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Sample records for lateral line neuromasts

  1. The lateral line system in anuran tadpoles: neuromast morphology, arrangement, and innervation.

    PubMed

    Quinzio, Silvia; Fabrezi, Marissa

    2014-08-01

    Anuran larvae have been classified into four morphological types which reflect intraordinal macroevolution. At present, complete characterizations of the lateral line system are only available for Xenopus laevis (Type I) and Discoglossus pictus (Type III). We analyzed the morphology, arrangement, and innervation of neuromasts related to the anterodorsal and anteroventral lateral line nerves in 10 anuran species representing Types I, II, and IV with the aim of interpreting the existing variation and discussing the evolution of the lateral line in anuran larvae. We found: (1) the presence of two orbital and three mandibular neuromast lines in all anuran larvae studied, (2) the ventral arrangement of mandibular neuromast lines appears to have evolved convergently in Larval Types I and II, and the lateroventral arrangement of mandibular lines of neuromasts appears to have evolved in Larval Types III and IV; (3) interspecific variation in the organization, size, and number of sensory cells per neuromast within the lines; and (4) the supralabial extension of the Angular line in Lepidobatrachus spp. and the tentacular location of the Oral neuromasts in X. laevis are concomitant with their particular morphologies. Based on the variation described we find that the lateral line system in anuran larvae seems to have been maintained without significant changes, with the exception of Lepidobatrachus spp. and Xenopus. These unique features added to other of Lepidobatrachus tadpoles are sufficient to propose a new Larval Type (V).

  2. Inhibition of H3K27me3 Histone Demethylase Activity Prevents the Proliferative Regeneration of Zebrafish Lateral Line Neuromasts

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Beier; He, Yingzi; Tang, Dongmei; Li, Wenyan; Li, Huawei

    2017-01-01

    The H3K27 demethylases are involved in a variety of biological processes, including cell differentiation, proliferation, and cell death by regulating transcriptional activity. However, the function of H3K27 demethylation in the field of hearing research is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of H3K27me3 histone demethylase activity in hair cell regeneration using an in vivo animal model. Our data showed that pharmacologic inhibition of H3K27 demethylase activity with the specific small-molecule inhibitor GSK-J4 decreased the number of regenerated hair cells in response to neomycin damage. Furthermore, inhibition of H3K27me3 histone demethylase activity dramatically suppressed cell proliferation and activated caspase-3 levels in the regenerating neuromasts of the zebrafish lateral line. GSK-J4 administration also increased the expression of p21 and p27 in neuromast cells and inhibited the ERK signaling pathway. Collectively, our findings indicate that H3K27me3 demethylation is a key epigenetic regulator in the process of hair cell regeneration in zebrafish and suggest that H3K27me3 histone demethylase activity might be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of hearing loss. PMID:28348517

  3. Gentamicin is ototoxic to all hair cells in the fish lateral line system.

    PubMed

    Van Trump, William J; Coombs, Sheryl; Duncan, Kyle; McHenry, Matthew J

    2010-03-01

    Hair cells of the lateral line system in fish may differ in their susceptibility to damage by aminoglycoside antibiotics. Gentamicin has been reported to damage hair cells within canal neuromasts, but not those within superficial neuromasts. This finding, based on SEM imaging, indicates a distinction in the physiology of hair cells between the two classes of neuromast. Studies concerned with the individual roles of canal and superficial neuromasts in behavior have taken advantage of this effect in an attempt to selectively disable canal neuromasts without affecting superficial neuromast function. Here we present an experimental test of the hypothesis that canal neuromasts are more vulnerable to gentamicin than superficial neuromasts. We measured the effect of gentamicin exposure on hair cells using vital stains (DASPEI and FM1-43) in the neuromasts of Mexican blind cave fish (Astyanaxfasciatus) and zebrafish (Daniorerio). Contrary to the findings of prior studies that used SEM, gentamicin significantly reduced dye uptake by hair cells of both canal and superficial neuromasts in both species. Therefore, lateral line hair cells of both neuromast types are vulnerable to gentamicin ototoxicity. These findings argue for a re-evaluation of the results of studies that have used gentamicin to differentiate the roles of the two classes of neuromast in fish behavior.

  4. Dermal morphogenesis controls lateral line patterning during postembryonic development of teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Wada, Hironori; Ghysen, Alain; Satou, Chie; Higashijima, Shin-Ichi; Kawakami, Koichi; Hamaguchi, Satoshi; Sakaizumi, Mitsuru

    2010-04-15

    The lateral line system displays highly divergent patterns in adult teleost fish. The mechanisms underlying this variability are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the lateral line mechanoreceptor, the neuromast, gives rise to a series of accessory neuromasts by a serial budding process during postembryonic development in zebrafish. We also show that accessory neuromast formation is highly correlated to the development of underlying dermal structures such as bones and scales. Abnormalities in opercular bone morphogenesis, in endothelin 1-knockdown embryos, are accompanied by stereotypic errors in neuromast budding and positioning, further demonstrating the tight correlation between the patterning of neuromasts and of the underlying dermal bones. In medaka, where scales form between peridermis and opercular bones, the lateral line displays a scale-specific pattern which is never observed in zebrafish. These results strongly suggest a control of postembryonic neuromast patterns by underlying dermal structures. This dermal control may explain some aspects of the evolution of lateral line patterns.

  5. Innervation is required for sense organ development in the lateral line system of adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Wada, Hironori; Dambly-Chaudière, Christine; Kawakami, Koichi; Ghysen, Alain

    2013-04-02

    Superficial mechanosensory organs (neuromasts) distributed over the head and body of fishes and amphibians form the "lateral line" system. During zebrafish adulthood, each neuromast of the body (posterior lateral line system, or PLL) produces "accessory" neuromasts that remain tightly clustered, thereby increasing the total number of PLL neuromasts by a factor of more than 10. This expansion is achieved by a budding process and is accompanied by branches of the afferent nerve that innervates the founder neuromast. Here we show that innervation is essential for the budding process, in complete contrast with the development of the embryonic PLL, where innervation is entirely dispensable. To obtain insight into the molecular mechanisms that underlie the budding process, we focused on the terminal system that develops at the posterior tip of the body and on the caudal fin. In this subset of PLL neuromasts, bud neuromasts form in a reproducible sequence over a few days, much faster than for other PLL neuromasts. We show that wingless/int (Wnt) signaling takes place during, and is required for, the budding process. We also show that the Wnt activator R-spondin is expressed by the axons that innervate budding neuromasts. We propose that the axon triggers Wnt signaling, which itself is involved in the proliferative phase that leads to bud formation. Finally, we show that innervation is required not only for budding, but also for long-term maintenance of all PLL neuromasts.

  6. Development of the lateral line mechanoreceptors in the catfish Silurus glanis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Anton

    2010-07-01

    In fish the neuromasts of the lateral line develop as follows: a “migrating primordium” (MP) migrates from the postotic placode along the future posterior lateral line canal to the tail fin. Its placodal cells are assumed to be the basis for the development of the neuromasts. However, an MP was not found in all fish, e.g., in catfish. In the present study, a search was made for the MP in the larvae of the catfish Silurus glanis. Using light and electron microscopy, an MP was found to migrate along the ventral rim of the tail. It precedes the formation of a ventral row of free neuromasts. An MP preceding the main lateral row of the future canal neuromasts was not found. The necessity of the MP for the ventral-free neuromast development is shown by making incisions which block its migration. The result: caudal to the incision site neuromasts do not develop. On the other hand, the same incision procedure applied to the assumed migration route of a—hypothetical—lateral MP does not block the development of the lateral neuromasts. It is concluded that in this case an MP is not necessary for the development of the canal neuromasts.

  7. The contribution of the lateral line to 'hearing' in fish.

    PubMed

    Higgs, D M; Radford, C A

    2013-04-15

    In the underwater environment, sound propagates both as a pressure wave and as particle displacement, with particle displacement dominating close to the source (the nearfield). At the receptor level, both the fish ear and the neuromast hair cells act as displacement detectors and both are potentially stimulated by the particle motion component of sound sources, especially in the nearfield. A now common way to test 'hearing' in fish involves auditory evoked potentials (AEPs), with recordings made from electrodes implanted near the auditory brainstem. These AEP recordings are typically conducted in enclosed acoustic environments with the fish well within the nearfield, especially for lower frequencies. We tested the contribution of neuromast hair cells to AEP by first testing intact goldfish (Carassius auratus), then ablating their neuromasts with streptomycin sulphate--disabling superficial and canal neuromasts--and retesting the same goldfish. We performed a similar experiment where only the superficial neuromasts were physically ablated. At 100 and 200 Hz, there was a 10-15 dB increase in threshold after streptomycin treatment but no significant difference at higher frequencies. There was no difference in threshold in control fish or in fish that only had superficial neuromasts removed, indicating that the differential responses were driven by canal neuromasts. Taken together, these results indicate that AEP results at lower frequencies should be interpreted as multimodal responses, rather than as 'hearing'. The results also suggest that in natural situations both the ear and lateral line likely play an integrative role in detecting and localising many types of 'acoustic' stimuli.

  8. The orienting response of Lake Michigan mottled sculpin is mediated by canal neuromasts.

    PubMed

    Coombs, S; Braun, C B; Donovan, B

    2001-01-01

    Lake Michigan mottled sculpin, Cottus bairdi, exhibit a naturally occurring and unconditioned orienting response that can be triggered by both live prey and chemically inert vibrating spheres, even in blinded animals. CoCl(2)-induced reductions of the orienting response demonstrate that the lateral line is required for this behavior in the absence of non-mechanosensory cues (such as vision), but shed no light on the relative contributions of superficial and canal neuromasts to this behavior. To determine the relative roles of these two subsystems, we measured the frequency with which mottled sculpin oriented towards a small vibrating sphere before and after two treatments: (i) immersion of fish in a solution of gentamicin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic that damages hair cells in canal, but not superficial, neuromasts; and (ii) scraping the skin of the fish, which damages the superficial, but not the canal, neuromasts. To ensure that both superficial and canal neuromasts were adequately stimulated, we tested at different vibration frequencies (10 and 50 Hz) near or at the best frequency for each type of neuromast. At both test frequencies, response rates before treatment were greater than 70 % and were significantly greater than 'spontaneous' response frequencies measured in the absence of sphere vibration. Response rates fell to spontaneous levels after 1 day of gentamicin treatment and did not return to pre-treatment levels for 10-15 days. In contrast, response rates stayed approximately the same after superficial neuromasts had been damaged by skin abrasion. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed hair cell damage (loss of apical cilia) in canal, but not superficial, neuromasts of gentamicin-treated animals after as little as 24 h of treatment. The sensory epithelium of canal neuromasts gradually returned to normal, following a time course similar to behavioral loss and recovery of the orienting response, whereas that of superficial neuromasts appeared normal

  9. Sensory systems in sawfishes. 2. The lateral line.

    PubMed

    Wueringer, B E; Peverell, S C; Seymour, J; Squire, L; Collin, S P

    2011-01-01

    The lateral line system allows elasmobranchs to detect hydrodynamic movements in their close surroundings. We examined the distribution of pit organs and lateral line canals in 4 species of sawfish (Anoxypristis cuspidata, Pristis microdon, P. clavata and P. zijsron). Pit organs could only be located in A. cuspidata, which possesses elongated pits that are lined by dermal denticles. In all 4 pristid species, the lateral line canals are well developed and were separated into regions of pored and non-pored canals. In all species the tubules that extend from pored canals form extensive networks. In A. cuspidata, P. microdon and P. clavata, the lateral line canals on both the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the rostrum possess extensively branched and pored tubules. Based on this morphological observation, we hypothesized that these 3 species do not use their rostrum to search in the substrate for prey as previously assumed. Other batoids that possess lateral line canals adapted to perceive stimuli produced by infaunal prey possess non-pored lateral line canals, which also prevent the intrusion of substrate particles. However, this hypothesis remains to be tested behaviourally in pristids. Lateral line canals located between the mouth and the nostrils are non-pored in all 4 species of sawfish. Thus this region is hypothesized to perceive stimuli caused by direct contact with prey before ingestion. Lateral line canals that contain neuromasts are longest in P. microdon, but canals containing neuromasts along the rostrum are longest in A. cuspidata.

  10. Electrosensory ampullary organs are lateral line placode-derived in bony fishes

    PubMed Central

    Modrell, Melinda S.; Bemis, William E.; Northcutt, R. Glenn; Davis, Marcus C.; Baker, Clare V. H.

    2014-01-01

    Electroreception is an ancient subdivision of the lateral line sensory system, found in all major vertebrate groups (though lost in frogs, amniotes, and most ray-finned fishes). Electroreception is mediated by “hair cells” in ampullary organs, distributed in fields flanking lines of mechanosensory hair cell-containing neuromasts that detect local water movement. Neuromasts, and afferent neurons for both neuromasts and ampullary organs, develop from lateral line placodes. Although ampullary organs in the axolotl (a representative of the lobe-finned clade of bony fishes) are lateral line placode-derived, non-placodal origins have been proposed for electroreceptors in other taxa. Here we show morphological and molecular data describing lateral line system development in the basal ray-finned fish Polyodon spathula, and present fate-mapping data that conclusively demonstrate a lateral line placode origin for ampullary organs and neuromasts. Together with the axolotl data, this confirms that ampullary organs are ancestrally lateral line placode-derived in bony fishes. PMID:21988912

  11. The morphology and mechanical sensitivity of lateral line receptors in zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Van Trump, William J; McHenry, Matthew J

    2008-07-01

    The lateral line system of fish and amphibians detects water flow with receptors on the surface of the body. Although differences in the shape of these receptors, called neuromasts, are known to influence their mechanics, it is unclear how neuromast morphology affects the sensitivity of the lateral line system. We examined the functional consequences of morphological variation by measuring the dimensions of superficial neuromasts in zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio) and mathematically modeling their mechanics. These measurements used a novel morphometric technique that recorded landmarks in three dimensions at a microscopic scale. The mathematical model predicted mechanical sensitivity as the ratio of neuromast deflection to flow velocity for a range of stimulus frequencies. These predictions suggest that variation in morphology within this species generates a greater than 30-fold range in the amplitude of sensitivity and more than a 200-fold range of variation in cut-off frequency. Most of this variation was generated by differences in neuromast height that do not correlate with body position. Our results suggest that natural variation in cupular height within a species is capable of generating large differences in their mechanical filtering and dynamic range.

  12. The sensitivity of lateral line receptors and their role in the behavior of Mexican blind cavefish (Astyanax mexicanus).

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Masato; Jeffery, William R; van Netten, Sietse M; McHenry, Matthew J

    2014-03-15

    The characid fish species Astyanax mexicanus offers a classic comparative model for the evolution of sensory systems. Populations of this species evolved in caves and became blind while others remained in streams (i.e. surface fish) and retained a functional visual system. The flow-sensitive lateral line receptors, called superficial neuromasts, are more numerous in cavefish than in surface fish, but it is unclear whether individual neuromasts differ in sensitivity between these populations. The aims of this study were to determine whether the neuromasts in cavefish impart enhanced sensitivity relative to surface fish and to test whether this aids their ability to sense flow in the absence of visual input. Sensitivity was assessed by modeling the mechanics and hydrodynamics of a flow stimulus. This model required that we measure the dimensions of the transparent cupula of a neuromast, which was visualized with fluorescent microspheres. We found that neuromasts within the eye orbit and in the suborbital region were larger and consequently about twice as sensitive in small adult cavefish as in surface fish. Behavioral experiments found that these cavefish, but not surface fish, were attracted to a 35 Hz flow stimulus. These results support the hypothesis that the large superficial neuromasts of small cavefish aid in flow sensing. We conclude that the morphology of the lateral line could have evolved in cavefish to permit foraging in a cave environment.

  13. The sensitivity of lateral line receptors and their role in the behavior of Mexican blind cavefish (Astyanax mexicanus)

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizawa, Masato; Jeffery, William R.; van Netten, Sietse M.; McHenry, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    The characid fish species Astyanax mexicanus offers a classic comparative model for the evolution of sensory systems. Populations of this species evolved in caves and became blind while others remained in streams (i.e. surface fish) and retained a functional visual system. The flow-sensitive lateral line receptors, called superficial neuromasts, are more numerous in cavefish than in surface fish, but it is unclear whether individual neuromasts differ in sensitivity between these populations. The aims of this study were to determine whether the neuromasts in cavefish impart enhanced sensitivity relative to surface fish and to test whether this aids their ability to sense flow in the absence of visual input. Sensitivity was assessed by modeling the mechanics and hydrodynamics of a flow stimulus. This model required that we measure the dimensions of the transparent cupula of a neuromast, which was visualized with fluorescent microspheres. We found that neuromasts within the eye orbit and in the suborbital region were larger and consequently about twice as sensitive in small adult cavefish as in surface fish. Behavioral experiments found that these cavefish, but not surface fish, were attracted to a 35 Hz flow stimulus. These results support the hypothesis that the large superficial neuromasts of small cavefish aid in flow sensing. We conclude that the morphology of the lateral line could have evolved in cavefish to permit foraging in a cave environment. PMID:24265419

  14. Lateral line system and its innervation in Tetraodontiformes with outgroup comparisons: descriptions and phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Nakae, Masanori; Sasaki, Kunio

    2010-05-01

    The lateral line system and its innervation in ten tetraodontiform families and five outgroup taxa were examined. Although some homology issues remained unresolved, tetraodontiforms were characterized by having two types (at least) of superficial neuromasts (defined by the presence or absence of supporting structures) and accessory lateral lines and neuromasts (except Molidae in which "accessory" elements were absent). The preopercular line in Tetraodontiformes was not homologous with that of typical teleosts, because the line was innervated by the opercular ramule that was newly derived from the mandibular ramus, the condition being identical to that in Lophiidae. Within Tetraodontiformes, the number of neuromasts varied between 70 and 277 in the main lines and between 0 and 52 in accessory elements. Variations were also recognized in the presence or absence of the supraorbital commissure, mandibular line, otic line, postotic line, ventral trunk line, and some lateral line nerve rami, most notably the dorsal branch of the opercular ramule, being absent in Aracanidae, Ostraciidae, Tetraodontidae, Diodontidae, and Molidae. Morphological characteristics derived from the lateral line system and its innervation provided some support for a sister relationship of tetraodontiforms with lophiiforms.

  15. Damage and Recovery of Hair Cells in Fish Canal (But Not Superficial) Neuromasts after Gentamicin Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Jiakun; Yan, Hong Young; Popper, Arthur N.

    1995-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrating the presence of two types of sensory hair cells in the ear of a telcost fish (Astronotus ocellatus, the oscar) indicates that hair cell heterogeneity may exist not only in amniotic vertebrates but also in anamniotes. Here we report that a similar heterogeneity between hair cell types may also occur in the other mechanosensory organ of the oscar, the lateral line. We exposed oscars to the aminoglycoside (ototoxic) antibiotic gentamicin sulfate and found damaged sensory hair cells in one class of the lateral line receptors, the canal neuromasts, but not in the other class, the superficial neuromasts. This effect was not due to the canal environment. Moreover, new ciliary bundles on hair cells of the canal neuromasts were found after, and during, gentamicin exposure. The pattern of hair cell destruction and recovery in canal neuromasts is similar to that of type 1-like hair cells found in the striolar region of the utricle and lagena of the oscar after gentamicin treatment. These results suggest that the hair cells in the canal and superficial neuromasts may be similar to type 1-like and type 2 hair cells, respectively, in the fish ear.

  16. Determination of object position, vortex shedding frequency and flow velocity using artificial lateral line canals

    PubMed Central

    Bleckmann, Horst

    2011-01-01

    Summary The lateral line system of fish consists of superficial neuromasts, and neuromasts embedded in lateral line canals. Lateral line neuromasts allow fish to sense both minute water motions and pressure gradients, thereby enabling them to detect predators and prey or to recognize and discriminate stationary objects while passing them. With the aid of the lateral line, fish can also sense vortices caused by an upstream object or by undulatory swimming movements of fish. We show here that artificial lateral line canals equipped with optical flow sensors can be used to detect the water motions generated by a stationary vibrating sphere, the vortices caused by an upstream cylinder or the water (air) movements caused by a passing object. The hydrodynamic information retrieved from optical flow sensors can be used to calculate bulk flow velocity and thus the size of the cylinder that shed the vortices. Even a bilateral sensor platform equipped with only one artificial lateral line canal on each side is sufficient to determine the position of an upstream cylinder. PMID:21977440

  17. Heterochrony, modularity, and the functional evolution of the mechanosensory lateral line canal system of fishes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The canals of the mechanosensory lateral line system are components of the dermatocranium, and demonstrate phenotypic variation in bony fishes. Widened lateral line canals evolved convergently in a limited number of families of teleost fishes and it had been hypothesized that they evolved from narrow canals via heterochrony and explore modularity in the lateral line system. Two species of cichlids with different canal phenotypes were used to test a hypothesis of heterochrony. Histological material prepared from ontogenetic series of Aulonocara stuartgranti (widened canals) and Tramitichromis sp. (narrow canals) was analyzed using ANCOVA to determine rates of increase in canal diameter and neuromast size (length, width) and to compare the timing of onset of critical stages in canal morphogenesis (enclosure, ossification). Results A faster rate of increase in canal diameter and neuromast width (but not length), and a delay in onset of canal morphogenesis were found in Aulonocara relative to Tramitichromis. However, rates of increase in canal diameter and neuromast size among canals, among canal portions and among canals segments reveal similar trends within both species. Conclusion The evolution of widened lateral line canals is the result of dissociated heterochrony - acceleration in the rate of increase of both canal diameter and neuromast size, and delay in the onset of canal morphogenesis, in Aulonocara (widened canals) relative to Tramitichromis (narrow canals). Common rates of increase in canal diameter and neuromast size among canal portions in different dermatocranial bones and among canal segments reflect the absence of local heterochronies, and suggest modular integration among canals in each species. Thus, canal and neuromast morphology are more strongly influenced by their identities as features of the lateral line system than by the attributes of the dermatocranial bones in which the canals are found. Rate heterochrony manifested during the

  18. The lateral line confers evolutionarily derived sleep loss in the Mexican cavefish.

    PubMed

    Jaggard, James; Robinson, Beatriz G; Stahl, Bethany A; Oh, Ian; Masek, Pavel; Yoshizawa, Masato; Keene, Alex C

    2017-01-15

    Sleep is an essential behavior exhibited by nearly all animals, and disruption of this process is associated with an array of physiological and behavioral deficits. Sleep is defined by changes in sensory gating that reduce sensory input to the brain, but little is known about the neural basis for interactions between sleep and sensory processing. Blind Mexican cavefish comprise an extant surface dwelling form and 29 cave morphs that have independently evolved increased numbers of mechanoreceptive lateral line neuromasts and convergent evolution of sleep loss. Ablation of the lateral line enhanced sleep in the Pachón cavefish population, suggesting that heightened sensory input underlies evolutionarily derived sleep loss. Targeted lateral line ablation and behavioral analysis localized the wake-promoting neuromasts in Pachón cavefish to superficial neuromasts of the trunk and cranial regions. Strikingly, lateral line ablation did not affect sleep in four other cavefish populations, suggesting that distinct neural mechanisms regulate the evolution of sleep loss in independently derived cavefish populations. Cavefish are subject to seasonal changes in food availability, raising the possibility that sensory modulation of sleep is influenced by metabolic state. We found that starvation promotes sleep in Pachón cavefish, and is not enhanced by lateral line ablation, suggesting that functional interactions occur between sensory and metabolic regulation of sleep. Taken together, these findings support a model where sensory processing contributes to evolutionarily derived changes in sleep that are modulated in accordance with food availability.

  19. Structural diversity of the ordinary and specialized lateral line organs.

    PubMed

    Cernuda-Cernuda, R; García-Fernández, J M

    1996-07-01

    Lateral line organ, a superficial sensory system in amphibia and fish which provides the animal with information about its surrounding environment, is divided classically into two main different types, ordinary and specialized, whose functions are mechanoreceptive and electroreceptive, respectively. Although it has great diversity, the basic sensory unit, which is usually called "neuromast," is composed of sensory cells embedded in accessory cells. The functions of the latter are to support the sensory cells and to secrete the material that covers the organs, forming a cupular structure or filling a canal which enables the organ to communicate with the exterior. Sensory cells of mechanoreceptive neuromasts have a tuft of processes included in the cupular material; these are a kinocilium and a group of stereocilia with a typical staircase arrangement. The displacement of the stereocilia towards or away from the kinocilium produces different stimuli. The electroreceptive organs are more diverse. They include ampullary and tuberous organs. The latter can be subdivided into different types: knollenorgans, mormyromasts, gymnarchomasts, etc. All of these present a great diversity among species, but their morphology is less reported than that of the mechanoreceptive organs. This paper summarizes the structural features of the main different types of lateral line organs, as well as their taxonomic distribution and different patterns of distribution along the surface of the animal.

  20. Touch at a distance sensing: lateral-line inspired MEMS flow sensors.

    PubMed

    Prakash Kottapalli, Ajay Giri; Asadnia, Mohsen; Miao, Jianmin; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2014-11-07

    Evolution bestowed the blind cavefish with a resourcefully designed lateral-line of sensors that play an essential role in many important tasks including object detection and avoidance, energy-efficient maneuvering, rheotaxis etc. Biologists identified the two types of vital sensors on the fish bodies called the superficial neuromasts and the canal neuromasts that are responsible for flow sensing and pressure-gradient sensing, respectively. In this work, we present the design, fabrication and experimental characterization of biomimetic polymer artificial superficial neuromast micro-sensor arrays. These biomimetic micro-sensors demonstrated a high sensitivity of 0.9 mV/(m s(-1)) and 0.022 V/(m s(-1)) and threshold velocity detection limits of 0.1 m s(-1) and 0.015 m s(-1) in determining air and water flows respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that the biological canal inspired polymer encapsulation on the array of artificial superficial neuromast sensors is capable of filtering steady-state flows that could otherwise significantly mask the relevant oscillatory flow signals of high importance.

  1. Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and TrkB in the lateral line system of zebrafish during development.

    PubMed

    Germanà, A; Laurà, R; Montalbano, G; Guerrera, M C; Amato, V; Zichichi, R; Campo, S; Ciriaco, E; Vega, J A

    2010-07-01

    The neuromasts of the lateral line system are regarded as a model to study the mechanisms of hearing, deafness, and ototoxicity. The neurotrophins (NTs), especially brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and its signaling receptor TrkB are involved in the development and maintenance of neuromasts. To know the period in which the BDNF/TrkB complex has more effects in the neuromast biology, the age-related changes were studied. Normal zebrafish from 10 to 180 days post-fertilization (dpf), as well as transgenic ET4 zebrafish 10 and 20 dpf, was analyzed using qRT-PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry. BDNF and TrkB mRNAs followed a parallel course, peaking at 20 dpf, and thereafter progressively decreased. Specific immunoreactivity for BDNF and TrkB was found co-localized in all hairy cells of neuromasts in 20 and 30 dpf; then, the number of immunoreactive cells decreased, and by 180 dpf BDNF remains restricted to a subpopulation of hairy cells, and TrkB to a few number of sensory and non-sensory cells. At all ages examined, TrkB immunoreactivity was detected in sensory ganglia innervating the neuromasts. The present results demonstrate that there is a parallel time-related decline in the expression of BDNF and TrkB in zebrafish. Also, the patterns of cell expression suggest that autocrine/paracrine mechanisms for this NT system might occur within the neuromasts. Because TrkB in lateral line ganglia did not vary with age, their neurons are potentially capable to respond to BDNF during the entire lifespan of zebrafish.

  2. The evolution and development of vertebrate lateral line electroreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Clare V. H.; Modrell, Melinda S.; Gillis, J. Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Summary Electroreception is an ancient vertebrate sense with a fascinating evolutionary history involving multiple losses as well as independent evolution at least twice within teleosts. We review the phylogenetic distribution of electroreception and the morphology and innervation of electroreceptors in different vertebrate groups. We summarise recent work from our laboratory that has confirmed the homology of ampullary electroreceptors in non-teleost jawed vertebrates by showing, in conjunction with previously published work, that these are derived embryonically from lateral line placodes. Finally, we review hypotheses to explain the distribution of electroreception within teleosts, including the hypothesis that teleost ampullary and tuberous electroreceptors evolved via the modification of mechanosensory hair cells in lateral line neuromasts. We conclude that further experimental work on teleost electroreceptor development is needed to test such hypotheses. PMID:23761476

  3. Phoenix is required for mechanosensory hair cell regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line.

    PubMed

    Behra, Martine; Bradsher, John; Sougrat, Rachid; Gallardo, Viviana; Allende, Miguel L; Burgess, Shawn M

    2009-04-01

    In humans, the absence or irreversible loss of hair cells, the sensory mechanoreceptors in the cochlea, accounts for a large majority of acquired and congenital hearing disorders. In the auditory and vestibular neuroepithelia of the inner ear, hair cells are accompanied by another cell type called supporting cells. This second cell population has been described as having stem cell-like properties, allowing efficient hair cell replacement during embryonic and larval/fetal development of all vertebrates. However, mammals lose their regenerative capacity in most inner ear neuroepithelia in postnatal life. Remarkably, reptiles, birds, amphibians, and fish are different in that they can regenerate hair cells throughout their lifespan. The lateral line in amphibians and in fish is an additional sensory organ, which is used to detect water movements and is comprised of neuroepithelial patches, called neuromasts. These are similar in ultra-structure to the inner ear's neuroepithelia and they share the expression of various molecular markers. We examined the regeneration process in hair cells of the lateral line of zebrafish larvae carrying a retroviral integration in a previously uncharacterized gene, phoenix (pho). Phoenix mutant larvae develop normally and display a morphologically intact lateral line. However, after ablation of hair cells with copper or neomycin, their regeneration in pho mutants is severely impaired. We show that proliferation in the supporting cells is strongly decreased after damage to hair cells and correlates with the reduction of newly formed hair cells in the regenerating phoenix mutant neuromasts. The retroviral integration linked to the phenotype is in a novel gene with no known homologs showing high expression in neuromast supporting cells. Whereas its role during early development of the lateral line remains to be addressed, in later larval stages phoenix defines a new class of proteins implicated in hair cell regeneration.

  4. Chemokine and Fgf signalling act as opposing guidance cues in formation of the lateral line primordium.

    PubMed

    Breau, Marie A; Wilson, Duncan; Wilkinson, David G; Xu, Qiling

    2012-06-01

    The directional migration of many cell populations occurs as a coherent group. An amenable model is provided by the posterior lateral line in zebrafish, which is formed by a cohesive primordium that migrates from head to tail and deposits future neuromasts at intervals. We found that prior to the onset of migration, the compact state of the primordium is not fully established, as isolated cells with lateral line identity are present caudal to the main primordium. These isolated cells are retained in position such that they fuse with the migrating primordium as it advances, and later contribute to the leading zone and terminal neuromasts. We found that the isolated lateral line cells are positioned by two antagonistic cues: Fgf signalling attracts them towards the primordium, which counteracts Sdf1α/Cxcr4b-mediated caudal attraction. These findings reveal a novel chemotactic role for Fgf signalling in which it enables the coalescence of the lateral line primordium from an initial fuzzy pattern into a compact group of migrating cells.

  5. Electrosensory ampullary organs are derived from lateral line placodes in cartilaginous fishes.

    PubMed

    Gillis, J Andrew; Modrell, Melinda S; Northcutt, R Glenn; Catania, Kenneth C; Luer, Carl A; Baker, Clare V H

    2012-09-01

    Ampullary organ electroreceptors excited by weak cathodal electric fields are used for hunting by both cartilaginous and non-teleost bony fishes. Despite similarities of neurophysiology and innervation, their embryonic origins remain controversial: bony fish ampullary organs are derived from lateral line placodes, whereas a neural crest origin has been proposed for cartilaginous fish electroreceptors. This calls into question the homology of electroreceptors and ampullary organs in the two lineages of jawed vertebrates. Here, we test the hypothesis that lateral line placodes form electroreceptors in cartilaginous fishes by undertaking the first long-term in vivo fate-mapping study in any cartilaginous fish. Using DiI tracing for up to 70 days in the little skate, Leucoraja erinacea, we show that lateral line placodes form both ampullary electroreceptors and mechanosensory neuromasts. These data confirm the homology of electroreceptors and ampullary organs in cartilaginous and non-teleost bony fishes, and indicate that jawed vertebrates primitively possessed a lateral line placode-derived system of electrosensory ampullary organs and mechanosensory neuromasts.

  6. Sequential organogenesis sets two parallel sensory lines in medaka

    PubMed Central

    Seleit, Ali; Krämer, Isabel; Ambrosio, Elizabeth; Dross, Nicolas; Engel, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Animal organs are typically formed during embryogenesis by following one specific developmental programme. Here, we report that neuromast organs are generated by two distinct and sequential programmes that result in parallel sensory lines in medaka embryos. A ventral posterior lateral line (pLL) is composed of neuromasts deposited by collectively migrating cells whereas a midline pLL is formed by individually migrating cells. Despite the variable number of neuromasts among embryos, the sequential programmes that we describe here fix an invariable ratio between ventral and midline neuromasts. Mechanistically, we show that the formation of both types of neuromasts depends on the chemokine receptor genes cxcr4b and cxcr7b, illustrating how common molecules can mediate different morphogenetic processes. Altogether, we reveal a self-organising feature of the lateral line system that ensures a proper distribution of sensory organs along the body axis. PMID:28087632

  7. Variability of Rheotaxis Behaviors in Larval Bullfrogs Highlights Species Diversity in Lateral Line Function

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Erika E. A.

    2016-01-01

    The morphology and distribution of lateral line neuromasts vary between ecomorphological types of anuran tadpoles, but little is known about how this structural variability contributes to differences in lateral-line mediated behaviors. Previous research identified distinct differences in one such behavior, positive rheotaxis towards the source of a flow, in two tadpole species, the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis; type 1) and the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana; type 4). Because these two species had been tested under different flow conditions, we re-evaluated these findings by quantifying flow-sensing behaviors of bullfrog tadpoles in the same flow field in which X. laevis tadpoles had been tested previously. Early larval bullfrog tadpoles were exposed to flow in the dark, in the presence of a discrete light cue, and after treatment with the ototoxin gentamicin. In response to flow, tadpoles moved downstream, closer to a side wall, and higher in the water column, but they did not station-hold. Tadpoles exhibited positive rheotaxis, but with long latencies, low to moderate accuracy, and considerable individual variability. This is in contrast to the robust, stereotyped station-holding and accurate rheotaxis of X. laevis tadpoles. The presence of a discrete visual cue and gentamicin treatment altered spatial positioning and disrupted rheotaxis in both tadpole species. Species differences in lateral-line mediated behaviors may reflect differences in neuromast number and distribution, life history, or perceptual salience of other environmental cues. PMID:27870909

  8. Lateral line-mediated rheotactic behavior in tadpoles of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Andrea M.; Costa, Lauren M.; Gerstein, Hilary B.

    2005-01-01

    Tadpoles (Xenopus laevis) have a lateral line system whose anatomical structure has been described, but whose functional significance has not been closely examined. These experiments tested the hypothesis that the lateral line system is involved in rheotaxis. Tadpoles in developmental stages 47–56 oriented toward the source of a water current. Orientation was less precise after treatment with cobalt chloride or streptomycin, but was similar to that of untreated animals after exposure to gentamicin. In no current conditions, tadpoles exhibited a characteristic head-down posture by which they held themselves in the water column at an angle around 45°. This body posture became significantly less tilted in the presence of water current. Treatment with cobalt chloride or streptomycin increased the angle of tilt close to that seen in no current conditions, while gentamicin treatment tended to decrease tilt angle. The data are consistent with anatomical and physiological findings that tadpole neuromasts are similar to superficial, but not canal, neuromasts in fishes, and they suggest that the lateral line system is involved in both directional current detection and current-related postural adjustments in Xenopus. PMID:15300386

  9. Differences in Lateral Line Morphology between Hatchery- and Wild-Origin Steelhead

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Andrew D.; Sisneros, Joseph A.; Jurasin, Tyler; Nguyen, Chau; Coffin, Allison B.

    2013-01-01

    Despite identification of multiple factors mediating salmon survival, significant disparities in survival-to-adulthood among hatchery- versus wild-origin juveniles persist. In the present report, we explore the hypothesis that hatchery-reared juveniles might exhibit morphological defects in vulnerable mechanosensory systems prior to release from the hatchery, potentiating reduced survival after release. Juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from two different hatcheries were compared to wild-origin juveniles on several morphological traits including lateral line structure, otolith composition (a proxy for auditory function), and brain weight. Wild juveniles were found to possess significantly more superficial lateral line neuromasts than hatchery-reared juveniles, although the number of hair cells within individual neuromasts was not significantly different across groups. Wild juveniles were also found to possess primarily normal, aragonite-containing otoliths, while hatchery-reared juveniles possessed a high proportion of crystallized (vaterite) otoliths. Finally, wild juveniles were found to have significantly larger brains than hatchery-reared juveniles. These differences together predict reduced sensitivity to biologically important hydrodynamic and acoustic signals from natural biotic (predator, prey, conspecific) and abiotic (turbulent flow, current) sources among hatchery-reared steelhead, in turn predicting reduced survival fitness after release. Physiological and behavioral studies are required to establish the functional significance of these morphological differences. PMID:23554988

  10. Differences in lateral line morphology between hatchery- and wild-origin steelhead.

    PubMed

    Brown, Andrew D; Sisneros, Joseph A; Jurasin, Tyler; Nguyen, Chau; Coffin, Allison B

    2013-01-01

    Despite identification of multiple factors mediating salmon survival, significant disparities in survival-to-adulthood among hatchery- versus wild-origin juveniles persist. In the present report, we explore the hypothesis that hatchery-reared juveniles might exhibit morphological defects in vulnerable mechanosensory systems prior to release from the hatchery, potentiating reduced survival after release. Juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from two different hatcheries were compared to wild-origin juveniles on several morphological traits including lateral line structure, otolith composition (a proxy for auditory function), and brain weight. Wild juveniles were found to possess significantly more superficial lateral line neuromasts than hatchery-reared juveniles, although the number of hair cells within individual neuromasts was not significantly different across groups. Wild juveniles were also found to possess primarily normal, aragonite-containing otoliths, while hatchery-reared juveniles possessed a high proportion of crystallized (vaterite) otoliths. Finally, wild juveniles were found to have significantly larger brains than hatchery-reared juveniles. These differences together predict reduced sensitivity to biologically important hydrodynamic and acoustic signals from natural biotic (predator, prey, conspecific) and abiotic (turbulent flow, current) sources among hatchery-reared steelhead, in turn predicting reduced survival fitness after release. Physiological and behavioral studies are required to establish the functional significance of these morphological differences.

  11. The Nogo-C2/Nogo Receptor Complex Regulates the Morphogenesis of Zebrafish Lateral Line Primordium through Modulating the Expression of dkk1b, a Wnt Signal Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hao-Wei; Chou, Chih-Ming; Chu, Cheng-Ying; Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Yang, Chung-Hsiang; Hung, Chin-Chun; Hwang, Pung-Pung; Lee, Shyh-Jye; Liao, Yung-Feng; Huang, Chang-Jen

    2014-01-01

    The fish lateral line (LL) is a mechanosensory system closely related to the hearing system of higher vertebrates, and it is composed of several neuromasts located on the surface of the fish. These neuromasts can detect changes in external water flow, to assist fish in maintaining a stationary position in a stream. In the present study, we identified a novel function of Nogo/Nogo receptor signaling in the formation of zebrafish neuromasts. Nogo signaling in zebrafish, like that in mammals, involves three ligands and four receptors, as well as three co-receptors (TROY, p75, and LINGO-1). We first demonstrated that Nogo-C2, NgRH1a, p75, and TROY are able to form a Nogo-C2 complex, and that disintegration of this complex causes defective neuromast formation in zebrafish. Time-lapse recording of the CldnB::lynEGFP transgenic line revealed that functional obstruction of the Nogo-C2 complex causes disordered morphogenesis, and reduces rosette formation in the posterior LL (PLL) primordium during migration. Consistent with these findings, hair-cell progenitors were lost from the PLL primordium in p75, TROY, and Nogo-C2/NgRH1a morphants. Notably, the expression levels of pea3, a downstream marker of Fgf signaling, and dkk1b, a Wnt signaling inhibitor, were both decreased in p75, TROY, and Nogo-C2/NgRH1a morphants; moreover, dkk1b mRNA injection could rescue the defects in neuromast formation resulting from knockdown of p75 or TROY. We thus suggest that a novel Nogo-C2 complex, consisting of Nogo-C2, NgRH1a, p75, and TROY, regulates Fgf signaling and dkk1b expression, thereby ensuring stable organization of the PLL primordium. PMID:24466042

  12. Kremen1 regulates mechanosensory hair cell development in the mammalian cochlea and the zebrafish lateral line

    PubMed Central

    Mulvaney, Joanna F.; Thompkins, Cathrine; Noda, Teppei; Nishimura, Koji; Sun, Willy W.; Lin, Shuh-Yow; Coffin, Allison; Dabdoub, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Here we present spatio-temporal localization of Kremen1, a transmembrane receptor, in the mammalian cochlea, and investigate its role in the formation of sensory organs in mammal and fish model organisms. We show that Kremen1 is expressed in prosensory cells during cochlear development and in supporting cells of the adult mouse cochlea. Based on this expression pattern, we investigated whether Kremen1 functions to modulate cell fate decisions in the prosensory domain of the developing cochlea. We used gain and loss-of-function experiments to show that Kremen1 is sufficient to bias cells towards supporting cell fate, and is implicated in suppression of hair cell formation. In addition to our findings in the mouse cochlea, we examined the effects of over expression and loss of Kremen1 in the zebrafish lateral line. In agreement with our mouse data, we show that over expression of Kremen1 has a negative effect on the number of mechanosensory cells that form in the zebrafish neuromasts, and that fish lacking Kremen1 protein develop more hair cells per neuromast compared to wild type fish. Collectively, these data support an inhibitory role for Kremen1 in hair cell fate specification. PMID:27550540

  13. Specificity of afferent synapses onto plane-polarized hair cells in the posterior lateral line of the zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Nagiel, Aaron; Andor-Ardó, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The proper wiring of the vertebrate brain represents an extraordinary developmental challenge, requiring billions of neurons to select their appropriate synaptic targets. In view of this complexity, simple vertebrate systems provide necessary models for understanding how synaptic specificity arises. The posterior lateral-line organ of larval zebrafish consists of polarized hair cells organized in discrete clusters known as neuromasts. Here we show that each afferent neuron of the posterior lateral line establishes specific contacts with hair cells of the same hair-bundle polarity. We quantify this specificity by modeling the neuron as a biased selector of hair-cell polarity and find evidence for bias from as early as 2.5 days post-fertilization. More than half of the neurons form contacts on multiple neuromasts, but the innervated organs are spatially consecutive and the polarity preference is consistent. Using a novel reagent for correlative electron microscopy, HRP-mCherry, we show that these contacts are indeed afferent synapses bearing vesicle-loaded synaptic ribbons. Moreover, afferent neurons reassume their biased innervation pattern after hair-cell ablation and regeneration. By documenting specificity in the pattern of neuronal connectivity during development and in the context of organ regeneration, these results establish the posterior lateral-line organ as a vertebrate system for the in vivo study of synaptic target selection. PMID:18716202

  14. Distributed flow estimation and closed-loop control of an underwater vehicle with a multi-modal artificial lateral line.

    PubMed

    DeVries, Levi; Lagor, Francis D; Lei, Hong; Tan, Xiaobo; Paley, Derek A

    2015-03-25

    Bio-inspired sensing modalities enhance the ability of autonomous vehicles to characterize and respond to their environment. This paper concerns the lateral line of cartilaginous and bony fish, which is sensitive to fluid motion and allows fish to sense oncoming flow and the presence of walls or obstacles. The lateral line consists of two types of sensing modalities: canal neuromasts measure approximate pressure gradients, whereas superficial neuromasts measure local flow velocities. By employing an artificial lateral line, the performance of underwater sensing and navigation strategies is improved in dark, cluttered, or murky environments where traditional sensing modalities may be hindered. This paper presents estimation and control strategies enabling an airfoil-shaped unmanned underwater vehicle to assimilate measurements from a bio-inspired, multi-modal artificial lateral line and estimate flow properties for feedback control. We utilize potential flow theory to model the fluid flow past a foil in a uniform flow and in the presence of an upstream obstacle. We derive theoretically justified nonlinear estimation strategies to estimate the free stream flowspeed, angle of attack, and the relative position of an upstream obstacle. The feedback control strategy uses the estimated flow properties to execute bio-inspired behaviors including rheotaxis (the tendency of fish to orient upstream) and station-holding (the tendency of fish to position behind an upstream obstacle). A robotic prototype outfitted with a multi-modal artificial lateral line composed of ionic polymer metal composite and embedded pressure sensors experimentally demonstrates the distributed flow sensing and closed-loop control strategies.

  15. Myc and Fgf Are Required for Zebrafish Neuromast Hair Cell Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Goo; Huang, Mingqian; Obholzer, Nikolaus D; Sun, Shan; Li, Wenyan; Petrillo, Marco; Dai, Pu; Zhou, Yi; Cotanche, Douglas A; Megason, Sean G; Li, Huawei; Chen, Zheng-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Unlike mammals, the non-mammalian vertebrate inner ear can regenerate the sensory cells, hair cells, either spontaneously or through induction after hair cell loss, leading to hearing recovery. The mechanisms underlying the regeneration are poorly understood. By microarray analysis on a chick model, we show that chick hair cell regeneration involves the activation of proliferation genes and downregulation of differentiation genes. Both MYC and FGF are activated in chick hair cell regeneration. Using a zebrafish lateral line neuromast hair cell regeneration model, we show that the specific inhibition of Myc or Fgf suppresses hair cell regeneration, demonstrating that both pathways are essential to the process. Rapid upregulation of Myc and delayed Fgf activation during regeneration suggest a role of Myc in proliferation and Fgf in differentiation. The dorsal-ventral pattern of fgfr1a in the neuromasts overlaps with the distribution of hair cell precursors. By laser ablation, we show that the fgfr1a-positive supporting cells are likely the hair cell precursors that directly give rise to new hair cells; whereas the anterior-posterior fgfr1a-negative supporting cells have heightened proliferation capacity, likely to serve as more primitive progenitor cells to replenish lost precursors after hair cell loss. Thus fgfr1a is likely to mark compartmentalized supporting cell subtypes with different capacities in renewal proliferation and hair cell regeneration. Manipulation of c-MYC and FGF pathways could be explored for mammalian hair cell regeneration.

  16. Model to Design Drip Hose Lateral Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Rafael; Cury Saad, João Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Introduction The design criterion for non-pressure compensating drip hose is normally to have 10% of flow variation (Δq) in the lateral line, corresponding to 20% of head pressure variation (ΔH). Longer lateral lines in drip irrigation systems using conventional drippers provide cost reduction, but it is necessary to obtain to the uniformity of irrigation [1]. The use of Δq higher levels can provide longer lateral lines. [4] proposes the use of a 30% Δq and he found that this value resulted in distribution uniformity over 80%. [1] considered it is possible to extend the lateral line length using two emitters spacing in different section. He assumed that the spacing changing point would be at 40% of the total length, because this is approximately the location of the average flow according with [2]. [3] found that, for practical purposes, the average pressure is located at 40% of the length of the lateral line and that until this point it has already consumed 75% of total pressure head loss (hf ). In this case, the challenge for designers is getting longer lateral lines with high values of uniformity. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a model to design longer lateral lines using non-pressure compensating drip hose. Using the developed model, the hypotheses to be evaluated were: a) the use of two different spacing between emitters in the same lateral line allows longer length; b) it is possible to get longer lateral lines using high values of pressure variation in the lateral lines since the distribution uniformity stays below allowable limits. Methodology A computer program was developed in Delphi® based on the model developed and it is able to design lateral lines in level using non-pressure compensating drip hose. The input data are: desired distribution uniformity (DU); initial and final pressure in the lateral line; coefficients of relationship between emitter discharge and pressure head; hose internal diameter; pipe cross-sectional area

  17. Lef1 controls patterning and proliferation in the posterior lateral line system of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Gamba, Laurent; Cubedo, Nicolas; Lutfalla, Georges; Ghysen, Alain; Dambly-Chaudiere, Christine

    2010-12-01

    The embryonic development of the posterior lateral line of zebrafish involves the migration from head to tail of a primordium comprising approximately 100 cells, and the deposition at regular intervals of presumptive mechanosensory organs (neuromasts). Migration depends on the presence of chemokine SDF1 along the pathway, and on the asymmetrical distribution of chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7 in the primordium. Primordium polarization depends on Wnt signaling in the leading region. Here, we examine the role of a major effector of Wnt signaling, lef1, in this system. We show that, although its inactivation has no overt effect on the expression of cxcr4b and cxcr7b, lef1 contributes to their control. We also show that cell proliferation, which ensures constant primordium size despite successive rounds of cell deposition, is reduced upon lef1 inactivation. Because of this defect, the primordium runs short of cells and vanishes before the line has been completed. We conclude that lef1-mediated Wnt signaling is involved in various aspects of primordium migration, although part of this implication is masked by a high level of developmental redundancy.

  18. Habitat-related specialization of lateral-line system morphology in a habitat-generalist and a habitat-specialist New Zealand eleotrid.

    PubMed

    Vanderpham, J P; Nakagawa, S; Senior, A M; Closs, G P

    2016-04-01

    An investigation of intraspecific habitat-related patterns of variation in oculoscapular lateral-line superficial neuromasts (SN) identified a decrease in the ratio of total SNs to pores, and a trend towards decreased asymmetry in SNs in the habitat-generalist common bully Gobiomorphus cotidianus from fluvial habitats compared to lacustrine habitats, suggesting habitat-related phenotypic variability. A greater ratio of pores to SNs, as well as less variation in the total number and asymmetry of SNs observed in the fluvial habitat-specialist redfin bully Gobiomorphus huttoni may provide further evidence of variations in the oculoscapular lateral-line morphology of fluvial habitat G. cotidianus individuals serving as adaptations to more turbulent environments.

  19. Evolution of a behavioral shift mediated by superficial neuromasts helps cavefish find food in darkness.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Masato; Goricki, Spela; Soares, Daphne; Jeffery, William R

    2010-09-28

    How cave animals adapt to life in darkness is a poorly understood aspect of evolutionary biology [1]. Here we identify a behavioral shift and its morphological basis in Astyanax mexicanus, a teleost with a sighted surface-dwelling form (surface fish) and various blind cave-dwelling forms (cavefish) [2-4]. Vibration attraction behavior (VAB) is the ability of fish to swim toward the source of a water disturbance in darkness. VAB was typically seen in cavefish, rarely in surface fish, and was advantageous for feeding success in the dark. The potential for showing VAB has a genetic component and is linked to the mechanosensory function of the lateral line. VAB was evoked by vibration stimuli peaking at 35 Hz, blocked by lateral line inhibitors, first detected after developmental increases in superficial neuromast (SN) number and size [5-7], and significantly reduced by bilateral ablation of SN. We conclude that VAB and SN enhancement coevolved to compensate for loss of vision and to help blind cavefish find food in darkness.

  20. A bio-inspired real-time capable artificial lateral line system for freestream flow measurements.

    PubMed

    Abels, C; Qualtieri, A; De Vittorio, M; Megill, W M; Rizzi, F

    2016-06-03

    To enhance today's artificial flow sensing capabilities in aerial and underwater robotics, future robots could be equipped with a large number of miniaturized sensors distributed over the surface to provide high resolution measurement of the surrounding fluid flow. In this work we show a linear array of closely separated bio-inspired micro-electro-mechanical flow sensors whose sensing mechanism is based on a piezoresistive strain-gauge along a stress-driven cantilever beam, mimicking the biological superficial neuromasts found in the lateral line organ of fishes. Aiming to improve state-of-the-art flow sensing capability in autonomously flying and swimming robots, our artificial lateral line system was designed and developed to feature multi-parameter freestream flow measurements which provide information about (1) local flow velocities as measured by the signal amplitudes from the individual cantilevers as well as (2) propagation velocity, (3) linear forward/backward direction along the cantilever beam orientation and (4) periodicity of pulses or pulse trains determined by cross-correlating sensor signals. A real-time capable cross-correlation procedure was developed which makes it possible to extract freestream flow direction and velocity information from flow fluctuations. The computed flow velocities deviate from a commercial system by 0.09 m s(-1) at 0.5 m s(-1) and 0.15 m s(-1) at 1.0 m s(-1) flow velocity for a sampling rate of 240 Hz and a sensor distance of 38 mm. Although experiments were performed in air, the presented flow sensing system can be applied to underwater vehicles as well, once the sensors are embedded in a waterproof micro-electro-mechanical systems package.

  1. A fish perspective: detecting flow features while moving using an artificial lateral line in steady and unsteady flow

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, L. D.; Akanyeti, O.; Venturelli, R.; Ježov, J.; Brown, J.; Kruusmaa, M.; Fiorini, P.; Megill, W. M.

    2014-01-01

    For underwater vehicles to successfully detect and navigate turbulent flows, sensing the fluid interactions that occur is required. Fish possess a unique sensory organ called the lateral line. Sensory units called neuromasts are distributed over their body, and provide fish with flow-related information. In this study, a three-dimensional fish-shaped head, instrumented with pressure sensors, was used to investigate the pressure signals for relevant hydrodynamic stimuli to an artificial lateral line system. Unsteady wakes were sensed with the objective to detect the edges of the hydrodynamic trail and then explore and characterize the periodicity of the vorticity. The investigated wakes (Kármán vortex streets) were formed behind a range of cylinder diameter sizes (2.5, 4.5 and 10 cm) and flow velocities (9.9, 19.6 and 26.1 cm s−1). Results highlight that moving in the flow is advantageous to characterize the flow environment when compared with static analysis. The pressure difference from foremost to side sensors in the frontal plane provides us a useful measure of transition from steady to unsteady flow. The vortex shedding frequency (VSF) and its magnitude can be used to differentiate the source size and flow speed. Moreover, the distribution of the sensing array vertically as well as the laterally allows the Kármán vortex paired vortices to be detected in the pressure signal as twice the VSF. PMID:25079867

  2. Cobalt Chloride Treatment Used to Ablate the Lateral Line System Also Impairs the Olfactory System in Three Freshwater Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Julie M.; Field, Karen E.; Maruska, Karen P.

    2016-01-01

    Fishes use multimodal signals during both inter- and intra-sexual displays to convey information about their sex, reproductive state, and social status. These complex behavioral displays can include visual, auditory, olfactory, tactile, and hydrodynamic signals, and the relative role of each sensory channel in these complex multi-sensory interactions is a common focus of neuroethology. The mechanosensory lateral line system of fishes detects near-body water movements and is implicated in a variety of behaviors including schooling, rheotaxis, social communication, and prey detection. Cobalt chloride is commonly used to chemically ablate lateral line neuromasts, thereby eliminating water-movement cues to test for mechanosensory-mediated behavioral functions. However, cobalt acts as a nonspecific calcium channel antagonist and could potentially disrupt function of all superficially located sensory receptor cells, including those for chemosensing. Here, we examined whether CoCl2 treatment used to ablate the lateral line system also impairs olfaction in three freshwater fishes, the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, goldfish Carassius auratus, and the Mexican blind cavefish Astyanax mexicanus. To examine the impact of CoCl2 on the activity of peripheral receptors, we quantified DASPEI fluorescence intensity of the olfactory epithelium from fish exposed to control and CoCl2 solutions. In addition, we examined brain activation in olfactory processing regions of A. burtoni immersed in either control or cobalt solutions. All three species exposed to CoCl2 had decreased DASPEI staining of the olfactory epithelium, and in A. burtoni, cobalt treatment caused reduced neural activation in olfactory processing regions of the brain. To our knowledge this is the first empirical evidence demonstrating that the same CoCl2 treatment used to ablate the lateral line system also impairs olfactory function. These data have important implications for the use of CoCl2 in future

  3. Fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS) combined with gene expression microarrays for transcription enrichment profiling of zebrafish lateral line cells.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Viviana E; Behra, Martine

    2013-08-15

    Transgenic lines carrying fluorescent reporter genes like GFP have been of great value in the elucidation of developmental features and physiological processes in various animal models, including zebrafish. The lateral line (LL), which is a fish specific superficial sensory organ, is an emerging organ model for studying complex cellular processes in the context of the whole living animal. Cell migration, mechanosensory cell development/differentiation and regeneration are some examples. This sensory system is made of superficial and sparse small sensory patches called neuromasts, with less than 50 cells in any given patch. The paucity of cells is a real problem in any effort to characterize those cells at the transcriptional level. We describe here a method which we applied to efficiently separate subpopulation of cells of the LL, using two distinct stable transgenic zebrafish lines, Tg(cldnb:gfp) and Tg(tnks1bp1:EGFP). In both cases, the GFP positive (GFP+) cells were separated from the remainder of the animal by using a Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorter (FACS). The transcripts of the GFP+ cells were subsequently analyzed on gene expression microarrays. The combination of FACS and microarrays is an efficient method to establish a transcriptional signature for discrete cell populations which would otherwise be masked in whole animal preparation.

  4. In Vivo Time-Lapse Imaging in the Zebrafish Lateral Line: A Flexible, Open-Ended Research Project for an Undergraduate Neurobiology Laboratory Course

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Molly H.; Tobias, Zachary J.C.; Cohen, Hannah R.; Glover, Greta; Weissman, Tamily A.

    2015-01-01

    The lateral line sensory system in fish detects movements in the water and allows fish to respond to predators, prey, and other stimuli. As the lateral line forms in the first two days of zebrafish development, axons extend caudally along the lateral surface of the fish, eventually forming synapses with hair cells of neuromasts. Growing lateral line axons are located superficially under the skin and can be labeled in living zebrafish using fluorescent protein expression. This system provides a relatively straightforward approach for in vivo time-lapse imaging of neuronal development in an undergraduate setting. Here we describe an upper-level neurobiology laboratory module in which students investigate aspects of axonal development in the zebrafish lateral line system. Students learn to handle and image living fish, collect time-lapse videos of moving mitochondria, and quantitatively measure mitochondrial dynamics by generating and analyzing kymographs of their movements. Energy demands may differ between axons with extending growth cones versus axons that have already reached their targets and are forming synapses. Since relatively little is known about this process in developing lateral line axons, students generate and test their own hypotheses regarding how mitochondrial dynamics may differ at two different time points in axonal development. Students also learn to incorporate into their analysis a powerful yet accessible quantitative tool, the kymograph, which is used to graph movement over time. After students measure and quantify dynamics in living fish at 1 and 2 days post fertilization, this module extends into independent projects, in which students can expand their studies in a number of different, inquiry-driven directions. The project can also be pared down for courses that wish to focus solely on the quantitative analysis (without fish handling), or vice versa. This research module provides a useful approach for the design of open-ended laboratory

  5. Regenerated hair cells can originate from supporting cell progeny: Evidence from phototoxicity and laser ablation experiments in the lateral line system

    SciTech Connect

    Balak, K.J.; Corwin, J.T.; Jones, J.E. )

    1990-08-01

    The mechanisms that lead to the production of sensory hair cells during regeneration have been investigated by using 2 different procedures to ablate preexisting hair cells in individual neuromast sensory epithelia of the lateral line in the tails of salamanders, then monitoring the responses of surviving cells. In one series of experiments, fluorescent excitation was used to cause the phototoxic death of hair cells that selectively take up the pyridinium dye DASPEI. In the other experiments, the ultraviolet output of a pulsed neodymium-YAG laser was focused to a microbeam through a quartz objective lens in epi-illumination mode and used to selectively kill individual unlabeled hair cells while the cells were simultaneously imaged by transmitted light DIC microscopy. Through observation of the treated neuromasts in vivo, these experiments demonstrated that mature sensory epithelia that have been completely depleted of hair cells can still generate new hair cells. Preexisting hair cells are not necessary for regeneration. Immediately after the ablations the only resident cells in the sensory epithelia were supporting cells. These cells were observed to divide at rates that were increased over control values, and eventually those cell divisions gave rise to progeny that differentiated as hair cells, replacing those that had been killed. Macrophages were active in these epithelia, and their phagocytic activity had a significant influence on the standing population of cells. The first new hair cells appeared 3-5 d after the treatments, and additional hair cells usually appeared every 1-2 d for at least 2 weeks. We conclude that the fate of the progeny produced by supporting cell divisions is plastic to a degree, in that these progeny can differentiate either as supporting cells or as hair cells in epithelia where hair cells are missing or depleted.

  6. Neomycin damage and regeneration of hair cells in both mechanoreceptor and electroreceptor lateral line organs of the larval Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii).

    PubMed

    Fan, Chunxin; Zou, Sha; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Bo; Song, Jiakun

    2016-05-01

    The lateral line found in some amphibians and fishes has two distinctive classes of sensory organs: mechanoreceptors (neuromasts) and electroreceptors (ampullary organs). Hair cells in neuromasts can be damaged by aminoglycoside antibiotics and they will regenerate rapidly afterward. Aminoglycoside sensitivity and the capacity for regeneration have not been investigated in ampullary organs. We treated Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) larvae with neomycin and observed loss and regeneration of sensory hair cells in both organs by labeling with DASPEI and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The numbers of sensory hair cells in both organs were reduced to the lowest levels at 6 hours posttreatment (hpt). New sensory hair cells began to appear at 12 hpt and were regenerated completely in 7 days. To reveal the possible mechanism for ampullary hair cell regeneration, we analyzed cell proliferation and the expression of neural placodal gene eya1 during regeneration. Both cell proliferation and eya1 expression were concentrated in peripheral mantle cells and both increased to the highest level at 12 hpt, which is consistent with the time course for regeneration of the ampullary hair cells. Furthermore, we used Texas Red-conjugated gentamicin in an uptake assay following pretreatment with a cation channel blocker (amiloride) and found that entry of the antibiotic was suppressed in both organs. Together, our results indicate that ampullary hair cells in Siberian sturgeon larvae can be damaged by neomycin exposure and they can regenerate rapidly. We suggest that the mechanisms for aminoglycoside uptake and hair cell regeneration are conserved for mechanoreceptors and electroreceptors. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1443-1456, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Distant touch hydrodynamic imaging with an artificial lateral line

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yingchen; Chen, Jack; Engel, Jonathan; Pandya, Saunvit; Chen, Nannan; Tucker, Craig; Coombs, Sheryl; Jones, Douglas L.; Liu, Chang

    2006-01-01

    Nearly all underwater vehicles and surface ships today use sonar and vision for imaging and navigation. However, sonar and vision systems face various limitations, e.g., sonar blind zones, dark or murky environments, etc. Evolved over millions of years, fish use the lateral line, a distributed linear array of flow sensing organs, for underwater hydrodynamic imaging and information extraction. We demonstrate here a proof-of-concept artificial lateral line system. It enables a distant touch hydrodynamic imaging capability to critically augment sonar and vision systems. We show that the artificial lateral line can successfully perform dipole source localization and hydrodynamic wake detection. The development of the artificial lateral line is aimed at fundamentally enhancing human ability to detect, navigate, and survive in the underwater environment. PMID:17132735

  8. Performance Analysis for Lateral-Line-Inspired Sensor Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    frequency is encoded in the nerve fibers connected to the lateral line [10], indicating that at least some high level information about vortices is being...Mogdans. Responses to dipole stimuli of anterior lateral line nerve fibres in goldfish, carassius auratus, under still and running water conditions...M. Humphreys. Wall-pressure-array measure- ments beneath a separating/ reattaching flow region. Physics of Fluids, 15(3):706–717, March 2003. [37

  9. 12. CONCRETE LINING ON A CURVING SEGMENT OF THE LATERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. CONCRETE LINING ON A CURVING SEGMENT OF THE LATERAL NEAR THE NORTHEAST END OF LAKE LADORA (SECTION 2). - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  10. Gβ1 controls collective cell migration by regulating the protrusive activity of leader cells in the posterior lateral line primordium.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Ye, Ding; Behra, Martine; Burgess, Shawn; Chen, Songhai; Lin, Fang

    2014-01-15

    Collective cell migration is critical for normal development, tissue repair and cancer metastasis. Migration of the posterior lateral line primordium (pLLP) generates the zebrafish sensory organs (neuromasts, NMs). This migration is promoted by the leader cells at the leading edge of the pLLP, which express the G protein-coupled chemokine receptor Cxcr4b and respond to the chemokine Cxcl12a. However, the mechanism by which Cxc112a/Cxcr4b signaling regulates pLLP migration remains unclear. Here we report that signal transduction by the heterotrimeric G protein subunit Gβ1 is essential for proper pLLP migration. Although both Gβ1 and Gβ4 are expressed in the pLLP and NMs, depletion of Gβ1 but not Gβ4 resulted in an arrest of pLLP migration. In embryos deficient for Gβ1, the pLLP cells migrated in an uncoordinated fashion and were unable to extend protrusions at the leading front, phenocopying those in embryos deficient for Cxcl12a or Cxcr4b. A transplantation assay showed that, like Cxcr4b, Gβ1 is required only in the leader cells of the pLLP. Analysis of F-actin dynamics in the pLLP revealed that whereas wild-type leader cells display extensive actin polymerization in the direction of pLLP migration, counterparts defective for Gβ1, Cxcr4b or Cxcl12a do not. Finally, synergy experiments revealed that Gβ1 and Cxcr4b interact genetically in regulating pLLP migration. Collectively, our data indicate that Gβ1 controls migration of the pLLP, likely by acting downstream of the Cxcl12a/Cxcr4b signaling. This study also provides compelling evidence for functional specificity among Gβ isoforms in vivo.

  11. Chemical Ototoxicity of the Fish Inner Ear and Lateral Line.

    PubMed

    Coffin, Allison B; Ramcharitar, John

    2016-01-01

    Hair cell-driven mechanosensory systems are crucial for successful execution of a number of behaviors in fishes, and have emerged as good models for exploring questions relevant to human hearing. This review focuses on ototoxic effects in the inner ear and lateral line system of fishes. We specifically examine studies where chemical ototoxins such as aminoglycoside antibiotics have been employed as tools to disable the lateral line. Lateral line ablation results in alterations to feeding behavior and orientation to water current in a variety of species. However, neither behavior is abolished in the presence of additional sensory cues, supporting the hypothesis that many fish behaviors are driven by multisensory integration. Within biomedical research, the larval zebrafish lateral line has become an important model system for understanding signaling mechanisms that contribute to hair cell death and for developing novel pharmacological therapies that protect hair cells from ototoxic damage. Furthermore, given that fishes robustly regenerate damaged hair cells, ototoxin studies in fishes have broadened our understanding of the molecular and genetic events in an innately regenerative system, offering potential targets for mammalian hair cell regeneration. Collectively, studies of fish mechanosensory systems have yielded insight into fish behavior and in mechanisms of hair cell death, protection, and regeneration.

  12. SENSORY HAIR CELL REGENERATION IN THE ZEBRAFISH LATERAL LINE

    PubMed Central

    Lush, Mark E.; Piotrowski, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Damage or destruction of sensory hair cells in the inner ear leads to hearing or balance deficits that can be debilitating, especially in older adults. Unfortunately, the damage is permanent, as regeneration of the inner ear sensory epithelia does not occur in mammals. Zebrafish and other non-mammalian vertebrates have the remarkable ability to regenerate sensory hair cells and understanding the molecular and cellular basis for this regenerative ability will hopefully aid us in designing therapies to induce regeneration in mammals. Zebrafish not only possess hair cells in the ear but also in the sensory lateral line system. Hair cells in both organs are functionally analogous to hair cells in the inner ear of mammals. The lateral line is a mechanosensory system found in most aquatic vertebrates that detects water motion and aids in predator avoidance, prey capture, schooling and mating. Although hair cell regeneration occurs in both the ear and lateral line, most research to date has focused on the lateral line due to its relatively simple structure and accessibility. Here we review the recent discoveries made during the characterization of hair cell regeneration in zebrafish. PMID:25045019

  13. Comparative morphology of stingray lateral line canal and electrosensory systems.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Laura K

    2008-11-01

    Elasmobranchs (sharks, skates, and rays) possess a variety of sensory systems including the mechanosensory lateral line and electrosensory systems, which are particularly complex with high levels of interspecific variation in batoids (skates and rays). Rays have dorsoventrally compressed, laterally expanded bodies that prevent them from seeing their mouths and more often than not, their prey. This study uses quantitative image analysis techniques to identify, quantify, and compare structural differences that may have functional consequences in the detection capabilities of three Eastern Pacific stingray species. The benthic round stingray, Urobatis halleri, pelagic stingray, Pteroplatytrygon (Dasyatis) violacea, and benthopelagic bat ray, Myliobatis californica, show significant differences in sensory morphology. Ventral lateral line canals correlate with feeding ecology and differ primarily in the proportion of pored and nonpored canals and the degree of branching complexity. Urobatis halleri shows a high proportion of nonpored canals, while P. violacea has an intermediate proportion of pored and nonpored canals with almost no secondary branching of pored canals. In contrast, M. californica has extensive and highly branched pored ventral lateral line canals that extended laterally toward the wing tips on the anterior edge of the pectoral fins. Electrosensory morphology correlates with feeding habitat and prey mobility; benthic feeders U. halleri and M. californica, have greater electrosensory pore numbers and densities than P. violacea. The percentage of the wing surface covered by these sensory systems appears to be inversely related to swimming style. These methods can be applied to a broader range of species to enable further discussion of the relationship of phylogeny, ecology, and morphology, while the results provide testable predictions of detection capabilities.

  14. WNK1/HSN2 mutation in human peripheral neuropathy deregulates KCC2 expression and posterior lateral line development in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Bercier, Valérie; Brustein, Edna; Liao, Meijiang; Dion, Patrick A; Lafrenière, Ronald G; Rouleau, Guy A; Drapeau, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 2 (HSNAII) is a rare pathology characterized by an early onset of severe sensory loss (all modalities) in the distal limbs. It is due to autosomal recessive mutations confined to exon "HSN2" of the WNK1 (with-no-lysine protein kinase 1) serine-threonine kinase. While this kinase is well studied in the kidneys, little is known about its role in the nervous system. We hypothesized that the truncating mutations present in the neural-specific HSN2 exon lead to a loss-of-function of the WNK1 kinase, impairing development of the peripheral sensory system. To investigate the mechanisms by which the loss of WNK1/HSN2 isoform function causes HSANII, we used the embryonic zebrafish model and observed strong expression of WNK1/HSN2 in neuromasts of the peripheral lateral line (PLL) system by immunohistochemistry. Knocking down wnk1/hsn2 in embryos using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides led to improper PLL development. We then investigated the reported interaction between the WNK1 kinase and neuronal potassium chloride cotransporter KCC2, as this transporter is a target of WNK1 phosphorylation. In situ hybridization revealed kcc2 expression in mature neuromasts of the PLL and semi-quantitative RT-PCR of wnk1/hsn2 knockdown embryos showed an increased expression of kcc2 mRNA. Furthermore, overexpression of human KCC2 mRNA in embryos replicated the wnk1/hsn2 knockdown phenotype. We validated these results by obtaining double knockdown embryos, both for wnk1/hsn2 and kcc2, which alleviated the PLL defects. Interestingly, overexpression of inactive mutant KCC2-C568A, which does not extrude ions, allowed a phenocopy of the PLL defects. These results suggest a pathway in which WNK1/HSN2 interacts with KCC2, producing a novel regulation of its transcription independent of KCC2's activation, where a loss-of-function mutation in WNK1 induces an overexpression of KCC2 and hinders proper peripheral sensory nerve development, a

  15. Innervation regulates synaptic ribbons in lateral line mechanosensory hair cells.

    PubMed

    Suli, Arminda; Pujol, Remy; Cunningham, Dale E; Hailey, Dale W; Prendergast, Andrew; Rubel, Edwin W; Raible, David W

    2016-06-01

    Failure to form proper synapses in mechanosensory hair cells, the sensory cells responsible for hearing and balance, leads to deafness and balance disorders. Ribbons are electron-dense structures that tether synaptic vesicles to the presynaptic zone of mechanosensory hair cells where they are juxtaposed with the post-synaptic endings of afferent fibers. They are initially formed throughout the cytoplasm, and, as cells mature, ribbons translocate to the basolateral membrane of hair cells to form functional synapses. We have examined the effect of post-synaptic elements on ribbon formation and maintenance in the zebrafish lateral line system by observing mutants that lack hair cell innervation, wild-type larvae whose nerves have been transected and ribbons in regenerating hair cells. Our results demonstrate that innervation is not required for initial ribbon formation but suggest that it is crucial for regulating the number, size and localization of ribbons in maturing hair cells, and for ribbon maintenance at the mature synapse.

  16. Morphological variation and distribution of free neuromasts during half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis ontogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Aijun; Shang, Xiaomei; Zhou, Zhou; Wang, Xin'an; Sun, Zhibin; Cui, Wenxiao; Xia, Dandan; Ma, Benhe

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to clarify the distribution and morphology of free neuromasts during the development of half-smooth tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis) using scanning electron microscopy. During development, (1) the apical surface of free neuromasts changed in shape from a circle to a four-point star; (2) the external structure changed from being level with the epidermis to papilla-like above the level of the epidermis; (3) the neuromast cupula changed from cylindrical to blade-shaped; (4) the free neuromasts went from occurring singly to being in clusters of a few single organs; (5) the arrangement changed from a linear array to no discernable pattern; (6) there was a significant increase in the number of free neuromasts after metamorphosis. In adult C. semilaevis, free neuromasts were only observed on the abocular side of the head. Thus, there were more free neuromasts located on the abocular side of the head with a higher concentration around the anterior nostril and mouth, which may have a mechanical sensory function to help locate food as an adaptation to a benthic mode of life.

  17. Morphological variation and distribution of free neuromasts during half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis ontogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Aijun; Shang, Xiaomei; Zhou, Zhou; Wang, Xin'an; Sun, Zhibin; Cui, Wenxiao; Xia, Dandan; Ma, Benhe

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to clarify the distribution and morphology of free neuromasts during the development of half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) using scanning electron microscopy. During development, (1) the apical surface of free neuromasts changed in shape from a circle to a four-point star; (2) the external structure changed from being level with the epidermis to papilla-like above the level of the epidermis; (3) the neuromast cupula changed from cylindrical to blade-shaped; (4) the free neuromasts went from occurring singly to being in clusters of a few single organs; (5) the arrangement changed from a linear array to no discernable pattern; (6) there was a significant increase in the number of free neuromasts after metamorphosis. In adult C. semilaevis, free neuromasts were only observed on the abocular side of the head. Thus, there were more free neuromasts located on the abocular side of the head with a higher concentration around the anterior nostril and mouth, which may have a mechanical sensory function to help locate food as an adaptation to a benthic mode of life.

  18. Distinguishing centrarchid genera by use of lateral line scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, N.M.; Rabeni, C.F.; Stanovick, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    Predator-prey relations involving fishes are often evaluated using scales remaining in gut contents or feces. While several reliable keys help identify North American freshwater fish scales to the family level, none attempt to separate the family Centrarchidae to the genus level. Centrarchidae is of particular concern in the midwestern United States because it contains several popular sport fishes, such as smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, largemouth bass M. salmoides, and rock bass Ambloplites rupestris, as well as less-sought-after species of sunfishes Lepomis spp. and crappies Pomoxis spp. Differentiating sport fish from non-sport fish has important management implications. Morphological characteristics of lateral line scales (n = 1,581) from known centrarchid fishes were analyzed. The variability of measurements within and between genera was examined to select variables that were the most useful in further classifying unknown centrarchid scales. A linear discriminant analysis model was developed using 10 variables. Based on this model, 84.4% of Ambloplites scales, 81.2% of Lepomis scales, and 86.6% of Micropterus scales were classified correctly using a jackknife procedure. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  19. Neural transduction in Xenopus laevis lateral line system.

    PubMed

    Strelioff, D; Honrubia, V

    1978-03-01

    1. The process of neural excitation in hair cell systems was studied in an in vitro preparation of the Xenopus laevis (African clawed toad) lateral line organ. A specially designed stimulus chamber was used to apply accurately controlled pressure, water movement, or electrical stimuli, and to record the neural responses of the two afferent fibers innervating each organ or stitch. The objective of the study was to determine the characteristics of the neural responses to these stimuli, and thus gain insight into the transduction process. 2. A sustained deflection of the hair cell cilia due to a constant flow of water past the capula resulted in a maintained change in the mean firing rate (MFR) of the afferent fibers. The data also demonstrated that the neural response was proportional to the velocity of the water flow and indicated that both deflection and movement of the cilia were the effective physiological stimuli for this hair cell system. 3. The preparations responded to sinusoidal water movements (past the capula) over the entire frequency range of the stimulus chamber, 0.1-130 Hz, and were most sensitive between 10 and 40 Hz. The variation of the MFR and the percent modulation indicated that the average dynamic range of each organ was 23.5 dB. 4. The thresholds, if any, for sustained pressure changes and for sinusoidal pressure variations in the absence of water movements were very high. Due to the limitations of the stimulus chamber it was not possible to generate pressure stimuli of sufficient magnitude to elicit a neural response without also generating suprathreshold water-movement stimuli. Sustained pressures had no detectable effect on the neural response to water-movement stimuli. 5. The preparations were very sensitive to electrical potentials applied across the toad skin on which the hair cells were located. Potentials which made the ciliated surfaces of the hair cells positive with respect to their bases increased the MFR of the fibers, whereas

  20. A Review of Artificial Lateral Line in Sensor Fabrication and Bionic Applications for Robot Fish

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Anyi; Wang, Xinbao; Liu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Lateral line is a system of sense organs that can aid fishes to maneuver in a dark environment. Artificial lateral line (ALL) imitates the structure of lateral line in fishes and provides invaluable means for underwater-sensing technology and robot fish control. This paper reviews ALL, including sensor fabrication and applications to robot fish. The biophysics of lateral line are first introduced to enhance the understanding of lateral line structure and function. The design and fabrication of an ALL sensor on the basis of various sensing principles are then presented. ALL systems are collections of sensors that include carrier and control circuit. Their structure and hydrodynamic detection are reviewed. Finally, further research trends and existing problems of ALL are discussed. PMID:28115825

  1. Role of upper lateral cartilage tension spanning suture in restoring the dorsal aesthetic lines in rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Palmyra J; Roostaeian, Jason; Lee, Michael R; Unger, Jacob J; Rohrich, Rod J

    2014-01-01

    Dorsal hump reduction can lead to significant aesthetic and functional deformities with distortion of the dorsal aesthetic lines without first preserving and subsequently restoring proper position of the upper lateral cartilages. The senior author (R.J.R.) previously described the component dorsal hump reduction to preserve the integrity of the upper lateral cartilages, thereby avoiding routine use of spreader grafts. In this study, the authors introduce an efficient and reproducible technique they call the upper lateral cartilage tension spanning suture to reconstitute the upper lateral cartilages into anatomical position. The authors have found this technique to consistently achieve smooth and symmetric contour to the nasal dorsum and pleasing dorsal aesthetic lines.

  2. Wake tracking and the detection of vortex rings by the canal lateral line of fish.

    PubMed

    Franosch, Jan-Moritz P; Hagedorn, Hendrik J A; Goulet, Julie; Engelmann, Jacob; van Hemmen, J Leo

    2009-08-14

    Research on the lateral line of fish has mainly focused on the detection of oscillating objects. Yet many fish are able to track vortex wakes that arise from other fish. It is not yet known what the sensory input from a wake looks like and how fish can extract relevant information from it. We present a mathematical model to determine how vortices stimulate the canal lateral line and verify it by neuronal recordings. We also show how the information about the orientation of a vortex ring is captured by the lateral-line sensors so as to enable fish to follow a vortex street.

  3. Transcriptional signature of accessory cells in the lateral line, using the Tnk1bp1:EGFP transgenic zebrafish line

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Because of the structural and molecular similarities between the two systems, the lateral line, a fish and amphibian specific sensory organ, has been widely used in zebrafish as a model to study the development/biology of neuroepithelia of the inner ear. Both organs have hair cells, which are the mechanoreceptor cells, and supporting cells providing other functions to the epithelium. In most vertebrates (excluding mammals), supporting cells comprise a pool of progenitors that replace damaged or dead hair cells. However, the lack of regenerative capacity in mammals is the single leading cause for acquired hearing disorders in humans. Results In an effort to understand the regenerative process of hair cells in fish, we characterized and cloned an egfp transgenic stable fish line that trapped tnks1bp1, a highly conserved gene that has been implicated in the maintenance of telomeres' length. We then used this Tg(tnks1bp1:EGFP) line in a FACsorting strategy combined with microarrays to identify new molecular markers for supporting cells. Conclusions We present a Tg(tnks1bp1:EGFP) stable transgenic line, which we used to establish a transcriptional profile of supporting cells in the zebrafish lateral line. Therefore we are providing a new set of markers specific for supporting cells as well as candidates for functional analysis of this important cell type. This will prove to be a valuable tool for the study of regeneration in the lateral line of zebrafish in particular and for regeneration of neuroepithelia in general. PMID:22273551

  4. The lateral line system is not necessary for rheotaxis in the Mexican blind cavefish (Astyanax fasciatus).

    PubMed

    Van Trump, William J; McHenry, Matthew J

    2013-11-01

    Fish resist being swept downstream by swimming against a current. Mexican blind cavefish (Astyanax fasciatus) exhibit this innate behavior, rheotaxis, without the aid of vision, but it has been debated whether this ability requires sensing flow with the lateral line system. We tested the role of the lateral line by comparing swimming in a flow chamber in a group of cavefish with a compromised lateral line with a control group. Consistent with previous studies, we found that cavefish orient toward flow and more frequently swim upstream at a higher flow speed. We found that these responses to flow were indistinguishable between fish with compromised and functioning lateral line systems. Rheotaxis was also unaltered by exposing fish to varying degrees of turbulence. These results suggest that the sensing of flow is unnecessary for rheotaxis in cavefish. It appears that tactile stimuli provide a sufficient means of executing this behavior in fish and that rheotaxis may not be a major function of the lateral line system.

  5. Localization of a moving dipole source underwater using an artificial lateral line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulsadda, Ahmad T.; Tan, Xiaobo

    2012-04-01

    Motivated by the lateral line system of fish, arrays of flow sensors have been proposed as a new sensing modality for underwater robots. Existing studies on such artificial lateral lines (ALLs) have been mostly focused on the localization of a fixed underwater vibrating sphere (dipole source). In this paper we examine the problem of tracking a moving dipole source using an ALL system. A nonlinear estimation problem is formulated based on an analytical model for the moving dipole-generated flow field, which is subsequently solved with the Gauss-Newton method. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is illustrated with simulation results.

  6. Asymmetric Facial Bone Fragmentation Mirrors Asymmetric Distribution of Cranial Neuromasts in Blind Mexican Cavefish.

    PubMed

    Gross, Joshua B; Gangidine, Andrew; Powers, Amanda K

    2016-11-01

    Craniofacial asymmetry is a convergent trait widely distributed across animals that colonize the extreme cave environment. Although craniofacial asymmetry can be discerned easily, other complex phenotypes (such as sensory organ position and numerical variation) are challenging to score and compare. Certain bones of the craniofacial complex demonstrate substantial asymmetry, and co-localize to regions harboring dramatically expanded numbers of mechanosensory neuromasts. To determine if a relationship exists between this expansion and bone fragmentation in cavefish, we developed a quantitative measure of positional symmetry across the left-right axis. We found that three different cave-dwelling populations were significantly more asymmetric compared to surface-dwelling fish. Moreover, cave populations did not differ in the degree of neuromast asymmetry. This work establishes a method for quantifying symmetry of a complex phenotype, and demonstrates that facial bone fragmentation mirrors the asymmetric distribution of neuromasts in different cavefish populations. Further developmental studies will provide a clearer picture of the developmental and cellular changes that accompany this extreme phenotype, and help illuminate the genetic basis for facial asymmetry in vertebrates.

  7. Asymmetric Facial Bone Fragmentation Mirrors Asymmetric Distribution of Cranial Neuromasts in Blind Mexican Cavefish

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Joshua B.; Gangidine, Andrew; Powers, Amanda K.

    2017-01-01

    Craniofacial asymmetry is a convergent trait widely distributed across animals that colonize the extreme cave environment. Although craniofacial asymmetry can be discerned easily, other complex phenotypes (such as sensory organ position and numerical variation) are challenging to score and compare. Certain bones of the craniofacial complex demonstrate substantial asymmetry, and co-localize to regions harboring dramatically expanded numbers of mechanosensory neuromasts. To determine if a relationship exists between this expansion and bone fragmentation in cavefish, we developed a quantitative measure of positional symmetry across the left-right axis. We found that three different cave-dwelling populations were significantly more asymmetric compared to surface-dwelling fish. Moreover, cave populations did not differ in the degree of neuromast asymmetry. This work establishes a method for quantifying symmetry of a complex phenotype, and demonstrates that facial bone fragmentation mirrors the asymmetric distribution of neuromasts in different cavefish populations. Further developmental studies will provide a clearer picture of the developmental and cellular changes that accompany this extreme phenotype, and help illuminate the genetic basis for facial asymmetry in vertebrates. PMID:28078105

  8. Fabricating neuromast-inspired gel structures for membrane-based hair cell sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaddoni, Nima J.; Stephens, Christopher P.; Sarles, S. A.

    2012-04-01

    Recent research has shown that a new class of mechanical sensor, assembled from biomolecules and which features an artificial cell membrane as the sensing element, can be used to mimic basic hair cell mechanotransduction in vertebrates. The work presented in this paper is motivated by the need to increase sensor performance and stability by refining the methods used to fabricate and connect lipid-encapsulated hydrogels. Inspired by superficial neuromasts found on fish, three hydrogel materials are compared for their ability to be readily shaped into neuromast-inspired geometries and enable lipid bilayer formation using self-assembly at an oil/water interface. Agarose, polyethylene glycol (PEG, 6kg/mole), and hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) gel materials are compared. The results of this initial study determined that UV-curable gel materials such as PEG and HEMA enable more accurate shaping of the gel-needed for developing a sensor that uses a gel material both for mechanical support and membrane formation-compared to agarose. However, the lower hydrophobicity of agarose and PEG materials provide a more fluid, water-like environment for membrane formation-unlike HEMA. In working toward a neuromast-inspired design, a final experiment demonstrates that a bilayer can also be formed directly between two lipid-covered PEG surfaces. These initial results suggest that candidate gel materials with a low hydrophobicity, high fluidity, and a low modulus can be used to provide membrane support.

  9. Lateral line analogue aids vision in successful predator evasion for the brief squid, Lolliguncula brevis.

    PubMed

    York, Carly A; Bartol, Ian K

    2014-07-15

    Cephalopods have visual and mechanoreception systems that may be employed to sense and respond to an approaching predator. While vision presumably plays the dominant role, the importance of the lateral line analogue for predator evasion has not been examined in cephalopods. To test the respective roles of vision and the lateral line analogue, brief squid, Lolliguncula brevis, were observed in the presence of summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, under light and dark conditions with their lateral line analogue intact and ablated. Hair cell ablation was achieved through a pharmacological technique used for the first time on a cephalopod. The proportion of predator-prey interactions survived was significantly higher in the light non-ablated and light ablated groups compared with the dark ablated group. The mean number of interactions survived varied across treatment groups with the light non-ablated group having significantly more success than the light ablated, dark non-ablated and dark ablated groups. These findings demonstrate that although vision is the primary sense, the lateral line analogue also contributes to predator evasion in squid.

  10. Lateral-Line Detection of Underwater Objects: From Goldfish to Submarines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hemmen, J. Leo

    2010-03-01

    Fish and some aquatic amphibians use their mechanosensory lateral-line system to navigate by means of hydrodynamic cues. How a fish determines an object's position and shape only through the lateral-line system and the ensuing neuronal processing is still a challenging problem. Our studies have shown that both stimulus position and stimulus form can be determined within the range of about one fish length and are encoded through the response of the afferent nerves originating from the detectors. A minimal detection model of a vibrating sphere (a dipole) has now been extended to other stimuli such as translating spheres, ellipsoids, or even wakes (vortex rings). The theoretical model is fully verified by experimental data. We have also constructed an underwater robot with an artificial lateral-line system designed to detect e.g. the presence of walls by measuring the change of water flow around the body. We will show how a simple model fits experimental results obtained from trout and goldfish and how a submarine may well be able to detect underwater objects by using an artificial lateral-line system.

  11. The Potential Overlapping Roles of the Ear and Lateral Line in Driving "Acoustic" Responses.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Dennis M; Radford, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Examination of fish responses to sound stimuli has a rich and varied history but it is not always clear when responses are true measures of hearing or the lateral-line. The central innervation of auditory and lateral-line sensory afferents lie in close proximity in the brainstem and both sets of receptors are, at heart, hair cell-based particle motion detectors. While it is possible to separately measure physiological activity of these two receptor subtypes, many studies of fish "hearing" use whole brain potentials or behavioural assays in complex sound fields where it is not possible to distinguish inputs. We argue here that, as often measured, what is thought of as fish "hearing" is often a multisensory response of both auditory and lateral line receptors. We also argue that in many situations where fish use sound stimuli, the behaviour is also an integrative response of both systems, due to the often close proximity of fish during sound communication. We end with a set of recommendations for better understanding the separate and combined roles of ear and lateral-line hair cells as well as an acknowledgment of the seminal and continuing contributions of Arthur N. Popper and Richard R. Fay to this field.

  12. Functional consequences of structural differences in stingray sensory systems. Part I: mechanosensory lateral line canals.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Laura K; Kajiura, Stephen M; Gordon, Malcolm S

    2009-10-01

    Short range hydrodynamic and electrosensory signals are important during final stages of prey capture in elasmobranchs (sharks, skates and rays), and may be particularly useful for dorso-ventrally flattened batoids with mouths hidden from their eyes. In stingrays, both the lateral line canal and electrosensory systems are highly modified and complex with significant differences on ventral surfaces that relate to feeding ecology. This study tests functional hypotheses based on quantified differences in sensory system morphology of three stingray species, Urobatis halleri, Myliobatis californica and Pteroplatytrygon violacea. Part I investigates the mechanosensory lateral line canal system whereas part II focuses on the electrosensory system. Stingray lateral line canals include both pored and non-pored sections and differ in branching complexity and distribution. A greater proportion of pored canals and high pore numbers were predicted to correspond to increased response to water flow. Behavioral experiments were performed to compare responses of stingrays to weak water jets mimicking signals produced by potential prey at velocities of 10-20 cm s(-1). Bat rays, M. californica, have the most complex and broadly distributed pored canal network and demonstrated both the highest response rate and greater response intensity to water jet signals. Results suggest that U. halleri and P. violacea may rely on additional sensory input, including tactile and visual cues, respectively, to initiate stronger feeding responses. These results suggest that stingray lateral line canal morphology can indicate detection capabilities through responsiveness to weak water jets.

  13. Unilateral ablation of trunk superficial neuromasts increases directional instability during steady swimming in the yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi.

    PubMed

    Yanase, K; Herbert, N A; Montgomery, J C

    2014-09-01

    Detailed swimming kinematics of the yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi were investigated after unilateral ablation of superficial neuromasts (SNs). Most kinematic variables, such as tail-beat frequency, stride length, caudal fin-beat amplitude and propulsive wavelength, were unaffected but lateral amplitude at the tip of the snout (A0 ) was significantly increased in SN-disrupted fish compared with sham-operated controls. In addition, the orientation of caudal fin-tip relative to the overall swimming direction of SN-disrupted fish was significantly deflected (two-fold) in comparison with sham-operated control fish. In some fish, SN disruption also led to a phase distortion of the propulsive body-wave. These changes would be expected to increase both hydrodynamic drag and thrust production which is consistent with the finding that SN-disrupted fish had to generate significantly greater thrust power when swimming at ≥1·3 fork lengths (LF ) s(-1) . In particular, hydrodynamic drag would increase as a result of any increase in rotational (yaw) perturbation and sideways slip resulting from the sensory disturbance. In conclusion, unilateral SN ablation produced directional instability of steady swimming and altered propulsive movements, suggesting a role for sensory feedback in correcting yaw and slip disturbances to maintain efficient locomotion.

  14. The Mechanosensory Lateral Line System Mediates Activation of Socially-Relevant Brain Regions during Territorial Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Julie M.; Maruska, Karen P.

    2016-01-01

    Animals use multiple senses during social interactions and must integrate this information in the brain to make context-dependent behavioral decisions. For fishes, the largest group of vertebrates, the mechanosensory lateral line system provides crucial hydrodynamic information for survival behaviors, but little is known about its function in social communication. Our previous work using the African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, provided the first empirical evidence that fish use their lateral line system to detect water movements from conspecifics for mutual assessment and behavioral choices. It is unknown, however, where this socially-relevant mechanosensory information is processed in the brain to elicit adaptive behavioral responses. To examine for the first time in any fish species which brain regions receive contextual mechanosensory information, we quantified expression of the immediate early gene cfos as a proxy for neural activation in sensory and socially-relevant brain nuclei from lateral line-intact and -ablated fish following territorial interactions. Our in situ hybridization results indicate that in addition to known lateral line processing regions, socially-relevant mechanosensory information is processed in the ATn (ventromedial hypothalamus homolog), Dl (putative hippocampus homolog), and Vs (putative medial extended amygdala homolog). In addition, we identified a functional network within the conserved social decision-making network (SDMN) whose co-activity corresponds with mutual assessment and behavioral choice. Lateral line-intact and –ablated fight winners had different patterns of co-activity of these function networks and group identity could be determined solely by activation patterns, indicating the importance of mechanoreception to co-activity of the SDMN. These data show for the first time that the mechanosensory lateral line system provides relevant information to conserved decision-making centers of the brain during

  15. Interaction of electrosensory and electromotor signals in lateral line lobe of a mormyrid fish.

    PubMed

    Zipser, B; Bennett, M V

    1976-07-01

    A signal associated with the neural command to discharge the electric organ is recorded in cells of the lateral line lobe. Responses of cells activated by medium receptor inputs are facilitated or less frequently inhibited during this command-associated signal. Only responses to disynaptic inputs are affected, the monosynaptic response is not altered. The periods of facilitation and inhibition occur at times at which electroreceptor activity evoked by organ discharge reaches the lateral line lobe. Presumably the command-associated signal is important in electrolocation. Cells responding to large receptor inputs are inhibited by the command-associated signal. Activity evoked by large receptors is transmitted in a mesencephalic fiber tract. The tract response is also inhibited by the command-associated signal. Since each organ discharge would excite all the large receptors at short latency, there would be little information contained in their responses. Inhibiting discharge-evoked activity may allow the system to return to maximum sensitivity most rapidly.

  16. Functional mechanotransduction is required for cisplatin-induced hair cell death in the zebrafish lateral line.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andrew J; Hailey, Dale W; Stawicki, Tamara M; Wu, Patricia; Coffin, Allison B; Rubel, Edwin W; Raible, David W; Simon, Julian A; Ou, Henry C

    2013-03-06

    Cisplatin, one of the most commonly used anticancer drugs, is known to cause inner ear hair cell damage and hearing loss. Despite much investigation into mechanisms of cisplatin-induced hair cell death, little is known about the mechanism whereby cisplatin is selectively toxic to hair cells. Using hair cells of the zebrafish lateral line, we found that chemical inhibition of mechanotransduction with quinine and EGTA protected against cisplatin-induced hair cell death. Furthermore, we found that the zebrafish mutants mariner (myo7aa) and sputnik (cad23) that lack functional mechanotransduction were resistant to cisplatin-induced hair cell death. Using a fluorescent analog of cisplatin, we found that chemical or genetic inhibition of mechanotransduction prevented its uptake. These findings demonstrate that cisplatin-induced hair cell death is dependent on functional mechanotransduction in the zebrafish lateral line.

  17. Lateral Line Layout Correlates with the Differential Hydrodynamic Pressure on Swimming Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristroph, Leif; Liao, James C.; Zhang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The lateral line of fish includes the canal subsystem that detects hydrodynamic pressure gradients and is thought to be important in swimming behaviors such as rheotaxis and prey tracking. Here, we explore the hypothesis that this sensory system is concentrated at locations where changes in pressure are greatest during motion through water. Using high-fidelity models of rainbow trout, we mimic the flows encountered during swimming while measuring pressure with fine spatial and temporal resolution. The variations in pressure for perturbations in body orientation and for disturbances to the incoming stream are seen to correlate with the sensory network. These findings support a view of the lateral line as a "hydrodynamic antenna" that is configured to retrieve flow signals and also suggest a physical explanation for the nearly universal sensory layout across diverse species.

  18. Robust regeneration of adult zebrafish lateral line hair cells reflects continued precursor pool maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Ivan A.; Kappedal, Ryan; Mackenzie, Scott M.; Hailey, Dale W.; Hoffman, Trevor L.; Schilling, Thomas F.; Raible, David W.

    2015-01-01

    We have examined lateral line hair cell and support cell maintenance in adult zebrafish when growth is largely complete. We demonstrate that adult zebrafish not only replenish hair cells after a single instance of hair cell damage, but also maintain hair cells and support cells after multiple rounds of damage and regeneration. We find that hair cells undergo continuous turnover in adult zebrafish in the absence of damage. We identify mitotically-distinct support cell populations and show that hair cells regenerate from underlying support cells in a region-specific manner. Our results demonstrate that there are two distinct support cell populations in the lateral line, which may help explain why zebrafish hair cell regeneration is extremely robust, retained throughout life, and potentially unlimited in regenerative capacity. PMID:25869855

  19. Detection of artificial water flows by the lateral line system of a benthic feeding cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Schwalbe, Margot A B; Sevey, Benjamin J; Webb, Jacqueline F

    2016-04-01

    The mechanosensory lateral line system of fishes detects water motions within a few body lengths of the source. Several types of artificial stimuli have been used to probe lateral line function in the laboratory, but few studies have investigated the role of flow sensing in benthic feeding teleosts. In this study, we used artificial flows emerging from a sandy substrate to assess the contribution of flow sensing to prey detection in the peacock cichlid, Aulonocara stuartgranti, which feeds on benthic invertebrates in Lake Malawi. Using a positive reinforcement protocol, we trained fish to respond to flows lacking the visual and chemical cues generated by tethered prey in prior studies with A. stuartgranti Fish successfully responded to artificial flows at all five rates presented (characterized using digital particle image velocimetry), and showed a range of flow-sensing behaviors, including an unconditioned bite response. Immediately after lateral line inactivation, fish rarely responded to flows and the loss of vital fluorescent staining of hair cells (with 4-di-2-ASP) verified lateral line inactivation. Within 2 days post-treatment, some aspects of flow-sensing behavior returned and after 7 days, flow-sensing behavior and hair cell fluorescence both returned to pre-treatment levels, which is consistent with the reported timing of hair cell regeneration in other vertebrates. The presentation of ecologically relevant water flows to assess flow-sensing behaviors and the use of a positive reinforcement protocol are methods that present new opportunities to study the role of flow sensing in the feeding ecology of benthic feeding fishes.

  20. Wide-aperture, line-focused ultrasonic material characterization system based on lateral scanning.

    PubMed

    Titov, Sergey; Maev, Roman; Bogatchenkov, Alexey

    2003-08-01

    We present a new wide-aperture, line-focused ultrasonic material characterization system. The foci of the transmitting and receiving transducers are located in the specimen-immersion liquid interface; and the output voltage V(x,t) of the system is recorded as a function of the lateral position of the receiving transducer. The two-dimensional spectrum of V(x, t) can be expressed as a product of the transfer function of the system and the reflectance function of the interface. In comparison with a system based on scanning in the z direction, the angular resolution of the proposed technique increases with decreasing angle of incidence. There are no geometrical restrictions on the length of the recorded spatial data and the angle of incidence in the case of lateral scanning. The temperature coefficient of the measurement error is low because of the constancy of the propagation distance of ultrasound in the immersion fluid during data acquisition.

  1. Novel structure in sciaenid fish skulls indicates continuous production of the cephalic neuromast cupula

    PubMed Central

    Pombo, Maíra; Turra, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The presence of a conspicuous and frequent but never-described structure in the skull cavities of sciaenid fish was noted during population studies in an urbanized bay. The ultrastructure closely resembles the cupula of neuromasts, an organ associated with the perception of the environment in teleost fish. The bodies were recorded detached in both preserved and freshly sampled individuals and without associated cilia. Prominent characteristics are acellularity, the elliptic-conic shape composed of stack-like protein lamellas, and a mesh-like appearance in cross section. These acellular lamellar cephalic bodies (ALCBs) were more abundant in larger individuals and showed temporal peaks of abundance independently of the fish size. The conic and lamellar features suggest that the deposition of protein layers follows fish growth, and the bimodality of the size of these structures in individuals indicates temporal peaks of production. These results indicate that these ALCBs are a consequence of the accretion of the cupula of neuromasts at a faster rate than they degrade. Given the novelty of this structure and the increasing records of diseases of marine organisms worldwide, an important question is whether these bodies occur subsequently to some environmental change and whether their accumulation in the skull cavities has consequences to fish health. PMID:27876848

  2. Nanofibril scaffold assisted MEMS artificial hydrogel neuromasts for enhanced sensitivity flow sensing

    PubMed Central

    Kottapalli, Ajay Giri Prakash; Bora, Meghali; Asadnia, Mohsen; Miao, Jianmin; Venkatraman, Subbu S.; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We present the development and testing of superficial neuromast-inspired flow sensors that also attain high sensitivity and resolution through a biomimetic hyaulronic acid-based hydrogel cupula dressing. The inspiration comes from the spatially distributed neuromasts of the blind cavefish that live in completely dark undersea caves; the sensors enable the fish to form three-dimensional flow and object maps, enabling them to maneuver efficiently in cluttered environments. A canopy shaped electrospun nanofibril scaffold, inspired by the cupular fibrils, assists the drop-casting process allowing the formation of a prolate spheroid-shaped artificial cupula. Rheological and nanoindentation characterizations showed that the Young’s modulus of the artificial cupula closely matches the biological cupula (10–100 Pa). A comparative experimental study conducted to evaluate the sensitivities of the naked hair cell sensor and the cupula-dressed sensor in sensing steady-state flows demonstrated a sensitivity enhancement by 3.5–5 times due to the presence of hydrogel cupula. The novel strategies of sensor development presented in this report are applicable to the design and fabrication of other biomimetic sensors as well. The developed sensors can be used in the navigation and maneuvering of underwater robots, but can also find applications in biomedical and microfluidic devices. PMID:26763299

  3. Novel structure in sciaenid fish skulls indicates continuous production of the cephalic neuromast cupula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pombo, Maíra; Turra, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    The presence of a conspicuous and frequent but never-described structure in the skull cavities of sciaenid fish was noted during population studies in an urbanized bay. The ultrastructure closely resembles the cupula of neuromasts, an organ associated with the perception of the environment in teleost fish. The bodies were recorded detached in both preserved and freshly sampled individuals and without associated cilia. Prominent characteristics are acellularity, the elliptic-conic shape composed of stack-like protein lamellas, and a mesh-like appearance in cross section. These acellular lamellar cephalic bodies (ALCBs) were more abundant in larger individuals and showed temporal peaks of abundance independently of the fish size. The conic and lamellar features suggest that the deposition of protein layers follows fish growth, and the bimodality of the size of these structures in individuals indicates temporal peaks of production. These results indicate that these ALCBs are a consequence of the accretion of the cupula of neuromasts at a faster rate than they degrade. Given the novelty of this structure and the increasing records of diseases of marine organisms worldwide, an important question is whether these bodies occur subsequently to some environmental change and whether their accumulation in the skull cavities has consequences to fish health.

  4. Nanofibril scaffold assisted MEMS artificial hydrogel neuromasts for enhanced sensitivity flow sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kottapalli, Ajay Giri Prakash; Bora, Meghali; Asadnia, Mohsen; Miao, Jianmin; Venkatraman, Subbu S.; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We present the development and testing of superficial neuromast-inspired flow sensors that also attain high sensitivity and resolution through a biomimetic hyaulronic acid-based hydrogel cupula dressing. The inspiration comes from the spatially distributed neuromasts of the blind cavefish that live in completely dark undersea caves; the sensors enable the fish to form three-dimensional flow and object maps, enabling them to maneuver efficiently in cluttered environments. A canopy shaped electrospun nanofibril scaffold, inspired by the cupular fibrils, assists the drop-casting process allowing the formation of a prolate spheroid-shaped artificial cupula. Rheological and nanoindentation characterizations showed that the Young’s modulus of the artificial cupula closely matches the biological cupula (10–100 Pa). A comparative experimental study conducted to evaluate the sensitivities of the naked hair cell sensor and the cupula-dressed sensor in sensing steady-state flows demonstrated a sensitivity enhancement by 3.5–5 times due to the presence of hydrogel cupula. The novel strategies of sensor development presented in this report are applicable to the design and fabrication of other biomimetic sensors as well. The developed sensors can be used in the navigation and maneuvering of underwater robots, but can also find applications in biomedical and microfluidic devices.

  5. Minimal Model of Prey Localization through the Lateral-Line System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franosch, Jan-Moritz P.; Sobotka, Marion C.; Elepfandt, Andreas; van Hemmen, J. Leo

    2003-10-01

    The clawed frog Xenopus is an aquatic predator catching prey at night by detecting water movements caused by its prey. We present a general method, a “minimal model” based on a minimum-variance estimator, to explain prey detection through the frog's many lateral-line organs, even in case several of them are defunct. We show how waveform reconstruction allows Xenopus' neuronal system to determine both the direction and the character of the prey and even to distinguish two simultaneous wave sources. The results can be applied to many aquatic amphibians, fish, or reptiles such as crocodilians.

  6. The role of the lateral line and vision on body kinematics and hydrodynamic preference of rainbow trout in turbulent flow.

    PubMed

    Liao, James C

    2006-10-01

    The ability to detect water flow using the hair cells of the lateral line system is a unique feature found in anamniotic aquatic vertebrates. Fishes use their lateral line to locate prey, escape from predators and form cohesive schooling patterns. Despite the prevalence of complex flows in nature, almost nothing is known about the function of the lateral line and its relationship to other sensory modalities for freely swimming fishes in turbulent flows. Past studies indicate that under certain conditions the lateral line is not needed to swim steadily in uniform flow. This paper examines how the lateral line and vision affect body kinematics and hydrodynamic habitat selection of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to vortices generated behind a cylinder. Trout Kármán gaiting (i.e. exploiting vortices to hold station in a vortex street) with a pharmacologically blocked lateral line display altered kinematics; body wavelength and wave speed increase compared to control animals. When visual cues are withheld by performing experiments in the dark, almost all Kármán gait kinematics measured for fish with and without a functional lateral line are the same. The lateral line, rather than vision, plays a larger role in affecting body kinematics when trout hold station in a vortex street. Trout show a preference to Kármán gait in the light but not in the dark, which may be attributed to physiological state rather than hydrodynamic or sensorimotor reasons. In the dark, trout both with and without a functional lateral line hold station near the downstream suction region of the cylinder wake (i.e. entraining) and avoid the vortex street. Vision therefore plays a larger role in the preference to associate with a turbulent vortex street. Trout in the light with a blocked lateral line show individual variation in their preference to Kármán gait or entrain. In the dark, entraining trout with an intact lateral line will alternate between right and left sides of the

  7. Lateral line pore diameters correlate with the development of gas bubble trauma signs in several Columbia River fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morris, R.G.; Beeman, J.W.; VanderKooi, S.P.; Maule, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    Gas bubble trauma (GBT) caused by gas supersaturation of river water continues to be a problem in the Columbia River Basin. A common indicator of GBT is the percent of the lateral line occluded with gas bubbles; however, this effect has never been examined in relation to lateral line morphology. The effects of 115, 125 and 130% total dissolved gas levels were evaluated on five fish species common to the upper Columbia River. Trunk lateral line pore diameters differed significantly (P<0.0001) among species (longnose sucker>largescale sucker>northern pikeminnow???chinook salmon???redside shiner). At all supersaturation levels evaluated, percent of lateral line occlusion exhibited an inverse correlation to pore size but was not generally related to total dissolved gas level or time of exposure. This study suggests that the differences in lateral line pore diameters between species should be considered when using lateral line occlusion as an indicator of gas bubble trauma. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. In vivo physiological recording from the lateral line of juvenile zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Olt, Jennifer; Allen, Claire E.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Zebrafish provide a unique opportunity to investigate in vivo sensory transduction in mature hair cells.We have developed a method for studying the biophysical properties of mature hair cells from the lateral line of juvenile zebrafish.The method involves application of the anaesthetic benzocaine and intubation to maintain ventilation and oxygenation through the gills.The same approach could be used for in vivo functional studies in other sensory and non‐sensory systems from juvenile and adult zebrafish. Abstract Hair cells are sensory receptors responsible for transducing auditory and vestibular information into electrical signals, which are then transmitted with remarkable precision to afferent neurons. The zebrafish lateral line is emerging as an excellent in vivo model for genetic and physiological analysis of hair cells and neurons. However, research has been limited to larval stages because zebrafish become protected from the time of independent feeding under European law (from 5.2 days post‐fertilization (dpf) at 28.5°C). In larval zebrafish, the functional properties of most of hair cells, as well as those of other excitable cells, are still immature. We have developed an experimental protocol to record electrophysiological properties from hair cells of the lateral line in juvenile zebrafish. We found that the anaesthetic benzocaine at 50 mg l−1 was an effective and safe anaesthetic to use on juvenile zebrafish. Concentrations up to 300 mg l−1 did not affect the electrical properties or synaptic vesicle release of juvenile hair cells, unlike the commonly used anaesthetic MS‐222, which reduces the size of basolateral membrane K+ currents. Additionally, we implemented a method to maintain gill movement, and as such respiration and blood oxygenation, via the intubation of > 21 dpf zebrafish. The combination of benzocaine and intubation provides an experimental platform to investigate the physiology of mature hair cells from live

  9. A novel lateral diffused metal oxide semiconductor (LDMOS) by attracting the electric field Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orouji, Ali A.; Hanaei, Mahsa

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a novel silicon on insulator (SOI) lateral diffused metal oxide semiconductor (LDMOS) transistor with high voltage and high frequency performance is presented. In this work we try to reduce the electric field crowding in the drift region. The proposed structure consists of a metal in the buried oxide and also connected to the source. The inserted metal attracts the electric field lines in the buried oxide. It causes 67% improvement in the breakdown voltage in comparison with a conventional SOI-LDMOS (C-LDMOS). Our simulations with two dimensional ATLAS simulator show that the gate-drain capacitance improves in the proposed structure. The unilateral power gain also enhances. So, the proposed structure is suitable for high voltage and high frequency applications.

  10. Natural Compounds as Occult Ototoxins? Ginkgo biloba Flavonoids Moderately Damage Lateral Line Hair Cells.

    PubMed

    Neveux, Sarah; Smith, Nicole K; Roche, Anna; Blough, Bruce E; Pathmasiri, Wimal; Coffin, Allison B

    2017-04-01

    Several drugs, including aminoglycosides and platinum-based chemotherapy agents, are well known for their ototoxic properties. However, FDA-approved drugs are not routinely tested for ototoxicity, so their potential to affect hearing often goes unrecognized. This issue is further compounded for natural products, where there is a lack of FDA oversight and the manufacturer is solely responsible for ensuring the safety of their products. Natural products such as herbal supplements are easily accessible and commonly used in the practice of traditional eastern and alternative medicine. Using the zebrafish lateral line, we screened a natural products library to identify potential ototoxins. We found that the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol, both from the Gingko biloba plant, demonstrated significant ototoxicity, killing up to 30 % of lateral line hair cells. We then examined a third Ginkgo flavonoid, isorhamnetin, and found similar levels of ototoxicity. After flavonoid treatment, surviving hair cells demonstrated reduced uptake of the vital dye FM 1-43FX, suggesting that the health of the remaining hair cells was compromised. We then asked if these flavonoids enter hair cells through the mechanotransduction channel, which is the site of entry for many known ototoxins. High extracellular calcium or the quinoline derivative E6 berbamine significantly protected hair cells from flavonoid damage, implicating the transduction channel as a site of flavonoid uptake. Since known ototoxins activate cellular stress responses, we asked if reactive oxygen species were necessary for flavonoid ototoxicity. Co-treatment with the antioxidant D-methionine significantly protected hair cells from each flavonoid, suggesting that antioxidant therapy could prevent hair cell loss. How these products affect mammalian hair cells is still an open question and will be the target of future experiments. However, this research demonstrates the potential for ototoxic damage caused by unregulated

  11. Design and application of a fish-shaped lateral line probe for flow measurement.

    PubMed

    Tuhtan, J A; Fuentes-Pérez, J F; Strokina, N; Toming, G; Musall, M; Noack, M; Kämäräinen, J K; Kruusmaa, M

    2016-04-01

    We introduce the lateral line probe (LLP) as a measurement device for natural flows. Hydraulic surveys in rivers and hydraulic structures are currently based on time-averaged velocity measurements using propellers or acoustic Doppler devices. The long-term goal is thus to develop a sensor system, which includes spatial gradients of the flow field along a fish-shaped sensor body. Interpreting the biological relevance of a collection of point velocity measurements is complicated by the fact that fish and other aquatic vertebrates experience the flow field through highly dynamic fluid-body interactions. To collect body-centric flow data, a bioinspired fish-shaped probe is equipped with a lateral line pressure sensing array, which can be applied both in the laboratory and in the field. Our objective is to introduce a new type of measurement device for body-centric data and compare its output to estimates of conventional point-based technologies. We first provide the calibration workflow for laboratory investigations. We then provide a review of two velocity estimation workflows, independent of calibration. Such workflows are required as existing field investigations consist of measurements in environments where calibration is not feasible. The mean difference for uncalibrated LLP velocity estimates from 0 to 50 cm/s under in a closed flow tunnel and open channel flume was within 4 cm/s when compared to conventional measurement techniques. Finally, spatial flow maps in a scale vertical slot fishway are compared for the LLP, direct measurements, and 3D numerical models where it was found that the LLP provided a slight overestimation of the current velocity in the jet and underestimated the velocity in the recirculation zone.

  12. Design and application of a fish-shaped lateral line probe for flow measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuhtan, J. A.; Fuentes-Pérez, J. F.; Strokina, N.; Toming, G.; Musall, M.; Noack, M.; Kämäräinen, J. K.; Kruusmaa, M.

    2016-04-01

    We introduce the lateral line probe (LLP) as a measurement device for natural flows. Hydraulic surveys in rivers and hydraulic structures are currently based on time-averaged velocity measurements using propellers or acoustic Doppler devices. The long-term goal is thus to develop a sensor system, which includes spatial gradients of the flow field along a fish-shaped sensor body. Interpreting the biological relevance of a collection of point velocity measurements is complicated by the fact that fish and other aquatic vertebrates experience the flow field through highly dynamic fluid-body interactions. To collect body-centric flow data, a bioinspired fish-shaped probe is equipped with a lateral line pressure sensing array, which can be applied both in the laboratory and in the field. Our objective is to introduce a new type of measurement device for body-centric data and compare its output to estimates of conventional point-based technologies. We first provide the calibration workflow for laboratory investigations. We then provide a review of two velocity estimation workflows, independent of calibration. Such workflows are required as existing field investigations consist of measurements in environments where calibration is not feasible. The mean difference for uncalibrated LLP velocity estimates from 0 to 50 cm/s under in a closed flow tunnel and open channel flume was within 4 cm/s when compared to conventional measurement techniques. Finally, spatial flow maps in a scale vertical slot fishway are compared for the LLP, direct measurements, and 3D numerical models where it was found that the LLP provided a slight overestimation of the current velocity in the jet and underestimated the velocity in the recirculation zone.

  13. Dynamic gene expression by putative hair-cell progenitors during regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Aaron B; Kim, Taeryn; Cabot, Victoria; Hudspeth, A J

    2014-04-08

    Hearing loss is most commonly caused by the destruction of mechanosensory hair cells in the ear. This condition is usually permanent: Despite the presence of putative hair-cell progenitors in the cochlea, hair cells are not naturally replenished in adult mammals. Unlike those of the mammalian ear, the progenitor cells of nonmammalian vertebrates can regenerate hair cells throughout life. The basis of this difference remains largely unexplored but may lie in molecular dissimilarities that affect how progenitors respond to hair-cell death. To approach this issue, we analyzed gene expression in hair-cell progenitors of the lateral-line system. We developed a transgenic line of zebrafish that expresses a red fluorescent protein in the presumptive hair-cell progenitors known as mantle cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting from the skins of transgenic larvae, followed by microarray-based expression analysis, revealed a constellation of transcripts that are specifically enriched in these cells. Gene expression analysis after hair-cell ablation uncovered a cohort of genes that are differentially regulated early in regeneration, suggesting possible roles in the response of progenitors to hair-cell death. These results provide a resource for studying hair-cell regeneration and the biology of sensory progenitor cells.

  14. Dynamic gene expression by putative hair-cell progenitors during regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taeryn; Cabot, Victoria; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Hearing loss is most commonly caused by the destruction of mechanosensory hair cells in the ear. This condition is usually permanent: Despite the presence of putative hair-cell progenitors in the cochlea, hair cells are not naturally replenished in adult mammals. Unlike those of the mammalian ear, the progenitor cells of nonmammalian vertebrates can regenerate hair cells throughout life. The basis of this difference remains largely unexplored but may lie in molecular dissimilarities that affect how progenitors respond to hair-cell death. To approach this issue, we analyzed gene expression in hair-cell progenitors of the lateral-line system. We developed a transgenic line of zebrafish that expresses a red fluorescent protein in the presumptive hair-cell progenitors known as mantle cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting from the skins of transgenic larvae, followed by microarray-based expression analysis, revealed a constellation of transcripts that are specifically enriched in these cells. Gene expression analysis after hair-cell ablation uncovered a cohort of genes that are differentially regulated early in regeneration, suggesting possible roles in the response of progenitors to hair-cell death. These results provide a resource for studying hair-cell regeneration and the biology of sensory progenitor cells. PMID:24706895

  15. The effect of vesicle shape, line tension, and lateral tension on membrane-binding proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, Jaime B.

    Model membranes allow for the exploration of complex biological phenomena with simple, controllable components. In this thesis we employ model membranes to determine the effect of vesicle properties such as line tension, lateral tension, and shape on membrane-binding proteins. We find that line tension at the boundary between domains in a phase separated vesicle can accumulate model membrane-binding proteins (green fluorescent protein with a histidine tag), and that those proteins can, in turn, alter vesicle shape. These results suggest that domains in biological membranes may enhance the local concentration of membrane-bound proteins and thus alter protein function. We also explore how membrane mechanical and chemical properties alter the function of the N-BAR domain of amphiphysin, a membrane-binding protein implicated in endocytosis. We find that negatively charged lipids are necessary for N-BAR binding to membranes at detectable levels, and that, at least for some lipid species, binding may be cooperative. Measurements of N-BAR binding as a function of vesicle tension reveal that modest membrane tension of around 2 mN/m, corresponding to a strain of around 1%, strongly increases N-BAR binding. We attribute this increase in binding with tension to the insertion of N-BAR's N-terminal amphipathic helix into the membrane which increases the membrane area. We propose that N-BAR, which was previously described as being able to sense membrane curvature, may be sensing strain instead. Measurements of membrane deformation by N-BAR as a function of membrane tension reveal that tension can hinder membrane deformation. Thus, tension may favor N-BAR binding yet suppress membrane deformation/tubulation, which requires work against tension. These results suggest that membrane tension, a parameter that is often not controlled in model membranes but is tightly controlled in biological cells, may be important in regulating protein binding and assembly and, hence, protein

  16. Molecular and pathological characterization of Fusarium solani species complex infection in the head and lateral line system of Sphyrna lewini.

    PubMed

    Pirarat, Nopadon; Sahatrakul, Komsil; Lacharoje, Sitthichok; Lombardini, Eric; Chansue, Nantarika; Techangamsuwan, Somporn

    2016-08-09

    A severe fungal infection affecting the head and lateral line system was diagnosed in 7 captive scalloped hammerhead sharks Sphyrna lewini in an aquarium in Thailand. Extensive and severe necrotizing cellulitis was consistently observed microscopically along the cephalic and lateral line canals in conjunction with positive fungal cultures for Fusarium sp. Molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed from 3 isolates based on the nucleotide sequences containing internally transcribed spacer (ITS) and a portion of 5.8S and 28S rDNA. The fungus was highly homologous (100%) and closely related to F. solani species complex 2 (FSSC 2), which belongs to Clade 3 of the FSSC. Our results illustrate the histopathological findings and expand upon our knowledge of the prevalence of invasive fusariosis in the head and lateral line system of hammerhead sharks.

  17. Natural Bizbenzoquinoline Derivatives Protect Zebrafish Lateral Line Sensory Hair Cells from Aminoglycoside Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Matthew; Boney, Robert; Ordoobadi, Alexander J.; Sommers, Thomas F.; Trapani, Josef G.; Coffin, Allison B.

    2016-01-01

    Moderate to severe hearing loss affects 360 million people worldwide and most often results from damage to sensory hair cells. Hair cell damage can result from aging, genetic mutations, excess noise exposure, and certain medications including aminoglycoside antibiotics. Aminoglycosides are effective at treating infections associated with cystic fibrosis and other life-threatening conditions such as sepsis, but cause hearing loss in 20–30% of patients. It is therefore imperative to develop new therapies to combat hearing loss and allow safe use of these potent antibiotics. We approach this drug discovery question using the larval zebrafish lateral line because zebrafish hair cells are structurally and functionally similar to mammalian inner ear hair cells and respond similarly to toxins. We screened a library of 502 natural compounds in order to identify novel hair cell protectants. Our screen identified four bisbenzylisoquinoline derivatives: berbamine, E6 berbamine, hernandezine, and isotetrandrine, each of which robustly protected hair cells from aminoglycoside-induced damage. Using fluorescence microscopy and electrophysiology, we demonstrated that the natural compounds confer protection by reducing antibiotic uptake into hair cells and showed that hair cells remain functional during and after incubation in E6 berbamine. We also determined that these natural compounds do not reduce antibiotic efficacy. Together, these natural compounds represent a novel source of possible otoprotective drugs that may offer therapeutic options for patients receiving aminoglycoside treatment. PMID:27065807

  18. Role of the lateral line mechanosensory system in directionality of goldfish auditory evoked escape response

    PubMed Central

    Mirjany, Mana; Preuss, Thomas; Faber, Donald S.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Goldfish (Carassius auratus) escape responses to sudden auditory stimuli are mediated by a pair of reticulospinal neurons, the Mauthner (M-) cells, which integrate mechanosensory inputs from the inner ear and the lateral line (LL) to initiate a fast directional response away from the aversive stimulus. This behavior is context dependent; when near an obstruction the fish may rather turn towards the sound to avoid hitting the object. Mechanisms underlying this directionality remain unknown. Here we investigate the contribution of the LL system to auditory evoked escapes and provide behavioral evidence that it transmits stimulus – and environmental-dependent information that determines the initial response direction of the escape. We quantified escape latency, probability and directionality following abrupt sound stimuli before and after removal of the entire LL with 0.03 mmol l–1 cobalt chloride (CoCl2), 0.002% gentamicin or selective posterior LL nerve (pLLn) transection. CoCl2 significantly increased escape onset latency without affecting probability and reduced open field directionality from 77% to chance, 52%. This effect on directionality was also observed with gentamicin. Transection of the pLLn had no effect on directionality, indicating the anterior LL nerve (aLLn) afferents are more likely to transmit directional information to the M-cell. When the fish were near a wall, the error rate was quadrupled by both CoCl2 and pLLn transection. Visual elimination had no influence on directionality unless combined with LL elimination. PMID:21957099

  19. Limits of the potential flow model for obstacle detection using a lateral line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maertens, Audrey; Weymouth, Gabriel; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Fish have a particular sensory system called lateral line through which they measure flow velocity and pressure gradient. Behavioral studies have shown that fish can detect and identify obstacles while gliding using this sensory system alone. Despite a widespread interest of the community in understanding and reproducing this capability, a realistic approach is still missing. Indeed, due to computational constraints, most attempts to date have used potential flow models. The present work aims at revealing the limits of the potential flow model in the case of a vehicle gliding by a cylinder. The understanding thus gained can be used to account for viscous effects in a computationally-efficient fashion. An improvement of the boundary data immersion method provides accurate pressure predictions at the Reynolds numbers considered (500 < Re < 10000). It is shown how a potential flow-based obstacle detection algorithm fails at locating the cylinder at these Reynolds numbers. It is also shown that a panel method accounting for dynamically changing displacement thickness leads to accurate pressure prediction. This is a first step toward real-time pressure predictions for viscous flows which is needed for efficient obstacle detection and identification algorithms.

  20. Reaction-diffusion finite element model of lateral line primordium migration to explore cell leadership.

    PubMed

    Allena, R; Maini, P K

    2014-12-01

    Collective cell migration plays a fundamental role in many biological phenomena such as immune response, embryogenesis and tumorigenesis. In the present work, we propose a reaction-diffusion finite element model of the lateral line primordium migration in zebrafish. The population is modelled as a continuum with embedded discrete motile cells, which are assumed to be viscoelastic and able to undergo large deformations. The Wnt/ß-catenin-FGF and cxcr4b-cxcr7b signalling pathways inside the cohort regulating the migration are described through coupled reaction-diffusion equations. The coupling between mechanics and the molecular scenario occurs in two ways. Firstly, the intensity of the protrusion-contraction movement of the cells depends on the cxcr4b concentration. Secondly, the intra-synchronization between the active deformations and the adhesion forces inside each cell is triggered by the cxcr4b-cxcr7b polarity. This influences the inter-synchronization between the cells and results in two main modes of migration: uncoordinated and coordinated. The main objectives of the work were (i) to validate our assumptions with respect to the experimental observations and (ii) to decipher the mechanical conditions leading to efficient migration of the primordium. To achieve the second goal, we will specifically focus on the role of the leader cells and their position inside the population.

  1. Projection neurons of the mormyrid electrosensory lateral line lobe: morphology, immunohistochemistry, and synaptology.

    PubMed

    Grant, K; Meek, J; Sugawara, Y; Veron, M; Denizot, J P; Hafmans, T G; Serrier, J; Szabo, T

    1996-11-04

    This paper describes the morphological, immunohistochemical, and synaptic properties of projection neurons in the highly laminated medial and dorsolateral zones of the mormyrid electrosensory lateral line lobe (ELL). These structures are involved in active electrolocation, i.e., the detection and localization of objects in the nearby environment of the fish on the basis of changes in the reafferent electrosensory signal generated by the animal's own electric organ discharge. Electrosensory, corollary electromotor command-associated signals (corollary discharges), and a variety of other inputs are integrated within the ELL microcircuit. The organization of ELL projection neurons is analyzed at the light and electron microscopic levels based on Golgi impregnations, intracellular labeling, neuroanatomical tracer techniques, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), gamma-aminobutyric acid decarboxylase (GAD), and glutamate immunohistochemistry. Two main types of ELL projection neurons have been distinguished in mormyrids: large ganglionic (LG) and large fusiform (LF) cells. LG cells have a multipolar cell body (average diameter 13 microns) in the ganglionic layer, whereas LF cells have a fusiform cell body (on average, about 10 x 20 microns) in the granular layer. Apart from the location and shape of their soma, the morphological properties of these cell types are largely similar. They are glutamaterigic and project to the midbrain torus semicircularis, where their axon terminals make axodendritic synaptic contacts in the lateral nucleus. They have 6-12 apical dendrites in the molecular layer, with about 10,000 spines contacted by GABA-negative terminals and about 3,000 GABA-positive contacts on the smooth dendritic surface between the spines. Their somata and short, smooth basal dendrites, which arborize in the plexiform layer (LG cells) or in the granular layer (LF cells), are densely covered with GABA-positive, inhibitory terminals. Correlation with physiological data

  2. A model of the lateral line of fish for vortex sensing.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zheng; Mohseni, Kamran

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, the lateral line trunk canal (LLTC) of a fish is modeled to investigate how it is affected by an external flow field. Potential flow theory is adopted to model the flow field around a fish's body in the presence of a Karman vortex street. Karman and reverse Karman streets represent the flow patterns behind a bluff body and a traveling fish, respectively. An analytical solution is obtained for a flat body, while a fish-like body is modeled using a Joukowski transformation and the corresponding equations are solved numerically. The pressure distribution on the body surface is then computed employing Bernoulli's equation. For a known external flow, the flow inside the LLTC is driven by the pressure gradient between a pair of consecutive pores, which can be solved analytically. Governing dimensionless parameters are obtained from this analytical solution, and the effects of these numbers on the amplitude or features of the velocity distribution inside the canal are studied. The results show that the main characteristics of a vortex street including the magnitude of vortices, their translational speed, their spacing, their distance from the fish's body and the angle of the vortex street axis can all be recovered by measuring the velocity distribution along the canal and its changes with time. To this end, the proposed LLTC model could explain how a fish identifies the characteristics of a Karman vortex street shed by a nearby object or a traveling fish. It is also demonstrated that while this model captures the ac (alternating current) component of the external velocity signal, the dc (direct current) component of the signal is filtered out. Based on the results of our model, the role of the LLTC in a fish's schooling and its evolutionary impact on fish sensing are discussed.

  3. Leading and trailing cells cooperate in collective migration of the zebrafish posterior lateral line primordium.

    PubMed

    Dalle Nogare, Damian; Somers, Katherine; Rao, Swetha; Matsuda, Miho; Reichman-Fried, Michal; Raz, Erez; Chitnis, Ajay B

    2014-08-01

    Collective migration of cells in the zebrafish posterior lateral line primordium (PLLp) along a path defined by Cxcl12a expression depends on Cxcr4b receptors in leading cells and on Cxcr7b in trailing cells. Cxcr7b-mediated degradation of Cxcl12a by trailing cells generates a local gradient of Cxcl12a that guides PLLp migration. Agent-based computer models were built to explore how a polarized response to Cxcl12a, mediated by Cxcr4b in leading cells and prevented by Cxcr7b in trailing cells, determines unidirectional migration of the PLLp. These chemokine signaling-based models effectively recapitulate many behaviors of the PLLp and provide potential explanations for the characteristic behaviors that emerge when the PLLp is severed by laser to generate leading and trailing fragments. As predicted by our models, the bilateral stretching of the leading fragment is lost when chemokine signaling is blocked in the PLLp. However, movement of the trailing fragment toward the leading cells, which was also thought to be chemokine dependent, persists. This suggested that a chemokine-independent mechanism, not accounted for in our models, is responsible for this behavior. Further investigation of trailing cell behavior shows that their movement toward leading cells depends on FGF signaling and it can be re-oriented by exogenous FGF sources. Together, our observations reveal the simple yet elegant manner in which leading and trailing cells coordinate migration; while leading cells steer PLLp migration by following chemokine cues, cells further back play follow-the-leader as they migrate toward FGFs produced by leading cells.

  4. Fusarium solani fungal infection of the lateral line canal system in captive scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Crow, G L; Brock, J A; Kaiser, S

    1995-10-01

    Two of five scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) captured May 1987 in Hawaii (USA) developed granulomatous exudative mycotic dermatitis localized in the lateral line canal system. The lesion initially was noted in the cephalic canals, but over a period of months extended into the lateral canal. Fusarium solani and Vibrio spp. were isolated from the canal exudate of both sharks. Bacterial colonies were not observed in the canal walls or surrounding tissues. Fusarium solani infection resulted in a chronic physical and behavioral deterioration of the two sharks; one shark was euthanized in September 1988 and the other in July 1989. This is the first report of Fusarium solani infection in the lateral line canal system and the third account in hammerhead sharks.

  5. Interneurons of the ganglionic layer in the mormyrid electrosensory lateral line lobe: morphology, immunohistochemistry, and synaptology.

    PubMed

    Meek, J; Grant, K; Sugawara, Y; Hafmans, T G; Veron, M; Denizot, J P

    1996-11-04

    This is the second paper in a series that describes the morphology, immunohistochemistry, and synaptology of the mormyrid electrosensory lateral line lobe (ELL). The ELL is a highly laminated cerebellum-like structure in the rhombencephalon that subserves an active electric sense: Objects in the nearby environment of the fish are detected on the basis of changes in the reafferent electrosensory signals that are generated by the animal's own electric organ discharge. The present paper describes interneurons in the superficial (molecular, ganglionic, and plexiform) layers of the ELL cortex that were analyzed in the light and electron microscopes after Golgi impregnation, intracellular labeling, neuroanatomical tracing, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) immunohistochemistry. The most numerous interneurons in the ganglionic layer are GABAergic medium-sized ganglionic (MG) cells and small ganglionic (SG) cells. MG cells have 10-20 spiny apical dendrites in the molecular layer, a cell body of 10-12 microns diameter in the ganglionic layer, a single basal dendrite that gives rise to fine, beaded, axon-like branches in either the plexiform layer (MG1 subtype) or the deeper granular layer (MG2 subtype), and an axon that terminates in the plexiform layer. Their apical dendritic tree has 12,000-22,000 spines that are contacted by GABA-negative terminals, and it receives, 1,250-2,500 GABA-positive contacts on the smooth dendritic surface between the spines. The average ratio of GABA-negative to GABA-positive contacts on the interneuron apical dendrites (14:1) is significantly higher than that for the efferent projection cells that have been described previously (Grant et al. [1996] J. Comp. Neurol., this issue). The somata and basal dendrites of MG cells receive a low to moderate density of GABAergic synaptic input, and their axons make GABAergic synaptic contacts with the somata and cell bodies of MG as well as with large ganglionic (LG) cells. SG cells probably represent

  6. Loss of ZNF32 augments the regeneration of nervous lateral line system through negative regulation of SOX2 transcription

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yuyan; Li, Kai; Yao, Shaohua; Gao, Junping; Li, Jun; Shang, Yanna; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Le; Li, Yanyan; Mo, Xianming; Meng, Wentong; Xiang, Rong; Hu, Jiankun; Lin, Ping; Wei, Yuquan

    2016-01-01

    Human zinc finger protein 32 (ZNF32) is a Cys2-His2 zinc-finger transcription factor that plays an important role in cell fate, yet much of its function remains unknown. Here, we reveal that the zebrafish ZNF32 homologue zfZNF32 is expressed in the nervous system, particularly in the lateral line system. ZfZNF32 knock-out zebrafish (zfZNF−/−) were generated using the CRISPR-associated protein 9 system. We found that the regenerative capacity of the lateral line system was increased in zfZNF−/− upon hair cell damage compared with the wild type. Moreover, SOX2 was essential for the zfZNF32-dependent modulation of lateral line system regeneration. Mechanistic studies showed that ZNF32 suppressed SOX2 transcription by directly binding to a consensus sequence (5′-gcattt-32) in the SOX2 promoter. In addition, ZNF32 localizes to the nucleus, and we have identified that amino acids 1-169 (Aa 1-169) and each of three independent nuclear localization signals (NLSs) in ZNF32 are indispensable for ZNF32 nuclear trafficking. Mutating the NLSs disrupted the inhibitory effect of ZNF32 in SOX2 expression, highlighting the critical role of the NLSs in ZNF32 function. Our findings reveal a pivotal role for ZNF32 function in SOX2 expression and regeneration regulation. PMID:27626680

  7. Lateral Biases and Reading Direction: A Dissociation between Aesthetic Preference and Line Bisection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii, Yukiko; Okubo, Matia; Nicholls, Michael E. R.; Imai, Hisato

    2011-01-01

    Perceptual asymmetries for tasks involving aesthetic preference or line bisection can be affected by asymmetrical neurological mechanisms or left/right reading habits. This study investigated the relative contribution of these mechanisms in 100 readers of Japanese and English. Participants made aesthetic judgments between pairs of mirror-reversed…

  8. The medial and lateral epicondyle as a reliable landmark for intra-operative joint line determination in revision knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Sen, T.; Cankaya, D.; Kendir, S.; Basarır, K.; Tabak, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to develop an accurate, reliable and easily applicable method for determining the anatomical location of the joint line during revision knee arthroplasty. Methods The transepicondylar width (TEW), the perpendicular distance between the medial and lateral epicondyles and the distal articular surfaces (DMAD, DLAD) and the distance between the medial and lateral epicondyles and the posterior articular surfaces (PMAD, DLAD) were measured in 40 knees from 20 formalin-fixed adult cadavers (11 male and nine female; mean age at death 56.9 years, sd 9.4; 34 to 69). The ratios of the DMAD, PMAD, DLAD and PLAD to TEW were calculated. Results The mean TEW, DMAD, PMAD, DLAD and PLAD were 82.76 mm (standard deviation (sd) 7.74), 28.95 mm (sd 3.3), 28.57 mm (sd 3), 23.97 mm (sd 3.27) and 24.42 mm (sd 3.14), respectively. The ratios between the TEW and the articular distances (DMAD/TEW, DLAD/TEW, PMAD/TEW and PLAD/TEW) were calculated and their means were 0.35 (sd 0.02), 0.34 (sd 0.02), 0.28 (sd 0.03) and 0.29 (sd 0.03), respectively. Conclusion This method provides a simple, reproducible and reliable technique enabling accurate anatomical joint line restoration during revision total knee arthroplasty. Cite this article: B. Ozkurt, T. Sen, D. Cankaya, S. Kendir, K. Basarır, Y. Tabak. The medial and lateral epicondyle as a reliable landmark for intra-operative joint line determination in revision knee arthroplasty. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:280–286. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.57.BJR-2016-0002.R1. PMID:27388715

  9. Medullary lateral line units of rudd, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, are sensitive to Kármán vortex streets.

    PubMed

    Klein, Adrian; Winkelnkemper, Jan; Dylda, Evelyn; Bleckmann, Horst

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the responses of medullary lateral line units of the rudd, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, to bulk water flow (7 cm s(-1)) and to water flow that contained vortices shed by an upstream half cylinder (diameter 1, 2, and 3 cm). Thirty-five percent of the medullary units either increased or decreased their discharge rate with the increasing cylinder diameter. In some units, the spike patterns revealed the vortex shedding frequency, i.e., in these units the amplitude of spike train frequency spectra was similar or identical to the vortex shedding frequency.

  10. The alteration of serine transporter activity in a cell line model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

    PubMed

    Lee, Na-Young; Kim, Yunha; Ryu, Hoon; Kang, Young-Sook

    2017-01-29

    The alteration of d-serine levels is associated with the pathogenesis of sporadic ALS and mutant SOD1 (G93A) animal model of ALS. However, the exact mechanism of d-serine transport is not known in ALS. To better understand the distribution of d-serine in ALS, we determined the activity and the expression of serine transporter in a motor neuronal cell line model of ALS (NSC-34/hSOD1(G93A) cells). The uptake of [(3)H]d-serine was significantly lower in NSC-34/hSOD1(G93A) cells than in control NSC-34 and NSC-34/hSOD1(wt) cells. In contrast, the uptake of [(3)H]l-serine, precursor of d-serine, was markedly increased in NSC-34/hSOD1(G93A) cells compared to control NSC-34 and NSC-34/hSOD1(wt) cells. Both [(3)H]d-serine and [(3)H]l-serine uptake were saturable in these cells. The estimated Michaelis-Menten constant, Km, for d-serine uptakes was higher in NSC-34/hSOD1(G93A) cells than in NSC-34/hSOD1(wt) cells while the Km for l-serine uptake was 2 fold lower in NSC-34/hSOD1(G93A) cells than in control cells. [(3)H]d-serine and [(3)H]l-serine uptakes took place in a Na(+)-dependent manner, and both uptakes were significantly inhibited by system ASC (alanine-serine-cysteine) substrates. As a result of small interfering RNA experiments, we found that ASCT2 (SLC1A5) and ASCT1 (SLC1A4) are involved in [(3)H]d-serine and [(3)H]l-serine uptake in NSC-34/hSOD1(G93A) cells, respectively. The level of SLC1A4 mRNA was significantly increased in NSC-34/hSOD1(G93A) compared to NSC-34 and NSC-34/hSOD1(wt) cells. In contrast, the level of SLC7A10 mRNA was relatively lower in NSC-34/hSOD1(G93A) cells than the control cells. Together, these data suggest that the pathological alteration of d- and l-serine uptakes in ALS is driven by the affinity change of d-and l-serine uptake system.

  11. Automated, on-line quantification of left ventricular dimensions and function by echocardiography with backscatter imaging and lateral gain compensation.

    PubMed

    Pérez, J E; Klein, S C; Prater, D M; Fraser, C E; Cardona, H; Waggoner, A D; Holland, M R; Miller, J G; Sobel, B E

    1992-11-01

    To provide on-line quantification of left ventricular cavity dimensions and function by echocardiography 60 control subjects and 10 patients with cardiac dysfunction were studied. A novel, ultrasound imaging system was used which was developed to detect and track, in real time, ventricular endocardial blood boundaries based on quantitative assessment of acoustic properties of tissue. In addition, lateral gain compensation, a robust and novel image enhancement procedure, was used to provide instantaneous measurement and display of cavity areas and functional indexes on a beat-by-beat basis within regions of interest drawn around the blood pool cavity. In control subjects, short-axis end-diastolic area averaged 13.1 +/- 3.7 cm2 (SD), end-systolic area 5.9 +/- 2.7 cm2, and fractional area change 55.6 +/- 11.2%. Apical views yielded corresponding values of 23.8 +/- 4.5 cm2, 15.5 +/- 3.4 cm2 and 34.7 +/- 7.8%. Instantaneous peak rate of cavity area change approximated 50 cm2/s in systole and 60 cm2/s in diastole in each view. Serial measurements of area and functional index were reproducible over intervals of 2 to 3 weeks. Patients with dilated ventricles exhibited average apical view area values of 49.1 +/- 6.1 cm2 and 43.1 +/- 4.9 cm2 in diastole and systole with a fractional area change of 12.2 +/- 3.0%. Thus, results with on-line echocardiographic backscatter imaging-assisted automated edge detection are reproducible and capable of delineating cardiac dysfunction conveniently, promptly and serially at the bedside.

  12. Using the zebrafish lateral line to uncover novel mechanisms of action and prevention in drug-induced hair cell death

    PubMed Central

    Stawicki, Tamara M.; Esterberg, Robert; Hailey, Dale W.; Raible, David W.; Rubel, Edwin W

    2015-01-01

    The majority of hearing loss and balance disorders are caused by the permanent loss of mechanosensory hair cells of the inner ear. Identification of genes and compounds that modulate susceptibility to hair cell death is frequently confounded by the difficulties of assaying for such complex phenomena in mammalian models. The zebrafish has emerged as a powerful animal model for genetic and chemical screening in many contexts. Several characteristics of the zebrafish, such as its small size and external location of mechanosensory hair cells within the lateral line sensory organ, uniquely position it as an ideal model organism for the study of hair cell toxicity. We have used this model to screen for genes and compounds that affect hair cell survival during ototoxin exposure and have identified agents that would not be expected to play a role in this process based on a priori knowledge of their function. The identification of such agents yields better understanding of hair cell death and holds promise to stem hearing loss and balance disorders in the human population. PMID:25741241

  13. Internalization of styryl dye FM1-43 in the hair cells of lateral line organs in Xenopus larvae.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, S; Sasaki, F

    1996-07-01

    We used a fluorescent dye, FM1-43 to investigate mechanotransduction mechanisms in the hair cells of lateral line organs of Xenopus larvae. FM1-43 specifically labeled the hair cells. The photo-oxidation technique was performed with election microscopy to examine the labeling sites and their mechanisms. The results showed that the labeling sites were mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum throughout the cytoplasm. Endocytic activity of the hair cells was limited to endosomes and small granules located at the apical part of the cells. Blockers of the mechanosensitive cation channel (neomycin, gentamicin, streptomycin, and amiloride) effectively inhibited FM1-43 labeling. One of the blockers, amiloride, was found to bind to hair cells when its fluorescence was examined. Divalent cations such as Mg2+ and Ca2+, but not monovalent cations such as Na+ and K+, inhibited FM1-43 labeling when they were added in excess amounts. These results suggest that FM1-43 internalizes hair cells via the putative mechanosensitive cation channel in the plasma membrane.

  14. Estrogen receptor ESR1 controls cell migration by repressing chemokine receptor CXCR4 in the zebrafish posterior lateral line system.

    PubMed

    Gamba, Laurent; Cubedo, Nicolas; Ghysen, Alain; Lutfalla, Georges; Dambly-Chaudière, Christine

    2010-04-06

    The primordium that generates the embryonic posterior lateral line of zebrafish migrates from the head to the tip of the tail along a trail of SDF1-producing cells. This migration critically depends on the presence of the SDF1 receptor CXCR4 in the leading region of the primordium and on the presence of a second SDF1 receptor, CXCR7, in the trailing region of the primordium. Here we show that inactivation of the estrogen receptor ESR1 results in ectopic expression of cxcr4b throughout the primordium, whereas ESR1 overexpression results in a reciprocal reduction in the domain of cxcr4b expression, suggesting that ESR1 acts as a repressor of cxcr4b. This finding could explain why estrogens significantly decrease the metastatic ability of ESR-positive breast cancer cells. ESR1 inactivation also leads to extinction of cxcr7b expression in the trailing cells of the migrating primordium; this effect is indirect, however, and due to the down-regulation of cxcr7b by ectopic SDF1/CXCR4 signaling in the trailing region. Both ESR1 inactivation and overexpression result in aborted migration, confirming the importance of this receptor in the control of SDF1-dependent migration.

  15. A Hox gene controls lateral line cell migration by regulating chemokine receptor expression downstream of Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Breau, Marie A; Wilkinson, David G; Xu, Qiling

    2013-10-15

    The posterior lateral line primordium in zebrafish provides an amenable model to study mechanisms of collective cell migration. The directed migration of the cell cluster along the path of Sdf1a chemokine requires two receptors, Cxcr4b and Cxcr7b, which are expressed in the leading and trailing part of the primordium, respectively. The polarized expression of receptors is regulated by Wnt signaling, but downstream players mediating this control remain to be found. Here, we show that the Hox homeobox gene Hoxb8a is a critical component that acts downstream of the Wnt pathway to coordinate the expression of both chemokine receptors. We find that Hoxb8a is expressed in the leading part of the primordium and is required for the correct speed and extent of migration. Hoxb8a expression is dependent upon Wnt activity and needed both for cxcr4b expression and to repress and thus restrict cxcr7b expression to the trailing zone of the primordium. In the absence of Wnt activity, overexpressed Hoxb8a is able to repress cxcr7b but not up-regulate cxcr4b expression. Together with results from expressing dominant activator and repressor constructs, these findings suggest that Hoxb8a is induced by and cooperates with Wnt signaling to up-regulate cxcr4b, and acts through multiple mechanisms to repress cxcr7b expression.

  16. Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer in a Real-World Scenario: Is Progression-Free Survival With First Line Predictive of Benefit From Second and Later Lines?

    PubMed Central

    Bonotto, Marta; Gerratana, Lorenzo; Iacono, Donatella; Minisini, Alessandro Marco; Rihawi, Karim; Fasola, Gianpiero

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Despite the availability of several therapeutic options for metastatic breast cancer (MBC), no robust predictive factors are available to help clinical decision making. Nevertheless, a decreasing benefit from first line to subsequent lines of treatment is commonly observed. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of benefit from first-line therapy on outcome with subsequent lines. Methods. We analyzed a consecutive series of 472 MBC patients treated with chemotherapy (CT) and/or endocrine therapy (ET) between 2004 and 2012. We evaluated progression-free survival (PFS) at first (PFS1), second, third, and fourth therapeutic lines, according to treatment (ET and/or CT) and tumor subtypes. Results. In the whole cohort, median overall survival was 34 months, and median PFS1 was 9 months. A 6-month benefit was shown by 289 patients (63.5%) at first line, 128 (40.5%) at second line, 76 (33.8%) at third line, and 34 (23.3%) at fourth line. Not having a 6-month benefit at PFS1 was associated with less chance of benefit at second line (odds ratio [OR]: 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.29–0.77, p = .0026) and at any line beyond first (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.24–0.62, p < .0001). In the total series, after stratification for tumor subtypes, a strong predictive effect was observed among HER2-positive tumors (OR: 0.2; 95% CI: 0.05–0.73, p = .0152). Conclusion. Our results suggest that the absence of at least a 6-month benefit in terms of PFS with first-line therapy predicts a reduced probability of benefit from subsequent therapeutic lines, especially in HER2-positive disease. Implications for Practice: This study supports evidence showing that the absence of a 6-month benefit in terms of progression-free survival with first-line therapy predicts a lack of benefit from subsequent therapeutic lines in metastatic breast cancer. The random distribution of benefit experienced by a subset of the cohort further spurs an interest in identifying predictive

  17. Inhibition by efferent nerve fibres: action on hair cells and afferent synaptic transmission in the lateral line canal organ of the burbot Lota lota.

    PubMed Central

    Flock, A; Russell, I

    1976-01-01

    1. Intracellular recordings were made from morphologically identified hair cells in the lateral line canal organs of the burbot Lota lota. 2. I.p.s.p.s were recorded from hair cells when the efferent fibres were excited by electrical stimulation of the lateral line nerve. The i.p.s.p.s were abolished when the fish was injected with immobilizing concentration of Flaxedil which is known to block the efferent synapses. 3. The i.p.s.p.s are accompanied by a decrease in the resistance of the hair cell membrane and an increase in the intracellular receptor potential. 4. Spontaneous and mechanically evoked e.p.s.p.s which were recorded intracellularly from the post-synaptic afferent nerve terminals were reduced in amplitude for the duration of the i.p.s.p. Images A, B C PMID:948076

  18. Predator-prey interactions between Synbranchus marmoratus (Teleostei: Synbranchidae) and Hypsiboas pulchellus tadpoles (Amphibia: Hylidae): importance of lateral line in nocturnal predation and effects of fenitrothion exposure.

    PubMed

    Junges, Celina M; Lajmanovich, Rafael C; Peltzer, Paola M; Attademo, Andres M; Bassó, Agustín

    2010-11-01

    Environmental contaminants can disrupt interactions between aquatic species by altering community structure. We explored predator-prey interactions between marbled swamp juvenile eels (Synbranchus marmoratus; predator) and anuran tadpoles (Hypsiboas pulchellus; prey) in relation to two aspects: the importance of lateral line in the predator and whether the absence of light modifies predation rates; and the effect of a sub-lethal concentration of fenitrothion on both predator and prey. Eels were tested under two sensory conditions (lateral line intact and lateral line blocked by cobalt chloride) in dark conditions. Predation rates were evaluated using different treatments that combined predator and prey exposed or not to insecticide. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities were also measured in muscle samples of eels and tadpoles to explore whether fenitrothion affects predator and prey differentially. Marbled swamp eels were more efficient in feeding on tadpoles during the night than during the day, showing that lateral line makes an important contribution to prey detection and capture. Regarding pesticide effects, short-term (6 h) exposure to an ecologically relevant fenitrothion dose of 2.5 mg L(-1) altered the predator-prey relationship by changing prey behaviour, reducing prey detection and therefore increasing tadpole survival. At this concentration, the outcome of the predator-prey relationship appears biased in favor of the exposed tadpoles, which were released from predation risk, despite their altered behaviour and the higher inhibition percentages of tail BChE (70%) and AChE (51%) than in control individuals. Our study involving these model species and agrochemicals demonstrates that fenitrothion affected the outcome of a predator-prey relationship. Further studies are needed, in these species and other native amphibians, to investigate the nature of the mechanisms responsible for the adverse effects of pesticides on

  19. Underwater tracking of a moving dipole source using an artificial lateral line: algorithm and experimental validation with ionic polymer-metal composite flow sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulsadda, Ahmad T.; Tan, Xiaobo

    2013-04-01

    Motivated by the lateral line system of fish, arrays of flow sensors have been proposed as a new sensing modality for underwater robots. Existing studies on such artificial lateral lines (ALLs) have been mostly focused on the localization of a fixed underwater vibrating sphere (dipole source). In this paper we examine the problem of tracking a moving dipole source using an ALL system. Based on an analytical model for the moving dipole-generated flow field, we formulate a nonlinear estimation problem that aims to minimize the error between the measured and model-predicted magnitudes of flow velocities at the sensor sites, which is subsequently solved with the Gauss-Newton scheme. A sliding discrete Fourier transform (SDFT) algorithm is proposed to efficiently compute the evolving signal magnitudes based on the flow velocity measurements. Simulation indicates that it is adequate and more computationally efficient to use only the signal magnitudes corresponding to the dipole vibration frequency. Finally, experiments conducted with an artificial lateral line consisting of six ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) flow sensors demonstrate that the proposed scheme is able to simultaneously locate the moving dipole and estimate its vibration amplitude and traveling speed with small errors.

  20. Facial Artery Musculomucosal (FAMM) flap for nasal lining in reconstruction of large full thickness lateral nasal defects.

    PubMed

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh

    2015-12-01

    Obviously, restoring the nasal lining is a great challenge in the reconstruction of nasal defects. Full thickness nasal defects usually require special flaps for reconstructing the nasal lining. Intranasal mucosal flaps, hinge over flaps, perinasal second flaps, folded or second forehead flaps and finally free flaps are examples that can be used for this purpose. Moreover, the case presented in this article expresses a new role for the superiorly based Facial Artery Musculomucosal (FAMM) flap in this topic. Furthermore, mucosal island variant of this flap is presented to reduce the tension on this flap while restoring the nasal lining in large full thickness nasal defect.

  1. Effect of resin-modified glass-ionomer cement lining and composite layering technique on the adhesive interface of lateral wall

    PubMed Central

    AZEVEDO, Larissa Marinho; CASAS-APAYCO, Leslie Carol; VILLAVICENCIO ESPINOZA, Carlos Andres; WANG, Linda; NAVARRO, Maria Fidela de Lima; ATTA, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Interface integrity can be maintained by setting the composite in a layering technique and using liners. Objective The aim of this in vitro study was to verify the effect of resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC) lining and composite layering technique on the bond strength of the dentin/resin adhesive interface of lateral walls of occlusal restorations. Material and Methods Occlusal cavities were prepared in 52 extracted sound human molars, randomly assigned into 4 groups: Group 2H (control) – no lining + two horizontal layers; Group 4O: no lining + four oblique layers; Group V-2H: RMGIC lining (Vitrebond) + two horizontal layers; and Group V-4O: RMGIC lining (Vitrebond) + four oblique layers. Resin composite (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE) was placed after application of an adhesive system (Adper™ Single Bond 2, 3M ESPE) dyed with a fluorescent reagent (Rhodamine B) to allow confocal microscopy analysis. The teeth were stored in deionized water at 37oC for 24 hours before being sectioned into 0.8 mm slices. One slice of each tooth was randomly selected for Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) analysis. The other slices were sectioned into 0.8 mm x 0.8 mm sticks to microtensile bond strength test (MPa). Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Fisher’s test. Results There was no statistical difference on bond strength among groups (p>0.05). CLSM analysis showed no significant statistical difference regarding the presence of gap at the interface dentin/resin among groups. Conclusions RMGIC lining and composite layering techniques showed no effect on the microtensile bond strength and gap formation at the adhesive interface of lateral walls of high C-factor occlusal restorations. PMID:26221927

  2. Consistency among different tasks of left-right asymmetries in lines of fish originally selected for opposite direction of lateralization in a detour task.

    PubMed

    Bisazza, A; Sovrano, V A; Vallortigara, G

    2001-01-01

    Lines of fish, Girardinus falcatus preferentially turning rightward (RD) or leftward (LD) when facing a dummy predator visible behind a barrier have been obtained through selective breeding. To check whether lateralization was maintained in other behavioral responses, five different tests were carried out. They comprised measures of (1) turning direction in a T-maze; (2) proportion of clockwise and anticlockwise direction of rotation in a circular arena; (3) preferential eye use by females during shoaling behavior (i.e. while looking at their own mirror image reflection); (4) preferential eye use by males during sexual behavior (i.e. while turning around a barrier to join a group of females); and (5) preferential eye use by males during agonistic behavior (i.e. while attacking a rival visible in a mirror). In all five tests the two selected lines showed opposite direction of lateralization. Results thus indicate that behavioral asymmetries in the detour test are predictive of lateralization in other types of behavioral tests. Moreover, results show that RD and LD fish have a similar but left-right reversed pattern of subdivision of cognitive/ behavioral functions, which is suggestive of a similarly left-right reversed (mirror image) brain organization.

  3. Tanespimycin and tipifarnib exhibit synergism in inducing apoptosis in melanoma cell lines from later stages of tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Bentke, Anna; Małecki, Jędrzej; Ostrowska, Barbara; Krzykowska-Petitjean, Katarzyna; Laidler, Piotr

    2013-10-01

    Many anticancer strategies rely on efficient induction of apoptosis. The need for development of drug combinations with a strong pro-apoptotic activity is of particular interest in melanoma resistant to currently available chemotherapeutic regimes. We studied the pro-apoptotic properties of combination of tanespimycin+tipifarnib in five melanoma cell lines representing various stages of tumor progression. Our results show that in cells derived from vertical- and metastatic-phase the combination of tested drugs is strongly cytotoxic and efficient in inducing apoptosis, as evidenced by activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 and enhanced fragmentation of DNA.

  4. Finding line of action of the force exerted on erect spine based on lateral bending test in personalization of scoliotic spine models.

    PubMed

    Jalalian, Athena; Tay, Francis Eng Hock; Arastehfar, Soheil; Gibson, Ian; Liu, Gabriel

    2017-04-01

    In multi-body models of scoliotic spine, personalization of mechanical properties of joints significantly improves reconstruction of the spine shape. In personalization methods based on lateral bending test, simulation of bending positions is an essential step. To simulate, a force is exerted on the spine model in the erect position. The line of action of the force affects the moment of the force about the joints and thus, if not correctly identified, causes over/underestimation of mechanical properties. Therefore, we aimed to identify the line of action, which has got little attention in previous studies. An in-depth analysis was performed on the scoliotic spine movement from the erect to four spine positions in the frontal plane by using pre-operative X-rays of 18 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. To study the movement, the spine curvature was considered as a 2D chain of micro-scale motion segments (MMSs) comprising rigid links and 1-degree-of-freedom (DOF) rotary joints. It was found that two MMSs representing the inflection points of the erect spine had almost no rotation (0.0028° ± 0.0021°) in the movement. The small rotation can be justified by weak moment of the force about these MMSs due to very small moment arm. Therefore, in the frontal plane, the line of action of the force to simulate the left/right bending position was defined as the line that passes through these MMSs in the left/right bending position. Through personalization of a 3D spine model for our patients, we demonstrated that our line of action could result in good estimates of the spine shape in the bending positions and other positions not included in the personalization, supporting our proposed line of action.

  5. Identification of FDA-approved drugs and bioactives that protect hair cells in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) lateral line and mouse (Mus musculus) utricle.

    PubMed

    Ou, Henry C; Cunningham, Lisa L; Francis, Shimon P; Brandon, Carlene S; Simon, Julian A; Raible, David W; Rubel, Edwin W

    2009-06-01

    The hair cells of the larval zebrafish lateral line provide a useful preparation in which to study hair cell death and to screen for genes and small molecules that modulate hair cell toxicity. We recently reported preliminary results from screening a small-molecule library for compounds that inhibit aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death. To potentially reduce the time required for development of drugs and drug combinations that can be clinically useful, we screened a library of 1,040 FDA-approved drugs and bioactive compounds (NINDS Custom Collection II). Seven compounds that protect against neomycin-induced hair cell death were identified. Four of the seven drugs inhibited aminoglycoside uptake, based on Texas-Red-conjugated gentamicin uptake. The activities of two of the remaining three drugs were evaluated using an in vitro adult mouse utricle preparation. One drug, 9-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine (tacrine) demonstrated conserved protective effects in the mouse utricle. These results demonstrate that the zebrafish lateral line can be used to screen successfully for drugs within a library of FDA-approved drugs and bioactives that inhibit hair cell death in the mammalian inner ear and identify tacrine as a promising protective drug for future studies.

  6. Efficacy of Cabazitaxel Treatment in Metastatic Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer in Second and Later Lines. An Experience from Two German Centers

    PubMed Central

    Zschäbitz, Stefanie; Vallet, Sonia; Hadaschik, Boris; Debatin, Daniel; Fuxius, Stefan; Karcher, Andreas; Pahernik, Sascha; Spath, Cathleen; Duensing, Stefan; Jäger, Dirk; Hohenfellner, Markus; Grüllich, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Several new treatment options for patients with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) have been approved within the last years - among them cabazitaxel (CAB), abiraterone acetate, enzalutamide, and radium-223. The aim of this study was to assess factors predictive for efficacy of CAB. Methods: We analyzed all patients with mCRPC treated with CAB at our institutions between 2011 and 2016. Data were retrieved retrospectively from the electronical patient chart. Results: 69 patients received CAB (26.1% 2nd line, 36.2% 3rd line, 37.3% >3rd line). Median overall survival (OS) on CAB was 10.0 months (95%CI 7.1-12.9). Median progression free survival (PFS) on CAB was 3.9 months (95%CI 3.0-4.8). There were no differences in OS and PFS regarding treatment line of CAB (2nd vs. higher; 2nd/3rd vs. higher). Duration of remission on 1st line treatment (> 6 months vs. line treatment for mCRPC is correlated with a longer PFS to CAB for any later line treatment. Patients with nodal and bone metastases only had a significantly superior PFS and OS with CAB treatment than patients with visceral metastases. PMID:28367230

  7. High-performance poly-Si thin film transistors with highly biaxially oriented poly-Si thin films using double line beam continuous-wave laser lateral crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamano, Masayuki; Kuroki, Shin-Ichiro; Sato, Tadashi; Kotani, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Highly biaxially oriented poly-Si thin films were formed by double-line beam continuous-wave laser lateral crystallization (DLB-CLC). The crystallinities of the DLB-CLC poly-Si thin films were (110), (111), and (211) for the laser scan, transverse, and surface directions, respectively, and an energetically stable Σ3 grain boundary was observed to be dominant. All silicon grains were elongated in the laser scan direction and one-dimensionally very large silicon grains with lengths of more than 100 µm were fabricated. Using these biaxially oriented polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) films, low-temperature poly-Si TFTs (LTPS-TFTs) were fabricated at low temperatures (≦550 °C) by a metal gate self-aligned process. As a result, a TFT with a high electron field effect mobility of μFE = 450 cm2 V-1 s-1 in a linear region was realized.

  8. Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mires, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    National Geography Standards for the middle school years generally stress the teaching of latitude and longitude. There are many creative ways to explain the great grid that encircles our planet, but the author has found that students in his college-level geography courses especially enjoy human-interest stories associated with lines of latitude…

  9. Comparative anatomy of the electrosensory lateral line lobe of mormyrids: the mystery of the missing map in the genus Stomatorhinus (family: Mormyridae).

    PubMed

    McNamara, Ann Marie; Denizot, Jean-Pierre; Hopkins, Carl D

    2005-01-01

    Fish in the family Mormyridae produce weak electric organ discharges that are used in orientation and communication. The peripheral and central anatomy of the electrosensory system has been well studied in the species Gnathonemus petersii, but comparative studies in other species are scarce. Here we report on one genus of mormyrid that displays a remarkable change in the electrosensory lateral line lobe (ELL), the hypertrophied rhombencephalic structure that receives primary electroreceptor input. Although all other mormyrids studied have three distinct zones on each side of the ELL, fish of the genus Stomatorhinus exhibit only two. Therefore, the two-zone ELL is a unique derived characteristic shared by Stomatorhinus. We examined the cutaneous electroreceptors that project to the ELL in Stomatorhinus. All three types of electroreceptors previously described for G. petersii were present, but there was a significant change in one type, the mormyromast. Both mormyromast sensory cell types (A- and B-cells) are present, but the B-cell is not innervated in Stomatorhinus. We conclude that, although all cutaneous sensory cells are present, the missing B-cell afferents account for the loss of the dorsolateral zone of the ELL, and therefore the loss of an entire sensory map. Because mormyromasts are involved in electrolocation behavior, this anatomical difference is probably related to differences in electrolocation abilities. Stomatorhinus could prove to be an excellent system for linking evolutionary changes in behavior with modifications in their neural substrates.

  10. Treatment factors influencing the use of recombinant platelet-derived growth factor (Regranex) for head and lateral line erosion syndrome in ocean surgeonfish (Acanthurus bahianus).

    PubMed

    Fleming, Gregory J; Corwin, Allison; McCoy, A Jeanene; Stamper, M Andrew

    2008-06-01

    The clinical efficacy of becaplermin (Regranex, Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical, Inc., Raritan, New Jersey 08869) on head and lateral line erosion syndrome (HLLES) in ocean surgeonfish (Acanthurus bahianus) was examined in a two-part study to determine suitable application frequencies of the drug and the effects of the environment on outcome of treatments. In the first part of the study, 12 ocean surgeonfish with prior HLLES were equally divided into three treatment groups, varying in application frequency of becaplermin: 1) one application, 2) three applications every 3 wk, and 3) no applications. After 9 wk, it was determined through photograph and computer analysis that fish treated with becaplermin did heal significantly more than the fish that were not treated. No significant difference was found when comparing the two treatment regimes; therefore, a one-time treatment of becaplermin was just as effective as the three-time application, reducing cost of the treatment, staff labor, and stress to the animals. In the second part of the study, the effect of the water environment on HLLES development was documented before and after a one-time treatment of becaplermin. When fish were treated and placed into a system known to cause HLLES, the becaplermin treatment had no effect on reducing the HLLES progression, whereas treated fish that were placed into a system that did not cause HLLES showed a significant decrease in erosion after the treatment. Therefore, treating fish being placed into a HLLES-causing system serves no beneficial purpose to healing HLLES.

  11. Effects of full-stream carbon filtration on the development of head and lateral line erosion syndrome (HLLES) in ocean surgeon.

    PubMed

    Stamper, M Andrew; Kittell, Michele M; Patel, Erin E; Corwin, Allison L

    2011-09-01

    Head and lateral line erosion syndrome (HLLES) is a common but very poorly understood disease of marine aquarium fish. One suspected etiology is the use of granulated activated carbon (GAC) to filter the water. Seventy-two ocean surgeons Acanthurus bahianus were distributed among three carbon-negative control systems and three GAC-treated systems such that each tank contained approximately the same total body mass. Each replicate system was made up of two 250-L circular tanks with a common filtration system (6 fish per tank, 12 fish per replicate system). The GAC-treated tanks were exposed to full-stream, extruded coconut shell activated carbon, which produced a mean total organic carbon content of 0.4 mg/L. The results of this study indicate that extruded coconut shell activated carbon filtering at full-stream rates can cause HLLES-type lesions in ocean surgeons. The HLLES developed exponentially over 15 d, beginning in the chin region. This was followed by pitting in the cheek region, which expanded until erosions coalesced. Once the carbon was discontinued, the processes reversed in a mean time of 49 d. As the lesions healed, they reverted from the coalesced to the pitted stage and then darkened before returning to normal.

  12. Prognostic and Predictive Factors in Patients with Advanced Penile Cancer Receiving Salvage (2nd or Later Line) Systemic Treatment: A Retrospective, Multi-Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Buonerba, Carlo; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Pond, Gregory; Cartenì, Giacomo; Scagliarini, Sarah; Rozzi, Antonio; Quevedo, Fernando J.; Dorff, Tanya; Nappi, Lucia; Lanzetta, Gaetano; Pagliaro, Lance; Eigl, Bernhard J.; Naik, Gurudatta; Ferro, Matteo; Galdiero, Mariano; De Placido, Sabino; Sonpavde, Guru

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and objectives: Metastatic penile squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) is associated with dismal outcomes with median overall survival (OS) of 6–12 months in the first-line and <6 months in the salvage setting. Given the rarity of this disease, randomized trials are difficult. Prognostic risk models may assist in rational drug development by comparing observed outcomes in nonrandomized phase II studies and retrospective data vs. predicted outcomes based on baseline prognostic factors in the context of historically used agents. In this retrospective study, we constructed a prognostic model in the salvage setting of PSCC patients receiving second or later line systemic treatment, and also explored differences in outcomes based on type of treatment. Materials and methods: We performed a chart review to identify patients with locally advanced unresectable or metastatic PSCC who received second or later line systemic treatment in centers from North America and Europe. The primary outcome was OS from initiation of treatment, with secondary outcomes being progression-free survival (PFS) and response rate (RR). OS was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify prognostic factors for outcomes using univariable and multivariable models. Results: Sixty-five patients were eligible. Seventeen of 63 evaluable patients had a response (27.0%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 16.6–39.7%) and median OS and PFS were 20 (95% CI = 20–21) and 12 (95% CI = 12, 16) weeks, respectively. Visceral metastasis (VM) and hemoglobin (Hb) ≤ 10 gm/dl were consistently significant poor prognostic factors for both OS and PFS, and Hb was also prognostic for response. The 28 patients with neither risk factor had a median OS (95% CI) of 24 (20–40) weeks and 1-year (95% CI) OS of 13.7% (4.4–42.7%), while the 37 patients with 1 or 2 risk factors had median OS (95% CI) of 20 (16–20) weeks and 1-year (95% CI) OS of 6.7% (1.8–24

  13. Lateral Mixing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    apl.uw.edu/dasaro LONG-TERM GOALS I seek to understand the processes controlling lateral mixing in the ocean, particularly at the submesoscale ...APPROACH During AESOP, Lee and D’Asaro pioneered an innovative approach to measuring submesoscale structure in strong fronts. An adaptive measurement...injection of potential vorticity and scalars is predicted to create an intense ‘ submesoscale soup’ of high small-scale variance. The combination of small

  14. Lateral Mixing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-08

    to mesoscale forcing. APPROACH Figure 1: MVP system deployed from stern of R/V Endeavor in Sargasso Sea . 1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for...integrative efforts with other sea -going investigators and numerical modelers. The Lateral Mixing Experiment project was an ideal opportunity to...2011 I also participated in the sea -going part of this project, taking my group on the R/V Endeavor in June 2011. Our role was to sample around the

  15. Lateral Mixing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    ocean as it responds to mesoscale forcing. APPROACH Figure 1: MVP system deployed from stern of R/V Endeavor in Sargasso Sea . My approach for...therefore requires integrative efforts with other sea -going investigators and numerical modelers. The Lateral Mixing Experiment project was an ideal...also participated in the sea -going part of this project, taking my group on the R/V Endeavor in June 2011. Our role was to sample around the center of

  16. Lateral Inhibition during Nociceptive Processing.

    PubMed

    Quevedo, Alexandre S; Mørch, Carsten Dahl; Andersen, Ole K; Coghill, Robert C

    2017-02-11

    Spatial summation of pain is the increase of perceived intensity that occurs as the stimulated area increases. Spatial summation of pain is sub-additive in that increasing the stimulus area produces a disproportionately small increase in the perceived intensity of pain. A possible explanation for sub-additive summation may be that convergent excitatory information is modulated by lateral inhibition. To test the hypothesis that lateral inhibition may limit spatial summation of pain, we delivered different patterns of noxious thermal stimuli to the abdomens of 15 subjects using a computer-controlled CO2-laser. Lines (5mm wide) of variable lengths (4cm, 8cm) were compared to two-point stimuli delivered at the same position/separation as the length of lines. When compared to one-point control stimuli, two-point stimulus patterns produced statistically significant spatial summation of pain, while no such summation was detected during line stimulus patterns. Direct comparison of pain intensity evoked by two-point pattern stimuli with line pattern stimuli revealed that two-point patterns were perceived as significantly more painful, despite the fact that the two-point pattern stimulated far smaller areas of skin. Thus, the stimulation of the skin region between the endpoints of the lines appears to produce inhibition. These findings indicate that lateral inhibition limits spatial summation of pain and is an intrinsic component of nociceptive information processing. Disruption of such lateral inhibition may contribute substantially to the radiation of some types of chronic pain.

  17. The pit organs of elasmobranchs: a review.

    PubMed

    Peach, M B; Marshall, N J

    2000-09-29

    Elasmobranchs have hundreds of tiny sensory organs, called pit organs, scattered over the skin surface. The pit organs were noted in many early studies of the lateral line, but their exact nature has long remained a mystery. Although pit organs were known to be innervated by the lateral line nerves, and light micrographs suggested that they were free neuromasts, speculation that they may be external taste buds or chemoreceptors has persisted until recently. Electron micrographs have now revealed that the pit organs are indeed free neuromasts. Their functional and behavioural role(s), however, are yet to be investigated.

  18. The vesicular integral protein-like gene is essential for development of a mechanosensory system in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chong, Mabel; Liao, Meijiang; Drapeau, Pierre

    2008-10-01

    The zebrafish hi472 mutation is caused by a retroviral insertion into the vesicular integral protein-like gene, or zVIPL, a poorly studied lectin implicated in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi trafficking. A mutation in the shorter isoform of zVIPL (zVIPL-s) results in a reduction of mechanosensitivity and consequent loss of escape behavior. Here we show that motoneurons and hindbrain reticulospinal neurons, which normally integrate mechanosensory inputs, failed to fire in response to tactile stimuli in hi472 larvae, suggesting a perturbation in sensory function. The hi472 mutant larvae in fact suffered from a severe loss of functional neuromasts of the lateral line mechanosensory system, a reduction of zVIPL labeling in support cells, and a reduction or even a complete loss of hair cells in neuromasts. The Delta-Notch signaling pathway is implicated in cellular differentiation of neuromasts, and we observed an increase in Notch expression in neuromasts of hi472 mutant larvae. Treatment of hi472 mutant larvae with DAPT, an inhibitor of Notch signaling, or overexpression of the Notch ligand deltaB in hi472 mutant blastocysts produced partial rescue of the morphological defects and of the startle response behavior. We conclude that zVIPL-s is a necessary component of Delta-Notch signaling during neuromast development in the lateral line mechanosensory system.

  19. Lateral Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Donald P.; Butler, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Lateral abdominal wall (LAW) defects can manifest as a flank hernias, myofascial laxity/bulges, or full-thickness defects. These defects are quite different from those in the anterior abdominal wall defects and the complexity and limited surgical options make repairing the LAW a challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. LAW reconstruction requires an understanding of the anatomy, physiologic forces, and the impact of deinnervation injury to design and perform successful reconstructions of hernia, bulge, and full-thickness defects. Reconstructive strategies must be tailored to address the inguinal ligament, retroperitoneum, chest wall, and diaphragm. Operative technique must focus on stabilization of the LAW to nonyielding points of fixation at the anatomic borders of the LAW far beyond the musculofascial borders of the defect itself. Thus, hernias, bulges, and full-thickness defects are approached in a similar fashion. Mesh reinforcement is uniformly required in lateral abdominal wall reconstruction. Inlay mesh placement with overlying myofascial coverage is preferred as a first-line option as is the case in anterior abdominal wall reconstruction. However, interposition bridging repairs are often performed as the surrounding myofascial tissue precludes a dual layered closure. The decision to place bioprosthetic or prosthetic mesh depends on surgeon preference, patient comorbidities, and clinical factors of the repair. Regardless of mesh type, the overlying soft tissue must provide stable cutaneous coverage and obliteration of dead space. In cases where the fasciocutaneous flaps surrounding the defect are inadequate for closure, regional pedicled flaps or free flaps are recruited to achieve stable soft tissue coverage. PMID:23372458

  20. [Lateral retinacular release].

    PubMed

    Verdonk, P; Bonte, F; Verdonk, R

    2008-09-01

    This overview of numerous studies discusses, based on short-term and long-term results, which diagnoses are indications for lateral retinacular release. No significant differences in outcome between arthroscopic and open lateral release could be documented. Isolated lateral release offers a good success rate for treating a stable patella with excessive lateral pressure. In patellar instability, the results are less favorable in long-term follow-up evaluation. Hyperlaxity with hypermobility of the patella is an absolute contraindication. Lateral release provides only temporary benefit for patellofemoral osteoarthritis. Proximal and/or distal realignment of the extensor mechanism gives better results than isolated lateral release.

  1. Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis)

    MedlinePlus

    .org Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis) Page ( 1 ) Tennis elbow, or lateral epicondyliti s, is a painful condition of the elbow caused by overuse. Not surprisingly, playing tennis or other racquet sports can cause ...

  2. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (a-my-o-TROE-fik LAT-ur-ul skluh-ROE-sis), or ALS, is a progressive nervous system (neurological) disease that ...

  3. Lateral flow strip assay

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, Robin R; Benett, William J; Coleman, Matthew A; Pearson, Francesca S; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  4. Reading Disability and Laterality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrow, Sara S.

    The purpose of this study was to determine how retarded readers differed from normal readers in the various ways laterality is manifested. An additional purpose was to investigate the development of laterality as seen across several age levels. Subjects were 80 white male 9-, 10-, 11-, and 12-year-olds from regular classrooms in suburban…

  5. Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay Test Strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    As easy to read as a home pregnancy test, three Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay (QLFA) strips used to test water for E. coli show different results. The brightly glowing control line on the far right of each strip indicates that all three tests ran successfully. But the glowing test line on the middle left and bottom strips reveal their samples were contaminated with E. coli bacteria at two different concentrations. The color intensity correlates with concentration of contamination.

  6. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a nervous system disease that attacks nerve cells called neurons in your brain and spinal cord. These neurons ... breathing machine can help, but most people with ALS die from respiratory failure. The disease usually strikes ...

  7. [Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Veldink, J H; Weikamp, J; Schelhaas, H J; van den Berg, L H

    2010-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is one of the most severe and disabling diseases of the nervous system. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis leads to the progressive weakening of the muscles in the arms, legs, face, mouth and trunk. The onset of the disease is insidious, starting with weakness in the hands or feet or with slurred speech. The weakness worsens and patients pass away as a result of weakness of the respiratory muscles on average within 3 years of the onset of the disease. In the Netherlands, approximately 400 patients are diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis every year. There is no diagnostic test for this neuro-muscular disease; the diagnosis is established by excluding other disorders that resemble amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Only one drug is able to inhibit the progression of the disease to any extent: riluzole. Treatment, therefore, is mainly focused on supportive measures and those which enhance the quality of life optimally.

  8. Laterally bendable belt conveyor

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, William J.

    1985-01-01

    An endless, laterally flexible and bendable belt conveyor particularly adapted for coal mining applications in facilitating the transport of the extracted coal up- or downslope and around corners in a continuous manner is disclosed. The conveying means includes a flat rubber belt reinforced along the middle portion thereof along which the major portion of the belt tension is directed so as to cause rotation of the tubular shaped belt when trammed around lateral turns thus preventing excessive belt bulging distortion between adjacent belt supports which would inhibit belt transport. Pretension induced into the fabric reinforced flat rubber belt by conventional belt take-up means supports the load conveyed when the belt conveyor is making lateral turns. The carrying and return portions of the belt are supported and formed into a tubular shape by a plurality of shapers positioned along its length. Each shaper is supported from above by a monorail and includes clusters of idler rollers which support the belt. Additional cluster rollers in each shaper permit the belt supporting roller clusters to rotate in response to the belt's operating tension imposed upon the cluster rollers by induced lateral belt friction forces. The freely rotating roller clusters thus permit the belt to twist on lateral curves without damage to itself while precluding escape of the conveyed material by effectively enclosing it in the tube-shaped, inner belt transport length.

  9. [Lateral mandibular deviations].

    PubMed

    Gotte, P

    1980-01-01

    The mandibular laterodeviation is one of the most evident malformations of the face, because it alters the lower third of the face. Etiologically it can be classified into: Static laterodeviations caused by teeth; Static laterodeviations caused by skeleton change: by monolateral hypertrophy (condyle, condyle and neck of the condyle, half mandible hypertrophy); by monolateral hypertrophy (congenital pathological); Dinamic laterodeviations functional. The midline displacement with posterior monolateral cross bite is caused by width discrepancy between the upper and lower dental arch resulting in a lateral shifting of the mandible. This laterodeviation is also called "laterale forced bite" or "articular cross bite". Articular cross bite is generally corrected by orthodontics during the interceptive period when the growth of the jaws is still present. In the author's opinion the orthognathic surgery is absolutely necessary for adult dental laterodeviation already stabilized. The skeletal laterodeviation must always be treated by orthognathic surgery. It is the author's practice to use the sagittal bilateral osteotomy at the angle and ramus level whose lines of osteotomy at the angle are different from one another depending on the displacement and rotation which one must do to the mandible to get contact surfaces which are larger enough to ensure proper union because the two mandibular halves have different lengths and different angles. This kind of operation normalizes the occlusion and is sometime sufficient to harmonize the oval of the lower third of the face. In the anterior part of the chin is still laterodeviated one continues with a wedge shaped osteotomy at the tip of the chin in order to reposition the tip to the midline and with an additional osteotomy at the hypertrophied angle level. If laterodeviation is joined by other bone malformations in can be considered a symptom which is more or less marked. In this case, therefore, laterodeviation is a part of a

  10. Bilateral lateral periodontal cyst.

    PubMed

    Govil, Somya; Gupta, Vishesh; Misra, Neeta; Misra, Pradyumna

    2013-05-10

    The bilateral lateral periodontal cyst is a rare nasological entity, which despite clinical and radiological presentation is being diagnosed by histological characteristics. It is asymptomatic in nature and is observed in routine radiography. The aim and objective of this article is to present a rare case of bilateral lateral periodontal cyst in a 14-year-old child. The clinical and radiographical findings, along with its management have been discussed. Enucleation of bilateral cyst without extraction of the adjacent tooth was performed. Lesion samples were sent for histopathological analysis. The histopathological analysis revealed a thin, non keratinised stratified squamous epithelium resembling reduced enamel epithelium. Epithelial plaques were also seen. A clinicopathological correlation incorporating the surgical, radiographical and gold standard histopathological findings was obtained to suggest the final diagnosis of the bilateral lateral periodontal cyst.

  11. Lateral Thinking of Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Xavier, S. Amaladoss

    2013-01-01

    Edward de Bono who invented the term "lateral thinking" in 1967 is the pioneer of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is concerned with the generation of new ideas. Liberation from old ideas and the stimulation of new ones are twin aspects of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is a creative skills from which all people can benefit…

  12. Onset dominance in lateralization.

    PubMed

    Freyman, R L; Zurek, P M; Balakrishnan, U; Chiang, Y C

    1997-03-01

    Saberi and Perrott [Acustica 81, 272-275 (1995)] found that the in-head lateralization of a relatively long-duration pulse train could be controlled by the interaural delay of the single pulse pair that occurs at onset. The present study examined this further, using an acoustic pointer measure of lateralization, with stimulus manipulations designed to determine conditions under which lateralization was consistent with the interaural onset delay. The present stimuli were wideband pulse trains, noise-burst trains, and inharmonic complexes, 250 ms in duration, chosen for the ease with which interaural delays and correlations of select temporal segments of the stimulus could be manipulated. The stimulus factors studied were the periodicity of the ongoing part of the signal as well as the multiplicity and ambiguity of interaural delays. The results, in general, showed that the interaural onset delay controlled lateralization when the steady state binaural cues were relatively weak, either because the spectral components were only sparsely distributed across frequency or because the interaural time delays were ambiguous. Onset dominance can be disrupted by sudden stimulus changes within the train, and several examples of such changes are described. Individual subjects showed strong left-right asymmetries in onset effectiveness. The results have implications for understanding how onset and ongoing interaural delay cues contribute to the location estimates formed by the binaural auditory system.

  13. Lateral Attitude Change.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Tina; Dickel, Nina; Liersch, Benjamin; Rees, Jonas; Süssenbach, Philipp; Bohner, Gerd

    2015-08-01

    The authors propose a framework distinguishing two types of lateral attitude change (LAC): (a) generalization effects, where attitude change toward a focal object transfers to related objects, and (b) displacement effects, where only related attitudes change but the focal attitude does not change. They bring together examples of LAC from various domains of research, outline the conditions and underlying processes of each type of LAC, and develop a theoretical framework that enables researchers to study LAC more systematically in the future. Compared with established theories of attitude change, the LAC framework focuses on lateral instead of focal attitude change and encompasses both generalization and displacement. Novel predictions and designs for studying LAC are presented.

  14. Lateral flow assays

    PubMed Central

    Koczula, Katarzyna M.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral flow assays (LFAs) are the technology behind low-cost, simple, rapid and portable detection devices popular in biomedicine, agriculture, food and environmental sciences. This review presents an overview of the principle of the method and the critical components of the assay, focusing on lateral flow immunoassays. This type of assay has recently attracted considerable interest because of its potential to provide instantaneous diagnosis directly to patients. The range and interpretation of results and parameters used for evaluation of the assay will also be discussed. The main advantages and disadvantages of LFAs will be summarized and relevant future improvements to testing devices and strategies will be proposed. Finally, the major recent advances and future diagnostic applications in the LFA field will be explored. PMID:27365041

  15. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Malik, Rabia; Lui, Andrew; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting 20,000 to 30,000 people in the United States. The mainstay of care of patients affected by this disease is supportive and given the multifaceted nature of their needs is provided most efficiently through multidisciplinary clinics that have shown to prolong survival and improve quality of life. The authors discuss in detail evidence-based management of individuals affected by this condition.

  16. Conjugal amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Dewitt, John D.; Kwon, Julia; Burton, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disease characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the motor cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord. The incidence of sporadic ALS is 1.5 to 2.7 in 100,000, and the prevalence is 5.2 to 6.0 in 100,000. Conjugal ALS is even rarer than sporadic ALS. We report a case of conjugal ALS encountered in our outpatient neurology clinic. PMID:22275781

  17. Lateral Elbow Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bhabra, Gev; Wang, Allan; Ebert, Jay R.; Edwards, Peter; Zheng, Monica; Zheng, Ming H.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral elbow tendinopathy, commonly known as tennis elbow, is a condition that can cause significant functional impairment in working-age patients. The term tendinopathy is used to describe chronic overuse tendon disorders encompassing a group of pathologies, a spectrum of disease. This review details the pathophysiology of tendinopathy and tendon healing as an introduction for a system grading the severity of tendinopathy, with each of the 4 grades displaying distinct histopathological features. Currently, there are a large number of nonoperative treatments available for lateral elbow tendinopathy, with little guidance as to when and how to use them. In fact, an appraisal of the clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses studying these treatment modalities reveals that no single treatment reliably achieves outstanding results. This may be due in part to the majority of clinical studies to date including all patients with chronic tendinopathy rather than attempting to categorize patients according to the severity of disease. We relate the pathophysiology of the different grades of tendinopathy to the basic science principles that underpin the mechanisms of action of the nonoperative treatments available to propose a treatment algorithm guiding the management of lateral elbow tendinopathy depending on severity. We believe that this system will be useful both in clinical practice and for the future investigation of the efficacy of treatments. PMID:27833925

  18. Hemispheric lateralization in reasoning.

    PubMed

    Turner, Benjamin O; Marinsek, Nicole; Ryhal, Emily; Miller, Michael B

    2015-11-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that reasoning in humans relies on a number of related processes whose neural loci are largely lateralized to one hemisphere or the other. A recent review of this evidence concluded that the patterns of lateralization observed are organized according to two complementary tendencies. The left hemisphere attempts to reduce uncertainty by drawing inferences or creating explanations, even at the cost of ignoring conflicting evidence or generating implausible explanations. Conversely, the right hemisphere aims to reduce conflict by rejecting or refining explanations that are no longer tenable in the face of new evidence. In healthy adults, the hemispheres work together to achieve a balance between certainty and consistency, and a wealth of neuropsychological research supports the notion that upsetting this balance results in various failures in reasoning, including delusions. However, support for this model from the neuroimaging literature is mixed. Here, we examine the evidence for this framework from multiple research domains, including an activation likelihood estimation analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of reasoning. Our results suggest a need to either revise this model as it applies to healthy adults or to develop better tools for assessing lateralization in these individuals.

  19. Diamond heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Y. -H.; Bi, B.; Golding, B.

    2015-02-24

    A method of diamond heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth is demonstrated which utilizes a photolithographic metal mask to pattern a thin (001) epitaxial diamond surface. Significant structural improvement was found, with a threading dislocation density reduced by two orders of magnitude at the top surface of a thick overgrown diamond layer. In the initial stage of overgrowth, a reduction of diamond Raman linewidth in the overgrown area was also realized. Thermally-induced stress and internal stress were determined by Raman spectroscopy of adhering and delaminated diamond films. As a result, the internal stress is found to decrease as sample thickness increases.

  20. Creativity in later life.

    PubMed

    Price, K A; Tinker, A M

    2014-08-01

    The ageing population presents significant challenges for the provision of social and health services. Strategies are needed to enable older people to cope within a society ill prepared for the impacts of these demographic changes. The ability to be creative may be one such strategy. This review outlines the relevant literature and examines current public health policy related to creativity in old age with the aim of highlighting some important issues. As well as looking at the benefits and negative aspects of creative activity in later life they are considered in the context of the theory of "successful ageing". Creative activity plays an important role in the lives of older people promoting social interaction, providing cognitive stimulation and giving a sense of self-worth. Furthermore, it is shown to be useful as a tool in the multi-disciplinary treatment of health problems common in later life such as depression and dementia. There are a number of initiatives to encourage older people to participate in creative activities such as arts-based projects which may range from visual arts to dance to music to intergenerational initiatives. However, participation shows geographical variation and often the responsibility of provision falls to voluntary organisations. Overall, the literature presented suggests that creative activity could be a useful tool for individuals and society. However, further research is needed to establish the key factors which contribute to patterns of improved health and well-being, as well as to explore ways to improve access to services.

  1. Enhanced performance of methamphetamine lateral flow cassettes using an electronic lateral flow reader.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jerome P; Sammons, Deborah L; Robertson, Shirley A; Snawder, John E

    2015-01-01

    Surface contamination from methamphetamine in meth labs continues to be a problem. We had previously developed a lateral flow assay cassette for field detection of methamphetamine contamination that is commercially available and has been used by a number of groups to assess contamination. This cassette uses the complete disappearance of the test line as an end point for detection of 50 ng/100 cm2 of methamphetamine contamination for surface sampling with cotton swabs. In the present study, we further evaluate the response of the cassettes using an electronic lateral flow reader to measure the intensities of the test and control lines. The cassettes were capable of detecting 0.25 ng/ml for calibration solutions. For 100 cm2 ceramic tiles that were spiked with methamphetamine and wiped with cotton-tipped wooden swabs wetted in assay/sampling buffer, 1 ng/tile was detected using the reader. Semi-quantitative results can be produced over the range 0-10 ng/ml for calibration solutions and 0-25 ng/tile for spiked tiles using either a 4-parameter logistic fit of test line intensity versus concentration or spiked mass or the ratio of the control line to the test line intensity fit to concentration or spiked mass. Recovery from the tiles was determined to be about 30% using the fitted curves. Comparison of the control line to the test line was also examined as a possible visual detection end point and it was found that the control line became more intense than the test line at 0.5 to 1 ng/ml for calibration solutions or 1 to 2 ng/tile for spiked tiles. Thus the lateral flow cassettes for methamphetamine have the potential to produce more sensitive semi-quantitative results if an electronic lateral flow reader is used and can be more sensitive for detection if the comparison of the control line to the test line is used as the visual end point.

  2. Enhanced performance of methamphetamine lateral flow cassettes using an electronic lateral flow reader

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jerome P.; Sammons, Deborah L.; Robertson, Shirley A.; Snawder, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Surface contamination from methamphetamine in meth labs continues to be a problem. We had previously developed a lateral flow assay cassette for field detection of methamphetamine contamination that is commercially available and has been used by a number of groups to assess contamination. This cassette uses the complete disappearance of the test line as an end point for detection of 50 ng/100 cm2 of methamphetamine contamination for surface sampling with cotton swabs. In the present study, we further evaluate the response of the cassettes using an electronic lateral flow reader to measure the intensities of the test and control lines. The cassettes were capable of detecting 0.25 ng/ml for calibration solutions. For 100 cm2 ceramic tiles that were spiked with methamphetamine and wiped with cotton tipped wooden swabs wetted in assay/sampling buffer, 1 ng/tile was detected using the reader. Semi-quantitative results can be produced over the range 0–10 ng/ml for calibration solutions and 0–25 ng/tile for spiked tiles using either a 4-parameter logistic fit of test line intensity versus concentration or spiked mass or the ratio of the control line to the test line intensity fit to concentration or spiked mass. Recovery from the tiles was determined to be about 30% using the fitted curves. Comparison of the control line to the test line was also examined as a possible visual detection end point and it was found that the control line became more intense than the test line at 0.5 to 1 ng/ml for calibration solutions or 1 to 2 ng/tile for spiked tiles. Thus the lateral flow cassettes for methamphetamine have the potential to produce more sensitive semi-quantitative results if an electronic lateral flow reader is used and can be more sensitive for detection if the comparison of the control line to the test line is used as the visual end point. PMID:25379615

  3. Lower lateral crural reverse plasty.

    PubMed

    Kubilay, Utku; Azizli, Elad; Erdoğdu, Suleyman

    2013-11-01

    The lateral crus plays a significant role in the aesthetic appearance of the nose. Excessive concavities of the lower lateral crura can lead to heavy aesthetic disfigurement of the nasal tip and to insufficiencies of the external nasal valve. The lateral crus of the alar cartilage may also cause a concavity of the alar rim and even collapse of the alar rim in severe cases. Surgical techniques performed on the lateral crus help to treat both functional and aesthetic deformities of the lateral nasal tip. We present a reverse plasty technique for the lateral crus, and we evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of the technique.

  4. Lateral conduction infrared photodetector

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jin K.; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2011-09-20

    A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

  5. Primary Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Statland, Jeffrey M.; Barohn, Richard J.; Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Floeter, Mary Kay; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) is characterized by insidious onset of progressive upper motor neuron dysfunction in the absence of clinical signs of lower motor neuron involvement. Patients experience stiffness, decreased balance and coordination, and mild weakness, and if the bulbar region is affected, difficulty speaking and swallowing, and emotional lability. The diagnosis is made based on clinical history, typical exam findings, and diagnostic testing negative for other causes of upper motor neuron dysfunction. EMG is normal, or only shows mild neurogenic findings in a few muscles, not meeting El Escorial criteria. Although no test is specific for PLS, some neurodiagnostic tests are supportive: including absent or delayed central motor conduction times; and changes in the precentral gyrus or corticospinal tracts on MRI, DTI or MR Spectroscopy. Treatment is largely supportive, and includes medications for spasticity, baclofen pump, and treatment for pseudobulbar affect. The prognosis in PLS is more benign than ALS, making this a useful diagnostic category. PMID:26515619

  6. [Lateralization phenomena and headache].

    PubMed

    Nattero, G; Savi, L

    1984-09-08

    Ipsilateral carotid and vertebral vasomotor phenomena are marked components of a unilateral cluster headache crisis. Investigation of lateralisation at the height of a crisis has shown that Doppler findings supplement Heick's observation of the reversible opening of both intra and extracranial arteriovenous shunts. This observation is in line with personal thermographic evidence and that of Lance indicating local hypothermia, and with Wolff's demonstration of dilatation and congestion associated with the superficial temporal artery. Personal dynamographic findings now point to a local extra-intracranial artery pressure gradient as the cause of the peripheral component of lateralisation in cluster headache.

  7. Reflexive Planning for Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Margaret A.; Kemp, Candace L.; French, Susan; Gafni, Amiram; Joshi, Anju; Rosenthal, Carolyn J.; Davies, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    Informed by Giddens' (1991) concept of "reflexive life" planning and the notion of later life as a time of increasing social and financial risk, this research explores the idea of "reflexive planning for later life". We utilize a conceptual model that incorporates three types of planning for later life: public protection, self-insurance, and…

  8. Lateral Thinking and Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waks, Shlomo

    1997-01-01

    Presents an analysis of technology education and its relevance to lateral thinking. Discusses prospects for utilizing technology education as a platform and a contextual domain for nurturing lateral thinking. Argues that technology education is an appropriate environment for developing complementary incorporation of vertical and lateral thinking.…

  9. Diamond heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yung-Hsiu

    This dissertation describes improvements in the growth of single crystal diamond by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Heteroepitaxial (001) diamond was grown on 1 cm. 2 a-plane sapphiresubstrates using an epitaxial (001) Ir thin-film as a buffer layer. Low-energy ion bombardment of the Ir layer, a process known as bias-enhanced nucleation, is a key step in achieving a high density of diamond nuclei. Bias conditions were optimized to form uniformly-high nucleation densities across the substrates, which led to well-coalesced diamond thin films after short growth times. Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) was used as a means of decreasing diamond internal stress by impeding the propagation of threading dislocations into the growing material. Its use in diamond growth requires adaptation to the aggressive chemical and thermal environment of the hydrogen plasma in a CVD reactor. Three ELO variants were developed. The most successful utilized a gold (Au) mask prepared by vacuum evaporation onto the surface of a thin heteroepitaxial diamond layer. The Au mask pattern, a series of parallel stripes on the micrometer scale, was produced by standard lift-off photolithography. When diamond overgrows the mask, dislocations are largely confined to the substrate. Differing degrees of confinement were studied by varying the stripe geometry and orientation. Significant improvement in diamond quality was found in the overgrown regions, as evidenced by reduction of the Raman scattering linewidth. The Au layer was found to remain intact during diamond overgrowth and did not chemically bond with the diamond surface. Besides impeding the propagation of threading dislocations, it was discovered that the thermally-induced stress in the CVD diamond was significantly reduced as a result of the ductile Au layer. Cracking and delamination of the diamond from the substrate was mostly eliminated. When diamond was grown to thicknesses above 0.1 mm it was found that

  10. Reduced Lateral Root Branching Density Improves Drought Tolerance in Maize.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ai; Schneider, Hannah; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2015-08-01

    An emerging paradigm is that root traits that reduce the metabolic costs of soil exploration improve the acquisition of limiting soil resources. Here, we test the hypothesis that reduced lateral root branching density will improve drought tolerance in maize (Zea mays) by reducing the metabolic costs of soil exploration, permitting greater axial root elongation, greater rooting depth, and thereby greater water acquisition from drying soil. Maize recombinant inbred lines with contrasting lateral root number and length (few but long [FL] and many but short [MS]) were grown under water stress in greenhouse mesocosms, in field rainout shelters, and in a second field environment with natural drought. Under water stress in mesocosms, lines with the FL phenotype had substantially less lateral root respiration per unit of axial root length, deeper rooting, greater leaf relative water content, greater stomatal conductance, and 50% greater shoot biomass than lines with the MS phenotype. Under water stress in the two field sites, lines with the FL phenotype had deeper rooting, much lighter stem water isotopic signature, signifying deeper water capture, 51% to 67% greater shoot biomass at flowering, and 144% greater yield than lines with the MS phenotype. These results entirely support the hypothesis that reduced lateral root branching density improves drought tolerance. The FL lateral root phenotype merits consideration as a selection target to improve the drought tolerance of maize and possibly other cereal crops.

  11. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Preserving the Lateral Canthal Angle

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu Ho; Choi, Hong Lim; Jeong, Eui Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic lateral canthoplasty, in which the size of the eye is increased by extending the palpebral fissure and decreasing the degree of the eye slant, has become a prevalent procedure for East Asians. However, it is not uncommon for there to be complications or unfavorable results after the surgery. With this in mind, the authors have designed a surgical method to reduce complications in cosmetic lateral canthoplasty by preserving the lateral canthal angle. We discuss here the anatomy required for surgery, the surgical methods, and methods for reducing complications during cosmetic lateral canthoplasty. PMID:27462563

  12. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Wijesekera, Lokesh C; Leigh, P Nigel

    2009-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurones in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord. Incidence (average 1.89 per 100,000/year) and prevalence (average 5.2 per100,000) are relatively uniform in Western countries, although foci of higher frequency occur in the Western Pacific. The mean age of onset for sporadic ALS is about 60 years. Overall, there is a slight male prevalence (M:F ratio~1.5:1). Approximately two thirds of patients with typical ALS have a spinal form of the disease (limb onset) and present with symptoms related to focal muscle weakness and wasting, where the symptoms may start either distally or proximally in the upper and lower limbs. Gradually, spasticity may develop in the weakened atrophic limbs, affecting manual dexterity and gait. Patients with bulbar onset ALS usually present with dysarthria and dysphagia for solid or liquids, and limbs symptoms can develop almost simultaneously with bulbar symptoms, and in the vast majority of cases will occur within 1–2 years. Paralysis is progressive and leads to death due to respiratory failure within 2–3 years for bulbar onset cases and 3–5 years for limb onset ALS cases. Most ALS cases are sporadic but 5–10% of cases are familial, and of these 20% have a mutation of the SOD1 gene and about 2–5% have mutations of the TARDBP (TDP-43) gene. Two percent of apparently sporadic patients have SOD1 mutations, and TARDBP mutations also occur in sporadic cases. The diagnosis is based on clinical history, examination, electromyography, and exclusion of 'ALS-mimics' (e.g. cervical spondylotic myelopathies, multifocal motor neuropathy, Kennedy's disease) by appropriate investigations. The pathological hallmarks comprise loss of motor neurones with intraneuronal ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions in upper motor neurones and TDP-43 immunoreactive inclusions in

  13. Anagrelide: 20 years later.

    PubMed

    Emadi, Ashkan; Spivak, Jerry L

    2009-01-01

    Thrombocytosis is a common feature of chronic myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) and may be asymptomatic or associated with transient microvascular vaso-occlusive symptoms or large vessel arterial or venous thrombosis. Failure of either the hematocrit or the platelet count to correlate with thrombotic events is a peculiar conundrum of the MPDs. Asymptomatic thrombocytosis in young MPD patients with no cardiovascular risk factors does not require treatment. It is also undisputed that lowering the platelet count reduces the incidence of microvascular events in MPD patients. At the same time, no study to date has demonstrated that platelet count reduction prolongs survival in MPD patients. Agents such as hydroxyurea, busulfan, IFN-alpha and anagrelide, have been used to reduce an elevated platelet count and decrease thrombohemorrhagic events in at-risk patients with thrombocytosis associated with an MPD. When treatment is required, it makes sense to use drugs that are not myelotoxic or mutagenic. Based on the Primary Thrombocythaemia 1 study, hydroxyurea is the treatment of choice for thrombocytosis-associated transient ischemic attacks. However, hydroxyurea does not prevent venous thrombosis, is not more effective in preventing arterial thrombosis than anagrelide and its long-term safety is not established. Therefore, unless curative therapy is planned, one should use the least myelotoxic agent when platelet count reduction is required. In this regard, anagrelide can be considered a first-line drug. With regard to long-term safety of anagrelide, the EMEA has required close monitoring of the safety points identified in future Periodic Safety Update Reports and in a Post Authorisation Safety Study in the EU, which will focus especially on cardiovascular events and acute leukemia. In this article, we review anagrelide pharmacology, the physiology of thrombopoiesis, the differential diagnosis of thrombocytosis and the management of patients with an elevated platelet

  14. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Research Program Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Research Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...research programs such as the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Research Program (ALSRP) is allo- cated via specific guidance from Congress. Proposal

  15. 1. HEAD GATE OF THE SAND CREEK LATERAL AT THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. HEAD GATE OF THE SAND CREEK LATERAL AT THE HIGH LINE CANAL ON THE SOUTH END OF THE PEORIA STREET BRIDGE. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  16. A Pascalian lateral drift sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, H.

    2016-09-01

    A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.

  17. Nasca Lines, Peru

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Nasca Lines are located in the Pampa region of Peru, the desolate plain of the Peruvian coast 400 km south of Lima. The Lines were first spotted when commercial airlines began flying across the Peruvian desert in the 1920's. Passengers reported seeing 'primitive landing strips' on the ground below. The Lines were made by removing the iron-oxide coated pebbles which cover the surface of the desert. When the gravel is removed, they contrast with the light color underneath. In this way the lines were drawn as furrows of a lighter color. On the pampa, south of the Nasca Lines, archaeologists have now uncovered the lost city of the line-builders, Cahuachi. It was built nearly two thousand years ago and was mysteriously abandoned 500 years later. This ASTER sub-image covers an area of 14 x 18 km, was acquired on December 22, 2000, and is located at 14.7 degrees south latitude and 75.1 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  18. Abnormal band of lateral meniscus.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Brian; Goldblatt, John

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a case of an "abnormal band" of the lateral meniscus, extending from the posterior horn of the true lateral meniscus to its antero-mid portion, observed during arthroscopy in a 45-year-old white man of Bosnian descent. The periphery of the aberrant lateral meniscus was freely mobile, and not connected to the underlying true lateral meniscus. Preoperative physical examination findings were consistent with medial-sided meniscal pathology only; however, evidence of an anomalous lateral meniscus was seen with magnetic resonance imaging. This anatomical pattern is rare and has been reported in the literature only once, in a report of 2 Asian patients. This article illustrates an anatomical variant of the lateral meniscus in a non-Asian patient with a clinical presentation that has not been previously described. In addition to the case report, the article presents a comprehensive review of the existing body of literature on anomalous lateral meniscus patterns. We believe that the definitions of the types of aberrant meniscus can be clarified to establish improved accuracy in reporting.

  19. What causes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Sarah; Al Khleifat, Ahmad; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease predominantly affecting upper and lower motor neurons, resulting in progressive paralysis and death from respiratory failure within 2 to 3 years. The peak age of onset is 55 to 70 years, with a male predominance. The causes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are only partly known, but they include some environmental risk factors as well as several genes that have been identified as harbouring disease-associated variation. Here we review the nature, epidemiology, genetic associations, and environmental exposures associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  20. Lateral Dominance and Reading Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Albert J.

    1979-01-01

    Theory and research on the relation of lateral dominance to the causation of reading disability are reviewed. Both direct and indirect measures of cerebral hemisphere functioning are considered. (SBH)

  1. Hyperaldosteronism: diagnosis, lateralization, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Adrian M

    2014-06-01

    Primary hyperaldosteronism is an important and commonly unrecognized secondary cause of hypertension. This article provides an overview of the current literature with respect to screening, diagnosis, and lateralization. Selection and outcomes of medical and surgical treatment are discussed.

  2. Protective role of L-ascorbic acid, N-acetylcysteine and apocynin on neomycin-induced hair cell loss in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Yen; Lee, Han-Jung; Liu, Chi-Fang; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Chen, Hwei-Hsien; Chan, Ming-Huan

    2015-03-01

    Hair cells are highly sensitive to environmental insults and other therapeutic drugs. The adverse effects of drugs such as aminoglycosides can cause hair cell death and lead to hearing loss and imbalance. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protective activity of L-ascorbic acid, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and apocynin on neomycin-induced hair cell damage in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae at 5 days post fertilization (dpf). Results showed that the loss of hair cells within the neuromasts of the lateral lines after neomycin exposure was evidenced by a significantly lower number of neuromasts labeled with fluorescent dye FM1-43FX observed under a microscope. Co-administration with L-ascorbic acid, NAC and apocynin protected neomycin-induced hair cell loss within the neuromasts. Moreover, these three compounds reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neuromasts exposed to neomycin, indicating that their antioxidant action is involved. In contrast, the neuromasts were labeled with specific fluorescent dye Texas-red conjugated with neomycin to detect neomycin uptake. Interestingly, the uptake of neomycin into hair cells was not influenced by these three antioxidant compounds. These data imply that prevention of hair cell damage against neomycin by L-ascorbic acid, NAC and apocynin might be associated with inhibition of excessive ROS production, but not related to modulating neomycin uptake. Our findings conclude that L-ascorbic acid, NAC and apocynin could be used as therapeutic drugs to protect aminoglycoside-induced listening impairment after further confirmatory studies.

  3. Lidar for Lateral Mixing (LATMIX)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    km, i.e., the “ submesoscale ”. We aim to understand the underlying mechanisms and forcing, as well as the temporal, spatial, and scale variability of...the overall objectives of the Lateral Mixing DRI to try to determine the extent to which submesoscale stirring is driven by a cascade of energy down...technical goal of our work is to develop the use of airborne LIDAR surveys of evolving dye experiments as a tool for studying submesoscale lateral dispersion

  4. 9. VIEW SHOWING CHILDREN SWIMMING IN A LATERAL OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW SHOWING CHILDREN SWIMMING IN A LATERAL OF THE GRAND CANAL LOCATION UNKNOWN. THE HUGE COTTONWOOD TREES THAT ONCE-LINED MOST CANALS AND DITCHES WERE CUT DOWN WHEN IT WAS DISCOVERED THAT THEY CONSUMED HUNDREDS OF GALLONS OF WATER EACH DAY. Photographer unknown, no date - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  5. World lines.

    PubMed

    Waser, Jürgen; Fuchs, Raphael; Ribicić, Hrvoje; Schindler, Benjamin; Blöschl, Günther; Gröller, Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas, decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting, the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation, visualization and computational steering into a single unified system that is capable of dealing with the extended solution space. World Lines represent simulation runs as causally connected tracks that share a common time axis. This setup enables users to interfere and add new information quickly. A World Line is introduced as a visual combination of user events and their effects in order to present a possible future. To quickly find the most attractive outcome, we suggest World Lines as the governing component in a system of multiple linked views and a simulation component. World Lines employ linking and brushing to enable comparative visual analysis of multiple simulations in linked views. Analysis results can be mapped to various visual variables that World Lines provide in order to highlight the most compelling solutions. To demonstrate this technique we present a flooding scenario and show the usefulness of the integrated approach to support informed decision making.

  6. Optineurin and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Hirofumi; Kawakami, Hideshi

    2013-07-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a devastating disease, and thus it is important to identify the causative gene and resolve the mechanism of the disease. We identified optineurin as a causative gene for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We found three types of mutations: a homozygous deletion of exon 5, a homozygous Q398X nonsense mutation and a heterozygous E478G missense mutation within its ubiquitin-binding domain. Optineurin negatively regulates the tumor necrosis factor-α-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B. Nonsense and missense mutations abolished this function. Mutations related to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis also negated the inhibition of interferon regulatory factor-3. The missense mutation showed a cyotoplasmic distribution different from that of the wild type. There are no specific clinical symptoms related to optineurin. However, severe brain atrophy was detected in patients with homozygous deletion. Neuropathologically, an E478G patient showed transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa-positive neuronal intracytoplasmic inclusions in the spinal and medullary motor neurons. Furthermore, Golgi fragmentation was identified in 73% of this patient's anterior horn cells. In addition, optineurin is colocalized with fused in sarcoma in the basophilic inclusions of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with fused in sarcoma mutations, and in basophilic inclusion body disease. These findings strongly suggest that optineurin is involved in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  7. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow.

    PubMed

    Tosti, Rick; Jennings, John; Sewards, J Milo

    2013-04-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, or "tennis elbow," is a common musculotendinous degenerative disorder of the extensor origin at the lateral humeral epicondyle. Repetitive occupational or athletic activities involving wrist extension and supination are thought to be causative. The typical symptoms include lateral elbow pain, pain with wrist extension, and weakened grip strength. The diagnosis is made clinically through history and physical examination; however, a thorough understanding of the differential diagnosis is imperative to prevent unnecessary testing and therapies. Most patients improve with nonoperative measures, such as activity modification, physical therapy, and injections. A small percentage of patients will require surgical release of the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon. Common methods of release may be performed via percutaneous, arthroscopic, or open approaches.

  8. Lateral Diffusion in an Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Saxton, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    Lateral diffusion of molecules in lipid bilayer membranes can be hindered by the presence of impermeable domains of gel-phase lipid or of proteins. Effective-medium theory and percolation theory are used to evaluate the effective lateral diffusion constant as a function of the area fraction of fluid-phase lipid and the permeability of the obstructions to the diffusing species. Applications include the estimation of the minimum fraction of fluid lipid needed for bacterial growth, and the enhancement of diffusion-controlled reactions by the channeling effect of solid patches of lipid. PMID:7052153

  9. Lateral Entry of Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    completion is accounted for in the training costs used here.) There is evidence that people with post -secondary education, the most likely lateral entrants...between worker and ocupation . Untrained entrants typically sign on for a specialty with little or no experience. -, 18 x, .. The military bears the risk

  10. Laterality of basic auditory perception.

    PubMed

    Sininger, Yvonne S; Bhatara, Anjali

    2012-01-01

    Laterality (left-right ear differences) of auditory processing was assessed using basic auditory skills: (1) gap detection, (2) frequency discrimination, and (3) intensity discrimination. Stimuli included tones (500, 1000, and 4000 Hz) and wide-band noise presented monaurally to each ear of typical adult listeners. The hypothesis tested was that processing of tonal stimuli would be enhanced by left ear (LE) stimulation and noise by right ear (RE) presentations. To investigate the limits of laterality by (1) spectral width, a narrow-band noise (NBN) of 450-Hz bandwidth was evaluated using intensity discrimination, and (2) stimulus duration, 200, 500, and 1000 ms duration tones were evaluated using frequency discrimination. A left ear advantage (LEA) was demonstrated with tonal stimuli in all experiments, but an expected REA for noise stimuli was not found. The NBN stimulus demonstrated no LEA and was characterised as a noise. No change in laterality was found with changes in stimulus durations. The LEA for tonal stimuli is felt to be due to more direct connections between the left ear and the right auditory cortex, which has been shown to be primary for spectral analysis and tonal processing. The lack of a REA for noise stimuli is unexplained. Sex differences in laterality for noise stimuli were noted but were not statistically significant. This study did establish a subtle but clear pattern of LEA for processing of tonal stimuli.

  11. Anxiety and Lateral Cerebral Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Don M.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Examines the effect of stressful and nonstressful experimental situations upon the processing capacity of each cerebral hemisphere, through observing the differential performance tasks presented to right and left visual half-fields (VHFs). Also examines attentional bias and lateral eye movements. (Author/RK)

  12. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mimic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) misdiagnosis has many broad implications for the patient and the neurologist. Potentially curative treatments exist for certain ALS mimic syndromes, but delay in starting these therapies may have an unfavorable effect on outcome. Hence, it is important to exclude similar conditions. In this review, we discuss some of the important mimics of ALS. PMID:27326363

  13. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile primary lateral sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... primary lateral sclerosis, juvenile Merck Manual Consumer Version: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Other Motor Neuron Diseases Patient Support and ... domains, is mutated in a form of recessive amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nat Genet. 2001 Oct;29(2):160-5. ...

  14. Lateral Downflows in Sunspot Penumbral Filaments and their Temporal Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban Pozuelo, S.; Bellot Rubio, L. R.; de la Cruz Rodríguez, J.

    2015-04-01

    We study the temporal evolution of downflows observed at the lateral edges of penumbral filaments in a sunspot located very close to the disk center. Our analysis is based on a sequence of nearly diffraction-limited scans of the Fe i 617.3 nm line taken with the CRisp Imaging Spectro-Polarimeter instrument at the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope. We compute Dopplergrams from the observed intensity profiles using line bisectors and filter the resulting velocity maps for subsonic oscillations. Lateral downflows appear everywhere in the center-side penumbra as small, weak patches of redshifts next to or along the edges of blueshifted flow channels. These patches have an intermittent life and undergo mergings and fragmentations quite frequently. The lateral downflows move together with the hosting filaments and react to their shape variations, very much resembling the evolution of granular convection in the quiet Sun. There is a good relation between brightness and velocity in the center-side penumbra, with downflows being darker than upflows on average, which is again reminiscent of quiet Sun convection. These results point to the existence of overturning convection in sunspot penumbrae, with elongated cells forming filaments where the flow is upward but very inclined, and weak lateral downward flows. In general, the circular polarization profiles emerging from the lateral downflows do not show sign reversals, although sometimes we detect three-lobed profiles that are suggestive of opposite magnetic polarities in the pixel.

  15. LATERAL DOWNFLOWS IN SUNSPOT PENUMBRAL FILAMENTS AND THEIR TEMPORAL EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Esteban Pozuelo, S.; Rubio, L. R. Bellot; Rodríguez, J. de la Cruz

    2015-04-20

    We study the temporal evolution of downflows observed at the lateral edges of penumbral filaments in a sunspot located very close to the disk center. Our analysis is based on a sequence of nearly diffraction-limited scans of the Fe i 617.3 nm line taken with the CRisp Imaging Spectro-Polarimeter instrument at the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope. We compute Dopplergrams from the observed intensity profiles using line bisectors and filter the resulting velocity maps for subsonic oscillations. Lateral downflows appear everywhere in the center-side penumbra as small, weak patches of redshifts next to or along the edges of blueshifted flow channels. These patches have an intermittent life and undergo mergings and fragmentations quite frequently. The lateral downflows move together with the hosting filaments and react to their shape variations, very much resembling the evolution of granular convection in the quiet Sun. There is a good relation between brightness and velocity in the center-side penumbra, with downflows being darker than upflows on average, which is again reminiscent of quiet Sun convection. These results point to the existence of overturning convection in sunspot penumbrae, with elongated cells forming filaments where the flow is upward but very inclined, and weak lateral downward flows. In general, the circular polarization profiles emerging from the lateral downflows do not show sign reversals, although sometimes we detect three-lobed profiles that are suggestive of opposite magnetic polarities in the pixel.

  16. Aesthetic Lateral Canthoplasty Using Tarso-Conjunctival Advancement Technique.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Jung; Lew, Dae Hyun; Song, Seung Han; Lee, Myung Chul

    2017-01-01

    Reduced horizontal length of the palpebral fissure is a distinctive characteristic of Asian eyelids, and aesthetic lateral canthal lengthening techniques have been performed for a refinement. The aim of this study is to describe a novel lateral canthoplasty using tarso-conjunctival advancement with a lid margin splitting procedure on the upper eyelids and to report the postoperative results. From December 2011 to June 2014, patients who underwent lateral canthoplasty using the tarso-conjunctival advancement procedure for aesthetic purposes were reviewed retrospectively. The predictor variables were grouped into demographic and operative categories. The primary outcome variables were the distances from the mid-pupillary line to the lateral canthus and the horizontal length of the palpebral aperture (distance from the medial to lateral canthus). Data analyses were performed using descriptive and univariate statistics. Patients who showed increment in objective measurements were considered significant. Aesthetic appearance was also evaluated based on pre- and postoperative clinical photographs. A total of 45 patients were enrolled in this study. Both the distance from the mid-pupil to the lateral canthus (ΔDpupil-lateral; 2.78 ± 0.54 mm, P <0.05) and the palpebral aperture horizontal length (ΔDmedial-lateral 2.93 ± 0.81 mm, P <0.05) increased significantly from pre- to postoperative state. All the patients demonstrated satisfactory results aesthetically during the follow-up. The tarso-conjunctival advancement technique for lateral canthoplasty produced satisfactory aesthetic results with an enlarged palpebral aperture. Future research is required to fully delineate the risk of possible complications, including injury to the eyelashes and meibomian glands.

  17. Preserving Dignity in Later Life.

    PubMed

    São José, José Manuel

    2016-09-01

    This article examines how elders who receive social care in the community experience loss of dignity and how they preserve their dignity. Qualitative research revealed that loss of dignity is a major concern for these elders and that they preserve their dignity differently, ranging from actively engaging with life to detaching themselves from life. We conclude that, in later life, preserving dignity while receiving social care differs from preserving dignity in the context of health care, especially health care provided in institutional settings. Furthermore, preserving dignity in later life, while receiving social care, is a complex process, depending not only on performing activities and individual action and responsibility, but also on other actions, some of them involving a certain inactivity/passivity, and interactions with others, especially caregivers. This article offers some insights to developing better policies and care practices for promoting dignity in the context of community-based social care.

  18. Lateral dampers for thrust bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibner, D. H.; Szafir, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of lateral damping schemes for thrust bearings was examined, ranking their applicability to various engine classes, selecting the best concept for each engine class and performing an in-depth evaluation. Five major engine classes were considered: large transport, military, small general aviation, turboshaft, and non-manrated. Damper concepts developed for evaluation were: curved beam, constrained and unconstrained elastomer, hybrid boost bearing, hydraulic thrust piston, conical squeeze film, and rolling element thrust face.

  19. Inferior Lateral Genicular Artery Injury during Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lamo-Espinosa, J. M.; Llombart Blanco, R.; Valentí, J. R.

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of inferior lateral genicular artery (ILG) injury during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery with lateral partial meniscectomy. This is a rare arthroscopy complication. A review of the literature has been made with the aim to define the anatomy of ILG across the lateral articular line and the risk of lesion during knee arthroscopy. We propose embolization as a good treatment option for this type of injuries. PMID:22957293

  20. Continued ultraviolet studies of some Be stars of later type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slettebak, A.

    1985-01-01

    Anomalous ionization (C IV and Si IV) is seen in IUE spectra of Be stars as late as B8, and occurs also in standard stars of similar spectral type. Asymmetrical lines suggesting mass loss are present in all the Be stars and several of the standard stars as well, with no obvious correlation with v sin i. Emission shoulders are present in the Mg II lines of two B5e stars but not in Be stars of later type. Again there is no correlation with v sin i. The A-F shell stars show rich Fe II absorption spectra in the ultraviolet, in one case with velocity structure.

  1. Eliminating lateral violence in the ambulatory setting: one center's strategies.

    PubMed

    Dimarino, Tina J

    2011-05-01

    Lateral violence (eg, disruptive, disparaging, or uncivil behavior inflicted by one peer on another) creates an unpleasant work environment that can have harmful effects on individual nurses, team members, patients, and the bottom line of the health care organization. Educating nurses about the most common forms of lateral violence and strategies for handling inappropriate behavior can be the first step toward eliminating this behavior. Effective nursing leaders develop and maintain a "zero-tolerance" culture that includes clear and concise behavioral expectations and consequences for employees who exhibit unprofessional behavior. Use of a code of conduct, open communication, and quick resolution of issues that arise are strategies that one ambulatory surgery center has used to successfully combat lateral violence in the workplace.

  2. Direct lateral maneuvers in hawkmoths

    PubMed Central

    Greeter, Jeremy S. M.; Hedrick, Tyson L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We used videography to investigate direct lateral maneuvers, i.e. ‘sideslips’, of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. M. sexta sideslip by rolling their entire body and wings to reorient their net force vector. During sideslip they increase net aerodynamic force by flapping with greater amplitude, (in both wing elevation and sweep), allowing them to continue to support body weight while rolled. To execute the roll maneuver we observed in sideslips, they use an asymmetric wing stroke; increasing the pitch of the roll-contralateral wing pair, while decreasing that of the roll-ipsilateral pair. They also increase the wing sweep amplitude of, and decrease the elevation amplitude of, the contralateral wing pair relative to the ipsilateral pair. The roll maneuver unfolds in a stairstep manner, with orientation changing more during downstroke than upstroke. This is due to smaller upstroke wing pitch angle asymmetries as well as increased upstroke flapping counter-torque from left-right differences in global reference frame wing velocity about the moth's roll axis. Rolls are also opposed by stabilizing aerodynamic moments from lateral motion, such that rightward roll velocity will be opposed by rightward motion. Computational modeling using blade-element approaches confirm the plausibility of a causal linkage between the previously mentioned wing kinematics and roll/sideslip. Model results also predict high degrees of axial and lateral damping. On the time scale of whole and half wing strokes, left-right wing pair asymmetries directly relate to the first, but not second, derivative of roll. Collectively, these results strongly support a roll-based sideslip with a high degree of roll damping in M. sexta. PMID:26740573

  3. Compactness of lateral shearing interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrec, Yann; Taboury, Jean; Sauer, Hervé; Chavel, Pierre

    2011-08-01

    Imaging lateral shearing interferometers are good candidates for airborne or spaceborne Fourier-transform spectral imaging. For such applications, compactness is one key parameter. In this article, we compare the size of four mirror-based interferometers, the Michelson interferometer with roof-top (or corner-cube) mirrors, and the cyclic interferometers with two, three, and four mirrors, focusing more particularly on the last two designs. We give the expression of the translation they induce between the two exiting rays. We then show that the cyclic interferometer with three mirrors can be made quite compact. Nevertheless, the Michelson interferometer is the most compact solution, especially for highly diverging beams.

  4. Diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rowland, L P

    1998-10-01

    This review of the differential diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis focuses on two themes. The first is practical, how to establish the diagnosis based primarily on clinical findings buttressed by electrodiagnosis. The main considerations are multifocal motor neuropathy and cervical spondylotic myelopathy. The second theme is the relationship of motor neuron disease to other conditions, including benign fasciculation (Denny-Brown, Foley syndrome), paraneoplastic syndromes, lymphoproliferative disease, radiation damage, monomelic amyotrophy (Hirayama syndrome), as well as an association with parkinsonism, dementia and multisystem disorders of the central nervous system.

  5. US line-ups outperform UK line-ups

    PubMed Central

    Seale-Carlisle, Travis M.

    2016-01-01

    In the USA and the UK, many thousands of police suspects are identified by eyewitnesses every year. Unfortunately, many of those suspects are innocent, which becomes evident when they are exonerated by DNA testing, often after having been imprisoned for years. It is, therefore, imperative to use identification procedures that best enable eyewitnesses to discriminate innocent from guilty suspects. Although police investigators in both countries often administer line-up procedures, the details of how line-ups are presented are quite different and an important direct comparison has yet to be conducted. We investigated whether these two line-up procedures differ in terms of (i) discriminability (using receiver operating characteristic analysis) and (ii) reliability (using confidence–accuracy characteristic analysis). A total of 2249 participants watched a video of a crime and were later tested using either a six-person simultaneous photo line-up procedure (USA) or a nine-person sequential video line-up procedure (UK). US line-up procedure yielded significantly higher discriminability and significantly higher reliability. The results do not pinpoint the reason for the observed difference between the two procedures, but they do suggest that there is much room for improvement with the UK line-up. PMID:27703695

  6. Lateral gene transfer, rearrangement, reconciliation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Models of ancestral gene order reconstruction have progressively integrated different evolutionary patterns and processes such as unequal gene content, gene duplications, and implicitly sequence evolution via reconciled gene trees. These models have so far ignored lateral gene transfer, even though in unicellular organisms it can have an important confounding effect, and can be a rich source of information on the function of genes through the detection of transfers of clusters of genes. Result We report an algorithm together with its implementation, DeCoLT, that reconstructs ancestral genome organization based on reconciled gene trees which summarize information on sequence evolution, gene origination, duplication, loss, and lateral transfer. DeCoLT optimizes in polynomial time on the number of rearrangements, computed as the number of gains and breakages of adjacencies between pairs of genes. We apply DeCoLT to 1099 gene families from 36 cyanobacteria genomes. Conclusion DeCoLT is able to reconstruct adjacencies in 35 ancestral bacterial genomes with a thousand gene families in a few hours, and detects clusters of co-transferred genes. DeCoLT may also be used with any relationship between genes instead of adjacencies, to reconstruct ancestral interactions, functions or complexes. Availability http://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/software/DeCoLT/ PMID:24564205

  7. Cytokinins act directly on lateral root founder cells to inhibit root initiation.

    PubMed

    Laplaze, Laurent; Benkova, Eva; Casimiro, Ilda; Maes, Lies; Vanneste, Steffen; Swarup, Ranjan; Weijers, Dolf; Calvo, Vanessa; Parizot, Boris; Herrera-Rodriguez, Maria Begoña; Offringa, Remko; Graham, Neil; Doumas, Patrick; Friml, Jiri; Bogusz, Didier; Beeckman, Tom; Bennett, Malcolm

    2007-12-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, lateral roots are formed from root pericycle cells adjacent to the xylem poles. Lateral root development is regulated antagonistically by the plant hormones auxin and cytokinin. While a great deal is known about how auxin promotes lateral root development, the mechanism of cytokinin repression is still unclear. Elevating cytokinin levels was observed to disrupt lateral root initiation and the regular pattern of divisions that characterizes lateral root development in Arabidopsis. To identify the stage of lateral root development that is sensitive to cytokinins, we targeted the expression of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens cytokinin biosynthesis enzyme isopentenyltransferase to either xylem-pole pericycle cells or young lateral root primordia using GAL4-GFP enhancer trap lines. Transactivation experiments revealed that xylem-pole pericycle cells are sensitive to cytokinins, whereas young lateral root primordia are not. This effect is physiologically significant because transactivation of the Arabidopsis cytokinin degrading enzyme cytokinin oxidase 1 in lateral root founder cells results in increased lateral root formation. We observed that cytokinins perturb the expression of PIN genes in lateral root founder cells and prevent the formation of an auxin gradient that is required to pattern lateral root primordia.

  8. Lateral orbitofrontal cortex links social impressions to political choices.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chenjie; Stolle, Dietlind; Gidengil, Elisabeth; Fellows, Lesley K

    2015-06-03

    Recent studies of political behavior suggest that voting decisions can be influenced substantially by "first-impression" social attributions based on physical appearance. Separate lines of research have implicated the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in the judgment of social traits on the one hand and economic decision-making on the other, making this region a plausible candidate for linking social attributions to voting decisions. Here, we asked whether OFC lesions in humans disrupted the ability to judge traits of political candidates or affected how these judgments influenced voting decisions. Seven patients with lateral OFC damage, 18 patients with frontal damage sparing the lateral OFC, and 53 matched healthy participants took part in a simulated election paradigm, in which they voted for real-life (but unknown) candidates based only on photographs of their faces. Consistent with previous work, attributions of "competence" and "attractiveness" based on candidate appearance predicted voting behavior in the healthy control group. Frontal damage did not affect substantially the ability to make competence or attractiveness judgments, but patients with damage to the lateral OFC differed from other groups in how they applied this information when voting. Only attractiveness ratings had any predictive power for voting choices after lateral OFC damage, whereas other frontal patients and healthy controls relied on information about both competence and attractiveness in making their choice. An intact lateral OFC may not be necessary for judgment of social traits based on physical appearance, but it seems to be crucial in applying this information in political decision-making.

  9. LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS OF THE ELBOW

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Marcio; da Rocha Motta Filho, Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is a common condition that is estimated to affect 1% to 3% of the population. The word epicondylitis suggests inflammation, although histological analysis on the tissue fails to show any inflammatory process. The structure most commonly affected is the origin of the tendon of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the mechanism of injury is associated with overloading. Nonsurgical treatment is the preferred method, and this includes rest, physiotherapy, cortisone infiltration, platelet-rich plasma injections and use of specific immobilization. Surgical treatment is recommended when functional disability and pain persist. Both the open and the arthroscopic surgical technique with resection of the degenerated tendon tissue present good results in the literature. PMID:27047843

  10. LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS OF THE ELBOW.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Marcio; da Rocha Motta Filho, Geraldo

    2012-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is a common condition that is estimated to affect 1% to 3% of the population. The word epicondylitis suggests inflammation, although histological analysis on the tissue fails to show any inflammatory process. The structure most commonly affected is the origin of the tendon of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the mechanism of injury is associated with overloading. Nonsurgical treatment is the preferred method, and this includes rest, physiotherapy, cortisone infiltration, platelet-rich plasma injections and use of specific immobilization. Surgical treatment is recommended when functional disability and pain persist. Both the open and the arthroscopic surgical technique with resection of the degenerated tendon tissue present good results in the literature.

  11. High lateral resolution exploration using surface waves from noise records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chávez-García, Francisco José Yokoi, Toshiaki

    2016-04-01

    Determination of the shear-wave velocity structure at shallow depths is a constant necessity in engineering or environmental projects. Given the sensitivity of Rayleigh waves to shear-wave velocity, subsoil structure exploration using surface waves is frequently used. Methods such as the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) or multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) determine phase velocity dispersion from surface waves generated by an active source recorded on a line of geophones. Using MASW, it is important that the receiver array be as long as possible to increase the precision at low frequencies. However, this implies that possible lateral variations are discarded. Hayashi and Suzuki (2004) proposed a different way of stacking shot gathers to increase lateral resolution. They combined strategies used in MASW with the common mid-point (CMP) summation currently used in reflection seismology. In their common mid-point with cross-correlation method (CMPCC), they cross-correlate traces sharing CMP locations before determining phase velocity dispersion. Another recent approach to subsoil structure exploration is based on seismic interferometry. It has been shown that cross-correlation of a diffuse field, such as seismic noise, allows the estimation of the Green's Function between two receivers. Thus, a virtual-source seismic section may be constructed from the cross-correlation of seismic noise records obtained in a line of receivers. In this paper, we use the seismic interferometry method to process seismic noise records obtained in seismic refraction lines of 24 geophones, and analyse the results using CMPCC to increase the lateral resolution of the results. Cross-correlation of the noise records allows reconstructing seismic sections with virtual sources at each receiver location. The Rayleigh wave component of the Green's Functions is obtained with a high signal-to-noise ratio. Using CMPCC analysis of the virtual-source seismic lines, we are able to

  12. Lateral perforation in parallel post space preparations.

    PubMed

    Tinaz, A Cemal; Alaçam, Tayfun; Topuz, Ozgur; Er, Ozgur; Maden, Murat

    2004-08-15

    This study evaluates the amount of remaining tooth structure and possibility of producing lateral perforation following the use of different diameters of parallel-sided Parapost drills in groups of different canal curvatures (0 degrees-15 degrees, 16 degrees-25 degrees, 26 degrees <) in distal canals of first and second mandibular molar teeth. After enlargement of root canals using the crown-down pressureless technique, Parapost drills #1, #2, and #3 were used in the different canal groups for the preparation of a post space. Standardized digital radiographs were taken before the post space preparation and after each Parapost drill application. Four horizontal lines (a, b, c, and d) were drawn at equal distances on these images, starting from the pulp chamber floor moving apically at 2 mm increments. There were no significant differences between the different curvature groups at the a, b, c, and d levels for the critical level of the remaining tooth structure (multiple comparison test; p>0.05). However, in considering root perforation, both at the inner and outer side of the roots, there were statistically significant differences at "c" and "d" levels in group 3 (#3 drill) without taking into account the root curvature (ANOVA; p< 0.5). None of the specimens showed strip perforation.

  13. Imaging lesions of the lateral hip.

    PubMed

    Pan, Judong; Bredella, Miriam A

    2013-07-01

    The lateral aspect of the hip is composed of a complex array of osseous and soft tissue structures. Both common and uncommon clinical entities are encountered in the lateral hip. This article briefly introduces fundamental imaging anatomy and the functional roles of different osseous and soft tissue structures in the lateral aspect of the hip, followed by a discussion of relevant imaging findings of lateral hip pathology. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is frequently encountered in patients with lateral hip pain and encompasses a spectrum of soft tissue abnormalities including trochanteric and subgluteal bursitis, and tendinopathy or tears of the gluteal tendons. In addition, different types of injuries to the gluteal myotendinous unit and injuries to the indirect head of the rectus femoris, proximal iliotibial band, and the lateral joint capsular ligaments can present with lateral hip pain. Some of the less common soft tissue abnormalities of the lateral hip include Morel-Lavallée lesion and meralgia paresthetica.

  14. Hemispheric Laterality in Music and Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szirony, Gary Michael; Burgin, John S.; Pearson, L. Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Hemispheric laterality may be a useful concept in teaching, learning, training, and in understanding more about human development. To address this issue, a measure of hemispheric laterality was compared to musical and mathematical ability. The Human Information Processing Survey (HIPS) instrument, designed to measure hemispheric laterality, was…

  15. Exercise and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, J P Lopes; Silvestre, R; Pinto, A C; de Carvalho, M

    2012-02-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disease in which much burden is geared towards end-of-life care. Particularly in the earlier stages of ALS, many people have found both physiological and psychological boosts from various types of physical exercise for disused muscles. Proper exercise is important for preventing atrophy of muscles from disuse-a key for remaining mobile for as long as possible-and as long as it is possible to exercise comfortably and safely, for preserving cardiovascular fitness. However, the typical neuromuscular patient features a great physical inactivity and disuse weakness, and for that reason many controversial authors have contested exercise in these patients during years, especially in ALS which is rapidly progressive. There is an urgent need for dissecting in detail the real risks or benefits of exercise in controlled clinical trials to demystify this ancient paradigm. Yet, recent research studies document significant benefits in terms of survival and quality of life in ALS, poor cooperation, small sample size, uncontrolled and short-duration trials, remain the main handicaps. Sedentary barriers such as early fatigue and inherent muscle misuse should be overcome, for instance with body-weight supporting systems or non-invasive ventilation, and exercise should be faced as a potential non-monotonous way for contributing to better health-related quality of life.

  16. Lateral violence in the perioperative setting.

    PubMed

    Bigony, Lorraine; Lipke, Tammy G; Lundberg, Ashley; McGraw, Carrie A; Pagac, Gretchen L; Rogers, Anne

    2009-04-01

    Lateral violence is disruptive, bullying, intimidating, or unsettling behavior that occurs between nurses in the workplace. The perioperative setting fosters lateral violence because of the inherent stress of performing surgery; high patient acuity; a shortage of experienced personnel; work demands; and the restriction and isolation of the OR, which allows negative behaviors to be concealed more easily. Lateral violence affects nurses' health and well-being and their ability to care for patients. Interventions to reduce lateral violence include empowerment of staff members and zero tolerance for lateral violence.

  17. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired infection - central line infection; Patient safety - central ...

  18. μ-Biomimetic flow-sensors--introducing light-guiding PDMS structures into MEMS.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Hendrik; Klein, Adrian; Bleckmann, Horst; Holik, Peter; Schmitz, Sam; Siebke, Georg; Tätzner, Simon; Lacher, Manfred; Steltenkamp, Siegfried

    2015-04-16

    In the area of biomimetics, engineers use inspiration from natural systems to develop technical devices, such as sensors. One example is the lateral line system of fish. It is a mechanoreceptive system consisting of up to several thousand individual sensors called neuromasts, which enable fish to sense prey, predators, or conspecifics. So far, the small size and high sensitivity of the lateral line is unmatched by man-made sensor devices. Here, we describe an artificial lateral line system based on an optical detection principle. We developed artificial canal neuromasts using MEMS technology including thick film techniques. In this work, we describe the MEMS fabrication and characterize a sensor prototype. Our sensor consists of a silicon chip, a housing, and an electronic circuit. We demonstrate the functionality of our μ-biomimetic flow sensor by analyzing its response to constant water flow and flow fluctuations. Furthermore, we discuss the sensor robustness and sensitivity of our sensor and its suitability for industrial and medical applications. In sum, our sensor can be used for many tasks, e.g. for monitoring fluid flow in medical applications, for detecting leakages in tap water systems or for air and gas flow measurements. Finally, our flow sensor can even be used to improve current knowledge about the functional significance of the fish lateral line.

  19. Lateral inhibition of Notch signaling in neoplastic cells

    PubMed Central

    Heth, Jason A.; Muraszko, Karin M.; Fan, Xing; Bar, Eli E.; Eberhart, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    During normal development, heterogeneous expression of Notch ligands can result in pathway suppression in the signal-sending cell, a process known as lateral inhibition. It is unclear if an analogous phenomenon occurs in malignant cells. We observed significant induction of Notch ligands in glioblastoma neurospheres and pancreatic carcinoma cells cultured in low oxygen, suggesting that this phenomenon could occur around hypoxic regions. To model lateral inhibition in these tumors, the ligand Jagged1 was overexpressed in glioblastoma and pancreatic carcinoma cells, resulting in overall induction of pathway targets. However, when ligand high and ligand low cells from a single line were co-cultured and then separated, we noted suppression of Notch pathway targets in the former and induction in the latter, suggesting that neoplastic lateral inhibition can occur. We also found that repression of Notch pathway targets in signal-sending cells may occur through the activity of a Notch ligand intracellular domain, which translocates into the nucleus. Understanding how this neoplastic lateral inhibition process functions in cancer cells may be important in targeting ligand driven Notch signaling in solid tumors. PMID:25557173

  20. Lateral flow colloidal gold-based immunoassay for pesticide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo; Zhang, Can; Zhang, Yan

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, immunochromatographic lateral flow test strips are used as a popular diagnostic tool. There are two formats (noncompetitive and competitive) in gold-based immunoassay. Noncompetitive gold-based immunoassay also called sandwich assay is applied for the detection of large molecular mass. For small molecular mass such as pesticide, competitive format of lateral flow colloidal gold-based immunoassay is described in this chapter. The preparation of gold colloidal and the conjugation between antibody and gold colloidal are described. Hi-flow plus nitrocellulose membranes are separately coated with goat anti-rabbit IgG (control line) and hapten-OVA conjugate (test line). Thus, the degree of intensity of color of the test line is the reverse of the concentration of pesticide in the sample and the visual result is immediately observable. Colloidal gold-based immunoassay can also be applied for multianalysis in one test strip if the detected targets show different physico-chemical properties and their haptens show great differences in chemical structure.

  1. Summary of lateral-control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, Thomas A

    1947-01-01

    A summary has been made of the available information on lateral control. A discussion is given of the criterions used in lateral-control specifications, of the factors involved in obtaining satisfactory lateral control, and of the methods employed in making lateral-control investigations in flight and in wind tunnels. The available data on conventional flap-type ailerons having various types of aerodynamic balance are presented in a form convenient for use in design. The characteristics of spoiler devices and booster mechanisms are discussed. The effects of Mach number, boundary layer, and distortion of the wing or of the lateral-control system are considered insofar as the available information permits. An example is included to illustrate the use of the design data. The limitations of the available information and some of the lateral-control problems that remain to be solved are indicated.

  2. Epidemiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kurtzke, J F

    1982-01-01

    Motor neuron disease (MND) is used in this paper as the generic label, encompassing the clinical variants of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), progressive myelopathic muscular atrophy (PMMA), and progressive bulbar palsy (PBP). ALS is limited to instances of anterior horn cell plus pyramidal tract involvement. When only anterior horn cell lesions are inferred, either PMMA or PBP is used, depending on the levels of involvement; when both cord and brain stem are affected. PBP is the designation. Mortality data on MND have been available for a number of countries since 1949. The coding used under international rules has varied considerably over this interval. Before 1969, hereditary muscular atrophies were included. Since 1979, no subdivision by type of MND is possible. International death rates for MND have all been rather close to 1 per 100,000 population per year, though perhaps nearer to 1.4 on the average in recent years. There has been an increasing proportion of MND deaths coded to ALS between 1949 and 1977. There is no notable geographic variation among countries, nor within countries such as the U.S. and Denmark. A slight upward trend in death rates over time in the U.S. is matched by a slight decrease in Denmark. Death rates from all sources indicate a male preponderance for ALS or MND as a whole, at about 1.5 to 1, male to female. There is also a consistent predilection by age, with few deaths under age 50 or so and a clear maximum in age-specific death rates at about age 70. This holds for both sexes. In the U.S., there is also a white-nonwhite difference, with a ratio of about 1.6:1 but with age and sex differences similar to whites. Average annual incidence rates from among white occidental populations range mostly between 0.6 and 1.8 per 100,000 population for MND and about 0.8 and 1.5 per 100,000 for ALS. Again a male predilection is seen. There is a clear maximum in age-specific incidence rates at about age 65 in all surveys except that of

  3. Cervicitis associated with lateral cervical displacement.

    PubMed

    Gjoni, Indira; Muneyyirci-Delale, Ozgul

    2012-01-01

    Lateral cervical displacement has been recognized as a sign of endometriosis; however, other causes of the finding have not been explored. In our experience, patients without endometriosis are presenting with lateral cervical displacement, mainly towards the left of midline. The common finding in these cases is the presence of cervicitis leading us to hypothesize the role of cervicitis in causing lateral displacement of the cervix. Future research into this area will provide us with a stronger understanding of the role that lateral cervical displacement plays in the development of pelvic pathology and the development of cervical cancer.

  4. Acoustic reflex patterns in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Canale, Andrea; Albera, Roberto; Lacilla, Michelangelo; Canosa, Antonio; Albera, Andrea; Sacco, Francesca; Chiò, Adriano; Calvo, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate acoustic reflex testing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. Amplitude, latency, and rise time of stapedial reflex were recorded for 500 and 1000 Hz contralateral stimulus. Statistical analysis was performed by the Wilcoxon test and the level of significance was set at 5 %. Fifty-one amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and ten sex- and age-matched control subjects were studied. Patients were further divided in two groups: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-bulbar (38 cases, with bulbar signs at evaluation) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-spinal (13 cases, without bulbar signs at evaluation). Stapedial reflex was present in all patients. There was a statistically significant difference in the mean amplitude, latency, and rise time between the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients as compared with the controls. Amplitude was lower in both the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-bulbar and the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-spinal patients than in the controls (p < 0.05) and rise time was longer in both patient groups compared with the controls (p < 0.05). These results confirm the presence of abnormal acoustic reflex patterns in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases with bulbar signs and, moreover, suggesting a possible subclinical involvement of the stapedial motor neuron even in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-spinal patients. Amplitude and rise time seem to be good sensitive parameters for investigating subclinical bulbar involvement.

  5. Robust detection of peak signals for lateral flow immunoassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongwon; Kim, Jong Dae; Nahm, Kie Bong; Choi, Eui Yul; Lee, Geumyoung

    2011-02-01

    Template matching method is presented to identify the peaks from the scanned signals of lateral flow immunoassay strips. The template is composed of two pulses separated by the distance of the control and the target ligand line in the assay, and is convolved with the scanned signal to deliver the maximum at the center of the two peaks. The peak regions were identified with the predefined distances from the center. Glycosylated haemoglobin immunoassay strips and fluorescent strip readers from Boditechmed Inc. were tested to estimate the lot and reader variations of the concentration measurands. The results showed the robustness of the propose method.

  6. Vannevar Bush: Fifty Years Later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    It is ironic that the 50th anniversary year of Vannevar Bush's Report to President Truman entitled "Science the Endless Frontier", which put into motion the eminently successful current system of education of scientists in this country occurs at a time when serious questions are being asked about the usefulness of that very system. Bush viewed his proposal to establish a national research foundation (later to be called the National Science Foundation) as a "social compact." Judgment of scientific merit would be delegated to expert peers in return for scientific progress, which would ultimately benefit the nation in terms of scientific needs--military security, economic productivity, and enhanced quality of life. Bush wanted the funding of basic research intertwined with training, and preferred to use universities for this purpose rather than industrial or national labs. Bush viewed college and university scientists as teachers and investigators. He believed university-based research would uniquely encourage and engage the next generation of scientists as no other institutional arrangement could. Bush did not trust industry's commitment to basic research, an instinct that proved prophetic. The academic reserve of scientists (PhD's in training and postdoctoral students) that existed before World War II, and upon which the United States could draw for its needs, which were primarily associated with defense efforts, was probably one of the defining factors in Bush's suggested strategy. Currently, that reserve of talent has gotten so large that it is the obvious throttle in the pipeline slowing the continued development of the university research enterprise. Since 1977, the rate at which we have trained new scientists exceeds an average of 4% annually. Since 1987, the "science work force"--PhD's--has grown at three times the rate of the general labor supply. Temporary positions for postdoctoral scientists have grown even faster (over 5% per year since 1989). To compound

  7. Gender and Marital Happiness in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Gayle; Taniguchi, Hiromi

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine the effect of gender ideology on marital happiness in later life. Studies of marital satisfaction in later life have tended to neglect such attitudes, although they have received increasing attention in the literature on younger marriages. The authors use data from married individuals who range in age from 51 to…

  8. Aeromonas hydrophila Lateral Flagellar Gene Transcriptional Hierarchy

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelms, Markus; Gonzalez, Victor; Merino, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3 lateral flagella are not assembled when bacteria grow in liquid media; however, lateral flagellar genes are transcribed. Our results indicate that A. hydrophila lateral flagellar genes are transcribed at three levels (class I to III genes) and share some similarities with, but have many important differences from, genes of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A. hydrophila lateral flagellum class I gene transcription is σ70 dependent, which is consistent with the fact that lateral flagellum is constitutively transcribed, in contrast to the characteristics of V. parahaemolyticus. The fact that multiple genes are included in class I highlights that lateral flagellar genes are less hierarchically transcribed than polar flagellum genes. The A. hydrophila lafK-fliEJL gene cluster (where the subscript L distinguishes genes for lateral flagella from those for polar flagella) is exclusively from class I and is in V. parahaemolyticus class I and II. Furthermore, the A. hydrophila flgAMNL cluster is not transcribed from the σ54/LafK-dependent promoter and does not contain class II genes. Here, we propose a gene transcriptional hierarchy for the A. hydrophila lateral flagella. PMID:23335410

  9. Laterality and Reading Proficiency in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Che Kan

    1980-01-01

    Discusses some current concepts of the laterality/reading relationship. An overview of Samuel T. Orton's hypotheses of cerebral dominance and "strephosymbolia" is provided, and both visual half-field and dichotic listening studies as direct, empirical tests of laterality are discussed. (MKM)

  10. Laterality and Dyslexia: A Critical View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiscock, Merrill; Kinsbourne, Marcel

    1982-01-01

    Research is reviewed concerning the current state of knowledge about normal hemispheric specialization; distinctions among such terms as dominance, laterality, and lateralization; and models of abnormal cerebral organization in dyslexic children. The question of dyslexic subtypes is undertaken along such dimensions as handedness, eyedness, and…

  11. Lateral Asymmetries in Infant Melody Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balaban, Marie T.; Anderson, Linda M.; Wisniewski, Amy B.

    1998-01-01

    Two experiments investigated lateral asymmetries in eight-month-olds' perception of contour-altered and contour-preserved melody changes. Found that infants who heard a contour-altered change showed a left-ear advantage, whereas infants who heard a contour-preserved change showed a right-ear advantage. The pattern of lateralization for melody…

  12. Factors Affecting Lateral Stability and Controllability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, John P; Toll, Thomas A

    1948-01-01

    The effects on dynamic lateral stability and controllability of some of the important aerodynamic and mass characteristics are discussed and methods are presented for estimating the various stability parameters to be used in the calculation of the dynamic lateral stability of airplanes with swept and low-aspect-ratio wings.

  13. Later Life: A Time to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Helen

    2008-01-01

    In this article, an emerging framework for investigating and interpreting the experiences of learning in later life is presented. This framework is contextualized by a study in which the lived experiences of later-life computer learners were investigated. Significant ontological and existential interpretations from the study provided insights into…

  14. Lateral displacement and rotational displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Duden, Thomas

    2014-04-22

    A position measuring sensor formed from opposing sets of capacitor plates measures both rotational displacement and lateral displacement from the changes in capacitances as overlapping areas of capacitors change. Capacitances are measured by a measuring circuit. The measured capacitances are provided to a calculating circuit that performs calculations to obtain angular and lateral displacement from the capacitances measured by the measuring circuit.

  15. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lateral marks. 62.25 Section 62.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.25 Lateral marks....

  16. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lateral marks. 62.25 Section 62.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.25 Lateral marks....

  17. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lateral marks. 62.25 Section 62.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.25 Lateral marks....

  18. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lateral marks. 62.25 Section 62.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.25 Lateral marks....

  19. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lateral marks. 62.25 Section 62.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.25 Lateral marks....

  20. Rapid lateral solidification of pure Cu and Au thin films encapsulated in SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kline, J. E.; Leonard, J. P.

    2005-05-01

    Excimer laser melting and lateral resolidification is demonstrated in 200nm thick Cu and Au elemental metal thin films encapsulated between SiO2 layers. Projection irradiation is used to selectively and completely melt lines 3to30μm wide in the metal film—with rapid lateral solidification originating from the unmelted sidewalls of the molten region—resulting in large columnar grains, extending transversely to the middle of the line. Transmission electron microscopy reveals twinning structures and other defects typical of rapid solidification. Encapsulation and control of the fluence are found to be crucial parameters necessary to prevent film dewetting while molten.

  1. [Lateral ligament injuries of the ankle joint].

    PubMed

    Walther, M; Kriegelstein, S; Altenberger, S; Volkering, C; Röser, A; Wölfel, R

    2013-09-01

    Lateral ligament injuries are the most common sports injury and have a high incidence even in non-sportive activities. Although lateral ligament injuries are very common there is still a controversial debate on the best management. The diagnosis is based on clinical examination and X-ray images help to rule out fractures. Further imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to diagnose associated injuries. According to the recommendations of the various scientific societies the primary therapy of lateral ligament injuries is conservative. Chronic ankle instability develops in 10-20 % of patients and the instability can be a result of sensomotoric deficits or insufficient healing of the lateral ligament complex. If the patient does not respond to an intensive rehabilitation program an operative reconstruction of the lateral ligaments has to be considered. Most of the procedures currently performed are anatomical reconstructions due to better long-term results compared to tenodesis procedures.

  2. Ultrasonographic Differentiation of Lateral Elbow Pain

    PubMed Central

    Obuchowicz, R.; Bonczar, M.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral elbow pain is often attributed to degenerative or posttraumatic impairment of the common extensor tendon. Ultrasonography assesses the soft tissue structures of the lateral elbow, allowing the differentiation between various underlying processes, including angiofibroblastic degeneration, hyaline degeneration, and inflammation, and exclusion of other possible causes of pain such as posterior interosseous and lateral antebrachial nerve compression. Furthermore, the real-time imaging nature of ultrasonography enables the detection of impingement of the lateral synovial fold, degenerative changes in the elbow recess, and elbow posterolateral instability during dynamic maneuvers. Ultrasonography is widely accessible and well tolerated by patients, making it a perfect method for establishing an initial diagnosis and monitoring the healing process. This review describes the possible causes of lateral elbow pain and their ultrasonographic differentiation. PMID:27689169

  3. Associations between schizotypy and cerebral laterality.

    PubMed

    Park, Haeme R P; Waldie, Karen E

    2017-03-01

    Atypical lateralization for language has been found in schizophrenia, suggesting that language and thought disorders on the schizophrenia spectrum may be due to left hemispheric dysfunction. However, research with those with non-clinical schizotypy has been inconsistent, with some studies finding reduced or reversed language laterality (particularly with positive schizotypal traits), and others finding typical left hemispheric specialization. The aim of the current study was to use both a behavioural (dual reading-finger tapping) task and an functional magnetic resonance imaging lexical decision task to investigate language laterality in a university sample of high- and low-schizotypal adults. Findings revealed no evidence for atypical lateralization in our sample for both overall schizotypy (measured by the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences) and positive schizotypy (measured by the Unusual Experiences subscale) groups. Our findings provide further evidence that non-clinical schizotypy is not associated with atypical language laterality.

  4. Immediate breast reconstruction using the free lumbar artery perforator flap and lateral thoracic vein interposition graft for recipient lateral thoracic artery anastomosis

    PubMed Central

    Satake, Toshihiko; Nakasone, Reiko; Kobayashi, Shinji; Maegawa, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    The lumbar artery perforator (LAP) flap, which contains excess skin and fat tissue, love handles, that extends from the lower back to upper buttock, may provide an alternate tissue source for autologous breast reconstruction. However, LAP flap use during this procedure frequently requires vessel interposition grafts to correct the short flap pedicle length and mismatched recipient vessel calibre. A 46-year-old patient underwent a right nipple-sparing mastectomy using a lateral approach for ductal carcinoma in situ and immediate LAP flap breast reconstruction. The lateral thoracic vessel served as the recipient vessel, and a lateral thoracic vein interposition graft from the distal remnant was performed to adjust the arterial length and size discrepancy between the recipient lateral thoracic artery and pedicle artery. This procedure facilitates microsurgical anastomosis and medialisation of LAP flap to make a natural decollete line and create a cleavage for the reconstructed breast. PMID:27274129

  5. A lateral electrophoretic flow diagnostic assay.

    PubMed

    Lin, Robert; Skandarajah, Arunan; Gerver, Rachel E; Neira, Hector D; Fletcher, Daniel A; Herr, Amy E

    2015-03-21

    Immunochromatographic assays are a cornerstone tool in disease screening. To complement existing lateral flow assays (based on wicking flow) we introduce a lateral flow format that employs directed electrophoretic transport. The format is termed a "lateral e-flow assay" and is designed to support multiplexed detection using immobilized reaction volumes of capture antigen. To fabricate the lateral e-flow device, we employ mask-based UV photopatterning to selectively immobilize unmodified capture antigen along the microchannel in a barcode-like pattern. The channel-filling polyacrylamide hydrogel incorporates a photoactive moiety (benzophenone) to immobilize capture antigen to the hydrogel without a priori antigen modification. We report a heterogeneous sandwich assay using low-power electrophoresis to drive biospecimen through the capture antigen barcode. Fluorescence barcode readout is collected via a low-resource appropriate imaging system (CellScope). We characterize lateral e-flow assay performance and demonstrate a serum assay for antibodies to the hepatitis C virus (HCV). In a pilot study, the lateral e-flow assay positively identifies HCV+ human sera in 60 min. The lateral e-flow assay provides a flexible format for conducting multiplexed immunoassays relevant to confirmatory diagnosis in near-patient settings.

  6. Olfactory coding in the honeybee lateral horn.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Edith; Carcaud, Julie; Combe, Maud; Giurfa, Martin; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2014-03-03

    Olfactory systems dynamically encode odor information in the nervous system. Insects constitute a well-established model for the study of the neural processes underlying olfactory perception. In insects, odors are detected by sensory neurons located in the antennae, whose axons project to a primary processing center, the antennal lobe. There, the olfactory message is reshaped and further conveyed to higher-order centers, the mushroom bodies and the lateral horn. Previous work has intensively analyzed the principles of olfactory processing in the antennal lobe and in the mushroom bodies. However, how the lateral horn participates in olfactory coding remains comparatively more enigmatic. We studied odor representation at the input to the lateral horn of the honeybee, a social insect that relies on both floral odors for foraging and pheromones for social communication. Using in vivo calcium imaging, we show consistent neural activity in the honeybee lateral horn upon stimulation with both floral volatiles and social pheromones. Recordings reveal odor-specific maps in this brain region as stimulations with the same odorant elicit more similar spatial activity patterns than stimulations with different odorants. Odor-similarity relationships are mostly conserved between antennal lobe and lateral horn, so that odor maps recorded in the lateral horn allow predicting bees' behavioral responses to floral odorants. In addition, a clear segregation of odorants based on pheromone type is found in both structures. The lateral horn thus contains an odor-specific map with distinct representations for the different bee pheromones, a prerequisite for eliciting specific behaviors.

  7. Galaxies with Strong Nitrogen Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, T. S.; Pastoriza, M. G.

    1987-05-01

    ABSTRACT. From a qualitative spectroscopic survey of southern galaxies made by Pastoriza, a group with different morphological types whose nuclear region showed particular strong emission [N II]A6548-6584 lines when compared to Hn, was selected in order to investigate why [N II] is so strong. This work presents the results of a first analysis of the spectra of some of the galaxies above obtained with the 1-m telescope plus 2DFRUTTI detector of the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. The spectra are all very similar showing strong stellar continuum and absorption lines, and all the emission spectra show [0111] >[OII], [NIl] > H . None of the spectra show H in emission. Using the relative intensities of the H and K Call lines (Talent 1982, PLtb. A.S.P., 94,36), the obtained integrated spectra for all the observed galaxies is later than GO, which means that the H absorption lines should not be strong. From the relative intensities of the emission lines, we conclude that these galaxies cannot be classified as Starburst or LINERS. They are similar to Seyfert 2 (Osterbrock 1986, Act#va QSO4, preprint), but the FWHM of the lines is less than 300 km s . Also Ol X6300 is not clearly seen, and the absorption spectrum is strong relative to the emission spectrum. The preliminary conclusion is an activity similar but milder than that present in Seyfert 2 galaxies, as sug gested by Rose and Searle (1982, Ap. 5., 253, 556) and Rose and Cecil (1983, Ap. 5., 266, 531) for the nucleus of M51, maybe affected by an anomalous nitrogen abundance. K o : GALAXIES-ACTIVE - SPECTROSCOPY

  8. A new anglerfish from eastern Australia and New Caledonia (Lophiiformes: Chaunacidae: Chaunacops), with new data and submersible observation of Chaunacops melanostomus.

    PubMed

    Ho, H-C; McGrouther, M

    2015-03-01

    A new deep-sea anglerfish of the genus Chaunacops is described based on three specimens collected from eastern Australia and New Caledonia. It differs from its congeners in having fine dermal spinules, mixed with simple and bifurcate ones, densely covering the body, four neuromasts on the pectoral series of the lateral line and a combination of other characteristics. Data for Chaunacops melanostomus based on 31 specimens newly collected from Western Australia are provided. An underwater observation of C. melanostomus made by a remotely operated vehicle is also provided.

  9. Ankle instability and arthroscopic lateral ligament repair.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Jorge I; Mangone, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, the surgical management of chronic lateral ankle ligament insufficiency has focused on 2 main categories: local soft-tissue reconstruction and tendon grafts/transfer procedures. There is an increasing interest in the arthroscopic solutions for chronic instability of the ankle. Recent biomechanical studies suggest the at least one of the arthroscopic techniques can provide equivalent results to current open local soft-tissue reconstruction (such as the modified Brostrom technique). Arthroscopic lateral ankle ligament reconstruction is becoming an increasingly acceptable method for the surgical management of chronic lateral ankle instability.

  10. Experiments and analysis of lateral piezoresistance gauges

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, M.K.W.

    1993-07-01

    The response of lateral piezoresistance gauges to shock wave uniaxial strain loading has been examined in a combined experimental and calculational effort. Plate impact experiments provided lateral gauge data which were analyzed using quasi-static and dynamic inclusion analyses. Experimental data showed that the response of the lateral gauge output depended upon the matrix material and gauge emplacement method. The calculations indicated that these differences were due to complex gauge-matrix interactions. These interactions were influenced by the stress and strain distributions in and around the gauge, plasticity effects, properties of the gauge and matrix materials, and emplacement conditions.

  11. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Lateral Canthoplasty to Lengthen the Lateral Canthal Angle and Correct the Outer Tail of the Eye

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Byung Min

    2016-01-01

    There are many women who want larger and brighter eyes that will give a favorable impression. Surgical methods that make the eye larger and brighter include double eyelidplasty, epicanthoplasty, as well as lateral canthoplasty. Double eyelidplasty produces changes in the vertical dimension of the eyes, whereas epicanthoplasty and lateral canthoplasty create changes in the horizontal dimension of the eyes. Epicanthoplasty, a surgical procedure which enlarges the eye horizontally, is performed at the inner corner of the eye, whereas lateral canthoplasty enlarges the outer edge of the eye. In particular, if the slant of the palpebral fissure is raised and the horizontal dimension of the palpebral fissure is short, adjusting the slant of the palpebral fissure through lateral canthoplasty can achieve an enlargement of eye width and smoother features. Depending on the patient's condition, even better results can be achieved if this procedure is performed in conjunction with other procedures, such as double eyelidplasty, epicanthoplasty, eye roll formation surgery, fat graft, and facial bone contouring surgery. In this paper, the authors will introduce in detail their surgical method for a cosmetic lateral canthoplasty that lengthens the lateral canthal angle and corrects the outer tail of the eyes, in order to ease the unfavorable impression. PMID:27462564

  12. Lateral offsets on surveyed cultural features resulting from the 1999 İzmit and Düzce earthquakes, Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rockwell, Thomas K.; Lindvall, Scott; Dawson, Tim; Langridge, Rob; Lettis, William; Klinger, Yann

    2002-01-01

    Surveys of multiple tree lines within groves of poplar trees, planted in straight lines across the fault prior to the earthquake, show surprisingly large lateral variations. In one grove, slip increases by nearly 1.8 m, or 35% of the maximum measured value, over a lateral distance of nearly 100 m. This and other observations along the 1999 ruptures suggest that the lateral variability of slip observed from displaced geomorphic features in many earthquakes of the past may represent a combination of (1) actual differences in slip at the surface and (2) the difficulty in recognizing distributed nonbrittle deformation.

  13. Individualized optimal surgical extent of the lateral neck in papillary thyroid cancer with lateral cervical metastasis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Yong; Koo, Bon Seok

    2014-06-01

    Despite an excellent prognosis, cervical lymph node (LN) metastases are common in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). The presence of metastasis is associated with an increased risk of locoregional recurrence, which significantly impairs quality of life and may decrease survival. Therefore, it has been an important determinant of the extent of lateral LN dissection in the initial treatment of PTC patients with lateral cervical metastasis. However, the optimal extent of therapeutic lateral neck dissection (ND) remains controversial. Optimizing the surgical extent of LN dissection is fundamental for balancing the surgical morbidity and oncological benefits of ND in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. We reviewed the currently available literature regarding the optimal extent of lateral LN dissection in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. Even in cases with suspicion of metastatic LN at the single lateral level or isolated metastatic lateral LN, the application of ND including all sublevels from IIa and IIb to Va and Vb may be overtreatment, due to the surgical morbidity. When there is no suspicion of LN metastasis at levels II and V, or when multilevel aggressive neck metastasis is not found, sublevel IIb and Va dissection may not be necessary in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. Thus consideration of the individualized optimal surgical extent of lateral ND is important when treating PTC patients with lateral cervical metastasis.

  14. Lateralized courtship in a parasitic wasp.

    PubMed

    Romano, Donato; Donati, Elisa; Canale, Angelo; Messing, Russell H; Benelli, Giovanni; Stefanini, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Lateralization (i.e. left-right asymmetries in the brain and behaviour) of courtship displays has been examined in a growing number vertebrate species, while evidence for invertebrates is limited. In this study, we investigated lateralization of courtship and mating displays in the parasitic wasp Leptomastidea abnormis. Results showed a population-level lateralization of male courtship displays. Male antennal tapping on the female's head was right-biased. However, right-biased male courtship acts were not characterized by higher male antennal tapping frequencies, nor success in mating although antennal tapping frequency was higher in males with mating success with respect to unsuccessful males. Overall, our results add basic knowledge to the behavioural ecology of insect parasitoids. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of behavioural lateralization in parasitic Hymenoptera.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... DW. Converging mechanisms in ALS and FTD: disrupted RNA and protein homeostasis. Neuron. 2013 Aug 7;79( ... Miller CC, Shaw CE. Mutations in FUS, an RNA processing protein, cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: lateral meningocele syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Additional Information & Resources MedlinePlus (1 link) Health Topic: Connective Tissue Disorders Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 ... and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases: Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue Educational Resources (3 links) Disease InfoSearch: Lateral meningocele ...

  17. The laterality effect: myth or truth?

    PubMed

    Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2008-03-01

    Tzelgov and colleagues [Tzelgov, J., Meyer, J., and Henik, A. (1992). Automatic and intentional processing of numerical information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 18, 166-179.], offered the existence of the laterality effect as a post-hoc explanation for their results. According to this effect, numbers are classified automatically as small/large versus a standard point under autonomous processing of numerical information. However, the genuinity of the laterality effect was never examined, or was confounded with the numerical distance effect. In the current study, I controlled the numerical distance effect and observed that the laterality effect does exist, and affects the processing of automatic numerical information. The current results suggest that the laterality effect should be taken into account when using paradigms that require automatic numerical processing such as Stroop-like or priming tasks.

  18. Repositioned lateral crural flap technique for cephalic malposition in rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Mohebbi, A; Azizi, A; Tabatabaiee, S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cephalic malposition of the lower lateral cartilage (CMLLC) is a relatively common anatomical variant, particularly in Middle Eastern patients. The characteristics of CMLLC include long alar creases, a boxy and ball-shaped nasal tip, parenthesis tip deformity and external valvular incompetence. The gold standard for correcting CMLLC is the lateral crural strut graft (Gunter graft), but many patients experience problems after this technique. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of the repositioned lateral crural flap (RLCF) technique in correcting CMLLC, and to discuss the cosmetic and functional results. METHODS: In the present study, 123 primary septorhinoplasty operations using the RLCF technique were performed between May 2012 and March 2013. The mean follow-up period was 11.4 months (range nine to 24 months). Four parameters were measured and compared pre- and postoperatively: the angle between the line connecting the maximum convexity of the lower lateral cartilage (LLC) to the tip-defining point and midline on each side (angle of rotation); the total distance between the maximum convexity of LLC right and left to midline (representing the size of the parenthesis deformity); satisfaction scale rating of the patients’ nasal tip appearance; and the satisfaction scale rating of patients’ breathing through their nostrils. RESULTS: The mean angle of the LLC to the midline significantly increased and the mean distance between the maximum convexities was significantly reduced, indicating correction of the malposition and reduction of the parenthesis deformity, respectively. The mean satisfactory scale ratings of nasal tip appearance and breathing quality were also significantly improved. CONCLUSION: CMLLC can be corrected using the RLCF technique, resulting in both aesthetic and functional improvements. PMID:26361626

  19. The lateralization of symptoms in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P; Fleminger, J J

    1981-03-01

    An awareness of symptoms being lateralized was established in almost half of a series of 60 acutely ll schizophrenics and is reported in a further series of 16 patients with this disorder. Case illustrations are given. The symptoms most commonly showing this phenomenon were hypochondriacal delusions and hallucinations, usually of an auditory kind. Possible mechanisms underlying the phenomenon are discussed. Some evidence was found for a difference between the sexes in the direction of lateralization symptoms.

  20. Management of horizontally impacted dilacerated lateral incisor

    PubMed Central

    Katta, Anil Kumar; Peddu, Revathi; Vannala, Venkataramana; Dasari, Vaishnavi

    2015-01-01

    Impaction of maxillary lateral incisor with odontome and retained deciduous tooth is not often seen in regular dental practice. Impaction of anterior teeth cause generalized spacing which affects the esthetics of the face. Here we report a case of an 18-year-old patient with horizontally impacted dilacerated lateral incisor, which was bought into occlusion with the help of orthodontic tooth movement within a span of 18 months. PMID:26538954

  1. Brain and behavioral lateralization in invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Frasnelli, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioral asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left–right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has asymmetric odor sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behavior with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with a specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test the

  2. Lateral epicondylitis: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Mohd; Nuhmani, S; Ram, C S; Sachin, Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis (Tennis Elbow) is the most frequent type of myotendinosis and can be responsible for substantial pain and loss of function of the affected limb. Muscular biomechanics characteristics and equipment are important in preventing the conditions. This article present on overview of the current knowledge on lateral Epicondylitis and focuses on Etiology, Diagnosis and treatment strategies, conservative treatment are discussed and recent surgical techniques are outlined. This information should assist health care practitioners who treat patients with this disorder.

  3. Lateral displacement as a function of particle size using a piecewise curved planar interdigitated electrode array.

    PubMed

    Han, Ki-Ho; Han, Song-I; Frazier, A Bruno

    2009-10-21

    We describe the lateral displacement of a particle passing over a planar interdigitated electrode array at an angle as a function of the particle size. The lateral displacement was also measured as a function of the angle between the electrode and the direction of flow. A simplified line charge model was used for numerically estimating the lateral displacement of fluorescent polystyrene (PS) beads with three different diameters. Using the lateral displacement as a function of particle size, we developed a lateral dielectrophoretic (DEP) microseparator, which enables continuous discrimination of particles by size. The microchannel was divided into three regions, each with an electrode array placed at a different angle with respect to the direction of flow. The experiment using an admixture of 3-, 5-, and 10-microm PS beads showed that the lateral DEP microseparator could continuously separate out 99.86% of the 3-microm beads, 98.82% of the 5-microm beads, and 99.69% of the 10-microm beads, simply by using a 200-kHz 12-Vp-p AC voltage to create the lateral DEP force. The lateral DEP microseparator is thus a practical device for simultaneously separating particles according to size from a heterogeneous admixture.

  4. Transcript profiling of early lateral root initiation.

    PubMed

    Himanen, Kristiina; Vuylsteke, Marnik; Vanneste, Steffen; Vercruysse, Steven; Boucheron, Elodie; Alard, Philippe; Chriqui, Dominique; Van Montagu, Marc; Inzé, Dirk; Beeckman, Tom

    2004-04-06

    At the onset of lateral root initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana, the phytohormone auxin activates xylem pole pericycle cells for asymmetric cell division. However, the molecular events leading from auxin to lateral root initiation are poorly understood, in part because the few responsive cells in the process are embedded in the root and are thus difficult to access. A lateral root induction system, in which most xylem pole pericycle cells were synchronously activated by auxin transport inhibition followed by auxin application, was used for microarray transcript profiling. Of 4,600 genes analyzed, 906 significantly differentially regulated genes were identified that could be grouped into six major clusters. Basically, three major patterns were discerned representing induced, repressed, and transiently expressed genes. Analysis of the coregulated genes, which were specific for each time point, provided new insight into the molecular regulation and signal transduction preceding lateral root initiation in Arabidopsis. The reproducible expression profiles during a time course allowed us to define four stages that precede the cell division in the pericycle. These early stages were characterized by G1 cell cycle block, auxin perception, and signal transduction, followed by progression over G1/S transition and G2/M transition. All these processes took place within 6 h after transfer from N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid to 1-naphthalene acetic acid. These results indicate that this lateral root induction system represents a unique synchronized system that allows the systematic study of the developmental program upstream of the cell cycle activation during lateral root initiation.

  5. Reduced frequency of lateral root branching improves N capture from low-N soils in maize.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ai; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2015-04-01

    Suboptimal nitrogen (N) availability is a primary constraint for crop production in developing countries, while in developed countries, intensive N fertilization is a primary economic, energy, and environmental cost for crop production. We tested the hypothesis that under low-N conditions, maize (Zea mays) lines with few but long (FL) lateral roots would have greater axial root elongation, deeper rooting, and greater N acquisition than lines with many but short (MS) lateral roots. Maize recombinant inbred lines contrasting in lateral root number and length were grown with adequate and suboptimal N in greenhouse mesocosms and in the field in the USA and South Africa (SA). In low-N mesocosms, the FL phenotype had substantially reduced root respiration and greater rooting depth than the MS phenotype. In low-N fields in the USA and SA, the FL phenotype had greater rooting depth, shoot N content, leaf photosynthesis, and shoot biomass than the MS phenotype. The FL phenotype yielded 31.5% more than the MS phenotype under low N in the USA. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that sparse but long lateral roots improve N capture from low-N soils. These results with maize probably pertain to other species. The FL lateral root phenotype merits consideration as a selection target for greater crop N efficiency.

  6. Reduced frequency of lateral root branching improves N capture from low-N soils in maize

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Ai; Lynch, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Suboptimal nitrogen (N) availability is a primary constraint for crop production in developing countries, while in developed countries, intensive N fertilization is a primary economic, energy, and environmental cost for crop production. We tested the hypothesis that under low-N conditions, maize (Zea mays) lines with few but long (FL) lateral roots would have greater axial root elongation, deeper rooting, and greater N acquisition than lines with many but short (MS) lateral roots. Maize recombinant inbred lines contrasting in lateral root number and length were grown with adequate and suboptimal N in greenhouse mesocosms and in the field in the USA and South Africa (SA). In low-N mesocosms, the FL phenotype had substantially reduced root respiration and greater rooting depth than the MS phenotype. In low-N fields in the USA and SA, the FL phenotype had greater rooting depth, shoot N content, leaf photosynthesis, and shoot biomass than the MS phenotype. The FL phenotype yielded 31.5% more than the MS phenotype under low N in the USA. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that sparse but long lateral roots improve N capture from low-N soils. These results with maize probably pertain to other species. The FL lateral root phenotype merits consideration as a selection target for greater crop N efficiency. PMID:25680794

  7. Dynamic Line-by-line Pulse Shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willits, John Thomas

    In pursuit of optical arbitrary waveform generation (OAWG), line-by-line pulse shapers use dynamic masks that can be modulated at the repetition rate of an input pulse train. The pulse-to-pulse control of the output pulse train with the waveform fidelity provided by line-by-line pulse shaping creates the most arbitrary waveform output possible, OAWG. This thesis studies the theoretical dynamic effects of such a pulse shaper and presents efforts towards realization of OAWG. Pulse shaping theory is extended to include rapid waveform update for line-by-line pulse shaping. The fundamental tradeoff between response speed and waveform fidelity is illustrated by several examples. Line-by-line pulse shaping is demonstrated at a repetition rate of 890 MHz on a mode-locked titanium sapphire laser. This pulse shaper relies on a virtual imaged phased array (VIPA) to obtain the necessary high spectral resolution. The details of the VIPA's ideal and nonideal performance are analyzed, simulated and tested. Individual frequency modes from the mode-locked titanium sapphire laser are also resolved using the same VIPA paired with a diffraction grating creating a 2-D spectral brush with a resolution of 357 MHz. The advantages and nonideal effects of VIPA-based pulse shaping are investigated. Analysis of several high speed modulation techniques are explored. The optical system required to separate adjacent comb lines into different single mode (SM) fibers necessary for several modulation techniques is designed and tested.

  8. Lateral flow immunoassay for the rapid detection of citrus tristeza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A lateral flow methodology was developed using gold nanoparticles for rapid detection of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV). The test strip was based on a sandwich immunoassay and could be accomplished within 10 minutes. A sample was considered negative for CTV when only the control line appeared; whereas,...

  9. Abstract Line Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevinskas, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a unit on the exploration of line. The unit was composed of two individual line lessons. In the first lesson, students were introduced to line as an element of design. They were asked to describe different types of lines, and look for them in art reproductions. The second lesson in the unit involved painting…

  10. The Language of Lines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breig-Allen, Cheryl; Hill, Janet; Geismar-Ryan, Lori; Cadwell, Louise Boyd

    1998-01-01

    Describes a project about lines in the environment used with 2- and 3-year olds and based on the Reggio Emilia approach. Activities included making tracks with riding toys, drawing lines on papers, seeing cloud lines, and making lines with yarn and Cuisenaire rods. Shows how young children's observations and ongoing discoveries can uncover their…

  11. Language lateralization shifts with learning by adults.

    PubMed

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K; Vance, Christopher J; Asbjørnsen, Arve E

    2015-05-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left-hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting that this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to an unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left-lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short term within a learning context, independent of maturation.

  12. Lateral restraint assembly for reactor core

    DOEpatents

    Gorholt, Wilhelm; Luci, Raymond K.

    1986-01-01

    A restraint assembly for use in restraining lateral movement of a reactor core relative to a reactor vessel wherein a plurality of restraint assemblies are interposed between the reactor core and the reactor vessel in circumferentially spaced relation about the core. Each lateral restraint assembly includes a face plate urged against the outer periphery of the core by a plurality of compression springs which enable radial preloading of outer reflector blocks about the core and resist low-level lateral motion of the core. A fixed radial key member cooperates with each face plate in a manner enabling vertical movement of the face plate relative to the key member but restraining movement of the face plate transverse to the key member in a plane transverse to the center axis of the core. In this manner, the key members which have their axes transverse to or subtending acute angles with the direction of a high energy force tending to move the core laterally relative to the reactor vessel restrain such lateral movement.

  13. Language Lateralization Shifts with Learning by Adults

    PubMed Central

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K.; Vance, Christopher J.; Asbjørnsen, Arve E.

    2014-01-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short-term within a learning context, independent of maturation. PMID:25285756

  14. Evaluation of concrete masonry unit walls for lateral natural phenomena hazards loads

    SciTech Connect

    Faires, W.E. Jr.

    1996-03-08

    Older single-story facilities (Pre-1985 vintage) are commonly constructed of structural steel framing with concrete masonry unit (CMU) walls connected to columns and roof girders of the steel framing system. The CMU walls are designed for lateral wind and seismic loads (perpendicular to the wall) and transmit shear loads from the roof diaphragm to the foundation footings. The lateral loads normally govern their design. The structural framing system and the roof diaphragm system are straight forward when analyzing or upgrading the structure for NPH loads. Because of a buildings design vintage, probable use of empirical methodology, and poor design basis documentation (and record retention); it is difficult to qualify or upgrade CMU walls for lateral Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) loads in accordance with References 1, 2 and 3. This paper discusses three analytical approaches and/or techniques (empirical, working stress and yield line) to determine the collapse capacity of a laterally loaded CMU wall, and compares their results

  15. Lateral force microscopy of multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Lievonen, J; Ahlskog, M

    2009-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes are usually imaged with the atomic force microscope (AFM) in non-contact mode. However, in many applications, such as mechanical manipulation or elasticity measurements, contact mode is used. The forces affecting the nanotube are then considerable and not fully understood. In this work lateral forces were measured during contact mode imaging with an AFM across a carbon nanotube. We found that, qualitatively, both magnitude and sign of the lateral forces to the AFM tip were independent of scan direction and can be concluded to arise from the tip slipping on the round edges of the nanotube. The dependence on the normal force applied to the tip and on the ratio between nanotube diameter and tip radius was studied. We show that for small values of this ratio, the lateral force signal can be explained with a simple geometrical model.

  16. Lateral ligament reconstruction procedures for the ankle.

    PubMed

    Tourné, Y; Mabit, C

    2017-02-01

    Capsule/ligament lesions of the lateral compartment of the ankle lead to lateral laxity, which is a prime contributor to chronic ankle instability. Lateral ligament reconstruction stabilizes the joint. Exhaustive preoperative clinical and paraclinical work-up is essential. The present article classifies, presents and criticizes the main techniques in terms of long-term stabilization and reduction of osteoarthritis risk. Anatomic ligament repair with reinforcement (mainly extensor retinaculum) or anatomic ligament reconstruction are the two recommended options. Non-anatomic reconstructions using the peroneus brevis should be abandoned. Arthroscopy is increasingly being developed, but results need assessment on longer follow-up than presently available. Postoperative neuromuscular reprogramming is fundamental to optimal recovery. Finally, the concept of complex ankle instability is discussed from the diagnostic and therapeutic points of view. The various forms of ligament reconstruction failure and corresponding treatments are reported.

  17. Autologous split peroneus longus lateral ankle stabilization.

    PubMed

    Budny, Adam M; Schuberth, John M

    2012-01-01

    Lateral ankle instability is a common clinical entity, and a variety of surgical procedures are available for stabilization after conservative management fails. Herein the authors reviewed outcomes after performing autologous split peroneus longus lateral ankle stabilization, using a previously described surgical technique to anatomically recreate the anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments. Twenty-five consecutive patients from 2 surgeons' practices underwent reconstruction between March 2007 and January 2011 with a minimum follow-up of 12 (range 12 to 51) months (mean 29.5 months). Follow-up interviews demonstrated 92.0% good or excellent outcomes with only 8.0% rating the outcome as fair and none as poor; 92.0% had no recurrent sprains or difficulty going up or down hills; 88.0% related no difficulty with uneven ground. The authors conclude that the autologous split peroneus longus lateral ankle stabilization results in a stable ankle with a low rate of complications and high patient satisfaction.

  18. Knee ligament injury during lateral impact.

    PubMed

    Hearon, B F; Brinkley, J W; Raddin, J H; Fleming, B W

    1985-01-01

    A volunteer woman subject incurred injury to her right knee consisting of a torn anterior cruciate ligament and stretched medial collateral ligament during a lateral (+Gy) impact test. Similar injury has not been reported in the English-language literature an accidental sideward automotive crashes or lateral impact experimentation involving humans. The primary mechanism which produced this injury was external tibial rotation on the femur with the knee flexed. The factors contributing to the injury included extraordinarily forceful leg bracing by the subject, her knee joint laxity or hypermobility, and the absence of side supports to limit lower extremity flailing during the impact response. In future lateral impact tests, women subjects should be used with caution and any subject with abnormal joint mobility should be excluded from participation.

  19. The Lateral Instability of Deep Rectangular Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumont, C; Hill, H N

    1937-01-01

    Experimental and analytical studies were made of solid and hollow deep rectangular beams to study their lateral instability under various conditions of loading and restraint. The tests were made on bars and tubes of 17ST aluminum alloy. Failure by lateral buckling occurred only in tests on the solid beams. It was found that, within the elastic range, the test results were in agreement with the classical theory for the lateral buckling of deep beams as given by Prandtl, Mitchell, and Timoshenko. The tests were extended to the inelastic range, where it was found that the substitution for Young's modulus of an average modulus of elasticity derived from the stress-strain curve made it possible to predict instability at high stresses.

  20. Evaluation of strain distribution in freestanding and buried lateral nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulyanenkov, A.; Darowski, N.; Grenzer, J.; Pietsch, U.; Wang, K. H.; Forchel, A.

    1999-12-01

    difference in the energy shift of the photoluminescence line between freestanding and overgrown lateral nanostructures.

  1. Psychiatric disorders prior to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Goldacre, Raph; Talbot, Kevin; Goldacre, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    It is recognized that neuropsychiatric conditions are overrepresented in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patient kindreds and psychiatric symptoms may precede the onset of motor symptoms. Using a hospital record linkage database, hospitalization with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, or anxiety was significantly associated with a first diagnosis of ALS within the following year. This is likely to specifically reflect the clinicopathological overlap of ALS with frontotemporal dementia. A diagnosis of depression was significantly associated with a first record of ALS ≥5 years later, in keeping with growing evidence for major depressive disorder as an early marker of cerebral neurodegeneration. Ann Neurol 2016;80:935–938 PMID:27761925

  2. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Historical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Katz, Jonathan S; Dimachkie, Mazen M; Barohn, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    This article looks back in time to see where the foundational basis for the understanding of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis originated. This foundation was created primarily in France by Jean-Martin Charcot and his fellow countrymen and disciples, along with key contributions from early clinicians in England and Germany. The early work on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis provides a useful foundation for today's clinicians with respect to tying together genetic and biologic aspects of the disorder that have been discovered over the past few decades.

  3. [Lateral chest X-rays. Radiographic anatomy].

    PubMed

    García Villafañe, C; Pedrosa, C S

    2014-01-01

    Lateral chest views constitute an essential part of chest X-ray examinations, so it is fundamental to know the anatomy on these images and to be able to detect the variations manifested on these images in different diseases. The aim of this article is to review the normal anatomy and main normal variants seen on lateral chest views. For teaching purposes, we divide the thorax into different spaces and analyze each in an orderly way, especially emphasizing the anatomic details that are most helpful for locating lesions that have already been detected in the posteroanterior view or for detecting lesions that can be missed in the posteroanterior view.

  4. The Development of Bone Mineral Lateralization in the Arms

    PubMed Central

    Siminoski, Kerry; Lee, Kwok-Choy; Abish, Sharon; Alos, Nathalie; Bell, Lorraine; Blydt-Hansen, Tom; Couch, Robert; Cummings, Elizabeth A.; Ellsworth, Janet; Feber, Janusz; Fernandez, Conrad V.; Halton, Jacqueline; Huber, Adam M.; Israels, Sara; Jurencak, Roman; Lang, Bianca; Laverdière, Caroline; LeBlanc., Claire; Lewis, Victor; Midgley, Julian; Miettunen, Paivi M.; Oen, Kiem; Phan, Veronique; Pinsk, Maury; Rauch, Frank; Rodd, Celia; Roth, Johannes; Saint-Cyr, Claire; Scuccimarri, Rosie; Stephure, David; Taback, Shayne; Wilson, Beverly; Ward, Leanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Bone mineral content (BMC) exhibits sidedness in the arms after the age of 8 years, but it is not known whether BMC is greater in the dominant arm from birth or whether lateralization develops in early childhood. To address this, we examined bone mineral status in relation to handedness and age. Methods Subjects (n = 158) were children recently initiating glucocorticoid for underlying disease (leukemia 43%, rheumatic conditions 39%, nephrotic syndrome 18%). Handedness was determined by questionnaire and BMC by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results Median age was 7.2 years (range, 1.5 to 17.0 years), 49% were male, and the spine BMD Z-score was −0.9 (SD, 1.3). By linear regression, BMC sidedness in the arms was significantly related to age (r = 0.294, p = 0.0005). Breakpoint analysis revealed two lines with a knot at 6.0 years (95% CI, 4.5–7.5 years). The formula for the first line was: dominant:nondominant arm BMC ratio = 0.029 × age [in years] + 0.850 (r = 0.323, p = 0.017). The slope of the second line was not different from 0 (p = 0.332), while the slopes for the two lines were significantly different (p = 0.027). Conclusions These results show that arm BMC sidedness in this patient group develops up to age six years and then remains stable into late adolescence. This temporal profile is consistent with mechanical stimulation of the skeleton in response to asymmetrical muscle use as handedness becomes manifest. PMID:22744715

  5. Reconnection of vorticity lines and magnetic lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic field and fluid vorticity share many features. First, as divergence-free vector fields they are conveniently visualized in terms of their field lines, curves that are everywhere tangent to the field. The lines indicate direction and their density indicates field strength. The question arises of the extent to which the evolution of the fields can be treated in terms of the evolution of their field lines. Newcomb (1958) derived the general conditions on the evolution of vector fields that permit the identification of field lines from one instant to the next. The equations of evolution of the vorticity field and the magnetic field fall within Newcomb's analysis. The dynamics of the flows differ between these two systems, so that geometrically similar phenomena happen in different ways in the two systems. In this paper the geometrical similarities are emphasized. Reconnection will be defined here as evolution in which it is not possible to preserve the global identification of some field lines. There is a close relation between reconnection and the topology of the vector field lines. Nontrivial topology occurs where the field has null points or there are field lines that are closed loops.

  6. Lateral restorable characteristics of the high- T c superconducting maglev vehicle above the permanent magnet guideway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, G. T.; Wang, J. S.; Lin, Q. X.; Liu, M. X.; Deng, Z. G.; Li, X. C.; Liu, H. F.; Zheng, J.; Wang, S. Y.

    2009-11-01

    The lateral restorable characteristics of a translational symmetry high- T c superconducting maglev system are investigated by measuring its resonant frequency ( fRF) after a lateral displacement. The difference between whether this lateral displacement is restorable, meaning elastic or inelastic, is determined by whether or not the maglev body returns to its original position after a lateral displacement. The maximum restorable lateral displacement ( δMRLD) is determined by the sudden change of the fRF vs. the maximum lateral displacement ( δMLD) curve. The fRF of the high- T c superconducting maglev system with different field-cooling height (FCH) and working height (WH) was obtained from the frequency domain vibration curve which was measured by a vibration measurement system. The results showed that, the δMRLD was reduced when the WH was decreased. The maximum restorable guidance force ( FMRGF) was found to not always increase with the lowering of the WH for the same FCH. The lateral restorable stiffness ( kLRS) was always enhanced with the decrease of the WH. The decrease of the δMRLD with the WH is interpreted by the fact that, the tangential field component (Δ H) across the surface of the high- T c superconductor (HTSC) is easier to exceed the J cλ value ( J c is the critical current density and λ is the London penetration depth) when the WH is lowered, and this makes the trapped flux lines become more susceptible in escaping its pinning sites.

  7. Nuclear reactor overflow line

    DOEpatents

    Severson, Wayne J.

    1976-01-01

    The overflow line for the reactor vessel of a liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactor includes means for establishing and maintaining a continuous bleed flow of coolant amounting to 5 to 10% of the total coolant flow through the overflow line to prevent thermal shock to the overflow line when the reactor is restarted following a trip. Preferably a tube is disposed concentrically just inside the overflow line extending from a point just inside the reactor vessel to an overflow tank and a suction line is provided opening into the body of liquid metal in the reactor vessel and into the annulus between the overflow line and the inner tube.

  8. Microstructure of laterally overgrown GaN layers

    SciTech Connect

    Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna; Cherns, David

    2001-04-03

    Transmission electron microscopy study of plan-view and cross-section samples of epitaxial laterally overgrown (ELOG) GaN samples is described. Two types of dislocation with the same type of Burgers vector but different line direction have been observed. It is shown that threading edge dislocations bend to form dislocation segments in the c-plane as a result of shear stresses developed in the wing material along the stripe direction. It is shown that migration of these dislocations involves both glide and climb. Propagation of threading parts over the wing area is an indication of high density of point defects present in the wing areas on the ELOG samples. This finding might shed new light on the optical properties of such samples.

  9. Lateralized processing of false memories and pseudoneglect in aging.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Rémy; Dehon, Hedwige; Peigneux, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    Aging is associated with higher propensity to false memories and decreased retrieval of previously studied items. When young adults (YA) perform on a lateralized version of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, the right cerebral hemisphere (RH) is more sensitive than the left (LH) to false memories, suggesting hemispheric imbalance in the cerebral mechanisms supporting semantic and episodic memory processes. Since cerebral asymmetries tend to be reduced with age, we surmised that behavioral asymmetries in the generation of false memories would be diminished with aging. To probe this hypothesis, a lateralized version of the DRM paradigm was administered to healthy older adults (OA) and YA. During the encoding phase, lists of semantically associated words were memorized. During the retrieval session, targets (previously seen words), lures (LU) (never seen strongly semantically related words) and distracters (never seen, unrelated words) were briefly displayed either in the left or right visual fields, thus primarily stimulating the RH or LH, respectively. Participants had to decide whether the word was previously studied (Old/New), but also whether they had a strong episodic recollection (Remember) or a mere feeling of familiarity (Know) about Old words. In line with our predictions, false memories were globally higher in OA than YA, and vivid false recollections (i.e., Remember responses) were higher when LU were presented in the RH in YA, but not in OA. Additionally, we found significant correlations between YA participants' Familiarity scores and leftward attentional bias as previously evidenced using a visuospatial landmark task (Schmitz and Peigneux, 2011), an effect not present in OA. This result is in line with the hypothesis of an interplay between attentional resources allocated to visuospatial and memory processes, suggesting a memory pseudoneglect phenomenon that would be altered with aging.

  10. Particle separation using virtual deterministic lateral displacement (vDLD).

    PubMed

    Collins, David J; Alan, Tuncay; Neild, Adrian

    2014-05-07

    We present a method for sensitive and tunable particle sorting that we term virtual deterministic lateral displacement (vDLD). The vDLD system is composed of a set of interdigital transducers (IDTs) within a microfluidic chamber that produce a force field at an angle to the flow direction. Particles above a critical diameter, a function of the force induced by viscous drag and the force field, are displaced laterally along the minimum force potential lines, while smaller particles continue in the direction of the fluid flow without substantial perturbations. We demonstrate the effective separation of particles in a continuous-flow system with size sensitivity comparable or better than other previously reported microfluidic separation techniques. Separation of 5.0 μm from 6.6 μm, 6.6 μm from 7.0 μm and 300 nm from 500 nm particles are all achieved using the same device architecture. With the high sensitivity and flexibility vDLD affords we expect to find application in a wide variety of microfluidic platforms.

  11. Laterally inherently thin amorphous-crystalline silicon heterojunction photovoltaic cell

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, Zahidur R. Kherani, Nazir P.

    2014-12-29

    This article reports on an amorphous-crystalline silicon heterojunction photovoltaic cell concept wherein the heterojunction regions are laterally narrow and distributed amidst a backdrop of well-passivated crystalline silicon surface. The localized amorphous-crystalline silicon heterojunctions consisting of the laterally thin emitter and back-surface field regions are precisely aligned under the metal grid-lines and bus-bars while the remaining crystalline silicon surface is passivated using the recently proposed facile grown native oxide–plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposited silicon nitride passivation scheme. The proposed cell concept mitigates parasitic optical absorption losses by relegating amorphous silicon to beneath the shadowed metallized regions and by using optically transparent passivation layer. A photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 13.6% is obtained for an untextured proof-of-concept cell illuminated under AM 1.5 global spectrum; the specific cell performance parameters are V{sub OC} of 666 mV, J{sub SC} of 29.5 mA-cm{sup −2}, and fill-factor of 69.3%. Reduced parasitic absorption, predominantly in the shorter wavelength range, is confirmed with external quantum efficiency measurement.

  12. Cholesterol granuloma of the lateral ventricle. Case report.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Peter M; Ellis, Michael J; Cummings, Thomas J; Gray, Linda L; Fukushima, Takanori; Sampson, John H

    2008-02-01

    Cholesterol granulomas (CGs) are benign lesions resulting from an inflammatory reaction to cholesterol and hemosiderin. These masses most often arise within the temporal bone or nasal sinuses; intracerebral CGs are extremely rare. In this report the authors present an unusual case of a CG arising within the lateral ventricle. The patient presented with transient hemiparesis and numbness. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a cystic partially enhancing midline mass within the right lateral ventricle, expanding the ventricle and displacing the septum pellucidum. The patient underwent an interhemispheric, transcallosal resection of the lesion. Microscopic examination revealed a granulomatous inflammatory lesion containing cholesterol clefts, macrophages, and hemosiderin. Embedded within the granulomatous response were foci of tiny cystlike structures lined by nonciliated flattened cuboidal epithelium, consistent with the diagnosis of CG. To the authors' knowledge this is the first reported case of CG presenting as an intraventricular mass. The origin of this lesion is unclear, but it may relate to prior traumatic brain injury. The authors describe the presentation, imaging findings, histopathological characteristics, and surgical treatment of this rare lesion and related pathological entities.

  13. Immigrants' initial steps in Germany and their later economic success.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Irena; Weißmann, Markus

    2013-09-01

    In line with the emerging research that acknowledges the importance of the process character of immigrants' labour market integration, this paper examines the existence of path dependencies of early employment trajectories on later labour market outcomes. Theoretically we are interested in establishing whether career trajectories provide a distinct signal, used by both employers and employees: a signal that operates apart and beyond the accumulation of host-country relevant resources, especially, host-country labour market experience or training. The analyses are performed with the help of a unique dataset comprised of recent immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Germany. Sequence analysis techniques and multivariate regressions are applied. Results show that starting in higher-status employment leaves a distinguishable imprint on immigrants' later occupational standings, even after the returns to the skills associated with early trajectories are taken into account. At the same time, initial career trajectories do not have any direct effect on wages, apart from the pay-off to relevant skills acquired while pursuing these careers. The findings are discussed in concurrence with the human capital and signalling theories.

  14. The Assessment of Cerebral Laterality: The Sherman-Kulhavy Laterality Assessment Inventory. Technical Report No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Jay L.; Kulhavy, Raymond W.

    The Sherman-Kulhavy Laterality Assessment Inventory (LAI), an instrument for determining cerebral laterality, was administered to 1,000 undergraduates to determine the ability of the LAI to discriminate between right- and left-dominant groups. Each S was administered the LAI, a 45-item verbal report instrument which assesses both fine and gross…

  15. Religious Attendance and Loneliness in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rote, Sunshine; Hill, Terrence D.; Ellison, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Studies show that loneliness is a major risk factor for health issues in later life. Although research suggests that religious involvement can protect against loneliness, explanations for this general pattern are underdeveloped and undertested. In this paper, we propose and test a theoretical model, which suggests that social…

  16. Cerebral Lateralization and Its Effect on Drawing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Yvonne A.; Thomas, Stephen B.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the importance of both sides of the brain for the development of drawing skills but notes that the left brain can inhibit the action of the right brain. Provides a discussion of cerebral lateralization and child development. Suggests five drawing exercises to help develop hemispheric cooperation. (SB)

  17. The potential lateral growth of lithalsas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pissart, Albert; Calmels, Fabrice; Wastiaux, Cécile

    2011-03-01

    The lithalsas in the Hudson Bay region of northern Québec, Canada, are the closest modern analogs of ancient features that collapsed to form conspicuous circular depressions ("viviers") common in the Hautes-Fagnes, a region in Belgium. Observations made in both regions are complementary and suggest that these mounds formed by frost heaving displacing soil not only upward, as previously assumed, but also laterally. This lateral displacement is consistent with diverse observations and inferences, which include (1) the simple rounded outline, either circular or oval, typical of both active and relic lithalsas; (2) evidence of local lateral extension inferred from exposures of the relic forms; (3) the relative inefficiency of solifluction in accumulating surface material to form the peripheral ramparts of remnant lithalsas due to the very gentle slopes of the mounds; and (4) the dip of ice lenses within a lithalsa in the Hudson Bay region, perhaps indicating that the freezing front dipped outward along its periphery. The growth of segregation ice is the primary driver for the vertical growth and lateral enlargement of a lithalsa.

  18. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: the role of exercise.

    PubMed

    Lisle, Stuart; Tennison, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting both the upper and lower motor neurons. Given the deterioration of skeletal muscle function, historically there has been concern regarding exercise and its affect on ALS. This article reviews and explains current research, helping patients, caregivers, and providers be equipped better to make decisions regarding the treatment of ALS with exercise.

  19. Biphasic cell responses on laterally mobile films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourouklis, Andreas; Lerum, Ronald; Bermudez, Harry

    2013-03-01

    The engineering of polymer surfaces or matrices that are capable of controlling cell adhesion has been widely explored. In nearly all of these works, the polymer chains (and ligands) are chemically attached to the underlying substrate, and therefore these systems are inherently static. By contrast, cellular environments such as the extracellular matrix (ECM) are dynamic and remodeled by biochemical reactions and biophysical forces. Borrowing this concept from Nature, we created polymer films by an interfacial self-assembly process, whereby individual chains can exhibit lateral mobility (in-plane diffusive motion). NIH 3T3 fibroblasts seeded on such RGD-presenting polymer films show biphasic responses in spreading and adhesion strength to lateral mobility, with a minimal response for intermediate mobility values. Futhermore, preliminary immuno-staining experiments reveal that the total area of focal adhesions demonstrates a similar biphasic trend to the cellular-scale behaviors. In contrast, actin filaments or stress fibers appear to be unaffected by the substrate lateral mobility. These results show that lateral mobility is an important, although not fully explored aspect of mechano-sensing by cells, and can potentially give new perspectives on cell-ECM interactions. National Science Foundation

  20. Parameter Estimation of Lateral Spacecraft Fuel Slosh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudermann, James E.; Schlee, Keith L.

    2008-01-01

    Predicting the effect of fuel slosh on the attitude control system of a spacecraft or launch vehicle is a very important and challenging task. Whether the spacecraft is spinning or moving laterally, the dynamic effect of the fuel slosh helps determine whether the spacecraft will remain on its intended trajectory. Three categories of slosh can be caused by launch vehicle or spacecraft maneuvers when the fuel is in the presence of an acceleration field. These are bulk-fluid motion, subsurface wave motion (currents), and free-surface slosh. Each of these slosh types has a periodic component defined by either a spinning or a lateral motion. For spinning spacecraft, all three types of slosh can greatly affect stability. Bulk-fluid motion and free-surface slosh can affect the lateral-slosh characteristics. For either condition, an unpredicted coupled resonance between the spacecraft and its onboard fuel could threaten a mission. This ongoing research effort seeks to improve the accuracy and efficiency of modeling techniques used to predict these types of fluid motions for lateral motion. Particular efforts focus on analyzing the effects of viscoelastic diaphragms on slosh dynamics.

  1. Clinical Psychology and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Pagnini, Francesco; Rossi, Gabriella; Lunetta, Christian; Banfi, Paolo; Corbo, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal and progressive disease, characterized by progressive muscles weakness, with consequent loss of physical capacities. Psychologists can play an important role in ALS care, by providing clinical activities in every step of the disease, including support and counseling activities directed to patients, their caregivers and to physicians. PMID:21833203

  2. Lateral Hip Pain in an Athletic Population

    PubMed Central

    Grumet, Robert C.; Frank, Rachel M.; Slabaugh, Mark A.; Virkus, Walter W.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Nho, Shane J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Historically, the term greater trochanteric pain syndrome has been used to describe a spectrum of conditions that cause lateral-sided hip pain, including greater trochanteric bursitis, snapping iliotibial band, and/or strains or tendinopathy of the abductor mechanism. Diagnosis of these conditions may be difficult because clinical presentations are variable and sometimes inconclusive. Especially difficult is differentiating intrinsic pain from pain referred to the greater trochanteric region. The purposes of this article are to review the relevant anatomy and pathophysiology of the lateral hip. Evidence Acquisition: Data were collected through a thorough review of the literature conducted through a MEDLINE search of all relevant papers between 1980 and January 2010. Results: Recent advances in imaging and an improved understanding of pathomechanics have helped to guide the evaluation, diagnosis, and appropriate treatment for patients presenting with lateral hip pain. Conclusion: Various diagnostic tools and treatment modalities can be used to effectively manage the athletic patient presenting with lateral hip pain. PMID:23015937

  3. Profiling 1366 Technologies: One Year Later

    ScienceCinema

    Van Mierlo, Frank; Sachs, Ely

    2016-07-12

    Last January, we took a look at how ARPA-E performer, 1366 Technologies is working to dramatically reduce the cost of solar energy. A year later, we revisited their headquarters in Lexington, MA to see the progress they've made.

  4. The Columbine Tragedy Ten Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Some tragedies are so emblazoned in people's minds that years later they can recall where they were when they first heard the news. The assassinations of John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr., the Challenger explosion, and the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks are among these events. So also is the Columbine High School tragedy of April 20, 1999.…

  5. Imaging appearances of lateral ankle ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chien, Alexander J; Jacobson, Jon A; Jamadar, David A; Brigido, Monica Kalume; Femino, John E; Hayes, Curtis W

    2004-01-01

    Six patients were retrospectively identified as having undergone lateral ligament reconstruction surgery. The surgical procedures were categorized into four groups: direct lateral ligament repair, peroneus brevis tendon rerouting, peroneus brevis tendon loop, and peroneus brevis tendon split and rerouting. At radiography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the presence of one or more suture anchors in the region of the anterior talofibular ligament indicates direct ligament repair, whereas a fibular tunnel indicates peroneus brevis tendon rerouting or loop. Both ultrasonography (US) and MR imaging demonstrate rerouted tendons as part of lateral ankle reconstruction; however, MR imaging can also depict the rerouted tendon within an osseous tunnel if present, especially if T1-weighted sequences are used. Artifact from suture material may obscure the tendon at MR imaging but not at US. With both modalities, the integrity of the rerouted peroneus brevis tendon is best evaluated by following the tendon proximally from its distal attachment site, which typically remains unchanged. The rerouted tendon or portion of the tendon can then be traced proximally to its reattachment site. Familiarity with the surgical procedures most commonly used for lateral ankle ligament reconstruction, and with the imaging features of these procedures, is essential for avoiding diagnostic pitfalls and ensuring accurate assessment of the ligament reconstruction.

  6. Depression in Later Life: Recognition and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmall, Vicki L.; And Others

    This guide is designed to help readers understand depression and factors related to its onset in later life; recognize signs of depression and potential suicide; and know actions they can take if they suspect an older family member or friend may be depressed or contemplating suicide. Following a brief introduction, a chapter on depression…

  7. One hand clapping: lateralization of motor control

    PubMed Central

    Welniarz, Quentin; Dusart, Isabelle; Gallea, Cécile; Roze, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Lateralization of motor control refers to the ability to produce pure unilateral or asymmetric movements. It is required for a variety of coordinated activities, including skilled bimanual tasks and locomotion. Here we discuss the neuroanatomical substrates and pathophysiological underpinnings of lateralized motor outputs. Significant breakthroughs have been made in the past few years by studying the two known conditions characterized by the inability to properly produce unilateral or asymmetric movements, namely human patients with congenital “mirror movements” and model rodents with a “hopping gait”. Whereas mirror movements are associated with altered interhemispheric connectivity and abnormal corticospinal projections, abnormal spinal cord interneurons trajectory is responsible for the “hopping gait”. Proper commissural axon guidance is a critical requirement for these mechanisms. Interestingly, the analysis of these two conditions reveals that the production of asymmetric movements involves similar anatomical and functional requirements but in two different structures: (i) lateralized activation of the brain or spinal cord through contralateral silencing by cross-midline inhibition; and (ii) unilateral transmission of this activation, resulting in lateralized motor output. PMID:26082690

  8. Lateral drug diffusion in human nails.

    PubMed

    Palliyil, Biji B; Li, Cong; Owaisat, Suzan; Lebo, David B

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of the current work is to demonstrate the process of passive lateral diffusion in the human nail plate and its effect on the passive transungual permeation of antifungal drug ciclopirox olamine (CPO). A water soluble dye, methyl red sodium salt (MR) was used to visualize the process of lateral diffusion using a novel suspended nail experiment. The decline in concentration of CPO correlates with that of concentration of MR from the proximal to the distal end of the nail in suspended nail study. Three toenails each were trimmed to 5 mm × 5 mm (25 mm(2)), 7 mm × 7 mm (49 mm(2)), and 9 mm × 9 mm (81 mm(2)) to study the extent and effect of lateral diffusion of the CPO on its in vitro transungual permeation. The permeation flux of CPO decreased as the surface area of the toenail increased. There was a positive correlation between the concentrations of CPO and MR in the area of application and in the peripheral area of the toenails of the three surface areas, confirming the findings in the suspended nail experiment. Profound lateral diffusion of CPO was demonstrated and shown to reduce the in vitro passive transungual drug permeation and prolong the lag-time in human toenails. The study data implies that during passive in vitro transungual permeation experiments, the peripheral nail around the area of drug application has to be kept to a minimum, in order to get reliable data which mimics the in vivo situation.

  9. Lateralized Temporal Order Judgement in Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Jackson, Georgina M.; Rorden, Chris; Jackson, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    Temporal and spatial attentional deficits in dyslexia were investigated using a lateralized visual temporal order judgment (TOJ) paradigm that allowed both sensitivity to temporal order and spatial attentional bias to be measured. Findings indicate that adult participants with a positive screen for dyslexia were significantly less sensitive to the…

  10. Defining Mental Health in Later Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qualls, Sara Honn

    2002-01-01

    Traditional models for defining mental health have used statistical definitions and symptom-based definitions. In a lifespan psychological approach, mental health in later life is defined as acceptance of the aging self as an active being who creates meaning, maintains maximum autonomy, and sustains positive relationships. (Contains 12…

  11. Piston measurement by quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry.

    PubMed

    Mousset, Soazic; Rouyer, Claude; Marre, Gabrielle; Blanchot, Nathalie; Montant, Sébastien; Wattellier, Benoit

    2006-09-01

    We present what is to our knowledge a new method for measuring the relative piston between two independent beams separated by a physical gap, typical of petawatt facilities. The feasibility of this measurement, based on quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry, has been demonstrated experimentally: piston has been measured with accuracy and sensitivity better than 50 nm.

  12. Modeling lateral acceleration effects on pilot performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korn, J.; Kleinan, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Attendant to the direct side force maneuver of a Vectored Force Fighter is the transverse acceleration imposed on the pilot. This lateral acceleration (Gy), when combind with a positive Gz stress, is a potential source of pilot tracking performance impairment. A research effort to investigate these performance decrements includes experimental as well as anaytical pilot performance modeling using the Optimal Control Model.

  13. Lateral Eye Movement Behavior in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Cecil R.; Kaufman, Alan S.

    1980-01-01

    The conjugate lateral eye movement phenomenon was investigated for 52 children aged 2 through 10 using both spatial and verbal-analytic questions. The phenomenon was observed in 50 subjects and appeared well-established by age 3 1/2. Some interesting developmental findings and discrepancies with the results of adult studies are noted. (Author/SJL)

  14. Laparoscopic versus open left lateral segmentectomy

    PubMed Central

    Carswell, Kirstin A; Sagias, Filippos G; Murgatroyd, Beth; Rela, Mohamed; Heaton, Nigel; Patel, Ameet G

    2009-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic liver surgery is becoming increasingly common. This cohort study was designed to directly compare perioperative outcomes of the left lateral segmentectomy via laparoscopic and open approach. Methods Between 2002 and 2006 43 left lateral segmentectomies were performed at King's College Hospital. Those excluded from analysis included previous liver resections, polycystic liver disease, liver cirrhosis and synchronous operations. Of 20 patients analysed, laparoscopic (n = 10) were compared with open left lateral segmentectomy (n = 10). Both groups had similar patient characteristics. Results Morbidity rates were similar with no wound or chest infection in either group. The conversion rate was 10% (1/10). There was no difference in operating time between the groups (median time 220 minutes versus 179 minutes, p = 0.315). Surgical margins for all lesions were clear. Less postoperative opiate analgesics were required in the laparoscopic group (median 2 days versus 5 days, p = 0.005). The median postoperative in-hospital stay was less in the laparoscopic group (6 days vs 9 days, p = 0.005). There was no mortality. Conclusion Laparoscopic left lateral segmentectomy is safe and feasible. Laparoscopic patients may benefit from requiring less postoperative opiate analgesia and a shorter post-operative in-hospital stay. PMID:19735573

  15. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    PubMed

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum.

  16. Profiling 1366 Technologies: One Year Later

    SciTech Connect

    Van Mierlo, Frank; Sachs, Ely

    2011-01-01

    Last January, we took a look at how ARPA-E performer, 1366 Technologies is working to dramatically reduce the cost of solar energy. A year later, we revisited their headquarters in Lexington, MA to see the progress they've made.

  17. Laterality, Implicit Memory, and Attention Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Geraldine A.; Brown, Geoffrey

    1991-01-01

    Presents study showing children with behaviors characteristic of attention disorder/hyperactivity deficit and high intelligence have more mixed laterality and allergies. Finds these children gather and use more diverse nonverbal and poorly focused information. Concludes such children use uncommon information when exhibiting novelty in nonverbal…

  18. Preparing Future Faculty: Ten Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Sean P.; Aiossa, Elizabeth; Winter, Mary Mugica

    2010-01-01

    When Sean Murphy designed the Graduate Student Internship Program at the College of Lake County (CLC), his 2001 TETYC article about the then two-year-old program detailed his programmatic response to the job market. Ten years later, the CLC-DePaul University partnership remains the strongest of the original dozen cross-sector relationships CLC…

  19. iPS Cells 10 Years Later.

    PubMed

    2016-09-08

    In 2006, Takahashi and Yamanaka reported the breakthrough discovery of induction of pluripotent stem cells from fibroblasts by a combination of defined factors. Ten years later, Cell editor João Monteiro brings together Shinya Yamanaka and Hans Schöler, one the original reviewers of the landmark study, to revisit the history behind the paper and its long-lasting legacy.

  20. Adolescent Sexual Debut and Later Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, Stacy; Haynie, Dana L.

    2007-01-01

    Does sexual debut (i.e., experiencing sexual intercourse for the first time) increase the risks of participating in later delinquent behavior? Does this risk increase if adolescents experience early sexual debut relative to the timing experienced by one's peers? Although many factors have been linked to sexual debut, little research has examined…

  1. Analysis of the Officer Lateral Transfer and Redesignation Process and Its Impact on the Unrestricted Line

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Factors in the work environment consistently reported to have a negative impact on job satisfaction include long hours while at sea and in port to get...the job done, and excessively heavy workloads in port , particularly during pre-deployment periods. The NPS survey series asked respondents to indicate...both at sea and in port , significantly influenced their decision to leave the Navy. Similarly, male showed a negative response with 63 percent of

  2. Schizotypal personality traits and atypical lateralization in motor and language functions.

    PubMed

    Asai, Tomohisa; Sugimori, Eriko; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2009-10-01

    Atypical cerebral lateralization in motor and language functions in regard to schizotypal personality traits in healthy populations, as well as among schizophrenic patients, has attracted attention because these traits may represent a risk factor for schizophrenia. Although the relationship between handedness and schizotypal personality has been widely examined, few studies have adopted an experimental approach. This study consisted of three experiments focusing on motor and language functional lateralization in regard to schizotypal personality in the absence of mental illness: line-drawing, finger tapping, and a semantic go/no-go task. The results suggested that positive schizotypal personality might be related to functional non-lateralization in regard to at least some functions (e.g., spatial motor control and semantic processing in the present study). Subjects with high schizotypal personality traits performed equally with their right and left-hands in the line-drawing task and they reacted equally with their right and left-hands in a semantic go/no-go task involving semantic auditory stimuli presented in both ears. However, those low in schizotypal personality traits showed typical lateralization in response to these tasks. We discuss the implications of these findings for schizotypal atypical lateralization.

  3. Biomechanical Performance of Lateral Versus Dual Locking Plates for Calcaneal Fractures.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Abby B; Owen, John R; Gilbert, Todd M; Romash, Michael M; Wayne, Jennifer S; Adelaar, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Given the high rates of wound complications with a standard lateral extensile incision, small dual incision techniques might result in less soft tissue destruction. The goal of the present study was to compare the biomechanical performance between a single locking plate and a dual locking plating system for an intra-articular calcaneal fracture model. A Sanders IIB type joint depression calcaneal fracture was created in 10 paired, fresh-frozen, cadaveric calcanei (age 47 ± 12, range 35 to 78 years). The calcanei of each pair were randomly assigned for fixation using either a lateral locking reconstruction plate or lateral and medial locking reconstruction plates. The specimens were axially loaded in cyclic fashion for 1000 cycles, followed by load to failure. The relative fragment movement was monitored optically in both the sagittal and the coronal planes. The amount of overall construct displacement increased with cycling, although no difference was found between the plating techniques. For fragment movement during cycling, the lateral joint fragment migrated anteroinferiorly along the fracture line relative to the tuberosity fragment for dual plated specimens by a small, but statistically significant, amount. This same translation was smaller for lateral plated specimens but was not found to be significant. During load to failure testing, no statistically significant differences were found for construct stiffness. A tendency was seen toward more interfragmentary motion in the sagittal plane (lateral joint fragment movement relative to the fracture line), with less movement overall in the coronal plane (anterior fragment translation and twist) for dual plating, although the difference from the lateral plate was not statistically significant. The present study demonstrated that for this calcaneal fracture model, the dual plating technique experienced a small amount of fragment translation during cycling that was significantly different statistically from that

  4. Measuring acetabular component position on lateral radiographs - ischio-lateral method.

    PubMed

    Pulos, Nicholas; Tiberi Iii, John V; Schmalzried, Thomas P

    2011-01-01

    The standard method for the evaluation of arthritis and postoperative assessment of arthroplasty treatment is observation and measurement from plain films, using the flm edge for orientation. A more recent employment of an anatomical landmark, the ischial tuberosity, has come into use as orientation for evaluation and is called the ischio-lateral method. In this study, the use of this method was evaluated as a first report to the literature on acetabular component measurement using a skeletal reference with lateral radiographs. Postoperative radiographs of 52 hips, with at least three true lateral radiographs taken at different time periods, were analyzed. Component position was measured with the historical method (using the flm edge for orientation) and with the new method using the ischio-lateral method. The mean standard deviation (SD) for the historical approach was 3.7° and for the ischio-lateral method, 2.2° (p < 0.001). With the historical method, 19 (36.5%) hips had a SD greater than ± 4°, compared to six hips (11.5%) with the ischio-lateral method. By using a skeletal reference, the ischio-lateral method provides a more consistent measurement of acetabular component position. The high intra-class correlation coefficients for both intra- and inter-observer reliability indicate that the angle measured with this simple method, which employs no further technology, increased time, or cost, is consistent and reproducible for multiple observers.

  5. Dissociating the roles of right ventral lateral and dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex in generation and maintenance of hypotheses in set-shift problems.

    PubMed

    Goel, Vinod; Vartanian, Oshin

    2005-08-01

    Although patient data have traditionally implicated the left prefrontal cortex (PFC) in hypothesis generation, recent lesion data implicate right PFC in hypothesis generation tasks that involve set shifts (lateral transformations). To test the involvement of the right prefrontal cortex in a hypothesis generation task involving set shifts, we scanned 13 normal subjects with fMRI as they completed Match Problems (a classic divergent thinking task) and a baseline task. In Match Problems subjects determined the number of possible solutions for each trial. Successful solutions are indicative of set shifts. In the baseline condition subjects evaluated the accuracy of hypothetical solutions to match problems. A comparison of Match Problems versus baseline trials revealed activation in right ventral lateral PFC (BA 47) and left dorsal lateral PFC (BA 46). A further comparison of successfully versus unsuccessfully completed Match Problems revealed activation in right ventral lateral PFC (BA 47), left middle frontal gyrus (BA 9) and left frontal pole (BA 10), thus identifying the former as a critical component of the neural mechanisms of set-shift transformation. By contrast, activation in right dorsal lateral PFC (BA 46) covaried as a function of the number of solutions generated in Match Problems, possibly due to increased working memory demands to maintain multiple solutions 'on-line', conflict resolution, or progress monitoring. These results go beyond the patient data by identifying the ventral lateral (BA 47) aspect of right PFC as being a critical component of the neural systems underlying lateral transformations, and demonstrate a dissociation between right VLPFC and DLPFC in hypotheses generation and maintenance.

  6. Lateral cephalometric radiograph versus lateral nasopharyngeal radiograph for quantitative evaluation of nasopharyngeal airway space

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Suelen Cristina da Costa; Beltrão, Rejane Targino Soares; Janson, Guilherme; Garib, Daniela Gamba

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study compared lateral radiographs of the nasopharynx (LN) and lateral cephalometric radiographs (LC) used to assess nasopharyngeal airway space in children. Material and Methods One examiner measured the nasopharyngeal space of 15 oral breathing patients aged between 5 and 11 years old by using LN and LC. Both assessments were made twice with a 15-day interval in between. Intergroup comparison was performed with t-tests (P < 0.05). Results Comparison between LN and LC measurements showed no significant differences. Conclusion Lateral cephalometric radiograph is an acceptable method used to assess nasopharyngeal airway space. PMID:25279526

  7. Customized MFM probes with high lateral resolution

    PubMed Central

    Jaafar, Miriam; Berganza, Eider; Asenjo, Agustina

    2016-01-01

    Summary Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) is a widely used technique for magnetic imaging. Besides its advantages such as the high spatial resolution and the easy use in the characterization of relevant applied materials, the main handicaps of the technique are the lack of control over the tip stray field and poor lateral resolution when working under standard conditions. In this work, we present a convenient route to prepare high-performance MFM probes with sub-10 nm (sub-25 nm) topographic (magnetic) lateral resolution by following an easy and quick low-cost approach. This allows one to not only customize the tip stray field, avoiding tip-induced changes in the sample magnetization, but also to optimize MFM imaging in vacuum (or liquid media) by choosing tips mounted on hard (or soft) cantilevers, a technology that is currently not available on the market. PMID:27547625

  8. Motorcycle state estimation for lateral dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teerhuis, A. P.; Jansen, S. T. H.

    2012-08-01

    The motorcycle lean (or roll) angle development is one of the main characteristics of motorcycle lateral dynamics. Control of motorcycle motions requires an accurate assessment of this quantity and for safety applications also the risk of sliding needs to be considered. Direct measurement of the roll angle and tyre slip is not available; therefore, a method of model-based estimation is developed to estimate the state of a motorcycle. This paper investigates the feasibility of such a motorcycle state estimator (MCSE). A simplified analytic model of a motorcycle is developed by comparison to an extended multi-body model of the motorcycle, designed in Matlab/SimMechanics. The analytic model is used inside an extended Kalman filter. Experimental results of an instrumented Yamaha FJR1300 motorcycle show that the MCSE is a feasible concept for obtaining signals related to the lateral dynamics of the motorcycle.

  9. Robust lateral control of highway vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, R.H.; Abdallah, C.

    1994-08-01

    Vehicle lateral dynamics are affected by vehicle mass, longitudinal velocity, vehicle inertia, and the cornering stiffness of the tires. All of these parameters are subject to variation, even over the course of a single trip. Therefore, a practical lateral control system must guarantee stability, and hopefully ride comfort, over a wide range of parameter changes. This paper describes a robust controller which theoretically guarantees stability over a wide range of parameter changes. The robust controller is designed using a frequency domain transfer function approach. An uncertainty band in the frequency domain is determined using simulations over the range of expected parameter variations. Based on this bound, a robust controller is designed by solving the Nevanlinna-Pick interpolation problem. The performance of the robust controller is then evaluated over the range of parameter variations through simulations.

  10. Epidural Abscess Masquerading as Lateral Sinus Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Brodner, David C.; Cutler, Jeff; Gianoli, Gerard J.; Amedee, Ronald G.

    2000-01-01

    Controversy regarding the use of anticoagulants, the evacuation of the sinus, or the use of medical treatment alone surrounds the treatment of lateral sinus thrombosis. Treatment of an epidural abscess associated with coalescent mastoiditis is much less controversial-drainage is usually recommended. The differing treatments of these complications mandate accurate diagnosis. The advent of more sophisticated radiological studies has facilitated diagnosis of these complications; however, tests are not infallible. We present three cases in which preoperative imaging demonstrates an epidural abscess mimicking lateral sinus thrombosis by compression of the vessel. A false-positive computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study may lead to the wrong diagnosis and, consequently, improper treatment. In light of this possibility, we recommend surgical exploration in all such cases. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:17171148

  11. Customized MFM probes with high lateral resolution.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Freire, Óscar; Jaafar, Miriam; Berganza, Eider; Asenjo, Agustina

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) is a widely used technique for magnetic imaging. Besides its advantages such as the high spatial resolution and the easy use in the characterization of relevant applied materials, the main handicaps of the technique are the lack of control over the tip stray field and poor lateral resolution when working under standard conditions. In this work, we present a convenient route to prepare high-performance MFM probes with sub-10 nm (sub-25 nm) topographic (magnetic) lateral resolution by following an easy and quick low-cost approach. This allows one to not only customize the tip stray field, avoiding tip-induced changes in the sample magnetization, but also to optimize MFM imaging in vacuum (or liquid media) by choosing tips mounted on hard (or soft) cantilevers, a technology that is currently not available on the market.

  12. Thrust vectoring for lateral-directional stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peron, Lee R.; Carpenter, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of using thrust vectoring for lateral-directional control and the effects of reducing the tail size of a single-engine aircraft were investigated. The aerodynamic characteristics of the F-16 aircraft were generated by using the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System II panel code. The resulting lateral-directional linear perturbation analysis of a modified F-16 aircraft with various tail sizes and yaw vectoring was performed at several speeds and altitudes to determine the stability and control trends for the aircraft compared to these trends for a baseline aircraft. A study of the paddle-type turning vane thrust vectoring control system as used on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle is also presented.

  13. Lateralization Technique and Inferior Alveolar Nerve Transposition

    PubMed Central

    Sanches, Marco Antonio; Ramalho, Gabriel Cardoso; Manzi, Marcello Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Bone resorption of the posterior mandible can result in diminished bone edge and, therefore, the installation of implants in these regions becomes a challenge, especially in the presence of the mandibular canal and its contents, the inferior alveolar nerve. Several treatment alternatives are suggested: the use of short implants, guided bone regeneration, appositional bone grafting, distraction osteogenesis, inclined implants tangential to the mandibular canal, and the lateralization of the inferior alveolar nerve. The aim was to elucidate the success rate of implants in the lateralization technique and in inferior alveolar nerve transposition and to determine the most effective sensory test. We conclude that the success rate is linked to the possibility of installing implants with long bicortical anchor which favors primary stability and biomechanics. PMID:27433360

  14. Early Taste Experiences and Later Food Choices

    PubMed Central

    De Cosmi, Valentina; Scaglioni, Silvia; Agostoni, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Background. Nutrition in early life is increasingly considered to be an important factor influencing later health. Food preferences are formed in infancy, are tracked into childhood and beyond, and complementary feeding practices are crucial to prevent obesity later in life. Methods. Through a literature search strategy, we have investigated the role of breastfeeding, of complementary feeding, and the parental and sociocultural factors which contribute to set food preferences early in life. Results. Children are predisposed to prefer high-energy, -sugar, and -salt foods, and in pre-school age to reject new foods (food neophobia). While genetically determined individual differences exist, repeated offering of foods can modify innate preferences. Conclusions. Starting in the prenatal period, a varied exposure through amniotic fluid and repeated experiences with novel flavors during breastfeeding and complementary feeding increase children’s willingness to try new foods within a positive social environment. PMID:28165384

  15. Liquefaction-Induced Lateral Spread Displacement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    available from these larger events, however, is too meager to provide adequate statistical constraint on the regression analysis. Thus, extrapolation to...the lateral spreads that developed in the South of Market and Mission Creek zones of San Francisco during the 1906 earthquake moved only about 10% to...History Database (After Bartlett and Youd, 1992) 1906 San Francisco Earthquake Coyote Creek Bridge near Milpitas, California Mission Creek Zone in San

  16. Laterally-Biased Quantum IR Detectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-23

    Sistemas Optoelectronicos y Microtecnologia Calle Ramiro de Maeztu 7 Madrid 28040 SPAIN EOARD Grant 12-3006 Report Date: October 2013 Final...Universidad Politecnica de Madrid Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectronicos y Microtecnologia Calle Ramiro de Maeztu 7 Madrid 28040 SPAIN 8. PERFORMING...Z39-18 Laterally-biased quantum IR detectors – Report Nov 2013 1 EOARD - Award No. FA8655-12-1-3006 Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectrónicos

  17. A lateralized brain network for visuospatial attention.

    PubMed

    Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Forkel, Stephanie J; Simmons, Andrew; Vergani, Francesco; Murphy, Declan G M; Catani, Marco

    2011-09-18

    Right hemisphere dominance for visuospatial attention is characteristic of most humans, but its anatomical basis remains unknown. We report the first evidence in humans for a larger parieto-frontal network in the right than left hemisphere, and a significant correlation between the degree of anatomical lateralization and asymmetry of performance on visuospatial tasks. Our results suggest that hemispheric specialization is associated with an unbalanced speed of visuospatial processing.

  18. [Surgical anatomy of the lateral ventricles].

    PubMed

    Lejeune, J-P; Baroncini, M; Peltier, J; Le Gars, D

    2011-01-01

    The lateral ventricle is a deep-seated cavity, overlayed by a cortical mantle which contains eloquent areas, especially on the dominant hemisphere, and surrounded by the optic radiations. The surgical approach requires a thorough preoperative reflexion based on magnetic resonance imaging, in order to understand the site of origin and the vascular pedicles of the tumor. Surgical approaches to the frontal horn, temporal horn and atrium are successively described.

  19. Evaluation and management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Valadi, Nojan

    2015-06-01

    Motor neuron diseases can cause progressive impairment of voluntary muscles of movement, respiration, speech, and swallowing. This review discusses the most common motor neuron disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). It reviews the evaluation, diagnosis, and management of ALS, and its epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management. A coordinated approach by the primary care physician and neurologist is necessary with a focus on treatment options, durable medical equipment needs, and end-of-life discussions.

  20. Lateral flow immunoassay using magnetoresistive sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taton, Kristin; Johnson, Diane; Guire, Patrick; Lange, Erik; Tondra, Mark

    2009-05-01

    Magnetic particles have been adapted for use as labels in biochemical lateral flow strip tests. Standard gold particle lateral flow assays are generally qualitative; however, with magnetic particles, quantitative results can be obtained by using electronic detection systems with giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors. As described here, these small integrated sensor chips can detect the presence of magnetic labels in capture spots whose volume is approximately 150 μm×150 μm×150 μm. The range of linear detection is better than two orders of magnitude; the total range is up to four orders of magnitude. The system was demonstrated with both indirect and sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for protein detection of rabbit IgG and interferon-γ, respectively, achieving detection of 12 pg/ml protein. Ultimately, the goal is for the detector to be fully integrated into the lateral flow strip backing to form a single consumable item that is interrogated by a handheld electronic reader.

  1. Perturbations Caused by Lateral Stress Gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, R. E.; Harris, E. J.

    2007-12-01

    In principle, stress gauges mounted to measure lateral stresses in a shocked matrix allow the shear strength of the material to be determined. Interpreting the records from lateral stress gauges is hindered by the fact that the stress field in the insulating layer in which the gauges are mounted can differ signifcantly from the stress field that would be generated in the sample if no gauge were present. A series of high resolution Eulerian code calculations have been run which suggest that the stresses in the insulating layer vary with distance and time in a way that depends on the thickness of the layer, the shock strength, and the elastic and plastic properties of both the layer and the matrix. In particular, if the shock velocity in the matrix material is high the stress at a typical gauge position initially rises to a sharp peak then falls with time, but when the shock velocity in the matrix is low the stress rises relatively gradually throughout the time of interest. The shapes of the stress-time profiles predicted by the hydrocode compare well with the results of lateral gauge experiments on several different materials.

  2. Lateral approach for supraclavicular brachial plexus block

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, DK; Sahu, Anjana

    2010-01-01

    A lateral approach described by Volker Hempel and Dr. Dilip Kotharihas been further studied, evaluated and described in detail in the present study. The aim of this study was to evaluate lateral approach of supraclavicular brachial plexus block, mainly in terms of successes rate and complication rate. The study was conducted in secondary level hospital and tertiary level hospital from 2004 to 2008. It was a prospective nonrandomized open-level study. Eighty-two patients of both sexes, aged between 18 and 65 years with ASA Grade I and II scheduled to undergo elective major surgery of the upper limb below the midarm, were selected for this new lateral approach of brachial plexus block. The onset and duration of sensory and motor block, any complications and need for supplement anaesthesia were observed. Success and complication rate were calculated in percentage. Average onset and duration of sensory and motor block was calculated as mean ± SD and percentage. Out of 82 patients, 75 (92%) have got successful block with no significant complication in any case. PMID:20885867

  3. Lateral jet injection into typical combustor flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilley, D. G.

    1986-01-01

    The experimental problem of lateral jet injection into typical flow fields in the absence of combustion was studied. All flow fields being investigated have no expansion of the crossflow (the test section to swirler diameter ratio D/d = 1), after its passage through an optional swirler (with swirl vane angle phi = 0 (swirler removed), 45, and 70 degree). The lateral jet(s) is(are) located one test-section diameter downstream of the test-section inlet (x/D = 1). The lateral jets have round-sectioned nozzles, each of which has an area of 1/100th of the cross sectional area of the crossflow (A sub j/A sub c = 1/100). Jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios of R = v sub j/u sub o = 2, 4, and 6 were investigated. Helium-bubble low visualization, five-hole pitot probe time-mean velocity measurements, and single-wire time-mean velocity and normal and shear stress turbulence data were obtained in the research program.

  4. Neuron-specific antioxidant OXR1 extends survival of a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kevin X.; Edwards, Benjamin; Lee, Sheena; Finelli, Mattéa J.; Davies, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of spinal motor neurons. While the aetiological mechanisms underlying the disease remain poorly understood, oxidative stress is a central component of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and contributes to motor neuron injury. Recently, oxidation resistance 1 (OXR1) has emerged as a critical regulator of neuronal survival in response to oxidative stress, and is upregulated in the spinal cord of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that OXR1 is a key neuroprotective factor during amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pathogenesis by crossing a new transgenic mouse line that overexpresses OXR1 in neurons with the SOD1G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Interestingly, we report that overexpression of OXR1 significantly extends survival, improves motor deficits, and delays pathology in the spinal cord and in muscles of SOD1G93A mice. Furthermore, we find that overexpression of OXR1 in neurons significantly delays non-cell-autonomous neuroinflammatory response, classic complement system activation, and STAT3 activation through transcriptomic analysis of spinal cords of SOD1G93A mice. Taken together, these data identify OXR1 as the first neuron-specific antioxidant modulator of pathogenesis and disease progression in SOD1-mediated amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and suggest that OXR1 may serve as a novel target for future therapeutic strategies. PMID:25753484

  5. Dynamic responses of railroad car models to vertical and lateral rail inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sewall, J. L.; Parrish, R. V.; Durling, B. J.

    1971-01-01

    Simplified dynamic models were applied in a study of vibration in a high-speed railroad car. The mathematical models used were a four-degree-of-freedom model for vertical responses to vertical rail inputs and a ten-degree-of-freedom model for lateral response to lateral or rolling (cross-level) inputs from the rails. Elastic properties of the passenger car body were represented by bending and torsion of a uniform beam. Rail-to-car (truck) suspensions were modeled as spring-mass-dashpot oscillators. Lateral spring nonlinearities approximating certain complicated truck mechanisms were introduced. The models were excited by displacement and, in some cases, velocity inputs from the rails by both deterministic (including sinusoidal) and random input functions. Results were obtained both in the frequency and time domains. Solutions in the time domain for the lateral model were obtained for a wide variety of transient and random inputs generated on-line by an analog computer. Variations in one of the damping properties of the lateral car suspension gave large fluctuations in response over a range of car speeds for a given input. This damping coefficient was significant in reducing lateral car responses that were higher for nonlinear springs for three different inputs.

  6. Neuron-specific antioxidant OXR1 extends survival of a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kevin X; Edwards, Benjamin; Lee, Sheena; Finelli, Mattéa J; Davies, Ben; Davies, Kay E; Oliver, Peter L

    2015-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of spinal motor neurons. While the aetiological mechanisms underlying the disease remain poorly understood, oxidative stress is a central component of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and contributes to motor neuron injury. Recently, oxidation resistance 1 (OXR1) has emerged as a critical regulator of neuronal survival in response to oxidative stress, and is upregulated in the spinal cord of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that OXR1 is a key neuroprotective factor during amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pathogenesis by crossing a new transgenic mouse line that overexpresses OXR1 in neurons with the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Interestingly, we report that overexpression of OXR1 significantly extends survival, improves motor deficits, and delays pathology in the spinal cord and in muscles of SOD1(G93A) mice. Furthermore, we find that overexpression of OXR1 in neurons significantly delays non-cell-autonomous neuroinflammatory response, classic complement system activation, and STAT3 activation through transcriptomic analysis of spinal cords of SOD1(G93A) mice. Taken together, these data identify OXR1 as the first neuron-specific antioxidant modulator of pathogenesis and disease progression in SOD1-mediated amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and suggest that OXR1 may serve as a novel target for future therapeutic strategies.

  7. Lateral shear-moraines and lateral marginal-moraines of palaeo-ice streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, C. L.; Dowdeswell, J. A.

    2016-11-01

    An understanding of the nature of sedimentation at ice-stream lateral margins is important in reconstructing the dynamics of former ice sheets and modelling the mechanisms by which sediment is transported beneath contemporary ice streams. Theories of the formation of ice-stream lateral moraines (ISLMs) have hitherto been based on a relatively limited number of terrestrial and marine examples. Here, an inventory of ISLMs is compiled from available studies, together with independent analysis of seismic-reflection and bathymetric datasets. The locations and dimensions of 70 ISLMs, alongside a synthesis of their key architectural and geomorphic characteristics, are presented. Two different types of ISLMs are identified. Type 1 ISLMs are up to 3.5 km wide and 60 m thick. They maintain a constant width, thickness and cross-sectional shape along their length. Type 1 ISLMs are interpreted and referred to as ice-stream lateral shear-moraines that form subglacially in the shear zone between ice streams and slower-flowing regions of an ice sheet. In contrast, Type 2 ISLMs are up to 50 km wide and 300 m thick. They are only identified close to the shelf break in the marine environment. Type 2 ISLMs exhibit an increase in width and thickness along their length and their distal slopes become steeper in a seaward direction. They contain internal dipping reflections that indicate sediment progradation away from the former ice stream. Type 2 ISLMs are interpreted and referred to as ice-stream lateral marginal-moraines that were formed at the lateral boundary between ice streams and seafloor terrain that was free of grounded ice. We suggest that, using bathymetric images and acoustic profiles, it is possible to differentiate between ice-stream lateral shear-moraines and lateral marginal-moraines in the geological record. This distinction is important for understanding the mechanisms of sediment transfer beneath ice streams and for making inferences about the conditions that existed

  8. Lateral epicondylitis and beyond: imaging of lateral elbow pain with clinical-radiologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Kotnis, Nikhil A; Chiavaras, Mary M; Harish, Srinivasan

    2012-04-01

    The diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis is often straightforward and can be made on the basis of clinical findings. However, radiological assessment is valuable where the clinical picture is less clear or where symptoms are refractory to treatment. Demographics, aspects of clinical history, or certain physical signs may suggest an alternate diagnosis. Knowledge of the typical clinical presentation and imaging findings of lateral epicondylitis, in addition to other potential causes of lateral elbow pain, is necessary. These include entrapment of the posterior interosseous and lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerves, posterolateral rotatory instability, posterolateral plica syndrome, Panner's disease, osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum, radiocapitellar overload syndrome, occult fractures and chondral-osseous impaction injuries, and radiocapitellar arthritis. Knowledge of these potential masquerades of lateral epicondylitis and their characteristic clinical and imaging features is essential for accurate diagnosis. The goal of this review is to provide an approach to the imaging of lateral elbow pain, discussing the relevant anatomy, various causes, and discriminating factors, which will allow for an accurate diagnosis.

  9. High energy beam lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetto, M.; Laxdal, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    The ISAC post accelerator comprises an RFQ, DTL and SC-linac. The high energy beam lines connect the linear accelerators as well as deliver the accelerated beams to two different experimental areas. The medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line connects the RFQ to the DTL. The high energy beam transport (HEBT) line connects the DTL to the ISAC-I experimental stations (DRAGON, TUDA-I, GPS). The DTL to superconducting beam (DSB) transport line connects the ISAC-I and ISAC-II linacs. The superconducting energy beam transport (SEBT) line connects the SC linac to the ISAC-II experimental station (TUDA-II, HERACLES, TIGRESS, EMMA and GPS). All these lines have the function of transporting and matching the beams to the downstream sections by manipulating the transverse and longitudinal phase space. They also contain diagnostic devices to measure the beam properties.

  10. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOEpatents

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  11. Modular organization of ON and OFF responses in the cat lateral geniculate nucleus.

    PubMed

    Berman, N E; Payne, B R

    1989-01-01

    Multiunit mapping techniques were used to investigate whether or not units with ON- and OFF-center receptive fields occur in an orderly arrangement in the cat lateral geniculate nucleus. In the A layers, ON- and OFF-center sites were partially segregated in the dimension parallel to the laminae, with ON-center sites predominant at the dorsal surface of each layer and OFF-center sites relatively more numerous at the ventral surface of the layer. Microelectrode tracks were placed to traverse the visual field map in the nucleus parallel to projection lines, parallel to isoelevation lines and parallel to isoazimuth lines. The tracks placed parallel to projection lines contained long sequences of units of the same center sign, providing evidence that ON and OFF zones are organized in vertical modules which span much or all of the thickness of a layer. The tracks placed parallel to isoelevation and isoazimuth lines contained alternating clusters of ON- and OFF-center sites. These clusters were larger in the dimension representing isoelevation than in the dimension representing isoazimuth. Taken together, these results indicate that the cat lateral geniculate nucleus contains ON and OFF modules oriented perpendicular to the layers.

  12. [How to understand the excessive lateral rectus muscle recession].

    PubMed

    Kang, Xiaoli; Wei, Yan

    2014-07-01

    Surgical treatments of intermittent exotropia include symmetric bilateral lateral rectus recession, symmetric bilateral medial rectus resection, asymmetric monocular lateral rectus recession and/or medial rectus resection, in which lateral rectus recession is the most common method. The maximum amount of lateral rectus recession, however, is still controversial. Bilateral lateral rectus recession 7-8 mm for 35(Δ)-40(Δ) exotropia and unilateral lateral rectus recession and medial rectus resection for exotropia larger than 40(Δ) are suggested by most doctor usually. But some other doctors advocated augmented bilateral lateral rectus recession (9-14 mm ) for exotropia larger than 50(Δ) or augmented unilateral lateral rectus recession for moderate angle exotropia (30(Δ)-35(Δ)), which brought confusion in practical clinical work. In this paper, we'll focus on the amount of lateral rectus recession, and discuss several common issues related to augmented lateral rectus recession, in order to provide references for the majority of clinicians.

  13. Lining in nasal reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Haack, Sebastian; Fischer, Helmut; Gubisch, Wolfgang

    2014-06-01

    Restoring nasal lining is one of the essential parts during reconstruction of full-thickness defects of the nose. Without a sufficient nasal lining the whole reconstruction will fail. Nasal lining has to sufficiently cover the shaping subsurface framework. But in addition, lining must not compromise or even block nasal ventilation. This article demonstrates different possibilities of lining reconstruction. The use of composite grafts for small rim defects is described. The limits and technical components for application of skin grafts are discussed. Then the advantages and limitations of endonasal, perinasal, and hingeover flaps are demonstrated. Strategies to restore lining with one or two forehead flaps are presented. Finally, the possibilities and technical aspects to reconstruct nasal lining with a forearm flap are demonstrated. Technical details are explained by intraoperative pictures. Clinical cases are shown to illustrate the different approaches and should help to understand the process of decision making. It is concluded that although the lining cannot be seen after reconstruction of the cover it remains one of the key components for nasal reconstruction. When dealing with full-thickness nasal defects, there is no way to avoid learning how to restore nasal lining.

  14. Lateral resolution enhancement using programmable phase modulator in optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, Muhammad Faizan; Cho, Nam Hyun; Jung, Woonggyu; Kim, Jeehyun

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive optics plays an important role in the correction of high-order aberrations to enhance lateral resolution. An OCT system coupled with a programmable phase modulator is designed to verify lateral resolution improvement. The Hamamatsu high-resolution, non-pixelized, optically addressed light modulator (PAL-SLM) PPM X7550 series is used to correct aberrations, utilizing a simple method based on phase information from OCT images. The advantages of this method are its high simplicity and low cost. A raster scanning technique is adopted to scan samples covered with scattering suspension. Metal lines covered with scattering suspension are imaged, and a respective correction is applied to remove the aberration. Results demonstrate an improvement in lateral resolution on metal grid samples.

  15. The Tapestry of Life: Lateral Transfers of Heritable Elements - Scientific Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Claire M. Fraser, Ph.D.

    2005-12-31

    The Sackler Colloquium The Tapestry of Life: Lateral Transfers of Heritable Elements was held on December 12-13, 2005. What Darwin saw as a tree of life descending in a linear fashion, is now more accurately seen as a tapestry of life, an anastomosing network, with important lateral transfers of heritable elements among parallel lines of descent These transfers range in complexity from small insertion sequences, to whole genes, gene islands, and portions of whole genomes which may be combined in symbiogenesis. The colloquium brought together researchers, empirical and theoretical, working at all levels on genomics, comparative genomics, and metagenomics to identify common and differentiating features of lateral gene transfer and to examine their implications for science and for human concerns.

  16. The lateral surface drag coefficient of cylindrical spacecraft in a rarefied finite temperature atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrero, F. A.

    1985-01-01

    In the present determination of the free molecule flow drag coefficient for a cylindrical spacecraft flying parallel to its principal axis, the lateral surface effects of thermal motion are explicitly included in terms of the average impact angle of the incident gas momentum vector. Kinetic theory is used to characterize self-shadowing, as well as to obtain an expression for the lateral surface coefficient in terms of the average impact angle of the incident momentum vector and the fractional momentum transfer along the line of impact. It is found that, for a length/diameter ratio of about 5, the lateral surface contribution to the drag coefficient is comparable to that of the front face.

  17. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P.; Diener, Ed

    2016-01-01

    Background Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. Methods To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as a predictor of relationship, adjustment, self worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilized multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Results Early adolescent positive affect predicted less relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers), healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. Conclusions The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. PMID:27075545

  18. Responsiveness-to-Intervention: A Decade Later

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    In this introduction to this special issue, “A Decade Later,” we provide an overview of the accomplishments as well as the persistent questions surrounding RTI. We organize this discussion within 3 categories: assessment, instruction, and policy. Within each of these sections, we also highlight how the articles in the present special issue expand upon the key issues. Developed initially for the early grades (kindergarten through third grade) and primarily in the area of reading, many-although not all-of these issues speak to the expansion of RTI to address a broader set of academic content areas and the full range of grade levels. PMID:22539056

  19. Laterality of sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Michael; Reiss, Gilfe

    2014-08-01

    It is known that sudden sensorineural hearing loss and other otoneurologic diseases, such as tinnitus or Ménière disease, occur more frequently in the left ear than in the right. We studied lateralization of sudden deafness in 489 patients treated at Radebeul Hospital from January 2004 to December 2009. The male-to-female ratio was 1:1.24; we found a predominance of the left side only in female patients. The cause for this predominance is unclear. The slight asymmetry might indicate a greater vulnerability of the left inner ear in women, suggesting hormonal factors in the genesis of sudden deafness.

  20. Pemphigus vulgaris and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtari, Fatemeh; Matin, Marzieh; Rajati, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune bullous and erosive mucocutaneous disease. Rarely, it occurs in patients with other autoimmune disease. The relation between PV and neurological disorders is unclear and needs to be more studied. Here, we report a case of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), followed by dermatologic involvement. Histopathological evidence and direct immunofluorescence are consistent with PV. Systemic corticosteroid and azathioprine were effective in the treatment of mucocutaneous lesions. PV seems to be accidentally associated with ALS. Expression of major histocompatibility complex Class II in autoimmune disease and production of autoantibodies have been proposed to describe the association of PV with ALS. PMID:28163728

  1. Lateral elbow tendinopathy: Evidence of physiotherapy management

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrios, Stasinopoulos

    2016-01-01

    Lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET) is a common musculoskeletal/sports injury. A plethora of physiotherapy techniques has been proposed in the management of LET. The exercise programme is the most common treatment in the management of LET. The optimal protocol of exercise programme is still unknown. The effectiveness of the exercise programme is low when it is applied as monotherapy. Therefore, exercise programme is combined with other physiotherapy modalities such as soft tissue techniques, external support, acupuncture, manual therapy and electrotherapy, in the treatment of LET. Future research is needed to determine which treatment strategy combined with exercise programme will provide the best results in LET rehabilitation. PMID:27622145

  2. The changing scene of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Robberecht, Wim; Philips, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Several recent breakthroughs have provided notable insights into the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), with some even shifting our thinking about this neurodegenerative disease and raising the question as to whether this disorder is a proteinopathy, a ribonucleopathy or both. In addition, these breakthroughs have revealed mechanistic links between ALS and frontotemporal dementia, as well as between ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases, such as the cerebellar atrophies, myotonic dystrophy and inclusion body myositis. Here, we summarize the new findings in ALS research, discuss what they have taught us about this disease and examine issues that are still outstanding.

  3. Towards reproducible, scalable lateral molecular electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Durkan, Colm Zhang, Qian

    2014-08-25

    An approach to reproducibly fabricate molecular electronic devices is presented. Lateral nanometer-scale gaps with high yield are formed in Au/Pd nanowires by a combination of electromigration and Joule-heating-induced thermomechanical stress. The resulting nanogap devices are used to measure the electrical properties of small numbers of two different molecular species with different end-groups, namely 1,4-butane dithiol and 1,5-diamino-2-methylpentane. Fluctuations in the current reveal that in the case of the dithiol molecule devices, individual molecules conduct intermittently, with the fluctuations becoming more pronounced at larger biases.

  4. Psychotherapists and the clergy: Fifty years later.

    PubMed

    Spiegelman, J M

    1984-03-01

    Jung's two powerful articles on psychotherapy and the clergy, written in 1928 and 1932. are looked at from the vantage point of fifty years later and the author's experience in conducting analysis with many people from both vocations. He notes that relatively few people achieve the kind of integration of the ego that Jung writes about-an essentially religious experience-wherein the center of their existence now gravitates about the Self. Yet Jung's work and views have had a profound effect on spiritually inclined people of all ages. The predictions of Jung's articles, regarding therapy, the dissemination of pyschology to the masses, and other issues are examined.

  5. Quantifying disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Simon, Neil G; Turner, Martin R; Vucic, Steve; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Shefner, Jeremy; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2014-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) exhibits characteristic variability of onset and rate of disease progression, with inherent clinical heterogeneity making disease quantitation difficult. Recent advances in understanding pathogenic mechanisms linked to the development of ALS impose an increasing need to develop strategies to predict and more objectively measure disease progression. This review explores phenotypic and genetic determinants of disease progression in ALS, and examines established and evolving biomarkers that may contribute to robust measurement in longitudinal clinical studies. With targeted neuroprotective strategies on the horizon, developing efficiencies in clinical trial design may facilitate timely entry of novel treatments into the clinic.

  6. 16. Hayden Ditch (Lateral 5), looking west across McClintock Drive ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Hayden Ditch (Lateral 5), looking west across McClintock Drive toward downtown Tempe. The deep, concrete lined ditch is typical of Rehabilitation and Betterment work. The fenced enclosure in the foreground is an SRP well which supplements the water supply of the ditch. In the background are visible an Arizona State University dormitory and Hayden's Butte. Photographer: Mark Durben, June 1989. Source: SRPA - Tempe Canal, South Side Salt River in Tempe, Mesa & Phoenix, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. Transport, Growth Mechanisms, and Material Quality in GaN Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, Albert G.; Bartram, M.E.; Coltrin, M.E.; Crawford, M.H.; Han, J.; Missert, N.; Willan, C.C.

    1999-01-11

    Growth kinetics, mechanisms, and material quality in GaN epitaxial lateral over-growth (ELO) were examined using a single mask of systematically varied patterns. A 2-D gas phase reaction/diffusion model describes how transport of the Ga precursor to the growth surface enhances the lateral rate in the early stages of growth. In agreement with SEM studies of truncated growth runs, the model also predicts the dramatic decrease in the lateral rate that occurs as GaN over-growth reduces the exposed area of the mask. At the point of convergence, a step-flow coalescence mechanism is observed to fill in the area between lateral growth-fronts. This alternative growth mode in which a secondary growth of GaN is nucleated along a single convergence line, may be responsible for producing smooth films observed to have uniform cathodoluminescence (CL) when using 1{micro}m nucleation zones. Although emission is comprised of both UV ({approximately}365nm) and yellow ({approximately}550nm) components, the spectra suggest these films have reduced concentrations of threading dislocations normally associated with non-radiative recombination centers and defects known to accompany growth-front convergence lines.

  8. Development of computerized method for detection of vertebral fractures on lateral chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, Satoshi; Li, Feng; Shiraishi, Junji; Li, Qiang; Nie, Yongkang; Doi, Kunio

    2006-03-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the major public health concerns in the world. Several clinical trials indicated clearly that pharmacologic therapy for osteoporosis is effective for persons with vertebral fractures for preventing subsequent fractures. It is, therefore, important to diagnose vertebral fractures early. Although most vertebral fractures are asymptomatic, they can often be detected on lateral chest radiographs which may be obtained for other purposes. However, investigators have reported that vertebral fractures which were visible on lateral chest radiographs were underdiagnosed or underreported. Therefore, our purpose in this study was to develop a computerized method for detection of vertebral fractures on lateral chest radiographs and to assist radiologists' image interpretation. Our computerized scheme is based on the detection of upper and lower edges of vertebrae on lateral chest images. A curved rectangular area which included a number of visible vertebrae was identified. This area was then straightened such that the upper and lower edges of the vertebrae were oriented horizontally. For detection of vertebral edges, line components were enhanced, and a multiple thresholding technique followed by image feature analysis was applied to the line enhanced image. Finally, vertebral heights determined from the detected vertebral edges were used for characterizing the shape of the vertebrae and for distinguishing fractured from normal vertebrae. Our preliminary results indicated that all of the severely fractured vertebrae in a small database were detected correctly by our computerized method.

  9. Line graphs for fractals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warchalowski, Wiktor; Krawczyk, Malgorzata J.

    2017-03-01

    We found the Lindenmayer systems for line graphs built on selected fractals. We show that the fractal dimension of such obtained graphs in all analysed cases is the same as for their original graphs. Both for the original graphs and for their line graphs we identified classes of nodes which reflect symmetry of the graph.

  10. Product Line Systems Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Mellon University Product Line Systems Program Our mission: • create, mature, apply, and transition technology and practices • to effect... Technology Initiative) Predictable Software Construction (Predictable Assembly from Certifiable Code Initiative) Software Product Lines (Product...Presentation Software Architecture (Software Architecture Technology Initiative) Predictable Software Construction (Predictable Assembly from Certifiable

  11. Software Product Lines Essentials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    improvement Technology innovation Reuse 7 Software Product Lines Linda Northrop © 2008 Carnegie Mellon University Few Systems Are Unique Most...Focus was small-grained, opportunistic, and technology -driven. Results did not meet business goals. Reuse History 9 Software Product Lines Linda...servers, storage servers, network camera and scanner servers Bold Stroke Avionics Customized solutions for transportation industries E-COM Technology

  12. Attachment Line Blockage Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Photographs shows the attachment-line experiment model with fairing and fence for supersonic attachment-line experiments. The fairing is intended to eliminate the wing/fuselage juncture shock and align the flow for the streamlined fence. The streamlined fence traps the turbulent fuselage boundary layer to prevent turbulent contamination of the leading edge flow.

  13. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  14. Database of emission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binette, L.; Ortiz, P.; Joguet, B.; Rola, C.

    1998-11-01

    A widely accessible data bank (available through Netscape) and consiting of all (or most) of the emission lines reported in the litterature is being built. It will comprise objects as diverse as HII regions, PN, AGN, HHO. One of its use will be to define/refine existing diagnostic emission line diagrams.

  15. Tangent Lines without Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabin, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a problem that can help high school students develop the concept of instantaneous velocity and connect it with the slope of a tangent line to the graph of position versus time. It also gives a method for determining the tangent line to the graph of a polynomial function at any point without using calculus. (Contains 1 figure.)

  16. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  17. Microstructural lines involving luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Kazuhiko

    2004-06-01

    Japanese National Printing Bureau has been focused upon the development of anti-copy lines for many years. The basic concept with regard to security measure lies in the merge of art and technology. On this basis, our originally developed anti-copy lines show flexibility to various security designs. Our newest anti-copy lines comprising from the Tri-Branched and Divided Lines shows clearer latent image effect compared to that of our other developed anti-copy lines. However, the anti-copy effect of security printing lines with microstructure is deteriorating due to the emergence of digital image techniques with higher resolution. In this situation, this paper introduces a new security measure comprising from luminescence and security printing lines with microstructure. It gives rise to a latent image effect under UV light due to the characteristic microstructure while visually same density. The principle advantage is that the combination of the anti-copy and luminescent feature strongly enhances its secure effect in documents. There is no necessity of two kinds of inks and any specially designed equipment to produce security documents with microstructural lines involving luminescence.

  18. Lateral root initiation in Marsilea quadrifolia. I. Origin and histogensis of lateral roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, B. L.; Raghavan, V.

    1991-01-01

    In Marsilea quadrifolia, lateral roots arise from modified single cells of the endodermis located opposite the protoxylem poles within the meristematic region of the parent root. The initial cell divides in four specific planes to establish a five-celled lateral root primordium, with a tetrahedral apical cell in the centre and the oldest merophytes and the root cap along the sides. The cells of the merophyte divide in a precise pattern to give rise to the cells of the cortex, endodermis, pericycle, and vascular tissues of the emerging lateral root. Although the construction of the parent root is more complicated than that of lateral roots, patterns of cell division and tissue formation are similar in both types of roots, with the various tissues being arranged in similar positions in relation to the central axis. Vascular connection between the lateral root primordium and the parent root is derived from the pericycle cells lying between the former and the protoxylem members of the latter. It is proposed that the central axis of the root is not only a geometric centre, but also a physiological centre which determines the fate of the different cell types.

  19. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: one or multiple causes?

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, Aline Furtado; Orsini, Marco; Machado, Dionis; Mello, Mariana Pimentel; Nader, Sergio; Silva, Júlio Guilherme; da Silva Catharino, Antonio M.; de Freitas, Marcos R.G.; Pereira, Alessandra; Pessoa, Luciane Lacerda; Sztajnbok, Flavio R.; Leite, Marco Araújo; Nascimento, Osvaldo J.M.; Bastos, Victor Hugo

    2011-01-01

    The Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common form of motor neuron disease in the adulthood, and it is characterized by rapid and progressive compromise of the upper and lower motor neurons. The majority of the cases of ALS are classified as sporadic and, until now, a specific cause for these cases still is unknown. To present the different hypotheses on the etiology of ALS. It was carried out a search in the databases: Bireme, Scielo and Pubmed, in the period of 1987 to 2011, using the following keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, motor neuron disease, etiology, causes and epidemiology and its similar in Portuguese and Spanish. It did not have consensus as regards the etiology of ALS. Researches demonstrates evidences as regards intoxication by heavy metals, environmental and occupational causes, genetic mutations (superoxide dismutase 1), certain viral infections and the accomplishment of vigorous physical activity for the development of the disease. There is still no consensus regarding the involved factors in the etiology of ALS. In this way, new research about these etiologies are necessary, for a better approach of the patients, promoting preventive programs for the disease and improving the quality of life of the patients. PMID:21785676

  20. Prototype cantilevers for quantitative lateral force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Reitsma, Mark G.; Gates, Richard S.; Friedman, Lawrence H.; Cook, Robert F.

    2011-09-15

    Prototype cantilevers are presented that enable quantitative surface force measurements using contact-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). The ''hammerhead'' cantilevers facilitate precise optical lever system calibrations for cantilever flexure and torsion, enabling quantifiable adhesion measurements and friction measurements by lateral force microscopy (LFM). Critically, a single hammerhead cantilever of known flexural stiffness and probe length dimension can be used to perform both a system calibration as well as surface force measurements in situ, which greatly increases force measurement precision and accuracy. During LFM calibration mode, a hammerhead cantilever allows an optical lever ''torque sensitivity'' to be generated for the quantification of LFM friction forces. Precise calibrations were performed on two different AFM instruments, in which torque sensitivity values were specified with sub-percent relative uncertainty. To examine the potential for accurate lateral force measurements using the prototype cantilevers, finite element analysis predicted measurement errors of a few percent or less, which could be reduced via refinement of calibration methodology or cantilever design. The cantilevers are compatible with commercial AFM instrumentation and can be used for other AFM techniques such as contact imaging and dynamic mode measurements.

  1. Lateral epicondylalgia: midlife crisis of a tendon.

    PubMed

    Luk, James K H; Tsang, Raymond C C; Leung, H B

    2014-04-01

    The pathogenesis and management of lateral epicondylalgia, or tennis elbow, a common ailment affecting middle-aged subjects of both genders continue to provoke controversy. Currently it is thought to be due to local tendon pathology, pain system changes, and motor system impairment. Its diagnosis is usually clinical, based on a classical history, as well as symptoms and signs. In selected cases, additional imaging (X-rays, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging) can help to confirm the diagnosis. Different treatment modalities have been described, including the use of orthotics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, steroid injections, topical glyceryl trinitrate, exercise therapy, manual therapy, ultrasound therapy, laser therapy, extracorporeal shockwave therapy, acupuncture, taping, platelet-rich plasma injections, hyaluronan gel injections, botulinum toxin injections, and surgery. Nevertheless, evidence to select the best treatment is lacking and the choice of therapy depends on the experience of the management team, availability of the equipment and expertise, and patient response. This article provides a snapshot of current medical practice for lateral epicondylalgia management.

  2. Dual-domain lateral shearing interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Goldberg, Kenneth Alan

    2004-03-16

    The phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI) was developed to address the problem of at-wavelength metrology of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical systems. Although extremely accurate, the fact that the PS/PDI is limited to use with coherent EUV sources, such as undulator radiation, is a drawback for its widespread use. An alternative to the PS/PDI, with relaxed coherence requirements, is lateral shearing interferometry (LSI). The use of a cross-grating, carrier-frequency configuration to characterize a large-field 4.times.-reduction EUV lithography optic is demonstrated. The results obtained are directly compared with PS/PDI measurements. A defocused implementation of the lateral shearing interferometer in which an image-plane filter allows both phase-shifting and Fourier wavefront recovery. The two wavefront recovery methods can be combined in a dual-domain technique providing suppression of noise added by self-interference of high-frequency components in the test-optic wavefront.

  3. Lateral regulation of synaptic transmission by astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Covelo, A; Araque, A

    2016-05-26

    Fifteen years ago the concept of the "tripartite synapse" was proposed to conceptualize the functional view that astrocytes are integral elements of synapses. The signaling exchange between astrocytes and neurons within the tripartite synapse results in the synaptic regulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity through an autocrine form of communication. However, recent evidence indicates that the astrocyte synaptic regulation is not restricted to the active tripartite synapse but can be manifested through astrocyte signaling at synapses relatively distant from active synapses, a process termed lateral astrocyte synaptic regulation. This phenomenon resembles the classical heterosynaptic modulation but is mechanistically different because it involves astrocytes and its properties critically depend on the morphological and functional features of astrocytes. Therefore, the functional concept of the tripartite synapse as a fundamental unit must be expanded to include the interaction between tripartite synapses. Through lateral synaptic regulation, astrocytes serve as an active processing bridge for synaptic interaction and crosstalk between synapses with no direct neuronal connectivity, supporting the idea that neural network function results from the coordinated activity of astrocytes and neurons.

  4. Lateral vision in horses: a behavioral investigation.

    PubMed

    Hanggi, Evelyn B; Ingersoll, Jerry F

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated lateral vision in horses (Equus caballus) for the first time from a behavioral point of view. Three horses were tested using a novel experimental design to determine the range of their lateral and caudolateral vision with respect to stimulus detection and discrimination. Real-life stimuli were presented along a curvilinear wall in one of four different positions (A, B, C, D) and one of two height locations (Top, Bottom) on both sides of the horse. To test for stimulus detection, the correct stimulus was paired against a control; for stimulus discrimination, the correct stimulus was paired against another object. To indicate that the correct stimulus was detected or discriminated, the horses pushed one of two paddles. All horses scored significantly above chance on stimulus detection trials regardless of stimulus position or location. They also accurately discriminated between stimuli when objects appeared in positions A, B, and C for the top or bottom locations; however, they failed to discriminate these stimuli at position D. This study supports physiological descriptions of the equine eye and provides new behavioral data showing that horses can detect the appearance of objects within an almost fully encompassing circle and are able to identify objects within most but not all of their panoramic field of view.

  5. ERAMOSA controls lateral branching in snapdragon

    PubMed Central

    Mizzotti, Chiara; Galliani, Bianca M.; Dreni, Ludovico; Sommer, Hans; Bombarely, Aureliano; Masiero, Simona

    2017-01-01

    Plant forms display a wide variety of architectures, depending on the number of lateral branches, internode elongation and phyllotaxy. These are in turn determined by the number, the position and the fate of the Axillary Meristems (AMs). Mutants that affect AM determination during the vegetative phase have been isolated in several model plants. Among these genes, the GRAS transcription factor LATERAL SUPPRESSOR (Ls) plays a pivotal role in AM determination during the vegetative phase. Hereby we characterize the phylogenetic orthologue of Ls in Antirrhinum, ERAMOSA (ERA). Our data supported ERA control of AM formation during both the vegetative and the reproductive phase in snapdragon. A phylogenetic analysis combined with an analysis of the synteny of Ls in several species strongly supported the hypothesis that ERA is a phylogenetic orthologue of Ls, although it plays a broader role. During the reproductive phase ERA promotes the establishment of the stem niche at the bract axis but, after the reproductive transition, it is antagonized by the MADS box transcription factor SQUAMOSA (SQUA). Surprisingly double mutant era squa plants display a squa phenotype developing axillary meristems, which can eventually turn into inflorescences or flowers. PMID:28145519

  6. Lateral Gene Transfer from the Dead

    PubMed Central

    Szöllősi, Gergely J.; Tannier, Eric; Lartillot, Nicolas; Daubin, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    In phylogenetic studies, the evolution of molecular sequences is assumed to have taken place along the phylogeny traced by the ancestors of extant species. In the presence of lateral gene transfer, however, this may not be the case, because the species lineage from which a gene was transferred may have gone extinct or not have been sampled. Because it is not feasible to specify or reconstruct the complete phylogeny of all species, we must describe the evolution of genes outside the represented phylogeny by modeling the speciation dynamics that gave rise to the complete phylogeny. We demonstrate that if the number of sampled species is small compared with the total number of existing species, the overwhelming majority of gene transfers involve speciation to and evolution along extinct or unsampled lineages. We show that the evolution of genes along extinct or unsampled lineages can to good approximation be treated as those of independently evolving lineages described by a few global parameters. Using this result, we derive an algorithm to calculate the probability of a gene tree and recover the maximum-likelihood reconciliation given the phylogeny of the sampled species. Examining 473 near-universal gene families from 36 cyanobacteria, we find that nearly a third of transfer events (28%) appear to have topological signatures of evolution along extinct species, but only approximately 6% of transfers trace their ancestry to before the common ancestor of the sampled cyanobacteria. [Gene tree reconciliation; lateral gene transfer; macroevolution; phylogeny.] PMID:23355531

  7. Field dependence, laterality and the EEG.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, K P; Shaw, J C

    1978-03-01

    There is evidence that an individual's 'cognitive style' is related to lateralization of function in the brain, and that this in turn is associated with characteristic EEG coherence spectra. We tested the hypothesis that field dependence (a measure of cognitive organization) and hand preference (a measure of functional organisation) relate to EEG coherence measures in a specific way. The predicted associations were based on the proposal that right preferent individuals have a more specific, and left preferents a more diffuse, system of functional units in the cortex. The association between alpha band resting EEG coherence (sampled on two occasions for both hemispheres from 12 right and 12 left preferent individuals), field dependence (Nyborg's criterion of frame dependence on a rod and frame test), and laterality scores (questionnaire and manual performance), was measured by Kendall's coefficient of concordance (W). Significant associations support the proposed model except for coherence within the left preferents' right hemisphere. It is argued that the right hemisphere is more specifically organised in strong sinistrals than the general model would predict. These and other results support the use of EEC coherence measures in the study of cerebral functional organisation.

  8. Skills Associated with Line Breaks in Elite Rugby Union

    PubMed Central

    den Hollander, Steve; Brown, James; Lambert, Michael; Treu, Paul; Hendricks, Sharief

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the attacking team to break through the defensive line is a key indicator of success as it creates opportunities to score tries. The aim of this study was to analyse line breaks and identify the associated skills and playing characteristics. The 2013 Super Rugby season (125 games) was analysed, in which 362 line breaks were identified and coded using variables that assessed team patterns and non-contact attacking skills in the phases preceding the line break. There was an average of 3 line breaks per game, with 39% of line breaks resulting in a try. Line breaks occurred when the ball-carrier was running fast [61%, x2(4) = 25.784, p = 0.000, Cramer’s v = 0.1922, weak]. At a moderate distance, short lateral passes (19%) and skip passes (15%) attributed to the highest percentage of line breaks [x2(26) = 50.899, p = 0.036, Cramer’s v = 0.2484, moderate]. Faster defensive line speeds resulted in more line breaks [x2(12) = 61.703, p < 0.001, Cramer’s v = 0.3026, moderate]. Line breaks are associated with overall team success and try scoring opportunities. Awareness of the defenders line speed and depth, fast running speed when receiving the ball and quick passing between attackers to the outside backs creates line break opportunities. During training, coaches should emphasise the movement speed of the ball between attackers and manipulate the speed and distance of the defenders. Key points Line breaks are associated with overall team success and try scoring opportunities. Awareness of the defenders line speed and depth, fast running speed when receiving the ball and quick passing between attackers to the outside backs creates line break opportunities During training, coaches should emphasise the movement speed of the ball between attackers and manipulate the speed and distance of the defenders. PMID:27803629

  9. Genetic enhancement: plan now to act later.

    PubMed

    Mehlman, Maxwell J

    2005-03-01

    All three main articles in the issues of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal endorse the view that genetic enhancement should be permitted, including human germ-line genetic enhancement. However, unregulated, wealth-based access to genetic enhancement in general, and germ-line enhancement in particular, would create intolerable risks for society. Although there are a number of practical problems raised by proposals to regulate or restrict access to genetic enhancement, which will make it difficult if not impossible to muster support for any effective restrictions until we begin to experience the societal problems that genetic enhancement will create, it is important to consider now what restrictions would be appropriate, how they would be imposed, and what changes would be needed in existing laws and institutions to facilitate them. Without this type of groundwork, there is no way society will be in a position to act in time.

  10. Comparisons of the five analytic reference lines of the horizontal lip position: their consistency and sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Hsu, B S

    1993-10-01

    One-hundred ten lateral facial profiles were judged to be attractive and were selected from 1000 Taiwanese pupils by a panel of four men and three women from different educational backgrounds. The 110 in the attractive group were analyzed by using five analytic reference lines: Ricketts E line, Holdaway's H line, Steiner's S1 line, Burstone's B line, and Sushner's S2 line. Comparisons of the "consistency" (the smaller coefficient of variation the better the consistency) and the "sensitivity" (the power to differentiate the attractive lateral facial profiles from the unattractive ones) of the five analytic lines were performed. The B line was found to be best in terms of both consistency and sensitivity. From the point of view of convenience, the E line is of great value because its anterior location makes it convenient for the clinician to use. However, the B line appears best from the perspective of the value of reference. This study found that those analytic reference lines that do not transverse an anatomic landmark of the nose most likely have poor consistency and sensitivity. This finding is consistent with the idea that the nose should be taken into consideration when a line is to be used as a reference for beauty on the lateral facial profile.

  11. Line-scanning, stage scanning confocal microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carucci, John A.; Stevenson, Mary; Gareau, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    We created a line-scanning, stage scanning confocal microscope as part of a new procedure: video assisted micrographic surgery (VAMS). The need for rapid pathological assessment of the tissue on the surface of skin excisions very large since there are 3.5 million new skin cancers diagnosed annually in the United States. The new design presented here is a confocal microscope without any scanning optics. Instead, a line is focused in space and the sample, which is flattened, is physically translated such that the line scans across its face in a direction perpendicular to the line its self. The line is 6mm long and the stage is capable of scanning 50 mm, hence the field of view is quite large. The theoretical diffraction-limited resolution is 0.7um lateral and 3.7um axial. However, in this preliminary report, we present initial results that are a factor of 5-7 poorer in resolution. The results are encouraging because they demonstrate that the linear array detector measures sufficient signal from fluorescently labeled tissue and also demonstrate the large field of view achievable with VAMS.

  12. Summary of Methods for Calculating Dynamic Lateral Stability and Response and for Estimating Lateral Stability Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, John P; Mckinney, Marion O

    1951-01-01

    A summary of methods for making dynamic lateral stability and response calculations and for estimating the aerodynamic stability derivatives required for use in these calculations is presented. The processes of performing calculations of the time histories of lateral motions, of the period and damping of these motions, and of the lateral stability boundaries are presented as a series of simple straightforward steps. Existing methods for estimating the stability derivatives are summarized and, in some cases, simple new empirical formulas are presented. Reference is also made to reports presenting experimental data that should be useful in making estimates of the derivatives. Detailed estimating methods are presented for low-subsonic-speed conditions but only a brief discussion and a list of references are given for transonic- and supersonic-speed conditions.

  13. Revisiting cognitive rehearsal as an intervention against incivility and lateral violence in nursing: 10 years later.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Martha; Clark, Cynthia M

    2014-12-01

    Ten years ago, Griffin wrote an article on the use of cognitive rehearsal as a shield for lateral violence. Since then, cognitive rehearsal has been used successfully in several studies as an evidence-based strategy to address uncivil and bullying behaviors in nursing. In the original study, 26 newly licensed nurses learned about lateral violence and used cognitive rehearsal techniques as an intervention for nurse-to-nurse incivility. The newly licensed nurses described using the rehearsed strategies as difficult, yet successful in reducing or eliminating incivility and lateral violence. This article updates the literature on cognitive rehearsal and reviews the use of cognitive rehearsal as an evidence-based strategy to address incivility and bullvina behaviors in nursing.

  14. Extra flat, flexible and disposable endoscope for lateral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basset, G.; Marinov, D.; Hofer, C.; Cattaneo, S.; Volet, P.; Gallinet, B.; Schnieper, M.; Ferrini, R.

    2016-03-01

    We present an innovative disposable endoscope based on extra flat flexible polymer slabs used as multimode waveguides. The waveguides are compatible with low-cost roll-to-roll production technologies and can be easily customized by patterning, coating and printing techniques according to the specifications of the target application. In order to couple the light (i.e. the illumination beam and the imaging beam) in and out of the waveguide, diffractive subwavelength gratings are used. These nano-scale optical structures enable an efficient and controlled light trapping by total internal reflection, thus minimizing the distortion effects generated by the rough edges. Nano-patterning is obtained using established techniques (i.e. hot embossing and/or UV casting) that are compatible with industrial roll-to-roll production lines or plastic injection molding. Unique features of these innovative endoscopes are i) the achievable very thin form that can be reduced to thicknesses below 200 μm, ii) the ability to record lateral images with respect to the endoscope direction, iii) the ability to image samples (e.g. tissues, tiny objects) in direct contact with the polymer slab, with a minimum imaging distance equal to zero, and iv) the access to high volume fabrication techniques that can enable the production of low-cost disposable endoscopes. A possible device implementation is demonstrated and tested, which consists of a flat line-scanning endoscope enabling the acquisition of 1D images in monochromatic illumination and the reconstruction of 2D images by scanning. Images taken with such a disposable endoscope are discussed and the related technological constraints such as manufacturing tolerances, image distortion, scattered light and signal to noise ratio are further described. Finally, advantages and disadvantages with respect to other endoscopic techniques will be discussed, thus demonstrating the potential of this innovative approach for endoscopic applications in very

  15. The Next-In-Line Effect and Social Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omar, Adnan S.; Bond, Charles F., Jr.

    Previous research has found that people are often so anxious about performing in public that they cannot recall what happened when they were next-in-line to perform. In the current research, 96 general psychology students at Texas Christian University, in four experimental groups of 24 subjects each, took turns reading words aloud. Later, they…

  16. Cell line provenance.

    PubMed

    Freshney, R Ian

    2002-07-01

    Cultured cell lines have become an extremely valuable resource, both in academic research and in industrial biotechnology. However, their value is frequently compromised by misidentification and undetected microbial contamination. As detailed elsewhere in this volume, the technology, both simple and sophisticated, is available to remedy the problems of misidentification and contamination, given the will to apply it. Combined with proper records of the origin and history of the cell line, assays for authentication and contamination contribute to the provenance of the cell line. Detailed records should start from the initiation or receipt of the cell line, and should incorporate data on the donor as well as the tissue from which the cell line was derived, should continue with details of maintenance, and include any accidental as well as deliberate deviations from normal maintenance. Records should also contain details of authentication and regular checks for contamination. With this information, preferably stored in a database, and suitable backed up, the provenance of the cell line so created makes the cell line a much more valuable resource, fit for validation in industrial applications and more likely to provide reproducible experimental results when disseminated for research in other laboratories.

  17. Phloem-associated auxin response maxima determine radial positioning of lateral roots in maize

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Leentje; Roberts, Ianto; De Rycke, Riet; Beeckman, Tom

    2012-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, lateral-root-forming competence of pericycle cells is associated with their position at the xylem poles and depends on the establishment of protoxylem-localized auxin response maxima. In maize, our histological analyses revealed an interruption of the pericycle at the xylem poles, and confirmed the earlier reported proto-phloem-specific lateral root initiation. Phloem-pole pericycle cells were larger and had thinner cell walls compared with the other pericycle cells, highlighting the heterogeneous character of the maize root pericycle. A maize DR5::RFP marker line demonstrated the presence of auxin response maxima in differentiating xylem cells at the root tip and in cells surrounding the proto-phloem vessels. Chemical inhibition of auxin transport indicated that the establishment of the phloem-localized auxin response maxima is crucial for lateral root formation in maize, because in their absence, random divisions of pericycle and endodermis cells occurred, not resulting in organogenesis. These data hint at an evolutionarily conserved mechanism, in which the establishment of vascular auxin response maxima is required to trigger cells in the flanking outer tissue layer for lateral root initiation. It further indicates that lateral root initiation is not dependent on cellular specification or differentiation of the type of vascular tissue. PMID:22527395

  18. Phloem-associated auxin response maxima determine radial positioning of lateral roots in maize.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Leentje; Roberts, Ianto; De Rycke, Riet; Beeckman, Tom

    2012-06-05

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, lateral-root-forming competence of pericycle cells is associated with their position at the xylem poles and depends on the establishment of protoxylem-localized auxin response maxima. In maize, our histological analyses revealed an interruption of the pericycle at the xylem poles, and confirmed the earlier reported proto-phloem-specific lateral root initiation. Phloem-pole pericycle cells were larger and had thinner cell walls compared with the other pericycle cells, highlighting the heterogeneous character of the maize root pericycle. A maize DR5::RFP marker line demonstrated the presence of auxin response maxima in differentiating xylem cells at the root tip and in cells surrounding the proto-phloem vessels. Chemical inhibition of auxin transport indicated that the establishment of the phloem-localized auxin response maxima is crucial for lateral root formation in maize, because in their absence, random divisions of pericycle and endodermis cells occurred, not resulting in organogenesis. These data hint at an evolutionarily conserved mechanism, in which the establishment of vascular auxin response maxima is required to trigger cells in the flanking outer tissue layer for lateral root initiation. It further indicates that lateral root initiation is not dependent on cellular specification or differentiation of the type of vascular tissue.

  19. Enamel craze lines.

    PubMed

    Larson, Thomas D

    2014-01-01

    Enamel craze lines are a common clinical finding, especially in older patients and in patients who brux. These craze lines frequently are discolored and may present as clear in color, grey, or brown. The clinical question is, when do enamel craze lines need restoration and when should we leave them untreated? This review will look at enamel structure and the effects of occlusion, bruxing, temperature, and restorations on enamel structure. Recommendations will be made on how and when to deal with these cosmetic defects of enamel.

  20. Flow line sampler

    DOEpatents

    Nicholls, Colin I.

    1992-07-14

    An on-line product sampling apparatus and method for measuring product samples from a product stream (12) in a flow line (14) having a sampling aperture (11), includes a sampling tube (18) for containing product samples removed from flow line (14). A piston (22) removes product samples from the product stream (12) through the sampling aperture (11) and returns samples to product stream (12). A sensor (20) communicates with sample tube (18), and senses physical properties of samples while the samples are within sample tube (18). In one embodiment, sensor (20) comprises a hydrogen transient nuclear magnetic resonance sensor for measuring physical properties of hydrogen molecules.

  1. Coherent soliton communication lines

    SciTech Connect

    Yushko, O. V. Redyuk, A. A.; Fedoruk, M. P.; Turitsyn, S. K.

    2014-11-15

    The data transmission in coherent fiber-optical communication lines using solitons with a variable phase is studied. It is shown that nonlinear coherent structures (solitons) can be applied for effective signal transmission over a long distance using amplitude and optical-phase keying of information. The optimum ratio of the pulse width to the bit slot at which the spectral efficiency (transmitted bits per second and hertz) is maximal is determined. It is shown that soliton fiber-optical communication lines can ensure data transmission at a higher spectral efficiency as compared to traditional communication lines and at a high signal-to-noise ratio.

  2. Auxin-induced inhibition of lateral root initiation contributes to root system shaping in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ivanchenko, Maria G; Napsucialy-Mendivil, Selene; Dubrovsky, Joseph G

    2010-12-01

    The hormone auxin is known to inhibit root elongation and to promote initiation of lateral roots. Here we report complex effects of auxin on lateral root initiation in roots showing reduced cell elongation after auxin treatment. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the promotion of lateral root initiation by indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was reduced as the IAA concentration was increased in the nanomolar range, and IAA became inhibitory at 25 nM. Detection of this unexpected inhibitory effect required evaluation of root portions that had newly formed during treatment, separately from root portions that existed prior to treatment. Lateral root initiation was also reduced in the iaaM-OX Arabidopsis line, which has an endogenously increased IAA level. The ethylene signaling mutants ein2-5 and etr1-3, the auxin transport mutants aux1-7 and eir1/pin2, and the auxin perception/response mutant tir1-1 were resistant to the inhibitory effect of IAA on lateral root initiation, consistent with a requirement for intact ethylene signaling, auxin transport and auxin perception/response for this effect. The pericycle cell length was less dramatically reduced than cortical cell length, suggesting that a reduction in the pericycle cell number relative to the cortex could occur with the increase of the IAA level. Expression of the DR5:GUS auxin reporter was also less effectively induced, and the AXR3 auxin repressor protein was less effectively eliminated in such root portions, suggesting that decreased auxin responsiveness may accompany the inhibition. Our study highlights a connection between auxin-regulated inhibition of parent root elongation and a decrease in lateral root initiation. This may be required to regulate the spacing of lateral roots and optimize root architecture to environmental demands.

  3. A rare cause of lateral facial swelling

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Sujata; Gulati, Ujjwal; Vandana; Singh, Sapna

    2014-01-01

    A case of chronic, recurrent and asymptomatic facial swelling in a young male is presented. Swelling extended from lower midface to upper lateral neck and right commissure to anterior massetric border. History, clinical signs and symptoms and examination pointed towards the benign nature of the swelling. Fine-needle aspiration cytology tapered the diagnostic possibilities to a salivary cyst or pseudocyst. Ultrasonography identified the lesion to contain echogenic fluid with irregular borders. “Tail sign” was absent on contrast magnetic resonance imaging, excluding the involvement of the sublingual gland. Surgical excision of the lesion was done along with submandibular gland as both were in continuity via a bottle-neck tract. Final histopathological diagnosis was that of the submandibular gland extravasation phenomenon. As per the best of our knowledge, it is the first case report of a submandibular gland extravasation causing swelling in a retrograde direction onto the face. PMID:25593883

  4. [Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis--diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Jung, H H; Neumann, M; Bloch, K E

    2012-07-04

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) represents the most common motoneuron disorder in adulthood. It is characterized by selective degeneration of the motoneurons. About 10% of patients have a genetically determined ALS. Clinically, ALS is characterized by coexistence of signs of the first motoneuron, such as spasticity and hyperreflexia, as well as the second motoneuron, such as muscular atrophy and fasciculations. If such signs are present in at least three regions and if other possible causes have been excluded, a definite diagnosis of ALS can be made based on the revised El-Escorial criteria. Initial manifestations are often focalized and generalization develops during the course. The glutamate antagonist riluzole is worldwide the only approved ALS treatment. However, symptomatic treatments to ameliorate spasticity, drooling, speech and swallowing problems, and assisted ventilation to treat respiratory failure are essential.

  5. Lateral Hypothalamic Circuits for Feeding and Reward

    PubMed Central

    Stuber, Garret D.; Wise, Roy A.

    2016-01-01

    In experiments conducted over 60 years ago, the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) was identified as a critical neuroanatomical substrate for motivated behavior. Electrical stimulation of the LHA induces voracious feeding even in non-restricted animals. In the absence of food, animals will work tirelessly, often lever-pressing 1000’s of times per hour, for electrical stimulation at the same site that provokes feeding, drinking, and other species-typical motivated behaviors. Here we review the classic findings from electrical stimulation studies and integrate them with more recent work that has utilized contemporary circuit-based approaches to study the LHA. We identify specific anatomically and molecularly defined LHA elements that integrate diverse information arising from cortical, extended amygdala, and basal forebrain networks to ultimately generate a highly specified and invigorated behavioral state conveyed via LHA projections to downstream reward and feeding specific circuits. PMID:26814589

  6. Inertia and scaling in deterministic lateral displacement.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Timothy J; Drazer, German; Frechette, Joelle

    2013-01-01

    The ability to separate and analyze chemical species with high resolution, sensitivity, and throughput is central to the development of microfluidics systems. Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) is a continuous separation method based on the transport of species through an array of obstacles. In the case of force-driven DLD (f-DLD), size-based separation can be modelled effectively using a simple particle-obstacle collision model. We use a macroscopic model to study f-DLD and demonstrate, via a simple scaling, that the method is indeed predominantly a size-based phenomenon at low Reynolds numbers. More importantly, we demonstrate that inertia effects provide the additional capability to separate same size particles but of different densities and could enhance separation at high throughput conditions. We also show that a direct conversion of macroscopic results to microfluidic settings is possible with a simple scaling based on the size of the obstacles that results in a universal curve.

  7. Hormone interactions during lateral root formation.

    PubMed

    Fukaki, Hidehiro; Tasaka, Masao

    2009-03-01

    Lateral root (LR) formation, the production of new roots from parent roots, is a hormone- and environmentally-regulated developmental process in higher plants. Physiological and genetic studies using Arabidopsis thaliana and other plant species have revealed the roles of several plant hormones in LR formation, particularly the role of auxin in LR initiation and primordium development, resulting in much progress toward understanding the mechanisms of auxin-mediated LR formation. However, hormone interactions during LR formation have been relatively underexamined. Recent studies have shown that the plant hormones, cytokinin and abscisic acid negatively regulate LR formation whereas brassinosteroids positively regulate LR formation. On the other hand, ethylene has positive and negative roles during LR formation. This review summarizes recent findings on hormone-regulated LR formation in higher plants, focusing on auxin as a trigger and on the other hormones in LR formation, and discusses the possible interactions among plant hormones in this developmental process.

  8. On lateral competition in dynamic neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Bellyustin, N.S.

    1995-02-01

    Artificial neural networks connected homogeneously, which use retinal image processing methods, are considered. We point out that there are probably two different types of lateral inhibition for each neural element by the neighboring ones-due to the negative connection coefficients between elements and due to the decreasing neuron`s response to a too high input signal. The first case characterized by stable dynamics, which is given by the Lyapunov function, while in the second case, stability is absent and two-dimensional dynamic chaos occurs if the time step in the integration of model equations is large enough. The continuous neural medium approximation is used for analytical estimation in both cases. The result is the partition of the parameter space into domains with qualitatively different dynamic modes. Computer simulations confirm the estimates and show that joining two-dimensional chaos with symmetries provided by the initial and boundary conditions may produce patterns which are genuine pieces of art.

  9. Large-scale lateral nanowire arrays nanogenerators

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhong L; Xu, Chen; Qin, Yong; Zhu, Guang; Yang, Rusen; Hu, Youfan; Zhang, Yan

    2014-01-07

    In a method of making a generating device, a plurality of spaced apart elongated seen members are deposited onto a surface of a flexible non-conductive substrate. An elongated conductive layer is applied to a top surface and a first side of each seed member, thereby leaving an exposed second side opposite the first side. A plurality of elongated piezoelectric nanostructures is grown laterally from the second side of each seed layer. A second conductive material is deposited onto the substrate adjacent each elongated first conductive layer so as to be soupled the distal end of each of the plurality of elongated piezoelectric nanostructures. The second conductive material is selected so as to form a Schottky barrier between the second conductive material and the distal end of each of the plurality of elongated piezoelectric nanostructures and so as to form an electrical contact with the first conductive layer.

  10. EAS-BUAP: Lateral Distribution and Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, H.; Martinez, O.; Cotzomi, J.; Moreno, E.; Aguilar, S.; Villaseñor, L.

    2003-07-01

    We describe the operation and performance of the first stage of the EAS-UAP extensive air shower array, as a detector of very high energy cosmic rays (Eo > 1014eV) after one year of operation. The array is located at the Campus of Puebla University, 2200 m above sea level. It consists of 10 liquid scintillator detectors, each with an active surface of 1 m2 and a detector spacing of 20 m in a square grid. One Auger Water Cherenkov detector is also included as part of the array. In this report we discuss the stability, the calibration and lateral distribution function reconstruction capabilities of the detector array. We also present the analysis of the shower size spectrum. In addition, the main characteristics of this array allow us to use it as an educational and training facility.

  11. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis associated with pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, A; Sweeney, B J; Connolly, S

    2001-12-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common, progressive motor neurone disease but is rare in the obstetric population. Only 4 cases have been described in the English literature since 1975. We describe a 29 year old woman who presented with ataxia, lower limb weakness and dysarthria 4 weeks after the birth of her first child. The symptoms had onset during the pregnancy but had not been considered remarkable. There were clinical features of upper and lower motor neurone involvement without any sensory loss. MRI of brain and spine was normal. CSF analysis was negative. EMG studies confirmed the presence of widespread anterior horn cell dysfunction compatible with ALS. The patient was commenced on Riluzole and has progressed clinically, at 12 months post diagnosis.

  12. Towards superlattices: Lateral bipolar multibarriers in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drienovsky, Martin; Schrettenbrunner, Franz-Xaver; Sandner, Andreas; Weiss, Dieter; Eroms, Jonathan; Liu, Ming-Hao; Tkatschenko, Fedor; Richter, Klaus

    2014-03-01

    We report on transport properties of monolayer graphene with a laterally modulated potential profile, employing striped top gate electrodes with spacings of 100 to 200 nm. Tuning of top and back gate voltages gives rise to local charge carrier density disparities, enabling the investigation of transport properties either in the unipolar (nn') or the bipolar (np ') regime. In the latter, pronounced single- and multibarrier Fabry-Pérot (FP) resonances occur. We present measurements of different devices with different numbers of top gate stripes and spacings. The data are highly consistent with a phase coherent ballistic tight-binding calculation and quantum capacitance model, whereas a superlattice effect and modification of band structure can be excluded.

  13. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Bozzoni, Virginia; Pansarasa, Orietta; Diamanti, Luca; Nosari, Guido; Cereda, Cristina; Ceroni, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Summary Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that affects central and peripheral motor neuron cells. Its etiology is unknown, although a relationship between genetic background and environmental factors may play a major role in triggering the neurodegeneration. In this review, we analyze the role of environmental factors in ALS: heavy metals, electromagnetic fields and electric shocks, pesticides, β-N-methylamino-L-alanine, physical activity and the controversial role of sports. The literature on the single issues is analyzed in an attempt to clarify, as clearly as possible, whether each risk factor significantly contributes to the disease pathogenesis. After summarizing conflicting observations and data, the authors provide a final synthetic statement. PMID:27027889

  14. [Dysphagia with lateral medullary infarction (Wallenberg's syndrome)].

    PubMed

    Oshima, Fumiko

    2011-11-01

    Dysphagia after lateral medullary infarction (LMI) is common. The dysphagia of LMI is dynamically characterized by a failure in triggering of the pharyngeal-phase swallowing movements, reduced output, and lack of coordination (swallowing pattern abnormality). Based on accurate evaluation, we can select suitable rehabilitative approaches for individual patients, including respiratory therapy, food modification, postural changes, and oral care. We focused on the absence of upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening of the unaffected side of the medullae. The movement pattern was defined as failure of bolus passage through the intact side of the UES, occurring at least once during the videofluorographic evaluation of each individual. Three abnormal patterns of UES opening were classified. The passage pattern abnormality shows the failure of the stereotyped motor sequence. For severe cases, it is necessary to consider long-term treatment, including botulinum toxin injection or surgery to prevent aspiration and adequate nutritional management.

  15. [Lateral instability of the upper ankle joint].

    PubMed

    Harrasser, N; Eichelberg, K; Pohlig, F; Waizy, H; Toepfer, A; von Eisenhart-Rothe, R

    2016-11-01

    Because of their frequency, ankle sprains are of major clinical and economic importance. The simple sprain with uneventful healing has to be distinguished from the potentially complicated sprain which is at risk of transition to chronic ankle instability. Conservative treatment is indicated for the acute, simple ankle sprain without accompanying injuries and also in cases of chronic instability. If conservative treatment fails, good results can be achieved by anatomic ligament reconstruction of the lateral ankle ligaments. Arthroscopic techniques offer the advantage of joint inspection and addressing intra-articular pathologies in combination with ligament repair. Accompanying pathologies must be adequately addressed during ligament repair to avoid persistent ankle discomfort. If syndesmotic insufficiency and tibiofibular instability are suspected, the objective should be early diagnosis with MRI and surgical repair.

  16. Dysarthria in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A review.

    PubMed

    Tomik, Barbara; Guiloff, Roberto J

    2010-01-01

    Dysarthria is a motor disorder of speech characterized by abnormalities of the articulation and intelligibility of speech. Phonation and the rate of facial movements may also be affected. Understanding the nature and course of dysarthria in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is important because loss of communication prevents patients from participating in many activities, may lead to social isolation, and reduces the quality of life. The goal of management of dysarthria in ALS patients is to optimize communication effectiveness for as long as possible. The information about dysarthria in ALS is dispersed in physiological, pathological, speech therapy, otorhinolaringological and neurological publications. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on the clinical features, differential diagnosis, pathophysiology, investigations and management of dysarthria in ALS patients. There is a need to compare the different methods used to assess dysarthria and for controlled clinical trials to assess therapeutic strategies.

  17. Optical fiber head for providing lateral viewing

    DOEpatents

    Everett, Matthew J.; Colston, Billy W.; James, Dale L.; Brown, Steve; Da Silva, Luiz

    2002-01-01

    The head of an optical fiber comprising the sensing probe of an optical heterodyne sensing device includes a planar surface that intersects the perpendicular to axial centerline of the fiber at a polishing angle .theta.. The planar surface is coated with a reflective material so that light traveling axially through the fiber is reflected transverse to the fiber's axial centerline, and is emitted laterally through the side of the fiber. Alternatively, the planar surface can be left uncoated. The polishing angle .theta. must be no greater than 39.degree. or must be at least 51.degree.. The emitted light is reflected from adjacent biological tissue, collected by the head, and then processed to provide real-time images of the tissue. The method for forming the planar surface includes shearing the end of the optical fiber and applying the reflective material before removing the buffer that circumscribes the cladding and the core.

  18. A comprehensive review of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Sara; Carr, Karen; Reiley, Luz; Diaz, Kelvin; Guerra, Orleiquis; Altamirano, Pablo Fernandez; Pagani, Wilfredo; Lodin, Daud; Orozco, Gloria; Chinea, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a late-onset fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons with an incidence of about 1/100,000. Most ALS cases are sporadic, but 5–10% of the cases are familial ALS. Both sporadic and familial ALS (FALS) are associated with degeneration of cortical and spinal motor neurons. The etiology of ALS remains unknown. However, mutations of superoxide dismutase 1 have been known as the most common cause of FALS. In this study, we provide a comprehensive review of ALS. We cover all aspects of the disease including epidemiology, comorbidities, environmental risk factor, molecular mechanism, genetic factors, symptoms, diagnostic, treatment, and even the available supplement and management of ALS. This will provide the reader with an advantage of receiving a broad range of information about the disease. PMID:26629397

  19. Lateral hypothalamic circuits for feeding and reward.

    PubMed

    Stuber, Garret D; Wise, Roy A

    2016-02-01

    In experiments conducted over 60 years ago, the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) was identified as a critical neuroanatomical substrate for motivated behavior. Electrical stimulation of the LHA induces voracious feeding even in well-fed animals. In the absence of food, animals will work tirelessly, often lever-pressing thousands of times per hour, for electrical stimulation at the same site that provokes feeding, drinking and other species-typical motivated behaviors. Here we review the classic findings from electrical stimulation studies and integrate them with more recent work that has used contemporary circuit-based approaches to study the LHA. We identify specific anatomically and molecularly defined LHA elements that integrate diverse information arising from cortical, extended amygdala and basal forebrain networks to ultimately generate a highly specified and invigorated behavioral state conveyed via LHA projections to downstream reward and feeding-specific circuits.

  20. Infant feeding and later obesity risk.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold; von Kries, Rüdiger; Monasterolo, Ricardo Closa; Subías, Joaquín Escribano; Scaglioni, Silvia; Giovannini, Marcello; Beyer, Jeannette; Demmelmair, Hans; Anton, Brigitte; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Dobrzanska, Anna; Sengier, Anne; Langhendries, Jean-Paul; Cachera, Marie-Françoise Rolland; Grote, Viet

    2009-01-01

    Some 30 years ago, Günter Dörner proposed that exposure to hormones, metabolites and neurotransmitters during limited, sensitive periods of early development exert programming effects on disease risk in human adults. Early programming of long term health has since received broad scientific support and attention. For example, evidence increases for programming effects of infant feeding choices on later obesity risk. Meta-analyses of observational studies indicate that breast feeding reduces the odds ratio for obesity at school age by about 20%, relative to formula feeding, even after adjustment for biological and sociodemographic confounding variables. We hypothesized that breast feeding protects against later obesity by reducing the likelihood of high weight gain in infancy, and that this protection is caused at least partly by the lower protein supply with breast milk relative to standard infant formulae (the "Early Protein Hypothesis"). These hypotheses are tested in the European Childhood Obesity Project, a randomized double blind intervention trial in more than 1,000 infants in five European countries (Belgium, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain). Formula fed infants were randomized to receive during the first year of life infant formulae and follow-on-formulae with higher or lower protein contents. Follow-up at 2 years of age shows that lower protein supply with formula normalizes early growth relative to a breast fed reference group and to the WHO growth reference. These results demonstrate that modification of infant feeding practice has an important potential for long-term health promotion and should prompt a review of the recommendations and policies for infant formula composition.

  1. Lateral interactions in the outer retina.

    PubMed

    Thoreson, Wallace B; Mangel, Stuart C

    2012-09-01

    Lateral interactions in the outer retina, particularly negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones and direct feed-forward input from horizontal cells to bipolar cells, play a number of important roles in early visual processing, such as generating center-surround receptive fields that enhance spatial discrimination. These circuits may also contribute to post-receptoral light adaptation and the generation of color opponency. In this review, we examine the contributions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways to early visual processing. We begin by reviewing the properties of bipolar cell receptive fields, especially with respect to modulation of the bipolar receptive field surround by the ambient light level and to the contribution of horizontal cells to the surround. We then review evidence for and against three proposed mechanisms for negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones: 1) GABA release by horizontal cells, 2) ephaptic modulation of the cone pedicle membrane potential generated by currents flowing through hemigap junctions in horizontal cell dendrites, and 3) modulation of cone calcium currents (I(Ca)) by changes in synaptic cleft proton levels. We also consider evidence for the presence of direct horizontal cell feed-forward input to bipolar cells and discuss a possible role for GABA at this synapse. We summarize proposed functions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways. Finally, we examine the mechanisms and functions of two other forms of lateral interaction in the outer retina: negative feedback from horizontal cells to rods and positive feedback from horizontal cells to cones.

  2. [Lateralization of the epileptic process and psychology].

    PubMed

    Preiss, J; Kristof, M

    1989-04-01

    In a group of 70 patients with a unilateral epileptic process in the temporal limbic structures, localized in the left half of the brain in 38 patients (26 men, 12 women) and in the right half of the brain in 32 patients (17 men, 15 women) the lateralization of motor functions, asymmetry of emotional mimicry, conjugated deviation of the eye bulbs, intellect, memory, psychomotor rate and personality (laterality test of Matĕjcek--Zlab, Wechsler's intellect and memory scale, Benton, Stroop, VAROS, SUPOS, DSF, Washington Psychosocial--Seizure Inventory WPSI was investigated. Patient with a left-sided epileptic process had only insignificantly lower contact with psychiatry (31.6% as compared with 40.6%). Significantly lower contacts with psychiatry were recorded in 35 patients with a predominance of emotional mimicry (while smiling) on the left (25.0% as compared with 47.1%, p less than 0.05) and particularly significantly low in 18 patients with a combination of signs left-sided epileptic process + predominance of emotional mimicry on the left + deviation of the eyeballs on the right (mathematical stimulus) + genotypical righthandedness (16.7% as compared with 42.3%, p less than 0.025). Men with a left-sided epileptic process displayed a significantly greater anxiety, in women this trend was only indicated. Four women with a left-sided epileptic process anticipating regulation of behaviour was typical, for women with a right-sided epileptic process lower autoregulating inhibitions. A left-sided epileptic process had significantly more often a favourable course of epilepsy (in 65.8% as compared with 25.0%, p less than 0.005). In psychological tests, however, the differentiating criteria were much more than the course of the disease invalid pension, contact with psychiatry and subjective need of assistance from a psychiatrist or psychologist.

  3. Costa Rica's Chain of laterally collapsed volcanoes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, E.; Fernandez, E.

    2007-05-01

    From the NW extreme to the SW end of Costa Rica's volcanic backbone, a number of laterally collapsed volcanoes can be observed. Due to several factors, attention has been given to active volcanoes disregarding the importance of collapsed features in terms of assessing volcanic hazards for future generations around inhabited volcanoes. In several cases the typical horseshoe shape amphitheater-like depression can be easily observed. In other cases due to erosion, vegetation, topography, seismic activity or drastic weather such characteristics are not easily recognized. In the order mentioned above appear: Orosi-Cacao, Miravalles, Platanar, Congo, Von Frantzius, Cacho Negro and Turrialba volcanoes. Due to limited studies on these structures it is unknown if sector collapse occurred in one or several phases. Furthermore, in the few studied cases no evidence has been found to relate collapses to actual eruptive episodes. Detailed studies on the deposits and materials composing dome-like shapes will shed light on unsolved questions about petrological and chemical composition. Volume, form and distance traveled by deposits are part of the questions surrounding most of these collapsed volcanoes. Although most of these mentioned structures are extinct, at least Irazú volcano (active volcano) has faced partial lateral collapses recently. It did presented strombolian activity in the early 60s. Collapse scars show on the NW flank show important mass removal in historic and prehistoric times. Moreover, in 1994 a minor hydrothermal explosion provoked the weakening of a deeply altered wall that holds a crater lake (150m diameter, 2.6x106 ). A poster will depict images of the collapsed volcanoes named above with mayor descriptive characteristics. It will also focus on the importance of deeper studies to assess the collapse potential of Irazú volcano with related consequences. Finally, this initiative will invite researchers interested in such topic to join future studies in

  4. Lateral interactions in the outer retina

    PubMed Central

    Thoreson, Wallace B.; Mangel, Stuart C.

    2012-01-01

    Lateral interactions in the outer retina, particularly negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones and direct feed-forward input from horizontal cells to bipolar cells, play a number of important roles in early visual processing, such as generating center-surround receptive fields that enhance spatial discrimination. These circuits may also contribute to post-receptoral light adaptation and the generation of color opponency. In this review, we examine the contributions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways to early visual processing. We begin by reviewing the properties of bipolar cell receptive fields, especially with respect to modulation of the bipolar receptive field surround by the ambient light level and to the contribution of horizontal cells to the surround. We then review evidence for and against three proposed mechanisms for negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones: 1) GABA release by horizontal cells, 2) ephaptic modulation of the cone pedicle membrane potential generated by currents flowing through hemigap junctions in horizontal cell dendrites, and 3) modulation of cone calcium currents (ICa) by changes in synaptic cleft proton levels. We also consider evidence for the presence of direct horizontal cell feed-forward input to bipolar cells and discuss a possible role for GABA at this synapse. We summarize proposed functions of horizontal cell feedback and feed-forward pathways. Finally, we examine the mechanisms and functions of two other forms of lateral interaction in the outer retina: negative feedback from horizontal cells to rods and positive feedback from horizontal cells to cones. PMID:22580106

  5. Research on measurement of lateral dimension based on digital micromirror device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qing; Cui, Chang-cai; Fan, Wei; Huang, Fu-gui

    2015-02-01

    For better machining and electrical characteristic, the complex surfaces topography of some delicate machining tools and electronic components should be acquired precisely, including shape and size of microstructure on surface of engineering material or precision component from microscopic view, and relationship between microstructures from macroscopic viewpoint, such as spaces, distribution and so on. This so called multiscale measurement has been greatly focusing by experts and scholars from home and abroad. People researched this novel measurement in several ways: (1) putting different sensors together, which had different resolution and measuring range; (2) applying software technology, include wavelet theory, fractal theory and image mosaicing technology, to solve this multi-scale measurement problem. However, it's difficult to cooperate with many different sensors in multi-sensors measurement technology, and mathematical modeling is very complicated in software technology. This paper used Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) as a multiscale measuring tool, and a method of measurement on lateral dimension has been proposed. As an excellent optical modulation device, DMD could modulate incident light to line structure light. Owing to controlling flexibility of DMD, the parameters of the line structure light, include line width, light intensity and scanning frequency, could be modulated by programming. This project has solved the problem of measurement error due to the angle between line structure light and field of view of specimen, and the results of experiment proved that, this method by DMD acquired lateral dimension data conveniently.

  6. Spinal corollary discharge modulates motion sensing during vertebrate locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Chagnaud, Boris P.; Banchi, Roberto; Simmers, John; Straka, Hans

    2015-01-01

    During active movements, neural replicas of the underlying motor commands may assist in adapting motion-detecting sensory systems to an animal's own behaviour. The transmission of such motor efference copies to the mechanosensory periphery offers a potential predictive substrate for diminishing sensory responsiveness to self-motion during vertebrate locomotion. Here, using semi-isolated in vitro preparations of larval Xenopus, we demonstrate that shared efferent neural pathways to hair cells of vestibular endorgans and lateral line neuromasts express cyclic impulse bursts during swimming that are directly driven by spinal locomotor circuitry. Despite common efferent innervation and discharge patterns, afferent signal encoding at the two mechanosensory peripheries is influenced differentially by efference copy signals, reflecting the different organization of body/water motion-detecting processes in the vestibular and lateral line systems. The resultant overall gain reduction in sensory signal encoding in both cases, which likely prevents overstimulation, constitutes an adjustment to increased stimulus magnitudes during locomotion. PMID:26337184

  7. Detection of influenza virus using a lateral flow immunoassay for amplified DNA by a microfluidic RT-PCR chip.

    PubMed

    Nagatani, Naoki; Yamanaka, Keiichiro; Ushijima, Hiromi; Koketsu, Ritsuko; Sasaki, Tadahiro; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Saito, Masato; Miyahara, Toshiro; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2012-08-07

    Influenza virus RNA was amplified by a continuous-flow polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic RT-PCR chip within 15-20 min. The amplified influenza virus RNA was observed with the naked eye, as the red color at the test line, using a lateral flow immunoassay within 1 min.

  8. Near-field ptychography using lateral and longitudinal shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robisch, A.-L.; Kröger, K.; Rack, A.; Salditt, T.

    2015-07-01

    Image reconstruction of in-line holography depends crucially on the probing wave front used to illuminate an object. Aberrations inherent to the illumination can mix with the features imposed by the object. Conventional raw data processing methods rely on the division of the measured hologram by the intensity profile of the probe and are not able to fully eliminate artifacts caused by the illumination. Here we present a generalized ptychography approach to simultaneously reconstruct object and probe in the optical near-field. Combining the ideas of ptychographic lateral shifts of the object with variations of the propagation distance by longitudinal shifts, simultaneous reconstruction of object and probe was achieved equally well for a highly aberrated and a mildly disturbed probe without the need for an additional wave front diffuser. The method overcomes the image deterioration by a non-ideal probe and at the same time any restrictions due to linearization of the object’s transmission function or the Fresnel propagator. The method is demonstrated experimentally using visible light and hard x-rays, in both parallel beam and cone beam geometry, which is relevant for high resolution x-ray imaging. It also opens up a new approach to characterize extended wave fronts by phase retrieval.

  9. Acceptance of brain-computer interfaces in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Geronimo, Andrew; Stephens, Helen E; Schiff, Steven J; Simmons, Zachary

    2015-06-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) have the potential to permit patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to communicate even when locked in. Although as many as half of patients with ALS develop cognitive or behavioral dysfunction, the impact of these factors on acceptance of and ability to use a BCI has not been studied. We surveyed patients with ALS and their caregivers about BCIs used as assistive communication tools. The survey focused on the features of a BCI system, the desired end-use functions, and requirements. Functional, cognitive, and behavioral data were collected from patients and analyzed for their influence over decisions about BCI device use. Results showed that behavioral impairment was associated with decreased receptivity to the use of BCI technology. In addition, the operation of a BCI system during a pilot study altered patients' opinions of the utility of the system, generally in line with their perceived performance at controlling the device. In conclusion, these two findings have implications for the engineering design and clinical care phases of assistive device deployment.

  10. Side of limb-onset predicts laterality of gray matter loss in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiuli; Mao, Cuiping; Jin, Jiaoting; Niu, Chen; Bai, Lijun; Dang, Jingxia; Zhang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Conflicting findings have been reported regarding the lateralized brain abnormality in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this study, we aimed to investigate the probable lateralization of gray matter (GM) atrophy in ALS patients. We focused on the relationship between the asymmetry in decreased GM volume and the side of disease onset in patients with limb-onset. Structural imaging evaluation of normalized atrophy (SIENAX) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were used to assess differences in global and local brain regions in patients with heterogeneous body onset and subgroups with different side of limb-onset. We found global brain atrophy and GM losses in the frontal and parietal areas in each patient group as well as left predominant GM losses in the total cohort. The intriguing findings in subgroup analyses demonstrated that the motor cortex in the contralateral hemisphere of the initially involved limb was most affected. We also found that regional brain atrophy was related to disease progression rate. Our observations suggested that side of limb-onset can predict laterality of GM loss in ALS patients and disease progression correlates with the extent of cortical abnormality.

  11. Lateral and cross-lateral focusing of spherical particles in a square microchannel.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong-Seok; Seo, Kyung-Won; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2011-02-07

    The inertial migration of particles in micro-scale flows has received much attention due to its promising applications, such as the membrane-free passive separation of particles or cells. The particles suspended in rectangular channels are known to be focused near the center of each channel face as the channel Reynolds number (R(C)) increases due to the lift force balance and the hydrodynamic interactions of the particles with the wall. In this study, the three-dimensional positions of neutrally buoyant spherical particles inside a square microchannel are measured using the digital holographic microscopy technique, and a transition from the lateral tubular pinch to the cross-lateral focusing with increasing R(C) is reported. The particles are found to migrate first in the lateral direction and then cross-laterally toward the four equilibrium positions. A general criterion that can be used to secure the fully developed state of particle focusing in Lab-on-a-Chip applications is also derived. This criterion could be helpful for the accurate estimation of the design parameters of inertial microfluidic devices, such as R(C), channel length and width, and particle diameter.

  12. All-inside, anatomical lateral ankle stabilization for revision and complex primary lateral ankle stabilization: a technique guide.

    PubMed

    Prissel, Mark A; Roukis, Thomas S

    2014-12-01

    Lateral ankle instability is a common mechanical problem that often requires surgical management when conservative efforts fail. Historically, myriad open surgical approaches have been proposed. Recently, consideration for arthroscopic management of lateral ankle instability has become popular, with promising results. Unfortunately, recurrent inversion ankle injury following lateral ankle stabilization can occur and require revision surgery. To date, arthroscopic management for revision lateral ankle stabilization has not been described. We present a novel arthroscopic technique combining an arthroscopic lateral ankle stabilization kit with a suture anchor ligament augmentation system for revision as well as complex primary lateral ankle stabilization.

  13. Line Up a Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lamoine J.; Beattie, John R.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents a lesson plan for teaching students the third of five steps for solving mathematical problems, "lining up a plan." Steps for teaching students to visualize the problem and draw a picture of the problem are given. (DB)

  14. IRIS Spectrum Line Plot

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows a line plot of the spectrum. The spectra here are shown for various locations on the Sun. The changes in the movie are caused by differing physical conditions in the locations. Cre...

  15. Power line detection system

    DOEpatents

    Latorre, Victor R.; Watwood, Donald B.

    1994-01-01

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard.

  16. Power line detection system

    DOEpatents

    Latorre, V.R.; Watwood, D.B.

    1994-09-27

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard. 4 figs.

  17. Line, Shape, Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Geri

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project used with beginning high school art students that teaches them about continuous line drawing. Explains that the students create portraits of themselves, or another student, using glue, black construction paper, and chalk. (CMK)

  18. PORTION OF A LINE (AT LEFT) AND B LINE (AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PORTION OF A LINE (AT LEFT) AND B LINE (AT RIGHT) ON GENTLE TERRACE SLOPE. A LINE POLE 75A (LEFT FOREGROUND) HAS ORIGINAL GLASS PIN-TYPE INSULATORS AND INTACT COMMUNICATION LINE CROSS ARM. VIEW TO WEST-SOUTHWEST. - Mystic Lake Hydroelectric Facility, Electric Transmission A Line, Along West Rosebud Creek, Fishtail, Stillwater County, MT

  19. On-Line and Off-Line Assessment of Metacognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saraç, Seda; Karakelle, Sema

    2012-01-01

    The study investigates the interrelationships between different on-line and off-line measures for assessing metacognition. The participants were 47 fifth grade elementary students. Metacognition was assessed through two off-line and two on-line measures. The off-line measures consisted of a teacher rating scale and a self-report questionnaire. The…

  20. Tiny Babies May Face Mental Health Problems Later

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_163563.html Tiny Babies May Face Mental Health Problems Later Review found greater likelihood of ADHD, ... weight babies may be at increased risk for mental health problems later in life, a new review suggests. ...

  1. NLC extraction line studies

    SciTech Connect

    Nosochkov, Y.

    1999-12-09

    In this note, the authors briefly review the current lattice of the NLC extraction line which was designed for the nominal NLC beam parameters. Then the authors describe the beam parameters for the high luminosity option with larger beam disruption parameter and discuss its effect on beam loss in the extraction line. Finally, the authors present a summary of the optics study aimed at minimizing the beam loss with high disruption beams.

  2. A new mechanism for spatial pattern formation via lateral and protrusion-mediated lateral signalling

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Ginger L.; Baum, Buzz

    2016-01-01

    Tissue organization and patterning are critical during development when genetically identical cells take on different fates. Lateral signalling plays an important role in this process by helping to generate self-organized spatial patterns in an otherwise uniform collection of cells. Recent data suggest that lateral signalling can be mediated both by junctional contacts between neighbouring cells and via cellular protrusions that allow non-neighbouring cells to interact with one another at a distance. However, it remains unclear precisely how signalling mediated by these distinct types of cell–cell contact can physically contribute to the generation of complex patterns without the assistance of diffusible morphogens or pre-patterns. To explore this question, in this work we develop a model of lateral signalling based on a single receptor/ligand pair as exemplified by Notch and Delta. We show that allowing the signalling kinetics to differ at junctional versus protrusion-mediated contacts, an assumption inspired by recent data which show that the cleavage of Notch in several systems requires both Delta binding and the application of mechanical force, permits individual cells to act to promote both lateral activation and lateral inhibition. Strikingly, under this model, in which Delta can sequester Notch, a variety of patterns resembling those typical of reaction–diffusion systems is observed, together with more unusual patterns that arise when we consider changes in signalling kinetics, and in the length and distribution of protrusions. Importantly, these patterns are self-organizing—so that local interactions drive tissue-scale patterning. Together, these data show that protrusions can, in principle, generate different types of patterns in addition to contributing to long-range signalling and to pattern refinement. PMID:27807273

  3. Lateral bias, functional asymmetry, dance training and dance injuries.

    PubMed

    Kimmerle, Marliese

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to: 1. provide a conceptual framework for consolidating laterality research in dance training from an interdisciplinary perspective; 2. encourage the reporting of lateral data; 3. promote the development of standardized methods for assessing lateral preference and functional asymmetry so that data sets from student screenings, lab studies, and injury reports can be compared; and 4. stimulate further laterality research in the dance studio to examine student preference and teaching bias, thereby promoting balanced training.

  4. Anisotropic Hanle line shape via magnetothermoelectric phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, K. S.; Dejene, F. K.; van Wees, B. J.; Vera-Marun, I. J.

    2016-11-01

    We observe anisotropic Hanle line shape with unequal in-plane and out-of-plane nonlocal signals for spin precession measurements carried out on lateral metallic spin valves with transparent interfaces. The conventional interpretation for this anisotropy corresponds to unequal spin relaxation times for in-plane and out-of-plane spin orientations as for the case of two-dimensional materials like graphene, but it is unexpected in a polycrystalline metallic channel. Systematic measurements as a function of temperature and channel length, combined with both analytical and numerical thermoelectric transport models, demonstrate that the anisotropy in the Hanle line shape is magnetothermal in origin, caused by the anisotropic modulation of the Peltier and Seebeck coefficients of the ferromagnetic electrodes. Our results call for the consideration of such magnetothermoelectric effects in the study of anisotropic spin relaxation.

  5. LineVISAR. A fringe-trace data analysis program

    SciTech Connect

    Furnish, Michael D.

    2014-02-01

    The line-imaging ORVIS or VISAR provides velocity as a function of position and time for a line on an experimental setup via a streak camera record of interference fringes. This document describes a Matlab-based program which guides the user through the process of converting these fringe data to a velocity surface. The data reduction is of the "fringe trace" type, wherein the changes in velocity at a given position on the line are calculated based on fringe motion past that point. The analyst must establish the fringe behavior up front, aided by peak-finding routines in the program. However, the later work of using fringe jumps to compensate for phase problems in other analysis techniques is greatly reduced. This program is not a standard GUI construction, and is prescriptive. At various points it saves the progress, allowing later restarts from those points.

  6. The alcohol-sensitive period during early octavolateral organ development in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Zamora, Lilliann Y; Miguel, Kayla C; Lu, Zhongmin

    2017-01-20

    Fetal alcohol exposure can cause Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), completely preventable developmental disabilities characterized by permanent birth defects. However, specific gestational timing when developing organs are most sensitive to alcohol exposure is unclear. In this study, we examined the temporal effects of embryonic alcohol exposure on octavolateral organs in zebrafish (Danio rerio), including inner ears and lateral line neuromasts that function in hearing, balance, and hydrodynamic detection, respectively. To determine an alcohol-sensitive period in the first 24 hours post fertilization (hpf), Et(krt4:EGFP)(sqet4) zebrafish that express green fluorescent protein in sensory hair cells were treated in 2% alcohol for 2, 3, and 5-hours. Octavolateral organs of control and alcohol-exposed larvae were examined at 3, 5, and 7 days post fertilization (dpf). Using confocal and light microscopy, we found that alcohol-exposed larvae had significantly smaller otic vesicles and saccular otoliths than control larvae at 3 dpf. Only alcohol-exposed larvae from 12-17 hpf had smaller otic vesicles at 5 dpf, smaller saccular otoliths at 7 dpf and fewer saccular hair cells, neuromasts and hair cells per neuromast at 3 dpf. In addition, auditory function was assessed by microphonic potential recordings from inner ear hair cells in response to 200-Hz stimulation. Hearing sensitivity was reduced for alcohol-exposed larvae from 7-12 and 12-17 hpf. Our results show that 12-17 hpf is an alcohol-sensitive time window when morphology and function of zebrafish octavolateral organs are most vulnerable to alcohol exposure. This study implies that embryonic alcohol exposure timing during early development can influence severity of hearing deficits. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. 14 CFR 25.177 - Static lateral-directional stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Static lateral-directional stability. 25... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 25.177 Static lateral... is set forth as follows: § 25.177 Static lateral-directional stability. (a) The static...

  8. A new method for adjusting the lateral transfer hollow retroreflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ershov, Alexandr G.

    2013-05-01

    A new method for adjusting the lateral transfer hollow retroreflector is presented. It allows in a simple way to adjust the hollow retroreflectors with a lateral shifting. It enables to make the manufacturing process of adjustable lateral hollow retroreflectors easier and cheaper. The testing optical bed of this method is displayed. The evaluation of uncertainties and a limit value for this method are given.

  9. Sex Differences in Cerebral Laterality of Language and Visuospatial Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, A. M.; Rimrodt, S. L.; Abel, J. R.; Blankner, J. G.; Mostofsky, S. H.; Pekar, J. J.; Denckla, M. B.; Cutting, L. E.

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences on language and visuospatial tasks are of great interest, with differences in hemispheric laterality hypothesized to exist between males and females. Some functional imaging studies examining sex differences have shown that males are more left lateralized on language tasks and females are more right lateralized on visuospatial…

  10. Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

  11. The Relationship Between Lateral Dominance and Divergent Cognitive Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Barbara B.

    This study was designed to explore the relationship of lateral dominance to divergent cognitive thought. According to the screening results of the Harris Tests of Lateral Dominance, 36 subjects ranging from 9-12 years were divided equally into three groups of left, right, and mixed lateral dominance. In order to measure divergent cognitive…

  12. Diageotropica and lateral rooting, the rest of the story

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nature of the control of lateral root initiation has been controversial for 80+ years. A mutant tomato (diageotropica), incapable of producing lateral roots, was first classified as ethylene requiring since exceptionally low concentrations of ethylene, applied to the shoot, stimulated lateral r...

  13. Right Fronto-Parietal Dysfunction in Children with ADHD and Developmental Dyslexia as Determined by Line Bisection Judgements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldie, Karen E.; Hausmann, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Visual line bisection is a reliable and valid laterality task that is typically used with patients with acquired brain damage to assess right hemisphere functioning. Neurologically normal individuals tend to bisect lines to the left of the objective midline whereas those with right parietal damage bisect lines to the right. In this study children…

  14. Anatomical Knee Variants in Discoid Lateral Meniscal Tears

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xu-Xu; Li, Jian; Wang, Tao; Zhao, Yang; Kang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Background: Discoid lateral meniscus was a common meniscal dysplasia and was predisposed to tear. There were some anatomical knee variants in patients with discoid lateral meniscus. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between anatomical knee variants and discoid lateral meniscal tears. Methods: There were totally 125 cases of discoid lateral meniscus enrolled in this study from February 2008 to December 2013. Eighty-seven patients who underwent arthroscopic surgery for right torn discoid lateral meniscus were enrolled in the torn group. An additional 38 patients who were incidentally identified as having intact discoid lateral menisci on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were included in the control group. All patients were evaluated for anatomical knee variants on plain radiographs, including lateral joint space distance, height of the lateral tibial spine, height of the fibular head, obliquity of the lateral tibial plateau, squaring of the lateral femoral condyle, cupping of the lateral tibial plateau, lateral femoral condylar notch, and condylar cutoff sign. The relationship between anatomical variants and meniscal tear was evaluated. These anatomical variants in cases with complete discoid meniscus were also compared with those in cases with incomplete discoid meniscus. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in lateral joint space distance (P = 0.528), height of the lateral tibial spine (P = 0.927), height of the fibular head (P = 0.684), obliquity of the lateral tibial plateau (P = 0.672), and the positive rates of squaring of the lateral femoral condyle (P = 0.665), cupping of the lateral tibial plateau (P = 0.239), and lateral femoral condylar notch (P = 0.624). The condylar cutoff sign was significantly different between the two groups, with the prominence ratio in the torn group being smaller than that in the control group (0.74 ± 0.11 vs. 0.81 ± 0.04, P = 0.049). With the decision value of the

  15. Lateral transport of phosphorus along forested hillslopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrt, Jakob; Weiler, Markus; Puhlmann, Heike

    2016-04-01

    Details about the phosphorus (P)-cycle in temperate forests are still incomplete, though there are indications that the organic topsoil acts as an important source and sink for P. It can act as a sink for P in fallen litter and as a source since the decaying biomass replenishes the pool of inorganic, water soluble and thus plant available P. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude of lateral mobilization, transport and retention of total P (persulfate digestion method) in the soil at various depths of a broadleaf forest during heavy rainstorm events. On three locations in Germany, 10 m long and over 3m deep trenches were constructed to collect lateral subsurface flow from three discrete depth-layers between the soil surface and a depth of three meters. Sampling is handled through an automated system which collects flow-proportional samples in high temporal resolution. Sampling took place from March to November 2015 including more than 20 rainfall runoff events. Simultaneously to the sampling, flow rate, conductivity and temperature of the interflow was measured as well as soil moisture, rainfall and discharge in the nearest downslope spring. The results show consistently that P-concentrations in interflow samples are highest at the beginning of a rainfall-interflow-event, both for wet and dry initial conditions, and drop considerably over the course of the event until they stabilize. Secondly, P-concentration of interflow samples is by far highest in the organic topsoil, being up to one magnitude higher that in the mineral soil directly below and decreasing further with depth. This pattern applies despite the fact that there is very little temporal delay between the activation of interflow in the topsoil and deeper layers which indicates that at least some of the interflow in the topsoil ends up as interflow in deeper layers within a short time span. These results indicate that the organic topsoil contains a pool of P that is easily mobilized and

  16. Simultaneous verbal and affective laterality effects.

    PubMed

    Bulman-Fleming, M B; Bryden, M P

    1994-07-01

    By analyzing the error scores of normal participants asked to identify a specific word spoken in a specific tone of voice (for example, the word "tower" spoken in a happy tone of voice), we have been able to demonstrate concurrent verbal and affective cerebral laterality effects in a dichotic listening task. The targets comprised the 16 possible combinations of four two-syllable words spoken in four different tones of voice. There were 128 participants equally divided between left- and right-handers, with equal numbers of each sex within each handedness group. Each participant responded to 144 trials on the dichotic task, and filled in the 32-item Waterloo Handedness Questionnaire. Analysis of false positive responses on the dichotic task (responding "yes" when only the verbal or only the affective component of the target was present, or when both components were present but were at opposite ears) indicated that significantly more errors were made when the verbal aspect of the target appeared at the right ear (left hemisphere) and the emotional aspect was at the left ear (right hemisphere) than when the reverse was the case. A single task has generated both effects, so that differences in participants' strategies or the way in which attention is biased cannot account for the results. While the majority of participants showed a right-ear advantage for verbal material and a left-ear advantage for nonverbal material, these two effects were not correlated, suggesting that independent mechanisms probably underly the establishment of verbal and affective processing. We found no significant sex or handedness effects, though left-handers were much more variable than were right-handers. There were no significant correlations between degree of handedness as measured on the handedness questionnaire and extent of lateralization of verbal or affective processing on the dichotic task. We believe that this general technique may be able to provide information as to the nature and

  17. Dynamic cortical lateralization during olfactory discrimination learning

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Yaniv; Putrino, David; Wilson, Donald A

    2015-01-01

    Key points Odour discrimination and memory involve changes in the primary olfactory (piriform) cortex. The results obtained in the present study suggest that there is an asymmetry in piriform cortical change, with learning-related changes in cortical oscillations emerging with different time courses over the course of multiday training in the left and right piriform cortices in rats. There is an initial decrease in coherence between the left and right piriform cortices during the early stages of the odour discrimination task, which recovers as the animals approach criterion performance. This decreased coherence is expressed when the animals are performing the task relative to when they are in their home cage. The results suggest a transient cortical asymmetry during learning and raise new questions about the functions and mechanisms of cerebral lateralization. Abstract Bilateral cortical circuits are not necessarily symmetrical. Asymmetry, or cerebral lateralization, allows functional specialization of bilateral brain regions and has been described in humans for such diverse functions as perception, memory and emotion. There is also evidence for asymmetry in the human olfactory system, although evidence in non-human animal models is lacking. In the present study, we took advantage of the known changes in olfactory cortical local field potentials that occur over the course of odour discrimination training to test for functional asymmetry in piriform cortical activity during learning. Both right and left piriform cortex local field potential activities were recorded. The results obtained demonstrate a robust interhemispheric asymmetry in anterior piriform cortex activity that emerges during specific stages of odour discrimination learning, with a transient bias toward the left hemisphere. This asymmetry is not apparent during error trials. Furthermore, functional connectivity (coherence) between the bilateral anterior piriform cortices is learning- and context

  18. Packings of a charged line on a sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alben, Silas

    2008-12-01

    We find equilibrium configurations of open and closed lines of charge on a sphere, and track them with respect to varying sphere radius. Closed lines transition from a circle to a spiral-like shape through two low-wave-number bifurcations—“baseball seam” and “twist”—which minimize Coulomb energy. The spiral shape is the unique stable equilibrium of the closed line. Other unstable equilibria arise through tip-splitting events. An open line transitions smoothly from an arc of a great circle to a spiral as the sphere radius decreases. Under repulsive potentials with faster-than-Coulomb power-law decay, the spiral is tighter in initial stages of sphere shrinkage, but at later stages of shrinkage the equilibria for all repulsive potentials converge on a spiral with uniform spacing between turns. Multiple stable equilibria of the open line are observed.

  19. Line Lengths and Starch Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Sandra E.

    1986-01-01

    Investigates readability of different line lengths in advertising body copy, hypothesizing a normal curve with lower scores for shorter and longer lines, and scores above the mean for lines in the middle of the distribution. Finds support for lower scores for short lines and some evidence of two optimum line lengths rather than one. (SKC)

  20. Transmission line capital costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs.

  1. Intrinsic Circuits in the Lateral Central Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Sarah; Sun, Yajie; Klein, Rüdiger

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Network activity in the lateral central amygdala (CeL) plays a crucial role in fear learning and emotional processing. However, the local circuits of the CeL are not fully understood and have only recently begun to be explored in detail. Here, we characterized the intrinsic circuits in the CeL using paired whole-call patch-clamp recordings, immunohistochemistry, and optogenetics in C57BL/6J wild-type and somatostatin-cre (SOM-Cre) mice. Our results revealed that throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the CeL, neurons form inhibitory connections at a rate of ∼29% with an average amplitude of 20 ± 3 pA (at −40 mV). Inhibitory input from a single neuron is sufficient to halt firing in the postsynaptic neuron. Post hoc immunostaining for protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) in wild-type mice and paired recordings in SOM-Cre mice demonstrated that the most common local connections were PKCδ(−) → PKCδ(−) and SOM(+) → SOM(+). Finally, by optogenetically activating either SOM(+) or SOM(−) neurons, we found that almost all neurons in the CeL were innervated by these neuronal populations and that connections between like neurons were stronger than those between different neuronal types. These findings reveal a complex network of connections within the CeL and provide the foundations for future behavior-specific circuit analysis of this complex network. PMID:28374004

  2. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: New Perpectives and Update.

    PubMed

    Orsini, Marco; Oliveira, Acary Bulle; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M; Reis, Carlos Henrique Melo; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; de Souza, Jano Alves; Pupe, Camila; de Souza, Olivia Gameiro; Bastos, Victor Hugo; de Freitas, Marcos R G; Teixeira, Silmar; Bruno, Carlos; Davidovich, Eduardo; Smidt, Benny

    2015-09-24

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Charcot's disease or Lou Gehrig's disease, is a term used to cover the spetrum of syndromes caracterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons, a paralytic disorder caused by motor neuron degeneration. Currently, there are approximately 25,000 patients with ALS in the USA, with an average age of onset of 55 years. The incidence and prevalence of ALS are 1-2 and 4-6 per 100,000 each year, respectively, with a lifetime ALS risk of 1/600 to 1/1000. It causes progressive and cumulative physical disabilities, and leads to eventual death due to respiratory muscle failure. ALS is diverse in its presentation, course, and progression. We do not yet fully understand the causes of the disease, nor the mechanisms for its progression; thus, we lack effective means for treating this disease. In this chapter, we will discuss the diagnosis, treatment, and how to cope with impaired function and end of life based on of our experience, guidelines, and clinical trials. Nowadays ALS seems to be a more complex disease than it did two decades - or even one decade - ago, but new insights have been plentiful. Clinical trials should be seen more as experiments on pathogenic mechanisms. A medication or combination of medications that targets more than one pathogenic pathway may slow disease progression in an additive or synergistic fashion.

  3. Controversies and priorities in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Martin R; Hardiman, Orla; Benatar, Michael; Brooks, Benjamin R; Chio, Adriano; de Carvalho, Mamede; Ince, Paul G; Lin, Cindy; Miller, Robert G; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Nicholson, Garth; Ravits, John; Shaw, Pamela J; Swash, Michael; Talbot, Kevin; Traynor, Bryan J; den Berg, Leonard H Van; Veldink, Jan H; Vucic, Steve; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2015-01-01

    Summary Two decades after the discovery that 20% of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases were linked to mutations in the superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) gene, a substantial proportion of the remainder of cases of familial ALS have now been traced to an expansion of the intronic hexanucleotide repeat sequence in C9orf72. This breakthrough provides an opportunity to re-evaluate longstanding concepts regarding the cause and natural history of ALS, coming soon after the pathological unification of ALS with frontotemporal dementia through a shared pathological signature of cytoplasmic inclusions of the ubiquitinated protein TDP-43. However, with profound clinical, prognostic, neuropathological, and now genetic heterogeneity, the concept of ALS as one disease appears increasingly untenable. This background calls for the development of a more sophisticated taxonomy, and an appreciation of ALS as the breakdown of a wider network rather than a discrete vulnerable population of specialised motor neurons. Identification of C9orf72 repeat expansions in patients without a family history of ALS challenges the traditional division between familial and sporadic disease. By contrast, the 90% of apparently sporadic cases and incomplete penetrance of several genes linked to familial cases suggest that at least some forms of ALS arise from the interplay of multiple genes, poorly understood developmental, environmental, and age-related factors, as well as stochastic events. PMID:23415570

  4. Narrative discourse deficits in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Menaged, Anna; Olm, Christopher; McMillan, Corey T.; Boller, Ashley; Irwin, David J.; McCluskey, Leo; Elman, Lauren; Grossman, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We examined narrative discourse in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to assess the role of executive functioning in support of language and the neuroanatomical basis for such support. Methods: We analyzed a semistructured speech sample in 26 patients with ALS and 19 healthy seniors for narrative discourse features of coherence. Regression analyses related a measure of discourse coherence (“local connectedness”) to gray matter atrophy and reduced white matter fractional anisotropy. Results: Patients with ALS were impaired relative to controls on measures of discourse adequacy, including local connectedness and maintenance of the theme. These discourse measures were related to measures of executive functioning but not to motor functioning. Regressions related local connectedness to gray matter atrophy in ventral and dorsal prefrontal regions and to reduced fractional anisotropy in white matter tracts mediating projections between prefrontal regions. Conclusion: Patients with ALS exhibit deficits in their ability to organize narrative discourse. These deficits appear to be related in part to executive limitations. Consistent with the hypothesis that ALS is a multisystem disorder, this deficit is related to disease in prefrontal regions. PMID:24991038

  5. 3D deterministic lateral displacement separation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Siqi; Drazer, German

    2016-11-01

    We present a simple modification to enhance the separation ability of deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) systems by expanding the two-dimensional nature of these devices and driving the particles into size-dependent, fully three-dimensional trajectories. Specifically, we drive the particles through an array of long cylindrical posts, such that they not only move parallel to the basal plane of the posts as in traditional two-dimensional DLD systems (in-plane motion), but also along the axial direction of the solid posts (out-of-plane motion). We show that the (projected) in-plane motion of the particles is completely analogous to that observed in 2D-DLD systems and the observed trajectories can be predicted based on a model developed in the 2D case. More importantly, we analyze the particles out-of-plane motion and observe significant differences in the net displacement depending on particle size. Therefore, taking advantage of both the in-plane and out-of-plane motion of the particles, it is possible to achieve the simultaneous fractionation of a polydisperse suspension into multiple streams. We also discuss other modifications to the obstacle array and driving forces that could enhance separation in microfluidic devices.

  6. Lateral gene transfer in the subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Barkay, Tamar; Sobecky, Patricia

    2007-08-27

    Lateral gene transfer (LGT) is an important adaptive mechanism among prokaryotic organisms. This mechanism is particularly important for the response of microorganisms to changing environmental conditions because it facilitates the transfer of a large number of genes and their rapid expression. Together the transferred genes promote rapid genetic and metabolic changes that may enhance survival to newly established and sometimes hostile environmental conditions. The goal of our project was to examine if and how LGT enhances microbial adaptation to toxic heavy metals in subsurface environments that had been contaminated by mixed wastes due to activities associated with the production of nuclear energy and weapons. This task has been accomplished by dividing the project to several sub-tasks. Thus, we: (1) Determined the level of resistance of subsurface bacterial isolates to several toxic metals, all identified as pollutants of concern in subsurface environments; (2) Designed, tested, and applied, a molecular approach that determined whether metal resistance genes had evolved by LGT among subsurface bacteria; and (3) Developed a DNA hybridization array for the identification of broad host range plasmids and of metal resistance plasmids. The results are briefly summarized below with references to published papers and manuscripts in preparation where details about our research can be found. Additional information may be found in copies of our published manuscripts and conference proceedings, and our yearly reports that were submitted through the RIMS system.

  7. LATER FIRST MARRIAGE AND MARITAL SUCCESS

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Norval D.; Uecker, Jeremy; Love, Robert W. B.

    2012-01-01

    The research reported here used measures of marital success based on both marital survival and marital quality to assess how well first marriages entered at relatively late ages fare in comparison with those entered younger. Analysis of data from five American data sets indicated that the later marriages fare very well in survival but rather poorly in quality. The greatest indicated likelihood of being in an intact marriage of the highest quality is among those who married at ages 22-25, net of the estimated effects of time since first marriage and several variables that might commonly affect age at marriage and marital outcomes. The negative relationship beyond the early to mid twenties between age at marriage and marital success is likely to be at least partially spurious, and thus it would be premature to conclude that the optimal time for first marriage for most persons is ages 22-25. However, the findings do suggest that most persons have little or nothing to gain in the way of marital success by deliberately postponing marriage beyond the mid twenties. PMID:22948068

  8. Possession Divestment by Sales in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Ekerdt, David J.; Addington, Aislinn

    2015-01-01

    Residential relocation in later life is almost always a downsizing, with many possessions to be divested in a short period of time. This article examines older movers’ capacities for selling things, and ways that selling attenuates people's ties to those things, thus accomplishing the human dis-possession of the material convoy. In qualitative interviews in 79 households in the Midwestern United States, older adults reported their experience with possession sales associated with residential relocation. Among this group, three-quarters of the households downsized by selling some belongings. Informal sales seemed the least fraught of all strategies, estate sales had mixed reviews, and garage sales were recalled as laborious. Sellers’ efforts were eased by social relations and social networks as helpers and buyers came forward. As selling proceeded, sentiment about possessions waned as their materiality and economic value came to the fore, easing their detachment from the household. Possession selling is challenging because older adults are limited in the knowledge, skills, and efforts that they can apply to the recommodification of their belongings. Selling can nonetheless be encouraged as a divestment strategy as long as the frustrations and drawbacks are transparent, and the goal of ridding is kept in view. PMID:26162722

  9. Modelling suicide risk in later life.

    PubMed

    Lo, C F; Kwok, Cordelia M Y

    2006-08-01

    Affective disorder is generally regarded as the prominent risk factor for suicide in the old age population. Despite the large number of empirical studies available in the literature, there is no attempt in modelling the dynamics of an individual's level of suicide risk theoretically yet. In particular, a dynamic model which can simulate the time evolution of an individual's level of risk for suicide and provide quantitative estimates of the probability of suicide risk is still lacking. In the present study we apply the contingent claims analysis of credit risk modelling in the field of quantitative finance to derive a theoretical stochastic model for estimation of the probability of suicide risk in later life in terms of a signalling index of affective disorder. Our model is based upon the hypothesis that the current state of affective disorder of a patient can be represented by a signalling index and exhibits stochastic movement and that a threshold of affective disorder, which signifies the occurrence of suicide, exists. According to the numerical results, the implications of our model are consistent with the clinical findings. Hence, we believe that such a dynamic model will be essential to the design of effective suicide prevention strategies in the target population of older adults, especially in the primary care setting.

  10. Risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ingre, Caroline; Roos, Per M; Piehl, Fredrik; Kamel, Freya; Fang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron disease. It is typically fatal within 2–5 years of symptom onset. The incidence of ALS is largely uniform across most parts of the world, but an increasing ALS incidence during the last decades has been suggested. Although recent genetic studies have substantially improved our understanding of the causes of ALS, especially familial ALS, an important role of non-genetic factors in ALS is recognized and needs further study. In this review, we briefly discuss several major genetic contributors to ALS identified to date, followed by a more focused discussion on the most commonly examined non-genetic risk factors for ALS. We first review factors related to lifestyle choices, including smoking, intake of antioxidants, physical fitness, body mass index, and physical exercise, followed by factors related to occupational and environmental exposures, including electromagnetic fields, metals, pesticides, β-methylamino-L-alanine, and viral infection. Potential links between ALS and other medical conditions, including head trauma, metabolic diseases, cancer, and inflammatory diseases, are also discussed. Finally, we outline several future directions aiming to more efficiently examine the role of non-genetic risk factors in ALS. PMID:25709501

  11. Epidemiologic correlates of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Armon, C.; Kurland, L.T.; Daube, J.R.; O'Brien, P.C. )

    1991-07-01

    The authors evaluated 74 selected patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and 201 matched controls for risk factors for ALS by a case-control design and a sequential questionnaire/interview technique to quantitate biographic data. They analyzed occupational and recreational data only for 47 male patients and 47 corresponding patient controls; data for women were insufficient. They used nonparametric analyses to evaluate five primary comparisons of ALS patients with controls: (1) more hard physical labor, p not significant (NS); (2) greater frequency of neurodegenerative disease in family members, p NS; (3) greater exposure to lead, p less than 0.05; (4) more years lived in a rural community, p NS; and (5) more trauma or major surgery, p NS. Men with ALS had worked more frequently at blue-collar jobs (although not a statistically significant difference, p = 0.10) and at welding or soldering (p less than 0.01). These results suggest that there may be an association between ALS in men and exposure to lead vapor. The limited nature of the association favors a multifactorial etiologic mechanism of ALS.

  12. Rodent Models of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Philips, Thomas; Rothstein, Jeffrey D

    2015-06-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a motor neuron disease affecting upper and lower motor neurons in the central nervous system. Patients with ALS develop extensive muscle wasting and atrophy leading to paralysis and death 3 to 5 years after disease onset. The condition may be familial (fALS 10%) or sporadic ALS (sALS, 90%). The large majority of fALS cases are due to genetic mutations in the Superoxide dismutase 1 gene (SOD1, 15% of fALS) and repeat nucleotide expansions in the gene encoding C9ORF72 (∼ 40% to 50% of fALS and ∼ 10% of sALS). Studies suggest that ALS is mediated through aberrant protein homeostasis (i.e., ER stress and autophagy) and/or changes in RNA processing (as in all non-SOD1-mediated ALS). In all of these cases, animal models suggest that the disorder is mediated non-cell autonomously, i.e., not only motor neurons are involved, but glial cells including microglia, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, and other neuronal subpopulations are also implicated in the pathogenesis. Provided in this unit is a review of ALS rodent models, including discussion of their relative advantages and disadvantages. Emphasis is placed on correlating the model phenotype with the human condition and the utility of the model for defining the disease process. Information is also presented on RNA processing studies in ALS research, with particular emphasis on the newest ALS rodent models.

  13. Treatment algorithm for chronic lateral ankle instability

    PubMed Central

    Giannini, Sandro; Ruffilli, Alberto; Pagliazzi, Gherardo; Mazzotti, Antonio; Evangelisti, Giulia; Buda, Roberto; Faldini, Cesare

    2014-01-01

    Summary Introduction: ankle sprains are a common sports-related injury. A 20% of acute ankle sprains results in chronic ankle instability, requiring surgery. Aim of this paper is to report the results of a series of 38 patients treated for chronic lateral ankle instability with anatomic reconstruction. Materials and methods: thirty-eight patients were enrolled in the study. Seventeen patients underwent a surgical repair using the Brostrom-modified technique, while the remaining underwent anatomic reconstruction with autologous or allogenic graft. Results: at a mean follow-up of 5 years the AOFAS score improved from 66.1 ± 5.3 to 92.2 ± 5.6. Discussion: the findings of this study confirm that anatomic reconstruction is an effective procedure with satisfactory subjective and objective results which persist at long-term follow-up along with a low complication rate. No differences, in term of clinical and functional outcomes, were observed between the Brostrom-modified repair and the anatomic reconstruction technique. Level of evidence: level IV. PMID:25767783

  14. Decisional Capacity in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Khin Khin, Eindra; Minor, Darlinda; Holloway, Amanda; Pelleg, Ayla

    2015-06-01

    The cognitive and behavioral changes that can be observed in the neurodegenerative terminal disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), once characterized as purely a motor neuron disease, have become increasingly recognized over the past century. Detecting cognitive deficits earlier and identifying continued changes at regular intervals can lead to improved care, proactive treatments, and earlier discussions about end-of-life wishes. Although medical decisional capacity is required for every treatment decision made, its importance becomes paramount when making decisions on complex medical treatments that will invariably and significantly affect quality of life or life itself. In this review, we conducted a critical analysis of the evidence-based literature on the cognitive and behavioral impairments in ALS that can compromise medical decisional capacity. We review specific ALS-related clinical scenarios in which decisional capacity is of utmost importance and discuss a practical framework for cognitive and behavioral assessment that can be routinely and efficiently used, while being mindful of the confounding factors associated with ALS. Finally, we review models for preserving patient choices that can be used in patients with ALS to help safeguard autonomy and retain dignity toward the end of life.

  15. Alcoholic Marriage: Later Start, Sooner End

    PubMed Central

    Waldron, Mary; Heath, Andrew C.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although associations between drinking behavior and marital status are well documented, timing of marital transitions as a function of alcohol use or disorder has received limited empirical attention. Methods We examine the relationship between lifetime history of alcohol dependence (AD) and timing and survival of first marriages in a sample of 3575 female and 1845 male adult Australian twins born mostly between 1940 and 1964. Survival analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results Results indicate moderate delays in marriage associated with AD for both women and men. Among ever married respondents, AD was strongly predictive of early separation, with similar effects observed for women and men. Heritable sources of covariation were also documented. For women, genetic influences shared between early-onset AD and marital timing were found. Genetic influences shared between AD and marital survival were observed for women without regard to onset and for men with later-onset AD. Conclusions Results confirm the importance of AD as a predictor of both timing and survival of first marriages, with genetic influences contributing to observed associations. PMID:21244438

  16. Multiplex lateral flow immunoassay for mycotoxin determination.

    PubMed

    Song, Suquan; Liu, Na; Zhao, Zhiyong; Njumbe Ediage, Emmanuel; Wu, Songling; Sun, Changpo; De Saeger, Sarah; Wu, Aibo

    2014-05-20

    A new lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) is proposed for qualitative and/or semiquantitative determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), and their analogues (AFs, ZEAs, DONs) in cereal samples. Each of the mycotoxin specific antibody was class specific and there was no cross reactivity to other groups of compounds. The visual limits of detection (vLOD) of the strip were 0.03, 1.6, and 10 μg/kg for AFB1, ZEA and DON, respectively. The calculated limits of detection (cLOD) were 0.05, 1, and 3 μg/kg, respectively. Meanwhile the cutoff values were achieved at 1, 50, and 60 μg/kg for AFB1, ZEA and DON, respectively. Recoveries ranged from 80% to 122% and RSD from 5% to 20%. Both the vLOD and cLOD for the three mycotoxins were lower than the EU maximum levels. Analysis of naturally contaminated maize samples resulted in a good agreement between the multiplex LFA and LC-MS/MS (100% for DONs and AFs, and 81% for ZEAs). Careful analysis of the results further explained the general overestimation of LFA compared to chromatographic methods for quantification of mycotoxins.

  17. Later first marriage and marital success.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Norval D; Uecker, Jeremy E; Love, Robert W B

    2010-09-01

    The research reported here used measures of marital success based on both marital survival and marital quality to assess how well first marriages entered at relatively late ages fare in comparison with those entered younger. Analysis of data from five American data sets indicated that the later marriages fare very well in survival but rather poorly in quality. The greatest indicated likelihood of being in an intact marriage of the highest quality is among those who married at ages 22-25, net of the estimated effects of time since first marriage and several variables that might commonly affect age at marriage and marital outcomes. The negative relationship beyond the early to mid-twenties between age at marriage and marital success is likely to be at least partially spurious, and thus it would be premature to conclude that the optimal time for first marriage for most persons is ages 22-25. However, the findings do suggest that most persons have little or nothing to gain in the way of marital success by deliberately postponing marriage beyond the mid-twenties.

  18. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: New Perpectives and Update

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, Marco; Oliveira, Acary Bulle; Nascimento, Osvaldo J.M.; Reis, Carlos Henrique Melo; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; de Souza, Jano Alves; Pupe, Camila; de Souza, Olivia Gameiro; Bastos, Victor Hugo; de Freitas, Marcos R.G.; Teixeira, Silmar; Bruno, Carlos; Davidovich, Eduardo; Smidt, Benny

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Charcot’s disease or Lou Gehrig’s disease, is a term used to cover the spetrum of syndromes caracterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons, a paralytic disorder caused by motor neuron degeneration. Currently, there are approximately 25,000 patients with ALS in the USA, with an average age of onset of 55 years. The incidence and prevalence of ALS are 1-2 and 4-6 per 100,000 each year, respectively, with a lifetime ALS risk of 1/600 to 1/1000. It causes progressive and cumulative physical disabilities, and leads to eventual death due to respiratory muscle failure. ALS is diverse in its presentation, course, and progression. We do not yet fully understand the causes of the disease, nor the mechanisms for its progression; thus, we lack effective means for treating this disease. In this chapter, we will discuss the diagnosis, treatment, and how to cope with impaired function and end of life based on of our experience, guidelines, and clinical trials. Nowadays ALS seems to be a more complex disease than it did two decades – or even one decade – ago, but new insights have been plentiful. Clinical trials should be seen more as experiments on pathogenic mechanisms. A medication or combination of medications that targets more than one pathogenic pathway may slow disease progression in an additive or synergistic fashion. PMID:26487927

  19. Lateral superior olive function in congenital deafness.

    PubMed

    Couchman, Kiri; Garrett, Andrew; Deardorff, Adam S; Rattay, Frank; Resatz, Susanne; Fyffe, Robert; Walmsley, Bruce; Leão, Richardson N

    2011-07-01

    The development of cochlear implants for the treatment of patients with profound hearing loss has advanced considerably in the last few decades, particularly in the field of speech comprehension. However, attempts to provide not only sound decoding but also spatial hearing are limited by our understanding of circuit adaptations in the absence of auditory input. Here we investigate the lateral superior olive (LSO), a nucleus involved in interaural level difference (ILD) processing in the auditory brainstem using a mouse model of congenital deafness (the dn/dn mouse). An electrophysiological investigation of principal neurons of the LSO from the dn/dn mouse reveals a higher than normal proportion of single spiking (SS) neurons, and an increase in the hyperpolarisation-activated I(h) current. However, inhibitory glycinergic input to the LSO appears to develop normally both pre and postsynaptically in dn/dn mice despite the absence of auditory nerve activity. In combination with previous electrophysiological findings from the dn/dn mouse, we also compile a simple Hodgkin and Huxley circuit model in order to investigate possible computational deficits in ILD processing resulting from congenital hearing loss. We find that the predominance of SS neurons in the dn/dn LSO may compensate for upstream modifications and help to maintain a functioning ILD circuit in the dn/dn mouse. This could have clinical repercussions on the development of stimulation paradigms for spatial hearing with cochlear implants.

  20. Possession divestment by sales in later life.

    PubMed

    Ekerdt, David J; Addington, Aislinn

    2015-08-01

    Residential relocation in later life is almost always a downsizing, with many possessions to be divested in a short period of time. This article examines older movers' capacities for selling things, and ways that selling attenuates people's ties to those things, thus accomplishing the human dis-possession of the material convoy. In qualitative interviews in 79 households in the Midwestern United States, older adults reported their experience with possession sales associated with residential relocation. Among this group, three-quarters of the households downsized by selling some belongings. Informal sales seemed the least fraught of all strategies, estate sales had mixed reviews, and garage sales were recalled as laborious. Sellers' efforts were eased by social relations and social networks as helpers and buyers came forward. As selling proceeded, sentiment about possessions waned as their materiality and economic value came to the fore, easing their detachment from the household. Possession selling is challenging because older adults are limited in the knowledge, skills, and efforts that they can apply to the recommodification of their belongings. Selling can nonetheless be encouraged as a divestment strategy as long as the frustrations and drawbacks are transparent, and the goal of ridding is kept in view.

  1. Composite lateral electric field excited piezoelectric resonator.

    PubMed

    Zaitsev, B D; Shikhabudinov, A M; Borodina, I A; Teplykh, A A; Kuznetsova, I E

    2017-01-01

    The novel method of suppression of parasitic oscillations in lateral electric field excited piezoelectric resonator is suggested. Traditionally such resonator represents the piezoelectric plate with two electrodes on one side of the plate. The crystallographic orientation of the plate is selected so that the tangential components of electric field excite bulk acoustic wave with given polarization travelling along the normal to the plate sides. However at that the normal components of field excite the parasitic Lamb waves and bulk waves of other polarization which deteriorate the resonant properties of the resonator. In this work we suggest to separate the source of the HF electric field and resounded piezoelectric plate by air gap. In this case the tangential components of the field in piezoelectric plate do not practically weaken but normal components significantly decrease. This method is realized on the composite resonator having the structure "glass plate with rectangular electrodes - air gap - plate of 128 Y-X lithium niobate." It has been shown that there exist the optimal value of the width gap which ensure the good quality of series and parallel resonances in frequency range 3-4MHz with record values of Q-factor of ∼15,000 in both cases.

  2. Selective attention impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Volpato, Chiara; Prats Sedano, Maria Angeles; Silvoni, Stefano; Segato, Nicoletta; Cavinato, Marianna; Merico, Antonio; Piccione, Francesco; Palmieri, Arianna; Birbaumer, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Objective of this study was to evaluate attentional control mechanisms in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using an auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) paradigm. Fifteen mild to moderate ALS patients and 15 healthy controls were administered a brief neuropsychological test battery and an ERPs paradigm assessing selective attention. Four types of auditory stimuli were presented in random order: short standard (200 Hz, 200 ms), long standard (200 Hz, 500 ms), short deviant (1000 Hz, 200 ms) and long deviant (1000 Hz, 500 ms). Participants had to respond to the long deviant stimuli only. During the task the electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. The N200, P300 and re-orienting negativity (RON) ERP components were analysed. Compared to controls ALS patients showed reduced amplitudes and delayed latencies of N200, P300 and RON. These results could be attributable to both an alteration in change detection resulting in a reduction of the allocation and re-orientation of attentional resources or a general slowing or reduction of neural processing efficiency in the same system. The ERPs results support the hypothesis that ALS involves extramotor cognitive functions including auditory attentional processing at all processing stages, early (200 ms) and late (300-600 ms). These data prove the usefulness and sensitivity of the auditory ERPs in detection of cognitive functions in ALS patients.

  3. Respiratory exercise in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Susana; Swash, Michael; de Carvalho, Mamede

    2012-01-01

    We have evaluated the potential role of respiratory exercise by implementing specific inspiratory muscle training in a selected population of early-affected amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. We studied 26 patients with ALS with normal respiratory function using two groups of patients in a parallel, control-group, randomized, delayed-start design. Patients in the first group (G1) started the active inspiratory exercise programme at entry and were followed for eight months, while the second group (G2) of patients followed a placebo exercise programme for the first four months and then active exercise for the second four-month period. The primary outcome measure was the ALSFRS. Respiratory tests, neurophysiological measurements, fatigue and quality of life scales were secondary outcomes. Analysis of covariance was used to compare changes between and within groups. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the two patient groups. Within-group analysis suggested that inspiratory exercise promotes a transient improvement in the respiratory subscore and in the maximal voluntary ventilation, peak expiratory flow, and sniff inspiratory pressure. In conclusion, there was no clear positive or negative outcome of the respiratory exercise protocol we have proposed, but we cannot rule out a minor positive effect. Exercise regimes merit more detailed clinical evaluation in ALS.

  4. Immune system alterations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hovden, H; Frederiksen, J L; Pedersen, S W

    2013-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a disease of which the underlying cause and pathogenesis are unknown. Cumulatative data clearly indicates an active participation by the immune system in the disease. An increasingly recognized theory suggests a non-cell autonomous mechanism, meaning that multiple cells working together are necessary for the pathogenesis of the disease. Observed immune system alterations could indicate an active participation in this mechanism. Damaged motor neurons are able to activate microglia, astrocytes and the complement system, which further can influence each other and contribute to neurodegeneration. Infiltrating peripheral immune cells appears to correlate with disease progression, but their significance and composition is unclear. The deleterious effects of this collaborating system of cells appear to outweigh the protective aspects, and revealing this interplay might give more insight into the disease. Markers from the classical complement pathway are elevated where its initiator C1q appears to derive primarily from motor neurons. Activated microglia and astrocytes are found in close proximity to dying motor neurons. Their activation status and proliferation seemingly increases with disease progression. Infiltrating monocytes, macrophages and T cells are associated with these areas, although with mixed reports regarding T cell composition. This literature review will provide evidence supporting the immune system as an important part of ALS disease mechanism and present a hypothesis to direct the way for further studies.

  5. Aeroservoelastic tailoring for lateral control enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, Terrence A.; Changho, Nam

    1989-01-01

    The need for effective aileron power for aircraft lateral control and turning maneuvers dates back to the Wright Brothers and their wing warping concept for active stabilization of their aircraft. Early researchers in Great Britain, Japan, Germany and the United States explored ways to increase the effectiveness of control aileron to generate a roll moment. The basic problem of aileron effectiveness and the interrelationship between structural distortion and the loads applied by the control surface is illustrated. A rigid wing/aileron surface will develop the capability to generate increased roll rates as airspeed increases. A flexible surface will become less effective as airspeed increases because of the twisting distortion created by the aft-mounted control surface. This tendency is further worsened by bending distortion of an aft swept wing. This study focuses its attention on the ability of a combined effort between structural redesign of a wing and sizing and placement of a control surface to create specified roll performance with a minimum hinge moment. This design optimization problem indicates the advantages of simultaneous consideration of structural design and control design.

  6. Laterally graded multilayer double-monochromator.

    SciTech Connect

    Als-Nielsen, J.; Erdmann, J.; Gaarde, P.; Krasnicki, S.; Liu, C.; Macrander, A. T.; Maj, J.; Mancini, D.

    1999-09-01

    The authors describe a tunable multilayer monochromator with an adjustable bandpass to be used for reflectivity and grazing incidence diffraction studies on surfaces at energies near 10 keV. Multilayers have a bandpass typically 100 times larger than the Si(111) reflection, and by using multilayers an experimenter can significantly increase data collection rates over those available with a Si monochromator. The transmission through 1 and 2 laterally graded multilayer (LGML) reflections was recorded versus photon energy. The identical LGMLs were comprised of 60 bilayers of W and C on 100 x 25 x 3 mm float glass with a bilayer spacing varying from 35 to 60 {angstrom}. The average gradient was 0.27 {angstrom}/mm along the long dimension. The rms deviation of the data for the bilayer spacing from a linear fit was 0.36 {angstrom}. Data were obtained for a nondispersive ({+-}) double-multilayer arrangement. The relative bandpass width (FWHM) when the two multilayers exposed the same bilayer spacing was measured to be 2.2% with a transmission of 78.7 {+-} 1.6%. This value is consistent with the transmission of 88.9% that they also measured for a single LGML at HASYLAB beamline D4. The bandpass was tunable in the range 1.1% to 2.2%.

  7. Characteristics of pain in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Hanisch, Frank; Skudlarek, Anika; Berndt, Janine; Kornhuber, Malte E

    2015-01-01

    Background Pain is an often underestimated and neglected symptom in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods In a cross-sectional survey, 46 patients with ALS, 46 age- and gender matched population-based controls, and 23 diseased controls with myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) were screened for occurrence, type, distribution, and treatment of pain and cramps. Data were collected with the use of the short form brief pain inventory (BPI). Results Pain was reported in 78% of ALS patients,79% of DM2 patients, and 54% of controls (P < 0.05). More ALS patients than controls reported moderate to severe pain (42% vs. 20%). Pain in ALS patients interfered significantly more with daily activities than in controls (median pain interference score: 3.0 vs. 1.2, P < 0.05), especially enjoyment of life (5.0 vs. 1.0) and mood (3.0 vs. 1.0). There was no correlation between the duration of the disease and the severity of pain. Movement-induced cramps were reported in 63% of ALS patients, mostly in the distal extremities. There was no difference in the duration of ALS disease between patients reporting cramps and those who did not. Discussion Our study showed that pain was a relatively frequent symptom which had an important impact on the quality of life. Pain that requires treatment can occur at every stage of ALS. PMID:25642388

  8. [Unequal social participation in later life].

    PubMed

    Simonson, J; Hagen, C; Vogel, C; Motel-Klingebiel, A

    2013-07-01

    The concept of active ageing comprises the maintenance of societal participation throughout the life span into old age. "Good" ageing in line with this activity paradigm develops into a starting point of social inequality rather than being its result. Based on the German Ageing Survey (DEAS) we investigated access to volunteering and to educational activities depending on social and spatial aspects of inequality. Societal participation is socially and spatially structured. Individuals from a lower social class are less often involved in educational activities or in volunteering. Moreover, individuals living in economically disadvantaged regions are less likely to participate than in economically strong regions. Disadvantages cumulate if low individual resources overlap with poor economic conditions in the living area. Measures to facilitate participation should be taken on the local level to enhance opportunities for volunteering and educational activities. This should help to sustainably increase the participation of individuals from lower social classes.

  9. Early nutrition and later physical work capacity.

    PubMed

    Haas, J D; Murdoch, S; Rivera, J; Martorell, R

    1996-02-01

    Several important studies within the past 20 years have examined the impact of acute nutrient deficiencies upon physical work capacity. Spurr et al. and Satyanarayana et al. extended that line of research to explore the apparent effects of chronic or lifelong undernutrition upon the work capacity of adolescent males. These studies conducted in Colombia and India, as well as others in Tanzania and Guatemala, are discussed. The authors believe that there is enough evidence to conclude that poor early childhood nutritional status, as indicated by the low dietary energy intakes and subsequent stunted growth, leads to many undesirable functional consequences. The studies of physical work capacity, together with other measures such as cognitive functioning and reproductive performance, provide strong evidence in support of policies and programs designed to eliminate the causes of environmental stunting in poor populations.

  10. Penetration and lateral diffusion characteristics of polycrystalline graphene barriers.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Taeshik; Mun, Jeong Hun; Cho, Byung Jin; Kim, Taek-Soo

    2014-01-07

    We report penetration and lateral diffusion behavior of environmental molecules on synthesized polycrystalline graphene. Penetration occurs through graphene grain boundaries resulting in local oxidation. However, when the penetrated molecules diffuse laterally, the oxidation region will expand. Therefore, we measured the lateral diffusion rate along the graphene-copper interface for the first time by the environment-assisted crack growth test. It is clearly shown that the lateral diffusion is suppressed due to the high van der Waals interaction. Finally, we employed bilayer graphene for a perfect diffusion barrier facilitated by decreased defect density and increased lateral diffusion path.

  11. Correcting lateral response artifacts from flatbed scanners for radiochromic film dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, David; Chan, Maria F.

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: A known factor affecting the accuracy of radiochromic film dosimetry is the lateral response artifact (LRA) induced by nonuniform response of a flatbed scanner in the direction perpendicular to the scan direction. This work reports a practical solution to eliminate such artifacts for all forms of dose QA. Methods: EBT3 films from a single production lot (02181401) cut into rectangular 4 × 5 cm{sup 2} pieces, with the long dimension parallel to the long dimension of the original 20.3 × 25.4 cm{sup 2} sheets, were exposed at a depth of 5 cm on a Varian Trilogy at the center of a 20 × 20 cm{sup 2} open field at seven doses between 50 and 1600 cGy using 6 MV photons. These films together with an unexposed film from the same production lot were lined one next to the other on an Epson 10000XL or 11000XL scanner in portrait orientation with their long dimension parallel to the scan direction. Scanned images were then obtained with the line of films positioned at seven discrete lateral locations perpendicular to the scan direction. The process was repeated in landscape orientation and on three other Epson scanners. Data were also collected for three additional production lots of EBT3 film (11051302, 03031401, and 03171403). From measurements at the various lateral positions, the scanner response was determined as a function of the lateral position of the scanned film. For a given color channel X, the response at any lateral position L is related to the response at the center, C, of the scanner by Response(C, D, X) = A{sub L,X} + B{sub L,X}⋅Response(L, D, X), where D is dose and the coefficients A{sub L,X} and B{sub L,X} are determined from the film measurements at the center of the scanner and six other discrete lateral positions. The values at intermediate lateral positions were obtained by linear interpolation. The coefficients were determined for the red, green, and blue color channels, preserving the ability to apply triple-channel dosimetry once

  12. Correcting lateral response artifacts from flatbed scanners for radiochromic film dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, David; Chan, Maria F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A known factor affecting the accuracy of radiochromic film dosimetry is the lateral response artifact (LRA) induced by nonuniform response of a flatbed scanner in the direction perpendicular to the scan direction. This work reports a practical solution to eliminate such artifacts for all forms of dose QA. Methods: EBT3 films from a single production lot (02181401) cut into rectangular 4 × 5 cm2 pieces, with the long dimension parallel to the long dimension of the original 20.3 × 25.4 cm2 sheets, were exposed at a depth of 5 cm on a Varian Trilogy at the center of a 20 × 20 cm2 open field at seven doses between 50 and 1600 cGy using 6 MV photons. These films together with an unexposed film from the same production lot were lined one next to the other on an Epson 10000XL or 11000XL scanner in portrait orientation with their long dimension parallel to the scan direction. Scanned images were then obtained with the line of films positioned at seven discrete lateral locations perpendicular to the scan direction. The process was repeated in landscape orientation and on three other Epson scanners. Data were also collected for three additional production lots of EBT3 film (11051302, 03031401, and 03171403). From measurements at the various lateral positions, the scanner response was determined as a function of the lateral position of the scanned film. For a given color channel X, the response at any lateral position L is related to the response at the center, C, of the scanner by Response(C, D, X) = AL,X + BL,X⋅Response(L, D, X), where D is dose and the coefficients AL,X and BL,X are determined from the film measurements at the center of the scanner and six other discrete lateral positions. The values at intermediate lateral positions were obtained by linear interpolation. The coefficients were determined for the red, green, and blue color channels, preserving the ability to apply triple-channel dosimetry once corrections were applied to compensate for the

  13. Diagnostic considerations of lateral column foot pain in athletes.

    PubMed

    Traister, Eric; Simons, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Foot maladies are often classified descriptively by general foot locations, i.e., forefoot, midfoot, and rearfoot. However, common vernacular verbiage, implicating a common biomechanical purpose, also applies pathology to the medial or lateral foot column. Although imprecisely defined, lateral column injuries to the foot encompass conditions that affect any of the lateral side of the foot from the calcaneus to the toes. The lateral column of the foot includes the calcaneus, the cuboid, the fourth and fifth metatarsals as well as the calcaneocuboid, cuboido-metatarsal, and intermetatarsal joints. It may be helpful to think in a "lateral column" fashion when evaluating and treating certain lateral foot injuries, load patterns, and biomechanical or anatomical faults. Misdiagnosed injuries in this area of the foot can be a source of great morbidity to the athlete. It is important for the clinician to be aware of common conditions presenting as pain to the lateral side of the foot.

  14. Surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canals of maxillary incisors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This case report presents surgical endodontic management outcomes of maxillary incisors that were infected via the lateral canals. Two cases are presented in which endodontically-treated maxillary central incisors had sustained lateral canal infections. A surgical endodontic treatment was performed on both teeth. Flap elevation revealed vertical bone destruction along the root surface and infected lateral canals, and microscopy revealed that the lateral canals were the origin of the lesions. After the infected lateral canals were surgically managed, both teeth were asymptomatic and labial fistulas were resolved. There were no clinical or radiographic signs of surgical endodontic management failure at follow-up visits. This case report highlights the clinical significance and surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canal of maxillary incisor. It is important to be aware of root canal anatomy variability in maxillary incisors. Maxillary central incisors infected via the lateral canal can be successfully managed by surgical endodontic treatment. PMID:25671217

  15. Strength of forelimb lateralization predicts motor errors in an insect

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Adrian T. A.

    2016-01-01

    Lateralized behaviours are widespread in both vertebrates and invertebrates, suggesting that lateralization is advantageous. Yet evidence demonstrating proximate or ultimate advantages remains scarce, particularly in invertebrates or in species with individual-level lateralization. Desert locusts (Schistocerca gregaria) are biased in the forelimb they use to perform targeted reaching across a gap. The forelimb and strength of this bias differed among individuals, indicative of individual-level lateralization. Here we show that strongly biased locusts perform better during gap-crossing, making fewer errors with their preferred forelimb. The number of targeting errors locusts make negatively correlates with the strength of forelimb lateralization. This provides evidence that stronger lateralization confers an advantage in terms of improved motor control in an invertebrate with individual-level lateralization. PMID:27651534

  16. Snapping knee caused by a popliteomeniscal fascicle tear of the lateral meniscus in a professional Taekwondo athlete.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Hoon; Ro, Kyung-Han; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2012-07-01

    A 19-year-old male professional Taekwondo athlete presented with a 2-year history of pain-free snapping of his right knee. He reported that his right knee joint gave way during games and training and that he could induce pain-free snapping between the proximal-to-fibular head and the lateral knee joint line. None of these physical findings suggested a meniscal pathology or ligamentous instability. Routine radiographs were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging of his right knee joint showed that the shape of the lateral meniscus was normal, and no lateral meniscus tears existed. On arthroscopic examination, popliteal hiatus view showed a posterosuperior popliteomeniscal fascicle tear between the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus and the posterior joint capsule just posteromedial to the popliteus tendon. With medial traction by probing, this popliteomeniscal tear made visible the significant subluxation of the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus to the center or anterior half of the tibial plateau. Based on the diagnosis of a posterosuperior popliteomeniscal tear of the right knee, Fast-Fix (Smith & Nephew, Andover, Massachusetts) was used for the direct repair of the peripheral portion of the lateral meniscus and joint capsule, targeting the popliteomeniscal junction. At 24 months postoperatively, the patient was performing athletic exercises relevant to his profession and was taking part in Taekwondo games, with no pain or recurrence of snapping. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of snapping of the lateral aspect of the knee due to a popliteomeniscal fascicle tear.

  17. Lateral patellofemoral ligament reconstruction to restore functional capacity in patients previously undergoing lateral retinacular release

    PubMed Central

    Beckert, Mitch; Crebs, Dylan; Nieto, Michael; Gao, Yubo; Albright, John

    2016-01-01

    AIM To study patient outcomes after surgical correction for iatrogenic patellar instability. METHODS This retrospective study looked at 17 patients (19 knees) suffering from disabling medial patellar instability following lateral release surgery. All patients underwent lateral patellofemoral ligament (LPFL) reconstruction by a single surgeon. Assessments in all 19 cases included functional outcome scores, range of motion, and assessment for the presence of apprehension sign of the patella to determine if LPFL reconstruction surgery was successful at restoring patellofemoral stability. RESULTS No patients reported any residual postoperative symptoms of patellar instability. Also no patients demonstrated medial patellar apprehension or examiner induced subluxation with the medial instability test described earlier following LPFL reconstruction. Furthermore, all patients recovered normal range of motion compared to the contralateral limb. For patients with pre and postoperative outcome scores, the mean overall knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score increased significantly, from 34.39 preoperatively (range: 7.7-70.12) to 69.54 postoperatively (range: 26.82-91.46) at final follow-up (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION This novel technique for LPFL reconstruction is effective at restoring lateral restraint of the patellofemoral joint and improving joint functionality. PMID:27574606

  18. Topological nodal line semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Chen; Weng, Hongming; Dai, Xi; Fang, Zhong

    2016-11-01

    We review the recent, mainly theoretical, progress in the study of topological nodal line semimetals in three dimensions. In these semimetals, the conduction and the valence bands cross each other along a one-dimensional curve in the three-dimensional Brillouin zone, and any perturbation that preserves a certain symmetry group (generated by either spatial symmetries or time-reversal symmetry) cannot remove this crossing line and open a full direct gap between the two bands. The nodal line(s) is hence topologically protected by the symmetry group, and can be associated with a topological invariant. In this review, (i) we enumerate the symmetry groups that may protect a topological nodal line; (ii) we write down the explicit form of the topological invariant for each of these symmetry groups in terms of the wave functions on the Fermi surface, establishing a topological classification; (iii) for certain classes, we review the proposals for the realization of these semimetals in real materials; (iv) we discuss different scenarios that when the protecting symmetry is broken, how a topological nodal line semimetal becomes Weyl semimetals, Dirac semimetals, and other topological phases; and (v) we discuss the possible physical effects accessible to experimental probes in these materials. Project partially supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant Nos. 2016YFA0302400 and 2016YFA0300604), partially by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274359 and 11422428), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB921700), and the “Strategic Priority Research Program (B)” of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB07020100).

  19. Adsorption kinetics of laterally and polarly flagellated Vibrio.

    PubMed Central

    Belas, M R; Colwell, R R

    1982-01-01

    The adsorption of laterally and polarly flagellated bacteria to chitin was measured, and from the data obtained, a modified Langmuir adsorption isotherm was derived. Results indicated that the adsorption of laterally flagellated Vibrio parahaemolyticus follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, a type of adsorption referred to as surface saturation kinetics, when conditions are favorable for the production of lateral flagella. When conditions were not favorable for the production of lateral flagella, bacterial adsorption did not follow the Langmuir adsorption isotherm; instead, proportional adsorption kinetics were observed. The adsorption of some polarly flagellated bacteria exhibited surface saturation kinetics. However, the binding index (the product of the number of binding sites and bacterial affinity to the surface) of polarly flagellated bacteria differed significantly from that of laterally flagellated bacteria, suggesting that polarly flagellated bacteria adsorb to chitin by a different mechanism from that used by the laterally flagellated bacteria. From the results of dual-label adsorption competition experiments, in which polarly flagellated V. cholerae competed with increasing concentrations of laterally flagellated V. parahaemolyticus, it was observed that laterally flagellated bacteria inhibited the adsorption of polarly flagellated bacteria. In contrast, polarly flagellated bacteria enhanced the adsorption of V. cholerae. In competition experiments, where V. parahaemolyticus competed against increasing concentrations of other bacteria, polarly flagellated bacteria enhanced V. parahaemolyticus adsorption significantly, whereas laterally flagellated bacteria only slightly enhanced the process. The direct correlation observed between surface saturation kinetics, the production of lateral flagella, and the ability of laterally flagellated bacteria to inhibit the adsorption of polarly flagellated bacteria suggests that lateral flagella represent a

  20. Long line coupling models.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Chen, Kenneth C.

    2004-03-01

    This report assembles models for the response of a wire interacting with a conducting ground to an electromagnetic pulse excitation. The cases of an infinite wire above the ground as well as resting on the ground and buried beneath the ground are treated. The focus is on the characteristics and propagation of the transmission line mode. Approximations are used to simplify the description and formulas are obtained for the current. The semi-infinite case, where the short circuit current can be nearly twice that of the infinite line, is also examined.