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Sample records for lateral magma intrusion

  1. Deep intrusions, lateral magma transport and related uplift at ocean island volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klügel, Andreas; Longpré, Marc-Antoine; García-Cañada, Laura; Stix, John

    2015-12-01

    Oceanic intraplate volcanoes grow by accumulation of erupted material as well as by coeval or discrete magmatic intrusions. Dykes and other intrusive bodies within volcanic edifices are comparatively well studied, but intrusive processes deep beneath the volcanoes remain elusive. Although there is geological evidence for deep magmatic intrusions contributing to volcano growth through uplift, this has rarely been demonstrated by real-time monitoring. Here we use geophysical and petrological data from El Hierro, Canary Islands, to show that intrusions from the mantle and subhorizontal transport of magma within the oceanic crust result in rapid endogenous island growth. Seismicity and ground deformation associated with a submarine eruption in 2011-2012 reveal deep subhorizontal intrusive sheets (sills), which have caused island-scale uplift of tens of centimetres. The pre-eruptive intrusions migrated 15-20 km laterally within the lower oceanic crust, opening pathways that were subsequently used by the erupted magmas to ascend from the mantle to the surface. During six post-eruptive episodes between 2012 and 2014, further sill intrusions into the lower crust and upper mantle have caused magma to migrate up to 20 km laterally, resulting in magma accumulation exceeding that of the pre-eruptive phase. A comparison of geobarometric data for the 2011-2012 El Hierro eruption with data for other Atlantic intraplate volcanoes shows similar bimodal pressure distributions, suggesting that eruptive phases are commonly accompanied by deep intrusions of sills and lateral magma transport. These processes add significant material to the oceanic crust, cause uplift, and are thus fundamentally important for the growth and evolution of volcanic islands. We suggest that the development of such a magma accumulation zone in the lower oceanic crust begins early during volcano evolution, and is a consequence of increasing size and complexity of the mantle reservoir system, and potentially

  2. Magma mixing in a zoned alkalic intrusion

    SciTech Connect

    Price, J.G.; Henry, C.D.; Barker, D.S.; Rubin, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    The Marble Canyon stock is unique among the alkalic intrusions of the Trans-Pecos magmatic province in being zoned from a critically silica-undersaturated rim of alkali gabbro (AG) to a silica-oversaturated core of quartz syenite (QS). Hybrid rocks of intermediate chemical and mineralogical compositions occur between the rim and core. Nepheline-syenite dikes occur only within the AG. Silica-rich dikes of quartz trachyte, pegmatite, and aplite cut the AG, QS, and hybrid rocks. Thermodynamic calculations of silica activity in the magmas illustrate the presence of two trends with decreasing temperature: a silica-poor trend from AG to nepheline syenite and a silica-rich trend from hybrid rocks to QS. Least-square modeling of rock and mineral compositions suggests 1) the nepheline syenites were derived by crystal-liquid fractionation from nearly solidified AG at the rim of the stock, 2) AG magma farther from the rim mixed with a small proportion of granitic magma, and 3) the mixture then differentiated to produce the hybrid rocks and QS. Zirconium dioxide inclusions in plagioclase crystals of the hybrid rocks and QS indicate that the AG magma contained some crystals before it mixed with the granitic magma. Two origins for the granitic magma are possible: 1) a late-stage differentiate of a mantle-derived hypersthene-normative magma and 2) melting of crustal material by the AG magma. Recognition of magma mixing might not have been possible if the AG had been hypersthene-normative.

  3. Numerical Simulations of the Incremental Intrusion of Granitic Magma into Continental Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, W.; Kaus, B. J.; Paterson, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    We have employed the visco-elasto-plastic Finite-Element & Marker-in-cell code, MILAMIN_VEP, to carry out a 2D modeling study of the incremental intrusion of granitic magma into continental crust. Algorithms of multiple pulses of magma and pseudo-diking are implemented into the code. New magma of an initial circular shape is regularly replenished at "magma source" regions at sub-crustal depths. Pseudo-dikes of rectangular shapes are added at location where the maximum differential stress along the melt-solid interface is greater than an assigned tensile strength of the surrounding solid host rock. Preliminary results show that when diking and multiple pulses of magma are included, later pulses of magma rise higher and faster and even reach the Earth's surface in some cases by taking advantage of the pre-heated low-viscosity pathways created by earlier dikes and pulses of magma. Host rocks display bedding rotation, and downward flow at two sides of a growing magma chamber but show discordantly truncation when magma ascend through the weak channels made by dikes. The effect of the thermal structure of the crust was tested as well. In a cold crust, "diking" is critical in breaking the high-viscosity crust, guiding the direction of magma rising, and facilitating later magma pulses to form chambers. In a warmer crust, magma rises in the form of diapirs, after which dikes take over in transporting later pulses of magma to the surface. The simulations also suggest that a magma chamber incrementally constructed by multiple magma bathes is a very dynamic environment featuring intra-chamber convection and recycling previous batches of magma. In simulations without diking and multiple pulses, magma is unable to reach the shallow crust. Instead, it is stuck in the middle crust, as the viscosity of the upper crust is too large to permit rapid motion, and at the same time magma-induced stresses are insufficient to deform the upper crust in a plastic manner. Intra

  4. Intrusion of granitic magma into the continental crust facilitated by magma pulsing and dike-diapir interactions: Numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wenrong; Kaus, Boris J. P.; Paterson, Scott

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a 2-D thermomechanical modeling study of intrusion of granitic magma into the continental crust to explore the roles of multiple pulsing and dike-diapir interactions in the presence of visco-elasto-plastic rheology. Multiple pulsing is simulated by replenishing source regions with new pulses of magma at a certain temporal frequency. Parameterized "pseudo-dike zones" above magma pulses are included. Simulation results show that both diking and pulsing are crucial factors facilitating the magma ascent and emplacement. Multiple pulses keep the magmatic system from freezing and facilitate the initiation of pseudo-dike zones, which in turn heat the host rock roof, lower its viscosity, and create pathways for later ascending pulses of magma. Without diking, magma cannot penetrate the highly viscous upper crust. Without multiple pulsing, a single magma body solidifies quickly and it cannot ascent over a long distance. Our results shed light on the incremental growth of magma chambers, recycling of continental crust, and evolution of a continental arc such as the Sierra Nevada arc in California.

  5. Experimental modelling of ground deformation associated with shallow magma intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galland, O.

    2012-04-01

    Active volcanoes experience ground deformation as a response to the dynamics of underground magmatic systems. The analysis of ground deformation patterns may provide important constraints on the dynamics and shape of the underlying volcanic plumbing systems. Nevertheless, these analyses usually take into account simplistic shapes (sphere, dykes, sills) and the results cannot be verified as the modelled systems are buried. In this contribution, I will present new results from experimental models of magma intrusion, in which both the evolution of ground deformation during intrusion and the shape of the underlying intrusion are monitored in 3D. The models consisted of a molten vegetable oil, simulating low viscosity magma, injected into cohesive fine-grained silica flour, simulating the brittle upper crust; oil injection resulted is sheet intrusions (dykes, sills and cone sheets). The initial topography in the models was flat. While the oil was intruding, the surface of the models slightly lifted up to form a smooth relief, which was mapped through time. After an initial symmetrical development, the uplifted area developed asymmetrically; at the end of the experiments, the oil always erupted at the steepest edge of the uplifted area. After the experiment, the oil solidified, the intrusion was excavated and the shape of its top surface mapped. The comparison between the uplifted zone and the underlying intrusions showed that (1) the complex shapes of the uplifted areas reflected the complex shapes of the underlying intrusions, (2) the time evolution of the uplifted zone was correlated with the evolution of the underlying intrusion, and (3) the early asymmetrical evolution of the uplifted areas can be used to predict the location of the eruption of the oil. The experimental results also suggest that complex intrusion shapes (inclined sheet, cone sheet, complex sill) may have to be considered more systematically in analyses of ground deformation patterns on volcanoes.

  6. Experimental modelling of ground deformation associated with shallow magma intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galland, Olivier

    2012-02-01

    Active volcanoes experience ground deformation as a response to the dynamics of underground magmatic systems. The analysis of ground deformation patterns may provide important constraints on the dynamics and shape of the underlying volcanic plumbing systems. Nevertheless, these analyses usually take into account simplistic shapes (sphere, dykes, sills) and the results cannot be verified as the modelled systems are buried. In this paper, I present new results from experimental models of magma intrusion, in which both the evolution of ground deformation during intrusion and the shape of the underlying intrusion are monitored. The models consisted of a molten vegetable oil, simulating low viscosity magma, injected into cohesive fine-grained silica flour, simulating the brittle upper crust; oil injection resulted is sheet intrusions (dykes, sills and cone sheets). The initial topography in the models was flat. While the oil was intruding, the surface of the models slightly lifted up to form a smooth relief, which was mapped through time. After an initial symmetrical development, the uplifted area developed asymmetrically; at the end of the experiments, the oil always erupted at the steepest edge of the uplifted area. After the experiment, the oil solidified, the intrusion was excavated and the shape of its top surface mapped. The comparison between the uplifted zone and the underlying intrusions showed that (1) the complex shapes of the uplifted areas reflected the complex shapes of the underlying intrusions, (2) the time evolution of the uplifted zone was correlated with the evolution of the underlying intrusion, and (3) the early asymmetrical evolution of the uplifted areas can be used to predict the location of the eruption of the oil. The experimental results also suggest that complex intrusion shapes (inclined sheet, cone sheet, complex sill) may have to be considered more systematically in the analyses of ground deformation patterns on volcanoes.

  7. Magma transport in sheet intrusions of the Alnö carbonatite complex, central Sweden.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Magnus; Almqvist, Bjarne S G; Burchardt, Steffi; Troll, Valentin R; Malehmir, Alireza; Snowball, Ian; Kübler, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Magma transport through the Earth's crust occurs dominantly via sheet intrusions, such as dykes and cone-sheets, and is fundamental to crustal evolution, volcanic eruptions and geochemical element cycling. However, reliable methods to reconstruct flow direction in solidified sheet intrusions have proved elusive. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) in magmatic sheets is often interpreted as primary magma flow, but magnetic fabrics can be modified by post-emplacement processes, making interpretation of AMS data ambiguous. Here we present AMS data from cone-sheets in the Alnö carbonatite complex, central Sweden. We discuss six scenarios of syn- and post-emplacement processes that can modify AMS fabrics and offer a conceptual framework for systematic interpretation of magma movements in sheet intrusions. The AMS fabrics in the Alnö cone-sheets are dominantly oblate with magnetic foliations parallel to sheet orientations. These fabrics may result from primary lateral flow or from sheet closure at the terminal stage of magma transport. As the cone-sheets are discontinuous along their strike direction, sheet closure is the most probable process to explain the observed AMS fabrics. We argue that these fabrics may be common to cone-sheets and an integrated geology, petrology and AMS approach can be used to distinguish them from primary flow fabrics. PMID:27282420

  8. Magma transport in sheet intrusions of the Alnö carbonatite complex, central Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Magnus; Almqvist, Bjarne S. G.; Burchardt, Steffi; Troll, Valentin R.; Malehmir, Alireza; Snowball, Ian; Kübler, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Magma transport through the Earth’s crust occurs dominantly via sheet intrusions, such as dykes and cone-sheets, and is fundamental to crustal evolution, volcanic eruptions and geochemical element cycling. However, reliable methods to reconstruct flow direction in solidified sheet intrusions have proved elusive. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) in magmatic sheets is often interpreted as primary magma flow, but magnetic fabrics can be modified by post-emplacement processes, making interpretation of AMS data ambiguous. Here we present AMS data from cone-sheets in the Alnö carbonatite complex, central Sweden. We discuss six scenarios of syn- and post-emplacement processes that can modify AMS fabrics and offer a conceptual framework for systematic interpretation of magma movements in sheet intrusions. The AMS fabrics in the Alnö cone-sheets are dominantly oblate with magnetic foliations parallel to sheet orientations. These fabrics may result from primary lateral flow or from sheet closure at the terminal stage of magma transport. As the cone-sheets are discontinuous along their strike direction, sheet closure is the most probable process to explain the observed AMS fabrics. We argue that these fabrics may be common to cone-sheets and an integrated geology, petrology and AMS approach can be used to distinguish them from primary flow fabrics. PMID:27282420

  9. Magma transport in sheet intrusions of the Alnö carbonatite complex, central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Magnus; Almqvist, Bjarne S. G.; Burchardt, Steffi; Troll, Valentin R.; Malehmir, Alireza; Snowball, Ian; Kübler, Lutz

    2016-06-01

    Magma transport through the Earth’s crust occurs dominantly via sheet intrusions, such as dykes and cone-sheets, and is fundamental to crustal evolution, volcanic eruptions and geochemical element cycling. However, reliable methods to reconstruct flow direction in solidified sheet intrusions have proved elusive. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) in magmatic sheets is often interpreted as primary magma flow, but magnetic fabrics can be modified by post-emplacement processes, making interpretation of AMS data ambiguous. Here we present AMS data from cone-sheets in the Alnö carbonatite complex, central Sweden. We discuss six scenarios of syn- and post-emplacement processes that can modify AMS fabrics and offer a conceptual framework for systematic interpretation of magma movements in sheet intrusions. The AMS fabrics in the Alnö cone-sheets are dominantly oblate with magnetic foliations parallel to sheet orientations. These fabrics may result from primary lateral flow or from sheet closure at the terminal stage of magma transport. As the cone-sheets are discontinuous along their strike direction, sheet closure is the most probable process to explain the observed AMS fabrics. We argue that these fabrics may be common to cone-sheets and an integrated geology, petrology and AMS approach can be used to distinguish them from primary flow fabrics.

  10. Relationships between volcano gravitational spreading and magma intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delcamp, Audray; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; James, Mike R.; Gailler, L. S.; Lebas, E.

    2012-04-01

    Volcano spreading, with its characteristic sector grabens, is caused by outward flow of weak substrata due to gravitational loading. This process is now known to affect many present-day edifices. A volcano intrusive complex can form an important component of an edifice and may induce deformation while it develops. Such intrusions are clearly observed in ancient eroded volcanoes, like the Scottish Palaeocene centres, or in geophysical studies such as in La Réunion, or inferred from large calderas, such as in Hawaii, the Canaries or Galapagos volcanoes. Volcano gravitational spreading and intrusive complex emplacement may act simultaneously within an edifice. We explore the coupling and interactions between these two processes. We use scaled analogue models, where an intrusive complex made of Golden syrup is emplaced within a granular model volcano based on a substratum of a ductile silicone layer overlain by a brittle granular layer. We model specifically the large intrusive complex growth and do not model small-scale and short-lived events, such as dyke intrusion, that develop above the intrusive complex. The models show that the intrusive complex develops in continual competition between upward bulging and lateral gravity spreading. The brittle substratum strongly controls the deformation style, the intrusion shape and also controls the balance between intrusive complex spreading and ductile layer-related gravitational spreading. In the models, intrusive complex emplacement and spreading produce similar structures to those formed during volcano gravitational spreading alone (i.e. grabens, folds, en échelon fractures). Therefore, simple analysis of fault geometry and fault kinetic indicators is not sufficient to distinguish gravitational from intrusive complex spreading, except when the intrusive complex is eccentric from the volcano centre. However, the displacement fields obtained for (1) a solely gravitational spreading volcano and for (2) a gravitational

  11. Mushy magma processes in the Tuolumne intrusive complex, Sierra Nevada, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memeti, V.; Paterson, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    Debates continue on the nature of volcanic-plutonic connections and the mechanisms of derivation of large volcanic eruptions, which require large volumes of magma to be readily available within a short period of time. Our focus to understand these magma plumbing systems has been to study the nature of their mid-to upper crustal sections, such as the 1,000 km2, 95-85 Ma old Tuolumne intrusive complex in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA. The Tuolumne intrusive complex is a great example where the magma mush model nicely explains observations derived from several datasets. These data suggest that a magma mush body was present and may have been quite extensive especially at times when the Tuolumne intrusive complex was undergoing waxing periods of magmatism (increased magma input), which alternated with waning periods of magmatism (decreased magma addition) and thus a smaller mush body, essentially mimicking in style periodic flare-ups and lulls at the arc scale. During waxing stages, magma erosion and mixing were the dominant processes, whereas waning stages allowed mush domains to continue to undergo fractional crystallization creating additional compositional variations. Over time, the imprint left behind by previous waxing and waning stages was partly overprinted, but individual crystals successfully recorded the compositions of these earlier magmas. Waxing periods in the Tuolumne intrusive complex during which large magma mush bodies formed are supported by the following evidence: 1) Hybrid units and gradational contacts are commonly present between major Tuolumne units. 2) CA-TIMS U/Pb zircon geochronology data demonstrate that antecrystic zircon recycling took place unidirectional from the oldest, marginal unit toward the younger, interior parts of the intrusion, where increasing zircon age spread encompasses the entire age range of the Tuolumne. 3) The younger, interior units also show an increasing scatter and complexity in geochemical element and isotope

  12. Eddy flow and associated particle dynamics during magma intrusion: the Basement Sill, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petford, Nick; Mirhadizadeh, Seyed

    2014-05-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys magmatic system Antarctica forms part of the Ferrar dolerite Large Igneous Province. The intrusions comprise a vertical stack of four interconnected sills linked to surface flows of the Kirkpatrick flood basalts. Together the complex provides a world-class example of pervasive lateral flow of magma on a continental scale. In addition the Basement Sill offers unprecedented two and three dimensional sections through the now frozen particle macrostructure of a congested magma slurry. Using image-based numerical modelling (the intrusion geometry defines its unique finite element mesh) it is possible to simulate aspects of the flow regime and rheology that have bearing on the formation of mesostructures including compositional layering. A distinction between structures formed during flow, where the shearing regime dominates, and post-emplacement features due to local crystal-melt segregation constrained by thermal modeling, is made. In the former regime we describe a potentially novel crystal-liquid segregation that may have been overlooked because it is so simple. The critical boundary condition is an undulating base or roof in the intrusion where magma eddies can develop during low Reynolds Number flow. Numerical particle tracing is used to show that wall eddies can either trap (and ultimately freeze) crystals in-situ or retain and eject them back into the flow at a later time according to their mass density. The mechanism has potential to develop local variations in magma chemistry and structure that would not otherwise arise where the contact between magma and country rock is linear. We refer to this local fluid dynamical effect as 'slingshot' fractionation and are not aware of any previous quantitative description of this effect in igneous rocks.

  13. The Sense of Magma Flow in Neogene Dike Intrusions from East Iceland (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riishuus, M. S.; Eriksson, P. I.; Elming, S.

    2013-12-01

    Neogene dike intrusions in east Iceland have been subjected to field studies and magnetic fabric analyses. We examine the applicability of the AMS (anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility) method to define fossil magma flow directions, and test models for propagation of magma during dike emplacement. The Streitishvarf composite dike with basalt margins and a quartz-porphyry core extends for ~15 km along strike (NNE-SSW) and displays indisputable field evidence, in the form of parabolic shaped flow banding, of a lateral magma flow component directed from north to south. AMS and rock magnetic studies have been made on conjugate margins from three outcrops of the quartz-porphyry along the length of the dike. The magnetic fabric is interpreted according to the imbrication model, using the minor susceptibility axis as shear plane indicator. The absolute directions given by the minor susceptibility axis are quantified using vector algebra. The fossil magma is interpreted to flow from north to south, with an upward inclination between 30° and 64° (95% confidence ellipse of 3°-9°), in support of the field observations. Our preferred emplacement model for the Streitishvarf dike involves rupture of stagnant felsic magma by a hotter basaltic dike, mobilizing the felsic magma to propagate south within the insulated pathway established by the dolerite dike. With confirmation that the AMS method can produce reliable directional data tested against independent field observations, we examine the fossil magma flow in a suite of basaltic dikes for which field evidence of magma flow directions is typically scarce. Regional dikes extending north of the Álftafjördur central volcano form an elongated swarm, ~5 km in width and up to 40 km in length. Samples were collected from 24 dikes at varying lateral distance from the central volcano. Contemporaneous shear resolved on the dike walls may modify a pure flow-induced fabric and such shear regimes are therefore retracted. The magma

  14. Emplacement of multiple magma sheets and wall rock deformation: Trachyte Mesa intrusion, Henry Mountains, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Sven; Stanik, Amy; Horsman, Eric; Tikoff, Basil; de Saint Blanquat, Michel; Habert, Guillaume

    2008-04-01

    A detailed structural and rock magnetic study of the Trachyte Mesa intrusion and deformed sedimentary wall rocks, Henry Mountains, Utah, indicates that the intrusion grew vertically and horizontally by the accumulation of multiple horizontal magma sheets. 2-3 cm thick shear zones recognized by intensely cataclasized plagioclase phenocrysts define the contact between sheets. Sheets have bulbous and / or steep frontal terminations and are flat on top. The foliation within the interior of the sheets, near the frontal termination, is subvertical. This steep foliation rotates into the subhorizontal shear zones near the top and bottom contacts and provides a magma flow direction indicator. Away from the frontal termination, the interior foliation rotates to become subhorizontal, similar to the fabric in recent analog experimental studies. Sheets are interpreted as being emplaced as plug flows. Both the field fabric and the rock magnetic data collected from 103 locations on the top of the intrusion and from 73 locations along a vertical cross section exposed in a stream gorge support a multi-stage model of intrusion growth. Emplacement begins as narrow magma channels and magma spreads radially outward from the channels to form sheets. Sheets are stacked upon one another and stop at the same lateral termination. The deformation of the sandstones at the margin of the intrusion, which are rotated upward from the margin to become the roof, is partitioned into layer parallel extension, shearing and layer-parallel shortening components. Bulk strain within the thickest sandstone layer indicates ˜20% thinning and microstructures indicate that the thinning was accommodated by grain-scale fracture-induced porosity collapse. Extension occurred as the layer was stretched over the margin of the rising intrusion. Shearing and layer-parallel shortening are a result of coupling with the underlying sheets as they advanced and accommodated through numerous faults parallel to bedding and

  15. The Growth of Magma Bodies by Amalgamation of Discrete Sheet Intrusions: Implications for the Formation of Magma Chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annen, C.

    2007-12-01

    Until recently, igneous bodies (plutons and magma chambers) were commonly considered to be approximately spherical bodies, rapidly emplaced into the crust. However, field, structural, geophysical, and geochronological studies indicate that many plutons are low aspect-ratio tabular bodies (sills) that are formed by the amalgamation of successive discrete magma pulses. The thermal evolution of an igneous body that grows by accretion of thin magma sheets is fundamentally different from the evolution of a rapidly emplaced magma sphere or of a single thick magma sill. In thin sheet intrusions, the heat loss is through the walls of the sheets and the temperatures within the intrusions do not depend on the volumes injected but on the one-dimension sheets emplacement rate. The first sheets injected in a cold crust rapidly cool down and solidify. The ability of successive intrusions to stay at high temperature and eventually build up a long-lived magma chamber is controlled by the emplacement rate. Heat transfer modeling applied in the context of a volcanic arc shows that average emplacement rates of at least several centimeters per year and an incubation time of tens thousands of years are needed for a persistent magma chamber to form. During the incubation time, the intrusions solidify and when a chamber of high melt fraction magma eventually grows, the volume of eruptible magma only form a small part of the total intruded volume. The emplacement rate of plutons is controversial. Geochronological data suggest that some plutons may be emplaced over millions years. For a pluton that is assembled at a slow rate of a few millimeters per year, millions of years are needed, over which kilometric thicknesses are intruded, before a volume of magma larger than the size of a single intrusion becomes mobile and eruptible. In many cases, volcanic products may come from a deep source without being associated with a long-lived upper crust magma chamber. If volcanism is associated with

  16. Mafic intrusion remobilising silicic magma under El Hierro, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmarsson, O.; Laporte, D.; Marti, J.; Devouard, B.; Cluzel, N.

    2012-04-01

    elevated incompatible element concentrations and primitive mantle normalised spectra characteristic for the Canary Island basanites (e.g. La is of 100 times higher concentration than primitive mantle with important LREE enrichments). In contrast, the trace element composition of the alkali rhyolite shows surprisingly low concentrations for all elements except the most incompatible ones (such as Rb, Ba, K and Th). All other measured incompatible LILE, HFSE and REE have significantly lower concentration than the basanitic counterpart. This differences increase with the atomic number of the REE reaching maximum for the MREE and thus forming an intriguing U-shaped rhyolite spectra. Furthermore, unusual U-depletion is observed in the rhyolite. Other negative spikes, such as those for Sr and P, are readily accounted for by the removal of plagioclase and apatite during magma evolution from a basanite to a more evolved melt. The results obtained so far suggest an intrusion of gas-rich basanitic melt at the base of an evolved intrusion remobilising a stagnant phonolitic melt present as late differentiate in the crust. Interaction with old oceanic crust and the volcanic edifice can be quantified and shown to have modified the phonolite melt composition and produced the alkali rhyolitic composition of the white floating pumice. Extensive gas exsolution shortly before the melt-glass transition explains the foam texture and the low volatile concentrations in the quenched alkali rhyolite.

  17. Parental magma composition and petrological modeling of the Muskox intrusion formation (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodina, E. V.

    2003-04-01

    The Muskox layered intrusion is an Proterozoic pluton, more then 5 km across, situated in the District of Mackenzie, Northwest territories. The layered series is composed of peridotit, pyroxenites, gabbro, troctolit, anorthositic gabbro and granophyre-bearing gabbro units. Mg-numbers (100*Mg/(Mg+Fe)) in the layered series rocks decrease from 86,9 in ultramafic rock suite (44,0 wt.% MgO) to 27,5 in granophyres (1,9 wt.% MgO) (Francis D., 1994). The order of crystallization of the parental magma changed from Ol; Cpx; Pl; Opx during the early stages of solidification to Ol; Opx; Cpx; Pl during later stages. The intermediate order Ol; Cpx; Opx; Pl is locally evident (Irvine T.N., 1970). The petrochemical features of the Muskox intrusion rocks are consistent with fractional crystallization of komatiitic parental magma with 30 wt.% MgO, 8,5 wt.% FeO (mg-number - 86,3). The compositions trend of model cumulates determined from a fractional crystallization simulation using the COMAGMAT 3,5 computer program (Ariskin A.A. et al., 1993) (42,2 - 4,4 wt.% MgO ; mg-numbers - 92,1 - 38,7) is similar to the compositions trend of observed cumulates. The supposed physical parameters of fractional crystallization are: total pressure of 2 kbar, oxygen buffer QFM, 0,5 wt.% H2O. According to this model the crystallization sequence is Ol (T - 1542oC) followed by Cpx (T - 1185oC), Pl (T - 1172oC) and finally Opx (T - 1168oC). CaO decrease and SiO2 increase in the parental magma less then 1 wt.% result in a change in the main crystallization sequence. The first Opx becomes the third (Ol (T - 1543oC), Cpx (T - 1183oC), Opx (T - 1174oC), Pl (T - 1170oC)) and then the second phase to crystallize (Ol (T - 1546oC), Opx (T - 1184oC), Cpx (T - 1175oC), Pl (T - 1167oC)). Depleted N-MORB - normalized HREE pattern and enriched HFSE pattern in the Muskox intrusion rocks indicate that the intrusion parental magma was derived from a garnet-bearing enriched mantle source. The primary mantle magma as a

  18. Seismogenic ';trapdoors' during magma intrusion at Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, R. S.; Tarasewicz, J.; Brandsdottir, B.; Schonnman, C.

    2013-12-01

    Relocated earthquake hypocentres for >1000 microearthquakes that occurred prior to and during the 2010 fissure and summit eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland map out magma conduits from the upper mantle (30 km depth) to the surface. During the two weeks prior to the first, flank eruption, hypocentre locations lie predominantly in horizontally separated clusters at 3-4 km below sea level. They represent the filling with magma of an inflating sill beneath the eastern flank of the volcano, from which feeder dykes propagated laterally and vertically toward the flank eruption site three days prior to the eruption onset. The majority of events within some clusters of up to >100 earthquakes exhibit similar waveforms and identical patterns of P-wave first-motion polarities recorded across the monitoring network. In the clearest example, 104 out of 105 events in a single cluster appear to have the same source mechanism based on P-wave first-motion polarities and waveform similarity. These observations suggest that the clusters of similar events may comprise many earthquakes generated by source processes that have the same orientation of failure, perhaps even on the same rupture plane, in fixed locations that are repeatedly active. The epicentral clustering and similarity of source mechanisms suggest that much of the seismicity was generated at approximately static constrictions to magma flow in an inflating sill. These constrictions may act as a form of pressure valve or ';trapdoor' in the country rock, which ruptures when the melt pressure exceeds a critical level, then reseals after a pulse of melt has passed through. We infer that the magmatic intrusion causing the seismicity was likely to be a laterally inflating sill at 3-4 km depth, with seismogenic pinch-points occurring between aseismic compartments of the sill, or between adjacent magma lobes as they inflate. A second eruption followed from the summit, 8 km west of the first eruption site. During the

  19. Dykes, cups, saucers and sills: Analogue experiments on magma intrusion into brittle rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathieu, L.; van Wyk de Vries, B.; Holohan, Eoghan P.; Troll, Valentin R.

    2008-07-01

    Magma is transported in the crust by blade-like intrusions such as dykes, sills, saucers, and also collects in thicker laccoliths, lopoliths and plutons. Recently, the importance and great number of shallow (< 5 km) saucer-shaped intrusions has been recognized. Lopoliths and cup-shaped intrusions have also been reported in many geological contexts. Our field observations indicate that many intrusions, especially those emplaced into breccias or fractured rocks, have bulging, lobate margins and have shear faults at their bulbous terminations. Such features suggest that magma can propagate along a self-induced shear fault rather than a hydraulic tension-fracture. To investigate this we use analogue models to explore intrusion propagation in a brittle country rock. The models consist of the injection of analogue magma (honey or Golden syrup) in a granular material (sand or sieved ignimbrite) that is a good analogue for brittle or brecciated rocks. These models have the advantage (over other models that use gelatin) to well represent the properties of brittle materials by allowing both shear-faults and tension fractures to be produced at suitable stresses. In our experiments we mainly obtain vertical dykes and inverted-cone like structures that we call cup-shaped intrusions. Dykes bifurcate into cup-shaped intrusions at depths depending on their viscosity. All cup-shaped intrusions uplift a central block. By injecting against a vertical glass plate we obtain detailed observations of the intrusion propagation style. We observe that dykes commonly split and produce cup-shaped intrusions near the surface and that shear zone-related intrusions develop at the dyke tip. We conclude that many dykes propagate as a viscous indenter resulting from shear failure of host rock rather than tensional hydraulic fracturing of host rocks. The shear propagation model provides an explanation for the shape and formation of cup-shaped intrusions, saucer-sills and lopoliths.

  20. Emplacement of crystal-rich magmas: insights from the Snap Lake kimberlite intrusion (NW Territories, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gernon, Thomas; Sparks, Steve; Field, Matthew; Ogilvie-Harris, Rachael

    2010-05-01

    The Cambrian Snap Lake kimberlite intrusion (Northwest Territories, Canada) is a complex segmented diamond-bearing ore-body. Detailed geological investigations suggest that the intrusion is a multi-phase body with at least four different magmatic lithofacies. In particular, olivine-rich (phlogopite-poor) and olivine-poor (phlogopite-rich) varieties of hypabyssal kimberlite have been identified. Key observations are that olivine-rich lithofacies (ORK) has a strong tendency to be located where the intrusion is thickest and that there is a good correlation between intrusion thickness, olivine crystal size and crystal content. Accordingly the olivine-poor lithofacies (OPK) tends to be most abundant where the intrusion is thinnest. Complimentary studies demonstrate that the lithofacies are geochemically distinct, and are characterised by different diamond abundances and size distributions. Our data and observations suggest that the ORK and OPK represent different magma phases that have experienced different processes during transport and emplacement. Heterogeneities in the kimberlite lithofacies are attributed to variations in intrusion thickness and structural complexities. Auto-xenoliths of ORK within the OPK suggest that the magmas are closely related in time and have clearly exploited the same fracture system during intrusion, resulting in various degrees of intermingling. The geometry and distribution of lithofacies points to magmatic cointrusion, and flow differentiation driven by fundamental rheological differences between the ORK and OPK phases. The presence of such low viscosity, crystal-poor magmas may explain how extremely crystal-rich kimberlite magmas (> 60 vol.%) are able to reach the surface and erupt in kimberlite diatremes. We envisage that the low viscosity OPK magma acted as a lubricant for the highly viscous ORK magma; such rheological segregation is a common feature in other magmatic systems. The Snap Lake intrusion provides important insights into

  1. Isotopic Studies of processes in mafic magma chambers: III. The Muskox intrusion, Northwest Territories, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Brian W.; DePaolo, Donald J.

    We report the results of a neodymium and strontium isotopic investigation of magma sources and magma chamber processes in the Proterozoic Muskox layered mafic intrusion. Our internal Sm-Nd isochron age of 1258±40 Ma from a two-pyroxene gabbro agrees well with previous U-Pb age determinations for the Muskox intrusion and Mackenzie igneous events. The preservation of a pre-Muskox Sm-Nd isochron age in a sample of stoped wall rock has allowed us to place constraints on the duration of the Muskox magma system; models for diffusive equilibration suggest a time scale of 103-104 years for crystallization of the upper 10% of the magma chamber. The liquids injected into the magma chamber had ɛNd(1258 Ma) values in the range of -3 to +1, indicating that they were derived from an undepleted mantle source. Large differences in 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd between the Muskox parent magma and a zone of wall rock-derived silicic magma that existed at the roof of the chamber make these isotopes sensitive indicators of interaction between the components of the system. Modeling of isotopic variations within individual cyclic units (where each cyclic unit represents crystallization of a single influx of magma into the chamber) suggests that the rate of assimilation of silicic wall rock by mafic magma was <5% of the crystallization rate, in spite of the proximity of the basaltic liquid to the overlying molten wall rock. We attribute this lack of significant assimilation to large differences in buoyancy and viscosity between mafic and silicic magmas. Variations in 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd among cyclic units within the layered series most likely resulted from mixing between mafic magma and molten silicic wall rock during injection of new magma pulses, or from variations in the magma source feeding the Muskox intrusion. We suggest that the successive cyclic units moved toward more evolved compositions as the vigor of the magmatic system decreased, allowing increased mixing between new

  2. Evidence for the mixing of granitic and basaltic magmas in the Pleasant Bay layered intrusion, coastal Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, P.M. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    The Pleasant Bay layered intrusion has the shape of a shallow basin about 200 km[sup 2] in area and crops out along the coast of Maine between Bar Harbor and Machias. This intrusion evolved as repeated replenishments of basaltic magma were emplaced into a silicic magma chamber (Wiebe, in press). These replenishments surged into the chamber through fractures, spreading laterally on a floor of silicic cumulates and beneath silicic magma. This produced a sequence of layers (up to 100 m thick) that grade from chilled basalt at the base to gabbroic, dioritic, or granitic emulates at the top. This study focuses on two layers, each of which grades from chilled gabbro at the base to quartz syenite at the top. Petrography and geochemistry suggest that mechanical mixing and other interactions between two stably stratified magmas were responsible for much of this variation. Plagioclase grains typically have corroded calcic cores (An[sub 52--56]) that decrease in size upward and sodic rims (An[sub 32--36]) that thicken upward. Larger plagioclase grains at higher levels often have K-spar cores. Scarce large zircon, apatite, and biotite crystals in the lower parts of the layers are often corroded. The apatites have dark pleochroic halos, suggesting they crystallized from a liquid enriched in U and Th. The silicic melt was likely the source of K and H[sub 2]O needed to crystallize hornblende and biotite. The large corroded zircon, apatite, and biotite crystals, as well as much of the hornblende, probably grew at an interface between separately convecting silicic and basaltic magmas.

  3. Elastic thickness control of lateral dyke intrusion at mid-ocean ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandin, Raphaël; Socquet, Anne; Doubre, Cécile; Jacques, Eric; King, Geoffrey C. P.

    2012-02-01

    Magmatic accretion at slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges exhibits specific features. Although magma supply is focused at the centre of second-order segments, melts are episodically distributed along the rift toward segment ends by lateral dyke intrusions. It has been previously suggested that an along-axis downward topographic slope away from the magma source is sufficient to explain lateral dyke propagation. However, this cannot account for the poor correlation between dyke opening and surface elevation in the 2005-2010 series of 14 dyke intrusions of Afar (Ethiopia). Using mechanical arguments, constrained by both geodetic and seismological observations, we propose that the large dykes that initiate near the mid-segment magma source are attracted toward segment ends as a result of a thickening of the elastic-brittle lithosphere in the along-rift direction. This attraction arises from the difference of elastic resistance between the segment centre where the lithosphere is thermally weakened by long-term focusing of melts, and comparatively "colder", hence stronger segment ends. The axial topographic gradient in magmatic rifts may be more likely explained as an incidental consequence of these variations of along-axis elastic-brittle thickness, rather than the primary cause of lateral dyke injections.

  4. Reconciling Volatile Outputs with Heat Flow and Magma Intrusion Rates at the Yellowstone Magma-Hydrothermal System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowenstern, J. B.; Hurwitz, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Yellowstone hydrothermal system releases hundreds of millions of liters of water on a daily basis. Gigawatts of heat and kilotons of magmatic volatiles (CO2, S, Cl, F and He) are discharged by these waters. By quantifying the relative contributions of crustal, meteoric, and mantle-derived components, we can estimate the rate at which magma is fed to the crust from below (1). Combining isotopic studies with mass discharge rates of geothermal gases and aqueous dissolved solids, we recognize that over 20,000 tons of CO2 is released from basaltic magmas ponding beneath any silicic magma reservoir in the mid to shallow crust (1,2). In contrast, silicic magma provides significantly less volatiles than what emerges from the hydrothermal system. Estimates of heat flow range from ~3 to 8 GW (1,3,4), derived from satellite, surface geophysics and geochemical methods. Such values, combined with estimates from gas flux, imply prolific basalt intrusion rates between 0.05 and 0.3 cubic kilometers per year (1). Over the history of the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field, a picture emerges where the lower crust is converted from Precambrian metasediments and silicic intrusions into a thick gabbroic batholith similar to that envisioned by some to reside beneath the Snake River Plain along the ancestral track of the Yellowstone Hot Spot (5). (1) Lowenstern and Hurwitz, 2008, Elements 4: 35-40. (2) Werner and Brantley, 2003, G-Cubed 4;7: 1061 (3) Vaughan and others, 2012, JVGR 233-234: 72-89. (4) Hurwitz and others, in press, JGR (5) Shervais and others, 2006, Geology 34:365-368.

  5. Diffusive isotopic contamination of mafic magma by coexisting silicic liquid in the muskox intrusion.

    PubMed

    Stewart, B W; Depaolo, D J

    1992-02-01

    Shifts in (87)Sr/(86)Sr and (143)Nd/(144)Nd ratios measured in cumulates from the upper levels of the Muskox mafic intrusion indicate that isotopic and bulk chemical exchange were decoupled across a mafic-silicic liquid interface during crystallization of the intrusion. Modeling of diffusive exchange between liquid layers demonstrates that isotopic compositions of silicate liquids in layered magma chambers may be strongly affected by this process on time scales of 10(3) to 10(4) years. Diffusive contamination can be used to place constraints on the physical processes and time scales of magmatic systems.

  6. Diffusive isotopic contamination of mafic magma by coexisting silicic liquid in the muskox intrusion.

    PubMed

    Stewart, B W; Depaolo, D J

    1992-02-01

    Shifts in (87)Sr/(86)Sr and (143)Nd/(144)Nd ratios measured in cumulates from the upper levels of the Muskox mafic intrusion indicate that isotopic and bulk chemical exchange were decoupled across a mafic-silicic liquid interface during crystallization of the intrusion. Modeling of diffusive exchange between liquid layers demonstrates that isotopic compositions of silicate liquids in layered magma chambers may be strongly affected by this process on time scales of 10(3) to 10(4) years. Diffusive contamination can be used to place constraints on the physical processes and time scales of magmatic systems. PMID:17756951

  7. Stress transfer between magma bodies: Influence of intrusions prior to 2010 eruptions at Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albino, F.; Sigmundsson, F.

    2014-04-01

    Stress transfer between separate magma bodies is evaluated by considering how pressure changes related to magma accumulation/propagation influence the stability of a separate nearby magma body. Three-dimensional numerical models are used to evaluate the stability evolution of a magma body through the calculation of two variables: (i) the variation of the threshold pressure needed to cause failure around the magma body and (ii) the magma pressure change. A parametric study indicates that stress interactions are strongly dependent on the distance between magma bodies as well as the body's shape. Such models are then applied to evaluate stress influence of intrusive activity in 1994, 1999, and 2010 at Eyjafjallajökull volcano, which preceded two eruptions there in 2010. Two cases are considered: influence of these intrusions on (i) a magma reservoir at 20 km distance under the Katla volcano and (ii) a silicic magma body under Eyjafjallajökull. The distance between the Eyjafjallajökull intrusions and the Katla reservoir is sufficiently long to reduce the stress interaction to insignificant levels, with an amplitude of the same order as Earth tides (a few kilopascals). However, cumulative stress transfer due to the intrusions to a remnant silicic shallow body situated below the Eyjafjallajökull is much larger (0.5-2.5 MPa). This mechanical transfer could have contributed to the failure of the silicic body and promoted the chemical mixing/mingling between different magma types, which is commonly interpreted as the main cause of the 2010 explosive eruption of Eyjafjallajökull.

  8. Capturing magma intrusion and faulting processes during continental rupture: seismicity of the Dabbahu (Afar) rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebinger, C. J.; Keir, D.; Ayele, A.; Calais, E.; Wright, T. J.; Belachew, M.; Hammond, J. O. S.; Campbell, E.; Buck, W. R.

    2008-09-01

    Continental rupture models emphasize the role of faults in extensional strain accommodation; extension by dyke intrusion is commonly overlooked. A major rifting episode that began in 2005 September in the Afar depression of Ethiopia provides an opportunity to examine strain accommodation in a zone of incipient plate rupture. Earthquakes recorded on a temporary seismic array (2005 October to 2006 April), direct observation of fault patterns and geodetic data document ongoing strain and continued dyke intrusion along the ~60-km long Dabbahu rift segment defined in earlier remote sensing studies. Epicentral locations lie along a ~3 km wide, ~50 km long swath that curves into the SE flank of Dabbahu volcano; a second strand continues to the north toward Gab'ho volcano. Considering the ~8 m of opening in the September crisis, we interpret the depth distribution of microseismicity as the dyke intrusion zone; the dykes rise from ~10 km to the near-surface along the ~60-km long length of the tectono-magmatic segment. Focal mechanisms indicate slip along NNW-striking normal faults, perpendicular to the Arabia-Nubia plate opening vector. The seismicity, InSAR, continuous GPS and structural patterns all suggest that magma injection from lower or subcrustal magma reservoirs continued at least 3 months after the main episode. Persistent earthquake swarms at two sites on Dabbahu volcano coincide with areas of deformation identified in the InSAR data: (1) an elliptical, northwestward-dipping zone of seismicity and subsidence interpreted as a magma conduit, and (2) a more diffuse, 8-km radius zone of shallow seismicity (<2 km) above a shadow zone, interpreted as a magma chamber between 2.5 and 6 km subsurface. InSAR and continuous GPS data show uplift above a shallow source in zone (2) and uplift above the largely aseismic Gab'ho volcano. The patterns of seismicity provide a 3-D perspective of magma feeding systems maintaining the along-axis segmentation of this incipient seafloor

  9. The Record of Magma Accumulation Processes and Magma-Crust Interactions in Arcs from Ultramafic Intrusions with Ni-Cu-PGE Mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scoates, J. S.; Manor, M. J.; Jackson-Brown, S.; Nixon, G. T.; Ames, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    Ultramafic arc plutons, key tracers of subduction zone magmatism, are present as Alaskan-type intrusions (no orthopyroxene) and a wide range of mineralogically diverse (ol-opx-cpx-hbl) intrusions. Turnagain (Alaskan-type) and Giant Mascot (opx-rich) are two Mesozoic mid-crustal ultramafic bodies in the Cordillera of British Columbia. They preserve lithologic, trace element, and isotopic records of magmatic evolution and crustal assimilation during the earliest stages of fractionation from mantle wedge-derived magmas. These processes are highlighted by sulfide saturation mechanisms in their respective oxidized parent magmas and the formation of significant magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE mineralization at Turnagain (1841.8 Mt at 0.21% Ni) and Giant Mascot (4.2 Mt at 0.77% Ni and 0.34% Cu). The intrusions represent mid-crustal magma conduits through which magmas laden with Mg-rich olivine and pyroxene ascended, stalled, fractionated, locally assimilated fusible pyrite- and graphite-bearing metasedimentary rocks, and ultimately left their crystal cargos as cumulates. Their extrusive components are picritic to ankaramitic basalts. The combined effects of fractional crystallization, sulfide melt segregation, and re-equilibration with sulfide melt are recorded by notable Ni-in-olivine variations. At Turnagain, there is a direct correlation between the presence of sulfide and partially digested phyllite blocks, which is reflected in a broad range of relatively light S isotope ratios. This contrasts with restricted near-mantle S isotope values from the steeply plunging Ni-sulfide pipes at Giant Mascot where sulfide saturation occurred in response to assimilation of host granitoids and schists. Many other similar Paleozoic to Mesozoic ultramafic intrusions in the North American Cordillera, extending from Alaska to Baja, also represent former magma pathways that potentially capture the record of arc growth through magmatic and mineralization processes from primitive arc magmas.

  10. Magma dynamics at the base of an evolving mafic magma chamber: Incompatible element evidence from the Partridge River intrusion, Duluth Complex, Minnesota, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalokwu, Christopher I.; Ariskin, Alexei A.; Koptev-Dvornikov, Evgeny V.

    1996-12-01

    A characteristic feature of the Partridge River intrusion of the Keweenawan Duluth Complex is the approximately fivefold to ninefold increase in the concentrations of incompatible elements in the lower zone compared with cumulates stratigraphically higher. The concentrations of incompatible elements decrease from the lower zone upward to steady state values, which is ascribed to variations in the proportions of trapped liquid rather than variable degrees of fractional crystallization of a single parental magma. The calculated average composition of trapped liquid using our algorithm is similar to typical Keweenawan low-alumina, high Tisbnd P basalts associated with the Duluth Complex but is different from the leading edge ferrodioritic liquid quenched in the chilled margin of the intrusion. This difference suggests that the chilled margin does not represent the original (parental) magma composition from which the whole intrusion solidified, and that the enrichment of incompatible elements may be related to the local flotation of magmatic suspensions. To test the latter hypothesis numerically, we have used heat-mass transfer models, assuming a sheet-like magma chamber, to calculate the parameters of the model that best reproduce the observed distribution of incompatible elements in a mush zone at the base of the Partridge River intrusion. The results indicate that a mush zone enriched in the incompatible elements is produced if the velocity of movement of the lower solidification front into the magma body was less than the floating velocity of the bulk crystal mush. The dynamic parameters that best reproduce the observed distribution of incompatible elements include a magma emplacement pressure of 2 kbar, critical crystallinities of 50-68% in the mush zone from which the liquid is being expelled, and an emplacement temperature of ˜ 1160°C for the initial magma.

  11. Stoping of chamber margins into mafic intrusions: Magma mingling at Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genareau, Kimberly; Clarke, Amanda B.

    2010-05-01

    . This range safely brackets the temperature required for quartz precipitation at equivalent pressures (less than 825 ° C). Within the groundmass, no pyroxene microlites are visible, suggesting a crystallization pressure of more than 100 MPa, based upon decompression experiments on a representative magma. Additionally, plagioclase phenocrysts show no obvious zoning in their anorthite compositions as would result from ascent through the conduit. SEM X-ray element maps reveal percolation of calcium-rich melt into the margins of zone A, suggesting sustained contact between this silicic inclusion and the intruding mafic magma that resulted in isolation and heating of a stoped chamber margin. The characteristics of this single tephra sample suggest that magma mingling at Soufrière Hills may not only result from disaggregation of mafic inclusions during transport through the conduit, but also from stoping of the crystallized chamber margins into the intruding mafic magma. The more mafic portions of the erupted clast display high vesicularity, indicating that a volatile-rich portion of the mafic intrusion (perhaps a foam layer at the mafic/resident magma interface) ascended or convected into the chamber and incorporated portions of the chamber margins 37-78 days prior to the July 2003 dome collapse. Although initial examination of the tephra in hand sample shows evidence of oxidation typically attributed to sustained residence in the lava dome, in some cases this oxidation may actually result from heating within the system prior to ascent through the conduit. Thus, effects of mafic magma intrusion at Soufrière Hills may not only involve heating of the resident magma, but also disaggregation and incorporation of stoped chamber margins, indicating another possible method of magma mingling at this active volcano.

  12. Crustal Strain Patterns in Magmatic and Amagmatic Early Stage Rifts: Border Faults, Magma Intrusion, and Volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebinger, C. J.; Keir, D.; Roecker, S. W.; Tiberi, C.; Aman, M.; Weinstein, A.; Lambert, C.; Drooff, C.; Oliva, S. J. C.; Peterson, K.; Bourke, J. R.; Rodzianko, A.; Gallacher, R. J.; Lavayssiere, A.; Shillington, D. J.; Khalfan, M.; Mulibo, G. D.; Ferdinand-Wambura, R.; Palardy, A.; Albaric, J.; Gautier, S.; Muirhead, J.; Lee, H.

    2015-12-01

    Rift initiation in thick, strong continental lithosphere challenges current models of continental lithospheric deformation, in part owing to gaps in our knowledge of strain patterns in the lower crust. New geophysical, geochemical, and structural data sets from youthful magmatic (Magadi-Natron, Kivu), weakly magmatic (Malawi, Manyara), and amagmatic (Tanganyika) sectors of the cratonic East African rift system provide new insights into the distribution of brittle strain, magma intrusion and storage, and time-averaged deformation. We compare and contrast time-space relations, seismogenic layer thickness variations, and fault kinematics using earthquakes recorded on local arrays and teleseisms in sectors of the Western and Eastern rifts, including the Natron-Manyara basins that developed in Archaean lithosphere. Lower crustal seismicity occurs in both the Western and Eastern rifts, including sectors on and off craton, and those with and without central rift volcanoes. In amagmatic sectors, lower crustal strain is accommodated by slip along relatively steep border faults, with oblique-slip faults linking opposing border faults that penetrate to different crustal levels. In magmatic sectors, seismicity spans surface to lower crust beneath both border faults and eruptive centers, with earthquake swarms around magma bodies. Our focal mechanisms and Global CMTs from a 2007 fault-dike episode show a local rotation from ~E-W extension to NE-SE extension in this linkage zone, consistent with time-averaged strain recorded in vent and eruptive chain alignments. These patterns suggest that strain localization via widespread magma intrusion can occur during the first 5 My of rifting in originally thick lithosphere. Lower crustal seismicity in magmatic sectors may be caused by high gas pressures and volatile migration from active metasomatism and magma degassing, consistent with high CO2 flux along fault zones, and widespread metasomatism of xenoliths. Volatile release and

  13. Seismogenic magma intrusion before the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasewicz, J.; White, R. S.; Brandsdóttir, B.; Schoonman, C. M.

    2014-08-01

    mechanisms on the same weak fault plane as the connection between segments of the sill system is repeatedly refractured in the same location. We infer that the magmatic intrusion causing most of the seismicity was likely to be a laterally inflating complex of sills at about 4 km depth, with seismogenic pinch-points occurring between aseismic compartments of the sills, or between adjacent magma lobes as they inflated. During the final 4 d preceding the eruption onset between 22:30 and 23:30 UTC on 2010 March 20, the seismicity suggests that melt progressed upwards to a depth of ˜2 km. This seismicity was probably caused by fracturing of the country rock at the margins of the propagating dyke. Subsequently, on the morning of the eruption a dyke propagated eastward from the region of precursory seismic activity to the Fimmvörðuháls eruption site.

  14. The Torres del Paine intrusion as a model for a shallow magma chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner, Lukas; Bodner, Robert; Leuthold, Julien; Muntener, Othmar; Putlitz, Benita; Vennemann, Torsten

    2014-05-01

    The shallow magmatic Torres del Paine Intrusive Complex (TPIC) belongs to a series of sub-volcanic and plutonic igneous bodies in Southern Chile and Argentina. This trench-parallel belt is located in a transitional position between the Patagonia Batholith in the West, and the alkaline Cenozoic plateau lavas in the East. While volumetrically small amounts of magmatism started around 28 my ago in the Torres del Paine area, and a second period occurred between 17-16 Ma, it peaked with the TPIC 12.59-12.43 Ma ago. The spectacular cliffs of the Torres del Paine National park provide a unique opportunity to study the evolution of a very shallow magma chamber and the interaction with its host rocks. Intrusion depth can be estimated based on contact metamorphic assemblages and granite solidus thermobarometry to 750±250 bars, corresponding to an intrusion depth of ca. 3km, ca. 500m above the base of the intrusion. Hornblende thermobarometry in mafic rocks agrees well with these estimates (Leuthold et al., 2014). The TPIC is composed of a granitic laccolith emplaced over 90ka (Michel et al., 2008) in 3 major, several 100m thick sheets, forming an overall thickness of nearly 2 km. Contacts are sharp between sheets, with the oldest sheet on the top and the youngest on the bottom (Michel et al., 2008). The granitic laccolith is under-plated by a ca. 400m thick mafic laccolith, built up over ca. 50ka (Leuthold et al. 2012), constructed from the bottom up. Granitic and mafic sheets are themselves composed of multiple metric to decametric pulses, mostly with ductile contacts between them, resulting in outcrop patterns resembling braided stream sediments. The contact of the TPIC with the Cretaceous flysch sediments document intrusion mechanism. Pre-existing sub-horizontal fold axes are rotated in the roof of the TPIC, clearly demonstrating ballooning of the roof; no ballooning was observed in the footwall of the intrusion. Extension during ballooning of the roof is indicated by

  15. Time-resolved seismic tomography detects magma intrusions at Mount Etna.

    PubMed

    Patanè, D; Barberi, G; Cocina, O; De Gori, P; Chiarabba, C

    2006-08-11

    The continuous volcanic and seismic activity at Mount Etna makes this volcano an important laboratory for seismological and geophysical studies. We used repeated three-dimensional tomography to detect variations in elastic parameters during different volcanic cycles, before and during the October 2002-January 2003 flank eruption. Well-defined anomalous low P- to S-wave velocity ratio volumes were revealed. Absent during the pre-eruptive period, the anomalies trace the intrusion of volatile-rich (>/=4 weight percent) basaltic magma, most of which rose up only a few months before the onset of eruption. The observed time changes of velocity anomalies suggest that four-dimensional tomography provides a basis for more efficient volcano monitoring and short- and midterm eruption forecasting of explosive activity.

  16. Time-resolved seismic tomography detects magma intrusions at Mount Etna.

    PubMed

    Patanè, D; Barberi, G; Cocina, O; De Gori, P; Chiarabba, C

    2006-08-11

    The continuous volcanic and seismic activity at Mount Etna makes this volcano an important laboratory for seismological and geophysical studies. We used repeated three-dimensional tomography to detect variations in elastic parameters during different volcanic cycles, before and during the October 2002-January 2003 flank eruption. Well-defined anomalous low P- to S-wave velocity ratio volumes were revealed. Absent during the pre-eruptive period, the anomalies trace the intrusion of volatile-rich (>/=4 weight percent) basaltic magma, most of which rose up only a few months before the onset of eruption. The observed time changes of velocity anomalies suggest that four-dimensional tomography provides a basis for more efficient volcano monitoring and short- and midterm eruption forecasting of explosive activity. PMID:16902133

  17. Uplift and magma intrusion at Long Valley caldera from InSAR and gravity measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tizzani, Pietro; Battaglia, Maurizio; Zeni, Giovanni; Atzori, Simone; Berardino, Paolo; Lanari, Riccardo

    2009-01-01

    The Long Valley caldera (California) formed ~760,000 yr ago following the massive eruption of the Bishop Tuff. Postcaldera volcanism in the Long Valley volcanic field includes lava domes as young as 650 yr. The recent geological unrest is characterized by uplift of the resurgent dome in the central section of the caldera (75 cm in the past 33 yr) and earthquake activity followed by periods of relative quiescence. Since the spring of 1998, the caldera has been in a state of low activity. The cause of unrest is still debated, and hypotheses range from hybrid sources (e.g., magma with a high percentage of volatiles) to hydrothermal fluid intrusion. Here, we present observations of surface deformation in the Long Valley region based on differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR), leveling, global positioning system (GPS), two-color electronic distance meter (EDM), and microgravity data. Thanks to the joint application of InSAR and microgravity data, we are able to unambiguously determine that magma is the cause of unrest.

  18. Magma intrusion and accumulation in the southern Altiplano: Structural observations from the PLUTONS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, M. E.; Christensen, D. H.; Pritchard, M. E.; Del Potro, R.; Gottsmann, J.; Unsworth, M.; Minaya, E.; Sunagua, M.; McNutt, S. R.; Yu, Q.; Farrell, A. K.

    2012-12-01

    The PLUTONS project is attempting to capture the process of magma intrusion and pluton formation, in situ, through multi-disciplinary study of known magmatic inflation centers. With support from the NSF Continental Dynamics program, and a sister project in the UK funded by NERC, two such centers are receiving focused study. Uturuncu volcano in the Altiplano of southern Bolivia is being investigated with combined seismics, magnetotellurics, geodesy, microgravity, geomorphology, petrology, geochemistry, historical studies and modeling. 350 km to the south, comparable investigations are targeting the Lastarria-Cordon del Azufre complex. Field studies are ongoing into 2013. In this presentation we highlight results from Uturuncu that bear on the crustal magmatic process. Seismic tomography, gravity and magnetotellurics indicate a complex structure in the upper 20 km with some evidence for partial melt. Seismic receiver functions indicate a layer of very low velocities across the region at 15-25 km depth that is almost certainly melt-rich. High conductivities corroborate the interpretation of a partial melt component to this layer. In addition to the throughgoing melt layer, seismic velocities and attenuation indicate shallow features above the melt body extending upward toward the surface. It is not clear whether these features are associated with recent uplift or are remnants from a previous period of activity. Uturuncu is seismically active with hundreds of locatable earthquakes each year. Seismic lineations and swarm behavior suggest that the seismicity reflects regional stress patterns. While there is little evidence that these earthquakes are the direct result of magmatic intrusion, the resulting high heat flow may be hastening existing strains.

  19. Rate of lateral magma transport in the Earth's crust beneath submarine volcanic arcs derived from earthquake swarm analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spicak, A.; Vanek, J.

    2015-12-01

    This contribution deals with subduction-related submarine magmatism. We are offering a tool to contribute to delimitation of domains of current magma unrest at convergent plate margins and to understand better the behavior of magma in the lithospheric wedge above the subducting slab: a detailed analysis of teleseismic earthquake occurrence. A specific seismicity pattern has been observed beneath submarine portions of several volcanic arcs at convergent plate margins (Andaman Sea region, southern Ryukyu area). We have found three arguments that allowed us to interpret such a seismicity pattern as a magma-driven process: (i) clustering of medium-size earthquakes (M~5) in space and time in shallow earthquake swarms; (ii) rapid migration of seismic activity during the swarms (comparison of epicentral maps of individual stages of the swarm development showed consistently that earthquake epicenters migrate laterally at a rate of several hundred meters per hour); (iii) correlation of epicentral zones of the swarms with distinct seamounts and submarine ridges (current seismically active intrusions probably propagate along plumbing systems that served as conduits of magma to the surface in the past). The repeated occurrence of relatively strong, teleseismically recorded earthquake swarms thus probably reflects fluid and/or magma ascent through the plumbing system of the volcanic arc, points to brittle character of the lithospheric wedge at respective depths and favors the studied areas - the Andaman Sea region and the southern Ryukyu area - to be potential sites of submarine volcanic activity.. The study documents high accuracy of hypocenter parameter determinations published by data centers such as ISC and NEIC USGS, and the usefulness of the EHB relocation procedure.

  20. Dike Intrusions and Magma Accumulation in the Red Sea Region: Insights from InSAR and High-Resolution Optical Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W.; Jonsson, S.; Ruch, J.

    2014-12-01

    During the past decade, several magmatic intrusions and eruptions have occurred in the Red Sea region. The activity began in 2007 with an eruption on Jebel at Tair Island and it was the first volcanic event known to occur in the southern Red Sea in over a century. We used co-eruption InSAR data to constrain a tensile dislocation model, which suggests that the island's stress field is both temporarily varying and isolated from the regional Red Sea stress regime. Later in 2009, a dike intrusion in Harrat Lunayyir (western Saudi Arabia) almost made it to the surface to start an eruption. Our InSAR observations document how the intrusion first ascended to shallow depths and then started activating graben-bounding normal faults. The progressive dike opening resulted in over a meter of crustal extension and extensive surface fracturing. During the post-diking period, the ground deformation continued, but was of an order of magnitude smaller than the displacements associated with the main event. More recently, two Surtseyan eruptions occurred in the Zubair archipelago (southern Red Sea) forming two new islands in 2011-12 and 2013. High-resolution optical imagery reveals that significant wind and coastal erosion rapidly changed both the size and the shape of the two new islands during the months following the end of the eruptions. Several TanDEM-X InSAR data sets show the co-eruption deformation that occurred on the neighboring islands, indicating that both eruptions were fed by two ~10 km long dikes with a thickness of ~1 m. All these volcanic events were fed by dike intrusions and were contemporaneously associated with significant seismic swarms. Our observations do not show evidence for shallow magma reservoirs at these locations and that the magma appears to have ascended directly from a significant depth.

  1. Coupling fluid dynamics and host-rock deformation associated with magma intrusion in the crust: Insights from analogue experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavanagh, J. L.; Dennis, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Models of magma ascent in the crust tend to either consider the dynamics of fluid flow within intrusions or the associated host-rock deformation. However, these processes are coupled in nature, and so to develop a more complete understanding of magma ascent dynamics in the crust both need to be taken into account. We present a series of gelatine analogue experiments that use both Particle Image Velocimentry (PIV) and Digital Image Correlation (DIC) techniques to characterise the dynamics of fluid flow within intrusions and to quantify the associated deformation of the intruded media. Experiments are prepared by filling a 40x40x30 cm3 clear-Perspex tank with a low-concentration gelatine mixture (2-5 wt%) scaled to be of comparable stiffness to crustal strata. Fluorescent seeding particles are added to the gelatine mixture during its preparation and to the magma analogue prior to injection. Two Dantec CCD cameras are positioned outside the tank and a vertical high-power laser sheet positioned along the centre line is triggered to illuminate the seeding particles with short intense pulses. Dyed water (the magma analogue) injected into the solid gelatine from below causes a vertically propagating penny-shaped crack (dike) to form. Incremental and cumulative displacement vectors are calculated by cross-correlation between successive images at a defined time interval. Spatial derivatives map the fluid flow within the intrusion and associated strain and stress evolution of the host, both during dike propagation and on to eruption. As the gelatine deforms elastically at the experimental conditions, strain calculations correlate with stress. Models which couple fluid dynamics and host deformation make an important step towards improving our understanding of the dynamics of magma transport through the crust and to help constrain the tendency for eruption.

  2. Vertical versus lateral flux of magma in dykes during crustal extension: new insights from simple laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallot, E.; Galland, O.; Cobbold, P. R.; Delavaud, G.

    2012-04-01

    During intrusion of buoyant magma into a rift zone, it is a common belief that the magmatic flux will be dominantly vertical and therefore will lead rather readily to volcanic eruptions. Nevertheless, many dykes in active rift zones (such as those in Hawaii, Iceland or the Afar) are blade-shaped (i.e. horizontal length, L, versus vertical height, H, within the plane of the dyke > 1). Therefore lateral (horizontal) fluxes may also be important in such extensional settings. According to the theory of elastic hydraulic fracturing, a fracture ceases to propagate vertically, when the pressure at its upper tip drops to that of the adjacent host rock (driving pressure = 0). On approaching these conditions, lateral propagation may become important. Topographic slopes or oblique tectonic extension may also influence the main directions of magma flux and hence the final aspect ratio L/H of a dyke. Here we describe some simple laboratory experiments, in which models consisted of silica powder (representing brittle crust) and vegetable oil (representing magma of low viscosity). The latter was hot and buoyant, yet solidified at room temperature. A motor induced the powder to stretch at a steady rate (R), forming a rift that was orthogonal to the extension direction and had a nearly flat floor. Simultaneously, oil intruded from an underlying point source at a preset flow rate (Q). In each of the experiments, a single hydraulic fracture formed. It was blade-like (L/H > 1), oil-filled, sub-vertical and sub-parallel to the rift axis. As it propagated, the oil cut across and/or, at least locally, followed some of the normal fault planes that developed within the rift. Immediately before erupting, the oil tended to fill an open fracture within the powder, very near the rift floor. During these experiments running simultaneous powder stretching and oil injection, the intrusion propagated laterally, faster than it did vertically. In contrast, in other experiments when oil intruded

  3. Development of a deep-crustal shear zone in response to syntectonic intrusion of mafic magma into the lower crust, Ivrea-Verbano zone, Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snoke, A.W.; Kalakay, T.J.; Quick, J.E.; Sinigoi, S.

    1999-01-01

    A 1 to 1.5 km-thick, high-temperature shear zone is localized in wall rocks subparallel to the eastern intrusive contact of the Permian Mafic Complex of the Ivrea-Verbano zone (IVZ), Italy. The shear zone is characterized by concentrated ductile deformation manifested by a penetrative foliation subparallel to the intrusive contact and a northeast-plunging sillimanite lineation. Evidence of noncoaxial strain and transposition is widespread in the shear zone including such features as rootless isoclinal folds, dismemberment of competent layers, and scattered kinematic indicators. The metasedimentary rocks in the shear zone are migmatitic, and the accumulation of leucosome is variable within the shear zone. Near the intrusive contact with the Mafic Complex leucosome forms ~20 vol% of the wall rock, whereas leucosome concentrations may locally reach ~60 vol% of the wall rock near the outer limits of the shear zone. This variation in vol% leucosome suggests melt/magma migration from the inferred site of anatexis along the intrusive contact to lower-strain regions within and near the margins of the shear zone. The leucosome accumulations chiefly occur as layer-parallel concentrations, but are also folded and boudined, and locally are associated with tension gashes and fracture arrays. Networks of granitic dikes and small plutons in the eastern IVZ suggest that some magmas migrated out of the high-temperature shear zone. Some magma apparently migrated laterally along the strike of the shear zone and concentrated in areas of lower strain where the intrusive contact takes a major westward bend. The high-temperature shear zone is interpreted as a 'stretching fault' (or stretching shear zone) after Means [W.D. Means, Stretching faults, Geology 17 (1989) 893-896], whereupon the metasedimentary wall rocks and associated leucosome deformed synchronously with the multistage emplacement and deformation flow of the Mafic Complex. The recognition of a high-temperature shear zone

  4. Long-distance lateral magma transport from intra-oceanic island arc volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizuka, O.; Geshi, N.; Kawanabe, Y.; Ogitsu, I.; Tuzino, T.; Nakano, S.; Arai, K.; Sakamoto, I.; Taylor, R. N.; Sano, K.; Yamamoto, T.

    2011-12-01

    Long-distance lateral magma transport in oceanic island arc volcanoes is emerging as a common phenomenon where the regional stress regime is favorable. It should also be recognized as an important factor in the construction and growth of island arcs. In this contribution, we report on recent investigations into the magma plumbing of Izu-Oshima volcano: an active basaltic volcano with an extensive fissure system. Geophysical observations in the Izu-Bonin intra-oceanic island arc indicate that magma is transported long distances laterally from the main basaltic composite volcano. When Miyakejima erupted in 2000, seismic activity migrated about 30km northwestward from the volcanic centre (Geshi et al., 2002). This event is interpreted to reflect northwestward dike injection and propagation from Miyakejima, transporting magma at a depth range between 12 and 20km (Kodaira et al., 2002). We demonstrated that long-distance lateral magma transport also occurred at the Nishiyama volcano on Hachijojima Island using petrological, geochemical and structural studies of satellite vents (Ishizuka et al., 2008). Nishiyama provided evidence for two types of magma transport. In the first type, primitive magma moved laterally NNW for at least 20km in the middle to lower crust (10-20km deep). The other type is characterized by magmas that have experienced differentiation in a shallow magma chamber beneath Nishiyama and have been transported short distances (<5km). The long-distance magma transport seems to be controlled by a regional extensional stress regime, while short distance transport may be controlled by local stress regime affected by the load generated by the main volcanic edifice. Izu-Oshima volcano comprises numerous, subparallel NW-SE trending submarine ridges extending up to 22 km to the NW and SE from the summit of Izu-Oshima. A recent diving survey has revealed that: 1) NW-SE trending ridges are fissures which erupted basaltic spatter and lava flows. 2) Basaltic

  5. Length and Timescales of Rift Faulting and Magma Intrusion: The Afar Rifting Cycle from 2005 to Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebinger, Cynthia; Ayele, Atalay; Keir, Derek; Rowland, Julie; Yirgu, Gezahegn; Wright, Tim; Belachew, Manahloh; Hamling, Ian

    2010-05-01

    Although fault and magmatic processes have achieved plate spreading at mid-ocean ridges throughout Earth's history, discrete rifting episodes have rarely been observed. This paper synthesizes ongoing seismic, structural, space-based geodetic, and petrologic studies from the subaerial Red Sea rift in Ethiopia where a major rifting episode commenced in September 2005. Our aims are to determine the length and timescales of magmatism and faulting, the partitioning of strain between faulting and magmatism, and their implications for the maintenance of along-axis segmentation. Most of the magma for the initial and subsequent 12 intrusions was sourced from the center of the Dabbahu-Manda Hararo rift segment. Strain is accommodated primarily by axial dike intrusions fed from mid-segment magma chamber(s). These findings show that episodic (approximate century interval), rapid opening of discrete rift segments is the primary mechanism of plate boundary deformation. The scale (˜65 km × 8 km) and intensity of crustal deformation (˜6 m), as well as the volume of intrusive and extrusive magmatism (>3 km3), provokes a re-evaluation of seismic and volcanic hazards in subaerial rift zones.

  6. Open magma chamber processes in the formation of the Permian Baima mafic-ultramafic layered intrusion, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ping-Ping; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Wang, Christina Yan; Xing, Chang-Ming; Gao, Jian-Feng

    2014-01-01

    The Baima mafic-ultramafic layered intrusion of the 260-Ma Emeishan Large Igneous Province (ELIP) hosts the second largest Fe-Ti-(V) oxide deposit in the Panxi region, SW China. It is a ~ 1600-m-thick layered body intruded by slightly younger syenitic and granitic plutons. The intrusion includes the Lower and Upper Zones. Troctolite and olivine pyroxenite of the Lower Zone contains conformable oxide ore layers, whereas the Upper Zone consists of olivine gabbro and gabbro with abundant apatite in the higher level. The crystallization order of the silicates in the Baima intrusion is olivine → plagioclase → clinopyroxene. Fe-Ti oxides (titanomagnetite and ilmenite) crystallized after olivine, and possibly plagioclase. The oxide ores in the Lower Zone show slightly LREE enriched patterns with (La/Yb)N values between 2.0 and 6.4, and positive Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu*) of 1.0 to 2.7. In contrast, olivine gabbros in the Lower Zone display stronger LREE enrichments (La/YbN = 7.7-14.0) and positive Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 2.8-3.3). Gabbros in the Upper Zone have REE profiles characterized by intermediate LREE enrichments with (La/Yb)N values of 3.2 to 11.2 and positive Eu anomalies of 2.1 to 3.0. Primitive mantle-normalized trace element patterns are characterized by negative La-Ce, Th, Sm and positive Nb-Ta, Ba and Ti anomalies in oxide ores and negative Th-U, Zr-Hf and positive Ba, Sr and Ti anomalies in olivine gabbro and gabbro. Fo of olivine and An of plagioclase remain roughly constant from 0 to ~ 90 m in the Lower Zone, indicating that the magma chamber was continuously filled by compositionally similar magmas during the initial stage. Three magma replenishments occurred afterwards in the upper part of the Lower Zone and the Upper Zone based on compositional reversals of plagioclase, olivine and Sr isotope. Mass balance calculations show that the Baima parental magma can produce all oxide ores under closed system conditions. A wide range of An values of plagioclase

  7. Evidence for multiple pulses of crystal-bearing magma during emplacement of the Doros layered intrusion, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen-Smith, T. M.; Ashwal, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Doros Complex is a relatively small (maximum 3.5 km × 7.5 km) shallow-level, lopolithic, layered mafic intrusion in the early Cretaceous Paraná-Etendeka Large Igneous Province. The stratigraphy broadly comprises a minor, fine-grained gabbroic sill and a sequence of primitive olivine-cumulate melagabbros, with a basal chilled margin, an intermediate plagioclase-cumulate olivine gabbro, and a sequence of mineralogically and texturally variable, intermediate, strongly foliated, plagioclase-, olivine- or magnetite-cumulate gabbros. An evolved syenitic (bostonite) phase occurs as cross-cutting dykes or as enclaves within the foliated gabbros. Major element modelling of the liquid line of descent shows that the spectrum of rock types, including the bostonite, is consistent with the fractionation of a basaltic parental magma that crystallised olivine, clinopyroxene, plagioclase, magnetite, K-feldspar and apatite. However, the stratigraphic succession does not correspond to a simple progressive differentiation trend but instead shows a series of punctuated trends, each defined by a compositional reversal or hiatus. Incompatible trace element concentrations do not increase upwards though the body of the intrusion. The major units show similar, mildly enriched rare earth element patterns, with minimal Eu anomalies. Back-calculation of the rare earth element concentrations of these cumulate rocks produces relatively evolved original liquid compositions, indicating fractionation of this liquid from a more primitive precursor. Based on combined field, petrographic, geochemical and geophysical evidence, we propose an origin for the Doros Complex by a minimum of seven closely spaced influxes of crystal-bearing magmas, each with phenocryst contents between 5% and 55%. These findings represent a departure from the traditional single-pulse liquid model for the formation of layered mafic intrusions and suggest the presence of an underlying magmatic mush column, i.e., a large

  8. Formation of low-δ18O magmas of the Kangerlussuaq Intrusion by addition of water derived from dehydration of foundered basaltic roof rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riishuus, Morten S.; Harris, Chris; Peate, David W.; Tegner, Christian; Wilson, J. Richard; Brooks, C. Kent

    2015-05-01

    The Kangerlussuaq Intrusion in East Greenland is concentrically zoned from quartz nordmarkite (quartz syenite) at the margin, through pulaskite, to foyaite (nepheline syenite) in the centre, with no apparent intrusive contacts. The δ18O values of coexisting minerals are consistent with oxygen isotope equilibrium at magmatic temperatures. Most of the intrusion formed from low-δ18O magma; magma δ18O values generally increased upwards from about 3.3 ‰ in the quartz nordmarkites to 5.6 ‰ in the foyaites. The lowest magma δ18O value of about -1.0 ‰ is from the upper part of the nordmarkites, where there is a high concentration of foundered basaltic xenoliths (stoped from the roof of the intrusion). The amphiboles in the syenites have δD values that range from those typical of hydrous mantle-derived minerals to much lower values (-86 to -157 ‰), as do whole-rock samples of xenolith and country rock (-125 to -148 ‰). The low magma δ18O and δD values are consistent with continuous incorporation, exchange and upward escape of low-δ18O and δD fluids released from stoped basaltic roof material. Mass balance suggests that the integrated amount of water involved was 7 wt% of the volume of the magma, but locally reached 30 wt% water. The requirement for large amounts of water with low δ18O value is satisfied only if the foundered basalt contained most of its water in cavities as opposed to hydrous minerals. Even with this requirement, the volume of stoped basalt would have been equal to the volume of the magma. Repeated recharge of the residual magma with progressively less contaminated silica undersaturated melt resulted in a gradual shift across the low-pressure thermal divide. Crystallisation was suppressed by the depression of the liquidus due to water saturation of the residual magma (pH2O ~1 kbar).

  9. Rapid intrusion of magma into wet rock: groundwater flow due to pore pressure increases.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delaney, P.T.

    1982-01-01

    Analytical and numerical solutions are developed to simulate the pressurization, expansion, and flow of groundwater contained within saturated, intact host rocks subject to sudden heating from the planar surface of an igneous intrusion. For most rocks, water diffuses more rapidly than heat, assuring that groundwater is not heated along a constant-volume pressure path and that thermal expansion and pressurization adjacent to the intrusion drives a flow that extends well beyond the heated region. -from Author

  10. Coronae as a result of giant magma intrusions in the lithosphere of Venus: insights from laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galland, Olivier; Polteau, Stephane; Werner, Stephanie C.

    2013-04-01

    Coronae on the surface of Venus are unique volcano-tectonic structures in the solar systems. Their circular morphology is associated with various topographic signatures, from bell-shape domes, flat-topped plateaus, to uplifted rings surrounding a subsided centre similar to caldera. Their extensive size and associated lava flows erupting from their periphery, indicate that they result from deep processes in the Venus mantle. Understanding their origin is thus essential for unraveling the dynamics of Venus through time. There are several scenarios explaining the formation of coronae, the most popular being the interaction between an upwelling mantle plume and the lithosphere, creating dynamic topography. In this contribution, we propose that coronae can result from the emplacement of giant magma intrusions below the Venus' lithosphere, on the basis of laboratory experiments. The experimental apparatus consists of a square box filled with compacted fine-grained silica flour (model crust), in which a low viscosity vegetable oil (model magma) is injected at constant flow rate. The initial conditions are such that magma initially flows horizontally, forming a sill-like body, to simulate magmatic underplating. During the experiments, oil injection triggers deformation of the model surface, which is monitored periodically using a moiré projection device, producing time series topographic maps of the model surface. Our results show that the surface evolution of the models follows three stages: (1) initial bell-shaped doming occurs above the injection inlet, producing radial open fractures at the model surfaces; (2) the bell-shape dome evolves to a flat-topped plateau, at the rim of which the oil erupts; (3) after the injection stops, the centre of the plateau subsides, and a positive topographic ring surrounding a depression, like a caldera, remains. The collapse of the plateau also generates concentric extensional fractures at the rims of the caldera. After the dynamic

  11. Multiple magma evolution and ore-forming processes of the Hongge layered intrusion, SW China: Insights from Sr-Nd isotopes, trace elements and platinum-group elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Mingyang; Tao, Yan; Song, Xieyan; Li, Yubang; Xiong, Feng

    2015-12-01

    The Hongge layered intrusion (259 Ma), which is located in the inner zone of the Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP), is one of the most typical Fe-Ti-V ore deposits in the Pan-Xi area. Mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions of the ELIP have attracted a lot of attention lately because these intrusions host world class Fe-Ti-V oxide deposits plus interesting Cu-Ni-(PGE) mineralization which may have economic potential. This paper, reports new whole-rock major and trace element compositions, PGE abundances and Sr-Nd isotopic data for selected cumulate rocks and basalts. We use these data to investigate the nature of parental magmas and the controls on its evolution from the source mantle en route to the surface involving the Hongge ore-bearing intrusion. Two abrupt changes in Mt/Ilm and trace element ratios such as Ba/Th with depths in the Hongge layered intrusion indicate that this intrusion formed by at least two pluses of relatively primitive magma. The whole rock Sr-Nd isotopic data of basaltic and intrusive rocks plot in the region of Emeishan low-Ti basalts and the compositions of residual liquid (at ∼1260 °C and 1155 °C) calculated by MELTS are similar to our actual high-Ti (BFQ-2) and low-Ti (BC-1) basltic samples, indicate they are co-magmatic rather than derivation from a distinct source. Total PGE abundances in the Hongge samples are extremely low, ranging from 0.5 to 10 ppb. Sulfide-bearing rocks in the Hongge intrusion and the nearby coeval Banfangqing and Baicao basalts have similar mantle-like Pd/Pt ratios (2-6) and extremely high Cu/Pd ratios (3 × 104 to 4 × 105), indicating that sulfide segregation took place at depth prior to emplacement at Hongge and eruption in this region. Sulfide saturation in the Hongge magma may have resulted from such crustal contamination event. Crystallization of silicate minerals under the anhydrous magma, magma hydration plus Fe-Ti enrichments in the parental magma are three critical factors for the formation of Fe

  12. Magma plumbing systems deduced from comparison of multiple dike intrusions in an incipientseafloor spreading segment in Afar, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belachew, M.; Ebinger, C. J.; Cote, D. M.; Keir, D.; Rowland, J. V.; Hammond, J. O.; Ayele, A.

    2010-12-01

    Oceanic crust is accreted through the emplacement of dikes at spreading ridges, but the role of dike intrusion in plate boundary deformation during continental rupture remains poorly understood. Since September 2005 the ~70 km-long Dabbahu-Manda Hararo rift segment in Afar, Ethiopia has experienced 14 large volume dike intrusions, including 3 fissural eruptions and a small volume silicic eruption. We present comparisons of 9 dike intrusions recorded by two temporary seismic networks between 2006 and 2009, set within the context of new 3D crustal velocity models of the region. All of the migrating swarms of earthquakes which are interpreted as caused by the dike intrusions and graben formation above the dike started from an ~5 km-radius and > 6 km-deep zone at the middle of the rift segment. The earthquake swarms migrated either to the south or north along the rift. Small magnitude earthquakes associated with the margins of the propagating dike tips are followed by the largest magnitude, mostly low-frequency earthquakes (< 2 Hz) interpreted as slow-slip and/or graben formation above the dike. The seismic moment distributions show > 80% of energy is released during the propagation phase of the dikes with minimal seismic energy release after the dikes ceased to propagate. Thus, for most of the dikes, faulting and graben formation above the dikes occurs hours after the passage of the crack tip, and while the dike continues to lengthen. The dikes that propagated to the north had faster average velocities (0.4 - 0.6m/s) compared to the ones that propagated to the south (0.15 - 0.3 m/s). The propagation velocities of each of the dikes follow a decaying exponential, suggesting pressure drops in the dike feeder zone limit dike volume/length. The small changes in intervals between dike intrusions, and the lack of a decrease in dike length with time both suggest that the magma chamber was regularly recharged over the 4-year period since the onset of the rifting episode in

  13. Gradual caldera collapse at Bárdarbunga volcano, Iceland, regulated by lateral magma outflow.

    PubMed

    Gudmundsson, Magnús T; Jónsdóttir, Kristín; Hooper, Andrew; Holohan, Eoghan P; Halldórsson, Sæmundur A; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G; Cesca, Simone; Vogfjörd, Kristín S; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Högnadóttir, Thórdís; Einarsson, Páll; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Jarosch, Alexander H; Jónasson, Kristján; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Bagnardi, Marco; Parks, Michelle M; Hjörleifsdóttir, Vala; Pálsson, Finnur; Walter, Thomas R; Schöpfer, Martin P J; Heimann, Sebastian; Reynolds, Hannah I; Dumont, Stéphanie; Bali, Eniko; Gudfinnsson, Gudmundur H; Dahm, Torsten; Roberts, Matthew J; Hensch, Martin; Belart, Joaquín M C; Spaans, Karsten; Jakobsson, Sigurdur; Gudmundsson, Gunnar B; Fridriksdóttir, Hildur M; Drouin, Vincent; Dürig, Tobias; Aðalgeirsdóttir, Guðfinna; Riishuus, Morten S; Pedersen, Gro B M; van Boeckel, Tayo; Oddsson, Björn; Pfeffer, Melissa A; Barsotti, Sara; Bergsson, Baldur; Donovan, Amy; Burton, Mike R; Aiuppa, Alessandro

    2016-07-15

    Large volcanic eruptions on Earth commonly occur with a collapse of the roof of a crustal magma reservoir, forming a caldera. Only a few such collapses occur per century, and the lack of detailed observations has obscured insight into the mechanical interplay between collapse and eruption. We use multiparameter geophysical and geochemical data to show that the 110-square-kilometer and 65-meter-deep collapse of Bárdarbunga caldera in 2014-2015 was initiated through withdrawal of magma, and lateral migration through a 48-kilometers-long dike, from a 12-kilometers deep reservoir. Interaction between the pressure exerted by the subsiding reservoir roof and the physical properties of the subsurface flow path explain the gradual, near-exponential decline of both collapse rate and the intensity of the 180-day-long eruption. PMID:27418515

  14. Gradual caldera collapse at Bárdarbunga volcano, Iceland, regulated by lateral magma outflow.

    PubMed

    Gudmundsson, Magnús T; Jónsdóttir, Kristín; Hooper, Andrew; Holohan, Eoghan P; Halldórsson, Sæmundur A; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G; Cesca, Simone; Vogfjörd, Kristín S; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Högnadóttir, Thórdís; Einarsson, Páll; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Jarosch, Alexander H; Jónasson, Kristján; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Bagnardi, Marco; Parks, Michelle M; Hjörleifsdóttir, Vala; Pálsson, Finnur; Walter, Thomas R; Schöpfer, Martin P J; Heimann, Sebastian; Reynolds, Hannah I; Dumont, Stéphanie; Bali, Eniko; Gudfinnsson, Gudmundur H; Dahm, Torsten; Roberts, Matthew J; Hensch, Martin; Belart, Joaquín M C; Spaans, Karsten; Jakobsson, Sigurdur; Gudmundsson, Gunnar B; Fridriksdóttir, Hildur M; Drouin, Vincent; Dürig, Tobias; Aðalgeirsdóttir, Guðfinna; Riishuus, Morten S; Pedersen, Gro B M; van Boeckel, Tayo; Oddsson, Björn; Pfeffer, Melissa A; Barsotti, Sara; Bergsson, Baldur; Donovan, Amy; Burton, Mike R; Aiuppa, Alessandro

    2016-07-15

    Large volcanic eruptions on Earth commonly occur with a collapse of the roof of a crustal magma reservoir, forming a caldera. Only a few such collapses occur per century, and the lack of detailed observations has obscured insight into the mechanical interplay between collapse and eruption. We use multiparameter geophysical and geochemical data to show that the 110-square-kilometer and 65-meter-deep collapse of Bárdarbunga caldera in 2014-2015 was initiated through withdrawal of magma, and lateral migration through a 48-kilometers-long dike, from a 12-kilometers deep reservoir. Interaction between the pressure exerted by the subsiding reservoir roof and the physical properties of the subsurface flow path explain the gradual, near-exponential decline of both collapse rate and the intensity of the 180-day-long eruption.

  15. FEM-based Surface Displacement Modeling of Magma Intrusions at Kilauea Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charco, M.; González, P. J.; Galán del Sastre, P.; Negredo, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic deformation is the surface expression of the internal dynamics of an inherently complex system resulting from the interaction of magma with the surrounding rocks. Geodetic techniques, as Global Positioning System (GPS) and/or Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), are being extensively used to monitor such ground deformation. Nevertheless, it is impossible to directly observe the processes at depth that cause the observed ground deformation. The interpretation of geodetic data requires both, mathematical modeling to simulate the observed signals and inversion approaches to estimate the deformation source parameters. In this study we provide a numerical tool for interpreting geodetic data by solving in an efficient and accurate way the inverse problem to estimate the optimal parameters for magmatic sources (spherical magma chambers and tensile dislocations). In doing so, we propose a Finite Element Method (FEM) for the calculation of Green functions in an heterogeneous medium. The key aspect of the methodology lies in how to incorporate the source into the model and in applying the reciprocity relationship between the station and the source. In our approach, deformation sources are independent of the simulation mesh. The search for the best fit point source(s) is conducted for an array of 3-D locations extending below a predefined volume region. The total number of Green functions is reduced to the number of the observation points by using the reciprocity relationship. We apply this methodology to the recent inflation observed at Kilauea's Southwest Rift Zone in May 2015, observed with the new Sentinel-1 radar interferometry satellite mission, to report the magma transport along the zone.

  16. Determining the dynamics of magma flow within intrusions: Insights from field and petrographic studies of dikes and sills of the Inner Hebrides, Scotland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavanagh, J. L.; Martin, S.; Biggin, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Investigating the factors that influence magma flow dynamics within intrusions is important for understanding how magma migrates through the crust and erupts at the surface. Studying extinct volcanoes where erosion has exposed their plumbing systems provides insights into the final stages of magma movement. Fieldwork was conducted on the Isles of Mull and Skye, Western Scotland to study how magma flow is preserved within intrusions. On the Isle of Mull, 2-8m thick tholeiitic dolerite sills of the Loch Scridain Sill Complex (c.58Ma), crop out along the northern and southern coasts of the Ross of Mull, intruding into Paleogene lavas (c.60Ma) and Moine Supergroup Psammites respectively. Large columnar jointing is present perpendicular to the sill margins and is cross cut by arcuate fracture planes with parallel vesicle concentrations. Raised lineations were found on planar surfaces striking in similar directions to the arcuate fractures. These lineations have a range in strike from 148° to 172° and are inferred to be magma flow indicators. On the Isle of Skye, fieldwork was conducted in a disused quarry at Invertote where stacked olivine dolerite sills from the Little Minch Sill Complex (c.60Ma) intrude into Jurassic sediments. The sills are 0.5 to 8m thick, their contacts being defined by contrasts in jointing frequency, crystal layering, occurrence of gabbro lenses and variations in mineral proportion, size and composition. A series of five distinct sills crop out, with two N-S striking dikes cross-cutting the site. Pahoehoe ropes were found preserved on exposed contacts of one dike, which helped to infer the magma flow direction. Detailed sampling was carried out and petrographic thin sections analysed to describe the crystalline fabrics across the length and breadth of the intrusions. The results of the petrographic study are compared with magnetic fabrics from AMS and AARM analysis techniques to provide an independent quantification of flow trajectories.

  17. Theoretical prediction of gold vein location in deposits originated by a wall magma intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Pablo; Maass-Artigas, Fernando; Cortés-Vega, Luis

    2016-05-01

    The isotherm time-evolution resulting from the intrusion of a hot dike in a cold rock is analized considering the general case of nonvertical walls. This is applied to the theoretical prediction of the gold veins location due to isothermal evolution. As in previous treatments earth surface effects are considered and the gold veins are determined by the envelope of the isotherms. The locations of the gold veins in the Callao mines of Venezuela are now well predicted. The new treatment is now more elaborated and complex that in the case of vertical walls, performed in previous papers, but it is more adequated to the real cases as the one in El Callao, where the wall is not vertical.

  18. Nonexplosive and explosive magma/wet-sediment interaction during emplacement of Eocene intrusions into Cretaceous to Eocene strata, Trans-Pecos igneous province, West Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Befus, K.S.; Hanson, R.E.; Miggins, D.P.; Breyer, J.A.; Busbey, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    Eocene intrusion of alkaline basaltic to trachyandesitic magmas into unlithified, Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) to Eocene fluvial strata in part of the Trans-Pecos igneous province in West Texas produced an array of features recording both nonexplosive and explosive magma/wet-sediment interaction. Intrusive complexes with 40Ar/39Ar dates of ~ 47-46??Ma consist of coherent basalt, peperite, and disrupted sediment. Two of the complexes cutting Cretaceous strata contain masses of conglomerate derived from Eocene fluvial deposits that, at the onset of intrusive activity, would have been > 400-500??m above the present level of exposure. These intrusive complexes are inferred to be remnants of diatremes that fed maar volcanoes during an early stage of magmatism in this part of the Trans-Pecos province. Disrupted Cretaceous strata along diatreme margins record collapse of conduit walls during and after subsurface phreatomagmatic explosions. Eocene conglomerate slumped downward from higher levels during vent excavation. Coherent to pillowed basaltic intrusions emplaced at the close of explosive activity formed peperite within the conglomerate, within disrupted Cretaceous strata in the conduit walls, and within inferred remnants of the phreatomagmatic slurry that filled the vents during explosive volcanism. A younger series of intrusions with 40Ar/39Ar dates of ~ 42??Ma underwent nonexplosive interaction with Upper Cretaceous to Paleocene mud and sand. Dikes and sills show fluidal, billowed, quenched margins against the host strata, recording development of surface instabilities between magma and groundwater-rich sediment. Accentuation of billowed margins resulted in propagation of intrusive pillows into the adjacent sediment. More intense disruption and mingling of quenched magma with sediment locally produced fluidal and blocky peperite, but sufficient volumes of pore fluid were not heated rapidly enough to generate phreatomagmatic explosions. This work suggests that

  19. Imaging of magma intrusions beneath Harrat Al-Madinah in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelwahed, Mohamed F.; El-Masry, Nabil; Moufti, Mohamed Rashad; Kenedi, Catherine Lewis; Zhao, Dapeng; Zahran, Hani; Shawali, Jamal

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution tomographic images of the crust and upper mantle beneath Harrat Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia, are obtained by inverting high-quality arrival-time data of local earthquakes and teleseismic events recorded by newly installed borehole seismic stations to investigate the AD 1256 volcanic eruption and the 1999 seismic swarm in the study region. Our tomographic images show the existence of strong heterogeneities marked with low-velocity zones extending beneath the AD 1256 volcanic center and the 1999 seismic swarm area. The low-velocity zone coinciding with the hypocenters of the 1999 seismic swarm suggests the presence of a shallow magma reservoir that is apparently originated from a deeper source (60-100 km depths) and is possibly connected with another reservoir located further north underneath the NNW-aligned scoria cones of the AD 1256 eruption. We suggest that the 1999 seismic swarm may represent an aborted volcanic eruption and that the magmatism along the western margin of Arabia is largely attributed to the uplifting and thinning of its lithosphere by the Red Sea rifting.

  20. Time-space focused intrusion of genetically unrelated arc magmas in the early Paleozoic Ross-Delamerian Orogen (Morozumi Range, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocchi, S.; Di Vincenzo, G.; Dini, A.; Petrelli, M.; Vezzoni, S.

    2015-09-01

    The growth of continental crust in accretionary orogenic belts takes place through repeated cycles of subduction-accretion of rock units from continental and oceanic magmatic arcs, supra-subduction zone backarcs and forearcs loaded with continent-derived materials. An ancient example relevant to magmatic arc accretion models is represented by the remnants of the Cambrian-Ordovician Ross Orogen in the Morozumi Range, Victoria Land (Antarctica). There, late Neoproterozoic phyllites host an intrusive complex which preserves a remarkably uncommon record of genetically unrelated magma pulses emplaced under a variable stress regime in a short time span: (1) a dominant K-feldspar-phyric granite, (2) fine-grained dioritic stocks and dykes, (3) a peraluminous granite; and (4) a tonalitic-granodioritic dyke swarm. Laserprobe U-Pb zircon dates cluster at late Cambrian times for all these units, yet they carry differential cargoes of relict cores. Unique geochemical-isotopic signatures for both the less evolved magmas (diorite and dyke tonalite) and the most acidic ones (granite and peraluminous granite) indicate that each one of them originated from distinct sources at depth. Additionally, field relationships and chemical evolutionary trends testify for a variety of shallow level open-system processes, such as magma mingling/mixing between diorite and main granite magmas, as well as progressive incorporation of the host schists by the dyke tonalite magma. In summary, crustal growth in the Morozumi intrusive complex was contributed by fresh mantle magma issuing from the metasomatised mantle wedge, while the production of other melts did recycle different crustal portions/layers: the main granite derived from Grenville-age granulitic lower crust; the peraluminous granite from late Proterozoic upper crust, and the tonalite magmas derived from subduction erosion-enriched subarc mantle and evolved by ingestion of local metasedimentary rocks. Overall, the Morozumi intrusive complex

  1. The Effect of Lateral Intrusions on Thermohaline Fronts - Diffusive or Frontogenetic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonov, J. A.; Stern, M. E.

    2003-12-01

    A density compensated thermohaline front with a finite width and specified total lateral salinity variation, superimposed on a finger favorable thermocline is studied by means of linear theory and non-linear numerical calculations using parameterized finger fluxes. By retaining the relatively small molecular heat diffusion and the dependence of the finger Nusselt number Nu on the density ratio, we show that marginal stability with critical frontal salinity variation is possible. The lateral eddy fluxes induce a mean vertical velocity which can sharpen the front, but when the frontal salinity variation exceeds a certain supercritical value the effect of the eddy fluxes exceeds that of the mean vertical velocity and the front diffuses. Non-linear 2D spectral calculations showed that the modification of the mean horizontal gradients is small and that the intrusions continue to grow exponentially even after they have produced overturns. By extrapolating our linear theory results beyond the overturning stage, the intrusion velocity was estimated to be proportional to the Brunt-Vaisala frequency multiplied by the intrusion thickness.

  2. Multi-element variations in olivine as geochemical signatures of Ni-Cu sulfide mineralization in mafic magma systems—examples from Voisey's Bay and Pants Lake intrusions, Labrador, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulle, Florian; Layne, Graham D.

    2016-01-01

    gabbro (BG) and upper gabbro (UG) of the Pants Lake intrusion is fairly homogeneous (˜Fo60, ˜4300 ppm Mn, ˜460 ppm Zn, ˜340 ppm Ni, ˜50 ppm Cr), with a more evolved composition (˜2100 ppm Ca, ˜20 ppm Sc, ˜300 ppm Ti, ˜4 ppm Y) than the average olivine of the Voisey's Bay intrusion (˜570 ppm Ca, ˜6 ppm Sc, ˜65 ppm Ti, ˜0.3 ppm Y). Pants Lake olivine also commonly lacks the mutually Mn-Zn-rich signature of olivine from the basal breccia at Voisey's Bay that is characteristic of contamination of the parent magma by country rock gneiss, and there reflects a close proximity to massive sulfides. In conjunction with petrographic observation and the stratigraphic context, a multiple-element (V-Cr-Mn-Fe-Co-Ni-Zn) regression can be applied to calculate a lateral proximity of olivine to massive sulfide mineralization in the Eastern Deeps part of the Voisey's Bay intrusion, over a distance exceeding 150 m. The compositional variations in olivine from the economic Voisey's Bay intrusion (bimodal and primitive) and the mainly barren Pants Lake intrusion (homogeneous and evolved) provide potential as a regional-scale mineralogical fertility indicator for mafic intrusions with comparable types of sulfide mineralization.

  3. Role of the source to building lateral separation distance in petroleum vapor intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verginelli, Iason; Capobianco, Oriana; Baciocchi, Renato

    2016-06-01

    The adoption of source to building separation distances to screen sites that need further field investigation is becoming a common practice for the evaluation of the vapor intrusion pathway at sites contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. Namely, for the source to building vertical distance, the screening criteria for petroleum vapor intrusion have been deeply investigated in the recent literature and fully addressed in the recent guidelines issued by ITRC and U.S.EPA. Conversely, due to the lack of field and modeling studies, the source to building lateral distance received relatively low attention. To address this issue, in this work we present a steady-state vapor intrusion analytical model incorporating a piecewise first-order aerobic biodegradation limited by oxygen availability that accounts for lateral source to building separation. The developed model can be used to evaluate the role and relevance of lateral vapor attenuation as well as to provide a site-specific assessment of the lateral screening distances needed to attenuate vapor concentrations to risk-based values. The simulation outcomes showed to be consistent with field data and 3-D numerical modeling results reported in previous studies and, for shallow sources, with the screening criteria recommended by U.S.EPA for the vertical separation distance. Indeed, although petroleum vapors can cover maximum lateral distances up to 25-30 m, as highlighted by the comparison of model outputs with field evidences of vapor migration in the subsurface, simulation results by this new model indicated that, regardless of the source concentration and depth, 6 m and 7 m lateral distances are sufficient to attenuate petroleum vapors below risk-based values for groundwater and soil sources, respectively. However, for deep sources (> 5 m) and for low to moderate source concentrations (benzene concentrations lower than 5 mg/L in groundwater and 0.5 mg/kg in soil) the above criteria were found extremely conservative as

  4. Petrogenetic connections between volcanic rocks and intrusive suites in the California arc - toward an integrated model for upper-crustal magma system evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, A. P.; Riggs, N.; Walker, J. D.; Andrew, J.; Jacobson, C. E.; Miller, D. M.; Robert, J.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic and clastic sedimentary rocks in deeply eroded, predominantly plutonic arcs provide records of arc development and the links between volcanic and plutonic processes. We are analyzing existing and new geochronologic and petrologic data from volcanic breccias, ignimbrites and intrusive suites in the Sierra Nevada and Mojave Desert sectors of the Mesozoic California arc, in an effort to construct an integrated volcano-plutonic model for silicic magmatism in arc upper crust. SIMS and TIMS U-Pb zircon ages, immobile element abundances in whole rocks, and trace element abundances in zircons allow us to interpret the magmatic heritage of ignimbrites and components of underlying granodioritic to granitic intrusive suites. Preliminary results suggest several conclusions: (1) first-order magma production was episodic, with plutonic, forearc and retro-arc detrital zircons defining three magmatic pulses of ~40-60 m.y. duration that are largely mimicked by the more limited record of zircons in ignimbrites; (2) in the Triassic and Jurassic, second-order pulses on 2-10 m.y. time scales are recorded in both the intrusive and ignimbrite records, suggesting that eruption of ignimbrites was synchronous at the shortest resolvable time scales with assembly of underlying incrementally emplaced intrusive suites; (3) ignimbrites range from dacite to rhyolite in bulk composition, and are petrographically similar to modern "monotonous intermediate" dacite or phenocryst-poor low-silica rhyolite; (4) these tuffs are as fractionated as intrusive rocks, and commonly, though not always, contain zircons with similarly complex, multi-stage growth histories. Thus ignimbrites and felsic granodiorites in this arc are complementary elements recording lengthy and episodic evolutionary histories in cool and hydrous upper-crustal arc magma systems.

  5. Petrogenesis of postcollisional magmatism at Scheelite Dome, Yukon, Canada: Evidence for a lithospheric mantle source for magmas associated with intrusion-related gold systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mair, John L.; Farmer, G. Lang; Groves, David I.; Hart, Craig J.R.; Goldfarb, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    The type examples for the class of deposits termed intrusion-related gold systems occur in the Tombstone-Tungsten belt of Alaska and Yukon, on the eastern side of the Tintina gold province. In this part of the northern Cordillera, extensive mid-Cretaceous postcollisional plutonism took place following the accretion of exotic terranes to the continental margin. The most cratonward of the resulting plutonic belts comprises small isolated intrusive centers, with compositionally diverse, dominantly potassic rocks, as exemplified at Scheelite Dome, located in central Yukon. Similar to other spatially and temporally related intrusive centers, the Scheelite Dome intrusions are genetically associated with intrusion-related gold deposits. Intrusions have exceptional variability, ranging from volumetrically dominant clinopyroxene-bearing monzogranites, to calc-alkaline minettes and spessartites, with an intervening range of intermediate to felsic stocks and dikes, including leucominettes, quartz monzonites, quartz monzodiorites, and granodiorites. All rock types are potassic, are strongly enriched in LILEs and LREEs, and feature high LILE/HFSE ratios. Clinopyroxene is common to all rock types and ranges from salite in felsic rocks to high Mg augite and Cr-rich diopside in lamprophyres. Less common, calcic amphibole ranges from actinolitic hornblende to pargasite. The rocks have strongly radiogenic Sr (initial 87Sr/86Sr from 0.711-0.714) and Pb isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb from 19.2-19.7), and negative initial εNd values (-8.06 to -11.26). Whole-rock major and trace element, radiogenic isotope, and mineralogical data suggest that the felsic to intermediate rocks were derived from mafic potassic magmas sourced from the lithospheric mantle via fractional crystallization and minor assimilation of metasedimentary crust. Mainly unmodified minettes and spessartites represent the most primitive and final phases emplaced. Metasomatic enrichments in the underlying lithospheric mantle

  6. Lateral variation of H2O contents in Quaternary Magma of central Northeastern Japan arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyagi, I.; Matsu'ura, T.; Itoh, J.; Morishita, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Water plays a key role in the genesis and eruptive mechanisms of subduction zone volcanoes. We estimated bulk rock water content of both frontal and back arc volcanoes from Northeastern Japan arc in order to understand the lateral variation of magmatic H2O contents in the island arc magma. Our analytical targets are the Adachi volcano located near the volcanic front and the Hijiori volcano located on back arc side. In this study, the bulk magmatic H2O content is estimated by a simple mass balance calculation of the chemistry of bulk rock and melt inclusions in phenocrysts; the melt H2O contents of melt inclusions analyzed by SIMS or EPMA are corrected according to the difference in K2O content between melt inclusions and bulk rock. The bulk magmatic H2O we obtained is 8 wt. % or even more for Adachi and is 2-3 wt. % for Hijiori. Thus, the frontal volcano has higher H2O than the back arc volcano. Although our data are opposed to the previous estimation on the lateral variation of H2O contents in Quaternary volcanoes of Northeastern Japan arc (e.g., Sakuyama, 1979), thermodynamic computations using MELTS (Ghiorso and Sack, 1995) suggest that the amount of bulk magmatic H2O we estimated is consistent with petrographical observations. Our data imply a regional characteristics in the type of eruption that the H2O rich frontal volcanoes will erupt explosively and those H2O poor back arc ones will be effusive, which implication is consistent with actual geological observations that volcanoes located on back arc side of the Northeastern Japan arc generally comprise lava flow (e.g., Iwaki, Kanpu, Chokai, Gassan), in contrast to the frontal ones that produced voluminous tephra (e.g., Osorezan, Towada, Narugo, Adachi). This research project has been conducted under the research contract with Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA).

  7. Construction of the Vinalhaven Intrusive Complex, Maine, USA: the Plutonic Record of Evolving Magma Chambers Affected by Multiple Episodes of Replenishment, Rejuvenation, Crystal Accumulation and Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, R. A.; Hawkins, D. P.

    2004-12-01

    Increasingly, the plutonic roots of volcanic systems can be shown to contain temporal records of events inferred from the study of volcanic rocks. The Vinalhaven intrusive complex preserves evidence for multiple episodes of silicic and mafic replenishments, rejuvenation of granite, and probable eruptive events over a nominal time-span of 1.7 Ma (Hawkins and Wiebe, this volume). The complex is about 12 km in diameter and consists mainly of cg granite, a thick section of arcuate, inward-dipping gabbro-diorite sheets in the southeastern half of the complex, and a circular core of fg granite. Field relations demonstrate that the base of the intrusion is along the southeastern margin of the complex, and the top is along the northwestern margin where it intrudes coeval volcanic rocks. Aphyric basaltic and granitic dikes fed this essentially bimodal intrusion. When basaltic dikes intersected a silicic chamber, basalt spread across a floor of silicic crystal mush to form gabbro-diorite sheets in granite. Several extensive layers of angular blocks of country rock occur within the mafic rocks. Granitic dikes and the fg granitic core of the complex have sharp to gradational contacts with cg granite, and, locally, both granites are intimately mixed and commingled. These relations indicate that new silicic injections mixed into partly crystallized resident magma. Several irregular bodies of porphyry (0.2 to 0.5 km in average dimension) intrude cg granite with sharp, gradational, or commingled contacts. The porphyry has 5 to 40% corroded phenocrysts, identical in composition to crystals in the granite, and a variably quenched matrix. Some of these bodies formed when late injections of basalt remelted largely solid portions of cg granite. New silicic input may have contributed to other porphyry bodies. The matrix probably quenched because of a sudden decrease in pressure, possibly due to eruption of magma from the chamber. The cg granite and inter-layered mafic rocks preserve a

  8. Evaluation of site-specific lateral inclusion zone for vapor intrusion based on an analytical approach.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yijun; Wu, Yun; Tang, Mengling; Wang, Yue; Wang, Jianjin; Suuberg, Eric M; Jiang, Lin; Liu, Jing

    2015-11-15

    In 2002, U.S. EPA proposed a general buffer zone of approximately 100 feet (30 m) laterally to determine which buildings to include in vapor intrusion (VI) investigations. However, this screening distance can be threatened by factors such as extensive surface pavements. Under such circumstances, EPA recommended investigating soil vapor migration distance on a site-specific basis. To serve this purpose, we present an analytical model (AAMLPH) as an alternative to estimate lateral VI screening distances at chlorinated compound-contaminated sites. Based on a previously introduced model (AAML), AAMLPH is developed by considering the effects of impervious surface cover and soil geology heterogeneities, providing predictions consistent with the three-dimensional (3-D) numerical simulated results. By employing risk-based and contribution-based screening levels of subslab concentrations (50 and 500 μg/m(3), respectively) and source-to-subslab attenuation factor (0.001 and 0.01, respectively), AAMLPH suggests that buildings greater than 30 m from a plume boundary can still be affected by VI in the presence of any two of the three factors, which are high source vapor concentration, shallow source and significant surface cover. This finding justifies the concern that EPA has expressed about the application of the 30 m lateral separation distance in the presence of physical barriers (e.g., asphalt covers or ice) at the ground surface. PMID:26057584

  9. Evidence from gabbro of the Troodos ophiolite for lateral magma transport along a slow-spreading mid-ocean ridge.

    PubMed

    Abelson, M; Baer, G; Agnon, A

    2001-01-01

    The lateral flow of magma and ductile deformation of the lower crust along oceanic spreading axes has been thought to play a significant role in suppressing both mid-ocean ridge segmentation and variations in crustal thickness. Direct investigation of such flow patterns is hampered by the kilometres of water that cover the oceanic crust, but such studies can be made on ophiolites (fragments of oceanic crust accreted to a continent). In the Oman ophiolite, small-scale radial patterns of flow have been mapped along what is thought to be the relict of a fast-spreading mid-ocean ridge. Here we present evidence for broad-scale along-axis flow that has been frozen into the gabbro of the Troodos ophiolite in Cyprus (thought to be representative of a slow-spreading ridge axis). The gabbro suite of Troodos spans nearly 20 km of a segment of a fossil spreading axis, near a ridge-transform intersection. We mapped the pattern of magma flow by analysing the rocks' magnetic fabric at 20 sites widely distributed in the gabbro suite, and by examining the petrographic fabric at 9 sites. We infer an along-axis magma flow for much of the gabbro suite, which indicates that redistribution of melt occurred towards the segment edge in a large depth range of the oceanic crust. Our results support the magma plumbing structure that has been inferred indirectly from a seismic tomography experiment on the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

  10. Evidence from gabbro of the Troodos ophiolite for lateral magma transport along a slow-spreading mid-ocean ridge.

    PubMed

    Abelson, M; Baer, G; Agnon, A

    2001-01-01

    The lateral flow of magma and ductile deformation of the lower crust along oceanic spreading axes has been thought to play a significant role in suppressing both mid-ocean ridge segmentation and variations in crustal thickness. Direct investigation of such flow patterns is hampered by the kilometres of water that cover the oceanic crust, but such studies can be made on ophiolites (fragments of oceanic crust accreted to a continent). In the Oman ophiolite, small-scale radial patterns of flow have been mapped along what is thought to be the relict of a fast-spreading mid-ocean ridge. Here we present evidence for broad-scale along-axis flow that has been frozen into the gabbro of the Troodos ophiolite in Cyprus (thought to be representative of a slow-spreading ridge axis). The gabbro suite of Troodos spans nearly 20 km of a segment of a fossil spreading axis, near a ridge-transform intersection. We mapped the pattern of magma flow by analysing the rocks' magnetic fabric at 20 sites widely distributed in the gabbro suite, and by examining the petrographic fabric at 9 sites. We infer an along-axis magma flow for much of the gabbro suite, which indicates that redistribution of melt occurred towards the segment edge in a large depth range of the oceanic crust. Our results support the magma plumbing structure that has been inferred indirectly from a seismic tomography experiment on the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge. PMID:11343114

  11. Crustal melting and magma mixing in a continental arc setting: Evidence from the Yaloman intrusive complex in the Gorny Altai terrane, Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Cai, Keda; Zhao, Guochun; Kulikova, Anna V.; Rubanova, Elena S.

    2016-05-01

    Granitoids and their hosted mafic enclaves may retain important information on crust-mantle interaction, and thus are significant for study of crustal growth and differentiation. An integrated petrological, geochronological and geochemical study on the granitoid plutons of the Yaloman intrusive complex from the Gorny Altai terrane, northwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, was conducted to determine their source nature, petrogenesis and geodynamics. Mafic enclaves are common in the plutons, and a zircon U-Pb age (389 Ma ± 4 Ma) indicates that they are coeval with their granitoid hosts (ca. 393-387 Ma). Petrographic observations reveal that these mafic enclaves probably represent magmatic globules commingled with their host magmas. The relatively low SiO2 contents (46.0-60.7 wt.%) and high Mg# (38.9-56.5) further suggest that mantle-derived mafic melts served as a crucial component in the formation of these mafic enclaves. The granitoid hosts, including quartz diorites and granodiorites, are I-type in origin, possessing higher SiO2 contents (60.2-69.9 wt.%) and lower Mg# (32.0-44.2). Their zircon Hf and whole-rock Nd isotopic compositions indicate that the magmas were dominated by remelting of Neoproterozoic (0.79-1.07 Ga) crustal materials. Meanwhile, the geochemical modeling, together with the common occurrence of igneous mafic enclaves and the observation of reversely zoned plagioclases, suggests that magma mixing possibly contributed significantly to the geochemical variation of the granitoid hosts. Our results imply that mafic magmas from the mantle not only provided substantial heat to melt the lower crust, but also mixed with the crust-derived melts to form the diverse granitoids. The oxidizing and water-enriched properties inferred from the mineral assemblages and compositions imply that the granitoid plutons of the Yaloman intrusive complex were possibly formed in a continental arc-related setting, which is also supported by their geochemistry. The

  12. The intrusion of new magma triggered the 2011-2012 unrest at Santorini: evidence from noble-gas isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, A.; Barberi, F.; Carapezza, M.; Di Piazza, A.; Francalanci, L.; Sortino, F.; D'Alessandro, W.

    2013-12-01

    Santorini is one of the most famous active volcanoes of the world for its catastrophic explosive eruption that occurred during the Minoan civilization. Since then the Kameni eruptive centers that formed within the caldera erupted repeatedly until 1950. In 2011-2012 the volcano has been characterized by a seismic unrest, that was unprecedented at Santorini at least since the 1950 eruption, and that led to fear for an imminent eruption. Because more than 100,000 visitors are present on the island during the tourist season, and considering the eruptive potential of Santorini, it is crucial to evaluate the hazard of this volcano, which depends on the type of magma actually present in the volcanic system. With the aim to address this question, this research shows the first comparison between noble-gas isotope composition of the present fumarolic gases with that of fluid inclusions hosted in enclaves contained in the 1570 and 1925 AD dacitic magmas erupted at Nea Kameni. These enclaves are a portion of mafic magma batches that replenished the shallow chamber of the plumbing system hosting cooler and more silicic melts. Their Sr-Nd isotope ratios are quite similar to those measured in the host dacitic rocks, implying a common parental magma. Therefore, the analyzed enclaves may be considered representative of the historic magma erupted at Nea Kameni which could be still present in the volcano plumbing system feeding the crater fumaroles. The 3He/4He ratios of enclaves, once corrected for air contamination (3.1-3.6 Ra), partially overlap those of the gases (3.5-4.0 Ra) collected from Nea and Palea Kameni. The range of 3He/4He ratios (3.1-4.0 Ra) is appreciably lower than typical arc volcanoes (R/Ra ~7-8), implying that a contamination by 4He-rich fluids occurred either directly in the mantle and/or in the plumbing system. Comparison of 3He/4He and 4He/40Ar* ratios measured in enclaves with those of gases, as well as long-term monitoring of R/Ra in the latters, coherently

  13. A Chill Sequence to the Bushveld Complex - Insight into the First Stages of Emplacement and the Parental Magmas to the World's Largest Layered Intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, A.

    2012-04-01

    Evidence of the initial stages of magma emplacement in large mafic chambers is commonly lacking because of resorption of early-formed chills and complicated by the fact that the first magmas that entered the chamber were usually more evolved than the true parental magma. Deep drilling has revealed a rare occurrence of a chill sequence from the eastern Bushveld Complex at the base of a previously unrecognized thick succession of ultramafic rocks that forms part of the Lower Zone. The chill sequence (1.8 m thick) includes a true chill against quartzite floor rock, crystalline quench textured and orthopyroxene spinifex textured rocks. Importantly the chill composition represents a relatively evolved magma formed by the separation of high-Mg olivines prior to its emplacement, probably in a conduit or a pre-chamber. An overlying pyroxene dunite represents the extract that gave rise to the chill and was emplaced either as a crystal slurry derived from the feeder conduit or as the crystallization product from a slightly later influx of primitive magma of komatiitic composition. This highly-Mg rich pyroxene dunite most likely acted as a barrier to the thermal erosion of the chill sequence as the chamber filled. The olivine in the pyroxene dunite layer is the most primitive yet recorded for the Bushveld Complex at Mg# 0.915, and the cores of associated orthopyroxene are Mg# 0.93. Compositions of the orthopyroxene in the quench and spinifex textured units range from Mg# 0.91 to 0.72 and preserve cores close to the original liquidus as well as tracking the complete in-situ solidification process. Olivine contains abundant dendritic exsolution structures of Cr-spinel and Al-rich clinopyroxene indicating that they formed at high temperature from incorporation of Ca, Al and Cr into olivine, with little time to equilibrate before emplacement. Chromite in the section is the most primitive yet recorded for the Bushveld Complex. The komatiite magma that was initially emplaced into

  14. CO2-dependent fractional crystallization of alkaline silicate magmas and unmixing of carbonatites within the intrusive complexes of Brava Island (Cape Verde)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidendorfer, D.; Schmidt, M. W.; Mattsson, H. B.

    2014-12-01

    Intrusive carbonatites often occur in intimate association with SiO2-undersaturated rocks such as melilitites, nephelinites, syenites and phonolites. The occurrence of carbonatites on five of the 10 main islands of the Cape Verde hotspot argues for a CO2-enriched mantle source. Whether alkali-poor carbonatites on the Cape Verdes directly represent small mantle melt fractions or form by extreme fractionation and/or liquid immiscibility from a CO2-rich silicate magma remains a matter of debate. This study focuses on the pyroxenites, nephelinites, ijolites, syenites, phonolites and carbonatites of the intrusive unit of Brava Island. This relative complete series allows for the deduction of a CO2-dependent fractionation pathway from the most primitive basanitic dikes towards phonolitic compositions through an ijolitic series. Major and trace element whole rock and mineral composition trends can be reproduced by fractionating a sequence of olivine, augite, perovskite, biotite, apatite, sodalite and FeTi-oxides, present as phenocrysts in the rocks corresponding to their fractionation interval. To reproduce the observed chemistry of the alkaline silicate rocks a total fractionation of ~87% is required. The melts evolve towards the carbonatite-silicate miscibility gap, an initial CO2 of 0.5 wt% would be sufficient to maintain CO2-saturation in the more evolved compositions. The modelled carbonatite compositions, conjugate to nepheline-syenites to phonolites, correspond well to the observed ones except for an alkali-enrichment with respect to the natural samples. The alkali-depleted nature of the small carbonatite intrusions and dikes on Brava is likely a consequence of fluid-release to the surrounding wall-rocks during crystallization, where fenitization can be observed. The trace element chemistry of primary carbonates and also cpx within both, the carbonatites and the associated silicate rocks, substantiates our fractionation model. Furthermore, carbonatite and silicate

  15. Dynamic model of intrusion of magma and/or magmatic fluids in the large-scale deformation source of the Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescentini, Luca; Amoruso, Antonella; Luongo, Annamaria

    2015-04-01

    The Campi Flegrei (CF) caldera is located in a densely populated area close to Naples (Southern Italy). It is renowned as a site of continual slow vertical movements. After the last eruption in 1538, the caldera generally subsided until 1969 when minor uplift occurred. In the early 1970s this uplift became significant (~1.5 m max). A further large uplift episode occurred from 1982 to 1984 (~1.8 m max), and subsequently smaller uplift episodes have occurred since then. Amoruso et al. (2014a,b) have recently shown that the CF surface deformation field from 1980 to 2013 can be decomposed into two stationary parts. Large-scale deformation can be explained by a quasi-horizontal source, oriented NW to SE and mathematically represented by a pressurized finite triaxial ellipsoid (PTE) ~4 km deep, possibly related to the injection of magma and/or magmatic fluids from a deeper magma chamber into a sill, or pressurization of interconnected (micro)cavities. Residual deformation not accounted for by PTE is confined to the Solfatara fumarolic area and can be mathematically explained by a small (point) pressurized oblate spheroid (PS) ~2 km below the Solfatara fumarolic field, that has been equated with a poroelastic response of the substratum to pore pressure increases near the injection point of hot magmatic fluids into the hydrothermal system. A satisfying feature of this double source model is that the geometric source parameters of each are constant over the period 1980-2013 with the exception of volume changes (potencies). Several papers have ascribed CF deformation to the injection of magmatic fluids at the base of the hydrothermal system. All models predict complex spatial and temporal evolution of the deformation pattern and consequently contrast with the observed deformation pattern stationarity. Also recently proposed dynamic models of sill intrusion in a shallow volcanic environment do not satisfy the observed CF deformation pattern stationarity. We have developed an

  16. Magma mixing in late-stage granitoids of the Pioneer intrusive complex, south central Idaho and tectonic implications

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, A.J.; Geist, D. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Eocene granitoids that intrude the Pioneer Mountain core complex, located approximately twenty miles northeast of Sun Valley, Idaho, grad west to east from mafic granodiorite to porphyritic quartz monzonite. The two main phases, porphyritic coarse-grained quartz monzonite and fine-grained granodiorite, exhibit field evidence suggestive of magma mixing as indicated by gradational contacts with swirling textures on scales from centimeters to tens of meters, and both phases are found as inclusion within each other. Generally, granodiorite intrudes quartz monzonite and may represent a late stage injection into the center of the semi-consolidated monzonitic magma. Petrological modeling indicates the hybrids are mixtures of the monzonite and granodiorite. Field and petrographic evidence suggest emplacement of the granitoids occurred before latest faulting, as demonstrated by a lack of contact metamorphic effects on the surrounding Paleozoic sediments. Moreover, the development of gneissic fabric, cataclastic and mylonitic fabrics, development of cross-cutting chlorite, epidote, and quartz veinlets, and brecciated fault contacts within the granitoids provide further support for Eocene emplacement prior to or contemporaneous with faulting. These observations provide additional constraints on the cessation of extensional tectonics in south central Idaho.

  17. Groundwater level changes in a deep well in response to a magma intrusion event on Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurwitz, S.; Johnston, M.J.S.

    2003-01-01

    On May 21, 2001, an abrupt inflation of Kilauea Volcano's summit induced a rapid and large increase in compressional strain, with a maximum of 2 ??strain recorded by a borehole dilatometer. Water level (pressure) simultaneously dropped by 6 cm. This mode of water level change (drop) is in contrast to that expected for compressional strain from poroelastic theory, and therefore it is proposed that the stress applied by the intrusion has caused opening of fractures or interflows that drained water out of the well. Upon relaxation of the stress recorded by the dilatometer, water levels have recovered at a similar rate. The proposed model has implications for the analysis of ground surface deformation and for mechanisms that trigger phreatomagmatic eruptions.

  18. Petrological constraints on the recycling of mafic crystal mushes, magma ascent and intrusion of braided sills in the Torres del Paine mafic complex (Patagonia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuthold, Julien; Müntener, Othmar; Baumgartner, Lukas; Putlitz, Benita

    2014-05-01

    Cumulate and crystal mush disruption and reactivation are difficult to recognise in coarse grained shallow plutonic rocks. Mafic minerals included in hornblende and zoned plagioclase provide snapshots of early crystallization and cumulate formation, but are difficult to interpret in terms of the dynamics of magma ascent and possible links between silicic and mafic rock emplacement. We will present the field relations, the microtextures and the mineral chemistry of the Miocene mafic sill complex of the Torres del Paine intrusive complex (Patagonia, Chile) and its sub-vertical feeder-zone. The mafic sill complex was built up by a succession of braided sills of shoshonitic and high-K calc-alkaline porphyritic hornblende-gabbro and fine grained monzodioritic sills. The mafic units were over-accreted over 41±11 ka, underplating the overlying granite. Local diapiric structures and felsic magma accumulation between sills indicate limited separation of intercumulus liquid from the mafic sills. Anhedral hornblende cores, with olivine + clinopyroxene ± plagioclase ± apatite inclusions, crystallized at temperatures >900°C and pressures of ~300 to ~500 MPa. The corresponding rims and monzodiorite matrix crystallized at <830°C, ~70 MPa. This abrupt compositional variation suggests stability and instability of hornblende during mafic roots recycling and subsequent decompression. The near lack of intercumulus crystals in the sub-vertical feeder zone layered gabbronorite and pyroxene-hornblende gabbronorite stocks testifies that melt is more efficiently extracted than in sills, resulting in a cumulate signature in the feeding system. The emplacement age of the sill complex topmost granitic unit is identical, within uncertainties, to the feeder zone mafic cumulates. Granitic liquids formed by AFC processes and were extracted at high temperature (T>950°C) from the middle crust reservoir to the emplacement level. We show that hornblende-plagioclase thermobarometry is a useful

  19. Lateral variation of H2O/K2O ratios in Quaternary Magma of the Northeastern Japan arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyagi, I.

    2012-12-01

    Water plays a fundamental role in the magma genesis beneath subduction zones. In order to estimate a spatial distribution of the density of water flux in the wedge mantle of the Northeastern Japan arc, this study examines a lateral variation of pre-eruptive bulk rock H2O/K2O contents among volcanoes located both in the frontal and in back arc settings. The analytical targets are the frontal volcanoes Nigorikawa (N42.12 E140.45), Zenikame (N41.74 E140.85), Adachi (N38.22 E140.65), and Nanashigure (N40.07 E141.11), and the back arc ones Hijiori (N38.61 E140.17) and Kanpu (N39.93 E139.88). The bulk magmatic H2O content (TH2O) is calculated from a mass balance of hydrogen isotopic ratios among three phases in a batch of magma; dissolved water in melt, excess H2O vapor, and hydrous phenocrysts such as amphiboles (Miyagi and Matsubaya, 2003). Since the amount of H2O in hydrous phenocryst is negligible, the bulk magmatic H2O content can be written as TH2O = (30 XD CD) / (15 - dT + dMW), where dMW is the measured hydrogen isotopic ratio of hydrous phenocrysts, XD is a melt fraction of magma, CD is a water concentration of the melt, and dT is hydrogen isotopic ratios of a bulk magma (assumed to be -50 per-mil). Both XD and CD are estimated from bulk rock chemistry of the sample using the MELTS program (Ghiorso and Sack, 1995). Hydrogen isotopic fractionation factors are assumed to be -15 and -30 per-mil for vapor and hydrous mineral, and vapor and silicate melt, respectively. There observed a clear difference among the H2O/K2O ratios of bulk magmas from the frontal and back arc volcanoes. For instance higher H2O/K2O wt ratios was observed in the frontal volcanoes (Nigorikawa 5.3, Zenikame 11-12, Adachi 8-10, and Nanashigure 4-18), while lower H2O/K2O wt ratios was observed in the back arc ones (Kanpu 0-2.5 and Hijiori 1.4). The lateral variation of H2O/K2O ratios infer the higher water flux through the frontal side of wedge mantle, which can be a potential cause of the

  20. Construction of an Upper Crustal Reservoir by Lateral Magma Propagation: New insights from Geochronological Data of La Gloria Pluton, Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, F. J.; Guillong, M.; Payacán, I. J.; Aravena, A.; Bachmann, O.; Parada, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    La Gloria Pluton (LGP) is a 10 Ma shallow elongated NNW reservoir of 17 km length and 4-6 km width as part of a NS trend of Miocene plutons in Central Chile. New LA-ICPMS U-Pb ages in zircons of La Gloria Pluton indicate that crystallization occurs mostly within an interval between 11.2 to 10 Ma, with southeastward decreasing ages. Zircon crystallization ages are consistently older at the boundaries of the pluton than at the center for a given cross-section. At regional scale the ages of LGP follows a plutonic trend of southward decreasing age: Estero Yerba Loca (10 Ma) and San Francisco Batholith (SFB), in the north; and Cerro Mesón Alto (12.5 Ma) and San Gabriel (SG; 13 Ma), in the south. Both regional and local (within-LGP) age trends suggest: 1) a progressive northward migration of the main deep magmatic source during the Miocene; and 2) a southeastward lateral propagation of the magma during the reservoir construction. The lateral propagation of the magma is also supported by subhorizontal mineral and magnetic lineations with a preferred NNW orientation within LGP. The within-pluton age distribution and internal configuration suggest incremental construction with horizontal propagation of magma within channels. Because the lateral migration of the magma play an important role on the thermal structure of the cooling pluton we perform numerical simulations that account for reheating caused by refilling along the axial core of the pluton . We speculate that pre-existing shallow crustal structures (faults and folds) would allow lateral magma canalization, particularly between the lower highly deformed volcanic Abanico Fm. and the less deformed overlaying volcanic Farellones Fm. The pluton distribution and internal organization in and around LGP suggest incremental construction with vertical and horizontal migration of magma within channels and reservoirs, yielding plutonic complexes with protracted ages and elongated geometries.

  1. Deformation of host rocks and flow of magma during growth of minette dikes and breccia-bearing intrusions near Ship Rock, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delaney, Paul T.; Pollard, David D.

    1981-01-01

    We have studied a small group of minette dikes and plugs that crop out within a flat-lying sequence of siltstone and shale near Ship Rock, a prominent volcanic throat of tuff breccia in northwestern New Mexico. Seven dikes form a radial pattern about Ship Rock we describe in detail the northeastern dike, which has an outcrop length of about 2,900 m, an average thickness of 2.3 m, and a maximum thickness of 7.2 m. The dike is composed of 35 discrete segments arranged in echelon; orientation. of dike segments ranges systematically from N. 52? E. to N. 66? E. A prominent joint set strikes parallel to the segments and is localized within several tens of meters of the dike. Regional joint patterns display no obvious relation to dike orientation. Small offsets of segment contacts, as well as wedge-shaped bodies of crumpled host rock within segments mark the sites of coalescence of smaller segments during dike growth. Bulges in the dike contact, which represent a nondilational component of growth, indicate that wall rocks were brecciated and eroded during the flow of magma. Breccias make up about 9 percent of the 7,176-m 2 area of the dike, are concentrated in its southwest half, and are commonly associated with its thickest parts. We also describe three subcircular plugs; each plug is smaller than 30 m in diameter, is laterally associated with a dike, and contains abundant breccias. Field evidence indicates that these plugs grew from the dikes by brecciation and erosion of wallrocks and that the bulges in the contact of the northeastern dike represent an initial stage of this process. From continuum-mechanical models of host-rock deformation, we conclude that dike propagation was the dominant mechanism for creating conduits for magma ascent where the host rock was brittle and elastic. At a given driving pressure, dikes dilate to accept greater volumes of magma than plugs, and for a given dilation, less work is done on the host rocks. In addition, the pressure required

  2. Important role of magma mixing in generating the Mesozoic monzodioritic-granodioritic intrusions related to Cu mineralization, Tongling, East China: Evidence from petrological and in situ Sr-Hf isotopic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. J.; Chen, B.; Li, Z.; Wang, Z. Q.

    2016-04-01

    The Mesozoic ore-bearing high-Mg monzodioritic-granodioritic rocks in the Tongling mining district (East China) have been described as having adakitic affinities, and their origin has been attributed to partial melting of delaminated eclogite at depth in the mantle, followed by interaction of the resultant granitic magma with mantle peridotite. Here we present petrological data and in situ Sr isotopic data for zoned plagioclase that are inconsistent with the eclogite-derived model and instead propose a model that involves magma mixing of siliceous crustal melts and basaltic magma that was derived from metasomatized mantle in a back-arc extensional regime. The principal geochemical signatures of these Mesozoic rocks include a high-K calc-alkaline affinity, high values of Mg#, high Sr-Ba abundances, high Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios, εNd(t) = - 13.1 to - 9.0, and ISr = 0.70707-0.70824. The magma mixing model is supported by (1) the common existence of mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) and the disequilibrium textures of plagioclase and amphibole, (2) the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of embayed high-Ca cores of plagioclase that are distinctly lower than in the euhedral low-Ca overgrowth rims, (3) the negative correlations between whole-rock Nd and Sr isotopic ratios, and (4) the significant differences in the values of εHf(t) (- 9.5 to - 26) within different zircons from the same intrusion.

  3. Shallow lateral magma migration or not during the Bárðarbunga 2014 activity and preceding the Flæðahraun eruption: the geochemical perspective.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmarsson, Olgeir

    2015-04-01

    Basaltic fissure eruptions several tens of km away from central volcanoes in Iceland are interpreted to reflect either lateral magma migration from a shallow magma chamber beneath the central volcano, or vertical dyke propagation from deep magma reservoir underlying large part of the fissure swarm. During the Krafla Fires (1975-1984) basalts emitted within the caldera of the central volcano and far away out on the fissure swarm have different composition. During the subglacial eruption at Gjálp (1996), halfway between Grímsvötn and Bárdarbunga, the erupted magma had identical isotope ratios as that of the former but different from that of the latter, despite earthquake originating at Bárdarbunga and propagation towards the eruption site at Gjálp. These geochemical fingerprints have been taken to indicate that lateral magma migration over tens of km was an unlikely process. The spectacular lateral migration of seismicity from 16 August to 29 August and associated ground deformation has been interpreted to reflect a lateral dyke injection over 45 km, from a shallow magma chamber beneath the Bárðarbunga central volcano to the eruption site forming the new Flæðahraun (Sigmundsson et al., 2015). The isotope ratio of Sr in Flæðahraun is identical to that of Holocene lavas and tephra produced at the Bárdarbunga Volcanic System confirming uniform Sr isotope ratios at a given volcanic system in Iceland. Thermodynamic equlibrium between mineral and magmatic liquid indicate that the first Flæðahraun olivine tholeiite originated from more than 10 km depth at a temperature of approximately 1180 °C. Basalt this hot is not likely to have been stored in a superficial magma chamber before migrating laterally at shallow depth over 40 km beneath a glacier covered surface. Basalts crystallizing at variable depth should have different trace element composition caused by evolving crystallizing mineral assemblage, where plagioclase proportions should increase with

  4. Important role of magma mixing in generating the Mesozoic monzodioritic-granodioritic intrusions related to Cu mineralization, Tongling, East China: evidence from petrological and in situ Sr-Hf isotopic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Chen, ChangJian

    2016-04-01

    The Mesozoic ore-bearing high-Mg monzodioritic-granodioritic rocks in the Tongling mining district (East China) have been described as having adakitic affinities, and their origin has been attributed to partial melting of delaminated eclogite at depth in the mantle, followed by interaction of the resultant granitic magma with mantle peridotite. Here we present petrological data and in situ Sr isotopic data for zoned plagioclase that are inconsistent with the eclogite-derived model, and instead propose a model that involves magma mixing of siliceous crustal melts and basaltic magma that was derived from metasomatized mantle by subduction zone fluids in an extensional regime. The principal geochemical signatures of these Mesozoic rocks include a hydrous and high-K calc-alkaline affinity, high values of Mg#, high Sr abundances, high Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios, ɛNd(t)=-13.1 to -9.0, and ISr=0.70707-0.70824. The magma mixing model is supported by (1) the common existence of mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) and the disequilibrium textures of plagioclase and hornblende, (2) the increase in Ti and Al(IV) from hornblende cores to rims, and the overgrowths of high-Ca pyroxene around hornblende grains as well, indicative of episode of heating and rejuvenation of the magma chamber as a result of recharge of mafic magma, (3) the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of embayed high-Ca cores of plagioclase that are distinctly lower than in the euhedral low-Ca overgrowth rims, (4) negative correlations between whole-rock Nd and Sr isotopic ratios, and (5) the significant differences in the values of ɛHf(t) (-9.5 to -26) within different zircons from the same intrusion. We propose that underplating of hydrous basaltic magma from the metasomatized lithospheric mantle in the lower crust resulted in partial melting of the lower crustal rocks (Precambrian TTG gneisses and amphibolite/granulite) under water-saturated conditions, during which plagioclase decomposed, leaving hornblende-rich restites and

  5. Late Triassic intrusive complex in the Jidong region, Jiamusi-Khanka Block, NE China: Geochemistry, zircon U-Pb ages, Lu-Hf isotopes, and implications for magma mingling and mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hao; Ge, Wen-chun; Zhao, Guo-chun; Dong, Yu; Xu, Wen-liang; Ji, Zheng; Yu, Jie-jiang

    2015-05-01

    Whole-rock major and trace element geochemistry together with zircon U-Pb ages and Lu-Hf isotope compositions are reported for a Late Triassic intrusive complex in the Jidong region, Jiamusi-Khanka Block, NE China. Zircon U-Pb dating yields ages between 211 and 208 Ma for enclaves of microgranular diorite and quartz diorite, and between 211 and 209 Ma for the host granitoids. These ages correlate with a previously established intensive Late Triassic magmatic event along the eastern Asian margin. Field observations, together with petrographic features, geochemistry, and zircon Hf isotope data, preclude simple crystal fractionation or restite unmixing as a genetic link for the various rock types within the intrusive complex. The syenogranite suite has high SiO2 (75.5-76.3 wt.%) and low MgO (0.15-0.19 wt.%), and yields enriched LILE and LREE patterns. Most of the zircons in the syenogranites have two-stage model ages of 766 and 1461 Ma, together with positive εHf(t) values of + 0.6 to + 9.1. These results indicate that the granitoid magmas were generated by partial melting of Meso- to Neoproterozoic lower crust. The gabbro suite has a restricted range of SiO2 (46.1-51.9 wt.%) together with high Mg# values (49-70) and high concentrations of Ni, Co, and Cr. Zircons from two diorite samples have single-stage Hf model ages of 557-787 Ma and εHf(t) values of + 1.9 to + 8.3 that are consistent with the coeval gabbros previously studied in the Jidong region. These features, together with the observation that all the gabbros are enriched in LREE and LILE, suggest that the mafic magmas were derived from melting of depleted Neoproterozoic lithospheric mantle that had been metasomatized by slab-derived fluids. It is concluded that the dominant igneous suites within the Late Triassic intrusive complex formed by mingling/mixing of felsic and mafic magmas. The geochemical data, combined with regional geological investigations, indicate that the Late Triassic intrusive complex

  6. Underplating of basaltic magmas and crustal growth in a continental arc: Evidence from Late Mesozoic intermediate-felsic intrusive rocks in southern Qiangtang, central Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Lu-Lu; Wang, Qiang; Wyman, Derek A.; Ou, Quan; Dan, Wei; Jiang, Zi-Qi; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Yang, Jin-Hui; Long, Xiao-Ping; Li, Jie

    2016-02-01

    Phanerozoic growth of continental crust has widely been considered as an important geological phenomenon and mainly occurs in an arc setting. However, the crustal growth models (mantle-derived basalt underplating or accretion of island or intra-oceanic arc complexes or oceanic plateau) have been disputed. Here we present new zircon LA-ICPMS U-Pb age, whole-rock major and trace element, Sr-Nd and zircon Hf isotopic data for Late Mesozoic intermediate-felsic intrusive rocks in the Rena Co area in southern Qiangtang, central Tibet. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating for two granodiorite and three diorite samples and one granodiorite porphyry sample gives ages of ca. 150 Ma, ca. 112 Ma, respectively, indicating they were generated in the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. All rocks are sub-alkaline in composition and belong to the high-K cal-alkaline series. The ~ 150 Ma diorites (SiO2 = 57.9-61.2 wt.%) exhibit relatively high MgO (3.13-3.88 wt.%) and Cr (52.4-282 ppm) contents and Mg# (47-51) values, similar to magnesian diorites. They are geochemically characterized by uniformly low εNd(t) (- 5.5 to - 5.2), high (87Sr/86Sr)i (0.7071 to 0.7078) and Th/La (0.22-0.32), and variable zircon εHf(t) (- 8.7 to + 4.8) values. They were probably generated by melting of oceanic sediment diapirs, followed by interaction with the surrounding mantle during the northward subduction of Bangong-Nujiang Oceanic lithosphere. The ~ 150 Ma granodiorites and ~ 112 Ma granodiorite porphyries are characterized by low MgO (< 3 wt.%) contents and Mg# (< 45) values, high Al2O3 (> 15% wt.%) and Sr (> 400 ppm) and low Y (< 18 ppm) and Yb (< 1.9 ppm) contents, and high Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios, which are similar to those of typical adakites. The granodiorites have low εNd(t) (- 7.6 to - 3.7) and zircon εHf(t) (- 9.8 to + 0.2) and high (87Sr/86Sr)i (0.7069 to 0.7086) values, and were likely produced by partial melting of a thickened and heterogeneous ancient lower continental crust. The relatively

  7. Evidence for multiple mechanisms of crustal contamination of magma from compositionally zoned plutons and associated ultramafic intrusions of the Alaska Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reiners, P.W.; Nelson, B.K.; Nelson, S.W.

    1996-01-01

    Models of continental crustal magmagenesis commonly invoke the interaction of mafic mantle-derived magma and continental crust to explain geochemical and petrologic characteristics of crustal volcanic and plutonic rocks. This interaction and the specific mechanisms of crustal contamination associated with it are poorly understood. An excellent opportunity to study the progressive effects of crustal contamination is offered by the composite plutons of the Alaska Range, a series of nine early Tertiary, multiply intruded, compositionally zoned (peridotite to granite) plutons. Large initial Sr and Nd isotopic contrasts between the crustal country rock and likely parental magmas allow evaluation of the mechanisms and extents of crustal contamination that accompanied the crystallization of these ultramafic through granitic rocks. Three contamination processes are distinguished in these plutons. The most obvious of these is assimilation of crustal country rock concurrent with magmatic fractional crystallization (AFC), as indicated by a general trend toward crustal-like isotopic signatures with increasing differentiation. Second, many ultramafic and mafic rocks have late-stage phenocryst reaction and orthocumulate textures that suggest interaction with felsic melt. These rocks also have variable and enriched isotopic compositions that suggest that this felsic melt was isotopically enriched and probably derived from crustal country rock. Partial melt from the flysch country rock may have reacted with and contaminated these partly crystalline magmas following the precipitation and accumulation of the cumulus phenocrysts but before complete solidification of the magma. This suggests that in magmatic mush (especially of ultramafic composition) crystallizing in continental crust, a second distinct process of crustal contamination may be super-imposed on AFC or magma mixing involving the main magma body. Finally, nearly all rocks, including mafic and ultramafic rocks, have (87Sr

  8. Magma volumes and storage in the middle crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memeti, V.; Barnes, C. G.; Paterson, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying magma volumes in magma plumbing systems is mostly done through geophysical means or based on volcanic eruptions. Detailed studies of plutons, however, are useful in revealing depths and evolving volumes of stored magmas over variable lifetimes of magma systems. Knowledge of the location, volume, and longevity of stored magma is critical for understanding where in the crust magmas attain their chemical signature, how these systems physically behave and how source, storage levels, and volcanoes are connected. Detailed field mapping, combined with single mineral geochemistry and geochronology of plutons, allow estimates of size and longevity of melt-interconnected magma batches that existed during the construction of magma storage sites. The Tuolumne intrusive complex (TIC) recorded a 10 myr magmatic history. Detailed maps of the major units in different parts of the TIC indicate overall smaller scale (cm- to <1 km) compositional variation in the oldest, outer Kuna Crest unit and mainly larger scale (>10 km) changes in the younger Half Dome and Cathedral Peak units. Mineral-scale trace element data from hornblende of granodiorites to gabbros from the Kuna Crest lobe show distinct hornblende compositions and zoning patterns. Mixed hornblende populations occur only at the transition to the main TIC. This compositional heterogeneity in the first 1-2 myr points to low volume magmatism resulting in smaller, discrete and not chemically interacting magma bodies. Trace element and Sr- and Pb-isotope data from growth zones of K-feldspar phenocrysts from the two younger granodiorites indicate complex mineral zoning, but general isotopic overlap, suggesting in-situ, inter-unit mixing and fractionation. This is supported by hybrid zones between units, mixing of zircon, hornblende, and K-feldspar populations and late leucogranites. Thus, magma body sizes increased later resulting in overall more homogeneous, but complexly mixing magma mushes that fractionated locally.

  9. Long-term changes in quiescent degassing at Mount Baker Volcano, Washington, USA; Evidence for a stalled intrusion in 1975 and connection to a deep magma source

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, C.; Evans, William C.; Poland, M.; Tucker, D.S.; Doukas, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Long-term changes have occurred in the chemistry, isotopic ratios, and emission rates of gas at Mount Baker volcano following a major thermal perturbation in 1975. In mid-1975 a large pulse in sulfur and carbon dioxide output was observed both in emission rates and in fumarole samples. Emission rates of CO2 and H2S were ??? 950 and 112??t/d, respectively, in 1975; these decreased to ??? 150 and < 1??t/d by 2007. During the peak of the activity the C/S ratio was the lowest ever observed in the Cascade Range and similar to magmatic signatures observed at other basaltic-andesite volcanoes worldwide. Increases in the C/S ratio and decreases in the CO2/CH4 ratio since 1975 suggest a long steady trend back toward a more hydrothermal gas signature. The helium isotope ratio is very high (> 7??Rc/RA), but has declined slightly since the mid-1970s, and ??13C-CO2 has decreased by ??? 1??? over time. Both trends are expected from a gradually crystallizing magma. While other scenarios are investigated, we conclude that magma intruded the mid- to shallow-crust beneath Mount Baker during the thermal awakening of 1975. Since that time, evidence for fresh magma has waned, but the continued emission of CO2 and the presence of a long-term hydrothermal system leads us to suspect some continuing connection between the surface and deep convecting magma.

  10. Magma mixing in the genesis of the Kalatongke dioritic intrusion: Implications for the tectonic switch from subduction to post-collision, Chinese Altay, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jian-Feng; Zhou, Mei-Fu

    2013-03-01

    The Kalatongke complex, located in south Chinese Altay of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), consists of the ~ 308 Ma dioritic suite intruded by the 287 Ma noritic suite. The noritic suite is composed of olivine norite and hornblende norite and hosts sulfide mineralization. The dioritic suite is composed of ferrodiorite, diorite and quartz diorite. Ferrodiorites have 43.6 to 51.8 wt.% SiO2, 8.2 to 12.1 wt.% Fe2O3T, 2.87 to 4.86 wt.% MgO, with Mg# ranging from 42 to 53. They have highly variable Al2O3 (17.4-20.7 wt.%), Na2O (2.78-4.50%), K2O (0.58-3.70%), Sr (280-1300 ppm) and Ba (219-3100 ppm). Diorites and quartz diorites have 15.2-19.6 wt.% Al2O3, 239-890 ppm Sr and170-1100 ppm Ba, 11.2-25.5 ppm Y and1.2-2.2 ppm Yb. All rocks have LREE enriched REE patterns and do not display Eu anomalies. They have primitive mantle-normalized trace element patterns enriched in large ion lithosphile elements (LILE) (e.g. Ba and Sr) and depleted in Ti, Nb and Ta. Both ferrodiorites and diorites have relatively constant initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7037 to 0.7040 but highly variable ɛNd(t) values of + 4.5 to + 11.6, whereas quartz diorites have higher initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7056) and lower ɛNd(t) values (+ 0.5). Plagioclase from ferrodiorites, diorites and quartz diorites has similar initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7015 to 0.7055. The dioritic suite formed from a mixed magma of an evolved mantle-derived basaltic magma by partial melting of subduction-modified mantle source in response to slab breakoff and a crustal-derived granitic magma at ~ 308 Ma. Before mixing with granitic magmas, basaltic magmas underwent fractional crystallization of olivine to form ferrodiorite. The mixed magma also formed diorite and quartz diorite combining fractionation clinopyroxene, amphibole and plagioclase. The noritic suite formed from a mantle-derived high-Mg magma in a post-collisional environment. Both the dioritic and noritic suites in Kalatongke suggest the switch from subduction to

  11. Effects of crustal-scale mechanical layering on magma chamber failure and magma propagation within the Venusian lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Corvec, Nicolas; McGovern, Patrick J.; Grosfils, Eric B.; Galgana, Gerald

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the connection between shallow subsurface magmatism and related surface expressions provides first-order insight into the volcanic and tectonic processes that shape a planet's evolution. When assessing the role of flexure, previous investigations assumed homogeneous host rock, but planetary lithospheres typically include crust and mantle material, and the mechanical response of a layered lithosphere subjected to flexure may influence both shallow magma reservoir failure and intrusion propagation. To assess the formation of giant radial dike systems, such as those observed on Venus, we create axisymmetric elastic finite element models of a spherical reservoir centered at the contact between stiff, dense mantle overlain by softer, lighter crust. We analyze magma chamber stability, overpressure at rupture, and resulting intrusion types for three distinct environments: lithostatic, upward flexure, and downward flexure. In the lithostatic case, reservoir failure at the crust-mantle contact favors lateral sill injection. In the flexure cases, we observe that failure location depends upon the crust/lithosphere thickness ratio and, at times, will favor radial dike intrusion. Specifically, upward flexure can promote the formation of giant radiating dike swarms, a scenario consistent with a plume-derived origin. Our results present a mechanical explanation for giant radial dike swarm formation, showing that both the stability of magma chambers on Venus and the type of intrusions that form are influenced by lithospheric layering. Furthermore, where dike swarms occur, our approach provides a powerful new way to constrain local crust/mantle layering characteristics within the lithosphere at the time the swarm was forming.

  12. Mafic intrusions triggering eruptions in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmarsson, O.

    2012-04-01

    The last two eruptions in Iceland, Eyjafjallajökull 2010 and Grímsvötn 2011, were both provoked by an intrusion of more mafic magma into pre-existing magmatic system. Injection into the latter volcano, which is located in the main rift-zone of the island, above the presumed centre of the mantle plume and is the most active volcano of Iceland, has been gradual since the last eruption in 2004. In contrast, at Eyjafjallajökull volcano, one of the least active volcano in Iceland and located at the southern part of a propagating rift-zone where extensional tectonics are poorly developed, mafic magma intrusion occurred over less than a year. Beneath Eyjafjallajökull, a silicic intrusion at approximately 6 km depth was recharged with mantle derived alkali basalt that was injected into residual rhyolite from the penultimate eruption in the years 1821-23. The resulting magma mingIing process was highly complex, but careful sampling of tephra during the entire eruption allows the dynamics of the mingling process to be unravelled. Short-lived disequilibria between the gaseous nuclide 210Po and the much less volatile nuclide 210Pb, suggest that basalt accumulated beneath the silicic intrusion over approximately 100 days, or from early January 2010 until the onset of the explosive summit eruption on 14 April. Due to the degassing, crystal fractionation modified the composition of the injected mafic magma producing evolved Fe-and Ti-rich basalt, similar in composition to that of the nearby Katla volcano. This evolved basalt was intruded into the liquid part of the silicic intrusion only a few hours before the onset of the explosive summit eruption. The short time between intrusion and eruption led to the production of very heterogeneous (of basaltic, intermediate and silicic composition) and fine-grained tephra during the first days of explosive eruption. The fine grained tephra resulted from combined effects of magma fragmentation due to degassing of stiff magma rich in

  13. Eddy Flow during Magma Emplacement: The Basemelt Sill, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petford, N.; Mirhadizadeh, S.

    2014-12-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys magmatic system, Antarctica, forms part of the Ferrar dolerite Large Igneous Province. Comprising a vertical stack of interconnected sills, the complex provides a world-class example of pervasive lateral magma flow on a continental scale. The lowermost intrusion (Basement Sill) offers detailed sections through the now frozen particle macrostructure of a congested magma slurry1. Image-based numerical modelling where the intrusion geometry defines its own unique finite element mesh allows simulations of the flow regime to be made that incorporate realistic magma particle size and flow geometries obtained directly from field measurements. One testable outcome relates to the origin of rhythmic layering where analytical results imply the sheared suspension intersects the phase space for particle Reynolds and Peclet number flow characteristic of macroscopic structures formation2. Another relates to potentially novel crystal-liquid segregation due to the formation of eddies locally at undulating contacts at the floor and roof of the intrusion. The eddies are transient and mechanical in origin, unrelated to well-known fluid dynamical effects around obstacles where flow is turbulent. Numerical particle tracing reveals that these low Re number eddies can both trap (remove) and eject particles back into the magma at a later time according to their mass density. This trapping mechanism has potential to develop local variations in structure (layering) and magma chemistry that may otherwise not occur where the contact between magma and country rock is linear. Simulations indicate that eddy formation is best developed where magma viscosity is in the range 1-102 Pa s. Higher viscosities (> 103 Pa s) tend to dampen the effect implying eddy development is most likely a transient feature. However, it is nice to think that something as simple as a bumpy contact could impart physical and by implication chemical diversity in igneous rocks. 1Marsh, D.B. (2004), A

  14. Flow dynamics in mid-Jurassic dikes and sills of the Ferrar large igneous province and implications for long-distance magma transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airoldi, Giulia M.; Muirhead, James D.; Long, Sylvan M.; Zanella, Elena; White, James D. L.

    2016-06-01

    Magma flow paths in sill-fed dikes of the Ferrar large igneous province (LIP), contrast with those predicted by classic models of dike transport in LIPs and magmatic rift settings. We examine anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) flow paths in dike networks at Terra Cotta Mountain and Mt. Gran, which intruded at paleodepths of ~ 2.5 and ~ 1.5 km. These intrusions (up to 30 m thick) exhibit irregular, interconnected dike-sill geometries and adjoin larger sills (~ 200-300 m thick) at different stratigraphic levels. Both shallowly dipping and sub-vertical magma flow components are interpreted from AMS measurements across individual intrusions, and often match macroscopic flow indicators and variations in dike attitudes. Flow paths suggest that intrusive patterns and magma flow directions depended on varying stress concentrations and rotations during dike and sill propagation, whereas a regional extensional tectonic control was negligible or absent. Unlike giant dike swarms in LIPs elsewhere (e.g., 1270 Ma MacKenzie LIP), dikes of the Ferrar LIP show no regionally consistent vertical or lateral flow patterns, suggesting these intrusion were not responsible for long-distance transport in the province. In the absence of regionally significant, colinear dike swarms, or observed intrusions at crustal depths ≥ 4 km, we suggest that long distance magma transport occurred in sills within Beacon Supergroup sedimentary rocks. This interpretation is consistent with existing geochemical data and thermal constraints, which support lateral magma flow for ~ 3,500 km across the Gondwana supercontinent before freezing.

  15. The Sonju Lake layered intrusion, northeast Minnesota: Internal structure and emplacement history inferred from magnetic fabrics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maes, S.M.; Tikoff, B.; Ferre, E.C.; Brown, P.E.; Miller, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    The Sonju Lake intrusion (SLI), in northeastern Minnesota, is a layered mafic complex of Keweenawan age (1096.1 ?? 0.8 Ma) related to the Midcontinent rift. The cumulate paragenesis of the intrusion is recognized as broadly similar to the Skaergaard intrusion, a classic example of closed-system differentiation of a tholeiitic mafic magma. The SLI represents nearly closed-system differentiation through bottom-up fractional crystallization. Geochemical studies have identified the presence of a stratabound, 50-100 m thick zone anomalously enriched in Au + PGE. Similar to the PGE reefs of the Skaergaard intrusion, this PGE-enriched zone is hosted within oxide gabbro cumulates, about two-third of the way up from the base of the intrusion. We present a petrofabric study using the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) to investigate the emplacement and flow patterns within the Sonju Lake intrusion. Petrographic and electron microprobe studies, combined with AMS and hysteresis measurements indicate the primary source of the magnetic signal is pseudo-single domain (PSD) magnetite or titanomagnetite. Low field AMS was measured at 32 sites within the Sonju Lake intrusion, which provided information about primary igneous fabrics. The magnetic fabrics in the layered series of the Sonju Lake intrusion are consistent with sub-horizontal to inclined emplacement of the intrusion and show evidence that the cumulate layers were deposited in a dynamic environment. Well-aligned magnetic lineations, consistently plunging shallowly toward the southwest, indicate the source of the magma is a vertical sill-like feeder, presumably located beneath the Finland granite. The Finland granite acted as a density trap for the Sonju Lake magmas, forcing lateral flow of magma to the northeast. The strongly oblate magnetic shape fabrics indicate the shallowly dipping planar fabrics were enhanced by compaction of the crystal mush. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Constraints from sill intrusions and their deeper source magma chambers (seismic high velocity bodies) on the origins of volcanic rifted margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrman, M.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic rifted margins are characterized by massive igneous activity originating from the rift margin, characterized by seaward dipping reflectors. These consist of basalt flows and associated magmatic products, from deep magma chambers imaged on seismic data as High Velocity Bodies (HVB) with seismic velocities between 7 and 7.5 km/s. The relationship between rifting and decompression melting have been well quantified, using the HVB's as constraints on magmatic production to match extension models. Crucial in this approach are the relationship between extension and mantle plumes, with HVB's generated by mantle plumes often indicative of velocities between 7.5 - 7.8 km/s. Here I address information that can be obtained from sill complexes in sedimentary basins associated with rifting, representing the earliest phase of magmatism. I use a simple crustal scale hydrostatic model for dikes while incorporating the presence of sills by calculating magmatic overpressures from differences in pressure gradients. It transpires that the presence of sills as observed on seismic reflection and outcrop data, can be predicted. Modelling further suggests that the source of these sill complexes are large magma chambers at or near the Moho, and equate to HVB's observed on seismic data. Utilizing simple mass balance calculations, the ratio of cumulate thickness (from HVB thickness) and expelled melt (from accumulated sill thicknesses) can be related to MgO content in expelled liquids, primary magma and cumulates. Higher MgO content translates in higher seismic velocities. Thus, HVB velocity can subsequently be used to discriminate between mantle plume, or shallow rift related melting. The theory is applied to various basins bordering the northern North Atlantic (Vøring Basin, Jameson Land Basin and Rockall Basin) and South Atlantic rifts (Namibia), associated with the Paleocene/Eocene Iceland mantle plume and the Early Cretaceous Tristan da Cunha mantle plume magmatism respectively.

  17. A General Model for Shallow Magmatic Intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorey, C.; Michaut, C.

    2015-12-01

    Shallow magmatic intrusions make room for themselves by upward bending of the elastic overburden. Previous studies have shown that the bending of the overlying layer first controls the dynamics. Then, when the radius reaches a few times the flexural wavelength of the overburden, it transitions to a gravity current regime. This model predicts the appropriate geometry for both terrestrial laccoliths and large mafic sills. However, it underestimates the absolute dimensions of these magmatic intrusions; in particular, it requires abnormally high viscosity to reconcile both observations and predictions. To get some insights into the effective flow viscosity, we develop a model that account for the cooling of such elastic-plated gravity currents. We show that the coupling between the temperature field and the flow itself leads to the formation of a highly viscous region at the tip that slows down the spreading in both regimes. The intrusions are predicted to be thicker and their dimensions, especially in the bending regime, are now consistent with observations. By introducing the potentially complex structure of the overburden, we also show that the topography largely contributes to constrain the final intrusion morphology. For instance, in the case of an intrusion centered below a circular depression, the model predicts that the lithostatic increase at the crater rim prevents the magma from spreading laterally and enhances the thickening of the intrusion. This model has already proven successful in reproducing the deformations observed on potential intrusion centered below lunar impact craters. Caldera complexes often exhibit ground deformations that might be associated to the formation of shallow magmatic intrusions. InSAR imaging and GPS measurements now provide efficient tools to monitor these deformations. We conclude this study by examining the ability of the model to reproduce the deformation observed in several caldera complexes.

  18. Post-Emplacement Behaviour of Magma Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, A. M.; Jaupart, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    For common crustal structures and melt compositions, basalts are buoyant in the lower crust and negatively buoyant in the upper crust. Intrusion and storage can occur at a depth or an interface where the density of magma becomes larger than that of the overlying rocks. After emplacement, magma density typically increases due to the formation of dense minerals. Fully solidified mafic bodies have bulk densities between 3000-3100 kg m-3 which are much higher than those of the continental rocks they intruded. This negative density contrast is much stronger than the positive one that drove magma ascent. We investigate the dynamical consequences of this marked buoyancy reversal using 3D laboratory experiments on viscous fluids and 2D numerical calculations with complex crustal rheologies. Material is emplaced at a density interface, such that its density is between those of the upper and lower layers. Its bulk density increases as temperature decreases and eventually exceeds that of the lower layer. We observe that the intrusion tends to spread laterally in an initial phase and to sag, and in some cases sink, in a later phase when its density exceeds that of the host. We identified two distinct instability modes. One consists of a single diapiric-like sinker and the other takes the form of spectacular nearly axisymmetric Rayleigh-Taylor-type downwellings. An intermediate mode consists of several long wavelength blobs which disrupt the initial symmetrical arrangement. The transition between the two modes is mainly determined by the aspect ratio of the intrusion at the onset of instability. Sagging can lead to full-fledged sinking to the base of the crust depending mainly on the temperature of country rocks. This proceeds over timescales that are relevant for true magmatic systems (in a range of a few kyr to a few Myr). At shallow crustal depths, cold temperatures and stiff country rocks are able to withstand the load of a large and dense intrusion. Significant post

  19. Evidence of magma intrusion at Fourpeaked volcano, Alaska in 2006-2007 from a rapid-response seismic network and volcanic gases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardine, M.; West, M.; Werner, C.; Doukas, M.

    2011-01-01

    On September 17th, 2006, Fourpeaked volcano had a widely-observed phreatic eruption. At the time, Fourpeaked was an unmonitored volcano with no known Holocene activity, based on limited field work. Airborne gas sampling began within days of the eruption and a modest seismic network was installed in stages. Vigorous steaming continued for months; however, there were no further eruptions similar in scale to the September 17 event. This eruption was followed by several months of sustained seismicity punctuated by vigorous swarms, and SO2 emissions exceeding a thousand tons/day. Based on observations during and after the phreatic eruption, and assuming no recent pre-historical eruptive activity at Fourpeaked, we propose that the activity was caused by a minor injection of new magma at or near 5km depth beneath Fourpeaked, which remained active over several months as this magma equilibrated into the crust. By early 2007 declining seismicity and SO2 emission signaled the end of unrest. Because the Fourpeaked seismic network was installed in stages and the seismicity was punctuated by discrete swarms, we use Fourpeaked to illustrate quantitatively the efficacy and shortcomings of rapid response seismic networks for tracking volcanic earthquakes.

  20. Timing of magmatism following initial convergence at a passive margin, southwestern U.S. Cordillera, and ages of lower crustal magma sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barth, A.P.; Wooden, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    Initiation of the Cordilleran magmatic arc in the southwestern United States is marked by intrusion of granitic plutons, predominantly composed of alkali-calcic Fe- and Sr-enriched quartz monzodiorite and monzonite, that intruded Paleoproterozoic basement and its Paleozoic cratonal-miogeoclinal cover. Three intrusive suites, recognized on the basis of differences in high field strength element and large ion lithophile element abundances, contain texturally complex but chronologically distinctive zircons. These zircons record heterogeneous but geochemically discrete mafic crustal magma sources, discrete Permo-Triassic intrusion ages, and a prolonged postemplacement thermal history within the long-lived Cordilleran arc, leading to episodic loss of radiogenic Pb. Distinctive lower crustal magma sources reflect lateral heterogeneity within the composite lithosphere of the Proterozoic craton. Limited interaction between derived magmas and middle and upper crustal rocks probably reflects the relatively cool thermal structure of the nascent Cordilleran continental margin magmatic arc. ?? 2006 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  1. Magma transfer at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) before the 1538 AD eruption.

    PubMed

    Di Vito, Mauro A; Acocella, Valerio; Aiello, Giuseppe; Barra, Diana; Battaglia, Maurizio; Carandente, Antonio; Del Gaudio, Carlo; de Vita, Sandro; Ricciardi, Giovanni P; Ricco, Ciro; Scandone, Roberto; Terrasi, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Calderas are collapse structures related to the emptying of magmatic reservoirs, often associated with large eruptions from long-lived magmatic systems. Understanding how magma is transferred from a magma reservoir to the surface before eruptions is a major challenge. Here we exploit the historical, archaeological and geological record of Campi Flegrei caldera to estimate the surface deformation preceding the Monte Nuovo eruption and investigate the shallow magma transfer. Our data suggest a progressive magma accumulation from ~1251 to 1536 in a 4.6 ± 0.9 km deep source below the caldera centre, and its transfer, between 1536 and 1538, to a 3.8 ± 0.6 km deep magmatic source ~4 km NW of the caldera centre, below Monte Nuovo; this peripheral source fed the eruption through a shallower source, 0.4 ± 0.3 km deep. This is the first reconstruction of pre-eruptive magma transfer at Campi Flegrei and corroborates the existence of a stationary oblate source, below the caldera centre, that has been feeding lateral eruptions for the last ~5 ka. Our results suggest: 1) repeated emplacement of magma through intrusions below the caldera centre; 2) occasional lateral transfer of magma feeding non-central eruptions within the caldera. Comparison with historical unrest at calderas worldwide suggests that this behavior is common. PMID:27558276

  2. Magma transfer at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) before the 1538 AD eruption.

    PubMed

    Di Vito, Mauro A; Acocella, Valerio; Aiello, Giuseppe; Barra, Diana; Battaglia, Maurizio; Carandente, Antonio; Del Gaudio, Carlo; de Vita, Sandro; Ricciardi, Giovanni P; Ricco, Ciro; Scandone, Roberto; Terrasi, Filippo

    2016-08-25

    Calderas are collapse structures related to the emptying of magmatic reservoirs, often associated with large eruptions from long-lived magmatic systems. Understanding how magma is transferred from a magma reservoir to the surface before eruptions is a major challenge. Here we exploit the historical, archaeological and geological record of Campi Flegrei caldera to estimate the surface deformation preceding the Monte Nuovo eruption and investigate the shallow magma transfer. Our data suggest a progressive magma accumulation from ~1251 to 1536 in a 4.6 ± 0.9 km deep source below the caldera centre, and its transfer, between 1536 and 1538, to a 3.8 ± 0.6 km deep magmatic source ~4 km NW of the caldera centre, below Monte Nuovo; this peripheral source fed the eruption through a shallower source, 0.4 ± 0.3 km deep. This is the first reconstruction of pre-eruptive magma transfer at Campi Flegrei and corroborates the existence of a stationary oblate source, below the caldera centre, that has been feeding lateral eruptions for the last ~5 ka. Our results suggest: 1) repeated emplacement of magma through intrusions below the caldera centre; 2) occasional lateral transfer of magma feeding non-central eruptions within the caldera. Comparison with historical unrest at calderas worldwide suggests that this behavior is common.

  3. Magma transfer at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) before the 1538 AD eruption

    PubMed Central

    Di Vito, Mauro A.; Acocella, Valerio; Aiello, Giuseppe; Barra, Diana; Battaglia, Maurizio; Carandente, Antonio; Del Gaudio, Carlo; de Vita, Sandro; Ricciardi, Giovanni P.; Ricco, Ciro; Scandone, Roberto; Terrasi, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Calderas are collapse structures related to the emptying of magmatic reservoirs, often associated with large eruptions from long-lived magmatic systems. Understanding how magma is transferred from a magma reservoir to the surface before eruptions is a major challenge. Here we exploit the historical, archaeological and geological record of Campi Flegrei caldera to estimate the surface deformation preceding the Monte Nuovo eruption and investigate the shallow magma transfer. Our data suggest a progressive magma accumulation from ~1251 to 1536 in a 4.6 ± 0.9 km deep source below the caldera centre, and its transfer, between 1536 and 1538, to a 3.8 ± 0.6 km deep magmatic source ~4 km NW of the caldera centre, below Monte Nuovo; this peripheral source fed the eruption through a shallower source, 0.4 ± 0.3 km deep. This is the first reconstruction of pre-eruptive magma transfer at Campi Flegrei and corroborates the existence of a stationary oblate source, below the caldera centre, that has been feeding lateral eruptions for the last ~5 ka. Our results suggest: 1) repeated emplacement of magma through intrusions below the caldera centre; 2) occasional lateral transfer of magma feeding non-central eruptions within the caldera. Comparison with historical unrest at calderas worldwide suggests that this behavior is common. PMID:27558276

  4. Magma transfer at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) before the 1538 AD eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Vito, Mauro A.; Acocella, Valerio; Aiello, Giuseppe; Barra, Diana; Battaglia, Maurizio; Carandente, Antonio; Del Gaudio, Carlo; de Vita, Sandro; Ricciardi, Giovanni P.; Ricco, Ciro; Scandone, Roberto; Terrasi, Filippo

    2016-08-01

    Calderas are collapse structures related to the emptying of magmatic reservoirs, often associated with large eruptions from long-lived magmatic systems. Understanding how magma is transferred from a magma reservoir to the surface before eruptions is a major challenge. Here we exploit the historical, archaeological and geological record of Campi Flegrei caldera to estimate the surface deformation preceding the Monte Nuovo eruption and investigate the shallow magma transfer. Our data suggest a progressive magma accumulation from ~1251 to 1536 in a 4.6 ± 0.9 km deep source below the caldera centre, and its transfer, between 1536 and 1538, to a 3.8 ± 0.6 km deep magmatic source ~4 km NW of the caldera centre, below Monte Nuovo; this peripheral source fed the eruption through a shallower source, 0.4 ± 0.3 km deep. This is the first reconstruction of pre-eruptive magma transfer at Campi Flegrei and corroborates the existence of a stationary oblate source, below the caldera centre, that has been feeding lateral eruptions for the last ~5 ka. Our results suggest: 1) repeated emplacement of magma through intrusions below the caldera centre; 2) occasional lateral transfer of magma feeding non-central eruptions within the caldera. Comparison with historical unrest at calderas worldwide suggests that this behavior is common.

  5. Magma transfer at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) before the 1538 AD eruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Di Vito, Mauro A.; Acocella, Valerio; Aiello, Giuseppe; Barra, Diana; Battaglia, Maurizio; Carandente, Antonio; Del Gaudio, Carlo; de Vita, Sandro; Ricciardi, Giovanni P.; Ricco, Ciro; Scandone, Roberto; Terrasi, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Calderas are collapse structures related to the emptying of magmatic reservoirs, often associated with large eruptions from long-lived magmatic systems. Understanding how magma is transferred from a magma reservoir to the surface before eruptions is a major challenge. Here we exploit the historical, archaeological and geological record of Campi Flegrei caldera to estimate the surface deformation preceding the Monte Nuovo eruption and investigate the shallow magma transfer. Our data suggest a progressive magma accumulation from ~1251 to 1536 in a 4.6 ± 0.9 km deep source below the caldera centre, and its transfer, between 1536 and 1538, to a 3.8 ± 0.6 km deep magmatic source ~4 km NW of the caldera centre, below Monte Nuovo; this peripheral source fed the eruption through a shallower source, 0.4 ± 0.3 km deep. This is the first reconstruction of pre-eruptive magma transfer at Campi Flegrei and corroborates the existence of a stationary oblate source, below the caldera centre, that has been feeding lateral eruptions for the last ~5 ka. Our results suggest: 1) repeated emplacement of magma through intrusions below the caldera centre; 2) occasional lateral transfer of magma feeding non-central eruptions within the caldera. Comparison with historical unrest at calderas worldwide suggests that this behavior is common.

  6. Evolution of large Venusian volcanoes: Insights from coupled models of lithospheric flexure and magma reservoir pressurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galgana, Gerald A.; McGovern, Patrick J.; Grosfils, Eric B.

    2011-03-01

    The growth and evolution of large volcanic edifices on Venus should reflect interactions between local magma reservoir-induced stresses and broader-scale stresses resulting from flexure of the lithosphere beneath the edifice load. Here, we explore the relationship between magma movement in the lithosphere and the flexural stress state via static, gravitationally loaded, axisymmetric finite element models. We find that reservoirs situated in the lower (extensional) lithosphere fail at the bottom and are therefore not viable long-term conduits for upward magma transport. Furthermore, for high-stress conditions (e.g., large edifices or thin lithospheres), chambers in the lowermost lithosphere exceed the failure criterion even before pressurization and are therefore unstable. In contrast, magma chambers located in the upper (compressional) lithosphere fail at or somewhat above the reservoir midsection, promoting lateral sill injection; continued failure in this mode would tend to produce oblate magma chambers with zones of intrusion at their margins. Reservoirs near the flexural neutral plane require the greatest overpressure to reach failure, emplacing cone sheets that transition to sills further from the chamber. The out-of-plane orientation of principal extensional stresses in the flexed lower lithosphere predicts the presence of radial dikes that are likely the main conduits for any subsequent magma ascent from the mantle melt source region. Our results also explain how the evolving stress state in the lithosphere tends to redirect magma passage over time: magma ascending into the lithosphere beneath the edifice is diverted to lateral sills in the upper lithosphere, inhibiting summit eruptions and possibly shifting eruption locations to the lower flanks at and beyond the distal margins of an oblate chamber or sill complex. We apply these results to interpret the observed structure and tectonism of Sapas Mons, Venus, in terms of flexurally controlled intrusive

  7. Differentiation and magma mixing on Kilauea's east rift zone: A further look at the eruptions of 1955 and 1960. Part II. The 1960 lavas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, T.L.; Helz, R.T.

    1996-01-01

    New and detailed petrographic observations, mineral compositional data, and whole-rock vs glass compositional trends document magma mixing in lavas erupted from Kilauea's lower east rift zone in 1960. Evidence includes the occurrence of heterogeneous phenocryst assemblages, including resorbed and reversely zoned minerals in the lavas inferred to be hybrids. Calculations suggest that this mixing, which is shown to have taken place within magma reservoirs recharged at the end of the 1955 eruption, involved introduction of four different magmas. These magmas originated beneath Kilauea's summit and moved into the rift reservoirs beginning 10 days after the eruption began. We used microprobe analyses of glass to calculate temperatures of liquids erupted in 1955 and 1960. We then used the calculated proportions of stored and recharge components to estimate the temperature of the recharge components, and found those temperatures to be consistent with the temperature of the same magmas as they appeared at Kilauea's summit. Our studies reinforce conclusions reached in previous studies of Kilauea's magmatic plumbing. We infer that magma enters shallow storage beneath Kilauea's summit and also moves laterally into the fluid core of the East rift zone. During this process, if magmas of distinctive chemistry are present, they retain their chemical identity and the amount of cooling is comparable for magma transported either upward or laterally to eruption sites. Intrusions within a few kilometers of the surface cool and crystallize to produce fractionated magma. Magma mixing occurs both within bodies of previously fractionated magma and when new magma intersects a preexisting reservoir. Magma is otherwise prevented from mixing, either by wall-rock septa or by differing thermal and density characteristics of the successive magma batches.

  8. Linking magma transport structures at Kīlauea volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wech, Aaron G.; Thelen, Weston A.

    2015-09-01

    Identifying magma pathways is important for understanding and interpreting volcanic signals. At Kīlauea volcano, seismicity illuminates subsurface plumbing, but the broad spectrum of seismic phenomena hampers event identification. Discrete, long-period (LP) events dominate the shallow (5-10 km) plumbing, and deep (40+ km) tremor has been observed offshore. However, our inability to routinely identify these events limits their utility in tracking ascending magma. Using envelope cross-correlation, we systematically catalog non-earthquake seismicity between 2008 and 2014. We find that the LPs and deep tremor are spatially distinct, separated by the 15-25 km deep, horizontal mantle fault zone (MFZ). Our search corroborates previous observations, but we find broader band (0.5-20 Hz) tremor comprising collocated earthquakes and reinterpret the deep tremor as earthquake swarms in a volume surrounding and responding to magma intruding from the mantle plume beneath the MFZ. We propose that the overlying MFZ promotes lateral magma transport, linking this deep intrusion with Kīlauea's shallow magma plumbing.

  9. Linking magma transport structures at Kīlauea volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wech, Aaron G.; Thelen, Weston A.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying magma pathways is important for understanding and interpreting volcanic signals. At Kīlauea volcano, seismicity illuminates subsurface plumbing, but the broad spectrum of seismic phenomena hampers event identification. Discrete, long-period events (LPs) dominate the shallow (5-10 km) plumbing, and deep (40+ km) tremor has been observed offshore. However, our inability to routinely identify these events limits their utility in tracking ascending magma. Using envelope cross-correlation, we systematically catalog non-earthquake seismicity between 2008-2014. We find the LPs and deep tremor are spatially distinct, separated by the 15-25 km deep, horizontal mantle fault zone (MFZ). Our search corroborates previous observations, but we find broader-band (0.5-20 Hz) tremor comprising collocated earthquakes and reinterpret the deep tremor as earthquake swarms in a volume surrounding and responding to magma intruding from the mantle plume beneath the MFZ. We propose the overlying MFZ promotes lateral magma transport, linking this deep intrusion with Kīlauea’s shallow magma plumbing.

  10. Possible magma intrusion revealed by temporal gravity, ground deformation and ground temperature observations at Mount Komagatake (Hokkaido) during the 1996-1998 crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jousset, Philippe; Mori, Hitoshi; Okada, Hiromu

    2000-12-01

    Mount Komagatake (1131m above sea level) is a subduction-related active volcano in Hokkaido (Japan), where two phreatic eruptions occurred in 1996 March and 1998 October, after 54years of dormancy. We analyse four sessions of geodetic, microgravity and ground temperature observations made over a two-year period. From November 1996 to May 1997, neither significant gravity nor significant elevation changes (GPS or levelling) were observed. From May 1997 to November 1997, we observed a slight subsidence (1-2cm) and contraction (within 1cm) of the edifice, a gravity increase (15-30 μgal) at the benchmarks inside the 2km wide summit crater, and a local temperature increase, of 15-20°C, at the summit crater. From November 1997 to May 1998, we observed an edifice-wide gravity increase of about 15µgal, with no significant elevation change for benchmarks outside the summit crater. Besides this edifice-scale variation, we recorded a subsidence of about 5-6cm and apparently no change of gravity inside the summit crater. We inverted our data using models of increasing complexity. Elastic models are able to explain our deformation observations, but they cannot explain either the gravity data or the temperature observations satisfactorily. We introduced both an isothermal and a non-isothermal porous medium filled with fluids to model deformation and gravity variations, and we used a fissure model to invert the temperature anomaly. Our observations are consistent with a model of underground shallow-water evaporation occurring as a result of heat rising from a hot and dense body (density contrast of 200kgm-3) of about 1011 kg at 4-5km depth. This interpretation suggests a possible intrusion of a magmatic body within the edifice.

  11. A model for the dynamics of crater-centered intrusion: Application to lunar floor-fractured craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorey, Clément; Michaut, Chloé

    2014-01-01

    Lunar floor-fractured craters are a class of craters modified by post-impact mechanisms. They are defined by distinctive shallow floors that are convex or plate-like, sometimes with a wide floor moat bordering the wall region. Radial, concentric, and polygonal floor fractures suggest an endogenous process of modification. Two mechanisms have been proposed to account for such deformations: viscous relaxation and spreading of a magma intrusion at depth below the crater. To test the second assumption and bring more constraints on the intrusion process, we develop a model for the dynamics of magma spreading below an elastic overlying layer with a crater-like topography. As predicted in earlier more qualitative studies, the increase in lithostatic pressure at the crater wall zone prevents the intrusion from spreading laterally, leading to the thickening of the intrusion. Additionally, our model shows that the final crater floor appearance after the uplift, which can be convex or flat, with or without a circular moat bordering the wall zone, depends on the elastic thickness of the layer overlying the intrusion and on the crater size. Our model provides a simple formula to derive the elastic thickness of the overlying layer hence a minimum estimate for the intrusion depth. Finally, our model suggests that crust redistribution by cratering must have controlled magma ascent below most of these craters.

  12. Evidence for a new shallow magma intrusion at La Soufrière of Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles). Insights from long-term geochemical monitoring of halogen-rich hydrothermal fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villemant, B.; Komorowski, J. C.; Dessert, C.; Michel, A.; Crispi, O.; Hammouya, G.; Beauducel, F.; De Chabalier, J. B.

    2014-09-01

    -1977 crisis. The contrasting behaviours of S- and Cl-bearing species in fumarolic gas and in thermal springs suggest that the current activity is the result of a new magma intrusion which was progressively emplaced at shallow depth since ~ 1992. Although it might still be evolving, the characteristics of this new intrusion indicate that it has already reached a magnitude similar to the intrusion that was emplaced during the 1976-1977 eruptive crisis. The assessment of potential hazards associated with evolution of the current unrest must consider the implications of recurrent intrusion and further pressurisation of the hydrothermal system on the likelihood of renewed phreatic explosive activity. Moreover, the role of hydrothermal pressurisation on the basal friction along low-strength layers within the upper part of the edifice must be evaluated with regards to partial flank collapse. At this stage enhanced monitoring, research, and data analysis are required to quantify the uncertainties related to future scenarios of renewed eruptive activity and magmatic evolution.

  13. Magma energy

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The thermal energy contained in magmatic systems represents a huge potential resource. In the US, useful energy contained in molten and partially-molten magma within the upper 10 km of the crust has been estimated at 5 to 50 x 10/sup 22/ J (50,000 to 500,000 Quads). The objective of the Magma Energy Extraction Program is to determine the engineering feasibility of locating, accessing, and utilizing magma as a viable energy resource. This program follows the DOE/OBES-funded Magma Energy Research Project that concluded scientific feasibility of the magma energy concept. A primary long-range goal of this program is to conduct an energy extraction experiment directly in a molten, crustal magma body. Critical to determining engineering feasibility are several key technology tasks: (1) Geophysics - to obtain detailed definition of potential magma targets, (2) Geochemistry/Materials - to characterize the magma environment and select compatible engineering materials, (3) Drilling - to develop drilling and completion techniques for entry into a magma body, and (4) Energy Extraction - to develop heat extraction technology.

  14. Magma Fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonnermann, Helge M.

    2015-05-01

    Magma fragmentation is the breakup of a continuous volume of molten rock into discrete pieces, called pyroclasts. Because magma contains bubbles of compressible magmatic volatiles, decompression of low-viscosity magma leads to rapid expansion. The magma is torn into fragments, as it is stretched into hydrodynamically unstable sheets and filaments. If the magma is highly viscous, resistance to bubble growth will instead lead to excess gas pressure and the magma will deform viscoelastically by fracturing like a glassy solid, resulting in the formation of a violently expanding gas-pyroclast mixture. In either case, fragmentation represents the conversion of potential energy into the surface energy of the newly created fragments and the kinetic energy of the expanding gas-pyroclast mixture. If magma comes into contact with external water, the conversion of thermal energy will vaporize water and quench magma at the melt-water interface, thus creating dynamic stresses that cause fragmentation and the release of kinetic energy. Lastly, shear deformation of highly viscous magma may cause brittle fractures and release seismic energy.

  15. Magma energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hardee, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    The paper briefly describes the potential magma resources in the US and worldwide, and possible ways of exploiting this resource. Two target sites for field experiments to characterize magma targets are identified: Long Valley Caldera and Coso Hot Springs. 11 refs. (ACR)

  16. Variations in magma supply and magma partitioning: the role of tectonic settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Akira

    1999-11-01

    Magma supply rates for 200 years at Krafla and Lakagigar, Iceland, and those for 150 years at Kilauea and Mauna Loa, Hawaii, are estimated roughly, based on their geophysical and geological observations. A diagram that relates erupted volumes to eruption intervals at volcanoes under various tectonic settings is represented. These results lead to a new model that a large volume (1-10 km 3) of magma is supplied intermittently at a long interval (10 2-10 4 years) beneath volcanoes in rift zones, while magma is supplied continuously with oscillations or fluctuations beneath intraplate volcanoes. Chemical data such as the MgO wt.% of lava may be one indicator in evaluating the magma supply rates of Hawaiian volcanoes. Systematic variation with time in magma partitioning within a volcano or to the surface is obtained in comparisons between among migration patterns of eruption sites, cumulative supplied volumes, and the volume ratios of erupted to supplied magma at Krafla and Kilauea. The variations suggest that a magma plumbing system may act under self-control (regulating) system through stress as one system. In response to a change in magma supply rate, the system partitions magma horizontally into dikes or vertically toward the surface. A large magma supply rate promotes the vertical extent of a crack to result in an eruption with a large volume ratio of erupted to supplied magma. This tendency is supported by field observations of flood basalts. The partitioned magma as dike intrusions suppresses magma supply partially in the shallow crust. Using analog experiments on liquid-filled cracks in gelatin, this paper demonstrates fundamental processes for magma partitioning on the effect of magma supply and stress change by the partitioned magma. A dynamical system of two differential equations on magma supply rate and stress around a magma plumbing system is proposed, to understand the qualitative variations in magma supply rate imposed by tectonic settings.

  17. Evolution of Large Venusian Volcanoes: Insights from Coupled Models of Lithospheric Flexure and Magma Reservoir Pressurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galgana, G. A.; McGovern, P. J.; Grosfils, E. B.

    2009-12-01

    Many large volcanic edifices on Venus exhibit surficial evidence of subsurface magma transport and storage: summit caldera faults indicating collapse into a magma chamber, and radial grabens indicating radiating dikes (although uplift may also produce the latter). These tectonic features reflect interactions between local magma-induced stresses and broader-scale stresses resulting from flexure of the lithosphere beneath the edifice load. Here, we explore the relationship between magma movement in the lithosphere and the flexural stress state via axisymmetric finite element models of the Venusian lithosphere. The lithosphere, modeled as an elastic material of thickness Te, is overlain with a conical edifice and embedded with an inflating, hence overpressured, spherical magma reservoir that perturbs the surrounding region. The volcanic edifice acts as a continuous gravitational load, flexing the lithosphere. The resulting flexural stress state beneath the edifice is characterized by high differential stresses, extensional in the upper part of the lithosphere and compressional in the lower part. These two distinct regions are separated by a neutral plane, a region characterized by relatively low differential stresses and least compressive principal stress (σ3) oriented out of the model plane. We examine models with different reservoir depths and analyze the orientation patterns of maximum stresses along the magma chamber wall. For a given chamber model, we increase the overpressure until one of the normal stresses at some point on the wall satisfies the failure criterion (here taken to be 0 MPa, the onset of the tensile regime). We find that reservoirs situated in the lower (extensional) lithosphere fail at the bottom; such a chamber is unstable, because it would not collect magma but rather expel it downward. Thus, we conclude magma chamber formation in the lower lithosphere is unlikely. In contrast, failure promoting lateral sill formation occurs near the reservoir

  18. Granitic magma emplacement and deformation during early-orogenic syn-convergent transtension: The Staré Sedlo complex, Bohemian Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomek, Filip; Žák, Jiří; Chadima, Martin

    2015-07-01

    The Late Devonian Staré Sedlo complex, Bohemian Massif, was emplaced as a subhorizontal sheeted sill pluton into a transtension zone. The transtensional setting is documented by strong constrictional fabric, corroborated by the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), with variably developed subhorizontal magmatic to solid-state foliation suggesting vertical shortening. Intrusive contacts of the granitoids with metapelitic screens and tapered sill tips indicate that magma wedging was the dominant process of sill propagation. The sills exhibit two intrusive styles, ranging from thin lit-par-lit injections to widely spaced meter-thick sills. These two styles are interpreted as reflecting variable viscosities of intruding magma where low-viscosity magma percolated along foliation planes whereas high-viscosity magma produced more localized thicker sills. We propose that the magma/host rock system in transtension must have evolved from initial crack tip propagation and vertical expansion due to new magma additions through conduit flow to ductile thinning after the magma input had ceased. The sill emplacement and their subsequent deformation are then interpreted as recording early-orogenic syn-convergent sinistral transtension along the rear side of an upper-crustal wedge, which was extruded both upward and laterally in response to subduction and continental underthrusting.

  19. Fluid-mechanical models of crack propagation and their application to magma transport in dykes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, John R.; Kerr, Ross C.

    1991-06-01

    The ubiquity of dykes in the Earth's crust is evidence that the transport of magma by fluid-induced fracture of the lithosphere is an important phenomenon. Magma fracture transports melt vertically from regions of production in the mantle to surface eruptions or near-surface magma chambers and then laterally from the magma chambers in dykes and sills. In order to investigate the mechanics of magma fracture, the driving and resisting pressures in a propagating dyke are estimated and the dominant physical balances between these pressures are described. It is shown that the transport of magma in feeder dykes is characterized by a local balance between buoyancy forces and viscous pressure drop, that elastic forces play a secondary role except near the dyke tip and that the influence of the fracture resistance of crustal rocks on dyke propagation is negligible. The local nature of the force balance implies that the local density difference controls the height of magma ascent rather than the total hydrostatic head and hence that magma is emplaced at its level of neutral buoyancy (LNB) in the crust. There is a small overshoot beyond this level which is calculated to be typically a few kilometres. Magma accumulating at the LNB will be intruded in lateral dykes and sills which are directed along the LNB by buoyancy forces since the magma is in gravitational equilibrium at this level. Laboratory analogue experiments demonstrate the physical principle of buoyancy-controlled propagation to and along the LNB. The equations governing the dynamics of magma fracture are solved for the cases of lithospheric ascent and of lateral intrusion. Volatiles are predicted to be exsolved from the melt at the tips of extending fractures due to the generation of low pressures by viscous flow into the tip. Chilling of magma at the edges of a dyke inhibits cross-stream propagation and concentrates the downstream flow into a wider dyke. The family of theoretical solutions in different geometries

  20. Constraining the role of magma before, during and after the break-up of continents using seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, C.; Jackson, C. A. L.; Schofield, N.; Holford, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    The ability to visualize networks of igneous intrusions in 3D using seismic reflection data has revolutionized our understanding of how magma migrates and is emplaced during continental breakup. Numerous seismic-based studies have shown that: (i) sub-horizontal or saucer-shaped sill intrusions represent a major component of magmatic systems within sedimentary basins; (ii) these sills may be interconnected to form laterally extensive (>100's km2) sill-complexes; (iii) magma flow indicators can be mapped within the sills to reconstruct magma migration routes and source positions; (iv) space-making mechanisms (e.g., forced folds) can be identified, which provide constraints on intrusive style (e.g., brittle or non-brittle); and (v) cross-cutting and seismic-stratigraphic relationships between the sills and host rock can be used to constrain the age of igneous activity. We use a series of seismic data, primarily from the Rockall Basin, NE Atlantic and offshore Australia, to demonstrate how the observations described above can be synthesized to reconstruct the evolution of ancient magmatic systems located along continental volcanic rifted margins. Our results demonstrate that the architecture of such intrusive networks is significantly influenced by the pre-existing structure and lithology of the host rock. Importantly, relatively dating the intrusive and extrusive components of magmatic systems suggests igneous activity may occur more intermittently and over longer time periods than previously thought, potentially spanning entire break-up histories. Overall, seismic reflection data provide important insights into: (i) the role of magma before, during and after continental break-up; and (ii) the influence of crystallised intrusion networks on subsequent basin evolution and fluid flow processes.

  1. Hindered settling and the formation of layered intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bons, Paul D.; Baur, Albrecht; Elburg, Marlina A.; Lindhuber, Matthias J.; Marks, Michael A. W.; Soesoo, Alvar; van Milligen, Boudewijn P.; Walte, Nicolas P.

    2015-04-01

    Layered intrusions are characterized by (often repetitive) layering on a range of scales. Many explanations for the formation of such layering have been proposed over the past decades. We investigated the formation of "mats" by hindered crystal settling, a model that was first suggested by Lauder (1964). The interaction of sinking and rising crystals leads to the amplification of perturbations in crystal density within a magma chamber, a process similar to the formation of traffic jams in dense traffic (Bons et al., 2015). Once these "crystal traffic jams" form they constitute a barrier for further settling of crystals. Between these barriers, the magma evolves in a semi-closed system in which stratification may develop by gravitational sorting. Barriers, and therefore layers, form sequentially during inward cooling of the magma chamber. Barring later equilibration, mineralogical and geochemical trends within the layers are repetitive, but with variations due to the random process of initial perturbation formation. Layers can form in the transition between two end-member regimes: (1) in a fast cooling and/or viscous magma crystals cannot sink or float a significant distance and minerals are distributed homogeneously throughout the chamber; (2) in a slow cooling and/or low-viscosity magma crystals can quickly settle at the top and bottom of the chamber and crystals concentrations are never high enough to form "traffic jams". As a result, heavy and light minerals get fully separated in the chamber. Between these two end members, crystals can sink and float a significant distance, but not the whole height of the magma chamber before entrapment in "traffic jams". We illustrate the development of layers with numerical models and compare the results with the layered nepheline syenites (kakortokites) of the Ilímaussaq intrusion in SW Greenland. References: Bons, P.D., Baur, A., Elburg, M.A., Lindhuber, M.J., Marks, M.A.W., Soesoo, A., van Milligen, B.P., Walte, N.P. 2015

  2. Use of a Resin-Bonded Bridge to Replace a Congenitally Missing Lateral Incisor: Treatment of "Intrusion" of Teeth.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Paul S; Bahat, Oded; Froum, Stuart J; Daftary, Fereidoun; Rosenthal, Howard; Feldman, Sylvan

    2016-07-01

    Craniofacial growth is an important factor to consider when providing dental implant treatment for adolescents to replace missing teeth. Ongoing longitudinal observation has demonstrated that such tooth replacements may appear intruded over time, because there may be ongoing downward and anterior movement of both the alveolus and the teeth at a rate exceeding that of the dental implant, which acts like an ankylosed unit. This case reports on a 23.5-year-old female patient who, at age 16, had orthodontics completed and was left with a space where the maxillary right lateral incisor was congenitally missing with the hope of future restoration with a dental implant. A resin-bonded bridge had been placed to fill the space in the interim. After approximately 7.5 years, the bridge loosened and the patient sought an implant option as its replacement. Clinical images revealed that the bridge, which contained two bonded wings, may have limited physiologic growth, causing both the maxillary right central incisor and canine to appear intruded compared with the left central incisor and canine. This case illustrates, at the very least, that growth and development may not be complete in females aged 16 years and that the way in which a missing tooth is replaced must be carefully considered given the impact that ongoing growth and development may have on restorative care. Moreover, further growth and development may also impact adults.

  3. Use of a Resin-Bonded Bridge to Replace a Congenitally Missing Lateral Incisor: Treatment of "Intrusion" of Teeth.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Paul S; Bahat, Oded; Froum, Stuart J; Daftary, Fereidoun; Rosenthal, Howard; Feldman, Sylvan

    2016-07-01

    Craniofacial growth is an important factor to consider when providing dental implant treatment for adolescents to replace missing teeth. Ongoing longitudinal observation has demonstrated that such tooth replacements may appear intruded over time, because there may be ongoing downward and anterior movement of both the alveolus and the teeth at a rate exceeding that of the dental implant, which acts like an ankylosed unit. This case reports on a 23.5-year-old female patient who, at age 16, had orthodontics completed and was left with a space where the maxillary right lateral incisor was congenitally missing with the hope of future restoration with a dental implant. A resin-bonded bridge had been placed to fill the space in the interim. After approximately 7.5 years, the bridge loosened and the patient sought an implant option as its replacement. Clinical images revealed that the bridge, which contained two bonded wings, may have limited physiologic growth, causing both the maxillary right central incisor and canine to appear intruded compared with the left central incisor and canine. This case illustrates, at the very least, that growth and development may not be complete in females aged 16 years and that the way in which a missing tooth is replaced must be carefully considered given the impact that ongoing growth and development may have on restorative care. Moreover, further growth and development may also impact adults. PMID:27548400

  4. Mush Column Magma Chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, B. D.

    2002-12-01

    Magma chambers are a necessary concept in understanding the chemical and physical evolution of magma. The concept may well be similar to a transfer function in circuit or time series analysis. It does what needs to be done to transform source magma into eruptible magma. In gravity and geodetic interpretations the causative body is (usually of necessity) geometrically simple and of limited vertical extent; it is clearly difficult to `see' through the uppermost manifestation of the concentrated magma. The presence of plutons in the upper crust has reinforced the view that magma chambers are large pots of magma, but as in the physical representation of a transfer function, actual magma chambers are clearly distinct from virtual magma chambers. Two key features to understanding magmatic systems are that they are vertically integrated over large distances (e.g., 30-100 km), and that all local magmatic processes are controlled by solidification fronts. Heat transfer considerations show that any viable volcanic system must be supported by a vertically extensive plumbing system. Field and geophysical studies point to a common theme of an interconnected stack of sill-like structures extending to great depth. This is a magmatic Mush Column. The large-scale (10s of km) structure resembles the vertical structure inferred at large volcanic centers like Hawaii (e.g., Ryan et al.), and the fine scale (10s to 100s of m) structure is exemplified by ophiolites and deeply eroded sill complexes like the Ferrar dolerites of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The local length scales of the sill reservoirs and interconnecting conduits produce a rich spectrum of crystallization environments with distinct solidification time scales. Extensive horizontal and vertical mushy walls provide conditions conducive to specific processes of differentiation from solidification front instability to sidewall porous flow and wall rock slumping. The size, strength, and time series of eruptive behavior

  5. Drilling investigations of a young magmatic intrusion beneath Inyo domes, Long Valley Caldera, California: The effects of pressure, volatiles, and thermal history on chemical heterogeneity in magma systems: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel T.A.

    1987-09-28

    Systematic chemical and mineralogical variability occurs in samples from drill holes through Obsidian Dome, the conduit to the dome, and a nearby associated feeder dike. The drill hole samples that occur at the margins of the conduit and most of the lower portion of the dome are high-Ba, low-silica rhyolites, with two populations of phenocrysts, and represent commingled magmas. Whereas samples from the dike and upper portions of the dome are low-Ba, higher silica rhyolites, and do not reflect commingled magmas, samples from the center of the conduit are low-Ba, higher silica rhyolites that are only slightly mixed. A major part of the variability within the drill core samples of the dome and conduit reflects the juxtaposition, and commingling of two distinct magmas during their passage throughout the conduit.

  6. Geophysical observations of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, 2. Constraints on the magma supply during November 1975-September 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dzurisin, D.; Anderson, L.A.; Eaton, G.P.; Koyanagi, R.Y.; Lipman, P.W.; Lockwood, J.P.; Okamura, R.T.; Puniwai, G.S.; Sako, M.K.; Yamashita, K.M.

    1980-01-01

    Following a 22-month hiatus in eruptive activity, Kilauea volcano extruded roughly 35 ?? 106 m3 of tholeiitic basalt from vents along its middle east rift zone during 13 September-1 October, 1977. The lengthy prelude to this eruption began with a magnitude 7.2 earthquake on 29 November, 1975, and included rapid summit deflation episodes in June, July, and August 1976 and February 1977. Synthesis of seismic, geodetic, gravimetric, and electrical self-potential observations suggests the following model for this atypical Kilauea eruptive cycle. Rapid summit deflation initiated by the November 1975 earthquake reflected substantial migration of magma from beneath the summit region of Kilauea into the east and southwest rift zones. Simultaneous leveling and microgravity observations suggest that 40-90 ?? 106 m3 of void space was created within the summit magma chamber as a result of the earthquake. If this volume was filled by magma from depth before the east rift zone intrusive event of June 1976, the average rate of supply was 6-13 ?? 106 m3/month, a rate that is consistent with the value of 9 ?? 106 m3/month suggested from observations of long-duration Kilauea eruptions. Essentially zero net vertical change was recorded at the summit during the 15-month period beginning with the June 1976 intrusion and ending with the September 1977 eruption. This fact suggests that most magma supplied from depth during this interval was eventually delivered to the east rift zone, at least in part during four rapid summit deflation episodes. Microearthquake epicenters migrated downrift to the middle east rift zone for the first time during the later stages of the February 1977 intrusion, an occurrence presumably reflecting movement of magma into the eventual eruptive zone. This observation was confirmed by tilt surveys in May 1977 that revealed a major inflation center roughly 30 km east of the summit in an area of anomalous steaming and forest kill first noted in March 1976. ?? 1980.

  7. Hydrogen isotope investigation of amphibole and biotite phenocrysts in silicic magmas erupted at Lassen Volcanic Center, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Underwood, S.J.; Feeley, T.C.; Clynne, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen isotope ratio, water content and Fe3 +/Fe2 + in coexisting amphibole and biotite phenocrysts in volcanic rocks can provide insight into shallow pre- and syn-eruptive magmatic processes such as vesiculation, and lava drainback with mixing into less devolatilized magma that erupts later in a volcanic sequence. We studied four ~ 35 ka and younger eruption sequences (i.e. Kings Creek, Lassen Peak, Chaos Crags, and 1915) at the Lassen Volcanic Center (LVC), California, where intrusion of crystal-rich silicic magma mushes by mafic magmas is inferred from the varying abundances of mafic magmatic inclusions (MMIs) in the silicic volcanic rocks. Types and relative proportions of reacted and unreacted hydrous phenocryst populations are evaluated with accompanying chemical and H isotope changes. Biotite phenocrysts were more susceptible to rehydration in older vesicular glassy volcanic rocks than coexisting amphibole phenocrysts. Biotite and magnesiohornblende phenocrysts toward the core of the Lassen Peak dome are extensively dehydroxylated and reacted from prolonged exposure to high temperature, low pressure, and higher fO2 conditions from post-emplacement cooling. In silicic volcanic rocks not affected by alteration, biotite phenocrysts are often relatively more dehydroxylated than are magnesiohornblende phenocrysts of similar size; this is likely due to the ca 10 times larger overall bulk H diffusion coefficient in biotite. A simplified model of dehydrogenation in hydrous phenocrysts above reaction closure temperature suggests that eruption and quench of magma ascended to the surface in a few hours is too short a time for substantial H loss from amphibole. In contrast, slowly ascended magma can have extremely dehydrogenated and possibly dehydrated biotite, relatively less dehydrogenated magnesiohornblende and reaction rims on both phases. Eruptive products containing the highest proportions of mottled dehydrogenated crystals could indicate that within a few days

  8. Lunar magma transport phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    An outline of magma transport theory relevant to the evolution of a possible Lunar Magma Ocean and the origin and transport history of the later phase of mare basaltic volcanism is presented. A simple model is proposed to evaluate the extent of fractionation as magma traverses the cold lunar lithosphere. If Apollo green glasses are primitive and have not undergone significant fractionation en route to the surface, then mean ascent rates of 10 m/s and cracks of widths greater than 40 m are indicated. Lunar tephra and vesiculated basalts suggest that a volatile component plays a role in eruption dynamics. The predominant vapor species appear to be CO CO2, and COS. Near the lunar surface, the vapor fraction expands enormously and vapor internal energy is converted to mixture kinetic energy with the concomitant high-speed ejection of vapor and pyroclasts to form lunary fire fountain deposits such as the Apollo 17 orange and black glasses and Apollo 15 green glass.

  9. Taxonomy Of Magma Mixing I: Magma Mixing Metrics And The Thermochemistry Of Magma Hybridization Illuminated With A Toy Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spera, F. J.; Bohrson, W. A.; Schmidt, J.

    2013-12-01

    The rock record preserves abundant evidence of magma mixing in the form of mafic enclaves and mixed pumice in volcanic eruptions, syn-plutonic mafic or silicic dikes and intrusive complexes, replenishment events recorded in cumulates from layered intrusions, and crystal scale heterogeneity in phenocrysts and cumulate minerals. These evidently show that magma mixing in conjunction with crystallization (perfect fractional or incremental batch) is a first-order petrogenetic process. Magma mixing (sensu lato) occurs across a spectrum of mixed states from magma mingling to complete blending. The degree of mixing is quantified (Oldenburg et al, 1989) using two measures: the statistics of the segregation length scales (scale of segregation, L*) and the spatial contrast in composition (C) relative to the mean C (intensity of segregation, I). Mingling of dissimilar magmas produces a heterogeneous mixture containing discrete regions of end member melts and populations of crystals with L* = finite and I > 0. When L*→∞ and I→0 , the mixing magmas become hybridized and can be studied thermodynamically. Such hybrid magma is a multiphase equilibrium mixture of homogeneous melt, unzoned crystals and possible bubbles of a supercritical fluid. Here, we use a toy model to elucidate the principles of magma hybridization in a binary system (components A and B with pure crystals of α or β phase) with simple thermodynamics to build an outcome taxonomy. This binary system is not unlike the system Anorthite-Diopside, the classic low-pressure model basalt system. In the toy model, there are seven parameters describing the phase equilibria (eutectic T and X, specific heat, melting T and fusion enthalpies of α and β crystals) and five variables describing the magma mixing conditions: end member bulk compositions, temperatures and fraction of resident magma (M) that blends with recharge (R) magma to form a single equilibrium hybrid magma. There are 24 possible initial states when M

  10. Magmatic intrusions in the lunar crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaut, C.; Thorey, C.

    2015-10-01

    The lunar highlands are very old, with ages covering a timespan between 4.5 to 4.2 Gyr, and probably formed by flotation of light plagioclase minerals on top of the lunar magma ocean. The lunar crust provides thus an invaluable evidence of the geological and magmatic processes occurring in the first times of the terrestrial planets history. According to the last estimates from the GRAIL mission, the lunar primary crust is particularly light and relatively thick [1] This low-density crust acted as a barrier for the dense primary mantle melts. This is particularly evident in the fact that subsequent mare basalts erupted primarily within large impact basin: at least part of the crust must have been removed for the magma to reach the surface. However, the trajectory of the magma from the mantle to the surface is unknown. Using a model of magma emplacement below an elastic overlying layer with a flexural wavelength Λ, we characterize the surface deformations induced by the presence of shallow magmatic intrusions. We demonstrate that, depending on its size, the intrusion can show two different shapes: a bell shape when its radius is smaller than 4 times Λ or a flat top with small bended edges if its radius is larger than 4 times Λ[2]. These characteristic shapes for the intrusion result in characteristic deformations at the surface that also depend on the topography of the layer overlying the intrusion [3].Using this model we provide evidence of the presence of intrusions within the crust of the Moon as surface deformations in the form of low-slope lunar domes and floor-fractured craters. All these geological features have morphologies consistent with models of magma spreading at depth and deforming an overlying elastic layer. Further more,at floor-fractured craters, the deformation is contained within the crater interior, suggesting that the overpressure at the origin of magma ascent and intrusion was less than the pressure due to the weight of the crust removed by

  11. Magma Plumbing and Emplacement Mechanisms within Sedimentary Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, Nick; Magee, Craig; Holford, Simon; Jackson, Christopher

    2013-04-01

    In recent years our understanding of sub-volcanic magmatic plumbing systems has been revolutionised by the study of hydrocarbon industry 3D seismic reflection datasets from offshore sedimentary basins. In particular, 3D seismic reflection data has provided important insights into sheet intrusion geometry and emplacement mechanisms as well as linkages and magma flow between multiple intrusions within sill-complexes. However, even high-quality 3D seismic reflection datasets have a limit to what they can resolve; thus, to allow a better understanding of detailed emplacement mechanisms and to test the validity of subsurface-based interpretations, it is critical to bridge the resolution gap that exists between seismic and outcrop datasets. Magmatic sheet (sill) intrusions contribute significantly to the upper crustal magma transport network. The emplacement mechanism of the magmatic sheets controls the final geometry of the intrusions and the characteristics of host rock deformation. Previous observations have highlighted the preponderance of brittle structures (e.g. intrusive steps and broken brides) associated with shallow-level sheet intrusions. However, recent studies have suggested that non-brittle host rock behaviour also occurs, particularly related to the formation of magma fingers during shallow-level sill intrusion. Importantly, these structures can provide insights into emplacement style and magma flow directions. Here, we examine both brittle and non-brittle intrusion mechanisms and structures using both field- and 3D seismic-based observations from a series of widespread and variable magmatic systems. Non-brittle emplacement (i.e. magma finger and lobe development) appears to be primarily associated with viscous flow of the host rock during intrusion and is therefore intimately linked to the contemporaneous host rock rheology as well as magma dynamics. Purely brittle and non-brittle emplacement processes are found to be end members with many intrusions

  12. Failed magmatic eruptions: Late-stage cessation of magma ascent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, S.C.; Newhall, C.; Roman, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    When a volcano becomes restless, a primary question is whether the unrest will lead to an eruption. Here we recognize four possible outcomes of a magmatic intrusion: "deep intrusion", "shallow intrusion", "sluggish/viscous magmatic eruption", and "rapid, often explosive magmatic eruption". We define "failed eruptions" as instances in which magma reaches but does not pass the "shallow intrusion" stage, i. e., when magma gets close to, but does not reach, the surface. Competing factors act to promote or hinder the eventual eruption of a magma intrusion. Fresh intrusion from depth, high magma gas content, rapid ascent rates that leave little time for enroute degassing, opening of pathways, and sudden decompression near the surface all act to promote eruption, whereas decreased magma supply from depth, slow ascent, significant enroute degassing and associated increases in viscosity, and impingement on structural barriers all act to hinder eruption. All of these factors interact in complex ways with variable results, but often cause magma to stall at some depth before reaching the surface. Although certain precursory phenomena, such as rapidly escalating seismic swarms or rates of degassing or deformation, are good indicators that an eruption is likely, such phenomena have also been observed in association with intrusions that have ultimately failed to erupt. A perpetual difficulty with quantifying the probability of eruption is a lack of data, particularly on instances of failed eruptions. This difficulty is being addressed in part through the WOVOdat database. Papers in this volume will be an additional resource for scientists grappling with the issue of whether or not an episode of unrest will lead to a magmatic eruption.

  13. External Sulfur Addition in the Generation of Sulfide-rich Ni-Cu-PGE Deposits: The Importance of Focused Magma Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripley, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    Sulfide-rich Ni-Cu-PGE orebodies hosted in mafic to ultramafic igneous rocks require focused magma flow and vigorous interaction with country rocks to liberate sulfide, as well as to produce traps for immiscible sulfide liquid. In the 1.1 Ga Midcontinent Rift System (MRS), Ni-rich sulfide deposits occur in conduit systems. Variations in S and Os isotope ratios indicate that magmas which followed different crustal pathways were focused into a central conduit that supplied overlying flows and sills. The 1.3 Ga Voisey's Bay deposit in Labrador represents sulfide liquid collection in a conduit system which includes dike-like bodies and larger sub-horizontal chambers. Variable d34S values again strongly suggest that focused magma flow and turbulence in the conduit resulted in the input of magmatic pulses that had undergone S isotopic homogenization even though pelitic country rocks are characterized by a range in S isotope values from -17 to +18 ‰. A very similar physical setting characterizes the sulfide-bearing Duke Island Complex, a Cretaceous - aged Ural-Alaskan intrusion in an arc setting. Magma pulses of variable sulfur isotopic compositions were focused into a central chamber where sulfide-bearing magma spread laterally. Trapped silicate liquid was efficiently expelled, leaving sulfide-bearing ultramafic cumulates. A less turbulent environment is indicated for sheet-like intrusions that carry disseminated sulfide mineralization in the Duluth Complex within the MRS. However, the potential ore sequences were built from multiple pulses of magma of distinct S isotope values that had interacted with sulfidic country rocks characterized by different S isotope compositions. Hence, the focusing of magmas from different pathways has been essential for the generation of potential sulfide-rich ore bodies in the Duluth Complex as well.

  14. A model to forecast magma chamber rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, John; Drymoni, Kyriaki; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2016-04-01

    An understanding of the amount of magma available to supply any given eruption is useful for determining the potential eruption magnitude and duration. Geodetic measurements and inversion techniques are often used to constrain volume changes within magma chambers, as well as constrain location and depth, but such models are incapable of calculating total magma storage. For example, during the 2012 unrest period at Santorini volcano, approximately 0.021 km3 of new magma entered a shallow chamber residing at around 4 km below the surface. This type of event is not unusual, and is in fact a necessary condition for the formation of a long-lived shallow chamber. The period of unrest ended without culminating in eruption, i.e the amount of magma which entered the chamber was insufficient to break the chamber and force magma further towards the surface. Using continuum-mechanics and fracture-mechanics principles, we present a model to calculate the amount of magma contained at shallow depth beneath active volcanoes. Here we discuss our model in the context of Santorini volcano, Greece. We demonstrate through structural analysis of dykes exposed within the Santorini caldera, previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions, and geodetic measurements of the 2011-2012 unrest period, that the measured 0.02% increase in volume of Santorini's shallow magma chamber was associated with magmatic excess pressure increase of around 1.1 MPa. This excess pressure was high enough to bring the chamber roof close to rupture and dyke injection. For volcanoes with known typical extrusion and intrusion (dyke) volumes, the new methodology presented here makes it possible to forecast the conditions for magma-chamber failure and dyke injection at any geodetically well-monitored volcano.

  15. Temporal Evolution of Volcanic and Plutonic Magmas Related to Porphyry Copper Ores Based on Zircon Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilles, J. H.; Lee, R. G.; Wooden, J. L.; Koleszar, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Porphyry Cu (Mo-Au) and epithermal Au-Ag ores are globally associated with shallow hydrous, strongly oxidized, and sulfur-rich arc intrusions. In many localities, long-lived magmatism includes evolution from early andesitic volcanic (v) and plutonic (p) rocks to later dacitic or rhyolitic compositions dominated by plutons. We compare zircon compositions from three igneous suites with different time spans: Yerington, USA (1 m.y., p>v), El Salvador, Chile (4 m.y., p>v), and Yanacocha, Peru (6 m.y., v>p). At Yerington granite dikes and ores formed in one event, at ES in 2 to 3 events spanning 3 m.y., and at Yanacocha in 6 events spanning 5 m.y. At both ES and Yanacocha, high-Al amphiboles likely crystallized at high temperature in the mid-crust and attest to deep magmas that periodically recharged the shallow chambers. At Yanacocha, these amphiboles contain anhydrite inclusions that require magmas were sulfur-rich and strongly oxidized (~NNO+2). The Ti-in-zircon geothermometer provides estimates of 920º to 620º C for zircon crystallization, and records both core to rim cooling and locally high temperature rim overgrowths. Ore-related silicic porphyries yield near-solidus crystallization temperatures of 750-650°C consistent with low zircon saturation temperatures. The latter zircons have large positive Ce/Ce* and small negative Eu/Eu*≥0.4 anomalies attesting to strongly oxidized conditions (Ballard et al., 2001), which we propose result from crystallization and SO2 loss to the magmatic-hydrothermal ore fluid (Dilles et al., 2015). The Hf, REE, Y, U, and Th contents of zircons are diverse in the magma suites, and Th/U vs Yb/Gd plots suggest a dominant role of crystal fractionation with lesser roles for both crustal contamination and mixing with high temperature deep-sourced mafic magma. Ce/Sm vs Yb/Gd plots suggest that magma REE contents at <900°C are dominated by early crystallization of hornblende and apatite, and late crystallization (~<780°C) of titanite

  16. Geodetic observations of the ongoing Dabbahu rifting episode: new dyke intrusions in 2006 and 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamling, Ian J.; Ayele, Atalay; Bennati, Laura; Calais, Eric; Ebinger, Cynthia J.; Keir, Derek; Lewi, Elias; Wright, Tim J.; Yirgu, Gezahegn

    2009-08-01

    A 60-km-long dyke intruded the Dabbahu segment of the Nubia-Arabia Plate boundary (Afar, Ethiopia) in 2005 September, marking the beginning of an ongoing rifting episode. We have monitored the continuing activity using Satellite Radar Interferometry (InSAR) and with data from Global Positioning System (GPS) instruments and seismometers deployed around the rift in response to the initial intrusion. These data show that a sequence of new dyke intrusions has reintruded the central and southern section of the Dabbahu segment. The first was in 2006 June and seven new dykes were emplaced by the end of 2007. Modelling of InSAR data indicates that the dykes were between 0.5 and 2 m wide, up to ~10 km long and confined to the upper 10 km of crust. An intrusion in 2007 August was associated with a 5-km-long basaltic fissural eruption. During the new dyke injections, InSAR and GPS data show no subsidence at either of the volcanoes at the northern end of the segment, which partly fed the 2005 September dyke. Seismicity data imply that the dykes were probably fed from a source near the Ado'Ale Silicic Complex at the centre of the segment, but the lack of significant subsidence there implies that the source is very deep, or that there was minimal deflation at shallow magma sources. The new dykes are concentrated in an area where the 2005 dyke did not produce significant opening, implying that residual tensile tectonic stresses are higher in this location and are focusing the later intrusions. The sequence of dyke intrusions observed so far is similar to those seen in Iceland during the Krafla rifting episode, which lasted 9 yr from 1975 to 1984. It is likely that, with a continued magma supply, dykes will continue to be intruded until the tectonic stress is fully relieved. As observed at Krafla, eruptions are likely to become more common before the rifting episode is concluded.

  17. Comparative Magma Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. H.

    1999-01-01

    The question of whether the Earth ever passed through a magma ocean stage is of considerable interest. Geochemical evidence strongly suggests that the Moon had a magma ocean and the evidence is mounting that the same was true for Mars. Analyses of martian (SNC) meteorites have yielded insights into the differentiation history of Mars, and consequently, it is interesting to compare that planet to the Earth. Three primary features of Mars contrast strongly to those of the Earth: (i) the extremely ancient ages of the martian core, mantle, and crust (about 4.55 b.y.); (ii) the highly depleted nature of the martian mantle; and (iii) the extreme ranges of Nd isotopic compositions that arise within the crust and depleted mantle. The easiest way to explain the ages and diverse isotopic compositions of martian basalts is to postulate that Mars had an early magma ocean. Cumulates of this magma ocean were later remelted to form the SNC meteorite suite and some of these melts assimilated crustal materials enriched in incompatible elements. The REE pattern of the crust assimilated by these SNC magmas was LREE enriched. If this pattern is typical of the crust as a whole, the martian crust is probably similar in composition to melts generated by small degrees of partial melting (about 5%) of a primitive source. Higher degrees of partial melting would cause the crustal LREE pattern to be essentially flat. In the context of a magma ocean model, where large degrees of partial melting presumably prevailed, the crust would have to be dominated by late-stage, LREE-enriched residual liquids. Regardless of the exact physical setting, Nd and W isotopic evidence indicates that martian geochemical reservoirs must have formed early and that they have not been efficiently remixed since. The important point is that in both the Moon and Mars we see evidence of a magma ocean phase and that we recognize it as such. Several lines of theoretical inference point to an early Earth that was also hot

  18. Basaltic injections into floored silicic magma chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, R. A.

    Recent studies have provided compelling evidence that many large accumulations of silicic volcanic rocks erupted from long-lasting, floored chambers of silicic magma that were repeatedly injected by basaltic magma. These basaltic infusions are commonly thought to play an important role in the evolution of the silicic systems: they have been proposed as a cause for explosive silicic eruptions [Sparks and Sigurdsson, 1977], compositional variation in ash-flow sheets [Smith, 1979], mafic magmatic inclusions in silicic volcanic rocks [Bacon, 1986], and mixing of mafic and silicic magmas [Anderson, 1976; Eichelberger, 1978]. If, as seems likely, floored silicic magma chambers have frequently been invaded by basalt, then plutonic bodies should provide records of these events. Although plutonic evidence for mixing and commingling of mafic and silicic magmas has been recognized for many years, it has been established only recently that some intrusive complex originated through multiple basaltic injections into floored chambers of silicic magma [e.g., Wiebe, 1974; Michael, 1991; Chapman and Rhodes, 1992].

  19. Igneous Structures, Magma Transport, and Crystallization in Simple and Complex Plumbing Systems of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province, Pennsylvania and New Jersey, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srogi, L.; Martinson, P.; Willis, K. V.; Kulp, R.; Pollock, M.; Lutz, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies showing the importance of sills and sheets in crustal magmatic plumbing at rifted continental margins prompt re-examination of the Mesozoic Central Atlantic Magmatic Province, eastern North America. The Newark-Gettysburg Basins in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, contain Jurassic diabase (dolerite) intrusions and lava flows. Most intrusions are considered a single sheet or saucer sill. However, at the W end of the Newark Basin the Jacksonwald Syncline (JS) includes small plutons, sills, dikes, and a lava flow; and the Morgantown Pluton (MP) is a connected network of sills and inclined sheets with the 250-m-wide Birdsboro Dike forming the E side. After crystallization most intrusions were tilted or folded and dip/plunge toward the NW border faults. In the SE part of the MP, small magmatic pipes (originally vertical) and modal layering were tilted 20 degrees NNW, similar to plunge of the JS. If tilting was due to movement along the border faults then the basins expose cross-sections of a few kms from shallower (N/NW) to deeper (S/SE) crustal levels. There is a difference of 3.5-6 km in paleo-depth between basal S/SE units and upper N/NW units within JS, MP, and York Haven Sheet, consistent with estimated thicknesses of Triassic sedimentary rocks. Basal cumulus and upper Fe-rich and granophyric zones occur in most Newark-Gettysburg Basin intrusions implying similar magma transport and crystallization processes regardless of plumbing geometry. MELTS modeling of early orthopyroxene crystallization at high P suggests that opx-rich diabase marks magma feeder locations; at least 2 feeders at different emplacement levels occur in the MP. Modally-layered opx cumulus in the MP basal sill accumulated from dozens of m-scale magma pulses with lateral migration of most liquid. Distributions of distinctive phenocrysts provide insights into magma transport and crystal sorting. MP and JS chilled margins and lava flows have almost identical REE and other

  20. Lateral variation in oxygen fugacity and halogen contents in early Cretaceous magmas in Jiaodong area, East China: Implication for triggers of the destruction of the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiao-Long; He, Peng-Li; Wang, Xue; Zhong, Jun-Wei; Xu, Yi-Gang

    2016-04-01

    Pacific subduction has been suggested as the trigger of the destruction of the North China Craton, but evidence for it remains ambiguous. To further investigate this issue, we studied Wulian pyroxene monzonite (123 ± 1 Ma) in the west and Rushan gabbro-diorite (115 ± 1 Ma) in the east of the Sulu orogen, East China. The rocks of both locations are characterized by low TiO2 but high SiO2 and K2O, fractionated REE patterns with notable negative Ta-Nb-Ti anomalies, and by high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios and strongly negative εNd (t) and εHf (t) values. These geochemical and isotopic characteristics can be interpreted to be formed by partial melting of enriched lithosphere mantle refertilized by recycled crustal materials that were associated with the Sulu orogeny. Oxygen fugacities of the Rushan gabbro-diorites, estimated based on magnetite-ilmenite equilibration, are significantly higher than those of Wulian pyroxene monzonite. This lateral difference is mirrored by lower F and F/Cl but higher Cl in biotite in the Rushan gabbro-diorite compared to Wulian pyroxene monzonite. All these data suggest a spatially heterogeneous Cretaceous mantle source in terms of halogens and water contents beneath the Sulu orogen, which was most likely caused by the subduction processes of the Pacific plate. H2O-rich fluid in the mantle beneath the east of the Sulu orogen closer to the mantle wedge was prominently from early dehydration of subducted slab at shallow depth, while F-bearing fluid to further west was released by dehydrated deeper slab or stagnant oceanic slab within the mantle transition zone.

  1. Composite synvolcanic intrusions associated with Precambrian VMS-related hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galley, Alan G.

    2003-06-01

    Large subvolcanic intrusions are recognized within most Precambrian VMS camps. Of these, 80% are quartz diorite-tonalite-trondhjemite composite intrusions. The VMS camps spatially associated with composite intrusions account for >90% of the aggregate sulfide tonnage of all the Precambrian, intrusion-related VMS camps. These low-alumina, low-K, and high-Na composite intrusions contain early phases of quartz diorite and tonalite, followed by more voluminous trondhjemite. They have a high proportion of high silica (>74% SiO2) trondhjemite which is compositionally similar to the VMS-hosting rhyolites within the volcanic host-rock successions. The quartz-diorite and possibly tonalite phases follow tholeiitic fractionation trends whereas the trondhjemites fall within the composition field for primitive crustal melts. These transitional M-I-type primitive intrusive suites are associated with extensional regimes within oceanic-arc environments. Subvolcanic composite intrusions related to the Archean Sturgeon Lake and Noranda, and Paleoproterozoic Snow Lake VMS camps range in volume from 300 to 1,000 km3. Three have a sill morphology with strike lengths between 15 and 22 km and an average thickness between 1,500 and 2,000 m. The fourth has a gross stock-like shape. The VMS deposits are principally restricted to the volcanic strata above the strike length of the intrusions, as are areally extensive, thin exhalite units. The composite intrusions contain numerous internal phases which are commonly clustered within certain parts of the composite intrusion. These clusters underlie eruptive centers surrounded by areas of hydrothermal alteration and which contain most of the VMS deposits. Early quartz-diorite and tonalite phases appear to have intruded in rapid succession. Evidence includes gradational contacts, magma mixing and disequilibrium textures. They appear to have been emplaced as sill-dike swarms. These early phases are present as pendants and xenoliths within later

  2. Flexural Stresses and Reservoir Stability: Implications for Magma Propagation in the Lithosphere and the Formation of Giant Radial Dike Swarms on Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galgana, G. A.; Grosfils, E. B.; McGovern, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    Giant radial fracture systems on Venus are prominent, widely distributed volcano-tectonic structures that record interactions between the lithosphere and subsurface magmatic processes, specifically the lateral transport of magma at shallow depths. Here we show that the interplay between flexural uplift and magma chamber pressurization can create stress conditions favoring the emplacement of radial dikes. We use elastic, gravitationally-loaded axisymmetric finite element models that incorporate depth-dependent lithostatic stresses and Winkler restoring forces at the base of the elastic lithosphere. To generate uplift, we apply buoyant (upward) loads at the base of a 20 km-thick lithosphere near the model center, with a maximum thickness of 5 km and 200 km in radius, using conical and disk load shapes. An overpressured spherical reservoir, emplaced in each model, is used to simulate magmatic inflation and determine reservoir failure patterns. Stress orientations predicted by our models are helping us understand how laterally spreading sub-lithosphere bodies flex the lithosphere, affect intrusion patterns (radial to circumferential faults/grabens), and influence both magma ascent and eruptive patterns. Loading due to a conical basal load produces a flexural stress state with high differential stresses in the extensional upper and compressional lower lithosphere, separated by a low-stress neutral plane. Principal stress alignments in the upper lithosphere favor the emplacement of laterally extensive radial intrusions. In contrast to this, sill formation is favored in the lower lithosphere. Magma reservoirs emplaced in the upper lithosphere or within the underlying zone of low differential stress fail at the crest, favoring the ascent of magma. Reservoirs emplaced in the lower lithosphere tend to fail near the midsection under conditions that will yield horizontal intrusions. In sharp contrast, disk-shaped or ellipsoidal uplift loads move the flexed part of the

  3. Catastrophic erosion of Hellas basin rim on Mars induced by magmatic intrusion into volatile-rich rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, K.L.; Kargel, J.S.; MacKinnon, D.J.; Hare, T.M.; Hoffman, N.

    2002-01-01

    Malea and Hesperia Plana form large sectors of the rim of Hellas basin that display partly eroded volcanic shields and plains. These regions have topographic profiles that appear to be several hundred meters lower than those of adjacent rim sectors and lack prominent massifs of remnant basement that would be expected to stand above the lava plains. We interpret that before the volcanic edifices were constructed, these regions were denuded by an early stage of voluminous sill intrusion into friable, volatile-rich impact breccia. Magma-volatile interactions may have resulted in catastrophic generation of debris flows deposited into the adjacent basin, particularly if CO2 were involved. Later, lavas covered the eroded terrain; in turn, the lavas were eroded locally by volatile interactions. Across Mars, huge channel systems, erosional features in volcanic terranes, and vast layered deposits may be due to magma-volatile interactions.

  4. Fluid inclusions in apatite from Jacupiranga calcite carbonatites: Evidence for a fluid-stratified carbonatite magma chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costanzo, Alessandra; Moore, Kathryn Ruth; Wall, Frances; Feely, Martin

    2006-10-01

    Carbonatites of the Jacupiranga alkaline-carbonatite complex in São Paulo State, Brazil, were used to investigate mineral-fluid interaction in a carbonatite magma chamber because apatite showed a marked discontinuity between primary fluid inclusion-rich cores and fluid inclusion-poor rims. Sylvite and burbankite, apatite, pyrite, chalcopyrite and ilmenite are the common phases occurring as trapped solids within primary fluid inclusions and reflect the general assemblage of the carbonatite. The apatite cores had higher Sr and REE concentrations than apatite rims, due to the presence of fluid inclusions into which these elements partitioned. A positive cerium anomaly was observed in both the core and rim of apatite crystals because oxidised Ce 4+ partitioned into the magma. The combined evidence from apatite chemistry, fluid inclusion distribution and fluid composition was used to test the hypotheses that the limit of fluid inclusion occurrence within apatite crystals arises from: (1) generation of a separate fluid phase; (2) utilization of all available fluid during the first stage of crystallization; (3) removal of crystals from fluid-rich magma to fluid-poor magma; (4) an increase in the growth rate of apatite; or (5) escape of the fluids from the rim of the apatite after crystallization. The findings are consistent with fractionation and crystal settling of a carbonatite assemblage in a fluid-stratified magma chamber. Secondary fluid inclusions were trapped during a hydrothermal event that precipitated an assemblage of anhedral crystals: strontianite, carbocernaite, barytocalcite, barite and norsethite, pyrophanite, magnesian siderite and baddeleyite, ancylite-(Ce), monazite-(Ce) and allanite. The Sr- and REE-rich nature of the secondary assemblage, and lack of a positive cerium anomaly indicate that hydrothermal fluids have a similar source to the primary magma and are related to a later carbonatite intrusion.

  5. Petrogenesis of the Pd-rich intrusion at Salt Chuck, Prince of Wales island: an early Paleozoic Alaskan-type ultramafic body

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loney, R.A.; Himmelberg, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    The early Paleozoic Salt Chuck intrusion has petrographic and chemical characteristics that are similar to those of Cretaceous Alaskan-type ultramafic-mafic bodies. The intrusion is markedly discordant to the structure of the early Paleozoic Descon Formation, in which it has produced a rather indistinct contact aureole a few meters wide. Mineral assemblages, sequence of crystallization, and mineral chemistry suggest that the intrusion crystallized under low pressures (~2 kbar) with oxidation conditions near those of the NNO buffer, from a hydrous, silica-saturated, orthopyroxene-normative parental magma. The Salt Chuck deposit was probably formed by a two-stage process: 1) a stage of magmatic crystallization in which the sulfides and PGE accumulated in a disseminated manner in cumulus deposits, possibly largely in the gabbro, and 2) a later magmatic-hydrothermal stage during which the sulfides and PGE were remobilized and concentrated in veins and fracture-fillings. In this model, the source of the sulfides and PGE was the magma that produced the Salt Chuck intrusion. -from Authors

  6. The 2001 Mt. Etna eruption: new constraints on the intrusive mechanism from ground deformation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palano, Mimmo; González, Pablo J.

    2013-04-01

    The occurrence of seismic swarms beneath the SW flank of Mt. Etna, often observed just a few months before an eruption, has been considered as the fragile response to a magma intrusion (Bonanno et al., 2011 and reference therein). These intrusions and/or pressurization of deep magmatic bodies, have been able to significantly affect the seismic pattern within the volcano edifice, leading to a changes in the local stress field. For example, during the months preceding the 1991-1993 Mt. Etna eruption, shallow intense seismic swarms (4-6 km deep) occurring in the SW flank (e.g. Cocina et al., 1998), related to the magma intrusion before the eruption onset, were observed contemporaneously with a rotation of stress field of about 90°. A similar scenario was observed during January 1998, when a magma recharging phases induced a local rotation of stress tensor, forcing a buried fault zone located beneath the SW flank of Mt. Etna to slip as a right-lateral strike-slip fault (Bonanno et al., 2011). This fault system was forced to slip again, during late April 2001 (more than 200 events in less than 5 days; maximum Magnitude = 3.6) by the pressurization of the magmatic bodies feeding the July-August 2001 Mt. Etna eruption. Here we analyzed in detail the July-August 2001 Mt. Etna eruption as well as the dynamics preceding this event, by using a large dataset of geodetic data (GPS and synthetic aperture radar interferometry) collected between July 2000 and August 2001. References Cocina, O., Neri, G., Privitera, E. and Spampinato S., 1998. Seismogenic stress field beneath Mt. Etna South Italy and possible relationships with volcano-tectonic features. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 83, 335-348. Bonanno A., Palano M., Privitera E., Gresta S., Puglisi G., 2011. Magma intrusion mechanisms and redistribution of seismogenic stress at Mt. Etna volcano (1997-1998). Terra Nova, 23, 339-348, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3121.2011.01019.x, 2011.

  7. Ultrabasic breccias in layered intrusions - The Rhum complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donaldson, C. H.

    1975-01-01

    Two breccias in the southwest part of the ultrabasic Rhum complex are considered. Aspects of field relations are discussed along with questions regarding the petrography of the matrix. Attention is given to textures and chemical mineralogy, the mechanism of brecciation, matrix magmas, and the possible implications of the findings. It is concluded that the Harris Bay and Ard Mheall ultrabasic breccias formed by brecciation due to the intrusion of feldspathic peridotite magmas.

  8. Seismicity during lateral dike propagation: Insights from new data in the recent Manda Hararo-Dabbahu rifting episode (Afar, Ethiopia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandin, R.; Jacques, E.; Nercessian, A.; Ayele, A.; Doubre, C.; Socquet, A.; Keir, D.; Kassim, M.; Lemarchand, A.; King, G. C. P.

    2011-04-01

    Seismicity released during lateral dike intrusions in the Manda Hararo-Dabbahu Rift (Afar, Ethiopia) provides indirect insight into the distribution and evolution of tensile stress along this magma-assisted divergent plate boundary. In this paper, 5 dike intrusions among the 14 that form the 2005-present rifting episode are analyzed with local and regional seismic data. During dike intrusions, seismicity migrates over distances of 10-15 km at velocities of 0.5-3.0 km/h away from a single reservoir in the center of the rift segment, confirming the analogy with a slow spreading mid-ocean ridge segment. Comparison with geodetic data shows that the reservoir is located 7 km down rift from the topographic summit of the axial depression. Dikes emplaced toward the north are observed to migrate faster and to be more voluminous than those migrating southward, suggesting an asymmetry of tension in the brittle-elastic lithosphere. Seismicity during dike injections is concentrated near the propagating crack front. In contrast, faults and fissures in the subsurface appear to slip or open aseismically coeval with the intrusions. The seismic energy released during dike intrusions in the Manda Hararo Rift appears to be primarily modulated by the local magnitude of differential tensile stress and marginally by the rate of stress change induced by the intrusion. The low level of seismic energy accompanying dike intrusions, despite their significant volumes, is likely an indicator of an overall low level of tension in the lithosphere of this nascent plate boundary.

  9. Magma Energy Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.; Ortega, A.; Hickox, C.E.; Chu, T.Y.; Wemple, R.P.; Boehm, R.F.

    1987-01-20

    The rate at which energy can be extracted from crustal magma bodies has an important influence on the economic viability of the magma energy concept. Open heat exchanger systems where fluid is circulated through solidified magma offer the promise of high energy extraction rates. This concept was successfully demonstrated during experiments in the molten zone of Kilauea Iki lava lake. Ongoing research is directed at developing a fundamental understanding of the establishment and long term operation of open systems in a crustal magma body. These studies show that magma solidifying around a cooled borehole will be extensively fractured and form a permeable medium through which fluid can be circulated. Numerical modeling of the complete magma energy extraction process predicts that high quality thermal energy can be delivered to the wellhead at rates that will produce from 25 to 30 MW electric. 10 figs., 10 refs.

  10. Phenomena associated with magma expansion into a drift

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, E. S.

    2002-01-01

    One of the significant threats to the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository has been identified as the possibility of intersection of the underground structure by a basaltic intrusion. Based on the geology of the region, it is assumed that such an intrusion would consist of an alkali basalt similar to the nearby Lathrop Wells cone, which has been dated at about 78 ka. The threat of radioactive release may be either from eruption through the surface above the repository of basalt that had been contaminated or from migration through ground water of radionucleides released as a result of damage to waste packages that interact with the magma. As part of our study of these threats, we are analyzing the phenomena associated with magma expansion into drifts in tuff. The early phenomena of the encounter of volatile-rich basaltic magma with a drift are discussed here.

  11. Effects of mechanical layering on magmatic reservoir failure and magma propagation within the Venusian lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Corvec, N.; McGovern, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    Failure of magmatic reservoirs and propagation of magmas is controlled in part by the state of stress within the lithosphere. Such stresses are induced by a range of loadings (e.g., gravitational, magmatic and tectonic). In addition, the response of the lithosphere to these loadings depends on its physical properties. Magmatic reservoirs on planetary bodies have been studied using homogeneous lithosphere mainly composed of crustal material. However, planetary lithospheres may include substantial fractions of mantle material, with greater stiffness and density than those typical of crust. The mechanics of a heterogeneous lithosphere may influence the failure of a magmatic reservoir and the propagation of the magma. To explore this scenario, we created two-layered axisymmetric elastic models made of mantle and crustal components using the COMSOL Multiphysics finite element package, in which a stiffer and denser mantle is underlying a softer and lighter crust. A spherical reservoir was created at the contact between the two layers. In these models, we analyzed the magmatic reservoir stability, the amount of overpressure needed to reach failure and the type of resulting intrusions within the two-layered lithosphere for three distinct environments: 1- lithostatic; 2- upward flexure due to a rising mantle plume; and 3- downward flexure due to a basaltic shield volcano. The results show that in most cases, magmatic reservoirs fail below the mantle-crust contact. The resulting failure is driven by the in-plane stress tangential to the chamber, favoring lateral sill injections. In the flexure cases, magma chambers may become unstable (i.e., require no additional overpressure to fail) depending on the crust/mantle ratio. In some cases, we observed that the magma chambers failure can be driven by the (out-of-plane) hoop stress favoring radial dike intrusions. The stability of magmatic reservoirs and the type and orientation of magmatic intrusions on Venus are influenced by

  12. Rift zones and magma plumbing system of Piton de la Fournaise volcano: How do they differ from Hawaii and Etna?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michon, Laurent; Ferrazzini, Valérie; Di Muro, Andrea; Villeneuve, Nicolas; Famin, Vincent

    2015-09-01

    On ocean basaltic volcanoes, magma transfer to the surface proceeds by subvertical ascent from the mantle lithosphere through the oceanic crust and the volcanic edifice, possibly followed by lateral propagation along rift zones. We use a 19-year-long database of volcano-tectonic seismic events together with detailed mapping of the cinder cones and eruptive fissures to determine the geometry and the dynamics of the magma paths intersecting the edifice of Piton de la Fournaise volcano. We show that the overall plumbing system, from about 30 km depth to the surface, is composed of two structural levels that feed distinct types of rift zones. The deep plumbing system is rooted between Piton des Neiges and Piton de la Fournaise volcanoes and has a N30-40 orientation. Above 20 km below sea level (bsl), the main axis switches to a N120 orientation, which permits magma transfer from the lithospheric mantle to the base of the oceanic crust, below the summit of Piton de la Fournaise. The related NW-SE rift zone is 15 km wide, linear, spotted by small to large pyroclastic cones and related lava flows and emits slightly alkaline magmas resulting from high-pressure fractionation of clinopyroxene ± olivine. This rift zone has low magma production rate of ~ 0.5-3.6 × 10- 3 m3s- 1 and an eruption periodicity of around 200 years over the last 30 ka. Seismic data suggest that the long-lasting activity of this rift zone result from regional NNE-SSW extension, which reactivates inherited lithospheric faults by the effect of underplating and/or thermal erosion of the mantle lithosphere. The shallow plumbing system (< 11 km bsl) connects the base of the crust with the Central Cone. It is separated from the deep plumbing system by a relatively large aseismic zone between 8 and 11 km bsl, which may represent a deep storage level of magma. The shallow plumbing system feeds frequent, short-lived summit and flank (NE and SE flanks) eruptions along summit and outer rift zones, respectively

  13. Mapping real time growth of experimental laccoliths: The effect of solidification on the mechanics of magmatic intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currier, Ryan M.; Marsh, Bruce D.

    2015-09-01

    The dynamics of solidification front growth along the margins of magmas have been widely found to be fundamental in controlling magma transport and emplacement. In this vein, the role of solidification fronts in determining the basic growth mechanics of laccoliths are investigated here in a series of scaled experiments using two contrasting magma analogs, water and molten wax that are injected into a visco-elastic gelatin based crustal analog. In non-solidifying, water-style experiments, intrusion is a relatively simple process. In contrast, wax magma emplacement displays a vast palette of compelling behaviors: propagation can slow, stop, and reactivate, and the directionality of lateral growth becomes much more variable. Small flow deviations in water-based intrusions are likely the product of flow instabilities, the result of injecting a viscous fluid along an interface (similar to Hele-Shaw cell experiments). However, the much more complex emplacement style of the wax experiments is attributed to solidification at the leading edge of the crack. The overall effects of solidification during emplacement can be described by a non-dimensional parameter measuring the relative competition between the rates of crack propagation and solidification at the crack leading edge. In this context, laccolith growth mechanics can be separated into three distinctive characteristic stages. Namely, I: A thin pancake style sill initially emanating radially from a central feeder zone, II: As solidification stalls magma propagation at the leading edges, enhanced thickening begins, forming a true, low aspect ratio laccolith, and III: As stresses accumulate, tears and disruptions readily occur in the solidified margin causing fresh breakouts, thus reactivating lateral growth into new lobes. The competitive combination of these latter stages often leads to a characteristic pulsatile growth. The unexpected richness of these results promises to add fundamentally to the basic understanding

  14. Direct Observation of Rhyolite Magma by Drilling: The Proposed Krafla Magma Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Sigmundsson, F.; Papale, P.; Markusson, S.; Loughlin, S.

    2014-12-01

    Remarkably, drilling in Landsvirkjun Co.'s geothermal field in Krafla Caldera, Iceland has encountered rhyolite magma or hypersolidus rhyolite at 2.1-2.5 km depth in 3 wells distributed over 3.5 km2, including Iceland Deep Drilling Program's IDDP-1 (Mortensen, 2012). Krafla's most recent rifting and eruption (basalt) episode was 1975-1984; deformation since that time has been simple decay. Apparently rhyolite magma was either emplaced during that episode without itself erupting or quietly evolved in situ within 2-3 decades. Analysis of drill cuttings containing quenched melt from IDDP-1 yielded unprecedented petrologic data (Zierenberg et al, 2012). But interpreting active processes of heat and mass transfer requires knowing spatial variations in physical and chemical characteristics at the margin of the magma body, and that requires retrieving core - a not-inconceivable task. Core quenched in situ in melt up to 1150oC was recovered from Kilauea Iki lava lake, Hawaii by the Magma Energy Project >30 years ago. The site from which IDDP-1 was drilled, and perhaps IDDP-1 itself, may be available to attempt the first-ever coring of rhyolite magma, now proposed as the Krafla Magma Drilling Project (KMDP). KMDP would also include geophysical and geochemical experiments to measure the response of the magma/hydrothermal system to fluid injection and flow tests. Fundamental results will reveal the behavior of magma in the upper crust and coupling between magma and the hydrothermal system. Extreme, sustained thermal power output during flow tests of IDDP-1 suggests operation of a Kilauea-Iki-like freeze-fracture-flow boundary propagating into the magma and mining its latent heat of crystallization (Carrigan et al, EGU, 2014). Such an ultra-hot Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) might be developable beneath this and other magma-heated conventional hydrothermal systems. Additionally, intra-caldera intrusions like Krafla's are believed to produce the unrest that is so troubling in

  15. Geophysical observations of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, 2. Constraints on the magma supply during November 1975 September 1977

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzurisin, Daniel; Anderson, Lennart A.; Eaton, Gordon P.; Koyanagi, Robert Y.; Lipman, Peter W.; Lockwood, John P.; Okamura, Reginald T.; Puniwai, Gary S.; Sako, Maurice K.; Yamashita, Kenneth M.

    1980-05-01

    Following a 22-month hiatus in eruptive activity, Kilauea volcano extruded roughly 35 × 10 6m3 of tholeiitic basalt from vents along its middle east rift zone during 13 September-1 October, 1977. The lengthy prelude to this eruption began with a magnitude 7.2 earthquake on 29 November, 1975, and included rapid summit deflation episodes in June, July, and August 1976 and February 1977. Synthesis of seismic, geodetic, gravimetric, and electrical self-potential observations suggests the following model for this atypical Kilauea eruptive cycle. Rapid summit deflation initiated by the November 1975 earthquake reflected substantial migration of magma from beneath the summit region of Kilauea into the east and southwest rift zones. Simultaneous leveling and microgravity observations suggest that 40-90 × 10 6 m 3 of void space was created within the summit magma chamber as a result of the earthquake. If this volume was filled by magma from depth before the east rift zone intrusive event of June 1976, the average rate of supply was 6-13 × 10 6 m 3/month, a rate that is consistent with the value of 9 × 10 6 m 3/month suggested from observations of long-duration Kilauea eruptions. Essentially zero net vertical change was recorded at the summit during the 15-month period beginning with the June 1976 intrusion and ending with the September 1977 eruption. This fact suggests that most magma supplied from depth during this interval was eventually delivered to the east rift zone, at least in part during four rapid summit deflation episodes. Microearthquake epicenters migrated downrift to the middle east rift zone for the first time during the later stages of the February 1977 intrusion, an occurrence presumably reflecting movement of magma into the eventual eruptive zone. This observation was confirmed by tilt surveys in May 1977 that revealed a major inflation center roughly 30 km east of the summit in an area of anomalous steaming and forest kill first noted in March 1976.

  16. Oblique rift opening revealed by reoccurring magma injection in central Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruch, Joël; Wang, Teng; Xu, Wenbin; Hensch, Martin; Jónsson, Sigurjón

    2016-08-01

    Extension deficit builds up over centuries at divergent plate boundaries and is recurrently removed during rifting events, accompanied by magma intrusions and transient metre-scale deformation. However, information on transient near-field deformation has rarely been captured, hindering progress in understanding rifting mechanisms and evolution. Here we show new evidence of oblique rift opening during a rifting event influenced by pre-existing fractures and two centuries of extension deficit accumulation. This event originated from the Bárðarbunga caldera and led to the largest basaltic eruption in Iceland in >200 years. The results show that the opening was initially accompanied by left-lateral shear that ceased with increasing opening. Our results imply that pre-existing fractures play a key role in controlling oblique rift opening at divergent plate boundaries.

  17. Oblique rift opening revealed by reoccurring magma injection in central Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Ruch, Joël; Wang, Teng; Xu, Wenbin; Hensch, Martin; Jónsson, Sigurjón

    2016-01-01

    Extension deficit builds up over centuries at divergent plate boundaries and is recurrently removed during rifting events, accompanied by magma intrusions and transient metre-scale deformation. However, information on transient near-field deformation has rarely been captured, hindering progress in understanding rifting mechanisms and evolution. Here we show new evidence of oblique rift opening during a rifting event influenced by pre-existing fractures and two centuries of extension deficit accumulation. This event originated from the Bárðarbunga caldera and led to the largest basaltic eruption in Iceland in >200 years. The results show that the opening was initially accompanied by left-lateral shear that ceased with increasing opening. Our results imply that pre-existing fractures play a key role in controlling oblique rift opening at divergent plate boundaries. PMID:27492709

  18. Oblique rift opening revealed by reoccurring magma injection in central Iceland.

    PubMed

    Ruch, Joël; Wang, Teng; Xu, Wenbin; Hensch, Martin; Jónsson, Sigurjón

    2016-01-01

    Extension deficit builds up over centuries at divergent plate boundaries and is recurrently removed during rifting events, accompanied by magma intrusions and transient metre-scale deformation. However, information on transient near-field deformation has rarely been captured, hindering progress in understanding rifting mechanisms and evolution. Here we show new evidence of oblique rift opening during a rifting event influenced by pre-existing fractures and two centuries of extension deficit accumulation. This event originated from the Bárðarbunga caldera and led to the largest basaltic eruption in Iceland in >200 years. The results show that the opening was initially accompanied by left-lateral shear that ceased with increasing opening. Our results imply that pre-existing fractures play a key role in controlling oblique rift opening at divergent plate boundaries. PMID:27492709

  19. Periodicity of Kı¯lauea's Dike Intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery-Brown, E. K.; Miklius, A.

    2015-12-01

    Magmatic intrusions commonly occur in the rift zones of Kı¯lauea Volcano. Individual dike intrusions observed by geodetic methods are usually 5 to 10 km long, and can occur repeatedly in the same region. Five such intrusions in Kı¯lauea's East Rift Zone, with inferred locations downrift of the bend where the NNW trending upper ERZ turns to the ENE trending ERZ, have occurred since the start of the ongoing ERZ eruption in 1983. The intrusions occur on one of two segments that correlate with seismic segments (Wright and Klein, USGS PP1806, 2014): Makaopuhi (1993 and 2007) and Nāpau (1983, 1997, and 2011). During each intrusion, the amount of dike opening was between 2 and 3 meters. Intrusions into the UERZ tend to be much smaller (~10 cm of dike opening) and occur more frequently. The time between ERZ intrusions for same-segment pairs are: 14.07 (1983-1997), 14.09 (1997-2011), and 13.95 (1993-2007) years, with the Nāpau segment becoming active about 3.5 years after the Makaopuhi segment in each case. The amount of modeled dike opening during each of these events roughly corresponds to the amount of seaward south flank motion and deep rift opening accumulated in the time between events, as was noted by Owen et al. (GRL, 2000) for the 1983 and 1997 intrusions. The recurrence interval of ~14 years appears to be unaffected by the magma surge of 2003-2007 (Poland et al., Nature, 2012), suggesting that flank motion, rather than magma supply, could be a controlling factor in the periodicity of intrusions. The long duration of the seismic catalog and the coincidence of repeated dike intrusions with the seismic segments suggest that on the timescale of decades, Kı¯lauea's East Rift Zone segments are persistent rather than ephemeral features related to single intrusion events.

  20. Magmatic Cu-Ni sulfide mineralization of the Huangshannan mafic-untramafic intrusion, Eastern Tianshan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yun; Xue, Chunji; Zhao, Xiaobo; Yang, YongQiang; Ke, Junjun

    2015-06-01

    The Huangshannan Ni-Cu (-PGE) sulfide deposit, a new discovery from geological prospecting in Eastern Tianshan, is in a belt of magmatic Ni-Cu (-PGE) sulfide deposits along the southern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The host intrusion of the Huangshannan deposit is composed of a layered ultramafic sequence and a massive gabbro-diorite unit. The major sulfide orebodies occur mainly within websterite and lherzolite in the layered ultramafic sequence. In-situ zircon U-Pb dating analyses yielded a crystallization age of 282.5 ± 1.4 Ma, similar to the ages of the Permian Tarim mantle plume. Samples from the Huangshannan intrusion are characterized by nearly flat rare earth elements patterns, negative Zr, Ti and Nb anomalies, arc-like Th/Yb and Nb/Yb ratios, and significantly lower rare earth element and immobile trace element contents than the Tarim basalts. These characteristics suggest that the Huangshannan intrusion was not generated from the Tarim mantle plume. The primary magma for the Huangshannan intrusion and its associated sulfide mineralization were formed from different pulses of picritic magma with different degrees of crustal contamination. The first pulse underwent an initial removal of 0.016% sulfide in the deep magma chamber. The evolved magma reached sulfide saturation again in the shallow magma chamber and formed sulfide ores in lherzolite. The second pulse of magma reached a level of 0.022% sulfide segregation at staging chamber before ascending up to the shallow magma chamber. In the shallow conduit system, this sulfide-unsaturated magma mixed with the first pulse of magma and with contamination from the country rocks, leading to the formation of sulfide ores in websterite. The third magma pulse from the deep chamber formed the unmineralized massive gabbro-diorite unit of the Huangshannan intrusion.

  1. Magma flow directions inferred from field evidence and magnetic fabric studies of the Streitishvarf composite dike in east Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, Per I.; Riishuus, Morten S.; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Elming, Sten-Åke

    2011-09-01

    Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and rock magnetic studies have been made on three outcrops separated by 12 km along strike (NNE-SSW) on the Streitishvarf composite dike in east Iceland. Samples for this study have been collected from the inner quartz-porphyry part of the dike, which show clear field evidence of a lateral flow component from north to south at one of the sites. This flow component is consistent with margin AMS results from all three sites. The quartz-porphyry has a substantial bulk magnetic susceptibility (10 - 2 SI) mainly carried by magnetically soft titanium-poor titanomagnetite (MDF ~ 15 mT). The ferrimagnetic grains yield a characteristic remanent magnetization in all three sites which gives a virtual geomagnetic pole at latitude 52.6° S and longitude 319.6° E. The degree of anisotropy is low ( PJ = 1.033) and the magnetic fabrics shifts from oblate to prolate shapes depending on dike margin and outcrop. The magnetic fabric has been interpreted according to the imbrication model, using the minor susceptibility axis as shear plane indicator. The absolute directions given by the minor susceptibility are then quantified using vector algebra. The magma flow is indicated as an upward directed flow, flowing from north to south with an inclination between 30° and 64°, with a 95% confidence ellipse of 3°-9°. A model for the intrusion of the Streitishvarf dike has been constructed where a magma pocket with felsic magma is punctured by a mafic dike, enabling the felsic magma to rise and extend to the south within the pathway created. The results of this study confirm the applicability of AMS in studies of magma flow directions in igneous dikes of felsic composition.

  2. Effects of an extensional tectonic stress on magmatic reservoir failure and magma propagation within the Venusian lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Corvec, N.; McGovern, P. J., Jr.; Grosfils, E. B.; Goldman, R. T.; Albright, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Failure of magmatic reservoirs and propagation of magmas is controlled in part by the state of stress within the lithosphere. Such stresses are induced by a range of loadings (e.g., gravitational and magmatic). Additional stresses can be introduced by flexural deformation of the lithosphere due to a large volcanic edifice or mantle plume loading, or as a consequence of the regional tectonic environment. Rifting environments, for instance are the results of extensional stresses at the surface of planets (e.g., Devana Chasma on Venus). The resulting stress field may influence the failure of a magmatic reservoir and the propagation of magmas. To explore this scenario, we created 3D elastic models of the Venusian lithosphere using COMSOL Multiphysics, in which an extensional stress was applied. The stress state was implemented through horizontal deformation created by orthogonal contraction and extension on the outer boundaries of the quarter symmetry model. A spherical reservoir is embedded within the lithosphere to represent a magma chamber. In these models, we analyzed magma reservoir stability at different depths, the amount of overpressure needed to reach failure, and the type of resulting intrusions within the 3D model for three distinct environments: 1- lithostatic; 2- upward flexure due to a rising mantle plume; and 3- downward flexure due to a basaltic shield volcano. Preliminary results show that as the extensional stress increases: magmatic reservoirs become unstable at shallow depth and the amount of overpressure needed to reach failure decreases. In addition, the failure location along the reservoir flank rotates to parallel the horizontal contraction, which favors the formation of lateral dikes along the magma reservoir flanks over vertical dikes at the summit.

  3. The characteristics of magma reservoir failure beneath a volcanic edifice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurwitz, Debra M.; Long, Sylvan M.; Grosfils, Eric B.

    2009-12-01

    Eruptions fed from subsurface reservoirs commonly construct volcanic edifices at the surface, and the growth of an edifice will in turn modify the subsurface stress state that dictates the conditions under which subsequent rupture of the inflating reservoir can occur. We re-examine this problem using axisymmetric finite element models of ellipsoidal reservoirs beneath conical edifices, explicitly incorporating factors (e.g., full gravitational loading conditions, an elastic edifice instead of a surface load, reservoir pressures sufficient to induce tensile rupture) that compromise previous solutions to illustrate why variations in rupture behavior can occur. Relative to half-space model results, the presence of an edifice generally rotates rupture toward the crest of a spherical reservoir, with increasing flank slope (for an edifice of constant volume) and larger edifices (or greater reservoir scaled depths) normally serving to enhance this trend. When non-spherical reservoirs are considered, the presence of an edifice amplifies previously identified half-space failure characteristics, shifting rupture to the crest more rapidly for prolate reservoirs while forcing rupture closer to the midpoint of oblate reservoirs. Rupture is always observed to occur in the σt orientation, and depending on where initial failure occurs rupture favors the initial emplacement of either lateral sills, circumferential intrusions or vertically ascending dikes. Ultimately, integration of our numerical model results with other information, for instance the sequence of intrusion/eruption events observed at a given volcano, can provide useful new insight into how a volcano's subsurface magma plumbing system evolved. We demonstrate this process through application of our model to Summer Coon, a well-studied stratocone on Earth, and Ilithyia Mons, a large conical shield volcano on Venus.

  4. Forward and Inverse Modeling of Magma Chamber Dynamics and Crystal Zoning Provides Insights into Rates and Processes Leading to Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa Rodriguez, F.; Bouvet de Maisonneuve, C.; Degruyter, W.; Huber, C.

    2014-12-01

    Chemical and textural features of crystals provide unique constrains on the processes and rates that occur during the growth, replenishment and eruption of magma reservoirs. Recent studies that use different methods have highlighted that many eruptions are issued from reservoirs that may grow for up to hundreds of thousands years (e.g, U-Th series of mineral separates, zircon dating). In contrast, the effect of new magma injections (recharges) can influence the thermodynamic state of reservoirs on a much shorter scale. In extreme cases it can lead to remobilization of magmas over months (for small reservoirs) to thousands of years (for larger systems). Modeling of mineral zoning provides a lower bound estimate for the timescales associated with magma recharge because (a) they do not record dissolution/resorbtion of phases and (b) they only record the time at which a crystal reacts to a thermodynamic change, which does not necessarily equate with the timing of an intrusion. In open system reservoirs, magmas may experience significant thermal and compositional fluctuations over time, and so far, only simple cooling scenarios [1] have been considered. In particular, under what conditions does a recharge lead to an eruption? Can large recharge events be mostly recycled and partially involved in later eruptions? Here we combine new forward models of magma chamber replenishment and evolution [2] that track the thermodynamic evolution of shallow resevoir with crystal zoning models. We explore several scenarios of magma reservoir growth and evolution and compare them to the time scales obtained from the crystal zoning (e.g. thermal history and boundary condition changes with time). Inverse modeling of natural crystal zoning profiles from the silicic eruptions of Rabaul caldera in 1994 and 2006 allows us to distinguish between scenarios where inputs of fresh magma leads to eruption and recharges that are accommodated by the reservoir over longer time scales and are

  5. A refined model for Kilauea's magma plumbing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poland, M. P.; Miklius, A.; Montgomery-Brown, E. D.

    2011-12-01

    Studies of the magma plumbing system of Kilauea have benefitted from the volcano's frequent eruptive activity, ease of access, and particularly the century-long observational record made possible by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. The explosion of geophysical data, especially seismic and geodetic, collected since the first model of Kilauea's magmatic system was published in 1960 allows for a detailed characterization of Kilauea's magma storage areas and transport pathways. Using geological, geochemical, and geophysical observations, we propose a detailed model of Kilauea's magma plumbing that we hope will provide a refined framework for studies of Kilauea's eruptive and intrusive activity. Kilauea's summit region is underlain by two persistently active, hydraulically linked magma storage areas. The larger reservoir is centered at ~3 km depth beneath the south caldera and is connected to Kilauea's two rift zones, which radiate from the summit to the east and southwest. All magma that enters the Kilauea edifice passes through this primary storage area before intrusion or eruption. During periods of increased magma storage at the summit, as was the case during 2003-2007, uplift may occur above temporary magma storage volumes, for instance, at the intersection of the summit and east rift zone at ~3 km depth, and within the southwest rift zone at ~2 km depth. The east rift zone is the longer and more active of Kilauea's two rift zones and apparently receives more magma from the summit. Small, isolated pods of magma exist within both rift zones, as indicated by deformation measurements, seismicity, petrologic data, and geothermal drilling results. These magma bodies are probably relicts of past intrusions and eruptions and can be highly differentiated. Within the deeper part of the rift zones, between about 3 km and 9 km depth, magma accumulation is hypothesized based on surface deformation indicative of deep rift opening. There is no direct evidence for magma within

  6. Forecasting magma-chamber rupture at Santorini volcano, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, John; Drymoni, Kyriaki; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2015-10-01

    How much magma needs to be added to a shallow magma chamber to cause rupture, dyke injection, and a potential eruption? Models that yield reliable answers to this question are needed in order to facilitate eruption forecasting. Development of a long-lived shallow magma chamber requires periodic influx of magmas from a parental body at depth. This redistribution process does not necessarily cause an eruption but produces a net volume change that can be measured geodetically by inversion techniques. Using continuum-mechanics and fracture-mechanics principles, we calculate the amount of magma contained at shallow depth beneath Santorini volcano, Greece. We demonstrate through structural analysis of dykes exposed within the Santorini caldera, previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions, and geodetic measurements of the 2011-2012 unrest period, that the measured 0.02% increase in volume of Santorini’s shallow magma chamber was associated with magmatic excess pressure increase of around 1.1 MPa. This excess pressure was high enough to bring the chamber roof close to rupture and dyke injection. For volcanoes with known typical extrusion and intrusion (dyke) volumes, the new methodology presented here makes it possible to forecast the conditions for magma-chamber failure and dyke injection at any geodetically well-monitored volcano.

  7. Forecasting magma-chamber rupture at Santorini volcano, Greece.

    PubMed

    Browning, John; Drymoni, Kyriaki; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2015-10-28

    How much magma needs to be added to a shallow magma chamber to cause rupture, dyke injection, and a potential eruption? Models that yield reliable answers to this question are needed in order to facilitate eruption forecasting. Development of a long-lived shallow magma chamber requires periodic influx of magmas from a parental body at depth. This redistribution process does not necessarily cause an eruption but produces a net volume change that can be measured geodetically by inversion techniques. Using continuum-mechanics and fracture-mechanics principles, we calculate the amount of magma contained at shallow depth beneath Santorini volcano, Greece. We demonstrate through structural analysis of dykes exposed within the Santorini caldera, previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions, and geodetic measurements of the 2011-2012 unrest period, that the measured 0.02% increase in volume of Santorini's shallow magma chamber was associated with magmatic excess pressure increase of around 1.1 MPa. This excess pressure was high enough to bring the chamber roof close to rupture and dyke injection. For volcanoes with known typical extrusion and intrusion (dyke) volumes, the new methodology presented here makes it possible to forecast the conditions for magma-chamber failure and dyke injection at any geodetically well-monitored volcano.

  8. Forecasting magma-chamber rupture at Santorini volcano, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Browning, John; Drymoni, Kyriaki; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2015-01-01

    How much magma needs to be added to a shallow magma chamber to cause rupture, dyke injection, and a potential eruption? Models that yield reliable answers to this question are needed in order to facilitate eruption forecasting. Development of a long-lived shallow magma chamber requires periodic influx of magmas from a parental body at depth. This redistribution process does not necessarily cause an eruption but produces a net volume change that can be measured geodetically by inversion techniques. Using continuum-mechanics and fracture-mechanics principles, we calculate the amount of magma contained at shallow depth beneath Santorini volcano, Greece. We demonstrate through structural analysis of dykes exposed within the Santorini caldera, previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions, and geodetic measurements of the 2011–2012 unrest period, that the measured 0.02% increase in volume of Santorini’s shallow magma chamber was associated with magmatic excess pressure increase of around 1.1 MPa. This excess pressure was high enough to bring the chamber roof close to rupture and dyke injection. For volcanoes with known typical extrusion and intrusion (dyke) volumes, the new methodology presented here makes it possible to forecast the conditions for magma-chamber failure and dyke injection at any geodetically well-monitored volcano. PMID:26507183

  9. Forecasting magma-chamber rupture at Santorini volcano, Greece.

    PubMed

    Browning, John; Drymoni, Kyriaki; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2015-01-01

    How much magma needs to be added to a shallow magma chamber to cause rupture, dyke injection, and a potential eruption? Models that yield reliable answers to this question are needed in order to facilitate eruption forecasting. Development of a long-lived shallow magma chamber requires periodic influx of magmas from a parental body at depth. This redistribution process does not necessarily cause an eruption but produces a net volume change that can be measured geodetically by inversion techniques. Using continuum-mechanics and fracture-mechanics principles, we calculate the amount of magma contained at shallow depth beneath Santorini volcano, Greece. We demonstrate through structural analysis of dykes exposed within the Santorini caldera, previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions, and geodetic measurements of the 2011-2012 unrest period, that the measured 0.02% increase in volume of Santorini's shallow magma chamber was associated with magmatic excess pressure increase of around 1.1 MPa. This excess pressure was high enough to bring the chamber roof close to rupture and dyke injection. For volcanoes with known typical extrusion and intrusion (dyke) volumes, the new methodology presented here makes it possible to forecast the conditions for magma-chamber failure and dyke injection at any geodetically well-monitored volcano. PMID:26507183

  10. A conceptual model of Kilauea's magma plumbing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poland, M. P.; Miklius, A.; Montgomery-Brown, E. K.

    2013-12-01

    The current magma plumbing system of Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i, is routinely described as consisting of a conduit that extends upward from mantle depths and feeds a magma storage reservoir beneath the summit caldera. From the summit reservoir, rift zones radiate to the east and southwest. Geological and geophysical observations, however, suggest a more complex picture. Models of the summit magma storage area include at least three discrete reservoirs. The largest is centered at ~3 km depth beneath the southern part of the caldera and serves as the main storage volume for the volcano. A smaller body lies 1-2 km beneath the east margin of Halema`uma`u Crater and presumably feeds the summit eruptive vent (active since 2008). Magma is also occasionally stored beneath the southeast part of the caldera near Keanakāko`i Crater, where the east rift zone intersects the summit. The reservoirs are interconnected, but the level of connectivity appears to vary according to pressurization of the magma plumbing system. Kilauea's rift zone system extends both to the east and southwest as paired shallow and deeper sections. The deeper rift zones (~3-km depth) are connected to the south caldera reservoir and, along with the Koa`e fault system, represent the structural boundaries of Kilauea's mobile south flank. Both trend southward near the summit before bending into east/northeast- and southwest-directed orientations, which may reflect southward migration of the rift zones over time due to seaward motion of the volcano's south flank (originally proposed by Swanson et al., 1976). Isolated pods of magma (relict from past intrusions) are scattered along the rift zone trends, and molten cores allow for rapid transport of magma between the summit and distal eruption/intrusion sites portions. The shallow rift zones (~1-km depth) are connected to the summit magma system via the Halema`uma`u reservoir and probably represent the former locations of the main rift systems. While this model is

  11. The age and origin of felsic intrusions of the Thetford Mines ophiolite, Quebec.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clague, D.A.; Frankel, C.S.; Eaby, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    This ophiolite was obducted in the early Ordovician during the closing of the proto-Atlantic. The tectonized peridotite of the lower unit of the ophiolite is intruded by felsic dykes and pods, including isolated lenses of massive rodingite, small bodies of strongly deformed diorite, and younger, less deformed monzonite. These intrusions are found only near the base of the ophiolite, and are considered to have been emplaced before the ophiolite reached its present position. The young group of intrusions consists of biotite-muscovite quartz monzonite and leuco-quartz monzonite. Analysed samples have high K2O, high (K2O X 100)/Na2O + K2O) ratios, and high initial Sr ratios, indicating that the magma source was continental and that these felsic rocks formed by partial melting of continental sediments. Whole-rock and mineral isochron ages suggest that the felsic intrusions are approx 456 + or - 4 m.y. old and that they were metamorphosed approx 418 + or - 7 m.y. ago. The detachment of the ophiolite occurred approx 491 + or - 3 m.y. ago. The felsic dykes were intruded approx 35 m.y. later, during the Taconic orogeny. The lengthy time between detachment and final nappe emplacement recorded by the felsic dykes may be a requirement for formation of abundant asbestiform chrysotile. Whole-rock analyses (16) and Rb, Sr and 87Sr/86Sr data from the Colline de Granite, King Mts., Vimy Ridge and Black Lake samples are presented.-P.Br.

  12. Uplift, thermal unrest and magma intrusion at Yellowstone caldera.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Charles W; Thatcher, Wayne; Dzurisin, Daniel; Svarc, Jerry

    2006-03-01

    The Yellowstone caldera, in the western United States, formed approximately 640,000 years ago when an explosive eruption ejected approximately 1,000 km3 of material. It is the youngest of a series of large calderas that formed during sequential cataclysmic eruptions that began approximately 16 million years ago in eastern Oregon and northern Nevada. The Yellowstone caldera was largely buried by rhyolite lava flows during eruptions that occurred from approximately 150,000 to approximately 70,000 years ago. Since the last eruption, Yellowstone has remained restless, with high seismicity, continuing uplift/subsidence episodes with movements of approximately 70 cm historically to several metres since the Pleistocene epoch, and intense hydrothermal activity. Here we present observations of a new mode of surface deformation in Yellowstone, based on radar interferometry observations from the European Space Agency ERS-2 satellite. We infer that the observed pattern of uplift and subsidence results from variations in the movement of molten basalt into and out of the Yellowstone volcanic system. PMID:16511491

  13. Uplift, thermal unrest and magma intrusion at Yellowstone caldera.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Charles W; Thatcher, Wayne; Dzurisin, Daniel; Svarc, Jerry

    2006-03-01

    The Yellowstone caldera, in the western United States, formed approximately 640,000 years ago when an explosive eruption ejected approximately 1,000 km3 of material. It is the youngest of a series of large calderas that formed during sequential cataclysmic eruptions that began approximately 16 million years ago in eastern Oregon and northern Nevada. The Yellowstone caldera was largely buried by rhyolite lava flows during eruptions that occurred from approximately 150,000 to approximately 70,000 years ago. Since the last eruption, Yellowstone has remained restless, with high seismicity, continuing uplift/subsidence episodes with movements of approximately 70 cm historically to several metres since the Pleistocene epoch, and intense hydrothermal activity. Here we present observations of a new mode of surface deformation in Yellowstone, based on radar interferometry observations from the European Space Agency ERS-2 satellite. We infer that the observed pattern of uplift and subsidence results from variations in the movement of molten basalt into and out of the Yellowstone volcanic system.

  14. Uplift, thermal unrest and magma intrusion at Yellowstone caldera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wicks, Charles W.; Thatcher, Wayne; Dzurisin, Daniel; Svarc, Jerry

    2006-01-01

    The Yellowstone caldera, in the western United States, formed 640,000 years ago when an explosive eruption ejected 1,000 km3 of material1. It is the youngest of a series of large calderas that formed during sequential cataclysmic eruptions that began 16 million years ago in eastern Oregon and northern Nevada. The Yellowstone caldera was largely buried by rhyolite lava flows during eruptions that occurred from 150,000 to 70,000 years ago1. Since the last eruption, Yellowstone has remained restless, with high seismicity, continuing uplift/subsidence episodes with movements of 70 cm historically2 to several metres since the Pleistocene epoch3, and intense hydrothermal activity. Here we present observations of a new mode of surface deformation in Yellowstone, based on radar interferometry observations from the European Space Agency ERS-2 satellite. We infer that the observed pattern of uplift and subsidence results from variations in the movement of molten basalt into and out of the Yellowstone volcanic system.

  15. Magma flow-direction indicators in the diabase feeder dike to the first flood basalt in the Mesozoic Hartford basin, Connecticut

    SciTech Connect

    Philpotts, A.R.; Asher, P.M. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-03-01

    Recent kinematic analysis has indicated that magma may have been emplaced horizontally rather than vertically in some large regional diabase dikes. Such analysis, however, has commonly relied on a single flow indicator, such as anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, which may reflect only late stage adjustments in a body of crystallizing magma. This study of kinematic indicators in a Mesozoic diabase dike in southern New England indicates that the direction of flow in large dikes may change during emplacement, and that a single flow indicator cannot give a complete picture of the flow history. The 250-km-long Higganum dike fed the first flood basalt in the Hartford basin of Connecticut. The margins of this dike contain 8 independent magma flow indicators, which involve the imbrication and deformation of phenocrysts, the shearing of felsic wisps, and the segregation of residual liquids. The felsic wisps, which were derived by partial melting of the wallrock, preserve the most complete record of flow in the dike. Early felsic liquids exchanged alkalis with the still largely molten diabase magma and consequently are K-poor; ones that entered after the diabase was largely solid are relatively K-rich. Most K-poor felsic wisps were deformed into recumbent folds by back-flowing magma. Later K-rich felsic streaks parallel the axial planes of these folds. The shear of magma past phenocrysts near the dike margins also caused K-rich felsic liquids to segregate in low-pressure zones on the opposing ends of these crystals. All of these flow indicators record a complex history of dike emplacement, with periods of upward intrusion always being followed by periods of back-flow.

  16. The lateral extent of volcanic interactions during unrest and eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, Juliet; Robertson, Elspeth; Cashman, Katharine

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions often occur simultaneously or tap multiple magma reservoirs. Such lateral interactions between magmatic systems are attributed to stress changes or hydraulic connections but the precise conditions under which coupled eruptions occur have yet to be quantified. Here we use interferometric synthetic aperture radar satellite data to analyse the surface deformation generated by volcanic unrest in the Kenyan Rift. We identify several magma sources located at depths of 2-5 km importantly, sources that are spaced less than about 10 km apart interact, whereas those spaced more than about 25 km apart do not. However, volcanoes up to 25 km apart have interacted in the geologic past. Thus, volcanic coupling is not simply controlled by the distance between the magma reservoirs. We then consider different tectonic settings globally, including intraplate volcanoes such as Hawaii and Yellowstone, arc volcanism in Alaska and Chile, and other rift settings, such as New Zealand, Iceland and Afar. We find that the most closely spaced magmatic interactions are controlled by the extent of a shallow crystal mush layer, stress changes can couple large eruptions over distances of about 20-40 km, and only large dyke intrusions or subduction earthquakes could generate coupled eruptions over distances of about 50-100 km.

  17. Geophysical Evidence for the Locations, Shapes and Sizes, and Internal Structures of Magma Chambers beneath Regions of Quaternary Volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, H. M.

    1984-04-01

    This paper is a review of seismic, gravity, magnetic and electromagnetic techniques to detect and delineate magma chambers of a few cubic kilometres to several thousand cubic kilometres volume. A dramatic decrease in density and seismic velocity, and an increase in seismic attenuation and electrical conductivity occurs at the onset of partial melting in rocks. The geophysical techniques are based on detecting these differences in physical properties between solid and partially molten rock. Although seismic refraction techniques, with sophisticated instrumentation and analytical procedures, are routinely used for detailed studies of crustal structure in volcanic regions, their application for magma detection has been quite limited. In one study, in Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A., fan-shooting and time-term techniques have been used to detect an upper-crustal magma chamber. Attenuation and velocity changes in seismic waves from explosions and earthquakes diffracted around magma chambers are observed near some volcanoes in Kamchatka. Strong attenuation of shear waves from regional earthquakes, interpreted as a diffraction effect, has been used to model magma chambers in Alaska, Kamchatka, Iceland, and New Zealand. One of the most powerful techniques in modern seismology, the seismic reflection technique with vibrators, was used to confirm the existence of a strong reflector in the crust near Socorro, New Mexico, in the Rio Grande Rift. This reflector, discovered earlier from data from local earthquakes, is interpreted as a sill-like magma body. In the Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, mapping seismicity patterns in the upper crust has enabled the modelling of the complex magma conduits in the crust and upper mantle. On the other hand, in the Usu volcano, Japan, the magma conduits are delineated by zones of seismic quiescence. Three-dimensional modelling of laterally varying structures using teleseismic residuals is proving to be a very promising technique for detecting and

  18. Magma Migration Through the Continental Crust - 3-D Seismic and Thermo-mechanical Constraints on Sites of Crustal Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, M.; Wheeler, W.

    2002-12-01

    Current understanding of the processes and pathways by which magma travels from its mantle source, through the crust to the Earth's surface is limited by the lack of continuously exposed sections through "fossil" magmatic systems. We report results from a 50 x 30 km 3-D seismic reflection survey of part of the Voring rifted continental margin of Norway which provide the first detailed images of an entire crustal magmatic plumbing system, from a Moho-level magma chamber, through complexes of sills and dykes in the mid to upper crust, to lavas and vent fields extruded at the early Tertiary paleosurface. The Voring margin of Norway formed during a period of Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary (Eocene) continental break-up when Greenland rifted away from Eurasia, resulting in the opening the NE Atlantic Ocean. Rifting was accompanied by widespread magmatic activity, inferred to be related to the impingement of the Iceland mantle plume on the base of the continental lithosphere. Regionally, magma migration occurred in at least two pulses: 62-59 Ma (main initial phase) and 57-54 Ma (continental break-up phase). Wide-angle seismic experiments indicate the presence of a laccolith-like "high-velocity body" (HVB) in the lower crust beneath most of the outer Voring Basin with P-wave velocities (Vp 7.1-7.4 km/s) characteristic of basaltic igneous rocks, overlying typical mantle rocks with Vp of over 8 km/s. The HVB locally reaches 8 km thickness and at break-up (54 Ma) measured 300 km x 500 km - corresponding to a volume of 450,000 cubic km of basaltic magma. It is interpreted as a magmatic underplate formed over a period of several million years as rising basaltic magmas ponded at the Moho at their level of neutral buoyancy. A laterally extensive sill complex (1000 m thick) occurs at the interface between thinned crystalline basement and the overlying Mesozoic sedimentary sequence. This is interpreted as one of the main intra-crustal magma storage reservoirs and is the most

  19. Zircon reveals protracted magma storage and recycling beneath Mount St. Helens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Claiborne, L.L.; Miller, C.F.; Flanagan, D.M.; Clynne, M.A.; Wooden, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Current data and models for Mount St. Helens volcano (Washington, United States) suggest relatively rapid transport from magma genesis to eruption, with no evidence for protracted storage or recycling of magmas. However, we show here that complex zircon age populations extending back hundreds of thousands of years from eruption age indicate that magmas regularly stall in the crust, cool and crystallize beneath the volcano, and are then rejuvenated and incorporated by hotter, young magmas on their way to the surface. Estimated dissolution times suggest that entrained zircon generally resided in rejuvenating magmas for no more than about a century. Zircon elemental compositions reflect the increasing influence of mafic input into the system through time, recording growth from hotter, less evolved magmas tens of thousands of years prior to the appearance of mafic magmas at the surface, or changes in whole-rock geochemistry and petrology, and providing a new, time-correlated record of this evolution independent of the eruption history. Zircon data thus reveal the history of the hidden, long-lived intrusive portion of the Mount St. Helens system, where melt and crystals are stored for as long as hundreds of thousands of years and interact with fresh influxes of magmas that traverse the intrusive reservoir before erupting. ?? 2010 Geological Society of America.

  20. Dynamically-induced structures formation in congested magma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petford, N.

    2008-12-01

    Crystal fabrics preserved in igneous rocks offer a glimpse into the magma emplacement process. Detailed field mapping, in combination with AMS studies, seem to provide the best available data for unravelling intrusion architecture on the decimetre scale. However, a full and proper understanding of the fluid dynamics of congested fluid-particle mixtures during shear remains elusive. This is a shame as without recourse to such fundamental understanding, the interpretation of structural field data in the context of magma flow remains problematic. One way to gain insight into the process is to treat flowing magma as a dynamic material with a rheology similar to sheared, congested slurries. The fancy that dense magma equates to a high temperature slurry is an attractive one, and opens up a way to examine the emplacement process that does not rely exclusively on equilibrium thermodynamics as a final explanation of commonly observed igneous structures. Instead, using examples from mafic rocks where cooling has been rapid, the idea is put forward that in high Peclet number suspensions (where particle diffusion is negligible), shearing and non- Newtonian behaviour imparts a rich diversity of structures including layering, grading and flow segregation. Key to understanding the rheology, hence flow dynamics of congested magma, is the particle microstructure, a still poorly known essence of suspension flows. Where magma transport is continental in scale and long lived (e.g. Large Igneous Provinces), rotation of the earth may in theory endow a small but potentially measurable imprint on the preserved flow fabric.

  1. Formation of tectonic peperites from alkaline magmas intruded into wet sediments in the Beiya area, western Yunnan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xing-Wang; Cai, Xin-Ping; Zhong, Jia-You; Song, Bao-Chang; Peters, Stephen G.

    2007-08-01

    Tertiary (3.78 Ma to 3.65 Ma) biotite-K-feldspar porphyritic bodies intrude Tertiary, poorly consolidated lacustrine sedimentary rocks in the Beiya mineral district in southwestern China. The intrusives are characterized by a microcrystalline and vitreous-cryptocrystalline groundmass, by replacement of some tabular K-feldspar phenocrysts with microcrystalline chlorite and calcite, and by Fe-rich rings surrounding biotite phenocrysts. Peculiar structures, such as contemporary contact faults and slickensides, ductile shear zones and flow folds, foliation and lineations, tension fractures, and banded and boudin peperites, are developed along the contact zones of the intrusives. These features are related to the forceful intrusion of the alkaline magmas into the wet Tertiary sediments. The partially consolidated magmas were deformed and flattened by continued forceful magma intrusion that produced boudinaged and banded peperites. These peperites characterized by containing oriented deformation fabrics are classified as tectonic peperites as a new type of peperite, and formation of these tectonic peperites was related to fracturing of magmas caused by forceful intrusion and shear deformation and to contemporary migration and injection of fluidized sediments along fractures that dismembered the porphyritic magma. Emplacement of the magma into the wet sediments in the Beiya area is interpreted to be related to a large pressure difference rather than to the buoyancy force.

  2. Formation of tectonic peperites from alkaline magmas intruded into wet sediments in the Beiya area, western Yunnan, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, X.-W.; Cai, X.-P.; Zhong, J.-Y.; Song, B.-C.; Peters, S.G.

    2007-01-01

    Tertiary (3.78 Ma to 3.65 Ma) biotite-K-feldspar porphyritic bodies intrude Tertiary, poorly consolidated lacustrine sedimentary rocks in the Beiya mineral district in southwestern China. The intrusives are characterized by a microcrystalline and vitreous-cryptocrystalline groundmass, by replacement of some tabular K-feldspar phenocrysts with microcrystalline chlorite and calcite, and by Fe-rich rings surrounding biotite phenocrysts. Peculiar structures, such as contemporary contact faults and slickensides, ductile shear zones and flow folds, foliation and lineations, tension fractures, and banded and boudin peperites, are developed along the contact zones of the intrusives. These features are related to the forceful intrusion of the alkaline magmas into the wet Tertiary sediments. The partially consolidated magmas were deformed and flattened by continued forceful magma intrusion that produced boudinaged and banded peperites. These peperites characterized by containing oriented deformation fabrics are classified as tectonic peperites as a new type of peperite, and formation of these tectonic peperites was related to fracturing of magmas caused by forceful intrusion and shear deformation and to contemporary migration and injection of fluidized sediments along fractures that dismembered the porphyritic magma. Emplacement of the magma into the wet sediments in the Beiya area is interpreted to be related to a large pressure difference rather than to the buoyancy force. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Igneous layering in the peralkaline intrusions ,Kola Peninsula :leading role of gravitational differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogarko, L. N..

    2012-04-01

    In the center of Kola Peninsula there are two large layered intrusions of agpaitic nepheline syenites - Khibina and Lovozero. . The Khibina alkaline massif (Kola Peninsula,Russia) hosts the world's largest and economically most important apatite deposit. The Khibina massif is a complex multiphase body built up from a number of ring-like and conical intrusions. The apatite bearing intrusion is ring-like and is represented by a layered body of ijolitic composition with a thickness of about 1 - 2 km. The upper zone is represented by different types of apatite ores. These rocks consist of 60-90% euhedral very small (tenths of mm)apatite crystals. The lower zone has mostly ijolitic composition. The lower zone grades into underlying massive urtite consisting of 75-90% large (several mm) euhedral nepheline. Our experimental studies of systems with apatite demonstrated the near-eutectic nature of the apatite-bearing intrusion, resulting in practically simultaneous crystallization of nepheline, apatite and pyroxene. The mathematical model of the formation of the layered apatite-bearing intrusion based on the processes of sedimentation under the conditions of steady state convection taking account of crystal sizes is proposed. Under the conditions of steady-state convection large crystals of nepheline continuously had been settling forming massive underlying urtite whereas smaller crystals of pyroxenes, nepheline and apatite had been stirred in the convecting melt. During the cooling the intensity of convection decreased causing a settling of smaller crystals of nepheline and pyroxene and later very small crystalls of apatite in the upper part of alkaline magma chamber. The Lovozero massif, the largest of the Globe layered peralkaline intrusion, comprises super-large rare-metal (Nb, Ta, REE) deposit. The main ore mineral is loparite (Na, Ce, Ca)2 (Ti, Nb)2O6 which was mined during many years. The composition of cumulus loparite changed systematically upward through the

  4. A cryptic record of magma mixing in diorites revealed by high-precision SIMS oxygen isotope analysis of zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby, S. K.; Graham, C. M.; Gillespie, M. R.; Hinton, R. W.; Oliver, G. J. H.; EIMF

    2008-05-01

    High-precision in-situ ion microprobe (SIMS) oxygen isotope analysis of zircons from two diorite intrusions associated with the late Caledonian Lochnagar pluton in Scotland has revealed large differences in the degree of heterogeneity in zircon δ18O between the diorites. Zircon crystals from the Cul nan Gad diorite (CnG) show a unimodal distribution of oxygen isotope values ( δ18O = 6.0 ± 0.6‰ (2 σ)) and no or only minor grain-scale variation. Those from the Allt Darrarie diorite (AD1) show a large range in δ18O and an apparent bimodal distribution with modes of 6.6 ± 0.4‰ and 7.3 ± 0.4‰. Variations of up to 1.2‰ occur between and within grains; both an increase and decrease in δ18O with zircon growth has been observed. The δ18O composition of growing zircon can only change if open-system processes affect the magma composition, i.e. if material of contrasting δ18O composition is added to the magma. The variability in AD1 is interpreted to represent a cryptic record of magma mixing. A 'deep crustal hot zone' is a likely site for generation of the dioritic magmas which developed by mixing of residual melts and crustal partial melts or by melting of mafic lower crustal rocks. The overall small number of zircons with mantle-like δ18O values (5.3 ± 0.6‰ (2 σ)) in the Lochnagar diorites is largely the product of crustal differentiation rather than crustal growth. The δ18O of quartz from the CnG and AD1 diorites shows only minor variation (CnG: 10.9 ± 0.5‰ (2 σ), AD1: 11.7 ± 0.6‰ (2 σ)) within single populations, with no evidence of mixing. Quartz-zircon isotopic disequilibrium is consistent with later crystallisation of quartz from late magmatic fluids, and in case of the AD1 diorite after the inferred magma mixing from a homogenised, higher δ18O melt. High-precision SIMS oxygen isotope analysis of zircon provides a new approach to identifying and resolving previously undetected early-stage magma mixing and constraining the compositions

  5. Controls on the Fo and Ni Contents of Olivine in Sulfide-bearing Mafic/Ultramafic Intrusions: Principles, Modeling, and Examples from Voisey's Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chusi; Naldrett, Anthony J.; Ripley, Edward M.

    Both Ni and Mg are compatible in mafic minerals that form early during the fractional crystallization of mafic/ultramafic magma; thus, both decrease in abundance in the silicate magma, and hence in later-forming silicates as fractionation proceeds. The concentration of Ni in silicates such as olivine and the MgO/FeO ratio of the silicates are related to values in the magma from which the olivines are crystallized by coefficients, which have been experimentally determined and therefore can be used to infer information about the magma. If the magma is saturated in sulfide so that sulfide droplets are removed along with mafic silicates during fractionation, additional Ni will be removed in comparison with the sulfide-absent situation. This will be reflected in a more rapid decrease of Ni with Fo than if sulfides were not separated. Variations of Ni with Fo are examined in the light of model curves for the Voisey's Bay Intrusion that hosts a world-class Ni-Cu-Co sulfide deposit in Labrador, Canada. In the past, it has been a practice to compare the Ni and Fo contents of olivines from a given intrusion with the field determined by Simkin and Smith (1970) for a wide variety of igneous olivines to identify those that are Ni-depleted. The objective is that these are presumed to have come from sulfide-saturated, and therefore, economically-interesting magma. This study shows that this simple comparison can lead to errors. It is important to compare natural data with model curves that have been generated for, and reflect the cumulus mineralogy of each intrusion in question. Using this approach, the natural data can be closely duplicated by model curves, which, in some cases, place additional constraints on possible petrologic interpretations. For example, at Voisey's Bay, a period of sulfide-unsaturated fractionation can be shown to have been succeeded by the removal of a sulfide liquid plus silicate minerals, followed by a period of silicate crystallization.

  6. Watching magma from space

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhong; Wicks, Charles W.; Dzurisin, Daniel; Thatcher, Wayne R.; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; McNutt, Stephen R.; Mann, Dorte

    2000-01-01

    Westdahl is a broad shield volcano at the western end of Unimak Island in the Aleutian chain. It has apparently been dormant since a 1991-92 eruption and seismicity levels have been low. However, satellite radar imaging shows that in the years following 1992 the upper flanks of Westdahl have risen several centimeters, probably from the influx of new magma deep below its summit. Until now, deep magma reservoirs have been difficult to detect beneath most volcanoes. But using space geodetic technologies, specifically interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), we have discovered a deep magmatic source beneath Westdahl. 

  7. Degassing of rhyolitic magma during ascent and emplacement

    SciTech Connect

    Westrich, H.R.; Stockman, H.W.; Eichelberger, J.

    1988-06-10

    The degassing history of a rhyolitic igneous system was documented from analyses of drill core samples through the extrusive and intrusive portions of Obsidian Dome and of surface samples of associated tephra. The initial volatile composition of the Inyo magma was estimated to be 4.0 wt % H/sub 2/O, 500 ppm F, 800 ppm Cl, and 80 ppm S. Retained volatile contents of glassy and crystalline samples reflect the effects of decompression and second boiling. Decompression is rapid and involves loss of water-rich fluid until a close approach to lithostatic equilibrium is achieved. Second boiling is a slower process and produces a chlorine-rich fluid, some of which can be trapped during development of extremely fine crystallization textures. Nearly complete dewatering during decompression of surface-extruded magma strongly undercools the system (..delta..Tapprox. =175 /sup 0/C), suppressing crystallization and yielding glassy rhyolitic lava. Partial degassing of shallowly intruded magma permits pervasive crystallization even at high cooling rates. The subvolcanic intrusive regime is the zone of maximum volatile release because second boiling is incomplete in extrusives, and volatile-bearing crystalline phases are stable in magma crystallized at greater depth. copyright Amierican Geophysical Union 1988

  8. 3D Visualization of "Frozen" Dynamic Magma Chambers in the Duluth Complex, Northeastern Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, D. M.; Hauck, S. A.

    2005-12-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Duluth Complex and associated intrusions of the Midcontinent Rift in northeastern Minnesota constitute one of the largest, semi-continuous, mafic intrusive complexes in the world, second only to the Bushveld Complex of South Africa. These rocks cover an arcuate area of over 5,000 square kilometers and give rise to two strong gravity anomalies (+50 & +70 mgal) that imply intrusive roots to more than 13 km depth. The geometry of three large mafic intrusions within the Duluth Complex have been modeled by the integration of field mapping and drill hole data with maps of gravity and magnetic anomalies. The igneous bodies include the South Kawishiwi, Partridge River, and Bald Eagle intrusions that collectively outcrop over an area of > 800 square kilometers. The South Kawishiwi and Partridge River intrusions host several billion tons of low-grade Cu-Ni-PGE mineralization near their base, while the geophysical expressions of the Bald Eagle intrusion have the same shape and dimensions as the "bulls eye" pattern of low velocity seismic reflection anomalies along the East Pacific Rise. These anomalies are interpreted to define regions of melt concentrations, i.e., active magma chambers. This suggests that the funnel-shaped Bald Eagle intrusion could be an example of a "frozen" dynamic magma chamber. In support of this analogy we note that the magmatic systems of intracontinental rifts, mid-ocean ridges, extensional regimes in back-arc environments, and ophiolites have a common characteristic: the emplacement of magma in extensional environments, and the common products in all four are varieties of layered intrusions, dikes and sills, and overlying volcanic rocks. 3D visualization of these intrusions is integral to the understanding of the Duluth Complex magmatic system and associated mineralization, and can be used as a proxy for study of similar systems, such as the Antarctic Ferrar dolerites, worldwide.

  9. Earthquake swarms reveal submarine magma unrest induced by distant mega-earthquakes: Andaman Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Špičák, Aleš; Vaněk, Jiří

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about earthquake-triggered magma intrusions or eruptions of submarine volcanoes. The analysis of teleseismic earthquake occurrence performed in this study offers a tool to address such enigmatic and inaccessible processes. In the past ten years, the Andaman Sea region repeatedly became a site of shallow earthquake swarms that followed distant mega-earthquakes by days to weeks. The MW 9.1 December 26, 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake was followed by two earthquake swarms about 600 km northward in the Andaman Sea region, delayed by 30 and 35 days, respectively. Earthquakes of one of these seismic episodes, the extensive January 2005 earthquake swarm, migrated laterally at a rate of about 0.25 km per hour during the swarm evolution. The strong Indian Ocean MW 8.6 and 8.2 April 11, 2012 earthquake doublet west of Northern Sumatra was followed by an earthquake swarm approximately 800 km northward in the Andaman Sea region, delayed by 13 days. All the three swarms that followed the 2004 and 2012 mega-earthquakes occurred beneath distinct seamounts and seafloor ridges. Based on the observations of migration of earthquakes during the swarm and swarm occurrence beneath distinct highs at the seafloor, we conclude that these earthquake swarms probably resulted as a consequence of magma unrest induced by static and/or dynamic stress changes following the distant mega-earthquakes. Repeated occurrence of such a phenomenon suggests that the arc magma reservoirs beneath the Andaman Sea have recently reached some form of criticality and are vulnerable to even small stress changes. The Andaman seafloor could thus become a site of submarine volcanic eruptions in near future and deserves close attention of Earth scientists.

  10. Evolution of magma conduits during the 1998-2000 eruptions of Piton de la Fournaise volcano, Réunion Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Y.; Cayol, V.; Durand, P.; Massonnet, D.

    2010-10-01

    At basaltic volcanoes, magma is transported to the surface through dikes (magma-filled fractures), but the evolution of these dikes as eruptions proceed is rarely documented. In March 1998, after five and a half years of quiescence, Piton de la Fournaise volcano (Réunion Island) entered into a new eruptive phase characterized by intense eruptive activity. Coeruptive displacements recorded by interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) for the first five eruptions of the cycle are analyzed using 3-D boundary element models combined with a Monte Carlo inversion method. We show that the eruptions are associated with the emplacement of lateral dikes rooted at depths of less than about 1000 m, except for the first March 1998 event where an additional deeper source is required. The dikes are located above preeruptive seismic swarms. This is consistent with nearly isotropic stress caused by repeated dike intrusions and low confining pressure enhanced by the presence of pores in the shallowest 1000 m of the edifice. The volumes of the modeled dikes represent 17% of the volume of emitted lava, showing that exogenous growth plays a major role in building the volcano. By taking into account the preeruptive seismicity and tilt data together with the results of InSAR data modeling, we find that dikes first propagate vertically from a source region below sea level before being injected laterally at shallow depth. This behavior is consistent with the presence of levels of neutral buoyancy at shallow depth in the edifice.

  11. Self Sealing Magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Aulock, Felix W.; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Kennedy, Ben M.; Lavallee, Yan

    2015-04-01

    During ascent of magma, pressure decreases and bubbles form. If the volume increases more rapidly than the relaxation timescale, the magma fragments catastrophically. If a permeable network forms, the magma degasses non-violently. This process is generally assumed to be unidirectional, however, recent studies have shown how shear and compaction can drive self sealing. Here, we additionally constrain skin formation during degassing and sintering. We heated natural samples of obsidian in a dry atmosphere and monitored foaming and impermeable skin formation. We suggest a model for skin formation that is controlled by diffusional loss of water and bubble collapse at free surfaces. We heated synthetic glass beads in a hydrous atmosphere to measure the timescale of viscous sintering. The beads sinter at drastically shorter timescales as water vapour rehydrates an otherwise degassed melt, reducing viscosity and glass transition temperatures. Both processes can produce dense inhomogeneities within the timescales of magma ascent and effectively disturb permeabilities and form barriers, particularly at the margins of the conduit, where strain localisation takes place. Localised ash in failure zones (i.e. Tuffisite) then becomes associated with water vapour fluxes and alow rapid rehydration and sintering. When measuring permeabilities in laboratory and field, and when discussing shallow degassing in volcanoes, local barriers for degassing should be taken into account. Highlighting the processes that lead to the formation of such dense skins and sintered infills of cavities can help understanding the bulk permeabilities of volcanic systems.

  12. Magma energy for power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal energy contained in crustal magma bodies represents a large potential resource for the US and magma generated power could become a viable alternative in the future. Engineering feasibility of the magma energy concept is being investigated as part of the Department of Energy's Geothermal Program. This current project follows a seven-year Magma Energy Research Project where scientific feasibility of the concept was concluded.

  13. Volcano growth mechanisms and the role of sub-volcanic intrusions: Insights from 2D seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, Craig; Hunt-Stewart, Esther; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.

    2013-07-01

    Temporal and spatial changes in volcano morphology and internal architecture can determine eruption style and location. However, the relationship between the external and internal characteristics of volcanoes and sub-volcanic intrusions is often difficult to observe at outcrop or interpret uniquely from geophysical and geodetic data. We use high-quality 2D seismic reflection data from the Ceduna Sub-basin, offshore southern Australia, to quantitatively analyse 56, pristinely-preserved, Eocene-age volcanogenic mounds, and a genetically-related network of sub-volcanic sills and laccoliths. Detailed seismic mapping has allowed the 3D geometry of each mound to be reconstructed and distinct seismic facies within them to be recognised. Forty-six continental, basaltic shield volcanoes have been identified that have average flank dips of <12°, basal diameters of 1.94-18.89 km, central summits that are 0.02-1 km high and volumes that range from 0.06 to 57.21 km3. Parallel seismic reflections within the shield volcanoes are interpreted to represent interbedded volcanic and clastic material, suggesting that a series of temporally separate eruptions emanated from a central vent. The shield volcanoes typically overlie the lateral tips of sills and we suggest that the intermittent eruption phases correspond to the incremental emplacement of discrete magma pulses within the laterally extensive sill-complex. Eight volcanogenic hydrothermal vents, which are also associated with the lateral tips of sills, were also recognised, and these appear to have formed from the seepage of intrusion-related hydrothermal fluids onto the seafloor via emplacement-induced fractures. This work highlights that deformation patterns preceding volcanic eruptions may (i) be offset from the eruption site; (ii) attributed to intrusions with complex morphologies; and/or (iii) reflect magma movement along pre-existing fracture systems. These complexities should therefore be considered in eruption

  14. Lithological controls on shallow-level magma emplacement (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, C.; Jackson, C. A.; Schofield, N.; Briggs, F.

    2013-12-01

    The emplacement of magma within the upper crust requires space to be generated by the deformation or assimilation of the host rock. Intrusion morphologies, magma reservoir locations and the architecture of interconnecting magma conduits are therefore strongly influenced by the behaviour of the host rock during emplacement. Importantly, monitoring host rock deformation affects (e.g., surface uplift) can provide invaluable insights into the potential timing, location and magnitude of future volcanic eruptions. This has led to significant advances in the inversion of host rock deformation patterns, acquired from geophysical and geodetic data, to elucidate sub-volcanic plumbing systems. However, the link between the shape and size of intrusion and the style and magnitude of the ground deformation is non-unique. While numerical and physical models have been developed to test plausible intrusion-deformation scenarios, they cannot explicitly incorporate complex host rock stratigraphies, temperature-driven intrusion-host rock interactions or brittle faulting. We advocate that three-dimensional seismic reflection data, which provide unparalleled images of entire volcanic plumbing systems, can be used to enhance our understanding of the intrusive networks and to test hypotheses concerning syn-emplacement host rock deformation. We use 3D seismic reflection data from the Exmouth Sub-basin, offshore NW Australia, to examine the link between a saucer-shaped sill and an overlying, dome-shaped fold developed at the contemporaneous palaeosurface. Our results highlight a disparity in size (e.g., areal coverage, thickness/amplitude) between the sill and fold, which we attribute to the initial accommodation of magma by fluid expulsion from the poorly consolidated claystone host rock, prior to a period of (forced) folding. This is supported by field observations, which indicate ';triggered' or ';thermal' fluidisation of the host rock may occur during sill emplacement. In such cases

  15. Magma energy: a feasible alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Colp, J.L.

    1980-03-01

    A short review of the work performed by Sandia Laboratories in connection with its Magma Energy Research Project is provided. Results to date suggest that boreholes will remain stable down to magma depths and engineering materials can survive the downhole environments. Energy extraction rates are encouraging. Geophysical sensing systems and interpretation methods require improvement, however, to clearly define a buried magma source.

  16. Magnetic fabric constraints of the emplacement of igneous intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, Stephanie M.

    Fabric analysis is critical to evaluating the history, kinematics, and dynamics of geological deformation. This is particularly true of igneous intrusions, where the development of fabric is used to constrain magmatic flow and emplacement mechanisms. Fabric analysis was applied to three mafic intrusions, with different tectonic and petrogenetic histories, to study emplacement and magma flow: the Insizwa sill (Mesozoic Karoo Large Igneous Province, South Africa), Sonju Lake intrusion (Proterozoic Midcontinent Rift, Minnesota, USA), and Palisades sill (Mesozoic rift basin, New Jersey, USA). Multiple fabric analysis techniques were used to define the fabric in each intrusive body. Using digital image analysis techniques on multiple thin sections, the three-dimensional shape-preferred orientation (SPO) of populations of mineral phases were calculated. Low-field anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements were used as a proxy for the mineral fabric of the ferromagnetic phases (e.g., magnetite). In addition, a new technique---high-field AMS---was used to isolate the paramagnetic component of the fabric (e.g., silicate fabric). Each fabric analysis technique was then compared to observable field fabrics as a framework for interpretation. In the Insizwa sill, magnetic properties were used to corroborate vertical petrologic zonation and distinguish sub-units within lithologically defined units. Abrupt variation in magnetic properties provides evidence supporting the formation of the Insizwa sill by separate magma intrusions. Low-field AMS fabrics in the Sonju Lake intrusion exhibit consistent SW-plunging lineations and SW-dipping foliations. These fabric orientations provide evidence that the cumulate layers in the intrusion were deposited in a dynamic environment, and indicate magma flowed from southwest to northeast, parallel to the pre-existing rift structures. In the Palisades sill, the magnetite SPO and low-field AMS lineation have developed orthogonal to

  17. Interior intrusion detection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Matter, J.C. ); Dry, B. )

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Carbon dioxide in magmas and implications for hydrothermal systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowenstern, J. B.

    2001-01-01

    This review focuses on the solubility, origin, abundance, and degassing of carbon dioxide (CO2) in magma-hydrothermal systems, with applications for those workers interested in intrusion-related deposits of gold and other metals. The solubility of CO2 increases with pressure and magma alkalinity. Its solubility is low relative to that of H2O, so that fluids exsolved deep in the crust tend to have high CO2/H2O compared with fluids evolved closer to the surface. Similarly, CO2/H2O will typically decrease during progressive decompression- or crystallization-induced degassing. The temperature dependence of solubility is a function of the speciation of CO2, which dissolves in molecular form in rhyolites (retrograde temperature solubility), but exists as dissolved carbonate groups in basalts (prograde). Magnesite and dolomite are stable under a relatively wide range of mantle conditions, but melt just above the solidus, thereby contributing CO2 to mantle magmas. Graphite, diamond, and a free CO2-bearing fluid may be the primary carbon-bearing phases in other mantle source regions. Growing evidence suggests that most CO2 is contributed to arc magmas via recycling of subducted oceanic crust and its overlying sediment blanket. Additional carbon can be added to magmas during magma-wallrock interactions in the crust. Studies of fluid and melt inclusions from intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks yield ample evidence that many magmas are vapor saturated as deep as the mid crust (10-15 km) and that CO2 is an appreciable part of the exsolved vapor. Such is the case in both basaltic and some silicic magmas. Under most conditions, the presence of a CO2-bearing vapor does not hinder, and in fact may promote, the ascent and eruption of the host magma. Carbonic fluids are poorly miscible with aqueous fluids, particularly at high temperature and low pressure, so that the presence of CO2 can induce immiscibility both within the magmatic volatile phase and in hydrothermal systems

  19. An Approach for Developing Site-Specific Lateral and Vertical Inclusion Zones within which Structures Should be Evaluated for Petroleum Vapor Intrusion due to Releases of Motor Fuel from Underground Storage Tanks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Buildings may be at risk from Petroleum Vapor Intrusion (PVI) when they overlie petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in the unsaturated zone or dissolved in groundwater. The U.S. EPA Office of Underground Storage Tanks (OUST) is preparing Guidance for Addressing Petroleum Vapor I...

  20. Magma deformation and emplacement in rhyolitic dykes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowan, Ellen; Tuffen, Hugh; James, Mike; Wynn, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Silicic eruption mechanisms are determined by the rheological and degassing behaviour of highly-viscous magma ascending within shallow dykes and conduits. However, we have little knowledge of how magmatic behaviour shifts during eruptions as dykes and conduits evolve. To address this we have analysed the micro- to macro-scale textures in shallow, dissected rhyolitic dykes at the Tertiary Húsafell central volcano in west Iceland. Dyke intrusion at ~3 Ma was associated with the emplacement of subaerial rhyolitic pyroclastic deposits following caldera formation[1]. The dykes are dissected to ~500 m depth, 2-3 m wide, and crop out in two stream valleys with 5-30 m-long exposures. Dykes intrude diverse country rock types, including a welded ignimbrite, basaltic lavas, and glacial conglomerate. Each of the six studied dykes is broadly similar, exhibiting obsidian margins and microcrystalline cores. Dykes within pre-fractured lava are surrounded by external tuffisite vein networks, which are absent from dykes within conglomerate, whereas dykes failed to penetrate the ignimbrite. Obsidian at dyke margins comprises layers of discrete colour. These display dramatic thickness variations and collapsed bubble structures, and are locally separated by zones of welded, brecciated and flow-banded obsidian. We use textural associations to present a detailed model of dyke emplacement and evolution. Dykes initially propagated with the passage of fragmented, gas-charged magma and generation of external tuffisite veins, whose distribution was strongly influenced by pre-existing fractures in the country rock. External tuffisites retained permeability throughout dyke emplacement due to their high lithic content. The geochemically homogenous dykes then evolved via incremental magma emplacement, with shear deformation localised along emplacement boundary layers. Shear zones migrated between different boundary layers, and bubble deformation promoted magma mobility. Brittle

  1. Triggering of microearthquakes in Iceland by volatiles released from a dyke intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, Hilary R.; White, Robert S.

    2013-09-01

    We suggest that carbon dioxide exsolved from a mid-crustal basaltic dyke intrusion in Iceland migrated upwards and triggered shallow seismicity by allowing failure on pre-existing fractures under the relatively low elastic stresses (100-200 kPa; 1-2 bar) generated by the dyke inflation. Intense swarms of microseismicity accompanied magmatic intrusion into a dyke at depths of 13-19 km in the crust of Iceland's Northern Volcanic Rift Zone during 2007-2008. Contemporaneously, a series of small normal earthquakes, probably triggered by elastic stresses imposed by the dyke intrusion, occurred in the uppermost 4 km of crust: fault plane solutions from these are consistent with failure along the extensional fabric and surface fissure directions mapped in the area, suggesting that the faults failed along existing rift zone fabric even though the mid-crustal dyke is highly oblique to it. Several months after the melt froze in the mid-crust and seismicity associated with the intrusion had ceased, an upsurge in shallow microseismicity began in the updip projection of the dyke near the brittle-ductile transition at 6-7 km depth below sea level. This seismicity is caused by failure on right-lateral strike-slip faults, with fault planes orientated 23 ± 3°, which are identical with the 24 ± 2° orientation in this area of surface fractures and fissures caused by plate spreading and extension of the volcanic rift zone. However, these earthquakes have T-axes approximately aligned with the opening direction of the dyke, and the right-lateral sense of failure is opposite that of regional strike-slip faults. We suggest that the fractures occurred along pre-existing weaknesses generated by the pervasive fabric of the rift zone, but that the dyke opening in the mid-crust beneath it caused right-lateral failure. The seismicity commenced after a temporal delay of several months and has persisted for over 3 yr. We propose that fluids exsolved from the magma in the dyke, primarily carbon

  2. Deep magma transport at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, T.L.; Klein, F.W.

    2006-01-01

    The shallow part of Kilauea's magma system is conceptually well-understood. Long-period and short-period (brittle-failure) earthquake swarms outline a near-vertical magma transport path beneath Kilauea's summit to 20 km depth. A gravity high centered above the magma transport path demonstrates that Kilauea's shallow magma system, established early in the volcano's history, has remained fixed in place. Low seismicity at 4-7 km outlines a storage region from which magma is supplied for eruptions and intrusions. Brittle-failure earthquake swarms shallower than 5 km beneath the rift zones accompany dike emplacement. Sparse earthquakes extend to a decollement at 10-12 km along which the south flank of Kilauea is sliding seaward. This zone below 5 km can sustain aseismic magma transport, consistent with recent tomographic studies. Long-period earthquake clusters deeper than 40 km occur parallel to and offshore of Kilauea's south coast, defining the deepest seismic response to magma transport from the Hawaiian hot spot. A path connecting the shallow and deep long-period earthquakes is defined by mainshock-aftershock locations of brittle-failure earthquakes unique to Kilauea whose hypocenters are deeper than 25 km with magnitudes from 4.4 to 5.2. Separation of deep and shallow long-period clusters occurs as the shallow plumbing moves with the volcanic edifice, while the deep plumbing is centered over the hotspot. Recent GPS data agrees with the volcano-propagation vector from Kauai to Maui, suggesting that Pacific plate motion, azimuth 293.5?? and rate of 7.4 cm/yr, has been constant over Kilauea's lifetime. However, volcano propagation on the island of Hawaii, azimuth 325??, rate 13 cm/yr, requires southwesterly migration of the locus of melting within the broad hotspot. Deep, long-period earthquakes lie west of the extrapolated position of Kilauea backward in time along a plate-motion vector, requiring southwesterly migration of Kilauea's magma source. Assumed ages of 0

  3. On the conditions of magma mixing and its bearing on andesite production in the crust.

    PubMed

    Laumonier, Mickael; Scaillet, Bruno; Pichavant, Michel; Champallier, Rémi; Andujar, Joan; Arbaret, Laurent

    2014-12-15

    Mixing between magmas is thought to affect a variety of processes, from the growth of continental crust to the triggering of volcanic eruptions, but its thermophysical viability remains unclear. Here, by using high-pressure mixing experiments and thermal calculations, we show that hybridization during single-intrusive events requires injection of high proportions of the replenishing magma during short periods, producing magmas with 55-58 wt% SiO2 when the mafic end-member is basaltic. High strain rates and gas-rich conditions may produce more felsic hybrids. The incremental growth of crustal reservoirs limits the production of hybrids to the waning stage of pluton assembly and to small portions of it. Large-scale mixing appears to be more efficient at lower crustal conditions, but requires higher proportions of mafic melt, producing more mafic hybrids than in shallow reservoirs. Altogether, our results show that hybrid arc magmas correspond to periods of enhanced magma production at depth.

  4. Evidence for crustal recycling during the Archean: The parental magmas of the stillwater complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccallum, I. S.

    1988-01-01

    The petrology and geochemistry of the Stillwater Complex, an Archean (2.7 Ga) layered mafic intrusion in the Beartooth Mountains of Montana is discussed. Efforts to reconstruct the compositions of possible parental magmas and thereby place some constraints on the composition and history of their mantle source regions was studied. A high-Mg andesite or boninite magma best matches the crystallization sequences and mineral compositions of Stillwater cumulates, and represents either a primary magma composition or a secondary magma formed, for example, by assimilation of crustal material by a very Mg-rich melt such as komatiite. Isotopic data do not support the extensive amounts of assimilation required by the komatiite parent hypothesis, and it is argued that the Stillwater magma was generated from a mantle source that had been enriched by recycling and homogenization of older crustal material over a large area.

  5. Episodic intrusion, internal differentiation, and hydrothermal alteration of the miocene tatoosh intrusive suite south of Mount Rainier, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    du Bray, E.A.; Bacon, C.R.; John, D.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Mazdab, F.K.

    2011-01-01

    The Miocene Tatoosh intrusive suite south of Mount Rainier is composed of three broadly granodioritic plutons that are manifestations of ancestral Cascades arc magmatism. Tatoosh intrusive suite plutons have individually diagnostic characteristics, including texture, mineralogy, and geochemistry, and apparently lack internal contacts. New ion-microprobe U-Pb zircon ages indicate crystallization of the Stevens pluton ca. 19.2 Ma, Reflection-Pyramid pluton ca. 18.5 Ma, and Nisqually pluton ca. 17.5 Ma. The Stevens pluton includes rare, statistically distinct ca. 20.1 Ma zircon antecrysts. Wide-ranging zircon rare earth element (REE), Hf, U, and Th concentrations suggest late crystallization from variably evolved residual liquids. Zircon Eu/Eu*-Hf covariation is distinct for each of the Reflection-Pyramid, Nisqually, and Stevens plutons. Although most Tatoosh intrusive suite rocks have been affected by weak hydrothermal alteration, and sparse mineralized veins cut some of these rocks, significant base or precious metal mineralization is absent. At the time of shallow emplacement, each of these magma bodies was largely homogeneous in bulk composition and petrographic features, but, prior to final solidification, each of the Tatoosh intrusive suite plutons developed internal compositional variation. Geochemical and petrographic trends within each pluton are most consistent with differential loss of residual melt, possibly represented by late aplite dikes or erupted as rhyolite, from crystal-rich magma. Crystal-rich magma that formed each pluton evidently accumulated in reservoirs below the present level of exposure and then intruded to a shallow depth. Assembled by episodic intrusion, the Tatoosh intrusive suite may be representative of midsized composite plutonic complexes beneath arc volcanoes. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  6. Detecting deep crustal magma movement: Exploring linkages between increased gas emission, deep seismicity, and deformation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, C. A.; Poland, M. P.; Power, J. A.; Sutton, A. J.; Elias, T.; Grapenthin, R.; Thelen, W. A.

    2013-12-01

    Typically in the weeks to days before a volcanic eruption there are indisputable signals of unrest that can be identified in geophysical and geochemical data. Detection of signals of volcanic unrest months to years prior to an eruption, however, relies on our ability to recognize and link more subtle changes. Deep long-period earthquakes, typically 10-45 km beneath volcanoes, are thought to represent magma movement and may indicate near future unrest. Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) exsolves from most magmas at similar depths and increases in CO2 discharge may also provide a months-to-years precursor as it emits at the surface in advance of the magma from which it exsolved. Without the use of sensitive monitoring equipment and routine measurements, changes in CO2 can easily go undetected. Finally, inflation of the surface, through use of InSAR or GPS stations (especially at sites tens of km from the volcano) can also indicate accumulation of magma in the deep crust. Here we present three recent examples, from Redoubt, Kilauea, and Mammoth Mountain volcanoes, where increases in CO2 emission, deep long-period earthquakes, and surface deformation data indicate either the intrusion of magma into the deep crust in the months to years preceding volcanic eruptions or a change in ongoing volcanic unrest. At Redoubt volcano, Alaska, elevated CO2 emission (~ 1200 t/d, or roughly 20 times the background emission) was measured in October, 2008, over 5 months prior to the first magmatic eruption in March, 2009. In addition to CO2 release, deep long-period earthquakes were first recorded in December, 2008, and a deep deformation signal was detected starting in May 2008, albeit retrospectively. At Kilauea, Hawaii, increases in CO2 emissions from the summit (up to nearly 25 kt/d, over three times the background emission) were measured mid-2004, roughly coincident with a change in deformation behavior from deflation to inflation. Nearly 3 years later, a change in eruptive activity occurred

  7. Draining mafic magma from conduits during Strombolian eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadsworth, F. B.; Kennedy, B.; Branney, M. J.; Vasseur, J.; von Aulock, F. W.; Lavallée, Y.; Kueppers, U.

    2014-12-01

    During and following eruption, mafic magmas can readily drain downward in conduits, dykes and lakes producing complex and coincident up-flow and down-flow textures. This process can occur at the top of the plumbing system if the magma outgases as slugs or through porous foam, causing the uppermost magma surface to descend and the magma to densify. In this scenario the draining volume is limited by the gas volume outgassed. Additionally, magma can undergo wholesale backflow when the pressure at the base of the conduit or feeder dyke exceeds the driving pressure in the chamber beneath. This second scenario will continue until pressure equilibrium is established. These two scenarios may occur coincidently as local draining of uppermost conduit magma by outgassing can lead to wholesale backflow because the densification of magma is an effective way to modify the vertical pressure profile in a conduit. In the rare case where conduits are preserved in cross section, the textural record of draining is often complex and great care should be taken in interpreting bimodal kinematic trends in detail. Lateral cooling into country rock leads to lateral profiles of physical and flow properties and, ultimately, outgassing potential, and exploration of such profiles elucidates the complexity involved. We present evidence from Red Crater volcano, New Zealand, and La Palma, Canary Islands, where we show that at least one draining phase followed initial ascent and eruption. We provide a rheological model approach to understand gravitational draining velocities and therefore, the timescales of up- and down-flow cycles predicted. These timescales can be compared with observed geophysical signals at monitored mafic volcanoes worldwide. Finally, we discuss the implications of shallow magma draining for edifice stability, eruption longevity and magma-groundwater interaction.

  8. Comparative Magma Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, John H.

    1999-01-01

    The question of whether the Earth ever passed through a magma ocean stop is of considerable interest. Geochemical evidence strongly suggests that the Moon had a magma ocean and the evidence is mounting that the same was true for Mars. Analyses of mar (SNC) meteorites have yielded insights into the differentiation history of Mars, and consequently, it is interesting to compare that planet to the Earth. Three primary features of An contrast strongly to those of the Earth: (1) the extremely ancient ages of the martian core, mantle, and crust (approx. 4.55 b.y.); (2) the highly depleted nature of the martian mantle; and (3) the extreme ranges of Nd isotopic compositions that arise within the crust and depleted mantle.

  9. Modelling Of Hindered Crystal Settling-Floating Process In A Magma Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berres, S.; Forien, M.; Bagdassarov, N. S.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2011-12-01

    In interior of magma chamber during the fractional crystallisation, the separation of the minerals can be done by a simple density contrast. The denser minerals sank to the bottom of magma chamber and can formed, later, a cumulate layer. In order to better understand the relations between cumulus texture and evolution of the chemical composition at grain boundaries during the crystal-melt settling-floating process, a series of centrifuge experiments have been carried out. The experiments were conducted in a centrifuging furnace at 1235°C under atmospheric pressure during 6 hours and with an acceleration range between 1g to 1000g of partially molten gabbro samples with the grain size 100μm. Crystals during the centrifuging process have been segregated according to their buoyancy: plagioclase crystals floated to the top and magnetite crystals sank to the bottom of container. The chemical evolution of melt, vertical and horizontal distribution of crystals and melt in the experiments at 100g and 200g is similar. The segregation realized in experiments at 500g and 1000g revealed much worse separation of heavy and light crystals and the melt phase. The vertical evolution of the major and trace elements in the melt phase shows that close to the cumulate layer (between 0 to 2 mm from the bottom) the variation of these elements depends on the distance from the container wall, and becomes constant in the interior of sample. The horizontal evolution shows some variations which appear close to the walls of the capsule and which are due to the wall effect during the centrifuging runs. In order to describe the compaction evolution with time, a numerical modelling of the sedimentation process of the crystals has been build and then compared with the centrifuge modelling. The numerical and centrifuge modelling results agree quite well: the stratification of the compacted layer in the runs is reproduced in numerical models. The settling model of a concentrated suspension can

  10. The Surtsey Magma Series

    PubMed Central

    Ian Schipper, C.; Jakobsson, Sveinn P.; White, James D.L.; Michael Palin, J.; Bush-Marcinowski, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The volcanic island of Surtsey (Vestmannaeyjar, Iceland) is the product of a 3.5-year-long eruption that began in November 1963. Observations of magma-water interaction during pyroclastic episodes made Surtsey the type example of shallow-to-emergent phreatomagmatic eruptions. Here, in part to mark the 50th anniversary of this canonical eruption, we present previously unpublished major-element whole-rock compositions, and new major and trace-element compositions of sideromelane glasses in tephra collected by observers and retrieved from the 1979 drill core. Compositions became progressively more primitive as the eruption progressed, with abrupt changes corresponding to shifts between the eruption’s four edifices. Trace-element ratios indicate that the chemical variation is best explained by mixing of different proportions of depleted ridge-like basalt, with ponded, enriched alkalic basalt similar to that of Iceland’s Eastern Volcanic Zone; however, the systematic offset of Surtsey compositions to lower Nb/Zr than other Vestmannaeyjar lavas indicates that these mixing end members are as-yet poorly contained by compositions in the literature. As the southwestern-most volcano in the Vestmannaeyjar, the geochemistry of the Surtsey Magma Series exemplifies processes occurring within ephemeral magma bodies on the extreme leading edge of a propagating off-axis rift in the vicinity of the Iceland plume. PMID:26112644

  11. The Surtsey Magma Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ian Schipper, C.; Jakobsson, Sveinn P.; White, James D. L.; Michael Palin, J.; Bush-Marcinowski, Tim

    2015-06-01

    The volcanic island of Surtsey (Vestmannaeyjar, Iceland) is the product of a 3.5-year-long eruption that began in November 1963. Observations of magma-water interaction during pyroclastic episodes made Surtsey the type example of shallow-to-emergent phreatomagmatic eruptions. Here, in part to mark the 50th anniversary of this canonical eruption, we present previously unpublished major-element whole-rock compositions, and new major and trace-element compositions of sideromelane glasses in tephra collected by observers and retrieved from the 1979 drill core. Compositions became progressively more primitive as the eruption progressed, with abrupt changes corresponding to shifts between the eruption’s four edifices. Trace-element ratios indicate that the chemical variation is best explained by mixing of different proportions of depleted ridge-like basalt, with ponded, enriched alkalic basalt similar to that of Iceland’s Eastern Volcanic Zone; however, the systematic offset of Surtsey compositions to lower Nb/Zr than other Vestmannaeyjar lavas indicates that these mixing end members are as-yet poorly contained by compositions in the literature. As the southwestern-most volcano in the Vestmannaeyjar, the geochemistry of the Surtsey Magma Series exemplifies processes occurring within ephemeral magma bodies on the extreme leading edge of a propagating off-axis rift in the vicinity of the Iceland plume.

  12. The Surtsey Magma Series.

    PubMed

    Schipper, C Ian; Jakobsson, Sveinn P; White, James D L; Michael Palin, J; Bush-Marcinowski, Tim

    2015-06-26

    The volcanic island of Surtsey (Vestmannaeyjar, Iceland) is the product of a 3.5-year-long eruption that began in November 1963. Observations of magma-water interaction during pyroclastic episodes made Surtsey the type example of shallow-to-emergent phreatomagmatic eruptions. Here, in part to mark the 50(th) anniversary of this canonical eruption, we present previously unpublished major-element whole-rock compositions, and new major and trace-element compositions of sideromelane glasses in tephra collected by observers and retrieved from the 1979 drill core. Compositions became progressively more primitive as the eruption progressed, with abrupt changes corresponding to shifts between the eruption's four edifices. Trace-element ratios indicate that the chemical variation is best explained by mixing of different proportions of depleted ridge-like basalt, with ponded, enriched alkalic basalt similar to that of Iceland's Eastern Volcanic Zone; however, the systematic offset of Surtsey compositions to lower Nb/Zr than other Vestmannaeyjar lavas indicates that these mixing end members are as-yet poorly contained by compositions in the literature. As the southwestern-most volcano in the Vestmannaeyjar, the geochemistry of the Surtsey Magma Series exemplifies processes occurring within ephemeral magma bodies on the extreme leading edge of a propagating off-axis rift in the vicinity of the Iceland plume.

  13. Calderas and magma reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cashman, Katharine; Giordano, Guido

    2015-04-01

    Large caldera-forming eruptions have long been a focus of both petrological and volcanological studies; traditionally, both have assumed that eruptible magma is stored within a single long-lived melt body. Over the past decade, however, advances in analytical techniques have provided new views of magma storage regions, many of which provide evidence of multiple melt lenses feeding a single eruption, and/or rapid pre-eruptive assembly of large volumes of melt. These new petrological views of magmatic systems have not yet been fully integrated into volcanological perspectives of caldera-forming eruptions. We discuss the implications of syn-eruptive melt extraction from complex, rather than simple, reservoirs and its potential control over eruption size and style, and caldera collapse timing and style. Implications extend to monitoring of volcanic unrest and eruption progress under conditions where successive melt lenses may be tapped. We conclude that emerging views of complex magma reservoir configurations provide exciting opportunities for re-examining volcanological concepts of caldera-forming systems

  14. The Surtsey Magma Series.

    PubMed

    Schipper, C Ian; Jakobsson, Sveinn P; White, James D L; Michael Palin, J; Bush-Marcinowski, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The volcanic island of Surtsey (Vestmannaeyjar, Iceland) is the product of a 3.5-year-long eruption that began in November 1963. Observations of magma-water interaction during pyroclastic episodes made Surtsey the type example of shallow-to-emergent phreatomagmatic eruptions. Here, in part to mark the 50(th) anniversary of this canonical eruption, we present previously unpublished major-element whole-rock compositions, and new major and trace-element compositions of sideromelane glasses in tephra collected by observers and retrieved from the 1979 drill core. Compositions became progressively more primitive as the eruption progressed, with abrupt changes corresponding to shifts between the eruption's four edifices. Trace-element ratios indicate that the chemical variation is best explained by mixing of different proportions of depleted ridge-like basalt, with ponded, enriched alkalic basalt similar to that of Iceland's Eastern Volcanic Zone; however, the systematic offset of Surtsey compositions to lower Nb/Zr than other Vestmannaeyjar lavas indicates that these mixing end members are as-yet poorly contained by compositions in the literature. As the southwestern-most volcano in the Vestmannaeyjar, the geochemistry of the Surtsey Magma Series exemplifies processes occurring within ephemeral magma bodies on the extreme leading edge of a propagating off-axis rift in the vicinity of the Iceland plume. PMID:26112644

  15. Successive episodes of reactive liquid flow through a layered intrusion (Unit 9, Rum Eastern Layered Intrusion, Scotland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuthold, J.; Blundy, J. D.; Holness, M. B.; Sides, R.

    2014-07-01

    laterally through the remobilized cumulate pile and precipitating clinopyroxene en route. This process, called reactive liquid flow, is potentially important in open magma chambers.

  16. Number of Waste Package Hit by Igneous Intrusion

    SciTech Connect

    M. Wallace

    2004-10-13

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report is to document calculations of the number of waste packages that could be damaged in a potential future igneous event through a repository at Yucca Mountain. The analyses include disruption from an intrusive igneous event and from an extrusive volcanic event. This analysis supports the evaluation of the potential consequences of future igneous activity as part of the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). Igneous activity is a disruptive event that is included in the TSPA-LA analyses. Two igneous activity scenarios are considered: (1) The igneous intrusion groundwater release scenario (also called the igneous intrusion scenario) considers the in situ damage to waste packages or failure of waste packages that occurs if they are engulfed or otherwise affected by magma as a result of an igneous intrusion. (2) The volcanic eruption scenario depicts the direct release of radioactive waste due to an intrusion that intersects the repository followed by a volcanic eruption at the surface. An igneous intrusion is defined as the ascent of a basaltic dike or dike system (i.e., a set or swarm of multiple dikes comprising a single intrusive event) to repository level, where it intersects drifts. Magma that does reach the surface from igneous activity is an eruption (or extrusive activity) (Jackson 1997 [DIRS 109119], pp. 224, 333). The objective of this analysis is to develop a probabilistic measure of the number of waste packages that could be affected by each of the two scenarios.

  17. Variable H2O content in magmas from the Tongariro Volcanic Centre and its relation to crustal storage and magma ascent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, A.; White, J. D. L.; Tobin, M. J.

    2016-10-01

    The water content of crystal-hosted glass inclusions from Mt. Ruapehu has been determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) at the IR beamline of the Australian Synchrotron. The results are compared with those from previous investigations as well as with calculated melt water concentrations in other magmas from the Tongariro Volcannic Center (TgVC). It is shown that low and high water content in different magmas can be related to distinct styles of magma ascent and intermittent crustal storage. The first style is related to frequent small magma batches erupted from the central volcanoes of Mt. Tongariro and Mt. Ruapehu. It produces highly porphyritic two-pyroxene-plagioclase andesites which generally show water contents below 3 wt%. The second style is sourced from mid-crustal intrusions which are characterized by highly differentiated hornblende dacites with dissolved water concentrations of up to 6 wt% H2O.

  18. Rift initiation with volatiles and magma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebinger, Cynthia; Muirhead, James; Roecker, Steve; Tiberi, Christel; Muzuka, Alfred; Ferdinand, Rrichard; Mulibo, Gabrile; Kianji, Gladys

    2015-04-01

    Rift initiation in cratonic lithosphere remains an outstanding problem in continental tectonics, but strain and magmatism patterns in youthful sectors of the East African rift provide new insights. Few teleseisms occur in the Eastern rift arm of the East African rift system, except the southernmost sector in northern Tanzania where extension occurs in Archaean lithosphere. The change in seismic energy release occurs over a narrow along-axis zone, and between sectors with and without volcanoes in the central rift valley. Are these differences in strain behavior indicative of along-strike variations in a) rheology; b) strain transfer from border faults to magma intrusion zones; c) dike vs fault slip; and/or d) shallow vs deep magma chambers? We present time-space relations of seismicity recorded on a 38-station array spanning the Kenya-Tanzania border, focal mechanisms for the largest events during those time periods, and compare these to longer-term strain patterns. Lower crustal seismicity occurs along the rift length, including sectors on and off craton, and those with and without central rift valley volcanoes, and we see no clear along-strike variation in seismogenic layer thickness. One explanation for widespread lower crustal seismicity is high gas pressures and volatile migration from active metasomatism of upper mantle and magma degassing, consistent with very high volatile flux along fault zones, and widespread metasomatism of xenoliths. Volatile release and migration may be critical to strength reduction of initially cold, strong cratonic lithosphere. Seismicity patterns indicate strain (and fluid?) transfer from the Manyara border fault to Gelai shield volcano (faulting, diking) via Oldoinyo Lengai volcano. Our focal mechanisms and Global CMTs from an intense fault-dike episode (2007) show a local, temporally stable, rotation from ~E-W extension to NE-SE extension in this linkage zone, consistent with longer term patterns recorded in vent and eruptive

  19. The oxidation state, and sulfur and Cu contents of arc magmas: implications for metallogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Jeremy P.

    2015-09-01

    Global data for measured Fe2O3/FeO ratios and Cu contents in unaltered volcanic and intrusive arc rocks indicate that, on average, they are slightly more oxidized than other magmas derived from depleted upper mantle (such as MORB), but contain similar Cu contents across their compositional ranges. Although Cu scatters to elevated values in some intermediate composition samples, the bulk of the data show a steady but gentle trend to lower concentrations with differentiation, reaching modal values of ~ 50-100 ppm in andesitic rocks. These data suggest that Cu is mildly compatible during partial melting and fractionation processes, likely reflecting minor degrees of sulfide saturation throughout the magmatic cycle. However, the volume of sulfides must be small such that significant proportions of the metal content remain in the magma during fractionation to intermediate compositions. Previous studies have shown that andesitic magmas containing ~ 50 ppm Cu can readily form large porphyry-type Cu deposits upon emplacement in the upper crust. A review of the literature suggests that the elevated oxidation state in the asthenospheric mantle wedge source of arc magmas (ΔFMQ ≈ + 1 ± 1) derives from the subduction of seawater-altered and oxidized oceanic crust, and is transmitted into the mantle wedge via prograde metamorphic dehydration fluids carrying sulfate and other oxidizing components. Progressive hydration and oxidation of the mantle wedge may take up to ~ 10 m.y. to reach a steady state from the onset of subduction, explaining the rarity of porphyry deposits in primitive island arcs, and the late formation of porphyries in continental arc magmatic cycles. Magmas generated from this metasomatized and moderately oxidized mantle source will be hydrous basalts containing high concentrations of sulfur, mainly dissolved as sulfate or sulfite. Some condensed sulfides (melt or minerals) may be present due to the high overall fS2, despite the moderately high oxidation

  20. Magma energy: engineering feasibility of energy extraction from magma bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Traeger, R.K.

    1983-12-01

    A research program was carried out from 1975 to 1982 to evaluate the scientific feasibility of extracting energy from magma, i.e., to determine if there were any fundamental scientific roadblocks to tapping molten magma bodies at depth. The next stage of the program is to evaluate the engineering feasibility of extracting energy from magma bodies and to provide insight into system economics. This report summarizes the plans, schedules and estimated costs for the engineering feasibility study. Tentative tasks and schedules are presented for discussion and critique. A bibliography of past publications on magma energy is appended for further reference. 69 references.

  1. Magma Dynamics at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. Krier

    2005-08-29

    Small-volume basaltic volcanic activity at Yucca Mountain has been identified as one of the potential events that could lead to release of radioactive material from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) designated nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Release of material could occur indirectly as a result of magmatic dike intrusion into the repository (with no associated surface eruption) by changing groundwater flow paths, or as a result of an eruption (dike intrusion of the repository drifts, followed by surface eruption of contaminated ash) or volcanic ejection of material onto the Earth's surface and the redistribution of contaminated volcanic tephra. Either release method includes interaction between emplacement drifts and a magmatic dike or conduit, and natural (geologic) processes that might interrupt or halt igneous activity. This analysis provides summary information on two approaches to evaluate effects of disruption at the repository by basaltic igneous activity: (1) descriptions of the physical geometry of ascending basaltic dikes and their interaction with silicic host rocks similar in composition to the repository host rocks; and (2) a summary of calculations developed to quantify the response of emplacement drifts that have been flooded with magma and repressurized following blockage of an eruptive conduit. The purpose of these analyses is to explore the potential consequences that could occur during the full duration of an igneous event.

  2. Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    P. Bernot

    2004-08-16

    The purpose of this model report is to assess the potential impacts of igneous intrusion on waste packages and waste forms in the emplacement drifts at the Yucca Mountain Repository. The model is based on conceptual models and includes an assessment of deleterious dynamic, thermal, hydrologic, and chemical impacts. This constitutes the waste package and waste form impacts submodel of the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) model assessing the impacts of a hypothetical igneous intrusion event on the repository total system performance. This submodel is carried out in accordance with Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of SR and LA (BSC 2003a) and Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approaches (BSC 2002a). The technical work plan is governed by the procedures of AP-SIII.10Q, Models. Any deviations from the technical work plan are documented in the TSPA-LA approach to implementing the models for waste package and waste form response during igneous intrusion is based on identification of damage zones. Zone 1 includes all emplacement drifts intruded by the basalt dike, and Zone 2 includes all other emplacement drifts in the repository that are not in Zone 1. This model report will document the following model: (1) Impacts of magma intrusion on the components of engineered barrier system (e.g., drip shields and cladding) of emplacement drifts in Zone 1, and the fate of waste forms. (2) Impacts of conducting magma heat and diffusing magma gases on the drip shields, waste packages, and cladding in the Zone 2 emplacement drifts adjacent to the intruded drifts. (3) Impacts of intrusion on Zone 1 in-drift thermal and geochemical environments, including seepage hydrochemistry. The scope of this model only includes impacts to the components stated above, and does not include impacts to other engineered barrier system (EBS) components such as the invert and

  3. Intrusive Images in Psychological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brewin, Chris R.; Gregory, James D.; Lipton, Michelle; Burgess, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Involuntary images and visual memories are prominent in many types of psychopathology. Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, other anxiety disorders, depression, eating disorders, and psychosis frequently report repeated visual intrusions corresponding to a small number of real or imaginary events, usually extremely vivid, detailed, and with highly distressing content. Both memory and imagery appear to rely on common networks involving medial prefrontal regions, posterior regions in the medial and lateral parietal cortices, the lateral temporal cortex, and the medial temporal lobe. Evidence from cognitive psychology and neuroscience implies distinct neural bases to abstract, flexible, contextualized representations (C-reps) and to inflexible, sensory-bound representations (S-reps). We revise our previous dual representation theory of posttraumatic stress disorder to place it within a neural systems model of healthy memory and imagery. The revised model is used to explain how the different types of distressing visual intrusions associated with clinical disorders arise, in terms of the need for correct interaction between the neural systems supporting S-reps and C-reps via visuospatial working memory. Finally, we discuss the treatment implications of the new model and relate it to existing forms of psychological therapy. PMID:20063969

  4. Time, space, and composition relations among northern Nevada intrusive rocks and their metallogenic implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    duBray, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    Importantly, modal composition, age, and geochemical characteristics of intrusions associated with large mineral deposits along the trends, are indistinguishable from non-mineralized intrusions in northern Nevada and thus do not identify intrusions associated with significant deposits. Moreover, intrusion age and composition show little correlation with mineral-deposit type, abundance, and size. Given the lack of diagnostic characteristics for intrusions associated with deposits, it is uncertain whether age, modal composition, and geochemical data can identify intrusions associated with mineral deposits. These findings suggest that associations between northern Nevada intrusions and mineral deposits reflect superimposition of many geologic factors, none of which was solely responsible for mineral-deposit formation. These factors might include intrusion size, efficiency of fluid and metal extraction from magma, prevailing redox and sulfidation conditions, or derivation of metals and ligands from host rocks and groundwater. The abundance and diversity of mineral deposits in northern Nevada may partly reflect geochemical inheritance, for example, along the mineral trends rather than the influence of petrologically unique magma or associated fluids.

  5. [The spectrum studies of structure characteristics in magma contact metamorphic coal].

    PubMed

    Wu, Dun; Sun, Ruo-Yu; Liu, Gui-Jian; Yuan, Zi-Jiao

    2013-10-01

    The structural parameters evolution of coal due to the influence of intrusions of hot magma was investigated and analyzed. X-ray diffraction and laser confocal microscope Raman spectroscopy were used to test and analyze 4 coal samples undergoing varying contact-metamorphism by igneous magmas in borehole No. 13-4 of Zhuji coal mine, Huainan coalfield. The result showed that coal XRD spectrum showed higher background intensity, with the 26 degrees and 42 degrees nearby apparent graphite diffraction peak. Two significant vibration peaks of coal Raman spectra were observed in the 1 000-2 000 cm(-1) frequency range: broad "D" peak at 1 328-1 369 cm(-1) and sharp "G" peak at 1 564-1 599 cm(-1). With the influence of magma intrusion, the relationship between coal structural parameters and coal ranks was excellent.

  6. [The spectrum studies of structure characteristics in magma contact metamorphic coal].

    PubMed

    Wu, Dun; Sun, Ruo-Yu; Liu, Gui-Jian; Yuan, Zi-Jiao

    2013-10-01

    The structural parameters evolution of coal due to the influence of intrusions of hot magma was investigated and analyzed. X-ray diffraction and laser confocal microscope Raman spectroscopy were used to test and analyze 4 coal samples undergoing varying contact-metamorphism by igneous magmas in borehole No. 13-4 of Zhuji coal mine, Huainan coalfield. The result showed that coal XRD spectrum showed higher background intensity, with the 26 degrees and 42 degrees nearby apparent graphite diffraction peak. Two significant vibration peaks of coal Raman spectra were observed in the 1 000-2 000 cm(-1) frequency range: broad "D" peak at 1 328-1 369 cm(-1) and sharp "G" peak at 1 564-1 599 cm(-1). With the influence of magma intrusion, the relationship between coal structural parameters and coal ranks was excellent. PMID:24409751

  7. Stress control of deep rift intrusion at Mauna Loa volcano, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Amelung, Falk; Yun, Sang-Ho; Walter, Thomas R; Segall, Paul; Kim, Sang-Wan

    2007-05-18

    Mauna Loa volcano, Hawaii, deforms by a combination of shallow dike intrusions in the rift zones and earthquakes along the base of the volcano, but it is not known how the spreading is accommodated in the lower part of the volcanic edifice. We present evidence from interferometric synthetic aperture radar data for secular inflation of a dike-like magma body at intermediate depth in the southwest rift zone during 2002 to 2005. Magma accumulation occurred in a section of the rift zone that was unclamped by previous dikes and earthquakes, suggesting that stress transfer plays an important role in controlling subsurface magma accumulation.

  8. Intrusive LIPs: Deep crustal magmatic processes during the emplacement of Large Igneous Provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, M. A.; Karlstrom, L.

    2011-12-01

    Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) are characterized by magmatic activity on two distinct timescales. While these provinces have total active lifetimes of order 10-30 Ma, most of the erupted volume is emplaced within <1 Ma in many cases. The latter timescale is likely controlled by magmatic intrusion/evolution processes within the deep crust. We present seismic evidence for 5-15 km thick Moho-level ultramafic intrusive/cumulate layers underlying Phanerozoic LIPs worldwide [Ridley and Richards, 2010]. These deep crustal bodies are both observed and predicted to have volumes at least as large as the extrusive components of flood volcanism. The evidence for these layers is particularly clear for oceanic LIPs (plateaus). We hypothesize that thermally activated creep of the lower crust due to magma chamber emplacement controls a transition from largely extrusive to largely intrusive magmatism during mantle plume impingement on the lithosphere [Karlstrom and Richards, 2011]. We explore this hypothesis by modeling the thermomechanical evolution of Moho-level magma chambers. Comparing the timescale for viscoelastic relaxation of intrusion-related stresses with the timescale for sill formation and magma differentiation, we find that fracture processes leading to diking from Moho levels may plausibly be shut off on a timescale of ~1 Ma. Continued melt influx therefore results in intrusive magmatism, which may be manifest as plateau growth in oceanic settings. We suggest that maximum intrusion size may be limited by crustal thickness, resulting in smaller volume individual eruptions in oceanic versus continental LIPs.

  9. Diatexite Deformation and Magma Extraction on Kangaroo Island, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasalova, P.; Weinberg, R. F.; Ward, L.; Fanning, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    Migmatite terranes are structurally complex. We have investigated the relationships between deformation and magma extraction in migmatites formed during the Delamerian orogeny on Kangaroo Island. Several phases of deformation occurred in the presence of melt (D1-D4) and we describe how magma segregation, accumulation and extraction changes with deformation style. During an early upright folding event (D2), magma was channelled towards the hinge of antiforms. Funnel-shaped networks of leucosomes form a root that link towards a central axial planar channel, marking the main magma extraction paths. Extraction was associated with limb collapse, and antiformal hinge disruption. During a later deformation phase (D4), diatexites were sheared so that schollen were disaggregated into smaller blocks and schlieren, and deformed into asymmetric, sigmoidal shapes. Foliations in the magmatic matrix and schollen asymmetry indicate dextral shearing. During flow, magma accumulated in shear planes, indicating a dilational component during shearing (transtension) and on strain shadows of schollen. As deformation waned (post-D4), magma extraction from these diatexites gave rise to steeply dipping, funnel-shaped channels, similar to those developed during folding. The funnel-shape networks are interpreted as magma extraction networks and indicate magma flow direction. Structures developed during this phase are comparable with those developed during dewatering of soft sediments. The magmatic rocks from migmatites formed early, during folding, and formed late after deformation waned were dated. Both have two monazite (U-Pb, SHRIMP) age groups of ~490Ma and ~505-520Ma. The older sample has a well-defined peak at 505-510Ma and trails into the younger ages. The younger sample has the opposite, with few old spots and a well-defined young peak at ~490Ma. The age range indicates the duration of anatexis, and well-defined peaks are interpreted to mark the age of individual magma batch

  10. Bro Intrusion Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Paxson, Vern; Campbell, Scott; leres, Craig; Lee, Jason

    2006-01-25

    Bro is a Unix-based Network Intrusion Detection System (IDS). Bro monitors network traffic and detects intrusion attempts based on the traffic characteristics and content. Bro detects intrusions by comparing network traffic against rules describing events that are deemed troublesome. These rules might describe activities (e.g., certain hosts connecting to certain services), what activities are worth alerting (e.g., attempts to a given number of different hosts constitutes a "scan"), or signatures describing known attacks or access to known vulnerabilities. If Bro detects something of interest, it can be instructed to either issue a log entry or initiate the execution of an operating system command. Bro targets high-speed (Gbps), high-volume intrusion detection. By judiciously leveraging packet filtering techniques, Bro is able to achieve the performance necessary to do so while running on commercially available PC hardware, and thus can serve as a cost effective means of monitoring a site’s Internet connection.

  11. Computer Intrusions and Attacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Howard

    1999-01-01

    Examines some frequently encountered unsolicited computer intrusions, including computer viruses, worms, Java applications, trojan horses or vandals, e-mail spamming, hoaxes, and cookies. Also discusses virus-protection software, both for networks and for individual users. (LRW)

  12. Water In The Lunar Mantle: Results From Magma Ocean Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda

    2010-05-01

    The Moon is posited to have formed by reconsolidation of materials produced during a giant impact with the Earth. The young Moon appears to have experienced a magma ocean of some depth. The hypothetical energetics of such an impact and cooling process, combined with the low oxygen activity implied by lunar petrology, has lead investigators to believe that the Moon was free of water. Recent results, however, indicate that lunar volcanic glasses produced by fire fountaining contain small amounts of water (Saal et al., 2008). The volcanic glasses are reported to contain 4 to 46 ppm water, thought to be the remnant after degassing an original minimum 260 ppm. Lunar sample suites indicate fractional crystallization of a lunar magma ocean, including efficient flotation of anorthite to its surface, unimpeded by high crystal fractions or crystal networks. Modeling lunar magma ocean solidification including a small amount of initial water produces predictions for the locations and quantities of water that should be found in the lunar interior, and water that would have been degassed. Compositions of mineral phases are calculated in equilibrium with the magma ocean liquid composition at that stage of solidification, using experimentally-determined KDs for major elements and partition coefficients for hydroxyl and trace elements; for methods see Elkins-Tanton (2008). Water and all other incompatible elements are progressively enriched in the evolving magma ocean liquids as solidification progresses. Progressive enrichment of water in magma ocean liquids produces increasing water contents in solidifying cumulate minerals. Between 0.2 and 1% of the magma ocean liquid water content will be incorporated into solidifying cumulates, enhanced by trapped interstitial liquids. Upon later melting about 99% of cumulate source region water moves into the melt phase. Finally, upon eruption, Saal et al. (2008) estimate that 98% of magmatic water is degassed. Fractional solidification of

  13. Forecasting the path of a laterally propagating dike

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimisson, Elías Rafn; Hooper, Andrew; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn

    2015-12-01

    An important aspect of eruption forecasting is predicting the path of propagating dikes. We show how lateral dike propagation can be forecast using the minimum potential energy principle. We compare theory to observed propagation paths of dikes originating at the Bárðarbunga volcano, Iceland, in 2014 and 1996, by developing a probability distribution for the most likely propagation path. The observed propagation paths agree well with the model prediction. We find that topography is very important for the model, and our preferred forecasting model considers its influence on the potential energy change of the crust and magma. We tested the influence of topography by running the model assuming no topography and found that the path of the 2014 dike could not be hindcasted. The results suggest that lateral dike propagation is governed not only by deviatoric stresses but also by pressure gradients and gravitational potential energy. Furthermore, the model predicts the formation of curved dikes around cone-shaped structures without the assumption of a local deviatoric stress field. We suggest that a likely eruption site for a laterally propagating dike is in topographic lows. The method presented here is simple and computationally feasible. Our results indicate that this kind of a model can be applied to mitigate volcanic hazards in regions where the tectonic setting promotes formation of laterally propagating vertical intrusive sheets.

  14. Isotopic variation in the Tuolumne Intrusive Suite, central Sierra Nevada, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kistler, R.W.; Chappell, B.W.; Peck, D.L.; Bateman, P.C.

    1986-01-01

    Granitoid rocks of the compositionally zoned Late Cretaceous Toulumne Intrusive Suite in the central Sierra Nevada, California, have initial87Sr/86Sr values (Sri) and143Nd/144Nd values (Ndi) that vary from 0.7057 to 0.7067 and from 0.51239 to 0.51211 respectively. The observed variation of both Sri and Ndi and of chemical composition in rocks of the suite cannot be due to crystal fractionation of magma solely under closed system conditons. The largest variation in chemistry, Ndi, and Sri is present in the outer-most equigranular units of the Tuolumne Intrusive Suite. Sri varies positively with SiO2, Na2O, K2O, and Rb concentrations, and negatively with Ndi, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, FeO, CaO, MnO, P2O5, TiO2, and Sr concentrations. This covariation of Sri, Ndi and chemistry can be modeled by a process of simple mixing of basaltic and granitic magmas having weight percent SiO2 of 48.0 and 73.3 respectively. Isotopic characteristic of the mafic magma are Sri=0.7047, Ndi=0.51269 and ??18O=6.0, and of the felsic magma are Sri=0.7068, Ndi=0.51212 and ??18O=8.9. The rocks sampled contain from 50 to 80% of the felsic component. An aplite in the outer equigranular unit of the Tuolumne Intrusive Suite apparently was derived by fractional crystallization of plagioclase and hornblende from magma with granudiorite composition that was a product of mixing of the magmas described above. Siliceous magmas derived from the lower crust, having a maximum of 15 percent mantle-derived mafic component, are represented by the inner prophyritic units of the Tuolumne Intrusive Suite. ?? 1986 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Decoding low dihedral angles in gabbroic layered intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holness, M. B.; Humphreys, M.; Veksler, I. V.

    2010-12-01

    Texturally equilibrated rocks are granular with a unimodal grain size, smoothly curved grain boundaries, and angles at three-grain junctions of 110-140°. Gabbros are not texturally equilibrated: primocrysts commonly have planar faces whereas later-formed phases fill in the interstitial spaces. Augite-plagioclase-plagioclase dihedral angles (Θcpp) rarely attain the equilibrium value in gabbros and the population of disequilibrium angles preserves otherwise inaccessible information about rock history. The Θcpp population varies significantly between different basaltic bodies. In a rapidly cooled dolerite Θcpp has a low median (60-70°) and a high standard deviation (20-25°). The plagioclase-augite grain boundaries are generally planar. In more slowly cooled gabbros in layered intrusions, the angle populations have a higher median (80-110°) with a low standard deviation (10-15°). The plagioclase-augite grain boundaries are generally planar far from the triple junction, but curve within 10 microns of the junction. This curvature is commonly asymmetric. The angle population in solidified gabbros infiltrated by low-temperature melts is similar to that in dolerites, although the low angles are associated with cuspate interstitial grains. The dihedral angle is a function of both the original solidification process and subsequent high-temperature (melt-absent) grain boundary migration. Infilling of a melt pocket by overgrowth of the bounding solid phases necessitates supersaturation, and this is easier to attain for planar faces, resulting in inhibition of augite growth into pores bounded by planar plagioclase grains and an asymmetry of the initial augite-plag-plag junction. If the solidified gabbro is kept sufficiently hot these initial junction geometries can change during textural equilibration. In the Skaergaard, Rum and Bushveld intrusions, the median Θcpp varies with liquidus assemblage, increasing step-wise on the addition of a new liquidus phase. Locally

  16. Seismic Tremors and Three-Dimensional Magma Wagging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Y.; Bercovici, D.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic tremor is a feature shared by many silicic volcanoes and is a precursor of volcanic eruption. Many of the characteristics of tremors, including their frequency band from 0.5 Hz to 7 Hz, are common for volcanoes with very different geophysical and geochemical properties. The ubiquitous characteristics of tremor imply that it results from some generation mechanism that is common to all volcanoes, instead of being unique to each volcano. Here we present new analysis on the magma-wagging mechanism that has been proposed to generate tremor. The model is based on the suggestion given by previous work (Jellinek & Bercovici 2011; Bercovici et.al. 2013) that the magma column is surrounded by a compressible, bubble-rich foam annulus while rising inside the volcanic conduit, and that the lateral oscillation of the magma inside the annulus causes observable tremor. Unlike the previous two-dimensional wagging model where the displacement of the magma column is restricted to one vertical plane, the three-dimensional model we employ allows the magma column to bend in different directions and has angular motion as well. Our preliminary results show that, without damping from viscous deformation of the magma column, the system retains angular momentum and develops elliptical motion (i.e., the horizontal displacement traces an ellipse). In this ''inviscid'' limit, the magma column can also develop instabilities with higher frequencies than what is found in the original two-dimensional model. Lateral motion can also be out of phase for various depths in the magma column leading to a coiled wagging motion. For the viscous-magma model, we predict a similar damping rate for the uncoiled magma column as in the two-dimensional model, and faster damping for the coiled magma column. The higher damping thus requires the existence of a forcing mechanism to sustain the oscillation, for example the gas-driven Bernoulli effect proposed by Bercovici et al (2013). Finally, using our new 3

  17. Efficiency of differentiation in the Skaergaard magma chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegner, C.; Lesher, C. E.; Holness, M. B.; Jakobsen, J. K.; Salmonsen, L.; Humphreys, M.; Thy, P.

    2011-12-01

    Although it is largely agreed that crystallization occurs inwardly in crystal mushes along the margins of magma chambers, the efficiency and mechanisms of differentiation are not well constrained. The fractionation paradigm hinges on mass exchange between the crystal mush and the main magma reservoir resulting in coarse-grained, refractory (cumulate) rocks of primary crystals, and complementary enrichment of incompatible elements in the main reservoir of magma. Diffusion, convection, liquid immiscibility and compaction have been proposed as mechanisms driving this mass exchange. Here we examine the efficiency of differentiation in basaltic crystal mushes in different regions of the Skaergaard magma chamber. The contents of incompatible elements such as phosphorus and calculated residual porosities are high in the lowermost cumulate rocks of the floor (47-30%) and decrease upsection, persisting at low values in the uppermost two-thirds of the floor rock stratigraphy (~5% residual porosity). The residual porosity is intermediate at the walls (~15%) and highest and more variable at the roof (10-100%). This is best explained by compaction and expulsion of interstitial liquid from the accumulating crystal mush at the floor and the inefficiency of these processes elsewhere in the intrusion. In addition, the roof data imply upwards infiltration of interstitial liquid. Remarkably uniform residual porosity of ~15% for cumulates formed along the walls suggest that their preservation is related to the rheological properties of the mush, i.e. at ≤ 15% porosity the mush is rigid enough to adhere to the wall, while at higher porosity it is easily swept away. We conclude that the efficiency of compaction and differentiation can be extremely variable along the margins of magma chambers. This should be taken into account in models of magma chamber evolution.

  18. Simulation of Layered Magma Chambers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawthorn, Richard Grant

    1991-01-01

    The principles of magma addition and liquid layering in magma chambers can be demonstrated by dissolving colored crystals. The concepts of density stratification and apparent lack of mixing of miscible liquids is convincingly illustrated with hydrous solutions at room temperature. The behavior of interstitial liquids in "cumulus" piles can be…

  19. Dissolved volatile concentrations in an ore-forming magma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowenstern, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopic measurements of glass inclusions within quartz phenocrysts from the Plinian fallout of the 22 Ma tuff of Pine Grove show that the trapped silicate melt contained high concentrations of H2O and CO2. Intrusive porphyries from the Pine Grove system are nearly identical in age, composition, and mineralogy to the tephra, and some contain high-grade Mo mineralization. Assuming that the porphyry magmas originally contained similar abundances of volatile components as the erupted rocks, they would have been saturated with fluid at pressures far greater than those at which the porphyries were emplaced and mineralized. The data are consistent with formation of Climax-type Mo porphyry deposits by prolonged fluid flux from a large volume of relatively Mo-poor (1-5 ppm) magma. -from Author

  20. Petrogenesis of Mount Rainier andesite: magma flux and geologic controls on the contrasting differentiation styles at stratovolcanoes of the southern Washington Cascades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sisson, Thomas W.; Salters, V.J.M.; Larson, P.B.

    2013-01-01

    The dominant cause of magmatic evolution at Mount Rainier, however, is inferred to be a version of in situ crystallization-differentiation and mixing (Langmuir, 1989) wherein small magma batches stall as crustal intrusions and solidify extensively, yielding silicic residual liquids with trace element concentrations influenced by accessory mineral saturation. Subsequent magmas ascending through the intrusive plexus entrain and mix with the residual liquids and low-degree re-melts of those antecedent intrusions, producing hybrid andesites and dacites. Mount St. Helens volcanic rocks have geochemical similarities to those at Mount Rainier, and may also result from in situ differentiation and mixing due to low and intermittent long-term magma supply, accompanied by modest crustal assimilation. Andesites and dacites of Mount Adams isotopically overlap the least contaminated Mount Rainier magmas and derive from similar parental magma types, but have trace element variations more consistent with progressive crystallization-differentiation, probably due to higher magma fluxes leading to slower crystallization of large magma batches, allowing time for progressive separation of minerals from melt. Mount Adams also sits atop the southern projection of a regional anticlinorium, so Eocene sediments are absent, or are at shallow crustal levels, and so are cold and difficult to assimilate. Differences between southwest Washington stratovolcanoes highlight some ways that crustal geology and magma flux are primary factors in andesite generation.

  1. The petrogenesis of late Neoproterozoic mafic dyke-like intrusion in south Sinai, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azer, M. K.; Abu El-Ela, F. F.; Ren, M.

    2012-08-01

    New field, petrographical and geochemical studies are presented here for the late Neoproterozoic Rimm intrusion (˜15 km long) exposed in the southern Sinai Peninsula, Egypt in the northernmost Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). Field relations indicate that the Rimm intrusion is younger than the surrounding metamorphic rocks and calc-alkaline syn-tectonic granodiorite and it was not affected by regional metamorphism. The anorogenic peralkaline granite of Gebel Serbal crosscuts the Rimm intrusion. The Rimm intrusion is made up of several consanguineous rock types with gradational contacts. It is composed chiefly of pyroxene-hornblende gabbro, hornblende gabbro and minor quartz diorite. The chemical composition of the mafic minerals indicated that the studied rocks derived from calc-alkaline mafic magma. Geochemically, the studied rocks are characterized by enrichment in LILE relative to HFSE and LREE relative to HREE [(Ce/Yb)N = 4.50-6.36]. Quartz diorite display slightly concave HREE pattern and slightly negative Eu-anomaly [(Eu/Eu*)n = 0.91] which may be the result of fractionation of amphibole and plagioclase from the source melt, respectively. The Rimm intrusion evolved from mafic mantle magma into different type rocks by fractional crystallization with minor crustal contamination. The initial magma corresponds to pyroxene-hornblende gabbro and the crystallization of hornblende was caused by slight H2O increase in magma after crystallization of near-liquidus clinopyroxene and Ca-rich plagioclase. Amphiboles geobarometer indicate that the gabbroic rocks of the Rimm intrusion crystallized at pressures between 4.8 and 6.4 Kb, while quartz diorite crystallized at 1.3-2.1 Kb. Crystallization temperatures range between 800 and 926 °C for the gabbros and between 667 and 784 °C for the quartz diorite. The Rimm intrusion represents a post-orogenic phase formed during the crustal thinning and extension of the Arabian-Nubian Shield.

  2. Fracture mode analysis and related surface deformation during dyke intrusion: Results from 2D experimental modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelmalak, M.; Mourgues, R.; Bureau, D.

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of surface deformation in response to approaching intrusion is important for assessing volcanic hazards. In this paper, we present results from 2D scaled models of magma intrusion, in which we discuss the propagation mode and related surface deformation during dyke growth. Our experiments consist in the injection of analogue magma (Golden syrup) into cohesive fine-grained silica powder, simulating the brittle upper crust. Using an optical image correlation technique (Particle Imaging Velocimetry), we were able to follow the surface deformation, the displacements within the country rock and to calculate strains induced by the magma emplacement. We identified two kinds of intrusion morphologies resulting from different interactions between the dyke and plastic deformations occurring in the country rock near the surface. In both morphologies, the dyke is vertical at depth. Our analysis demonstrates that both hydraulic tensile opening and shear-related propagation operate during this first stage of vertical growth. At the same time, the surface lifted up and formed a smooth symmetrical dome. Both types of morphologies differ in the upper part. During a second stage of evolution, the first type of intrusion inclined at a dip between 45 to 65°. This inclination is not caused by shear deformations and is attributed to stress rotation near the tip. Closer to the surface, the growth of the inclined sheet creates shear bands which conduct the fluid toward the surface. The surface uplift becomes asymmetric. The second type of intrusion does not rotate at depth and continues its vertical propagation by catching vertical tensile cracks. The intrusion of magma in these cracks creates horizontal stresses which are responsible for the closure of fractures and the formation of reverse faults. At the surface the dome remains symmetrical. For both intrusions, the surface uplift accelerates during the second stage and it is strongly influenced by the presence or the

  3. Geology, petrology and geochemistry of the "Americano do Brasil" layered intrusion, central Brazil, and its Ni-Cu sulfide deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    E Silva, Jonas Mota; Ferreira Filho, Cesar Fonseca; Bühn, Bernhard; Dantas, Elton Luiz

    2011-01-01

    The "Americano do Brasil" Complex (ABC) is part of a cluster of coeval synorogenic mafic-ultramafic intrusions emplaced during the Brasiliano/Pan-African Orogenic Cycle in Brazil. The medium-sized ABC consists of interlayered dunite, peridotite, websterite, and gabbronorite. High Fo values of olivine (up to Fo88) and the crystallization sequence of the ABC (Ol + Chr ≥ Ol + Opx + Chr ≥ Cpx + Opx ≥ Opx + Pl + Cpx ≥ Opx + Pl + Cpx + Ilm + Mag) suggest crystallization from tholeiitic high-MgO parental magmas. Light rare earth element (REE)-enriched mantle-normalized REE profiles and ɛNd(T) values of +2.4 for cumulate rocks from the ABC suggest a depleted mantle source for the parental magma. The ABC Ni-Cu sulfide deposit (3.1 Mt at 1.12 wt.% Ni and 1.02 wt.% Cu) consists of three distinctively different orebodies (S1, S2, and G2). The S2 orebody, an unusual occurrence of stratiform massive sulfide hosted by dunite and peridotite in the interior of a layered intrusion, results from sulfides accumulated at the transient base of the magma chamber following a new influx of parental magma. The G2 orebody has an irregular and roughly cylindrical shape, consisting mainly of net-textured sulfides. The G2 orebody is hosted by peridotite and pyroxenite and located stratigraphically below the S1 orebody. S2 and G2 orebodies are characterized by low Cu/Cu + Ni ratios (mainly below 0.4). The S1 orebody, hosted by websterite and gabbronorite in the more fractionated sequence of the ABC, is a cluster of several irregular discontinuous orebodies of Ni-Cu disseminated sulfides. The sulfides of the S1 orebody have high Cu/Cu + Ni ratios (mainly between 0.5 and 0.8) and are highly depleted in PGE. The S1 orebody is interpreted to result from a later event of sulfide segregation in the magma chamber, possibly following the event that originated the G2 orebody. The bulk of δ34S values for sulfides of the ABC orebodies and their host rocks fall in the range of 0 ± 2‰. Higher

  4. Cup-shaped Intrusions, Morphology and Emplacement Mechanism Investigate Through Analogue Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathieu, L.; van Wyk de Vries, B.

    2007-12-01

    We investigate the morphology of large-scale shallow-depth magma intrusions and sub-volcanic complexes with analogue models. Intrusions of analogue magma are done in a granular material that can contain a ductile layer. The model surface is flat to model the formation of plutonic intrusions and it is overlain by a cone when modelling late sub-volcanic complexes. For flat-top models, we obtain cup-shaped intrusions fed by dykes. Cup-shaped intrusions are inverted-cone like bodies. They are different from saucer-shaped intrusions as they possess neither a well developed sill-base, nor an outer rim. However, like saucers, cups are shallow depth intrusions that dome the country rocks. They initiate from an advancing dyke and first develop an inverted-cone like morphology. Then, the central thickness increases and thrusts form at the edge of the domed country rocks. At this stage, the intrusions progressively involve toward a lopolith shape. By using analogue magma of various viscosities we have been able to constrain key relationships: higher intrusion viscosity causes deeper initiation and the deeper they initiate, the larger is the intrusion diameter. A natural example of such intrusion might by the circles of volcanoes like the Azufre-Lastaria (Peru) that might be overlain be a large-scale cup-shaped intrusion. When adding a cone at the surface of the model and, sometimes, a thin ductile layer in the substratum, the morphology of cup-shaped intrusions vary. Note that the ductile layer of our models is not thick enough to induce the gravitational spreading of the cone. Generally, cup-shaped intrusions are asymmetric in cross section and elliptical in plan view. Their formation creates extension structures in the cone (croissant-shaped rift, straight rift or normal fault) and thrusts in some sectors below the cone. Both types of structures are bordered by strike-slip faults. Cups and saucers share many similarities, but differ probably in the fact that saucers are

  5. Late Neoproterozoic post-collisional mafic magmatism in the Arabian-Nubian Shield: A case study from Wadi El-Mahash gabbroic intrusion in southeast Sinai, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, A. E. S.; Obeid, M. A.; Azer, M. K.

    2015-05-01

    Late Neoproterozoic gabbroic intrusion of Wadi El-Mahash lays in the northwestern sector of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) which is exposed in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. It occurs as small undeformed mafic body intruding metamorphic rocks and truncated by alkali granites. Field relations, mineralogical characteristics and chemical data indicate that Wadi El-Mahash mafic intrusion is unmetamorphosed. The intrusion consists of medium- to coarse-grained gabbroic rocks. The medium-grained one (hornblende gabbro) formed nearly simultaneous with, or slightly later than, the coarse-grained rock (pyroxene-hornblende gabbro). Geochemically, the gabbroic samples are characterized by enrichment in LILE relative to HFSE and LREE relative to HREE [(La/Yb)n = 4.52-6.35]. They show geochemical signature similar to other post-collisional gabbroic intrusions of south Sinai. The subduction-related geochemical characteristic of the gabbroic intrusion of Wadi El-Mahash can be explained by partial melting of a relatively enriched lithospheric mantle source following a previous subduction process in the ANS. The gabbroic rocks crystallized at pressures between 6.2 and 6.5 kbar (∼15-20 km depth) with crystallization temperature ranging from 750 to 970 °C. Lithospheric delamination model is suggested for the mafic magma of Wadi El-Mahash since delamination of lithospheric mantle allowed asthenosphere to rise rapidly causing partial melting and generating gabbroic melts. The produced melts then infiltrated the base of the crust to induce the post-collisional magmatism in south Sinai.

  6. Magma degassing triggered by static decompression at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, Michael P.; Jeff, Sutton A.; Gerlach, Terrence M.

    2009-01-01

    During mid-June 2007, the summit of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, deflated rapidly as magma drained from the subsurface to feed an east rift zone intrusion and eruption. Coincident with the deflation, summit SO2 emission rates rose by a factor of four before decaying to background levels over several weeks. We propose that SO2 release was triggered by static decompression caused by magma withdrawal from Kīlauea's shallow summit reservoir. Models of the deflation suggest a pressure drop of 0.5–3 MPa, which is sufficient to trigger exsolution of the observed excess SO2 from a relatively small volume of magma at the modeled source depth beneath Kīlauea's summit. Static decompression may also explain other episodes of deflation accompanied by heightened gas emission, including the precursory phases of Kīlauea's 2008 summit eruption. Hazards associated with unexpected volcanic gas emission argue for increased awareness of magma reservoir pressure fluctuations.

  7. Tracking dynamics of magma migration in open-conduit systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, Sébastien; Lacanna, Giorgio; Coppola, Diego; Laiolo, Marco; Pistolesi, Marco; Donne, Dario Delle; Genco, Riccardo; Marchetti, Emanuele; Ulivieri, Giacomo; Allocca, Carmine; Cigolini, Corrado; Nishimura, Takeshi; Poggi, Pasquale; Ripepe, Maurizio

    2016-11-01

    Open-conduit volcanic systems are typically characterized by unsealed volcanic conduits feeding permanent or quasi-permanent volcanic activity. This persistent activity limits our ability to read changes in the monitored parameters, making the assessment of possible eruptive crises more difficult. We show how an integrated approach to monitoring can solve this problem, opening a new way to data interpretation. The increasing rate of explosive transients, tremor amplitude, thermal emissions of ejected tephra, and rise of the very-long-period (VLP) seismic source towards the surface are interpreted as indicating an upward migration of the magma column in response to an increased magma input rate. During the 2014 flank eruption of Stromboli, this magma input preceded the effusive eruption by several months. When the new lateral effusive vent opened on the Sciara del Fuoco slope, the effusion was accompanied by a large ground deflation, a deepening of the VLP seismic source, and the cessation of summit explosive activity. Such observations suggest the drainage of a superficial magma reservoir confined between the crater terrace and the effusive vent. We show how this model successfully reproduces the measured rate of effusion, the observed rate of ground deflation, and the deepening of the VLP seismic source. This study also demonstrates the ability of the geophysical network to detect superficial magma recharge within an open-conduit system and to track magma drainage during the effusive crisis, with a great impact on hazard assessment.

  8. Pressure waves in a supersaturated bubbly magma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurzon, I.; Lyakhovsky, V.; Navon, O.; Chouet, B.

    2011-01-01

    We study the interaction of acoustic pressure waves with an expanding bubbly magma. The expansion of magma is the result of bubble growth during or following magma decompression and leads to two competing processes that affect pressure waves. On the one hand, growth in vesicularity leads to increased damping and decreased wave amplitudes, and on the other hand, a decrease in the effective bulk modulus of the bubbly mixture reduces wave velocity, which in turn, reduces damping and may lead to wave amplification. The additional acoustic energy originates from the chemical energy released during bubble growth. We examine this phenomenon analytically to identify conditions under which amplification of pressure waves is possible. These conditions are further examined numerically to shed light on the frequency and phase dependencies in relation to the interaction of waves and growing bubbles. Amplification is possible at low frequencies and when the growth rate of bubbles reaches an optimum value for which the wave velocity decreases sufficiently to overcome the increased damping of the vesicular material. We examine two amplification phase-dependent effects: (1) a tensile-phase effect in which the inserted wave adds to the process of bubble growth, utilizing the energy associated with the gas overpressure in the bubble and therefore converting a large proportion of this energy into additional acoustic energy, and (2) a compressive-phase effect in which the pressure wave works against the growing bubbles and a large amount of its acoustic energy is dissipated during the first cycle, but later enough energy is gained to amplify the second cycle. These two effects provide additional new possible mechanisms for the amplification phase seen in Long-Period (LP) and Very-Long-Period (VLP) seismic signals originating in magma-filled cracks.

  9. Clinical Evaluation of Efficacy of CIA and CNA Intrusion Arches

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Sambhav; Pandey, Vinisha

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Excessive overbite is one of the most common problems that confront the orthodontist. Deep bite can be due to infraocclusion of posterior teeth, supraocclusion of anterior teeth or a combination of the two. Correction of same can be carried out by extrusion of molars, intrusion of incisors or by a combination of both respectively. Various intrusion arches are recommended for correcting deep bite by true intrusion of anterior teeth, Utility arches, Segmental arch, Connecticut Intrusion Arch (CIA) and Connecticut New Arch (CNA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical efficacy of CIA and CNA intrusion arches. Materials and Methods Tracings recorded from pre and post-treatment lateral cephalograms of 25 patients treated by CIA (Group I) and another 25 patients treated by CNA (Group II) intrusion arches in deep bite cases after four months of treatment were analysed and findings were recorded. Statistical Analysis Paired t-test was used to compare pre and post-treatment changes within Groups I and II and unpaired t-test was used to compare treatment changes between Group I and Group II. A P-value of < 0.05 was set for statistical significance. Results Findings of this study demonstrate that an average of 1mm of intrusion takes place with CIA intrusion arch and 1.3mm with CNA intrusion arch in a period of 4 months. Both intrusion arches do not affect the position of molar in vertical or anteroposterior plane. Interpretation & Conclusion Both CIA and CNA intrusion arches are effective in bringing about intrusion of lower incisors. PMID:26501008

  10. Dike intrusions during rifting episodes obey scaling relationships similar to earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    L., Passarelli; E., Rivalta; A., Shuler

    2014-01-01

    As continental rifts evolve towards mid-ocean ridges, strain is accommodated by repeated episodes of faulting and magmatism. Discrete rifting episodes have been observed along two subaerial divergent plate boundaries, the Krafla segment of the Northern Volcanic Rift Zone in Iceland and the Manda-Hararo segment of the Red Sea Rift in Ethiopia. In both cases, the initial and largest dike intrusion was followed by a series of smaller intrusions. By performing a statistical analysis of these rifting episodes, we demonstrate that dike intrusions obey scaling relationships similar to earthquakes. We find that the dimensions of dike intrusions obey a power law analogous to the Gutenberg-Richter relation, and the long-term release of geodetic moment is governed by a relationship consistent with the Omori law. Due to the effects of magma supply, the timing of secondary dike intrusions differs from that of the aftershocks. This work provides evidence of self-similarity in the rifting process. PMID:24469260

  11. Dike intrusions during rifting episodes obey scaling relationships similar to earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Passarelli, L; Rivalta, E; Shuler, A

    2014-01-01

    As continental rifts evolve towards mid-ocean ridges, strain is accommodated by repeated episodes of faulting and magmatism. Discrete rifting episodes have been observed along two subaerial divergent plate boundaries, the Krafla segment of the Northern Volcanic Rift Zone in Iceland and the Manda-Hararo segment of the Red Sea Rift in Ethiopia. In both cases, the initial and largest dike intrusion was followed by a series of smaller intrusions. By performing a statistical analysis of these rifting episodes, we demonstrate that dike intrusions obey scaling relationships similar to earthquakes. We find that the dimensions of dike intrusions obey a power law analogous to the Gutenberg-Richter relation, and the long-term release of geodetic moment is governed by a relationship consistent with the Omori law. Due to the effects of magma supply, the timing of secondary dike intrusions differs from that of the aftershocks. This work provides evidence of self-similarity in the rifting process. PMID:24469260

  12. Dike intrusions during rifting episodes obey scaling relationships similar to earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Passarelli, L; Rivalta, E; Shuler, A

    2014-01-28

    As continental rifts evolve towards mid-ocean ridges, strain is accommodated by repeated episodes of faulting and magmatism. Discrete rifting episodes have been observed along two subaerial divergent plate boundaries, the Krafla segment of the Northern Volcanic Rift Zone in Iceland and the Manda-Hararo segment of the Red Sea Rift in Ethiopia. In both cases, the initial and largest dike intrusion was followed by a series of smaller intrusions. By performing a statistical analysis of these rifting episodes, we demonstrate that dike intrusions obey scaling relationships similar to earthquakes. We find that the dimensions of dike intrusions obey a power law analogous to the Gutenberg-Richter relation, and the long-term release of geodetic moment is governed by a relationship consistent with the Omori law. Due to the effects of magma supply, the timing of secondary dike intrusions differs from that of the aftershocks. This work provides evidence of self-similarity in the rifting process.

  13. Evolution of a magma-driven earthquake swarm and triggering of the nearby Oldoinyo Lengai eruption, as resolved by InSAR, ground observations and elastic modeling, East African Rift, 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, G.; Hamiel, Y.; Shamir, G.; Nof, R.

    2008-07-01

    An earthquake swarm struck the North Tanzania Divergence, East African Rift over a 2 month period between July and September 2007. It produced approximately 70 M > 4 earthquakes (peak magnitude Mw 5.9), and extensive surface deformation, concurrent with eruptions at the nearby Oldoinyo Lengai volcano. The spatial and temporal evolution of the entire deformation event was resolved by Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations, owing to a particularly favorable acquisition programming of the Envisat and ALOS satellites, and was verified by detailed ground observations. Elastic modeling based on the InSAR measurements clearly distinguishes between normal faulting, which dominated during the first week of the event, and intermittent episodes of dike propagation, oblique dike opening and dike-induced faulting during the following month. A gradual decline in the intensity of deformation occurred over the final weeks. Our observations and modeling suggest that the sequence of events was initiated by pressurization of a deep-seated magma chamber below Oldoinyo Lengai which opened the way to lateral dike injection, and dike-induced faulting and seismicity. As dike intrusion terminated, silicate magma ascended the volcano conduit, reacted with the carbonatitic magma, and set off a major episode of explosive ash eruptions producing mixed silicate-carbonatitic ejecta. The rise of the silicate magma within the volcano conduit is attributed to bubble growth and buoyancy increase in the magma chamber either due to a temporary pressure drop after the termination of the diking event, or due to the dynamic effects of seismic wave passage from the earthquake swarm. Similar temporal associations between earthquake swarms and major explosive ash eruptions were observed at Oldoinyo Lengai over the past half century.

  14. Diatexite Deformation and Magma Extraction on Kangaroo Island, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasalova, Pavlina; Weinberg, Roberto; Ward, Lindsay; Fanning, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Migmatite terranes are structurally complex because of strong rheological contrast between layers with different melt contents and because of magma migration leading to volume changes. Migmatite deformation is intimately linked with magma extraction and the origin of granitoids. We investigate here the relationships between an evolving deformation and magma extraction in migmatites formed during the ca. 500Ma Delamerian orogeny, exposed on Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Here, several phases of deformation occurred in the presence of melt. During an early upright, non-cylindrical folding event, magma was channeled towards the hinge zones of antiforms. Funnel-shaped networks of leucosomes form a root zone that link up towards a central axial planar channel, forming the main magma extraction paths during folding. Extraction was associated with fold limb collapse, and antiformal hinge disruption by magma accumulation and transfer. During a later deformation phase, melt-rich diatexites were deformed, and schollen were disaggregated into smaller blocks and schlieren, and deformed into asymmetric, sigmoidal shapes indicative of dextral shearing flow. During flow, magma accumulated preferentially along shear planes, indicating a dilatational component during shearing (transtension) and in strain shadows of schollen. As deformation waned, magma extraction from these diatexites gave rise to N-trending, steeply dipping, funnel-shaped channels not associated to any deformational feature. The funnel-shape of these structures indicates the direction of magma flow. Structures developed during this phase are comparable with those formed during dewatering of soft sediments. Despite a high degree of complexity, magma migration and extraction features record distinct responses to the evolving deformation which can be used to understand deformation, and nature and direction of melt extraction. The oldest and youngest magmatic rocks from migmatites were dated (U-Pb monazite, SHRIMP

  15. Magma Emplacement Processes of the Oligocene Zákupy and Miocene Měrunice Diatremes, Czech Republic: Revealed via Petrography, Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility, Paleomegnetic, and Ground Magnetometry Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Sarah; Petronis, Michael; Rapprich, Vladislav; Valenta, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The emplacement of silica-undersaturated magma in continental rift volcanoes remains poorly understood because the roots of these systems are not often accessible. The Miocene Měrunice and Oligocene Zákupy diatremes, Czech Republic, are located within or on the SE shoulder of the Eger Rift. These diatremes provide a unique opportunity to conduct a comparative emplacement study, in near 3-dimensions, of their sub-volcanic magma plumbing systems. Studies across the rift reveal that magma compositions show a temporal evolution trend that coincides with three rift phases: melilitic-nephelinites during pre-rift (79-49 Ma); two magmas, weakly alkaline olivine basalts and strongly alkaline nephlelinite-tephrite-phonolites during syn-rift (42-16 Ma), and olivine foidites during late rift (16-0.3 Ma). Here we report preliminary data on how varying degrees of alkaline magma generation paired with a dynamic rift stress regime yield unique emplacement mechanisms of presumed monogenetic rift diatremes. Field observations and laboratory data at both diatremes indicate multiple emplacement and eruptive events, as shown by variation in eruptive materials and cross cutting relationships between dikes and sills that differ in emplacement dynamics. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data were collected from 25 Zákupy diatreme sites and reveal primarily oblate magnetic fabrics that we interpret to indicate that magma flowed up, down, and laterally away from the suspected main conduit. Preliminary paleomagnetic data reveal that the intrusions are of reversed polarity and show some scatter about the expected reverse polarity reference direction that could be related to sub-volcanic deformation of the diatreme. In addition, ground magnetometry data indicate that the main conduit is likely located at the center of the quarry as shown by a magnetic low with a magnetic high radiating around the probable conduit. Curie point estimates show that the magnetic mineral phases

  16. Interaction between two contrasting magmas in the Albtal pluton (Schwarzwald, SW Germany): textural and mineral-chemical evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Lorenz; Wenzel, Thomas; Markl, Gregor

    2016-07-01

    The magmatic evolution of the Variscan Albtal pluton, Schwarzwald, SW Germany, is explored using detailed textural observations and the chemical composition of plagioclase and biotite in both granite and its mafic magmatic enclaves (MMEs). MMEs probably formed in a two-step process. First, mafic magma intruded a granitic magma chamber and created a boundary layer, which received thermal and compositional input from the mafic magma. This is indicated by corroded "granitic" quartz crystals and by large "granitic" plagioclase xenocrysts, which contain zones of higher anorthite and partly crystallized from a melt of higher Sr content. Texturally, different plagioclase types (e.g. zoned and inclusion-rich types) correspond to different degrees of overprint most likely caused by a thermal and compositional gradient in the boundary layer. The intrusion of a second mafic magma batch into the boundary layer is recorded by a thin An50 zone along plagioclase rims that crystallized from a melt enriched in Sr. Most probably, the second mafic intrusion caused disruption of the boundary layer, dispersal of the hybrid magma in the granite magma and formation of the enclaves. Rapid thermal quenching of the MMEs in the granite magma is manifested by An30 overgrowths on large plagioclase grains that contain needle apatites. Our results demonstrate the importance of microtextural investigations for the reconstruction of possible mixing end members in the formation of granites.

  17. Determining the Magma Genesis of Mo Porphyry Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaynor, S.; Coleman, D. S.; Rosera, J.

    2015-12-01

    The high flux of magma associated with super eruptions is hypothesized to rebuild the deep crust, altering the source(s) of subsequent magmatism. Climax-type Mo deposits are commonly generated immediately after eruption of large ignimbrites within a volcanic field, and provide an opportunity to understand the evolution of magma sources following high flux events. The Questa caldera of the Latir volcanic field, NM exposes a 10 Ma long record of pre-, syn- and post-ignimbrite intrusive and extrusive rocks, and hosts the Questa Climax-type Mo deposit. New detailed geochronology and geochemistry from Questa (including extensive sampling of subsurface rocks in the mine) permit detailed reconstruction of the temporal evolution of magma sources through the waxing and waning stages of super eruption magmatism. Comparison of chemical and isotopic data waxing, ignimbrite, Mo-mineralizing and waning stage magmas reveals several patterns. Waxing and waning magmas (waxing: 29-25.7 Ma; waning: 24.5-19 Ma) have intermediate trace elements and radiogenic isotopes relative to other magmatism (87Sr/86Sri=0.7050 to 0.7070, ɛNd=-5.2 to -7.2). Ignimbrite magmatism (25.5 Ma) is depleted in incompatible elements, enriched in MREE and HREE's and has more evolved radiogenic isotopes (87Sr/86Sri=0.7095, ɛNd=-8.0). Molybdenum mineralizing magmas (24.9-24.5 Ma), are enriched in incompatible elements, depleted in MREE and HREE's and have distinct radiogenic isotopes (87Sr/86Sri=0.7055 to 0.7075, ɛNd=-4.2 to -5.7). We suggest the lower crustal source of magmas changed during ignimbrite generation, and as a result, subsequent mineralizing magmas incorporated more juvenile, mafic components. This mantle influence is the metallogenesis for Climax-type deposits and indicates that deep crustal hybridization, rather than upper crustal differentiation, is pivotal in their generation. These results indicate that a lower crustal source of magmatism for a volcanic field is altered due to super

  18. Mineralogical, petrological, and geochemical studies of the Limahe mafic-ultramatic intrusion and associated Ni-Cu sulfide ores, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yan; Li, Chusi; Song, Xie-Yan; Ripley, Edward M.

    2008-11-01

    The Limahe Ni-Cu sulfide deposit is hosted by a small mafic-ultramafic intrusion (800 × 200 × 300 m) that is temporally associated with the voluminous Permian flood basalts in SW China. The objective of this study is to better understand the origin of the deposit in the context of regional magmatism which is important for the ongoing mineral exploration in the region. The Limahe intrusion is a multiphase intrusion with an ultramafic unit at the base and a mafic unit at the top. The two rock units have intrusive contacts and exhibit similar mantle-normalized trace element patterns and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions but significantly different cumulus mineralogy and major element compositions. The similarities suggest that they are related to a common parental liquid, whereas the differences point to magma differentiation by olivine crystallization at depth. Sulfide mineralization is restricted to the ultramafic unit. The abundances of sulfides in the ultramafic unit generally increase towards the basal contacts with sedimentary footwall. The δ 34S values of sulfide minerals from the Limahe deposit are elevated, ranging from +2.4 to +5.4‰. These values suggest the involvement of external S with elevated δ 34S values. The mantle-normalized platinum-group element (PGE) patterns of bulk sulfide ores are similar to those of picrites associated with flood basalts in the region. The abundances of PGE in the sulfide ores, however, are significantly lower than that of sulfide liquid expected to segregate from undepleted picrite magma. Cr-spinel and olivine are present in the Limahe ultramafic rocks as well as in the picrites. Mantle-normalized trace element patterns of the Limahe intrusion generally resemble those of the picrites. However, negative Nb-Ta anomalies, common features of contamination with the lower or middle crust, are present in the intrusion but absent in the picrites. Sr-Nd isotopes suggest that the Limahe intrusion experienced higher degrees of

  19. Ore formation in porphyry-type deposits during incrementally built magma chamber and fluid sparging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigneresse, J. L.; Bachmann, O.; Huber, C.; Parmigiani, A.; Dufek, J.; Campos, E.

    2012-04-01

    Porphyry-type mineralizations are commonly associated with an underlying magma chamber from which a volatile phase exsolves from the crystallizing magma. We suggest a model of fluid sparging during multiple successive intrusions yielding metals concentration within the gas phase. Metals enrichment by 3-4 orders of magnitude takes place during the magmatic stage prior to hydrothermal effects, resulting from a competition between diffusion and advection of the volatile phase. The model explains why a single intrusion is not efficient enough to lead to economically viable ore deposit, though it also involves a gas phase percolating within a crystalline mush. During multiple intrusions, metals segregate from the new melt to the gas phase by diffusion, as long as the gas has not overcome a critical saturation level (about 20 % gas). Adding gas exsolved, about 4 % at each new magma recharge, overcomes this level. Then, the diffusion process switches toward advection, since the bubbles get interconnected, enhancing the transport of a gas phase enriched in metals. Once advected, the enriched gas phase turns into hydrothermal circulation during which metals condensate. Two non-dimensional numbers, Péclet and Stefan numbers, respectively rule diffusion and advection of elements while heat is lost through cooling. The model also examines the total duration of the process that re-establishes after 4-6 recharges in magma. It also provides an explanation why intrusions are barren or enriched, although they result from similar conditions of magma genesis. Development of a zoned alteration pattern may serve as a guide for prospection.

  20. Petrochemical evidence of magma mingling and mixing in the Tertiary monzogabbroic stocks around the Bafra (Samsun) area in Turkey: implications of coeval mafic and felsic magma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temizel, İrfan

    2014-06-01

    Miocene aged calc-alkaline mafic host stocks (monzogabbro) and felsic microgranular enclaves (monzosyenite) around the Bafra (Samsun) area within Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary units of the Eastern Pontides, Northeast Turkey are described for the first time in this paper. The felsic enclaves are medium to fine grained, and occur in various shapes such as, elongated, spherical to ellipsoidal, flame and/or rounded. Most enclaves show sharp and gradational contacts with the host monzogabbro, and also show distinct chilled margins in the small enclaves, indicating rapid cooling. In the host rocks, disequilibrium textures indicating mingling or mixing of coeval mafic and felsic magmas are common, such as, poikilitic and antirapakivi textures in feldspar phenocrysts, sieve textured-patchy-rounded and corroded plagioclases, clinopyroxene megacrysts mantled by bladed biotites, clinopyroxene rimmed by green hornblendes, dissolution in clinopyroxene, bladed biotite, and acicular apatite. The petrographical and geochemical contrasts between the felsic enclaves and host monzogabbros may partly be due to a consequence of extended interaction between coeval felsic and mafic magmas by mixing/mingling and diffusion. Whole-rock and Sr-Nd isotopic data suggests that the mafic host rocks and felsic enclaves are products of modified mantle-derived magmas. Moreover, the felsic magma was at near liquidus conditions when injected into the mafic host magma, and that the mafic intrusion reflects a hybrid product formed due to the mingling and partial (incomplete) mixing of these two magmas.

  1. Crystal Histories and Crustal Magmas: Insights into Magma Storage from U-Series Crystal Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    The dynamic processes operating within crustal magma reservoirs control many aspects of the chemical composition of erupted magmas, and crystals in volcanic rocks can provide a temporally-constrained archive of these changing environments. A new compilation of 238U-230Th ages of accessory phases and 238U-230Th-226Ra ages of bulk mineral separates of major phases documents that crystals in individual samples often have ages spanning most of the history of a volcanic center. Somewhat surprisingly, this observation holds for surface analyses as well as interior analyses, indicating that the latest stages of growth took place at different times for different grains. Nevertheless, average ages of surfaces are younger than interiors (as expected), and the dominant surface age population is often within error of eruption age. In contrast to accessory phase ages, less than half of the bulk separate 238U-230Th-226Ra ages for major phases are more than 10 kyr older than eruption. This suggests that major phases may in general reflect a later stage of development of an eruptible magma body than do accessory phases, or that the extent of discordance between ages of major and accessory phases reflects the extent to which a crystal mush was remobilized during processes leading to eruption. Crystal ages are most useful for illuminating magmatic processes when combined with crystal-scale trace-element or isotopic data, and I will present several case studies where such combined data sets exist. For example, at Yellowstone and at Okataina Caldera Complex, New Zealand, the combination zircon surface and interior analyses (of age, Hf isotopic, and trace-element data) with bulk dating and in-situ trace-element and isotopic compositions of feldspar allows a comparison of the early history of storage in a crystal mush with the later history of melt extraction and further crystallization prior to eruption, thus tracking development of erupted magma bodies from storage through eruption.

  2. Volcano-tectonic earthquakes: A new tool for estimating intrusive volumes and forecasting eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Randall; McCausland, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    We present data on 136 high-frequency earthquakes and swarms, termed volcano-tectonic (VT) seismicity, which preceded 111 eruptions at 83 volcanoes, plus data on VT swarms that preceded intrusions at 21 other volcanoes. We find that VT seismicity is usually the earliest reported seismic precursor for eruptions at volcanoes that have been dormant for decades or more, and precedes eruptions of all magma types from basaltic to rhyolitic and all explosivities from VEI 0 to ultraplinian VEI 6 at such previously long-dormant volcanoes. Because large eruptions occur most commonly during resumption of activity at long-dormant volcanoes, VT seismicity is an important precursor for the Earth's most dangerous eruptions. VT seismicity precedes all explosive eruptions of VEI ≥ 5 and most if not all VEI 4 eruptions in our data set. Surprisingly we find that the VT seismicity originates at distal locations on tectonic fault structures at distances of one or two to tens of kilometers laterally from the site of the eventual eruption, and rarely if ever starts beneath the eruption site itself. The distal VT swarms generally occur at depths almost equal to the horizontal distance of the swarm from the summit out to about 15 km distance, beyond which hypocenter depths level out. We summarize several important characteristics of this distal VT seismicity including: swarm-like nature, onset days to years prior to the beginning of magmatic eruptions, peaking of activity at the time of the initial eruption whether phreatic or magmatic, and large non-double couple component to focal mechanisms. Most importantly we show that the intruded magma volume can be simply estimated from the cumulative seismic moment of the VT seismicity from: Log10 V = 0.77 Log ΣMoment - 5.32, with volume, V, in cubic meters and seismic moment in Newton meters. Because the cumulative seismic moment can be approximated from the size of just the few largest events, and is quite insensitive to precise locations

  3. The Magma Transport System of the Mono Craters, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. R.; Putirka, K. D.

    2013-12-01

    they also appear to derive from shallow depths (restricted to ~2 kbar). The intermediate batches though, only erupt at Domes 10-12, 14, 24 and 25. Temperatures for these range from 803-1107°C with pressures ranging from 2-10 kbar. Mafic magmas from the Mono Craters proper are even more spatially restricted, having erupted only at Domes 10, 12 and 14, with temperatures ranging from 843-1276°C and pressures ranging from as deep as 17 kbar to as shallow as 2 kbar. These results indicate that the magma plumbing system beneath the Mono Craters segregates into three different levels with contrasting degrees of lateral spatial continuity. We hypothesize that felsic magmas evolve and are stored at shallow depths within a quasi-continuous, or well-linked series of en echelon oriented dikes or chambers, which form as a response to regional transtensional stresses. In contrast, intermediate and mafic magmas are both deeper and spatially more restricted, and apparently do not infiltrate the more shallow brittle-deformed dike system that is so well exploited by felsic magmas. We surmise that this contrast in magma delivery may be controlled by density contrasts between magma and adjacent crust, where intermediate and mafic magmas, due to their greater density, are barred from rising upwards into a low density, brittle uppermost crust in which the en echelon dike-delivery system is mostly, or solely, developed.

  4. The role of stress during memory reactivation on intrusive memories.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Jessica; Garber, Benjamin; Bryant, Richard A

    2015-09-01

    Intrusive memories are unwanted recollections that maintain distress in psychological disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that memories that are reactivated through retrieval become temporarily vulnerable to environmental or pharmacological manipulation, including changes in levels of circulating stress hormones. This study investigated the influence of stress during memory reactivation of an emotionally arousing trauma film on subsequent intrusive memories. Three groups of participants (N=63) viewed a trauma film depicting a serious car accident at baseline. Two days later (Time 2), one group received a reactivation induction following a socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT; Stress/Reactivation condition), whilst the second group reactivated the memory after a control procedure (Reactivation condition). A third group underwent the SECPT but was not asked to reactivate memory of the trauma film (Stress condition). Two days later (Time 3), all participants received a surprise cued memory recall test and intrusions questionnaire which they completed online. Results showed that those in the Stress/Reactivation group had higher intrusions scores than the other two groups, suggesting that acute stress promotes intrusive memories only when the memory trace is reactivated shortly afterwards. Increased cortisol predicted enhanced intrusive experiences in the Stress/Reactivation condition but not in the other conditions. This pattern of results suggests that acute stress during the reactivation of emotional material impacts on involuntary emotional memories. These findings suggest a possible explanation for the mechanism underlying the maintenance of intrusive memories in clinical disorders.

  5. Estimates of volume and magma input in crustal magmatic systems from zircon geochronology: the effect of modelling assumptions and system variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caricchi, Luca; Simpson, Guy; Schaltegger, Urs

    2016-04-01

    Magma fluxes in the Earth's crust play an important role in regulating the relationship between the frequency and magnitude of volcanic eruptions, the chemical evolution of magmatic systems and the distribution of geothermal energy and mineral resources on our planet. Therefore, quantifying magma productivity and the rate of magma transfer within the crust can provide valuable insights to characterise the long-term behaviour of volcanic systems and to unveil the link between the physical and chemical evolution of magmatic systems and their potential to generate resources. We performed thermal modelling to compute the temperature evolution of crustal magmatic intrusions with different final volumes assembled over a variety of timescales (i.e., at different magma fluxes). Using these results, we calculated synthetic populations of zircon ages assuming the number of zircons crystallising in a given time period is directly proportional to the volume of magma at temperature within the zircon crystallisation range. The statistical analysis of the calculated populations of zircon ages shows that the mode, median and standard deviation of the populations varies coherently as function of the rate of magma injection and final volume of the crustal intrusions. Therefore, the statistical properties of the population of zircon ages can add useful constraints to quantify the rate of magma injection and the final volume of magmatic intrusions. Here, we explore the effect of different ranges of zircon saturation temperature, intrusion geometry, and wall rock temperature on the calculated distributions of zircon ages. Additionally, we determine the effect of undersampling on the variability of mode, median and standards deviation of calculated populations of zircon ages to estimate the minimum number of zircon analyses necessary to obtain meaningful estimates of magma flux and final intrusion volume.

  6. Scanning Seismic Intrusion Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    Scanning seismic intrusion detector employs array of automatically or manually scanned sensors to determine approximate location of intruder. Automatic-scanning feature enables one operator to tend system of many sensors. Typical sensors used with new system are moving-coil seismic pickups. Detector finds uses in industrial security systems.

  7. Intrusive STM imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulanger-Lewandowski, Nicolas; Rochefort, Alain

    2011-03-01

    An interactive scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) simulator has been designed to efficiently compute the effects of chemical and structural modifications of adsorbed species on resulting STM images. Our general approach is based on first-order perturbation theory that takes into account different tip geometries. In our intrusive STM imaging strategy, we consider small variations such as substitutions, vacancies, functionalizations, and molecular reorganizations from a reference system. First, we show that our perturbation theory approach can provide STM images that are qualitatively similar to those of a more rigorous electron scattering technique based on the Landauer-Büttiker formalism for the case of adsorbed tetracyanoethylene on a Cu(100) single crystal. Second, we demonstrate that the efficiency of Bardeen and Tersoff-Hamann approaches to generate STM images can be substantially improved by exploiting different algorithms to evaluate the tunnel current and to deal with large-scale eigenvalue problems. Following our general intrusive strategy, we have reduced the computing time to generate an STM image of a modified system by about an order of magnitude with respect to the reference image. The shape and position of the contrasts of the STM image evaluated in the context of intrusion are virtually identical to an image computed without intrusive features but within a considerably smaller computing time.

  8. Bro Intrusion Detection System

    2006-01-25

    Bro is a Unix-based Network Intrusion Detection System (IDS). Bro monitors network traffic and detects intrusion attempts based on the traffic characteristics and content. Bro detects intrusions by comparing network traffic against rules describing events that are deemed troublesome. These rules might describe activities (e.g., certain hosts connecting to certain services), what activities are worth alerting (e.g., attempts to a given number of different hosts constitutes a "scan"), or signatures describing known attacks or accessmore » to known vulnerabilities. If Bro detects something of interest, it can be instructed to either issue a log entry or initiate the execution of an operating system command. Bro targets high-speed (Gbps), high-volume intrusion detection. By judiciously leveraging packet filtering techniques, Bro is able to achieve the performance necessary to do so while running on commercially available PC hardware, and thus can serve as a cost effective means of monitoring a site’s Internet connection.« less

  9. Intrusion Triggering of Explosive Eruptions: Lessons Learned from EYJAFJALLAJÖKULL 2010 Eruptions and Crustal Deformation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmundsson, F.; Hreinsdottir, S.; Hooper, A. J.; Arnadottir, T.; Pedersen, R.; Roberts, M. J.; Oskarsson, N.; Auriac, A.; Decriem, J.; Einarsson, P.; Geirsson, H.; Hensch, M.; Ofeigsson, B. G.; Sturkell, E. C.; Sveinbjornsson, H.; Feigl, K.

    2010-12-01

    Gradual inflation of magma chambers often precedes eruptions at highly active volcanoes. During eruptions, rapid deflation occurs as magma flows out and pressure is reduced. Less is known about the deformation style at moderately active volcanoes, such as Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, where an explosive summit eruption of trachyandesite beginning on 14 April 2010 caused exceptional disruption to air traffic. This eruption was preceded by an effusive flank eruption of olivine basalt from 20 March - 12 April 2010. Geodetic and seismic observations revealed the growth of an intrusive complex in the roots of the volcano during three months prior to eruptions. After initial horizontal growth, modelling indicates both horizontal and sub-vertical growth in three weeks prior the first eruption. The behaviour is attributed to subsurface variations in crustal stress and strength originating from complicated volcano foundations. A low-density layer may capture magma allowing pressure to build before an intrusion can ascend towards higher levels. The intrusive complex was formed by olivine basalt as erupted on the volcano flank 20 March - 12 April; the intrusive growth halted at the onset of this eruption. Deformation associated with the eruption onset was minor as the dike had reached close to the surface in the days before. Isolated eruptive vents opening on long-dormant volcanoes may represent magma leaking upwards from extensive pre-eruptive intrusions formed at depth. A deflation source activated during the summit eruption of trachyandesite is distinct from, and adjacent to, all documented sources of inflation in the volcano roots. Olivine basalt magma which recharged the volcano appears to have triggered the summit eruption, although the exact mode of triggering is uncertain. Scenarios include stress triggering or propagation of olivine basalt into more evolved magma. The trachyandesite includes crystals that can be remnants of minor recent intrusion of olivine basalt

  10. Intrusive Memories of Distressing Information: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Battaglini, Eva; Liddell, Belinda; Das, Pritha; Malhi, Gin; Felmingham, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Although intrusive memories are characteristic of many psychological disorders, the neurobiological underpinning of these involuntary recollections are largely unknown. In this study we used functional magentic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify the neural networks associated with encoding of negative stimuli that are subsequently experienced as intrusive memories. Healthy partipants (N = 42) viewed negative and neutral images during a visual/verbal processing task in an fMRI context. Two days later they were assessed on the Impact of Event Scale for occurrence of intrusive memories of the encoded images. A sub-group of participants who reported significant intrusions (n = 13) demonstrated stronger activation in the amygdala, bilateral ACC and parahippocampal gyrus during verbal encoding relative to a group who reported no intrusions (n = 13). Within-group analyses also revealed that the high intrusion group showed greater activity in the dorsomedial (dmPFC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), inferior frontal gyrus and occipital regions during negative verbal processing compared to neutral verbal processing. These results do not accord with models of intrusions that emphasise visual processing of information at encoding but are consistent with models that highlight the role of inhibitory and suppression processes in the formation of subsequent intrusive memories. PMID:27685784

  11. Magma plumbing for the 2014-2015 Holuhraun eruption, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, Harri; Mattsson, Tobias; Deegan, Frances M.; Troll, Valentin R.; Burchardt, Steffi; Gudmundsson, Ólafur; Tryggvason, Ari; Krumbholz, Michael; Harris, Chris

    2016-08-01

    The 2014-2015 Holuhraun eruption on Iceland was located within the Askja fissure swarm but was accompanied by caldera subsidence in the Bárðarbunga central volcano 45 km to the southwest. Geophysical monitoring of the eruption identified a seismic swarm that migrated from Bárðarbunga to the Holuhraun eruption site over the course of two weeks. In order to better understand this lateral connection between Bárðarbunga and Holuhraun, we present mineral textures and compositions, mineral-melt-equilibrium calculations, whole rock and trace element data, and oxygen isotope ratios for selected Holuhraun samples. The Holuhraun lavas are compositionally similar to recorded historical eruptions from the Bárðarbunga volcanic system but are distinct from the historical eruption products of the nearby Askja system. Thermobarometry calculations indicate a polybaric magma plumbing system for the Holuhraun eruption, wherein clinopyroxene and plagioclase crystallized at average depths of ˜17 km and ˜5 km, respectively. Crystal resorption textures and oxygen isotope variations imply that this multilevel plumbing system facilitated magma mixing and assimilation of low-δ18O Icelandic crust prior to eruption. In conjunction with the existing geophysical evidence for lateral migration, our results support a model of initial vertical magma ascent within the Bárðarbunga plumbing system followed by lateral transport of aggregated magma batches within the upper crust to the Holuhraun eruption site.

  12. Linking magnetic fabric and cumulate texture in layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O Driscoll, B.; Stevenson, C.; Magee, C.

    2013-12-01

    Research on the magnetic fabrics of igneous rocks, pioneered by Balsley and Buddington[1] and Khan[2], has greatly contributed to our understanding of magma dynamics in lava flows, sheet intrusions and plutons over the past five decades. However, considerably few magnetic fabric studies have focused on layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions, particularly ';lopolithic' intrusions, despite the fact that such rocks may preserve a large range of small-scale kinematic structures potentially related to important magma chamber processes. This may be partly due to the fact that mafic-ultramafic cumulates commonly exhibit visible planar fabrics (mineral lamination), as well as compositional layering, in contrast to the frequent absence of such features in granite bodies or fine-grained mafic lava flows. Indeed, debates in the 1970s and 1980s on the development of layering and mineral fabrics in mafic-ultramafic intrusions, focused around the crystal settling versus in situ crystallisation paradigms, are classic in the subject of igneous petrology. Central to these debates is the notion that a wide range of magma chamber processes occur in layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions that are not frequently considered to occur in their relatively viscous granitic counterparts; in essence, the latter have historically been viewed as much more likely to ';freeze-in' a primary magma flow fabric whilst mafic-ultramafic intrusions are subjected to a more protracted solidification history. This wide array of potential initial sources for layering and mineral fabrics in layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions, together with the possible modification of textures at the postcumulus stage, demands a cautious application of any fabric analysis and presents a problem well-suited to interrogation by the AMS technique. The purpose of this contribution is to provide specific context on the application of AMS to elucidating the formation of cumulates in layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions. Examples of AMS

  13. Magma storage prior to the 1912 eruption at Novarupta, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammer, J.E.; Rutherford, M.J.; Hildreth, W.

    2002-01-01

    New analytical and experimental data constrain the storage and equilibration conditions of the magmas erupted in 1912 from Novarupta in the 20th century's largest volcanic event. Phase relations at H2O+CO2 fluid saturation were determined for an andesite (58.7 wt% SiO2) and a dacite (67.7 wt%) from the compositional extremes of intermediate magmas erupted. The phase assemblages, matrix melt composition and modes of natural andesite were reproduced experimentally under H2O-saturated conditions (i.e., PH2O=PTOT) in a negatively sloping region in T-P space from 930 ??C/100 MPa to 960 ??C/75 MPa with fO2???N NO + 1. The H2O-saturated equilibration conditions of the dacite are constrained to a T-P region from 850 ??C/ 50 MPa to 880 ??C/25 MPa. If H2O-saturated, these magmas equilibrated at (and above) the level where coerupted rhyolite equilibrated (???100 MPa), suggesting that the andesite-dacite magma reservoir was displaced laterally rather than vertically from the rhyolite magma body. Natural mineral and melt compositions of intermediate magmas were also reproduced experimentally under saturation conditions with a mixed (H2O + CO2) fluid for the same range in PH2O. Thus, a storage model in which vertically stratified mafic to silicic intermediate magmas underlay H2O-saturated rhyolite is consistent with experimental findings only if the intermediates have XH2Ofl=0.7 and 0.9 for the extreme compositions, respectively. Disequilibrium features in natural pumice and scoria include pristine minerals existing outside their stability fields, and compositional zoning of titanomagnetite in contact with ilmenite. Variable rates of chemical equilibration which would eliminate these features constrain the apparent thermal excursion and re-distribution of minerals to the time scale of days.

  14. Long-term Rates of Mafic Magma Emplacement and Implications for Heat Advection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, S. M.; Spera, F. J.; Crisp, J. A.

    2003-12-01

    Rates of magmatism (magma emplacement rate) including both volcanic products and intrusive bodies were obtained for terrestrial petrotectonic systems where reliable volumes can be estimated and geochronological data exist. Approximately 50 estimates of magma emplacement rates have been extracted from the literature published between 1982 and 2003 for persistent basaltic systems with durations from 1 ka to ~5 Ma. Although the volcanic output is highly episodic, the data indicate that the mass output rate at individual hotspot volcanoes is on the order of 10-3 km3/yr when averaged over several thousand years. This differs from the estimated output rates of large igneous provinces, such as continental flood basalts and oceanic plateaus, which have maximal output rates on the order of 1 km3/yr per province. For globally averaged mid-ocean ridges, the total volcanic emplacement rate is only 10-6 km3/yr/100 km of ridge. Ratios of intrusive to extrusive emplacement are subject to much uncertainty, but generally lie in the range 6:1 to 10:1 for most crustal mafic magma systems. Recent seismic, geodetic, and gravity work suggests that there may be large regions of underplating and storage in subcrustal magma chambers in areas of basaltic volcanism previously not widely considered in intrusive volume estimates that may increase most of these ratios to 10:1. Rates of magmatism may be translated into excess heat flows for specific magmatic provinces to obtain estimates of advected heat transport via magmatism at regional scales over magmatic province timescales. For mafic eruption rate V and an intrusive/extrusive ratio of R, the volumetric rate of magma flow into the crust is RV. The excess heat power (J/yr) associated with magma transport from mantle to crust is RVρ δ T [Cp + δ h/(Tliquidus-Tsolidus)] where δ T is the temperature difference between the magma and host crust, δ h is the enthalpy of crystallization (250-400 kJ/kg dependent on magma composition), ρ is

  15. Long-Term Volumetric Eruption Rates and Magma Budgets

    SciTech Connect

    Scott M. White Dept. Geological Sciences University of South Carolina Columbia, SC 29208; Joy A. Crisp Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology Pasadena, CA 91109; Frank J. Spera Dept. Earth Science University of California, Santa Barbara Santa Barbara, CA 93106

    2005-01-01

    A global compilation of 170 time-averaged volumetric volcanic output rates (Qe) is evaluated in terms of composition and petrotectonic setting to advance the understanding of long-term rates of magma generation and eruption on Earth. Repose periods between successive eruptions at a given site and intrusive:extrusive ratios were compiled for selected volcanic centers where long-term (>104 years) data were available. More silicic compositions, rhyolites and andesites, have a more limited range of eruption rates than basalts. Even when high Qe values contributed by flood basalts (9 ± 2 Å~ 10-1 km3/yr) are removed, there is a trend in decreasing average Qe with lava composition from basaltic eruptions (2.6 ± 1.0 Å~ 10-2 km3/yr) to andesites (2.3 ± 0.8 Å~ 10-3 km3/yr) and rhyolites (4.0 ± 1.4 Å~ 10-3 km3/yr). This trend is also seen in the difference between oceanic and continental settings, as eruptions on oceanic crust tend to be predominately basaltic. All of the volcanoes occurring in oceanic settings fail to have statistically different mean Qe and have an overall average of 2.8 ± 0.4 Å~ 10-2 km3/yr, excluding flood basalts. Likewise, all of the volcanoes on continental crust also fail to have statistically different mean Qe and have an overall average of 4.4 ± 0.8 Å~ 10-3 km3/yr. Flood basalts also form a distinctive class with an average Qe nearly two orders of magnitude higher than any other class. However, we have found no systematic evidence linking increased intrusive:extrusive ratios with lower volcanic rates. A simple heat balance analysis suggests that the preponderance of volcanic systems must be open magmatic systems with respect to heat and matter transport in order to maintain eruptible magma at shallow depth throughout the observed lifetime of the volcano. The empirical upper limit of Å`10-2 km3/yr for magma eruption rate in systems with relatively high intrusive:extrusive ratios may be a consequence of the fundamental parameters

  16. Quantifying magma segregation in dykes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamato, P.; Duretz, T.; May, D. A.; Tartèse, R.

    2015-10-01

    The dynamics of magma flow is highly affected by the presence of a crystalline load. During magma ascent, it has been demonstrated that crystal-melt segregation constitutes a viable mechanism for magmatic differentiation. Moreover, crystal-melt segregation during magma transport has important implications not only in terms of magma rheology, but also in terms of differentiation of the continental crust. However, the influences of the crystal volume percentage (φ), of their geometry, their size and their density on crystal-melt segregation are still not well constrained. To address these issues, we performed a parametric study using 2D direct numerical simulations, which model the ascension of a crystal-bearing magma in a vertical dyke. Using these models, we have characterised the amount of segregation as a function of different physical properties including φ, the density contrast between crystals and the melt phase (Δρ), the size of the crystals (Ac) and their aspect ratio (R). Results show that small values of R do not affect the segregation. In this case, the amount of segregation depends upon four parameters. Segregation is highest when Δρ and Ac are large, and lowest for large pressure gradient (Pd) and/or large values of dyke width (Wd). These four parameters can be combined into a single one, the Snumber, which can be used to quantify the amount of segregation occurring during magma ascent. Based on systematic numerical modelling and dimensional analysis, we provide a first order scaling law which allows quantification of the segregation for an arbitrary Snumber and φ, encompassing a wide range of typical parameters encountered in terrestrial magmatic systems. Although developed in a simplified system, this study has strong implications regarding our understanding of crystal segregation processes during magma transport. Our first order scaling law allows to immediately determine the amount of crystal-melt segregation occurring in any given magmatic

  17. Reconstructing Magma Degassing and Fragmentation: The 1060 CE Plinian Eruption of Medicine Lake Volcano, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giachetti, T.; Gonnermann, H. M.; Crozier, J.

    2015-12-01

    Magma fragmentation during explosive volcanic eruptions occurs when the bubble overpressure exceeds some threshold. Because bubble coalescence and ensuing permeable outgassing allow partial release of bubble overpressure, high magma permeabil
ity is thought to adversely affect magma fragmentation and the ability of magma to erupt explosively. We used the Plinian phase of the 1060 CE Glass Mountain eruption of Medicine Lake Volcano, California, to show that this is not necessarily the case. We performed numerical modeling of eruptive magma ascent and bubble growth to predict the development of magma porosity, permeability, and the built-up of gas pressure inside bubbles. We explicitly took into account permeable outgassing in the model. We used the measured porosity and permeability of the Plinian pyroclasts, together with percolation modeling, to reconstruct the conditions for magma degassing and fragmentation. Our results show that the porosity and permeability of pyroclasts coincide with the conditions required for fragmentation of the erupting magma. The onset of fragmentation occurs when the decompression rate reaches about 2 MPa.s-1, corresponding to a constant melt viscosity of ˜107 Pa.s and a magma porosity of approximately 0.75, conditions met for a mass discharge rate of about 107 kg.s-1, a cross sectional area of about 2,000 m2, and at a depth of approximately 1 km. Pyroclasts formed from magma that fragmented over a depth range of several tens of meters, probably reflecting some degree of lateral variability in magma porosity in the conduit. The model also indicates that, even if the magma was highly permeable at the onset of fragmentation, permeable outgassing did not affect fragmentation. The transition to an effusive activity and the emission of obsidian after the Plinian phase of the Glass Mountain eruption is most probably due to a decrease in decompression rate.

  18. How Jurassic Folds Control the Geometry of a Tertiary Intrusion: Trachyte Mesa, Henry Mountains, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyosugi, K.; Connor, C.; Wetmore, P. H.; Roman, D. C.

    2009-12-01

    Mechanisms of igneous intrusion are important to understand for improving forecasts of volcanic activity and to interpret geophysical results gathered on volcanoes. An igneous intrusion in the Henry Mountains, Utah was mapped and found to have remarkable features: First, the magma was more dense than the surrounding host rocks and therefore injected under pressure, rather than buoyantly ascending. Second, it intruded along the axis of a syncline and in between beds of Entrada sandstone. Thus, the intrusion of dense magma was strongly controlled by pre-existing structure and magma pressure or rigidity contrasts in the host rock. We attempted to simulate the conditions of this intrusion with analog experiments in blocks of gelatin solidified in 15 cm x 15 cm x 15 cm plastic tanks. Two types of gelatin block were used: The first consisted of two layers, with a more rigid upper layer and a layer boundary molded into folds. To simulate magma intrusion, air was injected into the gelatin block from a hole in the bottom of the tank with a syringe. The air crack then ascended buoyantly in the gelatin block. The second type of gelatin block had uniform rigidity but a fold was precut in the upper part of gelatin block. In this case, both air and dyed sugar water, more dense than the gelatin block, were injected into the base of the tank. Because of the lack of buoyancy, continuous injection pressure was applied to extend the water crack upward in the gelatin block. In the first experiment, the rigidity contrast worked as a barrier to upward air crack ascent, but did not simulate fluid concentration along the axis of a syncline as observed in the Trachyte Mesa intrusion. Experiments with the precut gelatin block showed two different results based on the density contrast between the injected fluid and gelatin: When air was injected into a gelatin block, the air crack arrested in the anticline after arriving at the precut fold. However, when denser sugar water was injected into

  19. Segmented lateral dyke growth in a rifting event at Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland.

    PubMed

    Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Hooper, Andrew; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Vogfjörd, Kristín S; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G; Heimisson, Elías Rafn; Dumont, Stéphanie; Parks, Michelle; Spaans, Karsten; Gudmundsson, Gunnar B; Drouin, Vincent; Árnadóttir, Thóra; Jónsdóttir, Kristín; Gudmundsson, Magnús T; Högnadóttir, Thórdís; Fridriksdóttir, Hildur María; Hensch, Martin; Einarsson, Páll; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Samsonov, Sergey; Brandsdóttir, Bryndís; White, Robert S; Ágústsdóttir, Thorbjörg; Greenfield, Tim; Green, Robert G; Hjartardóttir, Ásta Rut; Pedersen, Rikke; Bennett, Richard A; Geirsson, Halldór; La Femina, Peter C; Björnsson, Helgi; Pálsson, Finnur; Sturkell, Erik; Bean, Christopher J; Möllhoff, Martin; Braiden, Aoife K; Eibl, Eva P S

    2015-01-01

    Crust at many divergent plate boundaries forms primarily by the injection of vertical sheet-like dykes, some tens of kilometres long. Previous models of rifting events indicate either lateral dyke growth away from a feeding source, with propagation rates decreasing as the dyke lengthens, or magma flowing vertically into dykes from an underlying source, with the role of topography on the evolution of lateral dykes not clear. Here we show how a recent segmented dyke intrusion in the Bárðarbunga volcanic system grew laterally for more than 45 kilometres at a variable rate, with topography influencing the direction of propagation. Barriers at the ends of each segment were overcome by the build-up of pressure in the dyke end; then a new segment formed and dyke lengthening temporarily peaked. The dyke evolution, which occurred primarily over 14 days, was revealed by propagating seismicity, ground deformation mapped by Global Positioning System (GPS), interferometric analysis of satellite radar images (InSAR), and graben formation. The strike of the dyke segments varies from an initially radial direction away from the Bárðarbunga caldera, towards alignment with that expected from regional stress at the distal end. A model minimizing the combined strain and gravitational potential energy explains the propagation path. Dyke opening and seismicity focused at the most distal segment at any given time, and were simultaneous with magma source deflation and slow collapse at the Bárðarbunga caldera, accompanied by a series of magnitude M > 5 earthquakes. Dyke growth was slowed down by an effusive fissure eruption near the end of the dyke. Lateral dyke growth with segment barrier breaking by pressure build-up in the dyke distal end explains how focused upwelling of magma under central volcanoes is effectively redistributed over long distances to create new upper crust at divergent plate boundaries. PMID:25517098

  20. Magma supply, storage, and transport at shield-stage Hawaiian volcanoes: Chapter 5 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, Michael P.; Miklius, Asta; Montgomery-Brown, Emily K.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    Magma supply to Hawaiian volcanoes has varied over millions of years but is presently at a high level. Supply to Kīlauea’s shallow magmatic system averages about 0.1 km3/yr and fluctuates on timescales of months to years due to changes in pressure within the summit reservoir system, as well as in the volume of melt supplied by the source hot spot. Magma plumbing systems beneath Kīlauea and Mauna Loa are complex and are best constrained at Kīlauea. Multiple regions of magma storage characterize Kīlauea’s summit, and two pairs of rift zones, one providing a shallow magma pathway and the other forming a structural boundary within the volcano, radiate from the summit to carry magma to intrusion/eruption sites located nearby or tens of kilometers from the caldera. Whether or not magma is present within the deep rift zone, which extends beneath the structural rift zones at ~3-km depth to the base of the volcano at ~9-km depth, remains an open question, but we suggest that most magma entering Kīlauea must pass through the summit reservoir system before entering the rift zones. Mauna Loa’s summit magma storage system includes at least two interconnected reservoirs, with one centered beneath the south margin of the caldera and the other elongated along the axis of the caldera. Transport of magma within shield-stage Hawaiian volcanoes occurs through dikes that can evolve into long-lived pipe-like pathways. The ratio of eruptive to noneruptive dikes is large in Hawai‘i, compared to other basaltic volcanoes (in Iceland, for example), because Hawaiian dikes tend to be intruded with high driving pressures. Passive dike intrusions also occur, motivated at Kīlauea by rift opening in response to seaward slip of the volcano’s south flank.

  1. Magma supply dynamics at Westdahl volcano, Alaska, modeled from satellite radar interferometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhiming; Masterlark, Timothy; Dzurisin, D.; Rykhus, Russ; Wicks, C.

    2003-01-01

    A group of satellite radar interferograms that span the time period from 1991 to 2000 shows that Westdahl volcano, Alaska, deflated during its 1991-1992 eruption and is reinflating at a rate that could produce another eruption within the next several years. The rates of inflation and deflation are approximated by exponential decay functions having time constants of about 6 years and a few days, respectively. This behavior is consistent with a deep, constant-pressure magma source connected to a shallow reservoir by a magma-filled conduit. An elastic deformation model indicates that the reservoir is located about 6 km below sea level and beneath Westdahl Peak. We propose that the magma flow rate through the conduit is governed by the pressure gradient between the deep source and the reservoir. The pressure gradient, and hence the flow rate, are greatest immediately after eruptions. Pressurization of the reservoir decreases both the pressure gradient and the flow rate, but eventually the reservoir ruptures and an eruption or intrusion ensues. The eruption rate is controlled partly by the pressure gradient between the reservoir and surface, and therefore it, too, decreases with time. When the supply of eruptible magma is exhausted, the eruption stops, the reservoir begins to repressurize at a high rate, and the cycle repeats. This model might also be appropriate for other frequently active volcanoes with stable magma sources and relatively simple magma storage systems.

  2. Magma Plumbing and Transport at Yellowstone--Implications from Geodesy and Geochemistry (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzurisin, D.; Wicks, C. W.; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    Surface deformation, thermal activity, and outgassing at the Yellowstone caldera are manifestations of a vigorous magmatic system that has been active for more than 2 million years. Viable models for Yellowstone's magma plumbing and transport system must account for: (1) high contemporary fluxes of heat and CO2; (2) ground deformation sources beneath each of two resurgent domes, and a third near the intersection of the north caldera rim and Norris-Mammoth corridor; (3) interplay among these sources, as suggested by the timing of major changes in deformation mode; (4) repeated cycles of uplift and subsidence and sudden changes from uplift to subsidence or vice versa; (5) spatial and temporal relationships between changes in deformation mode and earthquake swarms; and (6) lateral dimensions of all three deforming areas that indicate source depths in the range 5-15 km. Seismic tomography studies have imaged a partly molten silicic magma body in the upper crust beneath the caldera and a mantle feeder zone for mafic magma. A model in which surface displacements are caused primarily by variations in the flux of mafic magma into the crust satisfies known thermal, geochemical, and geodetic constraints. In the model, a conduit system centered beneath the northeast part of the caldera supplies basalt from a mantle source to an accumulation zone 5-10 km deep, perhaps at a rheological boundary beneath a crystal-rich rhyolite body remnant from past eruptions. Increases in magma flux favor surface uplift and decreases favor subsidence. A delicate equilibrium exists among the mass and heat flux from basaltic intrusions, heat and volatile loss from the rhyolite, and the overlying hydrothermal system. In the absence of basalt input, steady subsidence should occur as a result of fluid loss from the rhyolite, but if a self-sealing zone in the deep hydrothermal system prevents fluid escape the resulting pressure increase contributes to surface uplift. Such episodes end when the seal

  3. IGNEOUS INTRUSION IMPACTS ON WASTE PACKAGES AND WASTE FORMS

    SciTech Connect

    P. Bernot

    2004-04-19

    The purpose of this model report is to assess the potential impacts of igneous intrusion on waste packages and waste forms in the emplacement drifts at the Yucca Mountain Repository. The models are based on conceptual models and includes an assessment of deleterious dynamic, thermal, hydrologic, and chemical impacts. The models described in this report constitute the waste package and waste form impacts submodel of the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) model assessing the impacts of a hypothetical igneous intrusion event on the repository total system performance. This submodel is carried out in accordance with Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of LA (BSC 2004 [DIRS:167796]) and Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approaches (BSC 2003 [DIRS: 166296]). The technical work plan was prepared in accordance with AP-2.27Q, Planning for Science Activities. Any deviations from the technical work plan are documented in the following sections as they occur. The TSPA-LA approach to implementing the models for waste package and waste form response during igneous intrusion is based on identification of damage zones. Zone 1 includes all emplacement drifts intruded by the basalt dike, and Zone 2 includes all other emplacement drifts in the repository that are not in Zone 1. This model report will document the following model assessments: (1) Mechanical and thermal impacts of basalt magma intrusion on the invert, waste packages and waste forms of the intersected emplacement drifts of Zone 1. (2) Temperature and pressure trends of basaltic magma intrusion intersecting Zone 1 and their potential effects on waste packages and waste forms in Zone 2 emplacement drifts. (3) Deleterious volatile gases, exsolving from the intruded basalt magma and their potential effects on waste packages of Zone 2 emplacement drifts. (4) Post-intrusive physical

  4. Implications of Viscosity-Contrast for Co-Extruding Two-Component Magmas, Triggering Eruptions and Forming Layered Domes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrigan, C. R.; Clarke, S. M.

    2004-12-01

    Polymer co-extrusion experiments represent excellent dynamical analogies with two-magma transport and the effusion of composite lava domes. They demonstrate that the co-extrusion of magmas having different viscosity can explain not only the observed normal zoning in magma dikes and conduits but also the compositional layering observed in effused lava domes. New results indicate that dike and conduit zoning along with dome layering are strongly dependent on the viscosity contrast between the flowing magmas. Realistic models of magma storage and dike formation show that co-extrusion of magmas is both more readily explained and energetically preferred over serial intrusion processes. Co-extrusion during the formation of dikes may play an important role in triggering larger volcanic eruptions. Lubrication of the flow by a typically, more mafic, lower-viscosity component allows a more viscous but also more highly volatile-charged magma to be transported greater distances upward in the dike resulting in exsolution of a gas phase and the formation of a magma foam. Transition to a foam lowers the bulk density of the magma enabling dikes to propagate greater vertical distances for a given back pressure. Our new results suggest that a dike propagating across a sloping magma-chamber roof intersecting both "wet" silicic and relatively "dry" mafic layers has the greatest probability of reaching the surface in the dike segment where the magmas flow co-extrusively. Thus, bimodal eruptive compositions are dynamically preferred in such a petrologically common magmatic regime. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  5. Mare basalt magma source region and mare basalt magma genesis

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, A.B.

    1982-11-15

    Given the available data, we find that the wide range of mare basaltic material characteristics can be explained by a model in which: (1) The mare basalt magma source region lies between the crust-mantle boundary and a maximum depth of 200 km and consists of a relatively uniform peridotite containing 73--80% olivine, 11--14% pyroxene, 4--8% plagioclase, 0.2--9% ilmenite and 1--1.5% chromite. (2) The source region consists of two or more density-graded rhythmic bands, whose compositions grade from that of the very low TiO/sub 2/ magma source regions (0.2% ilmenite) to that of the very high TiO/sub 2/ magma source regions (9% ilmenite). These density-graded bands are proposed to have formed as co-crystallizing olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, ilmenite, and chromite settled out of a convecting magma (which was also parental to the crust) in which these crystals were suspended. Since the settling rates of the different minerals were governed by Stoke's law, the heavier minerals settled out more rapidly and therefore earlier than the lighter minerals. Thus the crystal assemblages deposited nearest the descending side of each convection cell were enriched in heavy ilmenite and chromite with respect to lighter olivine and pyroxene and very much lighter plagioclase. The reverse being the case for those units deposited near the ascending sides of the convection cells.

  6. Magma storage of an alkali ultramafic igneous suite from Chamberlindalen, SW Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gołuchowska, Karolina; Barker, Abigail K.; Czerny, Jerzy; Majka, Jarosław; Manecki, Maciej; Farajewicz, Milena; Dwornik, Maciej

    2016-10-01

    An alkali mafic-ultramafic igneous suite of composite intrusions, lenses and associated greenstones are hosted by Neoproterozoic metasedimentary sequences in Chamberlindalen, Southwest Svalbard. This study focuses on the alkali igneous suite of Chamberlindalen with a view to determining the conditions of magma storage. The rocks from Chamberlindalen display cumulate textures, are highly magnesian and are classified as alkaline by the occurrence of kaersutite. They have textures that indicate cocrystallization of primary magmatic minerals such as diopside, kaersutite-ferrokaersutite and biotite-phlogopite in different proportions. The historic magma plumbing system for the alkaline cumulates has been reconstructed by thermobarometry. Diopside and kaersutite crystallization in the alkaline cumulates show a dominant level of magma storage between 30 and 50 km in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle.

  7. Ascent and Eruption of Magma: A Planetary Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Analysis of the generation, ascent, and eruption of magma on the Earth and planets provides substantial information about the geological history and thermal evolution of each body. A synthesis of the array of extrusive features and landforms seen on the terrestrial planets provides insight into eruption styles, lithospheric stress states, and mantle convection. Surface elemental compositions of the terrestrial planets are consistent with a range of mantle compositions, but all are likely to produce mafic to ultramafic melts. The main controls on the types of surface volcanic features and accumulations are differences in 1) magma composition/volatile content, 2) tectonic regimes, 3) crustal densities, 4) crust and lithosphere thicknesses, and 5) mantle convective style. Preferred locations for magma reservoirs are either at depth within a planetary interior or relatively shallow within a volcanic edifice. Deeper reservoirs can form near the rheological change at the base of the lithosphere, at upwellings due to pressure-release melting, or at vertical discontinuities in density such as at the base of the crust. Evidence for reservoirs in edifices is seen in calderas. Evidence for deeper magma bodies is seen in giant dike swarms. The position of ascending mantle flow is marked by broad rises formed from thermal uplift, enhanced crustal construction, and individual edifices built by surface eruptions. On Venus, volcanic complexes/rises are accompanied by large annular deformational features (coronae) produced by a combination of uplift and accommodation of intrusive and extrusive loads. Shallow magma reservoirs are commonly formed within volcanic edifices on Earth, Mars, and Venus. Building a volcanic edifice and reservoir requires multiple pulses of magma to rise frequently within a spatially restricted region over an extended period of time. On the Moon, in contrast, low eruption frequencies and great flow lengths ensure that typical large edifices will not form

  8. Numerical modelling by the Stokes--DEM coupled simulation for a roof at hot magma chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuichi, M.; Nishiura, D.

    2014-12-01

    The dynamics of a granular media has been suggested to play an important role in a reheated magma chamber by a hot intrusion (e.g. Burgisser and Bergantz, 2011). Although several mechanisms, such as Rayleigh Taylor instability, unzipping, and rhythmic convection (e.g. Shibano et.al. 2012, 2013), have been proposed for characterizing upward migration process in a crystalline magma chamber, their contributions in the long geodynamical time scale are not clear yet. Thus we perform numerical simulations to investigate the thermal evolution of the magma chamber with basal intrusion in three dimensions. In order to solve high-viscosity fluid and particle dynamics for modelling a melt--crystal jammed state of the magma, we have developed a coupled Stokes--DEM simulation code with two key techniques: formulation of particle motion without inertia and semi-implicit treatment of particle motion in the fluid equation (Furuichi and Nishiura 2014). Our simulation can successfully handle sinking particles in a high-viscosity fluid. We examine different types of the granular media heated from the bottom with varying parameters. We especially focus on pattern of the settling particles against the melt density contrast between upper and lower region.

  9. Re-Os isotopic study of the Muskox intrusion, NWT, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, J.; Hulbert, L.; Pearson, G.; Nowell, G.

    2003-04-01

    The 1270±4Ma Muskox intrusion is one of the largest layered intrusions in the world and is the intrusive centre the giant Mackenzie-Coppermine-Muskox igneous event, widely attributed to the presence of a mantle plume beneath the north western Canadian Shield during the middle Proterozoic. We have made a detailed Re-Os isotope study of the Muskox intrusion with the aim of constraining the origin and potential triggers for precious metal mineralization in layered intrusions, assessing the role of magma recharge versus crustal assimilation and sulphide participation during mineralization. In the process of understanding these factors, direct inference can be made on the source characteristics of the reservoirs involved during magma genesis, and which feed major continental magmatism events. Re-Os isotopic analyses have been performed on 32 well characterised samples from drill core which samples the entire stratigraphy of the Muskox intrusion. Initial 187Os/188Os span a very restricted range for the ultramafic portion of the intrusion, with γOs +3 to +5.5 relative to chondrite. These values are not indicative of crustal assimilation. Os isotopic ratios also show significant shifts at platinum group element enriched horizons. Common Os concentrations show close correlation with major element indices whilst Re concentrations are less systematic and anomalously low in the ultramafic horizons, especially those which have suffered intense fluid alteration. Re-Os isotopic data will also be presented on the keel dyke feeder to the Muskox intrusion and the contemporaneous, voluminous Coppermine volcanics including an andesite glass flow.

  10. Magmatic intrusions and deglaciation at mid-latitude in the northern plains of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaut, Chloé; Baratoux, David; Thorey, Clément

    2013-07-01

    On Earth, igneous rocks are generally affected by magmatic differentiation and the volume of intrusive bodies is considered to be 5-10 times larger than the volume of volcanic rocks. In contrast, in the case of Mars, the occurrence of olivine-phyric basalts at Gusev crater (McSween, H.Y. [2006]. J. Geophys. Res. (Planets) 111(E10), E02S10), the primitive nature of at least four picritic shergottites (Grott, M. [2013]. Planet. Space Sci. 174, 49-111) and the chemical composition of major volcanic provinces (Baratoux, D., Toplis, M.J., Monnereau, M., Gasnault, O. [2011]. Nature 472, 338-341) suggest that primary melts of the mantle may have commonly reached the surface. These observations, together with sparse morphologic evidence of intrusions in comparison with other terrestrial planets, raise the issue of the conditions for the formation and occurrence of sub-surface zones of magma storage on Mars. In this respect, a series of two types of young (Amazonian) domes located at mid-latitudes in western Arcadia Planitia, East of Phlegra Montes, previously interpreted as surface expressions of intrusive bodies (Farrand, W.H., Lane, M.D., Edwards, B.R., Yingst, R.A. [2011]. Icarus 211, 139-156), are examined here. A fraction of the domes consist of upraised plain material, whereas others, distinguished by a massive core and a large aspect ratio, could be partially exhumed intrusions or extrusions of viscous differentiated magma. The latter interpretation is however not compatible with the mafic compositions inferred from orbital visible and near infrared spectroscopic observations. The thicknesses and radii of both types of domes appear to be related through a power-law relationship with exponents close to 1 or 5/4. These exponent values are not compatible with extrusive morphologies but are characteristic of intrusions magma below an elastic layer (Michaut, C. [2011]. J. Geophys. Res. 10.1029/2010JB008108). We conclude that all types of domes are intrusive bodies. The

  11. Acoustic emission intrusion detector

    DOEpatents

    Carver, Donald W.; Whittaker, Jerry W.

    1980-01-01

    An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal.

  12. Hybrid network intrusion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmoush, David

    2014-05-01

    We report on a machine learning classifier that can be used to discover the patterns hidden within large networking data flows. It utilizes an existing intrusion detection system (IDS) as an oracle to learn a faster, less resource intensive normalcy classifier as a front-end to a hybrid network IDS. This system has the capability to recognize new attacks that are similar to known attack signatures. It is also more highly scalable and distributable than the signature-based IDS. The new hybrid design also allows distributed updates and retraining of the normalcy classifier to stay up-to-date with current threats.

  13. Lunar floor-fractured craters as magmatic intrusions: Geometry, modes of emplacement, associated tectonic and volcanic features, and implications for gravity anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jozwiak, Lauren M.; Head, James W.; Wilson, Lionel

    2015-03-01

    Lunar floor-fractured craters are a class of 170 lunar craters with anomalously shallow, fractured floors. Two end-member processes have been proposed for the floor formation: viscous relaxation, and subcrater magmatic intrusion and sill formation. Recent morphometric analysis with new Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) and image (LROC) data supports an origin related to shallow magmatic intrusion and uplift. We find that the distribution and characteristics of the FFC population correlates strongly with crustal thickness and the predicted frequency distribution of overpressurization values of magmatic dikes. For a typical nearside lunar crustal thickness, dikes with high overpressurization values favor surface effusive eruptions, medium values favor intrusion and sill formation, and low values favor formation of solidified dikes concentrated lower in the crust. We develop a model for this process, make predictions for the morphologic, morphometric, volcanic, and geophysical consequences of the process and then compare these predictions with the population of observed floor-fractured craters. In our model, the process of magmatic intrusion and sill formation begins when a dike propagates vertically towards the surface; as the dike encounters the underdense brecciated region beneath the crater, the magmatic driving pressure is insufficient to continue vertical propagation, but pressure in the stalled dike exceeds the local lithostatic pressure. The dike then begins to propagate laterally forming a sill which does not propagate past the crater floor region because increased overburden pressure from the crater wall and rim crest pinch off the dike at this boundary; the sill then continues to inflate, further raising and fracturing the brittle crater floor. When the intrusion diameter to intrusion depth ratio is smaller than a critical value, the intrusion assumes a laccolith shape with a domed central region. When the ratio exceeds a critical value

  14. The Topopah Spring Tuff: Evidence for dynamic withdrawal from a layered magma body

    SciTech Connect

    Schuraytz, B.C.; Vogel, T.A.; Younker, L.W.

    1987-08-15

    The Topopah Spring Tuff is a classic example of a compositionally zoned ash-flow sheet resulting from eruption of a compositionally zoned magma body. Geochemical and petrographic analyses of whole-rock tuff samples indicate that the base of the ash-flow sheet and the dominant volume of erupted material consist of crystal-poor high-silica rhyolite, with a gradational transition into overlying crystal-rich quartz latite. Major and trace element analyses of glassy pumices and microprobe analyses of their oxide and silicate phenocrysts provide closer approximations to the chemical and thermal gradients within the magma body. The gradients inferred from these data indicate that the transition from high-silica rhyolitic to quartz latitic magma was abrupt, rather than gradational, with a distinct liquid-liquid interface separating the contrasting magmas. Observations are consistent with fluid dynamic models in which the angular velocity field developed near the entrance region of the vents results in simultaneous withdrawal of magma from a continually greater lateral and vertical extent within the chamber. The abrupt transition to chemically variable pumices, dominated by those of quartz latitic composition, implies that the interface between the magma layers remained relatively stable until drawdown breached the interface and preferentially erupted higher temperature, more mafic magma along with subordinate amounts of the incompletely exhausted high-silica rhyolitic magma.

  15. Electrical Properties of Hydrous Magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laumonier, M.; Sifre, D.; Gaillard, F.

    2013-12-01

    Volatiles strongly affect physical and chemical properties of magmas which are major vectors of mass and heat transfer in the Earth's. In subduction zones, hydrated melts prevail during the entire course of differentiation from basalts, andesites, dacites to rhyolites. Several electrical surveys obtained by magneto telluric investigations are currently deployed at subduction zones. The electrical conductivity of hydrous melts is however poorly constrained: so far only three studies have experimentally addressed this topic. Here, we show in situ electrical impedance of natural dacites, andesites (from Uturuncu Volcano, Bolivia) and basaltic magmas obtained with a 4-wire set up in a piston cylinder and internally heated pressure vessel. The range of temperature (500 to 1300°C), pressure (0.3 to 2 Gpa), and the various water contents and crystal fractions covers the respective ranges occurring at natural conditions. First results show that the conductivity increases with the temperature, the melt fraction, and a slightly decreases with the pressure and the crystal fraction. The compilation of these results with previous studies (rhyolitic, phonolitic and basaltic compositions) will lead to a general model of the electrical properties of magmas. Such a model will help in (i) interpreting the electrical signature of natural magmas and (ii) constraining their conditions (chemical composition, temperature, pressure, water content, melt fraction) from the source to the storage location.

  16. The Eagle and East Eagle sulfide ore-bearing mafic-ultramafic intrusions in the Midcontinent Rift System, upper Michigan: Geochronology and petrologic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xin; Li, Chusi; Ripley, Edward M.; Rossell, Dean; Kamo, Sandra

    2010-03-01

    The Eagle and East Eagle intrusions are small, subvertical dike-like mafic-ultramafic bodies that cut Proterozoic sedimentary strata in the Baraga Basin in northern Michigan. The Eagle intrusion hosts a newly discovered magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE deposit. The nearby East Eagle intrusion also contains sulfide mineralization, but the extent of this mineralization has yet to be determined by further drilling. Both intrusions contain olivine-bearing rocks such as feldspathic peridotite, melatroctolite, and olivine melagabbro. Sulfide accumulations range from disseminated at both Eagle and East Eagle to semimassive and massive at Eagle. U-Pb baddeleyite dating gives a crystallization age of 1107.2 ± 5.7 Ma for the Eagle intrusion, coeval with eruption of picritic basalts at the base of the volcanic succession in the Midcontinent Rift System (MRS). The Fo contents of olivine cores in the Eagle and East Eagle intrusions vary between 75 and 85 mol %, higher than those of olivine in larger layered intrusions in the MRS such as the Duluth Complex. The FeO/MgO ratios and Al2O3 contents of the parental magmas for the Eagle and East Eagle intrusions inferred from olivine and spinel compositions are similar to those of picritic basalts in the base of the MRS volcanic succession. These petrochemical data suggest that the Eagle and East Eagle intrusions are the intrusive equivalents of high-MgO basalts that erupted in the early stages of continental magmatism associated with the development of the rift. Variations in mineral compositions and incompatible trace element ratios suggest that at least three major pulses of magmas were involved in the formation of low-sulfide rocks in the Eagle intrusion. Lower Fo contents of olivine associated with semimassive sulfides as compared to that of olivine in low-sulfide rocks suggest that the magma associated with the semimassive sulfide was more fractionated than the parental magmas of the low-sulfide rocks in the Eagle intrusion. Accumulation of

  17. Longitudinal Relations of Intrusive Parenting and Effortful Control to Ego-Resiliency during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Zoe E.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal relations among ego-resiliency (ER), effortful control (EC), and observed intrusive parenting were examined at 18, 30, and 42 months of age ("Ns" = 256, 230, and 210) using structural equation modeling. Intrusive parenting at 18 and 30 months negatively predicted EC a year later, over and above earlier levels. EC at…

  18. Magma evolution and the formation of porphyry Cu Au ore fluids: evidence from silicate and sulfide melt inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halter, Werner E.; Heinrich, Christoph A.; Pettke, Thomas

    2005-03-01

    Silicate and sulfide melt inclusions from the andesitic Farallón Negro Volcanic Complex in NW Argentina were analyzed by laser ablation ICPMS to track the behavior of Cu and Au during magma evolution, and to identify the processes in the source of fluids responsible for porphyry-Cu-Au mineralization at the 600 Mt Bajo de la Alumbrera deposit. The combination of silicate and sulfide melt inclusion data with previously published geological and geochemical information indicates that the source of ore metals and water was a mantle-derived mafic magma that contained approximately 6 wt.% H2O and 200 ppm Cu. This magma and a rhyodacitic magma mixed in an upper-crustal magma chamber, feeding the volcanic systems and associated subvolcanic intrusions over 2.6 million years. Generation of the ore fluid from this magma occurred towards the end of this protracted evolution and probably involved six important steps: (1) Generation of a sulfide melt upon magma mixing in some parts of the magma chamber. (2) Partitioning of Cu and Au into the sulfide melt (enrichment factor of 10,000 for Cu) leading to Cu and Au concentrations of several wt.% or ppm, respectively. (3) A change in the tectonic regime from local extension to compression at the end of protracted volcanism. (4) Intrusion of a dacitic magma stock from the upper part of the layered magma chamber. (5) Volatile exsolution and resorption of the sulfide melt from the lower and more mafic parts of the magma chamber, generating a fluid with a Cu/Au ratio equal to that of the precursor sulfide. (6) Focused fluid transport and precipitation of the two metals in the porphyry, yielding an ore body containing Au and Cu in the proportions dictated by the magmatic fluid source. The Cu/S ratio in the sulfide melt inclusions requires that approximately 4,000 ppm sulfur is extracted from the andesitic magma upon mixing. This exceeds the solubility of sulfide or sulfate in either of the silicate melts and implies an additional source

  19. Multiple intrusive events in the formation of granite plutons: Evidence from the Lee Vining Diorite, eastern California

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, T.C.; Furman, T. . Dept. of Environmental Sciences); Reid, J.B. Jr. . School of Natural Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    The Cretaceous Lee Vining Diorite (eastern Sierra Nevada) preserves important field, petrographic and geochemical evidence for complex intrusive events in a mesozonal magma body. The pluton comprises primarily light grey unfoliated quartz diorite, with color index varying between 10--50. A 1,400 m transect across the pluton yielded samples of (1) mafic diorite from a 300 m thick sill, (2) disaggregated basaltic dikes, (3) rounded mafic inclusions and (4) rounded hornblende-cumulate inclusions in addition to (5) quartz diorite of variable texture and color index. Internal intrusive contacts are observed in several places; the upper contact of the sill is indistinct locally, suggesting a low thermal contrast with host quartz diorite at the time of intrusion. Textural analysis of plagioclase crystals form throughout the pluton indicates a history of pervasive magma mixing. In each thin section, 20--90% of the plagioclase crystals are pitted or corroded, and up to 50% of these crystals are also completely zoned. Disequilibrium plagioclase crystals are not preferentially associated with mafic inclusion, but are distributed randomly within the pluton. Major and trace element analyses of over 40 samples taken along the transect show variations that cannot be explained through simple magma mixing or through progressive crystallization of a single magma body. The pluton is not zoned geochemically, but rather comprises small regions (< 200 m across) of uniform composition that are juxtaposed randomly. Chemical variations across the pluton likely result from both missing of small magma batches and fractional crystallization of mixed magmas. This interpretation is consistent with field and textural requirements for multiple intrusive episodes in the formation of the diorite pluton.

  20. Petrogenesis and metallogenesis of the Xinjie layered mafic-ultramafic intrusion, China: Modeling of recharge, assimilation and fractional crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Zhaochong; Li, Yongsheng; Santosh, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Xinjie layered mafic-ultramafic intrusion in the central Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP), SW China, hosts Fe-Ti-V oxide ore in the upper part and Ni-Cu-platinum-group element (PGE) sulfide deposits in the lower part. In this study, we use published Sr-Nd isotopic data to simulate and evaluate the energy-constrained recharge, assimilation, and fractional crystallization (EC-RAFC) model with a view to track the petrogenesis and mineralization. In contrast to the energy-constrained assimilation fractional crystallization (EC-AFC) model, the EC-RAFC modeling shows that the Xinjie intrusion may represent a shallow crustal magma chamber system, where it experienced the RAFC processes. In the early stage of the magmatic process (Tm = 1460 °C), a pulse of magma was injected into an actively evolving magma chamber. Minor melting (Ma∗ = 0.257) and assimilation of the wallrock (underlying Emeishan basalts) occurred when the temperature of magma (Tm = 1245 °C) decreased close to the equilibration temperature (Teq = 1165 °C). The mass-temperature plots indicate that fractional crystallization was significantly affected by the recharge and assimilation processes, whereas the contaminated magma recharge favored the early crystallization of Fe-Ti oxides as well as the formation of the PGE-bearing immiscible melt in the lower part of the intrusion. In contrast, the formation of the Fe-Ti oxides ores in the upper part occurred probably through fractional crystallization and/or immiscibility of the evolved Fe-Ti-rich magma, resulting in the paragenesis of Fe-Ti-V oxides and Ni-Cu-PGE sulfides in the Xinjie layered intrusion.

  1. Intrusion detection sensor testing tools

    SciTech Connect

    Hayward, D.R.

    1994-08-01

    Intrusion detection sensors must be frequently tested to verify that they are operational, and they must be periodically tested to verify that they are functioning at required performance levels. Concerns involving this testing can include: The significant amount of manpower required, inconsistent results due to variability in methods and personnel, exposure of personnel to hazardous environments, and difficulty in obtaining access to the areas containing some of the intrusion sensors. To address these concerns, the Department of Energy directed Sandia National Labs. to develop intrusion detection sensor testing tools. Over the past two years Sandia has developed several sensor testing tool prototypes. This paper describes the evolution of an exterior intrusion detection sensor tester and automatic data logger, and also describes various interior intrusion detection sensor test fixtures that can be remotely activated to simulate an intruder.

  2. Rapid deployment intrusion detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.H.

    1997-08-01

    A rapidly deployable security system is one that provides intrusion detection, assessment, communications, and annunciation capabilities; is easy to install and configure; can be rapidly deployed, and is reusable. A rapidly deployable intrusion detection system (RADIDS) has many potential applications within the DOE Complex: back-up protection for failed zones in a perimeter intrusion detection and assessment system, intrusion detection and assessment capabilities in temporary locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations. Many DOE user-need documents have indicated an interest in a rapidly deployable intrusion detection system. The purpose of the RADIDS project is to design, develop, and implement such a system. 2 figs.

  3. On the Principles of Building a Layered Intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, B. D.

    2009-12-01

    An accurate and realistic understanding of all magmatic processes involves knowing the combined physical and chemical fundamentals governing the overall process. Magmatic processes involve such a vast array of sub-processes (e.g., heat and mass transfer, crystal growth, slurry transport and sorting, annealing, resorbtion, etc.) that rarely is there any single feature or measurement that can be safely inverted to solve the problem. And each event as in the formation of an intrusion must at some level for heuristic purposes be defined as an isolated event. This is commonly done without much forethought, as is the absolutely critical assumption of the initial conditions defining the beginning of the event. Almost without exception, it is the initial conditions that determine the outcome of the entire process in all physical and biological systems. Automobile factories produce motorized vehicles not water melons or chimpanzees. Nucleosynthesis of H and He always gives the same set of elements. The initial conditions of the magma giving rise to the end product for mafic layered systems are especially difficult to discern and must be bounded by observing simpler, real time magmatic and volcanic processes. Initial conditions come from posing a series of questions: What was the style and duration of filling? What was the rate of influx and final volume of each delivery of magma? What was the compositional variation and phenocryst content of the individual magmatic deliveries? If phenocrysts are present, were they sorted prior to injection during ascension? What was the original and ongoing shape of the magmatic reservoir? A failure to appreciate or answer such basic questions leads to vastly untenable evolutionary scenarios. Unrealistic initial conditions necessarily lead to unrealistic magmatic scenarios. There are certain safe starting points. Eruptive and emplacement fluxes are limited. The larger an intrusion is the longer it took to build and the longer to build the

  4. Saltwater intrusion in coastal regions of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, Paul M.; Reichard, Eric G.

    2010-02-01

    Saltwater has intruded into many of the coastal aquifers of the United States, Mexico, and Canada, but the extent of saltwater intrusion varies widely among localities and hydrogeologic settings. In many instances, the area contaminated by saltwater is limited to small parts of an aquifer and to specific wells and has had little or no effect on overall groundwater supplies; in other instances, saltwater contamination is of regional extent and has resulted in the closure of many groundwater supply wells. The variability of hydrogeologic settings, three-dimensional distribution of saline water, and history of groundwater withdrawals and freshwater drainage has resulted in a variety of modes of saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers. These include lateral intrusion from the ocean; upward intrusion from deeper, more saline zones of a groundwater system; and downward intrusion from coastal waters. Saltwater contamination also has occurred along open boreholes and within abandoned, improperly constructed, or corroded wells that provide pathways for vertical migration across interconnected aquifers. Communities within the coastal regions of North America are taking actions to manage and prevent saltwater intrusion to ensure a sustainable source of groundwater for the future. These actions can be grouped broadly into scientific monitoring and assessment, engineering techniques, and regulatory approaches.

  5. Saltwater intrusion in coastal regions of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barlow, Paul M.; Reichard, Eric G.

    2010-01-01

    Saltwater has intruded into many of the coastal aquifers of the United States, Mexico, and Canada, but the extent of saltwater intrusion varies widely among localities and hydrogeologic settings. In many instances, the area contaminated by saltwater is limited to small parts of an aquifer and to specific wells and has had little or no effect on overall groundwater supplies; in other instances, saltwater contamination is of regional extent and has resulted in the closure of many groundwater supply wells. The variability of hydrogeologic settings, three-dimensional distribution of saline water, and history of groundwater withdrawals and freshwater drainage has resulted in a variety of modes of saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers. These include lateral intrusion from the ocean; upward intrusion from deeper, more saline zones of a groundwater system; and downward intrusion from coastal waters. Saltwater contamination also has occurred along open boreholes and within abandoned, improperly constructed, or corroded wells that provide pathways for vertical migration across interconnected aquifers. Communities within the coastal regions of North America are taking actions to manage and prevent saltwater intrusion to ensure a sustainable source of groundwater for the future. These actions can be grouped broadly into scientific monitoring and assessment, engineering techniques, and regulatory approaches.

  6. How caldera collapse shapes the shallow emplacement and transfer of magma in active volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbi, F.; Rivalta, E.; Pinel, V.; Maccaferri, F.; Bagnardi, M.; Acocella, V.

    2015-12-01

    Calderas are topographic depressions formed by the collapse of a partly drained magma reservoir. At volcanic edifices with calderas, eruptive fissures can circumscribe the outer caldera rim, be oriented radially and/or align with the regional tectonic stress field. Constraining the mechanisms that govern this spatial arrangement is fundamental to understand the dynamics of shallow magma storage and transport and evaluate volcanic hazard. Here we show with numerical models that the previously unappreciated unloading effect of caldera formation may contribute significantly to the stress budget of a volcano. We first test this hypothesis against the ideal case of Fernandina, Galápagos, where previous models only partly explained the peculiar pattern of circumferential and radial eruptive fissures and the geometry of the intrusions determined by inverting the deformation data. We show that by taking into account the decompression due to the caldera formation, the modeled edifice stress field is consistent with all the observations. We then develop a general model for the stress state at volcanic edifices with calderas based on the competition of caldera decompression, magma buoyancy forces and tectonic stresses. These factors control: 1) the shallow accumulation of magma in stacked sills, consistently with observations; 2) the conditions for the development of circumferential and/or radial eruptive fissures, as observed on active volcanoes. This top-down control exerted by changes in the distribution of mass at the surface allows better understanding of how shallow magma is transferred at active calderas, contributing to forecasting the location and type of opening fissures.

  7. On the conditions of magma mixing and its bearing on andesite production in the crust.

    PubMed

    Laumonier, Mickael; Scaillet, Bruno; Pichavant, Michel; Champallier, Rémi; Andujar, Joan; Arbaret, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Mixing between magmas is thought to affect a variety of processes, from the growth of continental crust to the triggering of volcanic eruptions, but its thermophysical viability remains unclear. Here, by using high-pressure mixing experiments and thermal calculations, we show that hybridization during single-intrusive events requires injection of high proportions of the replenishing magma during short periods, producing magmas with 55-58 wt% SiO2 when the mafic end-member is basaltic. High strain rates and gas-rich conditions may produce more felsic hybrids. The incremental growth of crustal reservoirs limits the production of hybrids to the waning stage of pluton assembly and to small portions of it. Large-scale mixing appears to be more efficient at lower crustal conditions, but requires higher proportions of mafic melt, producing more mafic hybrids than in shallow reservoirs. Altogether, our results show that hybrid arc magmas correspond to periods of enhanced magma production at depth. PMID:25500902

  8. Magma-maintained rift segmentation at continental rupture in the 2005 Afar dyking episode.

    PubMed

    Wright, Tim J; Ebinger, Cindy; Biggs, Juliet; Ayele, Atalay; Yirgu, Gezahegn; Keir, Derek; Stork, Anna

    2006-07-20

    Seafloor spreading centres show a regular along-axis segmentation thought to be produced by a segmented magma supply in the passively upwelling mantle. On the other hand, continental rifts are segmented by large offset normal faults, and many lack magmatism. It is unclear how, when and where the ubiquitous segmented melt zones are emplaced during the continental rupture process. Between 14 September and 4 October 2005, 163 earthquakes (magnitudes greater than 3.9) and a volcanic eruption occurred within the approximately 60-km-long Dabbahu magmatic segment of the Afar rift, a nascent seafloor spreading centre in stretched continental lithosphere. Here we present a three-dimensional deformation field for the Dabbahu rifting episode derived from satellite radar data, which shows that the entire segment ruptured, making it the largest to have occurred on land in the era of satellite geodesy. Simple elastic modelling shows that the magmatic segment opened by up to 8 m, yet seismic rupture can account for only 8 per cent of the observed deformation. Magma was injected along a dyke between depths of 2 and 9 km, corresponding to a total intrusion volume of approximately 2.5 km3. Much of the magma appears to have originated from shallow chambers beneath Dabbahu and Gabho volcanoes at the northern end of the segment, where an explosive fissural eruption occurred on 26 September 2005. Although comparable in magnitude to the ten year (1975-84) Krafla events in Iceland, seismic data suggest that most of the Dabbahu dyke intrusion occurred in less than a week. Thus, magma intrusion via dyking, rather than segmented normal faulting, maintains and probably initiated the along-axis segmentation along this sector of the Nubia-Arabia plate boundary. PMID:16855588

  9. Magma-maintained rift segmentation at continental rupture in the 2005 Afar dyking episode.

    PubMed

    Wright, Tim J; Ebinger, Cindy; Biggs, Juliet; Ayele, Atalay; Yirgu, Gezahegn; Keir, Derek; Stork, Anna

    2006-07-20

    Seafloor spreading centres show a regular along-axis segmentation thought to be produced by a segmented magma supply in the passively upwelling mantle. On the other hand, continental rifts are segmented by large offset normal faults, and many lack magmatism. It is unclear how, when and where the ubiquitous segmented melt zones are emplaced during the continental rupture process. Between 14 September and 4 October 2005, 163 earthquakes (magnitudes greater than 3.9) and a volcanic eruption occurred within the approximately 60-km-long Dabbahu magmatic segment of the Afar rift, a nascent seafloor spreading centre in stretched continental lithosphere. Here we present a three-dimensional deformation field for the Dabbahu rifting episode derived from satellite radar data, which shows that the entire segment ruptured, making it the largest to have occurred on land in the era of satellite geodesy. Simple elastic modelling shows that the magmatic segment opened by up to 8 m, yet seismic rupture can account for only 8 per cent of the observed deformation. Magma was injected along a dyke between depths of 2 and 9 km, corresponding to a total intrusion volume of approximately 2.5 km3. Much of the magma appears to have originated from shallow chambers beneath Dabbahu and Gabho volcanoes at the northern end of the segment, where an explosive fissural eruption occurred on 26 September 2005. Although comparable in magnitude to the ten year (1975-84) Krafla events in Iceland, seismic data suggest that most of the Dabbahu dyke intrusion occurred in less than a week. Thus, magma intrusion via dyking, rather than segmented normal faulting, maintains and probably initiated the along-axis segmentation along this sector of the Nubia-Arabia plate boundary.

  10. Impermeable high-porosity magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heap, Michael; Vona, Alessandro; Kolzenburg, Stephan; Ryan, Amy; Russell, Kelly

    2016-04-01

    Magma vesiculation (i.e., porosity increase) is the consequence of decompression-driven volatile release during ascent and/or heating. The ease at which these exsolved volatiles can escape is thought to strongly impact volcanic explosivity. Permeability is usually considered to increase as a function of porosity. High and low porosity are typically associated with high and low permeability, respectively. Here we present permeability experiments on foamed natural rhyolitic melts containing total porosities from 0.12 to 0.65; we compliment these data with measurements on synthetic foamed glasses (prepared by FOAMGLAS®) that contain a total porosity of 0.9. The rhyolitic melts (from Krafla, Iceland: Tg = 690 °C) were kept at atmospheric pressure and 1000 °C for 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 hours, followed by quenching. The four experiments yielded total porosities of 0.12, 0.44, 0.51, and 0.65, respectively. The permeability of these samples was then measured using a steady-state, benchtop permeameter under a confining pressure of 1 MPa. The permeability of the foamed samples containing a porosity of 0.12 and 0.44 were not measurable in our system, meaning their permeabilities are lower than ~10-18 m2. The permeability of the samples containing a porosity of 0.51 and 0.65 were 8.7 × 10-15 and 1.0 × 10-15 m2, respectively. Both types of FOAMGLAS® - containing a porosity of 0.9 - also have permeabilities lower than ~10-18 m2. Our study highlights that highly porous magmas are not necessarily permeable due to the absence of a connected network of pores. These data suggest that (1) the percolation threshold for magma requires further thought and, (2) that the liberation of exsolved volatiles will require the fracturing of bubble walls to connect the network of pores within the magma.

  11. Partially molten magma ocean model

    SciTech Connect

    Shirley, D.N.

    1983-02-15

    The properties of the lunar crust and upper mantle can be explained if the outer 300-400 km of the moon was initially only partially molten rather than fully molten. The top of the partially molten region contained about 20% melt and decreased to 0% at 300-400 km depth. Nuclei of anorthositic crust formed over localized bodies of magma segregated from the partial melt, then grew peripherally until they coverd the moon. Throughout most of its growth period the anorthosite crust floated on a layer of magma a few km thick. The thickness of this layer is regulated by the opposing forces of loss of material by fractional crystallization and addition of magma from the partial melt below. Concentrations of Sr, Eu, and Sm in pristine ferroan anorthosites are found to be consistent with this model, as are trends for the ferroan anorthosites and Mg-rich suites on a diagram of An in plagioclase vs. mg in mafics. Clustering of Eu, Sr, and mg values found among pristine ferroan anorthosites are predicted by this model.

  12. The chemical and isotopic differentiation of an epizonal magma body: Organ Needle pluton, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, P.L.; Farmer, G.L.; McCurry, M.; Mertzman, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    Major and trace element, and Nd and Sr isotopic compositions of whole rocks and mineral separates from the Oligocene, alkaline Organ Needle pluton (ONP), southern New Mexico, constrain models for the differentiation of the magma body parental to this compositionally zoned and layered epizonal intrusive body. The data reveal that the pluton is rimmed by lower ??(Nd) (~-5) and higher 87Sr/86Sr (~0.7085) syenitic rocks than those in its interior (??(Nd) ~ 2, 87Sr/86Sr ~0.7060) and that the bulk compositions of the marginal rocks become more felsic with decreasing structural depth. At the deepest exposed levels of the pluton, the ??(Nd)~-5 lithology is a compositionally heterogeneous inequigranular syenite. Modal, compositional and isotopic data from separates of rare earth element (REE)-bearing major and accesory mineral phases (hornblende, titanite, apatite, zircon) demonstrate that this decoupling of trace and major elements in the inequigranular syenite results from accumulation of light REE (LREE)-bearing minerals that were evidently separated from silicic magmas as the latter rose along the sides of the magma chamber. Chemical and isotopic data for microgranular mafic enclaves, as well as for restite xenoliths of Precambrian granite wall rock, indicate that the isotopic distinction between the marginal and interior facies of the ONP probably reflects assimilation of the wall rock by ??(Nd) ~-2 mafic magmas near the base of the magma system. Fractional crystallization and crystal liquid separation of the crystally contaminated magma at the base and along the margins of the chamber generated the highly silicic magmas that ultimately pooled at the chamber top.

  13. Imaging the Socorro Magma Body Using Free Above-Ground Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, E.; Saldana, S.; Snelson, C. M.; Greschke, B.

    2008-12-01

    The Socorro Magma Body (SMB) is located within the Rio Grande Rift and is intersected by the Precambrian Socorro Fracture Zone near Socorro, NM. The SMB seems to be the source of a 5,000 km2 area of elevated seismic region known as the Socorro Seismic Anomaly. The first evidence of a subsurface reflector was from microearthquake studies. A COCORP seismic reflection profile provided further evidence for an essentially flat magmatic sill-like intrusion approximately 19 km below the surface, with less than a 1° slope and a lateral area of about 3400 km2 with an estimated thickness of about 100 m. A fundamental question regarding the SMB is related to the nature of its activity. The uplift associated with the SMB coupled with the presence of shallow earthquake swarms in the area is typically associated with the movement of magma, which may be indicative of active magmatic emplacement. As a pilot test to obtain P-wave velocity data, we used free explosive sources from the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC) at New Mexico Tech in Socorro, NM. Our goals were to determine how much seismic energy is necessary to receive a decent signal back on the recorders and also to develop a preliminary refraction velocity model over the SMB. For this refraction experiment, 59 single-channel recorders (Texans - RT125a) were deployed over a distance of 125 km for a 1-week period centered at the EMRTC blast site. Over that time period, EMRTC set off six ~9,000 lb (4,082 kg) ANFO shots above ground. Although much of this energy went into the air, we were able to recover a small amount of this energy to build preliminary velocity models. The energy created by the blasts propagated about halfway through the array. These data have been used to produce a couple of 1-D models and a preliminary 2-D model of apparent velocity. We plan to use these results to develop a proposal to conduct a full controlled and passive-source experiment over the SMB in the near future.

  14. Accelerated uplift and magmatic intrusion of the Yellowstone caldera, 2004 to 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chang, W.-L.; Smith, R.B.; Wicks, C.; Farrell, J.M.; Puskas, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Yellowstone caldera began a rapid episode of ground uplift in mid-2004, revealed by Global Positioning System and interferometric synthetic aperture radar measurements, at rates up to 7 centimeters per year, which is over three times faster than previously observed inflation rates. Source modeling of the deformation data suggests an expanding volcanic sill of ???1200 square kilometers at a 10-kilometer depth beneath the caldera, coincident with the top of a seismically imaged crustal magma chamber. The modeled rate of source volume increase is 0.1 cubic kilometer per year, similar to the amount of magma intrusion required to supply the observed high heat flow of the caldera. This evidence suggests magma recharge as the main mechanism for the accelerated uplift, although pressurization of magmatic fluids cannot be ruled out.

  15. Deformation structures associated with the Trachyte Mesa intrusion, Henry Mountains, Utah: Implications for sill and laccolith emplacement mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Penelope I. R.; McCaffrey, Ken J. W.; Wilson, Robert W.; Jarvis, Ian; Holdsworth, Robert E.

    2016-06-01

    Deformation structures in the wall rocks of igneous intrusions emplaced at shallow crustal depths preserve an important record of how space was created for magma in the host rocks. Trachyte Mesa, a small Oligocene age intrusion in the Henry Mountains, Utah, is composed of a series of stacked tabular, sheet-like intrusions emplaced at 3-3.5 km depth into sandstone-dominated sedimentary sequences of late Palaeozoic-Mesozoic age. New structural analysis of the spatial distribution, geometry, kinematics and relative timings of deformation structures in the host rocks of the intrusion has enabled the recognition of distinct pre-, syn-, and late-stage-emplacement deformation phases. Our observations suggest a two-stage growth mechanism for individual sheets where radial growth of a thin sheet was followed by vertical inflation. Dip-slip faults formed during vertical inflation; they are restricted to the tips of individual sheets due to strain localisation, with magma preferentially exploiting these faults, initiating sill (sheet) climbing. The order in which sheets are stacked impacts on the intrusion geometry and associated deformation of wall rocks. Our results offer new insights into the incremental intrusion geometries of shallow-level magmatic bodies and the potential impact of their emplacement on surrounding host rocks.

  16. Dyke intrusion dynamics during the ongoing rifting episode in Afar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, E.; Grandin, R.; Nercessian, A.; Ayele, A.; Keir, D.; Doubre, C.; Socquet, A.; Lemarchand, A.

    2010-12-01

    Dyke intrusion is one of the main processes of crustal accretion occurring along magma-assisted divergent plate boundaries, in particular along Mid-Ocean Ridges. Seismology, through the analysis of earthquake migration coeval to dyke intrusion, is one of the few tools, with geodesy, which allows studying the dynamics of this fundamental process. In Afar (Ethiopia), the major Dabbahu-Manda Hararo rifting episode started in September 2005 with the intrusion a 60 km-long, 5 m-wide mega-dyke. Between June 2006 and May 2010, 13 smaller dykes (~10 km long) were emplaced, giving an outstanding opportunity to perform such studies. A few weeks after the rifting episode commenced, a regional seismological network of broadband stations was installed in Afar (part of a multinational project including UK, US and Ethiopia). In November 2007, in collaboration with the Geophysical Observatory of Addis Ababa University, IPGP (Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris) installed a local telemetered seismological network including 5 short-period stations around the southern half of the Dabbahu-Manda Hararo rift. We focus here on the microseismicity related to five dyke intrusions, which occurred between June 2006 and February 2009. The dykes propagated away from the Walis magma reservoir (WMR, 12.3°N, 40.6°E) at velocities ranging from 0.5km/h to 2km/h. Earthquake migrations during dyke intrusions involved a narrow (less than 5 km wide), seismically-active strip around the dykes, and seem to show the following pattern: first, near the tip of the propagating dyke, probably in the damage zone, small to moderate earthquakes are detected. Subsequent, more energetic earthquakes may have been triggered only after sufficient dyke inflation had occurred. Earthquake sequences, which occurred north of WMR, migrated faster (~2km/h) than those that took place south of WMR (0.5-1km/h), and liberated a greater amount of seismic energy. This is in keeping with results of normal stress modeling

  17. Rapid magma emplacement in the Karoo Large Igneous Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensen, Henrik; Corfu, Fernando; Polteau, Stéphane; Hammer, Øyvind; Planke, Sverre

    2012-04-01

    Understanding the dynamics of continental Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) relies on precise dating of basaltic rocks. LIP research has traditionally focused on dating lavas, often neglecting the volumetrically important sill intrusions in underlying sedimentary basins. Here we present U-Pb zircon (and baddeleyite) ages for fourteen new samples of Karoo LIP sills and dykes spaced by as much as 1100 km across the half million square kilometer Karoo Basin. The samples yield remarkably coherent ages ranging from 183.0 ± 0.5 to 182.3 ± 0.6 myr. Probability modeling indicates that basin scale emplacement took place within an interval of about 0.47 myrs (less than 0.90 myrs with 95% confidence), and could even have represented a single magma emplacement event. Combining the new ages with the estimated volume of sills in the Karoo Basin gives an emplacement rate of 0.78 km3/yr, which is higher than previous estimates. Upper crustal magma storage may account for these high rates. The results challenge the view that melt emplacement in a sedimentary basin is a prolonged process, support a scenario of pulsating catastrophic events within a narrow time frame, and strengthens the hypothesis linking LIPs and sill emplacement to global environmental crises.

  18. Structural reconstruction and zonation of a tilted mid-crustal magma chamber: the felsic Chemehuevi Mountains plutonic suite

    SciTech Connect

    John, B.E.

    1988-07-01

    Structural relief resulting from middle Tertiary extensional deformation in the Chemehuevi Mountains of California exposes a unique cross section through an extensive (> 280 km/sup 2/) calc-alkalic, compositionally zoned, sill-like granitic intrusion of Late Cretaceous age. Minimum estimates for emplacement pressure, 4 to 6 kbar, imply that the Chemehuevi Mountains plutonic suite was initially intruded at mid-crustal depths and has undergone 10/sup 0/ to 15/sup 0/ of post emplacement tilting, tectonic denudation, and erosion. Reconstruction of the pre-Tertiary (pre-tilt) configuration suggests that this metaluminous to peraluminous granitic suite exhibits crude normal, vertical, and temporal zonation from granodiorite to granite. The zonation involves a decrease in age and an increase in silica away from the walls and roof, the youngest and most evolved members being concentrated toward the center and floor of the intrusion. The lower part of the intrusion had a flat floor, which was penetrated by at least three feeder dikes providing magma to the chamber. Structural reconstruction indicates that the roof is less than 1 km above the exposed top of the intrusion. The magma apparently ponded along the contact between undeformed Proterozoic basement above and subhorizontally foliated mylonitic gneisses below. This reconstruction provides opportunity to observe crosscutting relations between different types of mid-crustal structures (thick mylonitic shear zones, granitic intrusions, and temporally unrelated detachment faults), the geometry of which emphasizes the need for careful evaluation of seismic reflection profiles across complexly deformed and intruded continental crust.

  19. Unravelling Magma Interaction Phenomena in Volcanic and Plutonic Environments: Analogies and Differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poli, G.; Perugini, D.

    2003-04-01

    rounded enclaves. Given that volcanic rocks are the result of quenching of magmas during eruption fluidal structures do not have time to homogenise, whereas in plutonic bodies fluid like structures have enough time to be completely homogenised. On the contrary enclaves cannot be homogenised readily even in the plutonic bodies and, thus, they can survive to the mixing process although they show clear fingerprint of interaction with the host magna. The geochemical aspect of magma interaction has been pointed out by attempting to isolate various phenomena. As a rule, the high variability found in the geochemical characteristics is the result of several processes acting concomitantly following the intrusion of a magma inside the other, and which can be attributed to: processes of fractional crystallization, loss of the liquid phase, and mechanical mixing of mineralogical phases between the two magmas. The combination of these processes did in fact lead to the formation of magmatic products with the enrichment and depletion of trace elements typical of evolved basic magmatic liquids, cumulitic rocks and rocks mixed mechanically with mono- and polymineral fragments of host magma. From an isotopic point of view the scenery seems to be more complicated, confirming the hypothesis that what induces isotope variations is a process of diffusion at the liquid state, with uphill and downhill phenomena. Trying to isolate the foremost parameters responsible for the different occurrences, it can be shown that final results depend on the different percentage of interacting magmas and the different rheological behaviour of the lower temperature magma. In spite of a general framework in which magmatic interaction processes can occur, the effects of such processes are different in the volcanic and plutonic environment and the basic reason has to be found in the relative timescales over which magma interaction processes occur in the two environments.

  20. Characteristics and petrogenesis of Alaskan-type ultramafic-gabbro intrusions, southeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Loney, R.A. ); Himmelberg, G.R. Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO )

    1993-04-01

    Alaskan-type ultramafic-gabbro intrusions occur along a belt that extends from Duke Island to Klukwan in southeastern Alaska and fall into two age groups, 400 to 440 Ma and 100 to 110 Ma. Most of the smaller bodies are magnetite-bearing hornblende clinopyroxenite; the larger ones consist of dunite, wehrlite, olivine clinopyroxenite, with some gabbro, in addition to hornblende clinopyroxenite and hornblendite. Textural, mineralogical, and chemical characteristics of the Alaskan-type ultramafic bodies indicate that they originated by fractional crystallization of a basaltic magma and accumulation in a crustal magma chamber. The Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] content of clinopyroxene shows a marked enrichment with differentiation, suggesting crystallization from progressively more hydrous melts like those characteristics of arc magmas. REE abundance levels and patterns are markedly similar for given rock units in all the bodies studied suggesting that all the bodies were derived by differentiation of closely similar parent magmas under near identical conditions. The exact composition of the primary melt is uncertain but the authors' preferred interpretation is that the parental magma of most Alaskan-type bodies was a subalkaline hydrous basalt. The striking similarity between the REE abundance levels and patterns of the Alaskan-type clinopyroxenites and gabbros, and the clinopyroxenite xenoliths and plutonic gabbros associated with Aleutian Island Arc volcanism, further suggests that the primary magma was probably a hydrous olivine basalt similar to the primary magma proposed for the Aleutian arc lavas. The mineral chemistry and phase equilibria of the ultramafic bodies suggest that they crystallized in magma chambers at depths greater than about 9 km. Except for the Duke Island body, which has sedimentary structures and shows evidence of ubiquitous current activity, most of the other bodies appear to have accumulated under static conditions.

  1. MagmaHeatNS1D: One-dimensional visualization numerical simulator for computing thermal evolution in a contact metamorphic aureole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dayong

    2013-04-01

    MagmaHeatNS1D is an IDL (Interactive Data Language) program that is aimed at numerically modeling heat transfer from an igneous intrusion to its host rocks and providing important thermal state information for minerals and organic matters in a contact aureole. It can be used to trace temperature time series, computing the peak temperature, and evaluating organic-matter maturation in a contact aureole. The theoretical basis of the program is a complete one-dimensional heat transfer model, and, hence, the program can allow for numerous potential influencing factors on the heat transfer, involving magma crystallization, volatilization and the supercritical state of pore water, dehydration and decarbonation reactions of host rock matrix, instantaneous and finite-time magma intrusion mechanisms, and hydrothermal convection in host rocks. This ensures that the program can be applicable to study different igneous intrusions in various geological conditions. MagmaHeatNS1D features a graphical user interface for controlling program execution, displaying real-time results, outputting final results, and opening secondary windows which serve to input the model parameters. MagmaHeatNS1D can be used in an intuitive framework for educational and research purposes.

  2. Degassing system from the magma reservoir of Miyakejima volcano revealed by GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, J.; Nakao, S.; Matsushima, T.

    2013-12-01

    Miyake-jima is a volcanic island located approximately 180 km south of Tokyo. The island is an active basaltic volcano that was dormant for a 17-year period between an eruption in 1983 and June 26, 2000, when it again became active. The volcanic activity that occurred in 2000 is divided into the following four stages: the magma intrusion stage, summit subsidence stage, summit eruptive stage, and degassing stage (Nakada et al., 2001). Earthquake swarm activity began on June 26, 2000, accompanied by large-scale crustal deformation. This led to a summit eruption on July 8, 2000. Based on the pattern of hypocenter migration and the nature of crustal deformation, it was estimated that magma migrated from beneath the summit of Miyake-jima to the northwest during the magma intrusion stage. The rapid collapse of the summit took place between July 8 and the beginning of August 2000 (summit subsidence stage). Large-scale eruptions took place on August 10, 18, and 29, 2000 (explosion stage). The eruptions largely ceased after August 29, followed by the release of large amounts of gas from the summit crater (degassing stage). In this study, we examined the location of the magma reservoir during the degassing stage based on crustal deformation observed by GPS. By comparing the amounts of degassing and volume change of the magma reservoir, as determined from crustal deformation, we determined the mechanism of degassing and the nature of the magma reservoir-vent system. According to observations by the Japan Meteorological Agency, a large amount of volcanic gas began to be released from Miyake-jima in September 2000 (Kazahaya et al., 2003). Approximately 42,000 tons/day of SO2 was released during the period between September 2000 and January 2001. Analysis of GPS data during the period [Figure 1] indicates a source of crustal deformation on the south side of the summit crater wall at a depth of 5.2 km. The rate of volume change was -3.8 x 106 m3/month [Figure 2]. As the volume is

  3. The 2010-2011 Microearthquake Swarm in Krýsuvík, SW Iceland: Was it Triggered by Crustal Magma Injection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Michael, F.; Hager, B. H.

    2013-12-01

    Iceland, the on-land continuation of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, is the result of the interaction between the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the North-Atlantic mantle plume. The superposition and relative motion of the spreading plate boundary over the mantle plume are manifested by the volcanism and seismicity in Iceland. The Krýsuvík geothermal field is one of the most active geothermal fields in southwest Iceland. In 2010, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Reykjanes University, Uppsala University, and the Iceland Geosurvey (ISOR) deployed 38 temporary seismic stations on the Reykjanes Peninsula. Using data from 18 of the temporary seismic stations and from 5 stations of the South Iceland Lowland network around Krýsuvík, we captured an earthquake swarm that occurred between November, 2010 and February, 2011. We applied double difference tomography to relocate the events and determine the velocity structure in the region. Activity is clustered around the center of the Krýsuvík volcano system. Our seismic tomography result indicates a low velocity zone at a depth of about 6 km, right under the earthquake swarm. We consider that this low velocity zone contains some crustal magma that may be the thermal source for the geothermal field. At the same time, our relocated events delineate faults above and around this magma chamber. The system is within the stress field of a combination of left-lateral shear and extension; the majority of the strike-slip faults are right-lateral and most dip-slip faults are normal faults. Published geodetic measurements for the time period between 2009 and 2012 show a few centimeters uplift and extension in the area of the seismic swarm. We modeled the observed deformation using the Coulomb 3.3 software (U.S. Geological Survey). Our result indicates that a Mogi source of about 20×10^6 m^3 at a depth of about 6 km, consistent with the location and size of the tomography result, can explain the main deformation. The normal and the right-lateral

  4. Shallow magma targets in the western US

    SciTech Connect

    Hardee, H.C.

    1984-10-01

    Within the next few years a hole will be drilled into a shallow magma body in the western US for the purpose of evaluating the engineering feasibility of magma energy. This paper examines potential drilling sites for these engineering feasibility experiments. Target sites high on the list are ones that currently exhibit good geophysical and geological data for shallow magma and also have reasonable operational requirements. Top ranked sites for the first magma energy well are Long Valley, CA, and Coso/Indian Wells, CA. Kilauea, HI, also in the top group, is an attractive site for some limited field experiments. A number of additional sites offer promise as eventual magma energy sites, but sparsity of geophysical data presently prevents these sites from being considered for the first magma energy well.

  5. Human intrusion in geologic disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This report discusses the possibility of human intrusion into the WIPP facility, an undergound disposal facility for alpha-bearing wastes. The probability of exploratory drilling occurring at the site is described.

  6. Insights into mare basalt thicknesses on the Moon from intrusive magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaut, Chloé; Thiriet, Mélanie; Thorey, Clément

    2016-08-01

    Magmatic intrusions preferentially spread along interfaces marked by rigidity and density contrasts. Thus the contact between a lunar mare and its substratum provides a preferential location for subsequent magmatic intrusions. Shallow intrusions that bend the overlying layer develop characteristic shapes that depend on their radius and on the overlying layer flexural wavelength and hence on their emplacement depth. We characterize the topography of seven, previously identified, candidate intrusive domes located within different lunar maria, using data from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter. Their topographic profiles compare very well with theoretical shapes from a model of magma flow below an elastic layer, supporting their interpretation as intrusive features. This comparison allows us to constrain their intrusion depths and hence the minimum mare thickness at these sites. These new estimates are in the range 400-1900 m and are generally comparable to or thicker than previous estimates, when available. The largest thickness (⩾ 1700 m) is obtained next to the Hortensius and Kepler areas that are proposed to be the relicts of ancient volcanic shields.

  7. The eruptibility of magmas at Tharsis and Syrtis Major on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Benjamin A.; Manga, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic and geologic data indicate that the ratio of intrusive to extrusive magmatism (the I/E ratio) is higher in the Tharsis and Syrtis Major volcanic provinces on Mars relative to most volcanic centers on Earth. The fraction of magmas that erupt helps to determine the effects of magmatism on crustal structure and the flux of magmatic gases to the atmosphere and also influences estimates of melt production inferred from the history of surface volcanism. We consider several possible controls on the prevalence of intrusive magmatism at Tharsis and Syrtis Major, including melt production rates, lithospheric properties, regional stresses and strain rates, and magmatic volatile budgets. The Curie temperature is the minimum crustal temperature required for thermal demagnetization, implying that if the primary magnetic mineral is magnetite or hematite, the crust was warm during the intrusive magmatism reflected in Tharsis and Syrtis Major I/E ratios. When wall rocks are warm, thermally activated creep relaxes stresses from magma replenishment and regional tectonics, and eruptibility depends on buoyancy overpressure. We develop a new one-dimensional model for the development of buoyancy in a viscous regime that accounts for cooling, crystallization, volatile exsolution, bubble coalescence and rise, fluid egress, and compaction of country rock. Under these conditions, we find that initial water and CO2 contents typically <1.5 wt % can explain the observed range of intrusive/extrusive ratios. Our results support the hypothesis that warm crust and a relatively sparse volatile budget encouraged the development of large intrusive complexes beneath Tharsis and Syrtis Major.

  8. Gas intrusion into SPR caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkebein, T.E.; Bauer, S.J.; Ehgartner, B.L.; Linn, J.K.; Neal, J.T.; Todd, J.L.; Kuhlman, P.S.; Gniady, C.T.; Giles, H.N.

    1995-12-01

    The conditions and occurrence of gas in crude oil stored in Strategic Petroleum Reserve, SPR, caverns is characterized in this report. Many caverns in the SPR show that gas has intruded into the oil from the surrounding salt dome. Historical evidence and the analyses presented here suggest that gas will continue to intrude into many SPR caverns in the future. In considering why only some caverns contain gas, it is concluded that the naturally occurring spatial variability in salt permeability can explain the range of gas content measured in SPR caverns. Further, it is not possible to make a one-to-one correlation between specific geologic phenomena and the occurrence of gas in salt caverns. However, gas is concluded to be petrogenic in origin. Consequently, attempts have been made to associate the occurrence of gas with salt inhomogeneities including anomalies and other structural features. Two scenarios for actual gas intrusion into caverns were investigated for consistency with existing information. These scenarios are gas release during leaching and gas permeation through salt. Of these mechanisms, the greater consistency comes from the belief that gas permeates to caverns through the salt. A review of historical operating data for five Bryan Mound caverns loosely supports the hypothesis that higher operating pressures reduce gas intrusion into caverns. This conclusion supports a permeability intrusion mechanism. Further, it provides justification for operating the caverns near maximum operating pressure to minimize gas intrusion. Historical gas intrusion rates and estimates of future gas intrusion are given for all caverns.

  9. Recent progress in magma energy extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, A.; Dunn, J.C.; Chu, T.Y.; Wemple, R.P.; Hickox, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    Ongoing research in the area of Magma Energy Extraction is directed at developing a fundamental understanding of the establishment and long term operation of an open, direct-contact heat exchanger in a crustal magma body. The energy extraction rate has a direct influence on the economic viability of the concept. An open heat exchanger, in which fluid is circulated through the interconnecting fissures and fractures in the solidified region around drilling tubing, offers the promise of very high rates of heat transfer. This paper discusses recent research in five areas: (1) fundamental mechanisms of solidifying and thermally fracturing magma; (2) convective heat transfer in the internally fractured solidified magma; (3) convective flow in the molten magma and heat transfer from the magma to the cooled heat exchanger protruding into it; (4) numerical simulation of the overall energy extraction process; and (5) the thermodynamics of energy conversion in a magma power plant at the surface. The studies show that an open heat exchanger can be formed by solidifying magma around a cooled borehole and that the resulting mass will be extensively fractured by thermally-induced stresses. Numerical models indicate that high quality thermal energy can be delivered at the wellhead at nominal rates from 25 to 30 MW electric. It is shown that optimum well circulation rates can be found that depend on the heat transfer characteristics of the magma heat exchanger and the thermodynamic power conversion efficiencies of the surface plant.

  10. Growth of plutons by incremental emplacement of sheets in crystal-rich host: Evidence from Miocene intrusions of the Colorado River region, Nevada, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, C.F.; Furbish, D.J.; Walker, B.A.; Claiborne, L.L.; Koteas, G.C.; Bleick, H.A.; Miller, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Growing evidence supports the notion that plutons are constructed incrementally, commonly over long periods of time, yet field evidence for the multiple injections that seem to be required is commonly sparse or absent. Timescales of up to several million years, among other arguments, indicate that the dominant volume does not remain largely molten, yet if growing plutons are constructed from rapidly solidifying increments it is unlikely that intrusive contacts would escape notice. A model wherein magma increments are emplaced into melt-bearing but crystal-rich host, rather than either solid or crystal-poor material, provides a plausible explanation for this apparent conundrum. A partially solidified intrusion undoubtedly comprises zones with contrasting melt fraction and therefore strength. Depending on whether these zones behave elastically or ductilely in response to dike emplacement, intruding magma may spread to form sheets by either of two mechanisms. If the melt-bearing host is elastic on the relevant timescale, magma spreads rather than continuing to propagate upward, where it encounters a zone of higher rigidity (higher crystal fraction). Similarly, if the dike at first ascends through rigid, melt-poor material and then encounters a zone that is weak enough (poor enough in crystals) to respond ductilely, the ascending material will also spread because the dike tip ceases to propagate as in rigid material. We propose that ascending magma is thus in essence trapped, by either mechanism, within relatively crystal-poor zones. Contacts will commonly be obscure from the start because the contrast between intruding material (crystal-poorer magma) and host (crystal-richer material) is subtle, and they may be obscured even further by subsequent destabilization of the crystal-melt framework. Field evidence and zircon zoning stratigraphy in plutons of the Colorado River region of southern Nevada support the hypothesis that emplacement of magma replenishments into a

  11. Evaluating volumes for magma chambers and magma withdrawn for caldera collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geshi, Nobuo; Ruch, Joel; Acocella, Valerio

    2014-06-01

    We develop an analytical model to infer the total volume of a magma chamber associated with caldera collapse and the critical volume of magma that must be withdrawn to induce caldera collapse. The diameter of caldera border fault, depth to the magma chamber, and volumes of magma erupted before the onset of collapse and of entire eruption are compiled for 14 representative calderas. The volume of erupted magma at the onset of collapse aligns between the total erupted volume of the other representative caldera-forming eruptions and the volume of eruptions without collapse during the post-caldera stage, correlating with the structural diameter of the calderas. The total volume of magma chamber is evaluated using a piston-cylinder collapse model, in which the competition between the decompression inside magma chamber and friction along the caldera fault controls the collapse. Estimated volumes of the magma chambers associated with caldera collapse are 3-10 km3 for Vesuvius 79 A.D. to 3000-10 500 km3 for Long Valley, correlating with the cube of caldera diameters. The estimated volumes of magma chamber are always larger than the total volume of erupted magma for caldera formation, suggesting that the magma chambers are never completely emptied by the caldera-forming eruptions. The minimum volumes of erupted magma to trigger collapse are calculated from the correlation between the caldera diameters and the evaluated volume of magma chambers. The minimum eruptive volume for the collapse correlates with the square of the caldera radius r and the square of the depth to the magma chamber h, and inversely correlates with the bulk modulus of magma, which is mainly controlled by the bubble fraction in the magma. A bubble fraction between 5 and 10% at the onset of collapse may explain the distribution of the erupted volumes at the onset of collapse of the calderas in nature.

  12. Magma accumulation and segregation during regional-scale folding: The Holland's dome granite injection complex, Damara belt, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruger, Tolene; Kisters, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    The regional-scale, upright fold of the Holland's dome in the Damara belt of central Namibia contains a kilometre-scale network of intrusive, highly fractionated uraniferous leucogranites. Three broadly orthogonal and intersecting sets of leucogranite sheets that intruded parallel and at right angles to the axial plane of the first-order fold can be distinguished. The granites are internally sheeted and illustrate the growth of the injection complex through the successive addition of thousands of smaller magma batches. Spatial and timing relationships point to a stepwise evolution of the injection complex. Early dilatancy-driven segregation and accumulation of granitic magmas in the core of the fold, above a basal detachment, was followed by compaction-driven segregation of a melt phase during fold tightening. The intersecting leucogranite sets provide a suitably organized permeability structure for melt segregation, while the successive injection of magma batches ensures compatibility between regional strain rates during folding and the rates of magma segregation. The three-dimensional network of melt-bearing structures further assisted regional shortening past the lock-up of the fold. The Holland's dome injection complex illustrates the geometric complexity of magma transfer pathways and the significance of regional-scale folding for the accumulation, segregation and fractionation of granitic magmas in suprasolidus crust.

  13. Dike intrusions during rifting episodes obey scaling relationships similar to earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passarelli, Luigi; Rivalta, Eleonora; Shuler, Ashley

    2014-05-01

    Rifting episodes accommodate the relative motion of mature divergent plate boundaries with sequences of magma-filled dikes that compensate for the missing volume due to crustal splitting. Two major rifting episodes have been recorded since modern monitoring techniques are available: the 1975-1984 Krafla (Iceland) and the 2005-2010 Manda-Hararo (Ethiopia) dike sequences. The statistical properties of the frequency of dike intrusions during rifting have never been investigated in detail, but it has been suggested that they may have similarities with earthquake mainshock-aftershock sequences, for example they start with a large intrusion followed by several events of smaller magnitude. The scaling relationships of earthquakes have on the contrary been widely investigated: earthquakes have been found to follow a power law, the Gutenberg-Richter relation, from local to global scale, while the decay of aftershocks with time has been found to follow the Omori law. These statistical laws for earthquakes are the basis for hazard evaluation and the physical mechanisms behind them are the object of wide interest and debate. Here we investigate in detail the statistics of dikes from the Krafla and Manda-Hararo rifting episodes, including their frequency-magnitude distribution, the release of geodetic moment in time, the correlation between interevent times and intruded volumes. We find that the dimensions of dike intrusions obey a power law analogous to the Gutenberg-Richter relation, the long-term release of geodetic moment is governed by a relationship consistent with the Omori law, and the intrusions are roughly time-predictable. The need of magma availability affects however the timing of secondary dike intrusions: such timing is longer after large volume intrusions, contrarily to aftershock sequences where interevent times shorten after large events.

  14. Forecasting volcanic eruptions: the narrow margin between eruption and intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, Alexander; Kilburn, Christopher; Wall, Richard; Charlton, Danielle

    2016-04-01

    Volcano-tectonic (VT) seismicity is one of the primary geophysical signals for monitoring volcanic unrest. It measures the brittle response of the crust to changes in stress and provides a natural proxy for gauging the stability of a pressurizing body of magma. Here we apply a new model of crustal extension to observations from the 2015 unrest of Cotopaxi, in Ecuador. The model agrees well with field data and is consistent with accelerating unrest during the pressurization and rupture of a vertically-extended magma source within the volcanic edifice. At andesitic-dacitic stratovolcanoes in subduction zones, unrest after long repose is often characterised by increases in VT event rate that change from an exponential to hyperbolic trend with time. This sequence was observed when renewed unrest was detected in April 2015 at Cotopaxi, following at least 73 years of repose. After about 80 days of elevated seismicity at an approximately steady rate, the numbers of VT events increased exponentially with time for c. 80 days, before increasing for c. 15 days along a faster, hyperbolic trend. Both trends were characterised by the same value of 2 for the ratio of maximum applied stress SF to tensile strength of the crust σT, consistent with the pressurization of an approximately vertical, cylindrical magma body. The hyperbolic trend indicated a potential rupture on 25 September. Rupture appears to have occurred on 21-22 September, when the VT rate rapidly decreased. However, no major eruption accompanied the change, suggesting that a near-surface intrusion occurred instead. Although the quantitative VT trends were consistent with the rupture of a magmatic body, they could not on their own distinguish between an eruptive or intrusive outcome. An outstanding goal remains to identify additional precursory characteristics for quantifying the probability that magma will reach the surface after escaping from a ruptured parent body. Data for this analysis were kindly made available

  15. Formation of redox gradients during magma-magma mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruprecht, P.; Fiege, A.; Simon, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Magma-mixing is a key process that controls mass transfer in magmatic systems. The variations in melt compositions near the magma-magma interface potentially change the Fe oxidation state [1] and, thus, affect the solubility and transport of metals. To test this hypothesis, diffusion-couple experiments were performed at 1000 °C, 150 MPa and QFM+4. Synthesized crystal-bearing cylinders of hydrous dacite and hydrous basaltic andesite were equilibrated for up to 80 h. The run products show that mafic components (Fe, Mg, etc.) were transported from the andesite into the dacite, while Si, Na and K diffused from the dacite into the andesite. A crystal dissolution sequence in the order of cpx, opx, plag, and spl/il was observed for the andesite. We combined μ-XANES spectroscopy at Fe K-edge [2] with two-oxide oxybarometry [3] to measure redox profiles within our experiments. Here, fO2 decreased towards the interface within the dacite and increased towards the interface within the andesite. This discontinuous fO2 evolution, with a sharp redox gradient of ~1.8 log fO2 units at the interface was maintained throughout the time-series despite the externally imposed fO2 of the vessel. We propose a combination of two mechanisms that create and sustain this redox gradient: 1) The dissolution of cpx and opx in the andesite mainly introduced Fe2+ into the melt, which diffused towards the dacite, lowering Fe3+/SFe near the interface. 2) Charge balance calculations in the melt during diffusive exchange suggest net positive charge excess in the andesite near the interface (i.e., oxidation) and net negative charge excess in the dacite near the interface (i.e., reduction). We suggest that this (metastable) redox layer can help to explain the contrasting Au/Cu ratios observed for arc-related porphyry-type ore deposits. [1] Moretti (2005), Ann. Geophys. 48, 583-608. [2] Cottrell et al. (2009), Chem. Geol. 268, 167-179. [3] Ghiorso and Evans (2008), Am. J. Sci. 308, 957-1039.

  16. Seismic Characteristics and Evolution of Intrusion in Qiongdongnan Basin: Implications for the Rifting of South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Ren, J.; Yang, L.; Huang, C.

    2014-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) formed by magma-poor rifting in the Paleogene. The Qiongdongnan basin (QDNB) located at the north margin was thought to completely lack magma activities. Due to the limited amount of deepwater drills, magmas in deepwater area had been ignored in petroleum exploration, and thus our knowledge of basin analysis is far from complete. Based on a comprehensive study on seismic profiles and P wave velocity data, 12 intrusion-related seismic reflection anomalies in QDNB have been recognized. In the southwest of QDNB, gas chimneys and gas clouds have been found with a low velocity (<3.4 km/s). In the center area, the intensively deformed strata passing towards the diapir flanks suggest the existence of magma diapirs. However, the velocity within diapirs is neither too high nor too low (3.7-4.6 km/s), and there has been no obvious magnetic anomaly or gravity anomaly be found. Previous researches prove that the temperatures of the crustal melt layers at the time that the basalt solidifies are high (900-950 °C) so that the process can produce magmas representing large degrees of partial fusion of the crust. To judge from the evidence, in the center area these could be mixed magmas. Further east, the diapirs possess typical features of basaltic magma intrusions with a high seismic velocity (>6 km/s), a positive magnetic anomaly and a high gravity anomaly. In addition, according to different dips of marginal facies, three phases of diapirism can be identified (32 Ma, 15.5 Ma and 10.5 Ma). Along a narrow area with hyper-extended crust, those intrusions document the opening of SCS at 32 Ma and the volcanic activities afterwards. The results are corresponding to the fact that all of the intrusions in QDNB occurred during the extreme crustal thinning process and after the cessation of seafloor spreading, and thus the intrusion evolved with time would have major implications for post-rift emplacement.

  17. Mantle source of the 2.44-2.50-Ga mantle plume-related magmatism in the Fennoscandian Shield: evidence from Os, Nd, and Sr isotope compositions of the Monchepluton and Kemi intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sheng-Hong; Hanski, Eero; Li, Chao; Maier, Wolfgang D.; Huhma, Hannu; Mokrushin, Artem V.; Latypov, Rais; Lahaye, Yann; O'Brien, Hugh; Qu, Wen-Jun

    2016-08-01

    Significant PGE and Cr mineralization occurs in a number of 2.44-2.50-Ga mafic layered intrusions located across the Karelian and Kola cratons. The intrusions have been interpreted to be related to mantle plume activity. Most of the intrusions have negative ɛNd values of about -1 to -2 and slightly radiogenic initial Sr isotope compositions of about 0.702 to 0.703. One potential explanation is crustal contamination of a magma derived from a mantle plume, but another possibility is that the magma was derived from metasomatized sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Samples from the upper chromitite layers of the Kemi intrusion and most samples from the previously studied Koitelainen and Akanvaara intrusions have supra-chondritic γOs values indicating some crustal contamination, which may have contributed to the formation of chromitites in these intrusions. Chromite separates from the main ore zone of the Kemi and Monchepluton intrusions show nearly chondritic γOs, similar to the coeval Vetreny belt komatiites. We suggest that the Os isotope composition of the primitive magma was not significantly changed by crustal contamination due to a high Os content of the magma and a low Os content of the contaminant. Modeling suggests that the Os and Nd isotope compositions of the Monchepluton and Kemi intrusions cannot be explained by assuming a magma source in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle with sub-chondritic γOs. A better match for the isotope data would be a plume mantle source with chondritic Re/Os and Os isotope composition, followed by crustal contamination.

  18. Geochemical signature variation of pre-, syn-, and post-shearing intrusives within the Najd Fault System of western Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, M.; Abu-Alam, T. S.; Hauzenberger, C.; Stüwe, K.

    2016-10-01

    Late Precambrian intrusive rocks in the Arabian-Nubian Shield emplaced within and around the Najd Fault System of Saudi Arabia feature a great compositional diversity and a variety of degrees of deformation (i.e. pre-shearing deformed, sheared mylonitized, and post-shearing undeformed) that allows placing them into a relative time order. It is shown here that the degree of deformation is related to compositional variations where early, usually pre-shearing deformed rocks are of dioritic, tonalitic to granodioritic, and later, mainly post-shearing undeformed rocks are mostly of granitic composition. Correlation of the geochemical signature and time of emplacement is interpreted in terms of changes in the source region of the produced melts due to the change of the stress regime during the tectonic evolution of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The magma of the pre-shearing rocks has tholeiitic and calc-alkaline affinity indicating island arc or continental arc affinity. In contrast, the syn- and post-shearing rocks are mainly potassium rich peraluminous granites which are typically associated with post-orogenic uplift and collapse. This variation in geochemical signature is interpreted to reflect the change of the tectonic regime from a compressional volcanic arc nature to extensional within-plate setting of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Within the context of published geochronological data, this change is likely to have occurred around 605-580 Ma.

  19. Why do Martian Magmas erupt?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balta, J. B.; McSween, H. Y.

    2011-12-01

    Eruption of silicate lava, whether on Earth or another planet, requires that at some depth the melt has lower density than the surrounding rocks. As the densities of silicate liquids change during crystallization, whether a particular silicate liquid will erupt or be trapped at a level of neutral buoyancy is a complex yet fundamental issue for planetary dynamics. In general, 3 factors drive surface eruptions: inherent buoyancy relative to mantle phases, compositional evolution, and volatile contents. These factors manifest on Earth as terrestrial basalts commonly have compositions close to a density minimum [1]. Recent work has produced estimates of Martian parental magma compositions [2-5] based on shergottite meteorites and from Gusev crater. Using the MELTS algorithm [6] and other density calibrations, we simulated evolution of these liquids, focusing on density changes. For much of the crystallization path, density is controlled by FeO. All of the liquids begin with ρ ~ 2.8 g/cc at 1 bar, and the evolution of liquid density is controlled by the liquidus phases. At low pressures, olivine is the liquidus phase for each melt, and as FeO is not incompatible in olivine, olivine crystallization decreases liquid density, increasing buoyancy with crystallization. However, FeO is incompatible in pyroxene, and thus liquids crystallizing pyroxene become denser and less buoyant with crystallization, producing liquids with densities up to and above 3.0 g/cc. As the olivine-pyroxene saturation relationship is affected by pressure and chemistry, the identity of the liquidus phase and density evolution will vary between magmas. Without spreading centers, Mars has no location where the mantle approaches the surface, and it is likely that any magma which is denser than the crust will stall below or within that crust. The crystallization path of a liquid is a function of pressure, with pyroxene crystallizing first at P > 10 kbar (~80 km depth), close to the base of the Martian

  20. Recycled gabbro signature in Upper Cretaceous Magma within Strandja Massif: NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulusoy, Ezgi; Kagan Kadioglu, Yusuf

    2016-04-01

    Basic magma intrusions within plate interiors upwelling mantle plumes have chemical signatures that are distinct from mid-ocean ridge magmas. When a basic magma interact with continental crust or with the felsic magma, the compositions of both magma changes, but there is no consensus as to how this interaction occurs. Here we analyse the mineral behavior and trace element signature of gabbroic rocks of the samples collected from the Strandja Massif. Srednogorie magmatic arc is a part of Apuseni- Banat-Timok-Srednogorie magmatic belt and formed by subduction and closure of the Tethys Ocean during Upper Cretaceous times. Upper Cretaceous magmatic rocks cutting Strandja Massif in NW Turkey belong to eastern edge of Srednogorie Magmatic arc. Upper Cretacous magmatic rocks divided into four subgroup in Turkey part of Strandja massif: (I) granitic rocks, (II) monzonitic rock, (III) syenitic rocks and (IV) gabbroic rocks. Gabbroic rocks outcropped around study area in phaneritic - equigranular texture. According to mineralogic - petrographic studies gabbros have mainly holocrystalline texture and ophitic to subophitic texture composed of plagioclase, amphibole, pyroxene, and rarely olivine and opaque minerals. Also because of special conditions there have been pegmatitic texture on mafic minerals with euhedral form up to 3 cm in size and orbicular texture which reach 15cm in size and rounded - elliptical form. Confocal Raman Spectroscopy studies reveals that plagioclase are ranging in composition from labradorite to bytownite, the pyroxene are ranging in composition from diopside to augite acting with uralitization processes and the olivine are generally in the composition of forsterite. Petrographic and mineralogical determination reveals some metasomatic magmatic epidote presence. Confocal Raman Spectroscopy studies on anhydrous minerals within gabbroic rocks shows affect of hydrous process because of magma mixing. The gabbroic rocks have tholeiitic and changed towards

  1. Chemical heterogeneity of Mt. Etna magmas in the last 15 ka. Inferences on their mantle sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsaro, Rosa Anna; Métrich, Nicole

    2016-05-01

    Primitive basaltic magmas are crucial in the study of the geochemical heterogeneity documented in Etna magmas and their inferred mantle sources. We undertook a systematic sampling of the less evolved basalts (Mg# > 50) erupted over the last 15 ka, a time period which corresponds to the activity of the youngest volcanic edifice of Mt. Etna complex, i.e. Mongibello volcano. We focused on lava flows and pyroclastites emplaced during 'deep-dyke fed' (DDF) eruptions which were driven by the rapid ascent of deeply-rooted magma intrusions that bypassed the shallow plumbing system of the volcano. All the samples were analyzed by the same laboratory to avoid analytical bias, to build a comprehensive dataset on their major and trace element compositions and to propose a coherent framework for interpreting the geochemical fingerprints of present-day Etna basalts. Trace element modeling, together with literature data for Sr isotopes, gave insight into long-term magmatic processes related to different melting degrees of the heterogeneous mantle beneath Mt Etna. DDF magma batches provide good snapshots of their mantle source heterogeneities that point to the variable involvement of clinopyroxenitic lithology, Rb-87Sr-Cl-rich fluid component(s) possibly controlled by their source mineralogy, and slab-derived fluids selectively enriched in alkalis (Rb, K). The ongoing alkali (Rb, K) enrichment of the present-day magmas, well manifest since the 1970s, is decoupled from that of Sr and Cl. We propose that this process is linked to mantle source composition and is concomitant with changes in both volcanological and seismotectonic patterns of the volcano. There is no time evolution of DDF magma chemistry.

  2. Water-rich and volatile-undersaturated magmas at Hekla volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucic, Gregor; Berg, Anne-Sophie; Stix, John

    2016-08-01

    Olivine-hosted melt inclusions from four eruptions at Hekla volcano in Iceland were analyzed for their dissolved H2O, CO2, S, and Cl contents. A positive correlation among the repose interval, magmatic evolution, and volatile contents of magmas is revealed. H2O is the dominant volatile species; it behaves as an incompatible component, increasing in concentration over time as a result of fractional crystallization in the magma. The full suite of H2O contents ranges from a low of 0.80 wt % in basaltic andesites to a maximum of 5.67 wt % in rhyolites. Decreasing H2O/K2O at fixed major element compositions suggests that syneruptive degassing reduces H2O contents significantly. Hekla magmas are CO2 poor, with very low concentrations present only in the most evolved compositions (˜20-30 ppm or less). The decrease in S content from basaltic andesite to rhyolite demonstrates that sulfide saturation is attained when the melt composition reaches basaltic andesite, resulting in the precipitation of pyrrhotite. Low CO2/Nb ratios suggest that vapor saturation is most likely reached during an early period of cooling and solidification in the crust. Fresh injections of mafic magma interact with previously solidified intrusives, producing new melts that are volatile undersaturated. Vapor saturation pressures obtained using the most volatile-rich melt inclusions suggest the presence of a magma chamber at a minimum depth of ˜7 km. This is in agreement with geophysical observations from recent small-volume eruptions, but given the possibility of volatile-undersaturated melts, some of the magmas may reside at greater depths.

  3. Oxygen Isotope Trajectories of Crystallizing Arc Magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucholz, C. E.; Jagoutz, O. E.; VanTongeren, J. A.; Wang, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Oxygen isotopes are essential to quantify mantle-derived versus 'recycled' crustal contributions to arc magmas. High δ18O values in igneous rocks (i.e., δ18OSMOW > ~5.7) are generally used to identify supra-crustal inputs, but a melt can also become enriched in 18O due to magmatic differentiation [1,2]. To assess magmatic δ18O values of plutonic rocks, δ18Ozircon values, which are resilient to secondary alteration, are often used. Thus, to disentangle the effects of assimilation versus fractionation, both the absolute increase in melt δ18O due to differentiation and ∆18O(WR-zircon) must be determined. However, existing constraints on the effect of magmatic fractionation on melt δ18O are model-based [2] and calculated relationships between WR SiO2, δ18Ozircon, and δ18Omelt do not incorporate complex melt SiO2, H2O, and temperature (T) relationships [3]. To build upon these initial constraints, we combine the first high-precision δ18O data set on natural samples documenting changes in δ18O melt values with increasing extent of differentiation and modeling which incorporates experimentally constrained melt SiO2, H2O, and T relationships. We analyzed 55 mineral separates with infrared laser-fluorination [4] across large fractionation intervals of two well-studied cumulate sequences: (I) a relatively dry (~1 wt.% H2O initial) tholeiitic sequence (analyzed minerals include plag, opx, cpx, & Fe-rich ol) from the Bushveld Complex and (II) a hydrous high-K sequence (analyzed minerals include ol, cpx, bt, fsp, & qtz) from the Dariv paleoarc in Mongolia. Our results indicate that multiple per mil increases in melt δ18O can occur during magmatic fractionation that in detail depend strongly on melt composition and T. Calculated relationships between WR SiO2 and δ18Ozircon for experimental melt compositions show that wet, 'cool' and dry, 'hot' melts are characterized by larger and smaller ∆18O (melt-zircon) fractionations, respectively. Applying our results to

  4. Petrogenesis of the Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide-bearing Tamarack Intrusive Complex, Midcontinent Rift System, Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taranovic, Valentina; Ripley, Edward M.; Li, Chusi; Rossell, Dean

    2015-01-01

    The Tamarack Intrusive Complex (TIC, 1105.6 ± 1.2 Ma) in NE Minnesota, was emplaced during the early stages of the development of the Midcontinent Rift System (MRS, "Early Stage": 1110-1106 Ma). Country rocks of the TIC are those of the Paleoproterozoic Thomson Formation, part of the Animikie Group including sulfide-bearing metasedimentary black shale. The magmatic system is composed of at least two principal mafic-ultramafic intrusive sequences: the sulfide-barren Bowl Intrusion in the south and the "dike" area intrusions in the north which host Ni-Cu-Platinum Group Elements (PGE) mineralization with up to 2.33% Ni, 1.24% Cu, 0.34 g/t Pt, 0.23 g/t Pd and 0.18 g/t Au. Two distinct intrusive units in the "dike" area are the CGO (coarse-grained olivine-bearing) Intrusion, a sub-vertical dike-like body, and the overlying sub-horizontal FGO (fine-grained olivine-bearing) Intrusion. Both intrusions comprise peridotite, feldspathic peridotite, feldspathic pyroxenite, melatroctolite and melagabbro. Massive sulfides are volumetrically minor and mainly occur as lenses emplaced into the country rocks associated with both intrusions. Semi-massive (net-textured) sulfides are distributed at the core of the CGO Intrusion, surrounded by a halo of the disseminated sulfides. Disseminated sulfides also occur in lenses along the base of the FGO Intrusion. Olivine compositions in the CGO Intrusion are between Fo89 and Fo82 and in the FGO Intrusion from Fo84 to Fo82. TIC intrusions have more primitive olivine compositions than that of olivine in the sheet-like intrusions in the Duluth Complex (below Fo70), as well as olivine from the smaller, conduit-related, Eagle and East Eagle Intrusions in Northern Michigan (Fo86 to Fo75). The FeO/MgO ratios of the CGO and FGO Intrusion parental magmas, inferred from olivine compositions, are similar to those of picritic basalts erupted during the early stages of the MRS formation. Trace element ratios differ slightly from other intrusions in the

  5. Unraveling the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 plumbing system and magma chamber dynamics through high-resolution geochemical investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laeger, Kathrin; Petrelli, Maurizio; Andronico, Daniele; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Cimarelli, Corrado; Misiti, Valeria; del Bello, Elisabetta; Perugini, Diego

    2016-04-01

    The April-May 2010 eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano (EFJ, Iceland) was triggered by an intrusion of fresh magma coming from deeper portions of the crust migrating into shallower depth of 3-6 km in the magmatic system. Here, we present new EMPA and LA-ICP-MS analyses on groundmass glasses of ash particles erupted between 18 and 22 May 2010, the last days of the eruption. The glasses define two well separated groups. The first group is basaltic in composition with SiO2 ranging from 49.98 to 51.76 wt.% and a total alkali content (Na2O + K2O) in the range between 4.63 and 5.17 wt.%. The second group ranges between trachyandesitic and rhyolitic compositions with SiO2 ranging between 57.13 to 70.38 wt.% and a total alkali content from 7.21 to 10.90 wt.%. Least square modelling after Störmer and Nicholls (1978) discriminates best the origin of the basaltic glass by both fractional crystallization of a more primitive basalt or mixing of a basalt and a felsic magma. Furthermore, this model proves that the trachyandesitic range is the result of mixing of trachyandesite and trachyte magma. Magma mixing modeling after Langmuir (1978) and element concentration histograms indicate a probable incomplete magma mixing as the main process forming the great compositional variability observed in the erupted products. Finally, we estimated mixing end-members of intermediate (~59 wt.% SiO2) and felsic composition (~66-68 wt.% SiO2) with a felsic melt-proportion of 0.35-0.47. In the 90s, recorded seismicity and ground deformation indicated intrusions at shallow depth under the EFJ edifice probably forming separated sills. Therefore, the origin of the trachyandesite is presumably to find in a discrete magma batch that generated years before eruption. The rhyolite composition can be considered as the residual melt that remained in the plumbing system of EFJ since the last eruption in 1821-23. We suggest that these different magma batches formed the plumbing system of EFJ and have

  6. Magma Energy Research Project, FY80 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Colp, J.L.

    1982-04-01

    The technical feasibility of extracting energy from magma bodies is explored. Five aspects of the project are studied: resource location and definition, source tapping, magma characterization, magma/material compatibility, and energy extraction.

  7. Extremely reducing conditions reached during basaltic intrusion in organic matter-bearing sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacono-Marziano, Giada; Gaillard, Fabrice; Scaillet, Bruno; Polozov, Alexander G.; Marecal, Virginie; Pirre, Michel; Arndt, Nicholas T.

    2012-12-01

    Redox conditions in magma are widely interpreted as internally buffered and closely related to that of their mantle source regions. We use thermodynamic calculations to show that high-temperature interaction between magma and organic matter can lead to a dramatic reduction of the magma redox state, and significant departure from that of the original source. Field studies provide direct evidence of the process that we describe, with reported occurrences of graphite and native iron in igneous mafic rocks, implying very reducing conditions that are almost unknown in average terrestrial magmas. We calculate that the addition of 0.6 wt% organic matter (in the form of CH or CH2) to a standard basalt triggers graphite and native iron crystallization at depths of few hundred meters. Interaction with organic matter also profoundly affects the abundance and the redox state of the gases in equilibrium with the magma, which are CO-dominated with H2 as the second most abundant species on a molar basis, H2O and CO2 being minor constituents. The assimilation of only 0.1 wt% organic matter by a basalt causes a decrease in its oxygen fugacity of 2-orders of magnitude. The assimilation of 0.6 wt% organic matter at depths<500 m implies minimum CO content in the magma of 1 wt%, other gas components being less than 0.1 wt%. In the light of our calculations, we suggest that the production of native iron-bearing lava flows and associated intrusions was most likely accompanied by degassing of CO-rich gases, whose fluxes depended on the magma production rates.

  8. Intrusion triggering of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull explosive eruption.

    PubMed

    Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Hooper, Andrew; Arnadóttir, Thóra; Pedersen, Rikke; Roberts, Matthew J; Oskarsson, Níels; Auriac, Amandine; Decriem, Judicael; Einarsson, Páll; Geirsson, Halldór; Hensch, Martin; Ofeigsson, Benedikt G; Sturkell, Erik; Sveinbjörnsson, Hjörleifur; Feigl, Kurt L

    2010-11-18

    Gradual inflation of magma chambers often precedes eruptions at highly active volcanoes. During such eruptions, rapid deflation occurs as magma flows out and pressure is reduced. Less is known about the deformation style at moderately active volcanoes, such as Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, where an explosive summit eruption of trachyandesite beginning on 14 April 2010 caused exceptional disruption to air traffic, closing airspace over much of Europe for days. This eruption was preceded by an effusive flank eruption of basalt from 20 March to 12 April 2010. The 2010 eruptions are the culmination of 18 years of intermittent volcanic unrest. Here we show that deformation associated with the eruptions was unusual because it did not relate to pressure changes within a single magma chamber. Deformation was rapid before the first eruption (>5 mm per day after 4 March), but negligible during it. Lack of distinct co-eruptive deflation indicates that the net volume of magma drained from shallow depth during this eruption was small; rather, magma flowed from considerable depth. Before the eruption, a ∼0.05 km(3) magmatic intrusion grew over a period of three months, in a temporally and spatially complex manner, as revealed by GPS (Global Positioning System) geodetic measurements and interferometric analysis of satellite radar images. The second eruption occurred within the ice-capped caldera of the volcano, with explosivity amplified by magma-ice interaction. Gradual contraction of a source, distinct from the pre-eruptive inflation sources, is evident from geodetic data. Eyjafjallajökull's behaviour can be attributed to its off-rift setting with a 'cold' subsurface structure and limited magma at shallow depth, as may be typical for moderately active volcanoes. Clear signs of volcanic unrest signals over years to weeks may indicate reawakening of such volcanoes, whereas immediate short-term eruption precursors may be subtle and difficult to detect. PMID:21085177

  9. The transition from diapirism to dike intrusion: Implications for planetary volcanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Allan M.

    1994-01-01

    Magma transport processes influence the rate of magma transport and how far the magma travels before it freezes, the degree to which the magma communicates chemically with the host rock, the morphology of volcanic landforms on planetary surfaces, the interplay between magmatism and regional tectonics, and even the direction the magma moves. The primary question motivating this research is: How does magma rheology influence the mechanisms by which it is transported through planetary lithospheres? It is widely recognized that on Earth basaltic intrusions typically take the form of narrow dikes, while granites are typically found in more equidimensional plutons. Several explanations for this observation were offered over the last 50 years. While basalts and rhyolites vary somewhat in temperature and density, the major difference is the 2 to 8 orders of magnitude contrast in viscosity. The significant ductile strains associated with many granitic plutons has led to the statement that the occurrence of granites in diapirs rather than dikes results from the fact that there is insufficient viscosity contrast between the magma and wall rock for the granite to intrude narrow cracks. A second explanation states that granites are so viscous that they cannot propagate far before freezing. Despite the length of time these explanations have been around, there has been relatively little effort to investigate them quantitatively. My goal has been to evaluate these explanations through a series of well-posed numerical models. These models can be tested by the decades of field data collected by structural geologists that have yet to be integrated into any coherent theory, and the results should have important implications for volcanism on the terrestrial planets.

  10. Magma ocean: Mechanisms of formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaula, W. M.

    1992-01-01

    The thermal state of the Earth at the time relevant to formation of a magma ocean was dominated by the great impact that created the Moon. As shown in computer experiments, the iron in the impacting bodies quickly sank to the core of the proto-Earth, while a significant fraction of silicates was pushed far enough out beyond the geosynchronous limit to constitute the main material of the Moon. Most of any atmosphere would have been pushed aside, rather than being expelled in the impact. However, the energy remaining in the material not going to the core or expelled was still sufficient to raise its temperature some 1000's of degrees, enough to vaporize silicates and to generate a strong 'planetary wind': a hydrodynamic expansion carrying with it virtually all volatiles plus appreciable silicates. This expansion was violent and uneven in its most energetic stage, but probably the resulting magma ocean was global. The duration, until cooling, was sufficient for silicates to condense to melt and the duration was probably short. Comparison of the Earth and Venus indicates that the great impact was extraordinarily effective in removing volatiles from the proto-Earth; in particular, the enormous differences in primordial inert gases between the planets demand a catastrophic difference in origin circumstances. On the other hand, the comparison limits the amount of silicates lost by the Earth to a rather minor fraction; most of that expelled in the wind must have condensed soon enough for the silicate to fall back to Earth or be swept up by the proto-Moon. So the Earth was left with a magma ocean. The question is whether sufficient water was retained to constitute a steam atmosphere. Probably not, but unknowns affecting this question are the efficiencies of outgassing in great impacts and in subsequent convective churnings deep in the mantle. During the stage when mantle convection is turbulent, an appreciable fraction of volatiles were also retained at depth, perhaps in

  11. Insight into Vent Opening Probability in Volcanic Calderas in the Light of a Sill Intrusion Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giudicepietro, Flora; Macedonio, G.; D'Auria, L.; Martini, M.

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss a novel approach to provide insights on the probability of vent opening in calderas, using a dynamic model of sill intrusion. The evolution of the stress field is the main factor that controls the vent opening processes in volcanic calderas. On the basis of previous studies, we think that the intrusion of sills is one of the most common mechanism governing caldera unrest. Therefore, we have investigated the spatial and temporal evolution of the stress field due to the emplacement of a sill at shallow depth to provide insight on vent opening probability. We carried out several numerical experiments by using a physical model, to assess the role of the magma properties (viscosity), host rock characteristics (Young's modulus and thickness), and dynamics of the intrusion process (mass flow rate) in controlling the stress field. Our experiments highlight that high magma viscosity produces larger stress values, while low magma viscosity leads to lower stresses and favors the radial spreading of the sill. Also high-rock Young's modulus gives high stress intensity, whereas low values of Young's modulus produce a dramatic reduction of the stress associated with the intrusive process. The maximum intensity of tensile stress is concentrated at the front of the sill and propagates radially with it, over time. In our simulations, we find that maximum values of tensile stress occur in ring-shaped areas with radius ranging between 350 m and 2500 m from the injection point, depending on the model parameters. The probability of vent opening is higher in these areas.

  12. Depth of origin of magma in eruptions

    PubMed Central

    Becerril, Laura; Galindo, Ines; Gudmundsson, Agust; Morales, Jose Maria

    2013-01-01

    Many volcanic hazard factors - such as the likelihood and duration of an eruption, the eruption style, and the probability of its triggering large landslides or caldera collapses - relate to the depth of the magma source. Yet, the magma source depths are commonly poorly known, even in frequently erupting volcanoes such as Hekla in Iceland and Etna in Italy. Here we show how the length-thickness ratios of feeder dykes can be used to estimate the depth to the source magma chamber. Using this method, accurately measured volcanic fissures/feeder-dykes in El Hierro (Canary Islands) indicate a source depth of 11–15 km, which coincides with the main cloud of earthquake foci surrounding the magma chamber associated with the 2011–2012 eruption of El Hierro. The method can be used on widely available GPS and InSAR data to calculate the depths to the source magma chambers of active volcanoes worldwide. PMID:24067336

  13. Gas-driven filter pressing in magmas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sisson, T.W.; Bacon, C.R.

    1999-01-01

    Most silicic and some mafic magmas expand via second boiling if they crystallize at depths of about 10 km or less. The buildup of gas pressure due to second boiling can be relieved by expulsion of melt out of the region of crystallization, and this process of gas-driven filter pressing assists the crystallization differentiation of magmas. For gas-driven filter pressing to be effective, the region of crystallization must inflate slowly relative to buildup of pressure and expulsion of melt These conditions are satisfied in undercooled magmatic inclusions and in thin sheets of primitive magma underplating cooler magma reservoirs. Gas-driven filter pressing thereby adds fractionated melt to magma bodies. Gas-driven filter pressing is probably the dominant process by which highly evolved melts segregate from crystal mush to form aplitic dikes in granitic plutons; this process could also account for the production of voluminous, crystal-poor rhyolites.

  14. Depth of origin of magma in eruptions.

    PubMed

    Becerril, Laura; Galindo, Ines; Gudmundsson, Agust; Morales, Jose Maria

    2013-01-01

    Many volcanic hazard factors--such as the likelihood and duration of an eruption, the eruption style, and the probability of its triggering large landslides or caldera collapses--relate to the depth of the magma source. Yet, the magma source depths are commonly poorly known, even in frequently erupting volcanoes such as Hekla in Iceland and Etna in Italy. Here we show how the length-thickness ratios of feeder dykes can be used to estimate the depth to the source magma chamber. Using this method, accurately measured volcanic fissures/feeder-dykes in El Hierro (Canary Islands) indicate a source depth of 11-15 km, which coincides with the main cloud of earthquake foci surrounding the magma chamber associated with the 2011-2012 eruption of El Hierro. The method can be used on widely available GPS and InSAR data to calculate the depths to the source magma chambers of active volcanoes worldwide. PMID:24067336

  15. More Evidence for Multiple Meteorite Magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2009-02-01

    Cosmochemists have identified six main compositional types of magma that formed inside asteroids during the first 100 million years of Solar System history. These magmas vary in their chemical and mineralogical make up, but all have in common low concentrations of sodium and other volatile elements. Our low-sodium-magma diet has now changed. Two groups of researchers have identified a new type of asteroidal magma that is rich in sodium and appears to have formed by partial melting of previously unmelted, volatile-rich chondritic rock. The teams, one led by James Day (University of Maryland) and the other by Chip Shearer (University of New Mexico), studied two meteorites found in Antarctica, named Graves Nunatak 06128 and 06129, using a battery of cosmochemical techniques. These studies show that an even wider variety of magmas was produced inside asteroids than we had thought, shedding light on the melting histories and formation of asteroids.

  16. Depth of origin of magma in eruptions.

    PubMed

    Becerril, Laura; Galindo, Ines; Gudmundsson, Agust; Morales, Jose Maria

    2013-09-26

    Many volcanic hazard factors--such as the likelihood and duration of an eruption, the eruption style, and the probability of its triggering large landslides or caldera collapses--relate to the depth of the magma source. Yet, the magma source depths are commonly poorly known, even in frequently erupting volcanoes such as Hekla in Iceland and Etna in Italy. Here we show how the length-thickness ratios of feeder dykes can be used to estimate the depth to the source magma chamber. Using this method, accurately measured volcanic fissures/feeder-dykes in El Hierro (Canary Islands) indicate a source depth of 11-15 km, which coincides with the main cloud of earthquake foci surrounding the magma chamber associated with the 2011-2012 eruption of El Hierro. The method can be used on widely available GPS and InSAR data to calculate the depths to the source magma chambers of active volcanoes worldwide.

  17. Diverse magma flow directions during construction of sheeted dike complexes at fast- to superfast-spreading centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horst, A. J.; Varga, R. J.; Gee, J. S.; Karson, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Dike intrusion is a fundamental process during upper oceanic crustal accretion at fast- to superfast-spreading ridges. Based on the distribution of magma along fast-spreading centers inferred from marine geophysical data, models predict systematic steep flow at magmatically robust segment centers and shallow magma flow toward distal segment ends. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) fabrics from 48 fully-oriented block samples of dikes from upper oceanic crust exposed at Hess Deep Rift and Pito Deep Rift reveal a wide range of magma flow directions that are not consistent with such simple magma supply models. The AMS is interpreted to arise from distribution anisotropy of titanomagnetite crystals based on weak shape-preferred orientation of opaque oxide and plagioclase crystals generally parallel to AMS maximum eigenvectors. Most dike samples show normal AMS fabrics with maximum eigenvector directions ranging from subvertical to subhorizontal. The distributions of inferred magma flow lineations from maximum eigenvectors show no preferred flow pattern, even after structural correction. We use a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (KS-test) to show that the distribution of bootstrapped flow lineation rakes from Pito Deep are not statistically distinct from Hess Deep, and neither are distinguishable from Oman and Troodos Ophiolite AMS data. Magma flow directions in sheeted dikes from these two seafloor escarpments also do not correlate with available geochemistry in any systematic way as previously predicted. These results indicate distinct compositional sources feed melt that is injected into dikes at fast- to superfast-spreading ridges with no preference for subhorizontal or subvertical magma flow. Collectively, results imply ephemeral melt lenses at different along-axis locations within the continuous axial magma chamber and either direct injection or intermingling of melt from other deeper ridge-centered or off-axis sources.

  18. Forecasting the failure of heterogeneous magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasseur, J.; Wadsworth, F. B.; Lavallée, Y.; Bell, A. F.; Main, I. G.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    Eruption prediction is a long-sought-after goal of volcanology. Yet applying existing techniques retrospectively (hindcasting), we fail to predict events more often than we success. As much of the seismicity associated with intermediate to silicic volcanic eruptions comes from the brittle response of the ascending magma itself, we clearly require a good understanding of the parameters that control the ability to forecast magma failure itself. Here, we present suites of controlled experiments at magmatic temperatures using a range of synthetic magmas to investigate the control of microstructures on the efficacy of forecast models for material failure. We find that the failure of magmas with very little microstructural heterogeneity - such as melts - is very challenging to predict; whereas, the failure of very heterogeneous magmas is always well-predicted. To shed further light on this issue, we provide a scaling law based on the relationship between the microstructural heterogeneity in a magma and the error in the prediction of its failure time. We propose this method be used to elucidate the variable success rate of predicting volcanic predictions. We discuss this scaling in the context of the birth, life and death of structural heterogeneity during magma ascent with specific emphasis on obsidian-forming eruptions such as Chaitèn, 2008. During such eruptions, the repetitive creation and destruction of fractures filled with granular magma, which are thought to be the in situ remnants of seismogenic fracturing itself, are expressions of the life-cycle of heterogeneity in an otherwise coherent, melt-rich magma. We conclude that the next generation of failure forecast tools available to monitoring teams should incorporate some acknowledgment of the magma microstructure and not be solely based on the geophysical signals prior to eruption.

  19. Magma chamber dynamics and Vesuvius eruption forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobran, F.

    2003-04-01

    Magma is continuously or periodically refilling an active volcano and its eruption depends on the mechanical, fluid, thermal, and chemical aspects of the magma storage region and its surroundings. A cyclically loaded and unloaded system can fail from a weakness in the system or its surroundings, and the fluctuating stresses can produce system failures at stress levels that are considerably below the yield strength of the material. Magma in a fractured rock system within a volcano is unstable and propagates toward the surface with the rate depending on the state of the system defined by the inertia, gravity, friction, and permeability parameters of magma and its source region. Cyclic loading and unloading of magma from a reservoir caused by small- or medium-scale eruptions of Vesuvius can produce catastrophic plinian eruptions because of the structural failure of the system and the quiescent periods between these eruptions increase with time until the next eruption cycle which will be plinian or subplinian and will occur with a very high probability this century. Such a system behavior is predicted by a Global Volcanic Simulator of Vesuvius developed for simulating different eruption scenarios for the purpose of urban planning the territory, reducing the number of people residing too close to the cone of the volcano, and providing safety to those beyond about 5 km radius of the crater. The magma chamber model of the simulator employs a thermomechanical model that includes magma inflow and outflow from the chamber, heat and mass transfer between the chamber and its surroundings, and thermoelastoplastic deformation of the shell surrounding the magma source region. These magma chamber, magma ascent, and pyroclastic dispersion models and Vesuvius eruption forecasting are described in Dobran, F., VOLCANIC PROCESSES, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2001, 590 pp.

  20. Recent remobilisation of shallow-level intrusions on Montserrat revealed by hydrogen isotope composition of amphiboles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harford, Chloe L.; Sparks, R. Stephen J.

    2001-02-01

    Ion probe measurements of hydrogen isotopes were made on amphiboles representing different stages of the ongoing eruption of the Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat. The majority (80%) of the andesitic amphiboles show relative intra- and inter-crystal δD homogeneity, with a mean of -38±12‰, consistent with known primary magmatic values. The remainder (20%) of amphiboles show marked δD heterogeneity, with a mean of -6±30‰. The heterogeneous amphiboles have ˜100 μm rims with δD values similar to the homogeneous crystals, but core values which are significantly heavier than primary magmatic values. Early in the eruption 50% of amphiboles are isotopically heterogeneous but post spring 1996 all amphiboles are homogeneous. We interpret these ion probe data in terms of development of a shallow andesitic magma chamber by repeated emplacement of andesitic magma in the shallow crust, over at least the last 100 yr. We suggest such shallow intrusions, emplaced during the volcano-seismic crises preceding the ongoing eruption, solidified. Some regions interacted with hydrothermal fluids and isotopic exchange took place generating the heavy hydrogen isotope signatures in the heterogeneous amphiboles. On onset of the ongoing eruption, such old igneous material was remobilised, with intimate mixing between the new magma batch and the old intrusions indicated by the close proximity of homogeneous and heterogeneous crystals. The isotopically primary magmatic rims on the heterogeneous crystals indicate hydrogen isotope exchange over a period of a few weeks, consistent with timescales of magma ascent at the Soufrière Hills Volcano. Once the old igneous material was flushed out, by spring 1996, the eruption proceeded by extruding material dominated by the new batch of magma. This resulted in a marked increase in extrusion rate.

  1. Magma generation on Mars - Amounts, rates, and comparisons with earth, moon, and Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Schneid, Byron D.

    1991-01-01

    Total extrusive and intrusive magma generated on Mars over the last approximately 3.8 billion years is estimated at 654 x 10 exp 6 cubic kilometers, or 0.17 cubic kilometers per year, substantially less than rates for earth (26 to 34 cu/km yr) and Venus (less than 20 cu/km yr) but much more than for the moon (0.025 cu/km yr). When scaled to earth's mass the Martian rate is much smaller than that for earth or Venus and slightly smaller than for the moon.

  2. Flank collapse triggered by intrusion: the Canarian and Cape Verde Archipelagoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsworth, Derek; Day, Simon J.

    1999-12-01

    The potential to develop kilometer-scale instabilities on the flanks of intraplate volcanoes, typified by the Canary and Cape Verde Archipelagoes, is investigated. A primary triggering agent is forced injection of moderate-scale dikes, resulting in the concurrent development of mechanical and thermal fluid pressures along the basal décollement, and magmastatic pressures at the dike interface. These additive effects are shown capable of developing shallow-seated block instabilities for dike thicknesses of the order of 1 m, and horizontal lengths greater than about 1 km. For dikes that approach or penetrate the surface, and are greater in length than this threshold, the destabilizing influence of the magmastatic column is significant, and excess pore fluid pressures may not be necessary to initiate failure. The potentially destabilized block geometry changes from a flank-surface-parallel sliver for short dikes, to a deeper and less stable décollement as dike horizontal length builds and the effects of block lateral restraint diminish. For intrusions longer than about 1 km, the critical basal décollement dives below the water table and utilizes the complementary destabilizing influences of pore fluid pressures and magma "push" at the rear block-scarp. In addition to verifying the plausibility of suprahydrostatic pressures as capable of triggering failure on these volcanoes, timing of the onset of maximum instability may also be tracked. For events within the Cumbre Vieja (1949) and Fogo (1951, 1995) pre-effusive episodes, the observation of seismic activity within the first 1 week to 4 months is consistent with the predictions of thermal and mechanical pressurization.

  3. Oxygen isotope study of the Long Valley magma system, California: isotope thermometry and convection in large silicic magma bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindeman, Ilya; Valley, John

    2002-07-01

    Products of voluminous pyroclastic eruptions with eruptive draw-down of several kilometers provide a snap-shot view of batholith-scale magma chambers, and quench pre-eruptive isotopic fractionations (i.e., temperatures) between minerals. We report analyses of oxygen isotope ratio in individual quartz phenocrysts and concentrates of magnetite, pyroxene, and zircon from individual pumice clasts of ignimbrite and fall units of caldera-forming 0.76 Ma Bishop Tuff (BT), pre-caldera Glass Mountain (2.1-0.78 Ma), and post-caldera rhyolites (0.65-0.04 Ma) to characterize the long-lived, batholith-scale magma chamber beneath Long Valley Caldera in California. Values of δ18O show a subtle 1‰ decrease from the oldest Glass Mountain lavas to the youngest post-caldera rhyolites. Older Glass Mountain lavas exhibit larger ( 1‰) variability of δ18O(quartz). The youngest domes of Glass Mountain are similar to BT in δ18O(quartz) values and reflect convective homogenization during formation of BT magma chamber surrounded by extremely heterogeneous country rocks (ranging from 2 to +29‰). Oxygen isotope thermometry of BT confirms a temperature gradient between "Late" (815 °C) and "Early" (715 °C) BT. The δ18O(quartz) values of "Early" and "Late" BT are +8.33 and 8.21‰, consistent with a constant δ18O(melt)=7.8+/-0.1‰ and 100 °C temperature difference. Zircon-melt saturation equilibria gives a similar temperature range. Values of δ18O(quartz) for different stratigraphic units of BT, and in pumice clasts ranging in pre-eruptive depths from 6 to 11 km (based on melt inclusions), and document vertical and lateral homogeneity of δ18O(melt). Worldwide, five other large-volume rhyolites, Lava Creek, Lower Bandelier, Fish Canyon, Cerro Galan, and Toba, exhibit equal δ18O(melt) values of earlier and later erupted portions in each of the these climactic caldera-forming eruptions. We interpret the large-scale δ18O homogeneity of BT and other large magma chambers as evidence

  4. Gas emissions due to magma-sediment interactions during flood magmatism at the Siberian Traps: Gas dispersion and environmental consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacono-Marziano, Giada; Marecal, Virginie; Pirre, Michel; Gaillard, Fabrice; Arteta, Joaquim; Scaillet, Bruno; Arndt, Nicholas T.

    2012-12-01

    We estimate the fluxes of extremely reduced gas emissions produced during the emplacement of the Siberian Traps large igneous province, due to magma intrusion in the coaliferous sediments of the Tunguska Basin. Using the results of a companion paper (Iacono-Marziano et al., accepted for publication), and a recent work about low temperature interaction between magma and organic matter (Svensen et al., 2009), we calculate CO-CH4-dominated gas emission rates of 7×1015-2×1016 g/yr for a single magmatic/volcanic event. These fluxes are 7-20 times higher than those calculated for purely magmatic gas emissions, in the absence of interaction with organic matter-rich sediments. We investigate, by means of atmospheric modelling employing present geography of Siberia, the short and mid-term dispersion of these gas emissions into the atmosphere. The lateral propagation of CO and CH4 leads to an important perturbation of the atmosphere chemistry, consisting in a strong reduction of the radical OH concentration. As a consequence, both CO and CH4 lifetimes in the lower atmosphere are enhanced by a factor of at least 3, at the continental scale, as a consequence of 30 days of magmatic activity. The short-term effect of the injection of carbon monoxide and methane into the atmosphere is therefore to increase the residence times of these two species and, in turn, their capacity of geographic expansion. The estimated CO and CH4 volume mixing ratios (i.e. the number of molecules of CO or CH4 per cm3, divided by the total number of molecules per cm3) in the low atmosphere are 2-5 ppmv at the continental scale and locally higher than 50 ppmv. The dimension of the area affected by these high volume mixing ratios decreases in the presence of a lava flow accompanying magma intrusion at depth. Complementary calculations for a 10-yr duration of the magmatic activity suggest (i) an increase in the mean CH4 volume mixing ratio of the whole atmosphere up to values 3-15 times higher than the

  5. How do crystal-rich magmas outgas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheimer, Julie; Cashman, Katharine V.; Rust, Alison C.; Sandnes, Bjornar

    2014-05-01

    Crystals can occupy ~0 to 100% of the total magma volume, but their role in outgassing remains poorly understood. In particular, the upper half of this spectrum - when the particles touch - involves complex flow behaviours that inevitably affect the geometry and rate of gas migration. We use analogue experiments to examine the role of high particle concentrations on outgassing mechanisms. Mixtures of sugar syrup and glass beads are squeezed between two glass plates to allow observations in 2D. The experiments are performed horizontally, so buoyancy does not intervene, and the suspensions are allowed to expand laterally. Gas flow regimes are mapped out for two sets of experiments: foams generated by chemical reactions, and single air bubbles injected into the particle suspension. Chemically induced bubble nucleation and growth throughout the suspension gradually generated a foam and allowed observations of bubble growth and migration as the foam developed. High particle fractions, close to the random maximum packing, reduced foam expansion (i.e. promoted outgassing). In the early phases of the experiments, they caused a flushing of bubbles from the system which did not occur at low crystal contents. High particle fractions also led to melt segregation and phase re-arrangements, eventually focusing gas escape through connected channels. A more in-depth study of particle-bubble interactions was carried out for single bubbles expanding in a mush. These show a clear change in behaviour close to the limit for loose maximum packing of dry beads, determined experimentally. At concentrations below loose packing, gas expands in a fingering pattern, characterized by a steady advance of widening lobes. This transits to a 'pseudo-fracturing' regime at or near loose packing, whereby gas advances at a point, often in an episodic manner, and outgases with little to no bulk expansion. However, before they can degas, pseudo-fractures typically build up larger internal gas pressures

  6. Snapshots from deep magma chambers: decoding field observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Campos, Cristina P.

    2014-05-01

    During the post-orogenic stage of a Neoproterozoic orogen (Araçuaí-West Congo), inversely zoned calc-alkaline to alkaline plutonic structures intruded previous geologic units. Structural measurements, mapping of flow patterns and additional geochemical and isotopic data point towards different compositional domains which have been generated during a time span between 20 to 30 Ma. The result from decades of mapping revealed the architecture of ca. 10 large plutons in more détail. This work will focus on the dynamics of magmatic interaction for six different plutons ranging from c.20 to 200 km2 in outcropping area. Conclusions are based on already published and new unpublished data aiming the state of the art. In the silica-richer structures concentric fragmented and folded layers of granite in a K-basaltic matrix contrast with predominant more homogeneous K-basaltic to gabbroic regions. These may be separated by stretched filament regions (magmatic shear zones) where mixing has been enhanced resulting in hybrid compositions. Locally sharp and pillow-like contacts between granitic and K-basaltic rocks depict a frozen-in situation of different intrusive episodes. In the silica-poorer plutonic bodies gradational contacts are more frequent and may be the result of convection enhanced diffusion. For all plutons, however, mostly sub-vertical internal contacts between most- and least-differentiated rocks suggest generation from predominat large magma bodies of variable composition which crystallized while crossing the middle to lower crust (< 25 km depth). They have been catch in the act on their way up. Accordingly mushroom- to funnel-like magma-chambers and/or conduits could register snapshots of the interaction dynamics between granitic and noritic/dioritic or syeno-monzonitic and gabbroic magmas. Different compositional domains within different plutons suggest distinct kinematics. Nevertheless all studied plutons provide outstanding evidence for mixing, not only

  7. Evidence for dynamic withdrawal from a layered magma body: The Topopah Spring Tuff, southwestern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Schuraytz, B. C.; Vogel, T. A.; Younker, L. W.

    1989-05-10

    The Topopah Spring Tuff is a classic example of a compositionally zoned ash flow sheet resulting from eruption of a compositionally zoned magma body. Geochemical and petrographic analyses of whole rock tuff samples indicate that the base of the ash flow sheet and the predominant volume of erupted material consist of crystal-poor high-silica rhyolite, with agradational transition into overlying crystal-rich quartz latite. However, major and trace element analyses of glassy pumice lumps and microprobe analyses of their silicate and oxide phenocrysts provide closer approximations of the chemical and thermal gradients within the magma body. The gradients inferred from these data indicate that the transition from high-silica rhyolitic to quartz latitic magma within the chamber was abrupt, rather than gradational, with a distinct liquid-liquid interface separating the contrasting magma layers. Compositionally and texturally distinct pumice lumps are present throughout the ash flow sheet. The degree of heterogeneity within and among pumice lumps increases with stratigraphic height, becoming most pronounced in the uppermost quartz latite, where the chemical variability among pumice lumps is as great as that of the entire ash flow sheet. These observations are consistent with fluid dynamic models in which the velocity field developed near the entrance region of the vent(s) results in simultaneous withdrawal of magma from all points of a continuously expanding lateral and vertical region within the chamber. The abrupt transition to chemically bimodal pumice types near the top of the ash flowsheet, dominated by those of quartz latitic composition, implies that the interface between the magma layers remained relatively stable until drawdown breached the interface and preferentially erupted hotter, more mafic magma along with lesser amounts of remaining high-silica rhyolitic magma.

  8. Triggers on sulfide saturation in Fe-Ti oxide-bearing, mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions in the Tarim large igneous province, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jun; Wang, Christina Yan; Xu, Yi-Gang; Xing, Chang-Ming; Ren, Ming-Hao

    2016-08-01

    Three Fe-Ti oxide-bearing layered intrusions (Mazaertag, Wajilitag, and Piqiang) in the Tarim large igneous province (NW China) have been investigated for understanding the relationship of sulfide saturation, Platinum-group element (PGE) enrichment, and Fe-Ti oxide accumulation in layered intrusions. These mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions have low PGE concentrations (<0.4 ppb Os, <0.7 ppb Ir, <1 ppb Ru, <0.2 ppb Rh, <5 ppb Pt, and <8 ppb Pd) and elevated Cu/Pd (2.2 × 104 to 3.3 × 106). The low PGE concentrations of the rocks are mainly attributed to PGE-depleted, parental magma that was produced by low degrees of partial melting of the mantle. The least contaminated rocks of the Mazaertag and Wajilitag intrusions have slightly enriched Os isotopic compositions with γOs(t = 280 Ma) values ranging from +13 to +23, indicating that the primitive magma may have been generated from a convecting mantle, without appreciable input of lithospheric mantle. The Mazaertag and Wajilitag intrusions have near-chondritic γOs(t) values (+13 to +60) against restricted ɛ Nd(t) values (-0.4 to +2.8), indicating insignificant crustal contamination. Rocks of the Piqiang intrusion have relatively low ɛ Nd(t) values of -3.1 to +1.0, consistent with ˜15 to 25 % assimilation of the upper crust. The rocks of the Mazaertag and Wajilitag intrusions have positive correlation of PGE and S, pointing to the control of PGE by sulfide. Poor correlation of PGE and S for the Piqiang intrusion is attributed to the involvement of multiple sulfide-stage liquids with different PGE compositions or sulfide-oxide reequilibration on cooling. These three layered intrusions have little potential of reef-type PGE mineralization. Four criteria are summarized in this study to help discriminate between PGE-mineralized and PGE-unmineralized mafic-ultramafic intrusions.

  9. A Long-Lived Porphyry Ore Deposit and Associated Upper Crustal Silicic Magma Body, Bajo de la Alumbrera, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, A. C.; Allen, C. M.; Reiners, P. W.; Dunlap, W. J.; Cooke, D. R.; Campbell, I. H.; White, N. C.

    2004-05-01

    Porphyry Cu deposits form within and adjacent to small porphyritic intrusions that are apophyses to larger silicic magma bodies that reside in the upper parts of the Earth's crusts. Centred on these intrusions are hydrothermal systems of exsolved magmatic fluid with a carapace of convectively circulating meteoric water. We have applied several different dating techniques to assess the longevity of the magmatic-hydrothermal system and to define the cooling history of porphyry intrusions at the Bajo de la Alumbrera porphyry Cu-Au deposit, Argentina. The closure temperatures of these techniques range from 800oC (zircon U-Pb) to ~70oC (apatite (U-Th)/He; Fig. 1). The resulting cooling history indicates that the magmatic-hydrothermal system cooled to ca. 200oC by ~1.5 m.y. after the last porphyry intrusion (i.e., 6.96±0.09 Ma; U-Pb zircon age). Based on (U-Th)/He apatite data (closure temperature ~60-70oC), exposure and cessation of the system occurred before 4 Ma. The longevity of the magmatic-hydrothermal system indicated by these results is inconsistent with accepted mechanisms for porphyry Cu deposit formation. Depending on wallrock permeability, depth and cooling method, a 2 km wide by 3 km high intrusion has been predicted to cool between 0.01 to 0.1 m.y. (marked as the grey interval; Cathles et al., 1997 Economic Geology). We have obtained numerous age determinations younger than the U-Pb zircon age of the last known intrusion at Bajo de la Alumbrera. These imply that simple cooling of the small, mineralized porphyries did not happen. For the magmatic-hydrothermal system to have been sustained for longer than 0.1 m.y., either 1) younger small intrusions have been episodically emplaced below the youngest known intrusions, thus prolonging heat flow, or 2) fluids derived from a deeper and larger parental intrusion have been episodically discharged through the ore deposit long after the porphyry intrusion had lost its available heat. In either case, the longevity of

  10. Time to Solidify an Ocean of Magma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2009-03-01

    Cosmochemists are reasonably sure that a global ocean of magma surrounded the Moon when it formed. This was a monumentally important event in lunar history, forming the primary feldspar-rich crust of the lunar highlands and setting the stage for subsequent melting inside the Moon to make additional crustal rocks. Numerous questions remain about the complex array of processes that could have operated in such a huge amount of magma, and about how long it took to solidify the magma ocean. Alex Nemchin and colleagues at Curtin University of Technology (Australia), Westfailische Wilhelms-Universitat (Munster, Germany), and the Johnson Space Center (Houston, Texas, USA) dated a half-millimeter grain of the mineral zircon (ZrSiO4) in an impact melt breccia from the Apollo 17 landing site. They used an ion microprobe to measure the concentrations of lead and uranium isotopes in the crystal, finding that one portion of the grain recorded an age of 4.417 ± 0.006 billion years. Because zircon does not crystallize until more than 95% of the magma ocean has crystallized, this age effectively marks the end of magma ocean crystallization. Magma ocean cooling and crystallization began soon after the Moon-forming giant impact. Other isotopic studies show that this monumental event occurred 4.517 billion years ago. Thus, the difference between the two ages means that the magma ocean took 100 million years to solidify.

  11. Ground surface deformation patterns, magma supply, and magma storage at Okmok volcano, Alaska, from InSAR analysis: 2. Coeruptive deflation, July-August 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhong; Dzurisin, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    A hydrovolcanic eruption near Cone D on the floor of Okmok caldera, Alaska, began on 12 July 2008 and continued until late August 2008. The eruption was preceded by inflation of a magma reservoir located beneath the center of the caldera and ˜3 km below sea level (bsl), which began immediately after Okmok's previous eruption in 1997. In this paper we use data from several radar satellites and advanced interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) techniques to produce a suite of 2008 coeruption deformation maps. Most of the surface deformation that occurred during the eruption is explained by deflation of a Mogi-type source located beneath the center of the caldera and 2-3 km bsl, i.e., essentially the same source that inflated prior to the eruption. During the eruption the reservoir deflated at a rate that decreased exponentially with time with a 1/e time constant of ˜13 days. We envision a sponge-like network of interconnected fractures and melt bodies that in aggregate constitute a complex magma storage zone beneath Okmok caldera. The rate at which the reservoir deflates during an eruption may be controlled by the diminishing pressure difference between the reservoir and surface. A similar mechanism might explain the tendency for reservoir inflation to slow as an eruption approaches until the pressure difference between a deep magma production zone and the reservoir is great enough to drive an intrusion or eruption along the caldera ring-fracture system.

  12. Ground surface deformation patterns, magma supply, and magma storage at Okmok volcano, Alaska, from InSAR analysis: 2. Coeruptive deflation, July-August 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhong; Dzurisin, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A hydrovolcanic eruption near Cone D on the floor of Okmok caldera, Alaska, began on 12 July 2008 and continued until late August 2008. The eruption was preceded by inflation of a magma reservoir located beneath the center of the caldera and ~3 km below sea level (bsl), which began immediately after Okmok's previous eruption in 1997. In this paper we use data from several radar satellites and advanced interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) techniques to produce a suite of 2008 coeruption deformation maps. Most of the surface deformation that occurred during the eruption is explained by deflation of a Mogi-type source located beneath the center of the caldera and 2–3 km bsl, i.e., essentially the same source that inflated prior to the eruption. During the eruption the reservoir deflated at a rate that decreased exponentially with time with a 1/e time constant of ~13 days. We envision a sponge-like network of interconnected fractures and melt bodies that in aggregate constitute a complex magma storage zone beneath Okmok caldera. The rate at which the reservoir deflates during an eruption may be controlled by the diminishing pressure difference between the reservoir and surface. A similar mechanism might explain the tendency for reservoir inflation to slow as an eruption approaches until the pressure difference between a deep magma production zone and the reservoir is great enough to drive an intrusion or eruption along the caldera ring-fracture system.

  13. Surface deformation versus eruption rates of the two Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruptions; implications for the magma plumbing system and origin of melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, R.; Sigmundsson, F.; Hreinsdottir, S.; Arnadottir, T.; Hoskuldsson, A.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Magnusson, E.

    2010-12-01

    Repeated geodetic measurements reveal how active volcanoes deform at the surface, and data inversion facilitates inferences about the related volume changes of underlying deformation sources. During an eruption, drainage from a shallow magma chamber can lead to direct correlation between magma flow rate and deformation rates, as observed previously in Iceland. In the simplest case, a constant scale factor relates magma flow rates, deformation rates on the surface, and inferred volume contraction of subsurface sources. The scale factor will depend on magma source geometry, compressibility of residing magma and rheological properties of the crustal rocks. During the two eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland, in 2010 an entirely different behaviour was observed. This behaviour may be related to the rather unique plumbing system of this particular Icelandic volcano, which appears to have no shallow magma chamber. For the initial flank eruption, where olivine basalt were erupted during a period of about 3 weeks, the average eruption rate was comparable to the inferred flow rate during formation of a pre-eruptive network of intrusions. Detailed GPS and InSAR measurements have revealed a model for the subsurface magma plumbing system active prior to and during the events with multiple sills around 5 km depth. Such intrusions have occurred intermittently in this particular volcano for the past 18 years. During the subsequent explosive trachy-andesitic summit eruption, the relation between deformation rate and magma flow rate is more complex. A large discrepancy exists between the inferred erupted volume and the computed volume change based on the associated surface deformation. When recalculated to dense rock equivalent, the inferred volume change responsible for the main deformation is about one order of magnitude smaller than the sum of mapped erupted volumes. Furthermore, the spatial pattern of the deformation is complex, and not directly related to the

  14. Hybridization of granitic magmas in the source: The origin of the Karakoram Batholith, Ladakh, NW India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichardt, H.; Weinberg, R. F.; Andersson, U. B.; Fanning, C. M.

    2010-05-01

    Many magmatic bodies have a hybrid isotopic signature suggesting that somewhere during genesis, transport and emplacement, magmas assimilated other rocks or mixed with other magmas. Where and how hybridization takes place is seldom documented. Here, we investigate a magmatic system in the Eastern Karakoram, Ladakh, NW India, comprising an anatectic zone, and a network of sheets, stocks and plutons exposed in the Pangong Metamorphic Complex within the Karakoram Shear Zone, as well as the Karakoram Batholith. These granitic rocks have an isotopic signature indicative of a mixture between mantle and crustal sources. In the anatectic region, calc-alkaline granitoids and their meta-sedimentary country rocks underwent water-fluxed partial melting at upper amphibolite facies between 20 and 14 Ma ago. Anatexis gave rise to leucosomes and intrusive rocks that have a range in composition from leucotonalite to leucogranite. Those related to the partial melting of calc-alkaline rocks contain hornblende, whereas those related to Bt-psammites contain two micas ± garnet. Leucosomes rooting in different source rocks merge with each other and homogenize as they link up to form a hierarchy of magma channels, feeding into stocks, plutons and ultimately into the Karakoram Batholith. This interpretation is supported by Sr and Nd isotopes. Initial 87Sr/ 86Sr and ɛNd values are distinct for each of the magma protoliths in the anatectic zone and for the magmatic products. Calc-alkaline granitoids have initial 87Sr/ 86Sr = 0.7042 to 0.7077 and ɛNd = + 0.6 to + 2.4, indicative of a slightly depleted mantle source region. This is in contrast to the meta-sedimentary rocks that yield initial 87Sr/ 86Sr = 0.7115 to 0.7161 and ɛNd = - 10.0 to - 9.6, suggesting a stronger crustal component. Leucogranitic rocks, including a variety of leucosomes in the anatectic zone and samples from the Karakoram Batholith, yield intermediate values of initial 87Sr/ 86Sr = 0.7076 to 0.7121 and ɛNd = - 3.6 to

  15. Data Mining for Intrusion Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhal, Anoop; Jajodia, Sushil

    Data Mining Techniques have been successfully applied in many different fields including marketing, manufacturing, fraud detection and network management. Over the past years there is a lot of interest in security technologies such as intrusion detection, cryptography, authentication and firewalls. This chapter discusses the application of Data Mining techniques to computer security. Conclusions are drawn and directions for future research are suggested.

  16. Workshop on Magmatic Processes of Early Planetary Crusts: Magma Oceans and Stratiform Layered Intrusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, D. (Editor); Mccallum, I. S. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The significance of the lunar highland pristine cumulate samples were reevaluated with the aid of the additional insights provided by geologically constrained terrestrial investigations. This exercise involved a review of the state of knowledge about terrestrial and lunar cumulate rocks as well as an enumeration and reevaluation of the processes hypothesized to have been responsible for their formation, both classically and at present.

  17. Timescale of Petrogenetic Processes Recorded in the Mount Perkins Magma System, Northern Colorado River Extension Corridor, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, Lisa R.; Metcalf, Rodney V.; Miller, Calvin F.; Rhodes Gregory T.; Wooden, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    The Miocene Mt. Perkins Pluton is a small composite intrusive body emplaced in the shallow crust as four separate phases during the earliest stages of crustal extension. Phase 1 (oldest) consists of isotropic hornblende gabbro and a layered cumulate sequence. Phase 2 consists of quartz monzonite to quartz monzodiorite hosting mafic microgranitoid enclaves. Phase 3 is composed of quartz monzonite and is subdivided into mafic enclave-rich zones and enclave-free zones. Phase 4 consists of aphanitic dikes of mafic, intermediate and felsic compositions hosting mafic enclaves. Phases 2-4 enclaves record significant isotopic disequilibrium with surrounding granitoid host rocks, but collectively enclaves and host rocks form a cogenetic suite exhibiting systematic variations in Nd-Sr-Pb isotopes that correlate with major and trace elements. Phases 2-4 record multiple episodes of magma mingling among cogenetic hybrid magmas that formed via magma mixing and fractional crystallization at a deeper crustal. The mafic end-member was alkali basalt similar to nearby 6-4 Ma basalt with enriched OIB-like trace elements and Nd-Sr-Pb isotopes. The felsic end-member was a subalkaline crustal-derived magma. Phase 1 isotropic gabbro exhibits elemental and isotopic compositional variations at relatively constant SiO2, suggesting generation of isotropic gabbro by an open-system process involving two mafic end-members. One end-member is similar in composition to the OIB-like mafic end-member for phases 2-4; the second is similar to nearby 11-8 Ma tholeiite basalt exhibiting low epsilon (sub Nd), and depleted incompatible trace elements. Phase 1 cumulates record in situ fractional crystallization of an OIB-like mafic magma with isotopic evidence of crustal contamination by partial melts generated in adjacent Proterozoic gneiss. The Mt Perkins pluton records a complex history in a lithospheric scale magma system involving two distinct mantle-derived mafic magmas and felsic magma sourced in the

  18. The growth history of the Lago Della Vacca (Southern Adamello Massive, Italy) intrusion from field observations, thermal and rheological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rust, A.; Annen, C.; Blundy, J. D.; Caricchi, L.

    2010-12-01

    The Lago Della Vacca granitoid is an intrusive body emplaced at about 4-6 km in up to 1 My. The core of the body is characterised by the presence of dyke-like structures, enclave-swarms and randomly distributed enclaves, which appear undeformed. Enclaves become oblate with the short axis perpendicular to the foliation, which, in turn follows the margin of the plutonic body (John and Blundy, 1993). Geothermometry and experimental data have been used to constrain the temperature of injection of the mafic component (1273-1323 K), the temperature of the host granitic magma (1173-1223), and to characterise the evolution of crystallinity with temperature for both magmas (Blundy and Sparks, 1992). Based on these data thermal and rheological modelling have been combined to interpret the growth and deformation history of the Lago della Vacca intrusive body. The pluton was modeled as a series of incrementally emplaced nested cylinders with 1D-cylindrical conductive heat transfer. The evolution of temperature and melt fraction distribution in the pluton and country rock were determined and used as input parameters for the rheological modelling. The rheology of each magma depends on the viscosity of the melt and, more importantly, on crystallinity. Field observations suggest that the mafic magma was injected as dykes. Their partial or total disaggregation produced mafic enclaves. The presence of randomly distributed enclaves in the core of Lago Della Vacca body indicates that convection was active in this portion of the intrusion. The undeformed nature of the enclaves in this region also implies that the contrast in temperature between host magma and mafic material produced a sudden (hours) rheological inversion with the mafic magma becoming more viscous than the felsic end-member. In these conditions, the enclaves would be transported passively by the felsic-host without suffering any substantial deformation. Thermal modelling indicates that to maintain the core of the pluton

  19. The Fish Canyon magma body, San Juan volcanic field, Colorado: Rejuvenation and eruption of an upper-crustal batholith

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bachmann, Olivier; Dungan, M.A.; Lipman, P.W.

    2002-01-01

    More than 5000 km3 of nearly compositionally homogeneous crystalrich dacite (~68 wt % SiO2: ~45% Pl + Kfs + Qtz + Hbl + Bt + Spn + Mag + Ilm + Ap + Zrn + Po) erupted from the Fish Canyon magma body during three phases: (1) the pre-caldera Pagosa Peak Dacite (an unusual poorly fragmented pyroclastic deposit, ~ 200 km3); (2) the syn-collapse Fish Canyon Tuff (one of the largest known ignimbrites, ~ 5000 km3); (3) the post-collapse Nutras Creek Dacite (a volumetrically minor lava). The late evolution of the Fish Canyon magma is characterized by rejuvenation of a near-solidus upper-crustal intrusive body (mainly crystal mush) of batholithic dimensions. The necessary thermal input was supplied by a shallow intrusion of more mafic magma represented at the surface by sparse andesitic enclaves in late-erupted Fish Canyon Tuff and by the post-caldera Huerto Andesite. The solidified margins of this intrusion are represented by holocrystalline xenoliths with Fish Canyon mineralogy and mineral chemistry and widely dispersed partially remelted polymineralic aggregates, but dehydration melting was not an important mechanism in the rejuvenation of the Fish Canyon magma. Underlying mafic magma may have evolved H2O-F-S-Cl-rich fluids that fluxed melting in the overlying crystal mush. Manifestations of the late up-temperature magma evolution are: (1) resorbed quartz, as well as feldspars displaying a wide spectrum of textures indicative of both resorption and growth, including Rapakivi textures and reverse growth zoning (An27-28 to An32-33) at the margins of many plagioclase phenocrysts; (2) high Sr, Ba, and Eu contents in the high-SiO2 rhyolite matrix glass, which are inconsistent with extreme fractional crystallization of feldspar; (3) oscillatory and reverse growth zoning toward the margins of many euhedral hornblende phenocrysts (rimward increases from ~5??5-6 to 7??7-8??5 wt % Al2O3). Homogeneity in magma composition at the chamber-wide scale, contrasting with extreme textural

  20. Amphibole-rich intrusive mafic and ultramafic rocks in arc settings: implications for the H2O budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiepolo, M.; Langone, A.; Morishita, T.; Esna-Ashari, A.; Tribuzio, R.

    2011-12-01

    Although amphibole is rarely a phenocryst of arc lavas, many intermediate and silicic magmas in arc settings are considered residual after cryptic amphibole crystallization at mid-low crustal levels (e.g., Davidson et al., 2007). Amphibole-rich mafic and ultramafic intrusive rocks (hornblendites, amphibole-gabbros to amphibole-diorites) are reported worldwide in orogenic settings. These amphibole-rich plutonics could be the "hidden" amphibole reservoir invoked in the arc crust. They usually possess chemical and textural heterogeneities recording the magmatic processes occurring in the mid to low crust (e.g., Tiepolo et al., 2011). Being amphibole-rich, these intrusive rocks are an important source of information on the possible role played by amphibole in arc magma petrogenesis. In particular, for the capability of amphibole to incorporate H2O and elements with a marked affinity for the fluid phase, these rocks are also useful to track the origin and evolution of subduction related fluids. We present here geochemical and geochronologic data on amphibole-rich ultramafic intrusive rocks from different localities worldwide: i) Alpine Orogen (Adamello Batholith and Bregell intrusions); ii) Ross Orogen (Husky Ridge intrusion - Antarctica); iv) Japan Arc (Shikanoshima Island intrusion); v) Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, Central Iran (Aligoordaz granitoid complex). The coupling of textural information, micro-chemical data and "in situ" zircon geochronology has allowed us to show that these ultramafic intrusive rocks share striking petrologic and geochemical similarities. They are thus the expression of a common magmatic activity that is independent from the age and from the local geological setting and thus related to a specific petrogenetic process. Amphibole-rich mafic and ultramafic intrusive rocks are retained a common feature of collisional-systems worldwide. Amphibole is thus expected to play a major role in the differentiation of arc magmas and in particular in the H2O

  1. Emplacement and magnetic fabrics of rapakivi granite intrusions within Wiborg and Åland rapakivi granite batholiths in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karell, Fredrik; Ehlers, Carl; Airo, Meri-Liisa

    2014-02-01

    Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) studies were carried out in two areas in Finland: the Ruotsinpyhtää intrusion within the Wiborg rapakivi granite batholith and the Saltvik intrusions within the Åland rapakivi granite batholith. The main aim of this study was to understand the emplacement history of these mid-Proterozoic rapakivi granites. Aeromagnetic images reveal structures of ca. 5-10 km intrusions that build up the large rapakivi granite batholiths of Åland and Wiborg. Magnetic susceptibility data from the database of the Geological Survey of Finland, including more than 1700 samples from the Wiborg rapakivi batholith and almost 900 samples from the Åland rapakivi batholith, were compared with measurements from the present study. The mean susceptibility is ca. 1500 μSI for the Wiborg batholith and ca. 10,000 μSI for the Åland batholith. Samples taken for this study demonstrate that the mean value for the Ruotsinpyhtää intrusion is ca. 1200 μSI and for the Saltvik intrusions ca. 24,000 μSI. Thermomagnetic measurements reveal that the magnetic susceptibility is mainly derived either from paramagnetic minerals or from magnetite. The absence of solid-state deformation features such as breccia or contact deformation indicates a cauldron-type subsidence emplacement. The AMS measurements from Ruotsinpyhtää confirm these proposals, with concentric gently dipping magnetic foliations that support a ring complex structure above a piston-type subsidence system. The Saltvik area consists of a number of smaller elliptical intrusions of different rapakivi granites forming a multiple intrusive complex. The magnetic fabric shows a general westward dipping of the pyterlite and eastward dipping of the contiguous even-grained rapakivi granite, which indicates a central inflow of magma batches towards the east and west resulting from a laccolitic emplacement of magma batches, while the main mechanism for space creation was derived from subsidence.

  2. Rapid dike intrusion into Sakurajima volcano on August 15, 2015, as detected by multi-parameter ground deformation observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotta, Kohei; Iguchi, Masato; Tameguri, Takeshi

    2016-04-01

    We present observations of ground deformation at Sakurajima in August 2015 and model the deformation using a combination of GNSS, tilt and strain data in order to interpret a rapid deformation event on August 15, 2015. The pattern of horizontal displacement during the period from August 14 to 16, 2015, shows a WNW-ESE extension, which suggests the opening of a dike. Using a genetic algorithm, we obtained the position, dip, strike length, width and opening of a dislocation source based on the combined data. A nearly vertical dike with a NNE-SSW strike was found at a depth of 1.0 km below sea level beneath the Showa crater. The length and width are 2.3 and 0.6 km, respectively, and a dike opening of 1.97 m yields a volume increase of 2.7 × 106 m3. 887 volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes beside the dike suggest that the rapid opening of the dike caused an accumulation of strain in the surrounding rocks, and the VT earthquakes were generated to release this strain. Half of the total amount of deformation was concentrated between 10:27 and 11:54 on August 15. It is estimated that the magma intrusion rate was 1 × 106 m3/h during this period. This is 200 times larger than the magma intrusion rate prior to one of the biggest eruptions at the summit crater of Minami-dake on July 24, 2012, and 2200 times larger than the average magma intrusion rate during the period from October 2011 to March 2012. The previous Mogi-type ground deformation is considered to be a process of magma accumulation in preexisting spherical reservoirs. Conversely, the August 2015 event was a dike intrusion and occurred in a different location to the preexisting reservoirs. The direction of the opening of the dike coincides with the T-axes and direction of faults creating a graben structure.

  3. Petrological evidence for non-linear increase of magmatic intrusion rates before eruption at open vent mafic volcanoe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruth, D. C. S.; Costa Rodriguez, F.

    2015-12-01

    The most active volcanoes on earth erupt in a yearly to decadal time scales, typically erupt mafic magmas and are open-vent systems with prominent degassing plumes (e.g. Mayon, Arenal, Llaima, Etna). Here we investigate the plumbing systems, dynamics, and processes that drive eruptions at these systems. These are key questions for improving hazard evaluation, and better understanding the unrest associated with these types of volcanoes. The petrology and geochemistry from six historical eruptions (1947-2006) of Mayon volcano (Philippines) shows that all lavas are basaltic andesite with phenocrysts of plagioclase + orthopyroxene (Opx) + clinopyroxene. Opx crystals show a variety of compositions and zoning patterns (reverse, normal or complex) with Mg# (= 100 *Mg/[Mg+Fe]) varying from 67 to 81. The simplest interpretation is that the low Mg# parts of the crystals resided on an upper crustal and crystal rich reservoir that was intruded by more primitive magmas from which the high Mg# parts of the crystals grew. Modelling Mg-Fe diffusion in Opx shows that times since magma injection and eruption range from a few days up to 3.5 years in all of the investigated eruptions. The longest diffusion times are shorter than the repose times between the eruptions, which implies that crystal recycling between eruptive events is negligible. This is a surprising result that shows that for each eruption a different part of the evolved crystal-rich plumbing system is activated. This can be due to random intrusion location or an irreversibility of the plumbing system that prevents multiple eruptions from the same crystal-rich part. Moreover, we find that the number of intrusions markedly increases before each eruption in a non-linear manner. Such an increased rate of intrusions with time might reflect non-linear rheological properties of the crystal-rich system, of the enclosing rocks, or the non-linear evolution of crystal-melt reaction-dissolution fronts during magma intrusions.

  4. Dynamics of magma ascent through the Sierra Nevada, California

    SciTech Connect

    Kovach, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    A 9 m.y. old alkali basalt intrudes the Red Lake pluton, approx.90 m.y. old granodiorite of the Huntington Lake quadrangle in the Sierra Nevada, California. The basaltic neck, standing 5 meters above the floor of the Big Creek drainage (approx. 25 meters in diameter), appears to have been the feeder for the flows that cap Chinese Peak (approx. 1 km to the south). The surrounding Red Lake granodiorite was partially fused during the intrusive process. Ten meters of the fused rock is now exposed surrounding the basaltic neck. Thermal models indicate that magma must have flowed through the pipe for approx. 1000 years to produce the extensive melting of the country rock. The basalt was probably intruded at a temperature of 900/sup 0/C, ultramafic nodules indicate its mantle origin. Surrounding the inner basaltic core is a region of basalt interlayered with granitic melt and xenoliths, which formed due to interaction of the basalt and partially molten wall rock during magma ascent. The partially fused granodiorite wall rock contains 40-45% melt at the contact, decreasing to 20% melt 10 meters from the contact. The glass composition (approx.73%-approx.75% SiO/sub 2/, 5% K/sub 2/O) suggests invariant melting. Data on Rb, Sr, and Sr isotopic composition of the glass, residual crystals, and whole rocks are used to model chemical and isotopic equilibration of silicic liquids with their residual crystals. In comparison to the granodiorite, the glass is enriched in Rb (approx.250 ppm), depleted in Sr (approx.135 ppm), permitting the construction of an apparent isochron 11.0 +/- 2.7 m.y.

  5. Magma Beneath Yellowstone National park.

    PubMed

    Eaton, G P; Christiansen, R L; Iyer, H M; Pitt, A D; Mabey, D R; Blank, H R; Zietz, I; Gettings, M E

    1975-05-23

    The Yellowstone plateau volcanic field is less than 2 million years old, lies in a region of intense tectonic and hydrothermal activity, and probably has the potential for further volcanic activity. The youngest of three volcanic cycles in the field climaxed 600,000 years ago with a voluminous ashflow eruption and the collapse of two contiguous cauldron blocks. Doming 150,000 years ago, followed by voluminous rhyolitic extrusions as recently as 70,000 years ago, and high convective heat flow at present indicate that the latest phase of volcanism may represent a new magmatic insurgence. These observations, coupled with (i) localized postglacial arcuate faulting beyond the northeast margin of the Yellowstone caldera, (ii) a major gravity low with steep bounding gradients and an amplitude regionally atypical for the elevation of the plateau, (iii) an aeromagnetic low reflecting extensive hydrothermal alteration and possibly indicating the presence of shallow material above its Curie temperature, (iv) only minor shallow seismicity within the caldera (in contrast to a high level of activity in some areas immediately outside), (v) attenuation and change of character of seismic waves crossing the caldera area, and (vi) a strong azimuthal pattern of teleseismic P-wave delays, strongly suggest that a body composed at least partly of magma underlies the region of the rhyolite plateau, including the Tertiary volcanics immediately to its northeast. The Yellowstone field represents the active end of a system of similar volcanic foci that has migrated progressively northeastward for 15 million years along the trace of the eastern Snake River Plain (8). Regional aeromagnetic patterns suggest that this course was guided by the structure of the Precambrian basement. If, as suggested by several investigators (24), the Yellowstone magma body marks a contemporary deep mantle plume, this plume, in its motion relative to the North American plate, would appear to be "navigating" along a

  6. Volatiles Which Increase Magma Viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, S.

    2015-12-01

    The standard model of an erupting volcano is one in which the viscosity of a decompressing magma increases as the volatiles leave the melt structure to form bubbles. It has now been observed that the addition of the "volatiles" P, Cl and F result in an increase in silicate melt viscosity. This observation would mean that the viscosity of selected degassing magmas would decrease rather than increase. Here we look at P, Cl and F as three volatiles which increase viscosity through different structural mechanisms. In all three cases the volatiles increase the viscosity of peralkaline composition melts, but appear to always decrease the viscosity of peraluminous melts. Phosphorus causes the melt to unmix into a Na-P rich phase and a Na-poor silicate phase. Thus as the network modifying Na (or Ca) are removed to the phosphorus-rich melt, the matrix melt viscosity increases. With increasing amounts of added phosphorus (at network modifying Na ~ P) the addition of further phosphorus causes a decrease in viscosity. The addition of chlorine to Fe-free aluminosilicate melts results in an increase in viscosity. NMR data on these glass indicates that the chlorine sits in salt-like structures surrounded by Na and/or Ca. Such structures would remove network-modifying atoms from the melt structure and thus result in an increase in viscosity. The NMR spectra of fluorine-bearing glasses shows that F takes up at least 5 different structural positions in peralkaline composition melts. Three of these positions should result in a decrease in viscosity due to the removal of bridging oxygens. Two of the structural positons of F, however, should result in an increase in viscosity as they require the removal of network-modifying atoms from the melt structure (with one of the structures being that observed for Cl). This would imply that increasing amounts of F might result in an increase in viscosity. This proposed increase in viscosity with increasing F has now been experimentally confirmed.

  7. Magma Beneath Yellowstone National park.

    PubMed

    Eaton, G P; Christiansen, R L; Iyer, H M; Pitt, A D; Mabey, D R; Blank, H R; Zietz, I; Gettings, M E

    1975-05-23

    The Yellowstone plateau volcanic field is less than 2 million years old, lies in a region of intense tectonic and hydrothermal activity, and probably has the potential for further volcanic activity. The youngest of three volcanic cycles in the field climaxed 600,000 years ago with a voluminous ashflow eruption and the collapse of two contiguous cauldron blocks. Doming 150,000 years ago, followed by voluminous rhyolitic extrusions as recently as 70,000 years ago, and high convective heat flow at present indicate that the latest phase of volcanism may represent a new magmatic insurgence. These observations, coupled with (i) localized postglacial arcuate faulting beyond the northeast margin of the Yellowstone caldera, (ii) a major gravity low with steep bounding gradients and an amplitude regionally atypical for the elevation of the plateau, (iii) an aeromagnetic low reflecting extensive hydrothermal alteration and possibly indicating the presence of shallow material above its Curie temperature, (iv) only minor shallow seismicity within the caldera (in contrast to a high level of activity in some areas immediately outside), (v) attenuation and change of character of seismic waves crossing the caldera area, and (vi) a strong azimuthal pattern of teleseismic P-wave delays, strongly suggest that a body composed at least partly of magma underlies the region of the rhyolite plateau, including the Tertiary volcanics immediately to its northeast. The Yellowstone field represents the active end of a system of similar volcanic foci that has migrated progressively northeastward for 15 million years along the trace of the eastern Snake River Plain (8). Regional aeromagnetic patterns suggest that this course was guided by the structure of the Precambrian basement. If, as suggested by several investigators (24), the Yellowstone magma body marks a contemporary deep mantle plume, this plume, in its motion relative to the North American plate, would appear to be "navigating" along a

  8. Magma beneath Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eaton, G.P.; Christiansen, R.L.; Iyer, H.M.; Pitt, A.M.; Mabey, D.R.; Blank, H.R.; Zietz, I.; Gettings, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    The Yellowstone plateau volcanic field is less than 2 million years old, lies in a region of intense tectonic and hydrothermal activity, and probably has the potential for further volcanic activity. The youngest of three volcanic cycles in the field climaxed 600,000 years ago with a voluminous ashflow eruption and the collapse of two contiguous cauldron blocks. Doming 150,000 years ago, followed by voluminous rhyolitic extrusions as recently as 70,000 years ago, and high convective heat flow at present indicate that the latest phase of volcanism may represent a new magmatic insurgence. These observations, coupled with (i) localized postglacial arcuate faulting beyond the northeast margin of the Yellowstone caldera, (ii) a major gravity low with steep bounding gradients and an amplitude regionally atypical for the elevation of the plateau, (iii) an aeromagnetic low reflecting extensive hydrothermal alteration and possibly indicating the presence of shallow material above its Curie temperature, (iv) only minor shallow seismicity within the caldera (in contrast to a high level of activity in some areas immediately outside), (v) attenuation and change of character of seismic waves crossing the caldera area, and (vi) a strong azimuthal pattern of teleseismic P-wave delays, strongly suggest that a body composed at least partly of magma underlies the region of the rhyolite plateau, including the Tertiary volcanics immediately to its northeast. The Yellowstone field represents the active end of a system of similar volcanic foci that has migrated progressively northeastward for 15 million years along the trace of the eastern Snake River Plain (8). Regional aeromagnetic patterns suggest that this course was guided by the structure of the Precambrian basement. If, as suggested by several investigators (24), the Yellowstone magma body marks a contemporary deep mantle plume, this plume, in its motion relative to the North American plate, would appear to be "navigating" along a

  9. Geophysical Survey and Detailed Geologic Mapping of an Eroded Stratovolcano's Central Intrusive Complex, Summer Coon, Co.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harp, A.

    2015-12-01

    Eroded volcanoes expose plumbing systems that provide important information on intrusive geometries, magma propagation directions, and the effects of host rock types and heterogeneities. Summer Coon Volcano, CO, is an Oligocene stratovolcano where erosion has removed much of the original edifice, revealing the intrusive stocks of the central intrusive complex (CIC). Surrounding the CIC are hundreds of radial dikes ranging from basaltic to rhyolitic in composition. Published geologic maps indicate most radial dikes do not connect to the intrusive stocks, supporting published theories that most did not emanate from the central intrusions. However, much of the area surrounding the CIC is covered by alluvium, suggesting that the lack of connection might be an artifact of exposure. We completed a ground magnetic survey and detailed geological mapping to determine if the dikes continue beneath the alluvium and into the intrusive stocks. Linear magnetic anomalies indicate four NW-SE trending rhyodacite dikes continue beneath the alluvium for up to 250 m, and mapping indicates that at least two of the rhyodacite dikes do extend into the CIC. Shorter linear anomalies are attributed to seven NW-SE trending basaltic dikes ~100-500-m-long which are sparsely exposed in the alluvium. Mapping shows that three rhyodacite dikes extend into the CIC and to within 200 m of their possible source, an 800-m-wide granodiorite stock. Additionally, three rhyolitic dikes extend to within several meters of a 200×500-m-wide tuff breccia zone of similar composition, likely their source. In summary, magnetic data and detailed mapping indicate that radial dikes do extend into the central intrusive complex in contrast to some model predictions.

  10. Formation of native iron in sediment-contaminated magma: I. A. case study of the Hanekammen Complex on Disko Island, West Greenland

    SciTech Connect

    Ulff-Moller, F. )

    1990-01-01

    For the first time a compositional range of native iron bodies is described in a cogenetic series of sediment-contaminated volcanic rocks from the Tertiary West Greenland Basalt Province. The iron-bearing rocks occur in a high-level composite intrusion, the Hanekammen Complex. Reaction between a tholeiitic parent magma with >11% MgO and carbonaceous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-rich shale took place in a reservoir >3 km below the paleosurface and created magmatic layering with basaltic magma overlain by less dense andesitic magma. The contaminated rock series bears a strong imprint of assimilation but very little fractional crystallization, which implies that the two processes were not intimately coupled in the present in basalt and andesite form a general trend, defined by Co versus Ni concentrations, that reflects the degree of assimilation, the amount of immiscible sulfide liquid, and the degree of reduction (in order of decreasing importance). The zoning of single iron grains reflects the dynamics of their growth and, to some extent, subsequent homogenization and reaction with magma. Weakly zoned iron spherules in viscous andesite were formed and remained in situ, whereas iron grains in basalt settled through the layered magma and developed strong zoning. All iron types contain Co-rich domains (<1 mm in diameter); their conservation implies a residence time for the iron at magmatic temperatures on the order of a month or less before the emplacement in the subvolcanic intrusions.

  11. Raman investigation of magma mingling experiments as a tool for tracking the chemical and structural evolution of melt.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Genova, D.; Morgavi, D.; Hess, K. U.; Pritchard, C. J.; Borovkov, N.; Perugini, D.; Larson, P. B.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    Magma mixing is a petrologic phenomenon, for which extensive evidence has been documented in rocks young and old, from intrusive and effusive igneous environments. Although magma mixing between mafic and silicic magmas is regarded as a major differentiation process, documentation of the mechanisms acting in melt interaction, both in its physical and chemical aspects, is still incomplete. We present the first Raman spectroscopic investigation of the products of magma-mixing experiments performed using natural basaltic and rhyolitic melts from the Yellowstone Norris-Mammoth Corridor. The mixing process is driven by a recently-developed apparatus that generates chaotic streamlines in the melts, mimicking the development of magma mixing in nature. The chemical variation of major elements is studied in detail by electron microprobe (EMPA) on mixed filaments of 1000 μm diameter. Raman and microprobe measurements have been performed every 10 μm this allow us to investigate the evolution of silicate structure, from the rhyolitic to the basaltic composition. Deconvoluted Raman spectra collected from the mixed experiment yield information about network-forming structural units (Qn species, where n indicates the number of bridging oxygen). By combining Raman spectra and chemical analyses we show, for the first time, how the percent of Qn species evolve with chemical composition in these natural silicate melts. Moreover, our results show how the ratio of network modifiers respect to network former cations, dramatically affects the Raman spectra of the rhyolitic end-member.

  12. Fractional Crystallisation of Archaean Trondhjemite Magma at 12-7 Kbar: Constraints on Rheology of Archaean Continental Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Saheli; Saha, Lopamudra; Satyanarayan, Manavalan; Pati, Jayanta

    2015-04-01

    Fractional Crystallisation of Archaean Trondhjemite Magma at 12-7 Kbar: Constraints on Rheology of Archaean Continental Crust Sarkar, S.1, Saha, L.1, Satyanarayan, M2. and Pati, J.K.3 1. Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee-247667, Haridwar, India, 2. HR-ICPMS Lab, Geochemistry Group, CSIR-National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad-50007, India. 3. Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Nehru Science Centre, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002, India. Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTGs) group of rocks, that mostly constitute the Archaean continental crusts, evolved through a time period of ~3.8 Ga-2.7 Ga with major episodes of juvenile magma generations at ~3.6 Ga and ~2.7 Ga. Geochemical signatures, especially HREE depletions of most TTGs conform to formation of this type of magma by partial melting of amphibolites or eclogites at 15-20 kbar pressure. While TTGs (mostly sodic in compositions) dominates the Eoarchaean (~3.8-3.6 Ga) to Mesoarchaean (~3.2-3.0 Ga) domains, granitic rocks (with significantly high potassium contents) became more dominant in the Neoarchaean period. The most commonly accepted model proposed for the formation of the potassic granite in the Neoarchaean time is by partial melting of TTGs along subduction zones. However Archaean granite intrusive into the gabbro-ultramafic complex from Scourie, NW Scotland has been interpreted to have formed by fractional crystallization of hornblende and plagioclase from co-existing trondhjemitic gneiss. In this study we have studied fractional crystallization paths from a Mesoarchaean trondhjemite from the central Bundelkhand craton, India using MELTS algorithm. Fractional crystallization modeling has been performed at pressure ranges of 20 kbar to 7 kbar. Calculations have shown crystallization of garnet-clinopyroxene bearing assemblages with progressive cooling of the magma at 20 kbar. At pressure ranges 19-16 kbar, solid phases

  13. Prefrontal-posterior coupling while observing the suffering of other people, and the development of intrusive memories

    PubMed Central

    Reiser, Eva M; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Schulter, Günter; Holmes, Emily A; Fink, Andreas; Papousek, Ilona

    2014-01-01

    Witnessing the suffering of others, for instance, in hospital emergency rooms but also through televised images in news or reality programs, may be associated with the occurrence of later intrusive memories. The factors contributing to why some people develop intrusive memories and others do not are still poorly understood. N = 121 healthy women were exposed to film scenes showing the suffering of dying, severely injured, and mourning people while their EEG was recorded. Individuals showing greater decreases of functional coupling between prefrontal and posterior cortices (greater decreases of EEG beta coherences) reported more intrusive memories of the witnessed events. This was shown for intrusions in the short term (immediately after viewing the film) as well as in the medium term (intrusive memories over 1 week). The findings illuminate brain mechanisms involved in the encoding of information in ways that make intrusive memories more likely. PMID:24611634

  14. Variations of trace element concentration of magnetite and ilmenite from the Taihe layered intrusion, Emeishan large igneous province, SW China: Implications for magmatic fractionation and origin of Fe-Ti-V oxide ore deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Yu-Wei; Song, Xie-Yan; Yu, Song-Yue; He, Hai-Long

    2015-12-01

    In situ LA-ICP-MS trace elemental analysis has been applied to magnetite and ilmenite of the Taihe layered intrusion, Emeishan large igneous province, SW China, in order to understand better fractionation processes of magma and origin of Fe-Ti-V oxide ore deposits. The periodic reversals in Mg, Ti, Mn in magnetite and Mg, Sc in ilmenite are found in the Middle Zone of the intrusion and agree with fractionation trends as recorded by olivine (Fo), plagioclase (An) and clinopyroxene (Mg#) compositions. These suggest the Taihe intrusion formed from open magma chamber processes in a magma conduit with multiple replenishments of more primitive magmas. The V and Cr of magnetite are well correlated with V and Cr of clinopyroxene indicating that they became liquidus phases almost simultaneously at an early stage of magma evolution. Ilmenite from the Middle and Upper Zones shows variable Cr, Ni, V, Mg, Nb, Ta and Sc contents indicating that ilmenite at some stratigraphic levels crystallized slightly earlier than magnetite and clinopyroxene. The early crystallization of magnetite and ilmenite is the result of the high FeOt and TiO2 contents in the parental magma. The ilmenite crystallization before magnetite in the Middle and Upper Zones can be attributed to higher TiO2 content of the magma due to the remelting of pre-existing ilmenite in a middle-level magma chamber. Compared to the coeval high-Ti basalts, the relatively low Zr, Hf, Nb and Ta contents in both magnetite and ilmenite throughout the Taihe intrusion indicate that they crystallized from Fe-Ti-(P)-rich silicate magmas. Positive correlations of Ti with Mg, Mn, Sc and Zr of magnetite, and Zr with Sc, Hf and Nb of ilmenite also suggest that magnetite and ilmenite crystallized continuously from the homogeneous silicate magma rather than an immiscible Fe-rich melt. Therefore, frequent replenishments of Fe-Ti-(P)-rich silicate magma and gravitational sorting and settling are crucial for the formation the massive and

  15. How caldera collapse shapes the shallow emplacement and transfer of magma in active volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbi, Fabio; Rivalta, Eleonora; Pinel, Virginie; Maccaferri, Francesco; Bagnardi, Marco; Acocella, Valerio

    2016-04-01

    Calderas are topographic depressions formed by the collapse of a partly drained magma reservoir. At volcanic edifices with calderas, eruptive fissures can circumscribe the outer caldera rim, be oriented radially and/or align with the regional tectonic stress field. Constraining the mechanisms that govern this spatial arrangement is fundamental to understand the dynamics of shallow magma storage and transport and evaluate volcanic hazard. Here we use numerical models to show that the previously unappreciated unloading effect of caldera formation may contribute significantly to the stress budget of a volcano. We first test this hypothesis against the ideal case of Fernandina, Galápagos, where previous models only partly explained the peculiar pattern of circumferential and radial eruptive fissures and the geometry of the intrusions determined by inverting the deformation data. We show that by taking into account the decompression due to the caldera formation, the modeled edifice stress field is consistent with all the observation. We then develop a general model for the stress state at volcanic edifices with calderas based on the competition of caldera decompression, magma buoyancy forces and tectonic stresses. These factors control the shallow accumulation of magma in stacked sills, consistently with observations as well as the conditions for the development of circumferential and/or radial eruptive fissures, as observed on active volcanoes. This top-down control exerted by changes in the distribution of mass at the surface allows better understanding of how shallow magma is transferred at active calderas, contributing to forecasting the location and type of opening fissures.

  16. Magma storage conditions beneath Dabbahu Volcano (Ethiopia) constrained by petrology, seismicity and satellite geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, L.; Blundy, J.; Brooker, R. A.; Wright, T.; Yirgu, G.

    2012-07-01

    A variety of methods exist to constrain sub-volcanic storage conditions of magmas. Petrological, seismological and satellite geodetic methods are integrated to determine storage conditions of peralkaline magmas beneath Dabbahu Volcano, Afar, Ethiopia. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis of volatile contents in melt inclusions trapped within phenocrysts of alkali feldspar, clinopyroxene and olivine from pantellerite obsidians representing the youngest eruptive phase (<8 ka) show H2O contents ≤5.8 wt.% and CO2 contents generally below 500 ppm, although rarely as high as 1,500 ppm. Volatile saturation pressures (at 679-835°C) are in the range 43-207 MPa, consistent with published experimental data for similar pantellerites, which show that the phenocryst assemblage of alkali feldspar + cpx + aenigmatite ± ilmenite is stable at 100 to 150 MPa. Inferred magma storage depths for these historic eruptions are ~1-5 km below sea-level, consistent with the depths of earthquakes, associated with magma chamber deflation following a dyke intrusion in the period Oct 2005-Apr 2006. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data for the same period reveal a broad ~20 km diameter area of uplift. Modelling of different geometries reveals that a series of stacked sills over a 1-5 km depth range best matches the InSAR data. The consistency of depth estimates based on petrological study of ancient eruptions and the seismicity, inflation and deflation of Dabbahu observed in relation to the dyking event of 2005, suggest a small but vertically extensive and potentially long-lived magma storage region.

  17. Energy extraction from crustal magma bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    An open heat exchanger system for extracting thermal energy directly from shallow crustal magma bodies is described. The concept relies on natural properties of magma to create a permeable, solidified region surrounding a borehole drilled into the magma chamber. The region is fractured, possessing large surface area, and is sealed from the overburden. Energy is extracted by circulating a fluid through the system. Thermal stress analysis shows that such a fractured region can be developed at depths up to 10 km. An open heat exchanger experiment conducted in the partial melt zone of Kilauea Iki lava lake demonstrated the validity of this concept. Effective heat transfer surface area an order of magnitude greater than the borehole area was established during a two-day test period. The open heat exchanger concept greatly extends the number of magma systems that can be economically developed to produce energy.

  18. Status of the Magma Energy Project

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The current magma energy project is assessing the engineering feasibility of extracting thermal energy directly from crustal magma bodies. The estimated size of the US resource (50,000 to 500,000 quads) suggests a considerable potential impact on future power generation. In a previous seven-year study, we concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers that would invalidate the magma energy concept. Several concepts for drilling, energy extraction, and materials survivability were successfully demonstrated in Kilauea Iki lava lake, Hawaii. The present program is addressing the engineering design problems associated with accessing magma bodies and extracting thermal energy for power generation. The normal stages for development of a geothermal resource are being investigated: exploration, drilling and completions, production, and surface power plant design. Current status of the engineering program and future plans are described. 20 refs., 12 figs.

  19. Thermal stress fracturing of magma simulant materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wemple, R.P.; Longcope, D.B.

    1986-10-01

    Direct contact heat exchanger concepts for the extraction of energy from magma chambers are being studied as part of the DOE-funded Magma Energy Research Program at Sandia National Laboratories. These concepts require the solidification of molten material by a coolant circulated through a borehole drilled into the magma and subsequent fracture of the solid either as a natural consequence of thermal stress or by deliberate design (intentional flaws, high pressure, etc.). This report summarizes the results of several thermal stress fracturing experiments performed in the laboratory and compares the results with an analysis developed for use as a predictive tool. Information gained from this test series has been the basis for additional work now under way to simulate magma melt solidification processes.

  20. Process for forming hydrogen and other fuels utilizing magma

    DOEpatents

    Galt, John K.; Gerlach, Terrence M.; Modreski, Peter J.; Northrup, Jr., Clyde J. M.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a method for extracting hydrogen from magma and water by injecting water from above the earth's surface into a pocket of magma and extracting hydrogen produced by the water-magma reaction from the vicinity of the magma.

  1. The non-isothermal rheology of low viscosity magmas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolzenburg, Stephan; Giordano, Daniele; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-04-01

    Accurate prediction of the run-out distance of lava flows, as well as the understanding of magma migration in shallow dyke systems is hampered by an incomplete understanding of the transient, sub-liquidus rheology of crystallizing melts. This sets significant limits to physical property based modelling of lava flow (especially flow width, length and advancement rate) and magma migration behaviour and the resulting accuracy of volcanic hazard assessment The importance of the dynamic rheology of a lava / magma on its emplacement style becomes especially apparent in towards later stages of flow and dyke emplacement, where the melt builds increasing resistance to flow, entering rheologic regimes that determine the halting of lava flows and sealing of dykes. Thermal gradients between the interior of a melt body and the contact with air or the substratum govern these rheologic transitions that give origin to flow directing or impeding features like levees, tubes and chilled margins. Besides the critical importance of non-isothermal and sub-liquidus processes for the understanding of natural systems, accurate rheologic data at these conditions are scarce and studies capturing the transient rheological evolution of lavas at conditions encountered during emplacement virtually absent. We describe the rheologic evolution of a series of natural, re-melted lava samples during transient and non-equilibrium crystallization conditions characteristic of lava flows and shallow magmatic systems in nature. The sample suite spans from foidites to basalts; the dominant compositions producing low viscosity lava flows. Our data show that all melts undergo one or more change zones in effective viscosity when subjected to sub liquidus temperatures. The apparent viscosity of the liquid-crystal suspension increases drastically from the theoretical temperature-viscosity relationship of a pure liquid once cooled below the liquidus temperature. We find that: 1) Both cooling rate and shear rate

  2. Derivation of S and Pb in phanerozoic intrusion-related metal deposits from neoproterozoic sedimentary pyrite, Great Basin, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vikre, P.G.; Poulson, S.R.; Koenig, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    The thick (???8 km), regionally extensive section of Neoproterozoic siliciclastic strata (terrigenous detrital succession, TDS) in the central and eastern Great Basin contains sedimentary pyrite characterized by mostly high d34S values (-11.6 to 40.8%, <70% exceed 10%; 51 analyses) derived from reduction of seawater sulfate, and by markedly radiogenic Pb isotopes ( 207Pb/204Pb <19.2; 15 analyses) acquired from clastic detritus eroded from Precambrian cratonal rocks to the east-southeast. In the overlying Paleozoic section, Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag-Au deposits associated with Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary granitic intrusions (intrusion-related metal deposits) contain galena and other sulfide minerals with S and Pb isotope compositions similar to those of TDS sedimentary pyrite, consistent with derivation of deposit S and Pb from TDS pyrite. Minor element abundances in TDS pyrite (e.g., Pb, Zn, Cu, Ag, and Au) compared to sedimentary and hydrothermal pyrite elsewhere are not noticeably elevated, implying that enrichment in source minerals is not a precondition for intrusion-related metal deposits. Three mechanisms for transferring components of TDS sedimentary pyrite to intrusion-related metal deposits are qualitatively evaluated. One mechanism involves (1) decomposition of TDS pyrite in thermal aureoles of intruding magmas, and (2) aqueous transport and precipitation in thermal or fluid mixing gradients of isotopically heavy S, radiogenic Pb, and possibly other sedimentary pyrite and detrital mineral components, as sulfide minerals in intrusion-related metal deposits. A second mechanism invokes mixing and S isotope exchange in thermal aureoles of Pb and S exsolved from magma and derived from decomposition of sedimentary pyrite. A third mechanism entails melting of TDS strata or assimilation of TDS strata by crustal or mantle magmas. TDS-derived or assimilated magmas ascend, decompress, and exsolve a mixture of TDS volatiles, including isotopically heavy S and radiogenic Pb

  3. Magma Chambers, Thermal Energy, and the Unsuccessful Search for a Magma Chamber Thermostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazner, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    Although the traditional concept that plutons are the frozen corpses of huge, highly liquid magma chambers ("big red blobs") is losing favor, the related notion that magma bodies can spend long periods of time (~106years) in a mushy, highly crystalline state is widely accepted. However, analysis of the thermal balance of magmatic systems indicates that it is difficult to maintain a significant portion in a simmering, mushy state, whether or not the system is eutectic-like. Magma bodies cool primarily by loss of heat to the Earth's surface. The balance between cooling via energy loss to the surface and heating via magma accretion can be denoted as M = ρLa/q, where ρ is magma density, L is latent heat of crystallization, a is the vertical rate of magma accretion, and q is surface heat flux. If M>1, then magma accretion outpaces cooling and a magma chamber forms. For reasonable values of ρ, L, and q, the rate of accretion amust be > ~15 mm/yr to form a persistent volume above the solidus. This rate is extremely high, an order of magnitude faster than estimated pluton-filling rates, and would produce a body 10 km thick in 700 ka, an order of magnitude faster than geochronology indicates. Regardless of the rate of magma supply, the proportion of crystals in the system must vary dramatically with depth at any given time owing to transfer of heat. Mechanical stirring (e.g., by convection) could serve to homogenize crystal content in a magma body, but this is unachievable in crystal-rich, locked-up magma. Without convection the lower part of the magma body becomes much hotter than the top—a process familiar to anyone who has scorched a pot of oatmeal. Thermal models that succeed in producing persistent, large bodies of magma rely on scenarios that are unrealistic (e.g., omitting heat loss to the planet's surface), self-fulfilling prophecies (e.g., setting unnaturally high temperatures as fixed boundary conditions), or physically unreasonable (e.g., magma is intruded

  4. FKBP5 risk alleles and the development of intrusive memories.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Jessica; Bryant, Richard A

    2015-11-01

    Intrusive memories are unwanted recollections that maintain distress and are central to numerous psychological disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Convergent evidence suggests that glucocorticoid increases enhance the strength of emotional memories. The FKBP5 polymorphism modulates glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity, and has been shown to increase risk for PTSD. Healthy high and low risk FKBP5 allele carriers (N=46) underwent a cold pressor task, and then viewed negative and neutral images. Two days later participants were given a surprise recall test and measure of intrusive memories of the images. Following the cold pressor task, high-risk allele participants had a higher cortisol response than low-risk participants. High-risk carriers also reported more intrusive memories of the negative and neutral images than low-risk carriers. These findings point to the minor alleles of the FKBP5 polymorphism being a risk factor for development of intrusive memories, possibly as a result of impaired glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity. This may explain one mechanism for FKBP5 being a risk factor for PTSD following traumatic events.

  5. Linking enclave formation to magma rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, K. F.; Jellinek, A. M.

    2012-10-01

    Magmatic enclaves record the history of deformation and disaggregation (i.e., fragmentation) of relatively hot, compositionally more mafic magmas injected into actively convecting silicic magma chambers through dikes. Enclave size distributions may provide crucial clues for understanding the nature of this mechanical mixing process. Accordingly, we conduct a comprehensive field study to measure enclave size distributions in six Cascade lava flows. Using results from recent fluid dynamics experiments along with thermodynamic and modeling constraints on key physical properties of the injected and host magmas (i.e., temperature, density and effective viscosity), we use the size distributions of enclaves to characterize the magmatic flow regime governing enclave formation. Scaling arguments suggest that the viscous stresses related to magma chamber flow acting against the yield strength of a crystallizing injected magma control the breakup of 1 m-wide mafic dikes into millimeter- to centimeter-scale enclaves. Our data analysis identifies a characteristic length scale of breakup that constrains the yield strength of the injected magmas in a more restrictive way than existing empirical models for yield strength based on crystal content. In all six lava flows, we show that the progressive fragmentation of the injected magma is self-similar and characterized by a fractal dimensionDf ˜ 2, which is comparable to previous studies on enclaves. We also find a small but statistically significant dependence of Df on the effective viscosity ratio between host and enclave magmas, such that large variations in effective viscosity enhance breakup. This work demonstrates that field observations of enclave size distributions can reliably constrain the rheological and flow conditions in which enclaves form.

  6. Final report - Magma Energy Research Project

    SciTech Connect

    Colp, J.L.

    1982-10-01

    Scientific feasibility was demonstrated for the concept of magma energy extraction. The US magma resource is estimated at 50,000 to 500,000 quads of energy - a 700- to 7000-yr supply at the current US total energy use rate of 75 quads per year. Existing geophysical exploration systems are believed capable of locating and defining magma bodies and were demonstrated over a known shallow buried molten-rock body. Drilling rigs that can drill to the depths required to tap magma are currently available and experimental boreholes were drilled well into buried molten rock at temperatures up to 1100/sup 0/C. Engineering materials compatible with the buried magma environment are available and their performances were demonstrated in analog laboratory experiments. Studies show that energy can be extracted at attractive rates from magma resources in all petrologic compositions and physical configurations. Downhole heat extraction equipment was designed, built, and demonstrated successfully in buried molten rock and in the very hot margins surrounding it. Two methods of generating gaseous fuels in the high-temperature magmatic environment - generation of H/sub 2/ by the interaction of water with the ferrous iron and H/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, and CO generation by the conversion of water-biomass mixtures - have been investigated and show promise.

  7. Gas slug ascent in a stratified magma: Implications of flow organisation and instability for Strombolian eruption dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capponi, A.; James, M. R.; Lane, S. J.

    2016-02-01

    The canonical Strombolian paradigm of a gas slug ascending and bursting in a homogeneous low-viscosity magma cannot explain the complex details in eruptive dynamics recently revealed by field measurements and textural and geochemical analyses. Evidence points to the existence of high-viscosity magma at the top of the conduit of Strombolian-type volcanoes, acting as a plug. Here, new experiments detail the range of flow configurations that develop during the ascent and burst of a slug through rheologically stratified magma within a conduit. End-member scenarios of a tube fully filled with either high- or low-viscosity liquid bracket three main flow configurations: (1) a plug sufficiently large to fully accommodate an ascending gas slug; (2) A plug that can accommodate the intrusion of low-viscosity liquid driven by the gas expansion, but not all the slug volume, so the slug bursts with the nose in the plug whilst the base is still in the low-viscosity liquid; (3) Gas expansion is sufficient to drive the intrusion of low-viscosity liquid through the plug, with the slug bursting in the low-viscosity layer emplaced dynamically above the plug. We show that the same flow configurations are viable at volcanic-scale through a new experimentally-validated 1D model and 3D computational fluid dynamic simulations. Applied to Stromboli, our results demonstrate that the key parameters controlling the transition between each configuration are gas volume, plug thickness and plug viscosity. The flow processes identified include effective dynamic narrowing and widening of the conduit, instabilities within the falling magma film, transient partial and complete blockage of the conduit, and slug disruption. These complexities influence eruption dynamics and vigour, promoting magma mingling and resulting in pulsatory release of gas.

  8. Correlations of the Palisades Intrusive Conduit with the Orange Mountain Basalt, New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, J. C.; Block, K. A.; Puffer, J. H.

    2009-12-01

    The Palisades Intrusive System is proposed to include the Jurassic sill and comagmatic sills and dikes in the Newark Basin of New Jersey and New York. Horizons within the Palisades have been linked to flows of the Newark Basin on the basis of closely similar chemical systematics and the relative stratigraphic succession observed for the Watchung flows. The proposed first magma of the lowermost 100 m of the Palisades at the George Washington Bridge section connects appropriately to the Orange Mountain basalt flows of New Jersey based on chemical correlations and systematic variations within the first Palisades magma. Point counting and morphological characterizations in this study are obtained using an automated EDAX imaging package, IMAGEPRO software and calibrated energy dispersive micro-analytic data. These for the first time create a discriminate facies map of magma one of the Palisades and the correlative Orange Mountain flows. Comparisons are created both along a north-south Palisades transect from the George Washington Bridge section to Upper Nyack, New York mapping the glomeroporphyritic to subophitic diabase relationships and the lowermost section of first Orange Mountain basalt. These show that the Cr- and Mg-enriched facies characteristic of the Palisades olivine hyalosiderite horizon (olivine zone; MgO > 9 %, Cr > 400 ppm) are present in modified form in the Orange Mountain basalt. Petrographic observations on hypersthene and olivine-derived serpentine support previous arguments for the ‘olivine zone’ as a remnant of the cumulus portion of a disarticulated magma chamber present at depth.

  9. Asymmetric shock heating and the terrestrial magma ocean origin of the Moon.

    PubMed

    Karato, Shun-ichiro

    2014-01-01

    One of the difficulties of the current giant impact model for the origin of the Moon is to explain the marked similarity in the isotopic compositions and the substantial differences in the major element chemistry. Physics of shock heating is analyzed to show that the degree of heating is asymmetric between the impactor and the target, if the target (the proto-Earth) had a magma-ocean but the impactor did not. The magma ocean is heated much more than the solid impactor and the vapor-rich jets come mainly from the magma-ocean from which the Moon might have been formed. In this scenario, the similarity and differences in the composition between the Moon and Earth would be explained as a natural consequence of a collision in the later stage of planetary formation. Including the asymmetry in shock heating is the first step toward explaining the chemical composition of the Moon.

  10. Asymmetric shock heating and the terrestrial magma ocean origin of the Moon

    PubMed Central

    KARATO, Shun-ichiro

    2014-01-01

    One of the difficulties of the current giant impact model for the origin of the Moon is to explain the marked similarity in the isotopic compositions and the substantial differences in the major element chemistry. Physics of shock heating is analyzed to show that the degree of heating is asymmetric between the impactor and the target, if the target (the proto-Earth) had a magma-ocean but the impactor did not. The magma ocean is heated much more than the solid impactor and the vapor-rich jets come mainly from the magma-ocean from which the Moon might have been formed. In this scenario, the similarity and differences in the composition between the Moon and Earth would be explained as a natural consequence of a collision in the later stage of planetary formation. Including the asymmetry in shock heating is the first step toward explaining the chemical composition of the Moon. PMID:24621956

  11. Craters of elevation / forced folds: more examples of shallow magma accumulation and its consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Marquez, Alvaro; Craig, Magee; Valdislav, Rapprich; Hetherington, Rachel; Bastow, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Craters of elevation are uplifts with apical depressions that are caused by shallow magma intrusion. Forced folds are dome-like folds caused by magma intrusion that also have apical extensional structures. They are the same feature described from the different viewpoints of the volcanologist and the structural geologist. While working on such features in the Chaîne des Puys (Central France), and Ethiopia we have been searching for other examples in the world. This is our most up to date review of such phenomena taken from a global search in the world of volcanology where some stunning examples are seen in the landscape, and in outcrop. We also show such features from tectonics data and literature, where such features are superbly displayed in seismic data. We take three examples, the Puy de Gouttes, in the Chaîne des Puys, the Montana Encantada in Lanzarote, which we have mapped in the field, and the Diamond Craters National Monument in Oregon to show the different structures and possible evolutionary trends that such features can follow. We use the observations to integrate the possible eruptive, deformational and structural events that can combine in a forced fold to create the surface features observed at such craters of elevation. The hazard implications of the growth and destruction of such features are assessed.

  12. Reintrusion of silicic magma chambers by mafic dike complex: evidence from the northern Semail ophiolite

    SciTech Connect

    Stakes, D.S.; Shervais, J.; Ressetar, R.

    1985-01-01

    Late plagiogranite bodies in the Semail ophiolite have been previously suggested to represent late stage fractionates within an episodic spreading center magma chamber or the roots of seamount chains. Field and lab observations suggest that these late silicic magma chambers represent zones of repeated injection by dikes of intermediate to mafic composition. Multiple generations of intrusion, partial resorption and reintrusion are preserved in the plagiogranite as 1) relict phantom xenoliths, 2) angular xenoliths with quartz-rich margins, 3) deformed fine-grained dikes with distinct chilled margins, and 4) planes of rectangular blocks with cuspate margins or ellipsoids of similar fine grained mafic materials. The blocks and ellipsoids are actually dismembered mafic dikes that chilled by intruding a cooler silicic liquid and were either thermally fractured or pinched out. All of the dikes are hydrothermally altered to assemblages including amph., qtz., epi., preh., and chl. and are enriched in delta/sup 18/O. Extremely altered diabase from a copper sulfide-bearing normal fault is isotopically depleted (delta/sup 18/0=2.0 per mil) suggesting that such deep faults are high temperature hydrothermal conduits. Malachite and amphibole bearing veins along the margins of the plagiogranite suggest a genetic relationship between the silicic intrusions, the multiple diking events and copper sulfide deposition.

  13. Thermal models of dyke intrusion during development of continent-ocean transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, K. A.; Bastow, I. D.; Keir, D.; Sparks, R. S. J.; Menand, T.

    2014-01-01

    A consensus has emerged in recent years from a variety of geoscientific disciplines that extension during continental rifting is achieved only partly by plate stretching: dyke intrusion also plays an important role. Magma intrusion can accommodate extension at lower yield stresses than are required to extend thick, strong, unmodified continental lithosphere mechanically, thereby aiding the breakup process. Dyke intrusion is also expected to heat and thereby weaken the plate, but the spatial extent of heating and the effect of different rates of magmatic extension on the timescales over which heating occurs are poorly understood. To address this issue, a numerical solution to the heat-flow equation is developed here to quantify the thermal effects of dyke intrusion on the continental crust during rifting. The thermal models are benchmarked against a priori constraints on crustal structure and dyke intrusion episodes in Ethiopia. Finite difference models demonstrate that magmatic extension rate exerts a first-order control on the crustal thermal structure. Once dyke intrusion supersedes faulting and stretching as the principal extensional mechanism the crust will heat and weaken rapidly (less than 1 Ma). In the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER), the majority of present-day extension is focused on ∼20 km-wide Quaternary-Recent axial magmatic segments that are mostly seismogenic to mid-crustal depths and show P-wave seismic velocities characteristic of heavily intruded continental crust. When reviewed in light of our models, these observations require that no more than half of the MER's extension since ∼2 Ma has been achieved by dyke intrusion. Magmatic heating and weakening of the crust would have rendered it aseismic if dyke intrusion accounted for the entire 6 mm/yr extension rate. In the older, faster extending (16 mm/yr) Red Sea rift (RSR) in Afar, dyke intrusion is expected to have had a more dramatic impact on crustal rheology. Accordingly, effective elastic plate

  14. Intrusive and extrusive growth of the Mount St Helens lava dome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Jonathan H.; Malin, Michael C.; Anderson, Steven W.

    1990-01-01

    High-resolution, digital topographic maps of the Mount St. Helens dome derived from aerial photographs are used here to make a quantitative assessment of the partitioning of magma into endogenous intrusion and exogenous lobes. The endogenous growth is found to be predictable, which shows that the cooling dome controls its own development independently of such deep-seated factors as magma overpressure and extrusion rate. The observed regular decrease in exogenous growth rate also allows volume prediction. Knowledge of the volume can be used to determine when an ongoing eruptive event should end. Finally, the observed transition from predominantly exogenous to predominantly endogenous growth reflects the increase in crust thickness, which in turn seems to depend on long repose periods rather than some fundamental change in the character of the dome.

  15. Physical constraints of the evolution of felsic magma chambers: implications for the evolution of granite magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bea, F.

    2012-04-01

    Igneous petrologist working on mafic magmas generally agree that magmas are stored and frac-tionated in crustal reservoirs called magma chambers. The current fashion among granite petrologist, on the other hand, is to minimize the importance of such reservoirs assuming that the huge granite bodies found in many crustal segments grew incrementally, due to the sequential addition of small magma batches. This idea is mostly based on the existence of cryptic contacts and isotope heterogenities inside a single pluton. However, these features can be as well explained by the crystallization dynamics of a viscous magma filling a km sized magma chamber, which is additionally consistent with field evidence. Magma chambers are transient structures that change by loosing and replenishment of magma and volatiles, that but also evolve as a whole due to the crystallization dynamics induced by cooling. The evolution of a given magma chamber depends on the ratios between (1) the rates of magma extraction/replenishment and (2) heat loss. To understand the complexity of magma chamber evolution, here we studied the evolution of an isolated magma chamber (no extraction/replenishment) during cooling, by coupling an internally consistent rheological dataset with the laws of fluids dynamics and heat transfer. Without regional stress, the evolution of the magma is dominated by top-down convection due to negative density gradient in the upper part of the body caused by crystallization. If the melt density is so low that permits fast melt-crystal segregation, the above-described mechanism is inhibited, and melt diapirs formed in the lower crystallizing zone can detach and ascend through the magma chamber producing so differentiation. Convective heat-loss leads most of the magma chamber to critical crystallinity in a few thousands years, which stops all magmatic dynamics except residual melt extraction due either to gravity-driven compaction, which produces short-range differentiation series

  16. Imaging magma plumbing beneath Askja volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenfield, Tim; White, Robert S.

    2015-04-01

    Volcanoes during repose periods are not commonly monitored by dense instrumentation networks and so activity during periods of unrest is difficult to put in context. We have operated a dense seismic network of 3-component, broadband instruments around Askja, a large central volcano in the Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland, since 2006. Askja last erupted in 1961, with a relatively small basaltic lava flow. Since 1975 the central caldera has been subsiding and there has been no indication of volcanic activity. Despite this, Askja has been one of the more seismically active volcanoes in Iceland. The majority of these events are due to an extensive geothermal area within the caldera and tectonically induced earthquakes to the northeast which are not related to the magma plumbing system. More intriguing are the less numerous deeper earthquakes at 12-24km depth, situated in three distinct areas within the volcanic system. These earthquakes often show a frequency content which is lower than the shallower activity, but they still show strong P and S wave arrivals indicative of brittle failure, despite their location being well below the brittle-ductile boundary, which, in Askja is ~7km bsl. These earthquakes indicate the presence of melt moving or degassing at depth while the volcano is not inflating, as only high strain rates or increased pore fluid pressures would cause brittle fracture in what is normally an aseismic region in the ductile zone. The lower frequency content must be the result of a slower source time function as earthquakes which are both high frequency and low frequency come from the same cluster, thereby discounting a highly attenuating lower crust. To image the plumbing system beneath Askja, local and regional earthquakes have been used as sources to solve for the velocity structure beneath the volcano. Travel-time tables were created using a finite difference technique and the residuals were used to solve simultaneously for both the earthquake locations

  17. Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Corlis, N. E.

    1980-05-01

    The adaptive intrusion data system (AIDS) was developed to collect data from intrusion alarm sensors as part of an evaluation system to improve sensor performance. AIDS is a unique data system which uses computer controlled data systems, video cameras and recorders, analog-to-digital conversion, environmental sensors, and digital recorders to collect sensor data. The data can be viewed either manually or with a special computerized data-reduction system which adds new data to a data base stored on a magnetic disc recorder. This report provides a synoptic account of the AIDS as it presently exists. Modifications to the purchased subsystems are described, and references are made to publications which describe the Sandia-designed subsystems.

  18. Systematic tapping of independent magma chambers during the 1 Ma Kidnappers supereruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, George F.; Wilson, Colin J. N.; Millet, Marc-Alban; Baker, Joel A.; Smith, Euan G. C.

    2012-01-01

    The 1.0 Ma Kidnappers supereruption (~ 1200 km 3 DRE) from Mangakino volcanic centre, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand, produced a large phreatomagmatic fall deposit followed by an exceptionally widespread ignimbrite. Detailed sampling and analysis of glass shards and mineral phases have been undertaken through a proximal 4.0 m section of the fall deposit, representing the first two-thirds of erupted extra-caldera material. Major and trace element chemistries of glass shards define three distinct populations (types A, B and C), which systematically change in proportion through the fall deposit and are inferred to represent three magma types. Type B glass and biotite first appear at the same level (~ 0.95 m above base) in the fall deposit suggesting later tapping of a biotite-bearing magma. Plagioclase and Fe-Ti oxide compositions show bimodal distributions, which are linked to types A and B glass compositions. Temperature and pressure (T-P) estimates from hornblende and Fe-Ti oxide equilibria from each magma type are similar and therefore the three magma bodies were adjacent, not vertically stacked, in the crust. Most hornblende model T-P estimates range from 770 to 840 °C and 90 to 170 MPa corresponding to storage depths of ~ 4.0-6.5 km. Hornblende model T-P estimates coupled with in situ trace element fingerprinting imply that the magma bodies were individually well mixed, and not stratified. Compositional gaps between the three glass compositional types imply that no mixing between these magmas occurred. We interpret these data, coupled with the systematic changes in shard compositional proportions through the fall deposit, to reflect that three independent melt-dominant bodies of magma contributed large (A, ~ 270 km 3), medium (B, ~ 90 km 3) and small (C, ~ 40 km 3) volumes (as reflected in the fall deposits) and were systematically tapped during the eruption. We propose that the systematic evacuation of the three independent magma bodies implies that there

  19. Hydroxyl speciation in felsic magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malfait, Wim J.; Xue, Xianyu

    2014-09-01

    The hydroxyl speciation of hydrous, metaluminous potassium and calcium aluminosilicate glasses was investigated by 27Al-1H cross polarization and quantitative 1H MAS NMR spectroscopy. Al-OH is present in both the potassium and the calcium aluminosilicate glasses and its 1H NMR partial spectrum was derived from the 27Al-1H cross polarization data. For the calcium aluminosilicate glasses, the abundance of Al-OH could not be determined because of the low spectral resolution. For the potassium aluminosilicate glasses, the fraction of Al-OH was quantified by fitting its partial spectrum to the quantitative 1H NMR spectra. The degree of aluminum avoidance and the relative tendency for Si-O-Si, Si-O-Al and Al-O-Al bonds to hydrolyze were derived from the measured species abundances. Compared to the sodium, lithium and calcium systems, potassium aluminosilicate glasses display a much stronger degree of aluminum avoidance and a stronger tendency for the Al-O-Al linkages to hydrolyze. Combining our results with those for sodium aluminosilicate glasses (Malfait and Xue, 2010a), we predict that the hydroxyl groups in rhyolitic and phonolitic magmas are predominantly present as Si-OH (84-89% and 68-78%, respectively), but with a significant fraction of Al-OH (11-16% and 22-32%, respectively). For both rhyolitic and phonolitic melts, the AlOH/(AlOH + SiOH) ratio is likely smaller than the Al/(Al + Si) ratio for the lower end of the natural temperature range but may approach the Al/(Al + Si) ratio at higher temperatures.

  20. Magmatic ore deposits in layered intrusions - Descriptive model for reef-type PGE and contact-type Cu-Ni-PGE deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zientek, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Layered, ultramafic to mafic intrusions are uncommon in the geologic record, but host magmatic ore deposits containing most of the world's economic concentrations of platinum-group elements (PGE) (figs. 1 and 2). These deposits are mined primarily for their platinum, palladium, and rhodium contents (table 1). Magmatic ore deposits are derived from accumulations of crystals of metallic oxides, or immiscible sulfide, or oxide liquids that formed during the cooling and crystallization of magma, typically with mafic to ultramafic compositions. "PGE reefs" are stratabound PGE-enriched lode mineralization in mafic to ultramafic layered intrusions. The term "reef" is derived from Australian and South African literature for this style of mineralization and used to refer to (1) the rock layer that is mineralized and has distinctive texture or mineralogy (Naldrett, 2004), or (2) the PGE-enriched sulfide mineralization that occurs within the rock layer. For example, Viljoen (1999) broadly defined the Merensky Reef as "a mineralized zone within or closely associated with an unconformity surface in the ultramafic cumulate at the base of the Merensky Cyclic Unit." In this report, we will use the term PGE reef to refer to the PGE-enriched mineralization, not the host rock layer. Within a layered igneous intrusion, reef-type mineralization is laterally persistent along strike, extending for the length of the intrusion, typically tens to hundreds of kilometers. However, the mineralized interval is thin, generally centimeters to meters thick, relative to the stratigraphic thickness of layers in an intrusion that vary from hundreds to thousands of meters. PGE-enriched sulfide mineralization is also found near the contacts or margins of layered mafic to ultramafic intrusions (Iljina and Lee, 2005). This contact-type mineralization consists of disseminated to massive concentrations of iron-copper-nickel-PGE-enriched sulfide mineral concentrations in zones that can be tens to hundreds

  1. Unconventional maar diatreme and associated intrusions in the soft sediment-hosted Mardoux structure (Gergovie, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, Greg A.; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin

    2014-03-01

    A Miocene age volcanic-hypabyssal structure comprising volcaniclastic deposits and mafic intrusions is exposed with vertical relief of ˜110 m on the side of Gergovie Plateau (Auvergne, France). Three main volcaniclastic facies are: (1) Fluidal tuff breccia composed of juvenile basalt and sediment clasts with dominantly fluidal shapes, with several combinations of basalt and sediment within individual clasts. (2) Thickly bedded lapilli tuff composed of varying proportions of fine-grained sediment derived from Oligocene-Miocene lacustrine marls and mudstones and basaltic lapilli, blocks, and bombs. (3) Planar-bedded tuff forming thin beds of fine to coarse ash-size sedimentary material and basalt clasts. Intrusive bodies in the thickly bedded lapilli tuff range from irregularly shaped and anastomosing dikes and sills of meters to tens of meters in length, to a main feeder dike that is up to ˜20 m wide, and that flares into a spoon-shaped sill at ˜100 m in diameter and 10-20 m thick in the eastern part of the structure. Volcaniclastic deposits and structural features suggest that