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Sample records for lateral diffusion electrodes

  1. Decreasing lateral diffusion of photo-generated carriers for light-addressable potentiometric array by using meshed working electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dong; Liu, ShiBin; Yin, ShiMin; Liang, JinTao

    2016-09-01

    Lateral diffusion of photon-generated carriers is a critical factor affecting the signal stability and spatial resolution of light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) array. LAPS with meshed working electrode for rejecting lateral diffusion is presented. Simulation shows that using meshed working electrode can resist the lateral distribution. In an experiment, the inhibition of lateral distribution and the signal stability was studied. Results showed, using the meshed working electrode, the ability to reject the lateral distribution and the signal stability is obviously enhanced. Research in this paper may help to enhance spatial resolution and detection stability of LAPS.

  2. Lateral Diffusion in an Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Saxton, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    Lateral diffusion of molecules in lipid bilayer membranes can be hindered by the presence of impermeable domains of gel-phase lipid or of proteins. Effective-medium theory and percolation theory are used to evaluate the effective lateral diffusion constant as a function of the area fraction of fluid-phase lipid and the permeability of the obstructions to the diffusing species. Applications include the estimation of the minimum fraction of fluid lipid needed for bacterial growth, and the enhancement of diffusion-controlled reactions by the channeling effect of solid patches of lipid. PMID:7052153

  3. The structure of hydrophobic gas diffusion electrodes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giner, J.

    1972-01-01

    The 'flooded agglomerate' model of the Teflon-bonded gas diffusion electrode is discussed. A mathematical treatment of the 'flooded agglomerate' model is given; it can be used to predict the performance of the electrode as a function of measurable physical parameters.

  4. Lateral drug diffusion in human nails.

    PubMed

    Palliyil, Biji B; Li, Cong; Owaisat, Suzan; Lebo, David B

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of the current work is to demonstrate the process of passive lateral diffusion in the human nail plate and its effect on the passive transungual permeation of antifungal drug ciclopirox olamine (CPO). A water soluble dye, methyl red sodium salt (MR) was used to visualize the process of lateral diffusion using a novel suspended nail experiment. The decline in concentration of CPO correlates with that of concentration of MR from the proximal to the distal end of the nail in suspended nail study. Three toenails each were trimmed to 5 mm × 5 mm (25 mm(2)), 7 mm × 7 mm (49 mm(2)), and 9 mm × 9 mm (81 mm(2)) to study the extent and effect of lateral diffusion of the CPO on its in vitro transungual permeation. The permeation flux of CPO decreased as the surface area of the toenail increased. There was a positive correlation between the concentrations of CPO and MR in the area of application and in the peripheral area of the toenails of the three surface areas, confirming the findings in the suspended nail experiment. Profound lateral diffusion of CPO was demonstrated and shown to reduce the in vitro passive transungual drug permeation and prolong the lag-time in human toenails. The study data implies that during passive in vitro transungual permeation experiments, the peripheral nail around the area of drug application has to be kept to a minimum, in order to get reliable data which mimics the in vivo situation.

  5. DIFFUSION IN BIOFILMS RESPIRING ON ELECTRODES

    PubMed Central

    Renslow, RS; Babauta, JT; Majors, PD; Beyenal, H

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to measure spatially and temporally resolved effective diffusion coefficients (De) in biofilms respiring on electrodes. Two model electrochemically active biofilms, Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, were investigated. A novel nuclear magnetic resonance microimaging perfusion probe capable of simultaneous electrochemical and pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR) techniques was used. PFG-NMR allowed noninvasive, nondestructive, high spatial resolution in situ De measurements in living biofilms respiring on electrodes. The electrodes were polarized so that they would act as the sole terminal electron acceptor for microbial metabolism. We present our results as both two-dimensional De heat maps and surface-averaged relative effective diffusion coefficient (Drs) depth profiles. We found that 1) Drs decreases with depth in G. sulfurreducens biofilms, following a sigmoid shape; 2) Drs at a given location decreases with G. sulfurreducens biofilm age; 3) average De and Drs profiles in G. sulfurreducens biofilms are lower than those in S. oneidensis biofilms—the G. sulfurreducens biofilms studied here were on average 10 times denser than the S. oneidensis biofilms; and 4) halting the respiration of a G. sulfurreducens biofilm decreases the De values. Density, reflected by De, plays a major role in the extracellular electron transfer strategies of electrochemically active biofilms. PMID:23420623

  6. Diffusion in biofilms respiring on electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Renslow, Ryan S.; Babauta, Jerome T.; Majors, Paul D.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2012-11-15

    The goal of this study was to measure spatially and temporally resolved effective diffusion coefficients (De) in biofilms respiring on electrodes. Two model electrochemically active biofilms, Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, were investigated. A novel nuclear magnetic resonance microimaging perfusion probe capable of simultaneous electrochemical and pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR) techniques was used. PFG-NMR allowed for noninvasive, nondestructive, high spatial resolution in situ De measurements in living biofilms respiring on electrodes. The electrodes were polarized so that they would act as the sole terminal electron acceptor for microbial metabolism. We present our results as both two-dimensional De heat maps and surface-averaged relative effective diffusion coefficient (Drs) depth profiles. We found that (1) Drs decreases with depth in G. sulfurreducens biofilms, following a sigmoid shape; (2) Drs at a given location decreases with G. sulfurreducens biofilm age; (3) average De and Drs profiles in G. sulfurreducens biofilms are lower than those in S. oneidensis biofilms—the G. sulfurreducens biofilms studied here were on average 10 times denser than the S. oneidensis biofilms; and (4) halting the respiration of a G. sulfurreducens biofilm decreases the De values. Density, reflected by De, plays a major role in the extracellular electron transfer strategies of electrochemically active biofilms.

  7. Penetration and lateral diffusion characteristics of polycrystalline graphene barriers.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Taeshik; Mun, Jeong Hun; Cho, Byung Jin; Kim, Taek-Soo

    2014-01-07

    We report penetration and lateral diffusion behavior of environmental molecules on synthesized polycrystalline graphene. Penetration occurs through graphene grain boundaries resulting in local oxidation. However, when the penetrated molecules diffuse laterally, the oxidation region will expand. Therefore, we measured the lateral diffusion rate along the graphene-copper interface for the first time by the environment-assisted crack growth test. It is clearly shown that the lateral diffusion is suppressed due to the high van der Waals interaction. Finally, we employed bilayer graphene for a perfect diffusion barrier facilitated by decreased defect density and increased lateral diffusion path.

  8. Coupled diffusion and mechanics in battery electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshghinejad, Ahmadreza

    We are living in a world with continuous production and consumption of energy. The energy production in the past decades has started to move away from petrochemical sources toward sustainable sources such as solar, wind and geothermal. Also, the energy consumption is further adapting to the sustainable sources. For instance, in recent years electric vehicles are growing fast that can consume sustainable electric energy stored in their batteries. In this direction, in order to further move toward sustainable energy, materials are becoming increasingly important for storing electric energy. Although, currently the technologies such as Li-ion batteries and solid-oxide fuel cells are commercially available for energy applications, improvements are crucial for the next generation of many other technologies producing or consuming sustainable energies. A critical aspect of the electrochemical activities involved in energy storage technologies such as Li-ion batteries and solid-oxide fuel cells is the diffusion of ions into the electrode materials. This process ultimately governs various functional properties of the batteries such as capacity and charging/discharging rates. The first goal of this dissertation is to develop mathematical tools to analyze the ionic diffusion and investigate its coupling with mechanics in electrodes. For this purpose, a thermodynamics-based modeling framework is developed and numerically solved using two numerical methods to analyze ionic diffusion in heterogeneous and structured electrodes. The next goal of this dissertation is to develop and analyze characterization techniques to probe the electrochemical processes at the nano-scale. To this end, the mathematical models are first employed to model a previously developed Atomic Force Microscopy based technique to probe local electrochemical activities called Electrochemical Strain Microscopy (ESM). This method probes the activities by inducing AC electric field to perturb ionic activities and

  9. Penetration and lateral diffusion characteristics of polycrystalline graphene barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Taeshik; Mun, Jeong Hun; Cho, Byung Jin; Kim, Taek-Soo

    2013-12-01

    We report penetration and lateral diffusion behavior of environmental molecules on synthesized polycrystalline graphene. Penetration occurs through graphene grain boundaries resulting in local oxidation. However, when the penetrated molecules diffuse laterally, the oxidation region will expand. Therefore, we measured the lateral diffusion rate along the graphene-copper interface for the first time by the environment-assisted crack growth test. It is clearly shown that the lateral diffusion is suppressed due to the high van der Waals interaction. Finally, we employed bilayer graphene for a perfect diffusion barrier facilitated by decreased defect density and increased lateral diffusion path.We report penetration and lateral diffusion behavior of environmental molecules on synthesized polycrystalline graphene. Penetration occurs through graphene grain boundaries resulting in local oxidation. However, when the penetrated molecules diffuse laterally, the oxidation region will expand. Therefore, we measured the lateral diffusion rate along the graphene-copper interface for the first time by the environment-assisted crack growth test. It is clearly shown that the lateral diffusion is suppressed due to the high van der Waals interaction. Finally, we employed bilayer graphene for a perfect diffusion barrier facilitated by decreased defect density and increased lateral diffusion path. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03849a

  10. Rapid prototyping of electrochemical lateral flow devices: stencilled electrodes.

    PubMed

    Aller Pellitero, Miguel; Kitsara, Maria; Eibensteiner, Friedrich; del Campo, F Javier

    2016-04-21

    A straightforward and very cost effective method is proposed to prototype electrodes using pressure sensitive adhesives (PSA) and a simple cutting technique. Two cutting methods, namely blade cutting and CO2 laser ablation, are compared and their respective merits are discussed. The proposed method consists of turning the protective liner on the adhesive into a stencil to apply screen-printing pastes. After the electrodes have been printed, the liner is removed and the PSA can be used as a backing material for standard lateral flow membranes. We present the fabrication of band electrodes down to 250 μm wide, and their characterization using microscopy techniques and cyclic voltammetry. The prototyping approach presented here facilitates the development of new electrochemical devices even if very limited fabrication resources are available. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a simple lateral-flow device capable of determining glucose in blood. The prototyping approach presented here is highly suitable for the development of novel electroanalytical tools.

  11. Characterization of gas diffusion electrodes for metal-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danner, Timo; Eswara, Santhana; Schulz, Volker P.; Latz, Arnulf

    2016-08-01

    Gas diffusion electrodes are commonly used in high energy density metal-air batteries for the supply of oxygen. Hydrophobic binder materials ensure the coexistence of gas and liquid phase in the pore network. The phase distribution has a strong influence on transport processes and electrochemical reactions. In this article we present 2D and 3D Rothman-Keller type multiphase Lattice-Boltzmann models which take into account the heterogeneous wetting behavior of gas diffusion electrodes. The simulations are performed on FIB-SEM 3D reconstructions of an Ag model electrode for predefined saturation of the pore space with the liquid phase. The resulting pressure-saturation characteristics and transport correlations are important input parameters for modeling approaches on the continuum scale and allow for an efficient development of improved gas diffusion electrodes.

  12. Tunable diffusive lateral inhibition in chemical cells⋆

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Tompkins, Nathan; Gonzalez-Ochoa, Hector; Fraden, Seth

    2015-01-01

    The Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction has become the prototype of nonlinear chemical dynamics. Microfluidic techniques provide a convenient method for emulsifying BZ solutions into monodispersed drops with diameters of tens to hundreds of microns, providing a unique system in which reaction-diffusion theory can be quantitatively tested. In this work, we investigate monolayers of microfluidically generated BZ drops confined in close-packed two-dimensional (2D) arrays through experiments and finite element simulations. We describe the transition from oscillatory to stationary chemical states with increasing coupling strength, controlled by independently varying the reaction chemistry within a drop and diffusive flux between drops. For stationary drops, we studied how the ratio of stationary oxidized to stationary reduced drops varies with coupling strength. In addition, using simulation, we quantified the chemical heterogeneity sufficient to induce mixed stationary and oscillatory patterns. PMID:25795263

  13. Lateral PNP bipolar transistor with aiding field diffusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, R. C.; Mc Cann, D. H.

    1969-01-01

    Fabrication technique produces field aided lateral PNP transistors compatible with micropower switching circuits. The sub-collector diffusion is performed with phosphorus as the dopant and the epitaxy is grown using the higher temperature silicon tetrachloride process.

  14. Numerical evaluation of lateral diffusion inside diffusive gradients in thin films samplers.

    PubMed

    Santner, Jakob; Kreuzeder, Andreas; Schnepf, Andrea; Wenzel, Walter W

    2015-05-19

    Using numerical simulation of diffusion inside diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) samplers, we show that the effect of lateral diffusion inside the sampler on the solute flux into the sampler is a nonlinear function of the diffusion layer thickness and the physical sampling window size. In contrast, earlier work concluded that this effect was constant irrespective of parameters of the sampler geometry. The flux increase caused by lateral diffusion inside the sampler was determined to be ∼8.8% for standard samplers, which is considerably lower than the previous estimate of ∼20%. Lateral diffusion is also propagated to the diffusive boundary layer (DBL), where it leads to a slightly stronger decrease in the mass uptake than suggested by the common 1D diffusion model that is applied for evaluating DGT results. We introduce a simple correction procedure for lateral diffusion and demonstrate how the effect of lateral diffusion on diffusion in the DBL can be accounted for. These corrections often result in better estimates of the DBL thickness (δ) and the DGT-measured concentration than earlier approaches and will contribute to more accurate concentration measurements in solute monitoring in waters.

  15. Numerical Evaluation of Lateral Diffusion Inside Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films Samplers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Using numerical simulation of diffusion inside diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) samplers, we show that the effect of lateral diffusion inside the sampler on the solute flux into the sampler is a nonlinear function of the diffusion layer thickness and the physical sampling window size. In contrast, earlier work concluded that this effect was constant irrespective of parameters of the sampler geometry. The flux increase caused by lateral diffusion inside the sampler was determined to be ∼8.8% for standard samplers, which is considerably lower than the previous estimate of ∼20%. Lateral diffusion is also propagated to the diffusive boundary layer (DBL), where it leads to a slightly stronger decrease in the mass uptake than suggested by the common 1D diffusion model that is applied for evaluating DGT results. We introduce a simple correction procedure for lateral diffusion and demonstrate how the effect of lateral diffusion on diffusion in the DBL can be accounted for. These corrections often result in better estimates of the DBL thickness (δ) and the DGT-measured concentration than earlier approaches and will contribute to more accurate concentration measurements in solute monitoring in waters. PMID:25877251

  16. High Speed, Low Cost Fabrication of Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Membrane Electrode Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    DeCastro, Emory S.; Tsou, Yu-Min; Liu, Zhenyu

    2013-09-20

    Fabrication of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) depends on creating inks or pastes of catalyst and binder, and applying this suspension to either the membrane (catalyst coated membrane) or gas diffusion media (gas diffusion electrode) and respectively laminating either gas diffusion media or gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) to the membrane. One barrier to cost effective fabrication for either of these approaches is the development of stable and consistent suspensions. This program investigated the fundamental forces that destabilize the suspensions and developed innovative approaches to create new, highly stable formulations. These more concentrated formulations needed fewer application passes, could be coated over longer and wider substrates, and resulted in significantly lower coating defects. In March of 2012 BASF Fuel Cell released a new high temperature product based on these advances, whereby our customers received higher performing, more uniform MEAs resulting in higher stack build yields. Furthermore, these new materials resulted in an “instant” increase in capacity due to higher product yields and material throughput. Although not part of the original scope of this program, these new formulations have also led us to materials that demonstrate equivalent performance with 30% less precious metal in the anode. This program has achieved two key milestones in DOE’s Manufacturing R&D program: demonstration of processes for direct coating of electrodes and continuous in-line measurement for component fabrication.

  17. Lateral Membrane Diffusion Modulated by a Minimal Actin Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Fabian; Vogel, Sven K.; Schwille, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion of lipids and proteins within the cell membrane is essential for numerous membrane-dependent processes including signaling and molecular interactions. It is assumed that the membrane-associated cytoskeleton modulates lateral diffusion. Here, we use a minimal actin cortex to directly study proposed effects of an actin meshwork on the diffusion in a well-defined system. The lateral diffusion of a lipid and a protein probe at varying densities of membrane-bound actin was characterized by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). A clear correlation of actin density and reduction in mobility was observed for both the lipid and the protein probe. At high actin densities, the effect on the protein probe was ∼3.5-fold stronger compared to the lipid. Moreover, addition of myosin filaments, which contract the actin mesh, allowed switching between fast and slow diffusion in the minimal system. Spot variation FCS was in accordance with a model of fast microscopic diffusion and slower macroscopic diffusion. Complementing Monte Carlo simulations support the analysis of the experimental FCS data. Our results suggest a stronger interaction of the actin mesh with the larger protein probe compared to the lipid. This might point toward a mechanism where cortical actin controls membrane diffusion in a strong size-dependent manner. PMID:23561523

  18. Lateral diffusion in inhomogeneous membranes. Model membranes containing cholesterol.

    PubMed Central

    Owicki, J C; McConnell, H M

    1980-01-01

    The problem of lateral diffusion in inhomogeneous membranes is illustrated by a theoretical calculation of the lateral diffusion of a fluorescent lipid probe in binary mixtures of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol under conditions of temperature and composition such that this lipid mixture consists of alternating parallel domains of fluid and solid lipid, having separations that are small compared with the distance scale employed in photobleaching experiments. The theoretical calculations clearly illustrate how inhomogeneities in membrane composition affecting the lateral motion of membrane components on a small (10-100 nm) distance scale can give complex diffusive responses in experiments such as fluorescence photobleaching that employ comparatively macroscopic distances (10-100 micrometers) for the measurement of diffusive recovery. The theoretical calculations exhibit the unusual dependence of the apparent lateral diffusion coefficient of a fluorescent lipid probe on lipid composition in binary mixtures of cholesterol and phosphatidylcholines as reported by Rubenstein et al. (1979, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 76:15-18). PMID:6894875

  19. Lateral Diffusion on Tubular Membranes: Quantification of Measurements Bias

    PubMed Central

    Sandrin, Fanny; Izeddin, Ignacio; Bassereau, Patricia; Triller, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    Single Particle Tracking (SPT) is a powerful technique for the analysis of the lateral diffusion of the lipid and protein components of biological membranes. In neurons, SPT allows the study of the real-time dynamics of receptors for neurotransmitters that diffuse continuously in and out synapses. In the simplest case where the membrane is flat and is parallel to the focal plane of the microscope the analysis of diffusion from SPT data is relatively straightforward. However, in most biological samples the membranes are curved, which complicates analysis and may lead to erroneous conclusions as for the mode of lateral diffusion. Here we considered the case of lateral diffusion in tubular membranes, such as axons, dendrites or the neck of dendritic spines. Monte Carlo simulations allowed us to evaluate the error in diffusion coefficient (D) calculation if the curvature is not taken into account. The underestimation is determined by the diameter of the tubular surface, the frequency of image acquisition and the degree of mobility itself. We found that projected trajectories give estimates that are 25 to 50% lower than the real D in case of 2D-SPT over the tubular surface. The use of 3D-SPT improved the measurements if the frequency of image acquisition was fast enough in relation to the mobility of the molecules and the diameter of the tube. Nevertheless, the calculation of D from the components of displacements in the axis of the tubular structure gave accurate estimate of D, free of geometrical artefacts. We show the application of this approach to analyze the diffusion of a lipid on model tubular membranes and of a membrane-bound GFP on neurites from cultured rat hippocampal neurons. PMID:21980531

  20. Lateral diffusion on tubular membranes: quantification of measurements bias.

    PubMed

    Renner, Marianne; Domanov, Yegor; Sandrin, Fanny; Izeddin, Ignacio; Bassereau, Patricia; Triller, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    Single Particle Tracking (SPT) is a powerful technique for the analysis of the lateral diffusion of the lipid and protein components of biological membranes. In neurons, SPT allows the study of the real-time dynamics of receptors for neurotransmitters that diffuse continuously in and out synapses. In the simplest case where the membrane is flat and is parallel to the focal plane of the microscope the analysis of diffusion from SPT data is relatively straightforward. However, in most biological samples the membranes are curved, which complicates analysis and may lead to erroneous conclusions as for the mode of lateral diffusion. Here we considered the case of lateral diffusion in tubular membranes, such as axons, dendrites or the neck of dendritic spines. Monte Carlo simulations allowed us to evaluate the error in diffusion coefficient (D) calculation if the curvature is not taken into account. The underestimation is determined by the diameter of the tubular surface, the frequency of image acquisition and the degree of mobility itself. We found that projected trajectories give estimates that are 25 to 50% lower than the real D in case of 2D-SPT over the tubular surface. The use of 3D-SPT improved the measurements if the frequency of image acquisition was fast enough in relation to the mobility of the molecules and the diameter of the tube. Nevertheless, the calculation of D from the components of displacements in the axis of the tubular structure gave accurate estimate of D, free of geometrical artefacts. We show the application of this approach to analyze the diffusion of a lipid on model tubular membranes and of a membrane-bound GFP on neurites from cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

  1. Diffuse charge and Faradaic reactions in porous electrodes.

    PubMed

    Biesheuvel, P M; Fu, Yeqing; Bazant, Martin Z

    2011-06-01

    Porous electrodes instead of flat electrodes are widely used in electrochemical systems to boost storage capacities for ions and electrons, to improve the transport of mass and charge, and to enhance reaction rates. Existing porous electrode theories make a number of simplifying assumptions: (i) The charge-transfer rate is assumed to depend only on the local electrostatic potential difference between the electrode matrix and the pore solution, without considering the structure of the double layer (DL) formed in between; (ii) the charge-transfer rate is generally equated with the salt-transfer rate not only at the nanoscale of the matrix-pore interface, but also at the macroscopic scale of transport through the electrode pores. In this paper, we extend porous electrode theory by including the generalized Frumkin-Butler-Volmer model of Faradaic reaction kinetics, which postulates charge transfer across the molecular Stern layer located in between the electron-conducting matrix phase and the plane of closest approach for the ions in the diffuse part of the DL. This is an elegant and purely local description of the charge-transfer rate, which self-consistently determines the surface charge and does not require consideration of reference electrodes or comparison with a global equilibrium. For the description of the DLs, we consider the two natural limits: (i) the classical Gouy-Chapman-Stern model for thin DLs compared to the macroscopic pore dimensions, e.g., for high-porosity metallic foams (macropores >50 nm) and (ii) a modified Donnan model for strongly overlapping DLs, e.g., for porous activated carbon particles (micropores <2 nm). Our theory is valid for electrolytes where both ions are mobile, and it accounts for voltage and concentration differences not only on the macroscopic scale of the full electrode, but also on the local scale of the DL. The model is simple enough to allow us to derive analytical approximations for the steady-state and early transients. We

  2. Advanced bionics thin lateral and Helix II electrodes: a temporal bone study.

    PubMed

    Wright, Charles G; Roland, Peter S; Kuzma, Janusz

    2005-11-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the insertional properties of two cochlear implant electrodes recently developed by Advanced Bionics Corporation. Anatomic study using human cadaveric temporal bones. The electrode prototypes we tested are the Thin Lateral and Helix II arrays, which incorporate features designed to minimize insertional trauma. A total of eight electrodes (4 of each prototype) were evaluated after insertion into freshly fixed temporal bones. The electrodes were inserted by way of standard cochleostomies, and the specimens were subsequently dissected to assess electrode position, insertion depth, and intracochlear trauma. Quantitative data regarding insertion depths and contact distances from the modiolus are presented for all electrodes tested. The mean insertion depths were 368 degrees for the Thin Lateral electrodes, which are designed to approximate the lateral cochlear wall, and 436 degrees for the Helix II electrodes, which occupy a more medial position in the scala tympani. No evidence of insertional trauma was observed with either electrode. The ease of insertion and absence of trauma were confirmed during additional trials in which electrode behavior was directly observed during insertion into previously opened cochleas. Both electrodes performed favorably in our human temporal bone trials, and both arrays appear promising for clinical use, especially in patients with residual hearing in whom atraumatic insertion is an important objective.

  3. New silicon drift detector design for diminishing lateral diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijzen, E. A.; Schooneveld, E. M.; van Eijk, C. W. E.; Hollander, R. W.

    1993-10-01

    In this paper we present a new drift detector design, which diminishes the effect of lateral diffusion. This is achieved by giving the strips a saw tooth shape. In this way a small electric field in the direction parallel to the surface and perpendicular to the drift direction is established. Therefore the electrons are confined in this direction within the length of one saw tooth. The influences of some important parameters of the saw tooth are discussed.

  4. Lateral Diffusion of Nutrients by Mammalian Herbivores in Terrestrial Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Adam; Doughty, Christopher E.; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2013-01-01

    Animals translocate nutrients by consuming nutrients at one point and excreting them or dying at another location. Such lateral fluxes may be an important mechanism of nutrient supply in many ecosystems, but lack quantification and a systematic theoretical framework for their evaluation. This paper presents a mathematical framework for quantifying such fluxes in the context of mammalian herbivores. We develop an expression for lateral diffusion of a nutrient, where the diffusivity is a biologically determined parameter depending on the characteristics of mammals occupying the domain, including size-dependent phenomena such as day range, metabolic demand, food passage time, and population size. Three findings stand out: (a) Scaling law-derived estimates of diffusion parameters are comparable to estimates calculated from estimates of each coefficient gathered from primary literature. (b) The diffusion term due to transport of nutrients in dung is orders of magnitude large than the coefficient representing nutrients in bodymass. (c) The scaling coefficients show that large herbivores make a disproportionate contribution to lateral nutrient transfer. We apply the diffusion equation to a case study of Kruger National Park to estimate the conditions under which mammal-driven nutrient transport is comparable in magnitude to other (abiotic) nutrient fluxes (inputs and losses). Finally, a global analysis of mammalian herbivore transport is presented, using a comprehensive database of contemporary animal distributions. We show that continents vary greatly in terms of the importance of animal-driven nutrient fluxes, and also that perturbations to nutrient cycles are potentially quite large if threatened large herbivores are driven to extinction. PMID:23951141

  5. Time of Flight Electrochemistry: Diffusion Coefficient Measurements Using Interdigitated Array (IDA) Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, F.; Kolesov, G.; Parkinson, B. A.

    2014-01-01

    A simple and straightforward method for measuring diffusion coefficients using interdigitated array (IDA) electrodes is reported. The method does not require that the exact electrode area be known but depends only the size of the gap between the IDA electrode pairs. Electroactive molecules produced at the generator electrode of the IDA by a voltage step or scan can diffuse to the collector electrode and the time delay before the current for the reverse electrochemical reaction is detected at the collector is used to calculate the diffusion coefficient. The measurement of the diffusion rate of Ru(NH3)62+ in aqueous solution has been used as an example measuring diffusion coefficients using this method. Additionally, a digital simulation of the electrochemical response of the IDA electrodes was used to simulate the entire current/voltage/time behavior of the system and verify the experimentally measured diffusion coefficients.

  6. Lateral diffusion of rhodopsin in photoreceptor membrane: a reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Korenyak, Darya A.; Shukolyukov, Sergei A.; Zueva, Lidia V.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose In a series of works between 1972 and 1984, it was established that rhodopsin undergoes rotational and lateral Brownian motion in the plane of photoreceptor membrane. The concept of free movement of proteins of phototransduction cascade is an essential principle of the present scheme of vertebrate phototransduction. This has recently been challenged by findings that show that in certain conditions rhodopsin in the membrane may be dimeric and form extended areas of paracrystalline organization. Such organization seems incompatible with earlier data on free rhodopsin diffusion. Thus we decided to reinvestigate lateral diffusion of rhodopsin and products of its photolysis in photoreceptor membrane specifically looking for indications of possible oligomeric organization. Methods Diffusion exchange by rhodopsin and its photoproducts between bleached and unbleached halves of rod outer segment was traced using high-speed dichroic microspectrophotometer. Measurements were conducted on amphibian (frog, toad, and salamander) and gecko rods. Results We found that the curves that are supposed to reflect the process of diffusion equilibration of rhodopsin in nonuniformly bleached outer segment largely show production of long-lived bleaching intermediate, metarhodopsin III (Meta III). After experimental elimination of Meta III contribution, we observed rhodopsin equilibration time constant was threefold to tenfold longer than estimated previously. However, after proper correction for the geometry of rod discs, it translates into generally accepted value of diffusion constant of approximately 5×10−9 cm2 s−1. Yet, we found that there exists an immobile rhodopsin fraction whose size can vary from virtually zero to 100%, depending on poorly defined factors. Controls suggest that the formation of the immobile fraction is not due to fragmentation of rod outer segment discs but supposedly reflects oligomerization of rhodopsin. Conclusions Implications of the new findings

  7. Hybrid Tunnel Junction-Graphene Transparent Conductive Electrodes for Nitride Lateral Light Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liancheng; Cheng, Yan; Liu, Zhiqiang; Yi, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Hongwei; Wang, Guohong

    2016-01-20

    Graphene transparent conductive electrode (TCE) applications in nitride light emitting diodes (LEDs) are still limited by the large contact resistance and interface barrier between graphene and p-GaN. We propose a hybrid tunnel junction (TJ)-graphene TCE approach for nitride lateral LEDs theoretically and experimentally. Through simulation using commercial advanced physical models of semiconductor devices (APSYS), we found that low tunnel resistance can be achieved in the n(+)-GaN/u-InGaN/p(+)-GaN TJ, which has a lower tunneling barrier and an enhanced electric field due to the polarization effect. Graphene TCEs and hybrid graphene-TJ TCEs are then modeled. The designed hybrid TJ-graphene TCEs show sufficient current diffusion length (Ls), low introduced series resistance, and high transmittance. The assembled TJ LED with the triple-layer graphene (TLG) TCEs show comparable optoelectrical performance (3.99 V@20 mA, LOP = 10.8 mW) with the reference LED with ITO TCEs (3.36 V@20 mA, LOP = 12.6 mW). The experimental results further prove that the TJ-graphene structure can be successfully incorporated as TCEs for lateral nitride LEDs.

  8. Influence of Alcohols on the Lateral Diffusion in Phospholipid Membranes.

    PubMed

    Rifici, Simona; D'Angelo, Giovanna; Crupi, Cristina; Branca, Caterina; Conti Nibali, Valeria; Corsaro, Carmelo; Wanderlingh, Ulderico

    2016-02-25

    The effects of hexanol and octanol on the lateral mobility of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayer are investigated by means of pulsed-gradient stimulated-echo NMR spectroscopy. Three distinct diffusions are identified for the DMPC/alcohol systems. They are ascribed to the water, the alcohol, and the lipid. We find that the presence of alcohols promotes the lipid diffusion process both in the liquid and in the interdigitated phases. Furthermore, using the Arrhenius approach, the activation energies are calculated. An explanation in terms of a free volume model, that takes into account also the observed increase of the activation energy in both phases, is proposed. The results obtained here are compared with those presented in our previous work on 1,2-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) in order to examine the dependence of the lipid translational diffusion process upon the membrane acyl chain length. A peculiar influence of alcohols on different membranes is found.

  9. Determination of spin diffusion length of gold utilizing lateral spin valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yi

    2005-03-01

    Spin transport in lateral metallic structures is an intriguing, emerging area, which offers rich opportunities to explore complex spintronic devices. We demonstrate spin injection, diffusion, and detection in a series of lateral spin valves. A 220-nm wide and 20-nm thick gold wire is defined by e-beam lithography on a SiN substrate. Two permalloy (Py) electrodes, an injector and a detector, are subsequently overlaid on the Au wire. The charge current and spin current are separated by connecting current drain and voltage ground to opposite ends of the Au wire. A charge current that passes through the Py injector into the Au induces a spin accumulation, resulting in a split of the chemical potentials for the spin-up and spin-down electrons in the Au. The injected spins diffuse away on both sides of the injector, resulting in a spin current towards the detector even without a charge current. Depending on the relative orientations of the accumulated spin and the detector spin, a voltage contrast can be observed at the detector/Au interface. This separation of charge and spin currents results in a large percentage value of the spin signals, which rules out the possibilities of spurious effects such as AMR. By changing the injector-detector separation, we observe an exponential decay of the spin signals, and thus determine a spin diffusion length of 63 nm in Au at 10 K.

  10. Lateral Diffusion of Bedload Transport under Laminar Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, C. P.; Houssais, M.; Purohit, P. K.; Durian, D. J.; Jerolmack, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Lateral sediment transport is a key momentum-exchange mechanism to model equilibrium channel geometry and channel bar evolution. We study sediment transport from a statistical mechanical point of view akin to Furbish et al. 2012. This approach holds promise for linking grain-scale motion to macroscopic transport, but there are few data to definitively develop and test such models. We study an experimental model river, composed of monodisperse acrylic spheres dispersed in silicon oil, driven by a layer of fluid under steady shear. We choose to drive fluid flow in the laminar regime (Re < 1) to suppress fluid turbulence and isolate granular and bed structure controls. We use a refractive-index-matched laser scanning technique to observe the motion of particles at the surface of the bed as well as the particle dynamics below the surface. We study how the probability distribution of displacements varies as a function of distance from the bed surface and as a function of distance to the channel center. In the streamwise direction, in agreement with Furbish et al. 2012, we find that the dynamics can be decomposed into an advection and a diffusion term. In the lateral direction, we find a competition between diffusion and an elastic-like interaction with the bed. We study this lateral stochastic process and find a need to introduce two parameters to quantify this competition. The first parameter describes the tendency for particles to reside near the center of the channel and the second parameter describes the kinetic energy distribution of the particles. We study how the requisite averaging scales and ensemble sizes to achieve statistically convergent parameters, and we explore how these parameters depend on the driving rate.

  11. Quantitative diffusion tensor imaging in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: revisited.

    PubMed

    Sage, Caroline A; Van Hecke, Wim; Peeters, Ronald; Sijbers, Jan; Robberecht, Wim; Parizel, Paul; Marchal, Guy; Leemans, Alexander; Sunaert, Stefan

    2009-11-01

    Voxel-based analyses (VBA) are increasingly being used to detect white matter abnormalities with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in different types of pathologies. However, the validity, specificity, and sensitivity of statistical inferences of group differences to a large extent depend on the quality of the spatial normalization of the DTI images. Using high-dimensional nonrigid coregistration techniques that are able to align both the spatial and orientational diffusion information and incorporate appropriate templates that contain this complete DT information may improve this quality. Alternatively, a hybrid technique such as tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) may improve the reliability of the statistical results by generating voxel-wise statistics without the need for perfect image alignment and spatial smoothing. In this study, we have used (1) a coregistration algorithm that was optimized for coregistration of DTI data and (2) a population-based DTI atlas to reanalyze our previously published VBA, which compared the fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity maps of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with those of healthy controls. Additionally, we performed a complementary TBSS analysis to improve our understanding and interpretation of the VBA results. We demonstrate that, as the overall variance of the diffusion properties is lowered after normalizing the DTI data with such recently developed techniques (VBA using our own optimized high-dimensional nonrigid coregistration and TBSS), more reliable voxel-wise statistical results can be obtained than had previously been possible, with our VBA and TBSS yielding very similar results. This study provides support for the view of ALS as a multisystem disease, in which the entire frontotemporal lobe is implicated.

  12. Lateral displacement as a function of particle size using a piecewise curved planar interdigitated electrode array.

    PubMed

    Han, Ki-Ho; Han, Song-I; Frazier, A Bruno

    2009-10-21

    We describe the lateral displacement of a particle passing over a planar interdigitated electrode array at an angle as a function of the particle size. The lateral displacement was also measured as a function of the angle between the electrode and the direction of flow. A simplified line charge model was used for numerically estimating the lateral displacement of fluorescent polystyrene (PS) beads with three different diameters. Using the lateral displacement as a function of particle size, we developed a lateral dielectrophoretic (DEP) microseparator, which enables continuous discrimination of particles by size. The microchannel was divided into three regions, each with an electrode array placed at a different angle with respect to the direction of flow. The experiment using an admixture of 3-, 5-, and 10-microm PS beads showed that the lateral DEP microseparator could continuously separate out 99.86% of the 3-microm beads, 98.82% of the 5-microm beads, and 99.69% of the 10-microm beads, simply by using a 200-kHz 12-Vp-p AC voltage to create the lateral DEP force. The lateral DEP microseparator is thus a practical device for simultaneously separating particles according to size from a heterogeneous admixture.

  13. Lateral distribution and diffusion of plastocyanin in chloroplast thylakoids

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The lateral distribution of plastocyanin in the thylakoid lumen of spinach and pea chloroplasts was studied by combining immunocytochemical localization and kinetic measurements of P700+ reduction at high time resolution. In dark-adapted chloroplasts, the concentration of plastocyanin in the photosystem I containing stroma membranes exceeds that in photosystem II containing grana membranes by a factor of about two. Under these conditions, the reduction of P700+ with a halftime of 12 microseconds after a laser flash of saturating intensity indicates that to greater than 95% of total photosystem I a plastocyanin molecule is bound. An analysis of the labeling densities, the length of the different lumenal regions, and the total amounts of plastocyanin and P700 shows that most of the remaining presumable mobile plastocyanin is found in the granal lumen. This distribution of plastocyanin is consistent with a more negative surface charge density in the stromal than in the granal lumen. During illumination the concentration of plastocyanin in grana increases at the expense of that in stroma lamellae, indicating a light-driven diffusion from stroma to grana regions. Our observations provide evidence that a high concentration of plastocyanin in grana in the light favors the lateral electron transport from cytochrome b6/f complexes in appressed grana across the long distance to photosystem I in nonappressed stroma membranes. PMID:2647767

  14. Electrochemical disinfection using the gas diffusion electrode system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenying; Li, Ping; Dong, Bin

    2010-01-01

    A study on the electrochemical disinfection with H2O2 generated at the gas diffusion electrode (GDE) from active carbon/polytetrafluoroethylene was performed in a non-membrane cell. The effects of Pt load and the pore-forming agent content in GDE, and operating conditions were investigated. The experimental results showed that nearly all bacterial cultures inoculated in the secondary effluent from wastewater treatment plant could be inactivated within 30 min at a current density of 10 mA/cm2. The disinfection improved with increasing Pt load. Addition of the pore-forming agent NH4HCO3 improved the disinfection, while a drop in the pH value resulted in a rapid rise of germicidal efficacy and the disinfection time was shortened with increasing oxygen flow rate. Adsorption was proved to be ineffective in destroying bacteria, while germicidal efficacy increased with current density. The acceleration rate was different, it initially increased with current density. Then decreased, and finally reached a maximum at a current density of 6.7 mA/cm2. The disinfection also improved with decreasing total bacterial count. The germicidal efficacy in the cathode compartment was approximately the same as in the anode compartment, indicating that the contribution of direct oxidation and the indirect treatment of bacterial cultures by hydroxyl radical was similar to the oxidative indirect effect of the generated H2O2.

  15. [Electrochemical disinfection using the gas diffusion electrode system].

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen-Ying; Li, Ping; Dong, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Study on the electrochemical disinfection with the H2O2 produced at the gas diffusion electrode (GDE) prepared from active carbon/ poly-tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was performed in the non-membrane cell. The effects of PTFE mass fraction W(PTFE) and content of the pore-forming agent in GDE m(NH4CO3), operating conditions such as pH value and oxygen flow rate Q(o2)) on disinfection were investigated, respectively. The experimental results showed that H2 O2 reached peak production at W(PTFE) of 0.5 in GDE. Addition of the pore-forming agent in the appropriate amount improved the disinfection, and this phenomenon was more obvious at neutral pH than at acidic pH. BET specific area analysis indicated that the average pore size in the membrane electrode first decreased significantly with the increasing amount of pore-forming agent, and then increased moderately. This helped the mass transfer of oxygen at the GDE. Adsorption made little or no progress to kill the bacteria during the electrolysis. Drop of pH value resulted in a rapid rise of the germicidal efficacy. This system had a broad pH coverage: when total bacterial count in raw water was 10(6) CFU x mL(-1), pH 3-10,the germicidal efficacy was greater than 80% after 30 min electrolysis using the GDE with W(Pt) of 3 per thousand as cathode. Increase of the oxygen flow rate Q(o2) within limits had little influence on the production of H2 O2 and the succeeding disinfection. On one hand, resistance of the solution and energy consumption on the disinfection increased at high oxygen flow rate, which gave rise to an increase in the operating cost of disinfection with the GDE system; on the other hand, treatment time could be reduced reasonably at high oxygen flow rate, which leads to reduction of equipment investment. Killing mechanism study showed that the direct oxidation and formation of the free radicals at the anode played a greater role in the beginning, and then the oxidative indirect effect of the generated H2 O2 at

  16. Diffusion welded nonconsumable electrode assembly and use thereof for electrolytic production of metals and silicon

    DOEpatents

    Byrne, Stephen C.; Vasudevan, Asuri K.

    1984-01-01

    A nonconsumable electrode assembly suitable for use in the production of metal by electrolytic reduction of a metal compound dissolved in a molten salt, the assembly comprising a metal conductor diffusion welded to a portion of a ceramic electrode body having a level of free metal or metal alloy sufficient to effect a metal bond.

  17. Time of Flight Electrochemistry: Diffusion Coefficient Measurements Using Interdigitated Array (IDA) Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Fei; Kolesov, Grigory; Parkinson, Bruce A.

    2014-09-26

    A simple and straightforward method for measuring diffusion coefficients using interdigitated array (IDA) electrodes is reported. The method does not require that the exact electrode area be known but depends only the size of the gap between the IDA electrode pairs. Electroactive molecules produced at the generator electrode of the IDA by a voltage step or scan can diffuse to the collector electrode and the time delay before the current for the reverse electrochemical reaction is detected at the collector is used to calculate the diffusion coefficient. The measurement of the diffusion rate of Ru(NH3)6+2 in aqueous solution has been used as an example measuring diffusion coefficients using this method. Additionally, a digital simulation of the electrochemical response of the IDA electrodes was used to simulate the entire current/voltage/time behavior of the system and verify the experimentally measured diffusion coefficients. This work was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  18. Monolithic and Flexible ZnS/SnO2 Ultraviolet Photodetectors with Lateral Graphene Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Xie, Yunchao; Deng, Heng; Tumlin, Travis; Zhang, Chi; Su, Jheng-Wun; Yu, Ping; Lin, Jian

    2017-03-15

    A continuing trend of miniaturized and flexible electronics/optoelectronic calls for novel device architectures made by compatible fabrication techniques. However, traditional layer-to-layer structures cannot satisfy such a need. Herein, a novel monolithic optoelectronic device fabricated by a mask-free laser direct writing method is demonstrated in which in situ laser induced graphene-like materials are employed as lateral electrodes for flexible ZnS/SnO2 ultraviolet photodetectors. Specifically, a ZnS/SnO2 thin film comprised of heterogeneous ZnS/SnO2 nanoparticles is first coated on polyimide (PI) sheets by a solution process. Then, CO2 laser irradiation ablates designed areas of the ZnS/SnO2 thin film and converts the underneath PI into highly conductive graphene as the lateral electrodes for the monolithic photodetectors. This in situ growth method provides good interfaces between the graphene electrodes and the semiconducting ZnS/SnO2 resulting in high optoelectronic performance. The lateral electrode structure reduces total thickness of the devices, thus minimizing the strain and improving flexibility of the photodetectors. The demonstrated lithography-free monolithic fabrication is a simple and cost-effective method, showing a great potential for developement into roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible electronics.

  19. Direct observation of ion dynamics in supercapacitor electrodes using in situ diffusion NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forse, Alexander C.; Griffin, John M.; Merlet, Céline; Carretero-Gonzalez, Javier; Raji, Abdul-Rahman O.; Trease, Nicole M.; Grey, Clare P.

    2017-02-01

    Ionic transport inside porous carbon electrodes underpins the storage of energy in supercapacitors and the rate at which they can charge and discharge, yet few studies have elucidated the materials properties that influence ion dynamics. Here we use in situ pulsed field gradient NMR spectroscopy to measure ionic diffusion in supercapacitors directly. We find that confinement in the nanoporous electrode structures decreases the effective self-diffusion coefficients of ions by over two orders of magnitude compared with neat electrolyte, and in-pore diffusion is modulated by changes in ion populations at the electrode/electrolyte interface during charging. Electrolyte concentration and carbon pore size distributions also affect in-pore diffusion and the movement of ions in and out of the nanopores. In light of our findings we propose that controlling the charging mechanism may allow the tuning of the energy and power performances of supercapacitors for a range of different applications.

  20. Application of gas diffusion electrodes in bioelectrochemical syntheses and energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Horst, Angelika E W; Mangold, Klaus-Michael; Holtmann, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    Combining the advantages of biological components (e.g., reaction specificity, self-replication) and electrochemical techniques in bioelectrochemical systems offers the opportunity to develop novel efficient and sustainable processes for the production of a number of valuable products. The choice of electrode material has a great impact on the performance of bioelectrochemical systems. In addition to the redox process at the electrodes, interactions of biocatalysts with electrodes (e.g., enzyme denaturation or biofouling) need to be considered. In recent years, gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) have proved to be very attractive electrodes for bioelectrochemical purposes. GDEs are porous electrodes, that posses a large three-phase boundary surface. At this interface, a solid catalyst supports the electrochemical reaction between gaseous and liquid phase. This mini-review discusses the application of GDEs in microbial and enzymatic fuel cells, for microbial electrolysis, in biosensors and for electroenzymatic synthesis reactions.

  1. [Electrochemical degradation of sodium pentachlorophenol on a Pd/C gas-diffusion electrode].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Wang, Jian-Long

    2009-02-15

    Pd/C catalyst was prepared by hydrogen reduction method and used for the Pd/C gas-diffusion electrode. It was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques. The electrochemical degradation of sodium pentachlorophenol (PCP-Na) was investigated in a diaphragm electrolysis device, feeding firstly with hydrogen gas then with air, using the Pd/C gas-diffusion electrode and the carbon/polytetrafluoroethylene (C/PTFE) gas-diffusion electrode as the cathode, respectively. The results indicate that the two-electron reduction from O2 to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is produced at the Pd/C gas-diffusion electrode, and the accumulated H2O2 in the cathodic compartment reach to the steady concentration of 9.8 mg/L after 100 min. The Pd/C gas-diffusion cathode can reductively dechlorinate PCP-Na by feeding hydrogen gas, and accelerate the two-electron reduction of O2 to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by feeding air. Therefore, both the removal efficiency and the dechlorination degree of PCP-Na exceed 80% after 100 min, and the average removal efficiency of PCP-Na in terms of total organic carbon (TOC) exceeds 75% after 200 min by using Pd/C gas-diffusion cathode,which is better than that of the C/PTFE gas-diffusion cathode. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) allows identifying phenol as the dechlorination product.

  2. Lateral diffusion in model membranes is independent of the size of the hydrophobic region of molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Balcom, B J; Petersen, N O

    1993-01-01

    We have systematically investigated the probe size and shape dependence of lateral diffusion in model dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine membranes. Linear hydrophobic polymers, which differ in length by an order of magnitude, were used to explore the effect on the lateral diffusion coefficient of hydrodynamic restrictions in the bilayer interior. The polymers employed are isoprenoid alcohols--citronellol, solanesol, and dolichol. Tracer lateral diffusion coefficients were measured by fluorescence photobleaching recovery. Despite the large difference in lengths, the nitrobenzoxadiazole labelled alcohols all diffuse at the rate of lipid self-diffusion (5.0 x 10(-12) m2 s-1, 29 degrees C) in the liquid crystal phase. Companion measurements in isotropic polymer solution, in gel phase lipid membranes and with nonpolar fluorescent polyaromatic hydrocarbons, show a marked dependence of the lateral diffusion coefficient on the probe molecule size. Our results in the liquid crystal phase are in accord with free area theory which asserts that lateral diffusion in the membrane is restricted by the surface-free area. Probe molecules which are significantly longer than the host phospholipid, seven times longer in the case of dolichol, are still restricted in their lateral motion by the surface properties of the bilayer in the liquid crystal phase. Fluorescence quenching experiments indicate that the nitrobenzoxadiazole label does not reside at the aqueous interface, although it must reside in close proximity according to the diffusion measurements. PMID:8218892

  3. Lateral CO2 diffusion inside dicotyledonous leaves can be substantial: quantification in different light intensities.

    PubMed

    Morison, James I L; Lawson, Tracy; Cornic, Gabriel

    2007-11-01

    Substantial lateral CO(2) diffusion rates into leaf areas where stomata were blocked by grease patches were quantified by gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence imaging in different species across the full range of photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD). The lateral CO(2) flux rate over short distances was substantial and very similar in five dicotyledonous species with different vascular anatomies (two species with bundle sheath extensions, sunflower [Helianthus annuus] and dwarf bean [Phaseolus vulgaris]; and three species without bundle sheath extensions, faba bean [Vicia faba], petunia [Petunia hybrida], and tobacco [Nicotiana tabacum]). Only in the monocot maize (Zea mays) was there little or no evident lateral CO(2) flux. Lateral diffusion rates were low when PPFD <300 micromol m(-2) s(-1) but approached saturation in moderate PPFD (300 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) when lateral CO(2) diffusion represented 15% to 24% of the normal CO(2) assimilation rate. Smaller patches and higher ambient CO(2) concentration increased lateral CO(2) diffusion rates. Calculations with a two-dimensional diffusion model supported these observations that lateral CO(2) diffusion over short distances inside dicotyledonous leaves can be important to photosynthesis. The results emphasize that supply of CO(2) from nearby stomata usually dominates assimilation, but that lateral supply over distances up to approximately 1 mm can be important if stomata are blocked, particularly when assimilation rate is low.

  4. Lateral diffusion induced by active proteins in a biomembrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosaka, Yuto; Yasuda, Kento; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Komura, Shigeyuki

    2017-05-01

    We discuss the hydrodynamic collective effects due to active protein molecules that are immersed in lipid bilayer membranes and modeled as stochastic force dipoles. We specifically take into account the presence of the bulk solvent that surrounds the two-dimensional fluid membrane. Two membrane geometries are considered: the free membrane case and the confined membrane case. Using the generalized membrane mobility tensors, we estimate the active diffusion coefficient and the drift velocity as a function of the size of a diffusing object. The hydrodynamic screening lengths distinguish the two asymptotic regimes of these quantities. Furthermore, the competition between the thermal and nonthermal contributions in the total diffusion coefficient is characterized by two length scales corresponding to the two membrane geometries. These characteristic lengths describe the crossover between different asymptotic behaviors when they are larger than the hydrodynamic screening lengths.

  5. Electrochemical measurement of lateral diffusion coefficients of ubiquinones and plastoquinones of various isoprenoid chain lengths incorporated in model bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Marchal, D; Boireau, W; Laval, J M; Moiroux, J; Bourdillon, C

    1998-01-01

    The long-range diffusion coefficients of isoprenoid quinones in a model of lipid bilayer were determined by a method avoiding fluorescent probe labeling of the molecules. The quinone electron carriers were incorporated in supported dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine layers at physiological molar fractions (<3 mol%). The elaborate bilayer template contained a built-in gold electrode at which the redox molecules solubilized in the bilayer were reduced or oxidized. The lateral diffusion coefficient of a natural quinone like UQ10 or PQ9 was 2.0 +/- 0.4 x 10(-8) cm2 s(-1) at 30 degrees C, two to three times smaller than the diffusion coefficient of a lipid analog in the same artificial bilayer. The lateral mobilities of the oxidized or reduced forms could be determined separately and were found to be identical in the 4-13 pH range. For a series of isoprenoid quinones, UQ2 or PQ2 to UQ10, the diffusion coefficient exhibited a marked dependence on the length of the isoprenoid chain. The data fit very well the quantitative behavior predicted by a continuum fluid model in which the isoprenoid chains are taken as rigid particles moving in the less viscous part of the bilayer and rubbing against the more viscous layers of lipid heads. The present study supports the concept of a homogeneous pool of quinone located in the less viscous region of the bilayer. PMID:9545054

  6. Lateral diffusion coefficients in membranes measured by resonance energy transfer and a new algorithm for diffusion in two dimensions.

    PubMed Central

    Kuśba, Jósef; Li, Li; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Johnson, Michael; Lakowicz, Joseph R

    2002-01-01

    We describe measurements of lateral diffusion in membranes using resonance energy transfer. The donor was a rhenium (Re) metal-ligand complex lipid, which displays a donor decay time near 3 micros. The long donor lifetime resulted in an ability to measure lateral diffusion coefficient below 10(-8) cm(2)/s. The donor decay data were analyzed using a new numerical algorithm for calculation of resonance energy transfer for donors and acceptors randomly distributed in two dimensions. An analytical solution to the diffusion equation in two dimensions is not known, so the equation was solved by the relaxation method in Laplace space. This algorithm allows the donor decay in the absence of energy transfer to be multiexponential. The simulations show that mutual lateral diffusion coefficients of the donor and acceptor on the order of 10(-8) cm(2)/s are readily recovered from the frequency-domain data with donor decay times on the microsecond timescale. Importantly, the lateral diffusion coefficients and acceptor concentrations can be recovered independently despite correlation between these parameters. This algorithm was tested and verified using the donor decays of a long lifetime rhenium lipid donor and a Texas red-lipid acceptor. Lateral diffusion coefficients ranged from 4.4 x 10(-9) cm(2)/s in 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)] (DMPG) at 10 degrees C to 1.7 x 10(-7) cm(2)/s in 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) at 35 degrees C. These results demonstrated the possibility of direct measurements of lateral diffusion coefficients using microsecond decay time luminophores. PMID:11867452

  7. Arcuate fasciculus laterality by diffusion tensor imaging correlates with language laterality by functional MRI in preadolescent children.

    PubMed

    Sreedharan, Ruma Madhu; Menon, Amitha C; James, Jija S; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Thomas, Sanjeev V

    2015-03-01

    Language lateralization is unique to humans. Functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enable the study of language areas and white matter fibers involved in language, respectively. The objective of this study was to correlate arcuate fasciculus (AF) laterality by diffusion tensor imaging with that by fMRI in preadolescent children which has not yet been reported. Ten children between 8 and 12 years were subjected to fMRI and DTI imaging using Siemens 1.5 T MRI. Two language fMRI paradigms--visual verb generation and word pair task--were used. Analysis was done using SPM8 software. In DTI, the fiber volume of the arcuate fasciculus (AFV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) was measured. The fMRI Laterality Index (fMRI-LI) and DTI Laterality Index (DTI-LI) were calculated and their correlation assessed using the Pearson Correlation Index. Of ten children, mean age 10.6 years, eight showed left lateralization while bilateral language lateralization was seen in two. AFV by DTI was more on the left side in seven of the eight children who had left lateralization by fMRI. DTI could not trace the AF in one child. Of the two with bilateral language lateralization on fMRI, one showed larger AFV on the right side while the other did not show any asymmetry. There was a significant correlation (p < 0.02) between fMRI-LI and DTI-LI. Group mean of AFV by DTI was higher on the left side (2659.89 ± 654.75 mm(3)) as compared to the right (1824.11 ± 582.81 mm(3)) (p < 0.01). Like fMRI, DTI also reveals language laterality in children with a high degree of correlation between the two imaging modalities.

  8. Lateral diffusion of bilayer lipids measured via (31)P CODEX NMR.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Qasim; Lai, Angel; Morales, Hannah H; Macdonald, Peter M

    2012-10-01

    We have employed (31)P CODEX (centre-band-only-detection-of-exchange) NMR to measure lateral diffusion coefficients of phospholipids in unilamellar lipid bilayer vesicles consisting of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC), alone or in mixtures with 30 mol% 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG) or cholesterol (CHOL). The lateral diffusion coefficients of POPC and POPG were extracted from experimental CODEX signal decays as a function of increasing mixing time, after accounting for the vesicle's size and size distribution, as determined via dynamic light scattering, and the viscosity of the vesicular suspension, as determined via (1)H pulsed field gradient NMR. Lateral diffusion coefficients for POPC and POPG determined in this fashion fell in the range 1.0-3.2 × 10(-12) m(2) s(-1) at 10 °C, depending on the vesicular composition, in good agreement with accepted values. Thus, two advantages of (31)P CODEX NMR for phospholipid lateral diffusion measurements are demonstrated: no labelling of the molecule of interest is necessary, and multiple lateral diffusion coefficients can be measured simultaneously. It is expected that this approach will prove particularly useful in diagnosing heterogeneities in lateral diffusion behaviours, such as might be expected for specific lipid-lipid or lipid-protein interactions, and thermotropic or electrostatically induced phase inhomogeneities.

  9. Vanadium diaphragm electrode serves as hydrogen diffuser in lithium hydride cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouthamel, C. E.; Heinrich, R. R.; Johnson, C. E.

    1967-01-01

    Lithium hydride cell uses vanadium diaphragm electrode as a hydrogen diffuser. Vanadium is high in hydrogen gas solubility and permeability, is least sensitive to adverse surface effects, maintains good mechanical strength in hydrogen atmospheres, and appears to be compatible with all alkali-halide electrolytes and lithium metals.

  10. (abstract) Alkali Metal Diffusion Through Porous Metal Electrodes in AMTEC Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.; Underwood, M. L.; O'Connor, D.; Kisor, A.; Kikkert, S.

    1993-01-01

    The mechanisms of mass transport of an alkali metal through porous metal electrodes in alkali metal thermal-to-electric converter AMTEC cells is important in optimizing these high current density devices, but also affords the opportunity to investigate a variety of simple mass transport modes at high temperatures via electrochemical techniques. We have previously reported evidence of ionic, free molecular flow, and surface transport of sodium in several types of AMTEC electrodes. Quantitative investigations of Na transport through WPt(sub 3.5) via surface or grain boundary diffusion, and K transport through porous Mo electrodes by free molecular flow, over large ranges of temperature have been performed. WPt(sub 3.5) has especially low transport impedance over the 950 to 1200K temperature range. New results are the Na through porous WPt(sub 3.5) and K through porous Mo diffusion rates and mechanisms.

  11. Analytical modeling and simulation of porous electrodes: Li-ion distribution and diffusion-induced stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Liang; Guo, Zhansheng

    2017-08-01

    A new model of porous electrodes based on the Gibbs free energy is developed, in which lithium-ion (Li-ion) diffusion, diffusion-induced stress (DIS), Butler-Volmer (BV) reaction kinetics, and size polydispersity of electrode particles are considered. The influence of BV reaction kinetics and concentration-dependent exchange current density (ECD) on concentration profile and DIS evolution are numerically investigated. BV reaction kinetics leads to a decrease in Li-ion concentration and DIS. In addition, concentration-dependent ECD results in a decrease in Li-ion concentration and an increase in DIS. Size polydispersity of electrode particles significantly affects the concentration profile and DIS. Optimal macroscopic state of charge (SOC) should consider the influence of the microscopic SOC values and mass fractions of differently sized particles.

  12. (abstract) Alkali Metal Diffusion Through Porous Metal Electrodes in AMTEC Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.; Underwood, M. L.; O'Connor, D.; Kisor, A.; Kikkert, S.

    1993-01-01

    The mechanisms of mass transport of an alkali metal through porous metal electrodes in alkali metal thermal-to-electric converter AMTEC cells is important in optimizing these high current density devices, but also affords the opportunity to investigate a variety of simple mass transport modes at high temperatures via electrochemical techniques. We have previously reported evidence of ionic, free molecular flow, and surface transport of sodium in several types of AMTEC electrodes. Quantitative investigations of Na transport through WPt(sub 3.5) via surface or grain boundary diffusion, and K transport through porous Mo electrodes by free molecular flow, over large ranges of temperature have been performed. WPt(sub 3.5) has especially low transport impedance over the 950 to 1200K temperature range. New results are the Na through porous WPt(sub 3.5) and K through porous Mo diffusion rates and mechanisms.

  13. Air diffusion biocathode with CueO as electrocatalyst adsorbed on carbon particle-modified electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kontani, Ryota; Tsujimura, Seiya; Kano, Kenji

    2009-09-01

    The current density of biofuel cells which use dissolved O(2) as electron acceptor is limited by O(2) supply to the electrode surface due to the low solubility and small diffusion coefficient of O(2) in the electrolyte solution. In order to increase the current density, we constructed an air diffusion biocathode which uses O(2) directly from the air. As cathodic biocatalyst, we utilized CueO from Escherichia coli, which belongs to the family of multi-copper oxidases. O(2) reduction was catalyzed by CueO adsorbed on Ketjen black-modified carbon paper electrodes. The hydrophobic electrode surface was obtained by optimizing the weight ratio of polytetrafluoroethylene binder to Ketjen black. The current density of O(2) reduction reached values as high as 20 mA cm(-2) at 0 V vs. Ag|AgCl, KCl(sat.) in a citrate buffer (1.0 M, pH 5.0, 25 degrees C).

  14. Static and Dynamic Effects of Lateral Carrier Diffusion in Semiconductor Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jian-Zhong; Cheung, Samson H.; Ning, C. Z.; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Electron and hole diffusions in the plane of semiconductor quantum wells play an important part in the static and dynamic operations of semiconductor lasers. It is well known that the value of diffusion coefficients affects the threshold pumping current of a semiconductor laser. At the same time, the strength of carrier diffusion process is expected to affect the modulation bandwidth of an AC-modulated laser. It is important not only to investigate the combined DC and AC effects due to carrier diffusion, but also to separate the AC effects from that of the combined effects in order to provide design insights for high speed modulation. In this presentation, we apply a hydrodynamic model developed by the present authors recently from the semiconductor Bloch equations. The model allows microscopic calculation of the lateral carrier diffusion coefficient, which is a nonlinear function of the carrier density and plasma temperature. We first studied combined AC and DC effects of lateral carrier diffusion by studying the bandwidth dependence on diffusion coefficient at a given DC current under small signal modulation. The results show an increase of modulation bandwidth with decrease in the diffusion coefficient. We simultaneously studied the effects of nonlinearity in the diffusion coefficient. To clearly identify how much of the bandwidth increase is a result of decrease in the threshold pumping current for smaller diffusion coefficient, thus an effective increase of DC pumping, we study the bandwidth dependence on diffusion coefficient at a given relative pumping. A detailed comparison of the two cases will be presented.

  15. Exploratory laboratory study of lateral turbulent diffusion at the surface of an alluvial channel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sayre, William W.; Chamberlain, A.R.

    1964-01-01

    In natural streams turbulent diffusion is one of the principal mechanisms by which liquid and suspended-particulate contaminants are dispersed in the flow. A knowledge of turbulence characteristics is therefore essential in predicting the dispersal rates of contaminants in streams. In this study the theory of diffusion by continuous movements for homogeneous turbulence is applied to lateral diffusion at the surface of an open channel in which there is uniform flow. An exploratory-laboratory investigation was conducted in which the lateral dispersion at the water surface of a sand-Led flume was studied by measuring the lateral spread from a point source of small floating polyethylene articles. The experiment was restricted to a single set of low and channel geometry conditions. The results of the study indicate that with certain restrictions lateral dispersion in alluvial channels may be successfully described by the theory of diffusion by continuous movements. The experiment demonstrates a means for evaluating the lateral diffusion coefficient and also methods for quantitatively estimating fundamental turbulence properties, such as the intensity and the Lagrangian integral scale of turbulence in an alluvial channel. The experimental results show that with increasing distance from the source the coefficient of lateral turbulent diffusion increases initially but tends toward a constant limiting value. This result is in accordance with turbulent diffusion theory. Indications are that the distance downstream from the source required for the diffusion coefficient to reach its limiting value is actually very small when compared to the length scale of most diffusion phenomena in natural streams which are of practical interest.

  16. Calculation method for steady-state pollutant concentration in mixing zones considering variable lateral diffusion coefficient.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen; Wu, Zhouhu; Song, Zhiwen

    2017-07-01

    Prediction of the pollutant mixing zone (PMZ) near the discharge outfall in Huangshaxi shows large error when using the methods based on the constant lateral diffusion assumption. The discrepancy is due to the lack of consideration of the diffusion coefficient variation. The variable lateral diffusion coefficient is proposed to be a function of the longitudinal distance from the outfall. Analytical solution of the two-dimensional advection-diffusion equation of a pollutant is derived and discussed. Formulas to characterize the geometry of the PMZ are derived based on this solution, and a standard curve describing the boundary of the PMZ is obtained by proper choices of the normalization scales. The change of PMZ topology due to the variable diffusion coefficient is then discussed using these formulas. The criterion of assuming the lateral diffusion coefficient to be constant without large error in PMZ geometry is found. It is also demonstrated how to use these analytical formulas in the inverse problems including estimating the lateral diffusion coefficient in rivers by convenient measurements, and determining the maximum allowable discharge load based on the limitations of the geometrical scales of the PMZ. Finally, applications of the obtained formulas to onsite PMZ measurements in Huangshaxi present excellent agreement.

  17. Ligand binding affinity and changes in the lateral diffusion of receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE).

    PubMed

    Syed, Aleem; Zhu, Qiaochu; Smith, Emily A

    2016-12-01

    The effect of ligand on the lateral diffusion of receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE), a receptor involved in numerous pathological conditions, remains unknown. Single particle tracking experiments that use quantum dots specifically bound to hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged RAGE (HA-RAGE) are reported to elucidate the effect of ligand binding on HA-RAGE diffusion in GM07373 cell membranes. The ligand used in these studies is methylglyoxal modified-bovine serum albumin (MGO-BSA) containing advanced glycation end products modifications. The binding affinity between soluble RAGE and MGO-BSA increases by 1.8 to 9.7-fold as the percent primary amine modification increases from 24 to 74% and with increasing negative charge on the MGO-BSA. Ligand incubation affects the HA-RAGE diffusion coefficient, the radius of confinement, and duration of confinement. There is, however, no correlation between MGO-BSA ligand binding affinity with soluble RAGE and the extent of the changes in HA-RAGE lateral diffusion. The ligand induced changes to HA-RAGE lateral diffusion do not occur when cholesterol is depleted from the cell membrane, indicating the mechanism for ligand-induced changes to HA-RAGE diffusion is cholesterol dependent. The results presented here serve as a first step in unraveling how ligand influences RAGE lateral diffusion. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Normal-mode analysis of lateral diffusion on a bounded membrane surface.

    PubMed Central

    Koppel, D E

    1985-01-01

    The normal-mode analysis of fluorescence redistribution after photobleaching, introduced for the characterization of lateral diffusion on spherical membrane surfaces, has been generalized and extended to other surface geometries. Theoretical expressions are derived for the characteristic values and orthogonal characteristic functions of the diffusion equations for cylindrical surfaces, ellipsoids of revolution and dimpled discoidal surfaces. On the basis of these results, a simple analytical function is proposed as an empirical solution for the analysis of photobleaching data on a variety of discoidal surfaces. Special experimental and computational methods for determining the surface-diffusion coefficient are described, and demonstrated with data for lipid diffusion in erythrocyte membranes. PMID:3978205

  19. Electrochemical characterization of binderless, recompressed exfoliated graphite electrodes: electron-transfer kinetics and diffusion characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, P; Sampath, S

    2003-12-15

    Exfoliated graphite (EG) is prepared by the thermal exfoliation of graphite intercalation compounds at different temperatures. Surface and bulk physicochemical properties of EG are followed by spectroscopic and analytical methods and are observed to be a function of exfoliation temperature. EG particles can be recompressed without any binder and used as surface-renewable electrodes. Surface preparation is accomplished by either polishing or roughening the electrode surface using emery sheets. Effects of exfoliation temperature and the surface preparation on the electron-transfer kinetics and on the diffusion characteristics have been followed by electrochemical methods using several benchmark redox systems. It is found that the electron-transfer kinetics and the diffusion of K(4)[Fe(CN)(6)] are affected by the nature of the EG surface while that of iron(II)(1,10-phenanthroline)(3) and cobalt(II)(1,10-phenanthroline)(3) are not affected by the surface preparation. The redox systems are classified into different groups according to their kinetic sensitivity. Diffusion of electroactive species toward the EG electrodes is found to nonlinear. Current-time plots suggest that the recompressed EG electrodes can be modeled as fractals.

  20. Variations of boundary reaction rate and particle size on the diffusion-induced stress in a phase separating electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lei; He, Linghui; Ni, Yong; Song, Yicheng

    2014-10-14

    In contrast to the case of single-phase delithiation wherein faster discharging leads to higher diffusion-induced stress (DIS), this paper reports nonmonotonous dependency of the boundary reaction rate on the DIS in nanosized spherical electrode accompanying phase separation. It is attributed to a transition from two-phase to single-phase delithiation driven by increase of the boundary reaction rate leading to narrowing and vanishing of the miscibility gap in a range of the particle size. The profiles of lithium concentration and the DIS are identified during the transition based on a continuum model. The resultant maximum DIS first decreases in the region of two-phase delithiation and later returns to increase in the region of single-phase delithiation with the increase of the boundary reaction rate. A map for the failure behavior in the spherical electrode particle is constructed based on the Tresca failure criterion. These results indicate that the failure caused by the DIS can be avoided by appropriate selection of the said parameters in such electrodes.

  1. Electrochemical degradation of pentachlorophenol on a palladium modified gas-diffusion electrode.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Wang, J L

    2009-01-01

    Pd/C catalyst was prepared by a hydrogen reduction method and used for making a Pd/C gas-diffusion electrode. It was fully characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). In the catalyst, Pd particles with an average size of 4.0 nm were highly dispersed in the activated carbon with an amorphous structure; Pd content on the surface of the Pd/C catalyst reached 1.3 at% (atomic concentration). The Pd/C gas-diffusion electrode was then used as the cathode to investigate the electrochemical degradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in a diaphragm electrolysis device, feeding firstly with hydrogen gas then with air, compared with the carbon/polytetrafluoroethylene (C/PTFE) gas-diffusion cathode. The Pd/C gas-diffusion cathode can not only reductively dechlorinate PCP by feeding hydrogen gas, but also accelerate the two-electron reduction of O2 to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by feeding air. Therefore, both the removal efficiency and the dechlorination degree of PCP exceeded 80% after 100 min, and the average removal efficiency of PCP in terms of total organic carbon (TOC) was more than 75% after 200 min by using Pd/C gas-diffusion cathode, which was better than that of the C/PTFE gas-diffusion cathode. Phenol was identified as the dechorination product using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  2. Primary Lateral Sclerosis as Progressive Supranuclear Palsy: Diagnosis by Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Coon, Elizabeth A.; Whitwell, Jennifer L.; Jack, Clifford R.; Josephs, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Evaluating the integrity of white matter tracts with diffusion tensor imaging may differentiate primary lateral sclerosis from progressive supranuclear palsy. Methods Thirty-three prospectively recruited subjects had standardized evaluations and diffusion tensor imaging: 3 with primary lateral sclerosis who presented with features suggestive of progressive supranuclear palsy, 10 with probable or definite progressive supranuclear palsy, and 20 matched controls. We compared fractional anisotropy of the corticospinal tract, superior cerebellar peduncle and body of the corpus callosum between groups. Results Both the primary lateral sclerosis and progressive supranuclear palsy subjects showed reduced fractional anisotropy in superior cerebellar peduncles and body of the corpus callosum compared to controls, but only primary lateral sclerosis subjects showed reductions in the corticospinal tracts. A ratio of corticospinal tract/superior cerebellar peduncle best distinguished the disorders (p<0.02). Conclusions The corticospinal tract/superior cerebellar peduncle ratio is a marker to differentiate primary lateral sclerosis from progressive supranuclear palsy. PMID:22517038

  3. Improved chemically amplified photoresist characterization using interdigitated electrode sensors: photoacid diffusivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Cody M.; Henderson, Clifford L.

    2004-05-01

    The ability of interdigitated electrodes to serve as novel chemically amplified resist characterization tools has recently been demonstrated through their ability to measure the Dill C kinetic rate constant for photoacid generation. The work presented in this paper attempts to further extend the capabilities of the interdigitated electrode (IDE) sensors by investigating their potential use as a measurement tool for photoacid diffusion coefficients. Impedance spectroscopy of chemically amplified photoresist coated interdigitated electrodes is used to calculate the bulk ionic conductivity of the resist film. The ionic conductivity is subsequently utilized in the Nernst-Einstein equation to calculate the diffusion coefficient of the photoacid, assuming that it is the major charge carrying species in the film. A detailed description of the measurement and data analysis processes required to calculate the diffusion coefficient of triphenylsulfonium triflate in poly(p-hydroxystyrene) is provided. In addition, the effect of varying the relative humidity of the measurement environment upon the impedance data collected has been examined. It has been observed that the presence of water within the resist film, typically as a result of absorption of water from the humid ambient environment, dramatically changes the conductivity of the resist coated IDE. This change is apparently the result of changes in the proton conduction mechanism within the resist as a function of film water content. A discussion of several possible causes of this phenomena and its impact on the interpretation of the electrical data and the calculation and meaning of an acid diffusion coefficient are presented.

  4. Lateral Diffusion of CO2 in Leaves Is Not Sufficient to Support Photosynthesis[w

    PubMed Central

    Morison, James I.L.; Gallouët, Emily; Lawson, Tracy; Cornic, Gabriel; Herbin, Raphaèle; Baker, Neil R.

    2005-01-01

    Lateral diffusion of CO2 was investigated in photosynthesizing leaves with different anatomy by gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence imaging using grease to block stomata. When one-half of the leaf surface of the heterobaric species Helianthus annuus was covered by 4-mm-diameter patches of grease, the response of net CO2 assimilation rate (A) to intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) indicated that higher ambient CO2 concentrations (Ca) caused only limited lateral diffusion into the greased areas. When single 4-mm patches were applied to leaves of heterobaric Phaseolus vulgaris and homobaric Commelina communis, chlorophyll a fluorescence images showed dramatic declines in the quantum efficiency of photosystem II electron transport (measured as Fq′/Fm′) across the patch, demonstrating that lateral CO2 diffusion could not support A. The Fq′/Fm′ values were used to compute images of Ci across patches, and their dependence on Ca was assessed. At high Ca, the patch effect was less in C. communis than P. vulgaris. A finite-volume porous-medium model for assimilation rate and lateral CO2 diffusion was developed to analyze the patch images. The model estimated that the effective lateral CO2 diffusion coefficients inside C. communis and P. vulgaris leaves were 22% and 12% of that for free air, respectively. We conclude that, in the light, lateral CO2 diffusion cannot support appreciable photosynthesis over distances of more than approximately 0.3 mm in normal leaves, irrespective of the presence or absence of bundle sheath extensions, because of the CO2 assimilation by cells along the diffusion pathway. PMID:16113223

  5. Effects of electrode properties and fabricated pressure on Li ion diffusion and diffusion-induced stresses in cylindrical Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Guo, Zhansheng

    2014-03-01

    The effects of electrode properties and fabricated pressure on Li ion diffusion and diffusion-induced stress in a cylindrical Li-ion battery are studied. It is found that hydrostatic pressure or elastic modulus variation in the active layer have little effect on the distribution of Li ions for a higher diffusivity coefficient, but both can facilitate Li ion diffusion for a lower diffusivity coefficient. The elastic modulus variation has a significant effect on the distribution of stress and hydrostatic pressure can reduce the surface stress for the lower diffusivity coefficient. A higher charging rate causes a more transient response in the stress history, but a linear charging history is observed for slow charging rates. A higher charging rate would not inflict extra damage on the electrode for the higher diffusivity coefficient and the stress history becomes highly transient and charging rate dependent for the lower diffusivity coefficient. The effect of fabricated pressure can be neglected.

  6. Diffusion-free mediator based miniature biofuel cell anode fabricated on a carbon-MEMS electrode.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Gobind S; Holmberg, Sunny; Kulinsky, Lawrence; Madou, Marc

    2012-10-02

    We report on the functionalization of a micropatterned carbon electrode fabricated using the carbon-MEMS process for its use as a miniature diffusion-free glucose oxidase anode. Carbon-MEMS based electrodes offer precise manufacturing control on both the micro- and nanoscale and possess higher electron conductivity than redox hydrogels. However, the process involves pyrolysis in a reducing environment that renders the electrode surface less reactive and introduction of a high density of functional groups becomes challenging. Our functionalization strategy involves the electrochemical oxidation of amine linkers onto the electrode. This strategy works well with both aliphatic and aryl linkers and uses stable compounds. The anode is designed to operate through mediated electron transfer between 2,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (DHB) based redox mediator and glucose oxidase enzyme. The electrode was first functionalized with ethylene diamine (EDA) to serve as a linker for the redox mediator. The redox mediator was then grafted through reductive amination, and attachment was confirmed through cyclic voltammetry. The enzyme immobilization was carried out through either adsorption or attachment, and their efficiency was compared. For enzyme attachment, the DHB attached electrode was functionalized again through electro-oxidation of aminobenzoic acid (ABA) linker. The ABA functionalization resulted in reduction of the DHB redox current, perhaps due to increased steric hindrance on the electrode surface, but the mediator function was preserved. Enzyme attachment was then carried out through a coupling reaction between the free carboxyl group on the ABA linker and the amine side chains on the enzyme. The enzyme incubation for both adsorption and attachment was done either through a dry spotting method or wet spotting method. The dry spotting method calls for the evaporation of enzyme droplet to form a thin film before sealing the electrode environment, to increase the effective

  7. Defect Detection in Fuel Cell Gas Diffusion Electrodes Using Infrared Thermography

    SciTech Connect

    Ulsh, Michael; Porter, Jason M.; Bittinat, Daniel C.; Bender, Guido

    2016-04-01

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells are energy conversion devices that offer high power densities and high efficiencies for mobile and other applications. Successful introduction into the marketplace requires addressing cost barriers such as production volumes and platinum loading. For cost reduction, it is vital to minimize waste and maximize quality during the manufacturing of platinum-containing electrodes, including gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs). In this work, we report on developing a quality control diagnostic for GDEs, involving creating an ex situ exothermic reaction on the electrode surface and using infrared thermography to measure the resulting temperature profile. Experiments with a moving GDE containing created defects were conducted to demonstrate the applicability of the diagnostic for real-time web-line inspection.

  8. Membrane orientation and lateral diffusion of BODIPY-cholesterol as a function of probe structure.

    PubMed

    Solanko, Lukasz M; Honigmann, Alf; Midtiby, Henrik Skov; Lund, Frederik W; Brewer, Jonathan R; Dekaris, Vjekoslav; Bittman, Robert; Eggeling, Christian; Wüstner, Daniel

    2013-11-05

    Cholesterol tagged with the BODIPY fluorophore via the central difluoroboron moiety of the dye (B-Chol) is a promising probe for studying intracellular cholesterol dynamics. We synthesized a new BODIPY-cholesterol probe (B-P-Chol) with the fluorophore attached via one of its pyrrole rings to carbon-24 of cholesterol (B-P-Chol). Using two-photon fluorescence polarimetry in giant unilamellar vesicles and in the plasma membrane (PM) of living intact and actin-disrupted cells, we show that the BODIPY-groups in B-Chol and B-P-Chol are oriented perpendicular and almost parallel to the bilayer normal, respectively. B-Chol is in all three membrane systems much stronger oriented than B-P-Chol. Interestingly, we found that the lateral diffusion in the PM was two times slower for B-Chol than for B-P-Chol, although we found no difference in lateral diffusion in model membranes. Stimulated emission depletion microscopy, performed for the first time, to our knowledge, with fluorescent sterols, revealed that the difference in lateral diffusion of the BODIPY-cholesterol probes was not caused by anomalous subdiffusion, because diffusion of both analogs in the PM was free but not hindered. Our combined measurements show that the position and orientation of the BODIPY moiety in cholesterol analogs have a severe influence on lateral diffusion specifically in the PM of living cells.

  9. Thermal imaging measurement of lateral diffusivity and non-invasive material defect detection

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Jiangang; Deemer, Chris

    2003-01-01

    A system and method for determining lateral thermal diffusivity of a material sample using a heat pulse; a sample oriented within an orthogonal coordinate system; an infrared camera; and a computer that has a digital frame grabber, and data acquisition and processing software. The mathematical model used within the data processing software is capable of determining the lateral thermal diffusivity of a sample of finite boundaries. The system and method may also be used as a nondestructive method for detecting and locating cracks within the material sample.

  10. Development and optimization of porous carbon papers suitable for gas diffusion electrodes. Final report, December 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, Gerald J.; Fleming, Patrick J.

    2001-01-16

    This final report details results from the program to optimize porous carbon gas diffusion electrodes for use in fuel cells. Efforts focused on isolating discrete paper properties through a custom-made matrix, then fuel cell testing each variant to correlate properties to performance. Resulting reduced cost material was manufactured on production equipment and made available to DOE industry partners. The resulting product is suitable for continuous production, which will be evaluated in future work.

  11. Multiscale Structured and Functionally Graded Gas Diffusion Electrodes for PEM-Fuel Cells and Electrodialysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, H.; Franz, M.; Bienhüls, C.; Willert-Porada, M.

    2008-02-01

    In the presented work, different methods of preparation of functionally graded gas diffusion electrodes (GDE) for fuel cell and electrodialysis application were investigated. High electrochemical performance with a low platinum catalyst content of only 0.1 mg/cm2 was achieved. The new GDEs are superior to commercial ones with five times higher platinum content, due to their optimized pore structure and improved distribution of catalyst and ion conductive polymer.

  12. Amperometric Determination of Sulfite by Gas Diffusion-Sequential Injection with Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Chinvongamorn, Chakorn; Pinwattana, Kulwadee; Praphairaksit, Narong; Imato, Toshihiko; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2008-01-01

    A gas diffusion sequential injection system with amperometric detection using a boron-doped diamond electrode was developed for the determination of sulfite. A gas diffusion unit (GDU) was used to prevent interference from sample matrices for the electrochemical measurement. The sample was mixed with an acid solution to generate gaseous sulfur dioxide prior to its passage through the donor channel of the GDU. The sulfur dioxide diffused through the PTFE hydrophobic membrane into a carrier solution of 0.1M phosphate buffer (pH 8)/0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate in the acceptor channel of the GDU and turned to sulfite. Then the sulfite was carried to the electrochemical flow cell and detected directly by amperometry using the boron-doped diamond electrode at 0.95 V (versus Ag/AgCl). Sodium dodecyl sulfate was added to the carrier solution to prevent electrode fouling. This method was applicable in the concentration range of 0.2-20 mg SO32−/L and a detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.05 mg SO32−/L was achieved. This method was successfully applied to the determination of sulfite in wines and the analytical results agreed well with those obtained by iodimetric titration. The relative standard deviations for the analysis of sulfite in wines were in the range of 1.0-4.1 %. The sampling frequency was 65 h−1. PMID:27879796

  13. Strong influence of periodic boundary conditions on lateral diffusion in lipid bilayer membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Camley, Brian A.; Lerner, Michael G.; Pastor, Richard W.; Brown, Frank L. H.

    2015-12-28

    The Saffman-Delbrück hydrodynamic model for lipid-bilayer membranes is modified to account for the periodic boundary conditions commonly imposed in molecular simulations. Predicted lateral diffusion coefficients for membrane-embedded solid bodies are sensitive to box shape and converge slowly to the limit of infinite box size, raising serious doubts for the prospects of using detailed simulations to accurately predict membrane-protein diffusivities and related transport properties. Estimates for the relative error associated with periodic boundary artifacts are 50% and higher for fully atomistic models in currently feasible simulation boxes. MARTINI simulations of LacY membrane protein diffusion and LacY dimer diffusion in DPPC membranes and lipid diffusion in pure DPPC bilayers support the underlying hydrodynamic model.

  14. Strong influence of periodic boundary conditions on lateral diffusion in lipid bilayer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camley, Brian A.; Lerner, Michael G.; Pastor, Richard W.; Brown, Frank L. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Saffman-Delbrück hydrodynamic model for lipid-bilayer membranes is modified to account for the periodic boundary conditions commonly imposed in molecular simulations. Predicted lateral diffusion coefficients for membrane-embedded solid bodies are sensitive to box shape and converge slowly to the limit of infinite box size, raising serious doubts for the prospects of using detailed simulations to accurately predict membrane-protein diffusivities and related transport properties. Estimates for the relative error associated with periodic boundary artifacts are 50% and higher for fully atomistic models in currently feasible simulation boxes. MARTINI simulations of LacY membrane protein diffusion and LacY dimer diffusion in DPPC membranes and lipid diffusion in pure DPPC bilayers support the underlying hydrodynamic model.

  15. Interplay of electron hopping and bounded diffusion during charge transport in redox polymer electrodes.

    PubMed

    Akhoury, Abhinav; Bromberg, Lev; Hatton, T Alan

    2013-01-10

    Redox polymer electrodes (RPEs) have been prepared both by attachment of random copolymers of hydroxybutyl methacrylate and vinylferrocene (poly(HBMA-co-VF)) to carbon substrates by grafting either "to" or "from" the substrate surfaces, and by impregnation of porous carbon substrates with redox polymer gels of similar composition. An observed linear dependence of peak current on the square root of the applied voltage scan rate in cyclic voltammetry (CV) led to the conclusion that the rate controlling step in the redox process was the diffusive transfer of electrons through the redox polymer layer. The variation in the peak current with increasing concentration of the redox species in the polymer indicated that the electron transport transitioned from bounded diffusion to electron hopping. A modified form of the Blauch-Saveant equation for apparent diffusivity of electrons through a polymer film indicated that bounded diffusion was the dominant mechanism of electron transport in RPEs with un-cross-linked polymer chains at low concentrations of the redox species, but, as the concentration of the redox species increased, electron hopping became more dominant, and was the primary mode of electron diffusion above a certain concentration level of redox species. In the cross-linked polymer gels, bounded diffusion was limited because of the restricted mobility of the polymer chains. Electron hopping was the primary mode of electron diffusion in such systems at all concentrations of the redox species.

  16. Controlling the diffusion profile of electroactive species for selective anodic stripping voltammetry of cadmium at boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Sugitani, Ai; Watanabe, Takeshi; Ivandini, Tribidasari A; Iguchi, Tatsuo; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2013-01-07

    Selective anodic stripping voltammetry of trace metal ions in a mixture solution with another interfering metal was developed based on Fick's law concerning the diffusion profile of interfering metals at the electrode surface after electrolysis treatment. A boron-doped diamond film was used as the sensing electrode, while a perforated carbon sheet was used for the interference-depleting electrode. The influence of the electrode distance and the time of electrolysis on the formation of the diffusion profile was studied. As a working model, the detection of cadmium with copper interference was investigated. The advantage of the method in comparison to general electrolysis was also discussed. The method offers a new perspective for improving the selective detection of metal ions by analyzing the diffusion profiles of the interfering species at the surface of electrodes.

  17. A quantitative radioluminographic imaging method for evaluating lateral diffusion rates in skin.

    PubMed

    Rush, Allison K; Miller, Matthew A; Smith, Edward D; Kasting, Gerald B

    2015-10-28

    A method is presented for measuring the lateral diffusion coefficients of exogenously applied compounds on excised skin. The method involves sequential high resolution imaging of the spatial distribution of β-radiation associated with [(14)C]-labeled compounds to monitor the development of the concentration profile on the skin surface. It is exemplified by measurements made on three radiolabeled test compounds--caffeine, testosterone, and zinc pyrithione (ZnPT)--administered as solutions. Lateral diffusivity is expected to be an important determinant of the topical bioavailability of ZnPT, which is characteristically administered as a fine suspension and must reach microorganisms in molecular form to exert biocidal activity. Application of the test compounds at levels below and above their estimated saturation doses in the upper stratum corneum allows one to distinguish between diffusion-limited and dissolution rate-limited kinetics. The effective lateral diffusivities of the two chemically stable reference compounds, caffeine and testosterone, were (1-4) × 10(-9) cm(2)/s and (3-9) × 10(-9) cm(2)/s, respectively. Lateral transport of [(14)C] associated with ZnPT was formulation-dependent, with effective diffusivities of (1-2) × 10(-9) cm(2)/s in water and (3-9) × 10(-9) cm(2)/s in a 1% body wash solution. These differences are thought to be related to molecular speciation and/or the presence of a residual surfactant phase on the skin surface. All values were greater than those estimated for the transverse diffusivities of these compounds in stratum corneum by factors ranging from 250 to over 2000. Facile lateral transport on skin, combined with a low transdermal permeation rate, may thus be seen to be a key factor in the safe and effective use of ZnPT as a topical antimicrobial agent.

  18. Peculiarities of lateral diffusion of lipids in three-component bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, A. V.; Rudakova, M. A.

    2011-03-01

    The lateral diffusion of lipid molecules in macroscopically oriented bilayers of mixed dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine (DOPC), egg sphingomyeline (SM), and cholesterol (CHOL) and its dependence on cholesterol concentration and temperature was studied by NMR with pulsed field gradient. The system forms a lamellar liquid crystalline (LC) phase; in a certain range of temperatures and concentrations of cholesterol the system is separated into two subphases: a disordered LC phase (ld) enriched with DOPC, and an ordered phase (l0) enriched with SM. These are characterized by their own lateral diffusion coefficients (LDCs), which differ from one another by a factor of 1.5-5. The dependence of the LDCs in the phases on the cholesterol concentration was analyzed. There was no clear dependence for the disordered LC phase, but we found that LDCs tend to grow in the concentration range of 15-35 mol % of CHOL. This behavior could be due to the redistribution of lipid components as the concentration of CHOL increases, eventually leading to a rise in DOPC concentration in the lo phase. In the range of liquid-phase domains, we observed no dependence of LDCs on the diffusion time typical of the restricted diffusion regime, due to spatial restraints in the system. This could be associated with the relatively large size of the domains, and with the domain capability of lateral diffusion in a surrounding continuous phase.

  19. Measurement of lateral dopant diffusion in rapid thermal annealed W-polycide gate structures

    SciTech Connect

    Schiml, T.; Bevk, J.; Furtsch, M.; Georgiou, G.E.; Cirelli, R.; Mansfield, W.M.; Silverman, P.J.; Luftman, H.S.

    1996-12-01

    Lateral dopant diffusion is a well known problem in dual-gate W-polycide CMOS devices. The authors have recently demonstrated that RTA processing helps to alleviate this problem and at the same time ensures sufficient dopant activation. However, due to the complex micro-structural changes in both poly-Si and WSi{sub x} (x {approximately} 2.5) layers during the RTA process, the time dependence of the diffusion processes and dopant distribution are difficult to predict. Consequently, the process optimization and device simulations are rather unreliable. They describe a new experimental technique to measure lateral dopant diffusion and 2-dimensional dopant distribution in RTA processed W-polycide structures using conventional SIMS analysis of lithographically defined test structures. The experiments show that the technique is capable of measuring lateral dopant diffusion over distances between one and tens of microns without losing the vertical resolution of conventional SIMS profiling. The technique can be used to study diffusion processes in a variety of materials and multi-layer structures.

  20. Perturbation of the Heat Lateral Diffusion by Interface Resistance in Layered Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frétigny, C.; Duquesne, J.-Y.; Fournier, D.

    2015-06-01

    It is well established that interface resistances do usually exist in layered structures, and their values strongly depend on their origin. They may arise from different vibrational properties of the layers, nonharmonic processes at the interface, surface chemical contamination, interfacial defects, etc. Numerous studies have been published to evaluate their values, most of the time, in a perpendicular heat diffusion scheme. In this paper, the effect of interface resistances on the lateral modulated surface temperature of a layered structure for cylindrical symmetry heat diffusion is studied. The thermoreflectance microscope is a particularly convenient tool to record heat lateral diffusion from a surface modulated heated point and thus to evidence the presence of such resistance interfaces. In a first part, the theoretical model of heat diffusion in cylindrical symmetry, in a layered structure exhibiting an interface resistance between the layer and the substrate, is briefly described. In a second part, the C/I configuration (good conductive layer deposited on an insulating substrate, with an interface resistance) is investigated. Experimental results illustrate the theory. In the third part, the reverse case I/C (insulating layer deposited on a conductive substrate, with an interface resistance) is discussed. To conclude, all the cases and the ability of the lateral diffusion to recover interface thermal resistances are compared.

  1. Using diffusion MRI for measuring the temperature of cerebrospinal fluid within the lateral ventricles.

    PubMed

    Kozak, L R; Bango, M; Szabo, M; Rudas, G; Vidnyanszky, Z; Nagy, Z

    2010-02-01

    Hypothermia is often induced to reduce brain injury in newborns, following perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic events, and in adults following traumatic brain injury, stroke or cardiac arrest. We aimed to devise a method, based on diffusion-weighted MRI, to measure non-invasively the temperature of the cerebrospinal fluid in the lateral ventricles. The well-known temperature dependence of the water diffusion constant was used for the estimation of temperature. We carried out diffusion MRI measurements on a 3T Philips Achieva Scanner involving phantoms (filled with water or artificial cerebrospinal fluid while slowly cooling from 41 to 32 degrees C) and healthy adult volunteers. The estimated temperature of water phantoms followed that measured using a mercury thermometer, but the estimates for artificial cerebrospinal fluid were 1.04 degrees C lower. After correcting for this systematic difference, the estimated temperature within the lateral ventricles of volunteers was 39.9 degrees C. Using diffusion directions less sensitive to cerebrospinal fluid flow, it was 37.7 degrees C, which was in agreement with the literature. Although further improvements are needed, measuring the temperature within the lateral ventricles using diffusion MRI is a viable method that may be useful for clinical applications. We introduced the method, identified sources of error and offered remedies for each.

  2. Using diffusion MRI for measuring the temperature of cerebrospinal fluid within the lateral ventricles

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, LR; Bango, M; Szabo, M; Rudas, G; Vidnyanszky, Z; Nagy, Z

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Hypothermia is often induced to reduce brain injury in newborns, following perinatal hypoxic–ischaemic events, and in adults following traumatic brain injury, stroke or cardiac arrest. We aimed to devise a method, based on diffusion-weighted MRI, to measure non-invasively the temperature of the cerebrospinal fluid in the lateral ventricles. Methods: The well-known temperature dependence of the water diffusion constant was used for the estimation of temperature. We carried out diffusion MRI measurements on a 3T Philips Achieva Scanner involving phantoms (filled with water or artificial cerebrospinal fluid while slowly cooling from 41 to 32°C) and healthy adult volunteers. Results: The estimated temperature of water phantoms followed that measured using a mercury thermometer, but the estimates for artificial cerebrospinal fluid were 1.04°C lower. After correcting for this systematic difference, the estimated temperature within the lateral ventricles of volunteers was 39.9°C. Using diffusion directions less sensitive to cerebrospinal fluid flow, it was 37.7°C, which was in agreement with the literature. Conclusion: Although further improvements are needed, measuring the temperature within the lateral ventricles using diffusion MRI is a viable method that may be useful for clinical applications. We introduced the method, identified sources of error and offered remedies for each. PMID:19845565

  3. Ultrathin MgO diffusion barriers for ferromagnetic electrodes on GaAs(001).

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Anirban; Wang, Shibo; Grafeneder, Wolfgang; Arndt, Martin; Koch, Reinhold

    2015-04-24

    Ultrathin MgO(100) films serving as a diffusion barrier between ferromagnetic electrodes and GaAs(001) semiconductor templates have been investigated. Using Fe as an exemplary ferromagnetic material, heterostructures of Fe/MgO/GaAs(001) were prepared at 200 °C with the MgO thickness ranging from 1.5 to 3 nm. Structural characterization reveals very good crystalline ordering in all layers of the heterostructure. Auger electron spectroscopy depth-profiling and cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy evidence diffusion of Fe into MgO and-for too thin MgO barriers-further into GaAs(001). Our results recommend a MgO barrier thickness larger than or equal to 2.6 nm for its application as a reliable diffusion barrier on GaAs(001) in spintronics devices.

  4. Physical degradation of membrane electrode assemblies undergoing freeze/thaw cycling: Diffusion media effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soowhan; Ahn, Byung Ki; Mench, M. M.

    In this work, the effects of properties of diffusion media (DM) (stiffness, thickness and micro-porous layer (MPL)) on the physical damage of membrane electrode assembly (MEA) subjected to freeze/thaw cycling were studied. Pressure uniformity of the diffusion media onto the catalyst layer (CL) was determined to be a key parameter to mitigate freeze-induced physical damage. Stiffer diffusion media, enabling more uniform compression under the channels and lands, can mitigate surface cracks, but flexible cloth diffusion media experienced severe catalyst layer surface damage. The thickness of the diffusion media and existence of a micro-porous layer were not observed to be major factors to mitigate freeze-damage when the catalyst layer is in contact with liquid. Interfacial delamination between diffusion media and catalyst layers, but not between the catalyst layer and membrane, was observed. This permanent deformation of the stiff diffusion media in the channel locations as well as fractures of carbon fibers increased electrical resistance, and may increase water flooding, resulting in reduced longevity and operational losses. Although use of a freeze-tolerable MEA design (negligible virgin cracked catalyst layers with thinner reinforced membrane) [S. Kim, M.M. Mench, J. Power Sources, in press] with stiff diffusion media can reduce the freeze-damage in the worst case scenario test condition of direct liquid contact, extensive irreversible damage (diffusion media/catalyst layer interfacial delamination) was not completely prevented. In addition to proper material selection, liquid water contact with the catalyst layer should be removed prior to shutdown to a frozen state to permit long-term cycling damage and facilitate frozen start.

  5. FTIR microscopy and confocal Raman microscopy for studying lateral drug diffusion from a semisolid formulation.

    PubMed

    Gotter, B; Faubel, W; Neubert, R H H

    2010-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy was applied to obtain information on lateral drug diffusion of dithranol in artificial acceptor membranes. Lateral (2D) drug distribution into an artificial membrane was investigated on an area of 300microm x 1000microm with a lateral resolution of 25microm x 25microm by integrating a specific IR band located at 1430cm(-1). The concentration profiles show a heterogeneous distribution of dithranol particles resulting in non-uniform drug diffusion. Use of the FTIR microscope either in the transmission or in the reflection mode was restricted to a thickness of the DDC membrane <15microm. The third dimension (depth profile) was analysed by means of confocal Raman microscopy (CRM). In an artificial membrane, the depth range from a minimum of 1.5microm up to a maximum of 49microm was analysed for dithranol distribution.

  6. Narrow linewidth two-electrode 1560 nm laterally coupled distributed feedback lasers with third-order surface etched gratings.

    PubMed

    Dridi, Kais; Benhsaien, Abdessamad; Zhang, Jessica; Hinzer, Karin; Hall, Trevor J

    2014-08-11

    We report on the design and characterization of a re-growth free InGaAsP/InP multiple quantum well two-electrode laterally coupled distributed feedback (LC-DFB) lasers. Third-order surface etched gratings have been defined on the ridge sidewalls along the laser cavity by means of stepper lithography. The lasers oscillate in single-mode around 1560 nm with high side mode suppression ratios (>52 dB), a wavelength tuning (≥ 3nm), an output power (≥ 6 mW), and narrow linewidth (<170 kHz) under various current injection ranges at room temperature. A minimum linewidth of 94 kHz has been recorded for 1500 µm-long two-electrode LC-DFB laser while providing non-uniform current injection through the two electrodes. The effect of the width of the inter-electrode gap on these different performance measures is also studied.

  7. Study on electrical characteristics of barrier-free atmospheric air diffuse discharge generated by nanosecond pulses and long wire electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lee Liu, Yun-Long; Teng, Yun; Liu, Lun; Pan, Yuan

    2014-07-15

    In room-temperature atmospheric air, the large-scale diffuse plasmas can be generated via high-voltage nanosecond pulses with short rise-time and wire electrodes. Diffuse discharge with the wire electrode length up to 110.0 cm and the discharge spacing of several centimeters has been investigated in this paper. Electrical characteristics of diffuse discharge have been analyzed by their optical photographs and measuring of the voltage and current waveforms. Experimental results show the electrode spacing, and the length of wire electrodes can influence the intensity and mode transition of diffuse discharge. The characteristic of current waveforms is that there are several current oscillation peaks at the time of applied pulsed voltage peak, and at the tail of applied pulse, the conduction current component will compensate the displacement one so that the measured current is unidirectional in diffuse discharge mode. The transition from diffuse discharge to arc discharge is always with the increasing of conduction current density. As for nanosecond pulses with long tail, the long wire electrodes are help for generating non-equilibrium diffuse plasmas.

  8. LATERAL HEAT FLOW INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY FOR THICKNESS INDEPENDENT DETERMINATION OF THERMAL DIFFUSIVITY IN CFRP

    SciTech Connect

    Tralshawala, Nilesh; Howard, Don; Knight, Bryon; Plotnikov, Yuri; Ringermacher, Harry

    2008-02-28

    In conventional infrared thermography, determination of thermal diffusivity requires thickness information. Recently GE has been experimenting with the use of lateral heat flow to determine thermal diffusivity without thickness information. This work builds on previous work at NASA Langley and Wayne State University but we incorporate thermal time of flight (tof) analysis rather than curve fitting to obtain quantitative information. We have developed appropriate theoretical models and a tof based data analysis framework to experimentally determine all components of thermal diffusivity from the time-temperature measurements. Initial validation was carried out using finite difference simulations. Experimental validation was done using anisotropic carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. We found that in the CFRP samples used, the in-plane component of diffusivity is about eight times larger than the through-thickness component.

  9. Gas diffusion-type oxygen electrode using perovskite-type oxides for metal-air batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Hyodo, Takeo; Miura, Norio; Yamazoe, Noboru

    1995-12-31

    In order to develop an air cathode of metal-air batteries, oxygen reduction behavior of gas diffusion-type carbon electrodes loaded with perovskite-type oxides, La{sub 1{minus}x}A{prime}{sub x}FeO{sub 3} (A{prime} = Ca, Sr, Ba, 0 {le} x {le} 1.0), was examined in 8 M KOH at 60 C. Among the oxide catalysts tested, La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3} (specific surface area: 21.5 m{sup 2}{center_dot}g{sup {minus}1}) gave the highest electrode performance. On the basis of electrode reaction kinetics, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition rates, and temperature programmed desorption of oxygen, it was concluded that such a performance was attributable to the active sites of the oxide for the direct 4-electron reduction of oxygen. Moreover, the electrode using La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3} was found to be rather stable in a short-term operation for 90 h at 300 mA{center_dot}cm{sup {minus}2}.

  10. Effects of spatial variation in membrane diffusibility and solubility on the lateral transport of membrane components.

    PubMed Central

    Eisinger, J; Halperin, B I

    1986-01-01

    There exist many examples of membrane components (e.g. receptors) accumulating in special domains of cell membranes. We analyze how certain variations in lateral diffusibility and solubility of the membrane would increase the efficiency of transport to these regions. A theorem is derived to show that the mean-time-of capture, tc, for particles diffusing to a trap from an annular region surrounding it, is intermediate to the tc values that correspond to the minimum and maximum diffusion coefficients that obtain in this region. An analytical solution for tc as a function of the gradient of diffusivity surrounding a trap is derived for circular geometry. Since local diffusion coefficients can be increased dramatically by reducing the concentration of intra-membrane particles and/or allowing them to form aggregates, such mechanisms could greatly enhance the diffusion-limited transport of particular membrane components to a trap (e.g. coated pit). If the trap is surrounded by an annular region in which the probe particles' partition function is increased, say, by the local segregation of certain phospholipids, tc is shown to vary inversely with the logarithm of the relative partition function. We provide some conjectural examples to illustrate the magnitude of the effects which heterogeneities in diffusibility and solubility may have in biological membranes. PMID:3756302

  11. Gas diffusion electrode setup for catalyst testing in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Wiberg, Gustav K H; Fleige, Michael; Arenz, Matthias

    2015-02-01

    We present a detailed description of the construction and testing of an electrochemical cell setup allowing the investigation of a gas diffusion electrode containing carbon supported high surface area catalysts. The setup is designed for measurements in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated temperature, i.e., very close to the actual conditions in high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs). The cell consists of a stainless steel flow field and a PEEK plastic cell body comprising the electrochemical cell, which exhibits a three electrode configuration. The cell body and flow field are braced using a KF-25 vacuum flange clamp, which allows an easy assembly of the setup. As demonstrated, the setup can be used to investigate temperature dependent electrochemical processes on high surface area type electrocatalysts, but it also enables quick screening tests of HT-PEMFC catalysts under realistic conditions.

  12. Gas diffusion electrode setup for catalyst testing in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Wiberg, Gustav K. H. E-mail: m.arenz@chem.ku.dk; Fleige, Michael; Arenz, Matthias E-mail: m.arenz@chem.ku.dk

    2015-02-15

    We present a detailed description of the construction and testing of an electrochemical cell setup allowing the investigation of a gas diffusion electrode containing carbon supported high surface area catalysts. The setup is designed for measurements in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated temperature, i.e., very close to the actual conditions in high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs). The cell consists of a stainless steel flow field and a PEEK plastic cell body comprising the electrochemical cell, which exhibits a three electrode configuration. The cell body and flow field are braced using a KF-25 vacuum flange clamp, which allows an easy assembly of the setup. As demonstrated, the setup can be used to investigate temperature dependent electrochemical processes on high surface area type electrocatalysts, but it also enables quick screening tests of HT-PEMFC catalysts under realistic conditions.

  13. Gas diffusion electrode setup for catalyst testing in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiberg, Gustav K. H.; Fleige, Michael; Arenz, Matthias

    2015-02-01

    We present a detailed description of the construction and testing of an electrochemical cell setup allowing the investigation of a gas diffusion electrode containing carbon supported high surface area catalysts. The setup is designed for measurements in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated temperature, i.e., very close to the actual conditions in high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs). The cell consists of a stainless steel flow field and a PEEK plastic cell body comprising the electrochemical cell, which exhibits a three electrode configuration. The cell body and flow field are braced using a KF-25 vacuum flange clamp, which allows an easy assembly of the setup. As demonstrated, the setup can be used to investigate temperature dependent electrochemical processes on high surface area type electrocatalysts, but it also enables quick screening tests of HT-PEMFC catalysts under realistic conditions.

  14. Anatomical evaluation of lumbar nerves using diffusion tensor imaging and implications of lateral decubitus for lateral transpsoas approach.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Eguchi, Yawara; Watanabe, Atsuya; Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Suzuki, Miyako; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Kubota, Go; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Fujimoto, Kazuki; Koda, Masao; Furuya, Takeo; Matsumoto, Koji; Masuda, Yoshitada; Aoki, Yasuchika; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Ohtori, Seiji

    2017-04-07

    Recently, lateral interbody fusion (LIF) has become more prevalent, and evaluation of lumbar nerves has taken on new importance. We report on the assessment of anatomical relationships between lumbar nerves and vertebral bodies using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Fifty patients with degenerative lumbar disease and ten healthy subjects underwent DTI. In patients with lumbar degenerative disease, we studied nerve courses with patients in the supine positions and with hips flexed. In healthy subjects, we evaluated nerve courses in three different positions: supine with hips flexed (the standard position for MRI); supine with hips extended; and the right lateral decubitus position with hips flexed. In conjunction with tractography from L3 to L5 using T2-weighted sagittal imaging, the vertebral body anteroposterior span was divided into four equally wide zones, with six total zones defined, including an anterior and a posterior zone (zone A, zones 1-4, zone P). We used this to characterize nerve courses at disc levels L3/4, L4/5, and L5/S1. In patients with degenerative lumbar disease, in the supine position with hips flexed, all lumbar nerve roots were located posterior to the vertebral body centers in L3/4 and L4/5. In healthy individuals, the L3/4 nerve courses were displaced forward in hips extended compared with the standard position, whereas in the lateral decubitus position, the L4/5 and L5/S nerve courses were displaced posteriorly compared with the standard position. The L3/4 and L4/5 nerve roots are located posterior to the vertebral body center. These were found to be offset to the rear when the hip is flexed or the lateral decubitus position is assumed. The present study is the first to elucidate changes in the course of the lumbar nerves as this varies by position. The lateral decubitus position or the position supine with hips flexed may be useful for avoiding nerve damage in a direct lateral transpsoas approach. Preoperative DTI seems to be useful in

  15. Spin diffusion length of Permalloy using spin absorption in lateral spin valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagasta, Edurne; Omori, Yasutomo; Isasa, Miren; Otani, YoshiChika; Hueso, Luis E.; Casanova, Fèlix

    2017-08-01

    We employ the spin absorption technique in lateral spin valves to extract the spin diffusion length of Permalloy (Py) as a function of temperature and resistivity. A linear dependence of the spin diffusion length with the conductivity of Py is observed, evidencing that the Elliott-Yafet mechanism is the dominant spin relaxation mechanism in Permalloy. Completing the dataset with additional data found in the literature, we obtain λPy = (0.91 ± 0.04) (fΩm2)/ρPy.

  16. Measurement of lateral charge diffusion in thick, fully depleted, back-illuminated CCDs

    SciTech Connect

    Karcher, Armin; Bebek, Christopher J.; Kolbe, William F.; Maurath, Dominic; Prasad, Valmiki; Uslenghi, Michela; Wagner, Martin

    2004-06-30

    Lateral charge diffusion in back-illuminated CCDs directly affects the point spread function (PSF) and spatial resolution of an imaging device. This can be of particular concern in thick, back-illuminated CCDs. We describe a technique of measuring this diffusion and present PSF measurements for an 800 x 1100, 15 mu m pixel, 280 mu m thick, back-illuminated, p-channel CCD that can be over-depleted. The PSF is measured over a wavelength range of 450 nm to 650 nm and at substrate bias voltages between 6 V and 80 V.

  17. Influence of impeller and diffuser geometries on the lateral fluid forces of whirling centrifugal impeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohashi, Hideo; Sakurai, Akira; Nishihama, Jiro

    1989-01-01

    Lateral fluid forces on two-dimensional centrifugal impellers, which whirl on a circular orbit in a vaneless diffuser, were reported. Experiments were further conducted for the cases in which a three-dimensional centrifugal impeller, a model of the boiler feed pump, whirls in vaneless and vaned diffusers. The influence of the clearance configuration between the casing and front shroud of the impeller was also investigated. The result indicated that the fluid dynamic interaction between the impeller and the guide vanes induces quite strong fluctuating fluid forces to the impeller, but nevertheless its influence on radial and tangential force components averaged over a whirling orbit is relatively small.

  18. Use of a rastered microbeam to study lateral diffusion of interest to microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, P. J.; Talevi, R.; Lanford, W. A.; Hymes, S.; Murarka, S. P.

    1994-03-01

    The use of the Albany MeV rastered microbeam to study lateral diffusion of interest to microelectronics is discussed. As an illustration of this technique, a study is presented of the lateral transport that occurs near the edge of a Ni film deposited on Si when this sample is heated. Used in an imaging mode, these measurements show the formation of a series of distinct regions composed of different stable Ni suicides, starting with the Ni 3Si and forming progressively less Ni rich suicides as one moves away from the Ni region.

  19. Killing of total heterotrophic bacteria using the gas diffusion electrode system.

    PubMed

    Xu, W Y; Li, P

    2012-06-01

    This study focused on the disinfection of dual electrodes with a gas diffusion cathode using total heterotrophic bacteria as indicator microorganisms. Batch tests were performed to study the effects of platinum load W(Pt) and the pore-forming agent content WNH4HCO3 in gas diffusion electrodes on the germicidal efficacy eta and H2O2 yield. The results showed that the disinfection improved with W(Pt), but its efficiency at W(Pt) of 3 per thousand was equivalent to W(Pt) of 4 per thousand. The right amount of the pore-forming agent improved disinfection. Continuous tests were performed to study residence times (RTs), pH and oxygen flow rates Qo2 on the germicidal efficacy and H2O2 yield. The results indicated that at the steady state total heterotrophic bacteria in the outlet stream were completely inactivated under our experimental conditions. Disinfection improved with increasing RT. This phenomenon was more significant when RT < 20 min. A drop in pH value resulted in the rapid rise of germicidal efficacy, while disinfection shortened with an increasing oxygen flow rate Qo2. The operating costs are high. Further research is required to fully understand all parameters and reduce operating costs.

  20. Amperometric Determination of Sulfite by Gas Diffusion- Sequential Injection with Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode.

    PubMed

    Chinvongamorn, Chakorn; Pinwattana, Kulwadee; Praphairaksit, Narong; Imato, Toshihiko; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2008-03-17

    A gas diffusion sequential injection system with amperometric detection using aboron-doped diamond electrode was developed for the determination of sulfite. A gasdiffusion unit (GDU) was used to prevent interference from sample matrices for theelectrochemical measurement. The sample was mixed with an acid solution to generategaseous sulfur dioxide prior to its passage through the donor channel of the GDU. Thesulfur dioxide diffused through the PTFE hydrophobic membrane into a carrier solution of 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 8)/0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate in the acceptor channel of theGDU and turned to sulfite. Then the sulfite was carried to the electrochemical flow cell anddetected directly by amperometry using the boron-doped diamond electrode at 0.95 V(versus Ag/AgCl). Sodium dodecyl sulfate was added to the carrier solution to preventelectrode fouling. This method was applicable in the concentration range of 0.2-20 mgSO3(2-)/L and a detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.05 mg SO3²-/L was achieved. This method wassuccessfully applied to the determination of sulfite in wines and the analytical resultsagreed well with those obtained by iodimetric titration. The relative standard deviations forthe analysis of sulfite in wines were in the range of 1.0-4.1 %. The sampling frequency was65 h(-1).

  1. Fabrication of stainless steel mesh gas diffusion electrode for power generation in microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    You, Shi-Jie; Wang, Xiu-Heng; Zhang, Jin-Na; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Ren, Nan-Qi; Gong, Xiao-Bo

    2011-01-15

    This study reports the fabrication of a new membrane electrode assembly by using stainless steel mesh (SSM) as raw material and its effectiveness as gas diffusion electrode (GDE) for electrochemical oxygen reduction in microbial fuel cell (MFC). Based on feeding glucose (0.5 g L(-1)) substrate to a single-chambered MFC, power generation using SSM-based GDE was increased with the decrease of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) content applied during fabrication, reaching the optimum power density of 951.6 mW m(-2) at 20% PTFE. Repeatable cell voltage of 0.51 V (external resistance of 400 Ω) and maximum power density of 951.6 mW m(-2) produced for the MFC with SSM-based GDE are comparable to that of 0.52 V and 972.6 mW m(-2), respectively obtained for the MFC containing typical carbon cloth (CC)-made GDE. Besides, Coulombic efficiency (CE) is found higher for GDE (SSM or CC) with membrane assembly than without, which results preliminarily from the mitigation of Coulombic loss being associated with oxygen diffusion and substrate crossover. This study demonstrates that with its good electrical conductivity and much lower cost, the SSM-made GDE suggests a promising alternative as efficient and more economically viable material to conventional typical carbon for power production from biomass in MFC.

  2. CAD/CAM-designed 3D-printed electroanalytical cell for the evaluation of nanostructured gas-diffusion electrodes.

    PubMed

    Chervin, Christopher N; Parker, Joseph F; Nelson, Eric S; Rolison, Debra R; Long, Jeffrey W

    2016-04-29

    The ability to effectively screen and validate gas-diffusion electrodes is critical to the development of next-generation metal-air batteries and regenerative fuel cells. The limiting electrode in a classic two-terminal device such as a battery or fuel cell is difficult to discern without an internal reference electrode, but the flooded electrolyte characteristic of three-electrode electroanalytical cells negates the prime function of an air electrode-a void volume freely accessible to gases. The nanostructured catalysts that drive the energy-conversion reactions (e.g., oxygen reduction and evolution in the air electrode of metal-air batteries) are best evaluated in the electrode structure as-used in the practical device. We have designed, 3D-printed, and characterized an air-breathing, thermodynamically referenced electroanalytical cell that allows us to mimic the Janus arrangement of the gas-diffusion electrode in a metal-air cell: one face freely exposed to gases, the other wetted by electrolyte.

  3. Effects of concentration-dependent elastic modulus on Li-ions diffusion and diffusion-induced stresses in spherical composition-gradient electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Kai; Li, Yong; Zheng, Bailin

    2015-09-14

    The composition-gradient electrode material is considered as one of the most promising materials for lithium-ion batteries because of its excellent electrochemical performance and thermal stability. In this work, the effects of concentration-dependent elastic modulus on Li-ions diffusion and diffusion-induce stress in the composition-gradient electrodes were studied. The coupling equations of elasticity and diffusion under both potentiostatic charging and galvanostatic charging were developed to obtain the distributions of both the Li-ions concentration and the stress. The results indicated that the effects of the concentration-dependent elastic modulus on the Li-ions diffusion and the diffusion-induce stresses are controlled by the lithiation induced stiffening factor in the composition-gradient electrodes: a low stiffening factor at the center and a high stiffening factor at the surface lead to a significant effect, whereas a high stiffening factor at the center and a low stiffening factor at the surface result in a minimal effect. The results in this work provide guidance for the selection of electrode materials.

  4. Diffusion tensor imaging detects corticospinal tract involvement at multiple levels in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Toosy, A; Werring, D; Orrell, R; Howard, R; King, M; Barker, G; Miller, D; Thompson, A

    2003-01-01

    Background: Histopathological studies of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are of end stage disease. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides the opportunity to investigate indirectly corticospinal tract pathology of ALS in vivo. Methods: DTI was used to study the water diffusion characteristics of the corticospinal tracts in 21 patients with ALS and 14 normal controls. The authors measured the fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) along the pyramidal tracts from the internal capsules down to the pyramids. A mixed model regression analysis was used to compare FA and MD between the ALS and control groups. Results: FA showed a downward linear trend from the cerebral peduncles to the pyramids and was lower in the ALS group than controls at multiple levels of the corticospinal tract. At the internal capsules, FA was higher on the right. MD showed an upward trend, progressing caudally from the internal capsules to the pyramids. MD was higher at the level of the internal capsule in the ALS group, but caudally this difference was not maintained. No correlations were found between clinical markers of disability and water diffusion indices. Conclusions: These findings provide insights into the pathological processes of ALS. Differences in diffusion characteristics at different anatomical levels may relate to underlying tract architecture or the distribution of pathological damage in ALS. Further development may permit monitoring of progression and treatment of disease. PMID:12933929

  5. Lateral diffusivity coefficients from the dynamics of a SF6 patch in a coastal environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersalé, M.; Petrenko, A. A.; Doglioli, A. M.; Nencioli, F.; Bouffard, J.; Blain, S.; Diaz, F.; Labasque, T.; Quéguiner, B.; Dekeyser, I.

    2016-01-01

    The dispersion of a patch of the tracer sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is used to assess the lateral diffusivity in the coastal waters of the western part of the Gulf of Lion (GoL), northwestern Mediterranean Sea, during the Latex10 experiment (September 2010). Immediately after the release, the spreading of the patch is associated with a strong decrease of the SF6 concentrations due to the gas exchange from the ocean to the atmosphere. This has been accurately quantified, evidencing the impact of the strong wind conditions during the first days of this campaign. Few days after the release, as the atmospheric loss of SF6 decreased, lateral diffusivity coefficient at spatial scales of 10 km has been computed using two approaches. First, the evolution of the patch with time was combined with a diffusion-strain model to obtain estimates of the strain rate (γ = 2.5 10- 6 s- 1) and of the lateral diffusivity coefficient (Kh = 23.2 m2 s- 1). Second, a steady state model was applied, showing Kh values similar to the previous method after a period of adjustment between 2 and 4.5 days. This implies that after such period, our computation of Kh becomes insensitive to the inclusion of further straining of the patch. Analysis of sea surface temperature satellite imagery shows the presence of a strong front in the study area. The front clearly affected the dynamics within the region and thus the temporal evolution of the patch. Our results are consistent with previous studies in open ocean and demonstrate the success and feasibility of those methods also under small-scale, rapidly-evolving dynamics typical of coastal environments.

  6. Suppression of Lateral Diffusion and Surface Leakage Currents in nBn Photodetectors Using an Inverted Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, X.; Savich, G. R.; Marozas, B. T.; Wicks, G. W.

    2017-08-01

    Surface leakage and lateral diffusion currents in InAs-based nBn photodetectors have been investigated. Devices fabricated using a shallow etch processing scheme that etches through the top contact and stops at the barrier exhibited large lateral diffusion current but undetectably low surface leakage. Such large lateral diffusion current significantly increased the dark current, especially in small devices, and causes pixel-to-pixel crosstalk in detector arrays. To eliminate the lateral diffusion current, two different approaches were examined. The conventional solution utilized a deep etch process, which etches through the top contact, barrier, and absorber. This deep etch processing scheme eliminated lateral diffusion, but introduced high surface current along the device mesa sidewalls, increasing the dark current. High device failure rate was also observed in deep-etched nBn structures. An alternative approach to limit lateral diffusion used an inverted nBn structure that has its absorber grown above the barrier. Like the shallow etch process on conventional nBn structures, the inverted nBn devices were fabricated with a processing scheme that only etches the top layer (the absorber, in this case) but avoids etching through the barrier. The results show that inverted nBn devices have the advantage of eliminating the lateral diffusion current without introducing elevated surface current.

  7. Lateral-crack-free, buckled, inkjet-printed silver electrodes on highly pre-stretched elastomeric substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaemyon; Chung, Seungjun; Song, Hyunsoo; Kim, Sangwoo; Hong, Yongtaek

    2013-03-01

    We report the formation of lateral-crack-free silver electrodes on highly pre-stretched poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) substrates using the inkjet-printing method followed by an annealing process under the pre-stretched state. Due to Poisson's effect, cracks are easily obtained in the direction lateral to the pre-stretching and releasing directions when the highly pre-stretched substrate is released after the electrode formation. In our method, however, Poisson's effect is suppressed significantly from the PDMS thermal expansion perpendicular to the pre-stretched direction during the annealing process. In order to prevent the formation of a lateral crack, the annealing temperature needs to be optimized for each pre-stretching condition. We modelled their relationship using Poisson's ratios and thermal expansion coefficients of the substrate and silver materials. Our measurement results showed consistent result with the simulation. The resistance of the fabricated silver electrodes negligibly changes under up to 17% strain and even after 1000 time stretching cycle tests.

  8. Penetration of lucifer yellow into human skin: a lateral diffusion channel in the stratum corneum.

    PubMed

    Mansbridge, J N; Knapp, A M

    1993-06-01

    We investigated the penetration of Lucifer Yellow into human and murine epidermis in 4-mm punch biopsies by incubation in dye solution. Lucifer Yellow was taken up freely by the dermis but penetrated only slightly into keratinocytes of the basal and suprabasal layers. However, progressive lateral diffusion was observed in the lowest layers of the stratum corneum, extending a distance of 1 mm in 6 hr. Under high magnification, Lucifer Yellow appeared to lie within rather than between corneocytes of this layer. Control samples stained with Lucifer Yellow after sectioning showed no preferential binding of the dye in this region. We concluded that the localization of staining was the result of diffusion from the cut edge of the stratum corneum. Lucifer Yellow penetration was insensitive to PMSF, 1:10 phenanthroline, or N-ethyl maleimide and was also observed in an in vivo injury, indicating that it was not an artifact of proteolytic or degenerative changes. In contrast, horseradish peroxidase failed to penetrate, suggesting molecular size limitation to channel entry. Diffusion of Lucifer Yellow beneath the stratum corneum marks a pathway for the lateral movement of small molecules of potential importance in the normal physiology of the skin, drug delivery, and pathology.

  9. Prevention of neurological complications using a neural monitoring system with a finger electrode in the extreme lateral interbody fusion approach.

    PubMed

    Narita, Wataru; Takatori, Ryota; Arai, Yuji; Nagae, Masateru; Tonomura, Hitoshi; Hayashida, Tatsuro; Ogura, Taku; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE Extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) is a minimally disruptive surgical procedure that uses a lateral approach. There is, however, concern about the development of neurological complications when this approach is used, particularly at the L4-5 level. The authors performed a prospective study of the effects of a new neural monitoring system using a finger electrode to prevent neurological complications in patients treated with XLIF and compared the results to results obtained in historical controls. METHODS The study group comprised 36 patients (12 male and 24 female) who underwent XLIF for lumbar spine degenerative spondylolisthesis or lumbar spine degenerative scoliosis at L4-5 or a lower level. Using preoperative axial MR images obtained at the mid-height of the disc at the treated level, we calculated the psoas position value (PP%) by dividing the distance from the posterior border of the vertebral disc to the posterior border of the psoas major muscle by the anteroposterior diameter of the vertebral disc. During the operation, the psoas major muscle was dissected using an index finger fitted with a finger electrode, and threshold values of the dilator were recorded before and after dissection. Eighteen cases in which patients had undergone the same procedure for the same indications but without use of the finger electrode served as historical controls. Baseline clinical and demographic characteristics, PP values, clinical results, and neurological complications were compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS The mean PP% values in the control and finger electrode groups were 17.5% and 20.1%, respectively (no significant difference). However, 6 patients in the finger electrode group had a rising psoas sign with PP% values of 50% or higher. The mean threshold value before dissection in the finger electrode group was 13.1 ± 5.9 mA, and this was significantly increased to 19.0 ± 1.5 mA after dissection (p < 0.001). A strong negative correlation was found

  10. Phospholipid lateral diffusion in phosphatidylcholine-sphingomyelin-cholesterol monolayers; effects of oxidatively truncated phosphatidylcholines.

    PubMed

    Parkkila, Petteri; Stefl, Martin; Olżyńska, Agnieszka; Hof, Martin; Kinnunen, Paavo K J

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in a number of pathological conditions and the generated oxidatively modified lipids influence membrane properties and functions, including lipid-protein interactions and cellular signaling. Brewster angle microscopy demonstrated oxidatively truncated phosphatidylcholines to promote phase separation in monolayers of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (POPC), sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol (Chol). More specifically, 1-palmitoyl-2-azelaoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PazePC), was found to increase the miscibility transition pressure of the SM/Chol-phase. Lateral diffusion of lipids is influenced by a variety of membrane properties, thus making it a sensitive parameter to observe the coexistence of different lipid phases, for instance. The dependence on lipid lateral packing of the lateral diffusion of fluorophore-containing phospholipid analogs was investigated in Langmuir monolayers composed of POPC, SM, and Chol and additionally containing oxidatively truncated phosphatidylcholines, using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). To our knowledge, these are the first FCS results on miscibility transition in ternary lipid monolayers, confirming previous results obtained using Brewster angle microscopy on such lipid monolayers. Wide-field fluorescence microscopy was additionally employed to verify the transition, i.e. the loss and reformation of SM/Chol domains.

  11. Lateral diffusion of membrane proteins: consequences of hydrophobic mismatch and lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Ramadurai, Sivaramakrishnan; Duurkens, Ria; Krasnikov, Victor V; Poolman, Bert

    2010-09-08

    Biological membranes are composed of a large number lipid species differing in hydrophobic length, degree of saturation, and charge and size of the headgroup. We now present data on the effect of hydrocarbon chain length of the lipids and headgroup composition on the lateral mobility of the proteins in model membranes. The trimeric glutamate transporter (GltT) and the monomeric lactose transporter (LacY) were reconstituted in giant unilamellar vesicles composed of unsaturated phosphocholine lipids of varying acyl chain length (14-22 carbon atoms) and various ratios of DOPE/DOPG/DOPC lipids. The lateral mobility of the proteins and of a fluorescent lipid analog was determined as a function of the hydrophobic thickness of the bilayer (h) and lipid composition, using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The diffusion coefficient of LacY decreased with increasing thickness of the bilayer, in accordance with the continuum hydrodynamic model of Saffman-Delbrück. For GltT, the mobility had its maximum at diC18:1 PC, which is close to the hydrophobic thickness of the bilayer in vivo. The lateral mobility decreased linearly with the concentration of DOPE but was not affected by the fraction of anionic lipids from DOPG. The addition of DOPG and DOPE did not affect the activity of GltT. We conclude that the hydrophobic thickness of the bilayer is a major determinant of molecule diffusion in membranes, but protein-specific properties may lead to deviations from the Saffman-Delbrück model.

  12. CAD/CAM-designed 3D-printed electroanalytical cell for the evaluation of nanostructured gas-diffusion electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chervin, Christopher N.; Parker, Joseph F.; Nelson, Eric S.; Rolison, Debra R.; Long, Jeffrey W.

    2016-04-01

    The ability to effectively screen and validate gas-diffusion electrodes is critical to the development of next-generation metal-air batteries and regenerative fuel cells. The limiting electrode in a classic two-terminal device such as a battery or fuel cell is difficult to discern without an internal reference electrode, but the flooded electrolyte characteristic of three-electrode electroanalytical cells negates the prime function of an air electrode—a void volume freely accessible to gases. The nanostructured catalysts that drive the energy-conversion reactions (e.g., oxygen reduction and evolution in the air electrode of metal-air batteries) are best evaluated in the electrode structure as-used in the practical device. We have designed, 3D-printed, and characterized an air-breathing, thermodynamically referenced electroanalytical cell that allows us to mimic the Janus arrangement of the gas-diffusion electrode in a metal-air cell: one face freely exposed to gases, the other wetted by electrolyte.

  13. A barrier to lateral diffusion of porphyropsin in Necturus rod outer segment disks.

    PubMed Central

    Drzymala, R E; Weiner, H L; Dearry, C A; Liebman, P A

    1984-01-01

    Microspectrophotometry was used to study lateral diffusion of the visual pigment, porphyropsin , in the disk membrane in intact mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus) rod outer segments (ROS), isolated in frog Ringer's solution. A concentration gradient of unbleached visual pigment was produced on the disks by rapidly photobleaching 40% of the pigment in an area spanning 1/4 or 1/2 of the cell's width. The change in optical density of the cells at 580 nm was then followed with time on either the bleached or unbleached side. The temperature dependence of porphyropsin diffusion yielded a Q10 of 2.5 between 10 and 20 degrees C with an activation energy of 12 +/- 2 kcal. At completion of pigment diffusion, the center and edge of the disk had, respectively, attained only 90 and 55% of the concentration expected. Computed diffusion coefficients (5.4 X 10(-9) cm2/s) were similar at the center and periphery of the disk immediately after the flash, however, an additional slow component for diffusion was detected at the periphery. A comparison of optical density at 525 nm along the diameter of ROS before and after the flash showed a persistent (20 min) postbleach concentration gradient of unbleached porphyropsin . This suggests that 15% of the prophyropsins may be sequestered into distinct areas on a mudpuppy disk and are not free to diffuse over the whole surface. This argument is supported by the observation that mudpuppy disks are separated into petal -shaped regions by incisures, some of which penetrate nearly to the disk center. Images FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:6722262

  14. A new RF trench-gate multi-channel laterally-diffused MOSFET on InGaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payal, M.; Singh, Y.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, a new RF power trench-gate multi-channel laterally-diffused MOSFET (TGMC-LDMOS) on InGaAs is proposed. The gate-electrodes of the new structure are placed vertically in the trenches built in the drift layer. Each gate results in the formation of two channels in the p-body region of the device. The drain metal is also placed in a trench to take contact from the n+-InGaAs region located over the substrate. In a cell length of 5 {{μ }}{{m}}, the TGMC-LDMOS structure has seven channels, which conduct simultaneously to carry drain current in parallel. The formation of multi-channels in the proposed device increases the drive current ({I}{{D}}) leading to a large reduction in the specific on-resistance ({R}{{on-sp}}). Due to better control of gates on the drain current, the new structure exhibits substantially higher transconductance ({g}{{m}}) resulting in significant improvement in cut-off frequency ({f}{{T}}) and oscillation frequency ({f}\\max ). Using two-dimensional numerical simulations, a 55 V TGMC-LDMOS is demonstrated to achieve 7 times higher {I}{{D}}, 6.2 times lower {R}{{on-sp}}, 6.3 times higher peak {g}{{m}}, 2.6 times higher {f}{{T}}, and 2.5 times increase in {f}\\max in comparison to a conventional device for the identical cell length.

  15. Magnetically Diffused Radial Electric-Arc Air Heater Employing Water-Cooled Copper Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, R. F.; Davis, D. D., Jr.

    1962-01-01

    A magnetically rotated electric-arc air heater has been developed that is novel in that an intense magnetic field of the order of 10,000 to 25,000 gauss is employed. This field is supplied by a coil that is connected in series with the arc. Experimentation with this heater has shown that the presence of an intense magnetic field transverse to the arc results in diffusion of the arc and that the arc has a positive effective resistance. With the field coil in series with the arc, highly stable arc operation is obtained from a battery power supply. External ballast is not required to stabilize the arc when it is operating at maximum power level. The electrode erosion rate is so low that the airstream contamination is no more than 0.07 percent and may be substantially less.

  16. Reducing diffusion induced stress in planar electrodes by plastic shakedown and cyclic plasticity of current collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yicheng; Li, Zongzan; Zhang, Junqian

    2014-10-01

    This paper proposes a strategy to reduce the diffusion induced stress and enhance the capacity of a layered electrode by allowing the plastic deformation of current collector. Based on analytical formulations of the stress in whole electrode, three types of elastoplastic behaviors of current collector, i.e. pure elastic deformation, plastic shakedown and cyclic plasticity, are identified. Criterions separating the three cases are proposed. It is found applying a thin current collector and allowing it to plastically yield in the charge/discharge cycles is beneficial not only to capacity as more space can be provided for active materials but also to electrochemical stability because the stress in active layer is significantly reduced. Structural design corresponding to plastic shakedown shows good balance between the said improvements and structural safety, whereas the case of cyclic plasticity further enhances the improvements. Therefore, structural designing scheme is provided for the former case according to the criterion of plastic shakedown but for the latter one based on the Coffin-Manson relation with expected cycle life.

  17. Fabrication of gas diffusion electrodes via electrophoretic deposition for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felix, Cecil; Jao, Ting-Chu; Pasupathi, Sivakumar; Linkov, Vladimir M.; Pollet, Bruno G.

    2014-07-01

    The Electrophoretic Deposition (EPD) method was adapted to fabricate Gas Diffusion Electrodes (GDEs) for Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEA) for High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (HT-PEMFC) operating at 160 °C. Suspensions containing the Pt/C catalyst, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and NaCl were studied. Stable catalyst suspensions were observed when the NaCl concentrations were ≤0.1 mM. Mercury intrusion porosity analysis showed that the GDEs obtained via the EPD method had higher porosity (30.5 m2 g-1) than the GDEs fabricated by the ultrasonic spray method (25.2 m2 g-1). Compared to the ultrasonically sprayed MEA, the EPD MEA showed ∼12% increase in peak power at a slightly lower (∼4 wt %) Pt loading. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) analysis showed a lower charge transfer resistance for the EPD MEA compared to the ultrasonically sprayed MEA while Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) analysis showed ∼16% higher Electrochemical Surface Area (ECSA) for the EPD MEA compared to the ultrasonically sprayed MEA. These observations were attributed to the higher porosity and better catalyst particle size distribution of the EPD GDEs. A comparison between PTFE and Nafion® ionomer in the Catalyst Layers (CL) of two EPD MEAs revealed that PTFE yielded MEAs with better performance and is therefore more suitable in HT-PEMFCs.

  18. Lateral Diffusion of PEG-Lipid in Magnetically Aligned Bicelles Measured Using Stimulated Echo Pulsed Field Gradient 1H NMR

    PubMed Central

    Soong, Ronald; Macdonald, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    Lateral diffusion measurements of PEG-lipid incorporated into magnetically aligned bicelles are demonstrated using stimulated echo (STE) pulsed field gradient (PFG) proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Bicelles were composed of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) plus dihexanoyl phosphatidylcholine (DHPC) (q = DMPC/DHPC molar ratio = 4.5) plus 1 mol % (relative to DMPC) dimyristoyl phosphatidylethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000] (DMPE-PEG 2000) at 25 wt % lipid. 1H NMR STE spectra of perpendicular aligned bicelles contained only resonances assigned to residual HDO and to overlapping contributions from a DMPE-PEG 2000 ethoxy headgroup plus DHPC choline methyl protons. Decay of the latter's STE intensity in the STE PFG 1H NMR experiment (gz = 244 G cm−1) yielded a DMPE-PEG 2000 (1 mol %, 35°C) lateral diffusion coefficient D = 1.35 × 10−11 m2 s−1. Hence, below the “mushroom-to-brush” transition, DMPE-PEG 2000 lateral diffusion is dictated by its DMPE hydrophobic anchor. D was independent of the diffusion time, indicating unrestricted lateral diffusion over root mean-square diffusion distances of microns, supporting the “perforated lamellae” model of bicelle structure under these conditions. Overall, the results demonstrate the feasibility of lateral diffusion measurements in magnetically aligned bicelles using the STE PFG NMR technique. PMID:15475584

  19. Lateral diffusion of PEG-Lipid in magnetically aligned bicelles measured using stimulated echo pulsed field gradient 1H NMR.

    PubMed

    Soong, Ronald; Macdonald, Peter M

    2005-01-01

    Lateral diffusion measurements of PEG-lipid incorporated into magnetically aligned bicelles are demonstrated using stimulated echo (STE) pulsed field gradient (PFG) proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Bicelles were composed of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) plus dihexanoyl phosphatidylcholine (DHPC) (q = DMPC/DHPC molar ratio = 4.5) plus 1 mol % (relative to DMPC) dimyristoyl phosphatidylethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000] (DMPE-PEG 2000) at 25 wt % lipid. 1H NMR STE spectra of perpendicular aligned bicelles contained only resonances assigned to residual HDO and to overlapping contributions from a DMPE-PEG 2000 ethoxy headgroup plus DHPC choline methyl protons. Decay of the latter's STE intensity in the STE PFG 1H NMR experiment (g(z) = 244 G cm(-1)) yielded a DMPE-PEG 2000 (1 mol %, 35 degrees C) lateral diffusion coefficient D = 1.35 x 10(-11) m2 s(-1). Hence, below the "mushroom-to-brush" transition, DMPE-PEG 2000 lateral diffusion is dictated by its DMPE hydrophobic anchor. D was independent of the diffusion time, indicating unrestricted lateral diffusion over root mean-square diffusion distances of microns, supporting the "perforated lamellae" model of bicelle structure under these conditions. Overall, the results demonstrate the feasibility of lateral diffusion measurements in magnetically aligned bicelles using the STE PFG NMR technique.

  20. Laterally configured resistive switching device based on transition-metal nano-gap electrode on Gd oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Kawakita, Masatoshi; Okabe, Kyota; Kimura, Takashi

    2016-01-11

    We have developed a fabrication process for a laterally configured resistive switching device based on a Gd oxide. A nano-gap electrode connected by a Gd oxide with the ideal interfaces has been created by adapting the electro-migration method in a metal/GdO{sub x} bilayer system. Bipolar set and reset operations have been clearly observed in the Pt/GdO{sub x} system similarly in the vertical device based on GdO{sub x}. Interestingly, we were able to observe a clear bipolar switching also in a ferromagnetic CoFeB nano-gap electrode with better stability compared to the Pt/GdO{sub x} device. The superior performance of the CoFeB/GdO{sub x} device implies the importance of the spin on the resistive switching.

  1. FRAP Analysis of Membrane-Associated Proteins: Lateral Diffusion and Membrane-Cytoplasmic Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Goehring, Nathan W.; Chowdhury, Debanjan; Hyman, Anthony A.; Grill, Stephan W.

    2010-01-01

    Obtaining quantitative kinetic parameters from fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments generally requires a theoretical analysis of protein mobility and appropriate solutions for FRAP recovery derived for a given geometry. Here we provide a treatment of FRAP recovery for a molecule undergoing a combined process of reversible membrane association and lateral diffusion on the plasma membrane for two commonly used bleach geometries: stripes, and boxes. Such analysis is complicated by the fact that diffusion of a molecule during photobleaching can lead to broadening of the bleach area, resulting in significant deviations of the actual bleach shape from the desired bleach geometry, which creates difficulty in accurately measuring kinetic parameters. Here we overcome the problem of deviations between actual and idealized bleach geometries by parameterizing, more accurately, the initial postbleach state. This allows for reconstruction of an accurate and analytically tractable approximation of the actual fluorescence distribution. Through simulated FRAP experiments, we demonstrate that this method can be used to accurately measure a broad range of combinations of diffusion constants and exchange rates. Use of this method to analyze the plextrin homology domain of PLC-δ1 in Caenorhabditis elegans results in quantitative agreement with prior analysis of this domain in other cells using other methods. Because of the flexibility, relative ease of implementation, and its use of standard, easily obtainable bleach geometries, this method should be broadly applicable to investigation of protein dynamics at the plasma membrane. PMID:20959084

  2. Lateral diffusion of CO2 from shaded to illuminated leaf parts affects photosynthesis inside homobaric leaves.

    PubMed

    Pieruschka, Roland; Schurr, Ulrich; Jensen, Manfred; Wolff, Wilfried F; Jahnke, Siegfried

    2006-01-01

    Gas exchange is generally regarded to occur between the leaf interior and ambient air, i.e. in vertical (anticlinal) directions of leaf blades. However, inside homobaric leaves, gas movement occurs also in lateral directions. The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether lateral CO2 diffusion affects leaf photosynthesis when illuminated leaves are partially shaded. Measurements using gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence imaging techniques were performed on homobaric leaves of Vicia faba and Nicotiana tabacum or on heterobaric leaves of Glycine max and Phaseolus vulgaris. For homobaric leaves, gas exchange inside a clamp-on leaf chamber was affected by shading the leaf outside the chamber. The quantum yield of photosystem II (Phi(PSII)) was highest directly adjacent to a light/shade border (LSB). Phi(PSII) decreased in the illuminated leaf parts with distance from the LSB, while the opposite was observed for nonphotochemical quenching. These effects became most pronounced at low stomatal conductance. They were not observed in heterobaric leaves. The results suggest that plants with homobaric leaves can benefit from lateral CO2 flux, in particular when stomata are closed (e.g. under drought stress). This may enhance photosynthetic, instead of nonphotochemical, processes near LSBs in such leaves and reduce the photoinhibitory effects of excess light.

  3. Structural and diffusion imaging versus clinical assessment to monitor amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas-Blanco, Arturo; Machts, Judith; Acosta-Cabronero, Julio; Kaufmann, Joern; Abdulla, Susanne; Kollewe, Katja; Petri, Susanne; Schreiber, Stefanie; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Dengler, Reinhard; Vielhaber, Stefan; Nestor, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects upper and lower motor neurons. Observational and intervention studies can be tracked using clinical measures such as the revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R) but for a complete understanding of disease progression, objective in vivo biomarkers of both central and peripheral motor pathway pathology are highly desirable. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of structural and diffusion imaging as central nervous system biomarkers compared to the standard clinical measure, ALSFRS-R, to track longitudinal evolution using three time-point measurements. N = 34 patients with ALS were scanned and clinically assessed three times at a mean of three month time intervals. The MRI biomarkers were structural T1-weighted volumes for cortical thickness measurement as well as deep grey matter volumetry, voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Cortical thickness focused specifically on the precentral gyrus while quantitative DTI biomarkers focused on the corticospinal tracts. The evolution of imaging biomarkers and ALSFRS-R scores over time were analysed using a mixed effects model that accounted for the scanning interval as a fixed effect variable, and, the initial measurements and time from onset as random variables. The mixed effects model showed a significant decrease in the ALSFRS-R score, (p < 0.0001, and an annual rate of change (AROC) of − 7.3 points). Similarly, fractional anisotropy of the corticospinal tract showed a significant decrease (p = 0.009, AROC = − 0.0066) that, in turn, was driven by a significant increase in radial diffusivity combined with a trend to decrease in axial diffusivity. No significant change in cortical thickness of the precentral gyrus was found (p > 0.5). In addition, deep grey matter volumetry and voxel-based morphometry also identified no significant changes. Furthermore, the

  4. Insertion depth impacts speech perception and hearing preservation for lateral wall electrodes.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Brendan P; Hunter, Jacob B; Haynes, David S; Holder, Jourdan T; Dedmon, Matt M; Noble, Jack H; Dawant, Benoit M; Wanna, George B

    2017-10-01

    1) Examine angular insertion depths (AID) and scalar location of Med-El (GmbH Innsbruck, Austria) electrodes; and 2) determine the relationship between AID and audiologic outcomes controlling for scalar position. Retrospective review. Postlingually deafened adults undergoing cochlear implantation with Flex 24, Flex 28, and Standard electrode arrays (Med-El) were identified. Patients with preoperative and postoperative computed tomography scans were included so that electrode location and AID could be determined. Outcome measures were 1) speech perception in the cochlear implant (CI)-only condition, and 2) short-term hearing preservation. Forty-eight implants were included; all electrodes (48 of 48) were positioned entirely within the scala tympani. The median AID was 408° (interquartile [IQ] range 373°-449°) for Flex 24, 575° (IQ range 465°-584°) for Flex 28, and 584° (IQ range 368°-643°) for Standard electrodes (Med-El). The mean postoperative CNC score was 43.7% ± 21.9. A positive correlation was observed between greater AID and better CNC performance (r = 0.48, P < 0.001). Excluding patients with postoperative residual hearing, a strong correlation between AID and CNC persisted (r = 0.57, P < 0.001). In patients with preoperative residual hearing, mean low-frequency pure-tone average (PTA) shift was 27 dB ± 14. A correlation between AID and low-frequency PTA shift at activation was noted (r = 0.41, P = 0.04). Favorable rates of scala tympani insertion (100%) were observed. In the CI-only condition, a direct correlation between greater AID and CNC score was noted regardless of postoperative hearing status. Deeper insertions were, however, associated with worse short-term hearing preservation. When patients without postoperative residual hearing were analyzed independently, the relationship between greater insertion depth and better performance was strengthened. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:2352-2357, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and

  5. Electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Clere, T.M.

    1983-08-30

    A 3-dimensional electrode is disclosed having substantially coplanar and substantially flat portions and ribbon-like curved portions, said curved portions being symmetrical and alternating in rows above and below said substantially coplanar, substantially flat portions, respectively, and a geometric configuration presenting in one sectional aspect the appearance of a series of ribbon-like oblate spheroids interrupted by said flat portions and in another sectional aspect, 90/sup 0/ from said one aspect, the appearance of a square wave pattern.

  6. Effect of local velocity on diffusion-induced stress in large-deformation electrodes of lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Kai; Zheng, Bailin; Yang, Fuqian

    2016-07-01

    In this work, the contribution of local velocity to the resultant flux of lithium in lithium-ion battery is introduced into the diffusion equation to describe the migration of lithium in the active material of electrodes. The effect of the local velocity on the stress evolution in a spherical electrode made of silicon is analyzed, using the derived diffusion equation and nonlinear theory of elasticity. Two boundary conditions at the surface of the electrode, which represent two extreme conditions of real electrode materials, are used in the stress analysis: one is stress-free, and the other is immobile. The numerical results with the stress-free boundary condition suggest that the effect of the local velocity on the distribution of radial stress and hoop stress increases with the increase of time and the effect of the local velocity on the distribution of lithium is relatively small. In comparison with the results without the effect of the local velocity, the effect of the local velocity is negligible for the immobile boundary condition. The numerical result shows that the use of the immobile boundary condition leads to the decrease of von-Mises stress, which likely will retard the mechanical degradation of electrode and improve the electrochemical performance of lithium-ion battery.

  7. A novel lateral diffused metal oxide semiconductor (LDMOS) by attracting the electric field Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orouji, Ali A.; Hanaei, Mahsa

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a novel silicon on insulator (SOI) lateral diffused metal oxide semiconductor (LDMOS) transistor with high voltage and high frequency performance is presented. In this work we try to reduce the electric field crowding in the drift region. The proposed structure consists of a metal in the buried oxide and also connected to the source. The inserted metal attracts the electric field lines in the buried oxide. It causes 67% improvement in the breakdown voltage in comparison with a conventional SOI-LDMOS (C-LDMOS). Our simulations with two dimensional ATLAS simulator show that the gate-drain capacitance improves in the proposed structure. The unilateral power gain also enhances. So, the proposed structure is suitable for high voltage and high frequency applications.

  8. Nano-fabricated perpendicular magnetic anisotropy electrodes for lateral spin valves and observation of Nernst-Ettingshausen related signals

    SciTech Connect

    Chejanovsky, N.; Sharoni, A.

    2014-08-21

    Lateral spin valves (LSVs) are efficient structures for characterizing spin currents in spintronics devices. Most LSVs are based on ferromagnetic (FM) electrodes for spin-injection and detection. While there are advantages for using perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) FM, e.g., stability to nano-scaling, these have almost not been studied. This is mainly due to difficulties in fabricating PMA FMs in a lateral geometry. We present here an efficient method, based on ion-milling through an AlN mask, for fabrication of LSVs with multi-layered PMA FMs such as Co/Pd and Co/Ni. We demonstrate, using standard permalloy FMs, that the method enables efficient spin injection. We show the multi-layer electrodes retain their PMA properties as well as spin injection and detection in PMA LSVs. In addition, we find a large asymmetric voltage signal which increases with current. We attribute this to a Nernst-Ettingshausen effect caused by local Joule heating and the perpendicular magnetic easy axis.

  9. Lateral diffusion and signaling of receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE): a receptor involved in chronic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Syed, Aleem; Zhu, Qiaochu; Smith, Emily A

    2017-06-16

    Membrane diffusion is one of the key mechanisms in the cellular function of receptors. The signaling of receptors for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) has been extensively studied in the context of several pathological conditions, however, very little is known about RAGE diffusion. To fill this gap, RAGE lateral diffusion is probed in native, cholesterol-depleted, and cytoskeleton-altered cellular conditions. In native GM07373 cellular conditions, RAGE has a 90% mobile fraction and an average diffusion coefficient of 0.3 μm(2)/s. When depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton is inhibited with the small molecule jasplakinolide (Jsp), the RAGE mobile fraction and diffusion coefficient decrease by 22 and 37%, respectively. In contrast, depolymerizing the filamentous actin cytoskeleton using the small molecule cytochalasin D (CD) does not alter the RAGE diffusion properties. There is a 70 and 50% decrease in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) when the actin cytoskeleton is disrupted by CD or Jsp, respectively, in RAGE-expressing GM07373 cells. Disrupting the actin cytoskeleton in GM07373 cells that do not express detectable amounts of RAGE results in no change in p-ERK. Cholesterol depletion results in no statistically significant change in the diffusion properties of RAGE or p-ERK. This work presents a strong link between the actin cytoskeleton and RAGE diffusion and downstream signaling, and serves to further our understanding of the factors influencing RAGE lateral diffusion.

  10. Gradation of mechanical properties in gas-diffusion electrode. Part 2: Heterogeneous carbon fiber and damage evolution in cell layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poornesh, K. K.; Cho, C. D.; Lee, G. B.; Tak, Y. S.

    In PEM fuel cell, gas-diffusion electrode (GDE) plays very significant role in force transmission from bipolar plate to the membrane. This paper investigates the effects of geometrical heterogeneities of gas-diffusion electrode layer (gas-diffusion layer (GDL) and catalyst layer (CL)) on mechanical damage evolution and propagation. We present a structural integrity principle of membrane electrode assembly (MEA) based on the interlayer stress transfer capacity and corresponding cell layer material response. Commonly observable damages such as rupture of hydrophobic coating and breakage of carbon fiber in gas-diffusion layer are attributed to the ductile to brittle phase transition within a single carbon fiber. Effect of material inhomogeneity on change in modulus, hardness, contact stiffness, and electrical contact resistance is also discussed. Fracture statistics of carbon fiber and variations in flexural strength of GDL are studied. The damage propagation in CL is perceived to be influenced by the type of gradation and the vicinity from which crack originates. Cohesive zone model has been proposed based on the traction-separation law to investigate the damage propagation throughout the two interfaces (carbon fiber/CL and CL/membrane).

  11. Elemental Diffusion and Service Performance of Bi2Te3-Based Thermoelectric Generation Modules with Flexible Connection Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chengpeng; Fan, Xi'an; Rong, Zhenzhou; Zhang, Chengcheng; Li, Guangqiang; Feng, Bo; Hu, Jie; Xiang, Qiusheng

    2017-02-01

    In this work, the elemental diffusion and service performance of Bi2Te3-based thermoelectric generation (TEG) modules with flexible Al electrodes were evaluated at a temperature difference of 240°C and a cold junction temperature of 50°C. The results indicated that while the maximum output power ( P max) and open circuit voltage ( U 0) first increased rapidly and then decreased gradually with service time, the dynamic inner-resistance ( R i) showed the opposite trend. Obvious defects and elemental diffusion across the interfaces were observed and resulted in the performance degradation of the TEG modules. The Ni barrier layer with a thickness of 8-10 μm could not effectively restrain the elemental diffusion for the TEG applications at the high operating temperatures. Al was not suitable as the electrode material for the Bi2Te3-based TEG modules due to its ready absorption of Se from the n-type thermoelectric legs. Encouragingly, we found that the Al electrode could restrain the diffusion of the other elements such as Bi, Te, Sb, Cu, Ni, and I. These results provided insight into the improvement of the service performance of the TEG modules.

  12. Nonlinear dilational mechanics of Langmuir lipid monolayers: a lateral diffusion mechanism.

    PubMed

    Arriaga, Laura R; López-Montero, Iván; Rodríguez-García, Ruddi; Monroy, Francisco

    2008-06-01

    We propose a theoretical model for the nonlinear mechanical response of Langmuir lipid monolayers subjected to a dilational in-plane deformation. Lateral diffusion in conjunction with free convection has been considered to drive nonlinear mass transport in Langmuir lipid monolayers. The present model combines the conservative dynamical equations for lipid transport along the monolayer plane together with a material relationship accounting for nonlinear hypoelasticity, as experimentally observed from high-strain rheological measurements [Hilles, Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 122, 67 (2007)]. The dynamical equations have been resolved for oscillatory nonlinear motion, the theoretical spectral amplitudes being found in quantitative agreement with the experimental values obtained from surface rheology experiments performed in Langmuir monolayers of two different lipid systems, namely DPPC and native E. Coli lipids. The presence of micrometer-sized phase coexistence domains in these lipid systems has been claimed to pump diffusive transport along the monolayer plane. This dynamical scenario defines a relaxation regime compatible with the observed nonlinear mechanical behavior.

  13. Diffusion tensor imaging of basal ganglia and thalamus in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Khema R; Sheriff, Sulaiman; Maudsley, Andrew; Govind, Varan

    2013-07-01

    To assess the involvement of basal ganglia and thalamus in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) method. Fourteen definite-ALS patients and 12 age-matched controls underwent whole brain DTI on a 3T scanner. Mean-diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were obtained bilaterally from the basal ganglia and thalamus in the regions-of-interest (ROIs). The MD was significantly higher (P < .02) in basal ganglia and thalamus in patients with ALS compared with controls. Correspondingly, the FA was significantly lower (P < .02) in these structures, except in caudate (P = .04) and putamen (P = .06) in patients compared with controls. There were mild to strong correlations (r = .3-.7) between the DTI measures of basal ganglia and finger-tap, foot-tap, and lip-and-tongue movement rate. The increased MD in basal ganglia and thalamus and decreased FA in globus pallidus and thalamus are indicative of neuronal loss or dysfunction in these structures. Copyright © 2012 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  14. Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Basal Ganglia and Thalamus in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Khema R.; Sheriff, Sulaiman; Maudsley, Andrew; Govind, Varan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the involvement of basal ganglia and thalamus in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) method. Methods Fourteen definite-ALS patients and 12 age-matched controls underwent whole brain DTI on a 3T scanner. Mean-diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were obtained bilaterally from the basal ganglia and thalamus in the regions-of-interest (ROI). Results The MD was significantly higher (p < 0.02) in basal ganglia and thalamus in patients with ALS compared with controls. Correspondingly, the FA was significantly lower (p < 0.02) in these structures, except in caudate (p =0.04) and putamen (p = 0.06) in patients compared with controls. There were mild to strong correlations (r: 0.3 – 0.7) between the DTI measures of basal ganglia and finger–tap, foot-tap, and lip-and-tongue-movement-rate. Conclusions The increased MD in basal ganglia and thalamus, and decreased FA in globus pallidus and thalamus are indicative of neuronal loss or dysfunction in these structures. PMID:22273090

  15. Reaction-diffusion finite element model of lateral line primordium migration to explore cell leadership.

    PubMed

    Allena, R; Maini, P K

    2014-12-01

    Collective cell migration plays a fundamental role in many biological phenomena such as immune response, embryogenesis and tumorigenesis. In the present work, we propose a reaction-diffusion finite element model of the lateral line primordium migration in zebrafish. The population is modelled as a continuum with embedded discrete motile cells, which are assumed to be viscoelastic and able to undergo large deformations. The Wnt/ß-catenin-FGF and cxcr4b-cxcr7b signalling pathways inside the cohort regulating the migration are described through coupled reaction-diffusion equations. The coupling between mechanics and the molecular scenario occurs in two ways. Firstly, the intensity of the protrusion-contraction movement of the cells depends on the cxcr4b concentration. Secondly, the intra-synchronization between the active deformations and the adhesion forces inside each cell is triggered by the cxcr4b-cxcr7b polarity. This influences the inter-synchronization between the cells and results in two main modes of migration: uncoordinated and coordinated. The main objectives of the work were (i) to validate our assumptions with respect to the experimental observations and (ii) to decipher the mechanical conditions leading to efficient migration of the primordium. To achieve the second goal, we will specifically focus on the role of the leader cells and their position inside the population.

  16. High angular resolution diffusion imaging abnormalities in the early stages of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Trojsi, Francesca; Caiazzo, Giuseppina; Di Nardo, Federica; Fratello, Michele; Santangelo, Gabriella; Siciliano, Mattia; Femiano, Cinzia; Russo, Antonio; Monsurrò, Maria Rosaria; Cirillo, Mario; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Esposito, Fabrizio

    2017-09-15

    Using magnetic resonance (MR) high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI), we aimed at revealing possible microstructural alterations in the early stage of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), still not completely elucidated. We studied 22 patients with ALS, in stages 1 or 2 according to the King's staging system, compared to 18 healthy controls (HCs). Statistical mapping of HARDI-derived parameters and tractography measures were performed using the Q-ball imaging diffusion data model. When compared to HCs, the ALS group showed a highly significant decrease of generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA) and fiber length and density in the corticospinal tracts (CSTs) and in the corpus callosum (CC) (p<0.05, corrected level of significance). Moreover, stratifying the ALS population considering the disease phenotype, larger areas of decreased GFA were found in patients with bulbar phenotype compared to those with classic phenotype in several bilateral associative fiber tracts, such as superior and inferior longitudinal, inferior fronto-occipital and uncinate fasciculi. Our whole-brain HARDI results provided preliminary evidence of an early pattern of microstructural degeneration in ALS, mainly involving the CSTs and the CC, although divergent patterns of microstructural abnormalites could be related to different disease phenotypes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Content change of neurofilament protein subunits in experimental brain diffuse axonal injury by lateral head rotation.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaosheng; Yi, Shengyu; Zhang, Xiang; Fei, Zhou; Zhang, Jianning; Yang, Lisun

    2000-02-15

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the content change of neurofilament (NF) protein subunits in the experimental brain diffuse axonal injury (DAI) by lateral head rotation. METHODS: Twenty-four Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were equally divided into three injury groups (2 h, 12 h, and 24 h post injury) and one control group. The models of DAI were made in the injury groups by lateral head rotation. Western blotting technique was used to measure the content of NF68 (a kind of NF protein subunit) in the brainstem tissues among all the injured and control rats. The NF68 immunohistochemical staining was used in another six SD rats in order to observe the morphological changes in DAI. RESULTS: The NF68 content in the brainstem tended to decrease at 2 h post injury, decreased significantly at 12 h and continued its decrease at 24 h. NF56 and NF52, as the breakdown products of NF68, had a tendency to increase at 2-12 h after the injury, and amounted to a significantly higher level at 24 h. Microscopically, there were a lot of swelling neuronal axons in the ventral part of the medullar oblongata at 2 h after the injury. Some axons were disconnected, and axonal retraction balls formed on their proximal end. CONCLUSIONS: There is an occurrence of phosphorolysis within the brainstem in DAI by lateral head rotation. These reactions cause the breakdown of NF68, which results in the decrease of NF68 in content. It suggests that the breakdown of neurofilament protein subunits is an important reason for structur al destroy of neurofilaments in DAI.

  18. Finite dose skin mass balance including the lateral part: comparison between experiment, pharmacokinetic modeling and diffusion models.

    PubMed

    Selzer, D; Hahn, T; Naegel, A; Heisig, M; Kostka, K H; Lehr, C M; Neumann, D; Schaefer, U F; Wittum, G

    2013-01-28

    This work investigates in vitro finite dose skin absorption of the model compounds flufenamic acid and caffeine experimentally and mathematically. The mass balance in different skin compartments (donor, stratum corneum (SC), deeper skin layers (DSL), lateral skin parts and acceptor) is analyzed as a function of time. For both substances high amounts were found in the lateral skin compartment after 6h of incubation, which emphasizes not to elide these parts in the modeling. Here, three different mathematical models were investigated and tested with the experimental data: a pharmacokinetic model (PK), a detailed microscopic two-dimensional diffusion model (MICRO) and a macroscopic homogenized diffusion model (MACRO). While the PK model was fitted to the experimental data, the MICRO and the MACRO models employed input parameters derived from infinite dose studies to predict the underlying diffusion process. All models could satisfyingly predict or describe the experimental data. The PK model and MACRO model also feature the lateral parts.

  19. Enhancement of Lateral Diffusion in Catanionic Vesicles during Multilamellar-to-Unilamellar Transition.

    PubMed

    Mitra, S; Sharma, V K; Garcia-Sakai, V; Orecchini, A; Seydel, T; Johnson, M; Mukhopadhyay, R

    2016-04-21

    Catanionic vesicles are formed spontaneously by mixing cationic and anionic dispersions in aqueous solution in suitable conditions. Because of spontaneity in formation, long-term stability, and easy modulation of size and charge, they have numerous advantages over conventional lipid-based vesicles. The dynamics of such vesicles is of interest in the field of biomedicine, as they can be used to deliver drug molecules into the cell membrane. Dynamics of catanionic vesicles based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) have been studied using incoherent elastic and quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) techniques. Neutron scattering experiments have been carried out on two backscattering spectrometers, IRIS and IN16B, which have different energy resolutions and energy transfer windows. An elastic fixed-window scan carried out using IN16B shows a phase transition at ∼307 K during the heating cycle, whereas on cooling the transition occurred at ∼294 K. DSC results are found to be in close agreement with the elastic scan data. This transition is ascribed to a structural rearrangement from a multilamellar to a unilamellar phase [ Andreozzi J. Phys. Chem. B 2010 , 114 , 8056 - 8060 ]. It is found that a model in which the surfactant molecules undergo both lateral and internal motions can describe the QENS data quite well. While the data from IRIS have contributions from both dynamical processes, the data from IN16B probe only lateral motions, as the internal motions are too fast for the energy window of the spectrometer. It is found that, through the transition, the fraction of surfactant molecules undergoing lateral motion increases of a factor of 2 from the multilamellar to the unilamellar phase, indicating an enhanced fluidity of the latter. The lateral motion is found to be Fickian in nature, while the internal motion has been described by a localized translational diffusion model. The results reported here could have direct

  20. [Degradation mechanism of phenol with electrogenerated hydrogen peroxide on a Pd/C gas-diffusion electrode].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Bian, Zhao-Yong

    2010-06-01

    Using a self-made Pd/C gas-diffusion electrode as the cathode and Ti/IrO2/RuO2 as the anode, the degradation of phenol was investigated in an undivided electrolysis device by the electrochemical oxidation process. Hydroxyl radical (*OH) was determined in the reaction mixture by the electron spin resonance spectrum (ESR). The result indicated that the Pd/C catalyst in Pd/C gas-diffusion electrode system accelerated the two-electron reduction of O2 to H2O2 when feeding air, which is in favor of producing *OH. After 120 min electrolysis in Pd/C gas-diffusion electrode system, the steady concentration of H2O2 was 7.5 mg/L. The removal efficiency of phenol and COD reached about 97.2% and 50% after 120 min electrolysis, respectively, which suggested that most of phenol were oxidized to intermediates using the Pd/C gas-diffusion electrode. Furthermore, the ratio of BOD5/COD of the solutions was 9.1 times larger than the initial ones. Hence the electrochemical oxidation can enhance the biodegradation character of the phenol solution. The degradation of phenol was supposed to be cooperative oxidation by direct and/or indirect electrochemical oxidation at the anode and H2O2, *OH produced by oxygen reduction at the cathode. UV-Vis and GC-MS identified catechol, hydroquinone, and benzoquinone as the main aromatic intermediates, and adipic, maleic, fumaric, succinic, malonic, and oxalic acids as the main aliphatic carboxylic intermediates. A reaction scheme involving all these intermediates was proposed.

  1. Notch-mediated lateral inhibition regulates proneural wave propagation when combined with EGF-mediated reaction diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Makoto; Yasugi, Tetsuo; Minami, Yoshiaki; Miura, Takashi; Nagayama, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    Notch-mediated lateral inhibition regulates binary cell fate choice, resulting in salt and pepper patterns during various developmental processes. However, how Notch signaling behaves in combination with other signaling systems remains elusive. The wave of differentiation in the Drosophila visual center or “proneural wave” accompanies Notch activity that is propagated without the formation of a salt and pepper pattern, implying that Notch does not form a feedback loop of lateral inhibition during this process. However, mathematical modeling and genetic analysis clearly showed that Notch-mediated lateral inhibition is implemented within the proneural wave. Because partial reduction in EGF signaling causes the formation of the salt and pepper pattern, it is most likely that EGF diffusion cancels salt and pepper pattern formation in silico and in vivo. Moreover, the combination of Notch-mediated lateral inhibition and EGF-mediated reaction diffusion enables a function of Notch signaling that regulates propagation of the wave of differentiation. PMID:27535937

  2. Notch-mediated lateral inhibition regulates proneural wave propagation when combined with EGF-mediated reaction diffusion.

    PubMed

    Sato, Makoto; Yasugi, Tetsuo; Minami, Yoshiaki; Miura, Takashi; Nagayama, Masaharu

    2016-08-30

    Notch-mediated lateral inhibition regulates binary cell fate choice, resulting in salt and pepper patterns during various developmental processes. However, how Notch signaling behaves in combination with other signaling systems remains elusive. The wave of differentiation in the Drosophila visual center or "proneural wave" accompanies Notch activity that is propagated without the formation of a salt and pepper pattern, implying that Notch does not form a feedback loop of lateral inhibition during this process. However, mathematical modeling and genetic analysis clearly showed that Notch-mediated lateral inhibition is implemented within the proneural wave. Because partial reduction in EGF signaling causes the formation of the salt and pepper pattern, it is most likely that EGF diffusion cancels salt and pepper pattern formation in silico and in vivo. Moreover, the combination of Notch-mediated lateral inhibition and EGF-mediated reaction diffusion enables a function of Notch signaling that regulates propagation of the wave of differentiation.

  3. Degradation mechanism of diethyl phthalate with electrogenerated hydroxyl radical on a Pd/C gas-diffusion electrode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Sun, De-Zhi; Bian, Zhao-Yong

    2010-08-15

    Using a self-made Pd/C gas-diffusion electrode as the cathode and a Ti/IrO(2)/RuO(2) anode, the degradation of diethyl phthalate (DEP) has been investigated in an undivided electrolysis device by electrochemical oxidation processes. Hydroxyl radical (HO) was determined in the reaction mixture by the electron spin resonance spectrum (ESR). The result indicated that the Pd/C catalyst in Pd/C gas-diffusion electrode system accelerated the two-electron reduction of fed O(2) to H(2)O(2), which is in favor of producing HO. Additionally, the percentage removal of DEP and COD reached about 80.9 and 40.2% after 9h electrolysis, respectively. It suggested that most of DEP were oxidized to intermediates using the Pd/C gas-diffusion electrode. Furthermore, the ratio of BOD(5)/COD of resulted solutions was three times larger than the initial ones. Hence, the electrochemical oxidation enhanced the biodegradation character of the DEP solution. Finally, main aromatic intermediates (e.g., monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and phthalic acid (PA)) and main aliphatic carboxylic intermediates (e.g., formic, mesoxalic, oxalic, malonic, succinic, maleic, dodecanoic, and hexadecanoic acids) were identified by GC-MS. Moreover, a reaction scheme involving all these intermediates was proposed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A large-area diffuse air discharge plasma excited by nanosecond pulse under a double hexagon needle-array electrode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Jie; Wang, Wen-Chun; Yang, De-Zheng; Wang, Sen; Zhang, Shuai; Tang, Kai; Jiang, Peng-Chao

    2014-01-01

    A large-area diffuse air discharge plasma excited by bipolar nanosecond pulse is generated under a double hexagon needle-array electrode at atmospheric pressure. The images of the diffuse discharge, electric characteristics, and the optical emission spectra emitted from the diffuse air discharge plasma are obtained. Based on the waveforms of pulse voltage and current, the power consumption, and the power density of the diffuse air discharge plasma are investigated under different pulse peak voltages. The electron density and the electron temperature of the diffuse plasma are estimated to be approximately 1.42×10(11) cm(-3) and 4.4 eV, respectively. The optical emission spectra are arranged to determine the rotational and vibrational temperatures by comparing experimental with simulated spectra. Meanwhile, the rotational and vibrational temperatures of the diffuse discharge plasma are also discussed under different pulse peak voltages and pulse repetition rates, respectively. In addition, the diffuse air discharge plasma can form an area of about 70×50 mm(2) on the surface of dielectric layer and can be scaled up to the required size.

  5. Role of insulin receptor and insulin signaling on αPS2CβPS integrins' lateral diffusion.

    PubMed

    Mainali, Dipak; Syed, Aleem; Arora, Neha; Smith, Emily A

    2014-12-01

    Integrins are ubiquitous transmembrane receptors with adhesion and signaling properties. The influence of insulin receptor and insulin signaling on αPS2CβPS integrins' lateral diffusion was studied using single particle tracking in S2 cells before and after reducing the insulin receptor expression or insulin stimulation. Insulin signaling was monitored by Western blotting for phospho-Akt expression. The expression of the insulin receptor was reduced using RNA interference (RNAi). After insulin receptor RNAi, four significant changes were measured in integrin diffusion properties: (1) there was a 24% increase in the mobile integrin population, (2) 14% of the increase was represented by integrins with Brownian diffusion, (3) for integrins that reside in confined zones of diffusion, there was a 45% increase in the diameter of the confined zone, and (4) there was a 29% increase in the duration integrins spend in confined zones of diffusion. In contrast to reduced expression of the insulin receptor, which alters integrin diffusion properties, insulin stimulation alone or insulin stimulation under conditions of reduced insulin receptor expression have minimal effects on altering the measured integrin diffusion properties. The differences in integrin diffusion measured after insulin receptor RNAi in the presence or absence of insulin stimulation may be the result of other insulin signaling pathways that are activated at reduced insulin receptor conditions. No change in the average integrin diffusion coefficient was measured for any conditions included in this study.

  6. Influence of Membrane Receptor Lateral Diffusion on the Short-Term Depression of Acetylcholine-Induced Current in Helix Neurons.

    PubMed

    Vasilyeva, Natalia A; Murzina, Galina B; Kireev, Igor I; Pivovarov, Arkady S

    2017-02-24

    We have studied how various drugs increasing the rate of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) lateral diffusion affect the depression of ACh-induced current in land snail Helix lucorum neurons responsible for defensive behavior. The acetylcholine (ACh) iontophoretic application protocol imitated the behavioral habituation protocol for the intact animal. We found that the drugs decreasing cholesterol level in cell membranes as methyl-β-cyclodextrin 1 mM and Ro 48-8071 2 µM, and polyclonal antibodies to actin-binding proteins as spectrin 5 µg/ml and merlin 2.5 µg/ml have changed the dynamic of ACh-current depression. The nAChRs lateral diffusion coefficient was obtained by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. A curve fitting model specially created for analysis of short-term choline sensitivity depression in snail neurons helped us evaluate separately the contribution of nAChRs lateral diffusion, their endocytosis and exocytosis to observed effects during electrophysiological experiments. Taken together, we hypothesize that nAChRs lateral diffusion plays an important role in the cellular correlate of habituation in land snail Helix lucorum neurons.

  7. Generation of large-scale, barrier-free diffuse plasmas in air at atmospheric pressure using array wire electrodes and nanosecond high-voltage pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Yun; Li, Lee; Liu, Yun-Long; Liu, Lun; Liu, Minghai

    2014-10-01

    This paper introduces a method to generate large-scale diffuse plasmas by using a repetition nanosecond pulse generator and a parallel array wire-electrode configuration. We investigated barrier-free diffuse plasmas produced in the open air in parallel and cross-parallel array line-line electrode configurations. We found that, when the distance between the wire-electrode pair is small, the discharges were almost extinguished. Also, glow-like diffuse plasmas with little discharge weakening were obtained in an appropriate range of line-line distances and with a cathode-grounding cross-electrode configuration. As an example, we produced a large-scale, stable diffuse plasma with volumes as large as 18 × 15 × 15 cm3, and this discharge region can be further expanded. Additionally, using optical and electrical measurements, we showed that the electron temperature was higher than the gas temperature, which was almost the same as room temperature. Also, an array of electrode configuration with more wire electrodes had helped to prevent the transition from diffuse discharge to arc discharge. Comparing the current waveforms of configurations with 1 cell and 9 cells, we found that adding cells significantly increased the conduction current and the electrical energy delivered in the electrode gaps.

  8. Generation of large-scale, barrier-free diffuse plasmas in air at atmospheric pressure using array wire electrodes and nanosecond high-voltage pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Yun; Li, Lee Liu, Yun-Long; Liu, Lun; Liu, Minghai

    2014-10-15

    This paper introduces a method to generate large-scale diffuse plasmas by using a repetition nanosecond pulse generator and a parallel array wire-electrode configuration. We investigated barrier-free diffuse plasmas produced in the open air in parallel and cross-parallel array line-line electrode configurations. We found that, when the distance between the wire-electrode pair is small, the discharges were almost extinguished. Also, glow-like diffuse plasmas with little discharge weakening were obtained in an appropriate range of line-line distances and with a cathode-grounding cross-electrode configuration. As an example, we produced a large-scale, stable diffuse plasma with volumes as large as 18 × 15 × 15 cm{sup 3}, and this discharge region can be further expanded. Additionally, using optical and electrical measurements, we showed that the electron temperature was higher than the gas temperature, which was almost the same as room temperature. Also, an array of electrode configuration with more wire electrodes had helped to prevent the transition from diffuse discharge to arc discharge. Comparing the current waveforms of configurations with 1 cell and 9 cells, we found that adding cells significantly increased the conduction current and the electrical energy delivered in the electrode gaps.

  9. Diffusion tensor imaging analysis of sequential spreading of disease in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis confirms patterns of TDP-43 pathology.

    PubMed

    Kassubek, Jan; Müller, Hans-Peter; Del Tredici, Kelly; Brettschneider, Johannes; Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Lulé, Dorothée; Böhm, Sarah; Braak, Heiko; Ludolph, Albert C

    2014-06-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging can identify amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-associated patterns of brain alterations at the group level. Recently, a neuropathological staging system for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis has shown that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis may disseminate in a sequential regional pattern during four disease stages. The objective of the present study was to apply a new methodological diffusion tensor imaging-based approach to automatically analyse in vivo the fibre tracts that are prone to be involved at each neuropathological stage of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Two data samples, consisting of 130 diffusion tensor imaging data sets acquired at 1.5 T from 78 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 52 control subjects; and 55 diffusion-tensor imaging data sets at 3.0 T from 33 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 22 control subjects, were analysed by a tract of interest-based fibre tracking approach to analyse five tracts that become involved during the course of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: the corticospinal tract (stage 1); the corticorubral and the corticopontine tracts (stage 2); the corticostriatal pathway (stage 3); the proximal portion of the perforant path (stage 4); and two reference pathways. The statistical analyses of tracts of interest showed differences between patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and control subjects for all tracts. The significance level of the comparisons at the group level was lower, the higher the disease stage with corresponding involved fibre tracts. Both the clinical phenotype as assessed by the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis functional rating scale-revised and disease duration correlated significantly with the resulting staging scheme. In summary, the tract of interest-based technique allowed for individual analysis of predefined tract structures, thus making it possible to image in vivo the disease stages in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This approach can be used not only for

  10. Electrochemical reduction of CO₂ to organic acids by a Pd-MWNTs gas-diffusion electrode in aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guang; Wang, Hui; Bian, Zhaoyong; Liu, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Pd-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (Pd-MWNTs) catalysts for the conversion of CO₂ to organic acids were prepared by the ethylene glycol reduction and fully characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) technologies. The amorphous Pd particles with an average size of 5.7 nm were highly dispersed on the surface of carbon nanotubes. Functional groups of the MWNTs played a key role in the palladium deposition. The results indicated that Pd-MWNTs could transform CO₂ into organic acid with high catalytic activity and CO₂ could take part in the reduction reaction directly. Additionally, the electrochemical reduction of CO₂ was investigated by a diaphragm electrolysis device, using a Pd-MWNTs gas-diffusion electrode as a cathode and a Ti/RuO₂ net as an anode. The main products in present system were formic acid and acetic acid identified by ion chromatograph. The selectivity of the products could be achieved by reaction conditions changing. The optimum faraday efficiencies of formic and acetic acids formed on the Pd-MWNTs gas-diffusion electrode at 4₂V electrode voltages under 1 atm CO₂ were 34.5% and 52.3%, respectively.

  11. Electrochemical Reduction of CO2 to Organic Acids by a Pd-MWNTs Gas-Diffusion Electrode in Aqueous Medium

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Guang; Bian, Zhaoyong; Liu, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Pd-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (Pd-MWNTs) catalysts for the conversion of CO2 to organic acids were prepared by the ethylene glycol reduction and fully characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) technologies. The amorphous Pd particles with an average size of 5.7 nm were highly dispersed on the surface of carbon nanotubes. Functional groups of the MWNTs played a key role in the palladium deposition. The results indicated that Pd-MWNTs could transform CO2 into organic acid with high catalytic activity and CO2 could take part in the reduction reaction directly. Additionally, the electrochemical reduction of CO2 was investigated by a diaphragm electrolysis device, using a Pd-MWNTs gas-diffusion electrode as a cathode and a Ti/RuO2 net as an anode. The main products in present system were formic acid and acetic acid identified by ion chromatograph. The selectivity of the products could be achieved by reaction conditions changing. The optimum faraday efficiencies of formic and acetic acids formed on the Pd-MWNTs gas-diffusion electrode at 4 V electrode voltages under 1 atm CO2 were 34.5% and 52.3%, respectively. PMID:24453849

  12. Lateral diffusion contributes to FRET from lanthanide-tagged membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tien-Hung; Wu, Guangyu; Lambert, Nevin A

    2015-08-14

    Diffusion can enhance Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) when donors or acceptors diffuse distances that are similar to the distances separating them during the donor's excited state lifetime. Lanthanide donors remain in the excited state for milliseconds, which makes them useful for time-resolved FRET applications but also allows time for diffusion to enhance energy transfer. Here we show that diffusion dramatically enhances FRET between membrane proteins labeled with lanthanide donors. This phenomenon complicates interpretation of experiments that use long-lived donors to infer association or proximity of mobile membrane proteins, but also offers a method of monitoring diffusion in membrane domains in real time in living cells.

  13. A large-scale multicentre cerebral diffusion tensor imaging study in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Müller, Hans-Peter; Turner, Martin R; Grosskreutz, Julian; Abrahams, Sharon; Bede, Peter; Govind, Varan; Prudlo, Johannes; Ludolph, Albert C; Filippi, Massimo; Kassubek, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Damage to the cerebral tissue structural connectivity associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which extends beyond the motor pathways, can be visualised by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The effective translation of DTI metrics as biomarker requires its application across multiple MRI scanners and patient cohorts. A multicentre study was undertaken to assess structural connectivity in ALS within a large sample size. 442 DTI data sets from patients with ALS (N=253) and controls (N=189) were collected for this retrospective study, from eight international ALS-specialist clinic sites. Equipment and DTI protocols varied across the centres. Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps of the control participants were used to establish correction matrices to pool data, and correction algorithms were applied to the FA maps of the control and ALS patient groups. Analysis of data pooled from all centres, using whole-brain-based statistical analysis of FA maps, confirmed the most significant alterations in the corticospinal tracts, and captured additional significant white matter tract changes in the frontal lobe, brainstem and hippocampal regions of the ALS group that coincided with postmortem neuropathological stages. Stratification of the ALS group for disease severity (ALS functional rating scale) confirmed these findings. This large-scale study overcomes the challenges associated with processing and analysis of multiplatform, multicentre DTI data, and effectively demonstrates the anatomical fingerprint patterns of changes in a DTI metric that reflect distinct ALS disease stages. This success paves the way for the use of DTI-based metrics as read-out in natural history, prognostic stratification and multisite disease-modifying studies in ALS. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Lateral diffusion of CO2 in leaves of the crassulacean acid metabolism plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana Hamet et Perrier.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Heitor M; Jakovljevic, Ivona; Kaiser, Friedemann; Lüttge, Ulrich

    2005-04-01

    Dynamic patchiness of photosystem II (PSII) activity in leaves of the crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana Hamet et Perrier, which was independent of stomatal control and was observed during both the day/night cycle and circadian endogenous oscillations of CAM, was previously explained by lateral CO2 diffusion and CO2 signalling in the leaves [Rascher et al. (2001) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:11801-11805; Rascher and Luttge (2002) Plant Biol 4:671-681]. The aim here was to actually demonstrate the importance of lateral CO2 diffusion and its effects on localized PSII activity. Covering small sections of entire leaves with silicone grease was used for local exclusion of a contribution of atmospheric CO2 to internal CO2 via transport through stomata. A setup for combined measurement of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence imaging was used for recording photosynthetic activity with a spatiotemporal resolution. When remobilization of malic acid from vacuolar storage and its decarboxylation in the CAM cycle caused increasing internal CO2 concentrations sustaining high PSII activity behind closed stomata, PSII activity was also increased in adjacent leaf sections where vacuolar malic acid accumulation was minimal as a result of preventing external CO2 supply due to leaf-surface greasing, and where therefore CO2 could only be supplied by diffusion from the neighbouring malic acid-remobilizing leaf tissue. This demonstrates lateral CO2 diffusion and its effect on local photosynthetic activity.

  15. Effects of reversible chemical reaction on Li diffusion and stresses in spherical composition-gradient electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Kai; Zheng, Bailin Zhang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Qi

    2015-06-28

    Composition-gradient electrode materials have been proven to be one of the most promising materials in lithium-ion battery. To study the mechanism of mechanical degradation in spherical composition-gradient electrodes, the finite deformation theory and reversible chemical theory are adopted. In homogeneous electrodes, reversible electrochemical reaction may increase the magnitudes of stresses. However, reversible electrochemical reaction has different influences on stresses in composition-gradient electrodes, resulting from three main inhomogeneous factors—forward reaction rate, backward reaction rate, and reaction partial molar volume. The decreasing transition form of forward reaction rate, increasing transition form of backward reaction rate, and increasing transition form of reaction partial molar volume can reduce the magnitudes of stresses. As a result, capacity fading and mechanical degradation are reduced by taking advantage of the effects of inhomogeneous factors.

  16. Lateral diffusion contributes to FRET from lanthanide-tagged membrane proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, Tien-Hung; Wu, Guangyu; Lambert, Nevin A.

    2015-08-14

    Diffusion can enhance Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) when donors or acceptors diffuse distances that are similar to the distances separating them during the donor's excited state lifetime. Lanthanide donors remain in the excited state for milliseconds, which makes them useful for time-resolved FRET applications but also allows time for diffusion to enhance energy transfer. Here we show that diffusion dramatically enhances FRET between membrane proteins labeled with lanthanide donors. This phenomenon complicates interpretation of experiments that use long-lived donors to infer association or proximity of mobile membrane proteins, but also offers a method of monitoring diffusion in membrane domains in real time in living cells. - Highlights: • Diffusion enhances TR-FRET from membrane proteins labeled with lanthanide donors. • Diffusion-dependent FRET can overshadow FRET due to oligomerization or clustering. • FRET studies using lanthanide-tagged membrane proteins should consider diffusion. • FRET from lanthanide donors can be used to monitor membrane protein diffusion.

  17. Effect of micro gravity on the product selectivity of dichlorodifluoromethane electrolysis at metal supported gas diffusion electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonoyama, Noriyuki

    2007-12-01

    The micro gravity effect on the product selectivity of electrochemical reduction of CCl2 F2 (CFC-12) was studied using the metal supported gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs). Under the micro gravity, the current efficiency for methane formation (the final product) increased, whereas that for CHClF2formation (a intermediate product) decreased at the Cu-supported GDE compared with the result under the normal gravity. This result suggests that the convection has an influence on the product selectivity for electrochemical reaction.

  18. Chronoamperometry at micropipet electrodes for determination of diffusion coefficients and transferred charges at liquid/liquid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yi; Wang, Lei; Amemiya, Shigeru

    2004-09-15

    Chronoamperometry was carried out at liquid/liquid interfaces supported at the tip of micropipet electrodes for direct determination of the diffusion coefficient of a species in the outer solution. The diffusion coefficient was used for subsequent determination of the transferred charges per species from the diffusion-limited steady-state current. A large tip resistance of the micropipets causes prolonged charging current so that the faradic current can be measured accurately only at a long-time regime (typically t > 5 ms). At the same time, the long-time current response at the interfaces surrounded by a thin glass wall of the pipets is enhanced by diffusion of the species from behind the pipet tip. Therefore, numerical simulations of the long-time chronoamperometric response were carried out using the finite element method for accurate determination of diffusion coefficients. Validity of the simulation results was confirmed by studying simple transfer of tetraethylammonium ion. The technique was applied for transfer/adsorption reactions of the natural polypeptide protamine and also for Ca2+ and Mg2+ transfers facilitated by ionophore ETH 129. With the diffusion coefficient of protamine determined to be (1.2 +/- 0.1) x 10(-6) cm(2)/s, the ionic charge transferred by each protamine molecule was obtained as +20 +/- 1, which is close to the excess positive charge of protamine. Also, the diffusion coefficient of ETH 129 was determined to demonstrate that each ionophore molecule transfers +0.67 and +1 charge per Ca2+ and Mg2+ transfer, respectively, which corresponds to formation of 1:3 and 1:2 complexes with the respective ions.

  19. Spin diffusion and non-local spin-valve effect in an exfoliated multilayer graphene with a Co electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lijun; Lee, Inyeal; Lim, Dongsuk; Rathi, Servin; Kang, Moonshik; Uemura, Tetsuya; Kim, Gil-Ho

    2016-08-01

    We fabricated a non-local spin valve with a thin layer of graphite with Co transparent electrodes. The spin-valve effect and spin precession were observed at room temperature. The magnitude of the mangetoresistance increases when temperature decreases. The spin-relaxation time, {τ }s, obtained from the fitting of the Hanle curves increases with decreasing temperature with a weak dependence ∼ {T}-0.065 while the spin-diffusion constant D decreases. At room temperature, {τ }s exceeds 100 ps and the spin-diffusion length, {λ }s, is ∼2 μm. The temperature dependence of {λ }s is not monotonic, and it has the largest value at room temperature. Our results show that multilayer graphene is a suitable material for spintronic devices.

  20. Characteristics of Superjunction Lateral-Double-Diffusion Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor and Degradation after Electrical Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jyh‑Ling; Lin, Ming‑Jang; Lin, Li‑Jheng

    2006-04-01

    The superjunction lateral double diffusion metal oxide semiconductor field effect has recently received considerable attention. Introducing heavily doped p-type strips to the n-type drift region increases the horizontal depletion capability. Consequently, the doping concentration of the drift region is higher and the conduction resistance is lower than those of conventional lateral-double-diffusion metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (LDMOSFETs). These characteristics may increase breakdown voltage (\\mathit{BV}) and reduce specific on-resistance (Ron,sp). In this study, we focus on the electrical characteristics of conventional LDMOSFETs on silicon bulk, silicon-on-insulator (SOI) LDMOSFETs and superjunction LDMOSFETs after bias stress. Additionally, the \\mathit{BV} and Ron,sp of superjunction LDMOSFETs with different N/P drift region widths and different dosages are discussed. Simulation tools, including two-dimensional (2-D) TSPREM-4/MEDICI and three-dimensional (3-D) DAVINCI, were employed to determine the device characteristics.

  1. Tract-Specific Diffusion Tensor Imaging Reveals Laterality of Neurological Symptoms in Patients with Cervical Compression Myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Maki, Satoshi; Koda, Masao; Saito, Junya; Takahashi, Sho; Inada, Taigo; Kamiya, Koshiro; Ota, Mitsutoshi; Iijima, Yasushi; Masuda, Yoshitada; Matsumoto, Koji; Kojima, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Obata, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Masashi; Furuya, Takeo

    2016-12-01

    Patients with cervical compression myelopathy (CCM) generally present bilateral neurological symptoms in their extremities. However, a substantial portion of patients with CCM exhibit laterality of neurological symptoms. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between intrinsic structural damage and laterality of symptoms using spinal cord diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the corticospinal tract. We enrolled 10 healthy volunteers and 40 patients with CCM in this study. We evaluated motor function using the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) motor score for left and right extremities. For DTI acquisitions, a 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging system with diffusion-weighted spin-echo sequence was used. Regions-of-interest in the lateral column tracts were determined. We determined the correlations between fractional anisotropy (FA) and ASIA motor scores. An FA asymmetry index was calculated using left and right regions-of-interest. Four patients exhibited laterality of symptoms in their extremities, for which left and right ASIA scores correlated moderately with FA in the left and right lateral columns, respectively (left: ρ = 0.64, P < 0.001; right: ρ = 0.67, P < 0.001). The area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve showed that the FA asymmetry index indicated laterality of symptoms. Using tract-specific DTI, we demonstrated that microstructural damages in the left and right corticospinal tracts correlated with corresponding neurological symptoms in the ipsilateral side and the FA asymmetry index could indicate laterality in neurological symptoms of patients with CCM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Measurement of lateral diffusion rates in membranes by pulsed magnetic field gradient, magic angle spinning-proton nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Gawrisch, Klaus; Gaede, Holly C

    2007-01-01

    Membrane organization, including the presence of domains, can be characterized by measuring lateral diffusion rates of lipids and membrane-bound substances. Magic angle spinning (MAS) yields well-resolved proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of lipids in biomembranes. When combined with pulsed-field gradient NMR (rendering what is called "pulsed magnetic field gradients-MAS-NMR"), it permits precise diffusion measurements on the micrometer lengths scale for any substance with reasonably well-resolved proton MAS-NMR resonances, without the need of preparing oriented samples. Sample preparation procedures, the technical requirements for the NMR equipment, and spectrometer settings are described. Additionally, equations for analysis of diffusion data obtained from unoriented samples, and a method for correcting the data for liposome curvature are provided.

  3. Isotopic evidence for lateral flow and diffusive transport, but not sublimation, in a sloped seasonal snowpack, Idaho, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Samantha L.; Flores, Alejandro N.; Heilig, Achim; Kohn, Matthew J.; Marshall, Hans-Peter; McNamara, James P.

    2016-04-01

    Oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in snow were measured in weekly profiles during the growth and decline of a sloped subalpine snowpack, southern Idaho, 2011-2012. Isotopic steps (10‰, δ18O; 80‰, δD) were preserved relative to physical markers throughout the season, albeit with some diffusive smoothing. Melting stripped off upper layers without shifting isotopes within the snowpack. Meltwater is in isotopic equilibrium with snow at the top but not with snow at each respective collection height. Transport of meltwater occurred primarily along pipes and lateral flow paths allowing the snowpack to melt initially in reverse stratigraphic order. Isotope diffusivities are ~2 orders of magnitude faster than estimated from experiments but can be explained by higher temperature and porosity. A better understanding of how snowmelt isotopes change during meltout improves hydrograph separation methods, whereas constraints on isotope diffusivities under warm conditions improve models of ice core records in low-latitude settings.

  4. Fast Ionic Diffusion-Enabled Nanoflake Electrode by Spontaneous Electrochemical Pre-Intercalation for High-Performance Supercapacitor

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Liqiang; Li, Han; Zhao, Yunlong; Xu, Lin; Xu, Xu; Luo, Yanzhu; Zhang, Zhengfei; Ke, Wang; Niu, Chaojiang; Zhang, Qingjie

    2013-01-01

    Layered intercalation compounds NaxMnO2 (x = 0.7 and 0.91) nanoflakes have been prepared directly through wet electrochemical process with Na+ ions intercalated into MnO2 interlayers spontaneously. The as-prepared NaxMnO2 nanoflake based supercapacitors exhibit faster ionic diffusion with enhanced redox peaks, tenfold-higher energy densities up to 110 Wh·kg−1 and higher capacitances over 1000 F·g−1 in aqueous sodium system compared with traditional MnO2 supercapacitors. Due to the free-standing electrode structure and suitable crystal structure, NaxMnO2 nanoflake electrodes also maintain outstanding electrochemical stability with capacitance retention up to 99.9% after 1000 cycles. Besides, pre-intercalation effect is further studied to explain this enhanced electrochemical performance. This study indicates that the suitable pre-intercalation is effective to improve the diffusion of electrolyte cations and other electrochemical performance for layered oxides, and suggests that the as-obtained nanoflakes are promising materials to achieve the hybridization of both high energy and power density for advanced supercapacitors.

  5. Degradation mechanism of 4-chlorophenol with electrogenerated hydrogen peroxide on a Pd/C gas-diffusion electrode.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Bian, Z Y; Sun, D Z

    2011-01-01

    Using a self-made Pd/C gas-diffusion electrode as the cathode and a Ti/IrO2/RuO2 anode, the degradation of 4-chlorophenol has been investigated in an undivided electrolysis device by the electrochemical oxidation processes. The result indicated that the neutral aqueous solutions can accelerate 4-chlorophenol degradation during electrolysis. The removal efficiency of 4-chlorophenol and COD reached about 89.6% and 62.0% after 120 min electrolysis, respectively. It suggested that most of 4-chlorophenol was oxidised to intermediates using the Pd/C gas-diffusion electrode. Furthermore, the biodegradation ability of the solution was increased significantly during the electrolysis. The degradation of 4-chlorophenol was attributed to the cooperative oxidation processes including electrochemical oxidation at the anode and H2O2 and hydroxyl radical (HO·) produced by the reduction of oxygen at the cathode. Finally, main aromatic intermediates (e.g., hydroquinone and benzoquinone) and main aliphatic carboxylic intermediates (e.g., oxalic, malonic, maleic, succinic, fumaric, and dodecanoic acids) were identified by GC-MS. Moreover, a reaction scheme involving all these intermediates was proposed.

  6. Optimisation of electrophoretic deposition parameters for gas diffusion electrodes in high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felix, Cecil; Jao, Ting-Chu; Pasupathi, Sivakumar; Pollet, Bruno G.

    2013-12-01

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method was used to fabricate gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (HT PEMFC). Parameters related to the catalyst suspension and the EPD process were studied. Optimum suspension conditions are obtained when the catalyst particles are coated with Nafion® ionomer and the pH is adjusted to an alkaline range of about 8-10. These suspensions yield good stability with sufficient conductivity to form highly porous catalyst layers on top of the gas diffusion layers (GDLs). GDEs were fabricated by applying various electric field strengths of which 100 V cm-1 yields the best membrane electrode assembly (MEA) performance. Compared to an MEA fabricated by the traditional hand sprayed (HS) method, the EPD MEA shows superior performance with a peak power increase of about 73% at similar platinum (Pt) loadings. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) analysis shows lower charge transfer resistance for the MEA fabricated via the EPD method compared to the HS MEA. The EPD GDE exhibits a greater total pore area (22.46 m2 g-1) compared to the HS GDE (13.43 m2 g-1) as well as better dispersion of the Pt particles within the catalyst layer (CL).

  7. Gas Diffusion Electrodes Manufactured by Casting Evaluation as Air Cathodes for Microbial Fuel Cells (MFC)

    PubMed Central

    Srikanth, Sandipam; Pant, Deepak; Dominguez-Benetton, Xochitl; Genné, Inge; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien; Vermeiren, Philippe; Alvarez-Gallego, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    One of the most intriguing renewable energy production methods being explored currently is electrical power generation by microbial fuel cells (MFCs). However, to make MFC technology economically feasible, cost efficient electrode manufacturing processes need to be proposed and demonstrated. In this context, VITO has developed an innovative electrode manufacturing process based on film casting and phase inversion. The screening and selection process of electrode compositions was done based on physicochemical properties of the active layer, which in turn maintained a close relation with their composition A dual hydrophilic-hydrophobic character in the active layer was achieved with values of εhydrophilic up to 10% while εTOTAL remained in the range 65 wt % to 75 wt %. Eventually, selected electrodes were tested as air cathodes for MFC in half cell and full cell modes. Reduction currents, up to −0.14 mA·cm2− at −100 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) were reached in long term experiments in the cathode half-cell. In full MFC, a maximum power density of 380 mW·m−2 was observed at 100 Ω external load. PMID:28773723

  8. Gas Diffusion Electrodes Manufactured by Casting Evaluation as Air Cathodes for Microbial Fuel Cells (MFC).

    PubMed

    Srikanth, Sandipam; Pant, Deepak; Dominguez-Benetton, Xochitl; Genné, Inge; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien; Vermeiren, Philippe; Alvarez-Gallego, Yolanda

    2016-07-21

    One of the most intriguing renewable energy production methods being explored currently is electrical power generation by microbial fuel cells (MFCs). However, to make MFC technology economically feasible, cost efficient electrode manufacturing processes need to be proposed and demonstrated. In this context, VITO has developed an innovative electrode manufacturing process based on film casting and phase inversion. The screening and selection process of electrode compositions was done based on physicochemical properties of the active layer, which in turn maintained a close relation with their composition A dual hydrophilic-hydrophobic character in the active layer was achieved with values of εhydrophilic up to 10% while εTOTAL remained in the range 65 wt % to 75 wt %. Eventually, selected electrodes were tested as air cathodes for MFC in half cell and full cell modes. Reduction currents, up to -0.14 mA·cm(2-) at -100 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) were reached in long term experiments in the cathode half-cell. In full MFC, a maximum power density of 380 mW·m(-2) was observed at 100 Ω external load.

  9. Nonlinearity Effects of Lateral Density Diffusion Coefficient on Gain-Guided VCSEL Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jian-Zhong; Cheung, Samson H.; Ning, C. Z.; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Electron and hole diffusions in the plane of semiconductor quantum wells play an important part in the static and dynamic operations of semiconductor lasers. In this paper, we apply a hydrodynamic model developed from the semiconductor Bloch equations to numerically study the effects of nonlinearity in the diffusion coefficient on single mode operation and direct modulation of a gain-guided InGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well laser, operating not too far from threshold. We found that a small diffusion coefficient is advantageous for lowering the threshold current and increasing the modulation bandwidth. Most importantly, the effects of nonlinearity in the coefficient can be approximately reproduced by replacing the coefficient with an effective constant diffusion coefficient, which corresponds roughly to the half height density of the density distribution.

  10. Towards combined electrochemistry and surface-enhanced resonance Raman of heme proteins: Improvement of diffusion electrochemistry of cytochrome c at silver electrodes chemically modified with 4-mercaptopyridine.

    PubMed

    Millo, Diego; Ranieri, Antonio; Koot, Wynanda; Gooijer, Cees; van der Zwan, Gert

    2006-08-01

    To date, a successful combination of surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS) and electrochemistry to study heme proteins is inhibited by the problems raised by the prerequisite to use silver as electrode metal. This paper indicates an approach to overcome these problems. It describes a quick and reproducible procedure to prepare silver electrodes chemically modified with 4-mercaptopyridine suitable to perform diffusion electrochemistry of cytochrome c (cyt c). The method involves the employment of a mechanical and a chemical treatment and avoids the use of alumina slurries and any electrochemical pretreatment. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to test the electrochemical response of cyt c, and the CV signals were found identical with those obtained on gold electrodes under the same experimental conditions. Compared to previous literature, a significant improvement of the CV signal of cyt c at silver electrodes was achieved. Preliminary results show that this treatment can be also successfully employed for the preparation of SERRS-active electrodes.

  11. The Nature of Electrochemical Delithiation of Li-Mg Alloy Electrodes: Neutron Computed Tomography and Modeling of Li Diffusion and Delithiation Phenomenon

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Yuxuan; Chandran, K.S. Ravi; Jagannathan, M.; ...

    2016-12-05

    Li-Mg alloys are promising as positive electrodes (anodes) for Li-ion batteries due to the high Li storage capacity and the relatively lower volume change during the lithiation/delithiation process. They also present a unique opportunity to image the Li distribution through the electrode thickness at various delithiation states. In this work, spatial distributions of Li in electrochemically delithiated Li-Mg alloy electrodes have been quantitatively determined using neutron tomography. Specifically, the Li concentration profiles along thickness direction are determined. A rigorous analytical model to quantify the diffusion-controlled delithiation, accompanied by phase transition and boundary movement, has also been developed to explain themore » delithiation mechanism. The analytical modeling scheme successfully predicted the Li concentration profiles which agreed well with the experimental data. It is demonstrated that during discharge Li is removed by diffusion through the solid solution Li-Mg phases and this proceeds with β→α phase transition and the associated phase boundary movement through the thickness of the electrode. This is also accompanied by electrode thinning due to the change in molar volume during delithiation. In conclusion, following the approaches developed here, one can develop a rigorous and quantitative understanding of electrochemical delithiation in electrodes of electrochemical cells, similar to that in the present Li-Mg electrodes.« less

  12. The Nature of Electrochemical Delithiation of Li-Mg Alloy Electrodes: Neutron Computed Tomography and Modeling of Li Diffusion and Delithiation Phenomenon

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yuxuan; Chandran, K.S. Ravi; Jagannathan, M.; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Bilheux, Jean-Christophe

    2016-12-05

    Li-Mg alloys are promising as positive electrodes (anodes) for Li-ion batteries due to the high Li storage capacity and the relatively lower volume change during the lithiation/delithiation process. They also present a unique opportunity to image the Li distribution through the electrode thickness at various delithiation states. In this work, spatial distributions of Li in electrochemically delithiated Li-Mg alloy electrodes have been quantitatively determined using neutron tomography. Specifically, the Li concentration profiles along thickness direction are determined. A rigorous analytical model to quantify the diffusion-controlled delithiation, accompanied by phase transition and boundary movement, has also been developed to explain the delithiation mechanism. The analytical modeling scheme successfully predicted the Li concentration profiles which agreed well with the experimental data. It is demonstrated that during discharge Li is removed by diffusion through the solid solution Li-Mg phases and this proceeds with β→α phase transition and the associated phase boundary movement through the thickness of the electrode. This is also accompanied by electrode thinning due to the change in molar volume during delithiation. In conclusion, following the approaches developed here, one can develop a rigorous and quantitative understanding of electrochemical delithiation in electrodes of electrochemical cells, similar to that in the present Li-Mg electrodes.

  13. Confinement, Desolvation, And Electrosorption Effects on the Diffusion of Ions in Nanoporous Carbon Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Supercapacitors are electrochemical devices which store energy by ion adsorption on the surface of a porous carbon. They are characterized by high power delivery. The use of nanoporous carbon to increase their energy density should not hinder their fast charging. However, the mechanisms for ion transport inside electrified nanopores remain largely unknown. Here we show that the diffusion is characterized by a hierarchy of time scales arising from ion confinement, solvation, and electrosorption effects. By combining electrochemistry experiments with molecular dynamics simulations, we determine the in-pore conductivities and diffusion coefficients and their variations with the applied potential. We show that the diffusion of the ions is slower by 1 order of magnitude compared to the bulk electrolyte. The desolvation of the ions occurs on much faster time scales than electrosorption. PMID:26369420

  14. Confinement, Desolvation, And Electrosorption Effects on the Diffusion of Ions in Nanoporous Carbon Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Pean, Clarisse; Daffos, Barbara; Rotenberg, Benjamin; Levitz, Pierre; Haefele, Matthieu; Taberna, Pierre-Louis; Simon, Patrice; Salanne, Mathieu

    2015-10-07

    Supercapacitors are electrochemical devices which store energy by ion adsorption on the surface of a porous carbon. They are characterized by high power delivery. The use of nanoporous carbon to increase their energy density should not hinder their fast charging. However, the mechanisms for ion transport inside electrified nanopores remain largely unknown. Here we show that the diffusion is characterized by a hierarchy of time scales arising from ion confinement, solvation, and electrosorption effects. By combining electrochemistry experiments with molecular dynamics simulations, we determine the in-pore conductivities and diffusion coefficients and their variations with the applied potential. We show that the diffusion of the ions is slower by 1 order of magnitude compared to the bulk electrolyte. The desolvation of the ions occurs on much faster time scales than electrosorption.

  15. Fast spatiotemporal correlation spectroscopy to determine protein lateral diffusion laws in live cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Di Rienzo, Carmine; Gratton, Enrico; Beltram, Fabio; Cardarelli, Francesco

    2013-07-23

    Spatial distribution and dynamics of plasma-membrane proteins are thought to be modulated by lipid composition and by the underlying cytoskeleton, which forms transient barriers to diffusion. So far this idea was probed by single-particle tracking of membrane components in which gold particles or antibodies were used to individually monitor the molecules of interest. Unfortunately, the relatively large particles needed for single-particle tracking can in principle alter the very dynamics under study. Here, we use a method that makes it possible to investigate plasma-membrane proteins by means of small molecular labels, specifically single GFP constructs. First, fast imaging of the region of interest on the membrane is performed. For each time delay in the resulting stack of images the average spatial correlation function is calculated. We show that by fitting the series of correlation functions, the actual protein "diffusion law" can be obtained directly from imaging, in the form of a mean-square displacement vs. time-delay plot, with no need for interpretative models. This approach is tested with several simulated 2D diffusion conditions and in live Chinese hamster ovary cells with a GFP-tagged transmembrane transferrin receptor, a well-known benchmark of membrane-skeleton-dependent transiently confined diffusion. This approach does not require extraction of the individual trajectories and can be used also with dim and dense molecules. We argue that it represents a powerful tool for the determination of kinetic and thermodynamic parameters over very wide spatial and temporal scales.

  16. Lateral Ge Diffusion During Oxidation of Si/SiGe Fins.

    PubMed

    Brewer, William M; Xin, Yan; Hatem, C; Diercks, D; Truong, V Q; Jones, K S

    2017-04-12

    This Letter reports on the unusual diffusion behavior of Ge during oxidation of a multilayer Si/SiGe fin. It is observed that oxidation surprisingly results in the formation of vertically stacked Si nanowires encapsulated in defect free epitaxial strained SixGe1-x. High angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) shows that extremely enhanced diffusion of Ge occurs along the vertical Si/SiO2 oxidizing interface and is responsible for the encapsulation process. Further oxidation fully encapsulates the Si layers in defect free single crystal SixGe1-x (x up to 0.53), which results in Si nanowires with up to -2% strain. Atom probe tomography reconstructions demonstrate that the resultant nanowires run the length of the fin. We found that the oxidation temperature plays a significant role in the formation of the Si nanowires. In the process range of 800-900 °C, pure strained and rounded Si nanowires down to 2 nm in diameter can be fabricated. At lower temperatures, the Ge diffusion along the oxidizing Si/SiO2 interface is slow, and rounding of the nanowire does not occur, while at higher temperatures, the diffusivity of Ge into Si is sufficient to result in dilution of the pure Si nanowire with Ge. The use of highly selective etchants to remove the SiGe could provide a new pathway for the creation of highly controlled vertically stacked nanowires for gate all around transistors.

  17. Lateral diffusion measurement at high spatial resolution by scanning microphotolysis in a confocal microscope.

    PubMed Central

    Kubitscheck, U; Wedekind, P; Peters, R

    1994-01-01

    Fluorescence photobleaching methods have been widely used to study diffusion processes in the plasma membrane of single living cells and other membrane systems. Here we describe the application of a new photobleaching technique, scanning microphotolysis. Employing a recently developed extension module to a commercial confocal microscope, an intensive laser beam was switched on and off during scanning according to a user definable image mask. Thereby the location, geometry, and number of photolysed spots could be chosen arbitrarily, their size ranging from tens of micrometers down to the diffraction limit. Therewith we bleached circular areas on the surface of single living 3T3 cells labeled with the fluorescent lipid analog NBD-HPC. Subsequently, the fluorescence recovery process was observed using the attenuated laser beam for excitation. This yielded image stacks representing snapshots of the spatial distribution of fluorescent molecules. From these we computed the radial distribution functions of the photobleached dye molecules. The variance of these distributions is linearly related to the diffusion constant, time, and the mobile fraction of the diffusing species. Furthermore, we compared directly the theoretically expected and measured distribution functions, and could thus determine the diffusion coefficient from each single image. The results of these two new evaluation methods (D = 0.3 +/- 0.1 micron 2/s) agreed well with the outcome of conventional fluorescence recovery measurements. We show that by scanning microphotolysis information on dynamical processes such as diffusion of lipids or proteins can be acquired at the superior spatial resolution of a confocal laser scanning microscope. Images FIGURE 2 Fig.2b PMID:7811951

  18. Uncinate fasciculus microstructure and verbal episodic memory in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a diffusion tensor imaging and neuropsychological study.

    PubMed

    Christidi, Foteini; Zalonis, Ioannis; Kyriazi, Stavroula; Rentzos, Michalis; Karavasilis, Efstratios; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Evdokimidis, Ioannis

    2014-12-01

    The present study evaluates the integrity of uncinate fasciculus (UF) and the association between UF microstructure and verbal episodic memory (as one of the cognitive functions linked to UF) in non-demented patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We studied 21 patients with ALS and 11 healthy, demographically-comparable volunteers. Fractional anisotropy, apparent diffusion coefficient, axial and radial diffusivity were the DTI metrics examined. Episodic memory was evaluated with Babcock Story Recall Test and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) for patients; measures of immediate and delayed recall and retention for both tests and sum of words recalled through five learning trials for RAVLT were considered. Patients with ALS showed significant bilateral reduction of axial diffusivity in the UF as compared to controls. Furthermore, there were several significant relations between various DTI metrics (mostly in left hemisphere) and memory measures (specifically for the RAVLT). UF microstructural changes may contribute to ALS-related memory impairment, with word-list learning performance relying more upon the integrity of frontal and temporal connections than memory components associated with story recall.

  19. A historical perspective on the lateral diffusion model of GTPase activation and related coupling of membrane signaling proteins

    PubMed Central

    Liebman, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Aspects of our discovery of lateral diffusion of the G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) rhodopsin and that a single activated rhodopsin can non-covalently catalyze GTP binding to thousands of GTPases per second on rod disk membranes via this diffusion are summarized herein. Rapid GTPase coupling to membrane-bound phosphodiesterase (PDE) further amplifies the signal via cGMP hydrolysis, essential to visual transduction. Important generalizations from this work are that biomembranes can uniquely concentrate, orient for reaction and provide a solvent appropriate to rapid, powerful and appropriately controlled sequential interaction of signaling proteins. Of equal importance to function is timely control and termination of such powerful amplification via receptor phosphorylation (quenching) and arrestin binding. Downstream kinetic modulation by GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) and regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) and related mechanisms as well as limitations set by membrane domain fencing, structural protein binding etc. can be essential in relevant systems. PMID:25279248

  20. Determination of the thermal diffusivity of bulk and layered samples by time domain thermoreflectance: Interest of lateral heat diffusion investigation in nanoscale time range

    SciTech Connect

    Belliard, L. Charron, E.; Vincent, S.; Perrin, B.; Fournier, D.; Frétigny, C.

    2015-02-14

    We report on thermal investigations performed in a time resolved experimental scheme. The time domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) is applied in an unusual geometry where the pump and probe beams are not superimposed but focused and shifted. In this way, the determination of the in-plane thermal diffusivity is achieved from temperature snapshots at different time delays. In the first part, taking into account the specific generation process and the detection inherent to the time domain thermoreflectance approach, an analytical solution for the temperature field is obtained for bulk samples, and compared to experimental data. A comparison with the frequency domain thermoreflectance microscopy is also outlined. In Part II section, the lateral heat diffusion in a layered structure is investigated. The comparison of the heat diffusion spreading in case of a highly conductive layer deposited on an insulator substrate and the reverse situation are carefully studied. Finally, we show how the time dependence is efficient to probe and identify material thermal properties or thermal interfacial resistance.

  1. Improving Breakdown Behavior by Substrate Bias in a Novel Double Epi-layer Lateral Double Diffused MOS Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Wang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Yun; Wei, Xue-Ming

    2012-02-01

    A new lateral double diffused MOS (LDMOS) transistor with a double epitaxial layer formed by an n-type substrate and a p-type epitaxial layer is reported (DEL LDMOS). The mechanism of the improved breakdown characteristic is that the high electric field around the drain is reduced by substrate reverse bias, which causes the redistribution of the bulk electric field in the drift region, and the vertical blocking voltage is shared by the drain side and the source side. The numerical results indicate that the trade-off between breakdown voltage and on-resistance of the proposed device is improved greatly in comparison to that of the conventional LDMOS.

  2. Lateral heat flow method for thickness independent determination of thermal diffusivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tralshawala, Nilesh; Howard, Donald R.; Knight, Bryon; Plotnikov, Yuri; Ringermacher, Harry I.

    2007-10-01

    A pulsed transient thermography method is described where a high-intensity light pulse is used to heat a long, uniform stripe on the surface of a plate. A high spatial resolution, high frame rate focal plane array infrared camera is used to monitor surface temperature. We explain the theoretical model and data analysis framework used to experimentally determine all three thermal diffusivity components from the temperature measurements. The analysis does not require any fitting to the temperature profile and is based on the creation of thermal time-of-flight (tof) images from the temperature data and the relationship between tof and the distance from the stripe edge. The in-plane components of thermal diffusivity are obtained without the need for thickness information. Experimental validation of this procedure was carried out using anisotropic carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites.

  3. Eliminating micro-porous layer from gas diffusion electrode for use in high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Huaneng; Xu, Qian; Chong, Junjie; Li, Huaming; Sita, Cordellia; Pasupathi, Sivakumar

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we report a simple strategy to improve the performance of high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) by eliminating the micro-porous layer (MPL) from its gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs). Due to the absence of liquid water and the general use of high amount of catalyst, the MPL in a HT-PEMFC system works limitedly. Contrarily, the elimination of the MPL leads to an interlaced micropore/macropore composited structure in the catalyst layer (CL), which favors gas transport and catalyst utilization, resulting in a greatly improved single cell performance. At the normal working voltage (0.6 V), the current density of the GDE eliminated MPL reaches 0.29 A cm-2, and a maximum power density of 0.54 W cm-2 at 0.36 V is obtained, which are comparable to the best results yet reported for the HT-PEMFCs with similar Pt loading and operated using air. Furthermore, the MPL-free GDE maintains an excellent durability during a preliminary 1400 h HT-PEMFC operation, owing to its structure advantages, indicating the feasibility of this electrode for practical applications.

  4. Regulation Mechanism of the Lateral Diffusion of Band 3 in Erythrocyte Membranes by the Membrane Skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Tomishige, Michio; Sako, Yasushi; Kusumi, Akihiro

    1998-01-01

    Mechanisms that regulate the movement of a membrane spanning protein band 3 in erythrocyte ghosts were investigated at the level of a single or small groups of molecules using single particle tracking with an enhanced time resolution (0.22 ms). Two-thirds of band 3 undergo macroscopic diffusion: a band 3 molecule is temporarily corralled in a mesh of 110 nm in diameter, and hops to an adjacent mesh an average of every 350 ms. The rest (one-third) of band 3 exhibited oscillatory motion similar to that of spectrin, suggesting that these band 3 molecules are bound to spectrin. When the membrane skeletal network was dragged and deformed/translated using optical tweezers, band 3 molecules that were undergoing hop diffusion were displaced toward the same direction as the skeleton. Mild trypsin treatment of ghosts, which cleaves off the cytoplasmic portion of band 3 without affecting spectrin, actin, and protein 4.1, increased the intercompartmental hop rate of band 3 by a factor of 6, whereas it did not change the corral size and the microscopic diffusion rate within a corral. These results indicate that the cytoplasmic portion of band 3 collides with the membrane skeleton, which causes temporal confinement of band 3 inside a mesh of the membrane skeleton. PMID:9722611

  5. Narrow groove welding gas diffuser assembly and welding torch

    DOEpatents

    Rooney, Stephen J.

    2001-01-01

    A diffuser assembly is provided for narrow groove welding using an automatic gas tungsten arc welding torch. The diffuser assembly includes a manifold adapted for adjustable mounting on the welding torch which is received in a central opening in the manifold. Laterally extending manifold sections communicate with a shield gas inlet such that shield gas supplied to the inlet passes to gas passages of the manifold sections. First and second tapered diffusers are respectively connected to the manifold sections in fluid communication with the gas passages thereof. The diffusers extend downwardly along the torch electrode on opposite sides thereof so as to release shield gas along the length of the electrode and at the distal tip of the electrode. The diffusers are of a transverse width which is on the order of the thickness of the electrode so that the diffusers can, in use, be inserted into a narrow welding groove before and after the electrode in the direction of the weld operation.

  6. Narrow groove welding gas diffuser assembly and welding torch

    SciTech Connect

    Rooney, Stephen J.

    2000-02-04

    A diffuser assembly is provided for narrow groove welding using an automatic gas tungsten arc welding torch. The diffuser assembly includes manifold adapted for adjustable mounting on the welding torch which is received in a central opening in the manifold. Laterally extending manifold sections communicate with a shield gas inlet such that shield gas supplied to the inlet passes to gas passages of the manifold sections. First and second tapered diffusers are respectively connected to the manifold sections in fluid communication with the gas passages thereof. The diffusers extend downwardly along the torch electrode on opposite sides thereof so as to release shield gas along the length of the electrode and at the distal tip of the electrode. The diffusers are of a transverse width which is on the order of the thickness of the electrode so that the diffusers can, in use, be inserted into a narrow welding groove before and after the electrode in the direction of the weld operation.

  7. Silver nanoparticle-decorated carbon nanotubes as bifunctional gas-diffusion electrodes for zinc-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Kaempgen, M.; Nopphawan, P.; Wee, G.; Mhaisalkar, S.; Srinivasan, M.

    Thin, lightweight, and flexible gas-diffusion electrodes (GDEs) based on freestanding entangled networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) decorated with Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) are tested as the air-breathing cathode in a zinc-air battery. The SWNT networks provide a highly porous surface for active oxygen absorption and diffusion. The high conductivity of SWNTs coupled with the catalytic activity of AgNPs for oxygen reduction leads to an improvement in the performance of the zinc-air cell. By modulating the pH value and the reaction time, different sizes of AgNPs are decorated uniformly on the SWNTs, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. AgNPs with sizes of 3-5 nm double the capacity and specific energy of a zinc-air battery as compared with bare SWNTs. The simplified, lightweight architecture shows significant advantages over conventional carbon-based GDEs in terms of weight, thickness and conductivity, and hence may be useful for mobile and portable applications.

  8. Degradation of 4-chlorophenol by the anodic-cathodic cooperative effect with a Pd/MWNT gas-diffusion electrode.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Wei, X J; Bian, Z Y

    2012-01-01

    Pd/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) catalyst used for the gas-diffusion electrode was prepared by ethylene glycol (EG) reduction and characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results indicated that Pd particles with an average size of 8.0 nm were highly dispersed in the MWNTs with amorphous structure. In a diaphragm electrolysis system with a Ti/RuO(2)/IrO(2) anode and the Pd/MWNT gas diffusion cathode, the degradation of 4-chlorophenol was performed by a combination of electrochemical reduction and oxidation. The combined process was in favor of improving 4-chlorophenol degradation efficiency. The optimum reaction conditions were as following: initial pH 7, aeration with hydrogen and air. Under the optimized electrolysis conditions the removal of 4-chlorophenol in the anodic and cathodic compartments were 98.5 and 90.5%, respectively. Additionally, based on the analysis of electrolysis intermediates using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ion chromatography (IC), the electrolysis degradation of 4-chlorophenol was proposed containing the intermediates, such as phenol, hydroquinone, benzoquinone, maleic acid, fumaric acid, succinic acid, malonic acid, oxalic acid, acetic acid and formic acid.

  9. Subdiffusion and lateral diffusion coefficient of lipid atoms and molecules in phospholipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flenner, Elijah; Das, Jhuma; Rheinstädter, Maikel C.; Kosztin, Ioan

    2009-01-01

    We use a long, all-atom molecular-dynamics (MD) simulation combined with theoretical modeling to investigate the dynamics of selected lipid atoms and lipid molecules in a hydrated diyristoyl-phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayer. From the analysis of a 0.1μs MD trajectory, we find that the time evolution of the mean-square displacement, ⟨[δr(t)]2⟩ , of lipid atoms and molecules exhibits three well-separated dynamical regions: (i) ballistic, with ⟨[δr(t)]2⟩˜t2 for t≲10fs ; (ii) subdiffusive, with ⟨[δr(t)]2⟩˜tβ with β<1 for 10ps≲t≲10ns ; and (iii) Fickian diffusion, with ⟨[δr(t)]2⟩˜t for t≳30ns . We propose a memory-function approach for calculating ⟨[δr(t)]2⟩ over the entire time range extending from the ballistic to the Fickian diffusion regimes. The results are in very good agreement with the ones from the MD simulations. We also examine the implications of the presence of the subdiffusive dynamics of lipids on the self-intermediate scattering function and the incoherent dynamic structure factor measured in neutron-scattering experiments.

  10. Subdiffusion and lateral diffusion coefficient of lipid atoms and molecules in phospholipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Flenner, Elijah; Das, Jhuma; Rheinstädter, Maikel C; Kosztin, Ioan

    2009-01-01

    We use a long, all-atom molecular-dynamics (MD) simulation combined with theoretical modeling to investigate the dynamics of selected lipid atoms and lipid molecules in a hydrated diyristoyl-phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayer. From the analysis of a 0.1 micros MD trajectory, we find that the time evolution of the mean-square displacement, <[deltar(t)]2>, of lipid atoms and molecules exhibits three well-separated dynamical regions: (i) ballistic, with <[deltar(t)]2> approximately t2 for t approximately tbeta with beta<1 for 10 psdiffusion, with <[deltar(t)]2> approximately t for t>or approximately 30 ns. We propose a memory-function approach for calculating <[deltar(t)]2> over the entire time range extending from the ballistic to the Fickian diffusion regimes. The results are in very good agreement with the ones from the MD simulations. We also examine the implications of the presence of the subdiffusive dynamics of lipids on the self-intermediate scattering function and the incoherent dynamic structure factor measured in neutron-scattering experiments.

  11. Age-related differences in diffusion tensor indices and fiber architecture in the medial and lateral gastrocnemius.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Usha; Csapo, Robert; Malis, Vadim; Xue, Yanjie; Sinha, Shantanu

    2015-04-01

    To investigate age related changes in diffusion tensor indices and fiber architecture of the medial and lateral gastrocnemius (MG and LG) muscles using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The lower leg of five young and five senior subjects was scanned at 3 Tesla and DTI indices extracted using three methods: region of interest, histogram, and tract based. Tracked fibers were automatically edited to ensure physiologically relevant tracks. Pennation angles were measured with respect to the deep and superficial aponeuroses of both muscles. The three methods provided internally consistent measures of the DTI indices (correlation coefficient in the range of 0.90-0.99). The primary, secondary, and tertiary eigenvalues in the MG and LG increased significantly in the senior cohort (P < 0.05), while the small increase in fractional anisotropy with age was not significant (MG/LG: P = 0.39/0.85; 95% confidence interval: [-0.059/-0.056, 0.116/0.064]). Fiber lengths of MG fibers originating distally were significantly decreased in seniors (P < 0.05) while pennation angles decreased with age in the MG and LG but this was not significant. Fiber atrophy and increased fibrosis have opposing effects on the diffusion indices resulting in a complicated dependence with aging. Fiber architectural changes could play a role in determining aging muscle function. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Asymptomatic choroid plexus cysts in the lateral ventricles: an incidental finding on diffusion-weighted MRI.

    PubMed

    Cakir, B; Karakas, H M; Unlu, E; Tuncbilek, N

    2002-10-01

    We assessed the role of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the detection of choroid plexus cysts. We reviewed more than 1000 patients who had undergone MRI in a 1-year period. We reviewed echo-planar DWI with b=1000 s/mm(2), acquired at 1.0 tesla, for any difference in signal intensity which might indicate choroid plexus cysts. On conventional images, all cystic lesions were isointense with cerebrospinal fluid, and 72 cysts could not be identified. On DWI, 90 rounded high-signal foci were detected in 58 patients; 64 cysts were bilateral. Focal ventricular expansion due to large cysts was observed in nine cases. DWI were found to show choroid plexus cysts undetected within the cerebrospinal fluid on conventional images.

  13. Limitations of the commonly used simplified laterally uniform optical fiber probe-tissue interface in Monte Carlo simulations of diffuse reflectance

    PubMed Central

    Naglič, Peter; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan; Bürmen, Miran

    2015-01-01

    Light propagation models often simplify the interface between the optical fiber probe tip and tissue to a laterally uniform boundary with mismatched refractive indices. Such simplification neglects the precise optical properties of the commonly used probe tip materials, e.g. stainless steel or black epoxy. In this paper, we investigate the limitations of the laterally uniform probe-tissue interface in Monte Carlo simulations of diffuse reflectance. In comparison to a realistic probe-tissue interface that accounts for the layout and properties of the probe tip materials, the simplified laterally uniform interface is shown to introduce significant errors into the simulated diffuse reflectance. PMID:26504647

  14. Use of a mid-scala and a lateral wall electrode in children: insertion depth and hearing preservation.

    PubMed

    Benghalem, Abdelhamid; Gazibegovic, Dzemal; Saadi, Fatima; Tazi-Chaoui, Zakia

    2017-01-01

    Atraumatic insertion of the HiFocus(TM) Mid-Scala (HFMS) electrode via the round window was successfully achieved in seven children. Residual hearing 6 months post-operatively was preserved to within 10 dB HL of the pre-operative audiogram at 500 Hz for six children, indicating minimal initial insertion trauma to the cochlea. The objectives were to document the clinical experience and evaluate differences between HFMS and HiFocus(TM) 1j (HF1j) by means of insertion depth and hearing preservation results. Nineteen children were prospectively recruited and consecutively implanted with the HF1j electrode (n = 12) or the HFMS electrode (n = 7) via the round window. Average median angular insertion depths and the amount of residual hearing preserved at 6 months post-operatively were compared between the two electrode groups. The median angular insertion depth for the HF1j was 439° and for the HFMS 435°. Preservation of residual hearing at 500 Hz was assessed in seven HFMS subjects and 11 HF1j subjects. Based on the Skarzynski formula, three out of seven subjects (42%) in the HFMS group had their residual hearing completely preserved at 500 Hz. In the control group, no subjects had complete hearing preservation and five subjects had a complete loss of residual hearing.

  15. Corpus Callosum Diffusion and Language Lateralization in Patients with Brain Tumors: A DTI and fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Tantillo, Gabriella; Peck, Kyung K.; Arevalo-Perez, Julio; Lyo, John K.; Chou, Joanne F.; Young, Robert J.; Brennan, Nicole Petrovich; Holodny, Andrei I.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Examining how left-hemisphere brain tumors might impact both the microstructure of the corpus callosum (CC) as measured by fractional anisotropy (FA) values in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as well as cortical language lateralization measured with functional MRI (fMRI). METHODS fMRI tasks (phonemic fluency and verb generation) were performed in order to detect activation in Broca’s and Wernicke’s area. Twenty patients with left-hemisphere brain tumors were investigated. fMRI results were divided into left dominant (LD), right dominant (RD), or codominant (CD) for language function. DTI was performed to generate FA maps in the anterior and posterior CC. FA values were correlated with the degree of language dominance. RESULTS Patients who were LD or RD for language in Broca’s area had lower FA in the anterior CC than those who were CD for language (median for CD = .72, LD = .66, RD = .65, P < .09). Lateralized versus CD group level analysis also showed that CD patients had higher FA in the anterior CC than patients who displayed strong lateralization in either hemisphere (median for CD = .72, lateralized = .65, P < .05). CONCLUSION Our preliminary observations indicate that the greater FA in CD patients may reflect a more directional microstructure for the CC in this region, suggesting a greater need for interhemispheric transfer of information. Because brain tumors can cause compensatory codominance, our findings may suggest a mechanism by which interhemispheric transfer is facilitated during plasticity in the presence of a tumor. PMID:26258653

  16. Spin-related thermoelectric conversion in lateral spin-valve devices with single-crystalline Co2FeSi electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, Kento; Oki, Soichiro; Yamada, Shinya; Kanashima, Takeshi; Hamaya, Kohei

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate the conversion between a heat current and a spin current in Cu-based lateral spin valves (LSVs) with single-crystalline Co2FeSi (CFS) electrodes. We can observe the thermally induced spin injection from CFS into Cu resulting from the spin-dependent Seebeck effect, and the heat current generated by the spin-dependent Peltier effect can be detected even in the LSV structures. This study is an important step toward understanding heat-spin conversion in single-crystalline materials with various electronic band structures.

  17. Palladium nanoparticles decorated on reduced graphene oxide rotating disk electrodes toward ultrasensitive hydrazine detection: effects of particle size and hydrodynamic diffusion.

    PubMed

    Krittayavathananon, Atiweena; Srimuk, Pattarachai; Luanwuthi, Santamon; Sawangphruk, Montree

    2014-12-16

    Although metal nanoparticle/graphene composites have been widely used as the electrode in electrochemical sensors, two effects, consisting of the particle size of the nanoparticles and the hydrodynamic diffusion of analytes to the electrodes, are not yet fully understood. In this work, palladium nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide (PdNPs/rGO) composites were synthesized using an in situ polyol method. Palladium(II) ions and graphene oxide were reduced together with a reducing agent, ethylene glycol. By varying the concentration of palladium(II) nitrate, PdNPs with different sizes were decorated on the surface of rGO sheets. The as-fabricated PdNPs/rGO rotating disk electrodes (RDEs) were investigated toward hydrazine detection. Overall, a 3.7 ± 1.4 nm diameter PdNPs/rGO RDE exhibits high performance with a rather low limit of detection of about 7 nM at a rotation speed of 6000 rpm and provides a wide linear range of 0.1-1000 μM with R(2) = 0.995 at 2000 rpm. This electrode is highly selective to hydrazine without interference from uric acid, glucose, ammonia, caffeine, methylamine, ethylenediamine, hydroxylamine, n-butylamine, adenosine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, and l-arginine. The PdNPs/rGO RDEs with larger sizes show lower detection performance. Interestingly, the detection performance of the electrodes is sensitive to the hydrodynamic diffusion of hydrazine. The as-fabricated electrode can detect trace hydrazine in wastewater with high stability, demonstrating its practical use as an electrochemical sensor. These findings may lead to an awareness of the effect of the hydrodynamic diffusion of analyte that has been previously ignored, and the 3.7 ± 1.4 nm PdNPs/rGO RDE may be useful toward trace hydrazine detection, especially in wastewater from related chemical industries.

  18. Lateral electrophoresis and diffusion of Concanavalin A receptors in the membrane of embryonic muscle cell

    PubMed Central

    Poo, M. M.; Poo, W. J.; Lam, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    A uniform electric field of 10 V/cm applied across the surface of embryonic toad Xenopus muscle cells results in the asymmetric accumulation of concanavalin A (Con A) receptors toward one side of the cells within 10 min, as visualized by postfield fluorescent Con A labeling. This field produces an extracellular voltage difference of 20 mV across these 20-microns wide cells. The effect is reversible in two respects: (a) Additional exposure of the cell to the same field of opposite polarity for 10 min completely reverses the asymmetric accumulation to the other side of the cell. (b) Relaxation occurs after the removal of the field and results in complete recovery of the uniform distribution in 30 min. Both the accumulation and the recovery movements are independent of cell metabolism, and appear to be electrophoretic and diffusional in nature. The threshold field required to induce a detectable accumulation by the present method is between 1.0 and 1.5 V/cm (corresponding to a voltage difference of 2-3 mV across a 20-microns wide cell). The electrophoretic mobility of the most mobile population of nonliganded Con A receptors is estimated to be about 2 x 10(-3) microns/s per V/cm, while their diffusion coefficient is in the range of 4-7 x 10(-10) cm2/s. Extensive accumulation of the Con A receptors by an electric field results in the formation of immobile aggregates. The Con A receptors appear to consist of a heterogeneous population of membrane components different in their charge properties, mobility, and capability in forming aggregates. PMID:10605452

  19. Lateral gas phase diffusion length of boron atoms over Si/B surfaces during CVD of pure boron layers

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammadi, V. Nihtianov, S.

    2016-02-15

    The lateral gas phase diffusion length of boron atoms, L{sub B}, along silicon and boron surfaces during chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using diborane (B{sub 2}H{sub 6}) is reported. The value of L{sub B} is critical for reliable and uniform boron layer coverage. The presented information was obtained experimentally and confirmed analytically in the boron deposition temperature range from 700 °C down to 400 °C. For this temperature range the local loading effect of the boron deposition is investigated on the micro scale. A L{sub B} = 2.2 mm was determined for boron deposition at 700 °C, while a L{sub B} of less than 1 mm was observed at temperatures lower than 500 °C.

  20. Lateral gas phase diffusion length of boron atoms over Si/B surfaces during CVD of pure boron layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, V.; Nihtianov, S.

    2016-02-01

    The lateral gas phase diffusion length of boron atoms, LB, along silicon and boron surfaces during chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using diborane (B2H6) is reported. The value of LB is critical for reliable and uniform boron layer coverage. The presented information was obtained experimentally and confirmed analytically in the boron deposition temperature range from 700 °C down to 400 °C. For this temperature range the local loading effect of the boron deposition is investigated on the micro scale. A LB = 2.2 mm was determined for boron deposition at 700 °C, while a LB of less than 1 mm was observed at temperatures lower than 500 °C.

  1. Ab initio diffuse-interface model for lithiated electrode interface evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stournara, Maria E.; Kumar, Ravi; Qi, Yue; Sheldon, Brian W.

    2016-07-01

    The study of chemical segregation at interfaces, and in particular the ability to predict the thickness of segregated layers via analytical expressions or computational modeling, is a fundamentally challenging topic in the design of novel heterostructured materials. This issue is particularly relevant for the phase-field (PF) methodology, which has become a prominent tool for describing phase transitions. These models rely on phenomenological parameters that pertain to the interfacial energy and thickness, quantities that cannot be experimentally measured. Instead of back-calculating these parameters from experimental data, here we combine a set of analytical expressions based on the Cahn-Hilliard approach with ab initio calculations to compute the gradient energy parameter κ and the thickness λ of the segregated Li layer at the LixSi-Cu interface. With this bottom-up approach we calculate the thickness λ of the Li diffuse interface to be on the order of a few nm, in agreement with prior experimental secondary ion mass spectrometry observations. Our analysis indicates that Li segregation is primarily driven by solution thermodynamics, while the strain contribution in this system is relatively small. This combined scheme provides an essential first step in the systematic evaluation of the thermodynamic parameters of the PF methodology, and we believe that it can serve as a framework for the development of quantitative interface models in the field of Li-ion batteries.

  2. Self-diffusion of electrolyte species in model battery electrodes using Magic Angle Spinning and Pulsed Field Gradient Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tambio, Sacris Jeru; Deschamps, Michaël; Sarou-Kanian, Vincent; Etiemble, Aurélien; Douillard, Thierry; Maire, Eric; Lestriez, Bernard

    2017-09-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are electrochemical storage devices using the electrochemical activity of the lithium ion in relation to intercalation compounds owing to mass transport phenomena through diffusion. Diffusion of the lithium ion in the electrode pores has been poorly understood due to the lack of experimental techniques for measuring its self-diffusion coefficient in porous media. Magic-Angle Spinning, Pulsed Field Gradient, Stimulated-Echo Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS-PFG-STE NMR) was used here for the first time to measure the self-diffusion coefficients of the electrolyte species in the LP30 battery electrolyte (i.e. a 1 M solution of LiPF6 dissolved in 1:1 Ethylene Carbonate - Dimethyl Carbonate) in model composites. These composite electrodes were made of alumina, carbon black and PVdF-HFP. Alumina's magnetic susceptibility is close to the measured magnetic susceptibility of the LP30 electrolyte thereby limiting undesirable internal field gradients. Interestingly, the self-diffusion coefficient of lithium ions decreases with increasing carbon content. FIB-SEM was used to describe the 3D geometry of the samples. The comparison between the reduction of self-diffusion coefficients as measured by PFG-NMR and as geometrically derived from FIB/SEM tortuosity values highlights the contribution of specific interactions at the material/electrolyte interface on the lithium transport properties.

  3. Systematic Spatial Bias in DNA Microarray Hybridization Is Caused by Probe Spot Position-Dependent Variability in Lateral Diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Haider, Susanne; Horn, Matthias; Wagner, Michael; Stocker, Roman; Loy, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Background The hybridization of nucleic acid targets with surface-immobilized probes is a widely used assay for the parallel detection of multiple targets in medical and biological research. Despite its widespread application, DNA microarray technology still suffers from several biases and lack of reproducibility, stemming in part from an incomplete understanding of the processes governing surface hybridization. In particular, non-random spatial variations within individual microarray hybridizations are often observed, but the mechanisms underpinning this positional bias remain incompletely explained. Methodology/Principal Findings This study identifies and rationalizes a systematic spatial bias in the intensity of surface hybridization, characterized by markedly increased signal intensity of spots located at the boundaries of the spotted areas of the microarray slide. Combining observations from a simplified single-probe block array format with predictions from a mathematical model, the mechanism responsible for this bias is found to be a position-dependent variation in lateral diffusion of target molecules. Numerical simulations reveal a strong influence of microarray well geometry on the spatial bias. Conclusions Reciprocal adjustment of the size of the microarray hybridization chamber to the area of surface-bound probes is a simple and effective measure to minimize or eliminate the diffusion-based bias, resulting in increased uniformity and accuracy of quantitative DNA microarray hybridization. PMID:21858215

  4. An Integrated Field-Effect Microdevice for Monitoring Membrane Transport in Xenopus laevis Oocytes via Lateral Proton Diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Schaffhauser, Daniel Felix; Patti, Monica; Goda, Tatsuro; Miyahara, Yuji; Forster, Ian Cameron; Dittrich, Petra Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    An integrated microdevice for measuring proton-dependent membrane activity at the surface of Xenopus laevis oocytes is presented. By establishing a stable contact between the oocyte vitelline membrane and an ion-sensitive field-effect (ISFET) sensor inside a microperfusion channel, changes in surface pH that are hypothesized to result from facilitated proton lateral diffusion along the membrane were detected. The solute diffusion barrier created between the sensor and the active membrane area allowed detection of surface proton concentration free from interference of solutes in bulk solution. The proposed sensor mechanism was verified by heterologously expressing membrane transport proteins and recording changes in surface pH during application of the specific substrates. Experiments conducted on two families of phosphate-sodium cotransporters (SLC20 & SLC34) demonstrated that it is possible to detect phosphate transport for both electrogenic and electroneutral isoforms and distinguish between transport of different phosphate species. Furthermore, the transport activity of the proton/amino acid cotransporter PAT1 assayed using conventional whole cell electrophysiology correlated well with changes in surface pH, confirming the ability of the system to detect activity proportional to expression level. PMID:22792166

  5. Computationally efficient approach for solving time dependent diffusion equation with discrete temporal convolution applied to granular particles of battery electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senegačnik, Jure; Tavčar, Gregor; Katrašnik, Tomaž

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents a computationally efficient method for solving the time dependent diffusion equation in a granule of the Li-ion battery's granular solid electrode. The method, called Discrete Temporal Convolution method (DTC), is based on a discrete temporal convolution of the analytical solution of the step function boundary value problem. This approach enables modelling concentration distribution in the granular particles for arbitrary time dependent exchange fluxes that do not need to be known a priori. It is demonstrated in the paper that the proposed method features faster computational times than finite volume/difference methods and Padé approximation at the same accuracy of the results. It is also demonstrated that all three addressed methods feature higher accuracy compared to the quasi-steady polynomial approaches when applied to simulate the current densities variations typical for mobile/automotive applications. The proposed approach can thus be considered as one of the key innovative methods enabling real-time capability of the multi particle electrochemical battery models featuring spatial and temporal resolved particle concentration profiles.

  6. A finite element simulation on transient large deformation and mass diffusion in electrodes for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Yonghao; Jiang, Hanqing

    2013-10-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have attracted great deal of attention recently. Silicon is one of the most promising anode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries, due to its highest theoretical specific capacity. However, the short lifetime confined by mechanical failure in the silicon anode is now considered to be the biggest challenge in desired applications. High stress induced by the huge volume change due to lithium insertion/extraction is the main reason underlying this problem. Some theoretical models have been developed to address this issue. In order to properly implement these models, we develop a finite element based numerical method using a commercial software package, ABAQUS, as a platform at the continuum level to study fully coupled large deformation and mass diffusion problem. Using this method, large deformation, elasticity-plasticity of the electrodes, various spatial and temporal conditions, arbitrary geometry and dimension could be fulfilled. The interaction between anode and other components of the lithium ion batteries can also be studied as an integrated system. Several specific examples are presented to demonstrate the capability of this numerical platform.

  7. Development of rolling tin gas diffusion electrode for carbon dioxide electrochemical reduction to produce formate in aqueous electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qinian; Dong, Heng; Yu, Hongbing

    2014-12-01

    Carbon dioxide electrochemical reduction to produce formate (CERPF) basing on gas diffusion electrode (GDE) is a promising carbon cycle technology. However, its performance is still restrained by formate accumulation and catalyst loss in the catalyst layer (CL). In this study, a novel rolling Sn-loading GDE (SGDE) without porous hydrophilic CL is developed. The electrochemical behavior of CERPF on the SGDE is investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical performance of the SGDE for CERPF is assessed by constant potential electrolysis. The results show that the CERPF process basing on the SGDE performs a double charge transfer and is dominated by the electron transfer rate. The highest partial current density for CERPF (17.43 ± 2.60 mA cm-2) and corresponding Faraday efficiency (78.60 ± 0.11%) are obtained under the applied potential of -1.8 V vs Ag/AgCl in 0.5 M KHCO3 solution. The produced formate is allowed to be released into the electrolyte easily and the catalyst holds steady during the CERPF process. Since its excellent electrochemical performance and low fabrication cost (ca. 30 m-2), bright prospect for SGDE application in CERPF can be convinced.

  8. Manipulating the Lateral Diffusion of Surface-Anchored EGF Demonstrates that Receptor Clustering Modulates its Phosphorylation Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Stabley, Daniel; Retterer, Scott T; Marshal, Stephen; Salaita, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Upon activation, the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor becomes phosphorylated and triggers a vast signaling network that has profound effects on cell growth. The EGF receptor is observed to assemble into clusters after ligand binding and tyrosine kinase autophosphorylation, but the role of these assemblies in the receptor signaling pathway remains unclear. To address this question, we measured the phosphorylation of EGFR when the EGF ligand was anchored onto laterally mobile and immobile surfaces. We found that cells generated clusters of ligand-receptor complex on mobile EGF surfaces, and generated a lower ratio of phosphorylated EGFR to EGF than when compared to immobilized EGF that is unable to cluster. This result was verified by tuning the lateral assembly of ligand-receptor complexes on the surface of living cells using patterned supported lipid bilayers. Nanoscale metal lines fabricated into the supported membrane constrained lipid diffusion and EGF receptor assembly into micron and sub-micron scale corrals. Single cell analysis indicated that clustering impacts EGF receptor activation, and larger clusters (> 1 m2) of ligand-receptor complex generated lower EGF receptor phosphorylation per ligand than smaller assemblies (< 1 m2) in HCC1143 cells that were engaged to ligand-functionalized surfaces. We investigated EGFR clustering by treating cells with compounds that disrupt the cytoskeleton (Latrunculin-B), clathrin-mediated endocytosis (Pitstop2), and inhibit EGFR activation (Gefitinib). These results help elucidate the nature of large-scale EGFR clustering, thus underscoring the general significance of receptor spatial organization in tuning function.

  9. Drastic change of phase interference by small diffusion of heavy-mass electrode atoms in carbon nanotubes and phase switching device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruyama, Junji; Takesue, Izumi; Hasegawa, Tetsuro

    2001-07-01

    We slightly diffuse atoms of electrode materials into one end of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), grown using nanoporous alumina membranes. Diffusion of the light-mass materials (carbon and aluminum) lead to weak localization in Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak oscillation, consistent with past reports. In contrast, we find that diffusion of heavy-mass materials (gold and platinum) at the volume ratio of only about 5% change this weak localization to antilocalization. It is understood by a drastic change of the phase interference caused by the injection of spin-flipped electrons due to spin-orbit interaction in the diffusion region, in the entire part of the MWNTs. We also propose an electron-wave phase switching circuit using this effect.

  10. Dimensionless numbers and correlating equations for the analysis of the membrane-gas diffusion electrode assembly in polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyenge, E. L.

    The Quraishi-Fahidy method [Can. J. Chem. Eng. 59 (1981) 563] was employed to derive characteristic dimensionless numbers for the membrane-electrolyte, cathode catalyst layer and gas diffuser, respectively, based on the model presented by Bernardi and Verbrugge for polymer electrolyte fuel cells [AIChE J. 37 (1991) 1151]. Monomial correlations among dimensionless numbers were developed and tested against experimental and mathematical modeling results. Dimensionless numbers comparing the bulk and surface-convective ionic conductivities, the electric and viscous forces and the current density and the fixed surface charges, were employed to describe the membrane ohmic drop and its non-linear dependence on current density due to membrane dehydration. The analysis of the catalyst layer yielded electrode kinetic equivalents of the second Damköhler number and Thiele modulus, influencing the penetration depth of the oxygen reduction front based on the pseudohomogeneous film model. The correlating equations for the catalyst layer could describe in a general analytical form, all the possible electrode polarization scenarios such as electrode kinetic control coupled or not with ionic and/or oxygen mass transport limitation. For the gas diffusion-backing layer correlations are presented in terms of the Nusselt number for mass transfer in electrochemical systems. The dimensionless number-based correlating equations for the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) could provide a practical approach to quantify single-cell polarization results obtained under a variety of experimental conditions and to implement them in models of the fuel cell stack.

  11. Electrochemical reduction of CO{sub 2} with a functional gas-diffusion electrode in aqueous solutions with and without propylene carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Ogura, Kotaro; Endo, Nobutaka

    1999-10-01

    A functional gas-diffusion electrode consisting of a modified platinum mesh electrode and a glass filter has been developed in order to convert CO{sub 2} to a useful substance at an overpotential as low as possible. The modification was made by laminating Prussian blue (inner) and polyaniline (outer) on a Pt mesh substrate, and a metal complex was further immobilized onto polyaniline. The improvement of the usefulness of the product and the required overpotential was brought about by using such functional gas-diffusion electrode in a KCl aqueous solution containing 10% propylene carbonate. This is attributed to the maintenance of a high concentration of CO{sub 2} at the electrode surface owing to the direct supply of CO{sub 2} through the gas phase, the high solubility of CO{sub 2} to the solution, and the stabilization of reaction intermediates. The maximum total current efficiency for the reduction of CO{sub 2} was 74.9% at -0.6 V vs. Ag/AgCl, and the main products were ethanol and lactic acid.

  12. Efficient degradation of rhodamine B using modified graphite felt gas diffusion electrode by electro-Fenton process.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jiangnan; Olajuyin, Ayobami Matthew; Mu, Tingzhen; Yang, Maohua; Xing, Jianmin

    2016-06-01

    The electro-Fenton (EF) process treatment of 0.1-M (rhodamine B) RhB solution was studied with different graphite cathode materials, and graphite felt (GF) was selected as a promising material in further investigation. Then, the degradation performances of gas diffusion electrode (GDE) and graphite felt (GF) were compared, and GDE was confirmed to be more efficient in RhB removal. The operational parameters such as Fe(2+) dosage and current density were optimized, and comparison among different modified methods-polytetrafluoroethylene-carbon black (PTFE-CB), polytetrafluoroethylene-carbon nanotube (PTFE-CNT), electrodeposition-CB, and electrodeposition-CNT-showed 98.49 % RhB removal by PTFE-CB-modified cathode in 0.05 M Na2SO4 at a current density of 50 A/m(2) and an air flow rate of 1 L/min after 20 min. Meanwhile, after cathode modified by PTFE-CB, the mineralization efficiency and mineralization current efficiency performed absolutely better than the pristine one. Cyclic voltammograms, SEM images, contact angles, and BET surface area were carried out to demonstrate stronger current responses and higher hydrophilicity of GF after modified. The value of biochemical oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand (BOD5/COD) increased from 0.049 to 0.331 after 90-min treatment, suggesting the solution was biodegradable, and the modified cathode was confirmed to be stable after ten circle runs. Finally, a proposed degradation pathway of RhB was put forward.

  13. Use of LARS system for the quantitative determination of smoke plume lateral diffusion coefficients from ERTS images of Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blais, R. N.; Copeland, G. E.; Lerner, T. H.

    1975-01-01

    A technique for measuring smoke plume of large industrial sources observed by satellite using LARSYS is proposed. A Gaussian plume model is described, integrated in the vertical, and inverted to yield a form for the lateral diffusion coefficient, Ky. Given u, wind speed; y sub l, the horizontal distance of a line of constant brightness from the plume symmetry axis a distance x sub l, downstream from reference point at x=x sub 2, y=0, then K sub y = u ((y sub 1) to the 2nd power)/2 x sub 1 1n (x sub 2/x sub 1). The technique is applied to a plume from a power plant at Chester, Virginia, imaged August 31, 1973 by LANDSAT I. The plume bends slightly to the left 4.3 km from the source and estimates yield Ky of 28 sq m/sec near the source, and 19 sq m/sec beyond the bend. Maximum ground concentrations are estimated between 32 and 64 ug/cu m. Existing meteorological data would not explain such concentrations.

  14. A quantitative model of traffic between plasma membrane and secondary lysosomes: evaluation of inflow, lateral diffusion, and degradation

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    We present here a mathematical model that accounts for the various proportions of plasma membrane constituents occurring in the lysosomal membrane of rat fibroblasts (Draye, J.-P., J. Quintart, P. J. Courtoy, and P. Baudhuin. 1987. Eur. J. Biochem. 170: 395-403; Draye, J.-P., P. J. Courtoy, J. Quintart, and P. Baudhuin. 1987. Eur. J. Biochem. 170:405-411). It is based on contents of plasma membrane markers in purified lysosomal preparations, evaluations of their half-life in lysosomes and measurements of areas of lysosomal and plasma membranes by morphometry. In rat fibroblasts, structures labeled by a 2-h uptake of horseradish peroxidase followed by a 16-h chase (i.e., lysosomes) occupy 3% of the cellular volume and their total membrane area corresponds to 30% of the pericellular membrane area. Based on the latter values, the model predicts the rate of inflow and outflow of plasma membrane constituents into lysosomal membrane, provided their rate of degradation is known. Of the bulk of polypeptides iodinated at the cell surface, only 4% reach the lysosomes every hour, where the major part (integral of 83%) is degraded with a half-life in lysosomes of integral to 0.8 h. For specific plasma membrane constituents, this model can further account for differences in the association to the lysosomal membrane by variations in the rate either of lysosomal degradation, of inflow along the pathway from the pericellular membrane to the lysosomes, or of lateral diffusion. PMID:2848849

  15. Morphology evolution via self-organization and lateral and vertical diffusion in polymer:fullerene solar cell blends.

    PubMed

    Campoy-Quiles, Mariano; Ferenczi, Toby; Agostinelli, Tiziano; Etchegoin, Pablo G; Kim, Youngkyoo; Anthopoulos, Thomas D; Stavrinou, Paul N; Bradley, Donal D C; Nelson, Jenny

    2008-02-01

    Control of blend morphology at the microscopic scale is critical for optimizing the power conversion efficiency of plastic solar cells based on blends of conjugated polymer with fullerene derivatives. In the case of bulk heterojunctions of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and a soluble fullerene derivative ([6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester, PCBM), both blend morphology and photovoltaic device performance are influenced by various treatments, including choice of solvent, rate of drying, thermal annealing and vapour annealing. Although the protocols differ significantly, the maximum power conversion efficiency values reported for the various techniques are comparable (4-5%). In this paper, we demonstrate that these techniques all lead to a common arrangement of the components, which consists of a vertically and laterally phase-separated blend of crystalline P3HT and PCBM. We propose a morphology evolution that consists of an initial crystallization of P3HT chains, followed by diffusion of PCBM molecules to nucleation sites, at which aggregates of PCBM then grow.

  16. A MoO2 sheet as a promising electrode material: ultrafast Li-diffusion and astonishing Li-storage capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yungang; Geng, Cheng

    2017-03-01

    The potential of MoO2 crystal as an electrode material is reported, and nanostructural MoO2 systems, including nanoparticles, nanospheres, nanobelts and nanowires, were synthesized and proved to be advanced electrode materials. A two-dimensional (2D) geometric structure represents an extreme of surface-to-volume ratio, and thus is more suitable as an electrode material in general. Stimulated by the recent fabrication of 2D MoO2, we adopted an ab initio molecular dynamics simulation and density functional theory calculation to study the stability and electrochemical properties of a MoO2 sheet. Identified by a phonon dispersion curve and potential energy curve calculations, the MoO2 sheet proved to be dynamically and thermally stable. After lithiation, similar to most promising 2D structures, we found that a Li atom can strongly adsorb on a MoO2 sheet, and the lithiated MoO2 sheet presented excellent metallic properties. Note that, compared with most promising 2D structures, we unexpectedly revealed that the diffusion barrier of the Li atom on the MoO2 sheet was much lower and the storage capacity of the MoO2 sheet was much larger. The calculated energy barrier for the diffusion of Li on the MoO2 sheet was only 75 meV, and, due to multilayer adsorption, the theoretical capacity of the MoO2 sheet can reach up to 2513 mA h g‑1. Benefiting from general properties, such as strong Li-binding and excellent conductivity, and unique phenomena, such as ultrafast diffusion capacity and astonishing storage capacity, we highlight a new promising electrode material for the Li-ion battery.

  17. The effect of formulation excipients on the penetration and lateral diffusion of ibuprofen on and within the stratum corneum following topical application to humans.

    PubMed

    Gee, Carol M; Watkinson, Adam C; Nicolazzo, Joseph A; Finnin, Barrie C

    2014-03-01

    Distribution profiles of topically applied drugs can be influenced by the presence of excipients. This study investigated the effect of common topical excipients on the simultaneous lateral diffusion and stratum corneum (SC) penetration of a model compound, ibuprofen (IBU) in humans. IBU solutions with and without propylene glycol (PG), polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG 200), and/or octisalate (OS) were dosed onto the forearm of participants. At various times, 10 "tape-strippings" were obtained with perforated concentric tapes and analyzed for IBU concentration and SC protein mass. Complimentary in vitro permeation studies assessed the effect of excipients on the percutaneous absorption of IBU across human skin. Following in vivo application, IBU displayed a greater tendency for lateral diffusion when applied with OS, whereas IBU resisted lateral diffusion when dosed with PG and PEG 200. After 24 h, 25.3 ± 8.0% and 55.5 ± 18.6% of IBU was recovered from the SC in vivo with and without excipients, respectively. There was a twofold-to threefold enhancement in IBU flux in vitro when applied with excipients. The lower IBU recovery from the SC when applied with excipients may be attributed to the permeation enhancement effects of these excipients. The ability of IBU to laterally diffuse appears to be dependent on formulation excipients.

  18. Resonances and energy trapping in AT-cut quartz resonators operating with fast shear modes driven by lateral electric fields produced by surface electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tingfeng; Wang, Ji; Du, Jianke; Yang, Jiashi

    2015-05-01

    We analyze coupled thickness-shear and extensional vibrations of a piezoelectric resonator of AT-cut quartz. Different from most of the AT-cut quartz resonators studied in the literature which are based on the slow shear mode excited by a thickness electric field, the resonator in this paper operates with the fast shear mode driven by a lateral electric field produced by a pair of electrodes on the top surface of the resonator. Mindlin's first-order theory of piezoelectric plates is used. Dispersion relations of the relevant waves in unelectroded and electroded plates are presented and compared. The motional capacitance, resonant frequencies and mode shapes near resonances are obtained from an electrically forced vibration analysis. Trapped modes without vibration near the resonator edges are identified. The effects of various structural parameters on energy trapping are examined and the mechanisms are discussed. The results can provide important bases for the parameters design of new resonators operating with the fast shear mode with new excitation schemes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Axially symmetric /sup 31/P NMR line shapes with selective excitation in the presence of lateral diffusion on a curved surface

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, D.W.; Boylan, J.G.; Cole, B.R.

    1987-10-22

    An NMR pulse sequence which is useful for the study of phospholipid diffusion in cellular membranes is presented. The sequence involves selective excitation with a DANTE pulse train followed by an evolution interval during which diffusion effects are observable. A method is presented to simulate /sup 31/P NMR spectra which are obtain by use of the pulse sequence. The simulation treats the case in which molecules with axially symmetric line shapes undergo lateral diffusion on a curved surface. The Bloch equations, written for equally populated intervals on a sphere and modified by inclusion of jump model terms to account for the diffusion, were used for the calculations. Diffusion between adjacent intervals is given in terms of a correlation time tau/sub 2/, which is proportional to D/sub diff//r/sup 2/, where D/sub diff/ is the lateral diffusion coefficient and r is the radius of curvature. The resulting differential equations were solved by using eigenvalue problem techniques and applying appropriate boundary conditions to give complex FIDs, which were Fourier transformed to give the spectra. Normal spectra and spectra obtained by use of the special pulse sequence were simulated. By fitting a set of spectra for which the system is allowed to evolve for a variable time interval after DANTE excitation, they were able to estimate tau/sub 2/. Simulated spectra and experimental spectra of egg yolk lecithin vesicle samples were in excellent agreement.

  20. Comparison of Diffusion MRI Acquisition Protocols for the In Vivo Characterization of the Mouse Spinal Cord: Variability Analysis and Application to an Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Model.

    PubMed

    Figini, Matteo; Scotti, Alessandro; Marcuzzo, Stefania; Bonanno, Silvia; Padelli, Francesco; Moreno-Manzano, Victoria; García-Verdugo, José Manuel; Bernasconi, Pia; Mantegazza, Renato; Bruzzone, Maria Grazia; Zucca, Ileana

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dMRI) has relevant applications in the microstructural characterization of the spinal cord, especially in neurodegenerative diseases. Animal models have a pivotal role in the study of such diseases; however, in vivo spinal dMRI of small animals entails additional challenges that require a systematical investigation of acquisition parameters. The purpose of this study is to compare three acquisition protocols and identify the scanning parameters allowing a robust estimation of the main diffusion quantities and a good sensitivity to neurodegeneration in the mouse spinal cord. For all the protocols, the signal-to-noise and contrast-to noise ratios and the mean value and variability of Diffusion Tensor metrics were evaluated in healthy controls. For the estimation of fractional anisotropy less variability was provided by protocols with more diffusion directions, for the estimation of mean, axial and radial diffusivity by protocols with fewer diffusion directions and higher diffusion weighting. Intermediate features (12 directions, b = 1200 s/mm2) provided the overall minimum inter- and intra-subject variability in most cases. In order to test the diagnostic sensitivity of the protocols, 7 G93A-SOD1 mice (model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) at 10 and 17 weeks of age were scanned and the derived diffusion parameters compared with those estimated in age-matched healthy animals. The protocols with an intermediate or high number of diffusion directions provided the best differentiation between the two groups at week 17, whereas only few local significant differences were highlighted at week 10. According to our results, a dMRI protocol with an intermediate number of diffusion gradient directions and a relatively high diffusion weighting is optimal for spinal cord imaging. Further work is needed to confirm these results and for a finer tuning of acquisition parameters. Nevertheless, our findings could be important for the

  1. Comparison of Diffusion MRI Acquisition Protocols for the In Vivo Characterization of the Mouse Spinal Cord: Variability Analysis and Application to an Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Model

    PubMed Central

    Marcuzzo, Stefania; Bonanno, Silvia; Padelli, Francesco; Moreno-Manzano, Victoria; García-Verdugo, José Manuel; Bernasconi, Pia; Mantegazza, Renato; Bruzzone, Maria Grazia; Zucca, Ileana

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dMRI) has relevant applications in the microstructural characterization of the spinal cord, especially in neurodegenerative diseases. Animal models have a pivotal role in the study of such diseases; however, in vivo spinal dMRI of small animals entails additional challenges that require a systematical investigation of acquisition parameters. The purpose of this study is to compare three acquisition protocols and identify the scanning parameters allowing a robust estimation of the main diffusion quantities and a good sensitivity to neurodegeneration in the mouse spinal cord. For all the protocols, the signal-to-noise and contrast-to noise ratios and the mean value and variability of Diffusion Tensor metrics were evaluated in healthy controls. For the estimation of fractional anisotropy less variability was provided by protocols with more diffusion directions, for the estimation of mean, axial and radial diffusivity by protocols with fewer diffusion directions and higher diffusion weighting. Intermediate features (12 directions, b = 1200 s/mm2) provided the overall minimum inter- and intra-subject variability in most cases. In order to test the diagnostic sensitivity of the protocols, 7 G93A-SOD1 mice (model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) at 10 and 17 weeks of age were scanned and the derived diffusion parameters compared with those estimated in age-matched healthy animals. The protocols with an intermediate or high number of diffusion directions provided the best differentiation between the two groups at week 17, whereas only few local significant differences were highlighted at week 10. According to our results, a dMRI protocol with an intermediate number of diffusion gradient directions and a relatively high diffusion weighting is optimal for spinal cord imaging. Further work is needed to confirm these results and for a finer tuning of acquisition parameters. Nevertheless, our findings could be important for the

  2. The effect of electrolyte composition on the electroreduction of CO2 to CO on Ag based gas diffusion electrodes.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sumit; Lu, Xun; Ma, Sichao; Masel, Richard I; Kenis, Paul J A

    2016-03-14

    The electroreduction of CO2 to C1-C2 chemicals can be a potential strategy for utilizing CO2 as a carbon feedstock. In this work, we investigate the effect of electrolytes on the electroreduction of CO2 to CO on Ag based gas diffusion electrodes. Electrolyte concentration was found to play a major role in the process for the electrolytes (KOH, KCl, and KHCO3) studied here. Several fold improvements in partial current densities of CO (jCO) were observed on moving from 0.5 M to 3.0 M electrolyte solution independent of the nature of the anion. jCO values as high as 440 mA cm(-2) with an energy efficiency (EE) of ≈ 42% and 230 mA cm(-2) with EE ≈ 54% were observed when using 3.0 M KOH. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that both the charge transfer resistance (Rct) and the cell resistance (Rcell) decreased on moving from a 0.5 M to a 3.0 M KOH electrolyte. Anions were found to play an important role with respect to reducing the onset potential of CO in the order OH(-) (-0.13 V vs. RHE) < HCO3(-) (-0.46 V vs. RHE) < Cl(-) (-0.60 V vs. RHE). A decrease in Rct upon increasing electrolyte concentration and the effect of anions on the cathode can be explained by an interplay of different interactions in the electrical double layer that can either stabilize or destabilize the rate limiting CO2˙(-) radical. EMIM based ionic liquids and 1 : 2 choline Cl urea based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been used for CO2 capture but exhibit low conductivity. Here, we investigate if the addition of KCl to such solutions can improve conductivity and hence jCO. Electrolytes containing KCl in combination with EMIM Cl, choline Cl, or DESs showed a two to three fold improvement in jCO in comparison to those without KCl. Using such mixtures can be a strategy for integrating the process of CO2 capture with CO2 conversion.

  3. Multi-electrode laterally coupled distributed feedback InGaAsP/InP lasers: a prescription for longitudinal mode control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhsaien, Abdessamad; Dridi, Kais; Zhang, Jessica; Hall, Trevor J.

    2013-10-01

    Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs) enable photons as data carriers at a very high speed. PIC market opportunities call for reduced wafer dimensions, power consumption and cost as well as enhanced reliability. The PIC technology development must cater for the latter relentless traits. In particular, monolithic PICs are sought as they can integrate hundreds of components and functions onto a single chip. InGaAsP/InP laterally-coupled distributed feedback (LC-DFB) lasers stand as key enablers in the PIC technology thanks to the compelling advantages their embedded high-order surface-gratings have. The patterning of the spatial corrugation along the sidewalls of the LC-DFB ridge, has been established to make the epitaxial overgrowth unnecessary thereby reducing the cost and time of manufacturing, and ultimately increasing the yield. LC-DFBs boast a small footprint synonymous of enhanced monolithic integrate-ability. Nonetheless, LC-DFBs suffer from the adverse longitudinal spatial hole burning (LSHB) effects materialized by typically quite high threshold current levels. Indeed, the carrier density longitudinal gradient- responsible for modes contending for the available material gain in the cavity- may be alleviated somewhat by segmenting the LC-DFB electrode into two or three reasonably interspaced longitudinal sections. In this work we report on the realization and performance of various electrode partition configurations. At room temperature, the experimental characterization of many as-cleaved LC-DFB devices provides ample evidence of superior performance such as a narrow linewidth (less than 400 kHz), a wide wavelength tune-ability (over 4 nm) and a hop-free single mode emission (side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) exceeding 54dB).

  4. Influence of the electron cross-field diffusion in negative ion sources with the transverse magnetic field and the plasma-electrode bias

    SciTech Connect

    Kuppel, S.; Matsushita, D.; Hatayama, A.; Bacal, M.

    2010-02-15

    The physical mechanisms involved in the extraction of H{sup -} ions from the negative ion source are studied with a PIC 2D3V code. The effect of a weak magnetic field transverse to the extraction direction is taken into account, along with a variable bias voltage applied on the plasma electrode (PE). In addition to previous modeling works, the electron diffusion across the magnetic field is taken into account as a simple one-dimensional random-walk process. The results show that without PE bias, the value of the diffusion coefficient has a significant influence upon the value of the extracted H{sup -} current. However, the value of this coefficient does not affect qualitatively the mechanism leading to the peak of extracted H{sup -} ion current observed for an optimum value of the PE bias.

  5. Lateralization of the arcuate fasciculus and its differential correlation with reading ability between young learners and experienced readers: a diffusion tensor tractography study in a Chinese cohort.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Deqiang; Tan, Li-Hai; Siok, Wai-Ting; Zhou, Ke; Khong, Pek-Lan

    2011-12-01

    As Chinese reading engages a different neural network from alphabetic language reading, we investigate whether leftward lateralization of the arcuate fasciculus (AF), as observed in the Western population, is also present in the Chinese population and if it does, whether it is associated with better reading ability. Diffusion tensor tractography analysis on 75 Chinese subjects of three age groups (first graders, fourth graders, and college students) showed that 70-83% of them had leftward lateralization of the AF. The pattern of lateralization did not differ significantly among the three groups, suggesting that lateralization of the AF is formed at an early age and before one enters first grade. Among the first graders, who had just started to learn to read, subjects with strongly leftward lateralized AF scored significantly higher than those with other defined lateralization patterns in Chinese (P = 0.001) and English (P = 0.036) reading tasks. This association was not observed among the fourth graders and college students who were experienced Chinese readers. Among the fourth graders, females were found to obtain significantly higher Chinese (P = 0.033) and English reading scores than males (P = 0.002). Our study suggests a differential effect of leftward lateralization of the AF on reading ability at different stages of reading development in the Chinese population. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Assessing lateral flows and solute transport during floods in a conduit-flow-dominated karst system using the inverse problem for the advection-diffusion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cholet, Cybèle; Charlier, Jean-Baptiste; Moussa, Roger; Steinmann, Marc; Denimal, Sophie

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study is to present a framework that provides new ways to characterize the spatio-temporal variability of lateral exchanges for water flow and solute transport in a karst conduit network during flood events, treating both the diffusive wave equation and the advection-diffusion equation with the same mathematical approach, assuming uniform lateral flow and solute transport. A solution to the inverse problem for the advection-diffusion equations is then applied to data from two successive gauging stations to simulate flows and solute exchange dynamics after recharge. The study site is the karst conduit network of the Fourbanne aquifer in the French Jura Mountains, which includes two reaches characterizing the network from sinkhole to cave stream to the spring. The model is applied, after separation of the base from the flood components, on discharge and total dissolved solids (TDSs) in order to assess lateral flows and solute concentrations and compare them to help identify water origin. The results showed various lateral contributions in space - between the two reaches located in the unsaturated zone (R1), and in the zone that is both unsaturated and saturated (R2) - as well as in time, according to hydrological conditions. Globally, the two reaches show a distinct response to flood routing, with important lateral inflows on R1 and large outflows on R2. By combining these results with solute exchanges and the analysis of flood routing parameters distribution, we showed that lateral inflows on R1 are the addition of diffuse infiltration (observed whatever the hydrological conditions) and localized infiltration in the secondary conduit network (tributaries) in the unsaturated zone, except in extreme dry periods. On R2, despite inflows on the base component, lateral outflows are observed during floods. This pattern was attributed to the concept of reversal flows of conduit-matrix exchanges, inducing a complex water mixing effect in the saturated zone

  7. Effects of approach and injection volume on diffusion of mepivacaine hydrochloride during local analgesia of the deep branch of the lateral plantar nerve in horses.

    PubMed

    Claunch, Kevin M; Eggleston, Randy B; Baxter, Gary M

    2014-11-15

    To compare the effects of 2 approaches and 2 injection volumes on diffusion of mepivacaine hydrochloride for local analgesia of the deep branch of the lateral plantar nerve (DBLPN) in horses. Experimental study. 16 adult horses. Either 2 mL (low volume) or 8 mL (high volume) of mepivacaine hydrochloride-iohexol (50:50 mixture) was injected by means of 1 of 2 techniques to produce analgesia of the DBLPN. For technique 1, the needle was inserted 15 mm distal to the head of the fourth metatarsal bone and directed perpendicular to the limb. For technique 2, the needle was inserted 20 mm distal to the head of the fourth metatarsal bone and was directed in a proximodorsal direction. Lateromedial radiographs were obtained before and 5, 15, 30, and 60 minutes after injection. Radiographs were evaluated to determine the proximal and distal extent of diffusion of the contrast solution and presumably anesthetic agent and whether contrast agent appeared to be present in the tarsal sheath or tarsometatarsal joint. A high degree of variability in contrast solution diffusion was noted among injections. High-volume injections diffused significantly further proximally and distally than did low-volume injections. Contrast agent was documented within the tarsal sheath in 5 of 32 (16%) injections and within the tarsometatarsal joint in 2 of 32 (6%) injections. No significant difference was found for risk of inadvertent tarsal sheath or tarsometatarsal joint injection between the 2 techniques or the 2 volumes of anesthetic used. Mepivacaine diffused significantly further distally with technique 1 than with technique 2 but diffused significantly further proximally with technique 2 than with technique 1. For both techniques, diffusion in the distal but not the proximal direction significantly increased over time. Results indicated that the proximal and distal diffusion of the mepivacaine-iohexol solution was quite variable following either DBLPN nerve block technique.

  8. Enhanced performance of polybenzimidazole-based high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell with gas diffusion electrodes prepared by automatic catalyst spraying under irradiation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Huaneng; Pasupathi, Sivakumar; Bladergroen, Bernard Jan; Linkov, Vladimir; Pollet, Bruno G.

    2013-11-01

    Gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) prepared by a novel automatic catalyst spraying under irradiation (ACSUI) technique are investigated for improving the performance of phosphoric acid (PA)-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The physical properties of the GDEs are characterized by pore size distribution and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical properties of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with the GDEs are evaluated and analyzed by polarization curve, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemistry impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Effects of PTFE binder content, PA impregnation and heat treatment on the GDEs are investigated to determine the optimum performance of the single cell. At ambient pressure and 160 °C, the maximum power density can reach 0.61 W cm-2, and the current density at 0.6 V is up to 0.38 A cm-2, with H2/air and a platinum loading of 0.5 mg cm-2 on both electrodes. The MEA with the GDEs shows good stability for fuel cell operating in a short term durability test.

  9. Highly efficient electro-generation of hydrogen peroxide using NCNT/NF/CNT air diffusion electrode for electro-Fenton degradation of p-nitrophenol.

    PubMed

    Tang, Q; Wang, D; Yao, D M; Yang, C W; Sun, Y C

    2016-01-01

    To promote the in situ generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in electro-Fenton system, a new air diffusion electrode (ADE) was put forward in the present work using N-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes (NCNT) as the catalyst layer, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) as the diffusion layer, and nickel foam (NF) as the supporting material, respectively. The catalyst layer in ADE was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Then the performances of H2O2 accumulation and p-nitrophenol (p-NP) degradation with the electrode (NCNT/NF/CNT ADE) were investigated. The experimental results showed that H2O2 accumulation on the NCNT/NF/CNT ADE was greatly improved by the presence of N doping, and H2O2 accumulation concentration could reach 307 mg L(-1) after 120 min at the current intensity of 100 mA. Moreover, the NCNT/NF/CNT ADE presented more effective performance on p-NP degradation than the CNT/NF/CNT ADE or the NF ADE. p-NP of initial 50 mg L(-1) could be almost completely removed after 30 min, and the total organic carbon removal efficiency reached 62.61% after 120 min when 0.4 mM Fe(2+) was added into the system. The repeatability test suggested that the stability of the NCNT/NF/CNT ADE was very good.

  10. Study on electrochemical oxidation behaviors and the diffusion mechanism of hydroquinone at pre-anodized carbon paste electrode by cyclic voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Linjin; Wang, Zhenhui; Li, Quanmin

    2012-01-21

    A functional pre-anodized carbon paste electrode (PACPE) was constructed by using successive cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical oxidation behaviors of hydroquinone (HQ) were carefully investigated by various electrochemical techniques. The diffusion mechanism of HQ has been put forward for the first time. The driving force for the HQ transport towards anode not only related to the concentration diffusion but also depended on the transport of H(+) in the feed phase along a concentration gradient towards the cathode. The results indicated that the PACPE exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of HQ. Compared with the bare carbon paste electrode, the oxidation and reduction peak separation (ΔE(p)) of HQ at the PACPE has been decreased from 578 to 83 mV. Under the optimum conditions, the oxidation peak current was linear with HQ concentration in the range of 4 × 10(-7) to 1.0 × 10(-4) M with the linear correlation coefficient of 0.9986. The detection limit was 1.05 × 10(-7) M. This method can be successfully applied to the determination of HQ in wastewater.

  11. A MoO2 sheet as a promising electrode material: ultrafast Li-diffusion and astonishing Li-storage capacity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yungang; Geng, Cheng

    2017-03-10

    The potential of MoO2 crystal as an electrode material is reported, and nanostructural MoO2 systems, including nanoparticles, nanospheres, nanobelts and nanowires, were synthesized and proved to be advanced electrode materials. A two-dimensional (2D) geometric structure represents an extreme of surface-to-volume ratio, and thus is more suitable as an electrode material in general. Stimulated by the recent fabrication of 2D MoO2, we adopted an ab initio molecular dynamics simulation and density functional theory calculation to study the stability and electrochemical properties of a MoO2 sheet. Identified by a phonon dispersion curve and potential energy curve calculations, the MoO2 sheet proved to be dynamically and thermally stable. After lithiation, similar to most promising 2D structures, we found that a Li atom can strongly adsorb on a MoO2 sheet, and the lithiated MoO2 sheet presented excellent metallic properties. Note that, compared with most promising 2D structures, we unexpectedly revealed that the diffusion barrier of the Li atom on the MoO2 sheet was much lower and the storage capacity of the MoO2 sheet was much larger. The calculated energy barrier for the diffusion of Li on the MoO2 sheet was only 75 meV, and, due to multilayer adsorption, the theoretical capacity of the MoO2 sheet can reach up to 2513 mA h g(-1). Benefiting from general properties, such as strong Li-binding and excellent conductivity, and unique phenomena, such as ultrafast diffusion capacity and astonishing storage capacity, we highlight a new promising electrode material for the Li-ion battery.

  12. Language Laterality in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Controls: A Functional, Volumetric, and Diffusion Tensor MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Knaus, Tracey A.; Silver, Andrew M.; Kennedy, Meaghan; Lindgren, Kristen A.; Dominick, Kelli C.; Siegel, Jeremy; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Language and communication deficits are among the core features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reduced or reversed asymmetry of language has been found in a number of disorders, including ASD. Studies of healthy adults have found an association between language laterality and anatomical measures but this has not been systematically investigated in ASD. The goal of this study was to examine differences in gray matter volume of perisylvian language regions, connections between language regions, and language abilities in individuals with typical left lateralized language compared to those with atypical (bilateral or right) asymmetry of language functions. 14 adolescent boys with ASD and 20 typically developing adolescent boys participated, including equal numbers of left- and right-handed individuals in each group. Participants with typical left lateralized language activation had smaller frontal language region volume and higher fractional anisotropy of the arcuate fasciculus compared to the group with atypical language laterality, across both ASD and control participants. The group with typical language asymmetry included the most right-handed controls and fewest left-handers with ASD. Atypical language laterality was more prevalent in the ASD than control group. These findings support an association between laterality of language function and language region anatomy. They also suggest anatomical differences may be more associated with variation in language laterality than specifically with ASD. Language laterality therefore may provide a novel way of subdividing samples, resulting in more homogenous groups for research into genetic and neurocognitive foundations of developmental disorders. PMID:20031197

  13. Language laterality in autism spectrum disorder and typical controls: a functional, volumetric, and diffusion tensor MRI study.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Tracey A; Silver, Andrew M; Kennedy, Meaghan; Lindgren, Kristen A; Dominick, Kelli C; Siegel, Jeremy; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2010-02-01

    Language and communication deficits are among the core features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reduced or reversed asymmetry of language has been found in a number of disorders, including ASD. Studies of healthy adults have found an association between language laterality and anatomical measures but this has not been systematically investigated in ASD. The goal of this study was to examine differences in gray matter volume of perisylvian language regions, connections between language regions, and language abilities in individuals with typical left lateralized language compared to those with atypical (bilateral or right) asymmetry of language functions. Fourteen adolescent boys with ASD and 20 typically developing adolescent boys participated, including equal numbers of left- and right-handed individuals in each group. Participants with typical left lateralized language activation had smaller frontal language region volume and higher fractional anisotropy of the arcuate fasciculus compared to the group with atypical language laterality, across both ASD and control participants. The group with typical language asymmetry included the most right-handed controls and fewest left-handers with ASD. Atypical language laterality was more prevalent in the ASD than control group. These findings support an association between laterality of language function and language region anatomy. They also suggest anatomical differences may be more associated with variation in language laterality than specifically with ASD. Language laterality therefore may provide a novel way of subdividing samples, resulting in more homogenous groups for research into genetic and neurocognitive foundations of developmental disorders. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of temperature, cholesterol content, and antioxidant structure on the mobility of vitamin E constituents in biomembrane models studied by laterally diffusion-controlled fluorescence quenching.

    PubMed

    Sonnen, Andreas F-P; Bakirci, Huseyin; Netscher, Thomas; Nau, Werner M

    2005-11-09

    Kinetic parameters relevant for the antioxidant activity of the vitamin E constituents (alpha, beta, gamma, and delta homologues of tocopherols and tocotrienols) and of an amphiphilic vitamin C derivative, l-ascorbyl 6-palmitate, were determined. Fluorescence quenching experiments of 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene in homogeneous acetonitrile-water mixtures afforded reactivity trends in terms of intermolecular quenching rate constants, while the quenching of Fluorazophore-L in liposomes provided the lateral diffusion coefficients relevant for understanding their biological activity in membranes. The reactivity in homogeneous solution was not influenced by the nature of the isoprenoid tail (tocopherol versus tocotrienol), but was dependent on the methylation pattern. The resulting order (alpha > beta = gamma > delta) was found to be in line with their reactivities toward peroxyl radicals as well as the phenolic O-H bond dissociation energies. The mutual lateral diffusion coefficient in POPC liposomes was the same, within error, for different tocopherols and tocotrienols (D(L) = (1.6 +/- 0.2) x 10(-7) cm(2) s(-1)). l-Ascorbyl 6-palmitate exhibited a reactivity similar to that of delta-tocopherol in homogeneous solution, but displayed a 1 order of magnitude lower fluorescence quenching efficiency in liposomes than the vitamin E constituents. Temperature effects on the laterally diffusion-controlled fluorescence quenching were large, with activation energies of 44 +/- 6 kJ mol(-1). The addition of cholesterol (0-30%) to POPC liposomes resulted only in slightly reduced diffusion coefficients. The combined results demonstrate that Fluorazophore-L can provide important physicochemical parameters for the understanding of antioxidant activity in biological environments.

  15. Evaluation of diffusion coefficient of thiocholine in enzyme-loaded polypyrrole composite film through different methods and electrode polarization.

    PubMed

    Gogoi, Sudarshan; Borah, Himadri; Dutta, Rekha R; Puzari, Panchanan

    2015-04-02

    In this work, the diffusion of thiocholine ion into an enzyme-loaded polypyrrole film was evaluated by different methods, and the results were compared to identify the most suitable method. The enzyme-loaded polypyrrole film was coated with a thin layer of gelatin and gluteraldehyde so as to prevent enzyme leaching. Diffusion coefficients under normal and prepolarized conditions were calculated by five different methods, namely, the Cottrell method, the method of Peerce and Bard, the theoretical impedance model, the electrochemically stimulated conformational relaxation (ESCR) method, and the direct impedance measurement method. The theoretical model of Vortynstev was used to calculate the parameters from the impedance spectra using simplex technique in MATLAB. The results indicate that under normal unpolarized condition the ESCR method gives a diffusion coefficient close to that given by Vortynstev method, but under polarized conditions the Cottrell method can provide a better value of diffusion coefficient than ESCR. The diffusion coefficient of thiocholine in PPy composite film from an electrolytic background of phosphate buffer of pH 7.4 was found to be 1.00 × 10(-8) cm(2) s(-1) based on Vortynstev method. The mechanism of thiocholine diffusion into the positively charged/polarized matrix is attributed to be through the formation of a dinegative ion between thiocholine and phosphate anion via electrostatic attraction.

  16. Anomalous output characteristic shift for the n-type lateral diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor with floating P-top layer

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Siyang; Zhang, Chunwei; Sun, Weifeng; Su, Wei; Wang, Shaorong; Ma, Shulang; Huang, Yu

    2014-04-14

    Anomalous output characteristic shift of the n-type lateral diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor with floating P-top layer is investigated. It shows that the linear drain current has obvious decrease when the output characteristic of fresh device is measured for two consecutive times. The charge pumping experiments demonstrate that the decrease is not from hot-carrier degradation. The reduction of cross section area for the current flowing, which results from the squeezing of the depletion region surrounding the P-top layer, is responsible for the shift. Consequently, the current capability of this special device should be evaluated by the second measured output characteristic.

  17. Language Laterality in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Controls: A Functional, Volumetric, and Diffusion Tensor MRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaus, Tracey A.; Silver, Andrew M.; Kennedy, Meaghan; Lindgren, Kristen A.; Dominick, Kelli C.; Siegel, Jeremy; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Language and communication deficits are among the core features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reduced or reversed asymmetry of language has been found in a number of disorders, including ASD. Studies of healthy adults have found an association between language laterality and anatomical measures but this has not been systematically…

  18. Language Laterality in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Controls: A Functional, Volumetric, and Diffusion Tensor MRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaus, Tracey A.; Silver, Andrew M.; Kennedy, Meaghan; Lindgren, Kristen A.; Dominick, Kelli C.; Siegel, Jeremy; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Language and communication deficits are among the core features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reduced or reversed asymmetry of language has been found in a number of disorders, including ASD. Studies of healthy adults have found an association between language laterality and anatomical measures but this has not been systematically…

  19. Nod factors and a diffusible factor from arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi stimulate lateral root formation in Medicago truncatula via the DMI1/DMI2 signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Oláh, Boglárka; Brière, Christian; Bécard, Guillaume; Dénarié, Jean; Gough, Clare

    2005-10-01

    Legumes form two different types of intracellular root symbioses, with fungi and bacteria, resulting in arbuscular mycorrhiza and nitrogen-fixing nodules, respectively. Rhizobial signalling molecules, called Nod factors, play a key role in establishing the rhizobium-legume association and genes have been identified in Medicago truncatula that control a Nod factor signalling pathway leading to nodulation. Three of these genes, the so-called DMI1, DMI2 and DMI3 genes, are also required for formation of mycorrhiza, indicating that the symbiotic pathways activated by both the bacterial and the fungal symbionts share common steps. To analyse possible cross-talk between these pathways we have studied the effect of treatment with Nod factors on mycorrhization in M. truncatula. We show that Nod factors increase mycorrhizal colonization and stimulate lateral root formation. The stimulation of lateral root formation by Nod factors requires both the same structural features of Nod factors and the same plant genes (NFP, DMI1, DMI2, DMI3 and NSP1) that are required for other Nod factor-induced symbiotic responses such as early nodulin gene induction and cortical cell division. A diffusible factor from arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was also found to stimulate lateral root formation, while three root pathogens did not have the same effect. Lateral root formation induced by fungal signal(s) was found to require the DMI1 and DMI2 genes, but not DMI3. The idea that this diffusible fungal factor might correspond to a previously hypothesized mycorrhizal signal, the 'Myc factor', is discussed.

  20. Reduced structural integrity and functional lateralization of the dorsal language pathway correlate with hallucinations in schizophrenia: a combined diffusion spectrum imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chen-Hao; Hwang, Tzung-Jeng; Chen, Pin-Jane; Chou, Tai-Li; Hsu, Yung-Chin; Liu, Chih-Min; Wang, Hsiao-Lan; Chen, Chung-Ming; Hua, Mau-Sun; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac

    2014-12-30

    Recent studies suggest that structural and functional alterations of the language network are associated with auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) in schizophrenia. However, the ways in which the underlying structure and function of the network are altered and how these alterations are related to each other remain unclear. To elucidate this, we used diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) to reconstruct the dorsal and ventral pathways and employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a semantic task to obtain information about the functional activation in the corresponding regions in 18 patients with schizophrenia and 18 matched controls. The results demonstrated decreased structural integrity in the left ventral, right ventral and right dorsal tracts, and decreased functional lateralization of the dorsal pathway in schizophrenia. There was a positive correlation between the microstructural integrity of the right dorsal pathway and the functional lateralization of the dorsal pathway in patients with schizophrenia. Additionally, both functional lateralization of the dorsal pathway and microstructural integrity of the right dorsal pathway were negatively correlated with the scores of the delusion/hallucination symptom dimension. Our results suggest that impaired structural integrity of the right dorsal pathway is related to the reduction of functional lateralization of the dorsal pathway, and these alterations may aggravate AVHs in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Voltammetric determination of trace amounts of diacetyl at a mercury meniscus modified silver solid amalgam electrode following gas-diffusion microextraction.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Rui M; Gonçalves, Luís M; Vyskočil, Vlastimil; Rodrigues, José A

    2017-07-01

    A new approach was developed for the determination of trace amounts of diacetyl in food products using gas-diffusion microextraction (GDME) and subsequent detection by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) at a mercury meniscus modified silver solid amalgam electrode (m-AgSAE). Diacetyl is a vicinal diketone responsible for the buttery aroma in many fermented foods and beverages. Its determination is important not only for evaluation of the final product quality (note of mention: health related concerns were associated with continuous diacetyl exposure) but also to monitor fermentation. GDME, a technique combining gas-diffusion and microextraction, particularly aimed to volatile and semi-volatile analytes, seemed the best way to selective extract diacetyl. A solution of 0.05% o-phenylenediamine (OPDA) prepared in a Britton-Robinson buffer (pH 5.0) was chosen as the extracting solution. This solution simultaneously extracts, pre-concentrates and derivatizes diacetyl to 2,3-dimethylquinoxaline (DMQ), enhancing the extraction selectivity and making the analyte electroactive. After finding the optimum conditions for the extraction process (10min at 60°C with 1.0mL of OPDA at pH 5.0), the DPV measurements at the m-AgSAE were conducted with a scan rate of 7mVs(-1), a modulation amplitude of 50mV and a modulation time of 100ms. Under these conditions, the resulting DMQ could be easily measured at a potential of -0.6V vs. Ag|AgCl (3molL(-1) KCl). The amalgam electrode keeps the advantages of classic mercury electrodes, like high sensitivity, while being environmentally friendly. The GDME/m-AgSAE produced suitable method features for the determination of low amounts of diacetyl (as DMQ) in alcoholic beverages, and in fact, to the best of our knowledge, the limit of quantification of 0.18µgL(-1) is one of the lowest reported in literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Li + ion diffusion in Li 4Ti 5O 12 thin film electrode prepared by PVP sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rho, Young Ho; Kanamura, Kiyoshi

    2004-06-01

    Li 4Ti 5O 12 thin films for rechargeable lithium batteries were prepared by a sol-gel method with poly(vinylpyrrolidone). Interfacial properties of lithium insertion into Li 4Ti 5O 12 thin film were examined by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and potentiostatic intermittent titration technique (PITT). Redox peaks in CV were very sharp even at a fast scan rate of 50 mV s -1, indicating that Li 4Ti 5O 12 thin film had a fast electrochemical response, and that an apparent chemical diffusion coefficient of Li + ion was estimated to be 6.8×10 -11 cm 2 s -1 from a dependence of peak current on sweep rates. From EIS, it can be seen that Li + ions become more mobile at 1.55 V vs. Li/Li +, corresponding to a two-phase region, and the chemical diffusion coefficients of Li + ion ranged from 10 -10 to 10 -12 cm 2 s -1 at various potentials. The chemical diffusion coefficients of Li + ion in Li 4Ti 5O 12 were also estimated from PITT. They were in a range of 10 -11-10 -12 cm 2 s -1.

  3. In situ growth of ceramic quantum dots in polyaniline host via water vapor flow diffusion as potential electrode materials for energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mombrú, Dominique; Romero, Mariano; Faccio, Ricardo; Castiglioni, Jorge; Mombrú, Alvaro W.

    2017-06-01

    In situ preparation of polyaniline-ceramic nanocomposites has recently demonstrated that the electrical properties are highly improved with respect to the typical ex situ preparations. In this report, we present for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the in situ growth of titanium oxide quantum dots in polyaniline host via water vapor flow diffusion as an easily adaptable route to prepare other ceramic-polymer nanocomposites. The main relevance of this method is the possibility to prepare ceramic quantum dots from alkoxide precursors using water vapor flow into any hydrophobic polymer host and to achieve good homogeneity and size-control. In addition, we perform full characterization by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, small angle X-ray scattering, thermogravimetric and calorimetric analyses, confocal Raman microscopy and impedance spectroscopy analyses. The presence of the polymer host and interparticle Coulomb repulsive interactions was evaluated as an influence for the formation of 3-8 nm equally-sized quantum dots independently of the concentration. The polyaniline polaron population showed an increase for the quantum dots diluted regime and the suppression at the concentrated regime, ascribed to the formation of chemical bonds at the interface, which was confirmed by theoretical simulations. In agreement with the previous observation, the in situ growth of ceramic quantum dots in polyaniline host via water vapor flow diffusion could be very useful as a novel approach to prepare electrode materials for energy conversion and storage applications.

  4. Bifunctional catalytic electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cisar, Alan (Inventor); Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor); Clarke, Eric (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to an oxygen electrode for a unitized regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell and the unitized regenerative fuel cell having the oxygen electrode. The oxygen electrode contains components electrocatalytically active for the evolution of oxygen from water and the reduction of oxygen to water, and has a structure that supports the flow of both water and gases between the catalytically active surface and a flow field or electrode chamber for bulk flow of the fluids. The electrode has an electrocatalyst layer and a diffusion backing layer interspersed with hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. The diffusion backing layer consists of a metal core having gas diffusion structures bonded to the metal core.

  5. Lateral Diffusion of Proteins on Supported Lipid Bilayers: Additive Friction of Synaptotagmin 7 C2A–C2B Tandem Domains

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The synaptotagmin (Syt) family of proteins contains tandem C2 domains, C2A and C2B, which bind membranes in the presence of Ca2+ to trigger vesicle fusion during exocytosis. Despite recent progress, the role and extent of interdomain interactions between C2A and C2B in membrane binding remain unclear. To test whether the two domains interact on a planar lipid bilayer (i.e., experience thermodynamic interdomain contacts), diffusion of fluorescent-tagged C2A, C2B, and C2AB domains from human Syt7 was measured using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with single-particle tracking. The C2AB tandem exhibits a lateral diffusion constant approximately half the value of the isolated single domains and does not change when additional residues are engineered into the C2A–C2B linker. This is the expected result if C2A and C2B are separated when membrane-bound; theory predicts that C2AB diffusion would be faster if the two domains were close enough together to have interdomain contact. Stopped-flow measurements of membrane dissociation kinetics further support an absence of interdomain interactions, as dissociation kinetics of the C2AB tandem remain unchanged when rigid or flexible linker extensions are included. Together, the results suggest that the two C2 domains of Syt7 bind independently to planar membranes, in contrast to reported interdomain cooperativity in Syt1. PMID:25437758

  6. Apparent diffusion coefficient measurements of bilateral kidneys at 3 T MRI: effects of age, gender, and laterality in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Suo, S-T; Cao, M-Q; Ding, Y-Z; Yao, Q-Y; Wu, G-Y; Xu, J-R

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the effects of age and gender on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements of bilateral kidneys at 3 T MRI, and compare the ADC values of left and right kidneys. In all, 137 healthy participants (mean age 42.8 ± 14.7 years; age range 16-75 years) comprising 68 male and 69 female participants were enrolled. Three Tesla echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of bilateral kidneys was performed and ADC values were measured in the cortex, medulla, and whole parenchyma. Pearson correlation analysis and linear regression were performed to determine the associations between the ADC values in each region and age. Effects of age and gender on ADC values were analysed using two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA). The paired-samples t-test was established to compare the ADC values between left and right kidneys. ADC values were significantly higher in the young group (≤50 years) than in the old group (>50 years), and correlated inversely with the age in all regions. Male participants had higher ADC values than female participants in all regions except left medulla. Two-factor ANOVA of age × gender showed no significant interactions between the variables age and gender were found. No significant differences in ADC values between left and right kidneys were observed. Renal ADC values are age- and gender-dependent, and show no significant difference between left and right kidneys. Age- and gender-related effects should be taken into consideration in future renal DWI studies when using normal ADC values from health controls. Copyright © 2014 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Barriers for lateral diffusion of transferrin receptor in the plasma membrane as characterized by receptor dragging by laser tweezers: fence versus tether

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Our previous results indicated that the plasma membrane of cultured normal rat kidney fibroblastic cell is compartmentalized for diffusion of receptor molecules, and that long-range diffusion is the result of successive intercompartmental jumps (Sako, Y. and Kusumi, A. 1994. J. Cell Biol. 125:1251-1264). In the present study, we characterized the properties of intercompartmental boundaries by tagging transferrin receptor (TR) with either 210-nm-phi latex or 40-nm-phi colloidal gold particles, and by dragging the particle-TR complexes laterally along the plasma membrane using laser tweezers. Approximately 90% of the TR- particle complexes showed confined-type diffusion with a microscopic diffusion coefficient (Dmicro) of approximately 10(-9) cm2/s and could be dragged past the intercompartmental boundaries in their path by laser tweezers at a trapping force of 0.25 pN for gold-tagged TR and 0.8 pN for latex-tagged TR. At lower dragging forces between 0.05 and 0.1 pN, particle-TR complexes tended to escape from the laser trap at the boundaries, and such escape occurred in both the forward and backward directions of dragging. The average distance dragged was half of the confined distance of TR, which further indicates that particle- TR complexes escape at the compartment boundaries. Since variation in the particle size (40 and 210 nm, the particles are on the extracellular surface of the plasma membrane) hardly affects the diffusion rate and behavior of the particle-TR complexes at the compartment boundaries, and since treatment with cytochalasin D or vinblastin affects the movements of TR (Sako and Kusumi as cited above), argument has been advanced that the boundaries are present in the cytoplasmic domain. Rebound of the particle-TR complexes when they escape from the laser tweezers at the compartment boundaries suggests that the boundaries are elastic structures. These results are consistent with the proposal that the compartment boundaries consist of membrane

  8. Boron diffusion in magnetic tunnel junctions with MgO (001) barriers and CoFeB electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt, H.; Rode, K.; Oguz, K.; Coey, J. M. D.; Boese, M.; Faulkner, C. C.

    2010-06-28

    Boron diffusion out of the CoFeB layers in model systems with thick CoFeB and MgO layers grown by radiofrequency sputtering or electron-beam evaporation and in MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) is probed after annealing by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy. Successive interfaces are exposed by ion milling the stacks, layer by layer, in the XPS system. Despite the presence of thick CoFeB and a high annealing temperature of 400 deg. C, we found no boron in the MgO or at the MgO/CoFe interfaces. Similar results are also obtained in the MTJs.

  9. Reduced Integrity of Right Lateralized White Matter in Patients with Primary Insomnia: A Diffusion-Tensor Imaging Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Shumei; Tian, Junzhang; Bauer, Andreas; Huang, Ruiwang; Wen, Hua; Li, Meng; Wang, Tianyue; Xia, Likun; Jiang, Guihua

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To analyze the integrity of white matter (WM) tracts in primary insomnia patients and provide better characterization of abnormal WM integrity and its relationship with disease duration and clinical features of primary insomnia. Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by the ethics committee of the Guangdong No. 2 Provincial People's Hospital. Tract-based spatial statistics were used to compare changes in diffusion parameters of WM tracts from 23 primary insomnia patients and 30 healthy control (HC) participants, and the accuracy of these changes in distinguishing insomnia patients from HC participants was evaluated. Voxel-wise statistics across subjects was performed by using a 5000-permutation set with family-wise error correction (family-wise error, P < .05). Multiple regressions were used to analyze the associations between the abnormal fractional anisotropy (FA) in WM with disease duration, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, insomnia severity index, self-rating anxiety scale, and the self-rating depression scale in primary insomnia. Characteristics for abnormal WM were also investigated in tract-level analyses. Results Primary insomnia patients had lower FA values mainly in the right anterior limb of the internal capsule, right posterior limb of the internal capsule, right anterior corona radiata, right superior corona radiata, right superior longitudinal fasciculus, body of the corpus callosum, and right thalamus (P < .05, family-wise error correction). The receiver operating characteristic areas for the seven regions were acceptable (range, 0.60-0.74; 60%-74%). Multiple regression models showed abnormal FA values in the thalamus and body corpus callosum were associated with the disease duration, self-rating depression scale, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores. Tract-level analysis suggested that the reduced FA values might be related to greater radial diffusivity. Conclusion This study showed that WM tracts related to regulation

  10. Modulation of manual preference induced by lateralized practice diffuses over distinct motor tasks: age-related effects

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Rosana M.; Coelho, Daniel B.; Teixeira, Luis A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of use of the non-preferred left hand to practice different motor tasks on manual preference in children and adults. Manual preference was evaluated before, immediately after and 20 days following practice. Evaluation was made with tasks of distinct levels of complexity requiring reaching and manipulation of cards at different eccentricities in the workspace. Results showed that left hand use in adults induced increased preference of that hand at the central position when performing the simple task, while left hand use by the children induced increased preference of the left hand at the rightmost positions in the performance of the complex task. These effects were retained over the rest period following practice. Kinematic analysis showed that left hand use during practice did not lead to modification of intermanual performance asymmetry. These results indicate that modulation of manual preference was a consequence of higher frequency of use of the left hand during practice rather than of change in motor performance. Findings presented here support the conceptualization that confidence on successful performance when using a particular limb generates a bias in hand selection, which diffuses over distinct motor tasks. PMID:25538656

  11. Impact of drift gap, N-layer, and deep N+ sinker on breakdown voltage and saturation current of lateral double-diffused metal oxide semiconductor transistor.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kunsik; Won, Taeyoung

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss on the optimal design of a High-Side n-channel Lateral Double-diffused Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (LDMOSFET) whose breakdown voltage is over 100 V with 0.35 microm Bipolar-CMOS-DMOS (BCD) process. The proposed nLDMOSFET has been fabricated and tested in order to confirm the features of a deep N+ sinker and a gap of between the drift region (DEEP N-WELL) and the center of the source. The surface is implanted by the N-layer for high breakdown voltage and simultaneously the low specific on-resistance. The computer simulation of the proposed High-Side LDMOS exhibits BVdss of 115 V and Ron,sp of as low as 2.20 m ohms cm2, which is consistent with the experimental results.

  12. An Analytical Model of Surface Electric Field Distributions in Ultrahigh-Voltage Buried P-Top Lateral Diffused Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gene Sheu,; Shao-Ming Yang,; Yi-Fong Chang,; Shyh Chang Tsaur,

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, we present an analytical model for determining surface electric field distributions in buried P-top lateral-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor (LDMOS) devices with dual conduction and an enhanced dual conduction layer. The model is based on Poisson’s two-dimensional solution and gives closed-form solutions for the surface potential and electric field distributions as functions of structural parameters and drain bias. All analytical results are verified by simulation results obtained from MEDICI and previous experimental data, confirming the validity of the model. In addition, a novel 800 V diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor (DMOS) with enhanced dual conduction paths above a buried P-top device is also presented. The enhanced dual conduction paths reduce on-state resistance by 22% as compared with state-of-the-art dual conduction paths and thin silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technologies. An Ron of less than 125 mΩ cm2 is achieved with 809 and 782 V off- and on-states breakdown voltages, respectively, at Vg = 5 V.

  13. An Analytical Model of Surface Electric Field Distributions in Ultrahigh-Voltage Buried P-Top Lateral Diffused Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheu, Gene; Yang, Shao-Ming; Chang, Yi-Fong; Tsaur, Shyh Chang

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, we present an analytical model for determining surface electric field distributions in buried P-top lateral-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor (LDMOS) devices with dual conduction and an enhanced dual conduction layer. The model is based on Poisson's two-dimensional solution and gives closed-form solutions for the surface potential and electric field distributions as functions of structural parameters and drain bias. All analytical results are verified by simulation results obtained from MEDICI and previous experimental data, confirming the validity of the model. In addition, a novel 800 V diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor (DMOS) with enhanced dual conduction paths above a buried P-top device is also presented. The enhanced dual conduction paths reduce on-state resistance by 22% as compared with state-of-the-art dual conduction paths and thin silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technologies. An Ron of less than 125 mΩ cm2 is achieved with 809 and 782 V off- and on-states breakdown voltages, respectively, at Vg = 5 V.

  14. Relationship between phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate synthesis, membrane organization, and lateral diffusion of PI4KIIalpha at the trans-Golgi network.

    PubMed

    Minogue, Shane; Chu, K M Emily; Westover, Emily J; Covey, Douglas F; Hsuan, J Justin; Waugh, Mark G

    2010-08-01

    Type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIalpha (PI4KIIalpha) is the dominant phosphatidylinositol kinase activity measured in mammalian cells and has important functions in intracellular vesicular trafficking. Recently PI4KIIalpha has been shown to have important roles in neuronal survival and tumorigenesis. This study focuses on the relationship between membrane cholesterol levels, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) synthesis, and PI4KIIalpha mobility. Enzyme kinetic measurements, sterol substitution studies, and membrane fragmentation analyses all revealed that cholesterol regulates PI4KIIalpha activity indirectly through effects on membrane structure. In particular, we found that cholesterol levels determined the distribution of PI4KIIalpha to biophysically distinct membrane domains. Imaging studies on cells expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)-tagged PI4KIIalpha demonstrated that cholesterol depletion resulted in morphological changes to the juxtanuclear membrane pool of the enzyme. Lateral membrane diffusion of eGFP-PI4KIIalpha was assessed by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments, which revealed the existence of both mobile and immobile pools of the enzyme. Sterol depletion decreased the size of the mobile pool of PI4KIIalpha. Further measurements revealed that the reduction in the mobile fraction of PI4KIIalpha correlated with a loss of trans-Golgi network (TGN) membrane connectivity. We conclude that cholesterol modulates PI4P synthesis through effects on membrane organization and enzyme diffusion.

  15. In vivo diffusion characteristics following perineural injection of the deep branch of the lateral plantar nerve with mepivacaine or iohexol in horses.

    PubMed

    Contino, E K; King, M R; Valdés-Martínez, A; McIlwraith, C W

    2015-03-01

    Hindlimb proximal suspensory desmopathy is a common injury of sport horses but diagnosis can be difficult because diagnostic analgesia of the region lacks specificity. Perineural analgesia of the deep branch of the lateral plantar nerve (DBLPN) has been proposed as a more specific method of isolating pain of the proximal aspect of the suspensory ligament but the technique has not been evaluated in vivo. To determine the extent of diffusion of contrast medium and mepivacaine following DBLPN analgesia using a single-needle injection technique and to determine if there is inadvertent involvement of the tarsal sheath and/or tarsometatarsal (TMT) joint using this technique. In vivo experimental study. Perineural injection of the DBLPN was performed in 16 limbs with 3 ml of either mepivacaine hydrochloride or positive contrast medium. Contrast medium-injected limbs were radiographed 5, 15, and 30 min post injection and diffusion characteristics were described. In mepivacaine-injected limbs, synovial fluid from the TMT joint was obtained 10 and 20 min post injection and mepivacaine concentrations were analysed. At 5, 15 and 30 min post injection, the contrast medium extended, on average, 19.6, 20.6 and 21.0 mm proximal and 38.0, 43.5 and 51.9 mm distal to the injection site, respectively. Three of 8 (37.5%) limbs had evidence of contrast medium in the tarsal sheath. Two of 8 (25%) limbs had mepivacaine concentrations within the TMT joint sufficient to produce analgesia (>300 mg/l) at 10 min post injection. Contrast medium diffused further in a distal direction than in a proximal direction. Analgesia of the DBLPN can result in inadvertent involvement of the tarsal sheath and/or TMT joint. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  16. An assembled poly-4-vinyl pyridine and cellulose triacetate membrane and Bi2S3 electrode for photoelectrochemical diffusion of metallic ions.

    PubMed

    Amara, Mourad; Arous, Omar; Smail, Fatima; Kerdjoudj, Hacène; Trari, Mohamed; Bouguelia, Aissa

    2009-09-30

    The transport phenomena across ion exchange membrane may be enhanced by applying various strengths inside or outside the system. The electrical current, generated by n-type semiconductor, is used to catalyse the separation of metal ions. The cation exchange membrane located between the two compartments allows both the separation and concentration of M(n+) (Ag(+), Cu(2+), Pb(2+) and Ni(2+)). The flows of M(n+) from the aqueous solution to-and inside the membrane are monitored by the determination of the fluxes and the potentials. In this study, the four cations are investigated alone or in quaternary systems. From photoelectrochemical measurement, the gap of Bi(2)S(3) is found to be indirect at 1.65 eV. The shape of photocurrent potential curve and the negative flat band potential (-1.02 V(SCE)) give evidence of n-type character. The conduction band (-1.25 V(SCE)) yields thermodynamically M(2+) photoreduction and catalyzes the diffusion process. The photoelectrode Bi(2)S(3) makes the flux twofold greater than that observed in the dark. In all cases, the potential of the electrode M(2+)/M in the feed compartment increases until a maximal value, reached at approximately 100 min above which it undergoes a diminution. The membrane is more selective to Cu(2+) and this selectivity decreases in the quaternary system.

  17. Probabilistic diffusion tractography: a potential tool to assess the rate of disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ciccarelli, O; Behrens, T E; Altmann, D R; Orrell, R W; Howard, R S; Johansen-Berg, H; Miller, D H; Matthews, P M; Thompson, A J

    2006-07-01

    The goal of probabilistic tractography is to obtain a connectivity index along a white matter pathway that reflects fibre organization and is sensitive to pathological abnormalities contributing to disability. Here, we present the development of voxel-based connectivity measures along the tractography-derived corticospinal tract (CST). We investigated whether these connectivity measures are different in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and correlate with the rate of disease progression. We also investigated whether fractional anisotropy (FA), which reflects directional coherence of fibre tracts, is reduced in the CST of ALS patients and relates to disease progression rate. Thirteen patients with probable or definite ALS and 19 healthy subjects were studied. The probabilistic tractography algorithm segmented the bilateral CST, along which FA and connectivity values were obtained. To take into account the asymmetric distribution of connectivity values, two summary statistic measures that focused on voxels with higher connectivity values were selected and then used in the analysis, together with the mean connectivity and the mean FA. To complete the analysis, the same summary measures for FA were included. Differences in all these indices between patients with moderate or rapid disease progression rate and controls were investigated using linear regression, adjusted for age and white matter fraction. The association between FA or connectivity in the CST and the disease progression rate was assessed using linear regression. Patients with a rapid disease progression rate had significantly lower summary connectivity measures than controls in the left CST, but there was only a borderline statistical difference in mean connectivity. Patients with rapid progression had a significantly lower mean FA, and any other FA measure, in both CSTs than controls. When only patients were considered, strong associations between the rate of disease progression and all

  18. Electrodes for microfluidic applications

    DOEpatents

    Crocker, Robert W.; Harnett, Cindy K.; Rognlien, Judith L.

    2006-08-22

    An electrode device for high pressure applications. These electrodes, designed to withstand pressure of greater than 10,000 psi, are adapted for use in microfluidic devices that employ electrokinetic or electrophoretic flow. The electrode is composed, generally, of an outer electrically insulating tubular body having a porous ceramic frit material disposed in one end of the outer body. The pores of the porous ceramic material are filled with an ion conductive polymer resin. A conductive material situated on the upper surface of the porous ceramic frit material and, thus isolated from direct contact with the electrolyte, forms a gas diffusion electrode. A metal current collector, in contact with the gas diffusion electrode, provides connection to a voltage source.

  19. A New-Type of Long-Range Restructuring of Ordered Metal Surfaces Induced by Lateral Adsorbate Interactions: Iodide on AU(110) Electrodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    for example, to examine structural and dynamic aspects of potential-induced surface reconstructions[1-3] and adsorbate phase transitions[4]. In...restructuring, which is triggered in the presence of close- packed iodide adsorption at suitably high electrode potentials, can be reversed by returning...separated by monoatomic steps. The direction of the (110) gold rows is evident in the atomic- resolution image of a uniform terrace, shown in Fig. 2A

  20. Influence of the long-chain/short-chain amphiphile ratio on lateral diffusion of PEG-lipid in magnetically aligned lipid bilayers as measured via pulsed-field-gradient NMR.

    PubMed

    Soong, Ronald; Macdonald, Peter M

    2005-09-01

    Lateral diffusion measurements of polyethylene glycol(PEG)-lipid incorporated into magnetically aligned lipid bilayers, composed of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) plus dihexanoyl phosphatidylcholine (DHPC) plus 1 mol % (relative to DMPC) dimyristoyl phosphatidylethanolamine-n-[methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000] (DMPE-PEG 2000), were performed using stimulated-echo pulsed-field-gradient proton ((1)H) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The DMPE-PEG 2000 (1 mol %, 35 degrees C) lateral diffusion coefficient D varied directly with the mole fraction of DMPC, X(DMPC) = q/(1+q) where q = DMPC/DHPC molar ratio, decreasing progressively from D = 1.65 x 10(-11) m(2) s(-1) at q approximately 4.7 to D = 0.65 x 10(-11) m(2) s(-1) at q approximately 2.5. Possible sources of this dependence, including orientational disorder, obstruction, and PEG-lipid sequestration, were simulated using, respectively, a diffusion-in-a-cone model, percolation theory, and a two-phase PEG distribution model. Orientational disorder alone was not capable of reproducing the observations, but in combination with either obstruction or PEG-lipid two-phase distribution models did so satisfactorily. A combination of all three models yielded the most reasonable fit to the observed dependence of lateral diffusion on q. These same effects would be expected to influence lateral diffusion of any bilayer-associating species in such systems.

  1. Influence of the Long-Chain/Short-Chain Amphiphile Ratio on Lateral Diffusion of PEG-Lipid in Magnetically Aligned Lipid Bilayers as Measured via Pulsed-Field-Gradient NMR

    PubMed Central

    Soong, Ronald; Macdonald, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    Lateral diffusion measurements of polyethylene glycol(PEG)-lipid incorporated into magnetically aligned lipid bilayers, composed of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) plus dihexanoyl phosphatidylcholine (DHPC) plus 1 mol % (relative to DMPC) dimyristoyl phosphatidylethanolamine-n-[methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000] (DMPE-PEG 2000), were performed using stimulated-echo pulsed-field-gradient proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The DMPE-PEG 2000 (1 mol %, 35°C) lateral diffusion coefficient D varied directly with the mole fraction of DMPC, XDMPC = q/(1+q) where q = DMPC/DHPC molar ratio, decreasing progressively from D = 1.65 × 10−11 m2 s−1 at q ≈ 4.7 to D = 0.65 × 10−11 m2 s−1 at q ≈ 2.5. Possible sources of this dependence, including orientational disorder, obstruction, and PEG-lipid sequestration, were simulated using, respectively, a diffusion-in-a-cone model, percolation theory, and a two-phase PEG distribution model. Orientational disorder alone was not capable of reproducing the observations, but in combination with either obstruction or PEG-lipid two-phase distribution models did so satisfactorily. A combination of all three models yielded the most reasonable fit to the observed dependence of lateral diffusion on q. These same effects would be expected to influence lateral diffusion of any bilayer-associating species in such systems. PMID:15994903

  2. Electrode Migration in Patients with Perimodiolar Cochlear Implant Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Mittmann, Philipp; Rademacher, Grit; Mutze, Sven; Ernst, Arneborg; Todt, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Migration of a cochlear implant electrode is a hitherto uncommon complication. So far, array migration has only been observed in lateral wall electrodes. Between 1999 and 2014, a total of 27 patients received bilateral perimodiolar electrode arrays at our institution. The insertion depth angle was estimated on the initial postoperative scans and compared with the insertion depth angle of the postoperative scans performed after contralateral cochlear implantation. Seven (25.93%) patients were found to have an electrode array migration of more than 15°. Electrode migration in perimodiolar electrodes seems to be less frequent and to occur to a lower extent than in lateral wall electrodes. Electrode migration was clinically asymptomatic in all cases. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Hydroxyl radical generation in electro-Fenton process with a gas-diffusion electrode: Linkages with electro-chemical generation of hydrogen peroxide and iron redox cycle.

    PubMed

    Yatagai, Tomonori; Ohkawa, Yoshiko; Kubo, Daichi; Kawase, Yoshinori

    2017-01-02

    The hydroxyl radical generation in an electro-Fenton process with a gas-diffusion electrode which is strongly linked with electro-chemical generation of hydrogen peroxide and iron redox cycle was studied. The OH radical generation subsequent to electro-chemical generations of H2O2 was examined under the constant potential in the range of Fe(2+) dosage from 0 to 1.0 mM. The amount of generated OH radical initially increased and gradually decreased after the maximum was reached. The initial rate of OH radical generation increased for the Fe(2+) dosage <0.25 mM and at higher Fe(2+) dosages remained constant. At higher Fe(2+) dosages the precipitation of Fe might inhibit the enhancement of OH radical generation. The experiments for decolorization and total organic carbon (TOC) removal of azo-dye Orange II by the electro-Fenton process were conducted and the quick decolorization and slow TOC removal of Orange II were found. To quantify the linkages of OH radical generation with dynamic behaviors of electro-chemically generated H2O2 and iron redox cycle and to investigate effects of OH radical generation on the decolorization and TOC removal of Orange II, novel reaction kinetic models were developed. The proposed models could satisfactory clarify the linkages of OH radical generation with electro-chemically generated H2O2 and iron redox cycle and simulate the decolorization and TOC removal of Orange II by the electro-Fenton process.

  4. Diagnosis of lateral pelvic lymph node metastasis of T1 lower rectal cancer using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging: A case report with lateral pelvic lymph node dissection of lower rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    OGAWA, SHIMPEI; ITABASHI, MICHIO; HIROSAWA, TOMOICHIRO; HASHIMOTO, TAKUZO; BAMBA, YOSHIKO; OKAMOTO, TAKAHIRO

    2016-01-01

    The present study presented a 35-year-old female patient in whom fecal occult blood was detected in a medical check-up. Colonoscopy revealed a superficial elevated-type tumor with central depression in the lower rectum. The tumor was diagnosed as T1 deep invasive cancer. No swollen lymph nodes or distant metastasis were found on computed tomography or [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography with computed tomography. However, a swollen right lateral pelvic lymph node (LPLN; short axis 4 mm) was revealed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This lymph node exhibited high intensity on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), suggesting metastasis. Low anterior resection, regional lymph node dissection and right LPLN dissection (LPLD) were performed. Histological analysis revealed metastasis in the right LPLN, as suggested by the high DWI intensity. The indication for LPLD in the current Japanese guidelines is based on the tumor location and depth of invasion (≥T3), however, not on the status of LPLN metastasis in pre-operative evaluation. The present case was cT1, which is not included in this indication. DWI is sensitive for the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis of colorectal cancer, although inflammation-induced swelling of lymph nodes in advanced rectal cancer may cause a false-positive result, which is uncommon in T1 cases. Therefore, an LPLN with a high intensity DWI signal in T1 cases is likely to be metastasis-positive. Pre-operative DWI-MRI may be useful for identifying LPLN metastasis when planning the treatment strategy in these cases. The present study suggested reinvestigation of the indication for LPLD with inclusion of LPLN status on pre-operative imaging. PMID:27123286

  5. Novel Bulk Silicon Lateral Double-Diffused Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors Using Step Thickness Technology in Drift Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shi; Guo, Yufeng; Yao, Jiafei; Hua, Tingting; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Changchun; Ji, Xincun

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a novel bulk silicon lateral double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (LDMOS) using step thickness technology in drift region is proposed. The drift region is divided into several zones with different thicknesses increasing from source to drain. Owing to modulation effect of the step thickness drift region, new additional electric field peaks are introduced in the drift region, thus leading to the reduction of the surface electric fields and the increase of the breakdown voltage. The influences of device parameters on breakdown voltage and specific on-resistance are investigated using semiconductor device simulator, MEDICI. The simulation results indicate that an 18.4% increase in the breakdown voltage and a 42.5% increase in the figure of merit (FOM) are obtained in the novel device in comparison with the conventional LDMOS. Furthermore, single step can lead to approximately ideal FOM in comparison with the multiple steps, so that can obtain a suitable trade-off between fabrication costs and performance.

  6. Positive electrodes of nickel-cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wabner, D. W.; Kandler, L.; Krienke, W.

    1985-01-01

    Ni hydroxide sintered electrodes which are filled electrochemically are superior to chemically treated electrodes. In the electrochemical process, the hydroxide grows on the Ni grains and possesses a well-defined porous structure. Diffusion and conducting mechanisms are therefore facilitated.

  7. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.; Vissers, D.R.

    1981-12-30

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell are described. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  8. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo; Vissers, Donald R.

    1983-01-01

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  9. Lateral Diffusion, Function, and Expression of the Slow Channel Congenital Myasthenia Syndrome αC418W Nicotinic Receptor Mutation with Changes in Lipid Raft Components*

    PubMed Central

    Oyola-Cintrón, Jessica; Caballero-Rivera, Daniel; Ballester, Leomar; Baéz-Pagán, Carlos A.; Martínez, Hernán L.; Vélez-Arroyo, Karla P.; Quesada, Orestes; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Lipid rafts, specialized membrane microdomains in the plasma membrane rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids, are hot spots for a number of important cellular processes. The novel nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) mutation αC418W, the first lipid-exposed mutation identified in a patient that causes slow channel congenital myasthenia syndrome was shown to be cholesterol-sensitive and to accumulate in microdomains rich in the membrane raft marker protein caveolin-1. The objective of this study is to gain insight into the mechanism by which lateral segregation into specialized raft membrane microdomains regulates the activable pool of nAChRs. We performed fluorescent recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), quantitative RT-PCR, and whole cell patch clamp recordings of GFP-encoding Mus musculus nAChRs transfected into HEK 293 cells to assess the role of cholesterol and caveolin-1 (CAV-1) in the diffusion, expression, and functionality of the nAChR (WT and αC418W). Our findings support the hypothesis that a cholesterol-sensitive nAChR might reside in specialized membrane microdomains that upon cholesterol depletion become disrupted and release the cholesterol-sensitive nAChRs to the pool of activable receptors. In addition, our results in HEK 293 cells show an interdependence between CAV-1 and αC418W that could confer end plates rich in αC418W nAChRs to a susceptibility to changes in cholesterol levels that could cause adverse drug reactions to cholesterol-lowering drugs such as statins. The current work suggests that the interplay between cholesterol and CAV-1 provides the molecular basis for modulating the function and dynamics of the cholesterol-sensitive αC418W nAChR. PMID:26354438

  10. Fabrication of conducting-filament-embedded indium tin oxide electrodes: application to lateral-type gallium nitride light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Dong; Kim, Kyeong Heon; Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Tae Geun

    2015-11-02

    A novel conducting filament (CF)-embedded indium tin oxide (ITO) film is fabricated using an electrical breakdown method. To assess the performance of this layer as an ohmic contact, it is applied to GaN (gallium nitride) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as a p-type electrode for comparison with typical GaN LEDs using metallic ITO. The operating voltage and output power of the LED with the CF embedded ITO are 3.93 V and 8.49 mW, respectively, at an injection current of 100 mA. This is comparable to the operating voltage and output power of the conventionally fabricated LEDs using metallic ITO (3.93 V and 8.43 mW). Moreover, the CF-ITO LED displays uniform and bright light emission indicating excellent current injection and spreading. These results suggest that the proposed method of forming ohmic contacts is at least as effective as the conventional method.

  11. A gold-gold oil microtrench electrode for liquid-liquid anion transfer voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Dale, Sara E C; Chan, Yohan; Bulman Page, Philip C; Barnes, Edward O; Compton, Richard G; Marken, Frank

    2013-07-01

    Two flat gold electrodes are placed vis-à-vis with an epoxy spacer layer that is etched out to give a ca. 100 μm-deep electrochemically active trench. A water-insoluble oil phase, here the redox system N,N-diethyl-N'N'-didodecyl-phenylenediamine (DDPD) in 4-(3-phenylpropyl)-pyridine (PPP), is immobilized into the trench to allow anion transfer upon oxidation of DDPD (oil) to DDP⁺ (oil). In "mono-potentiostatic mode" quantitative transfer/expulsion of anions into the trench oil phase occurs. However, in "bi-potentiostatic mode" feedback currents dominated by rapid plate-to-plate diffusion normal to the electrode surfaces are observed. Comparison of "normal" diffusion and "lateral" diffusion shows that the rate of diffusion-migration charge transport across the oil film is anion hydrophobicity dependent.

  12. Floating-diffusion electrometer with adjustable sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, John R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The effective capacitance of the floating diffusion in a floating-diffusion electrometer is modified to adjust electrometer sensitivity. This is done by changing the direct potential applied to a gate electrode proximate to the floating diffusion.

  13. Electrode compositions

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.; Fan, X.

    1998-10-27

    An electrode composition is described for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. The electrode composition contains an electrically active powder in a solid polymer and, as a dispersant, a C{sub 8}-C{sub 15} alkyl capped oligomer of a hexanoic acid that is electrochemically inert at 2.5--4.5 volts.

  14. Electrode compositions

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob; Fan, Xiyun

    1998-01-01

    An electrode composition for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. The electrode composition contains an electrically active powder in a solid polymer and, as a dispersant, a C.sub.8 -C.sub.15 alkyl capped oligomer of a hexanoic acid that is electrochemically inert at 2.5-4.5 volts.

  15. Magnetohydrodynamic electrode

    DOEpatents

    Boquist, Carl W.; Marchant, David D.

    1978-01-01

    A ceramic-metal composite suitable for use in a high-temperature environment consists of a refractory ceramic matrix containing 10 to 50 volume percent of a continuous high-temperature metal reinforcement. In a specific application of the composite, as an electrode in a magnetohydrodynamic generator, the one surface of the electrode which contacts the MHD fluid may have a layer of varying thickness of nonreinforced refractory ceramic for electrode temperature control. The side walls of the electrode may be coated with a refractory ceramic insulator. Also described is an electrode-insulator system for a MHD channel.

  16. The N-formyl methionyl peptide, formyl-methionyl-leucyl phenylalanine (fMLF) increases the lateral diffusion of complement receptor 1 (CR1/CD35) in human neutrophils; a causative role for oxidative metabolites?

    PubMed

    Rasmusson, B J; Carpentier, J L; Paccaud, J P; Magnusson, K E

    1996-10-01

    The effects of the N-formyl methionyl peptide, formyl-methionyl-leucyl phenylalanine (fMLF) on the lateral mobility of the complement receptor type 1 (CR1/CD35) in glass-adherent human neutrophils were investigated, using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and confocal microscopy (CSLM). It was found that addition of 0.1-1 microM fMLF increased the diffusion constant (D) of CR1/CD35 to 167-228% of controls. No effect was observed on the receptor distribution or the mobile fraction of receptors. The effect of fMLF on the lateral diffusion of CR1/CD35 could be totally inhibited by addition of pertussis toxon (PD, 250 ng/ml) or of the free radical scavenger enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, 2000 U/ml) and catalase (CAT, 200 U/ml), added together the results show that oxidative metabolites produced by neutrophils in response to fMLF can modulate CR1/CD35 diffusion, and indicate a regulatory role for oxygen radicals in phagocytosis.

  17. Age-dependence of the lateral diffusion coefficient of concanavalin-A receptors in the plasma membrane of ex vivo prepared brain cortical nerve cells of BN/BiRijHsd rats.

    PubMed

    Zs-Nagy, I; Tanaka, S; Kitani, K

    1999-01-01

    A new method has been developed for ex vivo preparation of brain cortical cells of BN/BiRijHsd rats to make them suitable for the measurement of the lateral diffusion coefficient of the membrane components by means of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). The method involves chopping the brain cortex into pieces of less than 1 mm. These parts are stained with a fluorescent label (e.g., concanavalin-A-fluorescein, Con-A-FL conjugate) and then gently pressed onto a microscope slide using the coverslip. In the resulting specimen, the largest cells of the cortex can be recognized in phase-contrast image, sufficiently stained by the label and ready for the FRAP measurement. The lateral diffusion coefficient of Con-A-receptor proteins (Dp) was measured in such brain cell preparations of 15 female rats in four age groups (5.6-31.8 months) and 11 males in three age groups (13.8-31.8 months). Highly significant negative, linear age correlation of Dp (R=-0.9958 in females, and -0.9956 in males) were found, the regression equations being D(p female) =(8.8311-0.1425 X)(-10) and D(p male)=(9.3240-0.1630 X)(-10) cm2/s, respectively, where X is age in months. The data confirm that the lateral mobility of plasma membrane proteins represents an important biomarker of cellular aging in the brain cortical cells of BN/BiRijHsd rats.

  18. Nanoparticle-electrode collision processes: Investigating the contact time required for the diffusion-controlled monolayer underpotential deposition on impacting nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutress, Ian J.; Rees, Neil V.; Zhou, Yi-Ge; Compton, Richard G.

    2011-09-01

    Recent work on faradaic processes occurring during thermal nanoparticle-electrode collisions contrasts significantly from analogous research using ultrasonically-driven microparticles, where no faradaic signals were found. It is suggested that this might be explained by the differences in both particle size and contact time. To investigate this, we present results from adapted Monte Carlo random walk simulations. Using the underpotential deposition of thallium onto silver nanoparticles as a model system, it is found that an estimated minimum contact time of ca. 10-4 s is required to deposit a complete monolayer (from a 10 mM solution) onto a nanoparticle of radius 45 nm.

  19. Activated transport in AMTEC electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.; Underwood, M. L.; O'Connor, D.; Kikkert, S.

    1992-01-01

    Transport of alkali, metal atoms through porous cathodes of alkali metal thermal-to-electric converter (AMTEC) cells is responsible for significant reducible losses in the electrical performance of these cells. Experimental evidence for activated transport of metal atoms at grain surfaces and boundaries within some AMTEC electrodes has been derived from temperature dependent studies as well as from analysis of the detailed frequency dependence of ac impedance results for other electrodes, including thin, mature molybdenum electrodes which exhibit transport dominated by free molecular flow of sodium gas at low frequencies or dc conditions. Activated surface transport will almost always exist in parallel with free molecular flow transport, and the process of alkali atom adsorption/desorption from the electrode surface will invariably be part of the transport process, and possibly a dominant part in some cases. The temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient of the alkali metal through the electrode in several cases provides an activation energy and preexponential, but at least two activated processes may be operative, and the activation parameters should be expected to depend on the alkali metal activity gradient that the electrode experiences. In the case of Pt/W/Mn electrodes operated for 2500 hours, limiting currents varied with electrode thickness, and the activation parameters could be assigned primarily to the surface/grain boundary diffusion process.

  20. Communication: Development of standing evanescent-wave fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and its application to the lateral diffusion of lipids in a supported lipid bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otosu, Takuhiro; Yamaguchi, Shoichi

    2017-07-01

    We present standing evanescent-wave fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (SEW-FCS). This technique utilizes the interference of two evanescent waves which generates a standing evanescent-wave. Fringe-pattern illumination created by a standing evanescent-wave enables us to measure the diffusion coefficients of molecules with a super-resolution corresponding to one fringe width. Because the fringe width can be reliably estimated by a simple procedure, utilization of fringes is beneficial to quantitatively analyze the slow diffusion of molecules in a supported lipid bilayer (SLB), a model biomembrane formed on a solid substrate, with the timescale relevant for reliable FCS analysis. Furthermore, comparison of the data between SEW-FCS and conventional total-internal reflection FCS, which can also be performed by the SEW-FCS instrument, effectively eliminates the artifact due to afterpulsing of the photodiode detector. The versatility of SEW-FCS is demonstrated by its application to various SLBs.

  1. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) replicase and movement protein function synergistically in facilitating TMV spread by lateral diffusion in the plasmodesmal desmotubule of Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Guenoune-Gelbart, Dana; Elbaum, Michael; Sagi, Guy; Levy, Amit; Epel, Bernard L

    2008-03-01

    Virus spread through plasmodesmata (Pd) is mediated by virus-encoded movement proteins (MPs) that modify Pd structure and function. The MP of Tobacco mosaic virus ((TMV)MP) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) integral membrane protein that binds viral RNA (vRNA), forming a vRNA:MP:ER complex. It has been hypothesized that (TMV)MP causes Pd to dilate, thus potentiating a cytoskeletal mediated sliding of the vRNA:MP:ER complex through Pd; in the absence of MP, by contrast, the ER cannot move through Pd. An alternate model proposes that cell-to-cell spread takes place by diffusion of the MP:vRNA complex in the ER membranes which traverse Pd. To test these models, we measured the effect of (TMV)MP and replicase expression on cell-to-cell spread of several green fluorescent protein-fused probes: a soluble cytoplasmic protein, two ER lumen proteins, and two ER membrane-bound proteins. Our data support the diffusion model in which a complex that includes ER-embedded MP, vRNA, and other components diffuses in the ER membrane within the Pd driven by the concentration gradient between an infected cell and adjacent noninfected cells. The data also suggest that the virus replicase and MP function together in altering Pd conductivity.

  2. Liquid electrode

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, Amy A.

    1994-01-01

    A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

  3. Management of Cochlear Implant Electrode Migration.

    PubMed

    Rader, Tobias; Baumann, Uwe; Stöver, Timo; Weissgerber, Tobias; Adel, Youssef; Leinung, Martin; Helbig, Silke

    2016-10-01

    The present study reviewed a cochlear implant (CI) patient population after surgery, which received a free-fitting electrode carrier designed for hearing preservation. The aim was to determine the rate of electrode migration of the CI electrodes and present clinical and surgical implications. Retrospective patient review. Tertiary referral university hospital. Two hundred seventy-eight patients implanted uni- or bilaterally with lateral wall electrodes designed for hearing preservation (358 implants). The control group was 323 patients implanted uni- or bilaterally with preformed perimodiolar electrodes (468 implants). Determination of CI electrode migration was conducted according to a clinical test protocol. Revision surgery was offered in confirmed patients of electrode migration. A bone groove was considered to improve the fixation of the electrode. Audiological testing including speech audiometry, subjective sound quality rating, and bilateral pitch comparison in bilateral patients, as well as radiological examinations, were conducted. Electrode migration was observed solely in patients implanted with lateral wall electrodes; 10 of 358 patients with free-fitting electrodes (2.8%) had electrode migration, which was successfully confirmed by the proposed clinical test protocol. Nine of the 10 confirmed patients underwent reinsertion surgery. Mean perception score decreased from 75.0% to 62.1% after electrode migration and recovered completely after reinsertion surgery. A flowchart to detect electrode migration was designed for clinical practice. Although electrode migration is a rare complication in CI surgery, long-term follow-up diagnostics should include a test protocol to detect electrode shifts of lateral wall electrode arrays. A reinsertion surgery should be conducted in confirmed patients to recover speech perception.

  4. Diffusion barriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolet, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    The choice of the metallic film for the contact to a semiconductor device is discussed. One way to try to stabilize a contact is by interposing a thin film of a material that has low diffusivity for the atoms in question. This thin film application is known as a diffusion barrier. Three types of barriers can be distinguished. The stuffed barrier derives its low atomic diffusivity to impurities that concentrate along the extended defects of a polycrystalline layer. Sacrificial barriers exploit the fact that some (elemental) thin films react in a laterally uniform and reproducible fashion. Sacrificial barriers have the advantage that the point of their failure is predictable. Passive barriers are those most closely approximating an ideal barrier. The most-studied case is that of sputtered TiN films. Stuffed barriers may be viewed as passive barriers whose low diffusivity material extends along the defects of the polycrystalline host.

  5. Origin, diffusion, and differentiation of Y-chromosome haplogroups E and J: inferences on the neolithization of Europe and later migratory events in the Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Semino, Ornella; Magri, Chiara; Benuzzi, Giorgia; Lin, Alice A; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Battaglia, Vincenza; Maccioni, Liliana; Triantaphyllidis, Costas; Shen, Peidong; Oefner, Peter J; Zhivotovsky, Lev A; King, Roy; Torroni, Antonio; Cavalli-Sforza, L Luca; Underhill, Peter A; Santachiara-Benerecetti, A Silvana

    2004-05-01

    The phylogeography of Y-chromosome haplogroups E (Hg E) and J (Hg J) was investigated in >2400 subjects from 29 populations, mainly from Europe and the Mediterranean area but also from Africa and Asia. The observed 501 Hg E and 445 Hg J samples were subtyped using 36 binary markers and eight microsatellite loci. Spatial patterns reveal that (1). the two sister clades, J-M267 and J-M172, are distributed differentially within the Near East, North Africa, and Europe; (2). J-M267 was spread by two temporally distinct migratory episodes, the most recent one probably associated with the diffusion of Arab people; (3). E-M81 is typical of Berbers, and its presence in Iberia and Sicily is due to recent gene flow from North Africa; (4). J-M172(xM12) distribution is consistent with a Levantine/Anatolian dispersal route to southeastern Europe and may reflect the spread of Anatolian farmers; and (5). E-M78 (for which microsatellite data suggest an eastern African origin) and, to a lesser extent, J-M12(M102) lineages would trace the subsequent diffusion of people from the southern Balkans to the west. A 7%-22% contribution of Y chromosomes from Greece to southern Italy was estimated by admixture analysis.

  6. Lifetimes of Electrodes for AMTEC Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, M. A.; Kisor, A.; Williams, R F.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; O'Connor, D.

    1994-01-01

    The lifetime of an AMTEC electrode depends on the rate of grain growth, which in turn depends on the surface self-diffusion coefficient of the electrode material under AMTEC operating conditions. Grain growth rates for molybdenum and platinum-tungsten alloy electrodes have been determined, and have been used to predict operating lifetimes of AMTEC electrodes. For lifetimes of 10 years of more, Mo may be used in AMTEC cells only at operating temperatures under 1100 K. Pt(sub 2.5)W electrodes may be used at much higher temperatures, up to 1300 K.

  7. Liquid electrode

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  8. Subdural Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Lesser, Ronald P.; Crone, Nathan E.; Webber, W.R.S.

    2010-01-01

    Subdural electrodes are frequently used to aid in the neurophysiological assessment of patients with intractable seizures. We review the indications for these, their uses for localizing epileptogenic regions and for localizing cortical regions supporting movement, sensation, and language. PMID:20573543

  9. Morphology Effect of Vertical Graphene on the High Performance of Supercapacitor Electrode.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Zou, Qionghui; Hsu, Hua Shao; Raina, Supil; Xu, Yuxi; Kang, Joyce B; Chen, Jun; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng; Kang, Weng P

    2016-03-23

    Graphene and its composites are widely investigated as supercapacitor electrodes due to their large specific surface area. However, the severe aggregation and disordered alignment of graphene sheets hamper the maximum utilization of its surface area. Here we report an optimized structure for supercapacitor electrode, i.e., the vertical graphene sheets, which have a vertical structure and open architecture for ion transport pathway. The effect of morphology and orientation of vertical graphene on the performance of supercapacitor is examined using a combination of model calculation and experimental study. Both results consistently demonstrate that the vertical graphene electrode has a much superior performance than that of lateral graphene electrode. Typically, the areal capacitances of a vertical graphene electrode reach 8.4 mF/cm(2) at scan rate of 100 mV/s; this is about 38% higher than that of a lateral graphene electrode and about 6 times higher than that of graphite paper. To further improve its performance, a MnO2 nanoflake layer is coated on the surface of graphene to provide a high pseudocapacitive contribution to the overall areal capacitance which increases to 500 mF/cm(2) at scan rate of 5 mV/s. The reasons for these significant improvements are studied in detail and are attributed to the fast ion diffusion and enhanced charge storage capacity. The microscopic manipulation of graphene electrode configuration could greatly improve its specific capacitance, and furthermore, boost the energy density of supercapacitor. Our results demonstrate that the vertical graphene electrode is more efficient and practical for the high performance energy storage device with high power and energy densities.

  10. Graphene based nanocomposite hybrid electrodes for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aphale, Ashish N.

    There is an unmet need to develop high performance energy storage systems (ESS), capable of storing energy from both renewable and non-renewable sources to meet the current energy crisis and depletion of non-renewable sources. Amongst many available ESS, supercapacitors (ECs) are the most promising because they exhibit a high charge/discharge rate and power density, along with a long cycle life. The possibility of exploring the use of atomically thin carbon allotropes like graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and electrically conducting polymers (ECPs) such as polypyrrole (PPy) has been studied as a high performance conducting electrodes in supercapacitor application. A novel templated sustainable nanocomposite electrode has been fabricated using cellulose extracted from Cladophora c. aegagropila algae as component of the assembled supercapacitor device which later has been transitioned to a unique template-less freestanding nanocomposite supercapacitor electrode. The specific capacitance of polypyrrole-graphene-cellulose nanocomposite as calculated from cyclic voltammetry curve is 91.5 F g -1 at the scan rate 50 m Vs-1 in the presence of 1M NaCl electrolyte. The open circuit voltage of the device with polypyrrole -graphene-cellulose electrode was found to be around 225 m V and that of the polypyrrole -cellulose device is only 53 m V without the presence of graphene in the nanocomposite electrode. Understanding the fundamentals by fabricating template nanocomposite electrode, it led to fabricate a unique nanocomposite template-less freestanding film which comprises of polypyrrole-graphene-CNT hybrid. Various experiments have been performed using different electrolytes such ascorbic acid, sodium sulfate and sulfuric acid in different scan rates. The specific capacitance of polypyrrole-graphene-CNT nanocomposite with 0.1 wt% of graphene-CNT, as calculated from cyclic voltammetry curve is 450 F g-1 at the scan rate 5 m V s-1. For the first time a nanofibrous membrane has

  11. Simultaneous measurement of Ca2+ in muscle with Ca electrodes and aequorin. Diffusible cytoplasmic constituent reduces Ca(2+)-independent luminescence of aequorin

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Estimates of cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were made essentially simultaneously in the same intact frog skeletal muscle fibers with aequorin and with Ca-selective microelectrodes. In healthy fibers under truly resting conditions [Ca2+]i was too low to be measured reliably with either technique. The calibration curves for both indicators were essentially flat in this range of [Ca2+], and the aequorin light signal was uniformly below the level to be expected in the total absence of Ca2+. When [Ca2+]i had been raised to a stable level below the threshold for contracture by increasing [K+]o to 12.5 mM, [Ca2+]i was 38 nM according to aequorin and 59 nM according to the Ca-selective microelectrodes. These values are not significantly different. Our estimates of [Ca2+]i are lower than most others obtained with microelectrodes, probably because the presence of aequorin in the cells allowed us to detect damaging microelectrode impalements that otherwise we would have had no reason to reject. The observation that the light emission from aequorin-injected fibers in normal Ringer solution was below the level expected from the Ca(2+)-independent luminescence of aequorin in vitro was investigated further, with the conclusion that the myoplasm contains a diffusible macromolecule (between 10 and 30 kD) that interacts with aequorin to reduce light emission in the absence of Ca2+. PMID:1783896

  12. Activated transport in AMTEC electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M.A.; Underwood, M.L.; O`Connor, D.; Kikkert, S.

    1992-07-01

    Transport of alkali metal atoms through porous cathodes of alkali metal thermal-to-electric converter (AMTEC) cells is responsible for significant, reducible losses in the electrical performance of these cells. Experimental evidence for activated transport of metal atoms at grain surfaces and boundaries within some AMTEC electrodes has been derived from temperature dependent studies as well as from analysis of the detailed frequency dependence of ac impedance results for other electrodes, including thin, mature molybdenum electrodes which exhibit transport dominated by free molecular flow of sodium gas at low frequencies or dc conditions. Activated surface transport will almost always exist in parallel with free molecular flow transport, and the process of alkali atom adsorption/desorption from the electrode surface will invariably be part of the transport process, and possibly a dominant part in some cases. Little can be learned about the detailed mass transport process from the ac impedance or current voltage curves of an electrode at one set of operating parameters, because the transport process includes a number of important physical parameters that are not all uniquely determined by one experiment. The temperature dependence of diffusion coefficient of the alkali metal through the electrode in several cases provides an activation energy and pre-exponential, but at least two activated processes may be operative, and the activation parameters should be expected to depend on the alkali metal activity gradient that the electrode experiences. In the case of Pt/W/Mn electrodes operated for 2500 hours, limiting currents varied with electrode thickness, and the activation parameters could be assigned primarily to the surface/grain boundary diffusion process. 17 refs.

  13. Activated transport in AMTEC electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M.A.; Underwood, M.L.; O'Connor, D.; Kikkert, S.

    1992-01-01

    Transport of alkali metal atoms through porous cathodes of alkali metal thermal-to-electric converter (AMTEC) cells is responsible for significant, reducible losses in the electrical performance of these cells. Experimental evidence for activated transport of metal atoms at grain surfaces and boundaries within some AMTEC electrodes has been derived from temperature dependent studies as well as from analysis of the detailed frequency dependence of ac impedance results for other electrodes, including thin, mature molybdenum electrodes which exhibit transport dominated by free molecular flow of sodium gas at low frequencies or dc conditions. Activated surface transport will almost always exist in parallel with free molecular flow transport, and the process of alkali atom adsorption/desorption from the electrode surface will invariably be part of the transport process, and possibly a dominant part in some cases. Little can be learned about the detailed mass transport process from the ac impedance or current voltage curves of an electrode at one set of operating parameters, because the transport process includes a number of important physical parameters that are not all uniquely determined by one experiment. The temperature dependence of diffusion coefficient of the alkali metal through the electrode in several cases provides an activation energy and pre-exponential, but at least two activated processes may be operative, and the activation parameters should be expected to depend on the alkali metal activity gradient that the electrode experiences. In the case of Pt/W/Mn electrodes operated for 2500 hours, limiting currents varied with electrode thickness, and the activation parameters could be assigned primarily to the surface/grain boundary diffusion process. 17 refs.

  14. High temperature behavior of multi-region direct current current-voltage spectroscopy and relationship with shallow-trench-isolation-based high-voltage laterally diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yandong; Zhang, Ganggang; Zhang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    With the process compatibility with the mainstream standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS), shallow trench isolation (STI) based laterally diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor (LDMOS) devices have become popular for its better tradeoff between breakdown voltage and performance, especially for smart power applications. A multi-region direct current current-voltage (MR-DCIV) technique with spectroscopic features was demonstrated to map the interface state generation in the channel, accumulation and STI drift regions. High temperature behavior of MR-DCIV spectroscopy was analyzed and a physical model was verified. Degradation of STI-based LDMOS transistors under high temperature reverse bias (HTRB) stress is experimentally studied by MR-DCIV spectroscopy. The impact of interface state location on device electrical characteristics was investigated. Our results show that the major contribution to HTRB degradation, in term of the on-resistance degradation, was attributed to interface state generation under STI drift region.

  15. Kinetic analysis of the activation of transducin by photoexcited rhodopsin. Influence of the lateral diffusion of transducin and competition of guanosine diphosphate and guanosine triphosphate for the nucleotide site.

    PubMed

    Bruckert, F; Chabre, M; Vuong, T M

    1992-09-01

    The activation of transducin (T) by photoexcited rhodopsin (R*) is kinetically dissected within the framework of Michaelis-Menten enzymology, taking transducin as substrate of the enzyme R*. The light scattering "release" signal (Vuong, T.M., M. Chabre, and L. Stryer, 1984, Nature (Lond.). 311:659-661) was used to monitor the kinetics of transducin activation at 20 degrees C. In addition, the influence of nonuniform distributions of R* on these activation kinetics is also explored. Sinusoidal patterns of R* were created with interference fringes from two crossed laser beams. Two characteristic times were extracted from the Michaelis-Menten analysis: t(form), the diffusion-related time needed to form the enzyme-substrate R*-transducin is 0.25 +/- 0.1 ms, and T(cat), the time taken by R* to perform the chemistry of catalysis on transducin is 1.2 +/- 0.2 ms, in the absence of added guanosine diphosphate (GDP) and at saturating levels of guanosine triphosphate (GTP). With t(form) being but 20% of the total activation time t(form) + t(cat), transducin activation by R* is not limited by lateral diffusion. This is further borne out by the observation that uniform and sinusoidal patterns of R* elicited release signals of indistinguishable kinetics. When (GDP) = (GTP) = 500 microM, t(cat) is lengthened twofold. As the in vivo GDP and GTP levels are comparable, the exchange of nucleotides may well be the rate-limiting process.

  16. Thin film fuel cell electrodes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asher, W. J.; Batzold, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    Earlier work shows that fuel cell electrodes prepared by sputtering thin films of platinum on porous vycor substrates avoid diffusion limitations even at high current densities. The presented study shows that the specific activity of sputtered platinum is not unusually high. Performance limitations are found to be controlled by physical processes, even at low loadings. Catalyst activity is strongly influenced by platinum sputtering parameters, which seemingly change the surface area of the catalyst layer. The use of porous nickel as a substrate shows that pore size of the substrate is an important parameter. It is noted that electrode performance increases with increasing loading for catalyst layers up to two microns thick, thus showing the physical properties of the sputtered layer to be different from platinum foil. Electrode performance is also sensitive to changing differential pressure across the electrode. The application of sputtered catalyst layers to fuel cell matrices for the purpose of obtaining thin total cells appears feasible.

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic electrode

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, David D.; Killpatrick, Don H.

    1978-01-01

    An electrode capable of withstanding high temperatures and suitable for use as a current collector in the channel of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator consists of a sintered powdered metal base portion, the upper surface of the base being coated with a first layer of nickel aluminide, an intermediate layer of a mixture of nickel aluminide - refractory ceramic on the first layer and a third or outer layer of a refractory ceramic material on the intermediate layer. The sintered powdered metal base resists spalling by the ceramic coatings and permits greater electrode compliance to thermal shock. The density of the powdered metal base can be varied to allow optimization of the thermal conductivity of the electrode and prevent excess heat loss from the channel.

  18. Cermet electrode

    DOEpatents

    Maskalick, Nicholas J.

    1988-08-30

    Disclosed is a cermet electrode consisting of metal particles of nickel, cobalt, iron, or alloys or mixtures thereof immobilized by zirconia stabilized in cubic form which contains discrete deposits of about 0.1 to about 5% by weight of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof. The solid oxide electrode can be made by covering a substrate with particles of nickel, cobalt, iron, or mixtures thereof, growing a stabilized zirconia solid oxide skeleton around the particles thereby immobilizing them, contacting the skeleton with a compound of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof, and heating the skeleton to a temperature of at least 500.degree. C. The electrode can also be made by preparing a slurry of nickel, cobalt, iron, or mixture and a compound of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof, depositing the slurry on a substrate, heating the slurry to dryness, and growing a stabilized zirconia skeleton around the metal particles.

  19. Photoelectrochemical electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Rembaum, A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The surface of a moderate band gap semiconductor such as p-type molybdenum sulfide is modified to contain an adherent film of charge mediating ionene polymer containing an electroactive unit such as bipyridimium. Electron transport between the electrode and the mediator film is favorable and photocorrosion and recombination processes are suppressed. Incorporation of particles of catalyst such as platinum within the film provides a reduction in overvoltage. The polymer film is readily deposited on the electrode surface and can be rendered stable by ionic or addition crosslinking. Catalyst can be predispersed in the polymer film or a salt can be impregnated into the film and reduced therein.

  20. Graphene-based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Jiguang; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Jun; Xu, Wu; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Deyu

    2014-05-24

    Some batteries can exhibit greatly improved performance by utilizing electrodes having randomly arranged graphene nanosheets forming a network of channels defining continuous flow paths through the electrode. The network of channels can provide a diffusion pathway for the liquid electrolyte and/or for reactant gases. Metal-air batteries can benefit from such electrodes. In particular Li-air batteries show extremely high capacities, wherein the network of channels allow oxygen to diffuse through the electrode and mesopores in the electrode can store discharge products.

  1. Microvoltammetric Electrodes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-25

    Microvoltammetric Electrodes, J. 0. Howell, R. M. Wightman, Anal. Chem., 56, 524-529 (1984). 2. Flow Rate Independent Amperometric Cell , W. L. Caudill...Electroanal. Chem., 182, 113-122 (1985). C. List of all publications 1. Flow Rate Independent Amperometric Cell , W. L. Caudill, J. 0. Howell, R. M

  2. Carbon nanotube macrofilm-based nanocomposite electrodes for energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zeyuan

    , Ni)) with CNT macofilms as high performance anodes for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries and as catalysts for oxygen reduction/evolution (ORR/OER). All MxOy-CNT macrofilm nanocomposites inherit the high specific capacity and cycling stability for lithium-ion batteries. NiO/SWNT and Co3O4/SWNT (200 °C) have their specialized high catalytic activities for ORR and OER in alkaline solutions, respectively. NiO/SWNT also exhibits an excellent electrochemical performance in asymmetric supercapacitors with a high power and energy density. Experimental measurements on electrochemical kinetics such as potentiostatic/galvanostatic intermittent titration techniques (PITT/GITT) are depended to understand the underlying improved Li+ diffusion behavior of nanocomposites. Critical effects of the film thickness have been identified. The CNT macrofilm with a thickness that is comparable to the characteristic diffusion length of 300~500 nm enables the nanocomposite with the highest Li+ chemical diffusion coefficient and thus an optimal electrochemical performance. The adhesive characteristic of CNT macrofilms is noticed for the first time after fragmentation by ultrasound that origins from irregular structures of laterally 2-D distributed CNT segments. The fragmented CNT macrofilms (FCNT) as "bifunctional" adhesive conductors promote a general approach to construct nanocomposite electrodes with both cathode and anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. An in-situ tribology method combining the wear track imaging and force measurement is employed to evaluate the adhesion strength of the adhesive FCNT conductors. The results show that the FCNT macrofilms have a higher adhesion strength than the conventional polymer binder polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). It is confirmed that the fabricated nanocomposite electrodes exhibit high rate and retention capabilities, superior to the electrodes using PVDF and carbon black. Thus, FCNT is recognized to be a competent substitute for polymer

  3. Hot-carrier-induced linear drain current and threshold voltage degradation for thin layer silicon-on-insulator field P-channel lateral double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xin; Qiao, Ming; He, Yitao; Li, Zhaoji; Zhang, Bo

    2015-11-16

    Hot-carrier-induced linear drain current (I{sub dlin}) and threshold voltage (V{sub th}) degradations for the thin layer SOI field p-channel lateral double-diffused MOS (pLDMOS) are investigated. Two competition degradation mechanisms are revealed and the hot-carrier conductance modulation model is proposed. In the channel, hot-hole injection induced positive oxide trapped charge and interface trap gives rise to the V{sub th} increasing and the channel conductance (G{sub ch}) decreasing, then reduces I{sub dlin}. In the p-drift region, hot-electron injection induced negative oxide trapped charge enhances the conductance of drift doping resistance (G{sub d}), and then increases I{sub dlin}. Consequently, the eventual I{sub dlin} degradation is controlled by the competition of the two mechanisms due to conductance modulation in the both regions. Based on the model, it is explained that the measured I{sub dlin} anomalously increases while the V{sub th} is increasing with power law. The thin layer field pLDMOS exhibits more severe V{sub th} instability compared with thick SOI layer structure; as a result, it should be seriously evaluated in actual application in switching circuit.

  4. Electrode Boundary Layers in Dense, Diffuse Plasmas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    equations (Equation 27 and 28) contain non-linear terms which present problems in their computer analsyis. The Jacobi method includes all non-linear...slowly enough over each iteration. It was found by Dolson in Reference 29 that the Jacobi method was in fact unstable for the present set of equations and...conditions. As a consequence of the failure of the Jacobi method , a quasi- Jacobi method was used, in which an estimate was computed for each total

  5. A Pascalian lateral drift sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, H.

    2016-09-01

    A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.

  6. Submersed sensing electrode used in fuel-cell type hydrogen detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedrach, L. W.; Rudek, F. P.; Rutkoneski, M. D.

    1971-01-01

    Electrode has silicone rubber diffusion barrier with fixed permeation constant for hydrogen. Barrier controls flow of hydrogen to anode and Faraday relationship establishes upper limit for current through cell. Electrode fabrication is described.

  7. Layperson positioning of defibrillation electrodes guided by pictorial instructions.

    PubMed

    Nurmi, Jouni; Castrén, Maaret

    2005-02-01

    Correct positioning of defibrillation electrodes is essential to achieve sufficient transmyocardial current to depolarize a critical mass of myocardium, and thus terminate ventricular fibrillation (VF). To evaluate the pictures on the self-adhesive defibrillation electrodes in guiding laypersons to place the electrodes in the recommended position. Defibrillation electrodes from five manufactures (Access Cardio Systems, Schiller, Medtronic, Cardiac Science and Philips) were included in the study and compared with electrodes with a lateral view picture, designed for the study, showing the placement of the apical electrode. A total of 150 laypersons without any experience or training in use of a defibrillator participated in the study. The participants placed randomly selected electrodes on the chest of a resuscitation manikin without any guidance apart from the pictures on the electrodes. The distances of the electrodes from the recommended positions were measured. The proportion of participants who placed both electrodes within 5 cm from recommended position varied from 8% to 36% with the different electrodes. Usually, the apical electrode was placed too anteriorly. Electrodes placed with help of the lateral instruction picture, (designed for the study), showing the placement of the apical electrode were placed significantly more often within 5 cm than any of the others (64%, 95% confidence interval 44-80, P < 0.05). The current practice in designing pictures on the electrodes does not seem to be optimal in showing the recommended position of the apical electrode as recommended by Guidelines 2000. It is suggested that by showing a lateral view in the instructions, success in placing the apical electrodes correctly can be improved.

  8. Lateral Mixing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    ocean as it responds to mesoscale forcing. APPROACH Figure 1: MVP system deployed from stern of R/V Endeavor in Sargasso Sea . My approach for...therefore requires integrative efforts with other sea -going investigators and numerical modelers. The Lateral Mixing Experiment project was an ideal...also participated in the sea -going part of this project, taking my group on the R/V Endeavor in June 2011. Our role was to sample around the center of

  9. Iron serves as diffusion barrier in thermally regenerative galvanic cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouthamel, C. E.

    1967-01-01

    Pure iron or iron-coated diaphragm provides a hydrogen diffusion electrode for a thermally regenerative galvanic cell. It allows the gas to diffuse through its interatomic spaces and resists the corrosive action of the cell environment.

  10. Lateral conduction infrared photodetector

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jin K [Albuquerque, NM; Carroll, Malcolm S [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-09-20

    A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

  11. resterilizable electrode for electrosurgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engstrom, E. R.; Houge, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Required properties of flexibility, electrical conductivity, tensile strength, and tear resistance of electrosurgical electrodes is retained through utilization of flexible-polymer/conductive particle composites for electrodes.

  12. Nanoband array electrode as a platform for high sensitivity enzyme-based glucose biosensing.

    PubMed

    Falk, Magnus; Sultana, Reshma; Swann, Marcus J; Mount, Andrew R; Freeman, Neville J

    2016-12-01

    We describe a novel glucose biosensor based on a nanoband array electrode design, manufactured using standard semiconductor processing techniques, and bio-modified with glucose oxidase immobilized at the nanoband electrode surface. The nanoband array architecture allows for efficient diffusion of glucose and oxygen to the electrode, resulting in a thousand-fold improvement in sensitivity and wide linear range compared to a conventional electrode. The electrode constitutes a robust and manufacturable sensing platform.

  13. Subcutaneous electrode structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, G. F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A subcutaneous electrode structure suitable for a chronic implant and for taking a low noise electrocardiogram of an active animal, comprises a thin inflexible, smooth disc of stainless steel having a diameter as of 5 to 30 mm, which is sutured in place to the animal being monitored. The disc electrode includes a radially directed slot extending in from the periphery of the disc for approximately 1/3 of the diameter. Electrical connection is made to the disc by means of a flexible lead wire that extends longitudinally of the slot and is woven through apertures in the disc and held at the terminal end by means of a spot welded tab. Within the slot, an electrically insulative sleeve, such as silicone rubber, is placed over the wire. The wire with the sleeve mounted thereon is captured in the plane of the disc and within the slot by means of crimping tabs extending laterally of the slot and over the insulative wire. The marginal lip of the slot area is apertured and an electrically insulative potting material such as silicone rubber, is potted in place overlaying the wire slot region and through the apertures.

  14. Simplifying the evaluation of graphene modified electrode performance using rotating disk electrode voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Guo, Si-Xuan; Zhao, Shu-Feng; Bond, Alan M; Zhang, Jie

    2012-03-20

    Graphene modified electrodes have been fabricated by electrodeposition from an aqueous graphene oxide solution onto conducting Pt, Au, glassy carbon, and indium tin dioxide substrates. Detailed investigations of the electrochemistry of the [Ru(NH(3))(6)](3+/2+) and [Fe(CN)(6)](3-/4-) and hydroquinone and uric acid oxidation processes have been undertaken at glassy carbon and graphene modified glassy carbon electrodes using transient cyclic voltammetry at a stationary electrode and near steady-state voltammetry at a rotating disk electrode. Comparisons of the data with simulation suggest that the transient voltammetric characteristics at graphene modified electrodes contain a significant contribution from thin layer and surface confined processes. Consequently, interpretations based solely on mass transport by semi-infinite linear diffusion may result in incorrect conclusions on the activity of the graphene modified electrode. In contrast, steady-state voltammetry at a rotating disk electrode affords a much simpler method for the evaluation of the performance of graphene modified electrode since the relative importance of the thin layer and surface confined processes are substantially diminished and mass transport is dominated by convection. Application of the rotated electrode approach with carbon nanotube modified electrodes also should lead to simplification of data analysis in this environment.

  15. Electrode migration after cochlear implant surgery: more common than expected?

    PubMed

    Dietz, Aarno; Wennström, Minna; Lehtimäki, Antti; Löppönen, Heikki; Valtonen, Hannu

    2016-06-01

    The overall complication rate of cochlear implant surgery is low and so-called electrode failures (electrode migration, misplacement, etc.,) account for only a minority of all complications. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of electrode migration as the cause for increased impedance values and non-auditory stimulation in the basal channels. Within the scope of a quality control process, the cochlear implant database of the Kuopio University Hospital (Finland) was reviewed. Patients with gradual elevation of impedance values and/or non-auditory stimulation of the basal electrode channels were re-examined and cone-beam computed tomography was administered. There were 162 cochlear implant recipients and 201 implanted devices registered in the database. A total of 18 patients (18 devices) were identified having significantly increased impedance values or non-auditory stimulation of the basal electrodes. Cone-beam computed tomography revealed extra-cochlear electrodes in 12 of these patients due to the migration of the electrode array. All extruded electrodes were lateral wall electrodes, i.e., straight electrode arrays (Cochlear CI422 and Med-El devices). The most common feature of electrode migration was the gradual increase of the impedance values in the basal electrodes, even though telemetry could also be unsuspicious. Electrode migration after cochlear implant surgery may be more common than previously reported. At surgery, special attention should be paid to the reliable fixation of the electrode array. This study underlines the importance of postoperative imaging after cochlear implant surgery.

  16. Sheep laterality.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Dean M; Murray, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Turning preferences among 309 white-faced ewes were individually evaluated in an enclosed, artificially lit T-maze, followed by each ewe choosing either a right or left return alley to return to peers. Data recorded included time in the start box, time in the T-maze, exit arm chosen to leave the T-maze, and return alley. Right and left arms of the T-maze were chosen 65.7% and 34.3% of the time, respectively, while right and left return alleys were chosen 32.4% and 67.6%, respectively. Exit arm and return alley were not independently chosen (p <.0001), with observed counts being higher than expected under independence when ewes made the same choice for exit and alley (RR or LL turn patterns) and being lower than expected for alternating choices (RL or LR). Out of the 309 ewes, 28.2% and 30.1% chose RR and LL turn patterns, respectively, while 37.5% chose the RL turn pattern, but only 13 (4.2%) chose the LR turning pattern. Overall, ewes that initially turned right when presented a second turning opportunity had a slight preference to alternate their turning direction, while ewes that initially turned left tended to continue turning left when given another chance to turn. Exit arm and return alley laterality was not related (α =.05) to time of day the test was administered, ewe's age or genetics, most recent liveweight, or most recent shorn fleece weight. The mean time spent in the start box (21 s) was not related to exit arm (p =.947) or return alley (p =.779). Mean time (15 s) spent in the T-maze was not related to exit arm (p =.086) or return alley (p =.952). More research will be required to understand sheep turning laterality and how it can impact working facilities and research equipment.

  17. AC impedance modelling study on porous electrodes of proton exchange membrane fuel cells using an agglomerate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerteisen, Dietmar; Hakenjos, Alex; Schumacher, Jürgen O.

    A one-dimensional model of the PEM fuel cell cathode is developed to analyse ac impedance spectra and polarisation curves. The porous gas diffusion electrode is assumed to consist of a network of dispersed catalyst (Pt/C) forming spherically shaped agglomerated zones that are filled with electrolyte. The coupled differential equation system describes: ternary gas diffusion in the backing (O2 , N2 , water vapour), Fickian diffusion and Tafel kinetics for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) inside the agglomerates, proton migration with ohmic losses and double-layer charging in the electrode. Measurements are made of a temperature-controlled fuel cell with a geometric area of 1.4 cm × 1.4 cm. Lateral homogeneity is ensured by using a high stoichiometry of λmin . The model predicts the behaviour of measured polarisation curves and impedance spectra. It is found that a better humidification of the electrode leads to a higher volumetric double-layer capacity. The catalyst layer resistance shows the same behaviour depending on the humidification as the membrane resistance. Model parameters, e.g. Tafel slope, ionic resistance and agglomerate radius are varied. A sensitivity analysis of the model parameters is conducted.

  18. Ion-Selective Electrodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Mark A.; Meyerhoff, Mark E.

    1984-01-01

    Literature on ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) is reviewed in seven sections: books, conferences, reviews; potentiometric membrane electrodes; glass and solid-state membrane electrodes; liquid and polymer membrane ISEs; coated wire electrodes, ion-selective field effect transistors, and microelectrodes; gas sensors and selective bioelectrode…

  19. Ion-Selective Electrodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Mark A.; Meyerhoff, Mark E.

    1984-01-01

    Literature on ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) is reviewed in seven sections: books, conferences, reviews; potentiometric membrane electrodes; glass and solid-state membrane electrodes; liquid and polymer membrane ISEs; coated wire electrodes, ion-selective field effect transistors, and microelectrodes; gas sensors and selective bioelectrode…

  20. Metal fiber - carbon electrodes for oxygen reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Robert Fendlay

    An investigation was carried out to determine activities for oxygen reduction and current efficiencies to hydrogen peroxide of commercially available nickel fibers, carbon fibers, and carbon powders. The activities and current efficiencies were determined by conducting Rotating Ring Disk Electrode Experiments (RRDE) on porous electrodes that utilize an interlocking network of metal fibers with carbon fibers and/or powders. Experimentation was also done using PTFE - carbon powder and PTFE - nickel fiber paste electrodes to remove any porosity and symbiotic effects of the nickel - carbon electrodes. Results of the traditional flat plate PTFE electrodes were compared to the porous electrodes to verify the proposed mathematical viability of porous electrode RRDE. RRDE experiments showed that the most active carbons for oxygen reduction have a surface area to volume ratio of 1000 m2/g, and current rent efficiency to hydrogen peroxide was increased as the average pore size increased. A mathematical model and half-cell polarization experiments were used to characterize and optimize oxygen reduction in gas diffusion electrodes consisting of carbon fibers and/or powders entrapped in a sinter-locked network of nickel microfibers. Important electrode physical parameters, such as nickel fiber loading (0.005 to 0.01 g/cm2) , nickel fiber diameter (2 to 12 mum), void volume (73 to 96%), distance of the active layer from the gas supply (0 to 0.005 cm), and addition of a peroxide decomposition catalyst (0 to 0.004 g/cm2) were systematically varied to determine their effects on electrode performance. Experimentally determined total currents and current efficiencies to hydrogen peroxide were compared to calculated values for model verification. Other important parameters, including intra-electrode oxygen and hydrogen peroxide concentrations, overpotentials, and reaction rates, were simulated to help optimize the electrode. Fabricated metal fiber-carbon electrodes were compared to a

  1. HSPES membrane electrode assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An improved fuel cell electrode, as well as fuel cells and membrane electrode assemblies that include such an electrode, in which the electrode includes a backing layer having a sintered layer thereon, and a non-sintered free-catalyst layer. The invention also features a method of forming the electrode by sintering a backing material with a catalyst material and then applying a free-catalyst layer.

  2. Alternative hybrid electrolytes based on a series of bis(trialkoxysilyl)alkanes and 3-(trihydroxysilyl)-1-propane sulfonic acid applied in gas diffusion electrodes of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. W.; Chung, L. C.; Veerapur, R. S.; Yang, F. C.

    This study demonstrates a method for improving the electrolyte distribution in catalyst layers and enhancing the utilization of catalyst existing in primary pores. Bis(trialkoxysilyl)alkanes (BTAS-alkanes) and 3-(trihydroxysilyl)-1-propane sulfonic acid (THS)Pro-SO 3H) precursors have been used to prepare a series of hybrid electrolytes with various organic segment lengths of BTAS-alkanes and ratios of organic moiety and sulfonic acid groups. Investigations of BTAS-alkanes series includes bis(triethoxysilyl)octane (BTES-Oct), bis(trimethoxysilyl)hexane (BTMS-Hex), and bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTES-Eth). Small angle X-ray spectroscopy (SAXS) identifies morphological phase separation in BTES-Oct and BTMS-Hex hybrid electrolytes. The results of mercury porosimetry and BET porosimetry show that the hybrid electrolytes have better capability than Nafion ionomer to penetrate into primary pores of the catalyst layers. Electrochemical measurements including electrode polarization, electrochemical active surface (EAS) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) are discussed. The BTES-Oct or BTMS-Hex hybrid electrolytes with higher ratio of organic moiety and sulfonic acid group have achieved better electrode performance. Oxygen benefit current (OBC) results indicate that higher ratios of BTES-Oct/(THS)Pro-SO 3H provides higher hydrophobicity with better gas transport properties. However, the hybrid electrodes exhibit lower cathode performance than Nafion ®-based electrodes due to excessive electrolyte incorporated in the catalyst layer.

  3. Regular arrays of microdisc electrodes: simulation quantifies the fraction of 'dead' electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ordeig, Olga; Banks, Craig E; Davies, Trevor J; Del Campo, Javier; Mas, Roser; Muñoz, Francesc Xavier; Compton, Richard G

    2006-03-01

    Arrays of microdisc electrodes have found widespread use in electroanalysis. These are commonly produced lithographically and practical arrays may contain up to hundreds of individual disc electrodes (e.g. of gold, platinum, indium,...) to maximise sensitivity and minimise limits of detection. Typically, however, the lithographic fabrication process is imperfect resulting in a significant fraction (often tens of percent) of electrochemically inactive electrodes. We demonstrate that a 2-dimensional simulation based on the diffusion domain approximation in conjugation with simple experiments on the ferrocyanide redox couple in aqueous solutions can be used to rigorously 'count' the number of active electrodes in a non-destructive fashion. The agreement with an independent count in which active electrodes are identified via electro-plating with copper followed by ex situ microscopic examination is quantitatively excellent.

  4. Three-Dimensional Electrodes for High-Performance Bioelectrochemical Systems

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yang-Yang; Zhai, Dan-Dan; Si, Rong-Wei; Sun, Jian-Zhong; Liu, Xiang; Yong, Yang-Chun

    2017-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) are groups of bioelectrochemical technologies and platforms that could facilitate versatile environmental and biological applications. The performance of BES is mainly determined by the key process of electron transfer at the bacteria and electrode interface, which is known as extracellular electron transfer (EET). Thus, developing novel electrodes to encourage bacteria attachment and enhance EET efficiency is of great significance. Recently, three-dimensional (3D) electrodes, which provide large specific area for bacteria attachment and macroporous structures for substrate diffusion, have emerged as a promising electrode for high-performance BES. Herein, a comprehensive review of versatile methodology developed for 3D electrode fabrication is presented. This review article is organized based on the categorization of 3D electrode fabrication strategy and BES performance comparison. In particular, the advantages and shortcomings of these 3D electrodes are presented and their future development is discussed. PMID:28054970

  5. Controlled porosity in electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Bae, Chang-Jun; Halloran, John William; Fu, Qiang; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Erdonmez, Can K.

    2015-06-23

    Porous electrodes in which the porosity has a low tortuosity are generally provided. In some embodiments, the porous electrodes can be designed to be filled with electrolyte and used in batteries, and can include low tortuosity in the primary direction of ion transport during charge and discharge of the battery. In some embodiments, the electrodes can have a high volume fraction of electrode active material (i.e., low porosity). The attributes outlined above can allow the electrodes to be fabricated with a higher energy density, higher capacity per unit area of electrode (mAh/cm.sup.2), and greater thickness than comparable electrodes while still providing high utilization of the active material in the battery during use. Accordingly, the electrodes can be used to produce batteries with high energy densities, high power, or both compared to batteries using electrodes of conventional design with relatively highly tortuous pores.

  6. Flexible retinal electrode array

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Wessendorf, Kurt O.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2006-10-24

    An electrode array which has applications for neural stimulation and sensing. The electrode array can include a large number of electrodes each of which is flexibly attached to a common substrate using a plurality of springs to allow the electrodes to move independently. The electrode array can be formed from a combination of bulk and surface micromachining, with electrode tips that can include an electroplated metal (e.g. platinum, iridium, gold or titanium) or a metal oxide (e.g. iridium oxide) for biocompatibility. The electrode array can be used to form a part of a neural prosthesis, and is particularly well adapted for use in an implantable retinal prosthesis where the electrodes can be tailored to provide a uniform gentle contact pressure with optional sensing of this contact pressure at one or more of the electrodes.

  7. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or "halo" at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.

  8. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.

  9. Micromachined electrode array

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    2007-12-11

    An electrode array is disclosed which has applications for neural stimulation and sensing. The electrode array, in certain embodiments, can include a plurality of electrodes each of which is flexibly attached to a common substrate using a plurality of springs to allow the electrodes to move independently. In other embodiments of the electrode array, the electrodes can be fixed to the substrate. The electrode array can be formed from a combination of bulk and surface micromachining, and can include electrode tips having an electroplated metal (e.g. platinum, iridium, gold or titanium) or a metal oxide (e.g. iridium oxide) for biocompatibility. The electrode array can be used to form a part of a neural prosthesis, and is particularly well adapted for use in an implantable retinal prosthesis.

  10. Materials analyses and electrochemical impedance of implantable metal electrodes.

    PubMed

    Howlader, Matiar M R; Ul Alam, Arif; Sharma, Rahul P; Deen, M Jamal

    2015-04-21

    Implantable electrodes with high flexibility, high mechanical fixation and low electrochemical impedance are desirable for neuromuscular activation because they provide safe, effective and stable stimulation. In this paper, we report on detailed materials and electrical analyses of three metal implantable electrodes - gold (Au), platinum (Pt) and titanium (Ti) - using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning acoustic microscopy, drop shape analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. We investigated the cause of changes in electrochemical impedance of long-term immersed Au, Pt and Ti electrodes on liquid crystal polymers (LCPs) in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). We analyzed the surface wettability, surface and interface defects and the elemental depth profile of the electrode-adhesion layers on the LCP. The impedance of the electrodes decreased at lower frequencies, but increased at higher frequencies compared with that of the short-term immersion. The increase of impedances was influenced by the oxidation of the electrode/adhesion-layers that affected the double layer capacitance behavior of the electrode/PBS. The oxidation of the adhesion layer for all the electrodes was confirmed by XPS. Alkali ions (sodium) were adsorbed on the Au and Pt surfaces, but diffused into the Ti electrode and LCPs. The Pt electrode showed a higher sensitivity to surface and interface defects than that of Ti and Au electrodes. These findings may be useful when designing electrodes for long-term implantable devices.

  11. Method of making an electrode

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, Arnold O.

    1986-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of coating an electrode on a solid oxygen conductive oxide layer. A coating of particles of an electronic conductor is formed on one surface of the oxide layer and a source of oxygen is applied to the opposite surface of the oxide layer. A metal halide vapor is applied over the electronic conductor and the oxide layer is heated to a temperature sufficient to induce oxygen to diffuse through the oxide layer and react with the metal halide vapor. This results in the growing of a metal oxide coating on the particles of electronic conductor, thereby binding them to the oxide layer.

  12. High performance cermet electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Zymboly, Gregory E.

    1986-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of increasing the operating cell voltage of a solid oxide electrochemical cell having metal electrode particles in contact with an oxygen-transporting ceramic electrolyte. The metal electrode is heated with the cell, and oxygen is passed through the oxygen-transporting ceramic electrolyte to the surface of the metal electrode particles so that the metal electrode particles are oxidized to form a metal oxide layer between the metal electrode particles and the electrolyte. The metal oxide layer is then reduced to form porous metal between the metal electrode particles and the ceramic electrolyte.

  13. Lateral Diffusion of Peripheral Membrane Proteins on Supported Lipid Bilayers Is Controlled by the Additive Frictional Drags of 1) Bound Lipids and 2) Protein Domains Penetrating into the Bilayer Hydrocarbon Core

    PubMed Central

    Ziemba, Brian P.; Falke, Joseph J.

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral membrane proteins bound to lipids on bilayer surfaces play central roles in a wide array of cellular processes, including many signaling pathways. These proteins diffuse in the plane of the bilayer and often undergo complex reactions involving the binding of regulatory and substrate lipids and proteins they encounter during their 2-D diffusion. Some peripheral proteins, for example pleckstrin homology (PH) domains, dock to the bilayer in a relatively shallow position with little penetration into the bilayer. Other peripheral proteins exhibit more complex bilayer contacts, for example classical protein kinase C isoforms (PKCs) bind as many as six lipids in stepwise fashion, resulting in the penetration of three PKC domains (C1A, C1B, C2) into the bilayer headgroup and hydrocarbon regions. A molecular understanding of the molecular features that control the diffusion speeds of proteins bound to supported bilayers would enable key molecular information to be extracted from experimental diffusion constants, revealing protein-lipid and protein-bilayer interactions difficult to study by other methods. The present study investigates a range of 11 different peripheral protein constructs comprised by 1 to 3 distinct domains (PH, C1A, C1B, C2, anti-lipid antibody). By combining these constructs with various combinations of target lipids, the study measures 2-D diffusion constants on supported bilayers for 17 different protein-lipid complexes. The resulting experimental diffusion constants, together with the known membrane interaction parameters of each complex, are used to analyze the molecular features correlated with diffusional slowing and bilayer friction. The findings show that both 1) individual bound lipids and 2) individual protein domains that penetrate into the hydrocarbon core make additive contributions to the friction against the bilayer, thereby defining the 2-D diffusion constant. An empirical formula is developed that accurately estimates the

  14. Dynamic Analysis of Mcfc Porous Electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gwo-Lin Kevin

    1992-01-01

    The intent of this work is to develop AC impedance measurements, in combination with other methods, as a tool to determine the relative importance of various resistance sources in the multi-step process occurring at a gas-diffusion porous electrode. In particular, the case of a MCFC cathode is studied. The goals of this study are: (1) elucidation of electrode mechanism; (2) analysis of the porous electrode performance for the purpose of optimizing design; and (3) developing the capabilities of AC impedance as an index of long-term cell performance decay. The oxygen reduction reaction of molten carbonate fuel cell and the corresponding kinetic as well as transport parameters were tried to be estimated by using impedance techniques combining with other electrochemical methods from flag, wire and rotating disk electrodes in pot cell as well as porous electrode in lab cell. The dominant pathway for oxygen reduction in 62%Li _2CO_3/38%K _2CO_3 melt at 650^circC is via superoxide ions. This follows from flag electrode impedance results indicating that O_sp{2}{ -}/CO_2 mixed diffusion is the dominant source of resistance. The polarization behavior of gas-diffusion porous electrodes has been analyzed in terms of individual voltage loss and overall voltage loss. In most cases, the optimal electrolyte filling will be obtained when the dominant source of voltage loss switches from ohmic or mass transfer resistances to kinetic activation resistance, and similar behavior for optimal electrode thickness. Pressurized operation is favorable for performance if the reaction mechanism follows the superoxide mechanism, but not if the peroxide path dominates. A distributed-network approach has been developed and it is concluded that a digital simulation of AC-superimposed -on-DC impedance of a porous electrode is possible and helpful. Kinetic activation and mass transfer resistances are extracted separate and conclude that both peroxide and superoxide contribute the oxygen reduction

  15. Corneal-shaping electrode

    DOEpatents

    Doss, James D.; Hutson, Richard L.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a circulating saline electrode for changing corneal shape in eyes. The electrode comprises a tubular nonconductive electrode housing having an annular expanded base which has a surface substantially matched to a subject corneal surface. A tubular conductive electrode connected to a radiofrequency generating source is disposed within the electrode housing and longitudinally aligned therewith. The electrode has a generally hemispherical head having at least one orifice. Saline solution is circulated through the apparatus and over the cornea to cool the corneal surface while radiofrequency electric current emitted from the electrode flows therefrom through the cornea to a second electrode, on the rear of the head. This current heats the deep corneal stroma and thereby effects corneal reshaping as a biological response to the heat.

  16. Which Disposable Chest Electrode?

    PubMed Central

    Hubner, P. J. B.

    1969-01-01

    Chest electrodes are preferred to limb electrodes for cardiac monitoring, as limb movements are not restricted and produce less interference of the E.C.G. trace. Eight types of disposable chest electrodes were investigated to compare their performance, skin reactions, cost, ease of application, size, and skin–electrode impedance. Elema-Schonander electrodes were found to be the most efficient and the most expensive. In their application care was required to avoid severe skin reactions. Dracard electrodes were simple to attach, worked well without severe skin reactions, and were cheap. They are recommended for routine use. Smith and Nephew electrodes, a type of “multipoint electrodes” which do not require electrode jelly, frequently produced severe skin reactions, making them unsuitable for monitoring for periods exceeding 12 hours. PMID:5801347

  17. Corrugated battery electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccallum, J.

    1974-01-01

    Performance of porous electrodes in batteries and other electrochemical cells is greatly improved when supports for active material have pores of uniform size, extending completely through electrodes, from side to side, with no interconnections between pores.

  18. FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS. RAW MATERIAL SELECTION INFLUENCES POLARIZATION BUT IS NOT A SINGLE CONTROLLING FACTOR. AVAILABLE...DATA INDICATES THAT AN INTERRELATIONSHIP OF POROSITY, AVERAGE PORE VOLUME, AND PERMEABILITY CONTRIBUTES TO ELECTRODE FUEL CELL BEHAVIOR.

  19. Improved biomedical electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Newly designed electrode is prefilled, disposable, electrolyte-saturated spong. New design permits longe periods of storage without deterioration, and readiness in matter of seconds. Electrodes supply signals for electroencephalogram, electro-oculogram, and electrocardiogram.

  20. The CMG Nickel Electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Depaul, R. A.; Gutridge, I.

    1981-01-01

    The development and design of the Controlled Microgeometry electrode are described. Advantages of the electrode over others in existance include a higher number of ampere hours per kilogram and the ability to make them over a wide range of thicknesses. The parameters that control the performance of the electrode can be individually controlled over a wide range. Therefore, the electrode may be designed to give the optimum performance for a given duty cycle.

  1. Compartmented electrode structure

    DOEpatents

    Vissers, Donald R.; Shimotake, Hiroshi; Gay, Eddie C.; Martino, Fredric J.

    1977-06-14

    Electrodes for secondary electrochemical cells are provided with compartments for containing particles of the electrode reactant. The compartments are defined by partitions that are generally impenetrable to the particles of reactant and, in some instances, to the liquid electrolyte used in the cell. During cycling of the cell, reactant material initially loaded into a particular compartment is prevented from migrating and concentrating within the lower portion of the electrode or those portions of the electrode that exhibit reduced electrical resistance.

  2. Low resistance fuel electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Maskalick, Nichols J.; Folser, George R.

    1989-01-01

    An electrode 6 bonded to a solid, ion conducting electrolyte 5 is made, where the electrode 6 comprises a ceramic metal oxide 18, metal particles 17, and heat stable metal fibers 19, where the metal fibers provide a matrix structure for the electrode. The electrolyte 5 can be bonded to an air electrode cathode 4, to provide an electrochemical cell 2, preferably of tubular design.

  3. Electrically conductive diamond electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Swain, Greg [East Lansing, MI; Fischer, Anne [Arlington, VA; Bennett, Jason [Lansing, MI; Lowe, Michael [Holt, MI

    2009-05-19

    An electrically conductive diamond electrode and process for preparation thereof is described. The electrode comprises diamond particles coated with electrically conductive doped diamond preferably by chemical vapor deposition which are held together with a binder. The electrodes are useful for oxidation reduction in gas, such as hydrogen generation by electrolysis.

  4. Aerospace electrode line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, L.

    1980-04-01

    A facility which produces electrodes for spacecraft power supplies is described. The electrode assembly procedures are discussed. A number of design features in the production process are reported including a batch operation mode and an independent equipment module design approach for transfering the electrode materials from process tank to process tank.

  5. Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Miller, J.L.; Ault, E.R.

    1994-08-23

    The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window. 2 figs.

  6. Insulated ECG electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portnoy, W. M.; David, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    Insulated, capacitively coupled electrode does not require electrolyte paste for attachment. Other features of electrode include wide range of nontoxic material that may be employed for dielectric because of sputtering technique used. Also, electrode size is reduced because there is no need for external compensating networks with FET operational amplifier.

  7. Fuel cell electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Strmcnik, Dusan; Cuesta, Angel; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Markovic, Nenad

    2015-06-23

    A process includes patterning a surface of a platinum group metal-based electrode by contacting the electrode with an adsorbate to form a patterned platinum group metal-based electrode including platinum group metal sites blocked with adsorbate molecules and platinum group metal sites which are not blocked.

  8. A Simple Hydrogen Electrode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Per-Odd

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the construction of an inexpensive, robust, and simple hydrogen electrode, as well as the use of this electrode to measure "standard" potentials. In the experiment described here the students can measure the reduction potentials of metal-metal ion pairs directly, without using a secondary reference electrode. Measurements…

  9. A Simple Hydrogen Electrode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Per-Odd

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the construction of an inexpensive, robust, and simple hydrogen electrode, as well as the use of this electrode to measure "standard" potentials. In the experiment described here the students can measure the reduction potentials of metal-metal ion pairs directly, without using a secondary reference electrode. Measurements…

  10. Microresonator electrode design

    DOEpatents

    Olsson, III, Roy H.; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Branch, Darren W.

    2016-05-10

    A microresonator with an input electrode and an output electrode patterned thereon is described. The input electrode includes a series of stubs that are configured to isolate acoustic waves, such that the waves are not reflected into the microresonator. Such design results in reduction of spurious modes corresponding to the microresonator.

  11. Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; Miller, John L.; Ault, Earl R.

    1994-01-01

    The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window.

  12. Atmospheric corrosion of lithium electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.J.

    1981-10-01

    Atmospheric corrosion of lithium during lithium-cell assembly and the dry storage of cells prior to electrolyte fill has been found to initiate lithium corrosion pits and to form corrosion products. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate lithium pitting and the white floccullent corrosion products. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) and Auger spectroscopy in combination with X-ray diffraction were used to characterize lithium surfaces. Lithium surfaces with corrosion products were found to be high in carbonate content indicating the presence of lithium carbonate. Lithium electrodes dry stored in unfilled batteries were found to contain high concentration of lithium flouride a possible corrosion product from gaseous materials from the carbon monofluoride cathode. Future investigations of the corrosion phenomena will emphasize the effect of the corrosion products on the electrolyte and ultimate battery performance. The need to protect lithium electrodes from atmospheric exposure is commonly recognized to minimize corrosion induced by reaction with water, oxygen, carbon dioxide or nitrogen (1). Manufacturing facilities customarily limit the relative humidity to less than two percent. Electrodes that have been manufactured for use in lithium cells are typically stored in dry-argon containers. In spite of these precautions, lithium has been found to corrode over a long time period due to residual gases or slow diffusion of the same into storage containers. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the nature of the lithium corrosion.

  13. Engineering interface-type resistive switching in BiFeO3 thin film switches by Ti implantation of bottom electrodes

    PubMed Central

    You, Tiangui; Ou, Xin; Niu, Gang; Bärwolf, Florian; Li, Guodong; Du, Nan; Bürger, Danilo; Skorupa, Ilona; Jia, Qi; Yu, Wenjie; Wang, Xi; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Schmidt, Heidemarie

    2015-01-01

    BiFeO3 based MIM structures with Ti-implanted Pt bottom electrodes and Au top electrodes have been fabricated on Sapphire substrates. The resulting metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures show bipolar resistive switching without an electroforming process. It is evidenced that during the BiFeO3 thin film growth Ti diffuses into the BiFeO3 layer. The diffused Ti effectively traps and releases oxygen vacancies and consequently stabilizes the resistive switching in BiFeO3 MIM structures. Therefore, using Ti implantation of the bottom electrode, the retention performance can be greatly improved with increasing Ti fluence. For the used raster-scanned Ti implantation the lateral Ti distribution is not homogeneous enough and endurance slightly degrades with Ti fluence. The local resistive switching investigated by current sensing atomic force microscopy suggests the capability of down-scaling the resistive switching cell to one BiFeO3 grain size by local Ti implantation of the bottom electrode. PMID:26692104

  14. Engineering interface-type resistive switching in BiFeO3 thin film switches by Ti implantation of bottom electrodes.

    PubMed

    You, Tiangui; Ou, Xin; Niu, Gang; Bärwolf, Florian; Li, Guodong; Du, Nan; Bürger, Danilo; Skorupa, Ilona; Jia, Qi; Yu, Wenjie; Wang, Xi; Schmidt, Oliver G; Schmidt, Heidemarie

    2015-12-22

    BiFeO3 based MIM structures with Ti-implanted Pt bottom electrodes and Au top electrodes have been fabricated on Sapphire substrates. The resulting metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures show bipolar resistive switching without an electroforming process. It is evidenced that during the BiFeO3 thin film growth Ti diffuses into the BiFeO3 layer. The diffused Ti effectively traps and releases oxygen vacancies and consequently stabilizes the resistive switching in BiFeO3 MIM structures. Therefore, using Ti implantation of the bottom electrode, the retention performance can be greatly improved with increasing Ti fluence. For the used raster-scanned Ti implantation the lateral Ti distribution is not homogeneous enough and endurance slightly degrades with Ti fluence. The local resistive switching investigated by current sensing atomic force microscopy suggests the capability of down-scaling the resistive switching cell to one BiFeO3 grain size by local Ti implantation of the bottom electrode.

  15. Engineering interface-type resistive switching in BiFeO3 thin film switches by Ti implantation of bottom electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Tiangui; Ou, Xin; Niu, Gang; Bärwolf, Florian; Li, Guodong; Du, Nan; Bürger, Danilo; Skorupa, Ilona; Jia, Qi; Yu, Wenjie; Wang, Xi; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Schmidt, Heidemarie

    2015-12-01

    BiFeO3 based MIM structures with Ti-implanted Pt bottom electrodes and Au top electrodes have been fabricated on Sapphire substrates. The resulting metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures show bipolar resistive switching without an electroforming process. It is evidenced that during the BiFeO3 thin film growth Ti diffuses into the BiFeO3 layer. The diffused Ti effectively traps and releases oxygen vacancies and consequently stabilizes the resistive switching in BiFeO3 MIM structures. Therefore, using Ti implantation of the bottom electrode, the retention performance can be greatly improved with increasing Ti fluence. For the used raster-scanned Ti implantation the lateral Ti distribution is not homogeneous enough and endurance slightly degrades with Ti fluence. The local resistive switching investigated by current sensing atomic force microscopy suggests the capability of down-scaling the resistive switching cell to one BiFeO3 grain size by local Ti implantation of the bottom electrode.

  16. Failure analysis of the lithium battery: A study of the header deposit on the cell top and diffusion within the electrode glass seal using nuclear microanalysis and FFTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, Razi A.

    1991-01-01

    The Solid Rocket Booster Range Safety System (SRBRSS) uses a lithium/poly-carbon monofluoride primary battery as a source of electrical power. After cell fabrication and activation, some battery cells have shown self discharge. One possible source of this cell discharge has been suggested to be the formation and growth of a conducting crystallized chemical compound across the glass bead insulator, electrically shorting the glass bead to the casing. This laboratory has begun an analysis of this compound, the glass seal holding the cathode into place, and the cell electrolyte, using Fast Fourier Transform Infrared (FFTIR) Analysis, Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), and Nuclear Reaction Microanalysis. Preliminary measurements have confirmed the existence of lithium, nitrogen, fluorine, and oxygen on a reddish-brown deposit covering parts of the glass seal holding the positive electrode in place. Cells using Li metal electrodes, have many advantages over conventional primary batteries. One principal disadvantage of using Li batteries on a commercial basis would be the environmental impact of the fluorocarbon material. Another would be the relatively high expense of (CF)n.

  17. Failure analysis of the lithium battery: A study of the header deposit on the cell top and diffusion within the electrode glass seal using nuclear microanalysis and FFTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Razi A.

    1991-10-01

    The Solid Rocket Booster Range Safety System (SRBRSS) uses a lithium/poly-carbon monofluoride primary battery as a source of electrical power. After cell fabrication and activation, some battery cells have shown self discharge. One possible source of this cell discharge has been suggested to be the formation and growth of a conducting crystallized chemical compound across the glass bead insulator, electrically shorting the glass bead to the casing. This laboratory has begun an analysis of this compound, the glass seal holding the cathode into place, and the cell electrolyte, using Fast Fourier Transform Infrared (FFTIR) Analysis, Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), and Nuclear Reaction Microanalysis. Preliminary measurements have confirmed the existence of lithium, nitrogen, fluorine, and oxygen on a reddish-brown deposit covering parts of the glass seal holding the positive electrode in place. Cells using Li metal electrodes, have many advantages over conventional primary batteries. One principal disadvantage of using Li batteries on a commercial basis would be the environmental impact of the fluorocarbon material. Another would be the relatively high expense of (CF)n.

  18. Igniter electrode life control

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J.C.

    1985-10-07

    The prevention of electrode material erosion by undercutting in the outer electrode shell of igniter electrodes of jet engine ignition systems is prevented by the application of an electrical insulation coating. The coating is applied to the surface of the outer electrode shell which faces the ceramic insulation around the center electrode where erosion patterns are known to occur. The insulation material is selected from electrical insulation substances such as oxides of aluminum, tungsten, magnesium, beryllium or zirconium by choosing a non-porous electrical-insulating substance with thermal-expansion characteristics approximately equalling those of the outer electrode shell. Since a typical outer electrode shell is composed of 446 stainless steel, an optimum choice for the electrical insulation coating is Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ deposited with a coating thickness of between 5 and 10 mils.

  19. Negative electrode composition

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Chilenskas, Albert A.

    1982-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell and a negative electrode composition for use therewith comprising a positive electrode containing an active material of a chalcogen or a transiton metal chalcogenide, a negative electrode containing a lithium-aluminum alloy and an amount of a ternary alloy sufficient to provide at least about 5 percent overcharge capacity relative to a negative electrode solely of the lithium-aluminum alloy, the ternary alloy comprising lithium, aluminum, and iron or cobalt, and an electrolyte containing lithium ions in contact with both of the positive and the negative electrodes. The ternary alloy is present in the electrode in the range of from about 5 percent to about 50 percent by weight of the electrode composition and may include lithium-aluminum-nickel alloy in combination with either the ternary iron or cobalt alloys. A plurality of series connected cells having overcharge capacity can be equalized on the discharge side without expensive electrical equipment.

  20. Carbon nanotube yarns for deep brain stimulation electrode.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Changqing; Li, Luming; Hao, Hongwei

    2011-12-01

    A new form of deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode was proposed that was made of carbon nanotube yarns (CNTYs). Electrode interface properties were examined using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS). The CNTY electrode interface exhibited large charge storage capacity (CSC) of 12.3 mC/cm(2) which increased to 98.6 mC/cm(2) after acid treatment, compared with 5.0 mC/cm(2) of Pt-Ir. Impedance spectrum of both untreated and treated CNTY electrodes showed that finite diffusion process occurred at the interface due to their porous structure and charge was delivered through capacitive mechanism. To evaluate stability electrical stimulus was exerted for up to 72 h and CV and EIS results of CNTY electrodes revealed little alteration. Therefore CNTY could make a good electrode material for DBS.

  1. Diffusion MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuyama, Hidenao

    Recent advances of magnetic resonance imaging have been described, especially stressed on the diffusion sequences. We have recently applied the diffusion sequence to functional brain imaging, and found the appropriate results. In addition to the neurosciences fields, diffusion weighted images have improved the accuracies of clinical diagnosis depending upon magnetic resonance images in stroke as well as inflammations.

  2. Electrode Configurations in Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lietz, Amanda M.; Kushner, Mark J.

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) are being studied for emerging medical applications including cancer treatment and wound healing. APPJs typically consist of a dielectric tube through which a rare gas flows, sometimes with an O2 or H2O impurity. In this paper, we present results from a computational study of APPJs using nonPDPSIM, a 2-D plasma hydrodynamics model, with the goal of providing insights on how the placement of electrodes can influence the production of reactive species. Gas consisting of He/O2 = 99.5/0.5 is flowed through a capillary tube at 2 slpm into humid air, and a pulsed DC voltage is applied. An APPJ with two external ring electrodes will be compared with one having a powered electrode inside and a ground electrode on the outside. The consequences on ionization wave propagation and the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) will be discussed. Changing the electrode configuration can concentrate the power deposition in volumes having different gas composition, resulting in different RONS production. An internal electrode can result in increased production of NOx and HNOx by increasing propagation of the ionization wave through the He dominated plume to outside of the tube where humid air is diffusing into the plume. Work supported by US DOE Office of Fusion Energy Science and the National Science Foundation.

  3. Plasmapause diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horwitz, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    The Bohm diffusion coefficient and observed electrostatic wave scattering are used as the bases of estimates of the smoothing effect that diffusion may have on steep plasmapause density gradients. The estimate for diffusion resulting from scattering by observed electrostatic waves is found to be much lower than that of the perpendicular Bohm diffusion coefficient for characteristic plasma temperatures and magnetic fields. This diffusion rate estimate may be too small, however, if the wave amplitudes are significantly higher for steep plasmapauses. The effects are therefore negligible for most considerations of macroscopic plasmapause dynamics, but may be significant in limiting drift wave instabilities and similar phenomena driven by the steepness of the plasmapause density gradient.

  4. The importance of electrode location in cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Brendan P; Hunter, Jacob B; Wanna, George B

    2016-12-01

    As indications for cochlear implantation have expanded to include patients with more residual hearing, increasing emphasis has been placed on minimally traumatic electrode insertion. Histopathologic evaluation remains the gold standard for evaluation of cochlear trauma, but advances in imaging techniques have allowed clinicians to determine scalar electrode location in vivo. This review will examine the relationship between scalar location of electrode arrays and audiologic outcomes. In addition, the impact that surgical approach, electrode design, and insertion depth have on scalar location will be evaluated. Data Sources: PubMed literature review Review Methods: A review of the current literature was conducted to analyze the relationship between scalar location of cochlear implant electrode arrays and speech perception outcomes. Further, data were reviewed to determine the impact that surgical variables have on scalar electrode location. Electrode insertions into the scala tympani are associated with superior speech perception and higher rates of hearing preservation. Lateral wall electrodes, and round window/extended round window approaches appear to maximize the likelihood of a scala tympani insertion. It does not appear that deeper insertions are associated with higher rates of scalar translocation. Superior audiologic outcomes are observed for electrode arrays inserted entirely within the scala tympani. The majority of clinical data demonstrate that lateral wall design and a round window approach increase the likelihood of a scala tympani insertion. N/A.

  5. Li + ion diffusion in nanoscale alumina coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannes, Michelle; Bernstein, Noam

    Nanoscale coatings of alumina are used to stabilize surfaces for a variety of technologies. Diffusion of ions through these coatings is of primary importance: in some cases, diffusion is unwanted (e.g. corrosion) and in others (e.g. electrode materials), it is necessary. In this work DFT and AIMD calculations are used to investigate Li+ ion diffusion through a nano-layer of alumina, examining the phase (alpha, gamma, and amorphous), ion concentration, and electron count dependence. We look at the role of the surface itself in promoting diffusion. One of our main findings is that as the number of ions or charge increases, the diffusivity rises. We show how our data can explain electrochemical data from coated LiCoO2 cathodes and may point toward better and more efficient coatings for stabilizing electrodes.

  6. Modeling of titanium diffusion into LiNbO3 using a depth-dependent diffusion coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, M.; Delâge, A.; Landheer, D.

    1986-10-01

    A theoretical description of the diffusion of a thin film of titanium (Ti) into a lithium niobate (LiNbO3) crystal is reported. A variable depth diffusion coefficient is used to explain the prominent lateral surface diffusion generally observed in the fabrication of Ti-diffused optical waveguides on non-Z-cut LiNbO3. A finite integral transform technique is used to solve the diffusion equation described by Fick's law. Since the enhanced lateral diffusion is usually ascribed to anisotropic diffusion, we compare our calculations with those obtained using different diffusion coefficients for each diffusion direction. The approach with a variable depth diffusion coefficient can explain the enhancement of lateral diffusion and the peak of Ti concentration close to the surface observed experimentally.

  7. Function Lateralization via Measuring Coherence Laterality

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ze; Mechanic-Hamilton, Dawn; Pluta, John; Glynn, Simon; Detre, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A data-driven approach for lateralization of brain function based on the spatial coherence difference of functional MRI (fMRI) data in homologous regions-of-interest (ROI) in each hemisphere is proposed. The utility of using coherence laterality (CL) to determine function laterality was assessed first by examining motor laterality using normal subjects’ data acquired both at rest and with a simple unilateral motor task and subsequently by examining mesial temporal lobe memory laterality in normal subjects and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. The motor task was used to demonstrate that CL within motor ROI correctly lateralized functional stimulation. In patients with unilateral epilepsy studied during a scene-encoding task, CL in a hippocampus-parahippocampus-fusiform (HPF) ROI was concordant with lateralization based on task activation, and the CL index (CLI) significantly differentiated the right side group to the left side group. By contrast, normal controls showed a symmetric HPF CLI distribution. Additionally, similar memory laterality prediction results were still observed using CL in epilepsy patients with unilateral seizures after the memory encoding effect was removed from the data, suggesting the potential for lateralization of pathological brain function based on resting fMRI data. A better lateralization was further achieved via a combination of the proposed approach and the standard activation based approach, demonstrating that assessment of spatial coherence changes provides a complementary approach to quantifying task-correlated activity for lateralizing brain function. PMID:19345736

  8. New electrode-barrier structures for high density ferroelectric memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedula, R.; Desu, C. S.; Tirumala, S.; Bhatt, H. D.; Desu, S. B.; Lee, K. B.

    2001-03-01

    In this paper, two electrode-barrier structures based on Pt-Rh and Pt-Ir alloys and their oxides are proposed for high-density ferroelectric memory applications. These electrode-barriers are multi-layered, comprising a diffusion barrier (PtRhOx or PtIrOx), metal alloy (PtRh or PtIr) and another PtRhOx or PtIrOx layer for fatigue reduction in the case of PZT capacitors. Both lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and strontium bismuth tantalate (SBT) capacitors based on the electrode-barriers were used in the present study. The electrode-barrier structure acts as a conducting electrode as well as an excellent diffusion barrier for lead, bismuth, oxygen and silicon. The PZT test capacitors fabricated on these electrode-barriers showed excellent fatigue resistance with other ferroelectric properties being similar to those on Pt. Also, these electrode-barriers are stable, and remain conductive even up to the processing temperatures of SBT (750 °C). This makes direct integration of both PZT and SBT capacitors on to a poly-Si plug attainable. In addition, the conducting electrode-barrier structures can be deposited in situ, directly over n+polycrystalline Si, thereby significantly improving the density of the device.

  9. Electrochemical hydrogenation of thiophene on SPE electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haiyan; Yuan, Penghui; Yu, Ying; Chung, Keng H.

    2017-01-01

    Electrochemical reduction desulfurization is a promising technology for petroleum refining which is environmental friendly, low cost and able to achieve a high degree of automation. Electrochemical hydrogenation of thiophene was performed in a three-electrode system which SPE electrode was the working electrode. The electrochemical desulfurization was studied by cyclic voltammetry and bulk electrolysis with coulometry (BEC) techniques. The results of cyclic voltammetry showed that the electrochemical hydrogenation reduction reaction occurred at -0.4V. The BEC results showed that the currents generated from thiophene hydrogenation reactions increased with temperature. According to Arrhenius equation, activation energy of thiophene electrolysis was calculated and lower activation energy value indicated it was diffusion controlled reaction. From the products of electrolytic reactions, the mechanisms of electrochemical hydrogenation of thiophene were proposed, consisting of two pathways: openingring followed by hydrogenation, and hydrogenation followed by ring opening.

  10. Uncharged positive electrode composition

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Vissers, Donald R.; Shimotake, Hiroshi

    1977-03-08

    An uncharged positive-electrode composition contains particulate lithium sulfide, another alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound other than sulfide, e.g., lithium carbide, and a transition metal powder. The composition along with a binder, such as electrolytic salt or a thermosetting resin is applied onto an electrically conductive substrate to form a plaque. The plaque is assembled as a positive electrode within an electrochemical cell opposite to a negative electrode containing a material such as aluminum or silicon for alloying with lithium. During charging, lithium alloy is formed within the negative electrode and transition metal sulfide such as iron sulfide is produced within the positive electrode. Excess negative electrode capacity over that from the transition metal sulfide is provided due to the electrochemical reaction of the other than sulfide alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound.

  11. Bifunctional alkaline oxygen electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; Mccatty, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe the identification and testing of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate-temperature, single-unit, rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Recent work on Na(x)Pt3O4, a potential bifunctional catalyst, is described, as well as the application of novel approaches to the development of more efficient bifunctional electrode structures. The three dual-character electrodes considered here showed similar superior performance; the Pt/RhO2 and Rh/RhO2 electrodes showed slightly better performance than the Pt/IrO2 electrode. It is concluded that Na(x)Pt3O4 continues to be a promising bifunctional oxygen electrode catalyst but requires further investigation and development.

  12. Nanoscopic electrode molecular probes

    DOEpatents

    Krstic, Predrag S [Knoxville, TN; Meunier, Vincent [Knoxville, TN

    2012-05-22

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for enhancing the electron transport property measurements of a molecule when the molecule is placed between chemically functionalized carbon-based nanoscopic electrodes to which a suitable voltage bias is applied. The invention includes selecting a dopant atom for the nanoscopic electrodes, the dopant atoms being chemically similar to atoms present in the molecule, and functionalizing the outer surface and terminations of the electrodes with the dopant atoms.

  13. Pocket ECG electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, Gordon F. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A low-noise electrode suited for sensing electrocardiograms when chronically and subcutaneously implanted in a free-ranging subject. The electrode comprises a pocket-shaped electrically conductive member with a single entrance adapted to receive body fluids. The exterior of the member and the entrance region is coated with electrical insulation so that the only electrolyte/electrode interface is within the member remote from artifact-generating tissue. Cloth straps are bonded to the member to permit the electrode to be sutured to tissue and to provide electrical lead flexure relief.

  14. Pocket ECG electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, G. F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A low noise electrode suited for sensing electrocardiograms when chronically and subcutaneously implanted in a free ranging subject is described. The electrode comprises a pocket shaped electrically conductive member with a single entrance adapted to receive body fluids. The exterior of the member and the entrance region is coated with electrical insulation so that the only electrolyte/electrode interface is within the member, remote from artifact-generating tissue. Cloth straps are bonded to the member to permit the electrode to be sutured to tissue and to provide electrical lead flexure relief.

  15. Griffith diffusers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T.-T.; Nelson, C. D.

    1979-01-01

    Contoured wall diffusers are designed by using an inverse method. The prescribed wall velocity distribution(s) was taken from the high lift airfoil designed by A. A. Griffith in 1938; therefore, such diffusers are named Griffith diffusers. First the formulation of the inverse problem and the method of solution are outlined. Then the typical contour of a two-dimensional diffuser and velocity distributions across the flow channel at various stations are presented. For a Griffith diffuser to operate as it is designed, boundary layer suction is necessary. Discussion of the percentage of through-flow required to be removed for the purpose of boundary layer control is given. Finally, reference is made to the latest version of a computer program for a two-dimensional diffuser requiring only area ratio, nondimensional length and suction percentage as inputs.

  16. Griffith diffusers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T.-T.; Nelson, C. D.

    1979-01-01

    Contoured wall diffusers are designed by using an inverse method. The prescribed wall velocity distribution(s) was taken from the high lift airfoil designed by A. A. Griffith in 1938; therefore, such diffusers are named Griffith diffusers. First the formulation of the inverse problem and the method of solution are outlined. Then the typical contour of a two-dimensional diffuser and velocity distributions across the flow channel at various stations are presented. For a Griffith diffuser to operate as it is designed, boundary layer suction is necessary. Discussion of the percentage of through-flow required to be removed for the purpose of boundary layer control is given. Finally, reference is made to the latest version of a computer program for a two-dimensional diffuser requiring only area ratio, nondimensional length and suction percentage as inputs.

  17. Adherence to guidelines when positioning the defibrillation electrodes.

    PubMed

    Nurmi, Jouni; Rosenberg, Per; Castrén, Maaret

    2004-05-01

    Placement of the defibrillation electrodes affects the transmyocardial current and thus the success of a defibrillation attempt. In the international guidelines 2000, the placement of the apical electrode was changed more laterally to the mid-axillary line. Finnish national guidelines, based on the international guidelines, were published in 2002. The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent health care professionals adhere to the new guidelines when positioning the electrodes. Professionals were recruited from emergency medical services, university hospitals and primary care. Not revealing the purpose of the test, participants were asked to place self-adhesive electrodes on a manikin as they would do in the resuscitation situation and to answer a questionnaire about resuscitation training and familiarity with the guidelines. The distance of electrodes from the recommended position was measured in horizontal and vertical planes. One-hundred and thirty six professionals participated in the study, and only 25.4% (95% CI 18.5-32.9) of them placed both electrodes within 5 cm from the recommended position. The majority of the participants placed the apical electrode too anteriorly. Of the participants, 36.0% were not aware of the new guidelines. Awareness of the guidelines did not increase the accuracy in electrode placement. The publication of the national evidence based resuscitation guidelines did not seem to have influenced the practice of placement of the defibrillation electrodes to any major extent. The correct placement of the electrodes needs be emphasized more in the resuscitation training.

  18. Micro-agar salt bridge in patch-clamp electrode holder stabilizes electrode potentials

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Xuesi M.; Feldman, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining a stable electrode potential is critical for patch-clamp measurements. The electrode potential of conventional patch electrode-holder assembly, where an Ag/AgCl wire is in direct contact with the patch pipette filling solution, is subject to drift if the pipette solution contains a low concentration of chloride ions (Cl−). We developed an agar bridge of 3 M KCl filled in a polyimide microtubing which forms an electrical connection between an Ag/AgCl wire and the pipette solution. We examined the offset potentials of the micro-agar salt bridge electrode assembly in parallel with a conventional electrode assembly in generic recording conditions (the pipette solution contained 5 mM NaCl). The junction potential between the Ag/AgCl wire and the pipette filling solution in the conventional electrode contributed to most of the offset potential drift observed during the course of 30 min recordings. The drift was up to 27.3 mV after several changes of the glass pipette. In contrast, the micro-agar salt bridge stabilized the electrode potential within typically 2 mV without affecting the patch electrode resistance, capacitance or noise level. Numerical simulations showed that Cl− diffusion from the agar bridge to the tip caused a negligible 0.4 μM Cl− concentration change at the pipette tip within 30 min. This method is easy to implement and provides long-term recording stability. The micro-agar salt bridge can fit in most commercial patch electrode holders and can be conveniently maintained. PMID:16916545

  19. Potentiostat for Characterizing Microstructures at Ionic Liquid/Electrode Interfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-10

    characterize these materials. For example, we have also fabricated TiO2 and ZnO semiconducting mesopourous thin film electrodes with and without...electroactive species. Table 1 below presents preliminary transport data for TiO2 and HTNT mesoporous films. The diffusion coefficients for methylene blue...calculated by CV experiments for a bare ITO working electrode as well as TiO2 and HTNT mesoporous films. Data collected with the new Biologic VMP

  20. Electrode stabilizing materials

    DOEpatents

    Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali; Moore, Jeffrey S.; Odom, Susan A.

    2015-11-03

    An electrolyte includes a polar aprotic solvent; an alkali metal salt; and an electrode stabilizing compound that is a monomer, which when polymerized forms an electrically conductive polymer. The electrode stabilizing compound is a thiophene, a imidazole, a anilines, a benzene, a azulene, a carbazole, or a thiol. Electrochemical devices may incorporate such electrolytes.

  1. Long term flight electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosier, B.

    1975-01-01

    The reproducibility, stability, and methods of preparation for the various types and forms of biomedical electrodes are discussed. A critical and selective compilation of information on biological and/or physiological electrodes is presented. A discussion of plant hydrocolloids, clays, hydrophyllic colloids, synthetic waxes, and acrylic polymers is included.

  2. Amperometric Enzyme Electrodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    and C. Lyons. "Electrode systems for continuous monitoring in cardiomuscula murgery," Ann. NY Acad. Sci.. 102 (1962). 20-45. [6]. 1. J. Updike mid G...Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons: New York (1980). 197-236. [2]. L D. Mell and J. T. Maloy, "A Model for the Amperometric Enzyme Electrode Obtained through

  3. Membrane Bioprobe Electrodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rechnitz, Garry A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the design of ion selective electrodes coupled with immobilized enzymes which operate either continuously or on drop-sized samples. Cites techniques for urea, L-phenylalanine and amygdalin. Micro size electrodes for use in single cells are discussed. (GH)

  4. Membrane Bioprobe Electrodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rechnitz, Garry A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the design of ion selective electrodes coupled with immobilized enzymes which operate either continuously or on drop-sized samples. Cites techniques for urea, L-phenylalanine and amygdalin. Micro size electrodes for use in single cells are discussed. (GH)

  5. Effect of Electrode Configuration on Nitric Oxide Gas Sensor Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ling; Murray, Erica P.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of electrode configuration on the impedancemetric response of nitric oxide (NO) gas sensors was investigated for solid electrochemical cells [Au/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/Au)]. Fabrication of the sensors was carried out at 1050 °C in order to establish a porous YSZ electrolyte that enabled gas diffusion. Two electrode configurations were studied where Au wire electrodes were either embedded within or wrapped around the YSZ electrolyte. The electrical response of the sensors was collected via impedance spectroscopy under various operating conditions where gas concentrations ranged from 0 to 100 ppm NO and 1%–18% O2 at temperatures varying from 600 to 700 °C. Gas diffusion appeared to be a rate-limiting mechanism in sensors where the electrode configuration resulted in longer diffusion pathways. The temperature dependence of the NO sensors studied was independent of the electrode configuration. Analysis of the impedance data, along with equivalent circuit modeling indicated the electrode configuration of the sensor effected gas and ionic transport pathways, capacitance behavior, and NO sensitivity. PMID:26404312

  6. HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRODES

    DOEpatents

    Murray, J.J.

    1963-04-23

    S>This patent relates to electrode structure for creating an intense direct current electric field which may have a field strength of the order of two to three times that heretofore obtained, with automatic suppression of arcing. The positive electrode is a conventional conductive material such as copper while the negative electrode is made from a special material having a resistivity greater than that of good conductors and less than that of good insulators. When an incipient arc occurs, the moderate resistivity of the negative electrode causes a momentary, localized decrease in the electric field intensity, thus suppressing the flow of electrons and avoiding arcing. Heated glass may be utilized for the negative electrode, since it provides the desired combination of resistivity, capacity, dielectric strength, mechani-cal strength, and thermal stability. (AEC)

  7. Uphill transport membrane electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Uto, M.; Yoshida, H.; Sugawara, M.; Umezawa, Y.

    1986-07-01

    A new membrane electrode was constructed in which carrier-mediated uphill transport of analytes is incorporated. The electrode can boost selectively virtual concentration of specific analytes by uphill transport against their concentration gradient across a built-in liquid membrane into its inner filling solution, whose volume is purposely made very small. Cd(II), UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/, and Cu(II) ion uphill transport membrane electrodes constructed here as illustrative examples utilize three different types of input energies, i.e., complexation, concentration gradient, and redox, respectively, for uphill transport of each analyte. Voltammetric detections were demonstrated for Cd(II) and UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/ ion uphill transport electrodes, and a potentiometric detection for a Cu(II) ion uphill transport membrane electrode is also described in terms of fundamental behaviors and a possible use for a new type of electrochemical sensor.

  8. Microstructure of room temperature ionic liquids at stepped graphite electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Guang; Li, Song; Zhao, Wei; Cummings, Peter T.

    2015-07-14

    Molecular dynamics simulations of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) [emim][TFSI] at stepped graphite electrodes were performed to investigate the influence of the thickness of the electrode surface step on the microstructure of interfacial RTILs. A strong correlation was observed between the interfacial RTIL structure and the step thickness in electrode surface as well as the ion size. Specifically, when the step thickness is commensurate with ion size, the interfacial layering of cation/anion is more evident; whereas, the layering tends to be less defined when the step thickness is close to the half of ion size. Furthermore, two-dimensional microstructure of ion layers exhibits different patterns and alignments of counter-ion/co-ion lattice at neutral and charged electrodes. As the cation/anion layering could impose considerable effects on ion diffusion, the detailed information of interfacial RTILs at stepped graphite presented here would help to understand the molecular mechanism of RTIL-electrode interfaces in supercapacitors.

  9. Advanced catalytic electrode development for nickel-hydrogen batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, D.K.; Grindstaff, B.K.; Hoofnagle, P.S.; Chiappetti, D.P.

    1995-12-31

    Low catalyst loading gas diffusion membrane electrodes have been developed for spaceflight qualified nickel-hydrogen (NiH{sub 2}) batteries. These electrodes involve the use of new electrode designs and innovative manufacturing methods. Supported catalysts, mixed catalysts and alterative catalyst systems have been developed to decrease catalyst loading levels, and therefore reduce electrode cost, without reducing performance or reliability. This advanced electrode technology has currently accumulated more than 13,000 charge/discharge cycles in real-time, low-earth-orbit (LEO) testing. The technology has been incorporated into several nickel-hydrogen spaceflight programs including the TUBSAT B spacecraft, built by the Technical University of Berlin and launched in January of 1994 aboard a Russian Cyclone rocket.

  10. Lipid diffusion in alcoholic environment.

    PubMed

    Rifici, Simona; Corsaro, Carmelo; Crupi, Cristina; Nibali, Valeria Conti; Branca, Caterina; D'Angelo, Giovanna; Wanderlingh, Ulderico

    2014-08-07

    We have studied the effects of a high concentration of butanol and octanol on the phase behavior and on the lateral mobility of 1,2-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) by means of differential scanning calorimetry and pulsed-gradient stimulated-echo (PGSTE) NMR spectroscopy. A lowering of the lipid transition from the gel to the liquid-crystalline state for the membrane-alcohol systems has been observed. NMR measurements reveal three distinct diffusions in the DPPC-alcohol systems, characterized by a high, intermediate, and slow diffusivity, ascribed to the water, the alcohol, and the lipid, respectively. The lipid diffusion process is promoted in the liquid phase while it is hindered in the interdigitated phase due to the presence of alcohols. Furthermore, in the interdigitated phase, lipid lateral diffusion coefficients show a slight temperature dependence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that lateral diffusion coefficients on alcohol with so a long chain, and at low temperatures, are reported. By the Arrhenius plots of the temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficients, we have evaluated the apparent activation energy in both the liquid and in the interdigitated phase. The presence of alcohol increases this value in both phases. An explanation in terms of a free volume model that takes into account also for energy factors is proposed.

  11. Cytoplasmic hydrogen ion diffusion coefficient.

    PubMed Central

    al-Baldawi, N F; Abercrombie, R F

    1992-01-01

    The apparent cytoplasmic proton diffusion coefficient was measured using pH electrodes and samples of cytoplasm extracted from the giant neuron of a marine invertebrate. By suddenly changing the pH at one surface of the sample and recording the relaxation of pH within the sample, an apparent diffusion coefficient of 1.4 +/- 0.5 x 10(-6) cm2/s (N = 7) was measured in the acidic or neutral range of pH (6.0-7.2). This value is approximately 5x lower than the diffusion coefficient of the mobile pH buffers (approximately 8 x 10(-6) cm2/s) and approximately 68x lower than the diffusion coefficient of the hydronium ion (93 x 10(-6) cm2/s). A mobile pH buffer (approximately 15% of the buffering power) and an immobile buffer (approximately 85% of the buffering power) could quantitatively account for the results at acidic or neutral pH. At alkaline pH (8.2-8.6), the apparent proton diffusion coefficient increased to 4.1 +/- 0.8 x 10(-6) cm2/s (N = 7). This larger diffusion coefficient at alkaline pH could be explained quantitatively by the enhanced buffering power of the mobile amino acids. Under the conditions of these experiments, it is unlikely that hydroxide movement influences the apparent hydrogen ion diffusion coefficient. PMID:1617134

  12. Electrode performance parameters for a radioisotope-powered AMTEC for space power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, M. L.; O'Connor, D.; Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.; Bankston, C. P.

    1992-01-01

    The alkali metal thermoelastic converter (AMTEC) is a device for the direct conversion of heat to electricity. Recently a design of an AMTEC using a radioisotope heat source was described, but the optimum condenser temperature was hotter than the temperatures used in the laboratory to develop the electrode performance model. Now laboratory experiments have confirmed the dependence of two model parameters over a broader range of condenser and electrode temperatures for two candidate electrode compositions. One parameter, the electrochemical exchange current density at the reaction interface, is independent of the condenser temperature, and depends only upon the collision rate of sodium at the reaction zone. The second parameter, a morphological parameter, which measures the mass transport resistance through the electrode, is independent of condenser and electrode temperatures for molybdenum electrodes. For rhodium-tungsten electrodes, however, this parameter increases for decreasing electrode temperature, indicating an activated mass transport mechanism such as surface diffusion.

  13. Electrodes for sealed secondary batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boies, D. B.; Child, F. T.

    1972-01-01

    Self-supporting membrane electrode structures, in which active ingredients and graphite are incorporated in a polymeric matrix, improve performance of electrodes in miniature, sealed, alkaline storage batteries.

  14. Layered electrode for electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Swathirajan, Swathy; Mikhail, Youssef M.

    2001-01-01

    There is provided an electrode structure comprising a current collector sheet and first and second layers of electrode material. Together, the layers improve catalyst utilization and water management.

  15. Measuring electrode assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bordenick, John E.

    1989-01-01

    A pH measuring electrode assembly for immersion in a solution includes an enclosed cylindrical member having an aperture at a lower end thereof. An electrolyte is located in the cylindrical member above the level of the aperture and an electrode is disposed in this electrolyte. A ring formed of an ion porous material is mounted relative to the cylindrical member so that a portion of this ring is rotatable relative to and is covering the aperture in the cylindrical member. A suitable mechanism is also provided for indicating which one of a plurality of portions of the ring is covering the aperture and to keep track of which portions of the ring have already been used and become clogged. Preferably, the electrode assembly also includes a glass electrode member in the center thereof including a second electrolyte and electrode disposed therein. The cylindrical member is resiliently mounted relative to the glass electrode member to provide for easy rotation of the cylindrical member relative to the glass electrode member for changing of the portion of the ring covering the aperture.

  16. Measuring electrode assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bordenick, J.E.

    1988-04-26

    A pH measuring electrode assembly for immersion in a solution includes an enclosed cylindrical member having an aperture at a lower end thereof. An electrolyte is located in the cylindrical member above the level of the aperture and an electrode is disposed in this electrolyte. A ring formed of an ion porous material is mounted relative to the cylindrical member so that a portion of this ring is rotatable relative to and is covering the aperture in the cylindrical member. A suitable mechanism is also provided for indicating which one of a plurality of portions of the ring is covering the aperture and to keep track of which portions of the ring have already been used and become clogged. Preferably, the electrode assembly also includes a glass electrode member in the center thereof including a second electrolyte and electrode disposed therein. The cylindrical member is resiliently mounted relative to the glass electrode member to provide for easy rotation of the cylindrical member relative to the glass electrode member for changing of the portion of the ring covering the aperture. 2 figs.

  17. An Investigation of Lateral Modes in FBAR Resonators.

    PubMed

    Jamneala, Tiberiu; Bradley, Paul; Shirakawa, Alexandre; Thalhammer, Robert; Ruby, Richard

    2016-02-24

    Using first principles and the constitutive equations for a piezoelectric, we solve the 2D acoustic wave inside a single, infinite, piezoelectric membrane in order to study the dispersion of Thin Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator (FBAR) lateral modes, with and without infinitely-thin electrodes. The acoustic eigenfunction is a dual wave, composed of longitudinal and shear components, able to satisfy the 2D acoustic boundary conditions at the vacuum interfaces. For the single piezoelectric slab we obtain analytical expressions of the dispersion for frequencies near the longitudinal resonant frequency (Fs) of the resonator. These expressions are more useful for the understanding of dispersion in FBARs and more elegant than numerical methods like Finite Element Modeling (FEM) and various matrix methods. We additionally find that the interaction between the resonator's electrodes and the acoustic wave modifies the lateral mode dispersion when compared to the case with no electrodes. When correctly accounting for these interactions the dispersion zero is placed clearly at Fs, unlike what is calculated from a 2D model without electrodes where the dispersion zero is placed at Fp. This is important since all experimental evidence of measures FBAR resonators shows that the dispersion zero is at Fs. Furthermore, we introduce an electrical current flow model for the propagating acoustic wave inside the electroded piezoelectric and based on this model we can discuss an electrode-loss mechanism for FBAR lateral modes which depends on dispersion. From our model it results that lateral modes with real kx have higher electrode dissipation if they are closer to the resonant frequency. This is consistent with the typical behavior of measured FBAR filters where the maximum lateral mode damage on the insertion loss takes place for frequencies immediately below Fs.

  18. Electrode-electrolyte interface model of tripolar concentric ring electrode and electrode paste.

    PubMed

    Nasrollaholhosseini, Seyed Hadi; Steele, Preston; Besio, Walter G

    2016-08-01

    Electrodes are used to transform ionic currents to electrical currents in biological systems. Modeling the electrode-electrolyte interface could help to optimize the performance of the electrode interface to achieve higher signal to noise ratios. There are previous reports of accurate models for single-element biomedical electrodes. In this paper we develop a model for the electrode-electrolyte interface for tripolar concentric ring electrodes (TCRE) that are used to record brain signals.

  19. Diffuse charge dynamics in ionic thermoelectrochemical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, Robert F.; Khair, Aditya S.

    2017-08-01

    Thermoelectrics are increasingly being studied as promising electrical generators in the ongoing search for alternative energy sources. In particular, recent experimental work has examined thermoelectric materials containing ionic charge carriers; however, the majority of mathematical modeling has been focused on their steady-state behavior. Here, we determine the time scales over which the diffuse charge dynamics in ionic thermoelectrochemical systems occur by analyzing the simplest model thermoelectric cell: a binary electrolyte between two parallel, blocking electrodes. We consider the application of a temperature gradient across the device while the electrodes remain electrically isolated from each other. This results in a net voltage, called the thermovoltage, via the Seebeck effect. At the same time, the Soret effect results in migration of the ions toward the cold electrode. The charge dynamics are described mathematically by the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations for dilute solutions, in which the ion flux is driven by electromigration, Brownian diffusion, and thermal diffusion under a temperature gradient. The temperature evolves according to the heat equation. This nonlinear set of equations is linearized in the (experimentally relevant) limit of a "weak" temperature gradient. From this, we show that the time scale on which the thermovoltage develops is the Debye time, 1 /D κ2 , where D is the Brownian diffusion coefficient of both ion species, and κ-1 is the Debye length. However, the concentration gradient due to the Soret effect develops on the bulk diffusion time, L2/D , where L is the distance between the electrodes. For thin diffuse layers, which is the condition under which most real devices operate, the Debye time is orders of magnitude less than the diffusion time. Therefore, rather surprisingly, the majority of ion motion occurs after the steady thermovoltage has developed. Moreover, the dynamics are independent of the thermal diffusion

  20. Electrode for electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.; Nelson, P.A.; Miller, W.E.

    1980-05-09

    An electrode structure for a secondary electrochemical cell includes an outer enclosure defining a compartment containing electrochemical active material. The enclosure includes a rigid electrically conductive metal sheet with perforated openings over major side surfaces. The enclosure can be assembled as first and second trays each with a rigid sheet of perforated electrically conductive metal at major side surfaces and normally extending flanges at parametric margins. The trays can be pressed together with moldable active material between the two to form an expandable electrode. A plurality of positive and negative electrodes thus formed are arranged in an alternating array with porous frangible interelectrode separators within the housing of the secondary electrochemical cell.

  1. Electrode for electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Nelson, Paul A.; Miller, William E.

    1981-01-01

    An electrode structure for a secondary electrochemical cell includes an outer enclosure defining a compartment containing electrochemical active material. The enclosure includes a rigid electrically conductive metal sheet with perforated openings over major side surfaces. The enclosure can be assembled as first and second trays each with a rigid sheet of perforated electrically conductive metal at major side surfaces and normally extending flanges at parametric margins. The trays can be pressed together with moldable active material between the two to form an expandable electrode. A plurality of positive and negative electrodes thus formed are arranged in an alternating array with porous frangible interelectrode separators within the housing of the secondary electrochemical cell.

  2. Investigation of copper electrodes for mercuric iodide detector applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, X.J.; Schlesinger, T.E. ); James, R.B.; Stulen, R.H. ); Ortale, C.; van den Berg, L. )

    1990-06-15

    Copper diffusion in mercuric iodide was studied by low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. A broad radiative emission band at a wavelength of about 6720 A in the PL spectra was found to be related to Cu incorporation in the crystal. PL spectra obtained from surface doping experiments indicate that Cu is a rapid diffuser in HgI{sub 2} bulk material. Auger electron spectroscopy performed as a function of depth from the crystal surface confirms the rapid bulk diffusion process of Cu in HgI{sub 2}. Fabrication of HgI{sub 2} nuclear detectors with Cu electrodes indicates that Cu is not acceptable as an electrode material, which is consistent with the fact that it diffuses easily into the bulk crystal and introduces new radiative recombination centers.

  3. EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND CONTAMINATION ON MPCMS ELECTRODES IN 241-AY-101 AND 241-AN-107 TANK WASTE SIMULANTS

    SciTech Connect

    CATO DM; DAHL MM; PHILO GL; EDGEMON GL; BELL DR.JLS; MOORE CG

    2010-03-26

    This report documents the results of tests designed to characterize the relationship between temperature and the measured potential of electrodes installed on multi-probe corrosion monitoring systems in waste tanks. This report also documents the results of tests designed to demonstrate the impact of liquid in-leakage into electrode bodies as well as the contamination of primary reference electrodes by diffusion through the electrode tip.

  4. [Lateral retinacular release].

    PubMed

    Verdonk, P; Bonte, F; Verdonk, R

    2008-09-01

    This overview of numerous studies discusses, based on short-term and long-term results, which diagnoses are indications for lateral retinacular release. No significant differences in outcome between arthroscopic and open lateral release could be documented. Isolated lateral release offers a good success rate for treating a stable patella with excessive lateral pressure. In patellar instability, the results are less favorable in long-term follow-up evaluation. Hyperlaxity with hypermobility of the patella is an absolute contraindication. Lateral release provides only temporary benefit for patellofemoral osteoarthritis. Proximal and/or distal realignment of the extensor mechanism gives better results than isolated lateral release.

  5. Single file diffusion in microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutenberg, Andrew; Farrell, Spencer; Brown, Aidan

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the single file diffusion (SFD) of large particles entering a confined tubular geometry, such as luminal diffusion of proteins inside microtubules or flagella. While single-file effects have no effect on particle density, we report significant single-file effects for individually-tracked tracer particle motion. Both exact and approximate ordering statistics of particles entering semi-infinite tubes agree well with our stochastic simulations. Considering initially empty semi-infinite tubes, with particles entering at one end starting from an initial time t = 0 , tracked particles display super-diffusive effective exponents just after they enter the system and trends towards diffusive exponents at later times. Equivalently, if diffusive exponents are assumed the effective diffusivity is reduced at early times and enhanced at later times through a logarithmic factor logN , where N is the number of particles in the tube. When we number each particle from the first (n = 1) to the most recent (n = N), we find good scaling collapse of the effective diffusivity for all n. Techniques that track individual particles, or local groups of particles, such as photo-activation or photobleaching, will exhibit single-file effects.

  6. Electrodes for solid state devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickler, D. B. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The invention relates to coated metal powders and to dispersions of such powders in liquid vehicles forming screenable, sinterable pastes for use in forming electrodes on photovoltaic devices. The primary nickel or copper metal particles are provided with a carrier of lower melting sintering metals such as 1-20% by weight, of a non-oxidizing metal such as lead or tin. The powdered metal systems operate on the basis of fusing together by way of eutectic alloying. As the paste is heated during firing the organic binder is first vaporized. An eutectic of the base metal (copper) and coating (tin) forms at the intersections of the base metal grains. This eutectic dissolves the grains and as the temperature is raised above the eutectic temperature, more of the base metal is dissolved. While the temperature is held at the higher value, the much smaller amount of sintering metal disappears as the eutectic dissolves and diffuses into the base metal until the composition of the eutectic is so enriched with base metal that it no longer has the eutectic properties and it solidifies. In this high temperature solidification, the base metal grains became thoroughly alloyed together and will not separate at the eutectic temperature (a lower temperature than their solidification by diffusion).

  7. Diffuse radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A diffuse celestial radiation which is isotropic at least on a course scale were measured from the soft X-ray region to about 150 MeV, at which energy the intensity falls below that of the galactic emission for most galactic latitudes. The spectral shape, the intensity, and the established degree of isotropy of this diffuse radiation already place severe constraints on the possible explanations for this radiation. Among the extragalactic theories, the more promising explanations of the isotropic diffuse emission appear to be radiation from exceptional galaxies from matter antimatter annihilation at the boundaries of superclusters of galaxies of matter and antimatter in baryon symmetric big bang models. Other possible sources for extragalactic diffuse gamma radiation are discussed and include normal galaxies, clusters of galaxies, primordial cosmic rays interacting with intergalactic matter, primordial black holes, and cosmic ray leakage from galaxies.

  8. Lateral Programmable Metallization Cell Devices And Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Minghan

    2011-12-01

    Programmable Metallization Cell (PMC) is a technology platform which utilizes mass transport in solid or liquid electrolyte coupled with electrochemical (redox) reactions to form or remove nanoscale metallic electrodeposits on or in the electrolyte. The ability to redistribute metal mass and form metallic nanostructure in or on a structure in situ, via the application of a bias on laterally placed electrodes, creates a large number of promising applications. A novel PMC-based lateral microwave switch was fabricated and characterized for use in microwave systems. It has demonstrated low insertion loss, high isolation, low voltage operation, low power and low energy consumption, and excellent linearity. Due to its non-volatile nature the switch operates with fewer biases and its simple planar geometry makes possible innovative device structures which can be potentially integrated into microwave power distribution circuits. PMC technology is also used to develop lateral dendritic metal electrodes. A lateral metallic dendritic network can be grown in a solid electrolyte (GeSe) or electrodeposited on SiO2 or Si using a water-mediated method. These dendritic electrodes grown in a solid electrolyte (GeSe) can be used to lower resistances for applications like self-healing interconnects despite its relatively low light transparency; while the dendritic electrodes grown using water-mediated method can be potentially integrated into solar cell applications, like replacing conventional Ag screen-printed top electrodes as they not only reduce resistances but also are highly transparent. This research effort also laid a solid foundation for developing dendritic plasmonic structures. A PMC-based lateral dendritic plasmonic structure is a device that has metallic dendritic networks grown electrochemically on SiO2 with a thin layer of surface metal nanoparticles in liquid electrolyte. These structures increase the distribution of particle sizes by connecting pre-deposited Ag

  9. Roles of Bulk and Surface Chemistry in the Oxygen Exchange Kinetics and Related Properties of Mixed Conducting Perovskite Oxide Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Nicola H.; Ishihara, Tatsumi

    2016-01-01

    Mixed conducting perovskite oxides and related structures serving as electrodes for electrochemical oxygen incorporation and evolution in solid oxide fuel and electrolysis cells, respectively, play a significant role in determining the cell efficiency and lifetime. Desired improvements in catalytic activity for rapid surface oxygen exchange, fast bulk transport (electronic and ionic), and thermo-chemo-mechanical stability of oxygen electrodes will require increased understanding of the impact of both bulk and surface chemistry on these properties. This review highlights selected work at the International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (I2CNER), Kyushu University, set in the context of work in the broader community, aiming to characterize and understand relationships between bulk and surface composition and oxygen electrode performance. Insights into aspects of bulk point defect chemistry, electronic structure, crystal structure, and cation choice that impact carrier concentrations and mobilities, surface exchange kinetics, and chemical expansion coefficients are emerging. At the same time, an understanding of the relationship between bulk and surface chemistry is being developed that may assist design of electrodes with more robust surface chemistries, e.g., impurity tolerance or limited surface segregation. Ion scattering techniques (e.g., secondary ion mass spectrometry, SIMS, or low energy ion scattering spectroscopy, LEIS) with high surface sensitivity and increasing lateral resolution are proving useful for measuring surface exchange kinetics, diffusivity, and corresponding outer monolayer chemistry of electrodes exposed to typical operating conditions. Beyond consideration of chemical composition, the use of strain and/or a high density of active interfaces also show promise for enhancing performance. PMID:28773978

  10. Electrode-electrolyte interface impedance: experiments and model.

    PubMed

    Bates, J B; Chu, Y T

    1992-01-01

    The impedance of the junction between a solid or aqueous electrolyte and a metal electrode at which no charge transfer processes occur (blocking contacts) follows closely the constant phase angle form, Z = A(j omega)-n, over a wide frequency range, where A is a constant, and the frequency exponent n is typically in the range of 0.7 to 0.95. Several models have been proposed in which the magnitude of the frequency exponent n is related by a simple expression to the fractal dimension d of the rough electrode surface. But experiments with aqueous H2SO4 and roughened platinum and silicon electrodes show that there is no simple relationship, if any at all, between n and d when d is determined from the analysis of one dimensional surface profiles. Moreover, n is not a simple function of the average roughness of the electrode. In order to gain some insight into the effect of electrode topography and the interface impedance, a model for the response of the interface to a constant voltage pulse was constructed. This model is based on the idea that, following a pulse, locally concentrated regions of ions accumulate rapidly at the tips of large protrusions on the electrode surface which screens deeper regions of the electrode from the field driven flux of mobile ions. After this rapid charging, ions are able to reach the deeper, screened regions of the electrode by diffusion, and it is this diffusive process that gives rise to the observed t1-n dependence of the charge collected. Computer simulations, similar to the diffusion limited aggregation model, using measured profiles as fixed (non-growing) clusters, gave exponents n in good agreement with experiment.

  11. Improved capacitive EKG electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, J. L.; Griffith, M. E.; Portnox, W. M.; Stotts, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    Light, compact electrode monitors heart signals through burn ointment and requires no electrolyte paste for coupling to skin. Innovation is useful because of its ability to monitor heart condition of burn victims.

  12. Improved capacitive EKG electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, J. L.; Griffith, M. E.; Portnox, W. M.; Stotts, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    Light, compact electrode monitors heart signals through burn ointment and requires no electrolyte paste for coupling to skin. Innovation is useful because of its ability to monitor heart condition of burn victims.

  13. Giant-electrode welder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, B. R.; Chihoski, R. A.; Yashiro, F.

    1979-01-01

    Welder produces spot-welds in place of rivets and saves time and money. Unit comprised of concical copper electrode base diameter of 11.5 ft is also capable of welding very thin, hard aluminum alloys.

  14. The Anodic Stripping Voltammetric Analysis of Chromium Using the Hanging Mercury Drop Electrode.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-23

    suppressing the electronic noise level, or by measuring instantaneous concentrations in the diffusion layer of the electrode. Increasing the flux of...called the Nernst diffusion layer, 6o (see Figure 2). Nernst ( 3 ) assumed that no convective electrolyte motion occurs within the diffusion layer, that...the concentration gradient of the electroactive species is given solely by diffusion and that it is linear. From this assumption the concentration

  15. Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis)

    MedlinePlus

    .org Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis) Page ( 1 ) Tennis elbow, or lateral epicondyliti s, is a painful condition of the elbow caused by overuse. Not surprisingly, playing tennis or other racquet sports can cause ...

  16. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (a-my-o-TROE-fik LAT-ur-ul skluh-ROE-sis), or ALS, is a progressive nervous system (neurological) disease that ...

  17. Lateralization of cortical negative motor areas.

    PubMed

    Borggraefe, Ingo; Catarino, Claudia B; Rémi, Jan; Vollmar, Christian; Peraud, Aurelia; Winkler, Peter A; Noachtar, Soheyl

    2016-10-01

    The lateral and mesial aspects of the central and frontal cortex were studied by direct electrical stimulation of the cortex in epilepsy surgery candidates in order to determine the localization of unilateral and bilateral negative motor responses. Results of electrical cortical stimulation were examined in epilepsy surgery candidates in whom invasive electrodes were implanted. The exact localization of subdural electrodes was defined by fusion of 3-dimensional reconstructed MRI and CT images in 13 patients and by analysis of plane skull X-rays and intraoperative visual localization of the electrodes in another 7 patients. Results of electrical stimulation of the cortex were evaluated in a total of 128 patients in whom invasive electrodes were implanted for planning resective epilepsy surgery. Twenty patients, in whom negative motor responses were obtained, were included in the study. Bilateral upper limb negative motor responses were more often elicited from stimulation of the mesial frontal cortex whereas stimulation of the lateral central cortex leads to contralateral upper limb negative motor responses (p<0.0001). Bilateral negative motor responses were exclusively found in the superior frontal gyrus whereas contralateral negative motor responses localized predominantly in the anterior part of the precentral gyrus (p<0.0001). Exact localization using 3-D fusion methods revealed that negative motor areas are widely distributed throughout the precentral gyrus and the mesial fronto-central cortex showing functional differences with regard to unilateral and bilateral upper limb representation. The lateral fronto-central negative motor area serves predominantly contralateral upper limb motor control whereas the mesial frontal negative motor area represents bilateral upper limb movement control. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Techniques of Electrode Fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Liang; Li, Xinyong; Chen, Guohua

    Electrochemical applications using many kinds of electrode materials as an advanced oxidation/reduction technique have been a focus of research by a number of groups during the last two decades. The electrochemical approach has been adopted successfully to develop various environmental applications, mainly including water and wastewater treatment, aqueous system monitoring, and solid surface analysis. In this chapter, a number of methods for the fabrication of film-structured electrode materials were selectively reviewed. Firstly, the thermal decomposition method is briefly described, followed by introducing chemical vapor deposition (CVD) strategy. Especially, much attention was focused on introducing the methods to produce diamond novel film electrode owing to its unique physical and chemical properties. The principle and influence factors of hot filament CVD and plasma enhanced CVD preparation were interpreted by refereeing recent reports. Finally, recent developments that address electro-oxidation/reduction issues and novel electrodes such as nano-electrode and boron-doped diamond electrode (BDD) are presented in the overview.

  19. Conducting polymer electrodes for electroencephalography.

    PubMed

    Leleux, Pierre; Badier, Jean-Michel; Rivnay, Jonathan; Bénar, Christian; Hervé, Thierry; Chauvel, Patrick; Malliaras, George G

    2014-04-01

    Conducting polymer electrodes are developed on a flexible substrate for electroencephalography applications. These electrodes yield higher quality recordings than dry electrodes made from metal. Their performance is equivalent to commercial gel-assisted electrodes, paving the way for non-invasive, long-term monitoring of the human brain.

  20. Millisecond dynamics of thermal expansion of mechanically controllable break junction electrodes studied in the tunneling regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnychenko, O. Yu.; Toonen, A. J.; Shklyarevskii, O. I.; van Kempen, H.

    2001-10-01

    The thermal expansion dynamics of W, Pt-Ir, and Au mechanically controllable break junction electrodes was studied in the millisecond range. By measuring a transient tunnel current as a function of time, we found that, at low temperatures, the electrode elongation Δs˜t1/2 due to the large values of thermal diffusivity of metals. The magnitude of Δs varies in direct proportion to the power P dissipated in the electrodes.

  1. Lateral flow strip assay

    DOEpatents

    Miles, Robin R [Danville, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA; Pearson, Francesca S [Livermore, CA; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L [Livermore, CA

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  2. Diffuser Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-09-13

    Tests begun at Stennis Space Center's E Complex Sept. 13 evaluated a liquid oxygen lead for engine start performance, part of the A-3 Test Facility Subscale Diffuser Risk Mitigation Project at SSC's E-3 Test Facility. Phase 1 of the subscale diffuser project, completed Sept. 24, was a series of 18 hot-fire tests using a 1,000-pound liquid oxygen and gaseous hydrogen thruster to verify maximum duration and repeatability for steam generation supporting the A-3 Test Stand project. The thruster is a stand-in for NASA's developing J-2X engine, to validate a 6 percent scale version of A-3's exhaust diffuser. Testing the J-2X at altitude conditions requires an enormous diffuser. Engineers will generate nearly 4,600 pounds per second of steam to reduce pressure inside A-3's test cell to simulate altitude conditions. A-3's exhaust diffuser has to be able to withstand regulated pressure, temperatures and the safe discharge of the steam produced during those tests. Before the real thing is built, engineers hope to work out any issues on the miniature version. Phase 2 testing is scheduled to begin this month.

  3. Capacitive de-ionization electrode

    DOEpatents

    Daily, III, William D.

    2013-03-19

    An electrode "cell" for use in a capacitive deionization (CDI) reactor consists of the electrode support structure, a non-reactive conductive material, the electrode accompaniment or substrate and a flow through screen/separator. These "layers" are repeated and the electrodes are sealed together with gaskets between two end plates to create stacked sets of alternating anode and cathode electrodes in the CDI reactor.

  4. Probing Electrode Heterogeneity Using Fourier-Transformed Alternating Current Voltammetry: Application to a Dual-Electrode Configuration.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sze-Yin; Unwin, Patrick R; Macpherson, Julie V; Zhang, Jie; Bond, Alan M

    2017-03-07

    Quantitative studies of electron transfer processes at electrode/electrolyte interfaces, originally developed for homogeneous liquid mercury or metallic electrodes, are difficult to adapt to the spatially heterogeneous nanostructured electrode materials that are now commonly used in modern electrochemistry. In this study, the impact of surface heterogeneity on Fourier-transformed alternating current voltammetry (FTACV) has been investigated theoretically under the simplest possible conditions where no overlap of diffusion layers occurs and where numerical simulations based on a 1D diffusion model are sufficient to describe the mass transport problem. Experimental data that meet these requirements can be obtained with the aqueous [Ru(NH3)6](3+/2+) redox process at a dual-electrode system comprised of electrically coupled but well-separated glassy carbon (GC) and boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. Simulated and experimental FTACV data obtained with this electrode configuration, and where distinctly different heterogeneous charge transfer rate constants (k(0) values) apply at the individual GC and BDD electrode surfaces, are in excellent agreement. Principally, because of the far greater dependence of the AC current magnitude on k(0), it is straightforward with the FTACV method to resolve electrochemical heterogeneities that are ∼1-2 orders of magnitude apart, as applies in the [Ru(NH3)6](3+/2+) dual-electrode configuration experiments, without prior knowledge of the individual kinetic parameters (k(0)1 and k(0)2) or the electrode size ratio (θ1:θ2). In direct current voltammetry, a difference in k(0) of >3 orders of magnitude is required to make this distinction.

  5. Simulation of nanostructured electrodes for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Sanjeev M.; Xing, Yangchuan

    Aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with Pt uniformly deposited on them are being considered in fabricating the catalyst layer of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell electrodes. When coated with a proton conducting polymer (e.g., Nafion) on the Pt/CNTs, each Pt/CNT acts as a nanoelectrode and a collection of such nanoelectrodes constitutes the proposed nanostructured electrodes. Computer modeling was performed for the cathode side, in which both multicomponent and Knudsen diffusion were taken into account. The effect of the nanoelectrode lengths was also studied with catalyst layer thicknesses of 2, 4, 6, and 10 μm. It was observed that shorter lengths produce better electrode performance due to lower diffusion barriers and better catalyst utilization. The effect of spacing between the nanoelectrodes was studied. Simulation results showed the need to have sufficiently large gas pores, i.e., large spacing, for good oxygen transport. However, this is at the cost of obtaining large electrode currents due to reduction of the number of nanoelectrodes per unit geometrical area of the nanostructured electrode. An optimization of the nanostructured electrodes was obtained when the spacing was at about 400 nm that produced the best limiting current density.

  6. The new mid-scala electrode array: a radiologic and histologic study in human temporal bones.

    PubMed

    Hassepass, Frederike; Bulla, Stefan; Maier, Wolfgang; Laszig, Roland; Arndt, Susan; Beck, Rainer; Traser, Lousia; Aschendorff, Antje

    2014-09-01

    To analyze the quality of insertion of the newly developed midscala (MS) electrode, which targets a midscalar electrode position to reduce the risk of trauma to the lateral wall and the modiolus. Modern cochlear implant surgery aims for a safe intracochlear placement of electrode arrays with an ongoing debate regarding cochleostomy or round window (RW) insertion and the use of lateral wall or perimodiolar electrode placement. Intracochlear trauma after insertion of different electrodes depends on insertion mode and electrode design and may result in trauma to the delicate structures of the cochlear. We performed a temporal bone (TB) trial with insertion of the MS electrode in n = 20 TB's after a mastoidectomy and posterior tympanotomy. Insertion was performed either via the RW or a cochleostomy. Electrode positioning, length of insertion, and angle of insertion were analyzed with rotational tomography (RT). TBs were histologically analyzed. Results of RT and histology were compared. Scala tympani (ST) insertion could be accomplished reliably by both RW and via a cochleostomy approach. In 20 TBs, 1 scala vestibuli insertion, 1 incomplete (ST), and 1 elevation of basilar membrane were depicted. No trauma was found in 94.7% of all ST insertions. RT allowed determination of the intracochlear electrode position, which was specified by histologic sectioning. The new MS electrode seems to fulfill reliable atraumatic intracochlear placement via RW and cochleostomy approaches. RT is available for evaluation of intracochlear electrode position, serving as a potential quality control instrument in human implantation.

  7. Weld electrode cooling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Robert C.; Simon, Daniel L.

    1999-03-01

    The U.S. auto/truck industry has been mandated by the Federal government to continuously improve their fleet average gas mileage, measured in miles per gallon. Several techniques are typically used to meet these mandates, one of which is to reduce the overall mass of cars and trucks. To help accomplish this goal, lighter weight sheet metal parts, with smaller weld flanges, have been designed and fabricated. This paper will examine the cooling characteristics of various water cooled weld electrodes and shanks used in resistance spot welding applications. The smaller weld flanges utilized in modern vehicle sheet metal fabrications have increased industry's interest in using one size of weld electrode (1/2 inch diameter) for certain spot welding operations. The welding community wants more data about the cooling characteristics of these 1/2 inch weld electrodes. To hep define the cooling characteristics, an infrared radiometer thermal vision system (TVS) was used to capture images (thermograms) of the heating and cooling cycles of several size combinations of weld electrodes under typical production conditions. Tests results will show why the open ended shanks are more suitable for cooling the weld electrode assembly then closed ended shanks.

  8. Nickel gradient electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, A.H.

    1988-03-31

    This invention relates generally to rechargeable batteries, and, in particular, relates to batteries that use nickel electrodes. It provides an improved nickel electrode with a selected gradient of additive materials. The concentration of additives in the impregnating solution are controlled during impregnation such that an additive gradient is generated. In the situation where the highest ionic conductivity is needed at the current collector boundary with the active material, the electrochemical impregnating solution is initially high in additive, and at the end of impregnation has been adjusted to significantly lower additive concentration. For chemical impregnation, the electrodes are similarly dipped in solutions that are initially high in additive. This invention is suitable for conventional additives such as cobalt, cadmium, barium, manganese, and zinc. It is therefore one objective of the invention to provide an improved nickel electrode of a battery cell with an additive in the active material to increase the life of the battery cell. Another objective is to provide for an improved nickel electrode having a greater concentration of additive near the current collector of nickel.

  9. Reaction-zone expansions and mechanism of the O{sub 2}, Ag/yttria-stabilized zirconia electrode reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, R.; Kloidt, T.; Kleitz, M.

    1997-02-01

    Experimental data obtained by impedance spectroscopy with silver droplet electrodes of different radii have been reanalyzed in the medium-frequency range under the assumption of rate-limiting oxygen diffusion through a thin slab of the electrode material. The model, which is based on literature data and has no adjustable parameters, gives a good fit. This demonstrates that in the medium-frequency range, oxygen diffusion through the electrode material is evenly distributed over the whole electrode interface. On the other hand, under dc conditions it is concentrated along the electrode triple-phase perimeter. Therefore, the distribution of the transfer current over the interface varies with the applied signal frequency. It follows that the electrode resistance and capacitance determined from the impedance diagram are related to an electrode reaction occurring over a reaction zone variable with the signal frequency.

  10. Lateral ink mobility and fringe field effects across the porous matrix of an electrophoretic display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li Tsui, Kelly; Ahumada, Manuel; Bryning, Mateusz; Hartono, Michelle; Lee, Sang-Joon J.

    2013-03-01

    This investigation studies fringe field between laterally adjacent electrodes in a reverse-emulsion electrophoretic display (REED). The display consists of a nanodroplet ink and a porous matrix that serves as the "paper" between planar electrodes. One relative advantage of this type of electronic paper display is that it can be produced with lowcost materials and manufacturing processes. A concern for image resolution, however, is the fringe field effect that occurs in the gaps between neighboring electrodes. Ideally the dye-containing nanodroplets in the ink move in a direction that is strictly perpendicular to the opposing pairs of electrodes. However, nanodroplet saturation and potential gradients from neighboring electrodes may result in lateral displacement of the nanodroplets as well. Accordingly, this study examines how fringe field between neighboring electrodes is affected by lateral spacing and applied voltage. Transient and steady-state effects were studied by fabricating and testing devices that were patterned with different lateral spacing between electrodes, and switching under different voltage levels. Relative luminance was extracted from digital microscope images, captured in the vicinity between neighboring electrodes. Measurements were recorded for electrode spacing of 20 μm, 40 μm, 60 μm, and 80 μm with devices switched at ±1.5 V and ±2.5 V. Gradients in luminance overlapped at lateral distances below 60 μm, and became distinct for left and right electrodes spaced by at least 80 μm. Higher applied voltage resulted in steeper transition between light and dark states, but exhibited distortion at electrode edges.

  11. Processing of carbon composite paper as electrode for fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, R. B.; Maheshwari, Priyanka H.; Dhami, T. L.; Sharma, R. K.; Sharma, C. P.

    The porous carbon electrode in a fuel cell not only acts as an electrolyte and a catalyst support, but also allows the diffusion of hydrogen fuel through its fine porosity and serves as a current-carrying conductor. A suitable carbon paper electrode is developed and possesses the characteristics of high porosity, permeability and strength along with low electrical resistivity so that it can be effectively used in proton-exchange membrane and phosphoric acid fuel cells. The electrode is prepared through a combination of two important techniques, viz., paper-making technology by first forming a porous chopped carbon fibre preform, and composite technology using a thermosetting resin matrix. The study reveals an interdependence of one parameter on another and how judicious choice of the processing conditions are necessary to achieve the desired characteristics. The current-voltage performance of the electrode in a unit fuel cell matches that of a commercially-available material.

  12. Electrode materials for coal-fired MHD generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, R. A.

    1980-10-01

    Metallic materials are evaluated as electrodes for coal fired MHD generators. A laboratory test that simulates the electrochemical and corrosive environment was developed and used to characterize electrode behavior in a diffuse current flow (nonarcing) mode of operation. High current density requires that an electron transport mechanism of current flow be maintained. With inert, stable electrodes, anode polarization occurs and ionic conduction prevails, limiting current to low values. The nature of this behavior and approaches to overcoming anodic polarization are studied as a function of electrode material, slag composition, and temperature. By operating at high temperatures and with controlled slag chemistries to produce a very fluid slag, depolarization may be achieved by mechanical mixing. Interrupted current flow are required to aid in breaking down anodic polarization.

  13. Defusing Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dou, Remy; Hogan, DaNel; Kossover, Mark; Spuck, Timothy; Young, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion has often been taught in science courses as one of the primary ways by which molecules travel, particularly within organisms. For years, classroom teachers have used the same common demonstrations to illustrate this concept (e.g., placing drops of food coloring in a beaker of water). Most of the time, the main contributor to the motion…

  14. Demonstrating Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Barry G.

    1977-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. Materials and instructions for demonstrating movement of molecules into cytoplasm using agar blocks, phenolphthalein, and sodium hydroxide are given. A simple method for demonstrating that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to its molecular weight is also presented. (AJ)

  15. Defusing Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dou, Remy; Hogan, DaNel; Kossover, Mark; Spuck, Timothy; Young, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion has often been taught in science courses as one of the primary ways by which molecules travel, particularly within organisms. For years, classroom teachers have used the same common demonstrations to illustrate this concept (e.g., placing drops of food coloring in a beaker of water). Most of the time, the main contributor to the motion…

  16. Demonstrating Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Barry G.

    1977-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. Materials and instructions for demonstrating movement of molecules into cytoplasm using agar blocks, phenolphthalein, and sodium hydroxide are given. A simple method for demonstrating that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to its molecular weight is also presented. (AJ)

  17. Porous electrode preparation method

    DOEpatents

    Arons, R.M.; Dusek, J.T.

    1983-10-18

    A porous sintered plaque is provided with a bimodal porosity that is especially well suited for use as an electrode within a molten carbonate fuel cell. The coarse porosity is sufficient for admitting gases into contact with the reaction surfaces while the fine porosity is wetted with and retains molten electrolyte on the reaction sites. The electrode structure is prepared by providing a very fine powder of such as nickel oxide and blending the powder with a suitable decomposable binder to form a solid mass. The mass is comminuted into agglomerate size particles substantially larger than the fine oxide particles and formed into a cohesive compact for subsequent sintering. Sintering is carried out at sufficient conditions to bind the agglomerates together into a porous structure having both coarse and fine porosity. Where lithiated nickel oxide cathodes are prepared, the sintering conditions can be moderate enough to retain substantial quantities of lithium within the electrode for adequate conductivity. 2 figs.

  18. Porous electrode preparation method

    DOEpatents

    Arons, Richard M.; Dusek, Joseph T.

    1983-01-01

    A porous sintered plaque is provided with a bimodal porosity that is especially well suited for use as an electrode within a molten carbonate fuel cell. The coarse porosity is sufficient for admitting gases into contact with the reaction surfaces while the fine porosity is wetted with and retains molten electrolyte on the reaction sites. The electrode structure is prepared by providing a very fine powder of such as nickel oxide and blending the powder with a suitable decomposable binder to form a solid mass. The mass is comminuted into agglomerate size particles substantially larger than the fine oxide particles and formed into a cohesive compact for subsequent sintering. Sintering is carried out at sufficient conditions to bind the agglomerates together into a porous structure having both coarse and fine porosity. Where lithiated nickel oxide cathodes are prepared, the sintering conditions can be moderate enough to retain substantial quantities of lithium within the electrode for adequate conductivity.

  19. Fuel cell electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Struthers, R. C.

    1985-03-05

    A flat, laminated fuel cell gas electrode arranged between and separating gas and liquid mediums in a fuel cell. The electrode includes a flat, perforated sheet metal support and electric conductor part with a rear surface disposed toward the gas medium, a flat, hydrophobic gas permeable membrane with a rear surface in contact with a front surface of said part, a flat liquid and gas permeable metallic current collector with a rear surface spaced from a front surface of said membrane and with a front surface disposed toward the liquid medium, a catalytic barrier structure of bonded together particulate catalytic material and metal conductor filaments by and in electric conducting contact with the collector and having a rear surface in contact with the front surface of the membrane and a plurality of spaced apart electric conducting fasteners engaged with and between said part and collector securing the parts of the electrode in assembled relationship and electrically connecting the current collector with said part.

  20. Liquid-permeable electrode

    DOEpatents

    Folser, George R.

    1980-01-01

    Electrodes for use in an electrolytic cell, which are liquid-permeable and have low electrical resistance and high internal surface area are provided of a rigid, porous, carbonaceous matrix having activated carbon uniformly embedded throughout. The activated carbon may be catalyzed with platinum for improved electron transfer between electrode and electrolyte. Activated carbon is mixed with a powdered thermosetting phenolic resin and compacted to the desired shape in a heated mold to melt the resin and form the green electrode. The compact is then heated to a pyrolyzing temperature to carbonize and volatilize the resin, forming a rigid, porous structure. The permeable structure and high internal surface area are useful in electrolytic cells where it is necessary to continuously remove the products of the electrochemical reaction.

  1. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1997-05-06

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granulated materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  2. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  3. MHD generator electrode development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retallick, F. D.; Dietrick, D. L.; Lloyd, I.; Rossing, B. R.; Smith, R.

    1981-08-01

    Metallurgical and engineering understanding of cold metallic electrode alternatives to the continued use of platinum as an anode clad material is discussed. The results of evaluating materials for MHD electrodes through use of a laboratory electrochemical and arc test are presented. Results for standard available materials as well as for some specially fabricated ones are presented. The development of a high temperature (11000 C to 14000 C) electrochemical test is outlined. Initial operation of the Westinghouse Electrode Systems Test Facility (WESTF), since major modification to include a magnet, is reported for a test section designed to operate as a small scale MHD generator and for test sections designed for the purpose of materials test evaluation in the operating MHD plasma environment.

  4. Morphology studies on high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, Florian; Klages, Merle; Scholta, Joachim; Jörissen, Ludwig; Morawietz, Tobias; Hiesgen, Renate; Kramer, Dominik; Zeis, Roswitha

    2014-06-01

    The electrode morphology influences the properties and performance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Here we report our studies of two different electrodes for high-temperature PEMFC prepared by spraying and coating and their impact on the fuel cell performance. Differences in 3D microstructure and adhesion between catalyst layer and gas diffusion layer (GDL) of the electrodes were studied with X-ray microtomography. Scanning electrode microscope investigations show hairline cracks between agglomerates on the surface of the sprayed electrode, whereas the coated electrode shows a network of shrinkage cracks in the catalyst layer. The distribution of the electrode binder polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is related to the locally resolved conductivity, which was determined by scanning the electrode surfaces with a conductive atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip. The macrostructures of the sprayed and coated electrodes are different but contain similar pore structures. The coated electrode has a higher PTFE concentration on the top region, which tends to form a nonconductive and less wettable "skin" on the electrode surface and delays the start-up of the fuel cell. In contrast to low-temperature PEMFC, the electrode morphology has only a minor impact on the steady-state cell performance of high-temperature PEMFC.

  5. Advances in Studies of Electrode Kinetics and Mass Transport in AMTEC Cells (abstract)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.; Underwood, M. L.; Kisor, A.; O'Connor, D.; Kikkert, S.

    1993-01-01

    Previous work reported from JPL has included characterization of electrode kinetics and alkali atom transport from electrodes including Mo, W, WRh(sub x), WPt(sub x)(Mn), in sodium AMTEC cells and vapor exposure cells, and Mo in potassium vapor exposure cells. These studies were generally performed in cells with small area electrodes (about 1 to 5 cm(sup 2)), and device geometry had little effect on transport. Alkali diffusion coefficients through these electrodes have been characterized, and approximate surface diffusion coefficients derived in cases of activated transport. A basic model of electrode kinetic at the alkali metal vapor/porous metal electrode/alkali beta'-alumina solid electrolyte three phase boundary has been proposed which accounts for electrochemical reaction rates with a collision frequency near the three phase boundary and tunneling from the porous electrode partially covered with adsorbed alkali metal atoms. The small electrode effect in AMTEC cells has been discussed in several papers, but quantitative investigations have described only the overall effect and the important contribution of electrolyte resistance. The quantitative characterization of transport losses in cells with large area electrodes has been limited to simulations of large area electrode effects, or characterization of transport losses from large area electrodes with significant longitudinal temperature gradients. This paper describes new investigations of electrochemical kinetics and transport, particularily with WPt(sub 3.5) electrodes, including the influence of electrode size on the mass transport loss in the AMTEC cell. These electrodes possess excellent sodium transport properties making verification of device limitations on transport much more readily attained.

  6. Advances in Studies of Electrode Kinetics and Mass Transport in AMTEC Cells (abstract)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.; Underwood, M. L.; Kisor, A.; O'Connor, D.; Kikkert, S.

    1993-01-01

    Previous work reported from JPL has included characterization of electrode kinetics and alkali atom transport from electrodes including Mo, W, WRh(sub x), WPt(sub x)(Mn), in sodium AMTEC cells and vapor exposure cells, and Mo in potassium vapor exposure cells. These studies were generally performed in cells with small area electrodes (about 1 to 5 cm(sup 2)), and device geometry had little effect on transport. Alkali diffusion coefficients through these electrodes have been characterized, and approximate surface diffusion coefficients derived in cases of activated transport. A basic model of electrode kinetic at the alkali metal vapor/porous metal electrode/alkali beta'-alumina solid electrolyte three phase boundary has been proposed which accounts for electrochemical reaction rates with a collision frequency near the three phase boundary and tunneling from the porous electrode partially covered with adsorbed alkali metal atoms. The small electrode effect in AMTEC cells has been discussed in several papers, but quantitative investigations have described only the overall effect and the important contribution of electrolyte resistance. The quantitative characterization of transport losses in cells with large area electrodes has been limited to simulations of large area electrode effects, or characterization of transport losses from large area electrodes with significant longitudinal temperature gradients. This paper describes new investigations of electrochemical kinetics and transport, particularily with WPt(sub 3.5) electrodes, including the influence of electrode size on the mass transport loss in the AMTEC cell. These electrodes possess excellent sodium transport properties making verification of device limitations on transport much more readily attained.

  7. Ceramic component for electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, David D.

    1979-01-01

    A ceramic component suitable for preparing MHD generator electrodes consists of HfO.sub.2 and sufficient Tb.sub.4 O.sub.7 to stabilize at least 60 volume percent of the HfO.sub.2 into the cubic structure. The ceramic component may also contain a small amount of PrO.sub.2, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 or a mixture of both to improve stability and electronic conductivity of the electrode. The component is highly resistant to corrosion by molten potassium seed and molten coal slag in the MHD fluid and exhibits both ionic and electronic conductivity.

  8. Sandwich-type electrode

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Wen-Tong P.; Garcia, Earl R.

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is an improvement on a method of making an electrode wherein a suspension in a liquid is prepared of a powdered catalyst containing a noble metal, carbon powder and a binder, and the suspension is poured over a carbon substrate dried, compressed and sintered to form a solid catalyst layer bonded to the carbon substrate. The improvement is placing a carbon paper on the catalyst layer prior to compressing. The improved electrode can be used as either a cathode or an anode in a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer in a process for producing hydrogen from water.

  9. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Sadoway, D.R.

    1988-08-16

    A stable reference electrode is described for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6], wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution. 1 fig.

  10. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Sadoway, Donald R.

    1988-01-01

    A stable reference electrode for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na.sub.3 AlF.sub.6, wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution.

  11. Diffusion in membranes: Toward a two-dimensional diffusion map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toppozini, Laura; Garcia-Sakai, Victoria; Bewley, Robert; Dalgliesh, Robert; Perring, Toby; Rheinstädter, Maikel C.

    2015-01-01

    For decades, quasi-elastic neutron scattering has been the prime tool for studying molecular diffusion in membranes over relevant nanometer distances. These experiments are essential to our current understanding of molecular dynamics of lipids, proteins and membrane-active molecules. Recently, we presented experimental evidence from X-ray diffraction and quasi-elastic neutron scattering demonstrating that ethanol enhances the permeability of membranes. At the QENS 2014/WINS 2014 conference we presented a novel technique to measure diffusion across membranes employing 2-dimensional quasi-elastic neutron scattering. We present results from our preliminary analysis of an experiment on the cold neutron multi-chopper spectrometer LET at ISIS, where we studied the self-diffusion of water molecules along lipid membranes and have the possibility of studying the diffusion in membranes. By preparing highly oriented membrane stacks and aligning them horizontally in the spectrometer, our aim is to distinguish between lateral and transmembrane diffusion. Diffusion may also be measured at different locations in the membranes, such as the water layer and the hydrocarbon membrane core. With a complete analysis of the data, 2-dimensional mapping will enable us to determine diffusion channels of water and ethanol molecules to quantitatively determine nanoscale membrane permeability.

  12. Electrical properties of textile electrodes.

    PubMed

    Rattfalt, Linda; Chedid, Michel; Hult, Peter; Lindén, Maria; Ask, Per

    2007-01-01

    In this study we aim to explain the behavior of textile electrodes due to their construction techniques. Three textile electrodes were tested for electrode impedance and polarization potentials. The multifilament yarn (A) is favorable for its low thread resistance. Although, when knitted into electrodes, the staple fiber yarn (B) showed a comparable and satisfiable electrode impedance. The multifilament yarn had however a lower polarization potential drift then the other specimens. The monofilament yarn (C) had high electrode impedance and varying mean polarization potentials due to its conductive material and small contact area with the skin.

  13. Dual porosity gas evolving electrode

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, Carl W.

    1994-01-01

    A dual porosity electrode for use in thermoelectrochemical systems where simultaneous transport of gas and liquid into and/or out of the electrode is required. The electrode includes catalytic electrode particles having diameters ranging from about 25 to 100 angstroms. The catalytic electrode particles are anchored to a support network in clusters which have internal pores ranging in size from 25 to 100 angstroms. The pores between the clusters range in size from between about 1 to 20 microns. A method for making the dual porosity electrodes is also disclosed.

  14. Dual porosity gas evolving electrode

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, C.W.

    1994-11-15

    A dual porosity electrode is described for use in thermoelectrochemical systems where simultaneous transport of gas and liquid into and/or out of the electrode is required. The electrode includes catalytic electrode particles having diameters ranging from about 25 to 100 angstroms. The catalytic electrode particles are anchored to a support network in clusters which have internal pores ranging in size from 25 to 100 angstroms. The pores between the clusters range in size from between about 1 to 20 microns. A method for making the dual porosity electrodes is also disclosed.

  15. Virtual electrodes for high-density electrode arrays

    DOEpatents

    Cela, Carlos J.; Lazzi, Gianluca

    2015-10-13

    The present embodiments are directed to implantable electrode arrays having virtual electrodes. The virtual electrodes may improve the resolution of the implantable electrode array without the burden of corresponding complexity of electronic circuitry and wiring. In a particular embodiment, a virtual electrode may include one or more passive elements to help steer current to a specific location between the active electrodes. For example, a passive element may be a metalized layer on a substrate that is adjacent to, but not directly connected to an active electrode. In certain embodiments, an active electrode may be directly coupled to a power source via a conductive connection. Beneficially, the passive elements may help to increase the overall resolution of the implantable array by providing additional stimulation points without requiring additional wiring or driver circuitry for the passive elements.

  16. Virtual electrodes for high-density electrode arrays

    DOEpatents

    Cela, Carlos Jose; Lazzi, Gianluca

    2017-05-23

    The present embodiments are directed to implantable electrode arrays having virtual electrodes. The virtual electrodes may improve the resolution of the implantable electrode array without the burden of corresponding complexity of electronic circuitry and wiring. In a particular embodiment, a virtual electrode may include one or more passive elements to help steer current to a specific location between the active electrodes. For example, a passive element may be a metalized layer on a substrate that is adjacent to, but not directly connected to an active electrode. In certain embodiments, an active electrode may be directly coupled to a power source via a conductive connection. Beneficially, the passive elements may help to increase the overall resolution of the implantable array by providing additional stimulation points without requiring additional wiring or driver circuitry for the passive elements.

  17. Flexible electrode belt for EIT using nanofiber web dry electrodes.

    PubMed

    Oh, Tong In; Kim, Tae Eui; Yoon, Sun; Kim, Kap Jin; Woo, Eung Je; Sadleir, Rosalind J

    2012-10-01

    Efficient connection of multiple electrodes to the body for impedance measurement and voltage monitoring applications is of critical importance to measurement quality and practicality. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) experiments have generally required a cumbersome procedure to attach the multiple electrodes needed in EIT. Once placed, these electrodes must then maintain good contact with the skin during measurements that may last several hours. There is usually also the need to manage the wires that run between the electrodes and the EIT system. These problems become more severe as the number of electrodes increases, and may limit the practicality and portability of this imaging method. There have been several trials describing human-electrode interfaces using configurations such as electrode belts, helmets or rings. In this paper, we describe an electrode belt we developed for long-term EIT monitoring of human lung ventilation. The belt included 16 embossed electrodes that were designed to make good contact with the skin. The electrodes were fabricated using an Ag-plated PVDF nanofiber web and metallic threads. A large contact area and padding were used behind each electrode to improve subject comfort and reduce contact impedances. The electrodes were incorporated, equally spaced, into an elasticated fabric belt. We tested the electrode belt in conjunction with the KHU Mark1 multi-frequency EIT system, and demonstrate time-difference images of phantoms and human subjects during normal breathing and running. We found that the Ag-plated PVDF nanofiber web electrodes were suitable for long-term measurement because of their flexibility and durability. Moreover, the contact impedance and stability of the Ag-plated PVDF nanofiber web electrodes were found to be comparable to similarly tested Ag/AgCl electrodes.

  18. BUBBLE DYNAMICS AT GAS-EVOLVING ELECTRODES

    SciTech Connect

    Sides, Paul J.

    1980-12-01

    Nucleation of bubbles, their growth by diffusion of dissolved gas to the bubble surface and by coalescence, and their detachment from the electrode are all very fast phenomena; furthermore, electrolytically generated bubbles range in size from ten to a few hundred microns; therefore, magnification and high speed cinematography are required to observe bubbles and the phenomena of their growth on the electrode surface. Viewing the action from the front side (the surface on which the bubbles form) is complicated because the most important events occur close to the surface and are obscured by other bubbles passing between the camera and the electrode; therefore, oxygen was evolved on a transparent tin oxide "window" electrode and the events were viewed from the backside. The movies showed that coalescence of bubbles is very important for determining the size of bubbles and in the chain of transport processes; growth by diffusion and by coalescence proceeds in series and parallel; coalescing bubbles cause significant fluid motion close to the electrode; bubbles can leave and reattach; and bubbles evolve in a cycle of growth by diffusion and different modes of coalescence. An analytical solution for the primary potential and current distribution around a spherical bubble in contact with a plane electrode is presented. Zero at the contact point, the current density reaches only one percent of its undisturbed value at 30 percent of the radius from that point and goes through a shallow maximum two radii away. The solution obtained for spherical bubbles is shown to apply for the small bubbles of electrolytic processes. The incremental resistance in ohms caused by sparse arrays of bubbles is given by {Delta}R = 1.352 af/kS where f is the void fraction of gas in the bubble layer, a is the bubble layer thickness, k is the conductivity of gas free electrolyte, and S is the electrode area. A densely populated gas bubble layer on an electrode was modeled as a hexagonal array of

  19. Recipes for lateral spin transport between magnetic contacts, advantage of carbon-based materials.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fert, Albert

    2010-03-01

    After the presentation of magneto-transport results [1] on metallic carbon nanotubes (CNT) between LSMO electrodes (MR 60-70%, [VAP -- VP] 60mV), I will discuss the general problem of spin transport in a nonmagnetic lateral channel between spin-polarized contacts in both the diffusive and ballistic regimes. In the diffusive regime, a treatment by the classical drift-diffusion equations applied to a multi-terminal structure is used to calculate what can be expected for the output signal with local or non-local voltage probes. A general result is that the output signal (δR = δV/I where δV is the local or non-local output voltage), directly related to the spin accumulation splitting in the channel, scales with the smallest of the relevant spin and interfaces resistances. In the best situation, that is with only tunnel contacts having the same (large) resistance RT and separated by less than the spin diffusion length (λ) in a lateral channel limited to the zone of the contacts, the signal δR increases in proportion of RT as long as the dwell time is smaller than the spin lifetime. δR can be thus much larger than the spin resistance of the channel (product of its resistivity by the ratio λ/section ). This explain why, in the experiments of Ref.[1] on CNT, δR can be as large as 90 Mφ, that is of the order of the tunnel contact resistances and much larger than the spin resistance of the CNT (smaller signals in experiments with CNT or graphene are often due the leak of spin accumulation in lateral channels extending too far outside the contacts). The relative disadvantage for semiconductors comes from the too long dwell time due to much smaller electron velocities than in metallic CNTs (and graphene). We will conclude by a similar analysis of the ballistic regime and a discussion of experiments with graphene. [4pt] [1] Hueso et al, Nature 445, 410 (2007).

  20. Optical and electrical investigation of a cylindrical diffuse-discharge chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Yun; Li, Lee Cheng, Yong; Ma, Ning; Peng, Ming-yang; Liu, Ming-hai

    2015-03-15

    More and more attention has been attached to atmospheric-pressure air diffuse plasma due to its enormous potential applications. In this paper, we designed a large-scale, cylindrical diffuse-plasma chamber using wire electrodes and a repetitive nanosecond pulse generator. The plasma chamber can be completely exposed in the open air without any barrier dielectric, and the length of cylindrical plasma chamber was extensible. Using optical and electrical measurements, we investigated the effects of electrode distance, electrode length, pulse repetition frequency, and electrode angle on the uniformity of discharge space. Four discharge regions were distinguished based on different spectral characteristics. Additionally, it was found that the discharge uniformity was improved as the electrode distance decreases, but remained almost constant with the variations of electrode length and pulse repetition frequency. Both of the plasma uniformity and the power density increased significantly as the electrode angle reduced.

  1. PZT Thin-Film Micro Probe Device with Dual Top Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chuan

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin-film actuators have been studied intensively for years because of their potential applications in many fields. In this dissertation, a PZT thin-film micro probe device is designed, fabricated, studied, and proven to be acceptable as an intracochlear acoustic actuator. The micro probe device takes the form of a cantilever with a PZT thin-film diaphragm at the tip of the probe. The tip portion of the probe will be implanted in cochlea later in animal tests to prove its feasibility in hearing rehabilitation. The contribution of the dissertation is three-fold. First, a dual top electrodes design, consisting of a center electrode and an outer electrode, is developed to improve actuation displacement of the PZT thin-film diaphragm. The improvement by the dual top electrodes design is studied via a finite element model. When the dimensions of the dual electrodes are optimized, the displacement of the PZT thin-film diaphragm increases about 30%. A PZT thin-film diaphragm with dual top electrodes is fabricated to prove the concept, and experimental results confirm the predictions from the finite element analyses. Moreover, the dual electrode design can accommodate presence of significant residual stresses in the PZT thin-film diaphragm by changing the phase difference between the two electrodes. Second, a PZT thin-film micro probe device is fabricated and tested. The fabrication process consists of PZT thin-film deposition and deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). The uniqueness of the fabrication process is an automatic dicing mechanism that allows a large number of probes to be released easily from the wafer. Moreover, the fabrication is very efficient, because the DRIE process will form the PZT thin-film diaphragm and the special dicing mechanism simultaneously. After the probes are fabricated, they are tested with various possible implantation depths (i.e., boundary conditions). Experimental results show that future implantation depths

  2. Reading Disability and Laterality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrow, Sara S.

    The purpose of this study was to determine how retarded readers differed from normal readers in the various ways laterality is manifested. An additional purpose was to investigate the development of laterality as seen across several age levels. Subjects were 80 white male 9-, 10-, 11-, and 12-year-olds from regular classrooms in suburban…

  3. Battery electrode growth accommodation

    DOEpatents

    Bowen, Gerald K.; Andrew, Michael G.; Eskra, Michael D.

    1992-01-01

    An electrode for a lead acid flow through battery, the grids including a plastic frame, a plate suspended from the top of the frame to hang freely in the plastic frame and a paste applied to the plate, the paste being free to allow for expansion in the planar direction of the grid.

  4. Photoelectrosynthesis at semiconductor electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Nozik, A. J.

    1980-12-01

    The general principles of photoelectrochemistry and photoelectrosynthesis are reviewed and some new developments in photoelectrosynthesis are discussed. Topics include energetics of semiconductor-electrolyte interfaces(band-edge unpinning); hot carrier injection at illuminated semiconductor-electrolyte junctions; derivatized semiconductor electrodes; particulate photoelectrochemical systems; layered compounds and other new materials; and dye sensitization. (WHK)

  5. Capacitive electrodes in electroencephalography.

    PubMed

    von Ellenrieder, Nicolás; Spinelli, Enrique; Muravchik, Carlos H

    2006-01-01

    We present a forward problem formulation for computing biopotentials measured with dry or capacitive electrodes. This formulation is not quasistatic and has mixed boundary conditions. Our results show that simple approximations to the measurements based on capacitive coupling are adequate in most situations. We study the range of validity and errors committed in the EEG forward and inverse problems when using this approximation.

  6. Dry EEG Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Gordo, M. A.; Sanchez-Morillo, D.; Valle, F. Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) emerged in the second decade of the 20th century as a technique for recording the neurophysiological response. Since then, there has been little variation in the physical principles that sustain the signal acquisition probes, otherwise called electrodes. Currently, new advances in technology have brought new unexpected fields of applications apart from the clinical, for which new aspects such as usability and gel-free operation are first order priorities. Thanks to new advances in materials and integrated electronic systems technologies, a new generation of dry electrodes has been developed to fulfill the need. In this manuscript, we review current approaches to develop dry EEG electrodes for clinical and other applications, including information about measurement methods and evaluation reports. We conclude that, although a broad and non-homogeneous diversity of approaches has been evaluated without a consensus in procedures and methodology, their performances are not far from those obtained with wet electrodes, which are considered the gold standard, thus enabling the former to be a useful tool in a variety of novel applications. PMID:25046013

  7. Diffusion bonding

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Robert C.

    1976-06-22

    1. A method for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding, comprising the steps of coating at least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces with nickel, positioning a coated surface portion in a contiguous relationship with an other surface portion, subjecting the contiguously disposed surface portions to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure, applying a force upon the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other, heating the contiguous surface portions to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, substantially uniformly decreasing the applied force while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature, and maintaining a portion of the applied force at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions.

  8. Particle size effect in porous film electrodes of ligand-modified graphene for enhanced supercapacitor performance

    DOE PAGES

    Jang, Gyoung Gug; Song, Bo; Moon, Kyoung-sik; ...

    2017-04-17

    Graphene-based electrodes for high performance supercapacitors are developed by taking advantage of particle size control, large mass loading, and surface functionalization of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets. Two controlled sizes of graphene sheets (100 nm vs. 45 μm average lateral dimensions) were prepared to study two-electrode system performance. The nano-size graphenes led to the formation of mesoporous films, resulting in higher capacitance, better capacitance retension and lower equivalent series resistance (ESR), indicating better surface usability for diffusion and accessibility of electrolyte ions by shortening transport paths (compared with horizontally stacked films from micro-sized graphenes). For studies using an aqueous electrolyte,more » the maximum specific capacitance of nano-rGO film was 302 F/g (at 1 A/g with 4.3 mg/cm2 of mass loading), which was ~2.4 times higher than micro-rGO film, and achieved a ~67% reduced ESR. With an organic electrolyte, the nano-rGO delivered ~4.2 times higher capacitance (115 F/g at 2 A/g with 4.3 mg/cm2), 4.0 times lower IR drops, and an order-of-magnitude lower charge-transfer resistance with an energy density of 18.7 Wh/kg. Finally, the results of this work indicate that the size control of graphene sheet particles for film deposit electrodes can be a simple but effective approach to improve supercapacitor performance.« less

  9. On effective transport coefficients in PEM fuel cell electrodes: Anisotropy of the porous transport layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pharoah, J. G.; Karan, K.; Sun, W.

    This paper reviews the approach taken in the literature to model the effective transport coefficients - mass diffusivity, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and hydraulic permeability - of carbon-fibre based porous electrode of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). It is concluded that current PEMFC model do not account for the inherent anisotropic microstructure of the fibrous electrodes. Simulations using a 2-D PEMFC cathode model show that neglecting the anisotropic nature and associated transport coefficients of the porous electrodes significantly influences both the nature and the magnitude of the model predictions. This emphasizes the need to appropriately characterize the relevant anisotropic properties of the fibrous electrode.

  10. Electrical polymerization of a tetrazole polymer-modified electrode and its catalytic reaction toward dopamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Mu-Tao; Whang, Thou-Jen

    2017-02-01

    A conducting polymer-modified electrode was proposed in this article, which was fabricated by electropolymerization of 5-amino-1H-tetrazole (ATet) on a glassy carbon electrode. Electrochemical studies such as differential pulse voltammetry and chronoamperometry were performed for the evaluation of the rate constant of the catalytic reaction, the diffusion coefficient of the analyte dopamine, and the linear dynamic range of the analyte determination. The film modified electrode has superior resolving power in quantitative determination from the mixture of analytes and it was found to be an efficient functionalized electrode for its sensitivity and selectivity toward the analyte of interest.

  11. Method and means for detecting optically transmitted signals and establishing optical interference pattern between electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Kostenbauder, Adnah G.

    1988-01-01

    A photodetector for detecting signal pulses transmitted in an optical carrier signal relies on the generation of electron-hole pairs and the diffusion of the generated electrons and holes to the electrodes on the surface of the semiconductor detector body for generating photovoltaic pulses. The detector utilizes the interference of optical waves for generating an electron-hole grating within the semiconductor body, and, by establishing an electron-hole pair maximum at one electrode and a minimum at the other electrode, a detectable voltaic pulse is generated across the electrode.

  12. Method and means for detecting optically transmitted signals and establishing optical interference pattern between electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Kostenbauder, A.G.

    1988-06-28

    A photodetector for detecting signal pulses transmitted in an optical carrier signal relies on the generation of electron-hole pairs and the diffusion of the generated electrons and holes to the electrodes on the surface of the semiconductor detector body for generating photovoltaic pulses. The detector utilizes the interference of optical waves for generating an electron-hole grating within the semiconductor body, and, by establishing an electron-hole pair maximum at one electrode and a minimum at the other electrode, a detectable voltaic pulse is generated across the electrode. 4 figs.

  13. Lateral subtalar dislocation.

    PubMed

    Sharda, Praveen; DuFosse, Julian

    2008-07-01

    Subtalar dislocations are rare in routine orthopedic practice. While many of these dislocations are a result of high-energy injuries such as fall from a height or traffic accidents, it is not uncommon for patients to present after slipping down a few stairs. Two types of dislocation have been described, medial and lateral. The type of dislocation is described according to the position of the foot. In lateral subtalar dislocation the head of talus is found medially and the calcaneus is dislocated laterally. The navicular may lie dorsolateral to the talus. The reverse is true of lateral dislocation. Medial dislocation has been referred to as "basketball foot" due to its preponderance in basketball players.4 The deciding factor is the inverted or everted position of the foot when the force is dissipated through the weak talonavicular and talocalcaneal ligaments. This article presents a case of an adult with lateral subtalar dislocation following a fall.

  14. Silicon drift detector with reduced lateral diffusion:. experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šonský, J.; Valk, H.; Huizenga, J.; Hollander, R. W.; van Eijk, C. W. E.; Sarro, P. M.

    2000-01-01

    In a standard multi-anode silicon drift detector electron cloud broadening during the drifting towards the anode pixels deteriorates the energy and position resolution. This makes the detector less applicable for detection of low-energy X-rays. The signal charge sharing between several anodes can be eliminated by introducing sawtooth-shaped p + field strips. The sawtooth structure results in small electric fields directed parallel to the sensor surface and perpendicular to the drift direction which produce gutters. The drifting electrons are confined in these gutters of one saw tooth period wide. For a detector with a sawtooth period of 500 μm, we have measured the maximum number of fully confined electrons as a function of the potential gutter depth induced by different sawtooth angles.

  15. Fluid dynamics of double diffusive systems

    SciTech Connect

    Koseff, J.R.

    1989-04-07

    A study of mixing processes in doubly diffusive systems is being conducted. Continuous gradients of two diffusing components (heat and salinity in our case) are being used as initial conditions, and forcing is introduced by lateral heating and surface shear. The goals of the proposed work include: (1) quantification of the effects of finite amplitude disturbances on stable, double diffusive systems, particularly with respect to lateral heating, (2) development of an improved understanding of the physical phenomena present in wind-driven shear flows in double diffusive stratified environments, (3) increasing our knowledge-base on turbulent flow in stratified environments and how to represent it, and (4) formulation of a numerical code for such flows. The work is being carried out in an experimental facility which is located in the Stanford Environmental Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, and on laboratory minicomputers and CRAY computers. In particular we are focusing on the following key issues: (1) the formation and propagation of double diffusive intrusions away from a heated wall and the effects of lateral heating on the double diffusive system; (2) the interaction between the double diffusively influenced fluxes and the turbulence induced fluxes; (3) the measurement of heat and mass fluxes; and (4) the influence of double diffusive gradients on mixed layer deepening. 1 fig.

  16. Direct imaging of lateral movements of AMPA receptors inside synapses

    PubMed Central

    Tardin, Catherine; Cognet, Laurent; Bats, Cécile; Lounis, Brahim; Choquet, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Trafficking of AMPA receptors in and out of synapses is crucial for synaptic plasticity. Previous studies have focused on the role of endo/exocytosis processes or that of lateral diffusion of extra-synaptic receptors. We have now directly imaged AMPAR movements inside and outside synapses of live neurons using single- molecule fluorescence microscopy. Inside individual synapses, we found immobile and mobile receptors, which display restricted diffusion. Extra-synaptic receptors display free diffusion. Receptors could also exchange between these membrane compartments through lateral diffusion. Glutamate application increased both receptor mobility inside synapses and the fraction of mobile receptors present in a juxtasynaptic region. Block of inhibitory transmission to favor excitatory synaptic activity induced a transient increase in the fraction of mobile receptors and a decrease in the proportion of juxtasynaptic receptors. Altogether, our data show that rapid exchange of receptors between a synaptic and extra-synaptic localization occurs through regulation of receptor diffusion inside synapses. PMID:12970178

  17. Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Newmark, R L; Daily, W; Ramirez, A

    1999-03-22

    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) using multiple electrodes installed in boreholes has been shown to be useful for both site characterization and process monitoring. In some cases, however, installing multiple downhole electrodes is too costly (e.g., deep targets) or risky (e.g., contaminated sites). For these cases we have examined the possibility of using the steel casings of existing boreholes as electrodes. The first case we investigated used an array of steel casings as electrodes. This results in very few data and thus requires additional constraints to limit the domain of possible inverse solutions. Simulations indicate that the spatial resolution and sensitivity are understandably low but it is possible to coarsely map the lateral extent of subsurface processes such as steam floods. A hybrid case uses traditional point electrode arrays combined with long-conductor electrodes (steel casings). Although this arrangement provides more data, in many cases it results in poor reconstructions of test targets. Results indicate that this method may hold promise for low resolution imaging where steel casings can be used as electrodes.

  18. Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as long electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Daily, W; Newmark, R L; Ramirez, A

    1999-07-20

    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) using multiple electrodes installed in boreholes has been shown to be useful for both site characterization and process monitoring. In some cases, however, installing multiple downhole electrodes is too costly (e.g., deep targets) or risky (e.g., contaminated sites). For these cases we have examined the possibility of using the steel casings of existing boreholes as electrodes. Several possibilities can be considered. The first case we investigated uses an array of steel casings as electrodes. This results in very few data and thus requires additional constraints to limit the domain of possible inverse solutions. Simulations indicate that the spatial resolution and sensitivity are understandably low but it is possible to coarsely map the lateral extent of subsurface processes such as steam floods. The second case uses an array of traditional point borehole electrodes combined with long-conductor electrodes (steel casings). Although this arrangement provides more data, in many cases it results in poor reconstructions of test targets. Results indicate that this method may hold promise for low resolution imaging where steel casings can be used as electrodes but the merits depend strongly on details of each application. Field tests using these configurations are currently being conducted.

  19. HiFocus Helix™ electrode insertion: surgical approach.

    PubMed

    Castilho, Arthur Menino; Pauna, Henrique Furlan; Fernandes, Fernando Laffitte; Bonhin, Rodrigo Gonzales; Guimarães, Alexandre Caixeta; de Melo, Tatiana Mendes; Cheng, Margareth; Sartorato, Edi Lucia; de Carvalho, Guilherme Machado; Paschoal, Jorge Rizzato

    2015-07-15

    Cochlear implants have been used for almost 30 years as a device for the rehabilitation of individuals with severe-to-profound hearing loss. One of the important aspects of cochlear implantation is the type of electrode selected and proper insertion of the electrode array in scala tympani to minimize cochlear damage. The HiFocus Helix™ electrode is a precurved design aimed at placing the electrode contacts close to the spiral ganglion cells in the modiolus. The prescribed insertion techniques are intended to minimize the likelihood of damage to the basilar membrane or lateral wall of the cochlea. To describe the first insertion of a HiFocus Helix™ electrode in Brazil exposing surgical particularities and device details in a patient with profound hearing loss, due to Mondini's dysplasia. No problems were encountered during the surgical procedure. The patient experienced improvement in hearing thresholds and speech perception. The HiFocus Helix™ electrode proved easy to insert and provided expected hearing benefits for the patient. This manuscript indicates that the HiResolution™ Bionic Ear System with HiFocus Helix™ electrode comprise a cochlear implant system that is practical and beneficial for the treatment of severe-to-profound hearing loss.

  20. Diffusion Controlled Current at a Stationary Finite Disk Electrode. Experiment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    Koryta, H. Brezina, J. Prada, and J. Prad4ovi, "Electro- analytical Chemistry", Vol. 11, Chapt. 2, Edited by A. J. Bard, Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1979. 2 D...Minneapolis, Minnesota 55435 Dr. J. Z. Demuth IBM brporties Dr. a. P. Van Duyme Thomas J. Watson sbairch Center Chemistry Departmeat P.O. 3.. 21S

  1. How to Enhance Gas Removal from Porous Electrodes?

    PubMed Central

    Kadyk, Thomas; Bruce, David; Eikerling, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a structure-based modeling approach to optimize gas evolution at an electrolyte-flooded porous electrode. By providing hydrophobic islands as preferential nucleation sites on the surface of the electrode, it is possible to nucleate and grow bubbles outside of the pore space, facilitating their release into the electrolyte. Bubbles that grow at preferential nucleation sites act as a sink for dissolved gas produced in electrode reactions, effectively suctioning it from the electrolyte-filled pores. According to the model, high oversaturation is necessary to nucleate bubbles inside of the pores. The high oversaturation allows establishing large concentration gradients in the pores that drive a diffusion flux towards the preferential nucleation sites. This diffusion flux keeps the pores bubble-free, avoiding deactivation of the electrochemically active surface area of the electrode as well as mechanical stress that would otherwise lead to catalyst degradation. The transport regime of the dissolved gas, viz. diffusion control vs. transfer control at the liquid-gas interface, determines the bubble growth law. PMID:28008914

  2. How to Enhance Gas Removal from Porous Electrodes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadyk, Thomas; Bruce, David; Eikerling, Michael

    2016-12-01

    This article presents a structure-based modeling approach to optimize gas evolution at an electrolyte-flooded porous electrode. By providing hydrophobic islands as preferential nucleation sites on the surface of the electrode, it is possible to nucleate and grow bubbles outside of the pore space, facilitating their release into the electrolyte. Bubbles that grow at preferential nucleation sites act as a sink for dissolved gas produced in electrode reactions, effectively suctioning it from the electrolyte-filled pores. According to the model, high oversaturation is necessary to nucleate bubbles inside of the pores. The high oversaturation allows establishing large concentration gradients in the pores that drive a diffusion flux towards the preferential nucleation sites. This diffusion flux keeps the pores bubble-free, avoiding deactivation of the electrochemically active surface area of the electrode as well as mechanical stress that would otherwise lead to catalyst degradation. The transport regime of the dissolved gas, viz. diffusion control vs. transfer control at the liquid-gas interface, determines the bubble growth law.

  3. Zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    McBreen, J.

    1995-12-31

    The zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte is unusual in that supersaturated zincate solutions can form during discharge and spongy or mossy zinc deposits can form on charge at low overvoltages. The effect of additives on regular pasted ZnO electrodes and calcium zincate electrodes is discussed. The paper also reports on in situ x-ray absorption (XAS) results on mossy zinc deposits.

  4. Localizing and tracking electrodes using stereovision in epilepsy cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiaoyao; Ji, Songbai; Roberts, David W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2015-03-01

    In epilepsy cases, subdural electrodes are often implanted to acquire intracranial EEG (iEEG) for seizure localization and resection planning. However, the electrodes may shift significantly between implantation and resection, during the time that the patient is monitored for iEEG recording. As a result, the accuracy of surgical planning based on electrode locations at the time of resection can be compromised. Previous studies have only quantified the electrode shift with respect to the skull, but not with respect to the cortical surface, because tracking cortical shift between surgeries is challenging. In this study, we use an intraoperative stereovision (iSV) system to visualize and localize the cortical surface as well as electrodes, record three-dimensional (3D) locations of the electrodes in MR space at the time of implantation and resection, respectively, and quantify the raw displacements, i.e., with respect to the skull. Furthermore, we track the cortical surface and quantify the shift between surgeries using an optical flow (OF) based motion-tracking algorithm. Finally, we compute the electrode shift with respect to the cortical surface by subtracting the cortical shift from raw measured displacements. We illustrate the method using one patient example. In this particular patient case, the results show that the electrodes not only shifted significantly with respect to the skull (8.79 +/- 3.00 mm in the lateral direction, ranging from 2.88 mm to 12.87 mm), but also with respect to the cortical surface (7.20 +/- 3.58 mm), whereas the cortical surface did not shift significantly in the lateral direction between surgeries (2.23 +/- 0.76 mm).

  5. Electroformed Electrodes for Electrical-Discharge Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, A.; Cassidenti, M.

    1984-01-01

    Copper electrodes replace graphite electrodes in many instances of electrical-discharge machining (EDM) of complex shapes. Copper electrodes wear longer and cause less contamination of EDM dielectric fluid than do graphite electrodes.

  6. Characterization of nanoporous gold electrodes for bioelectrochemical applications.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Micheál D; Salaj-Kosla, Urszula; Belochapkine, Serguei; MacAodha, Domhnall; Leech, Dónal; Ding, Yi; Magner, Edmond

    2012-01-31

    The high surface areas of nanostructured electrodes can provide for significantly enhanced surface loadings of electroactive materials. The fabrication and characterization of nanoporous gold (np-Au) substrates as electrodes for bioelectrochemical applications is described. Robust np-Au electrodes were prepared by sputtering a gold-silver alloy onto a glass support and subsequent dealloying of the silver component. Alloy layers were prepared with either a uniform or nonuniform distribution of silver and, post dealloying, showed clear differences in morphology on characterization with scanning electron microscopy. Redox reactions under kinetic control, in particular measurement of the charge required to strip a gold oxide layer, provided the most accurate measurements of the total electrochemically addressable electrode surface area, A(real). Values of A(real) up to 28 times that of the geometric electrode surface area, A(geo), were obtained. For diffusion-controlled reactions, overlapping diffusion zones between adjacent nanopores established limiting semi-infinite linear diffusion fields where the maximum current density was dependent on A(geo). The importance of measuring the surface area available for the immobilization was determined using the redox protein, cyt c. The area accessible to modification by a biological macromolecule, A(macro), such as cyt c was reduced by up to 40% compared to A(real), demonstrating that the confines of some nanopores were inaccessible to large macromolecules due to steric hindrances. Preliminary studies on the preparation of np-Au electrodes modified with osmium redox polymer hydrogels and Myrothecium verrucaria bilirubin oxidase (MvBOD) as a biocathode were performed; current densities of 500 μA cm(-2) were obtained in unstirred solutions.

  7. Anomalous diffusion governed by a fractional diffusion equation and the electrical response of an electrolytic cell.

    PubMed

    Santoro, P A; de Paula, J L; Lenzi, E K; Evangelista, L R

    2011-09-21

    The electrical response of an electrolytic cell in which the diffusion of mobile ions in the bulk is governed by a fractional diffusion equation of distributed order is analyzed. The boundary conditions at the electrodes limiting the sample are described by an integro-differential equation governing the kinetic at the interface. The analysis is carried out by supposing that the positive and negative ions have the same mobility and that the electric potential profile across the sample satisfies the Poisson's equation. The results cover a rich variety of scenarios, including the ones connected to anomalous diffusion.

  8. Simultaneous in vivo imaging of diffuse optical reflectance, optoacoustic pressure and ultrasonic scattering

    PubMed Central

    Subochev, Pavel; Orlova, Anna; Mikhailova, Irina; Shilyagina, Natalia; Turchin, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    We present reflection-mode bioimaging system providing complementary optical, photoacsoutic and acoustic measurements by acoustic detector after each laser pulse. While the photons absorbed within the sample provide optoacoustic (OA) signals, the photons absorbed by the external electrode of a detector provide the measurable diffuse reflectance (DR) from the sample and the probing ultrasonic (US) pulse. To demonstrate the in vivo capabilities of the system we present the results of complementary DR/OA/US imaging of a mouse tumor, head of a newborn rat, and the back of a newborn rat with 3.5mm/50μm/35μm lateral resolution. Trimodal approach allows visualization of mechanical structures in healthy and pathological tissues along with peculiarities of blood supply. The system may be used for diagnostics of diseases accompanied by the defects of vascularization as well as for assessing the mechanisms of vascular changes when monitoring response to therapy. PMID:27867706

  9. DIFFUSION PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Levenson, L.

    1963-09-01

    A high-vacuum diffusion pump is described, featuring a novel housing geometry for enhancing pumping speed. An upright, cylindrical lower housing portion is surmounted by a concentric, upright, cylindrical upper housing portion of substantially larger diameter; an uppermost nozzle, disposed concentrically within the upper portion, is adapted to eject downwardly a conical sheet of liquid outwardly to impinge upon the uppermost extremity of the interior wall of the lower portion. Preferably this nozzle is mounted upon a pedestal rising coaxially from within the lower portion and projecting up into said upper portion. (AEC)

  10. Hydrogenase electrodes for fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Karyakin, A A; Morozov, S V; Karyakina, E E; Zorin, N A; Perelygin, V V; Cosnier, S

    2005-02-01

    Considering crucial problems that limit use of platinum-based fuel cells, i.e. cost and availability, poisoning by fuel impurities and low selectivity, we propose electrocatalysis by enzymes as a valuable alternative to noble metals. Hydrogenase electrodes in neutral media achieve hydrogen equilibrium potential (providing 100% energy conversion), and display high activity in H(2) electrooxidation, which is similar to that of Pt-based electrodes in sulphuric acid. In contrast with platinum, enzyme electrodes are highly selective for their substrates, and are not poisoned by fuel impurities. Hydrogenase electrodes are capable of consuming hydrogen directly from microbial media, which ensures their use as fuel electrodes in treatment of organic wastes.

  11. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a nervous system disease that attacks nerve cells called neurons in your ... people with ALS die from respiratory failure. The disease usually strikes between age 40 and 60. More ...

  12. Arthroscopic Patellar Lateral Facetectomy.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Marcio B; Sanchez, George; Chahla, Jorge; Moatshe, Gilbert; LaPrade, Robert F

    2017-04-01

    Isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis is relatively prevalent, with the lateral facet of the patella being the most commonly affected portion. This pathology can be a result of a patellar maltracking syndrome, patella instability, or idiopathic degenerative changes. A thorough diagnostic work-up with a physical examination and imaging studies are mandatory for a proper diagnosis and to rule out other causes of patellofemoral knee pain. These patients are often treated nonoperatively with exercises for patella mobility, intra-articular injections, braces, patellar tracking, quadriceps balance and strength, and activity modification. Patients with lateral patellar pain that is refractory to nonoperative management, and who have a clear bony deformity on the patella overriding the lateral aspect of the trochlea, can benefit from surgical intervention. We recommend an arthroscopic lateral patellar facetectomy because the joint can be dynamically assessed, treated, and re-evaluated intraoperatively to ensure that normal bony contact has been restored.

  13. [Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Veldink, J H; Weikamp, J; Schelhaas, H J; van den Berg, L H

    2010-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is one of the most severe and disabling diseases of the nervous system. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis leads to the progressive weakening of the muscles in the arms, legs, face, mouth and trunk. The onset of the disease is insidious, starting with weakness in the hands or feet or with slurred speech. The weakness worsens and patients pass away as a result of weakness of the respiratory muscles on average within 3 years of the onset of the disease. In the Netherlands, approximately 400 patients are diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis every year. There is no diagnostic test for this neuro-muscular disease; the diagnosis is established by excluding other disorders that resemble amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Only one drug is able to inhibit the progression of the disease to any extent: riluzole. Treatment, therefore, is mainly focused on supportive measures and those which enhance the quality of life optimally.

  14. Catalyzed enzyme electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Wilson, Mahlon S.; Rishpon, Judith; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    1993-01-01

    An enzyme electrode is prepared with a composite coating on an electrical conductor. The composite coating is formed from a casting solution of a perfluorosulfonic acid polymer, an enzyme, and a carbon supported catalyst. The solution may be cast directly on the conductor surface or may be formed as a membrane and applied to the surface. The perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer formed from the casting solution provides an insoluble biocompatible protective matrix for the enzyme and acts to retain the enzyme for long term availability in the electrode structure. The carbon supported catalyst provides catalytic sites throughout the layer for the oxidation of hydrogen peroxide from the enzyme reactions. The carbon support then provides a conductive path for establishing an electrical signal to the electrical conductor. In one embodiment, the electrical conductor is a carbon cloth that permits oxygen or other gas to be introduced to the perfluorosulfonic polymer to promote the enzyme reaction independent of oxygen in the solution being tested.

  15. Inert electrode connection

    SciTech Connect

    Weyand, John D.; Woods, Robert W.; DeYoung, David H.; Ray, Siba P.

    1985-01-01

    An inert electrode connection is disclosed wherein a layer of inert electrode material is bonded to a layer of conductive material by providing at least one intermediate layer of material therebetween comprising a predetermined ratio of inert material to conductive material. In a preferred embodiment, the connection is formed by placing in a die a layer of powdered inert material, at least one layer of a mixture of powdered inert material and conductive material, and a layer of powdered conductive material. The connection is then formed by pressing the material at 15,000-20,000 psi to form a powder compact and then densifying the powder compact in an inert or reducing atmosphere at a temperature of 1200.degree.-1500.degree. C.

  16. Inert electrode connection

    DOEpatents

    Weyand, J.D.; Woods, R.W.; DeYoung, D.H.; Ray, S.P.

    1985-02-19

    An inert electrode connection is disclosed wherein a layer of inert electrode material is bonded to a layer of conductive material by providing at least one intermediate layer of material therebetween comprising a predetermined ratio of inert material to conductive material. In a preferred embodiment, the connection is formed by placing in a die a layer of powdered inert material, at least one layer of a mixture of powdered inert material and conductive material, and a layer of powdered conductive material. The connection is then formed by pressing the material at 15,000--20,000 psi to form a powder compact and then densifying the powder compact in an inert or reducing atmosphere at a temperature of 1,200--1,500 C. 5 figs.

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic generator electrode

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, David D.; Killpatrick, Don H.; Herman, Harold; Kuczen, Kenneth D.

    1979-01-01

    An improved electrode for use as a current collector in the channel of a magnetohydrodynamid (MHD) generator utilizes an elongated monolithic cap of dense refractory material compliantly mounted to the MHD channel frame for collecting the current. The cap has a central longitudinal channel which contains a first layer of porous refractory ceramic as a high-temperature current leadout from the cap and a second layer of resilient wire mesh in contact with the first layer as a low-temperature current leadout between the first layer and the frame. Also described is a monolithic ceramic insulator compliantly mounted to the frame parallel to the electrode by a plurality of flexible metal strips.

  18. Long life reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Yonco, Robert M.; Nagy, Zoltan

    1989-01-01

    An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservior and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved.

  19. Long life reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Yonco, R.M.; Nagy, Z.

    1987-07-30

    An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservoir and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved. 2 figs.

  20. Long life reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Yonco, R.M.; Nagy, Z.

    1989-04-04

    An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservoir and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved. 2 figs.