of the metal nanoparticles using a photocatalyst integrated with a polymer electrolyte membrane, such as an ionomer membrane. Impregnation of the polymer membrane with the photocatalyst prior to metal deposition greatly reduces the required amount of metal precursor in the deposition reaction solution by restricting metal reduction substantially to the formation of metal nanoparticles affixed on or near the surface of the polymer membrane with minimal formation of metallic particles not directly associated with the membrane.

  16. Method for manufacturing magnetohydrodynamic electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Killpatrick, D.H.; Thresh, H.R.

    1980-06-24

    A method of manufacturing electrodes for use in a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator is described comprising the steps of preparing a billet having a core of a first metal, a tubular sleeve of a second metal, and an outer sheath of an extrusile metal; evacuating the space between the parts of the assembled billet; extruding the billet; and removing the outer jacket. The extruded bar may be made into electrodes by cutting and bending to the shape required for an MHD channel frame. The method forms a bond between the first metal of the core and the second metal of the sleeve strong enough to withstand a hot and corrosive environment.

  17. Production method of nickel electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikeda, H.; Ohira, T.

    1982-01-01

    A nickel electrode having improved charging efficiency, an increased coefficient of discharging utilization, and large capacity is disclosed. Nickel hydroxide or nickel oxide is retained in a porous nickel substrate which is immersed in an aqueous solution of cobalt acetate with a pH 4.0 to 6.8. The electrode thus obtained is then immersed in an alkaline solution or heated to change cobalt acetate into cobalt hydroxide or cobalt oxide whereby the surface of nickel active material is covered with cobalt crystals and alloying of cobalt and nickel is promoted at the same time.

  18. Conducting polyaniline nanowire electrode junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaikwad, Sumedh; Bodkhe, Gajanan; Deshmukh, Megha; Patil, Harshada; Rushi, Arti; Shirsat, Mahendra D.; Koinkar, Pankaj; Kim, Yun-Hae; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a synthesis of conducting polyaniline nanowires electrode junction (CPNEJ) has been reported. Conducting polyaniline nanowires electrode junction on Si/SiO2 substrate (having 3 μm gap between two gold microelectrodes) is prepared. Polyaniline nanowires with diameter (ca. 140 nm to 160 nm) were synthesized by one step electrochemical polymerization using galvanostatic (constant current) technique to bridge this gap. The surface morphology of CPNEJ was studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The synthesized CPNEJ is an excellent platform for biosensor applications.

  19. Ceramic component for MHD electrode

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, David D.; Bates, Junior L.

    1981-01-01

    A ceramic component which exhibits electrical conductivity down to near room temperatures has the formula: Hf.sub.x In.sub.y A.sub.z O.sub.2 where x=0.1 to 0.4, y=0.3 to 0.6, z=0.1 to 0.4 and A is a lanthanide rare earth or yttrium. The component is suitable for use in the fabrication of MHD electrodes or as the current leadout portion of a composite electrode with other ceramic components.

  20. Ceramic components for MHD electrode

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, D.D.

    A ceramic component which exhibits electrical conductivity down to near room temperatures has the formula: Hf/sub x/In/sub y/A/sub z/O/sub 2/ where x = 0.1 to 0.4, y = 0.3 to 0.6, z = 0.1 to 0.4 and A is a lanthanide rare earth or yttrium. The component is suitable for use in the fabrication of MHD electrodes or as the current leadout portion of a composite electrode with other ceramic components.