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Sample records for lateral line neuromasts

  1. The lateral line system in anuran tadpoles: neuromast morphology, arrangement, and innervation.

    PubMed

    Quinzio, Silvia; Fabrezi, Marissa

    2014-08-01

    Anuran larvae have been classified into four morphological types which reflect intraordinal macroevolution. At present, complete characterizations of the lateral line system are only available for Xenopus laevis (Type I) and Discoglossus pictus (Type III). We analyzed the morphology, arrangement, and innervation of neuromasts related to the anterodorsal and anteroventral lateral line nerves in 10 anuran species representing Types I, II, and IV with the aim of interpreting the existing variation and discussing the evolution of the lateral line in anuran larvae. We found: (1) the presence of two orbital and three mandibular neuromast lines in all anuran larvae studied, (2) the ventral arrangement of mandibular neuromast lines appears to have evolved convergently in Larval Types I and II, and the lateroventral arrangement of mandibular lines of neuromasts appears to have evolved in Larval Types III and IV; (3) interspecific variation in the organization, size, and number of sensory cells per neuromast within the lines; and (4) the supralabial extension of the Angular line in Lepidobatrachus spp. and the tentacular location of the Oral neuromasts in X. laevis are concomitant with their particular morphologies. Based on the variation described we find that the lateral line system in anuran larvae seems to have been maintained without significant changes, with the exception of Lepidobatrachus spp. and Xenopus. These unique features added to other of Lepidobatrachus tadpoles are sufficient to propose a new Larval Type (V).

  2. Ototoxin-induced cellular damage in neuromasts disrupts lateral line function in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Buck, Lauren M J; Winter, Matthew J; Redfern, William S; Whitfield, Tanya T

    2012-02-01

    The ototoxicity of a number of marketed drugs is well documented, and there is an absence of convenient techniques to identify and eliminate this unwanted effect at a pre-clinical stage. We have assessed the validity of the larval zebrafish, or more specifically its lateral line neuromast hair cells, as a microplate-scale in vivo surrogate model of mammalian inner ear hair cell responses to ototoxin exposure. Here we describe an investigation of the pathological and functional consequences of hair cell loss in lateral line neuromasts of larval zebrafish after exposure to a range of well known human and non-human mammalian ototoxins. Using a previously described histological assay, we show that hair cell damage occurs in a concentration-dependent fashion following exposure to representatives from a range of drug classes, including the aminoglycoside antibiotics, salicylates and platinum-based chemotherapeutics, as well as a heavy metal. Furthermore, we detail the optimisation of a semi-automated method to analyse the stereotypical startle response in larval zebrafish, and use this to assess the impact of hair cell damage on hearing function in these animals. Functional assessment revealed robust and significant attenuation of the innate startle, rheotactic and avoidance responses of 5 day old zebrafish larvae after treatment with a number of compounds previously shown to induce hair cell damage and loss. Interestingly, a startle reflex (albeit reduced) was still present even after the apparent complete loss of lateral line hair cell fluorescence, suggesting some involvement of the inner ear as well as the lateral line neuromast hair cells in this reflex response. Collectively, these data provide evidence to support the use of the zebrafish as a pre-clinical indicator of drug-induced histological and functional ototoxicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Afferent and motoneuron activity in response to single neuromast stimulation in the posterior lateral line of larval zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Haehnel-Taguchi, Melanie; Akanyeti, Otar

    2014-01-01

    The lateral line system of fishes contains mechanosensory receptors along the body surface called neuromasts, which can detect water motion relative to the body. The ability to sense flow informs many behaviors, such as schooling, predator avoidance, and rheotaxis. Here, we developed a new approach to stimulate individual neuromasts while either recording primary sensory afferent neuron activity or swimming motoneuron activity in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio). Our results allowed us to characterize the transfer functions between a controlled lateral line stimulus, its representation by primary sensory neurons, and its subsequent behavioral output. When we deflected the cupula of a neuromast with a ramp command, we found that the connected afferent neuron exhibited an adapting response which was proportional in strength to deflection velocity. The maximum spike rate of afferent neurons increased sigmoidally with deflection velocity, with a linear range between 0.1 and 1.0 μm/ms. However, spike rate did not change when the cupula was deflected below 8 μm, regardless of deflection velocity. Our findings also reveal an unexpected sensitivity in the larval lateral line system: stimulation of a single neuromast could elicit a swimming response which increased in reliability with increasing deflection velocities. At high deflection velocities, we observed that lateral line evoked swimming has intermediate values of burst frequency and duty cycle that fall between electrically evoked and spontaneous swimming. An understanding of the sensory capabilities of a single neuromast will help to build a better picture of how stimuli are encoded at the systems level and ultimately translated into behavior. PMID:24966296

  4. Effect of histone deacetylase inhibitors trichostatin A and valproic acid on hair cell regeneration in zebrafish lateral line neuromasts

    PubMed Central

    He, Yingzi; Cai, Chengfu; Tang, Dongmei; Sun, Shan; Li, Huawei

    2014-01-01

    In humans, auditory hair cells are not replaced when injured. Thus, cochlear hair cell loss causes progressive and permanent hearing loss. Conversely, non-mammalian vertebrates are capable of regenerating lost sensory hair cells. The zebrafish lateral line has numerous qualities that make it well-suited for studying hair cell development and regeneration. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity has been shown to have an important role in regenerative processes in vertebrates, but its function in hair cell regeneration in vivo is not fully understood. Here, we have examined the role of HDAC activity in hair cell regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line. We eliminated lateral line hair cells of 5-day post-fertilization larvae using neomycin and then treated the larvae with HDAC inhibitors. To assess hair cell regeneration, we used 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation in zebrafish larvae to label mitotic cells after hair cell loss. We found that pharmacological inhibition of HDACs using trichostatin A (TSA) or valproic acid (VPA) increased histone acetylation in the regenerated neuromasts following neomycin-induced damage. We also showed that treatment with TSA or VPA decreased the number of supporting cells and regenerated hair cells in response to hair cell damage. Additionally, BrdU immunostaining and western blot analysis showed that TSA or VPA treatment caused a significant decrease in the percentage of S-phase cells and induced p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 expression, both of which are likely to explain the decrease in the amount of newly regenerated hair cells in treated embryos. Finally, we showed that HDAC inhibitors induced no observable cell death in neuromasts as measured by cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HDAC activity has an important role in the regeneration of hair cells in the lateral line. PMID:25431550

  5. Inhibition of H3K27me3 Histone Demethylase Activity Prevents the Proliferative Regeneration of Zebrafish Lateral Line Neuromasts

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Beier; He, Yingzi; Tang, Dongmei; Li, Wenyan; Li, Huawei

    2017-01-01

    The H3K27 demethylases are involved in a variety of biological processes, including cell differentiation, proliferation, and cell death by regulating transcriptional activity. However, the function of H3K27 demethylation in the field of hearing research is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of H3K27me3 histone demethylase activity in hair cell regeneration using an in vivo animal model. Our data showed that pharmacologic inhibition of H3K27 demethylase activity with the specific small-molecule inhibitor GSK-J4 decreased the number of regenerated hair cells in response to neomycin damage. Furthermore, inhibition of H3K27me3 histone demethylase activity dramatically suppressed cell proliferation and activated caspase-3 levels in the regenerating neuromasts of the zebrafish lateral line. GSK-J4 administration also increased the expression of p21 and p27 in neuromast cells and inhibited the ERK signaling pathway. Collectively, our findings indicate that H3K27me3 demethylation is a key epigenetic regulator in the process of hair cell regeneration in zebrafish and suggest that H3K27me3 histone demethylase activity might be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of hearing loss. PMID:28348517

  6. Drag force acting on a neuromast in the fish lateral line trunk canal. I. Numerical modelling of external-internal flow coupling.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Charlotte; Humphrey, Joseph A C

    2009-07-06

    Fishes use a complex, multi-branched, mechanoreceptive organ called the lateral line to detect the motion of water in their immediate surroundings. This study is concerned with a subset of that organ referred to as the lateral line trunk canal (LLTC). The LLTC consists of a long tube no more than a few millimetres in diameter embedded immediately under the skin of the fish on each side of its body. In most fishes, pore-like openings are regularly distributed along the LLTC, and a minute sensor enveloped in a gelatinous cupula, referred to as a neuromast, is located between each pair of pores. Drag forces resulting from fluid motions induced inside the LLTC by pressure fluctuations in the external flow stimulate the neuromasts. This study, Part I of a two-part sequence, investigates the motion-sensing characteristics of the LLTC and how it may be used by fishes to detect wakes. To this end, an idealized geometrical/dynamical situation is examined that retains the essential problem physics. A two-level numerical model is developed that couples the vortical flow outside the LLTC to the flow stimulating the neuromasts within it. First, using a Navier-Stokes solver, we calculate the unsteady flow past an elongated rectangular prism and a fish downstream of it, with both objects moving at the same speed. By construction, the prism generates a clean, periodic vortex street in its wake. Then, also using the Navier-Stokes solver, the pressure field associated with this external flow is used to calculate the unsteady flow inside the LLTC of the fish, which creates the drag forces acting on the neuromast cupula. Although idealized, this external-internal coupled flow model allows an investigation of the filtering properties and performance characteristics of the LLTC for a range of frequencies of biological interest. The results obtained here and in Part II show that the LLTC acts as a low-pass filter, preferentially damping high-frequency pressure gradient oscillations, and

  7. Impact of acute cadmium exposure on the trunk lateral line neuromasts and consequences on the "C-start" response behaviour of the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.; Teleostei, Moronidae).

    PubMed

    Faucher, Karine; Fichet, Denis; Miramand, Pierre; Lagardère, Jean Paul

    2006-03-10

    Behavioural responses of sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax were investigated after exposure to cadmium ions in laboratory-controlled conditions. The aim of this study was to discover whether environmental exposure to cadmium ions inactivates fish lateral line system neuromasts, and to determine the behavioural consequences of such a sensory blockage. For this, fish escape behaviour in response to an artificial water jet was recorded using a 25-frames s(-1) analog video camera before and after cadmium exposure. Experimental set up was tested with fish whose lateral line system was artificially inactivated by antibiotics (gentamicin and streptomycin). Histological analyses with scanning electron microscopy showed antibiotic treatment destroyed lateral line system neuromasts. In addition, these fish did not respond to stimulations provoked by the water jet after antibiotic treatment. Fish escape behaviour was then recorded before and after cadmium exposure at two different concentrations. When fish were exposed to the first concentration of cadmium tested (0.5 microg l(-1), which represents the maximal cadmium concentration encountered in contaminated estuaries), no alteration in neuromast tissue was observed. In addition, before cadmium exposure, fish responded positively in 98.41 +/- 4.95% of lateral line system stimulations (escape behaviour in response to the water jet). After cadmium exposure, no behavioural modification could be detected: the fish responded positively in 95.16 +/- 9.79% of stimulations (chi(2) = 2.464, p = 0.116). In contrast, the high cadmium concentration used (5 microg l(-1), which represents 10 times the concentration occurring in highly polluted estuarine areas) involved severe neuromast tissue damage. Just after such cadmium exposure, fish showed only 41.67 +/- 35.36% of positive responses to their lateral line system stimulations, while they responded positively in 95.93 +/- 9.10% of stimulations under control conditions (chi(2) = 24.562, p

  8. Gentamicin is ototoxic to all hair cells in the fish lateral line system.

    PubMed

    Van Trump, William J; Coombs, Sheryl; Duncan, Kyle; McHenry, Matthew J

    2010-03-01

    Hair cells of the lateral line system in fish may differ in their susceptibility to damage by aminoglycoside antibiotics. Gentamicin has been reported to damage hair cells within canal neuromasts, but not those within superficial neuromasts. This finding, based on SEM imaging, indicates a distinction in the physiology of hair cells between the two classes of neuromast. Studies concerned with the individual roles of canal and superficial neuromasts in behavior have taken advantage of this effect in an attempt to selectively disable canal neuromasts without affecting superficial neuromast function. Here we present an experimental test of the hypothesis that canal neuromasts are more vulnerable to gentamicin than superficial neuromasts. We measured the effect of gentamicin exposure on hair cells using vital stains (DASPEI and FM1-43) in the neuromasts of Mexican blind cave fish (Astyanaxfasciatus) and zebrafish (Daniorerio). Contrary to the findings of prior studies that used SEM, gentamicin significantly reduced dye uptake by hair cells of both canal and superficial neuromasts in both species. Therefore, lateral line hair cells of both neuromast types are vulnerable to gentamicin ototoxicity. These findings argue for a re-evaluation of the results of studies that have used gentamicin to differentiate the roles of the two classes of neuromast in fish behavior.

  9. Dermal morphogenesis controls lateral line patterning during postembryonic development of teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Wada, Hironori; Ghysen, Alain; Satou, Chie; Higashijima, Shin-Ichi; Kawakami, Koichi; Hamaguchi, Satoshi; Sakaizumi, Mitsuru

    2010-04-15

    The lateral line system displays highly divergent patterns in adult teleost fish. The mechanisms underlying this variability are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the lateral line mechanoreceptor, the neuromast, gives rise to a series of accessory neuromasts by a serial budding process during postembryonic development in zebrafish. We also show that accessory neuromast formation is highly correlated to the development of underlying dermal structures such as bones and scales. Abnormalities in opercular bone morphogenesis, in endothelin 1-knockdown embryos, are accompanied by stereotypic errors in neuromast budding and positioning, further demonstrating the tight correlation between the patterning of neuromasts and of the underlying dermal bones. In medaka, where scales form between peridermis and opercular bones, the lateral line displays a scale-specific pattern which is never observed in zebrafish. These results strongly suggest a control of postembryonic neuromast patterns by underlying dermal structures. This dermal control may explain some aspects of the evolution of lateral line patterns.

  10. Innervation is required for sense organ development in the lateral line system of adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Wada, Hironori; Dambly-Chaudière, Christine; Kawakami, Koichi; Ghysen, Alain

    2013-04-02

    Superficial mechanosensory organs (neuromasts) distributed over the head and body of fishes and amphibians form the "lateral line" system. During zebrafish adulthood, each neuromast of the body (posterior lateral line system, or PLL) produces "accessory" neuromasts that remain tightly clustered, thereby increasing the total number of PLL neuromasts by a factor of more than 10. This expansion is achieved by a budding process and is accompanied by branches of the afferent nerve that innervates the founder neuromast. Here we show that innervation is essential for the budding process, in complete contrast with the development of the embryonic PLL, where innervation is entirely dispensable. To obtain insight into the molecular mechanisms that underlie the budding process, we focused on the terminal system that develops at the posterior tip of the body and on the caudal fin. In this subset of PLL neuromasts, bud neuromasts form in a reproducible sequence over a few days, much faster than for other PLL neuromasts. We show that wingless/int (Wnt) signaling takes place during, and is required for, the budding process. We also show that the Wnt activator R-spondin is expressed by the axons that innervate budding neuromasts. We propose that the axon triggers Wnt signaling, which itself is involved in the proliferative phase that leads to bud formation. Finally, we show that innervation is required not only for budding, but also for long-term maintenance of all PLL neuromasts.

  11. Development of the lateral line mechanoreceptors in the catfish Silurus glanis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Anton

    2010-07-01

    In fish the neuromasts of the lateral line develop as follows: a “migrating primordium” (MP) migrates from the postotic placode along the future posterior lateral line canal to the tail fin. Its placodal cells are assumed to be the basis for the development of the neuromasts. However, an MP was not found in all fish, e.g., in catfish. In the present study, a search was made for the MP in the larvae of the catfish Silurus glanis. Using light and electron microscopy, an MP was found to migrate along the ventral rim of the tail. It precedes the formation of a ventral row of free neuromasts. An MP preceding the main lateral row of the future canal neuromasts was not found. The necessity of the MP for the ventral-free neuromast development is shown by making incisions which block its migration. The result: caudal to the incision site neuromasts do not develop. On the other hand, the same incision procedure applied to the assumed migration route of a—hypothetical—lateral MP does not block the development of the lateral neuromasts. It is concluded that in this case an MP is not necessary for the development of the canal neuromasts.

  12. Function of lateral line canal morphology.

    PubMed

    Klein, Adrian; Bleckmann, Horst

    2015-01-01

    Fish perceive water motions and pressure gradients with their lateral line. Lateral line information is used for prey detection, spatial orientation, predator avoidance, schooling behavior, intraspecific communication and station holding. The lateral line of most fishes consists of superficial neuromasts (SNs) and canal neuromasts (CNs). The distribution of SNs and CNs shows a high degree of variation among fishes. Researchers have speculated for decades about the functional significance of this diversity, often without any conclusive answers. Klein et al. (2013) examined how tubules, pore number and pore patterns affect the filter properties of lateral line canals in a marine teleost, the black prickleback (Xiphister atropurpureus). A preliminary mathematical model was formulated and biomimetic sensors were built. For the present study the mathematical model was extended to understand the major underlying principle of how canal dimensions influence the filter properties of the lateral line. Both the extended mathematical model and the sensor experiments show that the number and distribution of pores determine the spatial filter properties of the lateral line. In an environment with little hydrodynamic noise, simple and complex lateral line canals have comparable response properties. However, if exposed to highly turbulent conditions, canals with numerous widely spaced pores increase the signal to noise ratio significantly. © 2014 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. The contribution of the lateral line to 'hearing' in fish.

    PubMed

    Higgs, D M; Radford, C A

    2013-04-15

    In the underwater environment, sound propagates both as a pressure wave and as particle displacement, with particle displacement dominating close to the source (the nearfield). At the receptor level, both the fish ear and the neuromast hair cells act as displacement detectors and both are potentially stimulated by the particle motion component of sound sources, especially in the nearfield. A now common way to test 'hearing' in fish involves auditory evoked potentials (AEPs), with recordings made from electrodes implanted near the auditory brainstem. These AEP recordings are typically conducted in enclosed acoustic environments with the fish well within the nearfield, especially for lower frequencies. We tested the contribution of neuromast hair cells to AEP by first testing intact goldfish (Carassius auratus), then ablating their neuromasts with streptomycin sulphate--disabling superficial and canal neuromasts--and retesting the same goldfish. We performed a similar experiment where only the superficial neuromasts were physically ablated. At 100 and 200 Hz, there was a 10-15 dB increase in threshold after streptomycin treatment but no significant difference at higher frequencies. There was no difference in threshold in control fish or in fish that only had superficial neuromasts removed, indicating that the differential responses were driven by canal neuromasts. Taken together, these results indicate that AEP results at lower frequencies should be interpreted as multimodal responses, rather than as 'hearing'. The results also suggest that in natural situations both the ear and lateral line likely play an integrative role in detecting and localising many types of 'acoustic' stimuli.

  14. The development of lateral line placodes: taking a broader view.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Tatjana; Baker, Clare V H

    2014-05-01

    The lateral line system of anamniote vertebrates enables the detection of local water movement and weak bioelectric fields. Ancestrally, it comprises neuromasts - small sense organs containing mechanosensory hair cells - distributed in characteristic lines over the head and trunk, flanked on the head by fields of electroreceptive ampullary organs, innervated by afferent neurons projecting respectively to the medial and dorsal octavolateral nuclei in the hindbrain. Given the independent loss of the electrosensory system in multiple lineages, the development and evolution of the mechanosensory and electrosensory components of the lateral line must be dissociable. Nevertheless, the entire system arises from a series of cranial lateral line placodes, which exhibit two modes of sensory organ formation: elongation to form sensory ridges that fragment (with neuromasts differentiating in the center of the ridge, and ampullary organs on the flanks), or migration as collectives of cells, depositing sense organs in their wake. Intensive study of the migrating posterior lateral line placode in zebrafish has yielded a wealth of information concerning the molecular control of migration and neuromast formation in this migrating placode, in this cypriniform teleost species. However, our mechanistic understanding of neuromast and ampullary organ formation by elongating lateral line placodes, and even of other zebrafish lateral line placodes, is sparse or non-existent. Here, we attempt to highlight the diversity of lateral line development and the limits of the current research focus on the zebrafish posterior lateral line placode. We hope this will stimulate a broader approach to this fascinating sensory system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The orienting response of Lake Michigan mottled sculpin is mediated by canal neuromasts.

    PubMed

    Coombs, S; Braun, C B; Donovan, B

    2001-01-01

    Lake Michigan mottled sculpin, Cottus bairdi, exhibit a naturally occurring and unconditioned orienting response that can be triggered by both live prey and chemically inert vibrating spheres, even in blinded animals. CoCl(2)-induced reductions of the orienting response demonstrate that the lateral line is required for this behavior in the absence of non-mechanosensory cues (such as vision), but shed no light on the relative contributions of superficial and canal neuromasts to this behavior. To determine the relative roles of these two subsystems, we measured the frequency with which mottled sculpin oriented towards a small vibrating sphere before and after two treatments: (i) immersion of fish in a solution of gentamicin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic that damages hair cells in canal, but not superficial, neuromasts; and (ii) scraping the skin of the fish, which damages the superficial, but not the canal, neuromasts. To ensure that both superficial and canal neuromasts were adequately stimulated, we tested at different vibration frequencies (10 and 50 Hz) near or at the best frequency for each type of neuromast. At both test frequencies, response rates before treatment were greater than 70 % and were significantly greater than 'spontaneous' response frequencies measured in the absence of sphere vibration. Response rates fell to spontaneous levels after 1 day of gentamicin treatment and did not return to pre-treatment levels for 10-15 days. In contrast, response rates stayed approximately the same after superficial neuromasts had been damaged by skin abrasion. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed hair cell damage (loss of apical cilia) in canal, but not superficial, neuromasts of gentamicin-treated animals after as little as 24 h of treatment. The sensory epithelium of canal neuromasts gradually returned to normal, following a time course similar to behavioral loss and recovery of the orienting response, whereas that of superficial neuromasts appeared normal

  16. Development of the lateral line canal system through a bone remodeling process in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Wada, Hironori; Iwasaki, Miki; Kawakami, Koichi

    2014-08-01

    The lateral line system of teleost fish is composed of mechanosensory receptors (neuromasts), comprising superficial receptors and others embedded in canals running under the skin. Canal diameter and size of the canal neuromasts are correlated with increasing body size, thus providing a very simple system to investigate mechanisms underlying the coordination between organ growth and body size. Here, we examine the development of the trunk lateral line canal system in zebrafish. We demonstrated that trunk canals originate from scales through a bone remodeling process, which we suggest is essential for the normal growth of canals and canal neuromasts. Moreover, we found that lateral line cells are required for the formation of canals, suggesting the existence of mutual interactions between the sensory system and surrounding connective tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Electrosensory ampullary organs are derived from lateral line placodes in bony fishes.

    PubMed

    Modrell, Melinda S; Bemis, William E; Northcutt, R Glenn; Davis, Marcus C; Baker, Clare V H

    2011-10-11

    Electroreception is an ancient subdivision of the lateral line sensory system, found in all major vertebrate groups (though lost in frogs, amniotes and most ray-finned fishes). Electroreception is mediated by 'hair cells' in ampullary organs, distributed in fields flanking lines of mechanosensory hair cell-containing neuromasts that detect local water movement. Neuromasts, and afferent neurons for both neuromasts and ampullary organs, develop from lateral line placodes. Although ampullary organs in the axolotl (a representative of the lobe-finned clade of bony fishes) are lateral line placode-derived, non-placodal origins have been proposed for electroreceptors in other taxa. Here we show morphological and molecular data describing lateral line system development in the basal ray-finned fish Polyodon spathula, and present fate-mapping data that conclusively demonstrate a lateral line placode origin for ampullary organs and neuromasts. Together with the axolotl data, this confirms that ampullary organs are ancestrally lateral line placode-derived in bony fishes.

  18. Electrosensory ampullary organs are lateral line placode-derived in bony fishes

    PubMed Central

    Modrell, Melinda S.; Bemis, William E.; Northcutt, R. Glenn; Davis, Marcus C.; Baker, Clare V. H.

    2014-01-01

    Electroreception is an ancient subdivision of the lateral line sensory system, found in all major vertebrate groups (though lost in frogs, amniotes, and most ray-finned fishes). Electroreception is mediated by “hair cells” in ampullary organs, distributed in fields flanking lines of mechanosensory hair cell-containing neuromasts that detect local water movement. Neuromasts, and afferent neurons for both neuromasts and ampullary organs, develop from lateral line placodes. Although ampullary organs in the axolotl (a representative of the lobe-finned clade of bony fishes) are lateral line placode-derived, non-placodal origins have been proposed for electroreceptors in other taxa. Here we show morphological and molecular data describing lateral line system development in the basal ray-finned fish Polyodon spathula, and present fate-mapping data that conclusively demonstrate a lateral line placode origin for ampullary organs and neuromasts. Together with the axolotl data, this confirms that ampullary organs are ancestrally lateral line placode-derived in bony fishes. PMID:21988912

  19. Sensory systems in sawfishes. 2. The lateral line.

    PubMed

    Wueringer, B E; Peverell, S C; Seymour, J; Squire, L; Collin, S P

    2011-01-01

    The lateral line system allows elasmobranchs to detect hydrodynamic movements in their close surroundings. We examined the distribution of pit organs and lateral line canals in 4 species of sawfish (Anoxypristis cuspidata, Pristis microdon, P. clavata and P. zijsron). Pit organs could only be located in A. cuspidata, which possesses elongated pits that are lined by dermal denticles. In all 4 pristid species, the lateral line canals are well developed and were separated into regions of pored and non-pored canals. In all species the tubules that extend from pored canals form extensive networks. In A. cuspidata, P. microdon and P. clavata, the lateral line canals on both the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the rostrum possess extensively branched and pored tubules. Based on this morphological observation, we hypothesized that these 3 species do not use their rostrum to search in the substrate for prey as previously assumed. Other batoids that possess lateral line canals adapted to perceive stimuli produced by infaunal prey possess non-pored lateral line canals, which also prevent the intrusion of substrate particles. However, this hypothesis remains to be tested behaviourally in pristids. Lateral line canals located between the mouth and the nostrils are non-pored in all 4 species of sawfish. Thus this region is hypothesized to perceive stimuli caused by direct contact with prey before ingestion. Lateral line canals that contain neuromasts are longest in P. microdon, but canals containing neuromasts along the rostrum are longest in A. cuspidata.

  20. The morphology and mechanical sensitivity of lateral line receptors in zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Van Trump, William J; McHenry, Matthew J

    2008-07-01

    The lateral line system of fish and amphibians detects water flow with receptors on the surface of the body. Although differences in the shape of these receptors, called neuromasts, are known to influence their mechanics, it is unclear how neuromast morphology affects the sensitivity of the lateral line system. We examined the functional consequences of morphological variation by measuring the dimensions of superficial neuromasts in zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio) and mathematically modeling their mechanics. These measurements used a novel morphometric technique that recorded landmarks in three dimensions at a microscopic scale. The mathematical model predicted mechanical sensitivity as the ratio of neuromast deflection to flow velocity for a range of stimulus frequencies. These predictions suggest that variation in morphology within this species generates a greater than 30-fold range in the amplitude of sensitivity and more than a 200-fold range of variation in cut-off frequency. Most of this variation was generated by differences in neuromast height that do not correlate with body position. Our results suggest that natural variation in cupular height within a species is capable of generating large differences in their mechanical filtering and dynamic range.

  1. The sensitivity of lateral line receptors and their role in the behavior of Mexican blind cavefish (Astyanax mexicanus)

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizawa, Masato; Jeffery, William R.; van Netten, Sietse M.; McHenry, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    The characid fish species Astyanax mexicanus offers a classic comparative model for the evolution of sensory systems. Populations of this species evolved in caves and became blind while others remained in streams (i.e. surface fish) and retained a functional visual system. The flow-sensitive lateral line receptors, called superficial neuromasts, are more numerous in cavefish than in surface fish, but it is unclear whether individual neuromasts differ in sensitivity between these populations. The aims of this study were to determine whether the neuromasts in cavefish impart enhanced sensitivity relative to surface fish and to test whether this aids their ability to sense flow in the absence of visual input. Sensitivity was assessed by modeling the mechanics and hydrodynamics of a flow stimulus. This model required that we measure the dimensions of the transparent cupula of a neuromast, which was visualized with fluorescent microspheres. We found that neuromasts within the eye orbit and in the suborbital region were larger and consequently about twice as sensitive in small adult cavefish as in surface fish. Behavioral experiments found that these cavefish, but not surface fish, were attracted to a 35 Hz flow stimulus. These results support the hypothesis that the large superficial neuromasts of small cavefish aid in flow sensing. We conclude that the morphology of the lateral line could have evolved in cavefish to permit foraging in a cave environment. PMID:24265419

  2. The sensitivity of lateral line receptors and their role in the behavior of Mexican blind cavefish (Astyanax mexicanus).

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Masato; Jeffery, William R; van Netten, Sietse M; McHenry, Matthew J

    2014-03-15

    The characid fish species Astyanax mexicanus offers a classic comparative model for the evolution of sensory systems. Populations of this species evolved in caves and became blind while others remained in streams (i.e. surface fish) and retained a functional visual system. The flow-sensitive lateral line receptors, called superficial neuromasts, are more numerous in cavefish than in surface fish, but it is unclear whether individual neuromasts differ in sensitivity between these populations. The aims of this study were to determine whether the neuromasts in cavefish impart enhanced sensitivity relative to surface fish and to test whether this aids their ability to sense flow in the absence of visual input. Sensitivity was assessed by modeling the mechanics and hydrodynamics of a flow stimulus. This model required that we measure the dimensions of the transparent cupula of a neuromast, which was visualized with fluorescent microspheres. We found that neuromasts within the eye orbit and in the suborbital region were larger and consequently about twice as sensitive in small adult cavefish as in surface fish. Behavioral experiments found that these cavefish, but not surface fish, were attracted to a 35 Hz flow stimulus. These results support the hypothesis that the large superficial neuromasts of small cavefish aid in flow sensing. We conclude that the morphology of the lateral line could have evolved in cavefish to permit foraging in a cave environment.

  3. Damage and Recovery of Hair Cells in Fish Canal (But Not Superficial) Neuromasts after Gentamicin Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Jiakun; Yan, Hong Young; Popper, Arthur N.

    1995-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrating the presence of two types of sensory hair cells in the ear of a telcost fish (Astronotus ocellatus, the oscar) indicates that hair cell heterogeneity may exist not only in amniotic vertebrates but also in anamniotes. Here we report that a similar heterogeneity between hair cell types may also occur in the other mechanosensory organ of the oscar, the lateral line. We exposed oscars to the aminoglycoside (ototoxic) antibiotic gentamicin sulfate and found damaged sensory hair cells in one class of the lateral line receptors, the canal neuromasts, but not in the other class, the superficial neuromasts. This effect was not due to the canal environment. Moreover, new ciliary bundles on hair cells of the canal neuromasts were found after, and during, gentamicin exposure. The pattern of hair cell destruction and recovery in canal neuromasts is similar to that of type 1-like hair cells found in the striolar region of the utricle and lagena of the oscar after gentamicin treatment. These results suggest that the hair cells in the canal and superficial neuromasts may be similar to type 1-like and type 2 hair cells, respectively, in the fish ear.

  4. Lateral line system and its innervation in Tetraodontiformes with outgroup comparisons: descriptions and phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Nakae, Masanori; Sasaki, Kunio

    2010-05-01

    The lateral line system and its innervation in ten tetraodontiform families and five outgroup taxa were examined. Although some homology issues remained unresolved, tetraodontiforms were characterized by having two types (at least) of superficial neuromasts (defined by the presence or absence of supporting structures) and accessory lateral lines and neuromasts (except Molidae in which "accessory" elements were absent). The preopercular line in Tetraodontiformes was not homologous with that of typical teleosts, because the line was innervated by the opercular ramule that was newly derived from the mandibular ramus, the condition being identical to that in Lophiidae. Within Tetraodontiformes, the number of neuromasts varied between 70 and 277 in the main lines and between 0 and 52 in accessory elements. Variations were also recognized in the presence or absence of the supraorbital commissure, mandibular line, otic line, postotic line, ventral trunk line, and some lateral line nerve rami, most notably the dorsal branch of the opercular ramule, being absent in Aracanidae, Ostraciidae, Tetraodontidae, Diodontidae, and Molidae. Morphological characteristics derived from the lateral line system and its innervation provided some support for a sister relationship of tetraodontiforms with lophiiforms.

  5. In toto imaging of the migrating Zebrafish lateral line primordium at single cell resolution.

    PubMed

    Nogare, Damian Dalle; Nikaido, Masataka; Somers, Katherine; Head, Jeffery; Piotrowski, Tatjana; Chitnis, Ajay B

    2017-02-01

    The zebrafish Posterior Lateral Line primordium (PLLp) has emerged as an important model system for studying many aspects of development, including cell migration, cell type specification and tissue morphogenesis. Despite this, basic aspects of PLLp biology remain incompletely understood. The PLLp is a group of approximately 140 cells which pioneers the formation of the Posterior Lateral Line (LL) system by migrating along the length of the embryo, periodically depositing clusters of epithelial cells, which will go on to form the mature sense organs of the lateral line, called neuromasts. The neuromasts are formed within the migrating PLLp as protoneuromasts: the first protoneuromast is formed close to the trailing end and additional protoneuromasts are formed sequentially, progressively closer to the leading edge of the migrating collective. We imaged the migration of PLL primordia and tracked every cell in the lateral line system over the course of migration. From this data set we unambiguously determined the lineage and fate of every cell deposited by the migrating PLLp. We show that, on average, proliferation across the entire PLLp is weakly patterned, with leading cells tending to divide more slowly than trailing cells. Neuromasts are formed sequentially by local expansion of existing cells along the length of the PLLp, not by self-renewing stem cell-like divisions of a restricted leading population that is highly proliferative. The fate of deposited cells, either within neuromasts or as interneuromast cells (in between deposited neuromasts) is not determined by any obvious stereotyped lineages. Instead, it is determined somewhat stochasitcailly, as a function of a cells distance from the center of a maturing protoneuromast. Together, our data provide a rigorous baseline for the behavior of the PLLp, which can be used to inform further study of this important model system. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Determination of object position, vortex shedding frequency and flow velocity using artificial lateral line canals

    PubMed Central

    Bleckmann, Horst

    2011-01-01

    Summary The lateral line system of fish consists of superficial neuromasts, and neuromasts embedded in lateral line canals. Lateral line neuromasts allow fish to sense both minute water motions and pressure gradients, thereby enabling them to detect predators and prey or to recognize and discriminate stationary objects while passing them. With the aid of the lateral line, fish can also sense vortices caused by an upstream object or by undulatory swimming movements of fish. We show here that artificial lateral line canals equipped with optical flow sensors can be used to detect the water motions generated by a stationary vibrating sphere, the vortices caused by an upstream cylinder or the water (air) movements caused by a passing object. The hydrodynamic information retrieved from optical flow sensors can be used to calculate bulk flow velocity and thus the size of the cylinder that shed the vortices. Even a bilateral sensor platform equipped with only one artificial lateral line canal on each side is sufficient to determine the position of an upstream cylinder. PMID:21977440

  7. Heterochrony, modularity, and the functional evolution of the mechanosensory lateral line canal system of fishes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The canals of the mechanosensory lateral line system are components of the dermatocranium, and demonstrate phenotypic variation in bony fishes. Widened lateral line canals evolved convergently in a limited number of families of teleost fishes and it had been hypothesized that they evolved from narrow canals via heterochrony and explore modularity in the lateral line system. Two species of cichlids with different canal phenotypes were used to test a hypothesis of heterochrony. Histological material prepared from ontogenetic series of Aulonocara stuartgranti (widened canals) and Tramitichromis sp. (narrow canals) was analyzed using ANCOVA to determine rates of increase in canal diameter and neuromast size (length, width) and to compare the timing of onset of critical stages in canal morphogenesis (enclosure, ossification). Results A faster rate of increase in canal diameter and neuromast width (but not length), and a delay in onset of canal morphogenesis were found in Aulonocara relative to Tramitichromis. However, rates of increase in canal diameter and neuromast size among canals, among canal portions and among canals segments reveal similar trends within both species. Conclusion The evolution of widened lateral line canals is the result of dissociated heterochrony - acceleration in the rate of increase of both canal diameter and neuromast size, and delay in the onset of canal morphogenesis, in Aulonocara (widened canals) relative to Tramitichromis (narrow canals). Common rates of increase in canal diameter and neuromast size among canal portions in different dermatocranial bones and among canal segments reflect the absence of local heterochronies, and suggest modular integration among canals in each species. Thus, canal and neuromast morphology are more strongly influenced by their identities as features of the lateral line system than by the attributes of the dermatocranial bones in which the canals are found. Rate heterochrony manifested during the

  8. Assessment of lateral line function: a potential technique for studies in ototoxicity.

    PubMed

    Brack, C L; Ramcharitar, J

    2012-02-01

    In zebrafish neuromast hair cells, the process of programmed cell death ototoxic damage is strikingly similar to that of degenerating hair cells of the mammalian organ of Corti. Therefore, in vivo zebrafish assays involving the lateral line have been developed for drug ototoxicity screening. This is accomplished by examination of canal neuromast morphology in treated larvae using fluorescent dyes. To-date however, physiological confirmation of lateral line dysfunction resulting from such ototoxins has not been reported in the scientific literature--neither for larval nor adult zebrafish. Here we describe a rapid, non-invasive far-field electrophysiological method for assessing lateral line function. We suggest that ototoxic and otoprotective agents identified in larval studies may be assessed using this tool in adult fish. In this way, potential drug candidates can be further screened en route to testing in mammalian models, before potential clinical trials begin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The lateral line confers evolutionarily derived sleep loss in the Mexican cavefish.

    PubMed

    Jaggard, James; Robinson, Beatriz G; Stahl, Bethany A; Oh, Ian; Masek, Pavel; Yoshizawa, Masato; Keene, Alex C

    2017-01-15

    Sleep is an essential behavior exhibited by nearly all animals, and disruption of this process is associated with an array of physiological and behavioral deficits. Sleep is defined by changes in sensory gating that reduce sensory input to the brain, but little is known about the neural basis for interactions between sleep and sensory processing. Blind Mexican cavefish comprise an extant surface dwelling form and 29 cave morphs that have independently evolved increased numbers of mechanoreceptive lateral line neuromasts and convergent evolution of sleep loss. Ablation of the lateral line enhanced sleep in the Pachón cavefish population, suggesting that heightened sensory input underlies evolutionarily derived sleep loss. Targeted lateral line ablation and behavioral analysis localized the wake-promoting neuromasts in Pachón cavefish to superficial neuromasts of the trunk and cranial regions. Strikingly, lateral line ablation did not affect sleep in four other cavefish populations, suggesting that distinct neural mechanisms regulate the evolution of sleep loss in independently derived cavefish populations. Cavefish are subject to seasonal changes in food availability, raising the possibility that sensory modulation of sleep is influenced by metabolic state. We found that starvation promotes sleep in Pachón cavefish, and is not enhanced by lateral line ablation, suggesting that functional interactions occur between sensory and metabolic regulation of sleep. Taken together, these findings support a model where sensory processing contributes to evolutionarily derived changes in sleep that are modulated in accordance with food availability.

  10. Genetically and environmentally mediated divergence in lateral line morphology in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    Fischer, Eva K; Soares, Daphne; Archer, Kathryn R; Ghalambor, Cameron K; Hoke, Kim L

    2013-08-15

    Fish and other aquatic vertebrates use their mechanosensory lateral line to detect objects and motion in their immediate environment. Differences in lateral line morphology have been extensively characterized among species; however, intraspecific variation remains largely unexplored. In addition, little is known about how environmental factors modify development of lateral line morphology. Predation is one environmental factor that can act both as a selective pressure causing genetic differences between populations, and as a cue during development to induce plastic changes. Here, we test whether variation in the risk of predation within and among populations of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) influences lateral line morphology. We compared neuromast arrangement in wild-caught guppies from distinct high- and low-predation population pairs to examine patterns associated with differences in predation pressure. To distinguish genetic and environmental influences, we compared neuromast arrangement in guppies from different source populations reared with and without exposure to predator chemical cues. We found that the distribution of neuromasts across the body varies between populations based on both genetic and environmental factors. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate variation in lateral line morphology based on environmental exposure to an ecologically relevant stimulus.

  11. Structural diversity of the ordinary and specialized lateral line organs.

    PubMed

    Cernuda-Cernuda, R; García-Fernández, J M

    1996-07-01

    Lateral line organ, a superficial sensory system in amphibia and fish which provides the animal with information about its surrounding environment, is divided classically into two main different types, ordinary and specialized, whose functions are mechanoreceptive and electroreceptive, respectively. Although it has great diversity, the basic sensory unit, which is usually called "neuromast," is composed of sensory cells embedded in accessory cells. The functions of the latter are to support the sensory cells and to secrete the material that covers the organs, forming a cupular structure or filling a canal which enables the organ to communicate with the exterior. Sensory cells of mechanoreceptive neuromasts have a tuft of processes included in the cupular material; these are a kinocilium and a group of stereocilia with a typical staircase arrangement. The displacement of the stereocilia towards or away from the kinocilium produces different stimuli. The electroreceptive organs are more diverse. They include ampullary and tuberous organs. The latter can be subdivided into different types: knollenorgans, mormyromasts, gymnarchomasts, etc. All of these present a great diversity among species, but their morphology is less reported than that of the mechanoreceptive organs. This paper summarizes the structural features of the main different types of lateral line organs, as well as their taxonomic distribution and different patterns of distribution along the surface of the animal.

  12. Touch at a distance sensing: lateral-line inspired MEMS flow sensors.

    PubMed

    Prakash Kottapalli, Ajay Giri; Asadnia, Mohsen; Miao, Jianmin; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2014-11-07

    Evolution bestowed the blind cavefish with a resourcefully designed lateral-line of sensors that play an essential role in many important tasks including object detection and avoidance, energy-efficient maneuvering, rheotaxis etc. Biologists identified the two types of vital sensors on the fish bodies called the superficial neuromasts and the canal neuromasts that are responsible for flow sensing and pressure-gradient sensing, respectively. In this work, we present the design, fabrication and experimental characterization of biomimetic polymer artificial superficial neuromast micro-sensor arrays. These biomimetic micro-sensors demonstrated a high sensitivity of 0.9 mV/(m s(-1)) and 0.022 V/(m s(-1)) and threshold velocity detection limits of 0.1 m s(-1) and 0.015 m s(-1) in determining air and water flows respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that the biological canal inspired polymer encapsulation on the array of artificial superficial neuromast sensors is capable of filtering steady-state flows that could otherwise significantly mask the relevant oscillatory flow signals of high importance.

  13. Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and TrkB in the lateral line system of zebrafish during development.

    PubMed

    Germanà, A; Laurà, R; Montalbano, G; Guerrera, M C; Amato, V; Zichichi, R; Campo, S; Ciriaco, E; Vega, J A

    2010-07-01

    The neuromasts of the lateral line system are regarded as a model to study the mechanisms of hearing, deafness, and ototoxicity. The neurotrophins (NTs), especially brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and its signaling receptor TrkB are involved in the development and maintenance of neuromasts. To know the period in which the BDNF/TrkB complex has more effects in the neuromast biology, the age-related changes were studied. Normal zebrafish from 10 to 180 days post-fertilization (dpf), as well as transgenic ET4 zebrafish 10 and 20 dpf, was analyzed using qRT-PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry. BDNF and TrkB mRNAs followed a parallel course, peaking at 20 dpf, and thereafter progressively decreased. Specific immunoreactivity for BDNF and TrkB was found co-localized in all hairy cells of neuromasts in 20 and 30 dpf; then, the number of immunoreactive cells decreased, and by 180 dpf BDNF remains restricted to a subpopulation of hairy cells, and TrkB to a few number of sensory and non-sensory cells. At all ages examined, TrkB immunoreactivity was detected in sensory ganglia innervating the neuromasts. The present results demonstrate that there is a parallel time-related decline in the expression of BDNF and TrkB in zebrafish. Also, the patterns of cell expression suggest that autocrine/paracrine mechanisms for this NT system might occur within the neuromasts. Because TrkB in lateral line ganglia did not vary with age, their neurons are potentially capable to respond to BDNF during the entire lifespan of zebrafish.

  14. The evolution and development of vertebrate lateral line electroreceptors.

    PubMed

    Baker, Clare V H; Modrell, Melinda S; Gillis, J Andrew

    2013-07-01

    Electroreception is an ancient vertebrate sense with a fascinating evolutionary history involving multiple losses as well as independent evolution at least twice within teleosts. We review the phylogenetic distribution of electroreception and the morphology and innervation of electroreceptors in different vertebrate groups. We summarise recent work from our laboratory that has confirmed the homology of ampullary electroreceptors in non-teleost jawed vertebrates by showing, in conjunction with previously published work, that these are derived embryonically from lateral line placodes. Finally, we review hypotheses to explain the distribution of electroreception within teleosts, including the hypothesis that teleost ampullary and tuberous electroreceptors evolved via the modification of mechanosensory hair cells in lateral line neuromasts. We conclude that further experimental work on teleost electroreceptor development is needed to test such hypotheses.

  15. The evolution and development of vertebrate lateral line electroreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Clare V. H.; Modrell, Melinda S.; Gillis, J. Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Summary Electroreception is an ancient vertebrate sense with a fascinating evolutionary history involving multiple losses as well as independent evolution at least twice within teleosts. We review the phylogenetic distribution of electroreception and the morphology and innervation of electroreceptors in different vertebrate groups. We summarise recent work from our laboratory that has confirmed the homology of ampullary electroreceptors in non-teleost jawed vertebrates by showing, in conjunction with previously published work, that these are derived embryonically from lateral line placodes. Finally, we review hypotheses to explain the distribution of electroreception within teleosts, including the hypothesis that teleost ampullary and tuberous electroreceptors evolved via the modification of mechanosensory hair cells in lateral line neuromasts. We conclude that further experimental work on teleost electroreceptor development is needed to test such hypotheses. PMID:23761476

  16. Evolution of electrosensory ampullary organs: conservation of Eya4 expression during lateral line development in jawed vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Modrell, Melinda S.; Baker, Clare V. H.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The lateral line system of fishes and amphibians comprises two ancient sensory systems: mechanoreception and electroreception. Electroreception is found in all major vertebrate groups (i.e., jawless fishes, cartilaginous fishes and bony fishes); however, it was lost in several groups including anuran amphibians (frogs) and amniotes (reptiles, birds and mammals), as well as in the lineage leading to the neopterygian clade of bony fishes (bowfins, gars and teleosts). Electroreception is mediated by modified ‘hair cells’, which are collected in ampullary organs that flank lines of mechanosensory hair cell-containing neuromasts. In the axolotl (a urodele amphibian), grafting and ablation studies have shown a lateral line placode origin for both mechanosensory neuromasts and electrosensory ampullary organs (and the neurons that innervate them). However, little is known at the molecular level about the development of the amphibian lateral line system in general and electrosensory ampullary organs in particular. Previously, we identified Eya4 as a marker for lateral line (and otic) placodes, neuromasts and ampullary organs in a shark (a cartilaginous fish) and a paddlefish (a basal ray-finned fish). Here, we show that Eya4 is similarly expressed during otic and lateral line placode development in the axolotl (a representative of the lobe-finned fish clade). Furthermore, Eya4 expression is specifically restricted to hair cells in both neuromasts and ampullary organs, as identified by co-expression with the calcium-buffering protein Parvalbumin3. As well as identifying new molecular markers for amphibian mechanosensory and electrosensory hair cells, these data demonstrate that Eya4 is a conserved marker for lateral line placodes and their derivatives in all jawed vertebrates. PMID:23017075

  17. Evolution of electrosensory ampullary organs: conservation of Eya4 expression during lateral line development in jawed vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Modrell, Melinda S; Baker, Clare V H

    2012-01-01

    The lateral line system of fishes and amphibians comprises two ancient sensory systems: mechanoreception and electroreception. Electroreception is found in all major vertebrate groups (i.e. jawless fishes, cartilaginous fishes, and bony fishes); however, it was lost in several groups including anuran amphibians (frogs) and amniotes (reptiles, birds, and mammals), as well as in the lineage leading to the neopterygian clade of bony fishes (bowfins, gars, and teleosts). Electroreception is mediated by modified "hair cells," which are collected in ampullary organs that flank lines of mechanosensory hair cell containing neuromasts. In the axolotl (a urodele amphibian), grafting and ablation studies have shown a lateral line placode origin for both mechanosensory neuromasts and electrosensory ampullary organs (and the neurons that innervate them). However, little is known at the molecular level about the development of the amphibian lateral line system in general and electrosensory ampullary organs in particular. Previously, we identified Eya4 as a marker for lateral line (and otic) placodes, neuromasts, and ampullary organs in a shark (a cartilaginous fish) and a paddlefish (a basal ray-finned fish). Here, we show that Eya4 is similarly expressed during otic and lateral line placode development in the axolotl (a representative of the lobe-finned fish clade). Furthermore, Eya4 expression is specifically restricted to hair cells in both neuromasts and ampullary organs, as identified by coexpression with the calcium-buffering protein Parvalbumin3. As well as identifying new molecular markers for amphibian mechanosensory and electrosensory hair cells, these data demonstrate that Eya4 is a conserved marker for lateral line placodes and their derivatives in all jawed vertebrates. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Functional diversity of the lateral line system among populations of a native Australian freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Spiller, Lindsey; Grierson, Pauline F; Davies, Peter M; Hemmi, Jan; Collin, Shaun P; Kelley, Jennifer L

    2017-06-15

    Fishes use their mechanoreceptive lateral line system to sense nearby objects by detecting slight fluctuations in hydrodynamic motion within their immediate environment. Species of fish from different habitats often display specialisations of the lateral line system, in particular the distribution and abundance of neuromasts, but the lateral line can also exhibit considerable diversity within a species. Here, we provide the first investigation of the lateral line system of the Australian western rainbowfish (Melanotaenia australis), a species that occupies a diversity of freshwater habitats across semi-arid northwest Australia. We collected 155 individuals from eight populations and surveyed each habitat for environmental factors that may contribute to lateral line specialisation, including water flow, predation risk, habitat structure and prey availability. Scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent dye labelling were used to describe the lateral line system in M. australis, and to examine whether the abundance and arrangement of superficial neuromasts (SNs) varied within and among populations. We found that the SNs of M. australis were present in distinct body regions rather than lines. The abundance of SNs within each body region was highly variable, and also differed among populations and individuals. Variation in SN abundance among populations was best explained by habitat structure and the availability of invertebrate prey. Our finding that specific environmental factors explain among-population variation in a key sensory system suggests that the ability to acquire sensory information is specialised for the particular behavioural needs of the animal. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Phoenix is required for mechanosensory hair cell regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line.

    PubMed

    Behra, Martine; Bradsher, John; Sougrat, Rachid; Gallardo, Viviana; Allende, Miguel L; Burgess, Shawn M

    2009-04-01

    In humans, the absence or irreversible loss of hair cells, the sensory mechanoreceptors in the cochlea, accounts for a large majority of acquired and congenital hearing disorders. In the auditory and vestibular neuroepithelia of the inner ear, hair cells are accompanied by another cell type called supporting cells. This second cell population has been described as having stem cell-like properties, allowing efficient hair cell replacement during embryonic and larval/fetal development of all vertebrates. However, mammals lose their regenerative capacity in most inner ear neuroepithelia in postnatal life. Remarkably, reptiles, birds, amphibians, and fish are different in that they can regenerate hair cells throughout their lifespan. The lateral line in amphibians and in fish is an additional sensory organ, which is used to detect water movements and is comprised of neuroepithelial patches, called neuromasts. These are similar in ultra-structure to the inner ear's neuroepithelia and they share the expression of various molecular markers. We examined the regeneration process in hair cells of the lateral line of zebrafish larvae carrying a retroviral integration in a previously uncharacterized gene, phoenix (pho). Phoenix mutant larvae develop normally and display a morphologically intact lateral line. However, after ablation of hair cells with copper or neomycin, their regeneration in pho mutants is severely impaired. We show that proliferation in the supporting cells is strongly decreased after damage to hair cells and correlates with the reduction of newly formed hair cells in the regenerating phoenix mutant neuromasts. The retroviral integration linked to the phenotype is in a novel gene with no known homologs showing high expression in neuromast supporting cells. Whereas its role during early development of the lateral line remains to be addressed, in later larval stages phoenix defines a new class of proteins implicated in hair cell regeneration.

  20. Anemone repair proteins as a potential therapeutic agent for vertebrate hair cells: facilitated recovery of the lateral line of blind cave fish.

    PubMed

    Repass, J J; Watson, G M

    2001-04-01

    Blind cave fish use the lateral line sensory system to detect nearby objects. The fish responds to sudden perturbations in the water column by initiating startle responses in which they swim more rapidly. Normal startle responses disappear after trauma caused by a single 15 s immersion in calcium free water, but return within 5 days if the traumatized fish are treated with 'repair proteins' isolated from sea anemones. Polyclonal antibodies raised to fraction beta, a specific chromatographic fraction of repair proteins, bind to hair cells within superficial neuromasts. Likewise, biotinylated fraction beta binds to hair cells in neuromasts. Neuromast hair cells exposed to calcium free water followed by repair proteins have more compact hair bundles than do hair cells exposed only to calcium free water. We propose that anemone repair proteins replace linkages between stereocilia destroyed by exposure to calcium free water.

  1. Chemokine and Fgf signalling act as opposing guidance cues in formation of the lateral line primordium

    PubMed Central

    Breau, Marie A.; Wilson, Duncan; Wilkinson, David G.; Xu, Qiling

    2012-01-01

    The directional migration of many cell populations occurs as a coherent group. An amenable model is provided by the posterior lateral line in zebrafish, which is formed by a cohesive primordium that migrates from head to tail and deposits future neuromasts at intervals. We found that prior to the onset of migration, the compact state of the primordium is not fully established, as isolated cells with lateral line identity are present caudal to the main primordium. These isolated cells are retained in position such that they fuse with the migrating primordium as it advances, and later contribute to the leading zone and terminal neuromasts. We found that the isolated lateral line cells are positioned by two antagonistic cues: Fgf signalling attracts them towards the primordium, which counteracts Sdf1α/Cxcr4b-mediated caudal attraction. These findings reveal a novel chemotactic role for Fgf signalling in which it enables the coalescence of the lateral line primordium from an initial fuzzy pattern into a compact group of migrating cells. PMID:22619392

  2. Chemokine and Fgf signalling act as opposing guidance cues in formation of the lateral line primordium.

    PubMed

    Breau, Marie A; Wilson, Duncan; Wilkinson, David G; Xu, Qiling

    2012-06-01

    The directional migration of many cell populations occurs as a coherent group. An amenable model is provided by the posterior lateral line in zebrafish, which is formed by a cohesive primordium that migrates from head to tail and deposits future neuromasts at intervals. We found that prior to the onset of migration, the compact state of the primordium is not fully established, as isolated cells with lateral line identity are present caudal to the main primordium. These isolated cells are retained in position such that they fuse with the migrating primordium as it advances, and later contribute to the leading zone and terminal neuromasts. We found that the isolated lateral line cells are positioned by two antagonistic cues: Fgf signalling attracts them towards the primordium, which counteracts Sdf1α/Cxcr4b-mediated caudal attraction. These findings reveal a novel chemotactic role for Fgf signalling in which it enables the coalescence of the lateral line primordium from an initial fuzzy pattern into a compact group of migrating cells.

  3. Electrosensory ampullary organs are derived from lateral line placodes in cartilaginous fishes.

    PubMed

    Gillis, J Andrew; Modrell, Melinda S; Northcutt, R Glenn; Catania, Kenneth C; Luer, Carl A; Baker, Clare V H

    2012-09-01

    Ampullary organ electroreceptors excited by weak cathodal electric fields are used for hunting by both cartilaginous and non-teleost bony fishes. Despite similarities of neurophysiology and innervation, their embryonic origins remain controversial: bony fish ampullary organs are derived from lateral line placodes, whereas a neural crest origin has been proposed for cartilaginous fish electroreceptors. This calls into question the homology of electroreceptors and ampullary organs in the two lineages of jawed vertebrates. Here, we test the hypothesis that lateral line placodes form electroreceptors in cartilaginous fishes by undertaking the first long-term in vivo fate-mapping study in any cartilaginous fish. Using DiI tracing for up to 70 days in the little skate, Leucoraja erinacea, we show that lateral line placodes form both ampullary electroreceptors and mechanosensory neuromasts. These data confirm the homology of electroreceptors and ampullary organs in cartilaginous and non-teleost bony fishes, and indicate that jawed vertebrates primitively possessed a lateral line placode-derived system of electrosensory ampullary organs and mechanosensory neuromasts.

  4. Electrosensory ampullary organs are derived from lateral line placodes in cartilaginous fishes

    PubMed Central

    Gillis, J. Andrew; Modrell, Melinda S.; Northcutt, R. Glenn; Catania, Kenneth C.; Luer, Carl A.; Baker, Clare V. H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Ampullary organ electroreceptors excited by weak cathodal electric fields are used for hunting by both cartilaginous and non-teleost bony fishes. Despite similarities of neurophysiology and innervation, their embryonic origins remain controversial: bony fish ampullary organs are derived from lateral line placodes, while a neural crest origin has been proposed for cartilaginous fish electroreceptors. This calls into question the homology of electroreceptors and ampullary organs in the two lineages of jawed vertebrates. Here, we test the hypothesis that lateral line placodes form electroreceptors in cartilaginous fishes by undertaking the first long-term in vivo fate-mapping study in any cartilaginous fish. Using DiI-tracing for up to 70 days in the little skate, Leucoraja erinacea, we show that lateral line placodes form both ampullary electroreceptors and mechanosensory neuromasts. These data confirm the homology of electroreceptors and ampullary organs in cartilaginous and non-teleost bony fishes and indicate that jawed vertebrates primitively possessed a lateral line placode-derived system of electrosensory ampullary organs and mechanosensory neuromasts. PMID:22833123

  5. Rheotaxis in Larval Zebrafish Is Mediated by Lateral Line Mechanosensory Hair Cells

    PubMed Central

    Suli, Arminda; Watson, Glen M.; Rubel, Edwin W.; Raible, David W.

    2012-01-01

    The lateral line sensory system, found in fish and amphibians, is used in prey detection, predator avoidance and schooling behavior. This system includes cell clusters, called superficial neuromasts, located on the surface of head and trunk of developing larvae. Mechanosensory hair cells in the center of each neuromast respond to disturbances in the water and convey information to the brain via the lateral line ganglia. The convenient location of mechanosensory hair cells on the body surface has made the lateral line a valuable system in which to study hair cell damage and regeneration. One way to measure hair cell survival and recovery is to assay behaviors that depend on their function. We built a system in which orientation against constant water flow, positive rheotaxis, can be quantitatively assessed. We found that zebrafish larvae perform positive rheotaxis and that, similar to adult fish, larvae use both visual and lateral line input to perform this behavior. Disruption or damage of hair cells in the absence of vision leads to a marked decrease in rheotaxis that recovers upon hair cell repair or regeneration. PMID:22359538

  6. Temporal precision and reliability in the velocity regime of a hair-cell sensory system: the mechanosensory lateral line of goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Goulet, Julie; van Hemmen, J Leo; Jung, Sarah N; Chagnaud, Boris P; Scholze, Björn; Engelmann, Jacob

    2012-05-01

    Fish and aquatic frogs detect minute water motion by means of a specialized mechanosensory system, the lateral line. Ubiquitous in fish, the lateral-line system is characterized by hair-cell based sensory structures across the fish's surface called neuromasts. These neuromasts occur free-standing on the skin as superficial neuromasts (SN) or are recessed into canals as canal neuromasts. SNs respond to rapid changes of water velocity in a small layer of fluid around the fish, including the so-called boundary layer. Although omnipresent, the boundary layer's impact on the SN response is still a matter of debate. For the first time using an information-theoretic approach to this sensory system, we have investigated the SN afferents encoding capabilities. Combining covariance analysis, phase analysis, and modeling of recorded neuronal responses of primary lateral line afferents, we show that encoding by the SNs is adequately described as a linear, velocity-responsive mechanism. Afferent responses display a bimodal distribution of opposite Wiener kernels that likely reflected the two hair-cell populations within a given neuromast. Using frozen noise stimuli, we further demonstrate that SN afferents respond in an extremely precise manner and with high reproducibility across a broad frequency band (10-150 Hz), revealing that an optimal decoder would need to rely extensively on a temporal code. This was further substantiated by means of signal reconstruction of spike trains that were time shifted with respect to their original. On average, a time shift of 3.5 ms was enough to diminish the encoding capabilities of primary afferents by 70%. Our results further demonstrate that the SNs' encoding capability is linearly related to the stimulus outside the boundary layer, and that the boundary layer can, therefore, be neglected while interpreting lateral line response of SN afferents to hydrodynamic stimuli.

  7. Sequential organogenesis sets two parallel sensory lines in medaka

    PubMed Central

    Seleit, Ali; Krämer, Isabel; Ambrosio, Elizabeth; Dross, Nicolas; Engel, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Animal organs are typically formed during embryogenesis by following one specific developmental programme. Here, we report that neuromast organs are generated by two distinct and sequential programmes that result in parallel sensory lines in medaka embryos. A ventral posterior lateral line (pLL) is composed of neuromasts deposited by collectively migrating cells whereas a midline pLL is formed by individually migrating cells. Despite the variable number of neuromasts among embryos, the sequential programmes that we describe here fix an invariable ratio between ventral and midline neuromasts. Mechanistically, we show that the formation of both types of neuromasts depends on the chemokine receptor genes cxcr4b and cxcr7b, illustrating how common molecules can mediate different morphogenetic processes. Altogether, we reveal a self-organising feature of the lateral line system that ensures a proper distribution of sensory organs along the body axis. PMID:28087632

  8. Sequential organogenesis sets two parallel sensory lines in medaka.

    PubMed

    Seleit, Ali; Krämer, Isabel; Ambrosio, Elizabeth; Dross, Nicolas; Engel, Ulrike; Centanin, Lázaro

    2017-02-15

    Animal organs are typically formed during embryogenesis by following one specific developmental programme. Here, we report that neuromast organs are generated by two distinct and sequential programmes that result in parallel sensory lines in medaka embryos. A ventral posterior lateral line (pLL) is composed of neuromasts deposited by collectively migrating cells whereas a midline pLL is formed by individually migrating cells. Despite the variable number of neuromasts among embryos, the sequential programmes that we describe here fix an invariable ratio between ventral and midline neuromasts. Mechanistically, we show that the formation of both types of neuromasts depends on the chemokine receptor genes cxcr4b and cxcr7b, illustrating how common molecules can mediate different morphogenetic processes. Altogether, we reveal a self-organising feature of the lateral line system that ensures a proper distribution of sensory organs along the body axis. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Variability of Rheotaxis Behaviors in Larval Bullfrogs Highlights Species Diversity in Lateral Line Function

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Erika E. A.

    2016-01-01

    The morphology and distribution of lateral line neuromasts vary between ecomorphological types of anuran tadpoles, but little is known about how this structural variability contributes to differences in lateral-line mediated behaviors. Previous research identified distinct differences in one such behavior, positive rheotaxis towards the source of a flow, in two tadpole species, the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis; type 1) and the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana; type 4). Because these two species had been tested under different flow conditions, we re-evaluated these findings by quantifying flow-sensing behaviors of bullfrog tadpoles in the same flow field in which X. laevis tadpoles had been tested previously. Early larval bullfrog tadpoles were exposed to flow in the dark, in the presence of a discrete light cue, and after treatment with the ototoxin gentamicin. In response to flow, tadpoles moved downstream, closer to a side wall, and higher in the water column, but they did not station-hold. Tadpoles exhibited positive rheotaxis, but with long latencies, low to moderate accuracy, and considerable individual variability. This is in contrast to the robust, stereotyped station-holding and accurate rheotaxis of X. laevis tadpoles. The presence of a discrete visual cue and gentamicin treatment altered spatial positioning and disrupted rheotaxis in both tadpole species. Species differences in lateral-line mediated behaviors may reflect differences in neuromast number and distribution, life history, or perceptual salience of other environmental cues. PMID:27870909

  10. Lateral line-mediated rheotactic behavior in tadpoles of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Andrea M.; Costa, Lauren M.; Gerstein, Hilary B.

    2005-01-01

    Tadpoles (Xenopus laevis) have a lateral line system whose anatomical structure has been described, but whose functional significance has not been closely examined. These experiments tested the hypothesis that the lateral line system is involved in rheotaxis. Tadpoles in developmental stages 47–56 oriented toward the source of a water current. Orientation was less precise after treatment with cobalt chloride or streptomycin, but was similar to that of untreated animals after exposure to gentamicin. In no current conditions, tadpoles exhibited a characteristic head-down posture by which they held themselves in the water column at an angle around 45°. This body posture became significantly less tilted in the presence of water current. Treatment with cobalt chloride or streptomycin increased the angle of tilt close to that seen in no current conditions, while gentamicin treatment tended to decrease tilt angle. The data are consistent with anatomical and physiological findings that tadpole neuromasts are similar to superficial, but not canal, neuromasts in fishes, and they suggest that the lateral line system is involved in both directional current detection and current-related postural adjustments in Xenopus. PMID:15300386

  11. Afferent Neurons of the Zebrafish Lateral Line Are Strict Selectors of Hair-Cell Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Faucherre, Adèle; Pujol-Martí, Jesús; Kawakami, Koichi; López-Schier, Hernán

    2009-01-01

    Hair cells in the inner ear display a characteristic polarization of their apical stereocilia across the plane of the sensory epithelium. This planar orientation allows coherent transduction of mechanical stimuli because the axis of morphological polarity of the stereocilia corresponds to the direction of excitability of the hair cells. Neuromasts of the lateral line in fishes and amphibians form two intermingled populations of hair cells oriented at 180° relative to each other, however, creating a stimulus-polarity ambiguity. Therefore, it is unknown how these animals resolve the vectorial component of a mechanical stimulus. Using genetic mosaics and live imaging in transgenic zebrafish to visualize hair cells and neurons at single-cell resolution, we show that lateral-line afferents can recognize the planar polarization of hair cells. Each neuron forms synapses with hair cells of identical orientation to divide the neuromast into functional planar-polarity compartments. We also show that afferent neurons are strict selectors of polarity that can re-establish synapses with identically oriented targets during hair-cell regeneration. Our results provide the anatomical bases for the physiological models of signal-polarity resolution by the lateral line. PMID:19223970

  12. Insights into electrosensory organ development, physiology and evolution from a lateral line-enriched transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Modrell, Melinda S; Lyne, Mike; Carr, Adrian R; Zakon, Harold H; Buckley, David; Campbell, Alexander S; Davis, Marcus C; Micklem, Gos; Baker, Clare Vh

    2017-03-27

    The anamniote lateral line system, comprising mechanosensory neuromasts and electrosensory ampullary organs, is a useful model for investigating the developmental and evolutionary diversification of different organs and cell types. Zebrafish neuromast development is increasingly well understood, but neither zebrafish nor Xenopus is electroreceptive and our molecular understanding of ampullary organ development is rudimentary. We have used RNA-seq to generate a lateral line-enriched gene-set from late-larval paddlefish (Polyodon spathula). Validation of a subset reveals expression in developing ampullary organs of transcription factor genes critical for hair cell development, and genes essential for glutamate release at hair cell ribbon synapses, suggesting close developmental, physiological and evolutionary links between non-teleost electroreceptors and hair cells. We identify an ampullary organ-specific proneural transcription factor, and candidates for the voltage-sensing L-type Cav channel and rectifying Kv channel predicted from skate (cartilaginous fish) ampullary organ electrophysiology. Overall, our results illuminate ampullary organ development, physiology and evolution.

  13. Differences in Lateral Line Morphology between Hatchery- and Wild-Origin Steelhead

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Andrew D.; Sisneros, Joseph A.; Jurasin, Tyler; Nguyen, Chau; Coffin, Allison B.

    2013-01-01

    Despite identification of multiple factors mediating salmon survival, significant disparities in survival-to-adulthood among hatchery- versus wild-origin juveniles persist. In the present report, we explore the hypothesis that hatchery-reared juveniles might exhibit morphological defects in vulnerable mechanosensory systems prior to release from the hatchery, potentiating reduced survival after release. Juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from two different hatcheries were compared to wild-origin juveniles on several morphological traits including lateral line structure, otolith composition (a proxy for auditory function), and brain weight. Wild juveniles were found to possess significantly more superficial lateral line neuromasts than hatchery-reared juveniles, although the number of hair cells within individual neuromasts was not significantly different across groups. Wild juveniles were also found to possess primarily normal, aragonite-containing otoliths, while hatchery-reared juveniles possessed a high proportion of crystallized (vaterite) otoliths. Finally, wild juveniles were found to have significantly larger brains than hatchery-reared juveniles. These differences together predict reduced sensitivity to biologically important hydrodynamic and acoustic signals from natural biotic (predator, prey, conspecific) and abiotic (turbulent flow, current) sources among hatchery-reared steelhead, in turn predicting reduced survival fitness after release. Physiological and behavioral studies are required to establish the functional significance of these morphological differences. PMID:23554988

  14. Differences in lateral line morphology between hatchery- and wild-origin steelhead.

    PubMed

    Brown, Andrew D; Sisneros, Joseph A; Jurasin, Tyler; Nguyen, Chau; Coffin, Allison B

    2013-01-01

    Despite identification of multiple factors mediating salmon survival, significant disparities in survival-to-adulthood among hatchery- versus wild-origin juveniles persist. In the present report, we explore the hypothesis that hatchery-reared juveniles might exhibit morphological defects in vulnerable mechanosensory systems prior to release from the hatchery, potentiating reduced survival after release. Juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from two different hatcheries were compared to wild-origin juveniles on several morphological traits including lateral line structure, otolith composition (a proxy for auditory function), and brain weight. Wild juveniles were found to possess significantly more superficial lateral line neuromasts than hatchery-reared juveniles, although the number of hair cells within individual neuromasts was not significantly different across groups. Wild juveniles were also found to possess primarily normal, aragonite-containing otoliths, while hatchery-reared juveniles possessed a high proportion of crystallized (vaterite) otoliths. Finally, wild juveniles were found to have significantly larger brains than hatchery-reared juveniles. These differences together predict reduced sensitivity to biologically important hydrodynamic and acoustic signals from natural biotic (predator, prey, conspecific) and abiotic (turbulent flow, current) sources among hatchery-reared steelhead, in turn predicting reduced survival fitness after release. Physiological and behavioral studies are required to establish the functional significance of these morphological differences.

  15. Insights into electrosensory organ development, physiology and evolution from a lateral line-enriched transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Modrell, Melinda S; Lyne, Mike; Carr, Adrian R; Zakon, Harold H; Buckley, David; Campbell, Alexander S; Davis, Marcus C; Micklem, Gos; Baker, Clare VH

    2017-01-01

    The anamniote lateral line system, comprising mechanosensory neuromasts and electrosensory ampullary organs, is a useful model for investigating the developmental and evolutionary diversification of different organs and cell types. Zebrafish neuromast development is increasingly well understood, but neither zebrafish nor Xenopus is electroreceptive and our molecular understanding of ampullary organ development is rudimentary. We have used RNA-seq to generate a lateral line-enriched gene-set from late-larval paddlefish (Polyodon spathula). Validation of a subset reveals expression in developing ampullary organs of transcription factor genes critical for hair cell development, and genes essential for glutamate release at hair cell ribbon synapses, suggesting close developmental, physiological and evolutionary links between non-teleost electroreceptors and hair cells. We identify an ampullary organ-specific proneural transcription factor, and candidates for the voltage-sensing L-type Cav channel and rectifying Kv channel predicted from skate (cartilaginous fish) ampullary organ electrophysiology. Overall, our results illuminate ampullary organ development, physiology and evolution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24197.001 PMID:28346141

  16. The Nogo-C2/Nogo Receptor Complex Regulates the Morphogenesis of Zebrafish Lateral Line Primordium through Modulating the Expression of dkk1b, a Wnt Signal Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hao-Wei; Chou, Chih-Ming; Chu, Cheng-Ying; Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Yang, Chung-Hsiang; Hung, Chin-Chun; Hwang, Pung-Pung; Lee, Shyh-Jye; Liao, Yung-Feng; Huang, Chang-Jen

    2014-01-01

    The fish lateral line (LL) is a mechanosensory system closely related to the hearing system of higher vertebrates, and it is composed of several neuromasts located on the surface of the fish. These neuromasts can detect changes in external water flow, to assist fish in maintaining a stationary position in a stream. In the present study, we identified a novel function of Nogo/Nogo receptor signaling in the formation of zebrafish neuromasts. Nogo signaling in zebrafish, like that in mammals, involves three ligands and four receptors, as well as three co-receptors (TROY, p75, and LINGO-1). We first demonstrated that Nogo-C2, NgRH1a, p75, and TROY are able to form a Nogo-C2 complex, and that disintegration of this complex causes defective neuromast formation in zebrafish. Time-lapse recording of the CldnB::lynEGFP transgenic line revealed that functional obstruction of the Nogo-C2 complex causes disordered morphogenesis, and reduces rosette formation in the posterior LL (PLL) primordium during migration. Consistent with these findings, hair-cell progenitors were lost from the PLL primordium in p75, TROY, and Nogo-C2/NgRH1a morphants. Notably, the expression levels of pea3, a downstream marker of Fgf signaling, and dkk1b, a Wnt signaling inhibitor, were both decreased in p75, TROY, and Nogo-C2/NgRH1a morphants; moreover, dkk1b mRNA injection could rescue the defects in neuromast formation resulting from knockdown of p75 or TROY. We thus suggest that a novel Nogo-C2 complex, consisting of Nogo-C2, NgRH1a, p75, and TROY, regulates Fgf signaling and dkk1b expression, thereby ensuring stable organization of the PLL primordium. PMID:24466042

  17. Kremen1 regulates mechanosensory hair cell development in the mammalian cochlea and the zebrafish lateral line

    PubMed Central

    Mulvaney, Joanna F.; Thompkins, Cathrine; Noda, Teppei; Nishimura, Koji; Sun, Willy W.; Lin, Shuh-Yow; Coffin, Allison; Dabdoub, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Here we present spatio-temporal localization of Kremen1, a transmembrane receptor, in the mammalian cochlea, and investigate its role in the formation of sensory organs in mammal and fish model organisms. We show that Kremen1 is expressed in prosensory cells during cochlear development and in supporting cells of the adult mouse cochlea. Based on this expression pattern, we investigated whether Kremen1 functions to modulate cell fate decisions in the prosensory domain of the developing cochlea. We used gain and loss-of-function experiments to show that Kremen1 is sufficient to bias cells towards supporting cell fate, and is implicated in suppression of hair cell formation. In addition to our findings in the mouse cochlea, we examined the effects of over expression and loss of Kremen1 in the zebrafish lateral line. In agreement with our mouse data, we show that over expression of Kremen1 has a negative effect on the number of mechanosensory cells that form in the zebrafish neuromasts, and that fish lacking Kremen1 protein develop more hair cells per neuromast compared to wild type fish. Collectively, these data support an inhibitory role for Kremen1 in hair cell fate specification. PMID:27550540

  18. Anterior lateral line nerve encoding to tones and play-back vocalisations in free-swimming oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau.

    PubMed

    Radford, Craig A; Mensinger, Allen F

    2014-05-01

    In the underwater environment, sound propagates both as a pressure wave and as particle motion, with particle motion dominating close to the source. At the receptor level, the fish ear and the neuromast hair cells act as displacement detectors, and both are potentially stimulated by the particle motion component of sound. The encoding of the anterior lateral line nerve to acoustic stimuli in freely behaving oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau, was examined. Nerve sensitivity and directional responses were determined using spike rate and vector strength analysis, a measure of phase-locking of spike times to the stimulus waveform. All units showed greatest sensitivity to 100 Hz stimulus. While sensitivity was independent of stimuli orientation, the neuron's ability to phase-lock was correlated with stimuli origin. Two different types of units were classified, type 1 (tonic), and type 2 (phasic). The type 1 fibres were further classified into two sub-types based on their frequency response (type 1-1 and type 1-2), which was hypothesised to be related to canal (type 1-1) and superficial (type 1-2) neuromast innervation. Lateral line units also exhibited sensitivity and phase locking to boatwhistle vocalisations, with greatest spike rates exhibited at the onset of the call. These results provide direct evidence that oyster toadfish can use their lateral line to detect behaviourally relevant acoustic stimuli, which could provide a sensory pathway to aid in sound source localisation.

  19. Specificity of afferent synapses onto plane-polarized hair cells in the posterior lateral line of the zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Nagiel, Aaron; Andor-Ardó, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The proper wiring of the vertebrate brain represents an extraordinary developmental challenge, requiring billions of neurons to select their appropriate synaptic targets. In view of this complexity, simple vertebrate systems provide necessary models for understanding how synaptic specificity arises. The posterior lateral-line organ of larval zebrafish consists of polarized hair cells organized in discrete clusters known as neuromasts. Here we show that each afferent neuron of the posterior lateral line establishes specific contacts with hair cells of the same hair-bundle polarity. We quantify this specificity by modeling the neuron as a biased selector of hair-cell polarity and find evidence for bias from as early as 2.5 days post-fertilization. More than half of the neurons form contacts on multiple neuromasts, but the innervated organs are spatially consecutive and the polarity preference is consistent. Using a novel reagent for correlative electron microscopy, HRP-mCherry, we show that these contacts are indeed afferent synapses bearing vesicle-loaded synaptic ribbons. Moreover, afferent neurons reassume their biased innervation pattern after hair-cell ablation and regeneration. By documenting specificity in the pattern of neuronal connectivity during development and in the context of organ regeneration, these results establish the posterior lateral-line organ as a vertebrate system for the in vivo study of synaptic target selection. PMID:18716202

  20. Myc and Fgf Are Required for Zebrafish Neuromast Hair Cell Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Goo; Huang, Mingqian; Obholzer, Nikolaus D; Sun, Shan; Li, Wenyan; Petrillo, Marco; Dai, Pu; Zhou, Yi; Cotanche, Douglas A; Megason, Sean G; Li, Huawei; Chen, Zheng-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Unlike mammals, the non-mammalian vertebrate inner ear can regenerate the sensory cells, hair cells, either spontaneously or through induction after hair cell loss, leading to hearing recovery. The mechanisms underlying the regeneration are poorly understood. By microarray analysis on a chick model, we show that chick hair cell regeneration involves the activation of proliferation genes and downregulation of differentiation genes. Both MYC and FGF are activated in chick hair cell regeneration. Using a zebrafish lateral line neuromast hair cell regeneration model, we show that the specific inhibition of Myc or Fgf suppresses hair cell regeneration, demonstrating that both pathways are essential to the process. Rapid upregulation of Myc and delayed Fgf activation during regeneration suggest a role of Myc in proliferation and Fgf in differentiation. The dorsal-ventral pattern of fgfr1a in the neuromasts overlaps with the distribution of hair cell precursors. By laser ablation, we show that the fgfr1a-positive supporting cells are likely the hair cell precursors that directly give rise to new hair cells; whereas the anterior-posterior fgfr1a-negative supporting cells have heightened proliferation capacity, likely to serve as more primitive progenitor cells to replenish lost precursors after hair cell loss. Thus fgfr1a is likely to mark compartmentalized supporting cell subtypes with different capacities in renewal proliferation and hair cell regeneration. Manipulation of c-MYC and FGF pathways could be explored for mammalian hair cell regeneration.

  1. Distributed flow estimation and closed-loop control of an underwater vehicle with a multi-modal artificial lateral line.

    PubMed

    DeVries, Levi; Lagor, Francis D; Lei, Hong; Tan, Xiaobo; Paley, Derek A

    2015-03-25

    Bio-inspired sensing modalities enhance the ability of autonomous vehicles to characterize and respond to their environment. This paper concerns the lateral line of cartilaginous and bony fish, which is sensitive to fluid motion and allows fish to sense oncoming flow and the presence of walls or obstacles. The lateral line consists of two types of sensing modalities: canal neuromasts measure approximate pressure gradients, whereas superficial neuromasts measure local flow velocities. By employing an artificial lateral line, the performance of underwater sensing and navigation strategies is improved in dark, cluttered, or murky environments where traditional sensing modalities may be hindered. This paper presents estimation and control strategies enabling an airfoil-shaped unmanned underwater vehicle to assimilate measurements from a bio-inspired, multi-modal artificial lateral line and estimate flow properties for feedback control. We utilize potential flow theory to model the fluid flow past a foil in a uniform flow and in the presence of an upstream obstacle. We derive theoretically justified nonlinear estimation strategies to estimate the free stream flowspeed, angle of attack, and the relative position of an upstream obstacle. The feedback control strategy uses the estimated flow properties to execute bio-inspired behaviors including rheotaxis (the tendency of fish to orient upstream) and station-holding (the tendency of fish to position behind an upstream obstacle). A robotic prototype outfitted with a multi-modal artificial lateral line composed of ionic polymer metal composite and embedded pressure sensors experimentally demonstrates the distributed flow sensing and closed-loop control strategies.

  2. Model to Design Drip Hose Lateral Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Rafael; Cury Saad, João Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Introduction The design criterion for non-pressure compensating drip hose is normally to have 10% of flow variation (Δq) in the lateral line, corresponding to 20% of head pressure variation (ΔH). Longer lateral lines in drip irrigation systems using conventional drippers provide cost reduction, but it is necessary to obtain to the uniformity of irrigation [1]. The use of Δq higher levels can provide longer lateral lines. [4] proposes the use of a 30% Δq and he found that this value resulted in distribution uniformity over 80%. [1] considered it is possible to extend the lateral line length using two emitters spacing in different section. He assumed that the spacing changing point would be at 40% of the total length, because this is approximately the location of the average flow according with [2]. [3] found that, for practical purposes, the average pressure is located at 40% of the length of the lateral line and that until this point it has already consumed 75% of total pressure head loss (hf ). In this case, the challenge for designers is getting longer lateral lines with high values of uniformity. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a model to design longer lateral lines using non-pressure compensating drip hose. Using the developed model, the hypotheses to be evaluated were: a) the use of two different spacing between emitters in the same lateral line allows longer length; b) it is possible to get longer lateral lines using high values of pressure variation in the lateral lines since the distribution uniformity stays below allowable limits. Methodology A computer program was developed in Delphi® based on the model developed and it is able to design lateral lines in level using non-pressure compensating drip hose. The input data are: desired distribution uniformity (DU); initial and final pressure in the lateral line; coefficients of relationship between emitter discharge and pressure head; hose internal diameter; pipe cross-sectional area

  3. Lef1 controls patterning and proliferation in the posterior lateral line system of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Gamba, Laurent; Cubedo, Nicolas; Lutfalla, Georges; Ghysen, Alain; Dambly-Chaudiere, Christine

    2010-12-01

    The embryonic development of the posterior lateral line of zebrafish involves the migration from head to tail of a primordium comprising approximately 100 cells, and the deposition at regular intervals of presumptive mechanosensory organs (neuromasts). Migration depends on the presence of chemokine SDF1 along the pathway, and on the asymmetrical distribution of chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7 in the primordium. Primordium polarization depends on Wnt signaling in the leading region. Here, we examine the role of a major effector of Wnt signaling, lef1, in this system. We show that, although its inactivation has no overt effect on the expression of cxcr4b and cxcr7b, lef1 contributes to their control. We also show that cell proliferation, which ensures constant primordium size despite successive rounds of cell deposition, is reduced upon lef1 inactivation. Because of this defect, the primordium runs short of cells and vanishes before the line has been completed. We conclude that lef1-mediated Wnt signaling is involved in various aspects of primordium migration, although part of this implication is masked by a high level of developmental redundancy.

  4. Evolution of a behavioral shift mediated by superficial neuromasts helps cavefish find food in darkness.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Masato; Goricki, Spela; Soares, Daphne; Jeffery, William R

    2010-09-28

    How cave animals adapt to life in darkness is a poorly understood aspect of evolutionary biology [1]. Here we identify a behavioral shift and its morphological basis in Astyanax mexicanus, a teleost with a sighted surface-dwelling form (surface fish) and various blind cave-dwelling forms (cavefish) [2-4]. Vibration attraction behavior (VAB) is the ability of fish to swim toward the source of a water disturbance in darkness. VAB was typically seen in cavefish, rarely in surface fish, and was advantageous for feeding success in the dark. The potential for showing VAB has a genetic component and is linked to the mechanosensory function of the lateral line. VAB was evoked by vibration stimuli peaking at 35 Hz, blocked by lateral line inhibitors, first detected after developmental increases in superficial neuromast (SN) number and size [5-7], and significantly reduced by bilateral ablation of SN. We conclude that VAB and SN enhancement coevolved to compensate for loss of vision and to help blind cavefish find food in darkness. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evolution of a behavioral shift mediated by superficial neuromasts helps cavefish find food in darkness

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizawa, Masato; Gorčiki, Špela; Soares, Daphne; Jeffery, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary How cave animals adapt to life in darkness is a poorly understood aspect of evolutionary biology [1]. Here we identify a behavioral shift and its morphological basis in Astyanax mexicanus, a teleost with a sighted surface dwelling form (surface fish) and various blind cave dwelling forms (cavefish) [2–4]. Vibration attraction behavior (VAB) is the ability of fish to swim toward the source of a water disturbance in darkness. VAB was typically seen in cavefish, rarely in surface fish, and advantageous for feeding success in the dark. The potential for showing VAB has a genetic component and is linked to the mechanosensory function of the lateral line. VAB was evoked by vibration stimuli peaking at 35 Hz, blocked by lateral line inhibitors, appeared after developmental increases in superficial neuromast (SN) number and size [5–7], and was significantly reduced by bilateral ablation of SN. We conclude that VAB and SN enhancement co-evolved to compensate for loss of vision and help blind cavefish find food in darkness. PMID:20705469

  6. Habitat-related specialization of lateral-line system morphology in a habitat-generalist and a habitat-specialist New Zealand eleotrid.

    PubMed

    Vanderpham, J P; Nakagawa, S; Senior, A M; Closs, G P

    2016-04-01

    An investigation of intraspecific habitat-related patterns of variation in oculoscapular lateral-line superficial neuromasts (SN) identified a decrease in the ratio of total SNs to pores, and a trend towards decreased asymmetry in SNs in the habitat-generalist common bully Gobiomorphus cotidianus from fluvial habitats compared to lacustrine habitats, suggesting habitat-related phenotypic variability. A greater ratio of pores to SNs, as well as less variation in the total number and asymmetry of SNs observed in the fluvial habitat-specialist redfin bully Gobiomorphus huttoni may provide further evidence of variations in the oculoscapular lateral-line morphology of fluvial habitat G. cotidianus individuals serving as adaptations to more turbulent environments.

  7. In vivo and in vitro biophysical properties of hair cells from the lateral line and inner ear of developing and adult zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Olt, Jennifer; Johnson, Stuart L; Marcotti, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Hair cells detect and process sound and movement information, and transmit this with remarkable precision and efficiency to afferent neurons via specialized ribbon synapses. The zebrafish is emerging as a powerful model for genetic analysis of hair cell development and function both in vitro and in vivo. However, the full exploitation of the zebrafish is currently limited by the difficulty in obtaining systematic electrophysiological recordings from hair cells under physiological recording conditions. Thus, the biophysical properties of developing and adult zebrafish hair cells are largely unknown. We investigated potassium and calcium currents, voltage responses and synaptic activity in hair cells from the lateral line and inner ear in vivo and using near-physiological in vitro recordings. We found that the basolateral current profile of hair cells from the lateral line becomes more segregated with age, and that cells positioned in the centre of the neuromast show more mature characteristics and those towards the edge retain a more immature phenotype. The proportion of mature-like hair cells within a given neuromast increased with zebrafish development. Hair cells from the inner ear showed a developmental change in current profile between the juvenile and adult stages. In lateral line hair cells from juvenile zebrafish, exocytosis also became more efficient and required less calcium for vesicle fusion. In hair cells from mature zebrafish, the biophysical characteristics of ion channels and exocytosis resembled those of hair cells from other lower vertebrates and, to some extent, those in the immature mammalian vestibular and auditory systems. We show that although the zebrafish provides a suitable animal model for studies on hair cell physiology, it is advisable to consider that the age at which the majority of hair cells acquire a mature-type configuration is reached only in the juvenile lateral line and in the inner ear from >2 months after hatching. PMID

  8. Toral lateral line units of goldfish, Carassius auratus, are sensitive to the position and vibration direction of a vibrating sphere.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gunnar; Klein, Adrian; Mogdans, Joachim; Bleckmann, Horst

    2012-09-01

    We recorded the responses of lateral line units in the midbrain torus semicircularis of goldfish, Carassius auratus, to a 50-Hz vibrating sphere and determined the unit's spatial receptive fields for various distances between fish and sphere and for different directions of sphere vibration. All but one unit responded to the vibrating sphere with an increase in discharge rate. Only a proportion (25%) of the units exhibited phase-locked responses. Receptive fields were narrow or broad and contained one, two or more areas of increased discharge rate. The data show that the receptive fields of toral lateral line units are in many respects similar to those of brainstem units but differ from those of afferent nerve fibres. The responses of primary afferents represent the pressure gradient pattern generated by a vibrating sphere and provide information about sphere location and vibration direction. Across the array of lateral line neuromasts, the fish brain in principle can derive this information. Nevertheless, toral units tuned to a distinct sphere location or sensitive to a distinct sphere vibration direction were not found. Therefore, it is conceivable that the torus semicircularis uses a population code to determine spatial location and vibration direction of a vibrating sphere.

  9. A bio-inspired real-time capable artificial lateral line system for freestream flow measurements.

    PubMed

    Abels, C; Qualtieri, A; De Vittorio, M; Megill, W M; Rizzi, F

    2016-06-03

    To enhance today's artificial flow sensing capabilities in aerial and underwater robotics, future robots could be equipped with a large number of miniaturized sensors distributed over the surface to provide high resolution measurement of the surrounding fluid flow. In this work we show a linear array of closely separated bio-inspired micro-electro-mechanical flow sensors whose sensing mechanism is based on a piezoresistive strain-gauge along a stress-driven cantilever beam, mimicking the biological superficial neuromasts found in the lateral line organ of fishes. Aiming to improve state-of-the-art flow sensing capability in autonomously flying and swimming robots, our artificial lateral line system was designed and developed to feature multi-parameter freestream flow measurements which provide information about (1) local flow velocities as measured by the signal amplitudes from the individual cantilevers as well as (2) propagation velocity, (3) linear forward/backward direction along the cantilever beam orientation and (4) periodicity of pulses or pulse trains determined by cross-correlating sensor signals. A real-time capable cross-correlation procedure was developed which makes it possible to extract freestream flow direction and velocity information from flow fluctuations. The computed flow velocities deviate from a commercial system by 0.09 m s(-1) at 0.5 m s(-1) and 0.15 m s(-1) at 1.0 m s(-1) flow velocity for a sampling rate of 240 Hz and a sensor distance of 38 mm. Although experiments were performed in air, the presented flow sensing system can be applied to underwater vehicles as well, once the sensors are embedded in a waterproof micro-electro-mechanical systems package.

  10. A fish perspective: detecting flow features while moving using an artificial lateral line in steady and unsteady flow

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, L. D.; Akanyeti, O.; Venturelli, R.; Ježov, J.; Brown, J.; Kruusmaa, M.; Fiorini, P.; Megill, W. M.

    2014-01-01

    For underwater vehicles to successfully detect and navigate turbulent flows, sensing the fluid interactions that occur is required. Fish possess a unique sensory organ called the lateral line. Sensory units called neuromasts are distributed over their body, and provide fish with flow-related information. In this study, a three-dimensional fish-shaped head, instrumented with pressure sensors, was used to investigate the pressure signals for relevant hydrodynamic stimuli to an artificial lateral line system. Unsteady wakes were sensed with the objective to detect the edges of the hydrodynamic trail and then explore and characterize the periodicity of the vorticity. The investigated wakes (Kármán vortex streets) were formed behind a range of cylinder diameter sizes (2.5, 4.5 and 10 cm) and flow velocities (9.9, 19.6 and 26.1 cm s−1). Results highlight that moving in the flow is advantageous to characterize the flow environment when compared with static analysis. The pressure difference from foremost to side sensors in the frontal plane provides us a useful measure of transition from steady to unsteady flow. The vortex shedding frequency (VSF) and its magnitude can be used to differentiate the source size and flow speed. Moreover, the distribution of the sensing array vertically as well as the laterally allows the Kármán vortex paired vortices to be detected in the pressure signal as twice the VSF. PMID:25079867

  11. Cobalt Chloride Treatment Used to Ablate the Lateral Line System Also Impairs the Olfactory System in Three Freshwater Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Julie M.; Field, Karen E.; Maruska, Karen P.

    2016-01-01

    Fishes use multimodal signals during both inter- and intra-sexual displays to convey information about their sex, reproductive state, and social status. These complex behavioral displays can include visual, auditory, olfactory, tactile, and hydrodynamic signals, and the relative role of each sensory channel in these complex multi-sensory interactions is a common focus of neuroethology. The mechanosensory lateral line system of fishes detects near-body water movements and is implicated in a variety of behaviors including schooling, rheotaxis, social communication, and prey detection. Cobalt chloride is commonly used to chemically ablate lateral line neuromasts, thereby eliminating water-movement cues to test for mechanosensory-mediated behavioral functions. However, cobalt acts as a nonspecific calcium channel antagonist and could potentially disrupt function of all superficially located sensory receptor cells, including those for chemosensing. Here, we examined whether CoCl2 treatment used to ablate the lateral line system also impairs olfaction in three freshwater fishes, the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, goldfish Carassius auratus, and the Mexican blind cavefish Astyanax mexicanus. To examine the impact of CoCl2 on the activity of peripheral receptors, we quantified DASPEI fluorescence intensity of the olfactory epithelium from fish exposed to control and CoCl2 solutions. In addition, we examined brain activation in olfactory processing regions of A. burtoni immersed in either control or cobalt solutions. All three species exposed to CoCl2 had decreased DASPEI staining of the olfactory epithelium, and in A. burtoni, cobalt treatment caused reduced neural activation in olfactory processing regions of the brain. To our knowledge this is the first empirical evidence demonstrating that the same CoCl2 treatment used to ablate the lateral line system also impairs olfactory function. These data have important implications for the use of CoCl2 in future

  12. Cobalt Chloride Treatment Used to Ablate the Lateral Line System Also Impairs the Olfactory System in Three Freshwater Fishes.

    PubMed

    Butler, Julie M; Field, Karen E; Maruska, Karen P

    2016-01-01

    Fishes use multimodal signals during both inter- and intra-sexual displays to convey information about their sex, reproductive state, and social status. These complex behavioral displays can include visual, auditory, olfactory, tactile, and hydrodynamic signals, and the relative role of each sensory channel in these complex multi-sensory interactions is a common focus of neuroethology. The mechanosensory lateral line system of fishes detects near-body water movements and is implicated in a variety of behaviors including schooling, rheotaxis, social communication, and prey detection. Cobalt chloride is commonly used to chemically ablate lateral line neuromasts, thereby eliminating water-movement cues to test for mechanosensory-mediated behavioral functions. However, cobalt acts as a nonspecific calcium channel antagonist and could potentially disrupt function of all superficially located sensory receptor cells, including those for chemosensing. Here, we examined whether CoCl2 treatment used to ablate the lateral line system also impairs olfaction in three freshwater fishes, the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, goldfish Carassius auratus, and the Mexican blind cavefish Astyanax mexicanus. To examine the impact of CoCl2 on the activity of peripheral receptors, we quantified DASPEI fluorescence intensity of the olfactory epithelium from fish exposed to control and CoCl2 solutions. In addition, we examined brain activation in olfactory processing regions of A. burtoni immersed in either control or cobalt solutions. All three species exposed to CoCl2 had decreased DASPEI staining of the olfactory epithelium, and in A. burtoni, cobalt treatment caused reduced neural activation in olfactory processing regions of the brain. To our knowledge this is the first empirical evidence demonstrating that the same CoCl2 treatment used to ablate the lateral line system also impairs olfactory function. These data have important implications for the use of CoCl2 in future

  13. Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) Combined with Gene Expression Microarrays for Transcription Enrichment Profiling of Zebrafish Lateral Line Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gallardo, Viviana E; Behra, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic lines carrying fluorescent reporter genes like GFP have been of great value in the elucidation of developmental features and physiological processes in various animal models, including zebrafish. The lateral line (LL), which is a fish specific superficial sensory organ, is an emerging organ model for studying complex cellular processes in the context of the whole living animal. Cell migration, mechanosensory cell development/differentiation and regeneration are some examples. This sensory system is made of superficial and sparse small sensory patches called neuromasts, with less than 50 cells in any given patch. The paucity of cells is a real problem in any effort to characterize those cells at the transcriptional level. We describe here a method which we applied to efficiently separate subpopulation of cells of the LL, using two distinct stable transgenic zebrafish lines, Tg(cldnb:gfp) and Tg(tnks1bp1:EGFP). In both cases, the GFP positive (GFP+) cells were separated from the remainder of the animal by using a Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorter (FACS). The transcripts of the GFP+ cells were subsequently analyzed on gene expression microarrays. The combination of FACS and microarrays is an efficient method to establish a transcriptional signature for discrete cell populations which would otherwise be masked in whole animal preparation. PMID:23791746

  14. Fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS) combined with gene expression microarrays for transcription enrichment profiling of zebrafish lateral line cells.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Viviana E; Behra, Martine

    2013-08-15

    Transgenic lines carrying fluorescent reporter genes like GFP have been of great value in the elucidation of developmental features and physiological processes in various animal models, including zebrafish. The lateral line (LL), which is a fish specific superficial sensory organ, is an emerging organ model for studying complex cellular processes in the context of the whole living animal. Cell migration, mechanosensory cell development/differentiation and regeneration are some examples. This sensory system is made of superficial and sparse small sensory patches called neuromasts, with less than 50 cells in any given patch. The paucity of cells is a real problem in any effort to characterize those cells at the transcriptional level. We describe here a method which we applied to efficiently separate subpopulation of cells of the LL, using two distinct stable transgenic zebrafish lines, Tg(cldnb:gfp) and Tg(tnks1bp1:EGFP). In both cases, the GFP positive (GFP+) cells were separated from the remainder of the animal by using a Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorter (FACS). The transcripts of the GFP+ cells were subsequently analyzed on gene expression microarrays. The combination of FACS and microarrays is an efficient method to establish a transcriptional signature for discrete cell populations which would otherwise be masked in whole animal preparation. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. In Vivo Time-Lapse Imaging in the Zebrafish Lateral Line: A Flexible, Open-Ended Research Project for an Undergraduate Neurobiology Laboratory Course

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Molly H.; Tobias, Zachary J.C.; Cohen, Hannah R.; Glover, Greta; Weissman, Tamily A.

    2015-01-01

    The lateral line sensory system in fish detects movements in the water and allows fish to respond to predators, prey, and other stimuli. As the lateral line forms in the first two days of zebrafish development, axons extend caudally along the lateral surface of the fish, eventually forming synapses with hair cells of neuromasts. Growing lateral line axons are located superficially under the skin and can be labeled in living zebrafish using fluorescent protein expression. This system provides a relatively straightforward approach for in vivo time-lapse imaging of neuronal development in an undergraduate setting. Here we describe an upper-level neurobiology laboratory module in which students investigate aspects of axonal development in the zebrafish lateral line system. Students learn to handle and image living fish, collect time-lapse videos of moving mitochondria, and quantitatively measure mitochondrial dynamics by generating and analyzing kymographs of their movements. Energy demands may differ between axons with extending growth cones versus axons that have already reached their targets and are forming synapses. Since relatively little is known about this process in developing lateral line axons, students generate and test their own hypotheses regarding how mitochondrial dynamics may differ at two different time points in axonal development. Students also learn to incorporate into their analysis a powerful yet accessible quantitative tool, the kymograph, which is used to graph movement over time. After students measure and quantify dynamics in living fish at 1 and 2 days post fertilization, this module extends into independent projects, in which students can expand their studies in a number of different, inquiry-driven directions. The project can also be pared down for courses that wish to focus solely on the quantitative analysis (without fish handling), or vice versa. This research module provides a useful approach for the design of open-ended laboratory

  16. Neomycin damage and regeneration of hair cells in both mechanoreceptor and electroreceptor lateral line organs of the larval Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii).

    PubMed

    Fan, Chunxin; Zou, Sha; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Bo; Song, Jiakun

    2016-05-01

    The lateral line found in some amphibians and fishes has two distinctive classes of sensory organs: mechanoreceptors (neuromasts) and electroreceptors (ampullary organs). Hair cells in neuromasts can be damaged by aminoglycoside antibiotics and they will regenerate rapidly afterward. Aminoglycoside sensitivity and the capacity for regeneration have not been investigated in ampullary organs. We treated Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) larvae with neomycin and observed loss and regeneration of sensory hair cells in both organs by labeling with DASPEI and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The numbers of sensory hair cells in both organs were reduced to the lowest levels at 6 hours posttreatment (hpt). New sensory hair cells began to appear at 12 hpt and were regenerated completely in 7 days. To reveal the possible mechanism for ampullary hair cell regeneration, we analyzed cell proliferation and the expression of neural placodal gene eya1 during regeneration. Both cell proliferation and eya1 expression were concentrated in peripheral mantle cells and both increased to the highest level at 12 hpt, which is consistent with the time course for regeneration of the ampullary hair cells. Furthermore, we used Texas Red-conjugated gentamicin in an uptake assay following pretreatment with a cation channel blocker (amiloride) and found that entry of the antibiotic was suppressed in both organs. Together, our results indicate that ampullary hair cells in Siberian sturgeon larvae can be damaged by neomycin exposure and they can regenerate rapidly. We suggest that the mechanisms for aminoglycoside uptake and hair cell regeneration are conserved for mechanoreceptors and electroreceptors. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1443-1456, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Regenerated hair cells can originate from supporting cell progeny: Evidence from phototoxicity and laser ablation experiments in the lateral line system

    SciTech Connect

    Balak, K.J.; Corwin, J.T.; Jones, J.E. )

    1990-08-01

    The mechanisms that lead to the production of sensory hair cells during regeneration have been investigated by using 2 different procedures to ablate preexisting hair cells in individual neuromast sensory epithelia of the lateral line in the tails of salamanders, then monitoring the responses of surviving cells. In one series of experiments, fluorescent excitation was used to cause the phototoxic death of hair cells that selectively take up the pyridinium dye DASPEI. In the other experiments, the ultraviolet output of a pulsed neodymium-YAG laser was focused to a microbeam through a quartz objective lens in epi-illumination mode and used to selectively kill individual unlabeled hair cells while the cells were simultaneously imaged by transmitted light DIC microscopy. Through observation of the treated neuromasts in vivo, these experiments demonstrated that mature sensory epithelia that have been completely depleted of hair cells can still generate new hair cells. Preexisting hair cells are not necessary for regeneration. Immediately after the ablations the only resident cells in the sensory epithelia were supporting cells. These cells were observed to divide at rates that were increased over control values, and eventually those cell divisions gave rise to progeny that differentiated as hair cells, replacing those that had been killed. Macrophages were active in these epithelia, and their phagocytic activity had a significant influence on the standing population of cells. The first new hair cells appeared 3-5 d after the treatments, and additional hair cells usually appeared every 1-2 d for at least 2 weeks. We conclude that the fate of the progeny produced by supporting cell divisions is plastic to a degree, in that these progeny can differentiate either as supporting cells or as hair cells in epithelia where hair cells are missing or depleted.

  18. Using computational fluid dynamics to calculate the stimulus to the lateral line of a fish in still water.

    PubMed

    Rapo, Mark A; Jiang, Houshuo; Grosenbaugh, Mark A; Coombs, Sheryl

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents the first computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of viscous flow due to a small sphere vibrating near a fish, a configuration that is frequently used for experiments on dipole source localization by the lateral line. Both two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) meshes were constructed, reproducing a previously published account of a mottled sculpin approaching an artificial prey. Both the fish-body geometry and the sphere vibration were explicitly included in the simulations. For comparison purposes, calculations using potential flow theory (PFT) of a 3-D dipole without a fish body being present were also performed. Comparisons between the 2-D and 3-D CFD simulations showed that the 2-D calculations did not accurately represent the 3-D flow and therefore did not produce realistic results. The 3-D CFD simulations showed that the presence of the fish body perturbed the dipole source pressure field near the fish body, an effect that was obviously absent in the PFT calculations of the dipole alone. In spite of this discrepancy, the pressure-gradient patterns to the lateral line system calculated from 3-D CFD simulations and PFT were similar. Conversely, the velocity field, which acted on the superficial neuromasts (SNs), was altered by the oscillatory boundary layer that formed at the fish's skin due to the flow produced by the vibrating sphere (accounted for in CFD but not PFT). An analytical solution of an oscillatory boundary layer above a flat plate, which was validated with CFD, was used to represent the flow near the fish's skin and to calculate the detection thresholds of the SNs in terms of flow velocity and strain rate. These calculations show that the boundary layer effects can be important, especially when the height of the cupula is less than the oscillatory boundary layer's Stokes viscous length scale.

  19. Functional calcium imaging in zebrafish lateral-line hair cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q X; He, X J; Wong, H C; Kindt, K S

    2016-01-01

    Sensory hair-cell development, function, and regeneration are fundamental processes that are challenging to study in mammalian systems. Zebrafish are an excellent alternative model to study hair cells because they have an external auxiliary organ called the lateral line. The hair cells of the lateral line are easily accessible, which makes them suitable for live, function-based fluorescence imaging. In this chapter, we describe methods to perform functional calcium imaging in zebrafish lateral-line hair cells. We compare genetically encoded calcium indicators that have been used previously to measure calcium in lateral-line hair cells. We also outline equipment required for calcium imaging and compare different imaging systems. Lastly, we discuss how to set up optimal imaging parameters and how to process and visualize calcium signals. Overall, using these methods, in vivo calcium imaging is a powerful tool to examine sensory hair-cell function in an intact organism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Distant touch hydrodynamic imaging with an artificial lateral line

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yingchen; Chen, Jack; Engel, Jonathan; Pandya, Saunvit; Chen, Nannan; Tucker, Craig; Coombs, Sheryl; Jones, Douglas L.; Liu, Chang

    2006-01-01

    Nearly all underwater vehicles and surface ships today use sonar and vision for imaging and navigation. However, sonar and vision systems face various limitations, e.g., sonar blind zones, dark or murky environments, etc. Evolved over millions of years, fish use the lateral line, a distributed linear array of flow sensing organs, for underwater hydrodynamic imaging and information extraction. We demonstrate here a proof-of-concept artificial lateral line system. It enables a distant touch hydrodynamic imaging capability to critically augment sonar and vision systems. We show that the artificial lateral line can successfully perform dipole source localization and hydrodynamic wake detection. The development of the artificial lateral line is aimed at fundamentally enhancing human ability to detect, navigate, and survive in the underwater environment. PMID:17132735

  1. Inhibition of H3K9me2 Reduces Hair Cell Regeneration after Hair Cell Loss in the Zebrafish Lateral Line by Down-Regulating the Wnt and Fgf Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Dongmei; Lin, Qin; He, Yingzi; Chai, Renjie; Li, Huawei

    2016-01-01

    The activation of neuromast (NM) supporting cell (SC) proliferation leads to hair cell (HC) regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line. Epigenetic mechanisms have been reported that regulate HC regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line, but the role of H3K9me2 in HC regeneration after HC loss remains poorly understood. In this study, we focused on the role of H3K9me2 in HC regeneration following neomycin-induced HC loss. To investigate the effects of H3K9me2 in HC regeneration, we took advantage of the G9a/GLP-specific inhibitor BIX01294 that significantly reduces the dimethylation of H3K9. We found that BIX01294 significantly reduced HC regeneration after neomycin-induced HC loss in the zebrafish lateral line. BIX01294 also significantly reduced the proliferation of NM cells and led to fewer SCs in the lateral line. In situ hybridization showed that BIX01294 significantly down-regulated the Wnt and Fgf signaling pathways, which resulted in reduced SC proliferation and HC regeneration in the NMs of the lateral line. Altogether, our results suggest that down-regulation of H3K9me2 significantly decreases HC regeneration after neomycin-induced HC loss through inactivation of the Wnt/β-catenin and Fgf signaling pathways. Thus H3K9me2 plays a critical role in HC regeneration. PMID:27303264

  2. The lateral line system of fish as a ``hydrodynamic antenna''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Ristroph, Leif; Liao, James

    2013-11-01

    The lateral line of fish is a specialized flow detection system comprised of pressure- and shear-responsive sensors distributed over the body surface. Here, we explore how the arrangement of these sensors is related to the hydrodynamic information contained in flows. Using a cast model of a rainbow trout placed in a water tunnel, we devise ways to mimic the flows encountered by swimming fish while measuring the near-body flow field. Comparing our results to anatomical studies indicates that the lateral line sensors are well positioned to detect temporal and spatial changes in flow signals. These findings support a view of the lateral line as a ``hydrodynamic antenna'' that allows sophisticated behaviors such as rheotaxis and prey detection and tracking.

  3. Gβ1 controls collective cell migration by regulating the protrusive activity of leader cells in the posterior lateral line primordium.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Ye, Ding; Behra, Martine; Burgess, Shawn; Chen, Songhai; Lin, Fang

    2014-01-15

    Collective cell migration is critical for normal development, tissue repair and cancer metastasis. Migration of the posterior lateral line primordium (pLLP) generates the zebrafish sensory organs (neuromasts, NMs). This migration is promoted by the leader cells at the leading edge of the pLLP, which express the G protein-coupled chemokine receptor Cxcr4b and respond to the chemokine Cxcl12a. However, the mechanism by which Cxc112a/Cxcr4b signaling regulates pLLP migration remains unclear. Here we report that signal transduction by the heterotrimeric G protein subunit Gβ1 is essential for proper pLLP migration. Although both Gβ1 and Gβ4 are expressed in the pLLP and NMs, depletion of Gβ1 but not Gβ4 resulted in an arrest of pLLP migration. In embryos deficient for Gβ1, the pLLP cells migrated in an uncoordinated fashion and were unable to extend protrusions at the leading front, phenocopying those in embryos deficient for Cxcl12a or Cxcr4b. A transplantation assay showed that, like Cxcr4b, Gβ1 is required only in the leader cells of the pLLP. Analysis of F-actin dynamics in the pLLP revealed that whereas wild-type leader cells display extensive actin polymerization in the direction of pLLP migration, counterparts defective for Gβ1, Cxcr4b or Cxcl12a do not. Finally, synergy experiments revealed that Gβ1 and Cxcr4b interact genetically in regulating pLLP migration. Collectively, our data indicate that Gβ1 controls migration of the pLLP, likely by acting downstream of the Cxcl12a/Cxcr4b signaling. This study also provides compelling evidence for functional specificity among Gβ isoforms in vivo.

  4. 12. CONCRETE LINING ON A CURVING SEGMENT OF THE LATERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. CONCRETE LINING ON A CURVING SEGMENT OF THE LATERAL NEAR THE NORTHEAST END OF LAKE LADORA (SECTION 2). - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  5. Chemical Ototoxicity of the Fish Inner Ear and Lateral Line.

    PubMed

    Coffin, Allison B; Ramcharitar, John

    2016-01-01

    Hair cell-driven mechanosensory systems are crucial for successful execution of a number of behaviors in fishes, and have emerged as good models for exploring questions relevant to human hearing. This review focuses on ototoxic effects in the inner ear and lateral line system of fishes. We specifically examine studies where chemical ototoxins such as aminoglycoside antibiotics have been employed as tools to disable the lateral line. Lateral line ablation results in alterations to feeding behavior and orientation to water current in a variety of species. However, neither behavior is abolished in the presence of additional sensory cues, supporting the hypothesis that many fish behaviors are driven by multisensory integration. Within biomedical research, the larval zebrafish lateral line has become an important model system for understanding signaling mechanisms that contribute to hair cell death and for developing novel pharmacological therapies that protect hair cells from ototoxic damage. Furthermore, given that fishes robustly regenerate damaged hair cells, ototoxin studies in fishes have broadened our understanding of the molecular and genetic events in an innately regenerative system, offering potential targets for mammalian hair cell regeneration. Collectively, studies of fish mechanosensory systems have yielded insight into fish behavior and in mechanisms of hair cell death, protection, and regeneration.

  6. SENSORY HAIR CELL REGENERATION IN THE ZEBRAFISH LATERAL LINE

    PubMed Central

    Lush, Mark E.; Piotrowski, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Damage or destruction of sensory hair cells in the inner ear leads to hearing or balance deficits that can be debilitating, especially in older adults. Unfortunately, the damage is permanent, as regeneration of the inner ear sensory epithelia does not occur in mammals. Zebrafish and other non-mammalian vertebrates have the remarkable ability to regenerate sensory hair cells and understanding the molecular and cellular basis for this regenerative ability will hopefully aid us in designing therapies to induce regeneration in mammals. Zebrafish not only possess hair cells in the ear but also in the sensory lateral line system. Hair cells in both organs are functionally analogous to hair cells in the inner ear of mammals. The lateral line is a mechanosensory system found in most aquatic vertebrates that detects water motion and aids in predator avoidance, prey capture, schooling and mating. Although hair cell regeneration occurs in both the ear and lateral line, most research to date has focused on the lateral line due to its relatively simple structure and accessibility. Here we review the recent discoveries made during the characterization of hair cell regeneration in zebrafish. PMID:25045019

  7. Comparative morphology of stingray lateral line canal and electrosensory systems.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Laura K

    2008-11-01

    Elasmobranchs (sharks, skates, and rays) possess a variety of sensory systems including the mechanosensory lateral line and electrosensory systems, which are particularly complex with high levels of interspecific variation in batoids (skates and rays). Rays have dorsoventrally compressed, laterally expanded bodies that prevent them from seeing their mouths and more often than not, their prey. This study uses quantitative image analysis techniques to identify, quantify, and compare structural differences that may have functional consequences in the detection capabilities of three Eastern Pacific stingray species. The benthic round stingray, Urobatis halleri, pelagic stingray, Pteroplatytrygon (Dasyatis) violacea, and benthopelagic bat ray, Myliobatis californica, show significant differences in sensory morphology. Ventral lateral line canals correlate with feeding ecology and differ primarily in the proportion of pored and nonpored canals and the degree of branching complexity. Urobatis halleri shows a high proportion of nonpored canals, while P. violacea has an intermediate proportion of pored and nonpored canals with almost no secondary branching of pored canals. In contrast, M. californica has extensive and highly branched pored ventral lateral line canals that extended laterally toward the wing tips on the anterior edge of the pectoral fins. Electrosensory morphology correlates with feeding habitat and prey mobility; benthic feeders U. halleri and M. californica, have greater electrosensory pore numbers and densities than P. violacea. The percentage of the wing surface covered by these sensory systems appears to be inversely related to swimming style. These methods can be applied to a broader range of species to enable further discussion of the relationship of phylogeny, ecology, and morphology, while the results provide testable predictions of detection capabilities.

  8. WNK1/HSN2 mutation in human peripheral neuropathy deregulates KCC2 expression and posterior lateral line development in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Bercier, Valérie; Brustein, Edna; Liao, Meijiang; Dion, Patrick A; Lafrenière, Ronald G; Rouleau, Guy A; Drapeau, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 2 (HSNAII) is a rare pathology characterized by an early onset of severe sensory loss (all modalities) in the distal limbs. It is due to autosomal recessive mutations confined to exon "HSN2" of the WNK1 (with-no-lysine protein kinase 1) serine-threonine kinase. While this kinase is well studied in the kidneys, little is known about its role in the nervous system. We hypothesized that the truncating mutations present in the neural-specific HSN2 exon lead to a loss-of-function of the WNK1 kinase, impairing development of the peripheral sensory system. To investigate the mechanisms by which the loss of WNK1/HSN2 isoform function causes HSANII, we used the embryonic zebrafish model and observed strong expression of WNK1/HSN2 in neuromasts of the peripheral lateral line (PLL) system by immunohistochemistry. Knocking down wnk1/hsn2 in embryos using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides led to improper PLL development. We then investigated the reported interaction between the WNK1 kinase and neuronal potassium chloride cotransporter KCC2, as this transporter is a target of WNK1 phosphorylation. In situ hybridization revealed kcc2 expression in mature neuromasts of the PLL and semi-quantitative RT-PCR of wnk1/hsn2 knockdown embryos showed an increased expression of kcc2 mRNA. Furthermore, overexpression of human KCC2 mRNA in embryos replicated the wnk1/hsn2 knockdown phenotype. We validated these results by obtaining double knockdown embryos, both for wnk1/hsn2 and kcc2, which alleviated the PLL defects. Interestingly, overexpression of inactive mutant KCC2-C568A, which does not extrude ions, allowed a phenocopy of the PLL defects. These results suggest a pathway in which WNK1/HSN2 interacts with KCC2, producing a novel regulation of its transcription independent of KCC2's activation, where a loss-of-function mutation in WNK1 induces an overexpression of KCC2 and hinders proper peripheral sensory nerve development, a

  9. Morphological variation and distribution of free neuromasts during half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis ontogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Aijun; Shang, Xiaomei; Zhou, Zhou; Wang, Xin'an; Sun, Zhibin; Cui, Wenxiao; Xia, Dandan; Ma, Benhe

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to clarify the distribution and morphology of free neuromasts during the development of half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) using scanning electron microscopy. During development, (1) the apical surface of free neuromasts changed in shape from a circle to a four-point star; (2) the external structure changed from being level with the epidermis to papilla-like above the level of the epidermis; (3) the neuromast cupula changed from cylindrical to blade-shaped; (4) the free neuromasts went from occurring singly to being in clusters of a few single organs; (5) the arrangement changed from a linear array to no discernable pattern; (6) there was a significant increase in the number of free neuromasts after metamorphosis. In adult C. semilaevis, free neuromasts were only observed on the abocular side of the head. Thus, there were more free neuromasts located on the abocular side of the head with a higher concentration around the anterior nostril and mouth, which may have a mechanical sensory function to help locate food as an adaptation to a benthic mode of life.

  10. Morphological variation and distribution of free neuromasts during half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis ontogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Aijun; Shang, Xiaomei; Zhou, Zhou; Wang, Xin'an; Sun, Zhibin; Cui, Wenxiao; Xia, Dandan; Ma, Benhe

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to clarify the distribution and morphology of free neuromasts during the development of half-smooth tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis) using scanning electron microscopy. During development, (1) the apical surface of free neuromasts changed in shape from a circle to a four-point star; (2) the external structure changed from being level with the epidermis to papilla-like above the level of the epidermis; (3) the neuromast cupula changed from cylindrical to blade-shaped; (4) the free neuromasts went from occurring singly to being in clusters of a few single organs; (5) the arrangement changed from a linear array to no discernable pattern; (6) there was a significant increase in the number of free neuromasts after metamorphosis. In adult C. semilaevis, free neuromasts were only observed on the abocular side of the head. Thus, there were more free neuromasts located on the abocular side of the head with a higher concentration around the anterior nostril and mouth, which may have a mechanical sensory function to help locate food as an adaptation to a benthic mode of life.

  11. Distinguishing centrarchid genera by use of lateral line scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, N.M.; Rabeni, C.F.; Stanovick, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    Predator-prey relations involving fishes are often evaluated using scales remaining in gut contents or feces. While several reliable keys help identify North American freshwater fish scales to the family level, none attempt to separate the family Centrarchidae to the genus level. Centrarchidae is of particular concern in the midwestern United States because it contains several popular sport fishes, such as smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, largemouth bass M. salmoides, and rock bass Ambloplites rupestris, as well as less-sought-after species of sunfishes Lepomis spp. and crappies Pomoxis spp. Differentiating sport fish from non-sport fish has important management implications. Morphological characteristics of lateral line scales (n = 1,581) from known centrarchid fishes were analyzed. The variability of measurements within and between genera was examined to select variables that were the most useful in further classifying unknown centrarchid scales. A linear discriminant analysis model was developed using 10 variables. Based on this model, 84.4% of Ambloplites scales, 81.2% of Lepomis scales, and 86.6% of Micropterus scales were classified correctly using a jackknife procedure. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  12. Innervation regulates synaptic ribbons in lateral line mechanosensory hair cells.

    PubMed

    Suli, Arminda; Pujol, Remy; Cunningham, Dale E; Hailey, Dale W; Prendergast, Andrew; Rubel, Edwin W; Raible, David W

    2016-06-01

    Failure to form proper synapses in mechanosensory hair cells, the sensory cells responsible for hearing and balance, leads to deafness and balance disorders. Ribbons are electron-dense structures that tether synaptic vesicles to the presynaptic zone of mechanosensory hair cells where they are juxtaposed with the post-synaptic endings of afferent fibers. They are initially formed throughout the cytoplasm, and, as cells mature, ribbons translocate to the basolateral membrane of hair cells to form functional synapses. We have examined the effect of post-synaptic elements on ribbon formation and maintenance in the zebrafish lateral line system by observing mutants that lack hair cell innervation, wild-type larvae whose nerves have been transected and ribbons in regenerating hair cells. Our results demonstrate that innervation is not required for initial ribbon formation but suggest that it is crucial for regulating the number, size and localization of ribbons in maturing hair cells, and for ribbon maintenance at the mature synapse. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Innervation regulates synaptic ribbons in lateral line mechanosensory hair cells

    PubMed Central

    Pujol, Remy; Cunningham, Dale E.; Hailey, Dale W.; Prendergast, Andrew; Rubel, Edwin W.; Raible, David W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Failure to form proper synapses in mechanosensory hair cells, the sensory cells responsible for hearing and balance, leads to deafness and balance disorders. Ribbons are electron-dense structures that tether synaptic vesicles to the presynaptic zone of mechanosensory hair cells where they are juxtaposed with the post-synaptic endings of afferent fibers. They are initially formed throughout the cytoplasm, and, as cells mature, ribbons translocate to the basolateral membrane of hair cells to form functional synapses. We have examined the effect of post-synaptic elements on ribbon formation and maintenance in the zebrafish lateral line system by observing mutants that lack hair cell innervation, wild-type larvae whose nerves have been transected and ribbons in regenerating hair cells. Our results demonstrate that innervation is not required for initial ribbon formation but suggest that it is crucial for regulating the number, size and localization of ribbons in maturing hair cells, and for ribbon maintenance at the mature synapse. PMID:27103160

  14. Polarization and migration in the zebrafish posterior lateral line system

    PubMed Central

    Knutsdottir, Hildur; Palsson, Eirikur; Dalle Nogare, Damian; Edelstein-Keshet, Leah

    2017-01-01

    Collective cell migration plays an important role in development. Here, we study the posterior lateral line primordium (PLLP) a group of about 100 cells, destined to form sensory structures, that migrates from head to tail in the zebrafish embryo. We model mutually inhibitory FGF-Wnt signalling network in the PLLP and link tissue subdivision (Wnt receptor and FGF receptor activity domains) to receptor-ligand parameters. We then use a 3D cell-based simulation with realistic cell-cell adhesion, interaction forces, and chemotaxis. Our model is able to reproduce experimentally observed motility with leading cells migrating up a gradient of CXCL12a, and trailing (FGF receptor active) cells moving actively by chemotaxis towards FGF ligand secreted by the leading cells. The 3D simulation framework, combined with experiments, allows an investigation of the role of cell division, chemotaxis, adhesion, and other parameters on the shape and speed of the PLLP. The 3D model demonstrates reasonable behaviour of control as well as mutant phenotypes. PMID:28369079

  15. Neural transduction in Xenopus laevis lateral line system.

    PubMed

    Strelioff, D; Honrubia, V

    1978-03-01

    1. The process of neural excitation in hair cell systems was studied in an in vitro preparation of the Xenopus laevis (African clawed toad) lateral line organ. A specially designed stimulus chamber was used to apply accurately controlled pressure, water movement, or electrical stimuli, and to record the neural responses of the two afferent fibers innervating each organ or stitch. The objective of the study was to determine the characteristics of the neural responses to these stimuli, and thus gain insight into the transduction process. 2. A sustained deflection of the hair cell cilia due to a constant flow of water past the capula resulted in a maintained change in the mean firing rate (MFR) of the afferent fibers. The data also demonstrated that the neural response was proportional to the velocity of the water flow and indicated that both deflection and movement of the cilia were the effective physiological stimuli for this hair cell system. 3. The preparations responded to sinusoidal water movements (past the capula) over the entire frequency range of the stimulus chamber, 0.1-130 Hz, and were most sensitive between 10 and 40 Hz. The variation of the MFR and the percent modulation indicated that the average dynamic range of each organ was 23.5 dB. 4. The thresholds, if any, for sustained pressure changes and for sinusoidal pressure variations in the absence of water movements were very high. Due to the limitations of the stimulus chamber it was not possible to generate pressure stimuli of sufficient magnitude to elicit a neural response without also generating suprathreshold water-movement stimuli. Sustained pressures had no detectable effect on the neural response to water-movement stimuli. 5. The preparations were very sensitive to electrical potentials applied across the toad skin on which the hair cells were located. Potentials which made the ciliated surfaces of the hair cells positive with respect to their bases increased the MFR of the fibers, whereas

  16. [Study of the central representation of the posterior nerve of the lateral line in dwarf sheatfish].

    PubMed

    Volkova, N K; Andrianov, Iu N

    1977-05-01

    Applying the axon-terminal degeneration method, the representation of the lateral line posterior nerve in acustico-lateral area of the dwarf sheatfish medulla oblongata was studied. The connections of the lateral line posterior nerve were demonstrated to be topically organized within the medial nucleus of the acustico-lateral area, however, within the limits of the nucleus the projections were not evenly distributed. The greatest degree of localization of the degenerated terminals was revealed in the dorsolateral area of the medial nucleus on the ipsilateral side, where previously, under adequate stimulation of the organs on the lateral line of the dwarf sheatfish, the greatest amount of responses was registered.

  17. Sedentary behavior as a factor in determining lateral line contributions to rheotaxis.

    PubMed

    Bak-Coleman, Joseph; Coombs, Sheryl

    2014-07-01

    Rheotaxis is a robust, multisensory behavior with many potential benefits for fish and other aquatic animals. Visual (optic flow) cues appear to be sufficient for rheotaxis, but other sensory cues can clearly compensate for the loss of vision. The role of various non-visual sensory systems, in particular the flow-sensing lateral line, is poorly understood, largely because of widely varying methods and sensory conditions for studying rheotaxis. Here, we examine how sedentary behavior under visually deprived conditions affects the relative importance of lateral line cues in two species: one that is normally sedentary (the three-lined corydoras, Corydoras trilineatus) and one that normally swims continuously along the substrate (the blind cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus). No effect of lateral line disruption on rheotactic performance was found in blind cavefish, which were significantly more mobile than three-lined corydoras. By contrast, rheotaxis was significantly impaired at low, but not high, flow speeds in lateral-line-disabled corydoras. In addition, lateral-line-enabled corydoras were characterized by decreased mobility and increased rheotactic performance relative to lateral-line-disabled fish. Taken together, these results suggest that sedentary behavior is an important factor in promoting reliance on lateral line cues. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. A Review of Artificial Lateral Line in Sensor Fabrication and Bionic Applications for Robot Fish

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Anyi; Wang, Xinbao; Liu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Lateral line is a system of sense organs that can aid fishes to maneuver in a dark environment. Artificial lateral line (ALL) imitates the structure of lateral line in fishes and provides invaluable means for underwater-sensing technology and robot fish control. This paper reviews ALL, including sensor fabrication and applications to robot fish. The biophysics of lateral line are first introduced to enhance the understanding of lateral line structure and function. The design and fabrication of an ALL sensor on the basis of various sensing principles are then presented. ALL systems are collections of sensors that include carrier and control circuit. Their structure and hydrodynamic detection are reviewed. Finally, further research trends and existing problems of ALL are discussed. PMID:28115825

  19. Role of upper lateral cartilage tension spanning suture in restoring the dorsal aesthetic lines in rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Palmyra J; Roostaeian, Jason; Lee, Michael R; Unger, Jacob J; Rohrich, Rod J

    2014-01-01

    Dorsal hump reduction can lead to significant aesthetic and functional deformities with distortion of the dorsal aesthetic lines without first preserving and subsequently restoring proper position of the upper lateral cartilages. The senior author (R.J.R.) previously described the component dorsal hump reduction to preserve the integrity of the upper lateral cartilages, thereby avoiding routine use of spreader grafts. In this study, the authors introduce an efficient and reproducible technique they call the upper lateral cartilage tension spanning suture to reconstitute the upper lateral cartilages into anatomical position. The authors have found this technique to consistently achieve smooth and symmetric contour to the nasal dorsum and pleasing dorsal aesthetic lines.

  20. Wake tracking and the detection of vortex rings by the canal lateral line of fish.

    PubMed

    Franosch, Jan-Moritz P; Hagedorn, Hendrik J A; Goulet, Julie; Engelmann, Jacob; van Hemmen, J Leo

    2009-08-14

    Research on the lateral line of fish has mainly focused on the detection of oscillating objects. Yet many fish are able to track vortex wakes that arise from other fish. It is not yet known what the sensory input from a wake looks like and how fish can extract relevant information from it. We present a mathematical model to determine how vortices stimulate the canal lateral line and verify it by neuronal recordings. We also show how the information about the orientation of a vortex ring is captured by the lateral-line sensors so as to enable fish to follow a vortex street.

  1. ELECTRICAL RESPONSES FROM THE LATERAL-LINE NERVES OF CATFISH. I.

    PubMed

    Hoagland, H

    1933-03-20

    1. Records of impulses from the lateral-line nerves of catfish show that the lateral-line organs are in a state of continuous activity, producing a massive discharge of impulses. 2. The discharge may be increased during the direct application of pressure on the skin over the lateral-line canal, by ripples in the water, by irregular currents of water, and by movements of the fish's trunk. 3. The asynchronously discharging lateral-line organs respond to vibratory stimuli from tuning-forks by getting into phase with each other and by beating synchronously at frequencies ranging from 20 to 70 per second. The frequency of beating for a given preparation is independent of the frequency of the tuning-fork for the fork frequencies of 100, 200, and 250 double vibrations which were used. 4. The continuous discharge of the lateral-line system is markedly changed by alteration of temperature. The frequency declines on lowering the temperature and rises on increasing it. Spinal and facial nerves in the catfish fail to yield nerve impulses in response to changes of the skin temperature between 0 degrees and 28 degrees C., although the intact animal is known to be sensitive to temperature differences. 5. The action of the lateral-line system of Ameiurus in inhibiting responses initiated through the skin and ears (Parker and Van Heusen, 1917) is discussed in the light of the present experiments.

  2. Feeding in the dark: lateral-line-mediated prey detection in the peacock cichlid Aulonocara stuartgranti.

    PubMed

    Schwalbe, Margot A B; Bassett, Daniel K; Webb, Jacqueline F

    2012-06-15

    The cranial lateral line canal system of teleost fishes is morphologically diverse and is characterized by four patterns. One of these, widened lateral line canals, has evolved convergently in a wide range of teleosts, including the Lake Malawi peacock cichlids (Aulonocara), and has been attributed to its role in prey detection. The ability to study Aulonocara in the laboratory provides an opportunity to test the hypothesis that their reported ability to feed on invertebrate prey living in sandy substrates in their natural habitat is the result of lateral-line-mediated prey detection. The goal of this study was to determine whether Aulonocara stuartgranti could detect hydrodynamic stimuli generated by tethered brine shrimp (visualized using digital particle image velocimetry) under light and dark conditions, with and without treatment with cobalt chloride, which is known to temporarily inactivate the lateral line system. Fish were presented with six pairs of tethered live and dead adult brine shrimp and feeding behavior was recorded with HD digital video. Results demonstrate that A. stuartgranti: (1) uses the same swimming/feeding strategy as they do in the field; (2) detects and consumes invertebrate prey in the dark using its lateral line system; (3) alters prey detection behavior when feeding on the same prey under light and dark conditions, suggesting the involvement of multiple sensory modalities; and (4) after treatment with cobalt chloride, exhibits a reduction in their ability to detect hydrodynamic stimuli produced by prey, especially in the dark, thus demonstrating the role of the lateral line system in prey detection.

  3. Transcriptional signature of accessory cells in the lateral line, using the Tnk1bp1:EGFP transgenic zebrafish line

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Because of the structural and molecular similarities between the two systems, the lateral line, a fish and amphibian specific sensory organ, has been widely used in zebrafish as a model to study the development/biology of neuroepithelia of the inner ear. Both organs have hair cells, which are the mechanoreceptor cells, and supporting cells providing other functions to the epithelium. In most vertebrates (excluding mammals), supporting cells comprise a pool of progenitors that replace damaged or dead hair cells. However, the lack of regenerative capacity in mammals is the single leading cause for acquired hearing disorders in humans. Results In an effort to understand the regenerative process of hair cells in fish, we characterized and cloned an egfp transgenic stable fish line that trapped tnks1bp1, a highly conserved gene that has been implicated in the maintenance of telomeres' length. We then used this Tg(tnks1bp1:EGFP) line in a FACsorting strategy combined with microarrays to identify new molecular markers for supporting cells. Conclusions We present a Tg(tnks1bp1:EGFP) stable transgenic line, which we used to establish a transcriptional profile of supporting cells in the zebrafish lateral line. Therefore we are providing a new set of markers specific for supporting cells as well as candidates for functional analysis of this important cell type. This will prove to be a valuable tool for the study of regeneration in the lateral line of zebrafish in particular and for regeneration of neuroepithelia in general. PMID:22273551

  4. Asymmetric Facial Bone Fragmentation Mirrors Asymmetric Distribution of Cranial Neuromasts in Blind Mexican Cavefish

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Joshua B.; Gangidine, Andrew; Powers, Amanda K.

    2017-01-01

    Craniofacial asymmetry is a convergent trait widely distributed across animals that colonize the extreme cave environment. Although craniofacial asymmetry can be discerned easily, other complex phenotypes (such as sensory organ position and numerical variation) are challenging to score and compare. Certain bones of the craniofacial complex demonstrate substantial asymmetry, and co-localize to regions harboring dramatically expanded numbers of mechanosensory neuromasts. To determine if a relationship exists between this expansion and bone fragmentation in cavefish, we developed a quantitative measure of positional symmetry across the left-right axis. We found that three different cave-dwelling populations were significantly more asymmetric compared to surface-dwelling fish. Moreover, cave populations did not differ in the degree of neuromast asymmetry. This work establishes a method for quantifying symmetry of a complex phenotype, and demonstrates that facial bone fragmentation mirrors the asymmetric distribution of neuromasts in different cavefish populations. Further developmental studies will provide a clearer picture of the developmental and cellular changes that accompany this extreme phenotype, and help illuminate the genetic basis for facial asymmetry in vertebrates. PMID:28078105

  5. Asymmetric Facial Bone Fragmentation Mirrors Asymmetric Distribution of Cranial Neuromasts in Blind Mexican Cavefish.

    PubMed

    Gross, Joshua B; Gangidine, Andrew; Powers, Amanda K

    2016-11-01

    Craniofacial asymmetry is a convergent trait widely distributed across animals that colonize the extreme cave environment. Although craniofacial asymmetry can be discerned easily, other complex phenotypes (such as sensory organ position and numerical variation) are challenging to score and compare. Certain bones of the craniofacial complex demonstrate substantial asymmetry, and co-localize to regions harboring dramatically expanded numbers of mechanosensory neuromasts. To determine if a relationship exists between this expansion and bone fragmentation in cavefish, we developed a quantitative measure of positional symmetry across the left-right axis. We found that three different cave-dwelling populations were significantly more asymmetric compared to surface-dwelling fish. Moreover, cave populations did not differ in the degree of neuromast asymmetry. This work establishes a method for quantifying symmetry of a complex phenotype, and demonstrates that facial bone fragmentation mirrors the asymmetric distribution of neuromasts in different cavefish populations. Further developmental studies will provide a clearer picture of the developmental and cellular changes that accompany this extreme phenotype, and help illuminate the genetic basis for facial asymmetry in vertebrates.

  6. Fabricating neuromast-inspired gel structures for membrane-based hair cell sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaddoni, Nima J.; Stephens, Christopher P.; Sarles, S. A.

    2012-04-01

    Recent research has shown that a new class of mechanical sensor, assembled from biomolecules and which features an artificial cell membrane as the sensing element, can be used to mimic basic hair cell mechanotransduction in vertebrates. The work presented in this paper is motivated by the need to increase sensor performance and stability by refining the methods used to fabricate and connect lipid-encapsulated hydrogels. Inspired by superficial neuromasts found on fish, three hydrogel materials are compared for their ability to be readily shaped into neuromast-inspired geometries and enable lipid bilayer formation using self-assembly at an oil/water interface. Agarose, polyethylene glycol (PEG, 6kg/mole), and hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) gel materials are compared. The results of this initial study determined that UV-curable gel materials such as PEG and HEMA enable more accurate shaping of the gel-needed for developing a sensor that uses a gel material both for mechanical support and membrane formation-compared to agarose. However, the lower hydrophobicity of agarose and PEG materials provide a more fluid, water-like environment for membrane formation-unlike HEMA. In working toward a neuromast-inspired design, a final experiment demonstrates that a bilayer can also be formed directly between two lipid-covered PEG surfaces. These initial results suggest that candidate gel materials with a low hydrophobicity, high fluidity, and a low modulus can be used to provide membrane support.

  7. The lateral line system is not necessary for rheotaxis in the Mexican blind cavefish (Astyanax fasciatus).

    PubMed

    Van Trump, William J; McHenry, Matthew J

    2013-11-01

    Fish resist being swept downstream by swimming against a current. Mexican blind cavefish (Astyanax fasciatus) exhibit this innate behavior, rheotaxis, without the aid of vision, but it has been debated whether this ability requires sensing flow with the lateral line system. We tested the role of the lateral line by comparing swimming in a flow chamber in a group of cavefish with a compromised lateral line with a control group. Consistent with previous studies, we found that cavefish orient toward flow and more frequently swim upstream at a higher flow speed. We found that these responses to flow were indistinguishable between fish with compromised and functioning lateral line systems. Rheotaxis was also unaltered by exposing fish to varying degrees of turbulence. These results suggest that the sensing of flow is unnecessary for rheotaxis in cavefish. It appears that tactile stimuli provide a sufficient means of executing this behavior in fish and that rheotaxis may not be a major function of the lateral line system.

  8. Unilateral ablation of trunk superficial neuromasts increases directional instability during steady swimming in the yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi.

    PubMed

    Yanase, K; Herbert, N A; Montgomery, J C

    2014-09-01

    Detailed swimming kinematics of the yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi were investigated after unilateral ablation of superficial neuromasts (SNs). Most kinematic variables, such as tail-beat frequency, stride length, caudal fin-beat amplitude and propulsive wavelength, were unaffected but lateral amplitude at the tip of the snout (A0 ) was significantly increased in SN-disrupted fish compared with sham-operated controls. In addition, the orientation of caudal fin-tip relative to the overall swimming direction of SN-disrupted fish was significantly deflected (two-fold) in comparison with sham-operated control fish. In some fish, SN disruption also led to a phase distortion of the propulsive body-wave. These changes would be expected to increase both hydrodynamic drag and thrust production which is consistent with the finding that SN-disrupted fish had to generate significantly greater thrust power when swimming at ≥1·3 fork lengths (LF ) s(-1) . In particular, hydrodynamic drag would increase as a result of any increase in rotational (yaw) perturbation and sideways slip resulting from the sensory disturbance. In conclusion, unilateral SN ablation produced directional instability of steady swimming and altered propulsive movements, suggesting a role for sensory feedback in correcting yaw and slip disturbances to maintain efficient locomotion.

  9. Localization of a moving dipole source underwater using an artificial lateral line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulsadda, Ahmad T.; Tan, Xiaobo

    2012-04-01

    Motivated by the lateral line system of fish, arrays of flow sensors have been proposed as a new sensing modality for underwater robots. Existing studies on such artificial lateral lines (ALLs) have been mostly focused on the localization of a fixed underwater vibrating sphere (dipole source). In this paper we examine the problem of tracking a moving dipole source using an ALL system. A nonlinear estimation problem is formulated based on an analytical model for the moving dipole-generated flow field, which is subsequently solved with the Gauss-Newton method. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is illustrated with simulation results.

  10. Lateral-Line Detection of Underwater Objects: From Goldfish to Submarines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hemmen, J. Leo

    2010-03-01

    Fish and some aquatic amphibians use their mechanosensory lateral-line system to navigate by means of hydrodynamic cues. How a fish determines an object's position and shape only through the lateral-line system and the ensuing neuronal processing is still a challenging problem. Our studies have shown that both stimulus position and stimulus form can be determined within the range of about one fish length and are encoded through the response of the afferent nerves originating from the detectors. A minimal detection model of a vibrating sphere (a dipole) has now been extended to other stimuli such as translating spheres, ellipsoids, or even wakes (vortex rings). The theoretical model is fully verified by experimental data. We have also constructed an underwater robot with an artificial lateral-line system designed to detect e.g. the presence of walls by measuring the change of water flow around the body. We will show how a simple model fits experimental results obtained from trout and goldfish and how a submarine may well be able to detect underwater objects by using an artificial lateral-line system.

  11. Lateral line analogue aids vision in successful predator evasion for the brief squid, Lolliguncula brevis.

    PubMed

    York, Carly A; Bartol, Ian K

    2014-07-15

    Cephalopods have visual and mechanoreception systems that may be employed to sense and respond to an approaching predator. While vision presumably plays the dominant role, the importance of the lateral line analogue for predator evasion has not been examined in cephalopods. To test the respective roles of vision and the lateral line analogue, brief squid, Lolliguncula brevis, were observed in the presence of summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, under light and dark conditions with their lateral line analogue intact and ablated. Hair cell ablation was achieved through a pharmacological technique used for the first time on a cephalopod. The proportion of predator-prey interactions survived was significantly higher in the light non-ablated and light ablated groups compared with the dark ablated group. The mean number of interactions survived varied across treatment groups with the light non-ablated group having significantly more success than the light ablated, dark non-ablated and dark ablated groups. These findings demonstrate that although vision is the primary sense, the lateral line analogue also contributes to predator evasion in squid.

  12. Functional consequences of structural differences in stingray sensory systems. Part I: mechanosensory lateral line canals.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Laura K; Kajiura, Stephen M; Gordon, Malcolm S

    2009-10-01

    Short range hydrodynamic and electrosensory signals are important during final stages of prey capture in elasmobranchs (sharks, skates and rays), and may be particularly useful for dorso-ventrally flattened batoids with mouths hidden from their eyes. In stingrays, both the lateral line canal and electrosensory systems are highly modified and complex with significant differences on ventral surfaces that relate to feeding ecology. This study tests functional hypotheses based on quantified differences in sensory system morphology of three stingray species, Urobatis halleri, Myliobatis californica and Pteroplatytrygon violacea. Part I investigates the mechanosensory lateral line canal system whereas part II focuses on the electrosensory system. Stingray lateral line canals include both pored and non-pored sections and differ in branching complexity and distribution. A greater proportion of pored canals and high pore numbers were predicted to correspond to increased response to water flow. Behavioral experiments were performed to compare responses of stingrays to weak water jets mimicking signals produced by potential prey at velocities of 10-20 cm s(-1). Bat rays, M. californica, have the most complex and broadly distributed pored canal network and demonstrated both the highest response rate and greater response intensity to water jet signals. Results suggest that U. halleri and P. violacea may rely on additional sensory input, including tactile and visual cues, respectively, to initiate stronger feeding responses. These results suggest that stingray lateral line canal morphology can indicate detection capabilities through responsiveness to weak water jets.

  13. The Potential Overlapping Roles of the Ear and Lateral Line in Driving "Acoustic" Responses.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Dennis M; Radford, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Examination of fish responses to sound stimuli has a rich and varied history but it is not always clear when responses are true measures of hearing or the lateral-line. The central innervation of auditory and lateral-line sensory afferents lie in close proximity in the brainstem and both sets of receptors are, at heart, hair cell-based particle motion detectors. While it is possible to separately measure physiological activity of these two receptor subtypes, many studies of fish "hearing" use whole brain potentials or behavioural assays in complex sound fields where it is not possible to distinguish inputs. We argue here that, as often measured, what is thought of as fish "hearing" is often a multisensory response of both auditory and lateral line receptors. We also argue that in many situations where fish use sound stimuli, the behaviour is also an integrative response of both systems, due to the often close proximity of fish during sound communication. We end with a set of recommendations for better understanding the separate and combined roles of ear and lateral-line hair cells as well as an acknowledgment of the seminal and continuing contributions of Arthur N. Popper and Richard R. Fay to this field.

  14. Termination of electroreceptor and mechanical lateral line afferents in the mormyrid acousticolateral area.

    PubMed

    Bell, C C; Russell, C J

    1978-12-01

    The projection regions of electroreceptor and mechanical lateral line afferents in electric fish of the mormyridae family are described. Electroreceptor afferents from the posterior dorsal skin run in the dorsal branch of the posterior lateral line nerve. Electroreceptor afferents from ventral skin and mechanical lateral line afferents and efferents run in the ventral branch of the nerve. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) injections into each branch resulted in filling of its central terminals with the marker enzyme. The method yields a Golgi-like staining of afferent terminals, allowing some aspects of their morphology to be described. Comparison of results from dorsal and ventral branch injections shows the separate medullary regions to which electroreceptor and mechanical afferents project, and also demonstrates four separate somatotopic maps within the electroreceptor region. Mechanical afferents end predominantly ipsilaterally in nucleus anterior and eminentia granularis as has been suggested by others. Ipsilateral endings in nucleus octavius are also seen. Electroreceptor afferents end exclusively in the cortex and nucleus of posterior lateral line lobe (PLLL). Within the cortex there are three distinct maps of the skin surface which are separated from each other by discontinuities in the cellular layers. Somatotopic mapping is also present in the nucleus of PLLL though it is less precise than in the cortical zones. Large club endings of the cells of this nucleus are filled with HRP. Labeled cells are seen within a small midline nucleus located at the level of the eighth nerve just above the medial longitudinal fasciculus. These are probably the cell bodies of lateral line efferents.

  15. The Mechanosensory Lateral Line System Mediates Activation of Socially-Relevant Brain Regions during Territorial Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Julie M.; Maruska, Karen P.

    2016-01-01

    Animals use multiple senses during social interactions and must integrate this information in the brain to make context-dependent behavioral decisions. For fishes, the largest group of vertebrates, the mechanosensory lateral line system provides crucial hydrodynamic information for survival behaviors, but little is known about its function in social communication. Our previous work using the African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, provided the first empirical evidence that fish use their lateral line system to detect water movements from conspecifics for mutual assessment and behavioral choices. It is unknown, however, where this socially-relevant mechanosensory information is processed in the brain to elicit adaptive behavioral responses. To examine for the first time in any fish species which brain regions receive contextual mechanosensory information, we quantified expression of the immediate early gene cfos as a proxy for neural activation in sensory and socially-relevant brain nuclei from lateral line-intact and -ablated fish following territorial interactions. Our in situ hybridization results indicate that in addition to known lateral line processing regions, socially-relevant mechanosensory information is processed in the ATn (ventromedial hypothalamus homolog), Dl (putative hippocampus homolog), and Vs (putative medial extended amygdala homolog). In addition, we identified a functional network within the conserved social decision-making network (SDMN) whose co-activity corresponds with mutual assessment and behavioral choice. Lateral line-intact and –ablated fight winners had different patterns of co-activity of these function networks and group identity could be determined solely by activation patterns, indicating the importance of mechanoreception to co-activity of the SDMN. These data show for the first time that the mechanosensory lateral line system provides relevant information to conserved decision-making centers of the brain during

  16. Nanofibril scaffold assisted MEMS artificial hydrogel neuromasts for enhanced sensitivity flow sensing

    PubMed Central

    Kottapalli, Ajay Giri Prakash; Bora, Meghali; Asadnia, Mohsen; Miao, Jianmin; Venkatraman, Subbu S.; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We present the development and testing of superficial neuromast-inspired flow sensors that also attain high sensitivity and resolution through a biomimetic hyaulronic acid-based hydrogel cupula dressing. The inspiration comes from the spatially distributed neuromasts of the blind cavefish that live in completely dark undersea caves; the sensors enable the fish to form three-dimensional flow and object maps, enabling them to maneuver efficiently in cluttered environments. A canopy shaped electrospun nanofibril scaffold, inspired by the cupular fibrils, assists the drop-casting process allowing the formation of a prolate spheroid-shaped artificial cupula. Rheological and nanoindentation characterizations showed that the Young’s modulus of the artificial cupula closely matches the biological cupula (10–100 Pa). A comparative experimental study conducted to evaluate the sensitivities of the naked hair cell sensor and the cupula-dressed sensor in sensing steady-state flows demonstrated a sensitivity enhancement by 3.5–5 times due to the presence of hydrogel cupula. The novel strategies of sensor development presented in this report are applicable to the design and fabrication of other biomimetic sensors as well. The developed sensors can be used in the navigation and maneuvering of underwater robots, but can also find applications in biomedical and microfluidic devices. PMID:26763299

  17. Novel structure in sciaenid fish skulls indicates continuous production of the cephalic neuromast cupula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pombo, Maíra; Turra, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    The presence of a conspicuous and frequent but never-described structure in the skull cavities of sciaenid fish was noted during population studies in an urbanized bay. The ultrastructure closely resembles the cupula of neuromasts, an organ associated with the perception of the environment in teleost fish. The bodies were recorded detached in both preserved and freshly sampled individuals and without associated cilia. Prominent characteristics are acellularity, the elliptic-conic shape composed of stack-like protein lamellas, and a mesh-like appearance in cross section. These acellular lamellar cephalic bodies (ALCBs) were more abundant in larger individuals and showed temporal peaks of abundance independently of the fish size. The conic and lamellar features suggest that the deposition of protein layers follows fish growth, and the bimodality of the size of these structures in individuals indicates temporal peaks of production. These results indicate that these ALCBs are a consequence of the accretion of the cupula of neuromasts at a faster rate than they degrade. Given the novelty of this structure and the increasing records of diseases of marine organisms worldwide, an important question is whether these bodies occur subsequently to some environmental change and whether their accumulation in the skull cavities has consequences to fish health.

  18. Nanofibril scaffold assisted MEMS artificial hydrogel neuromasts for enhanced sensitivity flow sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kottapalli, Ajay Giri Prakash; Bora, Meghali; Asadnia, Mohsen; Miao, Jianmin; Venkatraman, Subbu S.; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We present the development and testing of superficial neuromast-inspired flow sensors that also attain high sensitivity and resolution through a biomimetic hyaulronic acid-based hydrogel cupula dressing. The inspiration comes from the spatially distributed neuromasts of the blind cavefish that live in completely dark undersea caves; the sensors enable the fish to form three-dimensional flow and object maps, enabling them to maneuver efficiently in cluttered environments. A canopy shaped electrospun nanofibril scaffold, inspired by the cupular fibrils, assists the drop-casting process allowing the formation of a prolate spheroid-shaped artificial cupula. Rheological and nanoindentation characterizations showed that the Young’s modulus of the artificial cupula closely matches the biological cupula (10-100 Pa). A comparative experimental study conducted to evaluate the sensitivities of the naked hair cell sensor and the cupula-dressed sensor in sensing steady-state flows demonstrated a sensitivity enhancement by 3.5-5 times due to the presence of hydrogel cupula. The novel strategies of sensor development presented in this report are applicable to the design and fabrication of other biomimetic sensors as well. The developed sensors can be used in the navigation and maneuvering of underwater robots, but can also find applications in biomedical and microfluidic devices.

  19. Novel structure in sciaenid fish skulls indicates continuous production of the cephalic neuromast cupula

    PubMed Central

    Pombo, Maíra; Turra, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The presence of a conspicuous and frequent but never-described structure in the skull cavities of sciaenid fish was noted during population studies in an urbanized bay. The ultrastructure closely resembles the cupula of neuromasts, an organ associated with the perception of the environment in teleost fish. The bodies were recorded detached in both preserved and freshly sampled individuals and without associated cilia. Prominent characteristics are acellularity, the elliptic-conic shape composed of stack-like protein lamellas, and a mesh-like appearance in cross section. These acellular lamellar cephalic bodies (ALCBs) were more abundant in larger individuals and showed temporal peaks of abundance independently of the fish size. The conic and lamellar features suggest that the deposition of protein layers follows fish growth, and the bimodality of the size of these structures in individuals indicates temporal peaks of production. These results indicate that these ALCBs are a consequence of the accretion of the cupula of neuromasts at a faster rate than they degrade. Given the novelty of this structure and the increasing records of diseases of marine organisms worldwide, an important question is whether these bodies occur subsequently to some environmental change and whether their accumulation in the skull cavities has consequences to fish health. PMID:27876848

  20. Lateral Line Layout Correlates with the Differential Hydrodynamic Pressure on Swimming Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristroph, Leif; Liao, James C.; Zhang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The lateral line of fish includes the canal subsystem that detects hydrodynamic pressure gradients and is thought to be important in swimming behaviors such as rheotaxis and prey tracking. Here, we explore the hypothesis that this sensory system is concentrated at locations where changes in pressure are greatest during motion through water. Using high-fidelity models of rainbow trout, we mimic the flows encountered during swimming while measuring pressure with fine spatial and temporal resolution. The variations in pressure for perturbations in body orientation and for disturbances to the incoming stream are seen to correlate with the sensory network. These findings support a view of the lateral line as a "hydrodynamic antenna" that is configured to retrieve flow signals and also suggest a physical explanation for the nearly universal sensory layout across diverse species.

  1. Functional mechanotransduction is required for cisplatin-induced hair cell death in the zebrafish lateral line.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andrew J; Hailey, Dale W; Stawicki, Tamara M; Wu, Patricia; Coffin, Allison B; Rubel, Edwin W; Raible, David W; Simon, Julian A; Ou, Henry C

    2013-03-06

    Cisplatin, one of the most commonly used anticancer drugs, is known to cause inner ear hair cell damage and hearing loss. Despite much investigation into mechanisms of cisplatin-induced hair cell death, little is known about the mechanism whereby cisplatin is selectively toxic to hair cells. Using hair cells of the zebrafish lateral line, we found that chemical inhibition of mechanotransduction with quinine and EGTA protected against cisplatin-induced hair cell death. Furthermore, we found that the zebrafish mutants mariner (myo7aa) and sputnik (cad23) that lack functional mechanotransduction were resistant to cisplatin-induced hair cell death. Using a fluorescent analog of cisplatin, we found that chemical or genetic inhibition of mechanotransduction prevented its uptake. These findings demonstrate that cisplatin-induced hair cell death is dependent on functional mechanotransduction in the zebrafish lateral line.

  2. Functional mechanotransduction is required for cisplatin-induced hair cell death in the zebrafish lateral line

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Andrew J.; Hailey, Dale W.; Stawicki, Tamara M.; Wu, Patricia; Coffin, Allison B.; Rubel, Edwin W.; Raible, David W.; Simon, Julian A.; Ou, Henry C.

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatin, one of the most commonly used anti-cancer drugs, is known to cause inner ear hair cell damage and hearing loss. Despite much investigation into mechanisms of cisplatin-induced hair cell death, little is known about the mechanism whereby cisplatin is selectively toxic to hair cells. Using hair cells of the zebrafish lateral line, we found that chemical inhibition of mechanotransduction with quinine and EGTA protected against cisplatin-induced hair cell death. Furthermore, we found that the zebrafish mutants mariner (myo7aa) and sputnik (cad23) that lack functional mechanotransduction were resistant to cisplatin-induced hair cell death. Using a fluorescent analogue of cisplatin, we found that chemical or genetic inhibition of mechanotransduction prevented its uptake. These findings demonstrate that cisplatin-induced hair cell death is dependent on functional mechanotransduction in the zebrafish lateral line. PMID:23467357

  3. Interaction of electrosensory and electromotor signals in lateral line lobe of a mormyrid fish.

    PubMed

    Zipser, B; Bennett, M V

    1976-07-01

    A signal associated with the neural command to discharge the electric organ is recorded in cells of the lateral line lobe. Responses of cells activated by medium receptor inputs are facilitated or less frequently inhibited during this command-associated signal. Only responses to disynaptic inputs are affected, the monosynaptic response is not altered. The periods of facilitation and inhibition occur at times at which electroreceptor activity evoked by organ discharge reaches the lateral line lobe. Presumably the command-associated signal is important in electrolocation. Cells responding to large receptor inputs are inhibited by the command-associated signal. Activity evoked by large receptors is transmitted in a mesencephalic fiber tract. The tract response is also inhibited by the command-associated signal. Since each organ discharge would excite all the large receptors at short latency, there would be little information contained in their responses. Inhibiting discharge-evoked activity may allow the system to return to maximum sensitivity most rapidly.

  4. Robust regeneration of adult zebrafish lateral line hair cells reflects continued precursor pool maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Ivan A.; Kappedal, Ryan; Mackenzie, Scott M.; Hailey, Dale W.; Hoffman, Trevor L.; Schilling, Thomas F.; Raible, David W.

    2015-01-01

    We have examined lateral line hair cell and support cell maintenance in adult zebrafish when growth is largely complete. We demonstrate that adult zebrafish not only replenish hair cells after a single instance of hair cell damage, but also maintain hair cells and support cells after multiple rounds of damage and regeneration. We find that hair cells undergo continuous turnover in adult zebrafish in the absence of damage. We identify mitotically-distinct support cell populations and show that hair cells regenerate from underlying support cells in a region-specific manner. Our results demonstrate that there are two distinct support cell populations in the lateral line, which may help explain why zebrafish hair cell regeneration is extremely robust, retained throughout life, and potentially unlimited in regenerative capacity. PMID:25869855

  5. Detection of artificial water flows by the lateral line system of a benthic feeding cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Schwalbe, Margot A B; Sevey, Benjamin J; Webb, Jacqueline F

    2016-04-01

    The mechanosensory lateral line system of fishes detects water motions within a few body lengths of the source. Several types of artificial stimuli have been used to probe lateral line function in the laboratory, but few studies have investigated the role of flow sensing in benthic feeding teleosts. In this study, we used artificial flows emerging from a sandy substrate to assess the contribution of flow sensing to prey detection in the peacock cichlid, Aulonocara stuartgranti, which feeds on benthic invertebrates in Lake Malawi. Using a positive reinforcement protocol, we trained fish to respond to flows lacking the visual and chemical cues generated by tethered prey in prior studies with A. stuartgranti Fish successfully responded to artificial flows at all five rates presented (characterized using digital particle image velocimetry), and showed a range of flow-sensing behaviors, including an unconditioned bite response. Immediately after lateral line inactivation, fish rarely responded to flows and the loss of vital fluorescent staining of hair cells (with 4-di-2-ASP) verified lateral line inactivation. Within 2 days post-treatment, some aspects of flow-sensing behavior returned and after 7 days, flow-sensing behavior and hair cell fluorescence both returned to pre-treatment levels, which is consistent with the reported timing of hair cell regeneration in other vertebrates. The presentation of ecologically relevant water flows to assess flow-sensing behaviors and the use of a positive reinforcement protocol are methods that present new opportunities to study the role of flow sensing in the feeding ecology of benthic feeding fishes.

  6. Magnetic material in the ocellar spot and lateral line of tomtates Haemulon aurolineatum.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, C G B; Medeiros, C; Abraçado, L G; Acosta-Avalos, D

    2014-09-01

    The presence of magnetic material in tissues of lateral line and ocellar spot of tomtates Haemulon aurolineatum is shown using the ferromagnetic resonance technique. For the first time magnetic material is reported in the ocellar spot. The magnetic material detected in these structures of H. aurolineatum suggests that this species could use magnetic orientation during its nocturnal foraging, and the relevance and role of this material with respect to schooling movements is discussed. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. Wide-aperture, line-focused ultrasonic material characterization system based on lateral scanning.

    PubMed

    Titov, Sergey; Maev, Roman; Bogatchenkov, Alexey

    2003-08-01

    We present a new wide-aperture, line-focused ultrasonic material characterization system. The foci of the transmitting and receiving transducers are located in the specimen-immersion liquid interface; and the output voltage V(x,t) of the system is recorded as a function of the lateral position of the receiving transducer. The two-dimensional spectrum of V(x, t) can be expressed as a product of the transfer function of the system and the reflectance function of the interface. In comparison with a system based on scanning in the z direction, the angular resolution of the proposed technique increases with decreasing angle of incidence. There are no geometrical restrictions on the length of the recorded spatial data and the angle of incidence in the case of lateral scanning. The temperature coefficient of the measurement error is low because of the constancy of the propagation distance of ultrasound in the immersion fluid during data acquisition.

  8. Descending control of electroreception. I. Properties of nucleus praeeminentialis neurons projecting indirectly to the electrosensory lateral line lobe.

    PubMed

    Bastian, J; Bratton, B

    1990-04-01

    The first-order CNS processing region within the electrosensory system, the electrosensory lateral line lobe, receives massive descending inputs from the nucleus praeeminentialis as well as the primary afferent projection. The n. praeeminentialis receives its input from the electrosensory lateral line lobe as well as from higher centers; hence this nucleus occupies an important position in a feedback loop within the electrosensory system. This report describes the physiological properties of a category of n. praeeminentialis neurons characterized by very high spontaneous firing frequency, but relatively poor sensitivity to electrolocation targets as compared to neurons in the electrosensory lateral line lobe. These neurons are specialized to encode long-term changes in electric organ discharge amplitude with high resolution. Intracellular recording and Lucifer yellow staining of these neurons show that they are the previously described multipolar neurons of the n. praeeminentialis, and they project bilaterally to the posterior eminentia granularis. Posterior eminentia granularis efferents project to the electrosensory lateral line lobe forming its dorsal molecular layer. Hence, these multipolar cells influence the electrosensory lateral line lobe circuitry indirectly. The information that the multipolar cells encode regarding the electric organ discharge amplitude may be needed for a gain control mechanism operative within the electrosensory lateral line lobe. Previous studies have shown that the indirect projection from the n. praeeminentialis to the electrosensory lateral line lobe must be intact for this gain control mechanism to operate.

  9. Minimal Model of Prey Localization through the Lateral-Line System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franosch, Jan-Moritz P.; Sobotka, Marion C.; Elepfandt, Andreas; van Hemmen, J. Leo

    2003-10-01

    The clawed frog Xenopus is an aquatic predator catching prey at night by detecting water movements caused by its prey. We present a general method, a “minimal model” based on a minimum-variance estimator, to explain prey detection through the frog's many lateral-line organs, even in case several of them are defunct. We show how waveform reconstruction allows Xenopus' neuronal system to determine both the direction and the character of the prey and even to distinguish two simultaneous wave sources. The results can be applied to many aquatic amphibians, fish, or reptiles such as crocodilians.

  10. The role of the lateral line and vision on body kinematics and hydrodynamic preference of rainbow trout in turbulent flow.

    PubMed

    Liao, James C

    2006-10-01

    The ability to detect water flow using the hair cells of the lateral line system is a unique feature found in anamniotic aquatic vertebrates. Fishes use their lateral line to locate prey, escape from predators and form cohesive schooling patterns. Despite the prevalence of complex flows in nature, almost nothing is known about the function of the lateral line and its relationship to other sensory modalities for freely swimming fishes in turbulent flows. Past studies indicate that under certain conditions the lateral line is not needed to swim steadily in uniform flow. This paper examines how the lateral line and vision affect body kinematics and hydrodynamic habitat selection of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to vortices generated behind a cylinder. Trout Kármán gaiting (i.e. exploiting vortices to hold station in a vortex street) with a pharmacologically blocked lateral line display altered kinematics; body wavelength and wave speed increase compared to control animals. When visual cues are withheld by performing experiments in the dark, almost all Kármán gait kinematics measured for fish with and without a functional lateral line are the same. The lateral line, rather than vision, plays a larger role in affecting body kinematics when trout hold station in a vortex street. Trout show a preference to Kármán gait in the light but not in the dark, which may be attributed to physiological state rather than hydrodynamic or sensorimotor reasons. In the dark, trout both with and without a functional lateral line hold station near the downstream suction region of the cylinder wake (i.e. entraining) and avoid the vortex street. Vision therefore plays a larger role in the preference to associate with a turbulent vortex street. Trout in the light with a blocked lateral line show individual variation in their preference to Kármán gait or entrain. In the dark, entraining trout with an intact lateral line will alternate between right and left sides of the

  11. Navigating later lines of treatment for advanced colorectal cancer - optimizing targeted biological therapies to improve outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gill, Sharlene; Dowden, Scot; Colwell, Bruce; Collins, Loretta L; Berry, Scott

    2014-12-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer among males and second among females worldwide. The treatment landscape for advanced CRC (aCRC) is rapidly evolving and there are now a number of randomized trials assessing treatment of aCRC beyond first-line, prompting important questions about how to optimize therapy and maximize benefit. The availability of targeted agents has increased the complexity of post-progression treatment of aCRC. Targeted biological agents with varying modes of action are now approved for use in second-line and beyond, including the VEGF-inhibitors bevacizumab and aflibercept, the VEGFR/multikinase-inhibitor regorafenib, and the EGFR-inhibitors cetuximab and panitumumab. This article provides a systematic overview of the available phase III trial data, discusses biomarkers predictive of response to treatment, addresses safety concerns associated with specific agents, and provides practical, evidence-based recommendations for the later lines of treatment for patients with unresectable aCRC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Lateral line pore diameters correlate with the development of gas bubble trauma signs in several Columbia River fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morris, R.G.; Beeman, J.W.; VanderKooi, S.P.; Maule, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    Gas bubble trauma (GBT) caused by gas supersaturation of river water continues to be a problem in the Columbia River Basin. A common indicator of GBT is the percent of the lateral line occluded with gas bubbles; however, this effect has never been examined in relation to lateral line morphology. The effects of 115, 125 and 130% total dissolved gas levels were evaluated on five fish species common to the upper Columbia River. Trunk lateral line pore diameters differed significantly (P<0.0001) among species (longnose sucker>largescale sucker>northern pikeminnow???chinook salmon???redside shiner). At all supersaturation levels evaluated, percent of lateral line occlusion exhibited an inverse correlation to pore size but was not generally related to total dissolved gas level or time of exposure. This study suggests that the differences in lateral line pore diameters between species should be considered when using lateral line occlusion as an indicator of gas bubble trauma. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. In vivo physiological recording from the lateral line of juvenile zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Olt, Jennifer; Allen, Claire E.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Zebrafish provide a unique opportunity to investigate in vivo sensory transduction in mature hair cells.We have developed a method for studying the biophysical properties of mature hair cells from the lateral line of juvenile zebrafish.The method involves application of the anaesthetic benzocaine and intubation to maintain ventilation and oxygenation through the gills.The same approach could be used for in vivo functional studies in other sensory and non‐sensory systems from juvenile and adult zebrafish. Abstract Hair cells are sensory receptors responsible for transducing auditory and vestibular information into electrical signals, which are then transmitted with remarkable precision to afferent neurons. The zebrafish lateral line is emerging as an excellent in vivo model for genetic and physiological analysis of hair cells and neurons. However, research has been limited to larval stages because zebrafish become protected from the time of independent feeding under European law (from 5.2 days post‐fertilization (dpf) at 28.5°C). In larval zebrafish, the functional properties of most of hair cells, as well as those of other excitable cells, are still immature. We have developed an experimental protocol to record electrophysiological properties from hair cells of the lateral line in juvenile zebrafish. We found that the anaesthetic benzocaine at 50 mg l−1 was an effective and safe anaesthetic to use on juvenile zebrafish. Concentrations up to 300 mg l−1 did not affect the electrical properties or synaptic vesicle release of juvenile hair cells, unlike the commonly used anaesthetic MS‐222, which reduces the size of basolateral membrane K+ currents. Additionally, we implemented a method to maintain gill movement, and as such respiration and blood oxygenation, via the intubation of > 21 dpf zebrafish. The combination of benzocaine and intubation provides an experimental platform to investigate the physiology of mature hair cells from live

  14. A novel lateral diffused metal oxide semiconductor (LDMOS) by attracting the electric field Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orouji, Ali A.; Hanaei, Mahsa

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a novel silicon on insulator (SOI) lateral diffused metal oxide semiconductor (LDMOS) transistor with high voltage and high frequency performance is presented. In this work we try to reduce the electric field crowding in the drift region. The proposed structure consists of a metal in the buried oxide and also connected to the source. The inserted metal attracts the electric field lines in the buried oxide. It causes 67% improvement in the breakdown voltage in comparison with a conventional SOI-LDMOS (C-LDMOS). Our simulations with two dimensional ATLAS simulator show that the gate-drain capacitance improves in the proposed structure. The unilateral power gain also enhances. So, the proposed structure is suitable for high voltage and high frequency applications.

  15. Design and application of a fish-shaped lateral line probe for flow measurement.

    PubMed

    Tuhtan, J A; Fuentes-Pérez, J F; Strokina, N; Toming, G; Musall, M; Noack, M; Kämäräinen, J K; Kruusmaa, M

    2016-04-01

    We introduce the lateral line probe (LLP) as a measurement device for natural flows. Hydraulic surveys in rivers and hydraulic structures are currently based on time-averaged velocity measurements using propellers or acoustic Doppler devices. The long-term goal is thus to develop a sensor system, which includes spatial gradients of the flow field along a fish-shaped sensor body. Interpreting the biological relevance of a collection of point velocity measurements is complicated by the fact that fish and other aquatic vertebrates experience the flow field through highly dynamic fluid-body interactions. To collect body-centric flow data, a bioinspired fish-shaped probe is equipped with a lateral line pressure sensing array, which can be applied both in the laboratory and in the field. Our objective is to introduce a new type of measurement device for body-centric data and compare its output to estimates of conventional point-based technologies. We first provide the calibration workflow for laboratory investigations. We then provide a review of two velocity estimation workflows, independent of calibration. Such workflows are required as existing field investigations consist of measurements in environments where calibration is not feasible. The mean difference for uncalibrated LLP velocity estimates from 0 to 50 cm/s under in a closed flow tunnel and open channel flume was within 4 cm/s when compared to conventional measurement techniques. Finally, spatial flow maps in a scale vertical slot fishway are compared for the LLP, direct measurements, and 3D numerical models where it was found that the LLP provided a slight overestimation of the current velocity in the jet and underestimated the velocity in the recirculation zone.

  16. Natural Compounds as Occult Ototoxins? Ginkgo biloba Flavonoids Moderately Damage Lateral Line Hair Cells.

    PubMed

    Neveux, Sarah; Smith, Nicole K; Roche, Anna; Blough, Bruce E; Pathmasiri, Wimal; Coffin, Allison B

    2017-04-01

    Several drugs, including aminoglycosides and platinum-based chemotherapy agents, are well known for their ototoxic properties. However, FDA-approved drugs are not routinely tested for ototoxicity, so their potential to affect hearing often goes unrecognized. This issue is further compounded for natural products, where there is a lack of FDA oversight and the manufacturer is solely responsible for ensuring the safety of their products. Natural products such as herbal supplements are easily accessible and commonly used in the practice of traditional eastern and alternative medicine. Using the zebrafish lateral line, we screened a natural products library to identify potential ototoxins. We found that the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol, both from the Gingko biloba plant, demonstrated significant ototoxicity, killing up to 30 % of lateral line hair cells. We then examined a third Ginkgo flavonoid, isorhamnetin, and found similar levels of ototoxicity. After flavonoid treatment, surviving hair cells demonstrated reduced uptake of the vital dye FM 1-43FX, suggesting that the health of the remaining hair cells was compromised. We then asked if these flavonoids enter hair cells through the mechanotransduction channel, which is the site of entry for many known ototoxins. High extracellular calcium or the quinoline derivative E6 berbamine significantly protected hair cells from flavonoid damage, implicating the transduction channel as a site of flavonoid uptake. Since known ototoxins activate cellular stress responses, we asked if reactive oxygen species were necessary for flavonoid ototoxicity. Co-treatment with the antioxidant D-methionine significantly protected hair cells from each flavonoid, suggesting that antioxidant therapy could prevent hair cell loss. How these products affect mammalian hair cells is still an open question and will be the target of future experiments. However, this research demonstrates the potential for ototoxic damage caused by unregulated

  17. Pharmacology of Acetylcholine-Mediated Cell Signaling in the Lateral Line Organ Following Efferent Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Dawkins, Rosie; Keller, Sarah L.; Sewell, William F.

    2007-01-01

    Cholinergic efferent fibers modify hair cell responses to mechanical stimulation. It is hypothesized that calcium entering the hair cell through a nicotinic receptor activates a small-conductance (SK), calcium-activated potassium channel to hyperpolarize the hair cell. The calcium signal may be amplified by calcium-induced calcium release from the synaptic cisternae. Pharmacological tests of these ideas in the intact cochlea have been technically difficult because of the complex and fragile structure of the mammalian inner ear. We turned to the Xenopus laevis lateral line organ, whose simplicity and accessibility make it a model for understanding hair cell organ function in a relatively intact system. Drugs were applied to the inner surface of the skin while monitoring the effects of efferent stimulation on afferent fiber discharge rate. Efferent effects were blocked by antagonists of SK channels including apamin (EC50 = 0.5 μM) and dequalinium (EC50 = 12 μM). The effect of apamin was not enhanced by co-administration of phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, a proteolysis inhibitor. Efferent effects were attenuated by ryanodine, an agent that can interfere with calcium-induced calcium release, although relatively high (mM) concentrations of ryanodine were required. Fluorescent cationic styryl dyes, 4-di-2-asp and fm 1– 43, blocked efferent effects, although it was not possible to observe specific entry of the dye into the base of hair cells. These pharmacological findings in the Xenopus lateral line organ support the hypothesis that effects of efferent stimulation are mediated by calcium entry through the nicotinic receptor via activation of SK channels and suggest the generality of this mechanism in meditating cholinergic efferent effects. PMID:15615825

  18. Design and application of a fish-shaped lateral line probe for flow measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuhtan, J. A.; Fuentes-Pérez, J. F.; Strokina, N.; Toming, G.; Musall, M.; Noack, M.; Kämäräinen, J. K.; Kruusmaa, M.

    2016-04-01

    We introduce the lateral line probe (LLP) as a measurement device for natural flows. Hydraulic surveys in rivers and hydraulic structures are currently based on time-averaged velocity measurements using propellers or acoustic Doppler devices. The long-term goal is thus to develop a sensor system, which includes spatial gradients of the flow field along a fish-shaped sensor body. Interpreting the biological relevance of a collection of point velocity measurements is complicated by the fact that fish and other aquatic vertebrates experience the flow field through highly dynamic fluid-body interactions. To collect body-centric flow data, a bioinspired fish-shaped probe is equipped with a lateral line pressure sensing array, which can be applied both in the laboratory and in the field. Our objective is to introduce a new type of measurement device for body-centric data and compare its output to estimates of conventional point-based technologies. We first provide the calibration workflow for laboratory investigations. We then provide a review of two velocity estimation workflows, independent of calibration. Such workflows are required as existing field investigations consist of measurements in environments where calibration is not feasible. The mean difference for uncalibrated LLP velocity estimates from 0 to 50 cm/s under in a closed flow tunnel and open channel flume was within 4 cm/s when compared to conventional measurement techniques. Finally, spatial flow maps in a scale vertical slot fishway are compared for the LLP, direct measurements, and 3D numerical models where it was found that the LLP provided a slight overestimation of the current velocity in the jet and underestimated the velocity in the recirculation zone.

  19. Gene-expression analysis of hair cell regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Linjia; Romero-Carvajal, Andres; Haug, Jeff S.; Seidel, Christopher W.; Piotrowski, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Deafness caused by the terminal loss of inner ear hair cells is one of the most common sensory diseases. However, nonmammalian animals (e.g., birds, amphibians, and fish) regenerate damaged hair cells. To understand better the reasons underpinning such disparities in regeneration among vertebrates, we set out to define at high resolution the changes in gene expression associated with the regeneration of hair cells in the zebrafish lateral line. We performed RNA-Seq analyses on regenerating support cells purified by FACS. The resulting expression data were subjected to pathway enrichment analyses, and the differentially expressed genes were validated in vivo via whole-mount in situ hybridizations. We discovered that cell cycle regulators are expressed hours before the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling following hair cell death. We propose that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is not involved in regulating the onset of proliferation but governs proliferation at later stages of regeneration. In addition, and in marked contrast to mammals, our data clearly indicate that the Notch pathway is significantly down-regulated shortly after injury, thus uncovering a key difference between the zebrafish and mammalian responses to hair cell injury. Taken together, our findings lay the foundation for identifying differences in signaling pathway regulation that could be exploited as potential therapeutic targets to promote either sensory epithelium or hair cell regeneration in mammals. PMID:24706903

  20. Dynamic gene expression by putative hair-cell progenitors during regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Aaron B; Kim, Taeryn; Cabot, Victoria; Hudspeth, A J

    2014-04-08

    Hearing loss is most commonly caused by the destruction of mechanosensory hair cells in the ear. This condition is usually permanent: Despite the presence of putative hair-cell progenitors in the cochlea, hair cells are not naturally replenished in adult mammals. Unlike those of the mammalian ear, the progenitor cells of nonmammalian vertebrates can regenerate hair cells throughout life. The basis of this difference remains largely unexplored but may lie in molecular dissimilarities that affect how progenitors respond to hair-cell death. To approach this issue, we analyzed gene expression in hair-cell progenitors of the lateral-line system. We developed a transgenic line of zebrafish that expresses a red fluorescent protein in the presumptive hair-cell progenitors known as mantle cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting from the skins of transgenic larvae, followed by microarray-based expression analysis, revealed a constellation of transcripts that are specifically enriched in these cells. Gene expression analysis after hair-cell ablation uncovered a cohort of genes that are differentially regulated early in regeneration, suggesting possible roles in the response of progenitors to hair-cell death. These results provide a resource for studying hair-cell regeneration and the biology of sensory progenitor cells.

  1. Dynamic gene expression by putative hair-cell progenitors during regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taeryn; Cabot, Victoria; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Hearing loss is most commonly caused by the destruction of mechanosensory hair cells in the ear. This condition is usually permanent: Despite the presence of putative hair-cell progenitors in the cochlea, hair cells are not naturally replenished in adult mammals. Unlike those of the mammalian ear, the progenitor cells of nonmammalian vertebrates can regenerate hair cells throughout life. The basis of this difference remains largely unexplored but may lie in molecular dissimilarities that affect how progenitors respond to hair-cell death. To approach this issue, we analyzed gene expression in hair-cell progenitors of the lateral-line system. We developed a transgenic line of zebrafish that expresses a red fluorescent protein in the presumptive hair-cell progenitors known as mantle cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting from the skins of transgenic larvae, followed by microarray-based expression analysis, revealed a constellation of transcripts that are specifically enriched in these cells. Gene expression analysis after hair-cell ablation uncovered a cohort of genes that are differentially regulated early in regeneration, suggesting possible roles in the response of progenitors to hair-cell death. These results provide a resource for studying hair-cell regeneration and the biology of sensory progenitor cells. PMID:24706895

  2. Descending control of electroreception. II. Properties of nucleus praeeminentialis neurons projecting directly to the electrosensory lateral line lobe.

    PubMed

    Bratton, B; Bastian, J

    1990-04-01

    The nucleus praeeminentialis projects to the electrosensory lateral line lobe via 2 distinct pathways. Neurons that project to the posterior eminentia granularis and therefore influence the electrosensory lateral line lobe indirectly are described in the preceding report. This report describes the physiological properties and anatomical characteristics, revealed with Lucifer yellow staining, of n. praeeminentialis neurons that project directly to the ventral molecular layer of the electrosensory lateral line lobe. The neurons studied were the stellate cells described by Sas and Maler (1983), and we found 2 physiological subtypes of these. These neurons typically had no spontaneous activity, but responded vigorously to either increased electric organ discharge amplitude on the contralateral side of the body (ST-E cells) or to decreased amplitude (ST-I cells). These neurons also responded to low-frequency sinusoidal electric organ discharge amplitude modulations (AM) but were inhibited by AMs having frequencies greater than about 16 Hz. These stellate neurons were unable to encode information about long-term changes in electric organ discharge amplitude, but they responded very well to moving electrolocation targets. The relatively long response latency of these neurons suggests that they receive inputs from higher centers in addition to those from the electrosensory lateral line lobe. It is suggested that these cells alter the sensitivity of restricted populations of output cells in the electrosensory lateral line lobe and process temporally and spatially restricted stimuli. They may act to increase the intensity of the neural representation of important stimuli.

  3. The effect of vesicle shape, line tension, and lateral tension on membrane-binding proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, Jaime B.

    Model membranes allow for the exploration of complex biological phenomena with simple, controllable components. In this thesis we employ model membranes to determine the effect of vesicle properties such as line tension, lateral tension, and shape on membrane-binding proteins. We find that line tension at the boundary between domains in a phase separated vesicle can accumulate model membrane-binding proteins (green fluorescent protein with a histidine tag), and that those proteins can, in turn, alter vesicle shape. These results suggest that domains in biological membranes may enhance the local concentration of membrane-bound proteins and thus alter protein function. We also explore how membrane mechanical and chemical properties alter the function of the N-BAR domain of amphiphysin, a membrane-binding protein implicated in endocytosis. We find that negatively charged lipids are necessary for N-BAR binding to membranes at detectable levels, and that, at least for some lipid species, binding may be cooperative. Measurements of N-BAR binding as a function of vesicle tension reveal that modest membrane tension of around 2 mN/m, corresponding to a strain of around 1%, strongly increases N-BAR binding. We attribute this increase in binding with tension to the insertion of N-BAR's N-terminal amphipathic helix into the membrane which increases the membrane area. We propose that N-BAR, which was previously described as being able to sense membrane curvature, may be sensing strain instead. Measurements of membrane deformation by N-BAR as a function of membrane tension reveal that tension can hinder membrane deformation. Thus, tension may favor N-BAR binding yet suppress membrane deformation/tubulation, which requires work against tension. These results suggest that membrane tension, a parameter that is often not controlled in model membranes but is tightly controlled in biological cells, may be important in regulating protein binding and assembly and, hence, protein

  4. Molecular and pathological characterization of Fusarium solani species complex infection in the head and lateral line system of Sphyrna lewini.

    PubMed

    Pirarat, Nopadon; Sahatrakul, Komsil; Lacharoje, Sitthichok; Lombardini, Eric; Chansue, Nantarika; Techangamsuwan, Somporn

    2016-08-09

    A severe fungal infection affecting the head and lateral line system was diagnosed in 7 captive scalloped hammerhead sharks Sphyrna lewini in an aquarium in Thailand. Extensive and severe necrotizing cellulitis was consistently observed microscopically along the cephalic and lateral line canals in conjunction with positive fungal cultures for Fusarium sp. Molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed from 3 isolates based on the nucleotide sequences containing internally transcribed spacer (ITS) and a portion of 5.8S and 28S rDNA. The fungus was highly homologous (100%) and closely related to F. solani species complex 2 (FSSC 2), which belongs to Clade 3 of the FSSC. Our results illustrate the histopathological findings and expand upon our knowledge of the prevalence of invasive fusariosis in the head and lateral line system of hammerhead sharks.

  5. Role of the lateral line mechanosensory system in directionality of goldfish auditory evoked escape response

    PubMed Central

    Mirjany, Mana; Preuss, Thomas; Faber, Donald S.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Goldfish (Carassius auratus) escape responses to sudden auditory stimuli are mediated by a pair of reticulospinal neurons, the Mauthner (M-) cells, which integrate mechanosensory inputs from the inner ear and the lateral line (LL) to initiate a fast directional response away from the aversive stimulus. This behavior is context dependent; when near an obstruction the fish may rather turn towards the sound to avoid hitting the object. Mechanisms underlying this directionality remain unknown. Here we investigate the contribution of the LL system to auditory evoked escapes and provide behavioral evidence that it transmits stimulus – and environmental-dependent information that determines the initial response direction of the escape. We quantified escape latency, probability and directionality following abrupt sound stimuli before and after removal of the entire LL with 0.03 mmol l–1 cobalt chloride (CoCl2), 0.002% gentamicin or selective posterior LL nerve (pLLn) transection. CoCl2 significantly increased escape onset latency without affecting probability and reduced open field directionality from 77% to chance, 52%. This effect on directionality was also observed with gentamicin. Transection of the pLLn had no effect on directionality, indicating the anterior LL nerve (aLLn) afferents are more likely to transmit directional information to the M-cell. When the fish were near a wall, the error rate was quadrupled by both CoCl2 and pLLn transection. Visual elimination had no influence on directionality unless combined with LL elimination. PMID:21957099

  6. Natural Bizbenzoquinoline Derivatives Protect Zebrafish Lateral Line Sensory Hair Cells from Aminoglycoside Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Matthew; Boney, Robert; Ordoobadi, Alexander J.; Sommers, Thomas F.; Trapani, Josef G.; Coffin, Allison B.

    2016-01-01

    Moderate to severe hearing loss affects 360 million people worldwide and most often results from damage to sensory hair cells. Hair cell damage can result from aging, genetic mutations, excess noise exposure, and certain medications including aminoglycoside antibiotics. Aminoglycosides are effective at treating infections associated with cystic fibrosis and other life-threatening conditions such as sepsis, but cause hearing loss in 20–30% of patients. It is therefore imperative to develop new therapies to combat hearing loss and allow safe use of these potent antibiotics. We approach this drug discovery question using the larval zebrafish lateral line because zebrafish hair cells are structurally and functionally similar to mammalian inner ear hair cells and respond similarly to toxins. We screened a library of 502 natural compounds in order to identify novel hair cell protectants. Our screen identified four bisbenzylisoquinoline derivatives: berbamine, E6 berbamine, hernandezine, and isotetrandrine, each of which robustly protected hair cells from aminoglycoside-induced damage. Using fluorescence microscopy and electrophysiology, we demonstrated that the natural compounds confer protection by reducing antibiotic uptake into hair cells and showed that hair cells remain functional during and after incubation in E6 berbamine. We also determined that these natural compounds do not reduce antibiotic efficacy. Together, these natural compounds represent a novel source of possible otoprotective drugs that may offer therapeutic options for patients receiving aminoglycoside treatment. PMID:27065807

  7. Extracellular divalent cations modulate aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death in the zebrafish lateral line

    PubMed Central

    Coffin, Allison B.; Reinhart, Katherine E.; Owens, Kelly N.; Raible, David W.; Rubel, Edwin W

    2016-01-01

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics cause death of sensory hair cells. Research over the past decade has identified several key players in the intracellular cascade. However, the role of the extracellular environment in aminoglycoside ototoxicity has received comparatively little attention. The present study uses the zebrafish lateral line to demonstrate that extracellular calcium and magnesium ions modulate hair cell death from neomycin and gentamicin in vivo, with high levels of either divalent cation providing significant protection. Imaging experiments with fluorescently tagged gentamicin show that drug uptake is reduced under high calcium conditions. Treating fish with the hair cell transduction blocker amiloride also reduces aminoglycoside uptake, preventing the toxicity, and experiments with variable calcium and amiloride concentrations suggest complementary effects between the two protectants. Elevated magnesium, in contrast, does not appear to significantly attenuate drug uptake, suggesting that the two divalent cations may protect hair cells from aminoglycoside damage through different mechanisms. These results provide additional evidence for calcium- and transduction-dependent aminoglycoside uptake. Divalent cations provided differential protection from neomycin and gentamicin, with high cation concentrations almost completely protecting hair cells from neomycin and acute gentamicin toxicity, but offering reduced protection from continuous (6 hr) gentamicin exposure. These experiments lend further support to the hypothesis that aminoglycoside toxicity occurs via multiple pathways in a both a drug and time course-specific manner. PMID:19285547

  8. Reaction-diffusion finite element model of lateral line primordium migration to explore cell leadership.

    PubMed

    Allena, R; Maini, P K

    2014-12-01

    Collective cell migration plays a fundamental role in many biological phenomena such as immune response, embryogenesis and tumorigenesis. In the present work, we propose a reaction-diffusion finite element model of the lateral line primordium migration in zebrafish. The population is modelled as a continuum with embedded discrete motile cells, which are assumed to be viscoelastic and able to undergo large deformations. The Wnt/ß-catenin-FGF and cxcr4b-cxcr7b signalling pathways inside the cohort regulating the migration are described through coupled reaction-diffusion equations. The coupling between mechanics and the molecular scenario occurs in two ways. Firstly, the intensity of the protrusion-contraction movement of the cells depends on the cxcr4b concentration. Secondly, the intra-synchronization between the active deformations and the adhesion forces inside each cell is triggered by the cxcr4b-cxcr7b polarity. This influences the inter-synchronization between the cells and results in two main modes of migration: uncoordinated and coordinated. The main objectives of the work were (i) to validate our assumptions with respect to the experimental observations and (ii) to decipher the mechanical conditions leading to efficient migration of the primordium. To achieve the second goal, we will specifically focus on the role of the leader cells and their position inside the population.

  9. Identification of Modulators of Hair Cell Regeneratin in the Zebrafish Lateral Line

    PubMed Central

    Namdaran, Parhum; Reinhart, Katherine E.; Owens, Kelly N.; Raible, David W.; Rubel, Edwin W

    2012-01-01

    The external location of the zebrafish lateral line makes it a powerful model for studying mechanosensory hair cell regeneration. We have developed a chemical screen to identify FDA-approved drugs and biologically active compounds that modulate hair cell regeneration in zebrafish. Of the 1,680 compounds evaluated, we identified 2 enhancers and 6 inhibitors of regeneration. The two enhancers, dexamethasone and prednisolone, are synthetic glucocorticoids that potentiated hair cell numbers during regeneration and also induced hair cell addition in the absence of damage. BrdU analysis confirmed that the extra hair cells arose from mitotic activity. We found that dexamethasone and prednisolone, like other glucocorticoids, suppress zebrafish caudal fin regeneration, indicating that hair cell regeneration occurs by a distinctly different process. Further analyses of the regeneration inhibitors revealed that two of the six, flubendazole and topotecan, significantly suppress hair cell regeneration by preventing proliferation of hair cell precursors. Flubendazole halted support cell division in M-phase, possibly by interfering with normal microtubule activity. Topotecan, a topoisomerase inhibitor, killed both hair cells and proliferating hair cell precursors. A third inhibitor, fulvestrant, moderately delays hair cell regeneration by reducing support cell proliferation. Our observation that hair cells do not regenerate when support cell proliferation is impeded confirms previous observations that cell division is the primary route for hair cell regeneration after neomycin treatment in zebrafish. PMID:22399774

  10. Role of the lateral line mechanosensory system in directionality of goldfish auditory evoked escape response.

    PubMed

    Mirjany, Mana; Preuss, Thomas; Faber, Donald S

    2011-10-15

    Goldfish (Carassius auratus) escape responses to sudden auditory stimuli are mediated by a pair of reticulospinal neurons, the Mauthner (M-) cells, which integrate mechanosensory inputs from the inner ear and the lateral line (LL) to initiate a fast directional response away from the aversive stimulus. This behavior is context dependent; when near an obstruction the fish may rather turn towards the sound to avoid hitting the object. Mechanisms underlying this directionality remain unknown. Here we investigate the contribution of the LL system to auditory evoked escapes and provide behavioral evidence that it transmits stimulus - and environmental-dependent information that determines the initial response direction of the escape. We quantified escape latency, probability and directionality following abrupt sound stimuli before and after removal of the entire LL with 0.03 mmol l(-1) cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)), 0.002% gentamicin or selective posterior LL nerve (pLLn) transection. CoCl(2) significantly increased escape onset latency without affecting probability and reduced open field directionality from 77% to chance, 52%. This effect on directionality was also observed with gentamicin. Transection of the pLLn had no effect on directionality, indicating the anterior LL nerve (aLLn) afferents are more likely to transmit directional information to the M-cell. When the fish were near a wall, the error rate was quadrupled by both CoCl(2) and pLLn transection. Visual elimination had no influence on directionality unless combined with LL elimination.

  11. Projection neurons of the mormyrid electrosensory lateral line lobe: morphology, immunohistochemistry, and synaptology.

    PubMed

    Grant, K; Meek, J; Sugawara, Y; Veron, M; Denizot, J P; Hafmans, T G; Serrier, J; Szabo, T

    1996-11-04

    This paper describes the morphological, immunohistochemical, and synaptic properties of projection neurons in the highly laminated medial and dorsolateral zones of the mormyrid electrosensory lateral line lobe (ELL). These structures are involved in active electrolocation, i.e., the detection and localization of objects in the nearby environment of the fish on the basis of changes in the reafferent electrosensory signal generated by the animal's own electric organ discharge. Electrosensory, corollary electromotor command-associated signals (corollary discharges), and a variety of other inputs are integrated within the ELL microcircuit. The organization of ELL projection neurons is analyzed at the light and electron microscopic levels based on Golgi impregnations, intracellular labeling, neuroanatomical tracer techniques, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), gamma-aminobutyric acid decarboxylase (GAD), and glutamate immunohistochemistry. Two main types of ELL projection neurons have been distinguished in mormyrids: large ganglionic (LG) and large fusiform (LF) cells. LG cells have a multipolar cell body (average diameter 13 microns) in the ganglionic layer, whereas LF cells have a fusiform cell body (on average, about 10 x 20 microns) in the granular layer. Apart from the location and shape of their soma, the morphological properties of these cell types are largely similar. They are glutamaterigic and project to the midbrain torus semicircularis, where their axon terminals make axodendritic synaptic contacts in the lateral nucleus. They have 6-12 apical dendrites in the molecular layer, with about 10,000 spines contacted by GABA-negative terminals and about 3,000 GABA-positive contacts on the smooth dendritic surface between the spines. Their somata and short, smooth basal dendrites, which arborize in the plexiform layer (LG cells) or in the granular layer (LF cells), are densely covered with GABA-positive, inhibitory terminals. Correlation with physiological data

  12. Leading and trailing cells cooperate in collective migration of the zebrafish posterior lateral line primordium.

    PubMed

    Dalle Nogare, Damian; Somers, Katherine; Rao, Swetha; Matsuda, Miho; Reichman-Fried, Michal; Raz, Erez; Chitnis, Ajay B

    2014-08-01

    Collective migration of cells in the zebrafish posterior lateral line primordium (PLLp) along a path defined by Cxcl12a expression depends on Cxcr4b receptors in leading cells and on Cxcr7b in trailing cells. Cxcr7b-mediated degradation of Cxcl12a by trailing cells generates a local gradient of Cxcl12a that guides PLLp migration. Agent-based computer models were built to explore how a polarized response to Cxcl12a, mediated by Cxcr4b in leading cells and prevented by Cxcr7b in trailing cells, determines unidirectional migration of the PLLp. These chemokine signaling-based models effectively recapitulate many behaviors of the PLLp and provide potential explanations for the characteristic behaviors that emerge when the PLLp is severed by laser to generate leading and trailing fragments. As predicted by our models, the bilateral stretching of the leading fragment is lost when chemokine signaling is blocked in the PLLp. However, movement of the trailing fragment toward the leading cells, which was also thought to be chemokine dependent, persists. This suggested that a chemokine-independent mechanism, not accounted for in our models, is responsible for this behavior. Further investigation of trailing cell behavior shows that their movement toward leading cells depends on FGF signaling and it can be re-oriented by exogenous FGF sources. Together, our observations reveal the simple yet elegant manner in which leading and trailing cells coordinate migration; while leading cells steer PLLp migration by following chemokine cues, cells further back play follow-the-leader as they migrate toward FGFs produced by leading cells.

  13. A model of the lateral line of fish for vortex sensing.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zheng; Mohseni, Kamran

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, the lateral line trunk canal (LLTC) of a fish is modeled to investigate how it is affected by an external flow field. Potential flow theory is adopted to model the flow field around a fish's body in the presence of a Karman vortex street. Karman and reverse Karman streets represent the flow patterns behind a bluff body and a traveling fish, respectively. An analytical solution is obtained for a flat body, while a fish-like body is modeled using a Joukowski transformation and the corresponding equations are solved numerically. The pressure distribution on the body surface is then computed employing Bernoulli's equation. For a known external flow, the flow inside the LLTC is driven by the pressure gradient between a pair of consecutive pores, which can be solved analytically. Governing dimensionless parameters are obtained from this analytical solution, and the effects of these numbers on the amplitude or features of the velocity distribution inside the canal are studied. The results show that the main characteristics of a vortex street including the magnitude of vortices, their translational speed, their spacing, their distance from the fish's body and the angle of the vortex street axis can all be recovered by measuring the velocity distribution along the canal and its changes with time. To this end, the proposed LLTC model could explain how a fish identifies the characteristics of a Karman vortex street shed by a nearby object or a traveling fish. It is also demonstrated that while this model captures the ac (alternating current) component of the external velocity signal, the dc (direct current) component of the signal is filtered out. Based on the results of our model, the role of the LLTC in a fish's schooling and its evolutionary impact on fish sensing are discussed.

  14. Profiling drug-induced cell death pathways in the zebrafish lateral line

    PubMed Central

    Coffin, Allison B.; Williamson, Kay L.; Mamiya, Anna; Raible, David W.; Rubel, Edwin W

    2013-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is an important process in development and disease, as it allows the body to rid itself of unwanted or damaged cells. However, PCD pathways can also be activated in otherwise healthy cells. One such case occurs in sensory hair cells of the inner ear following exposure to ototoxic drugs, resulting in hearing loss and/or balance disorders. The intracellular pathways that determine if hair cells die or survive following this or other ototoxic challenges are incompletely understood. We use the larval zebrafish lateral line, an external hair cell-bearing sensory system, as a platform for profiling cell death pathways activated in response to ototoxic stimuli. In this report the importance of each pathway was assessed by screening a custom cell death inhibitor library for instances when pathway inhibition protected hair cells from the aminoglycosides neomycin or gentamicin, or the chemotherapy agent cisplatin. This screen revealed that each ototoxin likely activated a distinct subset of possible cell death pathways. For example, the proteasome inhibitor Z-LLF-CHO protected hair cells from either aminoglycoside or from cisplatin, while D-methionine, an antioxidant, protected hair cells from gentamicin or cisplatin but not from neomycin toxicity. The calpain inhibitor leupeptin primarily protected hair cells from neomycin, as did a Bax channel blocker. Neither caspase inhibition nor protein synthesis inhibition altered the progression of hair cell death. Taken together, these results suggest that ototoxin-treated hair cells die via multiple processes that form an interactive network of cell death signaling cascades. PMID:23413197

  15. Leading and trailing cells cooperate in collective migration of the zebrafish posterior lateral line primordium

    PubMed Central

    Dalle Nogare, Damian; Somers, Katherine; Rao, Swetha; Matsuda, Miho; Reichman-Fried, Michal; Raz, Erez; Chitnis, Ajay B.

    2014-01-01

    Collective migration of cells in the zebrafish posterior lateral line primordium (PLLp) along a path defined by Cxcl12a expression depends on Cxcr4b receptors in leading cells and on Cxcr7b in trailing cells. Cxcr7b-mediated degradation of Cxcl12a by trailing cells generates a local gradient of Cxcl12a that guides PLLp migration. Agent-based computer models were built to explore how a polarized response to Cxcl12a, mediated by Cxcr4b in leading cells and prevented by Cxcr7b in trailing cells, determines unidirectional migration of the PLLp. These chemokine signaling-based models effectively recapitulate many behaviors of the PLLp and provide potential explanations for the characteristic behaviors that emerge when the PLLp is severed by laser to generate leading and trailing fragments. As predicted by our models, the bilateral stretching of the leading fragment is lost when chemokine signaling is blocked in the PLLp. However, movement of the trailing fragment toward the leading cells, which was also thought to be chemokine dependent, persists. This suggested that a chemokine-independent mechanism, not accounted for in our models, is responsible for this behavior. Further investigation of trailing cell behavior shows that their movement toward leading cells depends on FGF signaling and it can be re-oriented by exogenous FGF sources. Together, our observations reveal the simple yet elegant manner in which leading and trailing cells coordinate migration; while leading cells steer PLLp migration by following chemokine cues, cells further back play follow-the-leader as they migrate toward FGFs produced by leading cells. PMID:25063456

  16. Fusarium solani fungal infection of the lateral line canal system in captive scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Crow, G L; Brock, J A; Kaiser, S

    1995-10-01

    Two of five scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) captured May 1987 in Hawaii (USA) developed granulomatous exudative mycotic dermatitis localized in the lateral line canal system. The lesion initially was noted in the cephalic canals, but over a period of months extended into the lateral canal. Fusarium solani and Vibrio spp. were isolated from the canal exudate of both sharks. Bacterial colonies were not observed in the canal walls or surrounding tissues. Fusarium solani infection resulted in a chronic physical and behavioral deterioration of the two sharks; one shark was euthanized in September 1988 and the other in July 1989. This is the first report of Fusarium solani infection in the lateral line canal system and the third account in hammerhead sharks.

  17. Interneurons of the ganglionic layer in the mormyrid electrosensory lateral line lobe: morphology, immunohistochemistry, and synaptology.

    PubMed

    Meek, J; Grant, K; Sugawara, Y; Hafmans, T G; Veron, M; Denizot, J P

    1996-11-04

    This is the second paper in a series that describes the morphology, immunohistochemistry, and synaptology of the mormyrid electrosensory lateral line lobe (ELL). The ELL is a highly laminated cerebellum-like structure in the rhombencephalon that subserves an active electric sense: Objects in the nearby environment of the fish are detected on the basis of changes in the reafferent electrosensory signals that are generated by the animal's own electric organ discharge. The present paper describes interneurons in the superficial (molecular, ganglionic, and plexiform) layers of the ELL cortex that were analyzed in the light and electron microscopes after Golgi impregnation, intracellular labeling, neuroanatomical tracing, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) immunohistochemistry. The most numerous interneurons in the ganglionic layer are GABAergic medium-sized ganglionic (MG) cells and small ganglionic (SG) cells. MG cells have 10-20 spiny apical dendrites in the molecular layer, a cell body of 10-12 microns diameter in the ganglionic layer, a single basal dendrite that gives rise to fine, beaded, axon-like branches in either the plexiform layer (MG1 subtype) or the deeper granular layer (MG2 subtype), and an axon that terminates in the plexiform layer. Their apical dendritic tree has 12,000-22,000 spines that are contacted by GABA-negative terminals, and it receives, 1,250-2,500 GABA-positive contacts on the smooth dendritic surface between the spines. The average ratio of GABA-negative to GABA-positive contacts on the interneuron apical dendrites (14:1) is significantly higher than that for the efferent projection cells that have been described previously (Grant et al. [1996] J. Comp. Neurol., this issue). The somata and basal dendrites of MG cells receive a low to moderate density of GABAergic synaptic input, and their axons make GABAergic synaptic contacts with the somata and cell bodies of MG as well as with large ganglionic (LG) cells. SG cells probably represent

  18. Auditory and Lateral Line Inputs to the Midbrain of an Aquatic Anuran; Neuroanatomic Studies in Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Christofer J.; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2012-01-01

    Computation of rate in auditory signals is essential to call recognition in anurans. This task is ascribed to a group of central nervous sytem nuclei in the dorsal midbrain or torus semicircularis, homologous to the inferior colliculus of mammals. We have mapped the connections of the subnuclei of the torus semicircularis in Xenopus laevis to determine which receive auditory and which receive lateral line information. Relative to terrestrial anurans, the torus of X. laevis is hypertrophied and occupies the entire caudal, dorsal midbrain. Auditory input to the torus, that arising directly from the dorsal medullary nucleus, is present only in the laminar nucleus. The principal and magnocellular nuclei receive their input from the lateral line nucleus of the medulla. All three nuclei of the torus also have reciprocal connections with the superior olive and the nucleus of the lateral lemniscus. Ascending efferents from all three nuclei of the torus innervate central and lateral thalamic nuclei, and all have a weak reciprocal connection with the posterior thalamus. The laminar and magnocellular nuclei have reciprocal connections with the ventral thalamus, and all three nuclei of the torus receive descending input from the anterior entopeduncular nucleus. The laminar and magnocellular nuclei also receive descending input from the preoptic area. Based on our identification of toral nuclei and these results we assign a major function for the detection of water-borne sounds to the laminar nucleus and a major function for the detection of near field disturbances in water pressure to the principal and magnocellular nuclei. PMID:11536185

  19. Loss of ZNF32 augments the regeneration of nervous lateral line system through negative regulation of SOX2 transcription

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yuyan; Li, Kai; Yao, Shaohua; Gao, Junping; Li, Jun; Shang, Yanna; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Le; Li, Yanyan; Mo, Xianming; Meng, Wentong; Xiang, Rong; Hu, Jiankun; Lin, Ping; Wei, Yuquan

    2016-01-01

    Human zinc finger protein 32 (ZNF32) is a Cys2-His2 zinc-finger transcription factor that plays an important role in cell fate, yet much of its function remains unknown. Here, we reveal that the zebrafish ZNF32 homologue zfZNF32 is expressed in the nervous system, particularly in the lateral line system. ZfZNF32 knock-out zebrafish (zfZNF−/−) were generated using the CRISPR-associated protein 9 system. We found that the regenerative capacity of the lateral line system was increased in zfZNF−/− upon hair cell damage compared with the wild type. Moreover, SOX2 was essential for the zfZNF32-dependent modulation of lateral line system regeneration. Mechanistic studies showed that ZNF32 suppressed SOX2 transcription by directly binding to a consensus sequence (5′-gcattt-32) in the SOX2 promoter. In addition, ZNF32 localizes to the nucleus, and we have identified that amino acids 1-169 (Aa 1-169) and each of three independent nuclear localization signals (NLSs) in ZNF32 are indispensable for ZNF32 nuclear trafficking. Mutating the NLSs disrupted the inhibitory effect of ZNF32 in SOX2 expression, highlighting the critical role of the NLSs in ZNF32 function. Our findings reveal a pivotal role for ZNF32 function in SOX2 expression and regeneration regulation. PMID:27626680

  20. Lateral Biases and Reading Direction: A Dissociation between Aesthetic Preference and Line Bisection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii, Yukiko; Okubo, Matia; Nicholls, Michael E. R.; Imai, Hisato

    2011-01-01

    Perceptual asymmetries for tasks involving aesthetic preference or line bisection can be affected by asymmetrical neurological mechanisms or left/right reading habits. This study investigated the relative contribution of these mechanisms in 100 readers of Japanese and English. Participants made aesthetic judgments between pairs of mirror-reversed…

  1. The occurrence of metacercariae of Petasiger (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) in an unusual site, within the lateral line scales of cyprinid fishes.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Kalman; Gibson, David I; Cech, Gabor; Papp, Melitta; Deak-Paulus, Petra; Juhasz, Lajos; Toth, Norbert; Szekely, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    During a regular veterinary inspection of fishes from Lake Balaton, Hungary, echinostomatid metacercariae (Digenea), with collar spines characteristic of species of the genera Petasiger Dietz, 1909 and Paryphostomum Dietz, 1909, were found in the lateral line scales of a roach Rutilus rutilus (Linnaeus), an apparently unique site. In a subsequent examination of 586 fishes from 20 different species, similar infections were found in 11 species. The infection was virtually restricted to the lateral line scales, other scales being infected only incidentally. These encysted metacercariae had 27 collar spines, including eight larger angle spines and 19 smaller dorsal spines arranged in two rows. Two types of metacercarial cyst were found. One type had a cyst diameter of 138-171 µm × 105-120 µm and three central dorsal spines that were larger than the remainder and tended to resemble the angle spines. The second type of metacercarial cyst had a diameter of 128-157 µm × 105-115 µm and all 19 dorsal spines of the metacercaria were of a similar size. ITS sequences of the second type of metacercaria exhibited a 100% similarity to sequences of two adult Petasiger phalacrocoracis (Yamaguti, 1939) specimens collected from the gut of Phalacrocorax carbo (Linnaeus) in Hungary and to P. phalacrocoracis deposited in the GenBank database. Sequences obtained from two metacercariae of the first type showed a 2.8-2.9 % difference from sequences of the second type of metacercaria and from those of adult specimens of P. phalacrocoracis from cormorants. Based on these results, the second type metacercaria is considered to be a larval stage of P. phalacrocoracis, but the identity of the first type is uncertain. The unusual location of these metacercariae in the lateral line scales is discussed in relation to their transmission.

  2. The medial and lateral epicondyle as a reliable landmark for intra-operative joint line determination in revision knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Sen, T.; Cankaya, D.; Kendir, S.; Basarır, K.; Tabak, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to develop an accurate, reliable and easily applicable method for determining the anatomical location of the joint line during revision knee arthroplasty. Methods The transepicondylar width (TEW), the perpendicular distance between the medial and lateral epicondyles and the distal articular surfaces (DMAD, DLAD) and the distance between the medial and lateral epicondyles and the posterior articular surfaces (PMAD, DLAD) were measured in 40 knees from 20 formalin-fixed adult cadavers (11 male and nine female; mean age at death 56.9 years, sd 9.4; 34 to 69). The ratios of the DMAD, PMAD, DLAD and PLAD to TEW were calculated. Results The mean TEW, DMAD, PMAD, DLAD and PLAD were 82.76 mm (standard deviation (sd) 7.74), 28.95 mm (sd 3.3), 28.57 mm (sd 3), 23.97 mm (sd 3.27) and 24.42 mm (sd 3.14), respectively. The ratios between the TEW and the articular distances (DMAD/TEW, DLAD/TEW, PMAD/TEW and PLAD/TEW) were calculated and their means were 0.35 (sd 0.02), 0.34 (sd 0.02), 0.28 (sd 0.03) and 0.29 (sd 0.03), respectively. Conclusion This method provides a simple, reproducible and reliable technique enabling accurate anatomical joint line restoration during revision total knee arthroplasty. Cite this article: B. Ozkurt, T. Sen, D. Cankaya, S. Kendir, K. Basarır, Y. Tabak. The medial and lateral epicondyle as a reliable landmark for intra-operative joint line determination in revision knee arthroplasty. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:280–286. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.57.BJR-2016-0002.R1. PMID:27388715

  3. Medullary lateral line units of rudd, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, are sensitive to Kármán vortex streets.

    PubMed

    Klein, Adrian; Winkelnkemper, Jan; Dylda, Evelyn; Bleckmann, Horst

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the responses of medullary lateral line units of the rudd, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, to bulk water flow (7 cm s(-1)) and to water flow that contained vortices shed by an upstream half cylinder (diameter 1, 2, and 3 cm). Thirty-five percent of the medullary units either increased or decreased their discharge rate with the increasing cylinder diameter. In some units, the spike patterns revealed the vortex shedding frequency, i.e., in these units the amplitude of spike train frequency spectra was similar or identical to the vortex shedding frequency.

  4. Reliable underwater dipole source characterization in 3D space by an optimally designed artificial lateral line system.

    PubMed

    Ahrari, Ali; Lei, Hong; Sharif, Montassar Aidi; Deb, Kalyanmoy; Tan, Xiaobo

    2017-04-19

    Inspired by the lateral line of aquatic vertebrates, an artificial lateral line (ALL) system can localize and track an underwater moving object by analyzing the ambient flow caused by its motion. There are several studies on object detection, localization and tracking by ALL systems, but only a few have investigated the optimal design of the ALL system, the one that on average provides the highest characterization accuracy. Design optimization is particularly important because the uncertainties in the employed flow model and in sensor measurements deteriorate the reliability of sensing. This study investigates the optimal design of the ALL system in three-dimensional (3D) space for dipole source characterization. It highlights some challenges specific to the 3D setting and demonstrates the shortcomings of the designs in which all sensors and their sensing directions are in the same plane. As an alternative, it proposes two design concepts, called 'Offset Strategy' and 'Angle Strategy' to overcome these shortcomings. It investigates potentials of having a swarm of cooperative ALLs as well. It performs design optimization in the presence of sensor and model uncertainties and analyzes the trade-off between the number of sensors and characterization accuracy. The obtained solutions are analyzed to reveal their strategies in solving the problem efficiently. The dependency of the optimized solutions on the uncertainties is also demonstrated.

  5. The alteration of serine transporter activity in a cell line model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

    PubMed

    Lee, Na-Young; Kim, Yunha; Ryu, Hoon; Kang, Young-Sook

    2017-01-29

    The alteration of d-serine levels is associated with the pathogenesis of sporadic ALS and mutant SOD1 (G93A) animal model of ALS. However, the exact mechanism of d-serine transport is not known in ALS. To better understand the distribution of d-serine in ALS, we determined the activity and the expression of serine transporter in a motor neuronal cell line model of ALS (NSC-34/hSOD1(G93A) cells). The uptake of [(3)H]d-serine was significantly lower in NSC-34/hSOD1(G93A) cells than in control NSC-34 and NSC-34/hSOD1(wt) cells. In contrast, the uptake of [(3)H]l-serine, precursor of d-serine, was markedly increased in NSC-34/hSOD1(G93A) cells compared to control NSC-34 and NSC-34/hSOD1(wt) cells. Both [(3)H]d-serine and [(3)H]l-serine uptake were saturable in these cells. The estimated Michaelis-Menten constant, Km, for d-serine uptakes was higher in NSC-34/hSOD1(G93A) cells than in NSC-34/hSOD1(wt) cells while the Km for l-serine uptake was 2 fold lower in NSC-34/hSOD1(G93A) cells than in control cells. [(3)H]d-serine and [(3)H]l-serine uptakes took place in a Na(+)-dependent manner, and both uptakes were significantly inhibited by system ASC (alanine-serine-cysteine) substrates. As a result of small interfering RNA experiments, we found that ASCT2 (SLC1A5) and ASCT1 (SLC1A4) are involved in [(3)H]d-serine and [(3)H]l-serine uptake in NSC-34/hSOD1(G93A) cells, respectively. The level of SLC1A4 mRNA was significantly increased in NSC-34/hSOD1(G93A) compared to NSC-34 and NSC-34/hSOD1(wt) cells. In contrast, the level of SLC7A10 mRNA was relatively lower in NSC-34/hSOD1(G93A) cells than the control cells. Together, these data suggest that the pathological alteration of d- and l-serine uptakes in ALS is driven by the affinity change of d-and l-serine uptake system.

  6. Epizootic neoplasia of the lateral line system of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in New York's Finger Lakes.

    PubMed

    Spitsbergen, J M; Frattini, S A; Bowser, P R; Getchell, R G; Coffee, L L; Wolfe, M J; Fisher, J P; Marinovic, S J; Harr, K E

    2013-05-01

    This article documents an epizootic of inflammation and neoplasia selectively affecting the lateral line system of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in 4 Finger Lakes in New York from 1985 to 1994. We studied more than 100 cases of this disease. Tumors occurred in 8% (5/64) of mature and 21% (3/14) of immature lake trout in the most severely affected lake. Lesions consisted of 1 or more neoplasm(s) in association with lymphocytic inflammation, multifocal erosions, and ulcerations of the epidermis along the lateral line. Lesions progressed from inflammatory to neoplastic, with 2-year-old lake trout showing locally extensive, intense lymphocytic infiltrates; 2- to 3-year-old fish having multiple, variably sized white masses up to 3 mm in diameter; and fish over 5 years old exhibiting 1 or more white, cerebriform masses greater than 1 cm in diameter. Histologic diagnoses of the tumors were predominantly spindle cell sarcomas or benign or malignant peripheral nerve sheath neoplasms, with fewer epitheliomas and carcinomas. Prevalence estimates did not vary significantly between sexes or season. The cause of this epizootic remains unclear. Tumor transmission trials, virus isolation procedures, and ultrastructural study of lesions failed to reveal evidence of a viral etiology. The Finger Lakes in which the disease occurred did not receive substantially more chemical pollution than unaffected lakes in the same chain during the epizootic, making an environmental carcinogen an unlikely primary cause of the epizootic. A hereditary component, however, may have contributed to this syndrome since only fish of the Seneca Lake strain were affected.

  7. Magnetic fields exposure from high-voltage power lines and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in two Italian populations.

    PubMed

    Vinceti, Marco; Malagoli, Carlotta; Fabbi, Sara; Kheifets, Leeka; Violi, Federica; Poli, Maurizio; Caldara, Salvatore; Sesti, Daniela; Violanti, Silvia; Zanichelli, Paolo; Notari, Barbara; Fava, Roberto; Arena, Alessia; Calzolari, Roberta; Filippini, Tommaso; Iacuzio, Laura; Arcolin, Elisa; Mandrioli, Jessica; Fini, Nicola; Odone, Anna; Signorelli, Carlo; Patti, Francesco; Zappia, Mario; Pietrini, Vladimiro; Oleari, Paola; Teggi, Sergio; Ghermandi, Grazia; Dimartino, Angela; Ledda, Caterina; Mauceri, Cristina; Sciacca, Salvatore; Fiore, Maria; Ferrante, Margherita

    2017-06-01

    The aetiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a rare and extremely severe neurodegenerative disease, has been associated with magnetic fields exposure. However, evidence for such a relation in the general population is weak, although the previous null results might also be due to exposure misclassification, or a relationship might exist only for selected subgroups. To test such a hypothesis we carried out a population-based case-control study in two Northern and Southern Italy regions, including 703 ALS cases newly diagnosed from 1998 to 2011 and 2737 controls randomly selected from the residents in the study provinces. Overall, we found that a residence near high-voltage power lines, within the corridors yielding a magnetic fields of ≥0.1 μT, was not associated with an excess disease risk, nor did we identify a dose-response relationship after splitting the exposed corridor according to the 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 μT cut-points of exposure. These results were confirmed taking into account age at onset, period of diagnosis, sex, geographical area, and length of exposure. Overall, despite the residual possibility of unmeasured confounding or small susceptible subgroups not identified in our study, these results appear to confirm that the exposure to magnetic fields from power lines occurring in the general population is not associated with increased ALS risk.

  8. Endoscope-assisted second branchial cleft cyst resection via an incision along skin line on lateral neck.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junming; Chen, Weixiong; Zhang, Jianli; He, Fayao; Zhu, Zhaofeng; Tang, Sucheng; Wang, Yuejian

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study is to report the feasibility of endoscope-assisted second branchial cleft cyst resection via a small incision along the skin line on the lateral neck. In total, 41 patients from the Department of Otolaryngology, Foshan Hospital of Yat-sen University were randomly assigned to conventional (20 patients) or endoscope-assisted (21 patients) second branchial cleft cyst resection. The patient clinical characteristics, operation time, operative bleeding volume, postoperative complications, and subjective satisfaction with the incision scar (measured using a visual analog scale) were compared between the groups. All 41 s branchial cleft cyst resections were successfully performed, and the wounds healed uneventfully. The bleeding volume (6.3 ± 2.5 ml) and incision length (2.7 ± 0.3 cm) differed between the groups (P < 0.00). The mean patient satisfaction score was 8.0 ± 0.8 in the endoscope-assisted surgery group and 6.4 ± 0.9 in the control group (P < 0.00). All of the patients in the endoscope-assisted surgery group were satisfied with their cosmetic results. No marginal nerve palsy occurred. No complications such as bleeding, salivary fistula, or paresis of the marginal mandibular branch occurred. All of the patients were disease free through a follow-up period of 6-24 months (median: 14 months). Endoscope-assisted second branchial cleft cyst resection via a small incision along the dermatoglyph on the lateral neck is a feasible technique. This procedure may serve as an alternative approach, allowing a minimally invasive incision and better cosmetic results.

  9. Automated, on-line quantification of left ventricular dimensions and function by echocardiography with backscatter imaging and lateral gain compensation.

    PubMed

    Pérez, J E; Klein, S C; Prater, D M; Fraser, C E; Cardona, H; Waggoner, A D; Holland, M R; Miller, J G; Sobel, B E

    1992-11-01

    To provide on-line quantification of left ventricular cavity dimensions and function by echocardiography 60 control subjects and 10 patients with cardiac dysfunction were studied. A novel, ultrasound imaging system was used which was developed to detect and track, in real time, ventricular endocardial blood boundaries based on quantitative assessment of acoustic properties of tissue. In addition, lateral gain compensation, a robust and novel image enhancement procedure, was used to provide instantaneous measurement and display of cavity areas and functional indexes on a beat-by-beat basis within regions of interest drawn around the blood pool cavity. In control subjects, short-axis end-diastolic area averaged 13.1 +/- 3.7 cm2 (SD), end-systolic area 5.9 +/- 2.7 cm2, and fractional area change 55.6 +/- 11.2%. Apical views yielded corresponding values of 23.8 +/- 4.5 cm2, 15.5 +/- 3.4 cm2 and 34.7 +/- 7.8%. Instantaneous peak rate of cavity area change approximated 50 cm2/s in systole and 60 cm2/s in diastole in each view. Serial measurements of area and functional index were reproducible over intervals of 2 to 3 weeks. Patients with dilated ventricles exhibited average apical view area values of 49.1 +/- 6.1 cm2 and 43.1 +/- 4.9 cm2 in diastole and systole with a fractional area change of 12.2 +/- 3.0%. Thus, results with on-line echocardiographic backscatter imaging-assisted automated edge detection are reproducible and capable of delineating cardiac dysfunction conveniently, promptly and serially at the bedside.

  10. Adult mortality from leukemia, brain cancer, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and magnetic fields from power lines: a case-control study in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marcilio, Izabel; Gouveia, Nelson; Pereira Filho, Mário Leite; Kheifets, Leeka

    2011-12-01

    Recent publications renewed interest in assessing potential health risks for subjects living close to transmission lines. This study aimed at evaluating the association of both distance of home address to the nearest overhead transmission line and of the calculated magnetic fields from the power lines and mortality from leukemia, brain cancer, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We carried out a death certificate based case-control study accessing adult mortality in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, in Brazil. Analysis included 1,857 cases of leukemia, 2,357 of brain cancer, 367 of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and 4,706 as controls. An increased risk for mortality from leukemia among adults living at closer distances to transmission lines compared to those living further then 400 m was found. Risk was higher for subjects that lived within 50 m from power lines (OR=1.47; 95% CI=0.99-2.18). Similarly, a small increase in leukemia mortality was observed among adults living in houses with higher calculated magnetic fields (OR=1.61; 95% CI=0.91-2.86 for those exposed to magnetic fields >0.3 µT). No increase was seen for brain tumours or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Our findings are suggestive of a higher risk for leukemia among subjects living closer to transmission lines, and for those living at homes with higher calculated magnetic fields, although the risk was limited to lower voltage lines.

  11. Internalization of styryl dye FM1-43 in the hair cells of lateral line organs in Xenopus larvae.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, S; Sasaki, F

    1996-07-01

    We used a fluorescent dye, FM1-43 to investigate mechanotransduction mechanisms in the hair cells of lateral line organs of Xenopus larvae. FM1-43 specifically labeled the hair cells. The photo-oxidation technique was performed with election microscopy to examine the labeling sites and their mechanisms. The results showed that the labeling sites were mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum throughout the cytoplasm. Endocytic activity of the hair cells was limited to endosomes and small granules located at the apical part of the cells. Blockers of the mechanosensitive cation channel (neomycin, gentamicin, streptomycin, and amiloride) effectively inhibited FM1-43 labeling. One of the blockers, amiloride, was found to bind to hair cells when its fluorescence was examined. Divalent cations such as Mg2+ and Ca2+, but not monovalent cations such as Na+ and K+, inhibited FM1-43 labeling when they were added in excess amounts. These results suggest that FM1-43 internalizes hair cells via the putative mechanosensitive cation channel in the plasma membrane.

  12. Using the zebrafish lateral line to uncover novel mechanisms of action and prevention in drug-induced hair cell death

    PubMed Central

    Stawicki, Tamara M.; Esterberg, Robert; Hailey, Dale W.; Raible, David W.; Rubel, Edwin W

    2015-01-01

    The majority of hearing loss and balance disorders are caused by the permanent loss of mechanosensory hair cells of the inner ear. Identification of genes and compounds that modulate susceptibility to hair cell death is frequently confounded by the difficulties of assaying for such complex phenomena in mammalian models. The zebrafish has emerged as a powerful animal model for genetic and chemical screening in many contexts. Several characteristics of the zebrafish, such as its small size and external location of mechanosensory hair cells within the lateral line sensory organ, uniquely position it as an ideal model organism for the study of hair cell toxicity. We have used this model to screen for genes and compounds that affect hair cell survival during ototoxin exposure and have identified agents that would not be expected to play a role in this process based on a priori knowledge of their function. The identification of such agents yields better understanding of hair cell death and holds promise to stem hearing loss and balance disorders in the human population. PMID:25741241

  13. Estrogen receptor ESR1 controls cell migration by repressing chemokine receptor CXCR4 in the zebrafish posterior lateral line system.

    PubMed

    Gamba, Laurent; Cubedo, Nicolas; Ghysen, Alain; Lutfalla, Georges; Dambly-Chaudière, Christine

    2010-04-06

    The primordium that generates the embryonic posterior lateral line of zebrafish migrates from the head to the tip of the tail along a trail of SDF1-producing cells. This migration critically depends on the presence of the SDF1 receptor CXCR4 in the leading region of the primordium and on the presence of a second SDF1 receptor, CXCR7, in the trailing region of the primordium. Here we show that inactivation of the estrogen receptor ESR1 results in ectopic expression of cxcr4b throughout the primordium, whereas ESR1 overexpression results in a reciprocal reduction in the domain of cxcr4b expression, suggesting that ESR1 acts as a repressor of cxcr4b. This finding could explain why estrogens significantly decrease the metastatic ability of ESR-positive breast cancer cells. ESR1 inactivation also leads to extinction of cxcr7b expression in the trailing cells of the migrating primordium; this effect is indirect, however, and due to the down-regulation of cxcr7b by ectopic SDF1/CXCR4 signaling in the trailing region. Both ESR1 inactivation and overexpression result in aborted migration, confirming the importance of this receptor in the control of SDF1-dependent migration.

  14. A Hox gene controls lateral line cell migration by regulating chemokine receptor expression downstream of Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Breau, Marie A; Wilkinson, David G; Xu, Qiling

    2013-10-15

    The posterior lateral line primordium in zebrafish provides an amenable model to study mechanisms of collective cell migration. The directed migration of the cell cluster along the path of Sdf1a chemokine requires two receptors, Cxcr4b and Cxcr7b, which are expressed in the leading and trailing part of the primordium, respectively. The polarized expression of receptors is regulated by Wnt signaling, but downstream players mediating this control remain to be found. Here, we show that the Hox homeobox gene Hoxb8a is a critical component that acts downstream of the Wnt pathway to coordinate the expression of both chemokine receptors. We find that Hoxb8a is expressed in the leading part of the primordium and is required for the correct speed and extent of migration. Hoxb8a expression is dependent upon Wnt activity and needed both for cxcr4b expression and to repress and thus restrict cxcr7b expression to the trailing zone of the primordium. In the absence of Wnt activity, overexpressed Hoxb8a is able to repress cxcr7b but not up-regulate cxcr4b expression. Together with results from expressing dominant activator and repressor constructs, these findings suggest that Hoxb8a is induced by and cooperates with Wnt signaling to up-regulate cxcr4b, and acts through multiple mechanisms to repress cxcr7b expression.

  15. Inter- and intraspecific variation in the distribution and number of pit organs (free neuromasts) of sharks and rays.

    PubMed

    Peach, Meredith B

    2003-04-01

    The distribution of pit organs (free neuromasts) has previously been documented for several species of pelagic sharks, but is relatively poorly known for rays and bottom-dwelling (demersal) sharks. In the present study, the complete distribution of pit organs was mapped in the demersal sharks Heterodontus portusjacksoni, Orectolobus maculatus, Hemiscyllium ocellatum, Chiloscyllium punctatum, and Asymbolus analis, and the rays Rhinobatos typus, Aptychotrema rostrata, Trygonorrhina sp. A, Raja sp. A, and Myliobatis australis. All of these species had pit organs scattered over the dorsolateral surface. The sharks also had "mandibular" pit organs (and "umbilical" pit organs in C. punctatum and A. analis) on the ventral surface, while pit organs were sparse or absent on the ventral surface of rays. All of the species examined here, except for M. australis, also had a "spiracular" group of pit organs adjacent to the eye and/or spiracle. Spiracular pit organs were also recorded for the sawshark Pristiophorus sp. A and the skate Pavoraja nitida, although the remainder of pit organs were not mapped in these species. The distribution and number of pit organs varied both within and among species. Pit organ distribution was asymmetrical in each individual examined, but no particular trend towards left or right "handedness" was observed in any species. Although rays have been thought to have fewer pit organs than sharks in general, this was not the case in the present study. All of the species examined here had few pit organs compared to the pelagic sharks previously documented, but it is not clear whether this is due to ecological or phylogenetic causes. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Characterization of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line from a 72year old male patient with later onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaokun; Lv, Zhenshan; Zhang, Songyuan; Liu, Lidi; Li, Qiao; Gong, Weiquan; Sha, Hui; Wu, Hong

    2017-03-01

    Peripheral blood was collected from a clinically diagnosed 72-year old male patient with later onset Alzheimer's disease. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were reprogrammed with the Yamanaka KMOS reprogramming factors using the Sendai-virus reprogramming system. The transgene-free iPSC line showed pluripotency verified by immunofluorescent staining for pluripotency markers, and the iPSC line was able to differentiate into the 3 germ layers in vivo. The iPSC line also showed normal karyotype. This in vitro cellular model will be useful for studying the pathological mechanism of Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer in a Real-World Scenario: Is Progression-Free Survival With First Line Predictive of Benefit From Second and Later Lines?

    PubMed Central

    Bonotto, Marta; Gerratana, Lorenzo; Iacono, Donatella; Minisini, Alessandro Marco; Rihawi, Karim; Fasola, Gianpiero

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Despite the availability of several therapeutic options for metastatic breast cancer (MBC), no robust predictive factors are available to help clinical decision making. Nevertheless, a decreasing benefit from first line to subsequent lines of treatment is commonly observed. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of benefit from first-line therapy on outcome with subsequent lines. Methods. We analyzed a consecutive series of 472 MBC patients treated with chemotherapy (CT) and/or endocrine therapy (ET) between 2004 and 2012. We evaluated progression-free survival (PFS) at first (PFS1), second, third, and fourth therapeutic lines, according to treatment (ET and/or CT) and tumor subtypes. Results. In the whole cohort, median overall survival was 34 months, and median PFS1 was 9 months. A 6-month benefit was shown by 289 patients (63.5%) at first line, 128 (40.5%) at second line, 76 (33.8%) at third line, and 34 (23.3%) at fourth line. Not having a 6-month benefit at PFS1 was associated with less chance of benefit at second line (odds ratio [OR]: 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.29–0.77, p = .0026) and at any line beyond first (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.24–0.62, p < .0001). In the total series, after stratification for tumor subtypes, a strong predictive effect was observed among HER2-positive tumors (OR: 0.2; 95% CI: 0.05–0.73, p = .0152). Conclusion. Our results suggest that the absence of at least a 6-month benefit in terms of PFS with first-line therapy predicts a reduced probability of benefit from subsequent therapeutic lines, especially in HER2-positive disease. Implications for Practice: This study supports evidence showing that the absence of a 6-month benefit in terms of progression-free survival with first-line therapy predicts a lack of benefit from subsequent therapeutic lines in metastatic breast cancer. The random distribution of benefit experienced by a subset of the cohort further spurs an interest in identifying predictive

  18. Inhibition by efferent nerve fibres: action on hair cells and afferent synaptic transmission in the lateral line canal organ of the burbot Lota lota.

    PubMed Central

    Flock, A; Russell, I

    1976-01-01

    1. Intracellular recordings were made from morphologically identified hair cells in the lateral line canal organs of the burbot Lota lota. 2. I.p.s.p.s were recorded from hair cells when the efferent fibres were excited by electrical stimulation of the lateral line nerve. The i.p.s.p.s were abolished when the fish was injected with immobilizing concentration of Flaxedil which is known to block the efferent synapses. 3. The i.p.s.p.s are accompanied by a decrease in the resistance of the hair cell membrane and an increase in the intracellular receptor potential. 4. Spontaneous and mechanically evoked e.p.s.p.s which were recorded intracellularly from the post-synaptic afferent nerve terminals were reduced in amplitude for the duration of the i.p.s.p. Images A, B C PMID:948076

  19. Predator-prey interactions between Synbranchus marmoratus (Teleostei: Synbranchidae) and Hypsiboas pulchellus tadpoles (Amphibia: Hylidae): importance of lateral line in nocturnal predation and effects of fenitrothion exposure.

    PubMed

    Junges, Celina M; Lajmanovich, Rafael C; Peltzer, Paola M; Attademo, Andres M; Bassó, Agustín

    2010-11-01

    Environmental contaminants can disrupt interactions between aquatic species by altering community structure. We explored predator-prey interactions between marbled swamp juvenile eels (Synbranchus marmoratus; predator) and anuran tadpoles (Hypsiboas pulchellus; prey) in relation to two aspects: the importance of lateral line in the predator and whether the absence of light modifies predation rates; and the effect of a sub-lethal concentration of fenitrothion on both predator and prey. Eels were tested under two sensory conditions (lateral line intact and lateral line blocked by cobalt chloride) in dark conditions. Predation rates were evaluated using different treatments that combined predator and prey exposed or not to insecticide. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities were also measured in muscle samples of eels and tadpoles to explore whether fenitrothion affects predator and prey differentially. Marbled swamp eels were more efficient in feeding on tadpoles during the night than during the day, showing that lateral line makes an important contribution to prey detection and capture. Regarding pesticide effects, short-term (6 h) exposure to an ecologically relevant fenitrothion dose of 2.5 mg L(-1) altered the predator-prey relationship by changing prey behaviour, reducing prey detection and therefore increasing tadpole survival. At this concentration, the outcome of the predator-prey relationship appears biased in favor of the exposed tadpoles, which were released from predation risk, despite their altered behaviour and the higher inhibition percentages of tail BChE (70%) and AChE (51%) than in control individuals. Our study involving these model species and agrochemicals demonstrates that fenitrothion affected the outcome of a predator-prey relationship. Further studies are needed, in these species and other native amphibians, to investigate the nature of the mechanisms responsible for the adverse effects of pesticides on

  20. Underwater tracking of a moving dipole source using an artificial lateral line: algorithm and experimental validation with ionic polymer-metal composite flow sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulsadda, Ahmad T.; Tan, Xiaobo

    2013-04-01

    Motivated by the lateral line system of fish, arrays of flow sensors have been proposed as a new sensing modality for underwater robots. Existing studies on such artificial lateral lines (ALLs) have been mostly focused on the localization of a fixed underwater vibrating sphere (dipole source). In this paper we examine the problem of tracking a moving dipole source using an ALL system. Based on an analytical model for the moving dipole-generated flow field, we formulate a nonlinear estimation problem that aims to minimize the error between the measured and model-predicted magnitudes of flow velocities at the sensor sites, which is subsequently solved with the Gauss-Newton scheme. A sliding discrete Fourier transform (SDFT) algorithm is proposed to efficiently compute the evolving signal magnitudes based on the flow velocity measurements. Simulation indicates that it is adequate and more computationally efficient to use only the signal magnitudes corresponding to the dipole vibration frequency. Finally, experiments conducted with an artificial lateral line consisting of six ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) flow sensors demonstrate that the proposed scheme is able to simultaneously locate the moving dipole and estimate its vibration amplitude and traveling speed with small errors.

  1. Facial Artery Musculomucosal (FAMM) flap for nasal lining in reconstruction of large full thickness lateral nasal defects.

    PubMed

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh

    2015-12-01

    Obviously, restoring the nasal lining is a great challenge in the reconstruction of nasal defects. Full thickness nasal defects usually require special flaps for reconstructing the nasal lining. Intranasal mucosal flaps, hinge over flaps, perinasal second flaps, folded or second forehead flaps and finally free flaps are examples that can be used for this purpose. Moreover, the case presented in this article expresses a new role for the superiorly based Facial Artery Musculomucosal (FAMM) flap in this topic. Furthermore, mucosal island variant of this flap is presented to reduce the tension on this flap while restoring the nasal lining in large full thickness nasal defect.

  2. Effect of resin-modified glass-ionomer cement lining and composite layering technique on the adhesive interface of lateral wall

    PubMed Central

    AZEVEDO, Larissa Marinho; CASAS-APAYCO, Leslie Carol; VILLAVICENCIO ESPINOZA, Carlos Andres; WANG, Linda; NAVARRO, Maria Fidela de Lima; ATTA, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Interface integrity can be maintained by setting the composite in a layering technique and using liners. Objective The aim of this in vitro study was to verify the effect of resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC) lining and composite layering technique on the bond strength of the dentin/resin adhesive interface of lateral walls of occlusal restorations. Material and Methods Occlusal cavities were prepared in 52 extracted sound human molars, randomly assigned into 4 groups: Group 2H (control) – no lining + two horizontal layers; Group 4O: no lining + four oblique layers; Group V-2H: RMGIC lining (Vitrebond) + two horizontal layers; and Group V-4O: RMGIC lining (Vitrebond) + four oblique layers. Resin composite (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE) was placed after application of an adhesive system (Adper™ Single Bond 2, 3M ESPE) dyed with a fluorescent reagent (Rhodamine B) to allow confocal microscopy analysis. The teeth were stored in deionized water at 37oC for 24 hours before being sectioned into 0.8 mm slices. One slice of each tooth was randomly selected for Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) analysis. The other slices were sectioned into 0.8 mm x 0.8 mm sticks to microtensile bond strength test (MPa). Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Fisher’s test. Results There was no statistical difference on bond strength among groups (p>0.05). CLSM analysis showed no significant statistical difference regarding the presence of gap at the interface dentin/resin among groups. Conclusions RMGIC lining and composite layering techniques showed no effect on the microtensile bond strength and gap formation at the adhesive interface of lateral walls of high C-factor occlusal restorations. PMID:26221927

  3. [Nimotuzumab Combined with Chemotherapy as Second- or Later-line 
in the Treatment of Advanced Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Luo, Yang; Li, Junling; Wang, Yan; Hao, Xuezhi; Qu, Fenglian

    2016-10-20

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is commonly overexpressed in lung squamous cell carcinoma and has been associated with impaired prognosis. The aim of this study was to observe the efficacy and safety of nimotuzumab, a anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, combined with chemotherapy as second- or later-line in the treatment of advanced lung squamous cell carcinoma. A retrospective analysis of clinical data was conducted in 13 patients with advanced lung squamous cell carcinoma, who were administered with nimotuzumab combined with chemotherapy as second-line or later-line treatment. The efficacy of therapy was evaluated according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1 and safety by National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (NCI-CTC) 4.0. Of the 13 advanced squamous-cell lung cancer patients, one patient had complete response (CR), 2 patients had partial response (PR), 4 cases had stable disease (SD), and 6 patients had progressive disease. The overall response rate (ORR) was 23.1% and clinical benefit rate (CBR) was 53.8%. EGFR expression were detected by immunohistochemistry in 6 patients and the results showed 5 patients were EGFR 3+ and the other was EGFR 2+. Of these 6 EGFR positive patients, 1 case had CR, 1 case had PR and 4 cases had SD; ORR was 33.3% and CBR was 100.0%. Grade 3/4 hematological toxicities were observed in 3 (23.1%) patients, and non-hametological toxicities were mild. Nimotuzumab-associated skin rash was found in 2 (15.4%) patients. Nimotuzumab combined with chemotherapy as second- or later-line therapy for advanced squamous cell lung carcinoma was active and well-tolerated, especially for those patients with EGFR positive.

  4. Consistency among different tasks of left-right asymmetries in lines of fish originally selected for opposite direction of lateralization in a detour task.

    PubMed

    Bisazza, A; Sovrano, V A; Vallortigara, G

    2001-01-01

    Lines of fish, Girardinus falcatus preferentially turning rightward (RD) or leftward (LD) when facing a dummy predator visible behind a barrier have been obtained through selective breeding. To check whether lateralization was maintained in other behavioral responses, five different tests were carried out. They comprised measures of (1) turning direction in a T-maze; (2) proportion of clockwise and anticlockwise direction of rotation in a circular arena; (3) preferential eye use by females during shoaling behavior (i.e. while looking at their own mirror image reflection); (4) preferential eye use by males during sexual behavior (i.e. while turning around a barrier to join a group of females); and (5) preferential eye use by males during agonistic behavior (i.e. while attacking a rival visible in a mirror). In all five tests the two selected lines showed opposite direction of lateralization. Results thus indicate that behavioral asymmetries in the detour test are predictive of lateralization in other types of behavioral tests. Moreover, results show that RD and LD fish have a similar but left-right reversed pattern of subdivision of cognitive/ behavioral functions, which is suggestive of a similarly left-right reversed (mirror image) brain organization.

  5. Tanespimycin and tipifarnib exhibit synergism in inducing apoptosis in melanoma cell lines from later stages of tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Bentke, Anna; Małecki, Jędrzej; Ostrowska, Barbara; Krzykowska-Petitjean, Katarzyna; Laidler, Piotr

    2013-10-01

    Many anticancer strategies rely on efficient induction of apoptosis. The need for development of drug combinations with a strong pro-apoptotic activity is of particular interest in melanoma resistant to currently available chemotherapeutic regimes. We studied the pro-apoptotic properties of combination of tanespimycin+tipifarnib in five melanoma cell lines representing various stages of tumor progression. Our results show that in cells derived from vertical- and metastatic-phase the combination of tested drugs is strongly cytotoxic and efficient in inducing apoptosis, as evidenced by activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 and enhanced fragmentation of DNA.

  6. Finding line of action of the force exerted on erect spine based on lateral bending test in personalization of scoliotic spine models.

    PubMed

    Jalalian, Athena; Tay, Francis Eng Hock; Arastehfar, Soheil; Gibson, Ian; Liu, Gabriel

    2017-04-01

    In multi-body models of scoliotic spine, personalization of mechanical properties of joints significantly improves reconstruction of the spine shape. In personalization methods based on lateral bending test, simulation of bending positions is an essential step. To simulate, a force is exerted on the spine model in the erect position. The line of action of the force affects the moment of the force about the joints and thus, if not correctly identified, causes over/underestimation of mechanical properties. Therefore, we aimed to identify the line of action, which has got little attention in previous studies. An in-depth analysis was performed on the scoliotic spine movement from the erect to four spine positions in the frontal plane by using pre-operative X-rays of 18 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. To study the movement, the spine curvature was considered as a 2D chain of micro-scale motion segments (MMSs) comprising rigid links and 1-degree-of-freedom (DOF) rotary joints. It was found that two MMSs representing the inflection points of the erect spine had almost no rotation (0.0028° ± 0.0021°) in the movement. The small rotation can be justified by weak moment of the force about these MMSs due to very small moment arm. Therefore, in the frontal plane, the line of action of the force to simulate the left/right bending position was defined as the line that passes through these MMSs in the left/right bending position. Through personalization of a 3D spine model for our patients, we demonstrated that our line of action could result in good estimates of the spine shape in the bending positions and other positions not included in the personalization, supporting our proposed line of action.

  7. Identification of FDA-approved drugs and bioactives that protect hair cells in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) lateral line and mouse (Mus musculus) utricle.

    PubMed

    Ou, Henry C; Cunningham, Lisa L; Francis, Shimon P; Brandon, Carlene S; Simon, Julian A; Raible, David W; Rubel, Edwin W

    2009-06-01

    The hair cells of the larval zebrafish lateral line provide a useful preparation in which to study hair cell death and to screen for genes and small molecules that modulate hair cell toxicity. We recently reported preliminary results from screening a small-molecule library for compounds that inhibit aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death. To potentially reduce the time required for development of drugs and drug combinations that can be clinically useful, we screened a library of 1,040 FDA-approved drugs and bioactive compounds (NINDS Custom Collection II). Seven compounds that protect against neomycin-induced hair cell death were identified. Four of the seven drugs inhibited aminoglycoside uptake, based on Texas-Red-conjugated gentamicin uptake. The activities of two of the remaining three drugs were evaluated using an in vitro adult mouse utricle preparation. One drug, 9-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine (tacrine) demonstrated conserved protective effects in the mouse utricle. These results demonstrate that the zebrafish lateral line can be used to screen successfully for drugs within a library of FDA-approved drugs and bioactives that inhibit hair cell death in the mammalian inner ear and identify tacrine as a promising protective drug for future studies.

  8. Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mires, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    National Geography Standards for the middle school years generally stress the teaching of latitude and longitude. There are many creative ways to explain the great grid that encircles our planet, but the author has found that students in his college-level geography courses especially enjoy human-interest stories associated with lines of latitude…

  9. Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mires, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    National Geography Standards for the middle school years generally stress the teaching of latitude and longitude. There are many creative ways to explain the great grid that encircles our planet, but the author has found that students in his college-level geography courses especially enjoy human-interest stories associated with lines of latitude…

  10. Efficacy of Cabazitaxel Treatment in Metastatic Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer in Second and Later Lines. An Experience from Two German Centers

    PubMed Central

    Zschäbitz, Stefanie; Vallet, Sonia; Hadaschik, Boris; Debatin, Daniel; Fuxius, Stefan; Karcher, Andreas; Pahernik, Sascha; Spath, Cathleen; Duensing, Stefan; Jäger, Dirk; Hohenfellner, Markus; Grüllich, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Several new treatment options for patients with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) have been approved within the last years - among them cabazitaxel (CAB), abiraterone acetate, enzalutamide, and radium-223. The aim of this study was to assess factors predictive for efficacy of CAB. Methods: We analyzed all patients with mCRPC treated with CAB at our institutions between 2011 and 2016. Data were retrieved retrospectively from the electronical patient chart. Results: 69 patients received CAB (26.1% 2nd line, 36.2% 3rd line, 37.3% >3rd line). Median overall survival (OS) on CAB was 10.0 months (95%CI 7.1-12.9). Median progression free survival (PFS) on CAB was 3.9 months (95%CI 3.0-4.8). There were no differences in OS and PFS regarding treatment line of CAB (2nd vs. higher; 2nd/3rd vs. higher). Duration of remission on 1st line treatment (> 6 months vs. line treatment for mCRPC is correlated with a longer PFS to CAB for any later line treatment. Patients with nodal and bone metastases only had a significantly superior PFS and OS with CAB treatment than patients with visceral metastases. PMID:28367230

  11. High-performance poly-Si thin film transistors with highly biaxially oriented poly-Si thin films using double line beam continuous-wave laser lateral crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamano, Masayuki; Kuroki, Shin-Ichiro; Sato, Tadashi; Kotani, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Highly biaxially oriented poly-Si thin films were formed by double-line beam continuous-wave laser lateral crystallization (DLB-CLC). The crystallinities of the DLB-CLC poly-Si thin films were (110), (111), and (211) for the laser scan, transverse, and surface directions, respectively, and an energetically stable Σ3 grain boundary was observed to be dominant. All silicon grains were elongated in the laser scan direction and one-dimensionally very large silicon grains with lengths of more than 100 µm were fabricated. Using these biaxially oriented polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) films, low-temperature poly-Si TFTs (LTPS-TFTs) were fabricated at low temperatures (≦550 °C) by a metal gate self-aligned process. As a result, a TFT with a high electron field effect mobility of μFE = 450 cm2 V-1 s-1 in a linear region was realized.

  12. Duplicate sfrp1 genes in zebrafish: sfrp1a is dynamically expressed in the developing central nervous system, gut and lateral line.

    PubMed

    Pézeron, Guillaume; Anselme, Isabelle; Laplante, Mary; Ellingsen, Staale; Becker, Thomas S; Rosa, Frédéric M; Charnay, Patrick; Schneider-Maunoury, Sylvie; Mourrain, Philippe; Ghislain, Julien

    2006-10-01

    The secreted frizzled-related proteins (Sfrp) are a family of soluble proteins with diverse biological functions having the capacity to bind Wnt ligands, to modulate Wnt signalling, and to signal directly via the Wnt receptor, Frizzled. In an enhancer trap screen for embryonic expression in zebrafish we identified an sfrp1 gene. Previous studies suggest an important role for sfrp1 in eye development, however, no data have been reported using the zebrafish model. In this paper, we describe duplicate sfrp1 genes in zebrafish and present a detailed analysis of the expression profile of both genes. Whole mount in situ hybridisation analyses of sfrp1a during embryonic and larval development revealed a dynamic expression profile, including: the central nervous system, where sfrp1a was regionally expressed throughout the brain and developing eye; the posterior gut, from the time of endodermal cell condensation; the lateral line, where sfrp1a was expressed in the migrating primordia and interneuromast cells that give rise to the sensory organs. Other sites included the blastoderm, segmenting mesoderm, olfactory placode, developing ear, pronephros and fin-bud. We have also analysed sfrp1b expression during embryonic development. Surprisingly this gene exhibited a divergent expression profile being limited to the yolk syncytium under the elongating tail-bud, which later covered the distal yolk extension, and transiently in the tail-bud mesenchyme. Overall, our studies provide a basis for future analyses of these developmentally important factors using the zebrafish model.

  13. Axially symmetric /sup 31/P NMR line shapes with selective excitation in the presence of lateral diffusion on a curved surface

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, D.W.; Boylan, J.G.; Cole, B.R.

    1987-10-22

    An NMR pulse sequence which is useful for the study of phospholipid diffusion in cellular membranes is presented. The sequence involves selective excitation with a DANTE pulse train followed by an evolution interval during which diffusion effects are observable. A method is presented to simulate /sup 31/P NMR spectra which are obtain by use of the pulse sequence. The simulation treats the case in which molecules with axially symmetric line shapes undergo lateral diffusion on a curved surface. The Bloch equations, written for equally populated intervals on a sphere and modified by inclusion of jump model terms to account for the diffusion, were used for the calculations. Diffusion between adjacent intervals is given in terms of a correlation time tau/sub 2/, which is proportional to D/sub diff//r/sup 2/, where D/sub diff/ is the lateral diffusion coefficient and r is the radius of curvature. The resulting differential equations were solved by using eigenvalue problem techniques and applying appropriate boundary conditions to give complex FIDs, which were Fourier transformed to give the spectra. Normal spectra and spectra obtained by use of the special pulse sequence were simulated. By fitting a set of spectra for which the system is allowed to evolve for a variable time interval after DANTE excitation, they were able to estimate tau/sub 2/. Simulated spectra and experimental spectra of egg yolk lecithin vesicle samples were in excellent agreement.

  14. Economic evaluation favours physiotherapy but not corticosteroid injection as a first-line intervention for chronic lateral epicondylalgia: evidence from a randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Coombes, Brooke K; Connelly, Luke; Bisset, Leanne; Vicenzino, Bill

    2016-11-01

    To determine the cost-effectiveness of corticosteroid injection, physiotherapy and a combination of these interventions, compared to a reference group receiving a blinded placebo injection. 165 adults with unilateral lateral epicondylalgia of longer than 6 weeks duration from Brisbane, Australia, were randomised for concealed allocation to saline injection (placebo), corticosteroid injection, saline injection plus physiotherapy (eight sessions of elbow manipulation and exercise) or corticosteroid injection plus physiotherapy. Costs to society and health-related quality of life (estimated by EuroQol-5D) over the 1 year follow-up were used to generate incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) ratios for each intervention relative to placebo. Intention-to-treat analysis was possible for 154 (93%) of trial participants. Physiotherapy was more costly, but was the only intervention that produced a statistically significant improvement in quality of life relative to placebo (MD, 95% CI 0.035, 0.003 to 0.068). Similar cost/QALY ratios were found for physiotherapy ($A29 343; GBP18 962) and corticosteroid injection ($A31 750; GBP20 518); however, the probability of being more cost-effective than placebo at values above $A50 000 per quality-adjusted life year was 81% for physiotherapy and 53% for corticosteroid injection. Cost/QALY was far greater for a combination of corticosteroid injection and physiotherapy ($A228 000; GBP147 340). Physiotherapy was a cost-effective treatment for lateral epicondylalgia. Corticosteroid injection was associated with greater variability, and a lower probability of being cost-effective if a willingness to pay threshold of $A50 000 is assumed. A combination of corticosteroid injection and physiotherapy was ineffective and cost-ineffective. Physiotherapy, not corticosteroid injection, should be considered as a first-line intervention for lateral epicondylalgia. anzctr.org Trial identifier: ACTRN12609000051246

  15. Comparative anatomy of the electrosensory lateral line lobe of mormyrids: the mystery of the missing map in the genus Stomatorhinus (family: Mormyridae).

    PubMed

    McNamara, Ann Marie; Denizot, Jean-Pierre; Hopkins, Carl D

    2005-01-01

    Fish in the family Mormyridae produce weak electric organ discharges that are used in orientation and communication. The peripheral and central anatomy of the electrosensory system has been well studied in the species Gnathonemus petersii, but comparative studies in other species are scarce. Here we report on one genus of mormyrid that displays a remarkable change in the electrosensory lateral line lobe (ELL), the hypertrophied rhombencephalic structure that receives primary electroreceptor input. Although all other mormyrids studied have three distinct zones on each side of the ELL, fish of the genus Stomatorhinus exhibit only two. Therefore, the two-zone ELL is a unique derived characteristic shared by Stomatorhinus. We examined the cutaneous electroreceptors that project to the ELL in Stomatorhinus. All three types of electroreceptors previously described for G. petersii were present, but there was a significant change in one type, the mormyromast. Both mormyromast sensory cell types (A- and B-cells) are present, but the B-cell is not innervated in Stomatorhinus. We conclude that, although all cutaneous sensory cells are present, the missing B-cell afferents account for the loss of the dorsolateral zone of the ELL, and therefore the loss of an entire sensory map. Because mormyromasts are involved in electrolocation behavior, this anatomical difference is probably related to differences in electrolocation abilities. Stomatorhinus could prove to be an excellent system for linking evolutionary changes in behavior with modifications in their neural substrates.

  16. Sexual dimorphism of the electrosensory system: a quantitative analysis of nerve axons in the dorsal anterior lateral line nerve of the blue-spotted Fantail Stingray (Taeniura lymma).

    PubMed

    Kempster, R M; Garza-Gisholt, E; Egeberg, C A; Hart, N S; O'Shea, O R; Collin, S P

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative studies of sensory axons provide invaluable insights into the functional significance and relative importance of a particular sensory modality. Despite the important role electroreception plays in the behaviour of elasmobranchs, to date, there have been no studies that have assessed the number of electrosensory axons that project from the peripheral ampullae to the central nervous system (CNS). The complex arrangement and morphology of the peripheral electrosensory system has a significant influence on its function. However, it is not sufficient to base conclusions about function on the peripheral system alone. To fully appreciate the function of the electrosensory system, it is essential to also assess the neural network that connects the peripheral system to the CNS. Using stereological techniques, unbiased estimates of the total number of axons were obtained for both the electrosensory bundles exiting individual ampullary organs and those entering the CNS (via the dorsal root of the anterior lateral line nerve, ALLN) in males and females of different sizes. The dorsal root of the ALLN consists solely of myelinated electrosensory axons and shows both ontogenetic and sexual dimorphism. In particular, females exhibit a greater abundance of electrosensory axons, which may result in improved sensitivity of the electrosensory system and may facilitate mate identification for reproduction. Also presented are detailed morphological data on the peripheral electrosensory system to allow a complete interpretation of the functional significance of the sexual dimorphism found in the ALLN. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Treatment factors influencing the use of recombinant platelet-derived growth factor (Regranex) for head and lateral line erosion syndrome in ocean surgeonfish (Acanthurus bahianus).

    PubMed

    Fleming, Gregory J; Corwin, Allison; McCoy, A Jeanene; Stamper, M Andrew

    2008-06-01

    The clinical efficacy of becaplermin (Regranex, Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical, Inc., Raritan, New Jersey 08869) on head and lateral line erosion syndrome (HLLES) in ocean surgeonfish (Acanthurus bahianus) was examined in a two-part study to determine suitable application frequencies of the drug and the effects of the environment on outcome of treatments. In the first part of the study, 12 ocean surgeonfish with prior HLLES were equally divided into three treatment groups, varying in application frequency of becaplermin: 1) one application, 2) three applications every 3 wk, and 3) no applications. After 9 wk, it was determined through photograph and computer analysis that fish treated with becaplermin did heal significantly more than the fish that were not treated. No significant difference was found when comparing the two treatment regimes; therefore, a one-time treatment of becaplermin was just as effective as the three-time application, reducing cost of the treatment, staff labor, and stress to the animals. In the second part of the study, the effect of the water environment on HLLES development was documented before and after a one-time treatment of becaplermin. When fish were treated and placed into a system known to cause HLLES, the becaplermin treatment had no effect on reducing the HLLES progression, whereas treated fish that were placed into a system that did not cause HLLES showed a significant decrease in erosion after the treatment. Therefore, treating fish being placed into a HLLES-causing system serves no beneficial purpose to healing HLLES.

  18. Effects of full-stream carbon filtration on the development of head and lateral line erosion syndrome (HLLES) in ocean surgeon.

    PubMed

    Stamper, M Andrew; Kittell, Michele M; Patel, Erin E; Corwin, Allison L

    2011-09-01

    Head and lateral line erosion syndrome (HLLES) is a common but very poorly understood disease of marine aquarium fish. One suspected etiology is the use of granulated activated carbon (GAC) to filter the water. Seventy-two ocean surgeons Acanthurus bahianus were distributed among three carbon-negative control systems and three GAC-treated systems such that each tank contained approximately the same total body mass. Each replicate system was made up of two 250-L circular tanks with a common filtration system (6 fish per tank, 12 fish per replicate system). The GAC-treated tanks were exposed to full-stream, extruded coconut shell activated carbon, which produced a mean total organic carbon content of 0.4 mg/L. The results of this study indicate that extruded coconut shell activated carbon filtering at full-stream rates can cause HLLES-type lesions in ocean surgeons. The HLLES developed exponentially over 15 d, beginning in the chin region. This was followed by pitting in the cheek region, which expanded until erosions coalesced. Once the carbon was discontinued, the processes reversed in a mean time of 49 d. As the lesions healed, they reverted from the coalesced to the pitted stage and then darkened before returning to normal.

  19. Prognostic and Predictive Factors in Patients with Advanced Penile Cancer Receiving Salvage (2nd or Later Line) Systemic Treatment: A Retrospective, Multi-Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Buonerba, Carlo; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Pond, Gregory; Cartenì, Giacomo; Scagliarini, Sarah; Rozzi, Antonio; Quevedo, Fernando J.; Dorff, Tanya; Nappi, Lucia; Lanzetta, Gaetano; Pagliaro, Lance; Eigl, Bernhard J.; Naik, Gurudatta; Ferro, Matteo; Galdiero, Mariano; De Placido, Sabino; Sonpavde, Guru

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and objectives: Metastatic penile squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) is associated with dismal outcomes with median overall survival (OS) of 6–12 months in the first-line and <6 months in the salvage setting. Given the rarity of this disease, randomized trials are difficult. Prognostic risk models may assist in rational drug development by comparing observed outcomes in nonrandomized phase II studies and retrospective data vs. predicted outcomes based on baseline prognostic factors in the context of historically used agents. In this retrospective study, we constructed a prognostic model in the salvage setting of PSCC patients receiving second or later line systemic treatment, and also explored differences in outcomes based on type of treatment. Materials and methods: We performed a chart review to identify patients with locally advanced unresectable or metastatic PSCC who received second or later line systemic treatment in centers from North America and Europe. The primary outcome was OS from initiation of treatment, with secondary outcomes being progression-free survival (PFS) and response rate (RR). OS was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify prognostic factors for outcomes using univariable and multivariable models. Results: Sixty-five patients were eligible. Seventeen of 63 evaluable patients had a response (27.0%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 16.6–39.7%) and median OS and PFS were 20 (95% CI = 20–21) and 12 (95% CI = 12, 16) weeks, respectively. Visceral metastasis (VM) and hemoglobin (Hb) ≤ 10 gm/dl were consistently significant poor prognostic factors for both OS and PFS, and Hb was also prognostic for response. The 28 patients with neither risk factor had a median OS (95% CI) of 24 (20–40) weeks and 1-year (95% CI) OS of 13.7% (4.4–42.7%), while the 37 patients with 1 or 2 risk factors had median OS (95% CI) of 20 (16–20) weeks and 1-year (95% CI) OS of 6.7% (1.8–24

  20. Prognostic and Predictive Factors in Patients with Advanced Penile Cancer Receiving Salvage (2nd or Later Line) Systemic Treatment: A Retrospective, Multi-Center Study.

    PubMed

    Buonerba, Carlo; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Pond, Gregory; Cartenì, Giacomo; Scagliarini, Sarah; Rozzi, Antonio; Quevedo, Fernando J; Dorff, Tanya; Nappi, Lucia; Lanzetta, Gaetano; Pagliaro, Lance; Eigl, Bernhard J; Naik, Gurudatta; Ferro, Matteo; Galdiero, Mariano; De Placido, Sabino; Sonpavde, Guru

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and objectives: Metastatic penile squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) is associated with dismal outcomes with median overall survival (OS) of 6-12 months in the first-line and <6 months in the salvage setting. Given the rarity of this disease, randomized trials are difficult. Prognostic risk models may assist in rational drug development by comparing observed outcomes in nonrandomized phase II studies and retrospective data vs. predicted outcomes based on baseline prognostic factors in the context of historically used agents. In this retrospective study, we constructed a prognostic model in the salvage setting of PSCC patients receiving second or later line systemic treatment, and also explored differences in outcomes based on type of treatment. Materials and methods: We performed a chart review to identify patients with locally advanced unresectable or metastatic PSCC who received second or later line systemic treatment in centers from North America and Europe. The primary outcome was OS from initiation of treatment, with secondary outcomes being progression-free survival (PFS) and response rate (RR). OS was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify prognostic factors for outcomes using univariable and multivariable models. Results: Sixty-five patients were eligible. Seventeen of 63 evaluable patients had a response (27.0%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 16.6-39.7%) and median OS and PFS were 20 (95% CI = 20-21) and 12 (95% CI = 12, 16) weeks, respectively. Visceral metastasis (VM) and hemoglobin (Hb) ≤ 10 gm/dl were consistently significant poor prognostic factors for both OS and PFS, and Hb was also prognostic for response. The 28 patients with neither risk factor had a median OS (95% CI) of 24 (20-40) weeks and 1-year (95% CI) OS of 13.7% (4.4-42.7%), while the 37 patients with 1 or 2 risk factors had median OS (95% CI) of 20 (16-20) weeks and 1-year (95% CI) OS of 6.7% (1.8-24.9%). Cetuximab

  1. Are Lateral Electronic Portal Images Adequate for Accurate On-Line Daily Targeting of the Prostate? Results of a Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lometti, Michael W. Thurston, Damon; Aubin, Michele; Bock, Andrea; Verhey, Lynn; Lockhart, James M.; Bland, Roger; Pouliot, Jean; Roach, Mack

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this report was to evaluate the magnitude of the error that would be introduced if only a lateral (LAT) portal image, as opposed to a pair of orthogonal images, was used to verify and correct daily setup errors and organ motion in external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) of prostate cancer. The 3-dimensional (3D) coordinates of gold markers from 12 consecutive prostate patients were reconstructed using a pair of orthogonal images. The data were re-analyzed using only the LAT images. Couch moves from the 2-dimensional (2D)-only data were compared with the complete 3D data set. The 2D-only data provided couch moves that differed on average from the 3D data by 2.3 {+-} 3.0, 0.0 {+-} 0.0, and 0.8 {+-} 1.0 mm in the Lat, AP, and SI directions, respectively. Along AP and SI axes, the LAT image provided positional information similar to the orthogonal pair. The error along the LAT axis may be acceptable provided lateral margins are large enough. A LAT-only setup protocol reduces patient treatment times and increases patient throughput. In most circumstances, with exceptions such as morbidly obese patients, acquisition of only a LAT image for daily targeting of the prostate will provide adequate positional precision.

  2. A three-line lateral flow biosensor for logic detection of microRNA based on Y-shaped junction DNA and target recycling amplification.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Wang, Wenqian; Wu, Tingting; Xu, Li-Ping; Wen, Yongqiang; Zhang, Xueji

    2016-11-01

    A rapid, sensitive, and accurate detection strategy for microRNA 16 (miR-16) was developed, which combined the convenience of lateral flow biosensors (LFBs), the design flexibility of Y-shaped junction DNA probe, and the enhancement ability of endonuclease-assisted target recycling amplification. The system is composed of a molecular beacon (MB) probe, an assistant probe, and endonuclease Nt.BbvCI, which plays the role of signal translation and amplification. In the presence of the target microRNAs (miRNAs), three chains of nucleic acid could hybridize with each other to form a Y-shaped junction structure, which could be recognized by the endonuclease Nt.BbvCI. The MB probe was efficiently cleaved by endonuclease and produced two new DNA fragments, while the regenerated assistant probe and target were hybridized to another MB probe and entered into the next cycle of the amplification. In this way, the detection of the readily biodegradable miRNA was turned into the detection of two DNA fragments in the LFB. Meanwhile, the detection of two different DNAs would improve the accuracy and effectively avoid false results. The amplified products containing DNA fragments were then applied to the lateral flow nucleic acid biosensor (LFNAB) with two test zones, on which specific DNA probes were designed. The formed DNA-DNA/gold nanoparticle (GNP) conjugates were captured and accumulated to produce two red bands in two test zones. The logic judgment of the two test zones provided more accurate and convincing results. Under optimal conditions, the visual detection limit of miR-16 in aqueous solutions was 0.1 pM, which is 100-1000 times lower than that of visual or colorimetric methods in the literature. It could be used for on-field and point-of-care testing and meet the urgent demand of sensitive and selective miRNA detection in remote rural areas without costly equipment. The system displayed good universality, compatibility, high specificity, and stability of mi

  3. Lateral Mixing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    ocean as it responds to mesoscale forcing. APPROACH Figure 1: MVP system deployed from stern of R/V Endeavor in Sargasso Sea . My approach for...therefore requires integrative efforts with other sea -going investigators and numerical modelers. The Lateral Mixing Experiment project was an ideal...also participated in the sea -going part of this project, taking my group on the R/V Endeavor in June 2011. Our role was to sample around the center of

  4. Sheep laterality.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Dean M; Murray, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Turning preferences among 309 white-faced ewes were individually evaluated in an enclosed, artificially lit T-maze, followed by each ewe choosing either a right or left return alley to return to peers. Data recorded included time in the start box, time in the T-maze, exit arm chosen to leave the T-maze, and return alley. Right and left arms of the T-maze were chosen 65.7% and 34.3% of the time, respectively, while right and left return alleys were chosen 32.4% and 67.6%, respectively. Exit arm and return alley were not independently chosen (p <.0001), with observed counts being higher than expected under independence when ewes made the same choice for exit and alley (RR or LL turn patterns) and being lower than expected for alternating choices (RL or LR). Out of the 309 ewes, 28.2% and 30.1% chose RR and LL turn patterns, respectively, while 37.5% chose the RL turn pattern, but only 13 (4.2%) chose the LR turning pattern. Overall, ewes that initially turned right when presented a second turning opportunity had a slight preference to alternate their turning direction, while ewes that initially turned left tended to continue turning left when given another chance to turn. Exit arm and return alley laterality was not related (α =.05) to time of day the test was administered, ewe's age or genetics, most recent liveweight, or most recent shorn fleece weight. The mean time spent in the start box (21 s) was not related to exit arm (p =.947) or return alley (p =.779). Mean time (15 s) spent in the T-maze was not related to exit arm (p =.086) or return alley (p =.952). More research will be required to understand sheep turning laterality and how it can impact working facilities and research equipment.

  5. The pit organs of elasmobranchs: a review.

    PubMed

    Peach, M B; Marshall, N J

    2000-09-29

    Elasmobranchs have hundreds of tiny sensory organs, called pit organs, scattered over the skin surface. The pit organs were noted in many early studies of the lateral line, but their exact nature has long remained a mystery. Although pit organs were known to be innervated by the lateral line nerves, and light micrographs suggested that they were free neuromasts, speculation that they may be external taste buds or chemoreceptors has persisted until recently. Electron micrographs have now revealed that the pit organs are indeed free neuromasts. Their functional and behavioural role(s), however, are yet to be investigated.

  6. Lateral inhibition during nociceptive processing.

    PubMed

    Quevedo, Alexandre S; Mørch, Carsten Dahl; Andersen, Ole K; Coghill, Robert C

    2017-06-01

    Spatial summation of pain (SSP) is the increase of perceived intensity that occurs as the stimulated area increases. Spatial summation of pain is subadditive in that increasing the stimulus area produces a disproportionately small increase in the perceived intensity of pain. A possible explanation for subadditive summation may be that convergent excitatory information is modulated by lateral inhibition. To test the hypothesis that lateral inhibition may limit SSP, we delivered different patterns of noxious thermal stimuli to the abdomens of 15 subjects using a computer-controlled CO2 laser. Lines (5 mm wide) of variable lengths (4, 8 cm) were compared with 2-point stimuli delivered at the same position/separation as the length of lines. When compared with one-point control stimuli, 2-point stimulus patterns produced statistically significant SSP, while no such summation was detected during line stimulus patterns. Direct comparison of pain intensity evoked by 2-point pattern stimuli with line pattern stimuli revealed that 2-point patterns were perceived as significantly more painful, despite the fact that the 2-point pattern stimulated far smaller areas of skin. Thus, the stimulation of the skin region between the endpoints of the lines appears to produce inhibition. These findings indicate that lateral inhibition limits SSP and is an intrinsic component of nociceptive information processing. Disruption of such lateral inhibition may contribute substantially to the radiation of some types of chronic pain.

  7. Function Lateralization via Measuring Coherence Laterality

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ze; Mechanic-Hamilton, Dawn; Pluta, John; Glynn, Simon; Detre, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A data-driven approach for lateralization of brain function based on the spatial coherence difference of functional MRI (fMRI) data in homologous regions-of-interest (ROI) in each hemisphere is proposed. The utility of using coherence laterality (CL) to determine function laterality was assessed first by examining motor laterality using normal subjects’ data acquired both at rest and with a simple unilateral motor task and subsequently by examining mesial temporal lobe memory laterality in normal subjects and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. The motor task was used to demonstrate that CL within motor ROI correctly lateralized functional stimulation. In patients with unilateral epilepsy studied during a scene-encoding task, CL in a hippocampus-parahippocampus-fusiform (HPF) ROI was concordant with lateralization based on task activation, and the CL index (CLI) significantly differentiated the right side group to the left side group. By contrast, normal controls showed a symmetric HPF CLI distribution. Additionally, similar memory laterality prediction results were still observed using CL in epilepsy patients with unilateral seizures after the memory encoding effect was removed from the data, suggesting the potential for lateralization of pathological brain function based on resting fMRI data. A better lateralization was further achieved via a combination of the proposed approach and the standard activation based approach, demonstrating that assessment of spatial coherence changes provides a complementary approach to quantifying task-correlated activity for lateralizing brain function. PMID:19345736

  8. The vesicular integral protein-like gene is essential for development of a mechanosensory system in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chong, Mabel; Liao, Meijiang; Drapeau, Pierre

    2008-10-01

    The zebrafish hi472 mutation is caused by a retroviral insertion into the vesicular integral protein-like gene, or zVIPL, a poorly studied lectin implicated in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi trafficking. A mutation in the shorter isoform of zVIPL (zVIPL-s) results in a reduction of mechanosensitivity and consequent loss of escape behavior. Here we show that motoneurons and hindbrain reticulospinal neurons, which normally integrate mechanosensory inputs, failed to fire in response to tactile stimuli in hi472 larvae, suggesting a perturbation in sensory function. The hi472 mutant larvae in fact suffered from a severe loss of functional neuromasts of the lateral line mechanosensory system, a reduction of zVIPL labeling in support cells, and a reduction or even a complete loss of hair cells in neuromasts. The Delta-Notch signaling pathway is implicated in cellular differentiation of neuromasts, and we observed an increase in Notch expression in neuromasts of hi472 mutant larvae. Treatment of hi472 mutant larvae with DAPT, an inhibitor of Notch signaling, or overexpression of the Notch ligand deltaB in hi472 mutant blastocysts produced partial rescue of the morphological defects and of the startle response behavior. We conclude that zVIPL-s is a necessary component of Delta-Notch signaling during neuromast development in the lateral line mechanosensory system.

  9. Lateral Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Donald P.; Butler, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Lateral abdominal wall (LAW) defects can manifest as a flank hernias, myofascial laxity/bulges, or full-thickness defects. These defects are quite different from those in the anterior abdominal wall defects and the complexity and limited surgical options make repairing the LAW a challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. LAW reconstruction requires an understanding of the anatomy, physiologic forces, and the impact of deinnervation injury to design and perform successful reconstructions of hernia, bulge, and full-thickness defects. Reconstructive strategies must be tailored to address the inguinal ligament, retroperitoneum, chest wall, and diaphragm. Operative technique must focus on stabilization of the LAW to nonyielding points of fixation at the anatomic borders of the LAW far beyond the musculofascial borders of the defect itself. Thus, hernias, bulges, and full-thickness defects are approached in a similar fashion. Mesh reinforcement is uniformly required in lateral abdominal wall reconstruction. Inlay mesh placement with overlying myofascial coverage is preferred as a first-line option as is the case in anterior abdominal wall reconstruction. However, interposition bridging repairs are often performed as the surrounding myofascial tissue precludes a dual layered closure. The decision to place bioprosthetic or prosthetic mesh depends on surgeon preference, patient comorbidities, and clinical factors of the repair. Regardless of mesh type, the overlying soft tissue must provide stable cutaneous coverage and obliteration of dead space. In cases where the fasciocutaneous flaps surrounding the defect are inadequate for closure, regional pedicled flaps or free flaps are recruited to achieve stable soft tissue coverage. PMID:23372458

  10. [Lateral retinacular release].

    PubMed

    Verdonk, P; Bonte, F; Verdonk, R

    2008-09-01

    This overview of numerous studies discusses, based on short-term and long-term results, which diagnoses are indications for lateral retinacular release. No significant differences in outcome between arthroscopic and open lateral release could be documented. Isolated lateral release offers a good success rate for treating a stable patella with excessive lateral pressure. In patellar instability, the results are less favorable in long-term follow-up evaluation. Hyperlaxity with hypermobility of the patella is an absolute contraindication. Lateral release provides only temporary benefit for patellofemoral osteoarthritis. Proximal and/or distal realignment of the extensor mechanism gives better results than isolated lateral release.

  11. Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis)

    MedlinePlus

    .org Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis) Page ( 1 ) Tennis elbow, or lateral epicondyliti s, is a painful condition of the elbow caused by overuse. Not surprisingly, playing tennis or other racquet sports can cause ...

  12. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (a-my-o-TROE-fik LAT-ur-ul skluh-ROE-sis), or ALS, is a progressive nervous system (neurological) disease that ...

  13. Lateral flow strip assay

    DOEpatents

    Miles, Robin R [Danville, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA; Pearson, Francesca S [Livermore, CA; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L [Livermore, CA

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  14. Reading Disability and Laterality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrow, Sara S.

    The purpose of this study was to determine how retarded readers differed from normal readers in the various ways laterality is manifested. An additional purpose was to investigate the development of laterality as seen across several age levels. Subjects were 80 white male 9-, 10-, 11-, and 12-year-olds from regular classrooms in suburban…

  15. Lateral subtalar dislocation.

    PubMed

    Sharda, Praveen; DuFosse, Julian

    2008-07-01

    Subtalar dislocations are rare in routine orthopedic practice. While many of these dislocations are a result of high-energy injuries such as fall from a height or traffic accidents, it is not uncommon for patients to present after slipping down a few stairs. Two types of dislocation have been described, medial and lateral. The type of dislocation is described according to the position of the foot. In lateral subtalar dislocation the head of talus is found medially and the calcaneus is dislocated laterally. The navicular may lie dorsolateral to the talus. The reverse is true of lateral dislocation. Medial dislocation has been referred to as "basketball foot" due to its preponderance in basketball players.4 The deciding factor is the inverted or everted position of the foot when the force is dissipated through the weak talonavicular and talocalcaneal ligaments. This article presents a case of an adult with lateral subtalar dislocation following a fall.

  16. Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay Test Strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    As easy to read as a home pregnancy test, three Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay (QLFA) strips used to test water for E. coli show different results. The brightly glowing control line on the far right of each strip indicates that all three tests ran successfully. But the glowing test line on the middle left and bottom strips reveal their samples were contaminated with E. coli bacteria at two different concentrations. The color intensity correlates with concentration of contamination.

  17. Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay Test Strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    As easy to read as a home pregnancy test, three Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay (QLFA) strips used to test water for E. coli show different results. The brightly glowing control line on the far right of each strip indicates that all three tests ran successfully. But the glowing test line on the middle left and bottom strips reveal their samples were contaminated with E. coli bacteria at two different concentrations. The color intensity correlates with concentration of contamination.

  18. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a nervous system disease that attacks nerve cells called neurons in your ... people with ALS die from respiratory failure. The disease usually strikes between age 40 and 60. More ...

  19. Arthroscopic Patellar Lateral Facetectomy.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Marcio B; Sanchez, George; Chahla, Jorge; Moatshe, Gilbert; LaPrade, Robert F

    2017-04-01

    Isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis is relatively prevalent, with the lateral facet of the patella being the most commonly affected portion. This pathology can be a result of a patellar maltracking syndrome, patella instability, or idiopathic degenerative changes. A thorough diagnostic work-up with a physical examination and imaging studies are mandatory for a proper diagnosis and to rule out other causes of patellofemoral knee pain. These patients are often treated nonoperatively with exercises for patella mobility, intra-articular injections, braces, patellar tracking, quadriceps balance and strength, and activity modification. Patients with lateral patellar pain that is refractory to nonoperative management, and who have a clear bony deformity on the patella overriding the lateral aspect of the trochlea, can benefit from surgical intervention. We recommend an arthroscopic lateral patellar facetectomy because the joint can be dynamically assessed, treated, and re-evaluated intraoperatively to ensure that normal bony contact has been restored.

  20. [Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Veldink, J H; Weikamp, J; Schelhaas, H J; van den Berg, L H

    2010-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is one of the most severe and disabling diseases of the nervous system. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis leads to the progressive weakening of the muscles in the arms, legs, face, mouth and trunk. The onset of the disease is insidious, starting with weakness in the hands or feet or with slurred speech. The weakness worsens and patients pass away as a result of weakness of the respiratory muscles on average within 3 years of the onset of the disease. In the Netherlands, approximately 400 patients are diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis every year. There is no diagnostic test for this neuro-muscular disease; the diagnosis is established by excluding other disorders that resemble amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Only one drug is able to inhibit the progression of the disease to any extent: riluzole. Treatment, therefore, is mainly focused on supportive measures and those which enhance the quality of life optimally.

  1. [Lateral epicondylitis: conservative - operative].

    PubMed

    Altintas, Burak; Greiner, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common disease of the common extensor origin at the lateral humerus. Despite its common self-limitation it can lead to chronic therapy-resistant pain with remarkable functional disability of the affected arm. Different conservative and operative treatment options of lateral epicondylitis are described and compared regarding benefits and risks. Additionally, recent surgical techniques and their complications are mentioned. Based on the current literature, it is shown which treatment option can be recommended. This review was based on the literature analysis in PubMed regarding "conservative and operative therapy of lateral epicondylitis" as well as the clinical experience of the authors. Conservative treatment is the primary choice for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis if concomitant pathologies such as instability among others can be excluded. It should include strengthening against resistance with eccentric stretching of the extensor group. In persistent cases, operative treatment is warranted. Resection of the pathologic tissue at the extensor origin with debridement and refixation of the healthy tendinous tissue yields good results. Most patients with lateral epicondylitis can be treated conservatively with success. Radiological evaluation should be performed in therapy-resistant cases. In the case of partial or complete rupture of the extensor origin, operative therapy is indicated.

  2. [Lateral mandibular deviations].

    PubMed

    Gotte, P

    1980-01-01

    The mandibular laterodeviation is one of the most evident malformations of the face, because it alters the lower third of the face. Etiologically it can be classified into: Static laterodeviations caused by teeth; Static laterodeviations caused by skeleton change: by monolateral hypertrophy (condyle, condyle and neck of the condyle, half mandible hypertrophy); by monolateral hypertrophy (congenital pathological); Dinamic laterodeviations functional. The midline displacement with posterior monolateral cross bite is caused by width discrepancy between the upper and lower dental arch resulting in a lateral shifting of the mandible. This laterodeviation is also called "laterale forced bite" or "articular cross bite". Articular cross bite is generally corrected by orthodontics during the interceptive period when the growth of the jaws is still present. In the author's opinion the orthognathic surgery is absolutely necessary for adult dental laterodeviation already stabilized. The skeletal laterodeviation must always be treated by orthognathic surgery. It is the author's practice to use the sagittal bilateral osteotomy at the angle and ramus level whose lines of osteotomy at the angle are different from one another depending on the displacement and rotation which one must do to the mandible to get contact surfaces which are larger enough to ensure proper union because the two mandibular halves have different lengths and different angles. This kind of operation normalizes the occlusion and is sometime sufficient to harmonize the oval of the lower third of the face. In the anterior part of the chin is still laterodeviated one continues with a wedge shaped osteotomy at the tip of the chin in order to reposition the tip to the midline and with an additional osteotomy at the hypertrophied angle level. If laterodeviation is joined by other bone malformations in can be considered a symptom which is more or less marked. In this case, therefore, laterodeviation is a part of a

  3. Laterally bendable belt conveyor

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, William J.

    1985-01-01

    An endless, laterally flexible and bendable belt conveyor particularly adapted for coal mining applications in facilitating the transport of the extracted coal up- or downslope and around corners in a continuous manner is disclosed. The conveying means includes a flat rubber belt reinforced along the middle portion thereof along which the major portion of the belt tension is directed so as to cause rotation of the tubular shaped belt when trammed around lateral turns thus preventing excessive belt bulging distortion between adjacent belt supports which would inhibit belt transport. Pretension induced into the fabric reinforced flat rubber belt by conventional belt take-up means supports the load conveyed when the belt conveyor is making lateral turns. The carrying and return portions of the belt are supported and formed into a tubular shape by a plurality of shapers positioned along its length. Each shaper is supported from above by a monorail and includes clusters of idler rollers which support the belt. Additional cluster rollers in each shaper permit the belt supporting roller clusters to rotate in response to the belt's operating tension imposed upon the cluster rollers by induced lateral belt friction forces. The freely rotating roller clusters thus permit the belt to twist on lateral curves without damage to itself while precluding escape of the conveyed material by effectively enclosing it in the tube-shaped, inner belt transport length.

  4. Laterally bendable belt conveyor

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, W.J.

    1982-09-24

    An endless, laterally flexible and bendable belt conveyor particularly adapted for coal mining applications in facilitating the transport of the extracted coal up- or downslope and around corners in a continuous manner is disclosed. The conveying means includes a flat rubber belt reinforced along the middle portion thereof along which the major portion of the belt tension is directed so as to cause rotation of the tubular shaped belt when trammed around lateral turns thus preventing excessive belt bulging distortion between adjacent belt supports which would inhibit belt transport. Pretension induced into the fabric reinforced flat rubber belt by conventional belt take-up means supports the load conveyed when the belt conveyor is making lateral turns. The carrying and return portions of the belt are supported and formed into a tubular shape by a plurality of shapers positioned along its length. Each shaper is supported from above by a monorail and includes clusters of idler rollers which support the belt. Additional cluster rollers in each shaper permit the belt supporting roller clusters to rotate in response to the belt's operating tension imposed upon the cluster rollers by induced lateral belt friction forces. The freely rotating roller clusters thus permit the belt to twist on lateral curves without damage to itself while precluding escape of the conveyed material by effectively enclosing it in the tube-shaped, inner belt transport length.

  5. Lateral Skull Base Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Manolidis, Spiros; Jackson, C. Gary; Von Doersten, Peter G.; Pappas, Dennis; Glasscock, Michael E.

    1997-01-01

    Lateral skull base surgery has remained the surgical frontier of new developments in the treatment of lesions heretofore difficult to access. Examination of surgical results stimulates technical innovation and provides an intervention risk-benefit ratio assessment for particular lesions useful in management planning. With this in mind, we report the updated collective experience with lateral skull base surgery at the Otology Group over the past 20 years. Two hundred ninety-eight patients underwent surgical intervention for lateral skull base lesions. In 81 patients these lesions were malignant; in 217, benign. Of the benign lesions, 165 were glomus tumors: 139 glomus jugulare, 19 glomus vagale, and 7 glomus tympanicum. The remainder comprised 21 menigniomas, 14 neuromas, two neurofibromas, and a small group of much rarer entities. The philosophy of surgical approach, results, and follow-up are discussed. PMID:17171022

  6. Bilateral lateral periodontal cyst.

    PubMed

    Govil, Somya; Gupta, Vishesh; Misra, Neeta; Misra, Pradyumna

    2013-05-10

    The bilateral lateral periodontal cyst is a rare nasological entity, which despite clinical and radiological presentation is being diagnosed by histological characteristics. It is asymptomatic in nature and is observed in routine radiography. The aim and objective of this article is to present a rare case of bilateral lateral periodontal cyst in a 14-year-old child. The clinical and radiographical findings, along with its management have been discussed. Enucleation of bilateral cyst without extraction of the adjacent tooth was performed. Lesion samples were sent for histopathological analysis. The histopathological analysis revealed a thin, non keratinised stratified squamous epithelium resembling reduced enamel epithelium. Epithelial plaques were also seen. A clinicopathological correlation incorporating the surgical, radiographical and gold standard histopathological findings was obtained to suggest the final diagnosis of the bilateral lateral periodontal cyst.

  7. Lateral Thinking of Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Xavier, S. Amaladoss

    2013-01-01

    Edward de Bono who invented the term "lateral thinking" in 1967 is the pioneer of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is concerned with the generation of new ideas. Liberation from old ideas and the stimulation of new ones are twin aspects of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is a creative skills from which all people can benefit…

  8. Laterality and reproductive indices.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Leonid; Kobyliansky, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Several previous studies support the association between manual dominance and age at menarche or age at menopause. The aim of the present study was to estimate the association between indices of laterality and reproductive indices. The studied sample comprised 650 Chuvashian women aged 18 to 80 years (mean, 46.9; SD = 16.2). The independent-sample t test was used to compare the age at menarche or age at menopause between individuals with right or left dominance of handedness, dominant eye, hand clasping, and arm folding. No significant differences in age at menarche or age at menopause between women with right and left dominance in any of the studied laterality indices were found. This is the first study that simultaneously evaluates the association between dominance in four laterality indices (handedness, dominant eye, hand clasping, and arm folding) and two reproductive indices (age at menarche and age at menopause). Result of our study do not support the hypothesis of a possible association between handedness (and other indices of laterality) and an early age at menarche or age at natural menopause.

  9. Laterally bendable belt conveyor

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, W.J.

    1985-07-02

    An endless, laterally flexible and bendable belt conveyor particularly adapted for coal mining applications in facilitating the transport of the extracted coal up- or downslope and around corners in a continuous manner is disclosed. The conveying means includes a flat rubber belt reinforced along the middle portion thereof along which the major portion of the belt tension is directed so as to cause rotation of the tubular shaped belt when trammed around lateral turns thus preventing excessive belt bulging distortion between adjacent belt supports which would inhibit belt transport. Pretension induced into the fabric reinforced flat rubber belt by conventional belt take-up means supports the load conveyed when the belt conveyor is making laterial turns. The carrying and return portions of the belt are supported and formed into a tubular shape by a plurality of shapers positioned along its length. Each shaper is supported from above by a monorail and includes clusters of idler rolles which support the belt. Additional cluster rollers in each shaper permit the belt supporting roller clusters to rotate in response to the belt's operating tension imposed upon the cluster rollers by induced lateral belt friction forces. The freely rotating roller clusters thus permit the belt to twist on lateral curves without damage to itself while precluding escape of the conveyed material by effectively enclosing it in the tube-shaped, inner belt transport length.

  10. Laterality and prematurity.

    PubMed Central

    Marlow, N; Roberts, B L; Cooke, R W

    1989-01-01

    Lateral preferences were determined by postal questionnaire for 240 children, without major neurological impairment, who were born at less than 31 weeks' gestation to examine the association between neonatal brain injuries and later lateral preference. Left hand preference was reported in 64 (26.7%) children at a median age of 52 months (range: 24-104 months). Left foot preference was shown by 70 (29.2%) and left eye preference by 86 (35.8%). Significantly more preterm children were left handed compared with parents or siblings in whom expected frequencies of left handedness were found. All index children had serial neonatal cerebral ultrasound examinations, of which 95 were abnormal. Left preference occurred at similar frequencies in those with normal neonatal scans (26.9%), bilateral lesions (28.3%), left sided lesions (23.8%), and right lesions (23.8%). Lateral preference appears to be unaffected by the side or extent of neonatal brain injury in children without major impairments. PMID:2696435

  11. The development of laterality.

    PubMed

    Perelle, I B; Ehrman, L

    1983-10-01

    Experimental data, primarily from experiments with Drosophila, and observational data, primarily from human beings, are presented to show if their is a genetic basis for laterality. The evidence was found to be inconclusive. It is proposed that there for three etiologies of lefthandedness in human beings: pathological, natural, and learned.

  12. Onset dominance in lateralization.

    PubMed

    Freyman, R L; Zurek, P M; Balakrishnan, U; Chiang, Y C

    1997-03-01

    Saberi and Perrott [Acustica 81, 272-275 (1995)] found that the in-head lateralization of a relatively long-duration pulse train could be controlled by the interaural delay of the single pulse pair that occurs at onset. The present study examined this further, using an acoustic pointer measure of lateralization, with stimulus manipulations designed to determine conditions under which lateralization was consistent with the interaural onset delay. The present stimuli were wideband pulse trains, noise-burst trains, and inharmonic complexes, 250 ms in duration, chosen for the ease with which interaural delays and correlations of select temporal segments of the stimulus could be manipulated. The stimulus factors studied were the periodicity of the ongoing part of the signal as well as the multiplicity and ambiguity of interaural delays. The results, in general, showed that the interaural onset delay controlled lateralization when the steady state binaural cues were relatively weak, either because the spectral components were only sparsely distributed across frequency or because the interaural time delays were ambiguous. Onset dominance can be disrupted by sudden stimulus changes within the train, and several examples of such changes are described. Individual subjects showed strong left-right asymmetries in onset effectiveness. The results have implications for understanding how onset and ongoing interaural delay cues contribute to the location estimates formed by the binaural auditory system.

  13. "Ictal" lateralized periodic discharges.

    PubMed

    Sen-Gupta, Indranil; Schuele, Stephan U; Macken, Micheal P; Kwasny, Mary J; Gerard, Elizabeth E

    2014-07-01

    Whether lateralized periodic discharges (LPDs) represent ictal or interictal phenomena, and even the circumstances in which they may represent one or the other, remains highly controversial. Lateralized periodic discharges are, however, widely accepted as being ictal when they are time-locked to clinically apparent symptoms. We sought to investigate the characteristics of "ictal" lateralized periodic discharges (ILPDs) defined by time-locked clinical symptoms in order to explore the utility of using this definition to dichotomize LPDs into "ictal" and "nonictal" categories. Our archive of all continuous EEG (cEEG) reports of adult inpatients undergoing prolonged EEG monitoring for nonelective indications between 2007 and 2011 was searched to identify all reports describing LPDs. Lateralized periodic discharges were considered ILPDs when they were reported as being consistently time-locked to clinical symptoms; LPDs lacking a clear time-locked correlate were considered to be "nonictal" lateralized periodic discharges (NILPDs). Patient charts and available neuroimaging studies were also reviewed. Neurophysiologic localization of LPDs, imaging findings, presence of seizures, discharge outcomes, and other demographic factors were compared between patients with ILPDs and those with NILPDs. p-Values were adjusted for false discovery rate (FDR). One thousand four hundred fifty-two patients underwent cEEG monitoring at our institution between 2007 and 2011. Lateralized periodic discharges were reported in 90 patients, 10 of whom met criteria for ILPDs. Nine of the patients with ILPDs demonstrated motor symptoms, and the remaining patient experienced stereotyped sensory symptoms. Ictal lateralized periodic discharges had significantly increased odds for involving central head regions (odds ratio [OR]=11; 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.16-62.6; p=0.018, FDR adjusted), with a trend towards higher proportion of lesions involving the primary sensorimotor cortex (p=0.09, FDR

  14. Lateral flow assays

    PubMed Central

    Koczula, Katarzyna M.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral flow assays (LFAs) are the technology behind low-cost, simple, rapid and portable detection devices popular in biomedicine, agriculture, food and environmental sciences. This review presents an overview of the principle of the method and the critical components of the assay, focusing on lateral flow immunoassays. This type of assay has recently attracted considerable interest because of its potential to provide instantaneous diagnosis directly to patients. The range and interpretation of results and parameters used for evaluation of the assay will also be discussed. The main advantages and disadvantages of LFAs will be summarized and relevant future improvements to testing devices and strategies will be proposed. Finally, the major recent advances and future diagnostic applications in the LFA field will be explored. PMID:27365041

  15. Lateral Attitude Change.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Tina; Dickel, Nina; Liersch, Benjamin; Rees, Jonas; Süssenbach, Philipp; Bohner, Gerd

    2015-08-01

    The authors propose a framework distinguishing two types of lateral attitude change (LAC): (a) generalization effects, where attitude change toward a focal object transfers to related objects, and (b) displacement effects, where only related attitudes change but the focal attitude does not change. They bring together examples of LAC from various domains of research, outline the conditions and underlying processes of each type of LAC, and develop a theoretical framework that enables researchers to study LAC more systematically in the future. Compared with established theories of attitude change, the LAC framework focuses on lateral instead of focal attitude change and encompasses both generalization and displacement. Novel predictions and designs for studying LAC are presented. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  16. Lateral View of Occator

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-09

    A group of scientists from NASA's Dawn mission suggests that when sunlight reaches Ceres' Occator Crater, a kind of thin haze of dust and evaporating water forms there. This haze only becomes dense enough to be seen by looking at it laterally, as in this image, the scientists wrote in the journal Nature in December 2015. Occator measures about 60 miles (90 kilometers) wide, and contains the brightest material seen on Ceres. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20181

  17. Conjugal amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Dewitt, John D.; Kwon, Julia; Burton, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disease characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the motor cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord. The incidence of sporadic ALS is 1.5 to 2.7 in 100,000, and the prevalence is 5.2 to 6.0 in 100,000. Conjugal ALS is even rarer than sporadic ALS. We report a case of conjugal ALS encountered in our outpatient neurology clinic. PMID:22275781

  18. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Malik, Rabia; Lui, Andrew; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting 20,000 to 30,000 people in the United States. The mainstay of care of patients affected by this disease is supportive and given the multifaceted nature of their needs is provided most efficiently through multidisciplinary clinics that have shown to prolong survival and improve quality of life. The authors discuss in detail evidence-based management of individuals affected by this condition.

  19. Hemispheric lateralization in reasoning.

    PubMed

    Turner, Benjamin O; Marinsek, Nicole; Ryhal, Emily; Miller, Michael B

    2015-11-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that reasoning in humans relies on a number of related processes whose neural loci are largely lateralized to one hemisphere or the other. A recent review of this evidence concluded that the patterns of lateralization observed are organized according to two complementary tendencies. The left hemisphere attempts to reduce uncertainty by drawing inferences or creating explanations, even at the cost of ignoring conflicting evidence or generating implausible explanations. Conversely, the right hemisphere aims to reduce conflict by rejecting or refining explanations that are no longer tenable in the face of new evidence. In healthy adults, the hemispheres work together to achieve a balance between certainty and consistency, and a wealth of neuropsychological research supports the notion that upsetting this balance results in various failures in reasoning, including delusions. However, support for this model from the neuroimaging literature is mixed. Here, we examine the evidence for this framework from multiple research domains, including an activation likelihood estimation analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of reasoning. Our results suggest a need to either revise this model as it applies to healthy adults or to develop better tools for assessing lateralization in these individuals.

  20. Lateral Elbow Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bhabra, Gev; Wang, Allan; Ebert, Jay R.; Edwards, Peter; Zheng, Monica; Zheng, Ming H.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral elbow tendinopathy, commonly known as tennis elbow, is a condition that can cause significant functional impairment in working-age patients. The term tendinopathy is used to describe chronic overuse tendon disorders encompassing a group of pathologies, a spectrum of disease. This review details the pathophysiology of tendinopathy and tendon healing as an introduction for a system grading the severity of tendinopathy, with each of the 4 grades displaying distinct histopathological features. Currently, there are a large number of nonoperative treatments available for lateral elbow tendinopathy, with little guidance as to when and how to use them. In fact, an appraisal of the clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses studying these treatment modalities reveals that no single treatment reliably achieves outstanding results. This may be due in part to the majority of clinical studies to date including all patients with chronic tendinopathy rather than attempting to categorize patients according to the severity of disease. We relate the pathophysiology of the different grades of tendinopathy to the basic science principles that underpin the mechanisms of action of the nonoperative treatments available to propose a treatment algorithm guiding the management of lateral elbow tendinopathy depending on severity. We believe that this system will be useful both in clinical practice and for the future investigation of the efficacy of treatments. PMID:27833925

  1. Performance Analysis for Lateral-Line-Inspired Sensor Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    characidae ). Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 157:837–843, 1985. [76] T. Teyke. Learning and remembering the environment in the blind cave fish anop...objects by the blind cave fish Anoptichthys jordani ( characidae ). Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 143:375–381, 1981. [83] G. Weymouth, 2011. http

  2. Diamond heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Y. -H.; Bi, B.; Golding, B.

    2015-02-24

    A method of diamond heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth is demonstrated which utilizes a photolithographic metal mask to pattern a thin (001) epitaxial diamond surface. Significant structural improvement was found, with a threading dislocation density reduced by two orders of magnitude at the top surface of a thick overgrown diamond layer. In the initial stage of overgrowth, a reduction of diamond Raman linewidth in the overgrown area was also realized. Thermally-induced stress and internal stress were determined by Raman spectroscopy of adhering and delaminated diamond films. As a result, the internal stress is found to decrease as sample thickness increases.

  3. Diamond heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth

    DOE PAGES

    Tang, Y. -H.; Bi, B.; Golding, B.

    2015-02-24

    A method of diamond heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth is demonstrated which utilizes a photolithographic metal mask to pattern a thin (001) epitaxial diamond surface. Significant structural improvement was found, with a threading dislocation density reduced by two orders of magnitude at the top surface of a thick overgrown diamond layer. In the initial stage of overgrowth, a reduction of diamond Raman linewidth in the overgrown area was also realized. Thermally-induced stress and internal stress were determined by Raman spectroscopy of adhering and delaminated diamond films. As a result, the internal stress is found to decrease as sample thickness increases.

  4. Enhanced performance of methamphetamine lateral flow cassettes using an electronic lateral flow reader.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jerome P; Sammons, Deborah L; Robertson, Shirley A; Snawder, John E

    2015-01-01

    Surface contamination from methamphetamine in meth labs continues to be a problem. We had previously developed a lateral flow assay cassette for field detection of methamphetamine contamination that is commercially available and has been used by a number of groups to assess contamination. This cassette uses the complete disappearance of the test line as an end point for detection of 50 ng/100 cm2 of methamphetamine contamination for surface sampling with cotton swabs. In the present study, we further evaluate the response of the cassettes using an electronic lateral flow reader to measure the intensities of the test and control lines. The cassettes were capable of detecting 0.25 ng/ml for calibration solutions. For 100 cm2 ceramic tiles that were spiked with methamphetamine and wiped with cotton-tipped wooden swabs wetted in assay/sampling buffer, 1 ng/tile was detected using the reader. Semi-quantitative results can be produced over the range 0-10 ng/ml for calibration solutions and 0-25 ng/tile for spiked tiles using either a 4-parameter logistic fit of test line intensity versus concentration or spiked mass or the ratio of the control line to the test line intensity fit to concentration or spiked mass. Recovery from the tiles was determined to be about 30% using the fitted curves. Comparison of the control line to the test line was also examined as a possible visual detection end point and it was found that the control line became more intense than the test line at 0.5 to 1 ng/ml for calibration solutions or 1 to 2 ng/tile for spiked tiles. Thus the lateral flow cassettes for methamphetamine have the potential to produce more sensitive semi-quantitative results if an electronic lateral flow reader is used and can be more sensitive for detection if the comparison of the control line to the test line is used as the visual end point.

  5. Enhanced performance of methamphetamine lateral flow cassettes using an electronic lateral flow reader

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jerome P.; Sammons, Deborah L.; Robertson, Shirley A.; Snawder, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Surface contamination from methamphetamine in meth labs continues to be a problem. We had previously developed a lateral flow assay cassette for field detection of methamphetamine contamination that is commercially available and has been used by a number of groups to assess contamination. This cassette uses the complete disappearance of the test line as an end point for detection of 50 ng/100 cm2 of methamphetamine contamination for surface sampling with cotton swabs. In the present study, we further evaluate the response of the cassettes using an electronic lateral flow reader to measure the intensities of the test and control lines. The cassettes were capable of detecting 0.25 ng/ml for calibration solutions. For 100 cm2 ceramic tiles that were spiked with methamphetamine and wiped with cotton tipped wooden swabs wetted in assay/sampling buffer, 1 ng/tile was detected using the reader. Semi-quantitative results can be produced over the range 0–10 ng/ml for calibration solutions and 0–25 ng/tile for spiked tiles using either a 4-parameter logistic fit of test line intensity versus concentration or spiked mass or the ratio of the control line to the test line intensity fit to concentration or spiked mass. Recovery from the tiles was determined to be about 30% using the fitted curves. Comparison of the control line to the test line was also examined as a possible visual detection end point and it was found that the control line became more intense than the test line at 0.5 to 1 ng/ml for calibration solutions or 1 to 2 ng/tile for spiked tiles. Thus the lateral flow cassettes for methamphetamine have the potential to produce more sensitive semi-quantitative results if an electronic lateral flow reader is used and can be more sensitive for detection if the comparison of the control line to the test line is used as the visual end point. PMID:25379615

  6. Creativity in later life.

    PubMed

    Price, K A; Tinker, A M

    2014-08-01

    The ageing population presents significant challenges for the provision of social and health services. Strategies are needed to enable older people to cope within a society ill prepared for the impacts of these demographic changes. The ability to be creative may be one such strategy. This review outlines the relevant literature and examines current public health policy related to creativity in old age with the aim of highlighting some important issues. As well as looking at the benefits and negative aspects of creative activity in later life they are considered in the context of the theory of "successful ageing". Creative activity plays an important role in the lives of older people promoting social interaction, providing cognitive stimulation and giving a sense of self-worth. Furthermore, it is shown to be useful as a tool in the multi-disciplinary treatment of health problems common in later life such as depression and dementia. There are a number of initiatives to encourage older people to participate in creative activities such as arts-based projects which may range from visual arts to dance to music to intergenerational initiatives. However, participation shows geographical variation and often the responsibility of provision falls to voluntary organisations. Overall, the literature presented suggests that creative activity could be a useful tool for individuals and society. However, further research is needed to establish the key factors which contribute to patterns of improved health and well-being, as well as to explore ways to improve access to services.

  7. 8. PIER, LOWER CHORD, LATERAL BRACE, LATERAL GUSSET PLATE, FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. PIER, LOWER CHORD, LATERAL BRACE, LATERAL GUSSET PLATE, FLOOR BEAM AND STRINGER - CAMELBACK TRUSS - Parker Bridge, Spanning Verdigris River 1.5 miles Southeast of Coffeyville, Coffeyville, Montgomery County, KS

  8. 8. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & GUSSET PLATE, ONE DIAGONAL BRACE - Enterprise Parker Truss Bridge, Spanning Smoky Hill River on K-43 Highway, Enterprise, Dickinson County, KS

  9. Lower lateral crural reverse plasty.

    PubMed

    Kubilay, Utku; Azizli, Elad; Erdoğdu, Suleyman

    2013-11-01

    The lateral crus plays a significant role in the aesthetic appearance of the nose. Excessive concavities of the lower lateral crura can lead to heavy aesthetic disfigurement of the nasal tip and to insufficiencies of the external nasal valve. The lateral crus of the alar cartilage may also cause a concavity of the alar rim and even collapse of the alar rim in severe cases. Surgical techniques performed on the lateral crus help to treat both functional and aesthetic deformities of the lateral nasal tip. We present a reverse plasty technique for the lateral crus, and we evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of the technique.

  10. Zone lines

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith

    2001-01-01

    Zone lines are narrow, usually dark markings formed in decaying wood. Zone lines are found most frequently in advanced white rot of hardwoods, although they occasionally are associated both with brown rot and with softwoods.

  11. Primary Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Statland, Jeffrey M.; Barohn, Richard J.; Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Floeter, Mary Kay; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) is characterized by insidious onset of progressive upper motor neuron dysfunction in the absence of clinical signs of lower motor neuron involvement. Patients experience stiffness, decreased balance and coordination, and mild weakness, and if the bulbar region is affected, difficulty speaking and swallowing, and emotional lability. The diagnosis is made based on clinical history, typical exam findings, and diagnostic testing negative for other causes of upper motor neuron dysfunction. EMG is normal, or only shows mild neurogenic findings in a few muscles, not meeting El Escorial criteria. Although no test is specific for PLS, some neurodiagnostic tests are supportive: including absent or delayed central motor conduction times; and changes in the precentral gyrus or corticospinal tracts on MRI, DTI or MR Spectroscopy. Treatment is largely supportive, and includes medications for spasticity, baclofen pump, and treatment for pseudobulbar affect. The prognosis in PLS is more benign than ALS, making this a useful diagnostic category. PMID:26515619

  12. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hardiman, Orla; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Chio, Adriano; Corr, Emma M; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Robberecht, Wim; Shaw, Pamela J; Simmons, Zachary; van den Berg, Leonard H

    2017-10-05

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neuron disease, is characterized by the degeneration of both upper and lower motor neurons, which leads to muscle weakness and eventual paralysis. Until recently, ALS was classified primarily within the neuromuscular domain, although new imaging and neuropathological data have indicated the involvement of the non-motor neuraxis in disease pathology. In most patients, the mechanisms underlying the development of ALS are poorly understood, although a subset of patients have familial disease and harbour mutations in genes that have various roles in neuronal function. Two possible disease-modifying therapies that can slow disease progression are available for ALS, but patient management is largely mediated by symptomatic therapies, such as the use of muscle relaxants for spasticity and speech therapy for dysarthria.

  13. Money Now, Money Later.

    PubMed

    Piquero, Alex R; Farrington, David P; Jennings, Wesley G

    2016-12-01

    Two prominent criminological theories offer time discounting, or the preference for an immediate reward over a later one, as a central part of understanding involvement in criminal activity. Yet, there exist only a few studies investigating this issue, and they are limited in a few respects. The current study extends prior work in this area by using multiple measures of time discounting collected at three different periods of the life course to examine the link to criminal offending into late middle adulthood in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. Results show that greater time discounting is positively related to a higher number of criminal convictions by late middle adulthood, and this effect remains after controlling for early life-course individual and environmental risk in a multivariate framework. Study limitations and implications are also discussed.

  14. Lateral conduction infrared photodetector

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jin K [Albuquerque, NM; Carroll, Malcolm S [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-09-20

    A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

  15. Measure Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissman, Sally

    2011-01-01

    One tool for enhancing students' work with data in the science classroom is the measure line. As a coteacher and curriculum developer for The Inquiry Project, the author has seen how measure lines--a number line in which the numbers refer to units of measure--help students not only represent data but also analyze it in ways that generate…

  16. [Lateralization phenomena and headache].

    PubMed

    Nattero, G; Savi, L

    1984-09-08

    Ipsilateral carotid and vertebral vasomotor phenomena are marked components of a unilateral cluster headache crisis. Investigation of lateralisation at the height of a crisis has shown that Doppler findings supplement Heick's observation of the reversible opening of both intra and extracranial arteriovenous shunts. This observation is in line with personal thermographic evidence and that of Lance indicating local hypothermia, and with Wolff's demonstration of dilatation and congestion associated with the superficial temporal artery. Personal dynamographic findings now point to a local extra-intracranial artery pressure gradient as the cause of the peripheral component of lateralisation in cluster headache.

  17. Reflexive Planning for Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Margaret A.; Kemp, Candace L.; French, Susan; Gafni, Amiram; Joshi, Anju; Rosenthal, Carolyn J.; Davies, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    Informed by Giddens' (1991) concept of "reflexive life" planning and the notion of later life as a time of increasing social and financial risk, this research explores the idea of "reflexive planning for later life". We utilize a conceptual model that incorporates three types of planning for later life: public protection, self-insurance, and…

  18. Lateral Thinking and Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waks, Shlomo

    1997-01-01

    Presents an analysis of technology education and its relevance to lateral thinking. Discusses prospects for utilizing technology education as a platform and a contextual domain for nurturing lateral thinking. Argues that technology education is an appropriate environment for developing complementary incorporation of vertical and lateral thinking.…

  19. Reduced Lateral Root Branching Density Improves Drought Tolerance in Maize.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ai; Schneider, Hannah; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2015-08-01

    An emerging paradigm is that root traits that reduce the metabolic costs of soil exploration improve the acquisition of limiting soil resources. Here, we test the hypothesis that reduced lateral root branching density will improve drought tolerance in maize (Zea mays) by reducing the metabolic costs of soil exploration, permitting greater axial root elongation, greater rooting depth, and thereby greater water acquisition from drying soil. Maize recombinant inbred lines with contrasting lateral root number and length (few but long [FL] and many but short [MS]) were grown under water stress in greenhouse mesocosms, in field rainout shelters, and in a second field environment with natural drought. Under water stress in mesocosms, lines with the FL phenotype had substantially less lateral root respiration per unit of axial root length, deeper rooting, greater leaf relative water content, greater stomatal conductance, and 50% greater shoot biomass than lines with the MS phenotype. Under water stress in the two field sites, lines with the FL phenotype had deeper rooting, much lighter stem water isotopic signature, signifying deeper water capture, 51% to 67% greater shoot biomass at flowering, and 144% greater yield than lines with the MS phenotype. These results entirely support the hypothesis that reduced lateral root branching density improves drought tolerance. The FL lateral root phenotype merits consideration as a selection target to improve the drought tolerance of maize and possibly other cereal crops.

  20. Nasca Lines, Peru

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Nasca Lines are located in the Pampa region of Peru, the desolate plain of the Peruvian coast 400 km south of Lima. The Lines were first spotted when commercial airlines began flying across the Peruvian desert in the 1920's. Passengers reported seeing 'primitive landing strips' on the ground below. The Lines were made by removing the iron-oxide coated pebbles which cover the surface of the desert. When the gravel is removed, they contrast with the light color underneath. In this way the lines were drawn as furrows of a lighter color. On the pampa, south of the Nasca Lines, archaeologists have now uncovered the lost city of the line-builders, Cahuachi. It was built nearly two thousand years ago and was mysteriously abandoned 500 years later. This ASTER sub-image covers an area of 14 x 18 km, was acquired on December 22, 2000, and is located at 14.7 degrees south latitude and 75.1 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  1. Nasca Lines, Peru

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-22

    The Nasca Lines are located in the Pampa region of Peru, the desolate plain of the Peruvian coast 400 km south of Lima. The Lines were first spotted when commercial airlines began flying across the Peruvian desert in the 1920's. Passengers reported seeing 'primitive landing strips' on the ground below. The Lines were made by removing the iron-oxide coated pebbles which cover the surface of the desert. When the gravel is removed, they contrast with the light color underneath. In this way the lines were drawn as furrows of a lighter color. On the pampa, south of the Nasca Lines, archaeologists have now uncovered the lost city of the line-builders, Cahuachi. It was built nearly two thousand years ago and was mysteriously abandoned 500 years later. This ASTER sub-image covers an area of 14 x 18 km, was acquired on December 22, 2000, and is located at 14.7 degrees south latitude and 75.1 degrees west longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11097

  2. Diamond heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yung-Hsiu

    This dissertation describes improvements in the growth of single crystal diamond by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Heteroepitaxial (001) diamond was grown on 1 cm. 2 a-plane sapphiresubstrates using an epitaxial (001) Ir thin-film as a buffer layer. Low-energy ion bombardment of the Ir layer, a process known as bias-enhanced nucleation, is a key step in achieving a high density of diamond nuclei. Bias conditions were optimized to form uniformly-high nucleation densities across the substrates, which led to well-coalesced diamond thin films after short growth times. Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) was used as a means of decreasing diamond internal stress by impeding the propagation of threading dislocations into the growing material. Its use in diamond growth requires adaptation to the aggressive chemical and thermal environment of the hydrogen plasma in a CVD reactor. Three ELO variants were developed. The most successful utilized a gold (Au) mask prepared by vacuum evaporation onto the surface of a thin heteroepitaxial diamond layer. The Au mask pattern, a series of parallel stripes on the micrometer scale, was produced by standard lift-off photolithography. When diamond overgrows the mask, dislocations are largely confined to the substrate. Differing degrees of confinement were studied by varying the stripe geometry and orientation. Significant improvement in diamond quality was found in the overgrown regions, as evidenced by reduction of the Raman scattering linewidth. The Au layer was found to remain intact during diamond overgrowth and did not chemically bond with the diamond surface. Besides impeding the propagation of threading dislocations, it was discovered that the thermally-induced stress in the CVD diamond was significantly reduced as a result of the ductile Au layer. Cracking and delamination of the diamond from the substrate was mostly eliminated. When diamond was grown to thicknesses above 0.1 mm it was found that

  3. Alcohol-Induced Morphological Deficits in the Development of Octavolateral Organs of the Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, Lilliann Y.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to have many profound detrimental effects on human fetal development (fetal alcohol spectrum disorders), which may manifest as lifelong disabilities. However, how alcohol affects the auditory/vestibular system is still largely unknown. This is the first study to investigate morphological effects of alcohol on the developing octavolateral system (the inner ear and lateral line) using the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Zebrafish embryos of 2 hours post fertilization (hpf) were treated in 2% alcohol for 48 hours and screened at 72 hpf for morphological defects of the inner ear and lateral line. Octavolateral organs from both alcohol-treated and control zebrafish were examined using light, confocal, and scanning electron microscopy. We observed several otolith phenotypes for alcohol-treated zebrafish including zero, one, two abnormal, two normal, and multiple otoliths. Results of this study show that alcohol treatment during early development impairs the inner ear (smaller ear, abnormal otoliths, and fewer sensory hair cells) and the lateral line (smaller neuromasts, fewer neuromasts and hair cells per neuromast, and shorter kinocilia of hair cells). Early embryonic alcohol exposure may also result in defects in hearing, balance, and hydrodynamic function of zebrafish. PMID:23461415

  4. Alcohol-induced morphological deficits in the development of octavolateral organs of the zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Zamora, Lilliann Y; Lu, Zhongmin

    2013-03-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to have many profound detrimental effects on human fetal development (fetal alcohol spectrum disorders), which may manifest as lifelong disabilities. However, how alcohol affects the auditory/vestibular system is still largely unknown. This is the first study to investigate morphological effects of alcohol on the developing octavolateral system (the inner ear and lateral line) using the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Zebrafish embryos of 2 hours post fertilization (hpf) were treated in 2% alcohol for 48 hours and screened at 72 hpf for morphological defects of the inner ear and lateral line. Octavolateral organs from both alcohol-treated and control zebrafish were examined using light, confocal, and scanning electron microscopy. We observed several otolith phenotypes for alcohol-treated zebrafish including zero, one, two abnormal, two normal, and multiple otoliths. Results of this study show that alcohol treatment during early development impairs the inner ear (smaller ear, abnormal otoliths, and fewer sensory hair cells) and the lateral line (smaller neuromasts, fewer neuromasts and hair cells per neuromast, and shorter kinocilia of hair cells). Early embryonic alcohol exposure may also result in defects in hearing, balance, and hydrodynamic function of zebrafish.

  5. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Preserving the Lateral Canthal Angle

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu Ho; Choi, Hong Lim; Jeong, Eui Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic lateral canthoplasty, in which the size of the eye is increased by extending the palpebral fissure and decreasing the degree of the eye slant, has become a prevalent procedure for East Asians. However, it is not uncommon for there to be complications or unfavorable results after the surgery. With this in mind, the authors have designed a surgical method to reduce complications in cosmetic lateral canthoplasty by preserving the lateral canthal angle. We discuss here the anatomy required for surgery, the surgical methods, and methods for reducing complications during cosmetic lateral canthoplasty. PMID:27462563

  6. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Wijesekera, Lokesh C; Leigh, P Nigel

    2009-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurones in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord. Incidence (average 1.89 per 100,000/year) and prevalence (average 5.2 per100,000) are relatively uniform in Western countries, although foci of higher frequency occur in the Western Pacific. The mean age of onset for sporadic ALS is about 60 years. Overall, there is a slight male prevalence (M:F ratio~1.5:1). Approximately two thirds of patients with typical ALS have a spinal form of the disease (limb onset) and present with symptoms related to focal muscle weakness and wasting, where the symptoms may start either distally or proximally in the upper and lower limbs. Gradually, spasticity may develop in the weakened atrophic limbs, affecting manual dexterity and gait. Patients with bulbar onset ALS usually present with dysarthria and dysphagia for solid or liquids, and limbs symptoms can develop almost simultaneously with bulbar symptoms, and in the vast majority of cases will occur within 1–2 years. Paralysis is progressive and leads to death due to respiratory failure within 2–3 years for bulbar onset cases and 3–5 years for limb onset ALS cases. Most ALS cases are sporadic but 5–10% of cases are familial, and of these 20% have a mutation of the SOD1 gene and about 2–5% have mutations of the TARDBP (TDP-43) gene. Two percent of apparently sporadic patients have SOD1 mutations, and TARDBP mutations also occur in sporadic cases. The diagnosis is based on clinical history, examination, electromyography, and exclusion of 'ALS-mimics' (e.g. cervical spondylotic myelopathies, multifocal motor neuropathy, Kennedy's disease) by appropriate investigations. The pathological hallmarks comprise loss of motor neurones with intraneuronal ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions in upper motor neurones and TDP-43 immunoreactive inclusions in

  7. Anagrelide: 20 years later.

    PubMed

    Emadi, Ashkan; Spivak, Jerry L

    2009-01-01

    Thrombocytosis is a common feature of chronic myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) and may be asymptomatic or associated with transient microvascular vaso-occlusive symptoms or large vessel arterial or venous thrombosis. Failure of either the hematocrit or the platelet count to correlate with thrombotic events is a peculiar conundrum of the MPDs. Asymptomatic thrombocytosis in young MPD patients with no cardiovascular risk factors does not require treatment. It is also undisputed that lowering the platelet count reduces the incidence of microvascular events in MPD patients. At the same time, no study to date has demonstrated that platelet count reduction prolongs survival in MPD patients. Agents such as hydroxyurea, busulfan, IFN-alpha and anagrelide, have been used to reduce an elevated platelet count and decrease thrombohemorrhagic events in at-risk patients with thrombocytosis associated with an MPD. When treatment is required, it makes sense to use drugs that are not myelotoxic or mutagenic. Based on the Primary Thrombocythaemia 1 study, hydroxyurea is the treatment of choice for thrombocytosis-associated transient ischemic attacks. However, hydroxyurea does not prevent venous thrombosis, is not more effective in preventing arterial thrombosis than anagrelide and its long-term safety is not established. Therefore, unless curative therapy is planned, one should use the least myelotoxic agent when platelet count reduction is required. In this regard, anagrelide can be considered a first-line drug. With regard to long-term safety of anagrelide, the EMEA has required close monitoring of the safety points identified in future Periodic Safety Update Reports and in a Post Authorisation Safety Study in the EU, which will focus especially on cardiovascular events and acute leukemia. In this article, we review anagrelide pharmacology, the physiology of thrombopoiesis, the differential diagnosis of thrombocytosis and the management of patients with an elevated platelet

  8. Topographical and drug specific sensitivity of hair cells of the zebrafish larvae to aminoglycoside-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Montalbano, Giuseppe; Abbate, Francesco; Levanti, Maria Beatrice; Germanà, Germana Patrizia; Laurà, Rosaria; Ciriaco, Emilia; Vega, José A; Germanà, Antonino

    2014-07-01

    The hair cells of the lateral line system of fishes are morphologically and physiologically similar to the hair cells of the mammalian inner ear, also sharing its molecular characteristics. For this reason, it has been used as a powerful animal model to analyze in vivo ototoxicity. In this work, we examined the dose-dependent effects of two potent ototoxic aminoglycosides, neomycin and gentamicin, on the hair cells of two selected neuromasts (L1 and T1, the first of the trunk and the terminal located in the fin, respectively) of the lateral line in the ET4 transgenic zebrafish line. The hair cells of this strain selectively and constitutively display fluorescence. The fish were treated for 24 h at different doses (1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 100 μM levels) of both aminoglycosides. Immediately after treatment the morphology and the number of cells in L1 and T were analyzed under a fluorescence microscope. The results show that neomycin and gentamicin have different effects on the hair cell death at the same concentration, showing also different toxicity in L1 and T1 neuromasts. The toxicity observed in the hair cells of T1 neuromast was less than in L1 especially for the gentamicin treatment. These results demonstrate different sensitivity of hair cells of the lateral line to ototoxic drugs according to topographical localization and suggest the in vivo assay of the L1 neuromast of zebrafish larva and low doses of neomycin as an ideal model to study ototoxicity induced by aminoglycosides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Lateral Entry of Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    concluded that the militaty services use lateral entry in a very limited way. Lateral-entry programs are used most often in recrioing for the health ...the health professions. 3 Of course, the reserves rely heavily on lateral entry from the active components. Most of these people received their initial...a result of the Armed Forces Health Professionals Scholarship Program, which offers tuition and expenses for civilian I training in return for a

  10. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Research Program Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Research Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...research programs such as the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Research Program (ALSRP) is allo- cated via specific guidance from Congress. Proposal

  11. World lines.

    PubMed

    Waser, Jürgen; Fuchs, Raphael; Ribicić, Hrvoje; Schindler, Benjamin; Blöschl, Günther; Gröller, Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas, decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting, the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation, visualization and computational steering into a single unified system that is capable of dealing with the extended solution space. World Lines represent simulation runs as causally connected tracks that share a common time axis. This setup enables users to interfere and add new information quickly. A World Line is introduced as a visual combination of user events and their effects in order to present a possible future. To quickly find the most attractive outcome, we suggest World Lines as the governing component in a system of multiple linked views and a simulation component. World Lines employ linking and brushing to enable comparative visual analysis of multiple simulations in linked views. Analysis results can be mapped to various visual variables that World Lines provide in order to highlight the most compelling solutions. To demonstrate this technique we present a flooding scenario and show the usefulness of the integrated approach to support informed decision making.

  12. 1. HEAD GATE OF THE SAND CREEK LATERAL AT THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. HEAD GATE OF THE SAND CREEK LATERAL AT THE HIGH LINE CANAL ON THE SOUTH END OF THE PEORIA STREET BRIDGE. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  13. Protective role of L-ascorbic acid, N-acetylcysteine and apocynin on neomycin-induced hair cell loss in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Yen; Lee, Han-Jung; Liu, Chi-Fang; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Chen, Hwei-Hsien; Chan, Ming-Huan

    2015-03-01

    Hair cells are highly sensitive to environmental insults and other therapeutic drugs. The adverse effects of drugs such as aminoglycosides can cause hair cell death and lead to hearing loss and imbalance. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protective activity of L-ascorbic acid, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and apocynin on neomycin-induced hair cell damage in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae at 5 days post fertilization (dpf). Results showed that the loss of hair cells within the neuromasts of the lateral lines after neomycin exposure was evidenced by a significantly lower number of neuromasts labeled with fluorescent dye FM1-43FX observed under a microscope. Co-administration with L-ascorbic acid, NAC and apocynin protected neomycin-induced hair cell loss within the neuromasts. Moreover, these three compounds reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neuromasts exposed to neomycin, indicating that their antioxidant action is involved. In contrast, the neuromasts were labeled with specific fluorescent dye Texas-red conjugated with neomycin to detect neomycin uptake. Interestingly, the uptake of neomycin into hair cells was not influenced by these three antioxidant compounds. These data imply that prevention of hair cell damage against neomycin by L-ascorbic acid, NAC and apocynin might be associated with inhibition of excessive ROS production, but not related to modulating neomycin uptake. Our findings conclude that L-ascorbic acid, NAC and apocynin could be used as therapeutic drugs to protect aminoglycoside-induced listening impairment after further confirmatory studies.

  14. Sodium Selenite Acts as an Otoprotectant against Neomycin-Induced Hair Cell Damage in a Zebrafish Model

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jiwon; Choi, June; Rah, Yoon Chan; Yoo, Myung Hoon; Oh, Kyoung Ho; Im, Gi Jung; Lee, Seung Hoon; Kwon, Soon Young; Park, Hae-Chul; Chae, Sung Won; Jung, Hak Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Sodium selenite is a trace element essential for many physiological functions in the body. It is involved in various biological processes; it acts as a cofactor for antioxidant enzymes that protect against free radicals and is reported to limit metal-mediated oxidative DNA damage. In the present study, we investigated the effect of sodium selenite on neomycin ototoxicity in wild-type and transgenic zebrafish (Brn3C: EGFP). Five or six days post-fertilization, zebrafish larvae were co-exposed to 125 μM neomycin and various concentrations (10 μM, 100 μM, 250 μM, and 500 μM) of sodium selenite for 1 h. Hair cells within neuromasts of the supraorbital (SO1 and SO2), otic (O1), and occipital (OC1) lateral lines were analyzed by fluorescence microscopy (n = 10 fish per treatment). Hair cell survival was estimated as the ratio of the hair cell numbers in each group compared to those of the control group that were not exposed to neomycin. Apoptosis and hair cell damage of neuromasts were evaluated using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and 2-[4-(dimethylamino) styryl]-N-ethylpyridinium iodide (DASPEI) assay, respectively. Ultrastructural changes were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Neuromast hair cells were preserved in zebrafish exposed to 125 μM neomycin and 500 μM sodium selenite for 1 h. Sodium selenite protected against neomycin-induced hair cell loss of neuromasts, reduced apoptosis, and prevented zebrafish ultrastructural changes. We propose that sodium selenite protects against neomycin-induced hair cell damage by inhibiting apoptosis, decreasing the disarray of stereocilia, and preventing ultrastructural changes in the neuromast hair cells of the zebrafish. PMID:26974429

  15. Sodium Selenite Acts as an Otoprotectant against Neomycin-Induced Hair Cell Damage in a Zebrafish Model.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jiwon; Choi, June; Rah, Yoon Chan; Yoo, Myung Hoon; Oh, Kyoung Ho; Im, Gi Jung; Lee, Seung Hoon; Kwon, Soon Young; Park, Hae-Chul; Chae, Sung Won; Jung, Hak Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Sodium selenite is a trace element essential for many physiological functions in the body. It is involved in various biological processes; it acts as a cofactor for antioxidant enzymes that protect against free radicals and is reported to limit metal-mediated oxidative DNA damage. In the present study, we investigated the effect of sodium selenite on neomycin ototoxicity in wild-type and transgenic zebrafish (Brn3C: EGFP). Five or six days post-fertilization, zebrafish larvae were co-exposed to 125 μM neomycin and various concentrations (10 μM, 100 μM, 250 μM, and 500 μM) of sodium selenite for 1 h. Hair cells within neuromasts of the supraorbital (SO1 and SO2), otic (O1), and occipital (OC1) lateral lines were analyzed by fluorescence microscopy (n = 10 fish per treatment). Hair cell survival was estimated as the ratio of the hair cell numbers in each group compared to those of the control group that were not exposed to neomycin. Apoptosis and hair cell damage of neuromasts were evaluated using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and 2-[4-(dimethylamino) styryl]-N-ethylpyridinium iodide (DASPEI) assay, respectively. Ultrastructural changes were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Neuromast hair cells were preserved in zebrafish exposed to 125 μM neomycin and 500 μM sodium selenite for 1 h. Sodium selenite protected against neomycin-induced hair cell loss of neuromasts, reduced apoptosis, and prevented zebrafish ultrastructural changes. We propose that sodium selenite protects against neomycin-induced hair cell damage by inhibiting apoptosis, decreasing the disarray of stereocilia, and preventing ultrastructural changes in the neuromast hair cells of the zebrafish.

  16. A Pascalian lateral drift sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, H.

    2016-09-01

    A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.

  17. Abnormal band of lateral meniscus.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Brian; Goldblatt, John

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a case of an "abnormal band" of the lateral meniscus, extending from the posterior horn of the true lateral meniscus to its antero-mid portion, observed during arthroscopy in a 45-year-old white man of Bosnian descent. The periphery of the aberrant lateral meniscus was freely mobile, and not connected to the underlying true lateral meniscus. Preoperative physical examination findings were consistent with medial-sided meniscal pathology only; however, evidence of an anomalous lateral meniscus was seen with magnetic resonance imaging. This anatomical pattern is rare and has been reported in the literature only once, in a report of 2 Asian patients. This article illustrates an anatomical variant of the lateral meniscus in a non-Asian patient with a clinical presentation that has not been previously described. In addition to the case report, the article presents a comprehensive review of the existing body of literature on anomalous lateral meniscus patterns. We believe that the definitions of the types of aberrant meniscus can be clarified to establish improved accuracy in reporting.

  18. What causes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Sarah; Al Khleifat, Ahmad; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease predominantly affecting upper and lower motor neurons, resulting in progressive paralysis and death from respiratory failure within 2 to 3 years. The peak age of onset is 55 to 70 years, with a male predominance. The causes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are only partly known, but they include some environmental risk factors as well as several genes that have been identified as harbouring disease-associated variation. Here we review the nature, epidemiology, genetic associations, and environmental exposures associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:28408982

  19. Lateral Dominance and Reading Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Albert J.

    1979-01-01

    Theory and research on the relation of lateral dominance to the causation of reading disability are reviewed. Both direct and indirect measures of cerebral hemisphere functioning are considered. (SBH)

  20. 9. VIEW SHOWING CHILDREN SWIMMING IN A LATERAL OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW SHOWING CHILDREN SWIMMING IN A LATERAL OF THE GRAND CANAL LOCATION UNKNOWN. THE HUGE COTTONWOOD TREES THAT ONCE-LINED MOST CANALS AND DITCHES WERE CUT DOWN WHEN IT WAS DISCOVERED THAT THEY CONSUMED HUNDREDS OF GALLONS OF WATER EACH DAY. Photographer unknown, no date - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  1. CT navigated lateral interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Drazin, Doniel; Liu, John C; Acosta, Frank L

    2013-10-01

    Lateral interbody fusion techniques are heavily reliant on fluoroscopy for retractor docking and graft placement, which expose both the patient and surgeon to high doses of radiation. Use of image-guided technologies with CT-based images, however, can eliminate this radiation exposure for the surgeon. We describe the surgical technique of performing lateral lumbar interbody fusion using CT navigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lidar for Lateral Mixing (LATMIX)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    km, i.e., the “ submesoscale ”. We aim to understand the underlying mechanisms and forcing, as well as the temporal, spatial, and scale variability of...the overall objectives of the Lateral Mixing DRI to try to determine the extent to which submesoscale stirring is driven by a cascade of energy down...technical goal of our work is to develop the use of airborne LIDAR surveys of evolving dye experiments as a tool for studying submesoscale lateral dispersion

  3. Motor laterality as an indicator of speech laterality.

    PubMed

    Flowers, Kenneth A; Hudson, John M

    2013-03-01

    The determination of speech laterality, especially where it is anomalous, is both a theoretical issue and a practical problem for brain surgery. Handedness is commonly thought to be related to speech representation, but exactly how is not clearly understood. This investigation analyzed handedness by preference rating and performance on a reliable task of motor laterality in 34 patients undergoing a Wada test, to see if they could provide an indicator of speech laterality. Hand usage preference ratings divided patients into left, right, and mixed in preference. Between-hand differences in movement time on a pegboard task determined motor laterality. Results were correlated (χ2) with speech representation as determined by a standard Wada test. It was found that patients whose between-hand difference in speed on the motor task was small or inconsistent were the ones whose Wada test speech representation was likely to be ambiguous or anomalous, whereas all those with a consistently large between-hand difference showed clear unilateral speech representation in the hemisphere controlling the better hand (χ2 = 10.45, df = 1, p < .01, η2 = 0.55) This relationship prevailed across hand preference and level of skill in the hands itself. We propose that motor and speech laterality are related where they both involve a central control of motor output sequencing and that a measure of that aspect of the former will indicate the likely representation of the latter. A between-hand measure of motor laterality based on such a measure may indicate the possibility of anomalous speech representation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Lateral topological crystalline insulator heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qilong; Dai, Ying; Niu, Chengwang; Ma, Yandong; Wei, Wei; Yu, Lin; Huang, Baibiao

    2017-06-01

    The emergence of lateral heterostructures fabricated by two-dimensional building blocks brings many exciting realms in material science and device physics. Enriching available nanomaterials for creating such heterostructures and enabling the underlying new physics is highly coveted for the integration of next-generation devices. Here, we report a breakthrough in lateral heterostructure based on the monolayer square transition-metal dichalcogenides MX2 (M  =  W, X  =  S/Se) modules. Our results reveal that the MX2 lateral heterostructure (1S-MX2 LHS) can possess excellent thermal and dynamical stability. Remarkably, the highly desired two-dimensional topological crystalline insulator phase is confirmed by the calculated mirror Chern number {{n}\\text{M}}=-1 . A nontrivial band gap of 65 meV is obtained with SOC, indicating the potential for room-temperature observation and applications. The topologically protected edge states emerge at the edges of two different nanoribbons between the bulk band gap, which is consistent with the mirror Chern number. In addition, a strain-induced topological phase transition in 1S-MX2 LHS is also revealed, endowing the potential utilities in electronics and spintronics. Our predictions not only introduce new member and vitality into the studies of lateral heterostructures, but also highlight the promise of lateral heterostructure as appealing topological crystalline insulator platforms with excellent stability for future devices.

  5. Optineurin and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Hirofumi; Kawakami, Hideshi

    2013-07-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a devastating disease, and thus it is important to identify the causative gene and resolve the mechanism of the disease. We identified optineurin as a causative gene for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We found three types of mutations: a homozygous deletion of exon 5, a homozygous Q398X nonsense mutation and a heterozygous E478G missense mutation within its ubiquitin-binding domain. Optineurin negatively regulates the tumor necrosis factor-α-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B. Nonsense and missense mutations abolished this function. Mutations related to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis also negated the inhibition of interferon regulatory factor-3. The missense mutation showed a cyotoplasmic distribution different from that of the wild type. There are no specific clinical symptoms related to optineurin. However, severe brain atrophy was detected in patients with homozygous deletion. Neuropathologically, an E478G patient showed transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa-positive neuronal intracytoplasmic inclusions in the spinal and medullary motor neurons. Furthermore, Golgi fragmentation was identified in 73% of this patient's anterior horn cells. In addition, optineurin is colocalized with fused in sarcoma in the basophilic inclusions of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with fused in sarcoma mutations, and in basophilic inclusion body disease. These findings strongly suggest that optineurin is involved in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  6. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow.

    PubMed

    Tosti, Rick; Jennings, John; Sewards, J Milo

    2013-04-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, or "tennis elbow," is a common musculotendinous degenerative disorder of the extensor origin at the lateral humeral epicondyle. Repetitive occupational or athletic activities involving wrist extension and supination are thought to be causative. The typical symptoms include lateral elbow pain, pain with wrist extension, and weakened grip strength. The diagnosis is made clinically through history and physical examination; however, a thorough understanding of the differential diagnosis is imperative to prevent unnecessary testing and therapies. Most patients improve with nonoperative measures, such as activity modification, physical therapy, and injections. A small percentage of patients will require surgical release of the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon. Common methods of release may be performed via percutaneous, arthroscopic, or open approaches.

  7. Lateral Diffusion in an Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Saxton, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    Lateral diffusion of molecules in lipid bilayer membranes can be hindered by the presence of impermeable domains of gel-phase lipid or of proteins. Effective-medium theory and percolation theory are used to evaluate the effective lateral diffusion constant as a function of the area fraction of fluid-phase lipid and the permeability of the obstructions to the diffusing species. Applications include the estimation of the minimum fraction of fluid lipid needed for bacterial growth, and the enhancement of diffusion-controlled reactions by the channeling effect of solid patches of lipid. PMID:7052153

  8. LATERAL DOWNFLOWS IN SUNSPOT PENUMBRAL FILAMENTS AND THEIR TEMPORAL EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Esteban Pozuelo, S.; Rubio, L. R. Bellot; Rodríguez, J. de la Cruz

    2015-04-20

    We study the temporal evolution of downflows observed at the lateral edges of penumbral filaments in a sunspot located very close to the disk center. Our analysis is based on a sequence of nearly diffraction-limited scans of the Fe i 617.3 nm line taken with the CRisp Imaging Spectro-Polarimeter instrument at the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope. We compute Dopplergrams from the observed intensity profiles using line bisectors and filter the resulting velocity maps for subsonic oscillations. Lateral downflows appear everywhere in the center-side penumbra as small, weak patches of redshifts next to or along the edges of blueshifted flow channels. These patches have an intermittent life and undergo mergings and fragmentations quite frequently. The lateral downflows move together with the hosting filaments and react to their shape variations, very much resembling the evolution of granular convection in the quiet Sun. There is a good relation between brightness and velocity in the center-side penumbra, with downflows being darker than upflows on average, which is again reminiscent of quiet Sun convection. These results point to the existence of overturning convection in sunspot penumbrae, with elongated cells forming filaments where the flow is upward but very inclined, and weak lateral downward flows. In general, the circular polarization profiles emerging from the lateral downflows do not show sign reversals, although sometimes we detect three-lobed profiles that are suggestive of opposite magnetic polarities in the pixel.

  9. Lateral Downflows in Sunspot Penumbral Filaments and their Temporal Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban Pozuelo, S.; Bellot Rubio, L. R.; de la Cruz Rodríguez, J.

    2015-04-01

    We study the temporal evolution of downflows observed at the lateral edges of penumbral filaments in a sunspot located very close to the disk center. Our analysis is based on a sequence of nearly diffraction-limited scans of the Fe i 617.3 nm line taken with the CRisp Imaging Spectro-Polarimeter instrument at the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope. We compute Dopplergrams from the observed intensity profiles using line bisectors and filter the resulting velocity maps for subsonic oscillations. Lateral downflows appear everywhere in the center-side penumbra as small, weak patches of redshifts next to or along the edges of blueshifted flow channels. These patches have an intermittent life and undergo mergings and fragmentations quite frequently. The lateral downflows move together with the hosting filaments and react to their shape variations, very much resembling the evolution of granular convection in the quiet Sun. There is a good relation between brightness and velocity in the center-side penumbra, with downflows being darker than upflows on average, which is again reminiscent of quiet Sun convection. These results point to the existence of overturning convection in sunspot penumbrae, with elongated cells forming filaments where the flow is upward but very inclined, and weak lateral downward flows. In general, the circular polarization profiles emerging from the lateral downflows do not show sign reversals, although sometimes we detect three-lobed profiles that are suggestive of opposite magnetic polarities in the pixel.

  10. School Readiness and Later Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Dowsett, Chantelle J.; Claessens, Amy; Magnuson, Katherine; Huston, Aletha C.; Klebanov, Pamela; Pagani, Linda S.; Feinstein, Leon; Engel, Mimi; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Sexton, Holly; Duckworth, Kathryn; Japel, Crista

    2007-01-01

    Using 6 longitudinal data sets, the authors estimate links between three key elements of school readiness--school-entry academic, attention, and socioemotional skills--and later school reading and math achievement. In an effort to isolate the effects of these school-entry skills, the authors ensured that most of their regression models control for…

  11. Hyperaldosteronism: diagnosis, lateralization, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Adrian M

    2014-06-01

    Primary hyperaldosteronism is an important and commonly unrecognized secondary cause of hypertension. This article provides an overview of the current literature with respect to screening, diagnosis, and lateralization. Selection and outcomes of medical and surgical treatment are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mimic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) misdiagnosis has many broad implications for the patient and the neurologist. Potentially curative treatments exist for certain ALS mimic syndromes, but delay in starting these therapies may have an unfavorable effect on outcome. Hence, it is important to exclude similar conditions. In this review, we discuss some of the important mimics of ALS. PMID:27326363

  13. Anxiety and Lateral Cerebral Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Don M.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Examines the effect of stressful and nonstressful experimental situations upon the processing capacity of each cerebral hemisphere, through observing the differential performance tasks presented to right and left visual half-fields (VHFs). Also examines attentional bias and lateral eye movements. (Author/RK)

  14. Color Realism and Hemispheric Laterality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltz, Esther; Berry, Louis H.

    This study investigated the interaction between cognitive lateral functions and pictorial recognition memory for pictures presented in three different color modes. The stimulus materials used were slides selected from a pool of travel and general geographic scenery slides taken in various parts of North America. One third of the slides were…

  15. Laterality of Basic Auditory Perception

    PubMed Central

    Sininger, Yvonne S.; Bhatara, Anjali

    2010-01-01

    Laterality (left-right ear differences) of auditory processing was assessed using basic auditory skills: 1) gap detection 2) frequency discrimination and 3) intensity discrimination. Stimuli included tones (500, 1000 and 4000 Hz) and wide-band noise presented monaurally to each ear of typical adult listeners. The hypothesis tested was: processing of tonal stimuli would be enhanced by left ear (LE) stimulation and noise by right ear (RE) presentations. To investigate the limits of laterality by 1) spectral width, a narrow band noise (NBN) of 450 Hz bandwidth was evaluated using intensity discrimination and 2) stimulus duration, 200, 500 and 1000 ms duration tones were evaluated using frequency discrimination. Results A left ear advantage (LEA) was demonstrated with tonal stimuli in all experiments but an expected REA for noise stimuli was not found. The NBN stimulus demonstrated no LEA and was characterized as a noise. No change in laterality was found with changes in stimulus durations. The LEA for tonal stimuli is felt to be due to more direct connections between the left ear and the right auditory cortex which has been shown to be primary for spectral analysis and tonal processing. The lack of a REA for noise stimuli is unexplained. Sex differences in laterality for noise stimuli were noted but were not statistically significant. This study did establish a subtle but clear pattern of LEA for processing of tonal stimuli. PMID:22385138

  16. Laterality of basic auditory perception.

    PubMed

    Sininger, Yvonne S; Bhatara, Anjali

    2012-01-01

    Laterality (left-right ear differences) of auditory processing was assessed using basic auditory skills: (1) gap detection, (2) frequency discrimination, and (3) intensity discrimination. Stimuli included tones (500, 1000, and 4000 Hz) and wide-band noise presented monaurally to each ear of typical adult listeners. The hypothesis tested was that processing of tonal stimuli would be enhanced by left ear (LE) stimulation and noise by right ear (RE) presentations. To investigate the limits of laterality by (1) spectral width, a narrow-band noise (NBN) of 450-Hz bandwidth was evaluated using intensity discrimination, and (2) stimulus duration, 200, 500, and 1000 ms duration tones were evaluated using frequency discrimination. A left ear advantage (LEA) was demonstrated with tonal stimuli in all experiments, but an expected REA for noise stimuli was not found. The NBN stimulus demonstrated no LEA and was characterised as a noise. No change in laterality was found with changes in stimulus durations. The LEA for tonal stimuli is felt to be due to more direct connections between the left ear and the right auditory cortex, which has been shown to be primary for spectral analysis and tonal processing. The lack of a REA for noise stimuli is unexplained. Sex differences in laterality for noise stimuli were noted but were not statistically significant. This study did establish a subtle but clear pattern of LEA for processing of tonal stimuli.

  17. US line-ups outperform UK line-ups.

    PubMed

    Seale-Carlisle, Travis M; Mickes, Laura

    2016-09-01

    In the USA and the UK, many thousands of police suspects are identified by eyewitnesses every year. Unfortunately, many of those suspects are innocent, which becomes evident when they are exonerated by DNA testing, often after having been imprisoned for years. It is, therefore, imperative to use identification procedures that best enable eyewitnesses to discriminate innocent from guilty suspects. Although police investigators in both countries often administer line-up procedures, the details of how line-ups are presented are quite different and an important direct comparison has yet to be conducted. We investigated whether these two line-up procedures differ in terms of (i) discriminability (using receiver operating characteristic analysis) and (ii) reliability (using confidence-accuracy characteristic analysis). A total of 2249 participants watched a video of a crime and were later tested using either a six-person simultaneous photo line-up procedure (USA) or a nine-person sequential video line-up procedure (UK). US line-up procedure yielded significantly higher discriminability and significantly higher reliability. The results do not pinpoint the reason for the observed difference between the two procedures, but they do suggest that there is much room for improvement with the UK line-up.

  18. US line-ups outperform UK line-ups

    PubMed Central

    Seale-Carlisle, Travis M.

    2016-01-01

    In the USA and the UK, many thousands of police suspects are identified by eyewitnesses every year. Unfortunately, many of those suspects are innocent, which becomes evident when they are exonerated by DNA testing, often after having been imprisoned for years. It is, therefore, imperative to use identification procedures that best enable eyewitnesses to discriminate innocent from guilty suspects. Although police investigators in both countries often administer line-up procedures, the details of how line-ups are presented are quite different and an important direct comparison has yet to be conducted. We investigated whether these two line-up procedures differ in terms of (i) discriminability (using receiver operating characteristic analysis) and (ii) reliability (using confidence–accuracy characteristic analysis). A total of 2249 participants watched a video of a crime and were later tested using either a six-person simultaneous photo line-up procedure (USA) or a nine-person sequential video line-up procedure (UK). US line-up procedure yielded significantly higher discriminability and significantly higher reliability. The results do not pinpoint the reason for the observed difference between the two procedures, but they do suggest that there is much room for improvement with the UK line-up. PMID:27703695

  19. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile primary lateral sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... primary lateral sclerosis juvenile Merck Manual Consumer Version: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Other Motor Neuron Diseases Patient Support and ... domains, is mutated in a form of recessive amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nat Genet. 2001 Oct;29(2):160-5. ...

  20. Aesthetic Lateral Canthoplasty Using Tarso-Conjunctival Advancement Technique.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Jung; Lew, Dae Hyun; Song, Seung Han; Lee, Myung Chul

    2017-01-01

    Reduced horizontal length of the palpebral fissure is a distinctive characteristic of Asian eyelids, and aesthetic lateral canthal lengthening techniques have been performed for a refinement. The aim of this study is to describe a novel lateral canthoplasty using tarso-conjunctival advancement with a lid margin splitting procedure on the upper eyelids and to report the postoperative results. From December 2011 to June 2014, patients who underwent lateral canthoplasty using the tarso-conjunctival advancement procedure for aesthetic purposes were reviewed retrospectively. The predictor variables were grouped into demographic and operative categories. The primary outcome variables were the distances from the mid-pupillary line to the lateral canthus and the horizontal length of the palpebral aperture (distance from the medial to lateral canthus). Data analyses were performed using descriptive and univariate statistics. Patients who showed increment in objective measurements were considered significant. Aesthetic appearance was also evaluated based on pre- and postoperative clinical photographs. A total of 45 patients were enrolled in this study. Both the distance from the mid-pupil to the lateral canthus (ΔDpupil-lateral; 2.78 ± 0.54 mm, P <0.05) and the palpebral aperture horizontal length (ΔDmedial-lateral 2.93 ± 0.81 mm, P <0.05) increased significantly from pre- to postoperative state. All the patients demonstrated satisfactory results aesthetically during the follow-up. The tarso-conjunctival advancement technique for lateral canthoplasty produced satisfactory aesthetic results with an enlarged palpebral aperture. Future research is required to fully delineate the risk of possible complications, including injury to the eyelashes and meibomian glands.

  1. Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase ameliorates radiation-induced ototoxicity in zebrafish and cochlea-derived cell lines.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yoo Seob; Hwang, Hye Sook; Kang, Sung Un; Chang, Jae Won; Oh, Young-Taek; Kim, Chul-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Radiation is a widely used treatment for head and neck cancers, and one of its most severe side effects is ototoxicity. Radiation-induced ototoxicity has been demonstrated to be linked to the increased production of ROS and MAPK. We intended to investigate the effect of p38 inhibition on radiation-induced ototoxicity in cochlea-derived HEI-OC1 cells and in a zebrafish model. The otoprotective effect of p38 inhibition against radiation was tested in vitro in the organ of Corti-derived cell line, HEI-OC1, and in vivo in a zebrafish model. Radiation-induced apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, and an increase of intracellular NO generation were demonstrated in HEI-OC1 cells. The p38-specific inhibitor, SB203580, ameliorated radiation-induced apoptosis and mitochondrial injury in HEI-OC1 cells. p38 inhibition reduced radiation-induced activation of JNK, p38, cytochrome c, and cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP in HEI-OC1 cells. Scanning electron micrography showed that SB203580 prevented radiation-induced destruction of kinocilium and stereocilia in zebrafish neuromasts. The results of this study suggest that p38 plays an important role in mediating radiation-induced ototoxicity and inhibition of p38 could be a plausible option for preventing radiation ototoxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dry needling in lateral epicondylitis: a prospective controlled study.

    PubMed

    Uygur, Esat; Aktaş, Birol; Özkut, Afşar; Erinç, Samet; Yilmazoglu, Emime Gül

    2017-08-21

    Lateral epicondylitis (LE), a common disease, especially in middle age, causes decreased productivity and economic losses. The first-line treatment for LE is conservative and consists of topical and oral anti-inflammatory drugs, ice application, and brace use. If the first-line treatment fails, second-line treatment modalities, which are generally invasive, are offered. Second-line therapeutic regimens include saline, corticosteroid, or platelet-rich plasma injections. Dry needling is relatively new. We hypothesized that dry needling would be at least as effective as first-line treatment for LE. We compared the outcomes of first-line treatment and dry needling. The study allocated 110 patients into groups using online randomization software. After completing the Patient-rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE), patients in group I received dry needling, whereas those in group II received first-line treatment, consisting of ibuprofen 100 mg twice a day and a proximal forearm brace. The patients were evaluated after three weeks and six months. The study ultimately analyzed 92 patients. Although both treatment methods were effective at three weeks, dry needling was significantly more effective than the first-line treatment at six months. Because of the low complication rate, dry needling is a safe method, and it might be an effective treatment option for LE.

  3. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow

    PubMed Central

    Vaquero-Picado, Alfonso; Barco, Raul; Antuña, Samuel A.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, also known as ‘tennis elbow’, is a very common condition affecting mainly middle-aged patients. The pathogenesis remains unknown but there appears to be a combination of local tendon pathology, alteration in pain perception and motor impairment. The diagnosis is usually clinical but some patients may benefit from additional imaging for a specific differential diagnosis. The disease has a self-limiting course of between 12 and 18 months, but in some patients, symptoms can be persistent and refractory to treatment. Most patients are well-managed with non-operative treatment and activity modification. Many surgical techniques have been proposed for patients with refractory symptoms. New non-operative treatment alternatives with promising results have been developed in recent years. Cite this article: Vaquero-Picado A, Barco R, Antuña SA. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:391-397. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000049. PMID:28461918

  4. Sexual behavior in later life.

    PubMed

    DeLamater, John; Moorman, Sara M

    2007-12-01

    This research tests the influences of age, biological, and psychosocial factors on sexual expression in later life. The American Association of Retired Persons Modern Maturity Sexuality Survey collected data on diagnosed illnesses, treated illnesses, sexual desire, sexual attitudes, partner circumstances, and sexual behavior from 1,384 persons ages 45 and older. Ordered logistic regression models estimate the associations of age, biological, and psychosocial factors with the frequency of five sexual behaviors. Diagnosed illnesses and treatments are generally unrelated to frequency of sexual activity. Sexual attitudes are related to frequency of partnered behavior and sexual desire is related to frequency of masturbation among both women and men. Satisfaction with the physical relationship with a partner is strongly related to behavior. Age remains significant after all other factors are controlled. The authors conclude that the nature of sexual expression in later life reflects the interplay of body, mind, and social context.

  5. Preserving Dignity in Later Life.

    PubMed

    São José, José Manuel

    2016-09-01

    This article examines how elders who receive social care in the community experience loss of dignity and how they preserve their dignity. Qualitative research revealed that loss of dignity is a major concern for these elders and that they preserve their dignity differently, ranging from actively engaging with life to detaching themselves from life. We conclude that, in later life, preserving dignity while receiving social care differs from preserving dignity in the context of health care, especially health care provided in institutional settings. Furthermore, preserving dignity in later life, while receiving social care, is a complex process, depending not only on performing activities and individual action and responsibility, but also on other actions, some of them involving a certain inactivity/passivity, and interactions with others, especially caregivers. This article offers some insights to developing better policies and care practices for promoting dignity in the context of community-based social care.

  6. Transient response of lateral photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, E. H.; Hieronymi, F.; Kuhl, D.; Dröge, E.; Bimberg, D.

    1993-05-01

    A two-dimensional physical device model for characterizing the transient operation of lateral photodetectors is presented. It is based upon a corpuscular approach where the impulse response is constituted by the superposition of a large number of photocurrent pulses originating from spatially distributed discrete electron-hole pairs generated by an optical impulse. The motion of photogenerated carriers and the resulting photocurrent pulses in the external circuit are related by Ramo's theorem which is shown to be fundamental for gaining a correct understanding of the time response of lateral detectors. The accuracy of the predictions obtained from the modeling is underpinned by their excellent agreement with experimental data on the impulse response of InP:Fe/InGaAs:Fe metal-semiconductor-metal detectors.

  7. Laterality of suckling behaviour in three zebra species.

    PubMed

    Pluháček, Jan; Olléová, Michaela; Bartošová, Jitka; Pluháčková, Jana; Bartoš, Luděk

    2013-01-01

    Although side preference while suckling is an easily characterised lateralised behaviour, few studies have been conducted. We observed laterality in suckling behaviour in three captive zebra species to test two hypotheses: laterality affected by the foal (motor laterality) and laterality affected by the mother. In total we observed 35 foals of Grevy's, plains, and mountain zebra in two zoos and recorded 5128 successful suckling bouts and 9095 unsuccessful suckling attempts. At the population level the only factor affecting side preference of suckling bouts and attempts was the identity of the individual foal. Ten foals showed individual preferences: seven foals preferred suckling from the left side of the mother, three preferred suckling from the right side of the mother. The individual preferences increased with increasing age of the foal. Only one foal was refused more often from the opposite side than the preferred side used for suckling whereas three other foals were refused from the preferred side. Foals that preferred suckling either from left or right side were refused by the mare more often than foals which showed non-preference. Thus lateral preferences in suckling behaviour of zebra foals seem to be in line with the motor laterality hypotheses.

  8. Inferior Lateral Genicular Artery Injury during Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lamo-Espinosa, J. M.; Llombart Blanco, R.; Valentí, J. R.

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of inferior lateral genicular artery (ILG) injury during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery with lateral partial meniscectomy. This is a rare arthroscopy complication. A review of the literature has been made with the aim to define the anatomy of ILG across the lateral articular line and the risk of lesion during knee arthroscopy. We propose embolization as a good treatment option for this type of injuries. PMID:22957293

  9. Lateral dampers for thrust bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibner, D. H.; Szafir, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of lateral damping schemes for thrust bearings was examined, ranking their applicability to various engine classes, selecting the best concept for each engine class and performing an in-depth evaluation. Five major engine classes were considered: large transport, military, small general aviation, turboshaft, and non-manrated. Damper concepts developed for evaluation were: curved beam, constrained and unconstrained elastomer, hybrid boost bearing, hydraulic thrust piston, conical squeeze film, and rolling element thrust face.

  10. Continued ultraviolet studies of some Be stars of later type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slettebak, A.

    1985-01-01

    Anomalous ionization (C IV and Si IV) is seen in IUE spectra of Be stars as late as B8, and occurs also in standard stars of similar spectral type. Asymmetrical lines suggesting mass loss are present in all the Be stars and several of the standard stars as well, with no obvious correlation with v sin i. Emission shoulders are present in the Mg II lines of two B5e stars but not in Be stars of later type. Again there is no correlation with v sin i. The A-F shell stars show rich Fe II absorption spectra in the ultraviolet, in one case with velocity structure.

  11. 49 CFR 229.63 - Lateral motion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lateral motion. 229.63 Section 229.63....63 Lateral motion. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b), the total uncontrolled lateral motion... powered axles. (b) The total uncontrolled lateral motion may not exceed 11/4 inches on the center axle of...

  12. Battery operated preconcentration-assisted lateral flow assay.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cheonjung; Yoo, Yong Kyoung; Han, Sung Il; Lee, Junwoo; Lee, Dohwan; Lee, Kyungjae; Hwang, Kyo Seon; Lee, Kyu Hyoung; Chung, Seok; Lee, Jeong Hoon

    2017-07-11

    Paper-based analytical devices (e.g. lateral flow assays) are highly advantageous as portable diagnostic systems owing to their low costs and ease of use. Because of their low sensitivity and detection limits for biomolecules, these devices have several limitations in applications for real-field diagnosis. Here, we demonstrate a paper-based preconcentration enhanced lateral flow assay using a commercial β-hCG-based test. Utilizing a simple 9 V battery operation with a low power consumption of approximately 81 μW, we acquire a 25-fold preconcentration factor, demonstrating a clear sensitivity enhancement in the colorimetric lateral flow assay; consequently, clear colors are observed in a rapid kit test line, which cannot be monitored without preconcentration. This device can also facilitate a semi-quantitative platform using the saturation value and/or color intensity in both paper-based colorimetric assays and smartphone-based diagnostics.

  13. Eliminating lateral violence in the ambulatory setting: one center's strategies.

    PubMed

    Dimarino, Tina J

    2011-05-01

    Lateral violence (eg, disruptive, disparaging, or uncivil behavior inflicted by one peer on another) creates an unpleasant work environment that can have harmful effects on individual nurses, team members, patients, and the bottom line of the health care organization. Educating nurses about the most common forms of lateral violence and strategies for handling inappropriate behavior can be the first step toward eliminating this behavior. Effective nursing leaders develop and maintain a "zero-tolerance" culture that includes clear and concise behavioral expectations and consequences for employees who exhibit unprofessional behavior. Use of a code of conduct, open communication, and quick resolution of issues that arise are strategies that one ambulatory surgery center has used to successfully combat lateral violence in the workplace.

  14. Field Emission from Lateral Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Yarn Emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guohai; Song, Yenan

    2016-10-01

    A field emission from a lateral emitter made by a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) yarn was investigated. The lateral emitter showed an excellent field emission performance with a low turn-on electric field of 1.13 V/um at an emission current of 1 uA, high emission current of 0.2 mA at an applied voltage of 700 V, and long-time emission stability for over 20 h without any significant current decay under an initial emission current of about 0.10 mA. The lateral emitter also demonstrated a uniform line emission pattern. It is suggested that the field emission occurs from the outmost MWCNTs which are protruding out from the yarn surface.

  15. Manual lateralization in macaques: handedness, target laterality and task complexity.

    PubMed

    Regaiolli, Barbara; Spiezio, Caterina; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates represent models to understand the evolution of handedness in humans. Despite several researches have been investigating non-human primates handedness, few studies examined the relationship between target position, hand preference and task complexity. This study aimed at investigating macaque handedness in relation to target laterality and tastiness, as well as task complexity. Seven pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) were involved in three different "two alternative choice" tests: one low-level task and two high-level tasks (HLTs). During the first and the third tests macaques could select a preferred food and a non-preferred food, whereas by modifying the design of the second test, macaques were presented with no-difference alternative per trial. Furthermore, a simple-reaching test was administered to assess hand preference in a social context. Macaques showed hand preference at individual level both in simple and complex tasks, but not in the simple-reaching test. Moreover, target position seemed to affect hand preference in retrieving an object in the low-level task, but not in the HLT. Additionally, individual hand preference seemed to be affected from the tastiness of the item to be retrieved. The results suggest that both target laterality and individual motivation might influence hand preference of macaques, especially in simple tasks.

  16. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired infection - central line infection; Patient safety - central ...

  17. Direct lateral maneuvers in hawkmoths

    PubMed Central

    Greeter, Jeremy S. M.; Hedrick, Tyson L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We used videography to investigate direct lateral maneuvers, i.e. ‘sideslips’, of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. M. sexta sideslip by rolling their entire body and wings to reorient their net force vector. During sideslip they increase net aerodynamic force by flapping with greater amplitude, (in both wing elevation and sweep), allowing them to continue to support body weight while rolled. To execute the roll maneuver we observed in sideslips, they use an asymmetric wing stroke; increasing the pitch of the roll-contralateral wing pair, while decreasing that of the roll-ipsilateral pair. They also increase the wing sweep amplitude of, and decrease the elevation amplitude of, the contralateral wing pair relative to the ipsilateral pair. The roll maneuver unfolds in a stairstep manner, with orientation changing more during downstroke than upstroke. This is due to smaller upstroke wing pitch angle asymmetries as well as increased upstroke flapping counter-torque from left-right differences in global reference frame wing velocity about the moth's roll axis. Rolls are also opposed by stabilizing aerodynamic moments from lateral motion, such that rightward roll velocity will be opposed by rightward motion. Computational modeling using blade-element approaches confirm the plausibility of a causal linkage between the previously mentioned wing kinematics and roll/sideslip. Model results also predict high degrees of axial and lateral damping. On the time scale of whole and half wing strokes, left-right wing pair asymmetries directly relate to the first, but not second, derivative of roll. Collectively, these results strongly support a roll-based sideslip with a high degree of roll damping in M. sexta. PMID:26740573

  18. Diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rowland, L P

    1998-10-01

    This review of the differential diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis focuses on two themes. The first is practical, how to establish the diagnosis based primarily on clinical findings buttressed by electrodiagnosis. The main considerations are multifocal motor neuropathy and cervical spondylotic myelopathy. The second theme is the relationship of motor neuron disease to other conditions, including benign fasciculation (Denny-Brown, Foley syndrome), paraneoplastic syndromes, lymphoproliferative disease, radiation damage, monomelic amyotrophy (Hirayama syndrome), as well as an association with parkinsonism, dementia and multisystem disorders of the central nervous system.

  19. Compactness of lateral shearing interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrec, Yann; Taboury, Jean; Sauer, Hervé; Chavel, Pierre

    2011-08-01

    Imaging lateral shearing interferometers are good candidates for airborne or spaceborne Fourier-transform spectral imaging. For such applications, compactness is one key parameter. In this article, we compare the size of four mirror-based interferometers, the Michelson interferometer with roof-top (or corner-cube) mirrors, and the cyclic interferometers with two, three, and four mirrors, focusing more particularly on the last two designs. We give the expression of the translation they induce between the two exiting rays. We then show that the cyclic interferometer with three mirrors can be made quite compact. Nevertheless, the Michelson interferometer is the most compact solution, especially for highly diverging beams.

  20. Compactness of lateral shearing interferometers.

    PubMed

    Ferrec, Yann; Taboury, Jean; Sauer, Hervé; Chavel, Pierre

    2011-08-10

    Imaging lateral shearing interferometers are good candidates for airborne or spaceborne Fourier-transform spectral imaging. For such applications, compactness is one key parameter. In this article, we compare the size of four mirror-based interferometers, the Michelson interferometer with roof-top (or corner-cube) mirrors, and the cyclic interferometers with two, three, and four mirrors, focusing more particularly on the last two designs. We give the expression of the translation they induce between the two exiting rays. We then show that the cyclic interferometer with three mirrors can be made quite compact. Nevertheless, the Michelson interferometer is the most compact solution, especially for highly diverging beams.

  1. Clinical Neurogenetics: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Matthew B.; Baloh, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, about which our understanding is expanding rapidly as its genetic causes are uncovered. The pace of new gene discovery over the last 5 years has accelerated, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of disease and highlighting biological pathways for target for therapeutic development. This article reviews our current understanding of the heritability of ALS, provides an overview of each of the major ALS genes, highlighting their phenotypic characteristics and frequencies as a guide for clinicians evaluating patients with ALS. PMID:24176417

  2. Cytokinins act directly on lateral root founder cells to inhibit root initiation.

    PubMed

    Laplaze, Laurent; Benkova, Eva; Casimiro, Ilda; Maes, Lies; Vanneste, Steffen; Swarup, Ranjan; Weijers, Dolf; Calvo, Vanessa; Parizot, Boris; Herrera-Rodriguez, Maria Begoña; Offringa, Remko; Graham, Neil; Doumas, Patrick; Friml, Jiri; Bogusz, Didier; Beeckman, Tom; Bennett, Malcolm

    2007-12-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, lateral roots are formed from root pericycle cells adjacent to the xylem poles. Lateral root development is regulated antagonistically by the plant hormones auxin and cytokinin. While a great deal is known about how auxin promotes lateral root development, the mechanism of cytokinin repression is still unclear. Elevating cytokinin levels was observed to disrupt lateral root initiation and the regular pattern of divisions that characterizes lateral root development in Arabidopsis. To identify the stage of lateral root development that is sensitive to cytokinins, we targeted the expression of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens cytokinin biosynthesis enzyme isopentenyltransferase to either xylem-pole pericycle cells or young lateral root primordia using GAL4-GFP enhancer trap lines. Transactivation experiments revealed that xylem-pole pericycle cells are sensitive to cytokinins, whereas young lateral root primordia are not. This effect is physiologically significant because transactivation of the Arabidopsis cytokinin degrading enzyme cytokinin oxidase 1 in lateral root founder cells results in increased lateral root formation. We observed that cytokinins perturb the expression of PIN genes in lateral root founder cells and prevent the formation of an auxin gradient that is required to pattern lateral root primordia.

  3. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow.

    PubMed

    Vaquero-Picado, Alfonso; Barco, Raul; Antuña, Samuel A

    2016-11-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, also known as 'tennis elbow', is a very common condition affecting mainly middle-aged patients.The pathogenesis remains unknown but there appears to be a combination of local tendon pathology, alteration in pain perception and motor impairment.The diagnosis is usually clinical but some patients may benefit from additional imaging for a specific differential diagnosis.The disease has a self-limiting course of between 12 and 18 months, but in some patients, symptoms can be persistent and refractory to treatment.Most patients are well-managed with non-operative treatment and activity modification. Many surgical techniques have been proposed for patients with refractory symptoms.New non-operative treatment alternatives with promising results have been developed in recent years. Cite this article: Vaquero-Picado A, Barco R, Antuña SA. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:391-397. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000049.

  4. Lateral gene transfer, rearrangement, reconciliation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Models of ancestral gene order reconstruction have progressively integrated different evolutionary patterns and processes such as unequal gene content, gene duplications, and implicitly sequence evolution via reconciled gene trees. These models have so far ignored lateral gene transfer, even though in unicellular organisms it can have an important confounding effect, and can be a rich source of information on the function of genes through the detection of transfers of clusters of genes. Result We report an algorithm together with its implementation, DeCoLT, that reconstructs ancestral genome organization based on reconciled gene trees which summarize information on sequence evolution, gene origination, duplication, loss, and lateral transfer. DeCoLT optimizes in polynomial time on the number of rearrangements, computed as the number of gains and breakages of adjacencies between pairs of genes. We apply DeCoLT to 1099 gene families from 36 cyanobacteria genomes. Conclusion DeCoLT is able to reconstruct adjacencies in 35 ancestral bacterial genomes with a thousand gene families in a few hours, and detects clusters of co-transferred genes. DeCoLT may also be used with any relationship between genes instead of adjacencies, to reconstruct ancestral interactions, functions or complexes. Availability http://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/software/DeCoLT/ PMID:24564205

  5. Lateral interactions and enhanced adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rikvold, Per Arne; Deakin, Mark R.

    1991-06-01

    We extend earlier work on the effects of lateral adsorbate-adsorbate interactions in systems with two different adsorbate species to consider in detail enhanced adsorption phenomena. We give a detailed explanation of the enhancement mechanism for a lattice-gas model in thermodynamic equilibrium, and provide explicit quantitative criteria which must be satisfied by the effective lateral interactions in systems exhibiting strong, intermediate, or weak enhancement behavior. It is the examination and understanding of the topological details of the ground-state and phase diagrams of the model that allow the formulation of these criteria. The theoretically obtained criteria are supported by precise numerical calculations (transfer-matrix with strip width six) of adsorption isotherms for a three-state lattice-gas model with nearest-neighbor interactions on a triangular lattice. The applicability of this theoretical framework is illustrated by an analysis of experimental adsorption isotherms for the electrochemical adsorption of naphthalene on copper and n-decylamine on nickel, previously obtained by Bockris et al. As suggested by Damaskin et al. we attribute the potential dependence of the organic coverage to the influence of coadsorbed hydrogen. We find that nonlinear least-squares fits of numerical lattice-gas isotherms to the experimental data produce good agreement between the experimental and numerical adsorption isotherms, as well as effective lattice-gas interaction energies consistent with independent estimates from the literature.

  6. Quantum Tomography twenty years later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asorey, M.; Ibort, A.; Marmo, G.; Ventriglia, F.

    2015-06-01

    We show a sample of some relevant developments in classical and quantum tomography that have taken place over the last twenty years. We will present a general conceptual framework that provides a simple unifying mathematical picture for them and, as an effective use of it, three subjects have been chosen that offer a wide panorama of the scope of classical and quantum tomography: tomography along lines and submanifolds, coherent state tomography and tomography in the abstract algebraic setting of quantum systems.

  7. Enhanced schooling performance in lateralized fishes

    PubMed Central

    Bisazza, Angelo; Dadda, Marco

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of functional left–right cerebral asymmetries has been documented in a wide range of animals, suggesting that the lateralization of cognitive functions enjoys some kind of selective advantage over the bilateral control of the same functions. Here, we compared schooling performance of fishes with high or low degree of lateralization, which were obtained through selective breeding. Schools of lateralized fishes moving in a novel environment showed significantly more cohesion and coordination than schools of non-lateralized (NL) fishes. Pairs of fishes lateralized in opposite directions were as efficient as pairs of same laterality, suggesting that the performance of lateralized fishes derives from a computational advantage rather than being the consequence of a behavioural similarity among schoolmates. In schools composed of both lateralized and NL fishes, the latter were more often at the periphery of the school while lateralized fishes occupied the core, a position normally safer and energetically less expensive. PMID:16087422

  8. Lateral orbitofrontal cortex links social impressions to political choices.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chenjie; Stolle, Dietlind; Gidengil, Elisabeth; Fellows, Lesley K

    2015-06-03

    Recent studies of political behavior suggest that voting decisions can be influenced substantially by "first-impression" social attributions based on physical appearance. Separate lines of research have implicated the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in the judgment of social traits on the one hand and economic decision-making on the other, making this region a plausible candidate for linking social attributions to voting decisions. Here, we asked whether OFC lesions in humans disrupted the ability to judge traits of political candidates or affected how these judgments influenced voting decisions. Seven patients with lateral OFC damage, 18 patients with frontal damage sparing the lateral OFC, and 53 matched healthy participants took part in a simulated election paradigm, in which they voted for real-life (but unknown) candidates based only on photographs of their faces. Consistent with previous work, attributions of "competence" and "attractiveness" based on candidate appearance predicted voting behavior in the healthy control group. Frontal damage did not affect substantially the ability to make competence or attractiveness judgments, but patients with damage to the lateral OFC differed from other groups in how they applied this information when voting. Only attractiveness ratings had any predictive power for voting choices after lateral OFC damage, whereas other frontal patients and healthy controls relied on information about both competence and attractiveness in making their choice. An intact lateral OFC may not be necessary for judgment of social traits based on physical appearance, but it seems to be crucial in applying this information in political decision-making.

  9. High lateral resolution exploration using surface waves from noise records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chávez-García, Francisco José Yokoi, Toshiaki

    2016-04-01

    Determination of the shear-wave velocity structure at shallow depths is a constant necessity in engineering or environmental projects. Given the sensitivity of Rayleigh waves to shear-wave velocity, subsoil structure exploration using surface waves is frequently used. Methods such as the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) or multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) determine phase velocity dispersion from surface waves generated by an active source recorded on a line of geophones. Using MASW, it is important that the receiver array be as long as possible to increase the precision at low frequencies. However, this implies that possible lateral variations are discarded. Hayashi and Suzuki (2004) proposed a different way of stacking shot gathers to increase lateral resolution. They combined strategies used in MASW with the common mid-point (CMP) summation currently used in reflection seismology. In their common mid-point with cross-correlation method (CMPCC), they cross-correlate traces sharing CMP locations before determining phase velocity dispersion. Another recent approach to subsoil structure exploration is based on seismic interferometry. It has been shown that cross-correlation of a diffuse field, such as seismic noise, allows the estimation of the Green's Function between two receivers. Thus, a virtual-source seismic section may be constructed from the cross-correlation of seismic noise records obtained in a line of receivers. In this paper, we use the seismic interferometry method to process seismic noise records obtained in seismic refraction lines of 24 geophones, and analyse the results using CMPCC to increase the lateral resolution of the results. Cross-correlation of the noise records allows reconstructing seismic sections with virtual sources at each receiver location. The Rayleigh wave component of the Green's Functions is obtained with a high signal-to-noise ratio. Using CMPCC analysis of the virtual-source seismic lines, we are able to

  10. Laterality in visual speech perception.

    PubMed

    Smeele, P M; Massaro, D W; Cohen, M M; Sittig, A C

    1998-08-01

    The lateralization of visual speech perception was examined in 3 experiments. Participants were presented with a realistic computer-animated face articulating 1 of 4 consonant-vowel syllables without sound. The face appeared at 1 of 5 locations in the visual field. The participants' task was to identify each test syllable. To prevent eye movement during the presentation of the face, participants had to carry out a fixation task simultaneously with the speechreading task. In one study, an eccentricity effect was found along with a small but significant difference in favor of the right visual field (left hemisphere). The same results were found with the face articulating nonlinguistic mouth movements (e.g., kiss). These results suggest that the left-hemisphere advantage is based on the processing of dynamic visual information rather than on the extraction of linguistic significance from facial movements.

  11. LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS OF THE ELBOW.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Marcio; da Rocha Motta Filho, Geraldo

    2012-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is a common condition that is estimated to affect 1% to 3% of the population. The word epicondylitis suggests inflammation, although histological analysis on the tissue fails to show any inflammatory process. The structure most commonly affected is the origin of the tendon of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the mechanism of injury is associated with overloading. Nonsurgical treatment is the preferred method, and this includes rest, physiotherapy, cortisone infiltration, platelet-rich plasma injections and use of specific immobilization. Surgical treatment is recommended when functional disability and pain persist. Both the open and the arthroscopic surgical technique with resection of the degenerated tendon tissue present good results in the literature.

  12. LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS OF THE ELBOW

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Marcio; da Rocha Motta Filho, Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is a common condition that is estimated to affect 1% to 3% of the population. The word epicondylitis suggests inflammation, although histological analysis on the tissue fails to show any inflammatory process. The structure most commonly affected is the origin of the tendon of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the mechanism of injury is associated with overloading. Nonsurgical treatment is the preferred method, and this includes rest, physiotherapy, cortisone infiltration, platelet-rich plasma injections and use of specific immobilization. Surgical treatment is recommended when functional disability and pain persist. Both the open and the arthroscopic surgical technique with resection of the degenerated tendon tissue present good results in the literature. PMID:27047843

  13. Relativism in Feyerabend's later writings.

    PubMed

    Kusch, Martin

    2016-06-01

    This paper reconstructs, and distinguishes between, Feyerabend's different forms of relativism in his later writings. Science in a Free Society remains close to familiar forms of relativism, while, at the same time, developing an original but under-argued form of political relativism, and rejecting "conversion" models of cultural exchange. Farewell to Reason moves away from common renderings of relativism, and develops a range of different new forms. Central here are links between relativism, skepticism and infallibilism. In the last six years of his life, Feyerabend often criticizes a peculiar radical form of relativism that arguably no-one has ever proposed or defended. In the same context, Feyerabend sketches an "ontological" form of relativism. It combines "Kantian humility", metaphysical pluralism and constructivism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Lateral perforation in parallel post space preparations.

    PubMed

    Tinaz, A Cemal; Alaçam, Tayfun; Topuz, Ozgur; Er, Ozgur; Maden, Murat

    2004-08-15

    This study evaluates the amount of remaining tooth structure and possibility of producing lateral perforation following the use of different diameters of parallel-sided Parapost drills in groups of different canal curvatures (0 degrees-15 degrees, 16 degrees-25 degrees, 26 degrees <) in distal canals of first and second mandibular molar teeth. After enlargement of root canals using the crown-down pressureless technique, Parapost drills #1, #2, and #3 were used in the different canal groups for the preparation of a post space. Standardized digital radiographs were taken before the post space preparation and after each Parapost drill application. Four horizontal lines (a, b, c, and d) were drawn at equal distances on these images, starting from the pulp chamber floor moving apically at 2 mm increments. There were no significant differences between the different curvature groups at the a, b, c, and d levels for the critical level of the remaining tooth structure (multiple comparison test; p>0.05). However, in considering root perforation, both at the inner and outer side of the roots, there were statistically significant differences at "c" and "d" levels in group 3 (#3 drill) without taking into account the root curvature (ANOVA; p< 0.5). None of the specimens showed strip perforation.

  15. Protective role of quercetin against cisplatin-induced hair cell damage in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Lee, S K; Oh, K H; Chung, A Y; Park, H C; Lee, S H; Kwon, S Y; Choi, J

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of quercetin on cisplatin-induced hair cell damage in transgenic zebrafish embryos. Five days postfertilization zebrafish embryos were exposed to 1 mM cisplatin and quercetin at 10, 50, 100, or 200 μM for 4 h. Hair cells within neuromasts of the supraorbital, otic, and occipital lateral lines were analyzed by fluorescent microscopy (n = 10). Survival of hair cells was calculated as the average number of hair cells in the control group that were not exposed to cisplatin. Ultrastructural changes were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. Hair cell damage in neuromasts was decreased by co-treatment of quercetin and cisplatin (quercetin 100 μM: 8.6 ± 1.1 cells; 1 mM cisplatin only: 5.0 ± 0.5 cells; n = 10, p < 0.05); apoptosis of hair cells examined by special stain was also decreased by quercetin. The ultrastructure of hair cells within neuromasts was preserved in zebrafish by the combination of quercetin (100 μM) and cisplatin (1 mM). In conclusion, quercetin showed protective effects against cisplatin-induced toxicity in a zebrafish model. The results of this study suggest the possibility of a protective role of quercetin against cisplatin-induced apoptotic cell death in zebrafish. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Analysis of solar ultraviolet lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chipman, E.

    1971-01-01

    The formation of the strongest ultra-violet emission lines of Mg II, O I, C II, and C III in the solar atmosphere is studied in detail. The equations of statistical equilibrium and radiative transfer for each ion are solved using a general computer program that is capable of solving non-LTE line-formation problems for arbitrary atmospheric and atomic models. Interpreting the results in terms of the structure of the solar atmosphere, it is concluded that the HSRA atmosphere has a temperature too low by about 500 K near h = 1100 km and that a temperature plateau with T sub e approximately = 18,000 K and width close to 60 km exists in the upper chromosphere. The structure of the solar atmosphere in the range 20,000 to 100,000 K and the effects of microturbulence on the formation of lines are also investigated. Approximate analytic line-formation problems are solved, and more exact solutions are derived later. An attempt is made to make the best possible fit to the Ca II K line center-to-limb profiles with a one-component atmosphere, with an assumed source function and microturbulent velocity.

  17. Investigation of arc cloud lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purdom, J. F. W.; Sinclair, P. C.

    1984-01-01

    The natural mechanisms that lead to the development of deep convective storms through the integration of radio scan satellite data with research aircraft observations is discussed. The aircraft measurements are designed to provide detailed air motion and thermodynamic data near and in the arc cloud line region at the same time GOES rapid scan data is taken. Inspection of the data indicates: (1) Arc cloud lines are important in both the production of convergence and vorticity, and in the interaction with intense thunderstorms which may act to trigger tornado activity. (2) The lateral extent of the vertical motion field compared to the cloud scale indicates that the main driving force for the initial cloud development along the arc-line is controlled by the thunderstorm outflow(s) interacting with the convectively unstable air of the environment. (3) Arc cloud lines and their associated DSL region can pose extreme hazards to aircraft operations. (4) An arc cloud line's major threat to space shuttle operations lie in its ability to generate new thunderstorm activity along the shuttle glide path.

  18. Imaging lesions of the lateral hip.

    PubMed

    Pan, Judong; Bredella, Miriam A

    2013-07-01

    The lateral aspect of the hip is composed of a complex array of osseous and soft tissue structures. Both common and uncommon clinical entities are encountered in the lateral hip. This article briefly introduces fundamental imaging anatomy and the functional roles of different osseous and soft tissue structures in the lateral aspect of the hip, followed by a discussion of relevant imaging findings of lateral hip pathology. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is frequently encountered in patients with lateral hip pain and encompasses a spectrum of soft tissue abnormalities including trochanteric and subgluteal bursitis, and tendinopathy or tears of the gluteal tendons. In addition, different types of injuries to the gluteal myotendinous unit and injuries to the indirect head of the rectus femoris, proximal iliotibial band, and the lateral joint capsular ligaments can present with lateral hip pain. Some of the less common soft tissue abnormalities of the lateral hip include Morel-Lavallée lesion and meralgia paresthetica.

  19. μ-Biomimetic flow-sensors--introducing light-guiding PDMS structures into MEMS.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Hendrik; Klein, Adrian; Bleckmann, Horst; Holik, Peter; Schmitz, Sam; Siebke, Georg; Tätzner, Simon; Lacher, Manfred; Steltenkamp, Siegfried

    2015-04-16

    In the area of biomimetics, engineers use inspiration from natural systems to develop technical devices, such as sensors. One example is the lateral line system of fish. It is a mechanoreceptive system consisting of up to several thousand individual sensors called neuromasts, which enable fish to sense prey, predators, or conspecifics. So far, the small size and high sensitivity of the lateral line is unmatched by man-made sensor devices. Here, we describe an artificial lateral line system based on an optical detection principle. We developed artificial canal neuromasts using MEMS technology including thick film techniques. In this work, we describe the MEMS fabrication and characterize a sensor prototype. Our sensor consists of a silicon chip, a housing, and an electronic circuit. We demonstrate the functionality of our μ-biomimetic flow sensor by analyzing its response to constant water flow and flow fluctuations. Furthermore, we discuss the sensor robustness and sensitivity of our sensor and its suitability for industrial and medical applications. In sum, our sensor can be used for many tasks, e.g. for monitoring fluid flow in medical applications, for detecting leakages in tap water systems or for air and gas flow measurements. Finally, our flow sensor can even be used to improve current knowledge about the functional significance of the fish lateral line.

  20. Hemispheric Laterality in Music and Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szirony, Gary Michael; Burgin, John S.; Pearson, L. Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Hemispheric laterality may be a useful concept in teaching, learning, training, and in understanding more about human development. To address this issue, a measure of hemispheric laterality was compared to musical and mathematical ability. The Human Information Processing Survey (HIPS) instrument, designed to measure hemispheric laterality, was…

  1. Hemispheric Laterality in Music and Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szirony, Gary Michael; Burgin, John S.; Pearson, L. Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Hemispheric laterality may be a useful concept in teaching, learning, training, and in understanding more about human development. To address this issue, a measure of hemispheric laterality was compared to musical and mathematical ability. The Human Information Processing Survey (HIPS) instrument, designed to measure hemispheric laterality, was…

  2. Exercise and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, J P Lopes; Silvestre, R; Pinto, A C; de Carvalho, M

    2012-02-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disease in which much burden is geared towards end-of-life care. Particularly in the earlier stages of ALS, many people have found both physiological and psychological boosts from various types of physical exercise for disused muscles. Proper exercise is important for preventing atrophy of muscles from disuse-a key for remaining mobile for as long as possible-and as long as it is possible to exercise comfortably and safely, for preserving cardiovascular fitness. However, the typical neuromuscular patient features a great physical inactivity and disuse weakness, and for that reason many controversial authors have contested exercise in these patients during years, especially in ALS which is rapidly progressive. There is an urgent need for dissecting in detail the real risks or benefits of exercise in controlled clinical trials to demystify this ancient paradigm. Yet, recent research studies document significant benefits in terms of survival and quality of life in ALS, poor cooperation, small sample size, uncontrolled and short-duration trials, remain the main handicaps. Sedentary barriers such as early fatigue and inherent muscle misuse should be overcome, for instance with body-weight supporting systems or non-invasive ventilation, and exercise should be faced as a potential non-monotonous way for contributing to better health-related quality of life.

  3. Pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Sarah; Orrell, Richard W

    2016-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or motor neuron disease is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The primary involvement is of motor neurons in the brain, spinal cord and peripherally. There is secondary weakness of muscles and primary involvement of other brain regions, especially involving cognition. Peer-reviewed journal articles and reviews. PubMed.gov The pathogenesis of ALS remains largely unknown. There are a wide range of potential mechanisms related to neurodegeneration. An increasing number of genetic factors are recognized. There remains controversy, or lack of knowledge, in explaining how cellular events manifest as the complex human disease. There is controversy as to how well cellular and animal models of disease relate to the human disease. Large-scale international collaborative genetic epidemiological studies are replacing local studies. Therapies related to pathogenesis remain elusive, with the greatest advances to date relating to provision of care (including multidisciplinary management) and supportive care (nutrition and respiratory support). The identification of C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeats as the most frequent genetic background to ALS, and the association with frontotemporal dementia, gives the potential of a genetic background against which to study other risk factors, triggers and pathogenic mechanisms, and to develop potential therapies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. [Epidemiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Soriani, M-H; Desnuelle, C

    2009-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron disease. Loss of pyramidal and anterior horn motor neurons leads to progressive limb weakness, disability, dysarthria, dysphagia and respiratory insufficiency with a progressive fatal course. The incidence of ALS ranges between 1.5 to 2.5 for 100,000 per year. Although there are familial cases of ALS, about 90% are sporadic and of unknown etiology. Several exogenous risk factors have been documented. However, no convincing evidence has demonstrated in a reproducible manner an association between an environmental or lifestyle risk factor and ALS. Disease duration varies considerably, ranging from a few months to 10-15 years with a mean survival of about 36 months. Prognostic factors such as age, site of disease onset, nutritional, functional and respiratory status at the diagnosis or delay between beginning of the disease and diagnosis have been reported but they appear to be insufficient to explain prognostic variability. These last 15 years, development of supportive care for ALS patients and management in ALS centers may have contributed to improve survival. Finally, ALS centres, and particularly French ALS centres, have developed databases to improve our knowledge of ALS, phenotypic characterization, more accurate phenotype-genotype correlations and thus contribute to new therapeutics developments.

  5. Lateral violence in the perioperative setting.

    PubMed

    Bigony, Lorraine; Lipke, Tammy G; Lundberg, Ashley; McGraw, Carrie A; Pagac, Gretchen L; Rogers, Anne

    2009-04-01

    Lateral violence is disruptive, bullying, intimidating, or unsettling behavior that occurs between nurses in the workplace. The perioperative setting fosters lateral violence because of the inherent stress of performing surgery; high patient acuity; a shortage of experienced personnel; work demands; and the restriction and isolation of the OR, which allows negative behaviors to be concealed more easily. Lateral violence affects nurses' health and well-being and their ability to care for patients. Interventions to reduce lateral violence include empowerment of staff members and zero tolerance for lateral violence.

  6. Reduced Lateral Root Branching Density Improves Drought Tolerance in Maize1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Ai; Schneider, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    An emerging paradigm is that root traits that reduce the metabolic costs of soil exploration improve the acquisition of limiting soil resources. Here, we test the hypothesis that reduced lateral root branching density will improve drought tolerance in maize (Zea mays) by reducing the metabolic costs of soil exploration, permitting greater axial root elongation, greater rooting depth, and thereby greater water acquisition from drying soil. Maize recombinant inbred lines with contrasting lateral root number and length (few but long [FL] and many but short [MS]) were grown under water stress in greenhouse mesocosms, in field rainout shelters, and in a second field environment with natural drought. Under water stress in mesocosms, lines with the FL phenotype had substantially less lateral root respiration per unit of axial root length, deeper rooting, greater leaf relative water content, greater stomatal conductance, and 50% greater shoot biomass than lines with the MS phenotype. Under water stress in the two field sites, lines with the FL phenotype had deeper rooting, much lighter stem water isotopic signature, signifying deeper water capture, 51% to 67% greater shoot biomass at flowering, and 144% greater yield than lines with the MS phenotype. These results entirely support the hypothesis that reduced lateral root branching density improves drought tolerance. The FL lateral root phenotype merits consideration as a selection target to improve the drought tolerance of maize and possibly other cereal crops. PMID:26077764

  7. Thinning and line segmentation by line-following techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larmagnac, Jean-Pierre

    1998-04-01

    A method for segmentation of elongated shapes is presented, including two stages: (1) Thinning of elongated shapes into chain coded lines. (2) Extraction of the main features. Thinning process: a square perimeter is developed around each current pixel, initially at level 255, belonging to a line being extracted. THe size of the square is progressively increased until one or more stick(s), frames by background pixels, appear(s) on the perimeter. From the beginning and the final indices of each stick we deduce the Freeman code leading to the following pixel on the line. Generally, two sticks are present on the square perimeter. One corresponds to the backward direction. To discard the non valid stick, each new detected pixel is marked by lowering its value by one shift right. In presence of a fork, or crossing point, there are more than one valid stick: The closest direction to the previous one is chosen; the current pixel is marked and stored in a list of branching points, for later processing. Filtering and segmentation: median filtering of extended codes, obtained from the corrected sums of 4 consecutive Freeman's codes allows to eliminate much of the quantization noise, without altering significant direction changes, and to segment the line into straight segments, arcs and corners.

  8. Examining lateral violence in the nursing workforce.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Karen M; Martin, Mary M; Nemeth, Lynne S; Michel, Yvonne; Welton, John M

    2007-11-01

    The decision to examine the phenomenon of lateral violence within the nursing workforce of a Southeastern tertiary care medical center evolved from the strong response of attendees to a nursing presentation on lateral violence. This paper describes the development and testing of the Lateral Violence in Nursing Survey. This questionnaire, designed to measure perceived incidence and severity of lateral violence, was administered online to 663 nursing staff participants. Forty-six percent of the study participants reported lateral violence as a "very serious" or "somewhat serious" problem, and 65% reported frequently observing lateral violence behaviors among coworkers. Education and effective leadership were found to mediate oppressive and negative behaviors, whereas ineffective leadership was found to exacerbate lateral violence.

  9. Lateral flow colloidal gold-based immunoassay for pesticide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo; Zhang, Can; Zhang, Yan

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, immunochromatographic lateral flow test strips are used as a popular diagnostic tool. There are two formats (noncompetitive and competitive) in gold-based immunoassay. Noncompetitive gold-based immunoassay also called sandwich assay is applied for the detection of large molecular mass. For small molecular mass such as pesticide, competitive format of lateral flow colloidal gold-based immunoassay is described in this chapter. The preparation of gold colloidal and the conjugation between antibody and gold colloidal are described. Hi-flow plus nitrocellulose membranes are separately coated with goat anti-rabbit IgG (control line) and hapten-OVA conjugate (test line). Thus, the degree of intensity of color of the test line is the reverse of the concentration of pesticide in the sample and the visual result is immediately observable. Colloidal gold-based immunoassay can also be applied for multianalysis in one test strip if the detected targets show different physico-chemical properties and their haptens show great differences in chemical structure.

  10. Lateral Magnetically Modulated Multilayers by Combining Ion Implantation and Lithography.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, Enric; Modarresi, Hiwa; Petermann, Claire; Nogués, Josep; Domingo, Neus; Liu, Haoliang; Kirby, Brian J; Mohd, Amir Syed; Salhi, Zahir; Babcock, Earl; Mattauch, Stefan; Van Haesendonck, Chris; Vantomme, André; Temst, Kristiaan

    2017-03-01

    The combination of lithography and ion implantation is demonstrated to be a suitable method to prepare lateral multilayers. A laterally, compositionally, and magnetically modulated microscale pattern consisting of alternating Co (1.6 µm wide) and Co-CoO (2.4 µm wide) lines has been obtained by oxygen ion implantation into a lithographically masked Au-sandwiched Co thin film. Magnetoresistance along the lines (i.e., current and applied magnetic field are parallel to the lines) reveals an effective positive giant magnetoresistance (GMR) behavior at room temperature. Conversely, anisotropic magnetoresistance and GMR contributions are distinguished at low temperature (i.e., 10 K) since the O-implanted areas become exchange coupled. This planar GMR is principally ascribed to the spatial modulation of coercivity in a spring-magnet-type configuration, which results in 180° Néel extrinsic domain walls at the Co/Co-CoO interfaces. The versatility, in terms of pattern size, morphology, and composition adjustment, of this method offers a unique route to fabricate planar systems for, among others, spintronic research and applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Lateral inhibition of Notch signaling in neoplastic cells

    PubMed Central

    Heth, Jason A.; Muraszko, Karin M.; Fan, Xing; Bar, Eli E.; Eberhart, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    During normal development, heterogeneous expression of Notch ligands can result in pathway suppression in the signal-sending cell, a process known as lateral inhibition. It is unclear if an analogous phenomenon occurs in malignant cells. We observed significant induction of Notch ligands in glioblastoma neurospheres and pancreatic carcinoma cells cultured in low oxygen, suggesting that this phenomenon could occur around hypoxic regions. To model lateral inhibition in these tumors, the ligand Jagged1 was overexpressed in glioblastoma and pancreatic carcinoma cells, resulting in overall induction of pathway targets. However, when ligand high and ligand low cells from a single line were co-cultured and then separated, we noted suppression of Notch pathway targets in the former and induction in the latter, suggesting that neoplastic lateral inhibition can occur. We also found that repression of Notch pathway targets in signal-sending cells may occur through the activity of a Notch ligand intracellular domain, which translocates into the nucleus. Understanding how this neoplastic lateral inhibition process functions in cancer cells may be important in targeting ligand driven Notch signaling in solid tumors. PMID:25557173

  12. Galaxies with Strong Nitrogen Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, T. S.; Pastoriza, M. G.

    1987-05-01

    ABSTRACT. From a qualitative spectroscopic survey of southern galaxies made by Pastoriza, a group with different morphological types whose nuclear region showed particular strong emission [N II]A6548-6584 lines when compared to Hn, was selected in order to investigate why [N II] is so strong. This work presents the results of a first analysis of the spectra of some of the galaxies above obtained with the 1-m telescope plus 2DFRUTTI detector of the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. The spectra are all very similar showing strong stellar continuum and absorption lines, and all the emission spectra show [0111] >[OII], [NIl] > H . None of the spectra show H in emission. Using the relative intensities of the H and K Call lines (Talent 1982, PLtb. A.S.P., 94,36), the obtained integrated spectra for all the observed galaxies is later than GO, which means that the H absorption lines should not be strong. From the relative intensities of the emission lines, we conclude that these galaxies cannot be classified as Starburst or LINERS. They are similar to Seyfert 2 (Osterbrock 1986, Act#va QSO4, preprint), but the FWHM of the lines is less than 300 km s . Also Ol X6300 is not clearly seen, and the absorption spectrum is strong relative to the emission spectrum. The preliminary conclusion is an activity similar but milder than that present in Seyfert 2 galaxies, as sug gested by Rose and Searle (1982, Ap. 5., 253, 556) and Rose and Cecil (1983, Ap. 5., 266, 531) for the nucleus of M51, maybe affected by an anomalous nitrogen abundance. K o : GALAXIES-ACTIVE - SPECTROSCOPY

  13. A fast line-by-line method.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsel, A. A.; Firsov, K. M.

    1995-09-01

    A new spectral line selection algorithm is developed. The algorithm makes it possible to decrease the number of spectral lines with the increase in altitude. In order for the computer code based on a line-by-line method to operate efficiently two line selections must be carried out. The first selection is rough. This enables the most weak lines not contributing to the optical thickness of the layer z1-z2 to be eliminated. The other lines are subjected to the second selection. In this case the maximum height up to which the line should be taken into account is determined. At the same time for each line at each altitude the maximum resonance frequency difference within the limits of which the contribution of the line to absorption should be taken into account is determined. The gain in the time of calculation of the integral transmittance may be of five times or greater. The calculation error of the integral transmittance is not larger than 0.5%.

  14. Summary of lateral-control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, Thomas A

    1947-01-01

    A summary has been made of the available information on lateral control. A discussion is given of the criterions used in lateral-control specifications, of the factors involved in obtaining satisfactory lateral control, and of the methods employed in making lateral-control investigations in flight and in wind tunnels. The available data on conventional flap-type ailerons having various types of aerodynamic balance are presented in a form convenient for use in design. The characteristics of spoiler devices and booster mechanisms are discussed. The effects of Mach number, boundary layer, and distortion of the wing or of the lateral-control system are considered insofar as the available information permits. An example is included to illustrate the use of the design data. The limitations of the available information and some of the lateral-control problems that remain to be solved are indicated.

  15. Robust detection of peak signals for lateral flow immunoassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongwon; Kim, Jong Dae; Nahm, Kie Bong; Choi, Eui Yul; Lee, Geumyoung

    2011-02-01

    Template matching method is presented to identify the peaks from the scanned signals of lateral flow immunoassay strips. The template is composed of two pulses separated by the distance of the control and the target ligand line in the assay, and is convolved with the scanned signal to deliver the maximum at the center of the two peaks. The peak regions were identified with the predefined distances from the center. Glycosylated haemoglobin immunoassay strips and fluorescent strip readers from Boditechmed Inc. were tested to estimate the lot and reader variations of the concentration measurands. The results showed the robustness of the propose method.

  16. Liquefaction-Induced Lateral Spread Displacement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    DISPLACEMENT Abstract Lateral ground displacements generated by liquefaction-induced lateral spread are a severe threat to the Navy’s shore facilities. During...past earthquakes, lateral spread displace - ments have pulled apart or sheared shallow and deep foundations of buildings, several pipelines and other...structures and utilities that transect the ground displacement zone. buckle bridges or other structures constructed across the toe, and toppled

  17. Laterality of radiographic osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Daigo; Ikeuchi, Kazuma; Kojima, Toshihisa; Takegami, Yasuhiko; Amano, Takafumi; Tsuboi, Masaki; Ishiguro, Naoki; Hasegawa, Yukiharu

    2017-05-01

    There are few reports of the laterality in radiological knee osteoarthritis (ROA). This study aimed to evaluate laterality in terms of the minimum joint space width (mJSW) and osteophyte areas (OFs) in a cross-sectorial general population screen and elucidate the association between laterality and risk of osteoarthritis. We enrolled 330 participants (mean age 64.6 years) and examined the presence of ROA (Kellgren-Lawrence grade ≧ 2) laterality in terms of the mJSW and OF on the medial tibia using auto-measuring software. Moreover, we examined the association between laterality and leg dominance. The right and left medial mJSWs were 4.02 ± 0.98 mm and 4.05 ± 1.01 mm, respectively, showing no laterality; the laterals were also similar. The participants who had osteophytes ≥1 mm(2) in the right, left, and bilateral knees were 15, 37, and 57 respectively, with osteophytes being significantly more common in the left knee. The OF was significantly larger in the left knee. Conversely, the medial and lateral mJSWs and OF did not differ according to leg dominance. The prevalence of ROA was higher and the OF was more pronounced in the left knee. However, the mJSW showed no laterality. Additionally, the mJSW and OF showed no differences according to leg dominance.

  18. Acoustic reflex patterns in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Canale, Andrea; Albera, Roberto; Lacilla, Michelangelo; Canosa, Antonio; Albera, Andrea; Sacco, Francesca; Chiò, Adriano; Calvo, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate acoustic reflex testing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. Amplitude, latency, and rise time of stapedial reflex were recorded for 500 and 1000 Hz contralateral stimulus. Statistical analysis was performed by the Wilcoxon test and the level of significance was set at 5 %. Fifty-one amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and ten sex- and age-matched control subjects were studied. Patients were further divided in two groups: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-bulbar (38 cases, with bulbar signs at evaluation) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-spinal (13 cases, without bulbar signs at evaluation). Stapedial reflex was present in all patients. There was a statistically significant difference in the mean amplitude, latency, and rise time between the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients as compared with the controls. Amplitude was lower in both the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-bulbar and the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-spinal patients than in the controls (p < 0.05) and rise time was longer in both patient groups compared with the controls (p < 0.05). These results confirm the presence of abnormal acoustic reflex patterns in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases with bulbar signs and, moreover, suggesting a possible subclinical involvement of the stapedial motor neuron even in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-spinal patients. Amplitude and rise time seem to be good sensitive parameters for investigating subclinical bulbar involvement.

  19. Epidemiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kurtzke, J F

    1982-01-01

    Motor neuron disease (MND) is used in this paper as the generic label, encompassing the clinical variants of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), progressive myelopathic muscular atrophy (PMMA), and progressive bulbar palsy (PBP). ALS is limited to instances of anterior horn cell plus pyramidal tract involvement. When only anterior horn cell lesions are inferred, either PMMA or PBP is used, depending on the levels of involvement; when both cord and brain stem are affected. PBP is the designation. Mortality data on MND have been available for a number of countries since 1949. The coding used under international rules has varied considerably over this interval. Before 1969, hereditary muscular atrophies were included. Since 1979, no subdivision by type of MND is possible. International death rates for MND have all been rather close to 1 per 100,000 population per year, though perhaps nearer to 1.4 on the average in recent years. There has been an increasing proportion of MND deaths coded to ALS between 1949 and 1977. There is no notable geographic variation among countries, nor within countries such as the U.S. and Denmark. A slight upward trend in death rates over time in the U.S. is matched by a slight decrease in Denmark. Death rates from all sources indicate a male preponderance for ALS or MND as a whole, at about 1.5 to 1, male to female. There is also a consistent predilection by age, with few deaths under age 50 or so and a clear maximum in age-specific death rates at about age 70. This holds for both sexes. In the U.S., there is also a white-nonwhite difference, with a ratio of about 1.6:1 but with age and sex differences similar to whites. Average annual incidence rates from among white occidental populations range mostly between 0.6 and 1.8 per 100,000 population for MND and about 0.8 and 1.5 per 100,000 for ALS. Again a male predilection is seen. There is a clear maximum in age-specific incidence rates at about age 65 in all surveys except that of

  20. Dynamic Line-by-line Pulse Shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willits, John Thomas

    In pursuit of optical arbitrary waveform generation (OAWG), line-by-line pulse shapers use dynamic masks that can be modulated at the repetition rate of an input pulse train. The pulse-to-pulse control of the output pulse train with the waveform fidelity provided by line-by-line pulse shaping creates the most arbitrary waveform output possible, OAWG. This thesis studies the theoretical dynamic effects of such a pulse shaper and presents efforts towards realization of OAWG. Pulse shaping theory is extended to include rapid waveform update for line-by-line pulse shaping. The fundamental tradeoff between response speed and waveform fidelity is illustrated by several examples. Line-by-line pulse shaping is demonstrated at a repetition rate of 890 MHz on a mode-locked titanium sapphire laser. This pulse shaper relies on a virtual imaged phased array (VIPA) to obtain the necessary high spectral resolution. The details of the VIPA's ideal and nonideal performance are analyzed, simulated and tested. Individual frequency modes from the mode-locked titanium sapphire laser are also resolved using the same VIPA paired with a diffraction grating creating a 2-D spectral brush with a resolution of 357 MHz. The advantages and nonideal effects of VIPA-based pulse shaping are investigated. Analysis of several high speed modulation techniques are explored. The optical system required to separate adjacent comb lines into different single mode (SM) fibers necessary for several modulation techniques is designed and tested.

  1. Abstract Line Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevinskas, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a unit on the exploration of line. The unit was composed of two individual line lessons. In the first lesson, students were introduced to line as an element of design. They were asked to describe different types of lines, and look for them in art reproductions. The second lesson in the unit involved painting…

  2. The Language of Lines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breig-Allen, Cheryl; Hill, Janet; Geismar-Ryan, Lori; Cadwell, Louise Boyd

    1998-01-01

    Describes a project about lines in the environment used with 2- and 3-year olds and based on the Reggio Emilia approach. Activities included making tracks with riding toys, drawing lines on papers, seeing cloud lines, and making lines with yarn and Cuisenaire rods. Shows how young children's observations and ongoing discoveries can uncover their…

  3. Abstract Line Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevinskas, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a unit on the exploration of line. The unit was composed of two individual line lessons. In the first lesson, students were introduced to line as an element of design. They were asked to describe different types of lines, and look for them in art reproductions. The second lesson in the unit involved painting…

  4. The Language of Lines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breig-Allen, Cheryl; Hill, Janet; Geismar-Ryan, Lori; Cadwell, Louise Boyd

    1998-01-01

    Describes a project about lines in the environment used with 2- and 3-year olds and based on the Reggio Emilia approach. Activities included making tracks with riding toys, drawing lines on papers, seeing cloud lines, and making lines with yarn and Cuisenaire rods. Shows how young children's observations and ongoing discoveries can uncover their…

  5. A new anglerfish from eastern Australia and New Caledonia (Lophiiformes: Chaunacidae: Chaunacops), with new data and submersible observation of Chaunacops melanostomus.

    PubMed

    Ho, H-C; McGrouther, M

    2015-03-01

    A new deep-sea anglerfish of the genus Chaunacops is described based on three specimens collected from eastern Australia and New Caledonia. It differs from its congeners in having fine dermal spinules, mixed with simple and bifurcate ones, densely covering the body, four neuromasts on the pectoral series of the lateral line and a combination of other characteristics. Data for Chaunacops melanostomus based on 31 specimens newly collected from Western Australia are provided. An underwater observation of C. melanostomus made by a remotely operated vehicle is also provided. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. Rapid lateral solidification of pure Cu and Au thin films encapsulated in SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kline, J. E.; Leonard, J. P.

    2005-05-01

    Excimer laser melting and lateral resolidification is demonstrated in 200nm thick Cu and Au elemental metal thin films encapsulated between SiO2 layers. Projection irradiation is used to selectively and completely melt lines 3to30μm wide in the metal film—with rapid lateral solidification originating from the unmelted sidewalls of the molten region—resulting in large columnar grains, extending transversely to the middle of the line. Transmission electron microscopy reveals twinning structures and other defects typical of rapid solidification. Encapsulation and control of the fluence are found to be crucial parameters necessary to prevent film dewetting while molten.

  7. Vannevar Bush: Fifty Years Later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    It is ironic that the 50th anniversary year of Vannevar Bush's Report to President Truman entitled "Science the Endless Frontier", which put into motion the eminently successful current system of education of scientists in this country occurs at a time when serious questions are being asked about the usefulness of that very system. Bush viewed his proposal to establish a national research foundation (later to be called the National Science Foundation) as a "social compact." Judgment of scientific merit would be delegated to expert peers in return for scientific progress, which would ultimately benefit the nation in terms of scientific needs--military security, economic productivity, and enhanced quality of life. Bush wanted the funding of basic research intertwined with training, and preferred to use universities for this purpose rather than industrial or national labs. Bush viewed college and university scientists as teachers and investigators. He believed university-based research would uniquely encourage and engage the next generation of scientists as no other institutional arrangement could. Bush did not trust industry's commitment to basic research, an instinct that proved prophetic. The academic reserve of scientists (PhD's in training and postdoctoral students) that existed before World War II, and upon which the United States could draw for its needs, which were primarily associated with defense efforts, was probably one of the defining factors in Bush's suggested strategy. Currently, that reserve of talent has gotten so large that it is the obvious throttle in the pipeline slowing the continued development of the university research enterprise. Since 1977, the rate at which we have trained new scientists exceeds an average of 4% annually. Since 1987, the "science work force"--PhD's--has grown at three times the rate of the general labor supply. Temporary positions for postdoctoral scientists have grown even faster (over 5% per year since 1989). To compound

  8. Endodontic Treatment of Type II Dens Invaginatus in a Maxillary Lateral Incisor: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Helvacioglu-Yigit, Dilek; Aydemir, Seda

    2012-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a developmental anomaly that results in an enamel-lined cavity intruding into the crown or root before the mineralization phase. It typically affects permanent maxillary lateral incisors, central incisors, and premolars. This paper describes the root canal treatment of Oehlers' type II dens invaginatus in maxillary left lateral incisors. A 16-year-old boy presented to the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Kocaeli, to receive his dental treatments. During the caries removal, the pulp was exposed then anendodontic treatment was initiated. Two canals, one of which represented the invagination, were instrumented, irrigated, and then obturated with a lateral condensation technique. PMID:23213576

  9. Immediate breast reconstruction using the free lumbar artery perforator flap and lateral thoracic vein interposition graft for recipient lateral thoracic artery anastomosis

    PubMed Central

    Satake, Toshihiko; Nakasone, Reiko; Kobayashi, Shinji; Maegawa, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    The lumbar artery perforator (LAP) flap, which contains excess skin and fat tissue, love handles, that extends from the lower back to upper buttock, may provide an alternate tissue source for autologous breast reconstruction. However, LAP flap use during this procedure frequently requires vessel interposition grafts to correct the short flap pedicle length and mismatched recipient vessel calibre. A 46-year-old patient underwent a right nipple-sparing mastectomy using a lateral approach for ductal carcinoma in situ and immediate LAP flap breast reconstruction. The lateral thoracic vessel served as the recipient vessel, and a lateral thoracic vein interposition graft from the distal remnant was performed to adjust the arterial length and size discrepancy between the recipient lateral thoracic artery and pedicle artery. This procedure facilitates microsurgical anastomosis and medialisation of LAP flap to make a natural decollete line and create a cleavage for the reconstructed breast. PMID:27274129

  10. Community LINE Source Model (C-LINE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides an introduction for the live demo and explains the purpose of C-LINE and its key features. C-LINE is a web-based model designed to inform the community user of local air quality impacts due to mobile-sources in their region of interest using a simplifie...

  11. Conservative treatment of acute lateral ankle sprains.

    PubMed

    Weber, Jason M; Maleski, Richard M

    2002-04-01

    Lateral ankle sprains are among the most common sports injuries. Although ankle sprains are treated conservatively at the present time, for years the treatment was based on acute repair of the ruptured ligaments. Several differing opinions currently exist as to the treatment of lateral ankle sprains. A review of the literature and explanation of the benefits and risks of each treatment protocol is undertaken.

  12. Gender and Marital Happiness in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Gayle; Taniguchi, Hiromi

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine the effect of gender ideology on marital happiness in later life. Studies of marital satisfaction in later life have tended to neglect such attitudes, although they have received increasing attention in the literature on younger marriages. The authors use data from married individuals who range in age from 51 to…

  13. Later Life: A Time to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Helen

    2008-01-01

    In this article, an emerging framework for investigating and interpreting the experiences of learning in later life is presented. This framework is contextualized by a study in which the lived experiences of later-life computer learners were investigated. Significant ontological and existential interpretations from the study provided insights into…

  14. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lateral marks. 62.25 Section 62.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.25 Lateral marks....

  15. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lateral marks. 62.25 Section 62.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.25 Lateral marks....

  16. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lateral marks. 62.25 Section 62.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.25 Lateral marks....

  17. Lateral Asymmetries in Infant Melody Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balaban, Marie T.; Anderson, Linda M.; Wisniewski, Amy B.

    1998-01-01

    Two experiments investigated lateral asymmetries in eight-month-olds' perception of contour-altered and contour-preserved melody changes. Found that infants who heard a contour-altered change showed a left-ear advantage, whereas infants who heard a contour-preserved change showed a right-ear advantage. The pattern of lateralization for melody…

  18. Laterality and Reading Proficiency in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Che Kan

    1980-01-01

    Discusses some current concepts of the laterality/reading relationship. An overview of Samuel T. Orton's hypotheses of cerebral dominance and "strephosymbolia" is provided, and both visual half-field and dichotic listening studies as direct, empirical tests of laterality are discussed. (MKM)

  19. Laterality and Dyslexia: A Critical View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiscock, Merrill; Kinsbourne, Marcel

    1982-01-01

    Research is reviewed concerning the current state of knowledge about normal hemispheric specialization; distinctions among such terms as dominance, laterality, and lateralization; and models of abnormal cerebral organization in dyslexic children. The question of dyslexic subtypes is undertaken along such dimensions as handedness, eyedness, and…

  20. Factors Affecting Lateral Stability and Controllability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, John P; Toll, Thomas A

    1948-01-01

    The effects on dynamic lateral stability and controllability of some of the important aerodynamic and mass characteristics are discussed and methods are presented for estimating the various stability parameters to be used in the calculation of the dynamic lateral stability of airplanes with swept and low-aspect-ratio wings.

  1. Toward Optimizing Cognitive Competence In Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labouvie-Vief, Gisela

    1976-01-01

    Reviews evidence showing the view of pervasive decrement in later life is being challenged. Evidence is accumulated that the intellectual performance of the older adult responds favorably to a variety of ecological, training, and motivational conditions, and that intellectual development in later life is characterized by plasticity not universal…

  2. Aeromonas hydrophila Lateral Flagellar Gene Transcriptional Hierarchy

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelms, Markus; Gonzalez, Victor; Merino, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3 lateral flagella are not assembled when bacteria grow in liquid media; however, lateral flagellar genes are transcribed. Our results indicate that A. hydrophila lateral flagellar genes are transcribed at three levels (class I to III genes) and share some similarities with, but have many important differences from, genes of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A. hydrophila lateral flagellum class I gene transcription is σ70 dependent, which is consistent with the fact that lateral flagellum is constitutively transcribed, in contrast to the characteristics of V. parahaemolyticus. The fact that multiple genes are included in class I highlights that lateral flagellar genes are less hierarchically transcribed than polar flagellum genes. The A. hydrophila lafK-fliEJL gene cluster (where the subscript L distinguishes genes for lateral flagella from those for polar flagella) is exclusively from class I and is in V. parahaemolyticus class I and II. Furthermore, the A. hydrophila flgAMNL cluster is not transcribed from the σ54/LafK-dependent promoter and does not contain class II genes. Here, we propose a gene transcriptional hierarchy for the A. hydrophila lateral flagella. PMID:23335410

  3. Lateral displacement and rotational displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Duden, Thomas

    2014-04-22

    A position measuring sensor formed from opposing sets of capacitor plates measures both rotational displacement and lateral displacement from the changes in capacitances as overlapping areas of capacitors change. Capacitances are measured by a measuring circuit. The measured capacitances are provided to a calculating circuit that performs calculations to obtain angular and lateral displacement from the capacitances measured by the measuring circuit.

  4. Implications of Lateral Cerebellum in Proactive Control of Saccades.

    PubMed

    Kunimatsu, Jun; Suzuki, Tomoki W; Tanaka, Masaki

    2016-06-29

    Although several lines of evidence establish the involvement of the medial and vestibular parts of the cerebellum in the adaptive control of eye movements, the role of the lateral hemisphere of the cerebellum in eye movements remains unclear. Ascending projections from the lateral cerebellum to the frontal and parietal association cortices via the thalamus are consistent with a role of these pathways in higher-order oculomotor control. In support of this, previous functional imaging studies and recent analyses in subjects with cerebellar lesions have indicated a role for the lateral cerebellum in volitional eye movements such as anti-saccades. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we recorded from single neurons in the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum in monkeys performing anti-saccade/pro-saccade tasks. We found that neurons in the posterior part of the dentate nucleus showed higher firing rates during the preparation of anti-saccades compared with pro-saccades. When the animals made erroneous saccades to the visual stimuli in the anti-saccade trials, the firing rate during the preparatory period decreased. Furthermore, local inactivation of the recording sites with muscimol moderately increased the proportion of error trials, while successful anti-saccades were more variable and often had shorter latency during inactivation. Thus, our results show that neuronal activity in the cerebellar dentate nucleus causally regulates anti-saccade performance. Neuronal signals from the lateral cerebellum to the frontal cortex might modulate the proactive control signals in the corticobasal ganglia circuitry that inhibit early reactive responses and possibly optimize the speed and accuracy of anti-saccades. Although the lateral cerebellum is interconnected with the cortical eye fields via the thalamus and the pons, its role in eye movements remains unclear. We found that neurons in the caudal part of the lateral (dentate) nucleus of the cerebellum showed the increased

  5. [Lateral ligament injuries of the ankle joint].

    PubMed

    Walther, M; Kriegelstein, S; Altenberger, S; Volkering, C; Röser, A; Wölfel, R

    2013-09-01

    Lateral ligament injuries are the most common sports injury and have a high incidence even in non-sportive activities. Although lateral ligament injuries are very common there is still a controversial debate on the best management. The diagnosis is based on clinical examination and X-ray images help to rule out fractures. Further imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to diagnose associated injuries. According to the recommendations of the various scientific societies the primary therapy of lateral ligament injuries is conservative. Chronic ankle instability develops in 10-20 % of patients and the instability can be a result of sensomotoric deficits or insufficient healing of the lateral ligament complex. If the patient does not respond to an intensive rehabilitation program an operative reconstruction of the lateral ligaments has to be considered. Most of the procedures currently performed are anatomical reconstructions due to better long-term results compared to tenodesis procedures.

  6. Ultrasonographic Differentiation of Lateral Elbow Pain

    PubMed Central

    Obuchowicz, R.; Bonczar, M.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral elbow pain is often attributed to degenerative or posttraumatic impairment of the common extensor tendon. Ultrasonography assesses the soft tissue structures of the lateral elbow, allowing the differentiation between various underlying processes, including angiofibroblastic degeneration, hyaline degeneration, and inflammation, and exclusion of other possible causes of pain such as posterior interosseous and lateral antebrachial nerve compression. Furthermore, the real-time imaging nature of ultrasonography enables the detection of impingement of the lateral synovial fold, degenerative changes in the elbow recess, and elbow posterolateral instability during dynamic maneuvers. Ultrasonography is widely accessible and well tolerated by patients, making it a perfect method for establishing an initial diagnosis and monitoring the healing process. This review describes the possible causes of lateral elbow pain and their ultrasonographic differentiation. PMID:27689169

  7. Associations between schizotypy and cerebral laterality.

    PubMed

    Park, Haeme R P; Waldie, Karen E

    2017-03-01

    Atypical lateralization for language has been found in schizophrenia, suggesting that language and thought disorders on the schizophrenia spectrum may be due to left hemispheric dysfunction. However, research with those with non-clinical schizotypy has been inconsistent, with some studies finding reduced or reversed language laterality (particularly with positive schizotypal traits), and others finding typical left hemispheric specialization. The aim of the current study was to use both a behavioural (dual reading-finger tapping) task and an functional magnetic resonance imaging lexical decision task to investigate language laterality in a university sample of high- and low-schizotypal adults. Findings revealed no evidence for atypical lateralization in our sample for both overall schizotypy (measured by the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences) and positive schizotypy (measured by the Unusual Experiences subscale) groups. Our findings provide further evidence that non-clinical schizotypy is not associated with atypical language laterality.

  8. Rhinoplasty: the lateral crura-alar ring.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Rollin K; Palhazi, Peter; Gerbault, Olivier; Kosins, Aaron M

    2014-05-01

    Rhinoplasty surgeons routinely excise or incise the lateral crura despite nostril rim retraction, bossa, and collapse. Given recent emphasis on preserving the lateral crura, a review of the lateral crura's anatomy is warranted. The authors quantify specific anatomical aspects of the lateral crura in cadavers and clinical patients. This was a 2-part investigation, consisting of a prospective clinical measurement study of 40 consecutive rhinoplasty patients (all women) and 20 fresh cadaver dissections (13 males, 1 female). In the clinical phase, the alar cartilages were photographed intraoperatively and alar position (ie, orientation), axis, and width were measured. Cadaver dissections concentrated on parts of the lateral crura (alar cartilages and alar ring) that were inaccessible clinically. Average clinical patient age was 28 years (range, 14-51 years). Average cadaver age was 74 (range, 57-88 years). Clinically, the distance of the lateral crura from the mid-nostril point averaged 5.9 mm, and the cephalic orientation averaged 43.6 degrees. The most frequent configuration of the axis was smooth-straight in the horizontal axis and a cephalic border higher than the caudal border in the vertical axis. Maximal lateral crura width averaged 10.1 mm. In the cadavers, average lateral crural dimensions were 23.4 mm long, 6.4 mm wide at the domal notch, 11.1 mm wide at the so-designated turning point (TP), and 0.5 mm thickness. The accessory cartilage chain was present in all dissections. The lateral crura-alar ring was present in all dissections as a circular ring continuing around toward the anterior nasal spine but not abutting the pyriform. The lateral crura (1) begins at the domal notch and ends at the accessory cartilages, (2) exhibits a distinct TP from the caudal border, (3) has distinct horizontal and vertical vectors, and (4) should have a caudal border higher than the cephalic border. Alar malposition may be associated with position, orientation, or configuration.

  9. The Lateral Brow: Position in relation to age, gender and ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Lora Rabin Dagi; Lira, Jennifer; Enkhbold, Enkhnasan; Dimont, Emmanuel; Scofield, Stacy; Sherwood, Pamela R.; Winn, Bryan J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Despite multiple studies regarding modes of eyebrow measurement and movement over time, the lateral aspect of the brow has been relatively ignored in literature. Therefore, we arranged a study of the most lateral aspect of the eyebrow; in doing so, we hoped to ascertain the most practical line or angle of measurement. Methods In this cross-sectional study, adults aged 18 and older with no history of congenital or acquired periorbital or orbital pathology or surgery; brow tattooing or heavy plucking; phthisis; or strabismus were measured using a combination of in-office metrics and computer analysis. Subjects were asked to identify their ethnicity and country of origin. Models of age, gender, age and ethnicity were created. Results 1024 subjects were included (1944 eyes). Measurements of nasal ala to lateral brow (NALB), lateral brow plumb line (LBPL, the vertical line between the tail of the brow and a horizontal line extending from the lateral canthus), and angle from the mid-brow to the lateral brow tail all showed statistically significant decline over time. The angle and LBPL varied most by ethnicity. The angle narrowed approximately 3 degrees per 20 years, while the LBPL fell approximately 2.5 mm per 20 years. The NALB varied most by age, and fell approximately 3 mm per 20 years. Conclusions The lateral tail of the brow descends with age. Measurements of its location and rate of change vary between genders and within ethnic groups. Two easily measured values – NALB and LBPL – can be used for pre-operative planning and post-operative documentation. PMID:25069068

  10. Alleviating line overload by line switching

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, H.E.

    1988-01-01

    Traditionally, the method used by power system dispatchers to reduce or to eliminate line overload conditions has been to shift generation. Such shifts are generally in conflict with the carefully considered economic dispatch of generation. A proper generation schedule has taken into account many factors, such as generator limits, transmission penalties, incremental costs, var support, and system security. Any deviation from this schedule results in increased production cost. Recently, consideration has been given to alleviating line overloads by line switching. In many situations, line switching does not greatly change the transmission penalty factors and, therefore, can be undertaken without seriously affecting the economic dispatch. It would be convenient for system operators to have a fast, easy-to-operate computer and program available for the evaluation of the efficacy of a line removal (or addition) in dealing with an overload. It is imperative that the operator be properly advised, that a certain line switching reduces the overload and not aggravate the condition. After it has been determined that a line opening (or closing) produces the desired effect, the operator still must assess the consequence of such switching on system security before actually taking such action.

  11. Reconnection of vorticity lines and magnetic lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic field and fluid vorticity share many features. First, as divergence-free vector fields they are conveniently visualized in terms of their field lines, curves that are everywhere tangent to the field. The lines indicate direction and their density indicates field strength. The question arises of the extent to which the evolution of the fields can be treated in terms of the evolution of their field lines. Newcomb (1958) derived the general conditions on the evolution of vector fields that permit the identification of field lines from one instant to the next. The equations of evolution of the vorticity field and the magnetic field fall within Newcomb's analysis. The dynamics of the flows differ between these two systems, so that geometrically similar phenomena happen in different ways in the two systems. In this paper the geometrical similarities are emphasized. Reconnection will be defined here as evolution in which it is not possible to preserve the global identification of some field lines. There is a close relation between reconnection and the topology of the vector field lines. Nontrivial topology occurs where the field has null points or there are field lines that are closed loops.

  12. Lateral offsets on surveyed cultural features resulting from the 1999 İzmit and Düzce earthquakes, Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rockwell, Thomas K.; Lindvall, Scott; Dawson, Tim; Langridge, Rob; Lettis, William; Klinger, Yann

    2002-01-01

    Surveys of multiple tree lines within groves of poplar trees, planted in straight lines across the fault prior to the earthquake, show surprisingly large lateral variations. In one grove, slip increases by nearly 1.8 m, or 35% of the maximum measured value, over a lateral distance of nearly 100 m. This and other observations along the 1999 ruptures suggest that the lateral variability of slip observed from displaced geomorphic features in many earthquakes of the past may represent a combination of (1) actual differences in slip at the surface and (2) the difficulty in recognizing distributed nonbrittle deformation.

  13. Nuclear reactor overflow line

    DOEpatents

    Severson, Wayne J.

    1976-01-01

    The overflow line for the reactor vessel of a liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactor includes means for establishing and maintaining a continuous bleed flow of coolant amounting to 5 to 10% of the total coolant flow through the overflow line to prevent thermal shock to the overflow line when the reactor is restarted following a trip. Preferably a tube is disposed concentrically just inside the overflow line extending from a point just inside the reactor vessel to an overflow tank and a suction line is provided opening into the body of liquid metal in the reactor vessel and into the annulus between the overflow line and the inner tube.

  14. A lateral electrophoretic flow diagnostic assay.

    PubMed

    Lin, Robert; Skandarajah, Arunan; Gerver, Rachel E; Neira, Hector D; Fletcher, Daniel A; Herr, Amy E

    2015-03-21

    Immunochromatographic assays are a cornerstone tool in disease screening. To complement existing lateral flow assays (based on wicking flow) we introduce a lateral flow format that employs directed electrophoretic transport. The format is termed a "lateral e-flow assay" and is designed to support multiplexed detection using immobilized reaction volumes of capture antigen. To fabricate the lateral e-flow device, we employ mask-based UV photopatterning to selectively immobilize unmodified capture antigen along the microchannel in a barcode-like pattern. The channel-filling polyacrylamide hydrogel incorporates a photoactive moiety (benzophenone) to immobilize capture antigen to the hydrogel without a priori antigen modification. We report a heterogeneous sandwich assay using low-power electrophoresis to drive biospecimen through the capture antigen barcode. Fluorescence barcode readout is collected via a low-resource appropriate imaging system (CellScope). We characterize lateral e-flow assay performance and demonstrate a serum assay for antibodies to the hepatitis C virus (HCV). In a pilot study, the lateral e-flow assay positively identifies HCV+ human sera in 60 min. The lateral e-flow assay provides a flexible format for conducting multiplexed immunoassays relevant to confirmatory diagnosis in near-patient settings.

  15. Olfactory coding in the honeybee lateral horn.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Edith; Carcaud, Julie; Combe, Maud; Giurfa, Martin; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2014-03-03

    Olfactory systems dynamically encode odor information in the nervous system. Insects constitute a well-established model for the study of the neural processes underlying olfactory perception. In insects, odors are detected by sensory neurons located in the antennae, whose axons project to a primary processing center, the antennal lobe. There, the olfactory message is reshaped and further conveyed to higher-order centers, the mushroom bodies and the lateral horn. Previous work has intensively analyzed the principles of olfactory processing in the antennal lobe and in the mushroom bodies. However, how the lateral horn participates in olfactory coding remains comparatively more enigmatic. We studied odor representation at the input to the lateral horn of the honeybee, a social insect that relies on both floral odors for foraging and pheromones for social communication. Using in vivo calcium imaging, we show consistent neural activity in the honeybee lateral horn upon stimulation with both floral volatiles and social pheromones. Recordings reveal odor-specific maps in this brain region as stimulations with the same odorant elicit more similar spatial activity patterns than stimulations with different odorants. Odor-similarity relationships are mostly conserved between antennal lobe and lateral horn, so that odor maps recorded in the lateral horn allow predicting bees' behavioral responses to floral odorants. In addition, a clear segregation of odorants based on pheromone type is found in both structures. The lateral horn thus contains an odor-specific map with distinct representations for the different bee pheromones, a prerequisite for eliciting specific behaviors.

  16. Lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia: an anatomical insight.

    PubMed

    Dias Filho, L C; Valença, M M; Guimarães Filho, F A V; Medeiros, R C; Silva, R A M; Morais, M G V; Valente, F P; França, S M L

    2003-07-01

    A detailed anatomic study was carried out on the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve to better understand the etiology and treatment of lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia. As it passed from the pelvis into the thigh, the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve ran through an "aponeuroticofascial tunnel," beginning at the iliopubic tract and ending at the inguinal ligament; as it passed through the tunnel, an enlargement in its side-to-side diameter was observed, suggesting that the fascial structures proximal to the inguinal ligament may be implicated in the genesis of lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia. The finding of pseudoneuromas at this location, distant from the inguinal ligament, supports this hypothesis. The anterior superior iliac spine is located approximately 0.7 cm from the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve and serves as the bony landmark for nerve localization. Within the first 3 cm of leaving the pelvis, the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve was observed deep to the fascia lata; therefore, surgical dissection within the subcutaneous fascia may be conducted with relative impunity near the anterior superior iliac spine just inferior to the inguinal ligament. In 36% of cases there was no posterior branch of the nerve, which is correlated to lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia symptoms often being limited to the anterior branch region. An accessory nerve was found in 30% of cases. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Ankle instability and arthroscopic lateral ligament repair.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Jorge I; Mangone, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, the surgical management of chronic lateral ankle ligament insufficiency has focused on 2 main categories: local soft-tissue reconstruction and tendon grafts/transfer procedures. There is an increasing interest in the arthroscopic solutions for chronic instability of the ankle. Recent biomechanical studies suggest the at least one of the arthroscopic techniques can provide equivalent results to current open local soft-tissue reconstruction (such as the modified Brostrom technique). Arthroscopic lateral ankle ligament reconstruction is becoming an increasingly acceptable method for the surgical management of chronic lateral ankle instability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Experiments and analysis of lateral piezoresistance gauges

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, M.K.W.

    1993-07-01

    The response of lateral piezoresistance gauges to shock wave uniaxial strain loading has been examined in a combined experimental and calculational effort. Plate impact experiments provided lateral gauge data which were analyzed using quasi-static and dynamic inclusion analyses. Experimental data showed that the response of the lateral gauge output depended upon the matrix material and gauge emplacement method. The calculations indicated that these differences were due to complex gauge-matrix interactions. These interactions were influenced by the stress and strain distributions in and around the gauge, plasticity effects, properties of the gauge and matrix materials, and emplacement conditions.

  19. Advantages of having a lateralized brain.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Lesley J; Zucca, Paolo; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2004-01-01

    Brain lateralization is common among vertebrates. However, despite its implications for higher-order cognitive functions, almost no empirical evidence has been provided to show that it may confer any advantage to the functioning of the brain. Here, we show in the domestic chick (Gallus gallus domesticus) that cerebral lateralization is associated with an enhanced ability to perform two tasks simultaneously: finding food and being vigilant for predators. This finding suggests that cerebral lateralization enhances brain efficiency in cognitive tasks that demand the simultaneous but different use of both hemispheres. PMID:15801592

  20. Lateral open bite: treatment and stability.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Marise de Castro; Cabrera, Carlos Alberto Gregório; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Janson, Guilherme; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto

    2010-05-01

    Because of their multifactorial etiologies, dental and skeletal open bites are among the most difficult malocclusions to treat to a successful and stable result. Etiologic factors include vertical maxillary excess, skeletal pattern, abnormalities in dental eruption, and tongue-thrust problems. The purpose of this article was to report the treatment of an adult patient with a lateral open bite and a unilateral posterior crossbite. The treatment involved nonextraction therapy, including intermaxillary elastics, to obtain dentoalveolar extrusion in the region of the lateral open bite. The treatment results were successful and remained stable 2 years later. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Augmentation of lateral tarsorrhaphy in lagophthalmos.

    PubMed

    Nemet, Arie Y

    2014-08-01

    Lagophthalmos, the inability to close the eyelids completely, is a serious condition caused by orbicularis oculi muscle paresis or paralysis. The standard lateral tarsorrhaphy may leave the eye open with corneal exposure. In those cases, we suggest that better approximation of the upper and lower eyelids will be achieved when the lower lid is retracted laterally and the upper lid medially. This yields satisfactory closure of the eyelids. I report herein four patients who were successfully treated with permanent lateral tarsorrhaphy with this approximation of the upper and lower eyelids with effective, satisfactory outcomes.

  2. Experiments and analysis of lateral piezoresistance gauges

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, M.K.W. )

    1994-07-10

    The response of lateral piezoresistance gauges to shock wave uniaxial strain loading has been examined in a combined experimental and calculational effort. Plate impact experiments provided lateral gauge data which were analyzed using quasi-static and dynamic inclusion analyses. Experimental data showed that the response of the lateral gauge output depended upon the matrix material and gauge emplacement method. The calculations indicated that these differences were due to complex gauge-matrix interactions. These were influenced by the stress and strain distributions in and around the gauge, plasticity effects, material properties, and emplacement conditions. [copyright]American Institute of Physics

  3. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Lateral Canthoplasty to Lengthen the Lateral Canthal Angle and Correct the Outer Tail of the Eye

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Byung Min

    2016-01-01

    There are many women who want larger and brighter eyes that will give a favorable impression. Surgical methods that make the eye larger and brighter include double eyelidplasty, epicanthoplasty, as well as lateral canthoplasty. Double eyelidplasty produces changes in the vertical dimension of the eyes, whereas epicanthoplasty and lateral canthoplasty create changes in the horizontal dimension of the eyes. Epicanthoplasty, a surgical procedure which enlarges the eye horizontally, is performed at the inner corner of the eye, whereas lateral canthoplasty enlarges the outer edge of the eye. In particular, if the slant of the palpebral fissure is raised and the horizontal dimension of the palpebral fissure is short, adjusting the slant of the palpebral fissure through lateral canthoplasty can achieve an enlargement of eye width and smoother features. Depending on the patient's condition, even better results can be achieved if this procedure is performed in conjunction with other procedures, such as double eyelidplasty, epicanthoplasty, eye roll formation surgery, fat graft, and facial bone contouring surgery. In this paper, the authors will introduce in detail their surgical method for a cosmetic lateral canthoplasty that lengthens the lateral canthal angle and corrects the outer tail of the eyes, in order to ease the unfavorable impression. PMID:27462564

  4. Peripheral arterial line (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A peripheral arterial line is a small, short plastic catheter placed through the skin into an artery of the arm or leg. The purpose of a peripheral arterial line is to allow continuous monitoring of blood pressure ...

  5. Laterality and Lateralization in Autism Spectrum Disorder, Using a Standardized Neuro-Psychomotor Assessment.

    PubMed

    Paquet, A; Golse, B; Girard, M; Olliac, B; Vaivre-Douret, L

    2017-01-01

    A detailed assessment of laterality in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) was realized, including handedness and other measures (muscle tone, manual performance, dominant eye), using a standardized battery for the developmental assessment of neuro-psychomotor functions. The results of the laterality tests relating to cerebral hemisphere organization (spontaneous gestural laterality and tonic laterality) were different in ASD children, and indicate that the cerebral organization could be disrupted. These assessments, added to the observations of usual laterality most often reported in the literature, provide better understanding of the developmental organization from the pathophysiological point of view in children with ASD.

  6. Repositioned lateral crural flap technique for cephalic malposition in rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Mohebbi, A; Azizi, A; Tabatabaiee, S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cephalic malposition of the lower lateral cartilage (CMLLC) is a relatively common anatomical variant, particularly in Middle Eastern patients. The characteristics of CMLLC include long alar creases, a boxy and ball-shaped nasal tip, parenthesis tip deformity and external valvular incompetence. The gold standard for correcting CMLLC is the lateral crural strut graft (Gunter graft), but many patients experience problems after this technique. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of the repositioned lateral crural flap (RLCF) technique in correcting CMLLC, and to discuss the cosmetic and functional results. METHODS: In the present study, 123 primary septorhinoplasty operations using the RLCF technique were performed between May 2012 and March 2013. The mean follow-up period was 11.4 months (range nine to 24 months). Four parameters were measured and compared pre- and postoperatively: the angle between the line connecting the maximum convexity of the lower lateral cartilage (LLC) to the tip-defining point and midline on each side (angle of rotation); the total distance between the maximum convexity of LLC right and left to midline (representing the size of the parenthesis deformity); satisfaction scale rating of the patients’ nasal tip appearance; and the satisfaction scale rating of patients’ breathing through their nostrils. RESULTS: The mean angle of the LLC to the midline significantly increased and the mean distance between the maximum convexities was significantly reduced, indicating correction of the malposition and reduction of the parenthesis deformity, respectively. The mean satisfactory scale ratings of nasal tip appearance and breathing quality were also significantly improved. CONCLUSION: CMLLC can be corrected using the RLCF technique, resulting in both aesthetic and functional improvements. PMID:26361626

  7. Lateral displacement as a function of particle size using a piecewise curved planar interdigitated electrode array.

    PubMed

    Han, Ki-Ho; Han, Song-I; Frazier, A Bruno

    2009-10-21

    We describe the lateral displacement of a particle passing over a planar interdigitated electrode array at an angle as a function of the particle size. The lateral displacement was also measured as a function of the angle between the electrode and the direction of flow. A simplified line charge model was used for numerically estimating the lateral displacement of fluorescent polystyrene (PS) beads with three different diameters. Using the lateral displacement as a function of particle size, we developed a lateral dielectrophoretic (DEP) microseparator, which enables continuous discrimination of particles by size. The microchannel was divided into three regions, each with an electrode array placed at a different angle with respect to the direction of flow. The experiment using an admixture of 3-, 5-, and 10-microm PS beads showed that the lateral DEP microseparator could continuously separate out 99.86% of the 3-microm beads, 98.82% of the 5-microm beads, and 99.69% of the 10-microm beads, simply by using a 200-kHz 12-Vp-p AC voltage to create the lateral DEP force. The lateral DEP microseparator is thus a practical device for simultaneously separating particles according to size from a heterogeneous admixture.

  8. Reduced frequency of lateral root branching improves N capture from low-N soils in maize.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ai; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2015-04-01

    Suboptimal nitrogen (N) availability is a primary constraint for crop production in developing countries, while in developed countries, intensive N fertilization is a primary economic, energy, and environmental cost for crop production. We tested the hypothesis that under low-N conditions, maize (Zea mays) lines with few but long (FL) lateral roots would have greater axial root elongation, deeper rooting, and greater N acquisition than lines with many but short (MS) lateral roots. Maize recombinant inbred lines contrasting in lateral root number and length were grown with adequate and suboptimal N in greenhouse mesocosms and in the field in the USA and South Africa (SA). In low-N mesocosms, the FL phenotype had substantially reduced root respiration and greater rooting depth than the MS phenotype. In low-N fields in the USA and SA, the FL phenotype had greater rooting depth, shoot N content, leaf photosynthesis, and shoot biomass than the MS phenotype. The FL phenotype yielded 31.5% more than the MS phenotype under low N in the USA. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that sparse but long lateral roots improve N capture from low-N soils. These results with maize probably pertain to other species. The FL lateral root phenotype merits consideration as a selection target for greater crop N efficiency.

  9. Reduced frequency of lateral root branching improves N capture from low-N soils in maize

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Ai; Lynch, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Suboptimal nitrogen (N) availability is a primary constraint for crop production in developing countries, while in developed countries, intensive N fertilization is a primary economic, energy, and environmental cost for crop production. We tested the hypothesis that under low-N conditions, maize (Zea mays) lines with few but long (FL) lateral roots would have greater axial root elongation, deeper rooting, and greater N acquisition than lines with many but short (MS) lateral roots. Maize recombinant inbred lines contrasting in lateral root number and length were grown with adequate and suboptimal N in greenhouse mesocosms and in the field in the USA and South Africa (SA). In low-N mesocosms, the FL phenotype had substantially reduced root respiration and greater rooting depth than the MS phenotype. In low-N fields in the USA and SA, the FL phenotype had greater rooting depth, shoot N content, leaf photosynthesis, and shoot biomass than the MS phenotype. The FL phenotype yielded 31.5% more than the MS phenotype under low N in the USA. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that sparse but long lateral roots improve N capture from low-N soils. These results with maize probably pertain to other species. The FL lateral root phenotype merits consideration as a selection target for greater crop N efficiency. PMID:25680794

  10. Individualized optimal surgical extent of the lateral neck in papillary thyroid cancer with lateral cervical metastasis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Yong; Koo, Bon Seok

    2014-06-01

    Despite an excellent prognosis, cervical lymph node (LN) metastases are common in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). The presence of metastasis is associated with an increased risk of locoregional recurrence, which significantly impairs quality of life and may decrease survival. Therefore, it has been an important determinant of the extent of lateral LN dissection in the initial treatment of PTC patients with lateral cervical metastasis. However, the optimal extent of therapeutic lateral neck dissection (ND) remains controversial. Optimizing the surgical extent of LN dissection is fundamental for balancing the surgical morbidity and oncological benefits of ND in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. We reviewed the currently available literature regarding the optimal extent of lateral LN dissection in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. Even in cases with suspicion of metastatic LN at the single lateral level or isolated metastatic lateral LN, the application of ND including all sublevels from IIa and IIb to Va and Vb may be overtreatment, due to the surgical morbidity. When there is no suspicion of LN metastasis at levels II and V, or when multilevel aggressive neck metastasis is not found, sublevel IIb and Va dissection may not be necessary in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. Thus consideration of the individualized optimal surgical extent of lateral ND is important when treating PTC patients with lateral cervical metastasis.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... amytrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia, regulates endosomal trafficking. Hum Mol Genet. 2014 Jul 1;23(13): ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of ...

  12. Lateralized courtship in a parasitic wasp.

    PubMed

    Romano, Donato; Donati, Elisa; Canale, Angelo; Messing, Russell H; Benelli, Giovanni; Stefanini, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Lateralization (i.e. left-right asymmetries in the brain and behaviour) of courtship displays has been examined in a growing number vertebrate species, while evidence for invertebrates is limited. In this study, we investigated lateralization of courtship and mating displays in the parasitic wasp Leptomastidea abnormis. Results showed a population-level lateralization of male courtship displays. Male antennal tapping on the female's head was right-biased. However, right-biased male courtship acts were not characterized by higher male antennal tapping frequencies, nor success in mating although antennal tapping frequency was higher in males with mating success with respect to unsuccessful males. Overall, our results add basic knowledge to the behavioural ecology of insect parasitoids. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of behavioural lateralization in parasitic Hymenoptera.

  13. The laterality effect: myth or truth?

    PubMed

    Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2008-03-01

    Tzelgov and colleagues [Tzelgov, J., Meyer, J., and Henik, A. (1992). Automatic and intentional processing of numerical information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 18, 166-179.], offered the existence of the laterality effect as a post-hoc explanation for their results. According to this effect, numbers are classified automatically as small/large versus a standard point under autonomous processing of numerical information. However, the genuinity of the laterality effect was never examined, or was confounded with the numerical distance effect. In the current study, I controlled the numerical distance effect and observed that the laterality effect does exist, and affects the processing of automatic numerical information. The current results suggest that the laterality effect should be taken into account when using paradigms that require automatic numerical processing such as Stroop-like or priming tasks.

  14. Lateral flow immunoassay for the rapid detection of citrus tristeza virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A lateral flow methodology was developed using gold nanoparticles for rapid detection of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV). The test strip was based on a sandwich immunoassay and could be accomplished within 10 minutes. A sample was considered negative for CTV when only the control line appeared; whereas,...

  15. Quiet Riots: Race and Poverty in the United States. The Kerner Report Twenty Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Fred R., Ed.; Wilkins, Roger W., Ed.

    This book grew out of the national conference "The Kerner Commission: Twenty Years Later." The Kerner Commission found in its 1968 Report that America was moving toward two separate and unequal societies, divided along racial lines, and that major efforts to combat poverty, unemployment, and racism were mandated. The essays in this book…

  16. Lateral epicondylitis: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Mohd; Nuhmani, S; Ram, C S; Sachin, Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis (Tennis Elbow) is the most frequent type of myotendinosis and can be responsible for substantial pain and loss of function of the affected limb. Muscular biomechanics characteristics and equipment are important in preventing the conditions. This article present on overview of the current knowledge on lateral Epicondylitis and focuses on Etiology, Diagnosis and treatment strategies, conservative treatment are discussed and recent surgical techniques are outlined. This information should assist health care practitioners who treat patients with this disorder.

  17. The lateralization of symptoms in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P; Fleminger, J J

    1981-03-01

    An awareness of symptoms being lateralized was established in almost half of a series of 60 acutely ll schizophrenics and is reported in a further series of 16 patients with this disorder. Case illustrations are given. The symptoms most commonly showing this phenomenon were hypochondriacal delusions and hallucinations, usually of an auditory kind. Possible mechanisms underlying the phenomenon are discussed. Some evidence was found for a difference between the sexes in the direction of lateralization symptoms.

  18. Brain and behavioral lateralization in invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Frasnelli, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioral asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left–right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has asymmetric odor sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behavior with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with a specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test the

  19. Management of horizontally impacted dilacerated lateral incisor

    PubMed Central

    Katta, Anil Kumar; Peddu, Revathi; Vannala, Venkataramana; Dasari, Vaishnavi

    2015-01-01

    Impaction of maxillary lateral incisor with odontome and retained deciduous tooth is not often seen in regular dental practice. Impaction of anterior teeth cause generalized spacing which affects the esthetics of the face. Here we report a case of an 18-year-old patient with horizontally impacted dilacerated lateral incisor, which was bought into occlusion with the help of orthodontic tooth movement within a span of 18 months. PMID:26538954

  20. Transcript profiling of early lateral root initiation.

    PubMed

    Himanen, Kristiina; Vuylsteke, Marnik; Vanneste, Steffen; Vercruysse, Steven; Boucheron, Elodie; Alard, Philippe; Chriqui, Dominique; Van Montagu, Marc; Inzé, Dirk; Beeckman, Tom

    2004-04-06

    At the onset of lateral root initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana, the phytohormone auxin activates xylem pole pericycle cells for asymmetric cell division. However, the molecular events leading from auxin to lateral root initiation are poorly understood, in part because the few responsive cells in the process are embedded in the root and are thus difficult to access. A lateral root induction system, in which most xylem pole pericycle cells were synchronously activated by auxin transport inhibition followed by auxin application, was used for microarray transcript profiling. Of 4,600 genes analyzed, 906 significantly differentially regulated genes were identified that could be grouped into six major clusters. Basically, three major patterns were discerned representing induced, repressed, and transiently expressed genes. Analysis of the coregulated genes, which were specific for each time point, provided new insight into the molecular regulation and signal transduction preceding lateral root initiation in Arabidopsis. The reproducible expression profiles during a time course allowed us to define four stages that precede the cell division in the pericycle. These early stages were characterized by G1 cell cycle block, auxin perception, and signal transduction, followed by progression over G1/S transition and G2/M transition. All these processes took place within 6 h after transfer from N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid to 1-naphthalene acetic acid. These results indicate that this lateral root induction system represents a unique synchronized system that allows the systematic study of the developmental program upstream of the cell cycle activation during lateral root initiation.

  1. Listeners' impressions of speakers with lateral lisps.

    PubMed

    Silverman, E M

    1976-11-01

    This paper reports research conducted to determine whether the lateral lisp is a speech defect. The specific purpose of this research was to determine whether the lateral lisp calls adverse attention to the speaker. Two groups of broadcast communication students rates the concept "The Person Speaking" on a 49-scale semantic differential. One group performed the task after listening to a tape recording of a young woman reading contextual material with a simulated lateral lisp. The other group performed the task after listening to a recording of the same woman reading the material in a normal manner. Analyses of the scale values computed for the two conditions indicated that the lateral lisp called adverse attention to the speaker. A systematic replication was undertaken to assess the generality of this finding. The procedures of the original investigation were followed except that business administration students served as judges. The results replicated those of the original investigation. These data indicate that the lateral lisp is probably a speech defect and suggest that the practice of eliminating school speech services for children whose only speech difference is a lateral lisp should be reconsidered.

  2. Displacing lateral meniscus masquerading as patella dislocation.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Elizabeth A; Fontboté, Cristián A; Rohr, Sara R

    2014-10-01

    To alert the treating clinician to an uncommon knee meniscal condition that often masquerades as a more common patella condition. Retrospective chart review of a series of cases was undertaken. A series of 12 knees in 11 patients were referred to an orthopaedic surgeon with a diagnosis of recurrent lateral patella dislocation. Three knees had undergone patella realignment surgery with continuance of symptoms. Eight patients had prior magnetic resonance images read as no meniscal pathology and no acute patella/patella retinacular injury. All patients presented for a consult with a similar history. Under anaesthesia, all knees had a stable patella as judged by physical examination. At the time of surgery, six patients had a frank tear in the lateral meniscus, all of which were readily displaceable. Six knees showed a displaceable lateral meniscus with attenuation but not a visible frank tear. Ten menisci were treated with repair, and two knees underwent partial lateral meniscectomies. Patient follow-up of minimally 18 months revealed no further episodes of "knee-cap dislocation" or symptoms of catching and locking. The clinician treating a patient with a history of a knee locking in flexion should have a high index of suspicion for a lateral meniscus tear or an unstable hypermobile lateral meniscus, despite patient report of perceived patella movement. History of symptoms occurring in knee flexion and attention to patella physical examination should be key factors in this diagnostic conundrum. Retrospective chart review, Level IV.

  3. Laterality enhances cognition in Australian parrots

    PubMed Central

    Magat, Maria; Brown, Culum

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral lateralization refers to the division of information processing in either hemisphere of the brain and is a ubiquitous trait among vertebrates and invertebrates. Given its widespread occurrence, it is likely that cerebral lateralization confers a fitness advantage. It has been hypothesized that this advantage takes the form of enhanced cognitive function, potentially via a dual processing mechanism whereby each hemisphere can be used to process specific types of information without contralateral interference. Here, we examined the influence of lateralization on problem solving by Australian parrots. The first task, a pebble-seed discrimination test, was designed for small parrot species that feed predominately on small seeds, which do not require any significant manipulation with the foot prior to ingestion. The second task, a string-pull problem, was designed for larger bodied species that regularly use their feet to manipulate food objects. In both cases, strongly lateralized individuals (those showing significant foot and eye biases) outperformed less strongly lateralized individuals, and this relationship was substantially stronger in the more demanding task. These results suggest that cerebral lateralization is a ubiquitous trait among Australian parrots and conveys a significant foraging advantage. Our results provide strong support for the enhanced cognitive function hypothesis. PMID:19726480

  4. Endoscope-assisted thoracolumbar lateral corpectomy.

    PubMed

    Carozzo, Claude; Maitre, Pierre; Genevois, Jean-Pierre; Gabanou, Pierre-Alexandre; Fau, Didier; Viguier, Eric

    2011-08-01

    To report an endoscope-assisted lateral approach to expose the intervertebral foramen and disk and perform lateral corpectomy of thoracolumbar disks in dogs. Cadaver study. Fresh canine cadavers (n=6). A thoracic (T10-T11) and a lumbar (L3-L4) lateral approach were made on 6 fresh canine mixed breed cadavers. Through a limited skin incision, musculature was dissected and retracted using a neurosurgical self-retaining retractor and lateral corpectomy performed. The approach and bone removal, both performed under endoscopic control, were assessed. The foramen and intervertebral disk were clearly observed in all specimens without any iatrogenic injury of the ventral and dorsal nerve branches. Access to the foramen was possible in all specimens; in the thoracic area the head of the rib was always partially excised to observe the intervertebral disk medially. Lateral corpectomy was easily performed in all cadavers and spinal cord observation was good. Extension to foraminotomy or mini hemilaminectomy could easily be performed through the same limited approach. Endoscopic exploration provided a good viewing of the intervertebral disk and/or foramen. An endoscope-assisted thoracolumbar lateral corpectomy could effectively be performed through a limited approach to the thoracolumbar disks and allowed good ventral spinal cord assessment. © Copyright 2011 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  5. Sonographic Findings of Chondral Avulsion Fractures of the Lateral Ankle Ligaments in Children.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Manabu; Maeda, Nana; Takaoka, Takanori; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2017-02-01

    In this series, we aimed to describe the sonographic findings of chondral avulsion fractures that develop concomitant with lateral ankle ligament injury in children. We performed stress sonography during a manual anterior drawer stress procedure of the ankle in 9 skeletally immature patients who had recently had a lateral ankle sprain. Echo videos were obtained through the course of treatment, and all videos were reviewed. We elucidated the common features of chondral avulsion fractures of the lateral ankle ligaments in the children. The features of avulsion fractures on conventional sonography included absence of a fracture with hyperechoic spots (sonographic occult fracture type), cortical discontinuity with hyperechoic spots (cortical disruption fracture type), fracture line in the cortical bone (double-line fracture type), and a step-off deformity of the cortical bone with cartilage (displaced fracture type). In contrast, the features of chondral fractures on stress sonography included abnormal motion of the chondral lesions and mobility/fluidity of hyperechoic spots along the chondral fracture site. The presence of hyperechoic spots around the chondral lesion is an important sonographic sign for diagnosing chondral fractures concomitant with ankle lateral ligament injury. Hence, we believe that stress sonography should be considered for the detection of chondral fractures concomitant with radiographically negative ankle lateral ligament injuries in skeletally immature patients with lateral ankle pain and ankle sprains, if hyperechoic spots are present in the cartilage of the distal fibula. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  6. The pulmonary extracellular lining.

    PubMed Central

    George, G; Hook, G E

    1984-01-01

    The extracellular lining of the lungs is reviewed. The pulmonary extracellular lining is a complex mixture of phospholipids, proteins and carbohydrates which is absolutely essential for the maintenance of normal pulmonary functions such as gas exchange. Without the lining the lungs would collapse. Alterations in the pulmonary extracellular lining may underlie some disease conditions induced by toxic agents, especially those which interfere with the formation of pulmonary surfactant. The extracellular lining could be used to detect and monitor damage and disease caused by agents toxic to the lungs. The lining contains many hydrolytic enzymes which may act to detoxify certain toxic agents such as those which contain ester groups. The pulmonary extracellular lining could play a significant role mediating the toxic action of inhaled agents as well as the removal of those agents from the lungs. Images FIGURE 1. PMID:6376100

  7. Evaluation of concrete masonry unit walls for lateral natural phenomena hazards loads

    SciTech Connect

    Faires, W.E. Jr.

    1996-03-08

    Older single-story facilities (Pre-1985 vintage) are commonly constructed of structural steel framing with concrete masonry unit (CMU) walls connected to columns and roof girders of the steel framing system. The CMU walls are designed for lateral wind and seismic loads (perpendicular to the wall) and transmit shear loads from the roof diaphragm to the foundation footings. The lateral loads normally govern their design. The structural framing system and the roof diaphragm system are straight forward when analyzing or upgrading the structure for NPH loads. Because of a buildings design vintage, probable use of empirical methodology, and poor design basis documentation (and record retention); it is difficult to qualify or upgrade CMU walls for lateral Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) loads in accordance with References 1, 2 and 3. This paper discusses three analytical approaches and/or techniques (empirical, working stress and yield line) to determine the collapse capacity of a laterally loaded CMU wall, and compares their results

  8. Lateral restraint assembly for reactor core

    DOEpatents

    Gorholt, Wilhelm; Luci, Raymond K.

    1986-01-01

    A restraint assembly for use in restraining lateral movement of a reactor core relative to a reactor vessel wherein a plurality of restraint assemblies are interposed between the reactor core and the reactor vessel in circumferentially spaced relation about the core. Each lateral restraint assembly includes a face plate urged against the outer periphery of the core by a plurality of compression springs which enable radial preloading of outer reflector blocks about the core and resist low-level lateral motion of the core. A fixed radial key member cooperates with each face plate in a manner enabling vertical movement of the face plate relative to the key member but restraining movement of the face plate transverse to the key member in a plane transverse to the center axis of the core. In this manner, the key members which have their axes transverse to or subtending acute angles with the direction of a high energy force tending to move the core laterally relative to the reactor vessel restrain such lateral movement.

  9. Language lateralization shifts with learning by adults.

    PubMed

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K; Vance, Christopher J; Asbjørnsen, Arve E

    2015-05-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left-hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting that this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to an unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left-lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short term within a learning context, independent of maturation.

  10. Language Lateralization Shifts with Learning by Adults

    PubMed Central

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K.; Vance, Christopher J.; Asbjørnsen, Arve E.

    2014-01-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short-term within a learning context, independent of maturation. PMID:25285756

  11. Analysis of the Officer Lateral Transfer and Redesignation Process and Its Impact on the Unrestricted Line

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Factors in the work environment consistently reported to have a negative impact on job satisfaction include long hours while at sea and in port to get...the job done, and excessively heavy workloads in port , particularly during pre-deployment periods. The NPS survey series asked respondents to indicate...both at sea and in port , significantly influenced their decision to leave the Navy. Similarly, male showed a negative response with 63 percent of

  12. Assessment and analysis of human laterality for manipulation and communication using the Rennes Laterality Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Prieur, Jacques; Barbu, Stéphanie; Blois-Heulin, Catherine

    2017-08-01

    Despite significant scientific advances, the nature of the left-hemispheric systems involved in language (speech and gesture) and manual actions is still unclear. To date, investigations of human laterality focused mainly on non-communication functions. Although gestural laterality data have been published for infants and children, relatively little is known about laterality of human gestural communication. This study investigated human laterality in depth considering non-communication manipulation actions and various gesture types involving hands, feet, face and ears. We constructed an online laterality questionnaire including 60 items related to daily activities. We collected 317 594 item responses by 5904 randomly selected participants. The highest percentages of strong left-lateralized (6.76%) and strong right-lateralized participants (75.19%) were for manipulation actions. The highest percentages of mixed left-lateralized (12.30%) and ambidextrous (50.23%) participants were found for head-related gestures. The highest percentage of mixed right-lateralized participants (55.33%) was found for auditory gestures. Every behavioural category showed a significant population-level right-side bias. More precisely, participants were predominantly right-lateralized for non-communication manual actions, for visual iconic, visual symbolic, visual deictic (with and without speech), tactile and auditory manual gestures as well as for podial and head-related gestures. Our findings support previous studies reporting that humans have left-brain predominance for gestures and complex motor activities such as tool-use. Our study shows that the Rennes Laterality Questionnaire is a useful research instrument to assess and analyse human laterality for both manipulation and communication functions.

  13. Assessment and analysis of human laterality for manipulation and communication using the Rennes Laterality Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Barbu, Stéphanie; Blois-Heulin, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Despite significant scientific advances, the nature of the left-hemispheric systems involved in language (speech and gesture) and manual actions is still unclear. To date, investigations of human laterality focused mainly on non-communication functions. Although gestural laterality data have been published for infants and children, relatively little is known about laterality of human gestural communication. This study investigated human laterality in depth considering non-communication manipulation actions and various gesture types involving hands, feet, face and ears. We constructed an online laterality questionnaire including 60 items related to daily activities. We collected 317 594 item responses by 5904 randomly selected participants. The highest percentages of strong left-lateralized (6.76%) and strong right-lateralized participants (75.19%) were for manipulation actions. The highest percentages of mixed left-lateralized (12.30%) and ambidextrous (50.23%) participants were found for head-related gestures. The highest percentage of mixed right-lateralized participants (55.33%) was found for auditory gestures. Every behavioural category showed a significant population-level right-side bias. More precisely, participants were predominantly right-lateralized for non-communication manual actions, for visual iconic, visual symbolic, visual deictic (with and without speech), tactile and auditory manual gestures as well as for podial and head-related gestures. Our findings support previous studies reporting that humans have left-brain predominance for gestures and complex motor activities such as tool-use. Our study shows that the Rennes Laterality Questionnaire is a useful research instrument to assess and analyse human laterality for both manipulation and communication functions. PMID:28878966

  14. Parallel line scanning ophthalmoscope for retinal imaging.

    PubMed

    Vienola, Kari V; Damodaran, Mathi; Braaf, Boy; Vermeer, Koenraad A; de Boer, Johannes F

    2015-11-15

    A parallel line scanning ophthalmoscope (PLSO) is presented using a digital micromirror device (DMD) for parallel confocal line imaging of the retina. The posterior part of the eye is illuminated using up to seven parallel lines, which were projected at 100 Hz. The DMD offers a high degree of parallelism in illuminating the retina compared to traditional scanning laser ophthalmoscope systems utilizing scanning mirrors. The system operated at the shot-noise limit with a signal-to-noise ratio of 28 for an optical power measured at the cornea of 100 μW. To demonstrate the imaging capabilities of the system, the macula and the optic nerve head of a healthy volunteer were imaged. Confocal images show good contrast and lateral resolution with a 10°×10° field of view.

  15. The Development of Bone Mineral Lateralization in the Arms

    PubMed Central

    Siminoski, Kerry; Lee, Kwok-Choy; Abish, Sharon; Alos, Nathalie; Bell, Lorraine; Blydt-Hansen, Tom; Couch, Robert; Cummings, Elizabeth A.; Ellsworth, Janet; Feber, Janusz; Fernandez, Conrad V.; Halton, Jacqueline; Huber, Adam M.; Israels, Sara; Jurencak, Roman; Lang, Bianca; Laverdière, Caroline; LeBlanc., Claire; Lewis, Victor; Midgley, Julian; Miettunen, Paivi M.; Oen, Kiem; Phan, Veronique; Pinsk, Maury; Rauch, Frank; Rodd, Celia; Roth, Johannes; Saint-Cyr, Claire; Scuccimarri, Rosie; Stephure, David; Taback, Shayne; Wilson, Beverly; Ward, Leanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Bone mineral content (BMC) exhibits sidedness in the arms after the age of 8 years, but it is not known whether BMC is greater in the dominant arm from birth or whether lateralization develops in early childhood. To address this, we examined bone mineral status in relation to handedness and age. Methods Subjects (n = 158) were children recently initiating glucocorticoid for underlying disease (leukemia 43%, rheumatic conditions 39%, nephrotic syndrome 18%). Handedness was determined by questionnaire and BMC by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results Median age was 7.2 years (range, 1.5 to 17.0 years), 49% were male, and the spine BMD Z-score was −0.9 (SD, 1.3). By linear regression, BMC sidedness in the arms was significantly related to age (r = 0.294, p = 0.0005). Breakpoint analysis revealed two lines with a knot at 6.0 years (95% CI, 4.5–7.5 years). The formula for the first line was: dominant:nondominant arm BMC ratio = 0.029 × age [in years] + 0.850 (r = 0.323, p = 0.017). The slope of the second line was not different from 0 (p = 0.332), while the slopes for the two lines were significantly different (p = 0.027). Conclusions These results show that arm BMC sidedness in this patient group develops up to age six years and then remains stable into late adolescence. This temporal profile is consistent with mechanical stimulation of the skeleton in response to asymmetrical muscle use as handedness becomes manifest. PMID:22744715

  16. Evaluation of strain distribution in freestanding and buried lateral nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulyanenkov, A.; Darowski, N.; Grenzer, J.; Pietsch, U.; Wang, K. H.; Forchel, A.

    1999-12-01

    difference in the energy shift of the photoluminescence line between freestanding and overgrown lateral nanostructures.

  17. High energy beam lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetto, M.; Laxdal, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    The ISAC post accelerator comprises an RFQ, DTL and SC-linac. The high energy beam lines connect the linear accelerators as well as deliver the accelerated beams to two different experimental areas. The medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line connects the RFQ to the DTL. The high energy beam transport (HEBT) line connects the DTL to the ISAC-I experimental stations (DRAGON, TUDA-I, GPS). The DTL to superconducting beam (DSB) transport line connects the ISAC-I and ISAC-II linacs. The superconducting energy beam transport (SEBT) line connects the SC linac to the ISAC-II experimental station (TUDA-II, HERACLES, TIGRESS, EMMA and GPS). All these lines have the function of transporting and matching the beams to the downstream sections by manipulating the transverse and longitudinal phase space. They also contain diagnostic devices to measure the beam properties.

  18. Evaluation and management of lateral ankle injuries.

    PubMed

    Lee, M S; Hofbauer, M H

    1999-10-01

    The diagnosis and management of lateral ankle injuries require the physician to obtain an accurate history, complete a thorough physical examination, and institute appropriate treatment protocol. Labeling all acute lateral ankle injuries as ankle sprains can lead to long-term mechanical and functional instability and chronic pain around the ankle. Appropriate and aggressive functional rehabilitation of the acute ankle limits the postinjury convalescence and need for surgical reconstruction. If surgical repair of the chronic or acute ankle is warranted, the Brostrom-Gould procedure serves as a highly successful anatomic repair. Lateral ankle tenodesing procedures also are effective; however, in most cases, the loss of rearfoot motion limits this procedure to a secondary reconstructive procedure.

  19. The Lateral Instability of Deep Rectangular Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumont, C; Hill, H N

    1937-01-01

    Experimental and analytical studies were made of solid and hollow deep rectangular beams to study their lateral instability under various conditions of loading and restraint. The tests were made on bars and tubes of 17ST aluminum alloy. Failure by lateral buckling occurred only in tests on the solid beams. It was found that, within the elastic range, the test results were in agreement with the classical theory for the lateral buckling of deep beams as given by Prandtl, Mitchell, and Timoshenko. The tests were extended to the inelastic range, where it was found that the substitution for Young's modulus of an average modulus of elasticity derived from the stress-strain curve made it possible to predict instability at high stresses.

  20. Lateral force microscopy of multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Lievonen, J; Ahlskog, M

    2009-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes are usually imaged with the atomic force microscope (AFM) in non-contact mode. However, in many applications, such as mechanical manipulation or elasticity measurements, contact mode is used. The forces affecting the nanotube are then considerable and not fully understood. In this work lateral forces were measured during contact mode imaging with an AFM across a carbon nanotube. We found that, qualitatively, both magnitude and sign of the lateral forces to the AFM tip were independent of scan direction and can be concluded to arise from the tip slipping on the round edges of the nanotube. The dependence on the normal force applied to the tip and on the ratio between nanotube diameter and tip radius was studied. We show that for small values of this ratio, the lateral force signal can be explained with a simple geometrical model.

  1. Knee ligament injury during lateral impact.

    PubMed

    Hearon, B F; Brinkley, J W; Raddin, J H; Fleming, B W

    1985-01-01

    A volunteer woman subject incurred injury to her right knee consisting of a torn anterior cruciate ligament and stretched medial collateral ligament during a lateral (+Gy) impact test. Similar injury has not been reported in the English-language literature an accidental sideward automotive crashes or lateral impact experimentation involving humans. The primary mechanism which produced this injury was external tibial rotation on the femur with the knee flexed. The factors contributing to the injury included extraordinarily forceful leg bracing by the subject, her knee joint laxity or hypermobility, and the absence of side supports to limit lower extremity flailing during the impact response. In future lateral impact tests, women subjects should be used with caution and any subject with abnormal joint mobility should be excluded from participation.

  2. Lateral stress evolution in Chromium Sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petel, Oren; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth; Hameed, Amer; Capozzi, Alexander; Frost, David; Hazell, Paul

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the shock response of chromium sulfide, a cermet of potential interest as a matrix material for ballistic applications, has been investigated. Compacts with a Chromium:Sulfur ratio of 1.15:1 were investigated via the plate-impact technique. These experiments allowed the material to be loaded under a one-dimensional state of strain. Embedded manganin stress gauges were employed to monitor the temporal evolution of longitudinal and lateral components of stress. Comparison of these two components has allowed assessment of the variation of material shear strength both with impact pressure/strain-rate and time. Interestingly tentative evidence of what appeared to be an elastic-plastic transition was noted on the lateral traces, despite the absence of a lateral shock.

  3. Laterality, spatial abilities, and accident proneness.

    PubMed

    Voyer, Susan D; Voyer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Although handedness as a measure of cerebral specialization has been linked to accident proneness, more direct measures of laterality are rarely considered. The present study aimed to fill that gap in the existing research. In addition, individual difference factors in accident proneness were further examined with the inclusion of mental rotation and navigation abilities measures. One hundred and forty participants were asked to complete the Mental Rotations Test, the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction scale, the Greyscales task, the Fused Dichotic Word Test, the Waterloo Handedness Questionnaire, and a grip strength task before answering questions related to number of accidents in five areas. Results indicated that handedness scores, absolute visual laterality score, absolute response time on the auditory laterality index, and navigation ability were significant predictors of the total number of accidents. Results are discussed with respect to cerebral hemispheric specialization and risk-taking attitudes and behavior.

  4. Stress and laterality - The comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Korte, S Mechiel; Peterburs, Jutta; Wolf, Oliver T; Güntürkün, Onur

    2016-10-01

    Functional hemispheric asymmetries can vary over time and steroid hormones have been shown to be one of the factors that can modulate them. Research into this matter has mainly focused on sex steroid hormones (androgens, estrogens and progestogens), although there is increasing evidence that glucocorticoids which are related to the body's response to stress (e.g. cortisol or corticosterone) might also modulate functional hemispheric asymmetries. Here, we review studies in humans and non-human model species investigating the relation of stress and laterality. Results indicate a dual relationship of the two parameters. Both acute and chronic stress can affect different forms of lateralization in the human brain, often (but not always) resulting in greater involvement of the right hemisphere. Moreover, lateralization as a form of functional brain architecture can also represent a protective factor against adverse effects of stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Lateral ligament reconstruction procedures for the ankle.

    PubMed

    Tourné, Y; Mabit, C

    2017-02-01

    Capsule/ligament lesions of the lateral compartment of the ankle lead to lateral laxity, which is a prime contributor to chronic ankle instability. Lateral ligament reconstruction stabilizes the joint. Exhaustive preoperative clinical and paraclinical work-up is essential. The present article classifies, presents and criticizes the main techniques in terms of long-term stabilization and reduction of osteoarthritis risk. Anatomic ligament repair with reinforcement (mainly extensor retinaculum) or anatomic ligament reconstruction are the two recommended options. Non-anatomic reconstructions using the peroneus brevis should be abandoned. Arthroscopy is increasingly being developed, but results need assessment on longer follow-up than presently available. Postoperative neuromuscular reprogramming is fundamental to optimal recovery. Finally, the concept of complex ankle instability is discussed from the diagnostic and therapeutic points of view. The various forms of ligament reconstruction failure and corresponding treatments are reported.

  6. Autologous split peroneus longus lateral ankle stabilization.

    PubMed

    Budny, Adam M; Schuberth, John M

    2012-01-01

    Lateral ankle instability is a common clinical entity, and a variety of surgical procedures are available for stabilization after conservative management fails. Herein the authors reviewed outcomes after performing autologous split peroneus longus lateral ankle stabilization, using a previously described surgical technique to anatomically recreate the anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments. Twenty-five consecutive patients from 2 surgeons' practices underwent reconstruction between March 2007 and January 2011 with a minimum follow-up of 12 (range 12 to 51) months (mean 29.5 months). Follow-up interviews demonstrated 92.0% good or excellent outcomes with only 8.0% rating the outcome as fair and none as poor; 92.0% had no recurrent sprains or difficulty going up or down hills; 88.0% related no difficulty with uneven ground. The authors conclude that the autologous split peroneus longus lateral ankle stabilization results in a stable ankle with a low rate of complications and high patient satisfaction.

  7. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOEpatents

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  8. A review of modern management of lateral epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Steve B; Deren, Matthew E; Matson, Andrew P; Bruce, Benjamin; Green, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, or tennis elbow, is the most common cause of elbow pain. This degenerative condition can manifest as an acute process lasting < 3 months or a chronic process often refractory to treatment. Symptom resolution occurs in 70% to 80% of patients within the first year. A "watch-and-wait" approach can be an appropriate treatment option, although physical therapy has been shown to be an effective first-line therapy. Corticosteroids, while providing relief of pain in the acute setting, may be detrimental to recovery in the long term. Platelet-rich plasma injections, although recently well publicized, have not been proven by well-controlled clinical trials to be effective therapy. For patients with symptoms refractory to conservative management, surgical intervention has shown to be a successful treatment modality.

  9. Microstructure of laterally overgrown GaN layers

    SciTech Connect

    Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna; Cherns, David

    2001-04-03

    Transmission electron microscopy study of plan-view and cross-section samples of epitaxial laterally overgrown (ELOG) GaN samples is described. Two types of dislocation with the same type of Burgers vector but different line direction have been observed. It is shown that threading edge dislocations bend to form dislocation segments in the c-plane as a result of shear stresses developed in the wing material along the stripe direction. It is shown that migration of these dislocations involves both glide and climb. Propagation of threading parts over the wing area is an indication of high density of point defects present in the wing areas on the ELOG samples. This finding might shed new light on the optical properties of such samples.

  10. Covariant electromagnetic field lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadad, Y.; Cohen, E.; Kaminer, I.; Elitzur, A. C.

    2017-08-01

    Faraday introduced electric field lines as a powerful tool for understanding the electric force, and these field lines are still used today in classrooms and textbooks teaching the basics of electromagnetism within the electrostatic limit. However, despite attempts at generalizing this concept beyond the electrostatic limit, such a fully relativistic field line theory still appears to be missing. In this work, we propose such a theory and define covariant electromagnetic field lines that naturally extend electric field lines to relativistic systems and general electromagnetic fields. We derive a closed-form formula for the field lines curvature in the vicinity of a charge, and show that it is related to the world line of the charge. This demonstrates how the kinematics of a charge can be derived from the geometry of the electromagnetic field lines. Such a theory may also provide new tools in modeling and analyzing electromagnetic phenomena, and may entail new insights regarding long-standing problems such as radiation-reaction and self-force. In particular, the electromagnetic field lines curvature has the attractive property of being non-singular everywhere, thus eliminating all self-field singularities without using renormalization techniques.

  11. Lining in nasal reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Haack, Sebastian; Fischer, Helmut; Gubisch, Wolfgang

    2014-06-01

    Restoring nasal lining is one of the essential parts during reconstruction of full-thickness defects of the nose. Without a sufficient nasal lining the whole reconstruction will fail. Nasal lining has to sufficiently cover the shaping subsurface framework. But in addition, lining must not compromise or even block nasal ventilation. This article demonstrates different possibilities of lining reconstruction. The use of composite grafts for small rim defects is described. The limits and technical components for application of skin grafts are discussed. Then the advantages and limitations of endonasal, perinasal, and hingeover flaps are demonstrated. Strategies to restore lining with one or two forehead flaps are presented. Finally, the possibilities and technical aspects to reconstruct nasal lining with a forearm flap are demonstrated. Technical details are explained by intraoperative pictures. Clinical cases are shown to illustrate the different approaches and should help to understand the process of decision making. It is concluded that although the lining cannot be seen after reconstruction of the cover it remains one of the key components for nasal reconstruction. When dealing with full-thickness nasal defects, there is no way to avoid learning how to restore nasal lining.

  12. Lateral jet injection into swirling combustor flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilley, David G.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental program has been conducted to ascertain the effects of the number of lateral jets, the jet velocity ratio, and the crossflow swirl strength, on the isothermal flowfield patterns in jets injected normally to a round-section crossflow. Attention has been given to the trajectory, penetration, and mixing efficiency of the lateral injection, using flow visualization, pitot-probe and hot-wire methods. In addition, such predictive techniques as a simple, explicit, fully three-dimensional turbulent computer code have been employed.

  13. Bone suture and lateral sinus lift surgery.

    PubMed

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh

    2015-01-01

    Bone suture in lateral sinus lift has four indications. Three of them depend on creating a hole in the lateral maxillary sinus wall above the antrostomy window for securing the elevated medial maxillary sinus membrane to manage perforated Schneiderian membrane. Covering the buccal antrostomy window with the buccal fat pad (BFP) for better nourishment of the inserted graft and as an alternative for bone tags in fixation of collagen membrane has been reported previously. A new indication for firmly anchoring the BFP to the medial maxillary sinus wall as the last resort for the management of perforated Schneiderian membrane is explained in this article.

  14. Psychiatric disorders prior to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Goldacre, Raph; Talbot, Kevin; Goldacre, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    It is recognized that neuropsychiatric conditions are overrepresented in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patient kindreds and psychiatric symptoms may precede the onset of motor symptoms. Using a hospital record linkage database, hospitalization with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, or anxiety was significantly associated with a first diagnosis of ALS within the following year. This is likely to specifically reflect the clinicopathological overlap of ALS with frontotemporal dementia. A diagnosis of depression was significantly associated with a first record of ALS ≥5 years later, in keeping with growing evidence for major depressive disorder as an early marker of cerebral neurodegeneration. Ann Neurol 2016;80:935–938 PMID:27761925

  15. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Historical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Katz, Jonathan S; Dimachkie, Mazen M; Barohn, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    This article looks back in time to see where the foundational basis for the understanding of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis originated. This foundation was created primarily in France by Jean-Martin Charcot and his fellow countrymen and disciples, along with key contributions from early clinicians in England and Germany. The early work on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis provides a useful foundation for today's clinicians with respect to tying together genetic and biologic aspects of the disorder that have been discovered over the past few decades. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Lateral chest X-rays. Radiographic anatomy].

    PubMed

    García Villafañe, C; Pedrosa, C S

    2014-01-01

    Lateral chest views constitute an essential part of chest X-ray examinations, so it is fundamental to know the anatomy on these images and to be able to detect the variations manifested on these images in different diseases. The aim of this article is to review the normal anatomy and main normal variants seen on lateral chest views. For teaching purposes, we divide the thorax into different spaces and analyze each in an orderly way, especially emphasizing the anatomic details that are most helpful for locating lesions that have already been detected in the posteroanterior view or for detecting lesions that can be missed in the posteroanterior view.

  17. Lateralized processing of false memories and pseudoneglect in aging.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Rémy; Dehon, Hedwige; Peigneux, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    Aging is associated with higher propensity to false memories and decreased retrieval of previously studied items. When young adults (YA) perform on a lateralized version of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, the right cerebral hemisphere (RH) is more sensitive than the left (LH) to false memories, suggesting hemispheric imbalance in the cerebral mechanisms supporting semantic and episodic memory processes. Since cerebral asymmetries tend to be reduced with age, we surmised that behavioral asymmetries in the generation of false memories would be diminished with aging. To probe this hypothesis, a lateralized version of the DRM paradigm was administered to healthy older adults (OA) and YA. During the encoding phase, lists of semantically associated words were memorized. During the retrieval session, targets (previously seen words), lures (LU) (never seen strongly semantically related words) and distracters (never seen, unrelated words) were briefly displayed either in the left or right visual fields, thus primarily stimulating the RH or LH, respectively. Participants had to decide whether the word was previously studied (Old/New), but also whether they had a strong episodic recollection (Remember) or a mere feeling of familiarity (Know) about Old words. In line with our predictions, false memories were globally higher in OA than YA, and vivid false recollections (i.e., Remember responses) were higher when LU were presented in the RH in YA, but not in OA. Additionally, we found significant correlations between YA participants' Familiarity scores and leftward attentional bias as previously evidenced using a visuospatial landmark task (Schmitz and Peigneux, 2011), an effect not present in OA. This result is in line with the hypothesis of an interplay between attentional resources allocated to visuospatial and memory processes, suggesting a memory pseudoneglect phenomenon that would be altered with aging.

  18. Immigrants' initial steps in Germany and their later economic success.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Irena; Weißmann, Markus

    2013-09-01

    In line with the emerging research that acknowledges the importance of the process character of immigrants' labour market integration, this paper examines the existence of path dependencies of early employment trajectories on later labour market outcomes. Theoretically we are interested in establishing whether career trajectories provide a distinct signal, used by both employers and employees: a signal that operates apart and beyond the accumulation of host-country relevant resources, especially, host-country labour market experience or training. The analyses are performed with the help of a unique dataset comprised of recent immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Germany. Sequence analysis techniques and multivariate regressions are applied. Results show that starting in higher-status employment leaves a distinguishable imprint on immigrants' later occupational standings, even after the returns to the skills associated with early trajectories are taken into account. At the same time, initial career trajectories do not have any direct effect on wages, apart from the pay-off to relevant skills acquired while pursuing these careers. The findings are discussed in concurrence with the human capital and signalling theories.

  19. Right lateral mini-thoracotomy for mitral valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Reser, Diana; Holubec, Tomas; Yilmaz, Murat; Guidotti, Andrea; Maisano, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990 s, minimally invasive cardiac surgery has gained wide acceptance due to patient and economic demand. The advantages are less trauma, less bleeding, less wound infections, less pain and faster recovery. Many studies showed that the outcomes are comparable with those of conventional sternotomy. Right lateral mini-thoracotomy evolved into a routine and safe access in specialized centres for minimally invasive mitral valve surgery. The 6-cm incision is performed over the fifth intercostal space in the inframammary groove. With a double-lumen tube, the right lung is deflated before entering the pleural cavity. A soft tissue retractor is used to minimize rib spreading. The stab incisions for the endoscopic camera and the transthoracic clamp are performed in the right anterior and posterior axillary line in the third intercostal space. Surgery on the mitral valve is performed in a standard fashion under a direct vision with video assistance. One chest tube is inserted. The intercostal space is adapted with braided sutures to prevent lung herniation. Ropivacaine is used for local infiltration. The pectoral muscle, subcutaneous tissue and skin are adapted with running sutures. Complications of a right lateral mini-thoracotomy are rare (conversion to sternotomy, rethoracotomy, phrenic nerve palsy, wound infection and thoracic wall hernia) and well manageable. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  20. Cholesterol granuloma of the lateral ventricle. Case report.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Peter M; Ellis, Michael J; Cummings, Thomas J; Gray, Linda L; Fukushima, Takanori; Sampson, John H

    2008-02-01

    Cholesterol granulomas (CGs) are benign lesions resulting from an inflammatory reaction to cholesterol and hemosiderin. These masses most often arise within the temporal bone or nasal sinuses; intracerebral CGs are extremely rare. In this report the authors present an unusual case of a CG arising within the lateral ventricle. The patient presented with transient hemiparesis and numbness. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a cystic partially enhancing midline mass within the right lateral ventricle, expanding the ventricle and displacing the septum pellucidum. The patient underwent an interhemispheric, transcallosal resection of the lesion. Microscopic examination revealed a granulomatous inflammatory lesion containing cholesterol clefts, macrophages, and hemosiderin. Embedded within the granulomatous response were foci of tiny cystlike structures lined by nonciliated flattened cuboidal epithelium, consistent with the diagnosis of CG. To the authors' knowledge this is the first reported case of CG presenting as an intraventricular mass. The origin of this lesion is unclear, but it may relate to prior traumatic brain injury. The authors describe the presentation, imaging findings, histopathological characteristics, and surgical treatment of this rare lesion and related pathological entities.

  1. Laterally inherently thin amorphous-crystalline silicon heterojunction photovoltaic cell

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, Zahidur R. Kherani, Nazir P.

    2014-12-29

    This article reports on an amorphous-crystalline silicon heterojunction photovoltaic cell concept wherein the heterojunction regions are laterally narrow and distributed amidst a backdrop of well-passivated crystalline silicon surface. The localized amorphous-crystalline silicon heterojunctions consisting of the laterally thin emitter and back-surface field regions are precisely aligned under the metal grid-lines and bus-bars while the remaining crystalline silicon surface is passivated using the recently proposed facile grown native oxide–plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposited silicon nitride passivation scheme. The proposed cell concept mitigates parasitic optical absorption losses by relegating amorphous silicon to beneath the shadowed metallized regions and by using optically transparent passivation layer. A photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 13.6% is obtained for an untextured proof-of-concept cell illuminated under AM 1.5 global spectrum; the specific cell performance parameters are V{sub OC} of 666 mV, J{sub SC} of 29.5 mA-cm{sup −2}, and fill-factor of 69.3%. Reduced parasitic absorption, predominantly in the shorter wavelength range, is confirmed with external quantum efficiency measurement.

  2. Laterally inherently thin amorphous-crystalline silicon heterojunction photovoltaic cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Zahidur R.; Kherani, Nazir P.

    2014-12-01

    This article reports on an amorphous-crystalline silicon heterojunction photovoltaic cell concept wherein the heterojunction regions are laterally narrow and distributed amidst a backdrop of well-passivated crystalline silicon surface. The localized amorphous-crystalline silicon heterojunctions consisting of the laterally thin emitter and back-surface field regions are precisely aligned under the metal grid-lines and bus-bars while the remaining crystalline silicon surface is passivated using the recently proposed facile grown native oxide-plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposited silicon nitride passivation scheme. The proposed cell concept mitigates parasitic optical absorption losses by relegating amorphous silicon to beneath the shadowed metallized regions and by using optically transparent passivation layer. A photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 13.6% is obtained for an untextured proof-of-concept cell illuminated under AM 1.5 global spectrum; the specific cell performance parameters are VOC of 666 mV, JSC of 29.5 mA-cm-2, and fill-factor of 69.3%. Reduced parasitic absorption, predominantly in the shorter wavelength range, is confirmed with external quantum efficiency measurement.

  3. Collaboration enhances later individual memory for emotional material.

    PubMed

    Bärthel, Gwennis A; Wessel, Ineke; Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Verwoerd, Johan

    2017-05-01

    Research on collaborative remembering suggests that collaboration hampers group memory (i.e., collaborative inhibition), yet enhances later individual memory. Studies examining collaborative effects on memory for emotional stimuli are scarce, especially concerning later individual memory. In the present study, female undergraduates watched an emotional movie and recalled it either collaboratively (n = 60) or individually (n = 60), followed by an individual free recall test and a recognition test. We replicated the standard collaborative inhibition effect. Further, in line with the literature, the collaborative condition displayed better post-collaborative individual memory. More importantly, in post-collaborative free recall, the centrality of the information to the movie plot did not play an important role. Recognition rendered slightly different results. Although collaboration rendered more correct recognition for more central details, it did not enhance recognition of background details. Secondly, the collaborative and individual conditions did not differ with respect to overlap of unique correct items in free recall. Yet, during recognition former collaborators more unanimously endorsed correct answers, as well as errors. Finally, extraversion, neuroticism, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms did not moderate the influence of collaboration on memory. Implications for the fields of forensic and clinical psychology are discussed.

  4. The Assessment of Cerebral Laterality: The Sherman-Kulhavy Laterality Assessment Inventory. Technical Report No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Jay L.; Kulhavy, Raymond W.

    The Sherman-Kulhavy Laterality Assessment Inventory (LAI), an instrument for determining cerebral laterality, was administered to 1,000 undergraduates to determine the ability of the LAI to discriminate between right- and left-dominant groups. Each S was administered the LAI, a 45-item verbal report instrument which assesses both fine and gross…

  5. Schizotypal personality traits and atypical lateralization in motor and language functions.

    PubMed

    Asai, Tomohisa; Sugimori, Eriko; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2009-10-01

    Atypical cerebral lateralization in motor and language functions in regard to schizotypal personality traits in healthy populations, as well as among schizophrenic patients, has attracted attention because these traits may represent a risk factor for schizophrenia. Although the relationship between handedness and schizotypal personality has been widely examined, few studies have adopted an experimental approach. This study consisted of three experiments focusing on motor and language functional lateralization in regard to schizotypal personality in the absence of mental illness: line-drawing, finger tapping, and a semantic go/no-go task. The results suggested that positive schizotypal personality might be related to functional non-lateralization in regard to at least some functions (e.g., spatial motor control and semantic processing in the present study). Subjects with high schizotypal personality traits performed equally with their right and left-hands in the line-drawing task and they reacted equally with their right and left-hands in a semantic go/no-go task involving semantic auditory stimuli presented in both ears. However, those low in schizotypal personality traits showed typical lateralization in response to these tasks. We discuss the implications of these findings for schizotypal atypical lateralization.

  6. Laterality and directionality--optometric clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Suchoff, I B

    1978-01-01

    Five rationales for the optometric evaluation of laterality and directionality are identified in this paper. These include an application of particular studies in the infant's vision literature along with theories of Hershenson, Piaget, Gesell and Kephart and the phenomenon of reversal confusion frequently associated with learning-disabled children. Selected optometric testing procedures are viewed in the context of these rationales.

  7. Modeling lateral acceleration effects on pilot performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korn, J.; Kleinan, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Attendant to the direct side force maneuver of a Vectored Force Fighter is the transverse acceleration imposed on the pilot. This lateral acceleration (Gy), when combind with a positive Gz stress, is a potential source of pilot tracking performance impairment. A research effort to investigate these performance decrements includes experimental as well as anaytical pilot performance modeling using the Optimal Control Model.

  8. The Columbine Tragedy Ten Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Some tragedies are so emblazoned in people's minds that years later they can recall where they were when they first heard the news. The assassinations of John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr., the Challenger explosion, and the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks are among these events. So also is the Columbine High School tragedy of April 20, 1999.…

  9. Laparoscopic versus open left lateral segmentectomy

    PubMed Central

    Carswell, Kirstin A; Sagias, Filippos G; Murgatroyd, Beth; Rela, Mohamed; Heaton, Nigel; Patel, Ameet G

    2009-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic liver surgery is becoming increasingly common. This cohort study was designed to directly compare perioperative outcomes of the left lateral segmentectomy via laparoscopic and open approach. Methods Between 2002 and 2006 43 left lateral segmentectomies were performed at King's College Hospital. Those excluded from analysis included previous liver resections, polycystic liver disease, liver cirrhosis and synchronous operations. Of 20 patients analysed, laparoscopic (n = 10) were compared with open left lateral segmentectomy (n = 10). Both groups had similar patient characteristics. Results Morbidity rates were similar with no wound or chest infection in either group. The conversion rate was 10% (1/10). There was no difference in operating time between the groups (median time 220 minutes versus 179 minutes, p = 0.315). Surgical margins for all lesions were clear. Less postoperative opiate analgesics were required in the laparoscopic group (median 2 days versus 5 days, p = 0.005). The median postoperative in-hospital stay was less in the laparoscopic group (6 days vs 9 days, p = 0.005). There was no mortality. Conclusion Laparoscopic left lateral segmentectomy is safe and feasible. Laparoscopic patients may benefit from requiring less postoperative opiate analgesia and a shorter post-operative in-hospital stay. PMID:19735573

  10. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    PubMed

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum.

  11. Cerebral Lateralization and Its Effect on Drawing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Yvonne A.; Thomas, Stephen B.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the importance of both sides of the brain for the development of drawing skills but notes that the left brain can inhibit the action of the right brain. Provides a discussion of cerebral lateralization and child development. Suggests five drawing exercises to help develop hemispheric cooperation. (SB)

  12. Profiling 1366 Technologies: One Year Later

    SciTech Connect

    Van Mierlo, Frank; Sachs, Ely

    2011-01-01

    Last January, we took a look at how ARPA-E performer, 1366 Technologies is working to dramatically reduce the cost of solar energy. A year later, we revisited their headquarters in Lexington, MA to see the progress they've made.

  13. One hand clapping: lateralization of motor control

    PubMed Central

    Welniarz, Quentin; Dusart, Isabelle; Gallea, Cécile; Roze, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Lateralization of motor control refers to the ability to produce pure unilateral or asymmetric movements. It is required for a variety of coordinated activities, including skilled bimanual tasks and locomotion. Here we discuss the neuroanatomical substrates and pathophysiological underpinnings of lateralized motor outputs. Significant breakthroughs have been made in the past few years by studying the two known conditions characterized by the inability to properly produce unilateral or asymmetric movements, namely human patients with congenital “mirror movements” and model rodents with a “hopping gait”. Whereas mirror movements are associated with altered interhemispheric connectivity and abnormal corticospinal projections, abnormal spinal cord interneurons trajectory is responsible for the “hopping gait”. Proper commissural axon guidance is a critical requirement for these mechanisms. Interestingly, the analysis of these two conditions reveals that the production of asymmetric movements involves similar anatomical and functional requirements but in two different structures: (i) lateralized activation of the brain or spinal cord through contralateral silencing by cross-midline inhibition; and (ii) unilateral transmission of this activation, resulting in lateralized motor output. PMID:26082690

  14. Lateralized Temporal Order Judgement in Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Jackson, Georgina M.; Rorden, Chris; Jackson, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    Temporal and spatial attentional deficits in dyslexia were investigated using a lateralized visual temporal order judgment (TOJ) paradigm that allowed both sensitivity to temporal order and spatial attentional bias to be measured. Findings indicate that adult participants with a positive screen for dyslexia were significantly less sensitive to the…

  15. Defining Mental Health in Later Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qualls, Sara Honn

    2002-01-01

    Traditional models for defining mental health have used statistical definitions and symptom-based definitions. In a lifespan psychological approach, mental health in later life is defined as acceptance of the aging self as an active being who creates meaning, maintains maximum autonomy, and sustains positive relationships. (Contains 12…

  16. Preparing Future Faculty: Ten Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Sean P.; Aiossa, Elizabeth; Winter, Mary Mugica

    2010-01-01

    When Sean Murphy designed the Graduate Student Internship Program at the College of Lake County (CLC), his 2001 TETYC article about the then two-year-old program detailed his programmatic response to the job market. Ten years later, the CLC-DePaul University partnership remains the strongest of the original dozen cross-sector relationships CLC…

  17. Control augmentation for lateral control wheel steering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foulkes, R. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Flight control system design for lateral control wheel steering is discussed. Two alternate designs are presented. The first design is a roll-rate command, bank-angle hold system with a wings-level track-hold submode. The second is a curved-track-hold system. Design details and real-time flight simulator results are included.

  18. Cerebral Lateralization and Its Effect on Drawing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Yvonne A.; Thomas, Stephen B.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the importance of both sides of the brain for the development of drawing skills but notes that the left brain can inhibit the action of the right brain. Provides a discussion of cerebral lateralization and child development. Suggests five drawing exercises to help develop hemispheric cooperation. (SB)

  19. Religious Attendance and Loneliness in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rote, Sunshine; Hill, Terrence D.; Ellison, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Studies show that loneliness is a major risk factor for health issues in later life. Although research suggests that religious involvement can protect against loneliness, explanations for this general pattern are underdeveloped and undertested. In this paper, we propose and test a theoretical model, which suggests that social…

  20. Lateral positioning for critically ill adult patients.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Nicky; Bucknall, Tracey; Faraone, Nardene M

    2016-05-12

    Critically ill patients require regular body position changes to minimize the adverse effects of bed rest, inactivity and immobilization. However, uncertainty surrounds the effectiveness of lateral positioning for improving pulmonary gas exchange, aiding drainage of tracheobronchial secretions and preventing morbidity. In addition, it is unclear whether the perceived risk levied by respiratory and haemodynamic instability upon turning critically ill patients outweighs the respiratory benefits of side-to-side rotation. Thus, lack of certainty may contribute to variation in positioning practice and equivocal patient outcomes. To evaluate effects of the lateral position compared with other body positions on patient outcomes (mortality, morbidity and clinical adverse events) in critically ill adult patients. (Clinical adverse events include hypoxaemia, hypotension, low oxygen delivery and global indicators of impaired tissue oxygenation.) We examined single use of the lateral position (i.e. on the right or left side) and repeat use of the lateral position (i.e. lateral positioning) within a positioning schedule. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 5), MEDLINE (1950 to 23 May 2015), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1937 to 23 May 2015), the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) (1984 to 23 May 2015), Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (1901 to 23 May 2015), Web of Science (1945 to 23 May 2015), Index to Theses in Great Britain and Ireland (1950 to 23 May 2015), Trove (2009 to 23 May 2015; previously Australasian Digital Theses Program (1997 to December 2008)) and Proquest Dissertations and Theses (2009 to 23 May 2015; previously Proquest Digital Dissertations (1980 to 23 May 2015)). We handsearched the reference lists of potentially relevant reports and two nursing journals. We included randomized and quasi-randomized trials examining effects of

  1. Parameter Estimation of Lateral Spacecraft Fuel Slosh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudermann, James E.; Schlee, Keith L.

    2008-01-01

    Predicting the effect of fuel slosh on the attitude control system of a spacecraft or launch vehicle is a very important and challenging task. Whether the spacecraft is spinning or moving laterally, the dynamic effect of the fuel slosh helps determine whether the spacecraft will remain on its intended trajectory. Three categories of slosh can be caused by launch vehicle or spacecraft maneuvers when the fuel is in the presence of an acceleration field. These are bulk-fluid motion, subsurface wave motion (currents), and free-surface slosh. Each of these slosh types has a periodic component defined by either a spinning or a lateral motion. For spinning spacecraft, all three types of slosh can greatly affect stability. Bulk-fluid motion and free-surface slosh can affect the lateral-slosh characteristics. For either condition, an unpredicted coupled resonance between the spacecraft and its onboard fuel could threaten a mission. This ongoing research effort seeks to improve the accuracy and efficiency of modeling techniques used to predict these types of fluid motions for lateral motion. Particular efforts focus on analyzing the effects of viscoelastic diaphragms on slosh dynamics.

  2. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Lateral marks define the port and starboard sides of a route to be followed. They may be either beacons or.... Beacons have green square daymarks, while buoys are green can or pillar buoys. (2) Starboard hand marks indicate the right side of channels when proceeding in the Conventional Direction of Buoyage. Beacons have...

  3. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Lateral marks define the port and starboard sides of a route to be followed. They may be either beacons or.... Beacons have green square daymarks, while buoys are green can or pillar buoys. (2) Starboard hand marks indicate the right side of channels when proceeding in the Conventional Direction of Buoyage. Beacons have...

  4. Piston measurement by quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry.

    PubMed

    Mousset, Soazic; Rouyer, Claude; Marre, Gabrielle; Blanchot, Nathalie; Montant, Sébastien; Wattellier, Benoit

    2006-09-01

    We present what is to our knowledge a new method for measuring the relative piston between two independent beams separated by a physical gap, typical of petawatt facilities. The feasibility of this measurement, based on quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry, has been demonstrated experimentally: piston has been measured with accuracy and sensitivity better than 50 nm.

  5. Lateral Eye Movement Behavior in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Cecil R.; Kaufman, Alan S.

    1980-01-01

    The conjugate lateral eye movement phenomenon was investigated for 52 children aged 2 through 10 using both spatial and verbal-analytic questions. The phenomenon was observed in 50 subjects and appeared well-established by age 3 1/2. Some interesting developmental findings and discrepancies with the results of adult studies are noted. (Author/SJL)

  6. Biphasic cell responses on laterally mobile films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourouklis, Andreas; Lerum, Ronald; Bermudez, Harry

    2013-03-01

    The engineering of polymer surfaces or matrices that are capable of controlling cell adhesion has been widely explored. In nearly all of these works, the polymer chains (and ligands) are chemically attached to the underlying substrate, and therefore these systems are inherently static. By contrast, cellular environments such as the extracellular matrix (ECM) are dynamic and remodeled by biochemical reactions and biophysical forces. Borrowing this concept from Nature, we created polymer films by an interfacial self-assembly process, whereby individual chains can exhibit lateral mobility (in-plane diffusive motion). NIH 3T3 fibroblasts seeded on such RGD-presenting polymer films show biphasic responses in spreading and adhesion strength to lateral mobility, with a minimal response for intermediate mobility values. Futhermore, preliminary immuno-staining experiments reveal that the total area of focal adhesions demonstrates a similar biphasic trend to the cellular-scale behaviors. In contrast, actin filaments or stress fibers appear to be unaffected by the substrate lateral mobility. These results show that lateral mobility is an important, although not fully explored aspect of mechano-sensing by cells, and can potentially give new perspectives on cell-ECM interactions. National Science Foundation

  7. The potential lateral growth of lithalsas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pissart, Albert; Calmels, Fabrice; Wastiaux, Cécile

    2011-03-01

    The lithalsas in the Hudson Bay region of northern Québec, Canada, are the closest modern analogs of ancient features that collapsed to form conspicuous circular depressions ("viviers") common in the Hautes-Fagnes, a region in Belgium. Observations made in both regions are complementary and suggest that these mounds formed by frost heaving displacing soil not only upward, as previously assumed, but also laterally. This lateral displacement is consistent with diverse observations and inferences, which include (1) the simple rounded outline, either circular or oval, typical of both active and relic lithalsas; (2) evidence of local lateral extension inferred from exposures of the relic forms; (3) the relative inefficiency of solifluction in accumulating surface material to form the peripheral ramparts of remnant lithalsas due to the very gentle slopes of the mounds; and (4) the dip of ice lenses within a lithalsa in the Hudson Bay region, perhaps indicating that the freezing front dipped outward along its periphery. The growth of segregation ice is the primary driver for the vertical growth and lateral enlargement of a lithalsa.

  8. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: the role of exercise.

    PubMed

    Lisle, Stuart; Tennison, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting both the upper and lower motor neurons. Given the deterioration of skeletal muscle function, historically there has been concern regarding exercise and its affect on ALS. This article reviews and explains current research, helping patients, caregivers, and providers be equipped better to make decisions regarding the treatment of ALS with exercise.

  9. Clinical Psychology and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Pagnini, Francesco; Rossi, Gabriella; Lunetta, Christian; Banfi, Paolo; Corbo, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal and progressive disease, characterized by progressive muscles weakness, with consequent loss of physical capacities. Psychologists can play an important role in ALS care, by providing clinical activities in every step of the disease, including support and counseling activities directed to patients, their caregivers and to physicians. PMID:21833203

  10. Lateral Biases in Assumptions of Lighting Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Lorin J.; Robinson, Brent M.

    2005-01-01

    People presume that the light source in pictures comes from above, and there is some evidence that this phenomenon also demonstrates lateral biases. When investigators present multiple ambiguous stimuli or visually complex objects, people assume that the source of light is from above, and to the left. However, when single relatively simple stimuli…

  11. The Columbine Tragedy Ten Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Some tragedies are so emblazoned in people's minds that years later they can recall where they were when they first heard the news. The assassinations of John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr., the Challenger explosion, and the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks are among these events. So also is the Columbine High School tragedy of April 20, 1999.…

  12. Imaging appearances of lateral ankle ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chien, Alexander J; Jacobson, Jon A; Jamadar, David A; Brigido, Monica Kalume; Femino, John E; Hayes, Curtis W

    2004-01-01

    Six patients were retrospectively identified as having undergone lateral ligament reconstruction surgery. The surgical procedures were categorized into four groups: direct lateral ligament repair, peroneus brevis tendon rerouting, peroneus brevis tendon loop, and peroneus brevis tendon split and rerouting. At radiography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the presence of one or more suture anchors in the region of the anterior talofibular ligament indicates direct ligament repair, whereas a fibular tunnel indicates peroneus brevis tendon rerouting or loop. Both ultrasonography (US) and MR imaging demonstrate rerouted tendons as part of lateral ankle reconstruction; however, MR imaging can also depict the rerouted tendon within an osseous tunnel if present, especially if T1-weighted sequences are used. Artifact from suture material may obscure the tendon at MR imaging but not at US. With both modalities, the integrity of the rerouted peroneus brevis tendon is best evaluated by following the tendon proximally from its distal attachment site, which typically remains unchanged. The rerouted tendon or portion of the tendon can then be traced proximally to its reattachment site. Familiarity with the surgical procedures most commonly used for lateral ankle ligament reconstruction, and with the imaging features of these procedures, is essential for avoiding diagnostic pitfalls and ensuring accurate assessment of the ligament reconstruction.

  13. Cerebral Lateralities and Individualized Instruction. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federico, Pat-Anthony

    To ascertain whether cerebral lateralities can be considered aptitudes or individual difference measures within an aptitude-treatment-interaction (ATI) framework, hemispheric asymmetries and cognitive psychometric tests were administered to 50 right-handed, Caucasian, male Navy recruits. Principal factor analysis with varimax rotation was computed…

  14. Lateral drug diffusion in human nails.

    PubMed

    Palliyil, Biji B; Li, Cong; Owaisat, Suzan; Lebo, David B

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of the current work is to demonstrate the process of passive lateral diffusion in the human nail plate and its effect on the passive transungual permeation of antifungal drug ciclopirox olamine (CPO). A water soluble dye, methyl red sodium salt (MR) was used to visualize the process of lateral diffusion using a novel suspended nail experiment. The decline in concentration of CPO correlates with that of concentration of MR from the proximal to the distal end of the nail in suspended nail study. Three toenails each were trimmed to 5 mm × 5 mm (25 mm(2)), 7 mm × 7 mm (49 mm(2)), and 9 mm × 9 mm (81 mm(2)) to study the extent and effect of lateral diffusion of the CPO on its in vitro transungual permeation. The permeation flux of CPO decreased as the surface area of the toenail increased. There was a positive correlation between the concentrations of CPO and MR in the area of application and in the peripheral area of the toenails of the three surface areas, confirming the findings in the suspended nail experiment. Profound lateral diffusion of CPO was demonstrated and shown to reduce the in vitro passive transungual drug permeation and prolong the lag-time in human toenails. The study data implies that during passive in vitro transungual permeation experiments, the peripheral nail around the area of drug application has to be kept to a minimum, in order to get reliable data which mimics the in vivo situation.

  15. Laterality, Implicit Memory, and Attention Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Geraldine A.; Brown, Geoffrey

    1991-01-01

    Presents study showing children with behaviors characteristic of attention disorder/hyperactivity deficit and high intelligence have more mixed laterality and allergies. Finds these children gather and use more diverse nonverbal and poorly focused information. Concludes such children use uncommon information when exhibiting novelty in nonverbal…

  16. iPS Cells 10 Years Later.

    PubMed

    2016-09-08

    In 2006, Takahashi and Yamanaka reported the breakthrough discovery of induction of pluripotent stem cells from fibroblasts by a combination of defined factors. Ten years later, Cell editor João Monteiro brings together Shinya Yamanaka and Hans Schöler, one the original reviewers of the landmark study, to revisit the history behind the paper and its long-lasting legacy.

  17. Profiling 1366 Technologies: One Year Later

    ScienceCinema

    Van Mierlo, Frank; Sachs, Ely

    2016-07-12

    Last January, we took a look at how ARPA-E performer, 1366 Technologies is working to dramatically reduce the cost of solar energy. A year later, we revisited their headquarters in Lexington, MA to see the progress they've made.

  18. Adolescent Sexual Debut and Later Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, Stacy; Haynie, Dana L.

    2007-01-01

    Does sexual debut (i.e., experiencing sexual intercourse for the first time) increase the risks of participating in later delinquent behavior? Does this risk increase if adolescents experience early sexual debut relative to the timing experienced by one's peers? Although many factors have been linked to sexual debut, little research has examined…

  19. Depression in Later Life: Recognition and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmall, Vicki L.; And Others

    This guide is designed to help readers understand depression and factors related to its onset in later life; recognize signs of depression and potential suicide; and know actions they can take if they suspect an older family member or friend may be depressed or contemplating suicide. Following a brief introduction, a chapter on depression…

  20. Lateral Hip Pain in an Athletic Population

    PubMed Central

    Grumet, Robert C.; Frank, Rachel M.; Slabaugh, Mark A.; Virkus, Walter W.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Nho, Shane J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Historically, the term greater trochanteric pain syndrome has been used to describe a spectrum of conditions that cause lateral-sided hip pain, including greater trochanteric bursitis, snapping iliotibial band, and/or strains or tendinopathy of the abductor mechanism. Diagnosis of these conditions may be difficult because clinical presentations are variable and sometimes inconclusive. Especially difficult is differentiating intrinsic pain from pain referred to the greater trochanteric region. The purposes of this article are to review the relevant anatomy and pathophysiology of the lateral hip. Evidence Acquisition: Data were collected through a thorough review of the literature conducted through a MEDLINE search of all relevant papers between 1980 and January 2010. Results: Recent advances in imaging and an improved understanding of pathomechanics have helped to guide the evaluation, diagnosis, and appropriate treatment for patients presenting with lateral hip pain. Conclusion: Various diagnostic tools and treatment modalities can be used to effectively manage the athletic patient presenting with lateral hip pain. PMID:23015937